National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for a-area burning rubble

  1. Baseline Risk Assessment for the F-Area Burning/Rubble Pits and Rubble Pit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palmer, E.

    1996-03-01

    This document provides an overview of the Savannah River Site (SRS) and a description of the F-Area Burning/Rubble Pits (BRPs) and Rubble Pit (RP) unit. It also describes the objectives and scope of the baseline risk assessment (BRA).

  2. Savannah River Site - K Area Burning/Rubble Pit | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    K Area Burning/Rubble Pit Savannah River Site - K Area Burning/Rubble Pit January 1, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis US Department of Energy Groundwater Database Groundwater Master Report InstallationName, State: Savannah River Site, SC Responsible DOE Office: Savannah River Site Plume Name: K Area Burning/Rubble Pit Remediation Contractor: Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, LLC PBS Number: 30 Report Last Updated: 2013 Contaminants Halogenated VOCs/SVOCs Present?: Yes VOC Name Concentration (ppb)

  3. Central Shops Burning/Rubble Pit 631-6G Additonal Sampling and Monitor Well Installation Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palmer, E.

    1995-02-01

    The Central Shops Burning/Rubble Pit 631-6G was constructed in 1951 as an unlined earthen pit in surficial sediments for disposal and incineration of potentially hazardous substances, such as metals and organic solvents.

  4. RCRA Facility Investigation/Remedial Investigation Report with Baseline Risk Assessment for the Central Shops Burning/Rubble Pit (631-6G), Volume 1 Final

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-04-01

    The Burning/Rubble Pits at the Savannah River Site were usually shallow excavations approximately 3 to 4 meters in depth. Operations at the pits consisted of collecting waste on a continuous basis and burning on a monthly basis. The Central Shops Burning/Rubble Pit 631- 6G (BRP6G) was constructed in 1951 as an unlined earthen pit in surficial sediments for disposal of paper, lumber, cans and empty galvanized steel drums. The unit may have received other materials such as plastics, rubber, rags, cardboard, oil, degreasers, or drummed solvents. The BRP6G was operated from 1951 until 1955. After disposal activities ceased, the area was covered with soil. Hazardous substances, if present, may have migrated into the surrounding soil and/or groundwater. Because of this possibility, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has designated the BRP6G as a Solid Waste Management Unit (SWMU) subject to the Resource Conservation Recovery Act/Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (RCRA/CERCLA) process.

  5. CONCEPTUAL DIAGRAM OF ENGINEERED RUBBLE PILE AERIAL VIEW OF PROPOSED LOCATION FOR ENGINEERED RUBBLE PILE AT THE HAMMER FACILITY

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CONCEPTUAL DIAGRAM OF ENGINEERED RUBBLE PILE AERIAL VIEW OF PROPOSED LOCATION FOR ENGINEERED RUBBLE PILE AT THE HAMMER FACILITY

  6. Savannah River Site - C Area Burning/Rubble Pits | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    (3) Not perf. as expected Air Sparge Completed 2000 2002 SVE Confirmed 1999 2020 1 Soil cover system Completed 2000 2000 MNA Confirmed 2008 2080 1 Groundwater Use Exit...

  7. Earth melter with rubble walls and method of use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chapman, Chris C. (Richland, WA)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is an improvement to the earth melter described and claimed in U.S. Pat. No. 5,443,618. The improvement is the use of rubble for retaining walls. More specifically, the retaining walls rest on ground level and extend above ground level piling rubble around a melt zone. A portion of the melter may be below grade wherein sidewalls are formed by the relatively undisturbed native soil or rock, and the rubble may be used as a backfill liner for the below grade sidewalls.

  8. Savannah River Site - L-Area Burning/Rubble Pit | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Strategy Exist? Yes Sole Source Aquifer? No Basis for Exit Strategy: Target Concentration Environmental Indicators (EIs) Groundwater Migration Under Control? No Current Human...

  9. TMI-2 criticality studies: lower-vessel rubble and analytical benchmarking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westfall, R.M.; Knight, J.R.; Fox, P.B.; Herman, O.W.; Turner, J.C.

    1985-12-01

    A bounding strategy has been adopted for assuring subcriticality during all TMI-2 defueling operations. The strategy is based upon establishing a safe soluble boron level for the entire reactor core in an optimum reactivity configuration. This paper presents the determination of a fuel rubble model which yields a maximum infinite lattice multiplication factor and the subsequent application of cell-averaged constants in finite system analyses. Included in the analyses are the effects of fuel burnup determined from a simplified power history of the reactor. A discussion of the analytical methods employed and the determination of an analytical bias with benchmark crictical experiments completes the presentation. 17 tabs.

  10. ESTIMATE OF RADIUM-226 CONCENTRATIONS IN RUBBLED PCB WAREHOUSE ON VICINITY PROPERTY B

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ESTIMATE OF RADIUM-226 CONCENTRATIONS IN RUBBLED PCB WAREHOUSE ON VICINITY PROPERTY B ADJACENT TO THE NIAGARA FALLS STORAGE SITE MAY 1987 Prepared for UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OAK RIDGE OPERATIONS OFFICE Under Contract No. DE-AC05-810R20722 By Bechtel National, Inc. Oak Ridge, Tennessee Bechtel Job No. 14501 I-B-1 1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 OBJECTIVE AND SCOPE This report describes the assumptions and methodology used to estimate radium-226 concentrations in the structural material of a PCB

  11. RCRA Facility Investigation/Remedial Investigation Report for Gunsite 720 Rubble Pit Unit (631-16G) - March 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palmer, E.

    1996-03-01

    Gunsite 720 Rubble Pit Unit is located on the west side of SRS. In the early to mid 1980`s, while work was being performed in this area, nine empty, partially buried drums, labeled `du Pont Freon 11`, were found. As a result, Gunsite 720 became one of the original waste units specified in the SRS RCRA Facility Assessment (RFA). The drums were excavated on July 30, 1987 and placed on a pallet at the unit. Both the drums and pallet were removed and disposed of in October 1989. The area around the drums was screened during the excavation and the liquid (rainwater) that collected in the excavated drums was sampled prior to disposal. No evidence of hazardous materials was found. Based on the review of the analytical data and screening techniques used to evaluate all the chemicals of potential concern at Gunsite 720 Rubble Pit Unit, it is recommended that no further remedial action be performed at this unit.

  12. System for producing a uniform rubble bed for in situ processes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Galloway, Terry R. (Berkeley, CA)

    1983-01-01

    A method and a cutter for producing a large cavity filled with a uniform bed of rubblized oil shale or other material, for in situ processing. A raise drill head (72) has a hollow body (76) with a generally circular base and sloping upper surface. A hollow shaft (74) extends from the hollow body (76). Cutter teeth (78) are mounted on the upper surface of the body (76) and relatively small holes (77) are formed in the body (76) between the cutter teeth (78). Relatively large peripheral flutes (80) around the body (76) allow material to drop below the drill head (72). A pilot hole is drilled into the oil shale deposit. The pilot hole is reamed into a large diameter hole by means of a large diameter raise drill head or cutter to produce a cavity filled with rubble. A flushing fluid, such as air, is circulated through the pilot hole during the reaming operation to remove fines through the raise drill, thereby removing sufficient material to create sufficient void space, and allowing the larger particles to fill the cavity and provide a uniform bed of rubblized oil shale.

  13. System for producing a uniform rubble bed for in situ processes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Galloway, T.R.

    1983-07-05

    A method and a cutter are disclosed for producing a large cavity filled with a uniform bed of rubblized oil shale or other material, for in situ processing. A raise drill head has a hollow body with a generally circular base and sloping upper surface. A hollow shaft extends from the hollow body. Cutter teeth are mounted on the upper surface of the body and relatively small holes are formed in the body between the cutter teeth. Relatively large peripheral flutes around the body allow material to drop below the drill head. A pilot hole is drilled into the oil shale deposit. The pilot hole is reamed into a large diameter hole by means of a large diameter raise drill head or cutter to produce a cavity filled with rubble. A flushing fluid, such as air, is circulated through the pilot hole during the reaming operation to remove fines through the raise drill, thereby removing sufficient material to create sufficient void space, and allowing the larger particles to fill the cavity and provide a uniform bed of rubblized oil shale. 4 figs.

  14. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 4): Savannah River Site (USDOE), Burma Road Rubble Pit (operable unit 32), Aiken, SC, June 18, 1996.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-08-01

    The Burma Road Rubble Pit (BRRP) unit (231-4F) is listed as a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) 3004(u) solid waste management unit/Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensatin and Liability Act (CERCLA) unit in Appendix C of the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) for the Savannah River Site. Only non-hazardous, inert material (e.g., wood, trash, wire, bottles, plastic, rubble, foam, concrete, etc.) was placed at the BRRP source unit. Based on the results of the remedial investigation, no action is necessary at the BRRP unit soils to ensure the protection of human health and the environment.

  15. Category:Burns, OR | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    72 KB SVSecondarySchool Burns OR PacifiCorp (Oregon).png SVSecondarySchool Burn... 70 KB SVSmallHotel Burns OR PacifiCorp (Oregon).png SVSmallHotel Burns OR ... 69 KB...

  16. SystemBurn

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-08-30

    SystemBurn is a tool for creating a synthetic computational load for the purpose of measuring how much power a computer will draw under that type of load. The loads include fundamental library function calls like matrix multiply, memory copies, fourier transforms, bit manipulation, I/O, network packet transfers, and some code contrived to cause the processor to dray more or less power. The code produces some diagnostic and progress output, but the actual measurements would bemore » recorded from the power panels within the computer room.« less

  17. BLM Burns District Office | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Burns District Office Jump to: navigation, search Name: BLM Burns District Office Place: Hines, Oregon References: BLM Burns District Office1 This article is a stub. You can help...

  18. Biomass Burning Observation Project Specifically,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Burning Observation Project Specifically, the aircraft will obtain measurements of the microphysical, chemical, hygroscopic, and optical properties of aerosols. Data captured during BBOP will help scientists better understand how aerosols combine and change at a variety of distances and burn times. Locations Pasco, Washington. From July through September, the G-1 will be based out of its home base in Washington. From this location, it can intercept and measure smoke plumes from naturally

  19. Clean Burn Fuels LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Burn Fuels LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Clean Burn Fuels LLC Place: Raleigh, North Carolina Zip: 27603 Sector: Biofuels Product: Biofuels developer planning to build a 60m...

  20. The hybrid rich-burn/lean burn engine. Part 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, J.A.; Podnar, D.; Meyers, D.P.

    1996-12-31

    Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) has developed a unique engine technology called Hybrid Rich-Burn/Lean-Burn (HRBLB) that capitalizes on the low production of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) during extremely rich and lean combustion. The HRBLB concept is predicated on simultaneous combustion of extremely rich and lean natural gas-air mixtures in separate cylinders. Rich exhaust products undergo a catalytic water-gas shift reaction to form an intermediate combustible fuel composed of carbon monoxide, water vapor, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide. All of the intermediate fuel is added to lean natural gas-air mixtures in other cylinders to enhance ignitability that would otherwise result in misfire. This paper presents results obtained during the development of a stationary, turbocharged, and intercooled, 18-liter HRBLB engine. Results show that NO{sub x} can be reduced by a factor of 2.5 to 3.5 relative to stock engine emissions at equivalent efficiency. The HRBLB engine has demonstrated corrected NO{sub x} (15% O{sub 2}) levels of 23 ppm at rated load with thermal efficiencies of 35%.

  1. Actinide Burning in CANDU Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hyland, B.; Dyck, G.R.

    2007-07-01

    Actinide burning in CANDU reactors has been studied as a method of reducing the actinide content of spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors, and thereby decreasing the associated long term decay heat load. In this work simulations were performed of actinides mixed with natural uranium to form a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel, and also mixed with silicon carbide to form an inert matrix (IMF) fuel. Both of these fuels were taken to a higher burnup than has previously been studied. The total transuranic element destruction calculated was 40% for the MOX fuel and 71% for the IMF. (authors)

  2. Uniform-burning matrix burner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bohn, Mark S. (Golden, CO); Anselmo, Mark (Arvada, CO)

    2001-01-01

    Computer simulation was used in the development of an inward-burning, radial matrix gas burner and heat pipe heat exchanger. The burner and exchanger can be used to heat a Stirling engine on cloudy days when a solar dish, the normal source of heat, cannot be used. Geometrical requirements of the application forced the use of the inward burning approach, which presents difficulty in achieving a good flow distribution and air/fuel mixing. The present invention solved the problem by providing a plenum with just the right properties, which include good flow distribution and good air/fuel mixing with minimum residence time. CFD simulations were also used to help design the primary heat exchanger needed for this application which includes a plurality of pins emanating from the heat pipe. The system uses multiple inlet ports, an extended distance from the fuel inlet to the burner matrix, flow divider vanes, and a ring-shaped, porous grid to obtain a high-temperature uniform-heat radial burner. Ideal applications include dish/Stirling engines, steam reforming of hydrocarbons, glass working, and any process requiring high temperature heating of the outside surface of a cylindrical surface.

  3. ARM - Field Campaign - Biomass Burning Observation Project -...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsBiomass Burning Observation Project - BBOP Campaign Links BBOP Website ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you Send us a note below or...

  4. Instrumented tube burns: theoretical and experimental observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yarrington, Cole Davis; Obrey, Stephen J; Foley, Timothy J; Son, Steven F

    2009-01-01

    The advent of widely available nanoscale energetic composites has resulted in a flurry of novel applications. One of these applications is the use of nanomaterials in energetic compositions. In compositions that exhibit high sensitivity to stimulus, these materials are often termed metastable intermolecular composites (MIC). More generally, these compositions are simply called nanoenergetics. Researchers have used many different experimental techniques to analyze the various properties of nanoenergetic systems. Among these various techniques, the confined tube burn is a simple experiment that is capable of obtaining much data related to the combustion of these materials. The purpose of this report is to review the current state of the confined tube burn experiment, including the drawbacks of the technique and possible remedies. As this report is intended to focus on the specific experimental technique, data from many different energetic materials, and experimental configurations will be presented. The qualitative and quantitative data that can be gathered using confined tube burn experiments include burning rates, total impulse, pressure rise rate, and burning rate differences between different detector types. All of these measurements lend insight into the combustion properties and mechanisms of specific nanoenergetics. Finally, certain data indicates a more complicated flow scenario which may need to be considered when developing burn tube models.

  5. CX-010140: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Well #ASH-06 Tie-In to A-Area Burning Rubble Pit (ABRP) Soil Vapor Extraction Unit (SVEU) CX(s) Applied: B6.1 Date: 03/07/2013 Location(s): South Carolina Offices(s): Savannah River Operations Office

  6. Biomass Burning Observation Project Science Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kleinman, KI; Sedlacek, AJ

    2013-09-01

    Aerosols from biomass burning perturb Earths climate through the direct radiative effect (both scattering and absorption) and through influences on cloud formation and precipitation and the semi-direct effect. Despite much effort, quantities important to determining radiative forcing such as the mass absorption coefficients (MAC) of light-absorbing carbon, secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation rates, and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity remain in doubt. Field campaigns in northern temperate latitudes have been overwhelmingly devoted to other aerosol sources in spite of biomass burning producing about one-third of the fine particles (PM2.5) in the U.S.

  7. New Computer Codes Unlock the Secrets of Cleaner Burning Coal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Computer Codes Unlock the Secrets of Cleaner Burning Coal New Computer Codes Unlock the Secrets of Cleaner Burning Coal March 29, 2012 Linda Vu, lvu@lbl.gov, +1 510 495 2402 ...

  8. Raymond Burns > Product Research Technologist - Exxon Mobile > Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Alumni > The Energy Materials Center at Cornell Raymond Burns Product Research Technologist - Exxon Mobile raymond.burns@gmail.com Formerly a member of the DiSalvo Group, Ray earned his PhD in August 2013

  9. Burn to Learn | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Burn to Learn Burn to Learn The mp4 video format is not supported by this browser. Download video Captions: On Time: 3:06 min. CNS fire protection engineers recently visited Oak Ridge Fire Department to "Burn to Learn." During this event, they were able to burn materials that would be found at Y-12 (e.g,. personal protective equipment, a shredder) and analyze the results. Watch a video about the event here

  10. Open air refuse burning video: Proton Dan the science man explores open air refuse burning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eastburn, M.D.; Sipple, J.L.; Deramo, A.R.

    1999-07-01

    The goal of this video is to educate school children to the potential hazards of open air trash burning; to demonstrate alternative ways to dispose of trash; and to motivate students to take action to change the behavior of their parents with regard to trash burning. The burning of household trash, although illegal, is still a common practice in rural areas of Delaware. Enforcement has been difficult because the practice is often performed at night and is done across a wide rural area that is difficult to patrol on a continuing basis. The prohibition on trash burning (revised Regulation 13 of The Delaware Code of Regulations Governing The Control of Air Pollution) has been in effect since 1968, but the public has been slow to comply because trash burning has been practiced for many generations and because much of the public is unaware of the environmental impacts and/or the human health risks. This video may be valuable for other States to use as a public outreach tool regarding their problems with open air refuse burning. The focus of the video is a 7th grade science class is given various assignments relating to Earth Day and preservation of natural resources. Two children in particular are given the assignment to research and report on the hazards of open air trash burning and are asked to investigate alternative ways to dispose of refuse. Upon brainstorming how to find information on the topic, the kids decide to contact the host of a popular children's science show on broadcast television named Proton Dan the Science Man (a fictitious character and show based on Bill Nye the Science Guy). The host then invites the kids to the studio where he films his show and takes them through the topic. The TV host character takes the children to several external locations like a landfill, recycling centers, etc..

  11. Apparatus for burning bales of trash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pazar, C. A.

    1985-08-13

    Bales of combustible trash made to specific specifications are burned in a furnace having two parallel upright sidewalls between which the bales pass during burning. A horizontal grate extends between the sidewalls. The bales, if remotely made from the furnace, are bound by an easily meltable strap. The length of the bale is measurably smaller than the distance between said sidewalls to accurately accommodate springback. A ram, after compacting the waste in segmental fashion, pushes each bale to a position between said sidewalls; with the length of the bale being perpendicular to the sidewalls, so that a bale enters the furnace. Springback following the melting of straps allows the bale to expand to fill the gap between the sidewalls. This facilitates ignition and/or burning of the bales and provides a seal against furnace sidewalls. When the ram feeds a fresh bale, previously charged bales (consumed proportional to time in the furnace) are advanced toward the ash discharge port. Before the bales are formed, the trash may be optionally dried by using heated air in the classification into ''light'' sort and ''heavy'' sort. The ''light'' sort is baled and burned as described above. The ''heavy'' sort or a part of the light sort may be premixed with noxious liquid or solid wastes before charging to the furnace. Temperatures consistent with economical use of refractory (1500/sup 0/ F. to 1700/sup 0/ F.) are maintained, for a limited area adjacent the inner wall of the furnace, by addition of liquid water, while interior temperatures of the furnace of about 3000/sup 0/ F. prevail in the central portion of the furnace necessary for the incineration of noxious wastes.

  12. U.S. BURNING PLASMA ORGANIZATION ACTIVITIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raymond J. Fonck

    2009-08-11

    The national U.S. Burning Plasma Organization (USBPO) was formed to provide an umbrella structure in the U.S. fusion science research community. Its main purpose is the coordination of research activities in the U.S. program relevant to burning plasma science and preparations for participation in the international ITER experiment. This grant provided support for the continuing development and operations of the USBPO in its first years of existence. A central feature of the USBPO is the requirement for broad community participation in and governance of this effort. We concentrated on five central areas of activity of the USBPO during this grant period. These included: 1) activities of the Director and support staff in continuing management and development of the USBPO activity; 2) activation of the advisory Council; 3) formation and initial research activities of the research community Topical Groups; 4) formation of Task Groups to perform specific burning plasma related research and development activities; 5) integration of the USBPO community with the ITER Project Office as needed to support ITER development in the U.S.

  13. Interim Status Closure Plan Open Burning Treatment Unit Technical Area 16-399 Burn Tray

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vigil-Holterman, Luciana R.

    2012-05-07

    This closure plan describes the activities necessary to close one of the interim status hazardous waste open burning treatment units at Technical Area (TA) 16 at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Facility), hereinafter referred to as the 'TA-16-399 Burn Tray' or 'the unit'. The information provided in this closure plan addresses the closure requirements specified in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Part 265, Subparts G and P for the thermal treatment units operated at the Facility under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Act. Closure of the open burning treatment unit will be completed in accordance with Section 4.1 of this closure plan.

  14. Mobilizable RDF/d-RDF burning program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niemann, K.; Campbell, J.

    1982-03-01

    The Mobilizable RDF/d-RDF Burning Program was conceived to promote the utilization of refuse-derived fuels (RDF) as a supplement to existing fossil fuel sources in industrial-sized boilers. The program explores the design, development, and eventual construction of densified-RDF (d-RDF) for use in boiler combustion testing as a supplement to stoker coal or wood wastes. The equipment would be mounted on trailers and assembled and operated at preselected sites throughout the country where approximately 750 tons of RDF would be produced and test burned in a local boiler. The equipment, to include a transportable RDF boiler metering and feed system, would then be moved and operated at two to three test sites annually. The program is intended to encourage the construction of permanent resource recovery facilities by involving local waste handling groups in operating the equipment and producing fuel, and potential local fuel users in testing the fuel in their boilers. The Mobilizable Program was developed from two separate tasks. The first task developed the concept behind the program and defined its operational and organizational structure. The second task, a follow-up to the first, was intended principally to finalize test locations, develop equipment designs and specifications, and formalize a management program. This report summarizes the principal findings of both tasks. It identifies the criteria used to identify test locations, outlines the program's management structure, presents design and performance specifications for both the fuel production equipment and boiler fuel feed systems, and provides a detailed evaluation of the parameters involved in burning RDF in industrial-sized boilers. Final conclusions and recommendations identify problem areas encountered in the program, and discuss possible future directions for such a program.

  15. Modeling Deep Burn TRISO Particle Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Besmann, Theodore M [ORNL; Stoller, Roger E [ORNL; Samolyuk, German D [ORNL; Schuck, Paul C [ORNL; Rudin, Sven [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Wills, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Wirth, Brian D. [University of California, Berkeley; Kim, Sungtae [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Morgan, Dane [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Szlufarska, Izabela [University of Wisconsin, Madison

    2012-01-01

    Under the DOE Deep Burn program TRISO fuel is being investigated as a fuel form for consuming plutonium and minor actinides, and for greater efficiency in uranium utilization. The result will thus be to drive TRISO particulate fuel to very high burn-ups. In the current effort the various phenomena in the TRISO particle are being modeled using a variety of techniques. The chemical behavior is being treated utilizing thermochemical analysis to identify phase formation/transformation and chemical activities in the particle, including kernel migration. First principles calculations are being used to investigate the critical issue of fission product palladium attack on the SiC coating layer. Density functional theory is being used to understand fission product diffusion within the plutonia oxide kernel. Kinetic Monte Carlo techniques are shedding light on transport of fission products, most notably silver, through the carbon and SiC coating layers. The diffusion of fission products through an alternative coating layer, ZrC, is being assessed via DFT methods. Finally, a multiscale approach is being used to understand thermal transport, including the effect of radiation damage induced defects, in a model SiC material.

  16. Voluntary Protection Program Onsite Review, Burns & McDonnell...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    - Facility Engineering Services, LLC - September 2015 Voluntary Protection Program Onsite Review, Burns & McDonnell - Facility Engineering Services, LLC - September 2015 September...

  17. Arctic Haze: Effect of Anthropogenic and Biomass Burning

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Haze: Effect of Anthropogenic and Biomass Burning Aerosols Transported from Europe to the Arctic For original submission and image(s), see ARM Research Highlights http:...

  18. Wood-Burning Heating System Deduction | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    State Alabama Program Type Rebate Amount 100% Summary This statute allows individual taxpayers a deduction for the purchase and installation of a wood-burning heating system. The...

  19. Clean burning solid fuel stove and method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, R.D.; Grouw, S.J.V.

    1985-10-08

    A stove for burning solid fuels having an insulated primary combustion chamber, uniform distribution of preheated primary air through upward facing holes in a grate, downward flow of combustion gas through the grate, retention of hot coals in the grate structure, preheated secondary air, individually controlled primary and secondary air flows, insulated vortex combustion chambers for secondary combustion, longitudinally finned tubes as a first stage heat exchanger, plate-fin assembly as a second stage heat exchanger, an induced draft fan to draw the air and combustion gases through the combustion chambers as well as the heat exchangers, and a forced air fan to blow cool room air through the two stage heat exchanger.

  20. High Pressure Burn Rate Measurements on an Ammonium Perchlorate Propellant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glascoe, E A; Tan, N

    2010-04-21

    High pressure deflagration rate measurements of a unique ammonium perchlorate (AP) based propellant are required to design the base burn motor for a Raytheon weapon system. The results of these deflagration rate measurements will be key in assessing safety and performance of the system. In particular, the system may experience transient pressures on the order of 100's of MPa (10's kPSI). Previous studies on similar AP based materials demonstrate that low pressure (e.g. P < 10 MPa or 1500 PSI) burn rates can be quite different than the elevated pressure deflagration rate measurements (see References and HPP results discussed herein), hence elevated pressure measurements are necessary in order understand the deflagration behavior under relevant conditions. Previous work on explosives have shown that at 100's of MPa some explosives will transition from a laminar burn mechanism to a convective burn mechanism in a process termed deconsolidative burning. The resulting burn rates that are orders-of-magnitude faster than the laminar burn rates. Materials that transition to the deconsolidative-convective burn mechanism at elevated pressures have been shown to be considerably more violent in confined heating experiments (i.e. cook-off scenarios). The mechanisms of propellant and explosive deflagration are extremely complex and include both chemical, and mechanical processes, hence predicting the behavior and rate of a novel material or formulation is difficult if not impossible. In this work, the AP/HTPB based material, TAL-1503 (B-2049), was burned in a constant volume apparatus in argon up to 300 MPa (ca. 44 kPSI). The burn rate and pressure were measured in-situ and used to calculate a pressure dependent burn rate. In general, the material appears to burn in a laminar fashion at these elevated pressures. The experiment was reproduced multiple times and the burn rate law using the best data is B = (0.6 {+-} 0.1) x P{sup (1.05{+-}0.02)} where B is the burn rate in mm/s and P is the pressure in units of MPa. Details of the experimental method, results and data analysis are discussed herein and briefly compared to other AP based materials that have been measured in this apparatus.

  1. Method and apparatus to measure the depth of skin burns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dickey, Fred M. (Albuquerque, NM); Holswade, Scott C. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A new device for measuring the depth of surface tissue burns based on the rate at which the skin temperature responds to a sudden differential temperature stimulus. This technique can be performed without physical contact with the burned tissue. In one implementation, time-dependent surface temperature data is taken from subsequent frames of a video signal from an infrared-sensitive video camera. When a thermal transient is created, e.g., by turning off a heat lamp directed at the skin surface, the following time-dependent surface temperature data can be used to determine the skin burn depth. Imaging and non-imaging versions of this device can be implemented, thereby enabling laboratory-quality skin burn depth imagers for hospitals as well as hand-held skin burn depth sensors the size of a small pocket flashlight for field use and triage.

  2. Turbulent burning rates of methane and methane-hydrogen mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fairweather, M. [School of Process, Environmental and Materials Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Ormsby, M.P.; Sheppard, C.G.W. [School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Woolley, R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2009-04-15

    Methane and methane-hydrogen (10%, 20% and 50% hydrogen by volume) mixtures have been ignited in a fan stirred bomb in turbulence and filmed using high speed cine schlieren imaging. Measurements were performed at 0.1 MPa (absolute) and 360 K. A turbulent burning velocity was determined for a range of turbulence velocities and equivalence ratios. Experimental laminar burning velocities and Markstein numbers were also derived. For all fuels the turbulent burning velocity increased with turbulence velocity. The addition of hydrogen generally resulted in increased turbulent and laminar burning velocity and decreased Markstein number. Those flames that were less sensitive to stretch (lower Markstein number) burned faster under turbulent conditions, especially as the turbulence levels were increased, compared to stretch-sensitive (high Markstein number) flames. (author)

  3. Local Burn-Up Effects in the NBSR Fuel Element

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown N. R.; Hanson A.; Diamond, D.

    2013-01-31

    This study addresses the over-prediction of local power when the burn-up distribution in each half-element of the NBSR is assumed to be uniform. A single-element model was utilized to quantify the impact of axial and plate-wise burn-up on the power distribution within the NBSR fuel elements for both high-enriched uranium (HEU) and low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. To validate this approach, key parameters in the single-element model were compared to parameters from an equilibrium core model, including neutron energy spectrum, power distribution, and integral U-235 vector. The power distribution changes significantly when incorporating local burn-up effects and has lower power peaking relative to the uniform burn-up case. In the uniform burn-up case, the axial relative power peaking is over-predicted by as much as 59% in the HEU single-element and 46% in the LEU single-element with uniform burn-up. In the uniform burn-up case, the plate-wise power peaking is over-predicted by as much as 23% in the HEU single-element and 18% in the LEU single-element. The degree of over-prediction increases as a function of burn-up cycle, with the greatest over-prediction at the end of Cycle 8. The thermal flux peak is always in the mid-plane gap; this causes the local cumulative burn-up near the mid-plane gap to be significantly higher than the fuel element average. Uniform burn-up distribution throughout a half-element also causes a bias in fuel element reactivity worth, due primarily to the neutronic importance of the fissile inventory in the mid-plane gap region.

  4. Catalyst Design for Urea-less Passive Ammonia SCR Lean-Burn SIDI...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Design for Urea-less Passive Ammonia SCR Lean-Burn SIDI Aftertreatment System Catalyst Design for Urea-less Passive Ammonia SCR Lean-Burn SIDI Aftertreatment System Lean-burn SIDI ...

  5. Oil/gas separator for installation at burning wells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alonso, C.T.; Bender, D.A.; Bowman, B.R.; Burnham, A.K.; Chesnut, D.A.; Comfort, W.J. III; Guymon, L.G.; Henning, C.D.; Pedersen, K.B.; Sefcik, J.A.; Smith, J.A.; Strauch, M.S.

    1993-03-09

    An oil/gas separator is disclosed that can be utilized to return the burning wells in Kuwait to production. Advantageously, a crane is used to install the separator at a safe distance from the well. The gas from the well is burned off at the site, and the oil is immediately pumped into Kuwait's oil gathering system. Diverters inside the separator prevent the oil jet coming out of the well from reaching the top vents where the gas is burned. The oil falls back down, and is pumped from an annular oil catcher at the bottom of the separator, or from the concrete cellar surrounding the well.

  6. Oil/gas separator for installation at burning wells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alonso, Carol T.; Bender, Donald A.; Bowman, Barry R.; Burnham, Alan K.; Chesnut, Dwayne A.; Comfort, III, William J.; Guymon, Lloyd G.; Henning, Carl D.; Pedersen, Knud B.; Sefcik, Joseph A.; Smith, Joseph A.; Strauch, Mark S.

    1993-01-01

    An oil/gas separator is disclosed that can be utilized to return the burning wells in Kuwait to production. Advantageously, a crane is used to install the separator at a safe distance from the well. The gas from the well is burned off at the site, and the oil is immediately pumped into Kuwait's oil gathering system. Diverters inside the separator prevent the oil jet coming out of the well from reaching the top vents where the gas is burned. The oil falls back down, and is pumped from an annular oil catcher at the bottom of the separator, or from the concrete cellar surrounding the well.

  7. Authors: Carol Burns, Mark Chadwick, John Erickson, David Funk...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nuclear and Particle Futures (N&PF) Pillar Authors: Carol Burns, Mark Chadwick, John ... as composed of four focus areas: Applied Nuclear Science and Engineering (ANS&E), Nuclear, ...

  8. Options for Burning LWR SNF in LIFE Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farmer, J

    2008-09-09

    We have pursued two processes in parallel for the burning of LWR SNF in the LIFE engine: (1) solid fuel option and (2) liquid fuel option. Approaches with both are discussed. The assigned Topical Report on liquid fuels is attached.

  9. Portsmouth Site Achieves Regulatory Milestone after Successful Controlled Burn

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    PIKETON, Ohio – Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant firefighters recently completed a prescribed fire, or controlled burn, of an 18-acre prairie at the site, two weeks ahead of a regulatory deadline.

  10. Radiochemical Mix Diagnostic in the Presence of Burn

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hayes, Anna C.

    2014-01-28

    There is a general interest in radiochemical probes of hydrodamicalmix in burning regions of NIF capsule. Here we provide estimates for the production of 13N from mixing of 10B ablator burning hotspot of a capsule. By comparing the 13N signal with x-ray measurements of the ablator mix into the hotspot it should be possible to estimate the chunkiness of this mix.

  11. New Computer Codes Unlock the Secrets of Cleaner Burning Coal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Computer Codes Unlock the Secrets of Cleaner Burning Coal New Computer Codes Unlock the Secrets of Cleaner Burning Coal March 29, 2012 Linda Vu, lvu@lbl.gov, +1 510 495 2402 The Polk Power Station near Mulberry, Florida, is an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle gasification plant. It is capable of generating 313 megawatts of electricity - 250 megawatts of which are supplied to the electric grid. The plant's gas cleaning technology removes more than 98 percent of the sulfur in coal,

  12. Lab scientists Burns, Hay named new AAAS Fellows

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Burns, Hay named new AAAS Fellows Lab scientists Burns, Hay named new AAAS Fellows The AAAS is the world's largest general scientific society and publisher of the journal Science. February 3, 2009 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma physics and new materials. Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on

  13. MSFR TRU-burning potential and comparison with an SFR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiorina, C.; Cammi, A.; Franceschini, F.; Krepel, J.

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR) potential benefits in terms of transuranics (TRU) burning through a comparative analysis with a sodium-cooled FR. The comparison is based on TRU- and MA-burning rates, as well as on the in-core evolution of radiotoxicity and decay heat. Solubility issues limit the TRU-burning rate to 1/3 that achievable in traditional low-CR FRs (low-Conversion-Ratio Fast Reactors). The softer spectrum also determines notable radiotoxicity and decay heat of the equilibrium actinide inventory. On the other hand, the liquid fuel suggests the possibility of using a Pu-free feed composed only of Th and MA (Minor Actinides), thus maximizing the MA burning rate. This is generally not possible in traditional low-CR FRs due to safety deterioration and decay heat of reprocessed fuel. In addition, the high specific power and the lack of out-of-core cooling times foster a quick transition toward equilibrium, which improves the MSFR capability to burn an initial fissile loading, and makes the MSFR a promising system for a quick (i.e., in a reactor lifetime) transition from the current U-based fuel cycle to a novel closed Th cycle. (authors)

  14. Iron/potassium perchlorate pellet burn rate measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reed, J.W.; Walters, R.R.

    1995-01-25

    A burn rate test having several advantages for low gas-producing pyrotechnic compacts has been developed. The technique involves use of a high speed video motion analysis system that allows immediate turnaround and produces all required data for rate computation on magnetic tape and becomes immediately available on the display screen. The test technique provides a quick method for material qualification along with data for improved reliability and function. Burn rate data has been obtained for both UPI and Eagle Pitcher Iron/Potassium Perchlorate blends. The data obtained for the UPI blends cover a range of composition, pellet density, and ambient (before ignition) pellet temperature. Burn rate data for the E-P blends were extended to include surface conditions or particle size as a variable parameter.

  15. DOE - Fossil Energy: A Bed for Burning Coal?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4-Bed for Burning Coal An Energy Lesson Cleaning Up Coal A "Bed" for Burning Coal? It was a wet, chilly day in Washington DC in 1979 when a few scientists and engineers joined with government and college officials on the campus of Georgetown University to celebrate the completion of one of the world's most advanced coal combustors. It was a small coal burner by today's standards, but large enough to provide heat and steam for much of the university campus. But the new boiler built

  16. Microsoft Word - Deep-Burn awards news release _2_.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    RELEASE Tim Jackson, DOE-Idaho Operations Office Wednesday, July 23, 2008 (208) 526-8484 U.S. Department of Energy Awards $7.3 million for "Deep-Burn" Gas-Reactor Technology Research & Development WASHINGTON, DC -Today the U.S. Department of Energy announced it has selected teams led by Idaho National Laboratory and Argonne National Laboratory to advance the technology of nuclear fuel "Deep-Burn," in which plutonium and higher transuranics recycled from spent nuclear fuel

  17. Completion of the INEEL's WERF Incinerator Trial Burn

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. K. Branter; D. A. Conley; D. R. Moser; S. J. Corrigan

    1999-05-01

    This paper describes the successes and challenges associated with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permitting of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory's (INEEL) Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF) hazardous and mixed waste incinerator. Topics to be discussed include facility modifications and problems, trial burn results and lessons learned in each of these areas. In addition, a number of challenges remain including completion and final issue of the RCRA Permit and implementation of all the permit requirements. Results from the trial burn demonstrated that the operating conditions and procedures will result in emissions that are satisfactorily protective of human health, the environment, and are in compliance with Federal and State regulations.

  18. Completion of the INEEL's WERF Incinerator Trial Burn

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Branter, Curtis Keith; Conley, Dennis Allen; Corrigan, Shannon James; Moser, David Roy

    1999-05-01

    This paper describes the successes and challenges associated with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permitting of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory's (INEEL) Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF) hazardous and mixed waste incinerator. Topics to be discussed include facility modifications and problems, trial burn results and lessons learned in each of these areas. In addition, a number of challenges remain including completion and final issue of RCRA Permit and implementation of all the permit requirements. Results from the trial burn demonstrated that the operating conditions and procedures will result in emissions that are satisfactorily protective of human health, the environment, and are in compliance with Federal and State regulations.

  19. Examination of the Entry to Burn and Burn Control for the ITER 15 MA Baseline and Other Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kesse, Charles E.; Kim, S-H.; Koechl, F.

    2014-09-01

    The entry to burn and flattop burn control in ITER will be a critical need from the first DT experiments. Simulations are used to address time-dependent behavior under a range of possible conditions that include injected power level, impurity content (W, Ar, Be), density evolution, H-mode regimes, controlled parameter (Wth, Pnet, Pfusion), and actuator (Paux, fueling, fAr), with a range of transport models. A number of physics issues at the L-H transition require better understanding to project to ITER, however, simulations indicate viable control with sufficient auxiliary power (up to 73 MW), while lower powers become marginal (as low as 43 MW).

  20. Reduction of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions for lean Burn Engine Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGill, R.N.

    1998-08-04

    Lean-burn engines offer the potential for significant fuel economy improvements in cars and trucks, perhaps the next great breakthrough in automotive technology that will enable greater savings in imported petroleum. The development of lean-burn engines, however, has been an elusive goal among automakers because of the emissions challenges associated with lead-burn engine technology. Presently, cars operate with sophisticated emissions control systems that require the engine's air-fuel ratio to be carefully controlled around the stoichiometric point (chemically correct mixture). Catalysts in these systems are called "three-way" catalysts because they can reduce hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxide emissions simultaneously, but only because of the tight control of the air-fuel ratio. The purpose of this cooperative effort is to develop advanced catalyst systems, materials, and necessary engine control algorithms for reducing NOX emissions in oxygen-rich automotive exhaust (as with lean-burn engine technology) to meet current and near-future mandated Clean Air Act standards. These developments will represent a breakthrough in both emission control technology and automobile efficiency. The total project is a joint effort among five national laboratories, together with US CAR. The role of Lockheed-Martin Energy Systems in the total project is two fold: characterization of catalyst performance through laboratory evaluations from bench-scale flow reactor tests to engine laboratory tests of full-scale prototype catalysts, and microstructural characterization of catalyst material before and after test stand and/or engine testing.

  1. Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP) Final Campaign Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kleinman, LI; Sedlacek, A. J.

    2016-01-01

    The Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP) was conducted to obtain a better understanding of how aerosols generated from biomass fires affect the atmosphere and climate. It is estimated that 40% of carbonaceous aerosol produced originates from biomass burning—enough to affect regional and global climate. Several biomass-burning studies have focused on tropical climates; however, few campaigns have been conducted within the United States, where millions of acres are burned each year, trending to higher values and greater climate impacts because of droughts in the West. Using the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Aerial Facility (AAF), the BBOP deployed the Gulfstream-1 (G-1) aircraft over smoke plumes from active wildfire and agricultural burns to help identify the impact of these events and how impacts evolve with time. BBOP was one of very few studies that targeted the near-field time evolution of aerosols and aimed to obtain a process-level understanding of the large changes that occur within a few hours of atmospheric processing.

  2. Burn propagation in a PBX 9501 thermal explosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henson, B. F.; Smilowitz, L.; Romero, J. J.; Sandstrom, M. M.; Asay, B. W.; Schwartz, C.; Saunders, A.; Merrill, F.; Morris, C.; Murray, M. M.; McNeil, W. V.; Marr-Lyon, M.; Rightley, P. M.

    2007-12-12

    We have applied proton radiography to study the conversion of solid density to gaseous combustion products subsequent to ignition of a thermal explosion in PBX 9501. We apply a thermal boundary condition to the cylindrical walls of the case, ending with an induction period at 205 C. We then introduce a laser pulse that accelerates the thermal ignition and synchronizes the explosion with the proton accelerator. We then obtain fast, synchronized images of the evolution of density loss with few microsecond resolution during the approximately 100 microsecond duration of the explosion. We present images of the solid explosive during the explosion and discuss measured rates and assumed mechanisms of burning the role of pressure in this internal burning.

  3. ARM - News from the Biomass Burn Observation Project

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Project (BBOP)News from the Biomass Burn Observation Project Related Links BBOP Home Outreach News & Press Backgrounder (PDF, 2.1MB) Images ARM flickr site ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Deployment Operations Airborne Measurements Science Plan (PDF, 2.2MB) BBOP wiki Login Required Data Sets Experiment Planning Proposal Abstract and Related Campaigns BBOP Breakout Session, ASR Science Team Meeting, March 2014 BBOP Breakout Session, ASR Science Team Meeting, March 2013 BNL BBOP Website

  4. Microsoft Word - Deep-Burn awardee team members _2_.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sheet: DEEP-BURN AWARDEES RECIPIENTS RECIPIENT TEAM MEMBERS Advanced Modeling and Simulation Capability R&D for $1 million University of Chicago Argonne Argonne National Laboratory Oak Ridge National Laboratory Lawrence Livermore National Lab University of Michigan Transuranic Management Capabilities R&D for $6.3 million Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC Idaho National Laboratory Oak Ridge National Laboratory Argonne National Laboratory Los Alamos National Laboratory University of

  5. Burning tires for fuel and tire pyrolysis: air implications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, C.; Meardon, K.; Russell, D.

    1991-12-01

    The document was developed in response to increasing inquiries into the environmental impacts of burning waste tires in process equipment. The document provides information on the use of whole, scrap tires and tire-derived-fuel (TDF) as combustion fuel and on the pyrolysis of scrap tires. The use of whole tires and TDF as a primary fuel is discussed for dedicated tire-to-energy facilities. The use of whole tires and TDF as a supplemental fuel is discussed for cement manufacturing plants, electric utilities, pulp and paper mills, and other industrial processes. The focus of the document is on the impact of burning whole tires and TDF on air emissions. Test data are presented and, in most instances, compared with emissions under baseline conditions (no tires or TDF in the fuel). The control devices used in these industries are discussed and, where possible, their effectiveness in controlling emissions from the burning of whole tires or TDF is described. In addition, the report provides information on the processes themselves that use whole tires or TDF, the modifications to the processes that allowed the use of whole tires or TDF, and the operational experiences of several facilities using whole tires or TDF. The economic feasibility of using whole tires and TDF for the surveyed industries is discussed. Finally, contacts for State waste tire programs are presented.

  6. Boiler efficiency calculation for multiple fuel burning boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khodabakhsh, F.; Munukutla, S.; Clary, A.T.

    1996-12-31

    A rigorous method based on the output/loss approach is developed for calculating the coal flow rate for multiple fuel burning boilers. It is assumed that the ultimate analyses of all the fuels are known. In addition, it is assumed that the flow rates of all the fuels with the exception of coal are known. The calculations are performed iteratively, with the first iteration taking into consideration coal as the only fuel. The results converge to the correct answer after a few number of iterations, typically four or five.

  7. A Midsize Tokamak As Fast Track To Burning Plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E. Mazzucato

    2010-07-14

    This paper presents a midsize tokamak as a fast track to the investigation of burning plasmas. It is shown that it could reach large values of energy gain (?10) with only a modest improvement in confinement over the scaling that was used for designing the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). This could be achieved by operating in a low plasma recycling regime that experiments indicate can lead to improved plasma confinement. The possibility of reaching the necessary conditions of low recycling using a more efficient magnetic divertor than those of present tokamaks is discussed.

  8. Long-Haul Truck Idling Burns Up Profits

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Long-Haul Truck Idling Burns Up Profits Long-haul truck drivers perform a vitally important service. In the course of their work, they must take rest periods as required by federal law. Most drivers remain in their trucks, which they keep running to provide power for heating, cooling, and other necessities. Such idling, however, comes at a cost; it is an expensive and polluting way to keep drivers safe and comfortable. Increasingly affordable alternatives to idling not only save money and reduce

  9. Development of a trial burn plan for a mixed waste fluidized bed incinerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kabot, F.J.; Ziegler, D.L.

    1988-01-01

    One of the more important elements of the incinerator permitting process under RCRA is the development of the Trial Burn Plan. This document describes the incinerator and defines the incinerator's process envelope within which the trial burns will be conducted. The data obtained during the trial burns will be the basis for the incinerator's operating permit. This paper describes the development of the Trial Burn Plan for a unique fluidized bed incinerator to be used for the incineration of hazardous and mixed wastes at the Department of Energy's Rocky Flats Plant. It describes a review process of the Trial Burn Plan involving a public comment period that actually preceded the trial burns. 2 refs., 1 fig.

  10. Ethanol Effects on Lean-Burn and Stoichiometric GDI Emissions | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Ethanol Effects on Lean-Burn and Stoichiometric GDI Emissions Ethanol Effects on Lean-Burn and Stoichiometric GDI Emissions Characterized particulate emissions from U.S.-legal stoichiometric GDI and European certified lean-burn GDI vehicles operating on ethanol blends PDF icon deer11_storey.pdf More Documents & Publications Measurement and Characterization of Unregulated Emissions from Advanced Technologies Measurement and Characterization of Unregulated Emissions from Advanced

  11. Catalyst Design for Urea-less Passive Ammonia SCR Lean-Burn SIDI

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Aftertreatment System | Department of Energy Design for Urea-less Passive Ammonia SCR Lean-Burn SIDI Aftertreatment System Catalyst Design for Urea-less Passive Ammonia SCR Lean-Burn SIDI Aftertreatment System Lean-burn SIDI engine technology offers improved fuel economy. PDF icon deer10_viola.pdf More Documents & Publications Emissions Control for Lean Gasoline Engines NH3 generation over commercial Three-Way Catalysts and Lean-NOx Traps Emissions Control for Lean Gasoline Engines

  12. Trash burns, turns into $120,000 in annual savings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, W.A.

    1981-09-01

    A plan was developed to generate a major portion of the energy required for heating and air conditioning by burning factory trash instead of using natural gas and electricity. Trash from the Rockwell Int'l. plant, including broken wood pallets, cardboard packing materials and office waste paper, amounted to 1,000 tons per year. Previously, a contractor was being paid to come to the plant several times a week, pick up the trash and haul it to a landfill. To supplement the 1,000 tons of usable waste generated by the plant annually, the additional 500 tons of similar trash needed to operate the system are received from other industries in the vicinity. Besides accepting waste from other plants, the Marysville facility stockpiles and uses refuse corn stalks harvested from 50 acres of Rockwell-owned land adjacent to the plant. The incinerator featuring a pyrolytic heat recovery system is presented and its operation is illustrated.

  13. Exhaust gas purification system for lean burn engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haines, Leland Milburn (Northville, MI)

    2002-02-19

    An exhaust gas purification system for a lean burn engine includes a thermal mass unit and a NO.sub.x conversion catalyst unit downstream of the thermal mass unit. The NO.sub.x conversion catalyst unit includes at least one catalyst section. Each catalyst section includes a catalytic layer for converting NO.sub.x coupled to a heat exchanger. The heat exchanger portion of the catalyst section acts to maintain the catalytic layer substantially at a desired temperature and cools the exhaust gas flowing from the catalytic layer into the next catalytic section in the series. In a further aspect of the invention, the exhaust gas purification system includes a dual length exhaust pipe upstream of the NO.sub.x conversion catalyst unit. The dual length exhaust pipe includes a second heat exchanger which functions to maintain the temperature of the exhaust gas flowing into the thermal mass downstream near a desired average temperature.

  14. Kinetic calculations of explosives with slow-burning constituents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howard, W.M.; Souers, P.C.; Pried, L.E.

    1997-07-01

    The equilibrium thermochemical code CHEETAH V 1.40 has been modified to detonate part of the explosive and binder. An Einstein thermal description of the unreacted constituents is used, and the Einstein temperature may be increased to reduce heat absorption. We study the effect of the reactivity and thermal transport on the detonation velocity. Hydroxy-terminated-polybutadiene binders have low energy and density and would degrade the detonation velocity if they burned. Runs with unburned binder are closer to the measured values. Aluminum and ammonium Perchlorate are also largely unburned within the sonic reaction zone that determines the detonation velocity. All three materials appear not to fully absorb heat as well. The normal assumption of total reaction in a thermochemical code is clearly not true for these special cases, where the detonation velocities have widely different values for different combinations of processes.

  15. Microstructural Characterization of High Burn-up Mixed Oxide Fast Reactor Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melissa C. Teague; Brian P. Gorman; Steven L. Hayes; Douglas L. Porter; Jeffrey King

    2013-10-01

    High burn-up mixed oxide fuel with local burn-ups of 3.423.7% FIMA (fissions per initial metal atom) were destructively examined as part of a research project to understand the performance of oxide fuel at extreme burn-ups. Optical metallography of fuel cross-sections measured the fuel-to-cladding gap, clad thickness, and central void evolution in the samples. The fuel-to-cladding gap closed significantly in samples with burn-ups below 79% FIMA. Samples with burn-ups in excess of 79% FIMA had a reopening of the fuel-to-cladding gap and evidence of joint oxide-gain (JOG) formation. Signs of axial fuel migration to the top of the fuel column were observed in the fuel pin with a peak burn-up of 23.7% FIMA. Additionally, high burn-up structure (HBS) was observed in the two highest burn-up samples (23.7% and 21.3% FIMA). The HBS layers were found to be 35 times thicker than the layers found in typical LWR fuel. The results of the study indicate that formation of JOG and or HBS prevents any significant fuel-cladding mechanical interaction from occurring, thereby extending the potential life of the fuel elements.

  16. Fuel injection staged sectoral combustor for burning low-BTU fuel gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogt, Robert L. (Schenectady, NY)

    1985-02-12

    A high-temperature combustor for burning low-BTU coal gas in a gas turbine is described. The combustor comprises a plurality of individual combustor chambers. Each combustor chamber has a main burning zone and a pilot burning zone. A pipe for the low-BTU coal gas is connected to the upstream end of the pilot burning zone: this pipe surrounds a liquid fuel source and is in turn surrounded by an air supply pipe: swirling means are provided between the liquid fuel source and the coal gas pipe and between the gas pipe and the air pipe. Additional preheated air is provided by counter-current coolant air in passages formed by a double wall arrangement of the walls of the main burning zone communicating with passages of a double wall arrangement of the pilot burning zone: this preheated air is turned at the upstream end of the pilot burning zone through swirlers to mix with the original gas and air input (and the liquid fuel input when used) to provide more efficient combustion. One or more fuel injection stages (second stages) are provided for direct input of coal gas into the main burning zone. The countercurrent air coolant passages are connected to swirlers surrounding the input from each second stage to provide additional oxidant.

  17. Fuel injection staged sectoral combustor for burning low-BTU fuel gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogt, Robert L. (Schenectady, NY)

    1981-01-01

    A high-temperature combustor for burning low-BTU coal gas in a gas turbine is described. The combustor comprises a plurality of individual combustor chambers. Each combustor chamber has a main burning zone and a pilot burning zone. A pipe for the low-BTU coal gas is connected to the upstream end of the pilot burning zone; this pipe surrounds a liquid fuel source and is in turn surrounded by an air supply pipe; swirling means are provided between the liquid fuel source and the coal gas pipe and between the gas pipe and the air pipe. Additional preheated air is provided by counter-current coolant air in passages formed by a double wall arrangement of the walls of the main burning zone communicating with passages of a double wall arrangement of the pilot burning zone; this preheated air is turned at the upstream end of the pilot burning zone through swirlers to mix with the original gas and air input (and the liquid fuel input when used) to provide more efficient combustion. One or more fuel injection stages (second stages) are provided for direct input of coal gas into the main burning zone. The countercurrent air coolant passages are connected to swirlers surrounding the input from each second stage to provide additional oxidant.

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at selected burning grounds at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, B.W.; Minor, L.K.M.; Flucas, B.J.

    1998-02-01

    A commercial immunoassay field test (IFT) was used to rapidly assess the total concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the soil at selected burning grounds within the explosives corridor at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Results were compared with analyses obtained from LANL Analytical Laboratory and from a commercial laboratory. Both used the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Methods 8270 and 8310. EPA`s Method 8270 employs gas chromatography and mass spectral analyses, whereas EPA`s Method 8310 uses an ultraviolet detector in a high-performance liquid chromatography procedure. One crude oil sample and one diesel fuel sample, analyzed by EPA Method 8270, were included for references. On an average the IFT results were lower for standard samples and lower than the analytical laboratory results for the unknown samples. Sites were selected to determine whether the PAHs came from the material burned or the fuel used to ignite the burn, or whether they are produced by a high-temperature chemical reaction during the burn. Even though the crude oil and diesel fuel samples did contain measurable quantities of PAHs, there were no significant concentrations of PAHs detected in the ashes and soil at the burning grounds. Tests were made on fresh soil and ashes collected after a large burn and on aged soil and ashes known to have been at the site more than three years. Also analyzed were twelve-year-old samples from an inactive open burn cage.

  19. Measurement of adiabatic burning velocity in natural gas-like mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ratna Kishore, V.; Duhan, Nipun; Ravi, M.R.; Ray, Anjan

    2008-10-15

    Experimental measurements of the adiabatic burning velocities were carried out for natural gas-like mixtures burning in air over a range of equivalence ratios at atmospheric pressure. Effect of CO{sub 2} dilution up to 60%, N{sub 2} dilution up to 40% and 25% enrichment of ethane on burning velocity of methane-air flames were studied. Heat flux method with setup similar to that of [K.J. Bosschaart, L.P.H. de Goey, Detailed analysis of the heat flux method for measuring burning velocity, Combustion and Flame 132 (2003) 170-180] was used for measurement of burning velocities. Initially experiments were done for methane-air and ethane-air mixtures at various equivalence ratios and the results were in good agreement with published data in the literature. Computations were performed using PREMIX code with GRI 3.0 reaction mechanism for all the mixtures. Predicted flame structures were used to the explain the effect of N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} dilution on burning velocity of methane-air flames. Peak burning velocity for CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2}-air mixtures occur near to {phi} = 1.0. (author)

  20. Vertical feed stick wood fuel burning furnace system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hill, Richard C.

    1982-01-01

    A stove or furnace for efficient combustion of wood fuel includes a vertical feed combustion chamber (15) for receiving and supporting wood fuel in a vertical attitude or stack. A major upper portion of the combustion chamber column comprises a water jacket (14) for coupling to a source of water or heat transfer fluid for convection circulation of the fluid. The locus (31) of wood fuel combustion is thereby confined to the refractory base of the combustion chamber. A flue gas propagation delay channel (34) extending laterally from the base of the chamber affords delayed travel time in a high temperature refractory environment sufficient to assure substantially complete combustion of the gaseous products of wood burning with forced air prior to extraction of heat in heat exchanger (16). Induced draft draws the fuel gas and air mixture laterally through the combustion chamber and refractory high temperature zone to the heat exchanger and flue. Also included are active sources of forced air and induced draft, multiple circuit couplings for the recovered heat, and construction features in the refractory material substructure and metal component superstructure.

  1. Vertical feed stick wood fuel burning furnace system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hill, Richard C.

    1984-01-01

    A new and improved stove or furnace for efficient combustion of wood fuel including a vertical feed combustion chamber for receiving and supporting wood fuel in a vertical attitude or stack, a major upper portion of the combustion chamber column comprising a water jacket for coupling to a source of water or heat transfer fluid and for convection circulation of the fluid for confining the locus of wood fuel combustion to the bottom of the vertical gravity feed combustion chamber. A flue gas propagation delay channel extending from the laterally directed draft outlet affords delayed travel time in a high temperature environment to assure substantially complete combustion of the gaseous products of wood burning with forced air as an actively induced draft draws the fuel gas and air mixture laterally through the combustion and high temperature zone. Active sources of forced air and induced draft are included, multiple use and circuit couplings for the recovered heat, and construction features in the refractory material substructure and metal component superstructure.

  2. Sectoral combustor for burning low-BTU fuel gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogt, Robert L. (Schenectady, NY)

    1980-01-01

    A high-temperature combustor for burning low-BTU coal gas in a gas turbine is disclosed. The combustor includes several separately removable combustion chambers each having an annular sectoral cross section and a double-walled construction permitting separation of stresses due to pressure forces and stresses due to thermal effects. Arrangements are described for air-cooling each combustion chamber using countercurrent convective cooling flow between an outer shell wall and an inner liner wall and using film cooling flow through liner panel grooves and along the inner liner wall surface, and for admitting all coolant flow to the gas path within the inner liner wall. Also described are systems for supplying coal gas, combustion air, and dilution air to the combustion zone, and a liquid fuel nozzle for use during low-load operation. The disclosed combustor is fully air-cooled, requires no transition section to interface with a turbine nozzle, and is operable at firing temperatures of up to 3000.degree. F. or within approximately 300.degree. F. of the adiabatic stoichiometric limit of the coal gas used as fuel.

  3. Optimization of perigee burns for manned interplanetary missions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madsen, W.W.; Olson, T.S.; Siahpush, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    In choosing an engine concept for the rocket vehicle to be used for the initial manned exploration of Mars, the two main factors in the decision should be what can be feasibly built and flight qualified within approximately the next 20 years, and what level of engine performance is required to safely perform these missions. In order to reduce the overall cost in developing this next generation space transportation system, it would be desirable to have a single engine design that could be used for a broad class of missions (for example, cargo and piloted lunar and Mars missions, orbit transfers around the Earth, and robotic missions to the planets). The engine thrust that is needed for manned Mars missions is addressed in this paper. We find that these missions are best served by a thrust level around 75,000 lbf to 100,000 lbf, and a thrust-to-engine weight ratio of about three. This thrust level might best be obtained by clustering five 15,000 lbf or 20,000 lbf engines. It may be better to throttle the engines back from full power between perigee burns, rather than shutting down. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 490: Station 44 Burn Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. B. Campbell

    2002-04-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 490, Station 44 Burn Area is located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). CAU 490 is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) and includes for Corrective Action Sites (CASs): (1) Fire Training Area (CAS 03-56-001-03BA); (2) Station 44 Burn Area (CAS RG-56-001-RGBA); (3) Sandia Service Yard (CAS 03-58-001-03FN); and (4) Gun Propellant Burn Area (CAS 09-54-001-09L2).

  5. Type B Accident Investigation of the Savannah River Site Arc Flash Burn

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Injury on September 23, 2009, in the D Area Powerhouse | Department of Energy of the Savannah River Site Arc Flash Burn Injury on September 23, 2009, in the D Area Powerhouse Type B Accident Investigation of the Savannah River Site Arc Flash Burn Injury on September 23, 2009, in the D Area Powerhouse October 1, 2009 This report documents the results of the Type B Accident Investigation Board investigation of the September 23, 2009, employee burn injury at the Department of Energy (DOE)

  6. Correlation between cathode properties, burning voltage, and plasma parameters of vacuum arcs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anders, Andre; Yotsombat, Banchob; Binder, Robert

    2001-06-15

    Burning voltages of vacuum arcs were measured for 54 cathode materials and compared with literature data. As anticipated, a correlation between the arc burning voltage and the plasma temperature was found. However, more importantly, a correlation between the cohesive energy of the cathode material and the arc burning voltage could be demonstrated. This link between a cathode material property, the cohesive energy, and a discharge property, the arc burning voltage, is essential for the operation of the vacuum arc discharge because is determines the plasma temperature. Energy balance considerations show that this {open_quotes}cohesive energy rule{close_quotes} is responsible for several other secondary relationships, such as the correlation between the mean ion charge state and the boiling temperature of the cathode. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  7. A Hypothetical Burning-Velocity Formula for Very Lean Hydrogen-Air Mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Forman; Williams, Forman A; Grcar, Joseph F

    2008-06-30

    Very lean hydrogen-air mixtures experience strong diffusive-thermal types of cellular instabilities that tend to increase the laminar burning velocity above the value that applies to steady, planar laminar flames that are homogeneous in transverse directions. Flame balls constitute an extreme limit of evolution of cellular flames. To account qualitatively for the ultimate effect of diffusive-thermal instability, a model is proposed in which the flame is a steadily propagating, planar, hexagonal, close-packed array of flame balls, each burning as if it were an isolated, stationary, ideal flame ball in an infinite, quiescent atmosphere. An expression for the laminar burning velocity is derived from this model, which theoretically may provide an upper limit for the experimental burning velocity.

  8. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Advanced Lean-Burn DI Spark Ignition Fuels Research

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Sandia National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and vehicle technologies office annual merit review and peer evaluation meeting about advanced lean-burn...

  9. Environmental Assessment for the Replacement Source of Steam for A Area at the Savannah River Site

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    68 OCTOBER 2006 U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SAVANNAH RIVER OPERATIONS OFFICE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR THE REPLACEMENT SOURCE OF STEAM FOR A AREA AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE DOE/EA-1568 ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR THE REPLACEMENT SOURCE OF STEAM FOR A AREA AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE OCTOBER 2006 U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SAVANNAH RIVER OPERATIONS OFFICE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE ii TABLE OF CONTENTS Page 1.0 INTRODUCTION

  10. Laminar burning velocities and flame instabilities of butanol isomers-air mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu, Xiaolei; Huang, Zuohua; Wu, Si; Li, Qianqian [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China)

    2010-12-15

    Laminar burning velocities and flame instabilities of the butanol-air premixed flames and its isomers are investigated using the spherically expanding flame with central ignition at initial temperature of 428 K and initial pressures of 0.10 MPa, 0.25 MPa, 0.50 MPa and 0.75 MPa. Laminar burning velocities and sensitivity factor of n-butanol-air mixtures are computed using a newly developed kinetic mechanism. Unstretched laminar burning velocity, adiabatic temperature, Lewis number, Markstein length, critical flame radius and Peclet number are obtained over a wide range of equivalence ratios. Effect of molecular structure on laminar burning velocity of the isomers of butanol is analyzed from the aspect of C-H bond dissociation energy. Study indicates that although adiabatic flame temperatures of the isomers of butanol are the same, laminar burning velocities give an obvious difference among the isomers of butanol. This indicates that molecular structure has a large influence on laminar burning velocities of the isomers of butanol. Branching (-CH3) will decrease laminar burning velocity. Hydroxyl functional group (-OH) attaching to the terminal carbon atoms gives higher laminar burning velocity compared to that attaching to the inner carbon atoms. Calculated dissociation bond energies show that terminal C-H bonds have larger bond energies than that of inner C-H bonds. n-Butanol, no branching and with hydroxyl functional group (-OH) attaching to the terminal carbon atom, gives the largest laminar burning velocity. tert-Butanol, with highly branching and hydroxyl functional group (-OH) attaching to the inner carbon atom, gives the lowest laminar burning velocity. Laminar burning velocities of iso-butanol and sec-butanol are between those of n-butanol and tert-butanol. The instant of transition to cellularity is experimentally determined for the isomers of butanol and subsequently interpreted on the basis of hydrodynamic and diffusion-thermal instabilities. Little effect on flame instability is observed for the isomers of butanol. Critical flame radii are the same for the isomers of butanol. Peclet number decreases with the increase in equivalence ratio. (author)

  11. Investigation of NO2 Oxidation Kinetics and Burning Mode for Medium Duty

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Diesel Particulate: Contrasting O2 and NO2 Oxidation | Department of Energy NO2 Oxidation Kinetics and Burning Mode for Medium Duty Diesel Particulate: Contrasting O2 and NO2 Oxidation Investigation of NO2 Oxidation Kinetics and Burning Mode for Medium Duty Diesel Particulate: Contrasting O2 and NO2 Oxidation Reports on preliminary measurements of particulate reactivity and changes in microstructure upon exposure to NO2, which is often present at significant levels in diesel engine exhaust.

  12. Development of a Thermal Enhancer ’ for Combined Partial Range Burning and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrocarbon Dosing | Department of Energy Thermal Enhancer ’ for Combined Partial Range Burning and Hydrocarbon Dosing Development of a Thermal Enhancer ’ for Combined Partial Range Burning and Hydrocarbon Dosing Poster presented at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010. PDF icon p-10_ramsbottom.pdf More Documents & Publications EHRS Impact on Engine Warm-up and Fuel Economy Diesel Particulate Filter: A

  13. Burning Modes and Oxidation Rates of Soot: Relevance to Diesel Particulate

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Traps | Department of Energy Burning Modes and Oxidation Rates of Soot: Relevance to Diesel Particulate Traps Burning Modes and Oxidation Rates of Soot: Relevance to Diesel Particulate Traps Presentation given at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT). PDF icon deer07_vanderwal.pdf More Documents &

  14. Type B Accident Investigation Report of the October 28, 2004, Burn Injuries

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sustained During an Office of Secure Transportation Joint Training Exercise at Fort Hunter-Liggett, CA | Department of Energy of the October 28, 2004, Burn Injuries Sustained During an Office of Secure Transportation Joint Training Exercise at Fort Hunter-Liggett, CA Type B Accident Investigation Report of the October 28, 2004, Burn Injuries Sustained During an Office of Secure Transportation Joint Training Exercise at Fort Hunter-Liggett, CA February 1, 2005 TYPE B Accident Investigation

  15. Systematic approach to verification and validation: High explosive burn models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menikoff, Ralph; Scovel, Christina A.

    2012-04-16

    Most material models used in numerical simulations are based on heuristics and empirically calibrated to experimental data. For a specific model, key questions are determining its domain of applicability and assessing its relative merits compared to other models. Answering these questions should be a part of model verification and validation (V and V). Here, we focus on V and V of high explosive models. Typically, model developers implemented their model in their own hydro code and use different sets of experiments to calibrate model parameters. Rarely can one find in the literature simulation results for different models of the same experiment. Consequently, it is difficult to assess objectively the relative merits of different models. This situation results in part from the fact that experimental data is scattered through the literature (articles in journals and conference proceedings) and that the printed literature does not allow the reader to obtain data from a figure in electronic form needed to make detailed comparisons among experiments and simulations. In addition, it is very time consuming to set up and run simulations to compare different models over sufficiently many experiments to cover the range of phenomena of interest. The first difficulty could be overcome if the research community were to support an online web based database. The second difficulty can be greatly reduced by automating procedures to set up and run simulations of similar types of experiments. Moreover, automated testing would be greatly facilitated if the data files obtained from a database were in a standard format that contained key experimental parameters as meta-data in a header to the data file. To illustrate our approach to V and V, we have developed a high explosive database (HED) at LANL. It now contains a large number of shock initiation experiments. Utilizing the header information in a data file from HED, we have written scripts to generate an input file for a hydro code, run a simulation, and generate a comparison plot showing simulated and experimental velocity gauge data. These scripts are then applied to several series of experiments and to several HE burn models. The same systematic approach is applicable to other types of material models; for example, equations of state models and material strength models.

  16. CORE ANALYSIS, DESIGN AND OPTIMIZATION OF A DEEP-BURN PEBBLE BED REACTOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B. Boer; A. M. Ougouag

    2010-05-01

    Achieving a high burnup in the Deep-Burn pebble bed reactor design, while remaining within the limits for fuel temperature, power peaking and temperature reactivity feedback, is challenging. The high content of Pu and Minor Actinides in the Deep-Burn fuel significantly impacts the thermal neutron energy spectrum. This can result in power and temperature peaking in the pebble bed core in locally thermalized regions near the graphite reflectors. Furthermore, the interplay of the Pu resonances of the neutron absorption cross sections at low-lying energies can lead to a positive temperature reactivity coefficient for the graphite moderator at certain operating conditions. To investigate the aforementioned effects a code system using existing codes has been developed for neutronic, thermal-hydraulic and fuel depletion analysis of Deep-Burn pebble bed reactors. A core analysis of a Deep-Burn Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (400 MWth) design has been performed for two Deep-Burn fuel types and possible improvements of the design with regard to power peaking and temperature reactivity feedback are identified.

  17. Method and apparatus for controlling fuel/air mixture in a lean burn engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kubesh, John Thomas (San Antonio, TX); Dodge, Lee Gene (San Antonio, TX); Podnar, Daniel James (San Antonio, TX)

    1998-04-07

    The system for controlling the fuel/air mixture supplied to a lean burn engine when operating on natural gas, gasoline, hydrogen, alcohol, propane, butane, diesel or any other fuel as desired. As specific humidity of air supplied to the lean burn engine increases, the oxygen concentration of exhaust gas discharged by the engine for a given equivalence ratio will decrease. Closed loop fuel control systems typically attempt to maintain a constant exhaust gas oxygen concentration. Therefore, the decrease in the exhaust gas oxygen concentration resulting from increased specific humidity will often be improperly attributed to an excessive supply of fuel and the control system will incorrectly reduce the amount of fuel supplied to the engine. Also, the minimum fuel/air equivalence ratio for a lean burn engine to avoid misfiring will increase as specific humidity increases. A relative humidity sensor to allow the control system to provide a more enriched fuel/air mixture at high specific humidity levels. The level of specific humidity may be used to compensate an output signal from a universal exhaust gas oxygen sensor for changing oxygen concentrations at a desired equivalence ratio due to variation in specific humidity specific humidity. As a result, the control system will maintain the desired efficiency, low exhaust emissions and power level for the associated lean burn engine regardless of the specific humidity level of intake air supplied to the lean burn engine.

  18. Underwater vapor phase burning of aluminum particles and on aluminum ignition during steam explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Epstein, M. )

    1991-09-01

    Recently reported experimental studies on aluminum-water steam explosions indicate that there may be a critical metal temperature at which the process changes over from a physical explosion to one which is very violent and involves the rapid liberation of chemical energy. In this report we examine the hypothesis that vapor-phase burning of aluminum is a necessary condition for the occurrence of such ignition-type'' steam explosions. An available two-phase stagnation flow film-boiling model is used to calculate the steam flux to the vaporizing aluminum surface. Combining this calculation with the notion that there is an upper limit to the magnitude of the metal vaporization rate at which the reaction regime must change from vapor phase to surface burning, leads to prediction of the critical metal surface temperature below which vapor phase burning is impossible. The critical temperature is predicted for both the aluminum-water pre-mixture configuration in which coarse drops of aluminum are falling freely through water and for the finely-fragmented aluminum drops in the wake of the pressure shock that triggers'' the explosion. Vapor phase burning is predicted to be possible during the pre-mixture phase but not very likely during the trigger phase of a steam explosion. The implications of these findings in terms of the validity of the hypothesis that ignition may begin with the vapor phase burning of aluminum is discussed. Recently postulated, alternative mechanisms of underwater aluminum ignition are also discussed.

  19. Underwater vapor phase burning of aluminum particles and on aluminum ignition during steam explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Epstein, M.

    1991-09-01

    Recently reported experimental studies on aluminum-water steam explosions indicate that there may be a critical metal temperature at which the process changes over from a physical explosion to one which is very violent and involves the rapid liberation of chemical energy. In this report we examine the hypothesis that vapor-phase burning of aluminum is a necessary condition for the occurrence of such ``ignition-type`` steam explosions. An available two-phase stagnation flow film-boiling model is used to calculate the steam flux to the vaporizing aluminum surface. Combining this calculation with the notion that there is an upper limit to the magnitude of the metal vaporization rate at which the reaction regime must change from vapor phase to surface burning, leads to prediction of the critical metal surface temperature below which vapor phase burning is impossible. The critical temperature is predicted for both the aluminum-water pre-mixture configuration in which coarse drops of aluminum are falling freely through water and for the finely-fragmented aluminum drops in the wake of the pressure shock that ``triggers`` the explosion. Vapor phase burning is predicted to be possible during the pre-mixture phase but not very likely during the trigger phase of a steam explosion. The implications of these findings in terms of the validity of the hypothesis that ignition may begin with the vapor phase burning of aluminum is discussed. Recently postulated, alternative mechanisms of underwater aluminum ignition are also discussed.

  20. Emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans from the open burning of household waste in barrels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lemieux, P.M.; Lutes, C.C.; Abbott, J.A.; Aldous, K.M.

    2000-02-01

    Backyard burning of household waste in barrels is a common waste disposal practice for which pollutant emissions have not been well characterized. This study measured the emissions of several pollutants, including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), from burning mixtures designed to simulate waste generated by a recycling and a nonrecycling family in a 208-L (55-gal) burn barrel at the EPA's Open Burning Test Facility. This paper focuses on the PCDD/PCDF emissions and discusses the factors influencing PCDD/PCDF formation for different test burns. Four test burns were made in which the amount of waste placed in the barrel varied from 6.4 to 13.6 kg and the amount actually burned varied from 46.6% to 68.1%. Emissions of total PCDDs/PCDFs ranged between 0.0046 and 0.48 mg/kg of waste burned. Emissions are also presented in terms of 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic equivalents. Emissions of PCDDs/PCDFs appear to correlate with both copper and hydrochloric acid emissions. The results of this study indicate that backyard burning emits more PCDDs/PCDFs on a mass of refuse burned basis than various types of municipal waste combustors (MWCs). Comparison of burn barrel emissions to emissions from a hypothetical modern MWC equipped with high-efficiency flue gas cleaning technology indicates that about 2--40 households burning their trash daily in barrels can produce average PCDD/PCDF emissions comparable to a 182,000 kg/day (200 ton/day) MWC facility. This study provides important data on a potentially significant source of emissions of PCDDs/PCDFs.

  1. Deep-Burn Modular Helium Reactor Fuel Development Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McEachern, D

    2002-12-02

    This document contains the workscope, schedule and cost for the technology development tasks needed to satisfy the fuel and fission product transport Design Data Needs (DDNs) for the Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR), operating in its role of transmuting transuranic (TRU) nuclides in spent fuel discharged from commercial light-water reactors (LWRs). In its application for transmutation, the GT-MHR is referred to as the Deep-Burn MHR (DB-MHR). This Fuel Development Plan (FDP) describes part of the overall program being undertaken by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), utilities, and industry to evaluate the use of the GT-MHR to transmute transuranic nuclides from spent nuclear fuel. The Fuel Development Plan (FDP) includes the work on fuel necessary to support the design and licensing of the DB-MHR. The FDP is organized into ten sections. Section 1 provides a summary of the most important features of the plan, including cost and schedule information. Section 2 describes the DB-MHR concept, the features of its fuel and the plan to develop coated particle fuel for transmutation. Section 3 describes the knowledge base for fabrication of coated particles, the experience with irradiation performance of coated particle fuels, the database for fission product transport in HTGR cores, and describes test data and calculations for the performance of coated particle fuel while in a repository. Section 4 presents the fuel performance requirements in terms of as-manufactured quality and performance of the fuel coatings under irradiation and accident conditions. These requirements are provisional because the design of the DB-MHR is in an early stage. However, the requirements are presented in this preliminary form to guide the initial work on the fuel development. Section 4 also presents limits on the irradiation conditions to which the coated particle fuel can be subjected for the core design. These limits are based on past irradiation experience. Section 5 describes the Design Data Needs to: (1) fabricate the coated particle fuel, (2) predict its performance in the reactor core, (3) predict the radionuclide release rates from the reactor core, and (4) predict the performance of spent fuel in a geological repository. The heart of this fuel development plan is Section 6, which describes the development activities proposed to satisfy the DDNs presented in Section 5. The development scope is divided into Fuel Process Development, Fuel Materials Development, Fission Product Transport, and Spent Fuel Disposal. Section 7 describes the facilities to be used. Generally, this program will utilize existing facilities. While some facilities will need to be modified, there is no requirement for major new facilities. Section 8 states the Quality Assurance requirements that will be applied to the development activities. Section 9 presents detailed costs organized by WBS and spread over time. Section 10 presents a list of the types of deliverables that will be prepared in each of the WBS elements. Four Appendices contain supplementary information on: (a) design data needs, (b) the interface with the separations plant, (c) the detailed development schedule, and (d) the detailed cost estimate.

  2. Greenhouse gas emissions from forest, land use and biomass burning in Tanzania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matitu, M.R.

    1994-12-31

    Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and methane (CH{sub 4}) gases are the main contributors to the greenhouse effect that consequently results in global warming. This paper examines the sources and sinks of these gases from/to forest, land use and biomass burning and their likely contribution to climate change using IPCC/OECD methodology. Emissions have been calculated in mass units of carbon and nitrogen Emissions and uptake have been summed for each gas and the emissions converted to full molecular weights. Mismanagement of forests and land misuse have contributed much to greenhouse gas emissions in Tanzania. For example, cultivation methods, forest clearing, burning of savannah grass and indiscriminate logging (non-sustainable logging) have contributed significantly to greenhouse gas emissions. These categories contribute more than 90% of total CO{sub 2} emissions. However, the study shows that shifting cultivation, savannah burning and forest clearing for conversion to permanent crop land and pasture are the main contributors.

  3. Fabrication of contacts for silicon solar cells including printing burn through layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ginley, David S; Kaydanova, Tatiana; Miedaner, Alexander; Curtis, Calvin J; Van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria

    2014-06-24

    A method for fabricating a contact (240) for a solar cell (200). The method includes providing a solar cell substrate (210) with a surface that is covered or includes an antireflective coating (220). For example, the substrate (210) may be positioned adjacent or proximate to an outlet of an inkjet printer (712) or other deposition device. The method continues with forming a burn through layer (230) on the coating (220) by depositing a metal oxide precursor (e.g., using an inkjet or other non-contact printing method to print or apply a volume of liquid or solution containing the precursor). The method includes forming a contact layer (240) comprising silver over or on the burn through layer (230), and then annealing is performed to electrically connect the contact layer (240) to the surface of the solar cell substrate (210) through a portion of the burn through layer (230) and the coating (220).

  4. Technical Development on Burn-up Credit for Spent LWR Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gauld, I.C.

    2001-12-26

    Technical development on burn-up credit for spent LWR fuels had been performed at JAERI since 1990 under the contract with Science and Technology Agency of Japan entitled ''Technical Development on Criticality Safety Management for Spent LWR Fuels.'' Main purposes of this work are to obtain the experimental data on criticality properties and isotopic compositions of spent LWR fuels and to verify burnup and criticality calculation codes. In this work three major experiments of exponential experiments for spent fuel assemblies to obtain criticality data, non-destructive gamma-ray measurement of spent fuel rods for evaluating axial burn-up profiles, and destructive analyses of spent fuel samples for determining precise burn-up and isotopic compositions were carried out. The measured data obtained were used for validating calculation codes as well as an examination of criticality safety analyses. Details of the work are described in this report.

  5. Laminar burn rates of gun propellants measured in the high-pressure strand burner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reaugh, J. E., LLNL

    1997-10-01

    The pressure dependence of the laminar burn rate of gun propellants plays a role in the design and behavior of high-performance guns. We have begun a program to investigate the effects of processing variables on the laminar burn rates, using our high-pressure strand burner to measure these rates at pressures exceeding 700 MPa. We have burned JA2 and M43 propellant samples, provided by Dr. Arpad Juhasz, ARL, from propellant lots previously used in round-robin tests. Our results at room temperature are in accord with other measurements. In addition, we present results measured for propellant that has been preheated to 50 C before burning. We used our thermochemical equilibrium code, CHEETAH, to help interpret the simultaneous pressure and temperature measurements taken during the testing, and show examples of its use. It has been modified to provide performance measures and equations of state for the products that are familiar to the gun-propellant community users of BLAKE.

  6. Revisiting impacts of nuclear burning for reviving weak shocks in neutrino-driven supernovae

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakamura, Ko; Kotake, Kei; Takiwaki, Tomoya; Nishimura, Nobuya

    2014-02-20

    We revisit potential impacts of nuclear burning on the onset of the neutrino-driven explosions of core-collapse supernovae. By changing the neutrino luminosity and its decay time to obtain parametric explosions in one- and two-dimensional (1D and 2D, respectively) models with or without a 13 isotope ? network, we study how the inclusion of nuclear burning could affect the postbounce dynamics for 4 progenitor models; 3 for 15.0 M {sub ?} stars and 1 for an 11.2 M {sub ?} star. We find that the energy supply due to the nuclear burning of infalling material behind the shock can energize the shock expansion, especially for models that produce only marginal explosions in the absence of nuclear burning. These models are energized by nuclear energy deposition when the shock front passes through the silicon-rich layer and/or later as it touches the oxygen-rich layer. Depending on the neutrino luminosity and its decay time, the diagnostic energy of the explosion increases up to a few times 10{sup 50} erg for models with nuclear burning compared to the corresponding models without. We point out that these features are most remarkable for the Limongi-Chieffi progenitor in both 1D and 2D because the progenitor model possesses a massive oxygen layer, with an inner-edge radius that is smallest among the employed progenitors, which means that the shock can touch the rich fuel on a shorter timescale after bounce. The energy difference is generally smaller (?0.1-0.2 10{sup 51} erg) in 2D than in 1D (at most ?0.6 10{sup 51} erg). This is because neutrino-driven convection and the shock instability in 2D models enhance the neutrino heating efficiency, which makes the contribution of nuclear burning relatively smaller compared to 1D models. Considering uncertainties in progenitor models, our results indicate that nuclear burning should remain one of the important ingredients to foster the onset of neutrino-driven explosions.

  7. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 3, Appendix A: Mass burn technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-10-01

    This appendix on Mass Burn Technologies is the first in a series designed to identify, describe and assess the suitability of several currently or potentially available generic technologies for the management of municipal solid waste (MSW). These appendices, which cover eight core thermoconversion, bioconversion and recycling technologies, reflect public domain information gathered from many sources. Representative sources include: professional journal articles, conference proceedings, selected municipality solid waste management plans and subscription technology data bases. The information presented is intended to serve as background information that will facilitate the preparation of the technoeconomic and life cycle mass, energy and environmental analyses that are being developed for each of the technologies. Mass burn has been and continues to be the predominant technology in Europe for the management of MSW. In the United States, the majority of the existing waste-to-energy projects utilize this technology and nearly 90 percent of all currently planned facilities have selected mass burn systems. Mass burning generally refers to the direct feeding and combustion of municipal solid waste in a furnace without any significant waste preprocessing. The only materials typically removed from the waste stream prior to combustion are large bulky objects and potentially hazardous or undesirable wastes. The technology has evolved over the last 100 or so years from simple incineration to the most highly developed and commercially proven process available for both reducing the volume of MSW and for recovering energy in the forms of steam and electricity. In general, mass burn plants are considered to operate reliably with high availability.

  8. Application of spectral hole burning to the study of in vitro cellular systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milanovich, Nebojsa

    1999-11-08

    Chapter 1 of this thesis describes the various stages of tumor development and a multitude of diagnostic techniques used to detect cancer. Chapter 2 gives an overview of the aspects of hole burning spectroscopy important for its application to the study of cellular systems. Chapter 3 gives general descriptions of cellular organelles, structures, and physical properties that can serve as possible markers for the differentiation of normal and cancerous cells. Also described in Chapter 3 are the principles of cryobiology important for low temperature spectroscopy of cells, characterization of MCF-10F (normal) and MCF-7 (cancer) cells lines which will serve as model systems, and cellular characteristics of aluminum phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate (APT), which was used as the test probe. Chapters 4 and 5 are previously published papers by the author pertaining to the results obtained from the application of hole burning to the study of cellular systems. Chapter 4 presents the first results obtained by spectral hole burning of cellular systems and Chapter 5 gives results for the differentiation of MCF-10F and MCF-7 cells stained with APT by an external applied electric (Stark) field. A general conclusion is presented in Chapter 6. Appendices A and B provide additional characterization of the cell/probe model systems. Appendix A describes the uptake and subcellular distribution of APT in MCF-10F and MCF-7 cells and Appendix B compares the hole burning characteristics of APT in cells when the cells are in suspension and when they are examined while adhering to a glass coverslip. Appendix C presents preliminary results for a novel probe molecule, referred to as a molecular thumbtack, designed by the authors for use in future hole burning applications to cellular systems.

  9. Preliminary design of ultra-long cycle fast reactor employing breed-and-burn strategy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tak, T. W.; Yu, H.; Kim, J. H.; Lee, D.; Kim, T. K.

    2012-07-01

    A new design of ultra-long cycle fast reactor with power rate of 1000 MWe (UCFR) has been developed based on the strategy of breed-and burn. The bottom region of the core with low enriched uranium (LEU) plays a role of igniter of the core burning and the upper natural uranium (NU) region acts as blanket for breeding. Fissile materials are bred in the blanket and the active core moves upward at a speed of 5.4 cm/year. Through the core depletion calculation using Monte Carlo code, McCARD, it is confirmed that a full power operation of 60 years without refueling is feasible. Core performance characteristics have been evaluated in terms of axial/radial power shapes, reactivity feedback coefficients, etc. This design will serve as a base model for further design study of UCFRs using LWR spent fuels in the blanket region. (authors)

  10. K Basins floor sludge retrieval system knockout pot basket fuel burn accident

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HUNT, J.W.

    1998-11-11

    The K Basins Sludge Retrieval System Preliminary Hazard Analysis Report (HNF-2676) identified and categorized a series of potential accidents associated with K Basins Sludge Retrieval System design and operation. The fuel burn accident was of concern with respect to the potential release of contamination resulting from a runaway chemical reaction of the uranium fuel in a knockout pot basket suspended in the air. The unmitigated radiological dose to an offsite receptor from this fuel burn accident is calculated to be much less than the offsite risk evaluation guidelines for anticipated events. However, because of potential radiation exposure to the facility worker, this accident is precluded with a safety significant lifting device that will prevent the monorail hoist from lifting the knockout pot basket out of the K Basin water pool.

  11. Process for clean-burning fuel from low-rank coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merriam, Norman W. (Laramie, WY); Sethi, Vijay (Laramie, WY); Brecher, Lee E. (Laramie, WY)

    1994-01-01

    A process for upgrading and stabilizing low-rank coal involving the sequential processing of the coal through three fluidized beds; first a dryer, then a pyrolyzer, and finally a cooler. The fluidizing gas for the cooler is the exit gas from the pyrolyzer with the addition of water for cooling. Overhead gas from pyrolyzing is likely burned to furnish the energy for the process. The product coal exits with a tar-like pitch sealant to enhance its safety during storage.

  12. 2012 ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit Keynote Presentation (Ursula Burns, Xerox Corporation)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Burns, Ursula (Xerox Corporation, Chairman and CEO)

    2014-04-11

    The third annual ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit was held in Washington D.C. in February, 2012. The event brought together key players from across the energy ecosystem - researchers, entrepreneurs, investors, corporate executives, and government officials - to share ideas for developing and deploying the next generation of energy technologies. Ursula Burns, Chairman and CEO of the Xerox Corporation, gave the second keynote address of the third day's sessions on February 29.

  13. Rice straw burning in Southeast Asia as a source of CO and COS to the atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, B.C.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Putaud, J.P. [Centre des Faibles Radioactivites, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1994-08-20

    This paper discusses the results of aerosol monitoring field tests conducted in four locations in Viet Nam during 1992 and 1993. Atmospheric samples were collected during the dry and wet seasons during the time when rice straw burning was taking place in the agricultural rangelands. The samples were analyzed for carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and carbonyl sulfide. Experimental methods and implications of the analytical results are described. 21 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Double, Double Toil and Trouble: Tungsten Burns and Helium Bubbles | U.S.

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    DOE Office of Science (SC) Double, Double Toil and Trouble: Tungsten Burns and Helium Bubbles Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) ASCR Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of ASCR Funding Opportunities Advanced Scientific Computing Advisory Committee (ASCAC) Community Resources Contact Information Advanced Scientific Computing Research U.S. Department of Energy SC-21/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-7486 F: (301)

  15. Double, Double Toil and Trouble: Tungsten Burns and Helium Bubbles | U.S.

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    DOE Office of Science (SC) Double, Double Toil and Trouble: Tungsten Burns and Helium Bubbles Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) FES Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of FES Funding Opportunities Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (FESAC) Community Resources Contact Information Fusion Energy Sciences U.S. Department of Energy SC-24/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-4941 F: (301) 903-8584 E: Email Us More Information »

  16. Authors: Carol Burns, Mark Chadwick, John Erickson, David Funk, and Robert Fulton

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nuclear and Particle Futures (N&PF) Pillar Authors: Carol Burns, Mark Chadwick, John Erickson, David Funk, and Robert Fulton Contributions by: Malcolm Andrews, Mike Baker, Joe Carlson, Bruce Carlsten, Aaron Couture, Mark Crawford, Greg Dale, Ed Dendy, Brenda Dingus, Steve Elliott, Juan Fernandez, Julianna Fessenden-Rahn, Alex Friedland, Chris Fryer, Michael Graesser, Rajan Gupta, Anna Hayes, Andrew Hime, Hui Li, Andi Klein, Tom Kwan, Bob Little, Bill Louis, Christopher Mauger, Pat McGaughey,

  17. DOE/SC-ARM-13-014 Biomass Burning Observation Project Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4 Biomass Burning Observation Project Science Plan LI Kleinman AJ Sedlacek September 2013 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not

  18. ADVANCED BURNING STAGES AND FATE OF 8-10 M{sub Sun} STARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, S.; Hirschi, R.; Nomoto, K.; Fischer, T.; Martinez-Pinedo, G.; Timmes, F. X.; Herwig, F.; Paxton, B.; Toki, H.; Suzuki, T.; Lam, Y. H.; Bertolli, M. G.

    2013-08-01

    The stellar mass range 8 {approx}< M/M{sub Sun} {approx}< 12 corresponds to the most massive asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars and the most numerous massive stars. It is host to a variety of supernova (SN) progenitors and is therefore very important for galactic chemical evolution and stellar population studies. In this paper, we study the transition from super-AGB (SAGB) star to massive star and find that a propagating neon-oxygen-burning shell is common to both the most massive electron capture supernova (EC-SN) progenitors and the lowest mass iron-core-collapse supernova (FeCCSN) progenitors. Of the models that ignite neon-burning off-center, the 9.5 M{sub Sun} star would evolve to an FeCCSN after the neon-burning shell propagates to the center, as in previous studies. The neon-burning shell in the 8.8 M{sub Sun} model, however, fails to reach the center as the URCA process and an extended (0.6 M{sub Sun }) region of low Y{sub e} (0.48) in the outer part of the core begin to dominate the late evolution; the model evolves to an EC-SN. This is the first study to follow the most massive EC-SN progenitors to collapse, representing an evolutionary path to EC-SN in addition to that from SAGB stars undergoing thermal pulses (TPs). We also present models of an 8.75 M{sub Sun} SAGB star through its entire TP phase until electron captures on {sup 20}Ne begin at its center and of a 12 M{sub Sun} star up to the iron core collapse. We discuss key uncertainties and how the different pathways to collapse affect the pre-SN structure. Finally, we compare our results to the observed neutron star mass distribution.

  19. Evaluation and Parameter Analysis of Burn up Calculations for the Assessment of Radioactive Waste - 13187

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fast, Ivan; Aksyutina, Yuliya; Tietze-Jaensch, Holger

    2013-07-01

    Burn up calculations facilitate a determination of the composition and nuclear inventory of spent nuclear fuel, if operational history is known. In case this information is not available, the total nuclear inventory can be determined by means of destructive or, even on industrial scale, nondestructive measurement methods. For non-destructive measurements however only a few easy-to-measure, so-called key nuclides, are determined due to their characteristic gamma lines or neutron emission. From these measured activities the fuel burn up and cooling time are derived to facilitate the numerical inventory determination of spent fuel elements. Most regulatory bodies require an independent assessment of nuclear waste properties and their documentation. Prominent part of this assessment is a consistency check of inventory declaration. The waste packages often contain wastes from different types of spent fuels of different history and information about the secondary reactor parameters may not be available. In this case the so-called characteristic fuel burn up and cooling time are determined. These values are obtained from a correlations involving key-nuclides with a certain bandwidth, thus with upper and lower limits. The bandwidth is strongly dependent on secondary reactor parameter such as initial enrichment, temperature and density of the fuel and moderator, hence the reactor type, fuel element geometry and plant operation history. The purpose of our investigation is to look into the scaling and correlation limitations, to define and verify the range of validity and to scrutinize the dependencies and propagation of uncertainties that affect the waste inventory declarations and their independent verification. This is accomplished by numerical assessment and simulation of waste production using well accepted codes SCALE 6.0 and 6.1 to simulate the cooling time and burn up of a spent fuel element. The simulations are benchmarked against spent fuel from the real reactor Obrigheim in Germany for which sufficiently precise experimental reference data are available. (authors)

  20. Savannah River Site "Live Burn" Training Sharpens Skills | National Nuclear

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Security Administration "Live Burn" Training Sharpens Skills | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Photo

  1. The role of actinide burning and the Integral Fast Reactor in the future of nuclear power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hollaway, W.R.; Lidsky, L.M.; Miller, M.M.

    1990-12-01

    A preliminary assessment is made of the potential role of actinide burning and the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) in the future of nuclear power. The development of a usable actinide burning strategy could be an important factor in the acceptance and implementation of a next generation of nuclear power. First, the need for nuclear generating capacity is established through the analysis of energy and electricity demand forecasting models which cover the spectrum of bias from anti-nuclear to pro-nuclear. The analyses take into account the issues of global warming and the potential for technological advances in energy efficiency. We conclude, as do many others, that there will almost certainly be a need for substantial nuclear power capacity in the 2000--2030 time frame. We point out also that any reprocessing scheme will open up proliferation-related questions which can only be assessed in very specific contexts. The focus of this report is on the fuel cycle impacts of actinide burning. Scenarios are developed for the deployment of future nuclear generating capacity which exploit the advantages of actinide partitioning and actinide burning. Three alternative reactor designs are utilized in these future scenarios: The Light Water Reactor (LWR); the Modular Gas-Cooled Reactor (MGR); and the Integral Fast Reactor (FR). Each of these alternative reactor designs is described in some detail, with specific emphasis on their spent fuel streams and the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle. Four separation and partitioning processes are utilized in building the future nuclear power scenarios: Thermal reactor spent fuel preprocessing to reduce the ceramic oxide spent fuel to metallic form, the conventional PUREX process, the TRUEX process, and pyrometallurgical reprocessing.

  2. The smoke-fireplume model : tool for eventual application to prescribed burns and wildland fires.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, D. F.; Dunn, W. E.; Lazaro, M. A.; Policastro, A. J.

    1999-08-17

    Land managers are increasingly implementing strategies that employ the use of fire in prescribed burns to sustain ecosystems and plan to sustain the rate of increase in its use over the next five years. In planning and executing expanded use of fire in wildland treatment it is important to estimate the human health and safety consequences, property damage, and the extent of visibility degradation from the resulting conflagration-pyrolysis gases, soot and smoke generated during flaming, smoldering and/or glowing fires. Traditional approaches have often employed the analysis of weather observations and forecasts to determine whether a prescribed burn will affect populations, property, or protected Class I areas. However, the complexity of the problem lends itself to advanced PC-based models that are simple to use for both calculating the emissions from the burning of wildland fuels and the downwind dispersion of smoke and other products of pyrolysis, distillation, and/or fuels combustion. These models will need to address the effects of residual smoldering combustion, including plume dynamics and optical effects. In this paper, we discuss a suite of tools that can be applied for analyzing dispersion. These tools include the dispersion models FIREPLUME and SMOKE, together with the meteorological preprocessor SEBMET.

  3. Apparatus and method for burning a lean, premixed fuel/air mixture with low NOx emission

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kostiuk, Larry W. (Edmonton, CA); Cheng, Robert K. (Kensington, CA)

    1996-01-01

    An apparatus for enabling a burner to stably burn a lean fuel/air mixture. The burner directs the lean fuel/air mixture in a stream. The apparatus comprises an annular flame stabilizer; and a device for mounting the flame stabilizer in the fuel/air mixture stream. The burner may include a body having an internal bore, in which case, the annular flame stabilizer is shaped to conform to the cross-sectional shape of the bore, is spaced from the bore by a distance greater than about 0.5 mm, and the mounting device mounts the flame stabilizer in the bore. An apparatus for burning a gaseous fuel with low NOx emissions comprises a device for premixing air with the fuel to provide a lean fuel/air mixture; a nozzle having an internal bore through which the lean fuel/air mixture passes in a stream; and a flame stabilizer mounted in the stream of the lean fuel/air mixture. The flame stabilizer may be mounted in the internal bore, in which case, it is shaped and is spaced from the bore as just described. In a method of burning a lean fuel/air mixture, a lean fuel/air mixture is provided, and is directed in a stream; an annular eddy is created in the stream of the lean fuel/air mixture; and the lean fuel/air mixture is ignited at the eddy.

  4. Laminar burning velocities at high pressure for primary reference fuels and gasoline: Experimental and numerical investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jerzembeck, S.; Peters, N. [RWTH, Aachen (Germany); Pepiot-Desjardins, P.; Pitsch, H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, CA (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Spherical flames of n-heptane, iso-octane, PRF 87 and gasoline/air mixtures are experimentally investigated to determine laminar burning velocities and Markstein lengths under engine-relevant conditions by using the constant volume bomb method. Data are obtained for an initial temperature of 373 K, equivalence ratios varying from {phi}=0.7 to {phi}=1.2, and initial pressures from 10 to 25 bar. To track the flame front in the vessel a dark field He-Ne laser Schlieren measurement technique and digital image processing were used. The propagating speed with respect to the burned gases and the stretch rate are determined from the rate of change of the flame radius. The laminar burning velocities are obtained through a linear extrapolation to zero stretch. The experimentally determined Markstein numbers are compared to theoretical predictions. A reduced chemical kinetic mechanism for n-heptane and iso-octane was derived from the Lawrence Livermore comprehensive mechanisms. This mechanism was validated for ignition delay times and flame propagation at low and high pressures. In summary an overall good agreement with the various experimental data sets used in the validation was obtained. (author)

  5. Quantitative IR Spectrum and Vibrational Assignments for Glycolaldehyde Vapor: Glycolaldehyde Measurements in Biomass Burning Plumes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Timothy J.; Sams, Robert L.; Profeta, Luisa T.; Akagi, Sheryl; Burling, Ian R.; Yokelson, Robert J.; Williams, Stephen D.

    2013-04-15

    Glycolaldehyde (GA, 2-hydroxyethanal, C2H4O2) is a semi-volatile molecule of atmospheric importance, recently proposed as a precursor in the formation of aqueous-phase secondary organic aerosol (SOA). There are few methods to measure glycolaldehyde vapor, but infrared spectroscopy has been used successfully. Using vetted protocols we have completed the first assignment of all fundamental vibrational modes and derived quantitative IR absorption band strengths using both neat and pressure-broadened GA vapor. Even though GA is problematic due to its propensity to both dimerize and condense, our intensities agree well with the few previously published values. Using the reference ?10 band Q-branch at 860.51 cm-1, we have also determined GA mixing ratios in biomass burning plumes generated by field and laboratory burns of fuels from the southeastern and southwestern United States, including the first field measurements of glycolaldehyde in smoke. The GA emission factors were anti-correlated with modified combustion efficiency confirming release of GA from smoldering combustion. The GA emission factors (g of GA emitted per kg dry biomass burned on a dry mass basis) had a low dependence on fuel type consistent with the production mechanism being pyrolysis of cellulose. GA was emitted at 0.23 0.13% of CO from field fires and we calculate that it accounts for ~18% of the aqueous-phase SOA precursors that we were able to measure.

  6. Thorium Fuel Options for Sustained Transuranic Burning in Pressurized Water Reactors - 12381

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rahman, Fariz Abdul; Lee, John C. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Franceschini, Fausto; Wenner, Michael [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Cranberry Township, PA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    As described in companion papers, Westinghouse is proposing the adoption of a thorium-based fuel cycle to burn the transuranics (TRU) contained in the current Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF) and transition towards a less radio-toxic high level waste. A combination of both light water reactors (LWR) and fast reactors (FR) is envisaged for the task, with the emphasis initially posed on their TRU burning capability and eventually to their self-sufficiency. Given the many technical challenges and development times related to the deployment of TRU burners fast reactors, an interim solution making best use of the current resources to initiate burning the legacy TRU inventory while developing and testing some technologies of later use is desirable. In this perspective, a portion of the LWR fleet can be used to start burning the legacy TRUs using Th-based fuels compatible with the current plants and operational features. This analysis focuses on a typical 4-loop PWR, with 17x17 fuel assembly design and TRUs (or Pu) admixed with Th (similar to U-MOX fuel, but with Th instead of U). Global calculations of the core were represented with unit assembly simulations using the Linear Reactivity Model (LRM). Several assembly configurations have been developed to offer two options that can be attractive during the TRU transmutation campaign: maximization of the TRU transmutation rate and capability for TRU multi-recycling, to extend the option of TRU recycling in LWR until the FR is available. Homogeneous as well as heterogeneous assembly configurations have been developed with various recycling schemes (Pu recycle, TRU recycle, TRU and in-bred U recycle etc.). Oxide as well as nitride fuels have been examined. This enabled an assessment of the potential for burning and multi-recycling TRU in a Th-based fuel PWR to compare against other more typical alternatives (U-MOX and variations thereof). Results will be shown indicating that Th-based PWR fuel is a promising option to multi-recycle and burn TRU in a thermal spectrum, while satisfying top-level operational and safety constraints. Various assembly designs have been proposed to assess the TRU burning potential of Th-based fuel in PWRs. In addition to typical homogeneous loading patterns, heterogeneous configurations exploiting the breeding potential of thorium to enable multiple cycles of TRU irradiation and burning have been devised. The homogeneous assembly design, with all pins featuring TRU in Th, has the benefit of a simple loading pattern and the highest rate of TRU transmutation, but it can be used only for a few cycles due to the rapid rise in the TRU content of the recycled fuel, which challenges reactivity control, safety coefficients and fuel handling. Due to its simple loading pattern, such assembly design can be used as the first step of Th implementation, achieving up to 3 times larger TRU transmutation rate than conventional U-MOX, assuming same fraction of MOX assemblies in the core. As the next step in thorium implementation, heterogeneous assemblies featuring a mixed array of Th-U and Th-U-TRU pins, where the U is in-bred from Th, have been proposed. These designs have the potential to enable burning an external supply of TRU through multiple cycles of irradiation, recovery (via reprocessing) and recycling of the residual actinides at the end of each irradiation cycle. This is achieved thanks to a larger breeding of U from Th in the heterogeneous assemblies, which reduces the TRU supply and thus mitigates the increase in the TRU core inventory for the multi-recycled fuel. While on an individual cycle basis the amount of TRU burned in the heterogeneous assembly is reduced with respect to the homogeneous design, TRU burning rates higher than single-pass U-MOX fuel can still be achieved, with the additional benefits of a multi-cycle transmutation campaign recycling all TRU isotopes. Nitride fuel, due its higher density and U breeding potential, together with its better thermal properties, ideally suits the objectives and constraints of the heterogeneous assemblies. However, signi

  7. Selective NOx Recirculation for Stationary Lean-Burn Natural Gas Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nigel N. Clark

    2006-12-31

    Nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) generated by internal combustion (IC) engines are implicated in adverse environmental and health effects. Even though lean-burn natural gas engines have traditionally emitted lower oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions compared to their diesel counterparts, natural gas engines are being further challenged to reduce NOx emissions to 0.1 g/bhp-hr. The Selective NOx Recirculation (SNR) approach for NOx reduction involves cooling the engine exhaust gas and then adsorbing the NOx from the exhaust stream, followed by the periodic desorption of NOx. By sending the desorbed NOx back into the intake and through the engine, a percentage of the NOx can be decomposed during the combustion process. SNR technology has the support of the Department of Energy (DOE), under the Advanced Reciprocating Engine Systems (ARES) program to reduce NOx emissions to under 0.1 g/bhp-hr from stationary natural gas engines by 2010. The NO decomposition phenomenon was studied using two Cummins L10G natural gas fueled spark-ignited (SI) engines in three experimental campaigns. It was observed that the air/fuel ratio ({lambda}), injected NO quantity, added exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) percentage, and engine operating points affected NOx decomposition rates within the engine. Chemical kinetic model predictions using the software package CHEMKIN were performed to relate the experimental data with established rate and equilibrium models. The model was used to predict NO decomposition during lean-burn, stoichiometric burn, and slightly rich-burn cases with added EGR. NOx decomposition rates were estimated from the model to be from 35 to 42% for the lean-burn cases and from 50 to 70% for the rich-burn cases. The modeling results provided an insight as to how to maximize NOx decomposition rates for the experimental engine. Results from this experiment along with chemical kinetic modeling solutions prompted the investigation of rich-burn operating conditions, with added EGR to prevent preignition. It was observed that the relative air/fuel ratio, injected NO quantity, added EGR fraction, and engine operating points affected the NO decomposition rates. While operating under these modified conditions, the highest NO decomposition rate of 92% was observed. In-cylinder pressure data gathered during the experiments showed minimum deviation from peak pressure as a result of NO injections into the engine. A NOx adsorption system, from Sorbent Technologies, Inc., was integrated with the Cummins engine, comprised a NOx adsorbent chamber, heat exchanger, demister, and a hot air blower. Data were gathered to show the possibility of NOx adsorption from the engine exhaust, and desorption of NOx from the sorbent material. In order to quantify the NOx adsorption/desorption characteristics of the sorbent material, a benchtop adsorption system was constructed. The temperature of this apparatus was controlled while data were gathered on the characteristics of the sorbent material for development of a system model. A simplified linear driving force model was developed to predict NOx adsorption into the sorbent material as cooled exhaust passed over fresh sorbent material. A mass heat transfer analysis was conducted to analyze the possibility of using hot exhaust gas for the desorption process. It was found in the adsorption studies, and through literature review, that NO adsorption was poor when the carrier gas was nitrogen, but that NO in the presence of oxygen was adsorbed at levels exceeding 1% by mass of the sorbent. From the three experimental campaigns, chemical kinetic modeling analysis, and the scaled benchtop NOx adsorption system, an overall SNR system model was developed. An economic analysis was completed, and showed that the system was impractical in cost for small engines, but that economies of scale favored the technology.

  8. Method for correcting for isotope burn-in effects in fission neutron dosimeters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gold, Raymond (Richland, WA); McElroy, William N. (Richland, WA)

    1988-01-01

    A method is described for correcting for effect of isotope burn-in in fission neutron dosimeters. Two quantities are measured in order to quantify the "burn-in" contribution, namely P.sub.Z',A', the amount of (Z', A') isotope that is burned-in, and F.sub.Z', A', the fissions per unit volume produced in the (Z', A') isotope. To measure P.sub.Z', A', two solid state track recorder fission deposits are prepared from the very same material that comprises the fission neutron dosimeter, and the mass and mass density are measured. One of these deposits is exposed along with the fission neutron dosimeter, whereas the second deposit is subsequently used for observation of background. P.sub.Z', A' is then determined by conducting a second irradiation, wherein both the irradiated and unirradiated fission deposits are used in solid state track recorder dosimeters for observation of the absolute number of fissions per unit volume. The difference between the latter determines P.sub.Z', A' since the thermal neutron cross section is known. F.sub.Z', A' is obtained by using a fission neutron dosimeter for this specific isotope, which is exposed along with the original threshold fission neutron dosimeter to experience the same neutron flux-time history at the same location. In order to determine the fissions per unit volume produced in the isotope (Z', A') as it ingrows during the irradiation, B.sub.Z', A', from these observations, the neutron field must generally be either time independent or a separable function of time t and neutron energy E.

  9. Process for clean-burning fuel from low-rank coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merriam, N.W.; Sethi, V.; Brecher, L.E.

    1994-06-21

    A process is described for upgrading and stabilizing low-rank coal involving the sequential processing of the coal through three fluidized beds; first a dryer, then a pyrolyzer, and finally a cooler. The fluidizing gas for the cooler is the exit gas from the pyrolyzer with the addition of water for cooling. Overhead gas from pyrolyzing is likely burned to furnish the energy for the process. The product coal exits with a tar-like pitch sealant to enhance its safety during storage. 1 fig.

  10. Final Project Report INERT-MATRIX FUEL: ACTINIDE "BURNING" AND DIRECT DISPOSAL

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Project Report INERT-MATRIX FUEL: ACTINIDE "BURNING" AND DIRECT DISPOSAL Nuclear Engineering Education Research Program (grant # DE-FG07-99ID13767) Rodney C. Ewing (co-PI) Lumin Wang (co-PI) October 30,2002 For the Period of 07/01/1999 to 06/30/2002 Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences University of Michigan Ann Arbor, MI 48109 1 1. Background Excess actinides result from the dismantlement of nuclear weapons (239Pu) and the reprocessing of commercial spent

  11. Method of burning sulfur-containing fuels in a fluidized bed boiler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Brian C. (Windsor, CT)

    1982-01-01

    A method of burning a sulfur-containing fuel in a fluidized bed of sulfur oxide sorbent wherein the overall utilization of sulfur oxide sorbent is increased by comminuting the bed drain solids to a smaller average particle size, preferably on the order of 50 microns, and reinjecting the comminuted bed drain solids into the bed. In comminuting the bed drain solids, particles of spent sulfur sorbent contained therein are fractured thereby exposing unreacted sorbent surface. Upon reinjecting the comminuted bed drain solids into the bed, the newly-exposed unreacted sorbent surface is available for sulfur oxide sorption, thereby increasing overall sorbent utilization.

  12. LAKESHORE AVON BR ANT-EDEN ALD EN-LANC ASTER AU BURN W SH ELDON

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    81 § ¨ ¦ 81 LAKESHORE AVON BR ANT-EDEN ALD EN-LANC ASTER AU BURN W SH ELDON CALEDONIA HURON C REEK LEIC EST ER COL DEN ASH FORD INDIAN FALLS LAWTONS SAR DINIA RPD-037 -2 GLENWOOD PU LASKI PAVILION CON CORD COL LINS N ELM A ORC HARD PARK-H AMBU RG DANLEY CORNERS ST ILLWAT ER CHAFF EE-ARCAD E FAYETT E-WATERLOO LAKEVIEW JAVA SEN EC A W ELLER Y AU RORA E ZOAR BU FFALO TIOGA SILVER LAKE AKR ON ROM E RAT HBON E ALM A BET HANY WYOMING ULYSSES BR ANCH W SAN DY CREEK COL LINS BLOOMFIELD E LEBANON

  13. Personal PM2.5 exposure among wildland firefighters working at prescribed forest burns in southeastern United States.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adetona, Olorunfemi; Dunn, Kevin; Hall, Daniel, B.; Achtemeier, Gary; Stock, Allison; Naeher, Luke, P.

    2011-07-15

    This study investigated occupational exposure to wood and vegetative smoke in a group of 28 forest firefighters at prescribed forest burns in a southeastern U.S. forest during the winters of 2003-2005. During burn activities, 203 individual person-day PM{sub 2.5} and 149 individual person-day CO samples were collected; during non-burn activities, 37 person-day PM{sub 2.5} samples were collected as controls. Time-activity diaries and post-work shift questionnaires were administered to identify factors influencing smoke exposure and to determine how accurately the firefighters qualitative assessment estimated their personal level of smoke exposure with discrete responses: 'none' or 'very little,' 'low,' 'moderate,' 'high,' and 'very high.' An average of 6.7 firefighters were monitored per burn, with samples collected on 30 burn days and 7 non-burn days. Size of burn plots ranged from 1-2745 acres (avg = 687.8). Duration of work shift ranged from 6.8-19.4 hr (avg = 10.3 hr) on burn days. Concentration of PM{sub 2.5} ranged from 5.9-2673 {mu}g/m{sup 3} on burn days. Geometric mean PM{sub 2.5} exposure was 280 {mu}g/m{sup 3} (95% CL = 140, 557 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, n = 177) for burn day samples, and 16 {mu}g/m{sup 3} (95% CL = 10, 26 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, n = 35) on non-burn days. Average measured PM{sub 2.5} differed across levels of the firefighters categorical self-assessments of exposure (p < 0.0001): none to very little = 120 {mu}g/m{sup 3} (95% CL = 71, 203 {mu}g/m{sup 3}) and high to very high = 664 {mu}g/m{sup 3} (95% CL = 373, 1185 {mu}g/m{sup 3}); p < 0.0001 on burn days. Time-weighted average PM{sub 2.5} and personal CO averaged over the run times of PM{sub 2.5} pumps were correlated (correlation coefficient estimate, r = 0.79; CLs: 0.72, 0.85). Overall occupational exposures to particulate matter were low, but results indicate that exposure could exceed the ACGIH{reg_sign}-recommended threshold limit value of 3 mg/m{sup 3} for respirable particulate matter in a few extreme situations. Self-assessed exposure levels agreed with measured concentrations of PM{sub 2.5}. Correlation analysis shows that either PM{sub 2.5} or CO could be used as a surrogate measure of exposure to woodsmoke at prescribed burns.

  14. Stress Analysis of Coated Particle Fuel in the Deep-Burn Pebble Bed Reactor Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B. Boer; A. M. Ougouag

    2010-05-01

    High fuel temperatures and resulting fuel particle coating stresses can be expected in a Pu and minor actinide fueled Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (400 MWth) design as compared to the standard UO2 fueled core. The high discharge burnup aimed for in this Deep-Burn design results in increased power and temperature peaking in the pebble bed near the inner and outer reflector. Furthermore, the pebble power in a multi-pass in-core pebble recycling scheme is relatively high for pebbles that make their first core pass. This might result in an increase of the mechanical failure of the coatings, which serve as the containment of radioactive fission products in the PBMR design. To investigate the integrity of the particle fuel coatings as a function of the irradiation time (i.e. burnup), core position and during a Loss Of Forced Cooling (LOFC) incident the PArticle STress Analysis code (PASTA) has been coupled to the PEBBED code for neutronics, thermal-hydraulics and depletion analysis of the core. Two deep burn fuel types (Pu with or without initial MA fuel content) have been investigated with the new code system for normal and transient conditions including the effect of the statistical variation of thickness of the coating layers.

  15. Long-term tradeoffs between nuclear- and fossil-fuel burning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1996-12-31

    A global energy/economics/environmental (E{sup 3}) model has been adapted with a nuclear energy/materials model to understand better {open_quotes}top-level{close_quotes}, long-term trade offs between civilian nuclear power, nuclear-weapons proliferation, fossil-fuel burning, and global economic welfare. Using a {open_quotes}business-as-usual{close_quotes} (BAU) point-of-departure case, economic, resource, proliferation-risk implications of plutonium recycle in LAIRs, greenhouse-gas-mitigating carbon taxes, and a range of nuclear energy costs (capital and fuel) considerations have been examined. After describing the essential elements of the analysis approach being developed to support the Los Alamos Nuclear Vision Project, preliminary examples of parametric variations about the BAU base-case scenario are presented. The results described herein represent a sampling from more extensive results collected in a separate report. The primary motivation here is: (a) to compare the BAU basecase with results from other studies; (b) to model on a regionally resolved global basis long-term (to year {approximately}2100) evolution of plutonium accumulation in a variety of forms under a limited range of fuel-cycle scenarios; and (c) to illustrate a preliminary connectivity between risks associated with nuclear proliferation and fossil-fuel burning (e.g., greenhouse-gas accumulations).

  16. Nonphotochemical Hole-Burning Studies of Energy Transfer Dynamics in Antenna Complexes of Photosynthetic Bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Satoshi Matsuzaki

    2002-08-01

    This thesis contains the candidate's original work on excitonic structure and energy transfer dynamics of two bacterial antenna complexes as studied using spectral hole-burning spectroscopy. The general introduction is divided into two chapters (1 and 2). Chapter 1 provides background material on photosynthesis and bacterial antenna complexes with emphasis on the two bacterial antenna systems related to the thesis research. Chapter 2 reviews the underlying principles and mechanism of persistent nonphotochemical hole-burning (NPHB) spectroscopy. Relevant energy transfer theories are also discussed. Chapters 3 and 4 are papers by the candidate that have been published. Chapter 3 describes the application of NPHB spectroscopy to the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) complex from the green sulfur bacterium Prosthecochloris aestuarii; emphasis is on determination of the low energy vibrational structure that is important for understanding the energy transfer process associated within three lowest energy Qy-states of the complex. The results are compared with those obtained earlier on the FMO complex from Chlorobium tepidum. In Chapter 4, the energy transfer dynamics of the B800 molecules of intact LH2 and B800-deficient LH2 complexes of the purple bacterium Rhodopseudomonas acidophila are compared. New insights on the additional decay channel of the B800 ring of bacteriochlorophyll a (BChl a) molecules are provided. General conclusions are given in Chapter 5.

  17. Results of emissions testing while burning densified refuse derived fuel, Dordt College, Sioux Center, Iowa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-10-01

    Pacific Environmental Services, Inc. provided engineering and source testing services to the Council of Great Lake Governors to support their efforts in promoting the development and utilization of densified refuse derived fuels (d-RDF) and pelletized wastepaper fuels in small steam generating facilities. The emissions monitoring program was designed to provide a complete air emissions profile while burning various refuse derived fuels. The specific goal of this test program was to conduct air emissions tests at Dordt College located in Sioux Center, Iowa and to identify a relationship between fuel types and emission characteristics. The sampling protocol was carried out June 12 through June 20, 1989 on boiler {number sign}4. This unit had been previously modified to burn d-RDF. The boiler was not equipped with any type of air pollution control device so the emissions samples were collected from the boiler exhaust stack on the roof of the boilerhouse. The emissions that were sampled included: particulates; PM{sub 10} particulates; hydrochloric acid; dioxins; furans; polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB); metals and continuous monitors for CO, CO{sub 2}O{sub 2}SO{sub x}NO{sub x} and total hydrocarbons. Grab samples of the fuels were collected, composited and analyzed for heating value, moisture content, proximate and ultimate analysis, ash fusion temperature, bulk density and elemental ash analysis. Grab samples of the boiler ash were also collected and analyzed for total hydrocarbons total dioxins, total furans, total PCBs and heavy metals. 77 figs., 20 tabs.

  18. Measurement of laminar burning speeds and Markstein lengths using a novel methodology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tahtouh, Toni; Halter, Fabien; Mounaim-Rousselle, Christine [Institut PRISME, Universite d'Orleans, 8 rue Leonard de Vinci-45072, Orleans Cedex 2 (France)

    2009-09-15

    Three different methodologies used for the extraction of laminar information are compared and discussed. Starting from an asymptotic analysis assuming a linear relation between the propagation speed and the stretch acting on the flame front, temporal radius evolutions of spherically expanding laminar flames are postprocessed to obtain laminar burning velocities and Markstein lengths. The first methodology fits the temporal radius evolution with a polynomial function, while the new methodology proposed uses the exact solution of the linear relation linking the flame speed and the stretch as a fit. The last methodology consists in an analytical resolution of the problem. To test the different methodologies, experiments were carried out in a stainless steel combustion chamber with methane/air mixtures at atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature. The equivalence ratio was varied from 0.55 to 1.3. The classical shadowgraph technique was used to detect the reaction zone. The new methodology has proven to be the most robust and provides the most accurate results, while the polynomial methodology induces some errors due to the differentiation process. As original radii are used in the analytical methodology, it is more affected by the experimental radius determination. Finally, laminar burning velocity and Markstein length values determined with the new methodology are compared with results reported in the literature. (author)

  19. Performance Comparison of Metallic, Actinide Burning Fuel in Lead-Bismuth and Sodium Cooled Fast Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weaver, Kevan Dean; Herring, James Stephen; Mac Donald, Philip Elsworth

    2001-04-01

    Various methods have been proposed to incinerate or transmutate the current inventory of trans-uranic waste (TRU) that exits in spent light-water-reactor (LWR) fuel, and weapons plutonium. These methods include both critical (e.g., fast reactors) and non-critical (e.g., accelerator transmutation) systems. The work discussed here is part of a larger effort at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) to investigate the suitability of lead and lead-alloy cooled fast reactors for producing low-cost electricity as well as for actinide burning. The neutronics of non-fertile fuel loaded with 20 or 30-wt% light water reactor (LWR) plutonium plus minor actinides for use in a lead-bismuth cooled fast reactor are discussed in this paper, with an emphasis on the fuel cycle life and isotopic content. Calculations show that the average actinide burn rate is similar for both the sodium and lead-bismuth cooled cases ranging from -1.02 to -1.16 g/MWd, compared to a typical LWR actinide generation rate of 0.303 g/MWd. However, when using the same parameters, the sodium-cooled case went subcritical after 0.2 to 0.8 effective full power years, and the lead-bismuth cooled case ranged from 1.5 to 4.5 effective full power years.

  20. SELECTIVE NOx RECIRCULATION FOR STATIONARY LEAN-BURN NATURAL GAS ENGINES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nigel Clark; Gregory Thompson; Richard Atkinson; Chamila Tissera; Matt Swartz; Emre Tatli; Ramprabhu Vellaisamy

    2005-01-01

    The research program conducted at the West Virginia University Engine and Emissions Research Laboratory (EERL) is working towards the verification and optimization of an approach to remove nitric oxides from the exhaust gas of lean burn natural gas engines. This project was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) under contract number: DE-FC26-02NT41608. Selective NOx Recirculation (SNR) involves three main steps. First, NOx is adsorbed from the exhaust stream, followed by periodic desorption from the aftertreatment medium. Finally the desorbed NOx is passed back into the intake air stream and fed into the engine, where a percentage of the NOx is decomposed. This reporting period focuses on the NOx decomposition capability in the combustion process. Although researchers have demonstrated NOx reduction with SNR in other contexts, the proposed program is needed to further understand the process as it applies to lean burn natural gas engines. SNR is in support of the Department of Energy goal of enabling future use of environmentally acceptable reciprocating natural gas engines through NOx reduction under 0.1 g/bhp-hr. The study of decomposition of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) during combustion in the cylinder was conducted on a 1993 Cummins L10G 240 hp lean burn natural gas engine. The engine was operated at different air/fuel ratios, and at a speed of 800 rpm to mimic a larger bore engine. A full scale dilution tunnel and analyzers capable of measuring NOx, CO{sub 2}, CO, HC concentrations were used to characterize the exhaust gas. Commercially available nitric oxide (NO) was used to mimic the NOx stream from the desorption process through a mass flow controller and an injection nozzle. The same quantity of NOx was injected into the intake and exhaust line of the engine for 20 seconds at various steady state engine operating points. NOx decomposition rates were obtained by averaging the peak values at each set point minus the baseline and finding the ratio between the injected NO amounts. It was observed that the air/fuel ratio, injected NO quantity and engine operating points affected the NOx decomposition rates of the natural gas engine. A highest NOx decomposition rate of 27% was measured from this engine. A separate exploratory tests conducted with a gasoline engine with a low air/fuel ratio yielded results that suggested, that high NOx decomposition rates may be possible if a normally lean burn engine were operated at conditions closer to stoichiometric, with high exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) for a brief period of time during the NOx decomposition phase and with a wider range of air/fuel ratios. Chemical kinetic model predictions using CHEMKIN were performed to relate the experimental data with the established rate and equilibrium models. NOx decomposition rates from 35% to 42% were estimated using the CHEMKIN software. This provided insight on how to maximize NOx decomposition rates for a large bore engine. In the future, the modeling will be used to examine the effect of higher NO{sub 2}/NO ratios that are associated with lower speed and larger bore lean burn operation.

  1. Epoxy-borax-coal tar composition for a radiation protective, burn resistant drum liner and centrifugal casting method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taylor, Robert S. (Livermore, CA); Boyer, Norman W. (Livermore, CA)

    1980-01-01

    A boron containing burn resistant, low level radiation protection material useful, for example, as a liner for radioactive waste disposal and storage, a component for neutron absorber, and a shield for a neutron source. The material is basically composed of Borax in the range of 25-50%, coal tar in the range of 25-37.5%, with the remainder being an epoxy resin mix. A preferred composition is 50% Borax, 25% coal tar and 25% epoxy resin. The material is not susceptible to burning and is about 1/5 the cost of existing radiation protection material utilized in similar applications.

  2. Deep Burn Fuel Cycle Integration: Evaluation of Two-Tier Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bays; H. Zhang; M. Pope

    2009-05-01

    The use of a deep burn strategy using VHTRs (or DB-MHR), as a means of burning transuranics produced by LWRs, was compared to performing this task with LWR MOX. The spent DB-MHR fuel was recycled for ultimate final recycle in fast reactors (ARRs). This report summarizes the preliminary findings of the support ratio (in terms of MWth installed) between LWRs, DB-MHRs and ARRs in an equilibrium two-tier fuel cycle scenario. Values from literature were used to represent the LWR and DB-MHR isotopic compositions. A reactor physics simulation of the ARR was analyzed to determine the effect that the DB-MHR spent fuel cooling time on the ARR transuranic consumption rate. These results suggest that the cooling time has some but not a significant impact on the ARRs conversion ratio and transuranic consumption rate. This is attributed to fissile worth being derived from non-fissile or threshold-fissioning isotopes in the ARRs fast spectrum. The fraction of installed thermal capacity of each reactor in the DB-MHR 2-tier fuel cycle was compared with that of an equivalent MOX 2-tier fuel cycle, assuming fuel supply and demand are in equilibrium. The use of DB-MHRs in the 1st-tier allows for a 10% increase in the fraction of fleet installed capacity of UO2-fueled LWRs compared to using a MOX 1st-tier. Also, it was found that because the DB-MHR derives more power per unit mass of transuranics charged to the fresh fuel, the front-end reprocessing demand is less than MOX. Therefore, more fleet installed capacity of DB-MHR would be required to support a given fleet of UO2 LWRs than would be required of MOX plants. However, the transuranic deep burn achieved by DB-MHRs reduces the number of fast reactors in the 2nd-tier to support the DB-MHRs back-end transuranic output than if MOX plants were used. Further analysis of the relative costs of these various types of reactors is required before a comparative study of these options could be considered complete.

  3. Automatic coke oven heating control system at Burns Harbor for normal and repair operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Battle, E.T.; Chen, K.L.

    1997-12-31

    An automatic heating control system for coke oven batteries was developed in 1985 for the Burns Harbor No. 1 battery and reported in the 1989 Ironmaking Conference Proceedings. The original system was designed to maintain a target coke temperature at a given production level under normal operating conditions. Since 1989, enhancements have been made to this control system so that it can also control the battery heating when the battery is under repair. The new control system has improved heating control capability because it adjusts the heat input to the battery in response to anticipated changes in the production schedule. During a recent repair of this 82 oven battery, the pushing schedule changed from 102 ovens/day to 88 ovens/day, then back to 102 ovens/day, then to 107 ovens/day. During this repair, the control system was able to maintain the coke temperature average standard deviation at 44 F, with a maximum 75 F.

  4. Impact of biomass burning aerosol on the monsoon circulation transition over Amazonia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Y.; Fu, Rong; Yu, Hongbin; Qian, Yun; Dickinson, Robert; Silva Dias, Maria Assuncao F.; da Silva Dias, Pedro L.; Fernandes, Katia

    2009-05-30

    Ensemble simulations of a regional climate model (RegCM3) forced by aerosol radiative forcing suggest that biomass burning aerosols can work against the seasonal monsoon circulation transition, thus re-enforce the dry season rainfall pattern for Southern Amazonia. Strongly absorbing smoke aerosols warm and stabilize the lower troposphere within the smoke center in southern Amazonia (where aerosol optical depth > 0.3). These changes increase the surface pressure in the smoke center, weaken the southward surface pressure gradient between northern and southern Amazonia, and consequently induce an anomalous moisture divergence in the smoke center and an anomalous convergence occurs in northwestern Amazonia (5S-5N, 60W-40 70W). The increased atmospheric thermodynamic stability, surface pressure, and divergent flow in Southern Amazonia may inhibit synoptic cyclonic activities propagated from extratropical South America, and re-enforce winter-like synoptic cyclonic activities and rainfall in southeastern Brazil, Paraguay and northeastern Argentina.

  5. Hole Burning Imaging Studies of Cancerous and Analogous Normal Ovarian Tissues Utilizing Organelle Specific Dyes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Satoshi Matsuzaki

    2004-12-19

    Presented in this dissertation is the successful demonstration that nonphotochemical hole burning (NPWB) imaging can be used to study in vitro tissue cellular systems for discerning differences in cellular ultrastructures due to cancer development. This has been accomplished with the surgically removed cancerous ovarian and analogous normal peritoneal tissues from the same patient and the application of a fluorescent mitochondrion specific dye, Molecular Probe MitoFluor Far Red 680 (MF680), commonly known as rhodamine 800, that has been proven to exhibit efficient NPHB. From the results presented in Chapters 4 and 5 , and Appendix B, the following conclusions were made: (1) fluorescence excitation spectra of MF680 and confocal microscopy images of thin sliced tissues incubated with MF680 confirm the site-specificity of the probe molecules in the cellular systems. (2) Tunneling parameters, {lambda}{sub 0} and {sigma}{sub {lambda}}, as well as the standard hole burning parameters (namely, {gamma} and S), have been determined for the tissue samples by hole growth kinetics (HGK) analyses. Unlike the preliminary cultured cell studies, these parameters have not shown the ability to distinguish tissue cellular matrices surrounding the chromophores. (3) Effects of an external electric (Stark) field on the nonphotochemical holes have been used to determine the changes in permanent dipole moment (f{Delta}{mu}) for MF680 in tissue samples when burn laser polarization is parallel to the Stark field. Differences are detected between f{Delta}{mu}s in the two tissue samples, with the cancerous tissue exhibiting a more pronounced change (1.35-fold increase) in permanent dipole moment change relative to the normal analogs. It is speculated that the difference may be related to differences in mitochondrial membrane potentials in these tissue samples. (4) In the HGK mode, hole burning imaging (HBI) of cells adhered to coverslips and cooled to liquid helium temperatures in the complete absence of cryopreservatives, shows the ability to distinguish between carcinoma and analogous normal cells on the single-cell level. In future applications, this system has the potential to be used with smears of tissue samples for single-layer HBI analysis. These conclusions demonstrate that HBI has the potential of providing detailed information about localized intracellular environments and for detecting changes in the physical characteristics (e.g., electrical properties) of cells which constitute the in vitro tissue samples. For the latter, the long-term goal will be to develop NPHB into a diagnostic technique for the early detection of cancer by exploiting the physical differences between normal and cancerous cells and tissues. Moreover, because of the aforementioned HBI's capability to detect cellular anomalies, it has the potential of being used in conjunction with studies involving photodynamic therapy, assuming the chromophore is carefully selected.

  6. Vortex combustor for low NOx emissions when burning lean premixed high hydrogen content fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steele, Robert C. (Woodinville, WA); Edmonds, Ryan G. (Renton, WA); Williams, Joseph T. (Kirkland, WA); Baldwin, Stephen P. (Winchester, MA)

    2009-10-20

    A trapped vortex combustor. The trapped vortex combustor is configured for receiving a lean premixed gaseous fuel and oxidant stream, where the fuel includes hydrogen gas. The trapped vortex combustor is configured to receive the lean premixed fuel and oxidant stream at a velocity which significantly exceeds combustion flame speed in a selected lean premixed fuel and oxidant mixture. The combustor is configured to operate at relatively high bulk fluid velocities while maintaining stable combustion, and low NOx emissions. The combustor is useful in gas turbines in a process of burning synfuels, as it offers the opportunity to avoid use of diluent gas to reduce combustion temperatures. The combustor also offers the possibility of avoiding the use of selected catalytic reaction units for removal of oxides of nitrogen from combustion gases exiting a gas turbine.

  7. Vortex combustor for low NOX emissions when burning lean premixed high hydrogen content fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steele, Robert C; Edmonds, Ryan G; Williams, Joseph T; Baldwin, Stephen P

    2012-11-20

    A trapped vortex combustor. The trapped vortex combustor is configured for receiving a lean premixed gaseous fuel and oxidant stream, where the fuel includes hydrogen gas. The trapped vortex combustor is configured to receive the lean premixed fuel and oxidant stream at a velocity which significantly exceeds combustion flame speed in a selected lean premixed fuel and oxidant mixture. The combustor is configured to operate at relatively high bulk fluid velocities while maintaining stable combustion, and low NOx emissions. The combustor is useful in gas turbines in a process of burning synfuels, as it offers the opportunity to avoid use of diluent gas to reduce combustion temperatures. The combustor also offers the possibility of avoiding the use of selected catalytic reaction units for removal of oxides of nitrogen from combustion gases exiting a gas turbine.

  8. SystemBurn: Principles of Design and Operation, Release 2.0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuehn, Jeffery A; Poole, Stephen W; Hodson, Stephen W; Lothian, Josh; Dobson, Jonathan D; Reister, David B; Lewkow, Nicholas R; Glandon, Steven R; Peek, Jacob T

    2012-01-01

    As high performance computing technology progresses toward the progressively more extreme scales required to address critical computational problems of both national and global interest, power and cooling for these extreme scale systems is becoming a growing concern. A standardized methodology for testing system requirements under maximal system load and validating system environmental capability to meet those requirements is critical to maintaining system stability and minimizing power and cooling risks for high end data centers. Moreover, accurate testing permits the high end data center to avoid issues of under- or over-provisioning power and cooling capacity saving resources and mitigating hazards. Previous approaches to such testing have employed an ad hoc collection of tools, which have been anecdotally perceived to produce a heavy system load. In this report, we present SystemBurn, a software tool engineered to allow a system user to methodically create a maximal system load on large scale systems for the purposes of testing and validation.

  9. SystemBurn: Principles of Design and Operation Release 3.0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dobson, Jonathan D; Kuehn, Jeffery A; Poole, Stephen W; Hodson, Stephen W; Glandon, Steven R; Reister, David B; Lewkow, Nicholas R; Peek, Jacob T

    2012-09-01

    As high performance computing technology progresses toward the progressively more extreme scales required to address critical computational problems of both national and global interest, power and cooling for these extreme scale systems is becoming a growing concern. A standardized methodology for testing system requirements under maximal system load and validating system environmental capability to meet those requirements is critical to maintaining system stability and minimizing power and cooling risks for high end data centers. Moreover, accurate testing permits the high end data center to avoid issues of under- or over-provisioning power and cooling capacity saving resources and mitigating hazards. Previous approaches to such testing have employed an ad hoc collection of tools, which have been anecdotally perceived to produce a heavy system load. In this report, we present SystemBurn, a software tool engineered to allow a system user to methodically create a maximal system load on large scale systems for the purposes of testing and validation.

  10. Nonphotochemical Hole-Burning Studies of Energy Transfer Dynamics in Antenna Complexes of Photosynthetic Bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Satoshi Matsuzaki

    2002-06-27

    This thesis contains the candidate's original work on excitonic structure and energy transfer dynamics of two bacterial antenna complexes as studied using spectral hole-burning spectroscopy. The general introduction is divided into two chapters (1 and 2). Chapter 1 provides background material on photosynthesis and bacterial antenna complexes with emphasis on the two bacterial antenna systems related to the thesis research. Chapter 2 reviews the underlying principles and mechanism of persistent nonphotochemical hole-burning (NPHB) spectroscopy. Relevant energy transfer theories are also discussed. Chapters 3 and 4 are papers by the candidate that have been published. Chapter 3 describes the application of NPHB spectroscopy to the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) complex from the green sulfur bacterium Prosthecochloris aestuarii; emphasis is on determination of the low energy vibrational structure that is important for understanding the energy transfer process associated within three lowest energy Q{sub y}-states of the complex. The results are compared with those obtained earlier on the FMO complex from Chlorobium tepidum. In Chapter 4, the energy transfer dynamics of the B800 molecules of intact LH2 and B800-deficient LH2 complexes of the purple bacterium Rhodopseudomonas acidophila are compared. New insights on the additional decay channel of the B800 ring of bacteriochlorophyll{sub a} (BChl{sub a}) molecules are provided. General conclusions are given in Chapter 5. A version of the hole spectrum simulation program written by the candidate for the FMO complex study (Chapter 3) is included as an appendix. The references for each chapter are given at the end of each chapter.

  11. Performance of the Lead-Alloy Cooled Concept Balanced for Actinide Burning and Electricity Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pavel Hejzlar; Cliff Davis

    2004-09-01

    A lead-bismuth-cooled fast reactor concept targeted for a balanced mission of actinide burning and low-cost electricity production is proposed and its performance analyzed. The design explores the potential benefits of thorium-based fuel in actinide-burning cores, in particular in terms of the reduction of the large reactivity swing and enhancement of the small Doppler coefficient typical of fertile-free actinide burners. Reduced electricity production cost is pursued through a longer cycle length than that used for fertile-free burners and thus a higher capacity factor. It is shown that the concept can achieve a high transuranics destruction rate, which is only 20% lower than that of an accelerator-driven system with fertile-free fuel. The small negative fuel temperature reactivity coefficient, small positive coolant temperature reactivity coefficient, and negative core radial expansion coefficient provide self-regulating characteristics so that the reactor is capable of inherent shutdown during major transients without scram, as in the Integral Fast Reactor. This is confirmed by thermal-hydraulic analysis of several transients without scram, including primary coolant pump trip, station blackout, and reactivity step insertion, which showed that the reactor was able to meet all identified thermal limits. However, the benefits of high actinide consumption and small reactivity swing can be attained only if the uranium from the discharged fuel is separated and not recycled. This additional uranium separation step and thorium reprocessing significantly increase the fuel cycle costs. Because the higher fuel cycle cost has a larger impact on the overall cost of electricity than the savings from the higher capacity factor afforded through use of thorium, this concept appears less promising than the fertile-free actinide burners.

  12. Performance of the Lead-Alloy-Cooled Reactor Concept Balanced for Actinide Burning and Electricity Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hejzlar, Pavel [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States); Davis, Cliff B. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (United States)

    2004-09-15

    A lead-bismuth-cooled fast reactor concept targeted for a balanced mission of actinide burning and low-cost electricity production is proposed and its performance analyzed. The design explores the potential benefits of thorium-based fuel in actinide-burning cores, in particular in terms of the reduction of the large reactivity swing and enhancement of the small Doppler coefficient typical of fertile-free actinide burners. Reduced electricity production cost is pursued through a longer cycle length than that used for fertile-free burners and thus a higher capacity factor. It is shown that the concept can achieve a high transuranics destruction rate, which is only 20% lower than that of an accelerator-driven system with fertile-free fuel. The small negative fuel temperature reactivity coefficient, small positive coolant temperature reactivity coefficient, and negative core radial expansion coefficient provide self-regulating characteristics so that the reactor is capable of inherent shutdown during major transients without scram, as in the Integral Fast Reactor. This is confirmed by thermal-hydraulic analysis of several transients without scram, including primary coolant pump trip, station blackout, and reactivity step insertion, which showed that the reactor was able to meet all identified thermal limits. However, the benefits of high actinide consumption and small reactivity swing can be attained only if the uranium from the discharged fuel is separated and not recycled. This additional uranium separation step and thorium reprocessing significantly increase the fuel cycle costs. Because the higher fuel cycle cost has a larger impact on the overall cost of electricity than the savings from the higher capacity factor afforded through use of thorium, this concept appears less promising than the fertile-free actinide burners.

  13. Transmutation Analysis of Enriched Uranium and Deep Burn High Temperature Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael A. Pope

    2012-07-01

    High temperature reactors (HTRs) have been under consideration for production of electricity, process heat, and for destruction of transuranics for decades. As part of the transmutation analysis efforts within the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR&D) campaign, a need was identified for detailed discharge isotopics from HTRs for use in the VISION code. A conventional HTR using enriched uranium in UCO fuel was modeled having discharge burnup of 120 GWd/MTiHM. Also, a deep burn HTR (DB-HTR) was modeled burning transuranic (TRU)-only TRU-O2 fuel to a discharge burnup of 648 GWd/MTiHM. For each of these cases, unit cell depletion calculations were performed with SCALE/TRITON. Unit cells were used to perform this analysis using SCALE 6.1. Because of the long mean free paths (and migration lengths) of neutrons in HTRs, using a unit cell to represent a whole core can be non-trivial. The sizes of these cells were first set by using Serpent calculations to match a spectral index between unit cell and whole core domains. In the case of the DB-HTR, the unit cell which was arrived at in this way conserved the ratio of fuel to moderator found in a single block of fuel. In the conventional HTR case, a larger moderator-to-fuel ratio than that of a single block was needed to simulate the whole core spectrum. Discharge isotopics (for 500 nuclides) and one-group cross-sections (for 1022 nuclides) were delivered to the transmutation analysis team. This report provides documentation for these calculations. In addition to the discharge isotopics, one-group cross-sections were provided for the full list of 1022 nuclides tracked in the transmutation library.

  14. Vehicle Technologies Office 2013 Merit Review: A University Consortium on Efficient and Clean High-Pressure, Lean Burn (HPLB) Engines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A presentation given by the University of Michigan at the 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about a university consortium to research efficient and clean high-pressure lean burn engines.

  15. Titanium subhydride potassium perchlorate (TiH1.65/KClO4) burn rates from hybrid closed bomb-strand burner experiments.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, Marcia A.; Oliver, Michael S.

    2012-08-01

    A hybrid closed bomb-strand burner is used to measure the burning behavior of the titanium subhydride potassium perchlorate pyrotechnic with an equivalent hydrogen concentration of 1.65. This experimental facility allows for simultaneous measurement of the closed bomb pressure rise and pyrotechnic burn rate as detected by electrical break wires over a range of pressures. Strands were formed by pressing the pyrotechnic powders to bulk densities between 60% and 90% theoretical maximum density. The burn rate dependance on initial density and vessel pressure are measured. At all initial strand densities, the burn is observed to transition from conductive to convective burning within the strand. The measured vessel pressure history is further analyzed following the closed bomb analysis methods developed for solid propellants.

  16. Analysis of mass loss of a coal particle during the course of burning in a flow of inert material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pelka, Piotr

    2009-08-15

    This paper is an attempt to explain the role of erosion during the process of coal combustion in a circulating fluidized bed. Different kinds of carbon deposits found in Poland, both bituminous as well as lignite with the particle of 10 mm in diameter were the subject of the research. According to many publications it is well known that erosion plays a significant role in coal combustion, by changing its mechanism as well as generating an additional mass loss of the mother particle. The purpose of this research was to determine the influence of an inert material on an erosive mass loss of a single coal particle burning in a two-phase flow. The determination of the influence of a coal type, the rate of flow of inert material and the temperature inside the furnace on the erosive mass loss of burning coal particle was also taken into consideration. The results obtained indicate that the velocity of the erosive mass loss depends on the chemical composition and petrographic structure of burning coal. The mechanical interaction of inert and burning coal particles leads to the shortening of the period of overall mass loss of the coal particle by even two times. The increase in the rate of flow of the inert material intensifies the generation of mass loss by up to 100%. The drop in temperature which slows down the combustion process, decreases the mass loss of the coal particle as the result of mechanical interaction of the inert material. As was observed, the process of percolation plays a significant role by weakening the surface of the burning coal. (author)

  17. Transport of anthropogenic and biomass burning aerosols from Europe to the Arctic during spring 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marelle, L.; Raut, Jean-Christophe; Thomas, J. L.; Law, K. S.; Quennehen, Boris; Ancellet, G.; Pelon, J.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Fast, Jerome D.

    2015-04-10

    During the POLARCAT-France airborne campaign in April 2008, pollution originating from anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions was measured in the European Arctic. We compare these aircraft measurements with simulations using the WRF-Chem model to investigate model representation of aerosols transported from Europe to the Arctic. Modeled PM2.5 is evaluated using European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) measurements in source regions and POLARCAT aircraft measurements in the Scandinavian Arctic. Total PM2.5 agrees well with the measurements, although the model overestimates nitrate and underestimates organic carbon in source regions. Using WRF-Chem in combination with the Lagrangian model FLEXPART-WRF, we find that during the campaign the research aircraft sampled two different types of European plumes: mixed anthropogenic and fire plumes from eastern Europe and Russia transported below 2 km, and anthropogenic plumes from central Europe uplifted by warm conveyor belt circulations to 56 km. Both modeled plume types had undergone significant wet scavenging (> 50% PM10) during transport. Modeled aerosol vertical distributions and optical properties below the aircraft are evaluated in the Arctic using airborne lidar measurements. Model results show that the pollution event transported aerosols into the Arctic (> 66.6 N) for a 4-day period. During this 4-day period, biomass burning emissions have the strongest influence on concentrations between 2.5 and 3 km altitudes, while European anthropogenic emissions influence aerosols at both lower (~ 1.5 km) and higher altitudes (~ 4.5 km). As a proportion of PM2.5, modeled black carbon and SO4= concentrations are more enhanced near the surface in anthropogenic plumes. The European plumes sampled during the POLARCAT-France campaign were transported over the region of springtime snow cover in northern Scandinavia, where they had a significant local atmospheric warming effect. We find that, during this transport event, the average modeled top-of-atmosphere (TOA) shortwave direct and semi-direct radiative effect (DSRE) north of 60 N over snow and ice-covered surfaces reaches +0.58 W m?2, peaking at +3.3 W m?2 at noon over Scandinavia and Finland.

  18. OXIDATION OF MERCURY ACROSS SCR CATALYSTS IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS BURNING LOW RANK FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Constance Senior

    2004-12-31

    The objectives of this program were to measure the oxidation of mercury in flue gas across SCR catalyst in a coal-fired power plant burning low rank fuels using a slipstream reactor containing multiple commercial catalysts in parallel and to develop a greater understanding of mercury oxidation across SCR catalysts in the form of a simple model. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Argillon GmbH provided co-funding for this program. REI used a multicatalyst slipstream reactor to determine oxidation of mercury across five commercial SCR catalysts at a power plant that burned a blend of 87% subbituminous coal and 13% bituminous coal. The chlorine content of the blend was 100 to 240 {micro}g/g on a dry basis. Mercury measurements were carried out when the catalysts were relatively new, corresponding to about 300 hours of operation and again after 2,200 hours of operation. NO{sub x}, O{sub 2} and gaseous mercury speciation at the inlet and at the outlet of each catalyst chamber were measured. In general, the catalysts all appeared capable of achieving about 90% NO{sub x} reduction at a space velocity of 3,000 hr{sup -1} when new, which is typical of full-scale installations; after 2,200 hours exposure to flue gas, some of the catalysts appeared to lose NO{sub x} activity. For the fresh commercial catalysts, oxidation of mercury was in the range of 25% to 65% at typical full-scale space velocities. A blank monolith showed no oxidation of mercury under any conditions. All catalysts showed higher mercury oxidation without ammonia, consistent with full-scale measurements. After exposure to flue gas for 2,200 hours, some of the catalysts showed reduced levels of mercury oxidation relative to the initial levels of oxidation. A model of Hg oxidation across SCRs was formulated based on full-scale data. The model took into account the effects of temperature, space velocity, catalyst type and HCl concentration in the flue gas.

  19. Transport of anthropogenic and biomass burning aerosols from Europe to the Arctic during spring 2008

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Marelle, L.; Raut, Jean-Christophe; Thomas, J. L.; Law, K. S.; Quennehen, Boris; Ancellet, G.; Pelon, J.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Fast, Jerome D.

    2015-04-10

    During the POLARCAT-France airborne campaign in April 2008, pollution originating from anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions was measured in the European Arctic. We compare these aircraft measurements with simulations using the WRF-Chem model to investigate model representation of aerosols transported from Europe to the Arctic. Modeled PM2.5 is evaluated using European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) measurements in source regions and POLARCAT aircraft measurements in the Scandinavian Arctic. Total PM2.5 agrees well with the measurements, although the model overestimates nitrate and underestimates organic carbon in source regions. Using WRF-Chem in combination with the Lagrangian model FLEXPART-WRF, we find that duringmore » the campaign the research aircraft sampled two different types of European plumes: mixed anthropogenic and fire plumes from eastern Europe and Russia transported below 2 km, and anthropogenic plumes from central Europe uplifted by warm conveyor belt circulations to 5–6 km. Both modeled plume types had undergone significant wet scavenging (> 50% PM10) during transport. Modeled aerosol vertical distributions and optical properties below the aircraft are evaluated in the Arctic using airborne lidar measurements. Model results show that the pollution event transported aerosols into the Arctic (> 66.6° N) for a 4-day period. During this 4-day period, biomass burning emissions have the strongest influence on concentrations between 2.5 and 3 km altitudes, while European anthropogenic emissions influence aerosols at both lower (~ 1.5 km) and higher altitudes (~ 4.5 km). As a proportion of PM2.5, modeled black carbon and SO4= concentrations are more enhanced near the surface in anthropogenic plumes. The European plumes sampled during the POLARCAT-France campaign were transported over the region of springtime snow cover in northern Scandinavia, where they had a significant local atmospheric warming effect. We find that, during this transport event, the average modeled top-of-atmosphere (TOA) shortwave direct and semi-direct radiative effect (DSRE) north of 60° N over snow and ice-covered surfaces reaches +0.58 W m−2, peaking at +3.3 W m−2 at noon over Scandinavia and Finland.« less

  20. Performance assessment for the geological disposal of Deep Burn spent fuel using TTBX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van den Akker, B.P.; Ahn, J. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The behavior of Deep Burn Modular High Temperature Reactor Spent Fuel (DBSF) is investigated in the Yucca Mountain geological repository (YMR) with respect to the annual dose (Sv/yr) delivered to the Reasonably Maximally Exposed Individual (RMEI) from the transport of radionuclides released from the graphite waste matrix. Transport calculations are performed with a novel computer code, TTBX which is capable of modeling transport pathways that pass through heterogeneous geological formations. TTBX is a multi-region extension of the existing single region TTB transport code. Overall the peak annual dose received by the RMEI is seen to be four orders of magnitude lower than the regulatory threshold for exposure, even under pessimistic scenarios. A number of factors contribute to the favorable performance of DBSF. A reduction of one order of magnitude in the peak annual dose received by the RMEI is observed for every order of magnitude increase in the waste matrix lifetime, highlighting the importance of the waste matrix durability and suggesting graphite's utility as a potential waste matrix for the disposal of high-level waste. Furthermore, we see that by incorporating a higher fidelity far-field model the peak annual dose calculated to be received by the RMEI is reduced by two orders of magnitude. By accounting for the heterogeneities of the far field we have simultaneously removed unnecessary conservatisms and improved the fidelity of the transport model. (authors)

  1. Energetic Particle Physics In Fusion Research In Preparation For Burning Plasma Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorelenkov, Nikolai N

    2013-06-01

    The area of energetic particle (EP) physics of fusion research has been actively and extensively researched in recent decades. The progress achieved in advancing and understanding EP physics has been substantial since the last comprehensive review on this topic by W.W. Heidbrink and G.J. Sadler [1]. That review coincided with the start of deuterium-tritium (DT) experiments on Tokamak Fusion Test reactor (TFTR) and full scale fusion alphas physics studies. Fusion research in recent years has been influenced by EP physics in many ways including the limitations imposed by the "sea" of Alfven eigenmodes (AE) in particular by the toroidicityinduced AEs (TAE) modes and reversed shear Alfven (RSAE). In present paper we attempt a broad review of EP physics progress in tokamaks and spherical tori since the first DT experiments on TFTR and JET (Joint European Torus) including helical/stellarator devices. Introductory discussions on basic ingredients of EP physics, i.e. particle orbits in STs, fundamental diagnostic techniques of EPs and instabilities, wave particle resonances and others are given to help understanding the advanced topics of EP physics. At the end we cover important and interesting physics issues toward the burning plasma experiments such as ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor).

  2. Meteorological measurements in the vicinity of a coal burning power plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crescenti, G.H.; Gaynor, J.E.

    1995-05-01

    High concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2) are commonly observed during the cool season in the vicinity of a 2.5 GW coal burning power plant located in the Mae Moh Valley of northern Thailand. The power plant is the source for nearly all of the observed SO2 since there are no other major industrial activities in this region. These high pollution fumigation events occur almost on a daily basis, usually lasting for several hours between late morning and early afternoon. One-hour average SO2 concentrations commonly exceed 1,000 micrograms/cu m. As a result, an increase in the number of respiratory type health complaints have been observed by local clinics during this time of the year. Meteorological data were acquired from a variety of observing platforms during an intensive field study from December 1993 to February 1994. The measurements included horizontal and vertical wind velocity, air temperature, relative humidity, and solar radiation. In addition, turbulent flux measurements were acquired by a sonic anemometer. SO2 measurements were made at seven monitoring sites scattered throughout the valley. These data were used to examine the atmospheric processes which are responsible for these high pollution fumigation events.

  3. TEM Characterization of High Burn-up Microstructure of U-7Mo Alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jian Gan; Brandon Miller; Dennis Keiser; Adam Robinson; James Madden; Pavel Medvedev; Daniel Wachs

    2014-04-01

    As an essential part of global nuclear non-proliferation effort, the RERTR program is developing low enriched U-Mo fuels (< 20% U-235) for use in research and test reactors that currently employ highly enriched uranium fuels. One type of fuel being developed is a dispersion fuel plate comprised of U-7Mo particles dispersed in Al alloy matrix. Recent TEM characterizations of the ATR irradiated U-7Mo dispersion fuel plates include the samples with a local fission densities of 4.5, 5.2, 5.6 and 6.3 E+21 fissions/cm3 and irradiation temperatures of 101-136?C. The development of the irradiated microstructure of the U-7Mo fuel particles consists of fission gas bubble superlattice, large gas bubbles, solid fission product precipitates and their association to the large gas bubbles, grain subdivision to tens or hundreds of nanometer size, collapse of bubble superlattice, and amorphisation. This presentation will describe the observed microstructures specifically focusing on the U-7Mo fuel particles. The impact of the observed microstructure on the fuel performance and the comparison of the relevant features with that of the high burn-up UO2 fuels will be discussed.

  4. Fast-regenerable sulfur dioxide absorbents for lean-burn diesel engine emission control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Liyu; King, David L.

    2010-01-23

    It is known that sulfur oxides contribute significantly and deleteriously to the overall performance of lean-burn diesel engine aftertreatment systems, especially in the case of NOx traps. A Ag-based, fast regenerable SO2 absorbent has been developed and will be described. Over a temperature range of 300oC to 550oC, it absorbs almost all of the SO2 in the simulated exhaust gases during the lean cycles and can be fully regenerated by the short rich cycles at the same temperature. Its composition has been optimized as 1 wt% Pt-5wt%Ag-SiO2, and the preferred silica source for the supporting material has been identified as inert Cabosil fumed silica. The thermal instability of Ag2O under fuel-lean conditions at 230oC and above makes it possible to fast regenerate the sulfur-loaded absorbent during the following fuel-rich cycles. Pt catalyst helps reducing Ag2SO4 during rich cycles at low temperatures. And the chemically inert fumed SiO2 support gives the absorbent long term stability. This absorbent shows great potential to work under the same lean-rich cycling conditions as those imposed on the NOx traps, and thus, can protect the downstream particulate filter and the NOx trap from sulfur poisoning.

  5. Diffusion-flame burning of fuel-vapor pockets in air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fendell, F.E.; Bush, W.B.; Mitchell, J.A.; Fink, S.F. IV . Center for Propulsion Technology and Fluid Mechanics)

    1994-08-01

    The authors examine analytically, with numerical assistance, the unsteady, diffusively limited burnup of initially unmixed fuel vapor and gaseous oxidizer. They study three simple spherical geometries: (1) an initially uniform sphere of fuel vapor immersed in an unbounded expanse of oxidizer; (2) a variant on case 1 in which only a finite concentric annulus of enveloping oxidizer is available for the burning of the initially uniform sphere of fuel vapor; and (3) an impervious sphere, consisting initially of one uniform hemisphere of fuel vapor and one uniform hemisphere of oxidizer. Of particular interest is the time interval for the exhaustion of the lean reactant, as a function of the fuel-to-oxidizer stoichiometry and the sphere radius. The motivation for these studies is to ascertain the fate of inhomogeneous blobs that arise as a consequence of imperfect fuel/air mixing, e.g., in the context of a supersonic combustor. In such a context, an inhomogeneous blob of gaseous mixture, idealized to have the geometry of a sphere, is examined as a Lagrangian element, as it is convected downstream, without slip, by the surrounding gaseous flow. The longest time for diffusional burnup, for the spherically enclosed geometries, arises for the case in which the fuel vapor and oxidizer are present in stoichiometric proportion.

  6. JV Task 126 - Mercury Control Technologies for Electric Utilities Burning Bituminous Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jason Laumb; John Kay; Michael Jones; Brandon Pavlish; Nicholas Lentz; Donald McCollor; Kevin Galbreath

    2009-03-29

    The EERC developed an applied research consortium project to test cost-effective mercury (Hg) control technologies for utilities burning bituminous coals. The project goal was to test innovative Hg control technologies that have the potential to reduce Hg emissions from bituminous coal-fired power plants by {ge}90% at costs of one-half to three-quarters of current estimates for activated carbon injection (ACI). Hg control technology evaluations were performed using the EERC's combustion test facility (CTF). The CTF was fired on pulverized bituminous coals at 550,000 Btu/hr (580 MJ/hr). The CTF was configured with the following air pollution control devices (APCDs): selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit, electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and wet flue gas desulfurization system (WFDS). The Hg control technologies investigated as part of this project included ACI (three Norit Americas, Inc., and eleven Envergex sorbents), elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) oxidation catalysts (i.e., the noble metals in Hitachi Zosen, Cormetech, and Hitachi SCR catalysts), sorbent enhancement additives (SEAs) (a proprietary EERC additive, trona, and limestone), and blending with a Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal. These Hg control technologies were evaluated separately, and many were also tested in combination.

  7. Investigation of Head Burns in Adult Salmonids : Phase 1 : Examination of Fish at Lower Granite Dam, July 2, 1996. Final Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elston, Ralph

    1996-08-01

    Head burn is a descriptive clinical term used by fishery biologists to describe exfoliation of skin and underlying connective tissue of the jaw and cranial region of salmonids, observed at fish passage facilities on the Columbia and Snake Rivers. The observations are usually made on upstream migrant adult salmon or steelhead. An expert panel, convened in 1996, to evaluate the risk and severity of gas bubble disease (GBD) in the Snake and Columbia River system believed that, while head burns appeared to be distinct from GBD, the relationship between dissolved gas saturation in the rivers and head burns was uncertain.

  8. Two-dimensional simulations of thermonuclear burn in ignition-scale inertial confinement fusion targets under compressed axial magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perkins, L. J.; Logan, B. G.; Zimmerman, G. B.; Werner, C. J.

    2013-07-15

    We report for the first time on full 2-D radiation-hydrodynamic implosion simulations that explore the impact of highly compressed imposed magnetic fields on the ignition and burn of perturbed spherical implosions of ignition-scale cryogenic capsules. Using perturbations that highly convolute the cold fuel boundary of the hotspot and prevent ignition without applied fields, we impose initial axial seed fields of 20100 T (potentially attainable using present experimental methods) that compress to greater than 4 10{sup 4} T (400 MG) under implosion, thereby relaxing hotspot areal densities and pressures required for ignition and propagating burn by ?50%. The compressed field is high enough to suppress transverse electron heat conduction, and to allow alphas to couple energy into the hotspot even when highly deformed by large low-mode amplitudes. This might permit the recovery of ignition, or at least significant alpha particle heating, in submarginal capsules that would otherwise fail because of adverse hydrodynamic instabilities.

  9. Method for detecting and correcting for isotope burn-in during long-term neutron dosimetry exposure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruddy, Francis H. (Monroeville, PA)

    1988-01-01

    A method is described for detecting and correcting for isotope burn-in during-long term neutron dosimetry exposure. In one embodiment, duplicate pairs of solid state track recorder fissionable deposits are used, including a first, fissionable deposit of lower mass to quantify the number of fissions occuring during the exposure, and a second deposit of higher mass to quantify the number of atoms of for instance .sup.239 Pu by alpha counting. In a second embodiment, only one solid state track recorder fissionable deposit is used and the resulting higher track densities are counted with a scanning electron microscope. This method is also applicable to other burn-in interferences, e.g., .sup.233 U in .sup.232 Th or .sup.238 Pu in .sup.237 Np.

  10. Assessment of ion kinetic effects in shock-driven inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions using fusion burn imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenberg, M. J.; Séguin, F. H.; Amendt, P. A.; Atzeni, S.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Hoffman, N. M.; Zylstra, A. B.; Li, C. K.; Sio, H.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Frenje, J. A.; Petrasso, R. D.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Stoeckl, C.; Seka, W.; Marshall, F. J.; Delettrez, J. A.; Sangster, T. C.; Betti, R.; Wilks, S. C.; Pino, J.; Kagan, G.; Molvig, K.; Nikroo, A.

    2015-06-02

    The significance and nature of ion kinetic effects in D³He-filled, shock-driven inertial confinement fusion implosions are assessed through measurements of fusion burn profiles. Over this series of experiments, the ratio of ion-ion mean free path to minimum shell radius (the Knudsen number, NK) was varied from 0.3 to 9 in order to probe hydrodynamic-like to strongly kinetic plasma conditions; as the Knudsen number increased, hydrodynamic models increasingly failed to match measured yields, while an empirically-tuned, first-step model of ion kinetic effects better captured the observed yield trends [Rosenberg et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 185001 (2014)]. Here, spatially resolved measurements of the fusion burn are used to examine kinetic ion transport effects in greater detail, adding an additional dimension of understanding that goes beyond zero-dimensional integrated quantities to one-dimensional profiles. In agreement with the previous findings, a comparison of measured and simulated burn profiles shows that models including ion transport effects are able to better match the experimental results. In implosions characterized by large Knudsen numbers (NK ~ 3), the fusion burn profiles predicted by hydrodynamics simulations that exclude ion mean free path effects are peaked far from the origin, in stark disagreement with the experimentally observed profiles, which are centrally peaked. In contrast, a hydrodynamics simulation that includes a model of ion diffusion is able to qualitatively match the measured profile shapes. Therefore, ion diffusion or diffusion-like processes are identified as a plausible explanation of the observed trends, though further refinement of the models is needed for a more complete and quantitative understanding of ion kinetic effects.

  11. Assessment of ion kinetic effects in shock-driven inertial confinement fusion implosions using fusion burn imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenberg, M. J. Séguin, F. H.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Zylstra, A. B.; Li, C. K.; Sio, H.; Johnson, M. Gatu; Frenje, J. A.; Petrasso, R. D.; Amendt, P. A.; Wilks, S. C.; Pino, J.; Atzeni, S.; Hoffman, N. M.; Kagan, G.; Molvig, K.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Stoeckl, C.; Seka, W.; Marshall, F. J.; and others

    2015-06-15

    The significance and nature of ion kinetic effects in D{sup 3}He-filled, shock-driven inertial confinement fusion implosions are assessed through measurements of fusion burn profiles. Over this series of experiments, the ratio of ion-ion mean free path to minimum shell radius (the Knudsen number, N{sub K}) was varied from 0.3 to 9 in order to probe hydrodynamic-like to strongly kinetic plasma conditions; as the Knudsen number increased, hydrodynamic models increasingly failed to match measured yields, while an empirically-tuned, first-step model of ion kinetic effects better captured the observed yield trends [Rosenberg et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 185001 (2014)]. Here, spatially resolved measurements of the fusion burn are used to examine kinetic ion transport effects in greater detail, adding an additional dimension of understanding that goes beyond zero-dimensional integrated quantities to one-dimensional profiles. In agreement with the previous findings, a comparison of measured and simulated burn profiles shows that models including ion transport effects are able to better match the experimental results. In implosions characterized by large Knudsen numbers (N{sub K} ∼ 3), the fusion burn profiles predicted by hydrodynamics simulations that exclude ion mean free path effects are peaked far from the origin, in stark disagreement with the experimentally observed profiles, which are centrally peaked. In contrast, a hydrodynamics simulation that includes a model of ion diffusion is able to qualitatively match the measured profile shapes. Therefore, ion diffusion or diffusion-like processes are identified as a plausible explanation of the observed trends, though further refinement of the models is needed for a more complete and quantitative understanding of ion kinetic effects.

  12. Assessment of ion kinetic effects in shock-driven inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions using fusion burn imaging

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rosenberg, M. J.; Séguin, F. H.; Amendt, P. A.; Atzeni, S.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Hoffman, N. M.; Zylstra, A. B.; Li, C. K.; Sio, H.; Gatu Johnson, M.; et al

    2015-06-02

    The significance and nature of ion kinetic effects in D³He-filled, shock-driven inertial confinement fusion implosions are assessed through measurements of fusion burn profiles. Over this series of experiments, the ratio of ion-ion mean free path to minimum shell radius (the Knudsen number, NK) was varied from 0.3 to 9 in order to probe hydrodynamic-like to strongly kinetic plasma conditions; as the Knudsen number increased, hydrodynamic models increasingly failed to match measured yields, while an empirically-tuned, first-step model of ion kinetic effects better captured the observed yield trends [Rosenberg et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 185001 (2014)]. Here, spatially resolved measurementsmore » of the fusion burn are used to examine kinetic ion transport effects in greater detail, adding an additional dimension of understanding that goes beyond zero-dimensional integrated quantities to one-dimensional profiles. In agreement with the previous findings, a comparison of measured and simulated burn profiles shows that models including ion transport effects are able to better match the experimental results. In implosions characterized by large Knudsen numbers (NK ~ 3), the fusion burn profiles predicted by hydrodynamics simulations that exclude ion mean free path effects are peaked far from the origin, in stark disagreement with the experimentally observed profiles, which are centrally peaked. In contrast, a hydrodynamics simulation that includes a model of ion diffusion is able to qualitatively match the measured profile shapes. Therefore, ion diffusion or diffusion-like processes are identified as a plausible explanation of the observed trends, though further refinement of the models is needed for a more complete and quantitative understanding of ion kinetic effects.« less

  13. Assessment of ion kinetic effects in shock-driven inertial confinement fusion (IFC) implosions using fusion burn imaging

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rosenberg, M. J.; Sguin, F. H.; Amendt, P. A.; Atzeni, S.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Hoffman, N. M.; Zylstra, A. B.; Li, C. K.; Sio, H.; Gatu Johnson, M.; et al

    2015-06-02

    The significance and nature of ion kinetic effects in DHe-filled, shock-driven inertial confinement fusion implosions are assessed through measurements of fusion burn profiles. Over this series of experiments, the ratio of ion-ion mean free path to minimum shell radius (the Knudsen number, NK) was varied from 0.3 to 9 in order to probe hydrodynamic-like to strongly kinetic plasma conditions; as the Knudsen number increased, hydrodynamic models increasingly failed to match measured yields, while an empirically-tuned, first-step model of ion kinetic effects better captured the observed yield trends [Rosenberg et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 185001 (2014)]. Here, spatially resolved measurementsmoreof the fusion burn are used to examine kinetic ion transport effects in greater detail, adding an additional dimension of understanding that goes beyond zero-dimensional integrated quantities to one-dimensional profiles. In agreement with the previous findings, a comparison of measured and simulated burn profiles shows that models including ion transport effects are able to better match the experimental results. In implosions characterized by large Knudsen numbers (NK ~ 3), the fusion burn profiles predicted by hydrodynamics simulations that exclude ion mean free path effects are peaked far from the origin, in stark disagreement with the experimentally observed profiles, which are centrally peaked. In contrast, a hydrodynamics simulation that includes a model of ion diffusion is able to qualitatively match the measured profile shapes. Therefore, ion diffusion or diffusion-like processes are identified as a plausible explanation of the observed trends, though further refinement of the models is needed for a more complete and quantitative understanding of ion kinetic effects.less

  14. Emissions of dioxins and furans from garbage-burning incinerators can be minimized by good combustion practices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-10-01

    The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) have stated that emissions of dioxin and furan from garbage-burning incinerators can be minimized by good combustion practices. They have found that maintaining the heat of combustion above 815 degrees centigrade and reducing the carbon monoxide level to below 100 ppm will reduce the emissions of furan and dioxin. The combustion research that lead to these conclusions was sponsored by ASME and the New York energy authority

  15. Reproductive and developmental health risk from dioxin-like compounds: Insignificant risk from cement kilns burning waste-derived fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, L.C.; Pedelty, J.F.

    1994-12-31

    Cement kilns burning waste-derived fuels emit low levels of dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans and little or no PCB`s. Concern about possible effects on reproduction and development has prompted an evaluation of the research literature especially with regard to the reproductive and developmental effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). In sufficient doses, dioxins, furans, and PCB can cause adverse health effects in some animals or humans. Calculated doses of TCDD-EQ (dioxin equivalents) are dependent on many assumptions, but where human effects have been demonstrated, doses were 100--1,000 times higher than the usual background environmental doses. This would include those environmental doses that would be received by the most-exposed individual living near cement kilns burning WDF. There is evidence to suggest that PCB`s have had an adverse impact on some wildlife although there is no evidence that these PCB`s are associated with cement kiln emissions. There is no evidence to suggest that dioxins, at environmental levels or associated with emissions from WDF-burning cement kilns, have caused adverse effects in either wildlife or humans. 63 refs., 3 tabs.

  16. SHORT-PERIOD g-MODE PULSATIONS IN LOW-MASS WHITE DWARFS TRIGGERED BY H-SHELL BURNING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crsico, A. H.; Althaus, L. G.

    2014-09-20

    The detection of pulsations in white dwarfs with low mass offers the possibility of probing their internal structures through asteroseismology and placing constraints on the binary evolutionary processes involved in their formation. In this Letter, we assess the impact of stable H burning on the pulsational stability properties of low-mass He-core white dwarf models resulting from binary star evolutionary calculations. We found that besides a dense spectrum of unstable radial modes and nonradial g and p modes driven by the ? mechanism due to the partial ionization of H in the stellar envelope, some unstable g modes with short pulsation periods are also powered by H burning via the ? mechanism of mode driving. This is the first time that ? destabilized modes are found in models representative of cool white dwarf stars. The short periods recently detected in the pulsating low-mass white dwarf SDSS J111215.82+111745.0 could constitute the first evidence of the existence of stable H burning in these stars, in particular in the so-called extremely low-mass white dwarfs.

  17. Investigation of nitrogen dilution effects on the laminar burning velocity and flame stability of syngas fuel at atmospheric condition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prathap, C.; Ray, Anjan; Ravi, M.R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2008-10-15

    The objective of this investigation was to study the effect of dilution with nitrogen on the laminar burning velocity and flame stability of syngas fuel (50% H{sub 2}-50% CO by volume)-air (21% O{sub 2}-79% N{sub 2} by volume) mixtures. The syngas fuel composition considered in this work comprised x% N{sub 2} by volume and (100-x)% an equimolar mixture of CO and H{sub 2}. The proportion x (i.e., %N{sub 2}) was varied from 0 to 60% while the H{sub 2}/CO ratio was always kept as unity. Spherically expanding flames were generated by centrally igniting homogeneous fuel-air gas mixtures in a 40-L cylindrical combustion chamber fitted with optical windows. Shadowgraphy technique with a high-speed imaging camera was used to record the propagating spherical flames. Unstretched burning velocity was calculated following the Karlovitz theory for weakly stretched flames. Also, Markstein length was calculated to investigate the flame stability conditions for the fuel-air mixtures under consideration. Experiments were conducted for syngas fuel with different nitrogen proportions (0-60%) at 0.1 MPa (absolute), 302{+-}3K, and equivalence ratios ranging from 0.6 to 3.5. All the measurements were compared with the numerical predictions obtained using RUN-1DL and PREMIX with a contemporary chemical kinetic scheme. Dilution with nitrogen in different proportions in syngas resulted in (a) decrease in laminar burning velocity due to reduction in heat release and increase in heat capacity of unburned gas mixture and hence the flame temperature, (b) shift in occurrence of peak laminar burning velocity from {phi}=2.0 for 0% N{sub 2} dilution to {phi}=1.4 for 60% N{sub 2} dilution, (c) augmentation of the coupled effect of flame stretch and preferential diffusion on laminar burning velocity, and (d) shift in the equivalence ratio for transition from stable to unstable flames from {phi}=0.6 for 0% N{sub 2} dilution to {phi}=1.0 for 60% N{sub 2} dilution. The present work also indicated that if the fuel mole fraction in the wide range of fuel-air mixtures investigated is less than 22%, then those fuel mixtures are in the unstable regime with regard to preferential diffusion. (author)

  18. Lean-burn hydrogen spark-ignited engines: the mechanical equivalent to the fuel cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aceves, S.M.; Smith, J.R.

    1996-10-01

    Fuel cells are considered as the ideal power source for future vehicles, due to their high efficiency and low emissions. However, extensive use of fuel cells in light-duty vehicles is likely to be years away, due to their high manufacturing cost. Hydrogen-fueled, spark-ignited, homogeneous-charge engines offer a near-term alternative to fuel cells. Hydrogen in a spark-ignited engine can be burned at very low equivalence ratios, so that NO[sub x] emissions can be reduced to less than 10 ppm without catalyst. HC and CO emissions may result from oxidation of engine oil, but by proper design are negligible (a few ppm). Lean operation also results in increased indicated efficiency due to the thermodynamic properties of the gaseous mixture contained in the cylinder. The high effective octane number of hydrogen allows the use of a high compression ratio, further increasing engine efficiency. In this paper, a simplified engine model is used for predicting hydrogen engine efficiency and emissions. The model uses basic thermodynamic equations for the compression and expansion processes, along with an empirical correlation for heat transfer, to predict engine indicated efficiency. A friction correlation and a supercharger/turbocharger model are then used to calculate brake thermal efficiency. The model is validated with many 1345 experimental points obtained in a recent evaluation of a hydrogen research engine. The experimental data are used to adjust the empirical constants in the heat release rate and heat transfer correlation. The adjusted engine model predicts pressure traces, indicated efficiency and NO,, emissions with good accuracy over the range of speed, equivalence ratio and manifold pressure experimentally covered.

  19. Selective NOx Recirculation for Stationary Lean-Burn Natural Gas Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nigel Clark; Gregory Thompson; Richard Atkinson; Richard Turton; Chamila Tissera; Emre Tatli; Andy Zimmerman

    2005-12-28

    Selective NOx Recirculation (SNR) involves cooling the engine exhaust gas and then adsorbing the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from the exhaust stream, followed by the periodic desorption of NOx. By returning the desorbed, concentrated NOx into the engine intake and through the combustion chamber, a percentage of the NOx is decomposed during the combustion process. An initial study of NOx decomposition during lean-burn combustion was concluded in 2004 using a 1993 Cummins L10G 240hp natural gas engine. It was observed that the air/fuel ratio, injected NO (nitric oxide) quantity and engine operating points affected NOx decomposition rates of the engine. Chemical kinetic modeling results were also used to determine optimum NOx decomposition operating points and were published in the 2004 annual report. A NOx decomposition rate of 27% was measured from this engine under lean-burn conditions while the software model predicted between 35-42% NOx decomposition for similar conditions. A later technology 1998 Cummins L10G 280hp natural gas engine was procured with the assistance of Cummins Inc. to replace the previous engine used for 2005 experimental research. The new engine was equipped with an electronic fuel management system with closed-loop control that provided a more stable air/fuel ratio control and improved the repeatability of the tests. The engine was instrumented with an in-cylinder pressure measurement system and electronic controls, and was adapted to operate over a range of air/fuel ratios. The engine was connected to a newly commissioned 300hp alternating current (AC) motoring dynamometer. The second experimental campaign was performed to acquire both stoichiometric and slightly rich (0.97 lambda ratio) burn NOx decomposition rates. Effects of engine load and speed on decomposition were quantified, but Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) was not varied independently. Decomposition rates of up to 92% were demonstrated. Following recommendations at the 2004 ARES peer review meeting at Argonne National Laboratories, in-cylinder pressure was measured to calculate engine indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) changes due to NOx injections and EGR variations, and to observe conditions in the cylinder. The third experimental campaign gathered NOx decomposition data at 800, 1200 and 1800 rpm. EGR was added via an external loop, with EGR ranging from zero to the point of misfire. The air/fuel ratio was set at both stoichiometric and slightly rich conditions, and NOx decomposition rates were calculated for each set of runs. Modifications were made to the engine exhaust manifold to record individual exhaust temperatures. The three experimental campaigns have provided the data needed for a comprehensive model of NOx decomposition during the combustion process, and data have confirmed that there was no significant impact of injected NO on in-cylinder pressure. The NOx adsorption system provided by Sorbent Technologies Corp. (Twinsburg, OH), comprised a NOx adsorber, heat exchanger and a demister. These components were connected to the engine, and data were gathered to show both the adsorption of NOx from the engine, and desorption of NOx from the carbon-based sorbent material back into the engine intake, using a heated air stream. In order to quantify the NOx adsorption/desorption characteristics of the sorbent material, a bench top adsorption system was constructed and instrumented with thermocouples and the system output was fed into a NOx analyzer. The temperature of this apparatus was controlled while gathering data on the characteristics of the sorbent material. These data were required for development of a system model. Preliminary data were gathered in 2005, and will continue in early 2006. To assess the economic benefits of the proposed SNR technology the WVU research team has been joined in the last quarter by Dr Richard Turton (WVU-Chemical Engineering), who is modeling, sizing and costing the major components. The tasks will address modeling and preliminary design of the heat exchanger, demister and NOx sorbent chamber s

  20. The Complete Burning of Weapons Grade Plutonium and Highly Enriched Uranium with (Laser Inertial Fusion-Fission Energy) LIFE Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farmer, J C; Diaz de la Rubia, T; Moses, E

    2008-12-23

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) project, a laser-based Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiment designed to achieve thermonuclear fusion ignition and burn in the laboratory, is under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and will be completed in April of 2009. Experiments designed to accomplish the NIF's goal will commence in late FY2010 utilizing laser energies of 1 to 1.3 MJ. Fusion yields of the order of 10 to 20 MJ are expected soon thereafter. Laser initiated fusion-fission (LIFE) engines have now been designed to produce nuclear power from natural or depleted uranium without isotopic enrichment, and from spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors without chemical separation into weapons-attractive actinide streams. A point-source of high-energy neutrons produced by laser-generated, thermonuclear fusion within a target is used to achieve ultra-deep burn-up of the fertile or fissile fuel in a sub-critical fission blanket. Fertile fuels including depleted uranium (DU), natural uranium (NatU), spent nuclear fuel (SNF), and thorium (Th) can be used. Fissile fuels such as low-enrichment uranium (LEU), excess weapons plutonium (WG-Pu), and excess highly-enriched uranium (HEU) may be used as well. Based upon preliminary analyses, it is believed that LIFE could help meet worldwide electricity needs in a safe and sustainable manner, while drastically shrinking the nation's and world's stockpile of spent nuclear fuel and excess weapons materials. LIFE takes advantage of the significant advances in laser-based inertial confinement fusion that are taking place at the NIF at LLNL where it is expected that thermonuclear ignition will be achieved in the 2010-2011 timeframe. Starting from as little as 300 to 500 MW of fusion power, a single LIFE engine will be able to generate 2000 to 3000 MWt in steady state for periods of years to decades, depending on the nuclear fuel and engine configuration. Because the fission blanket in a fusion-fission hybrid system is subcritical, a LIFE engine can burn any fertile or fissile nuclear material, including unenriched natural or depleted U and SNF, and can extract a very high percentage of the energy content of its fuel resulting in greatly enhanced energy generation per metric ton of nuclear fuel, as well as nuclear waste forms with vastly reduced concentrations of long-lived actinides. LIFE engines could thus provide the ability to generate vast amounts of electricity while greatly reducing the actinide content of any existing or future nuclear waste and extending the availability of low cost nuclear fuels for several thousand years. LIFE also provides an attractive pathway for burning excess weapons Pu to over 99% FIMA (fission of initial metal atoms) without the need for fabricating or reprocessing mixed oxide fuels (MOX). Because of all of these advantages, LIFE engines offer a pathway toward sustainable and safe nuclear power that significantly mitigates nuclear proliferation concerns and minimizes nuclear waste. An important aspect of a LIFE engine is the fact that there is no need to extract the fission fuel from the fission blanket before it is burned to the desired final level. Except for fuel inspection and maintenance process times, the nuclear fuel is always within the core of the reactor and no weapons-attractive materials are available outside at any point in time. However, an important consideration when discussing proliferation concerns associated with any nuclear fuel cycle is the ease with which reactor fuel can be converted to weapons usable materials, not just when it is extracted as waste, but at any point in the fuel cycle. Although the nuclear fuel remains in the core of the engine until ultra deep actinide burn up is achieved, soon after start up of the engine, once the system breeds up to full power, several tons of fissile material is present in the fission blanket. However, this fissile material is widely dispersed in millions of fuel pebbles, which can be tagged as individual accountable items, and thus made difficult to divert in large quantities. This report discusses the application of the LIFE concept to nonproliferation issues, initially looking at the LIFE (Laser Inertial Fusion-Fission Energy) engine as a means of completely burning WG Pu and HEU. By combining a neutron-rich inertial fusion point source with energy-rich fission, the once-through closed fuel-cycle LIFE concept has the following characteristics: it is capable of efficiently burning excess weapons or separated civilian plutonium and highly enriched uranium; the fission blanket is sub-critical at all times (keff < 0.95); because LIFE can operate well beyond the point at which light water reactors (LWRs) need to be refueled due to burn-up of fissile material and the resulting drop in system reactivity, fuel burn-up of 99% or more appears feasible. The objective of this work is to develop LIFE technology for burning of WG-Pu and HEU.

  1. Monitoring Soil Erosion on a Burned Site in the Mojave-Great Basin Transition Zone: Final Report for the Jacob Fire Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Julianne DRI; Etyemezian, Vic DRI; Cablk, Mary E. DRI; Shillito, Rose DRI; Shafer, David DOE Grand Junction, Colorado

    2013-06-01

    A historic return interval of 100 years for large fires in the U.S. southwestern deserts is being replaced by one where fires may reoccur as frequently as every 20 to 30 years. The shortened return interval, which translates to an increase in fires, has implications for management of Soil Corrective Action Units (CAUs) and Corrective Action Sites (CASs) for which the Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office has responsibility. A series of studies was initiated at uncontaminated analog sites to better understand the possible impacts of erosion and transport by wind and water should contaminated soil sites burn. The first of these studies was undertaken at the Jacob Fire site approximately 12 kilometers (7.5 miles) north of Hiko, Nevada. A lightning-caused fire burned approximately 200 hectares during August 6-8, 2008. The site is representative of a transition between Mojave and Great Basin desert ecoregions on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), where the largest number of Soil CAUs/CASs are located. The area that burned at the Jacob Fire site was primarily a Coleogyne ramosissima (blackbrush) and Ephedra nevadensis (Mormon tea) community, also an abundant shrub assemblage in the similar transition zone on the NNSS. This report summarizes three years of measurements after the fire. Seven measurement campaigns at the Jacob Fire site were completed. Measurements were made on burned ridge (upland) and drainage sites, and on burned and unburned sites beneath and between vegetation. A Portable In-Situ Wind Erosion Lab (PI-SWERL) was used to estimate emissions of suspended particles at different wind speeds. Context for these measurements was provided through a meteorological tower that was installed at the Jacob Fire site to obtain local, relevant environmental parameters. Filter samples, collected from the exhaust of the PI-SWERL during measurements, were analyzed for chemical composition. Runoff and water erosion were quantified through a series of rainfall/runoff simulation tests in which controlled amounts of water were delivered to the soil surface in a specified amount of time. Runoff data were collected from understory and interspace soils on burned ridge and drainage areas. Runoff volume and suspended sediment in the runoff were sampled; the particle size distribution of the sediment was determined by laboratory analysis. Several land surface and soil characteristics associated with runoff were integrated by the calculation of site-specific curve numbers. Several vegetation surveys were conducted to assess post-burn recovery. Data from plots in both burned and unburned areas included species identification, counts, and location. Characterization of fire-affected area included measures at both the landscape scale and at specific sites. Although wind erosion measurements indicate that there are seasonal influences on almost all parameters measured, several trends were observed. PI-SWERL measurements indicated the potential for PM10 windblown dust emissions was higher on areas that were burned compared to areas that were not. Among the burned areas, understory soils in drainage areas were the most emissive, and interspace soils along burned ridges were least emissive. By 34 months after the burn (MAB), at the end of the study, emissions from all burned soil sites were virtually indistinguishable from unburned levels. Like the amount of emissions, the chemical signature of the fire (indicated by the EC-Soil ratio) was elevated immediately after the fire and approached pre-burn levels by 24 MAB. Thus, the potential for wind erosion at the Jacob Fire site, as measured by the amount and type of emissions, increased significantly after the fire and returned to unburned levels by 24 MAB. The effect of fire on the potential for water erosion at the Jacob Fire site was more ambiguous. Runoff and sediment from ridge interspace soils and unburned interspace soils were similar throughout the study period. Seldom, if ever, did runoff and sediment occur in burned drainage area soils. Fo

  2. High-nitrogen-metal complexes as burning-rate modifiers for the aluminum-water propellant system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tappan, Bryce C; Mason, Benjamin A

    2009-01-01

    The reactions of electropositive metals, such as aluminum, with water have long been utilized in explosive and propellant formulations, but until recently this has mostly been limited to the water formed as a product gas from the decomposition of another energetic system . Recently, however, with the increased availability of nano-particulate materials, the direct reaction of nano-aluminum (nAl) with water as an oxidizer has been investigated as a propellant system due to high reaction temperatures and the production of hydrogen as the primary gaseous species. This system could be useful for intra-planetary travel where non-terrestrial water is harvested for the oxidizer. Here we present the study of nAl, mixed at a stoichiometric ratio with water ({Phi} = 1) with the highly water soluble metal complexes of bis(tetrazolato)amine (BTA) added at 5, 15,30 and 50 wt% in the case of FeBTA and 5 and 15 wt% in the case of NiBTA and CoBTA. The basic structure of the BTA complexes is shown below where M = Fe, Ni or Co, and x = 3 for Fe and Co and x = 2 for Ni. The particle size of nAl studied was primarily 38 nm with various studies with the particle size of 80 nm. The FeBT A at a loading of 15 wt% gave the highest burning rate enhancement (4.6x at {approx}6.8 MPa), while retaining a low pressure exponent (0.21 compared to 0.24 for nA/H{sub 2}O). At 15 wt% the Ni and Co increased the burning rate, but also increased the pressure exponents. The burning rate of the FeBTA modified material with 80 nm Al decreased as the weight percent of FeBTA was increased, which also tracked decrease in the calculated specific impulse of the mixtures.

  3. COMPARISON OF THE POPULATIONS OF COMMON WOOD-NYMPH BUTTERFLIES IN BURNED PRAIRIE, UNBURNED PRAIRIE AND OLD FIELD GRASSES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hahn, M.; Walton, R.

    2007-01-01

    Common wood-nymph butterfl ies are found throughout the United States and Canada. However, not much is known about how they overwinter or their preferences for particular grasses and habitats. In this study, the impact of prairie management plans on the abundance of the wood-nymph population was assessed, as well as the preference of these butterfl ies for areas with native or non-native grasses. The abundance of common wood-nymph butterfl ies was determined using Pollard walks; more common wood-nymph butterfl ies were found in the European grasses than were found in the burned and unburned prairie sites. The majority of the vegetation at each of the three sites was identifi ed and documented. Using a 1 X 3 ANOVA analysis, it was determined there were signifi cantly more butterfl ies in the European grasses than in the burned and unburned prairie sites (p < 0.0005). There was no signifi cant difference between the burned and unburned treatments of the prairie on the common wood-nymph population. A multiple variable linear regression model described the effect of temperature and wind speed on the number of observed common wood-nymph butterfl ies per hour (p = 0.026). These preliminary results need to be supplemented with future studies. Quadrat analysis of the vegetation from all three sites should be done to search for a correlation between common wood-nymph butterfl y abundance per hour and the specifi c types or quantity of vegetation at each site. The effect of vegetation height and density on the observers visual fi eld should also be assessed.

  4. Powder Metallurgy of Uranium Alloy Fuels for TRU-Burning Reactors Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sean M. McDeavitt

    2011-04-29

    Overview Fast reactors were evaluated to enable the transmutation of transuranic isotopes generated by nuclear energy systems. The motivation for this was that TRU isotopes have high radiotoxicity and relatively long half-lives, making them unattractive for disposal in a long-term geologic repository. Fast reactors provide an efficient means to utilize the energy content of the TRUs while destroying them. An enabling technology that requires research and development is the fabrication metallic fuel containing TRU isotopes using powder metallurgy methods. This project focused upon developing a powder metallurgical fabrication method to produce U-Zr-transuranic (TRU) alloys at relatively low processing temperatures (500C to 600C) using either hot extrusion or alpha-phase sintering for charecterization. Researchers quantified the fundamental aspects of both processing methods using surrogate metals to simulate the TRU elements. The process produced novel solutions to some of the issues relating to metallic fuels, such as fuel-cladding chemical interactions, fuel swelling, volatility losses during casting, and casting mold material losses. Workscope There were two primary tasks associated with this project: 1. Hot working fabrication using mechanical alloying and extrusion Design, fabricate, and assemble extrusion equipment Extrusion database on DU metal Extrusion database on U-10Zr alloys Extrusion database on U-20xx-10Zr alloys Evaluation and testing of tube sheath metals 2. Low-temperature sintering of U alloys Design, fabricate, and assemble equipment Sintering database on DU metal Sintering database on U-10Zr alloys Liquid assisted phase sintering on U-20xx-10Zr alloys Appendices Outline Appendix A contains a Fuel Cycle Research & Development (FCR&D) poster and contact presentation where TAMU made primary contributions. Appendix B contains MSNE theses and final defense presentations by David Garnetti and Grant Helmreich outlining the beginning of the materials processing setup. Also included within this section is a thesis proposal by Jeff Hausaman. Appendix C contains the public papers and presentations introduced at the 2010 American Nuclear Society Winter Meeting. Appendix AMSNE theses of David Garnetti and Grant Helmreich and proposal by Jeff Hausaman A.1 December 2009 Thesis by David Garnetti entitled Uranium Powder Production Via Hydride Formation and Alpha Phase Sintering of Uranium and Uranium-Zirconium Alloys for Advanced Nuclear Fuel Applications A.2 September 2009 Presentation by David Garnetti (same title as document in Appendix B.1) A.3 December 2010 Thesis by Grant Helmreich entitled Characterization of Alpha-Phase Sintering of Uranium and Uranium-Zirconium Alloys for Advanced Nuclear Fuel Applications A.4 October 2010 Presentation by Grant Helmreich (same title as document in Appendix B.3) A.5 Thesis Proposal by Jeffrey Hausaman entitled Hot Extrusion of Alpha Phase Uranium-Zirconium Alloys for TRU Burning Fast Reactors Appendix BExternal presentations introduced at the 2010 ANS Winter Meeting B.1 J.S. Hausaman, D.J. Garnetti, and S.M. McDeavitt, Powder Metallurgy of Alpha Phase Uranium Alloys for TRU Burning Fast Reactors, Proceedings of 2010 ANS Winter Meeting, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA, November 7-10, 2010 B.2 PowerPoint Presentation Slides from C.1 B.3 G.W. Helmreich, W.J. Sames, D.J. Garnetti, and S.M. McDeavitt, Uranium Powder Production Using a Hydride-Dehydride Process, Proceedings of 2010 ANS Winter Meeting, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA, November 7-10, 2010 B.4. PowerPoint Presentation Slides from C.3 B.5 Poster Presentation from C.3 Appendix CFuel cycle research and development undergraduate materials and poster presentation C.1 Poster entitled Characterization of Alpha-Phase Sintering of Uranium and Uranium-Zirconium Alloys presented at the Fuel Cycle Technologies Program Annual Meeting C.2 April 2011 Honors Undergraduate Thesis by William Sames, Research Fellow, entitled Uranium Metal Powder Production, Particle Distribution Analysis, and Reaction Rate Studies of a Hydride-Dehydride Process ?

  5. High-value use of weapons-plutonium by burning in molten salt accelerator-driven subcritical systems or reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowman, C.D.; Venneri, F.

    1993-11-01

    The application of thermal-spectrum molten-salt reactors and accelerator-driven subcritical systems to the destruction of weapons-return plutonium is considered from the perspective of deriving the maximum societal benefit. The enhancement of electric power production from burning the fertile fuel {sup 232}Th with the plutonium is evaluated. Also the enhancement of destruction of the accumulated waste from commercial nuclear reactors is considered using the neutron-rich weapons plutonium. Most cases examined include the concurrent transmutation of the long-lived actinide and fission product waste ({sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I, {sup 135}Cs, {sup 126}Sn and {sup 79}Se).

  6. Final Report for SERDP Project RC-1649: Advanced Chemical Measurements of Smoke from DoD-prescribed Burns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Timothy J.; Weise, David; Lincoln, E. N.; Sams, Robert L.; Cameron, Melanie; Veres, Patrick; Yokelson, Robert J.; Urbanski, Shawn; Profeta, Luisa T.; Williams, S.; Gilman, Jessica; Kuster, W. C.; Akagi, Sheryl; Stockwell, Chelsea E.; Mendoza, Albert; Wold, Cyle E.; Warneke, Carsten; de Gouw, Joost A.; Burling, Ian R.; Reardon, James; Schneider, Matthew D.; Griffith, David WT; Roberts, James M.

    2013-12-17

    Objectives: Project RC-1649, Advanced Chemical Measurement of Smoke from DoD-prescribed Burns was undertaken to use advanced instrumental techniques to study in detail the particulate and vapor-phase chemical composition of the smoke that results from prescribed fires used as a land management tool on DoD bases, particularly bases in the southeastern U.S. The statement of need (SON) called for (1) improving characterization of fuel consumption and (2) improving characterization of air emissions under both flaming and smoldering conditions with respect to volatile organic compounds, heavy metals, and reactive gases. The measurements and fuels were from several bases throughout the southeast (Camp Lejeune, Ft. Benning, and Ft. Jackson) and were carried out in collaboration and conjunction with projects 1647 (models) and 1648 (particulates, SW bases). Technical Approach: We used an approach that featured developing techniques for measuring biomass burning emission species in both the laboratory and field and developing infrared (IR) spectroscopy in particular. Using IR spectroscopy and other methods, we developed emission factors (EF, g of effluent per kg of fuel burned) for dozens of chemical species for several common southeastern fuel types. The major measurement campaigns were laboratory studies at the Missoula Fire Sciences Laboratory (FSL) as well as field campaigns at Camp Lejeune, NC, Ft. Jackson, SC, and in conjunction with 1648 at Vandenberg AFB, and Ft. Huachuca. Comparisons and fusions of laboratory and field data were also carried out, using laboratory fuels from the same bases. Results: The project enabled new technologies and furthered basic science, mostly in the area of infrared spectroscopy, a broadband method well suited to biomass burn studies. Advances in hardware, software and supporting reference data realized a nearly 20x improvement in sensitivity and now provide quantitative IR spectra for potential detection of ~60 new species and actual field quantification of several new species such as nitrous acid, glycolaldehyde, ?-/?-pinene and D-limonene. The new reference data also permit calculation of the global warming potential (GWP) of the greenhouse gases by enabling 1) detection of their ambient concentrations, and 2) quantifying their ability to absorb IR radiation.

  7. Containment pressurization and burning of combustible gases in a large, dry PWR containment during a station blackout sequence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, M.; Fan, C.T. (National Tsing-Hua Univ., Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Hsinchu (TW))

    1992-07-01

    In this paper, responses of a large, dry pressurized water reactor (PWR) containment in a station blackout sequence are analyzed with the CONTAIN, MARCH3, and MAAP codes. Results show that the predicted containment responses in a station blackout sequence of these three codes are substantially different. Among these predictions, the MAAP code predicts the highest containment pressure because of the large amount of water made available to quench the debris upon vessel failure. The gradual water boiloff by debris pressurizes the containment. The combustible gas burning models in these codes are briefly described and compared.

  8. Monitoring Soil Erosion of a Burn Site in the Central Basin and Range Ecoregion: Final Report on Measurements at the Gleason Fire Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Julianne; Etyemezian, Vicken; Shillito, Rose; Cablk, Mary; Fenstermaker, Lynn; Shafer, David

    2013-10-01

    The increase in wildfires in arid and semi-arid parts of Nevada and elsewhere in the southwestern United States has implications for post-closure management and long-term stewardship for Soil Corrective Action Units (CAUs) on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) for which the Nevada Field Office of the United States Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration has responsibility. For many CAUs and Corrective Action Sites, where closure-in-place alternatives are now being implemented or considered, there is a chance that these sites could burn over at some time while they still pose a risk to the environment or human health, given the long half lives of some of the radionuclide contaminants. This study was initiated to examine the effects and duration of wildfire on wind and water erodibility on sites analogous to those that exist on the NNSS. The data analyzed herein were gathered at the prescribed Gleason Fire site near Ely, Nevada, a site comparable to the northern portion of the NNSS. Quantification of wind erosion was conducted with a Portable In-Situ Wind ERosion Lab (PI-SWERL) on unburned soils, and on interspace and plant understory soils within the burned area. The PI-SWERL was used to estimate emissions of suspendible particles (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters less than or equal to 10 micrometers) at different wind speeds. Filter samples, collected from the exhaust of the PI-SWERL during measurements, were analyzed for chemical composition. Based on nearly three years of data, the Gleason Fire site does not appear to have returned to pre burn wind erosion levels. Chemical composition data of suspendible particles are variable and show a trend toward pre-burn levels, but provide little insight into how the composition has been changing over time since the fire. Soil, runoff, and sediment data were collected from the Gleason Fire site to monitor the water erosion potential over the nearly three-year period. Soil hydrophobicity (water repellency) was noted on burned understory soils up to 12 months after the fire, as was the presence of ash on the soil surface. Soil deteriorated from a strong, definable pre-fire structure to a weakly cohesive mass (unstructured soil) immediately after the fire. Surface soil structure was evident 34 months after the fire at both burned and unburned sites, but was rare and weaker at burned sites. The amount of runoff and sediment was highly variable, but runoff occurred more frequently at burned interspace sites compared to burned understory and unburned interspace sites up to 34 months after the burn. No discernible pattern was evident on the amount of sediment transported, but the size of sediment from burned understory sites was almost double that of burned and unburned interspace soils after the fire, and decreased over the monitoring period. Curve numbers, a measure of the runoff potential, did not indicate any obvious runoff response to the fire. However, slight seasonal changes in curve numbers and runoff potential and, therefore, post-fire runoff response may be a function of fire impacts as well as the time of year that precipitation occurs. Site (interspace or understory) differences in soil properties and runoff persisted even after the fire. Vegetation data showed the presence of invasive grasses after the fire. Results from analysis of wind and water coupled with the spatial analysis of vegetation suggest that wind erosion may continue to occur due to the additional exposed soil surface (burned understory sites) until vegetation becomes re-established, and runoff may occur more frequently in interspace sites. The potential for fire-related wind erosion and water erosion may persist beyond three years in this system.

  9. A clean-burning biofuel as a response to adverse impacts of woodsmoke and coalsmoke on Navajo health

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shultz, E.B. Jr.; Bragg, W.G.; Whittier, J.

    1994-12-31

    Because over 60% of Navajo households are heated with woodfuel and coal, and indoor air pollution from woodsmoke and coalsmoke is problematic, most Navajos are probably at risk of respiratory and other smoke-induced illnesses. A previous study has shown that Navajo children living in homes heated by a wood/coal stove are nearly five times more likely to contract acute lower respiratory tract infections than children from homes that do not use those fuels. Stove and flue improvements to reduce leakage of smoke into the home would help. So would clean-burning solid fuels in replacement of woodfuel and coal. The authors describe a clean-burning fast-growing carbohydrate biofuel, prepared by sun-drying the roots of a wild southwestern gourd plant, Cucurbita foetidissima. They call it {open_quotes}rootfuel.{close_quotes} A test plot is growing during the 1994 season at the NMSU Agricultural Science Center on the Navajo Nation, near Farmington, New Mexico. Irrigation requirements are being measured. In the Fall, a preliminary needs assessment will be conducted to learn more about how fuel usage impacts Navajo health. The acceptability of rootfuel in selected homes will be tested during the upcoming heating season.

  10. Measurements of reactive trace gases and variable O3 formation rates in some South Carolina biomass burning plumes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akagi, Sheryl; Yokelson, Robert J.; Burling, Ian R.; Meinardi, S.; Simpson, I.; Blake, D. R.; McMeeking, Gavin; Sullivan, Amy; Lee, Taehyoung; Kredenweis, Sonia; Urbanski, Shawn; Reardon, James; Griffith, David WT; Johnson, Timothy J.; Weise, David

    2013-02-01

    In October-November 2011 we measured the trace gas emission factors from 7 prescribed fires in South Carolina, U.S. using two Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) systems and whole air sampling (WAS) into canisters followed by gas-chromatographic analyses. The fires were intended to emulate high-intensity burns as they were lit during the dry season and in most cases represented stands that had not been treated with prescribed burns in 10+ years, if at all. A total of 97 trace gas species are reported here from both airborne and ground-based platforms making this one of the most detailed field studies of fire emissions to date. The measurements included the first data for a suite of monoterpene compounds emitted via distillation of plant tissues during real fires. The known chemistry of the monoterpenes and their measured abundance of ~0.40% of CO (molar basis), ~3.9% of NMOC (molar basis), and ~21% of organic aerosol (mass basis), suggests that they impacted post-emission formation of ozone, aerosol, and small organic trace gases such as methanol and formaldehyde in the sampled plumes. The variability in the terpene emissions in South Carolina (SC) fire plumes was high and, in general, the speciation of the emitted gas-phase non-methane organic compounds was surprisingly different from that observed in a similar study in nominally similar pine forests in North Carolina ~20 months earlier. It is likely that the slightly different ecosystems, time of year and the precursor variability all contributed to the variability in plume chemistry observed in this study and in the literature. The ?HCN/?CO emission ratio, however, is fairly consistent at 0.9 0.06 % for airborne fire measurements in coniferous-dominated ecosystems further confirming the value of HCN as a good biomass burning indicator/tracer. The SC results also support an earlier finding that C3-C4 alkynes may be of use as biomass burning indicators on the time-scale of hours to a day. It was possible to measure the chemical evolution of the plume on four of the fires and significant ozone (O3) formation (?O3/?CO from 10-90%) occurred in all of these plumes. Slower O3 production was observed on a cloudy day with low co-emissions of NOx and the fastest O3 production was observed on a sunny day when the plume almost certainly incorporated significant additional NOx by passing over the Columbia, SC metropolitian area. Due to rapid plume dilution, it was only possible to acquire high quality downwind data for two other species (formaldehyde and methanol) on two of the fires. In all four cases significant increases were observed. This is likely the first direct observation of post-emission methanol production in biomass burning plumes and the precursors likely included terpenes.

  11. High Temperature Reactor (HTR) Deep Burn Core and Fuel Analysis: Design Selection for the Prismatic Block Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francesco Venneri; Chang-Keun Jo; Jae-Man Noh; Yonghee Kim; Claudio Filippone; Jonghwa Chang; Chris Hamilton; Young-Min Kim; Ji-Su Jun; Moon-Sung Cho; Hong-Sik Lim; MIchael A. Pope; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; Vincent Descotes; Brian Boer

    2010-09-01

    The Deep Burn (DB) Project is a U.S. Department of Energy sponsored feasibility study of Transuranic Management using high burnup fuel in the high temperature helium cooled reactor (HTR). The DB Project consists of seven tasks: project management, core and fuel analysis, spent fuel management, fuel cycle integration, TRU fuel modeling, TRU fuel qualification, and HTR fuel recycle. In the Phase II of the Project, we conducted nuclear analysis of TRU destruction/utilization in the HTR prismatic block design (Task 2.1), deep burn fuel/TRISO microanalysis (Task 2.3), and synergy with fast reactors (Task 4.2). The Task 2.1 covers the core physics design, thermo-hydraulic CFD analysis, and the thermofluid and safety analysis (low pressure conduction cooling, LPCC) of the HTR prismatic block design. The Task 2.3 covers the analysis of the structural behavior of TRISO fuel containing TRU at very high burnup level, i.e. exceeding 50% of FIMA. The Task 4.2 includes the self-cleaning HTR based on recycle of HTR-generated TRU in the same HTR. Chapter IV contains the design and analysis results of the 600MWth DB-HTR core physics with the cycle length, the average discharged burnup, heavy metal and plutonium consumptions, radial and axial power distributions, temperature reactivity coefficients. Also, it contains the analysis results of the 450MWth DB-HTR core physics and the analysis of the decay heat of a TRU loaded DB-HTR core. The evaluation of the hot spot fuel temperature of the fuel block in the DB-HTR (Deep-Burn High Temperature Reactor) core under full operating power conditions are described in Chapter V. The investigated designs are the 600MWth and 460MWth DB-HTRs. In Chapter VI, the thermo-fluid and safety of the 600MWth DB-HTRs has been analyzed to investigate a thermal-fluid design performance at the steady state and a passive safety performance during an LPCC event. Chapter VII describes the analysis results of the TRISO fuel microanalysis of the 600MWth and 450MWth DB-HTRs. The TRISO fuel microanalysis covers the gas pressure buildup in a coated fuel particle including helium production, the thermo-mechanical behavior of a CFP, the failure probabilities of CFPs, the temperature distribution in a CPF, and the fission product (FP) transport in a CFP and a graphite. In Chapter VIII, it contains the core design and analysis of sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) with deep burn HTR reactor. It considers a synergistic combination of the DB-MHR and an SFR burner for a safe and efficient transmutation of the TRUs from LWRs. Chapter IX describes the design and analysis results of the self-cleaning (or self-recycling) HTR core. The analysis is considered zero and 5-year cooling time of the spent LWR fuels.

  12. Preliminary safety analysis of Pb-Bi cooled 800 MWt modified CANDLE burn-up scheme based fast reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su'ud, Zaki; Sekimoto, H.

    2014-09-30

    Pb-Bi Cooled fast reactors with modified CANDLE burn-up scheme with 10 regions and 10 years cycle length has been investigated from neutronic aspects. In this study the safety aspect of such reactors have been investigated and discussed. Several condition of unprotected loss of flow (ULOF) and unprotected rod run-out transient over power (UTOP) have been simulated and the results show that the reactors excellent safety performance. At 80 seconds after unprotected loss of flow condition, the core flow rate drop to about 25% of its initial flow and slowly move toward its natural circulation level. The maximum fuel temperature can be managed below 1000C and the maximum cladding temperature can be managed below 700C. The dominant reactivity feedback is radial core expansion and Doppler effect, followed by coolant density effect and fuel axial expansion effect.

  13. Control of Plasma-Stored Energy for Burn Control using DIII-D In-Vessel Coils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hawryluk, R. J.; Eidietis, N. W.; Grierson, B. A.; Hyatt, A. W.; Koleman, E.; Logan, N. C.; Nazikian, R.; Paz-Soldan, C.; Wolf, S.

    2014-09-01

    A new approach has been experimentally demonstrated to control the stored energy by applying a non-axisymmetric magnetic field using the DIII-D in-vessel coils to modify the energy confinement time. In future burning plasma experiments as well as magnetic fusion energy power plants, various concepts have been proposed to control the fusion power. The fusion power in a power plant operating at high gain can be related to the plasma-stored energy and hence, is a strong function of the energy confinement time. Thus, an actuator, that modifies the confinement time, can be used to adjust the fusion power. In relatively low collisionality DIII-D discharges, the application of non-axisymmetric magnetic fields results in a decrease in confinement time and density pumpout. Gas puffing was used to compensate the density pumpout in the pedestal while control of the stored energy was demonstrated by the application of non-axisymmetric fields.

  14. CO{sub 2}-mitigation measures through reduction of fossil fuel burning in power utilities. Which road to go?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaupp, A.

    1996-12-31

    Five conditions, at minimum, should be examined in the comparative analysis of CO{sub 2}-mitigation options for the power sector. Under the continuing constraint of scarce financial resources for any private or public investment in the power sector, the following combination of requirements characterise a successful CO{sub 2}-mitigation project: (1) Financial attractiveness for private or public investors. (2) Low, or even negative, long range marginal costs per ton of `CO{sub 2} saved`. (3) High impact on CO{sub 2}-mitigation, which indicates a large market potential for the measure. (4) The number of individual investments required to achieve the impact is relatively small. In other words, logistical difficulties in project implementation are minimised. (5) The projects are `socially fair` and have minimal negative impact on any segment of the society. This paper deals with options to reduce carbonaceous fuel burning in the power sector. Part I explains how projects should be selected and classified. Part II describes the technical options. Since reduction of carbonaceous fuel burning may be achieved through Demand Side Management (DSM) and Supply Side Management (SSM) both are treated. Within the context of this paper SSM does not mean to expand power supply as demand grows. It means to economically generate and distribute power as efficiently as possible. In too many instances DSM has degenerated into efficient lighting programs and utility managed incentives and rebate programs. To what extent this is a desirable situation for utilities in Developing Countries that face totally different problems as their counterparts in highly industrialised countries remains to be seen. Which road to go is the topic of this paper.

  15. Application of charge stratification, lean burn combustion systems and anti-knock control devices in small two-stroke cycle gasoline engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuentscher, V.

    1986-01-01

    For essentially reducing the specific fuel consumption in two-stroke cycle engines and the concentration of hydrocarbons (HC) in the exhaust gas, the normal engine was equipped with a new ram tuned fuel injection system. By the application of charge stratification, lean burn combustion, different ignition systems and a special anti-knock device, considerable fuel consumption and HC emission reductions were obtained.

  16. Code dependencies of pre-supernova evolution and nucleosynthesis in massive stars: evolution to the end of core helium burning

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jones, S.; Hirschi, R.; Pignatari, M.; Heger, A.; Georgy, C.; Nishimura, N.; Fryer, C.; Herwig, F.

    2015-01-15

    We present a comparison of 15M⊙ , 20M⊙ and 25M⊙ stellar models from three different codes|GENEC, KEPLER and MESA|and their nucleosynthetic yields. The models are calculated from the main sequence up to the pre-supernova (pre-SN) stage and do not include rotation. The GENEC and KEPLER models hold physics assumptions that are characteristic of the two codes. The MESA code is generally more flexible; overshooting of the convective core during the hydrogen and helium burning phases in MESA is chosen such that the CO core masses are consistent with those in the GENEC models. Full nucleosynthesis calculations are performed for allmore » models using the NuGrid post-processing tool MPPNP and the key energy-generating nuclear reaction rates are the same for all codes. We are thus able to highlight the key diferences between the models that are caused by the contrasting physics assumptions and numerical implementations of the three codes. A reasonable agreement is found between the surface abundances predicted by the models computed using the different codes, with GENEC exhibiting the strongest enrichment of H-burning products and KEPLER exhibiting the weakest. There are large variations in both the structure and composition of the models—the 15M⊙ and 20M⊙ in particular—at the pre-SN stage from code to code caused primarily by convective shell merging during the advanced stages. For example the C-shell abundances of O, Ne and Mg predicted by the three codes span one order of magnitude in the 15M⊙ models. For the alpha elements between Si and Fe the differences are even larger. The s-process abundances in the C shell are modified by the merging of convective shells; the modification is strongest in the 15M⊙ model in which the C-shell material is exposed to O-burning temperatures and the γ -process is activated. The variation in the s-process abundances across the codes is smallest in the 25M⊙ models, where it is comparable to the impact of nuclear reaction rate uncertainties. In general the differences in the results from the three codes are due to their contrasting physics assumptions (e.g. prescriptions for mass loss and convection). The broadly similar evolution of the 25M⊙ models gives us reassurance that different stellar evolution codes do produce similar results. For the 15M⊙ and 20M⊙ models, however, the different input physics and the interplay between the various convective zones lead to important differences in both the pre-supernova structure and nucleosynthesis predicted by the three codes. For the KEPLER models the core masses are different and therefore an exact match could not be expected.« less

  17. Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Deep Burn Core and Fuel Analysis -- Complete Design Selection for the Pebble Bed Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B. Boer; A. M. Ougouag

    2010-09-01

    The Deep-Burn (DB) concept focuses on the destruction of transuranic nuclides from used light water reactor fuel. These transuranic nuclides are incorporated into TRISO coated fuel particles and used in gas-cooled reactors with the aim of a fractional fuel burnup of 60 to 70% in fissions per initial metal atom (FIMA). This high performance is expected through the use of multiple recirculation passes of the fuel in pebble form without any physical or chemical changes between passes. In particular, the concept does not call for reprocessing of the fuel between passes. In principle, the DB pebble bed concept employs the same reactor designs as the presently envisioned low-enriched uranium core designs, such as the 400 MWth Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR-400). Although it has been shown in the previous Fiscal Year (2009) that a PuO2 fueled pebble bed reactor concept is viable, achieving a high fuel burnup, while remaining within safety-imposed prescribed operational limits for fuel temperature, power peaking and temperature reactivity feedback coefficients for the entire temperature range, is challenging. The presence of the isotopes 239-Pu, 240-Pu and 241-Pu that have resonances in the thermal energy range significantly modifies the neutron thermal energy spectrum as compared to a standard, UO2-fueled core. Therefore, the DB pebble bed core exhibits a relatively hard neutron energy spectrum. However, regions within the pebble bed that are near the graphite reflectors experience a locally softer spectrum. This can lead to power and temperature peaking in these regions. Furthermore, a shift of the thermal energy spectrum with increasing temperature can lead to increased absorption in the resonances of the fissile Pu isotopes. This can lead to a positive temperature reactivity coefficient for the graphite moderator under certain operating conditions. The effort of this task in FY 2010 has focused on the optimization of the core to maximize the pebble discharge burnup level, while retaining its inherent safety characteristics. Using generic pebble bed reactor cores, this task will perform physics calculations to evaluate the capabilities of the pebble bed reactor to perform utilization and destruction of LWR used-fuel transuranics. The task will use established benchmarked models, and will introduce modeling advancements appropriate to the nature of the fuel considered (high TRU content and high burn-up).

  18. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 490: Station 44 Burn Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (with Record of Technical Change No.1)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    2000-06-09

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 490 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Active Unit 490 consists of four Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 03-56-001-03BA, Fire Training Area (FTA); RG-56-001-RGBA, Station 44 Burn Area; 03-58-001-03FN, Sandia Service Yard; and 09-54-001-09L2, Gun Propellant Burn Area. These CASs are located at the Tonopah Test Range near Areas 3 and 9. Historically, the FTA was used for training exercises where tires and wood were ignited with diesel fuel. Records indicate that water and carbon dioxide were the only extinguishing agents used during these training exercises. The Station 44 Burn Area was used for fire training exercises and consisted of two wooden structures. The two burn areas (ignition of tires, wood, and wooden structures with diesel fuel and water) were limited to the building footprints (10 ft by 10 ft each). The Sandia Service Yard was used for storage (i.e., wood, tires, metal, electronic and office equipment, construction debris, and drums of oil/grease) from approximately 1979 to 1993. The Gun Propellant Burn Area was used from the 1960s to 1980s to burn excess artillery gun propellant, solid-fuel rocket motors, black powder, and deteriorated explosives; additionally, the area was used for the disposal of experimental explosive items. Based on site history, the focus of the field investigation activities will be to: (1) determine the presence of contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) at each CAS, (2) determine if any COPCs exceed field-screening levels and/or preliminary action levels, and (3) determine the nature and extent of contamination with enough certainty to support selection of corrective action alternatives for each CAS. The scope of this CAIP is to resolve the question of whether or not potentially hazardous wastes were generated at three of the four CASs within CAU 490, and whether or not potentially hazardous and radioactive wastes were generated at the fourth CAS in CAU 490 (CAS 09-54-001-09L2). Suspected CAS-specific COPCs include volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, total petroleum hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, explosives, and uranium and plutonium isotopes. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document.

  19. Composition of carbonaceous smoke particles from prescribed burning of a Canadian boreal forest: 1. Organic aerosol characterization by gas chromatography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mazurek, M.A.; Laterza, C.; Newman, L.; Daum, P.; Cofer, W.R. III; Levine, J.S.; Winstead, E.L.

    1995-06-01

    In this study we examine the molecular organic constituents (C8 to C40 lipid compounds) collected as smoke particles from a Canadian boreal forest prescribed burn. Of special interest are (1) the molecular identity of polar organic aerosols, and (2) the amount of polar organic matter relative to the total mass of aerosol particulate carbon. Organic extracts of smoke aerosol particles show complex distributions of the lipid compounds when analyzed by capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The molecular constituents present as smoke aerosol are grouped into non-polar (hydrocarbons) and polar {minus}2 oxygen atoms) subtractions. The dominant chemical species found in the boreal forest smoke aerosol are unaltered resin compounds (C20 terpenes) which are abundant in unburned conifer wood, plus thermally altered wood lignins and other polar aromatic hydrocarbons. Our results show that smoke aerosols contain molecular tracers which are related to the biofuel consumed. These smoke tracers can be related structurally back to the consumed softwood and hardwood vegetation. In addition, combustion of boreal forest materials produces smoke aerosol particles that are both oxygen-rich and chemically complex, yielding a carbonaceous aerosol matrix that is enriched in polar substances. As a consequence, emissions of carbonaceous smoke particles from large-scale combustion of boreal forest land may have a disproportionate effect on regional atmospheric chemistry and on cloud microphysical processes.

  20. Ion kinetic effects on the ignition and burn of inertial confinement fusion targets: A multi-scale approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peigney, B. E.; Larroche, O.

    2014-12-15

    In this article, we study the hydrodynamics and burn of the thermonuclear fuel in inertial confinement fusion pellets at the ion kinetic level. The analysis is based on a two-velocity-scale Vlasov-Fokker-Planck kinetic model that is specially tailored to treat fusion products (suprathermal α-particles) in a self-consistent manner with the thermal bulk. The model assumes spherical symmetry in configuration space and axial symmetry in velocity space around the mean flow velocity. A typical hot-spot ignition design is considered. Compared with fluid simulations where a multi-group diffusion scheme is applied to model α transport, the full ion-kinetic approach reveals significant non-local effects on the transport of energetic α-particles. This has a direct impact on hydrodynamic spatial profiles during combustion: the hot spot reactivity is reduced, while the inner dense fuel layers are pre-heated by the escaping α-suprathermal particles, which are transported farther out of the hot spot. We show how the kinetic transport enhancement of fusion products leads to a significant reduction of the fusion yield.

  1. SRC burn test in 700-hp oil-designed boiler. Volume 1. Integrated report. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-09-01

    This burn test program was conducted during the period of August 1982 to February 1983 to demonstrate that Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) products can displace petroleum as a boiler fuel in oil- and gas-designed boilers. The test program was performed at the U.S. Department of Energy's Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC). Three forms of SRC (pulverized SRC, a solution of SRC dissolved in process-derived distillates, and a slurry of SRC and water) and No. 6 Fuel Oil were evaluated in the 700-hp (30 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/hour) watertube, oil-designed boiler facility at PETC. The test program was managed by the International Coal Refining Company (ICRC) and sponsored by the Department of Energy. Other organizations were involved as necessary to provide the expertise required to execute the test program. This final report represents an integrated overview of the test program conducted at PETC. More detailed information with preliminary data can be obtained from separate reports prepared by PETC, Southern Research Institute, Wheelabrator-Frye, Babcock and Wilcox, and Combustion Engineering. These are presented as Annex Volumes A-F. 25 references, 41 figures, 15 tables.

  2. Comparison of emissions and efficiency of a turbocharged lean-burn natural gas and Hythane-fueled engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larsen, J.F.; Wallace, J.S.

    1997-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the potential for reduced exhaust emissions and improved efficiency, by way of lean-burn engine fueling with hydrogen supplemented natural gas (Hythane). The emissions and efficiency of the Hythane fuel (15% hydrogen, 85% natural gas by volume), were compared to the emissions and efficiency of pure natural gas using a turbocharged, spark ignition, 3.1 L, V-6 engine. The feasibility of heavy duty engine fueling with Hythane was assessed through testing conducted at engine speed and load combinations typical of heavy-duty engine operation. Comparison of the efficiency and emissions at MBT spark timing revealed that Hythane fueling of the test engine resulted in consistently lower brake specific energy consumption and emissions of total hydrocarbons (THC), carbon monoxide (CO), and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), at a given equivalence ratio. There was no clear trend with respect to MBT oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) emissions. It was also discovered that an improved NO{sub x}-THC tradeoff resulted when Hythane was used to fuel the test engine. Consequently, Hythane engine operating parameters can be adjusted to achieve a concurrent reduction in NO{sub x} and THC emissions relative to natural gas fueling.

  3. Focused feasibility study for surface soil at the main pits and pushout area, J-field toxic burning pits area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patton, T.; Benioff, P.; Biang, C.; Butler, J.

    1996-06-01

    The Environmental Management Division of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, is conducting a remedial investigation and feasibility study of the J-Field area at APG pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended (CERCLA). J-Field is located within the Edgewood Area of APG in Harford County, Maryland. Since World War II, activities in the Edgewood Area have included the development, manufacture, testing, and destruction of chemical agents and munitions. These materials were destroyed at J-Field by open burning/open detonation. Portions of J-Field continue to be used for the detonation and disposal of unexploded ordnance (UXO) by open burning/open detonation under authority of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

  4. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 490: Station 44 Burn Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (Rev. No.: 0, February 2001)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DOE /NV

    2001-02-23

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended Corrective Action Alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 490, Station 44 Burn Area, Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 490 is located on the Nellis Air Force Range and the Tonopah Test Range and is approximately 140 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. This CAU is comprised of four Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 03-56-001-03BA, Fire Training Area (located southwest of Area 3); RG-56-001-RGBA, Station 44 Burn Area (located west of Main Lake); 03-58-001-03FN, Sandia Service Yard (located north of the northwest corner of Area 3); and 09-54-001-09L2, Gun Propellant Burn Area (located south of the Area 9 Compound on the TTR). A Corrective Action Investigation was performed in July and August 2000, and analytes detected during the corrective action investigation were evaluated against preliminary action levels to determine contaminants of concern (COCs). There were no COCs identified in soil at the Gun Propellant Burn Area or the Station 44 Burn Area; therefore, there is no need for corrective actions at these two sites. Five soil samples at the Fire Training Area and seven at the Sandia Service Yard exceeded PALs for total petroleum hydrocarbons-diesel. Upon the identification of COCs specific to CAU 490, Corrective Action Objectives were developed based on a review of existing data, future use, and current operations at the TTR, with the following three CAAs under consideration: Alternative 1 - No Further Action, Alternative 2 - Closure In Place - No Further Action With Administrative Controls, and Alternative 3 - Clean Closure by Excavation and Disposal. These alternatives were evaluated based on four general corrective action standards and five remedy selection decision factors. Based on the results of this evaluation, the preferred choice for CAU 490 was Alternative 3. This alternative was judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated, all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site, and will eliminate potential future exposure pathways to the contaminated soils at this site.

  5. Methyl Formate Oxidation: Speciation Data, Laminar Burning Velocities, Ignition Delay Times and a Validated Chemical Kinetic Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dooley, S.; Burke, M. P.; Chaos, M.; Stein, Y.; Dryer, F. L.; Zhukov, V. P.; Finch, O.; Simmie, J. M.; Curran, H. J.

    2010-07-16

    The oxidation of methyl formate (CH{sub 3}OCHO) has been studied in three experimental environments over a range of applied combustion relevant conditions: 1. A variable-pressure flow reactor has been used to quantify reactant, major intermediate and product species as a function of residence time at 3 atm and 0.5% fuel concentration for oxygen/fuel stoichiometries of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 at 900 K, and for pyrolysis at 975 K. 2. Shock tube ignition delays have been determined for CH{sub 3}OCHO/O{sub 2}/Ar mixtures at pressures of ? 2.7, 5.4, and 9.2 atm and temperatures of 12751935 K for mixture compositions of 0.5% fuel (at equivalence ratios of 1.0, 2.0, and 0.5) and 2.5% fuel (at an equivalence ratio of 1.0). 3. Laminar burning velocities of outwardly propagating spherical CH{sub 3}OCHO/air flames have been determined for stoichiometries ranging from 0.81.6, at atmospheric pressure using a pressure-release-type high-pressure chamber. A detailed chemical kinetic model has been constructed, validated against, and used to interpret these experimental data. The kinetic model shows that methyl formate oxidation proceeds through concerted elimination reactions, principally forming methanol and carbon monoxide as well as through bimolecular hydrogen abstraction reactions. The relative importance of elimination versus abstraction was found to depend on the particular environment. In general, methyl formate is consumed exclusively through molecular decomposition in shock tube environments, while at flow reactor and freely propagating premixed flame conditions, there is significant competition between hydrogen abstraction and concerted elimination channels. It is suspected that in diffusion flame configurations the elimination channels contribute more significantly than in premixed environments.

  6. PPPL Answers Burning Question

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Zwicker, Andrew; Merali, Aliya

    2013-08-23

    The Science Education Department at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory answers Alan Alda's challenge to explain what is a flame to an audience of 11-year old children.

  7. Chemical aging of single and multicomponent biomass burning aerosol surrogate particles by OH: implications for cloud condensation nucleus activity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Slade, J. H.; Thalman, R.; Wang, J.; Knopf, D. A.

    2015-09-14

    Multiphase OH and O3 oxidation reactions with atmospheric organic aerosol (OA) can influence particle physicochemical properties including composition, morphology, and lifetime. Chemical aging of initially insoluble or low-soluble single-component OA by OH and O3 can increase their water solubility and hygroscopicity, making them more active as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and susceptible to wet deposition. However, an outstanding problem is whether the effects of chemical aging on their CCN activity are preserved when mixed with other organic or inorganic compounds exhibiting greater water solubility. In this work, the CCN activity of laboratory-generated biomass burning aerosol (BBA) surrogate particles exposed tomore » OH and O3 is evaluated by determining the hygroscopicity parameter, κ, as a function of particle type, mixing state, and OH and O3 exposure applying a CCN counter (CCNc) coupled to an aerosol flow reactor (AFR). Levoglucosan (LEV), 4-methyl-5-nitrocatechol (MNC), and potassium sulfate (KS) serve as representative BBA compounds that exhibit different hygroscopicity, water solubility, chemical functionalities, and reactivity with OH radicals, and thus exemplify the complexity of mixed inorganic/organic aerosol in the atmosphere. The CCN activities of all of the particles were unaffected by O3 exposure. Following exposure to OH, κ of MNC was enhanced by an order of magnitude, from 0.009 to ~ 0.1, indicating that chemically aged MNC particles are better CCN and more prone to wet deposition than pure MNC particles. No significant enhancement in κ was observed for pure LEV particles following OH exposure. κ of the internally mixed particles was not affected by OH oxidation. Furthermore, the CCN activity of OH-exposed MNC-coated KS particles is similar to the OH unexposed atomized 1 : 1 by mass MNC : KS binary-component particles. Our results strongly suggest that when OA is dominated by water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) or inorganic ions, chemical aging has no significant impact on OA hygroscopicity. The organic compounds exhibiting low solubility behave as if they are infinitely soluble when mixed with a sufficient number of water-soluble compounds. At and beyond this point, the particles' CCN activity is governed entirely by the water-soluble fraction and is not influenced by the oxidized organic fraction. Our results have important implications for heterogeneous oxidation and its impact on cloud formation given that atmospheric aerosol is a complex mixture of organic and inorganic compounds exhibiting a wide range of solubilities.« less

  8. Chemical aging of single and multicomponent biomass burning aerosol surrogate-particles by OH: implications for cloud condensation nucleus activity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Slade, J. H.; Thalman, R.; Wang, J.; Knopf, D. A.

    2015-03-06

    Multiphase OH and O3 oxidation reactions with atmospheric organic aerosol (OA) can influence particle physicochemical properties including composition, morphology, and lifetime. Chemical aging of initially insoluble or low soluble single-component OA by OH and O3 can increase their water-solubility and hygroscopicity, making them more active as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and susceptible to wet deposition. However, an outstanding problem is whether the effects of chemical aging on their CCN activity are preserved when mixed with other organic or inorganic compounds exhibiting greater water-solubility. In this work, the CCN activity of laboratory-generated biomass burning aerosol (BBA) surrogate-particles exposed to OH andmore » O3 is evaluated by determining the hygroscopicity parameter, κ, as a function of particle type, mixing state, and OH/O3 exposure applying a CCN counter (CCNc) coupled to an aerosol flow reactor (AFR). Levoglucosan (LEV), 4-methyl-5-nitrocatechol (MNC), and potassium sulfate (KS) serve as representative BBA compounds that exhibit different hygroscopicity, water solubility, chemical functionalities, and reactivity with OH radicals, and thus exemplify the complexity of mixed inorganic/organic aerosol in the atmosphere. The CCN activities of all of the particles were unaffected by O3 exposure. Following exposure to OH, κ of MNC was enhanced by an order of magnitude, from 0.009 to ~0.1, indicating that chemically-aged MNC particles are better CCN and more prone to wet deposition than pure MNC particles. No significant enhancement in κ was observed for pure LEV particles following OH exposure. κ of the internally-mixed particles was not affected by OH oxidation. Furthermore, the CCN activity of OH exposed MNC-coated KS particles is similar to the OH unexposed atomized 1 : 1 by mass MNC : KS binary-component particles. Our results strongly suggest that when OA is dominated by water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) or inorganic ions, chemical aging has no significant impact on OA hygroscopicity. The organic compounds exhibiting low solubility behave as if they are infinitely soluble when mixed with a sufficient amount of water-soluble compounds. At and beyond this point, the particles' CCN activity is governed entirely by the water-soluble fraction and not influenced by the oxidized organic fraction. Our results have important implications for heterogeneous oxidation and its impact on cloud formation given that atmospheric aerosol is a complex mixture of organic and inorganic compounds exhibiting a wide-range of solubilities.« less

  9. Chemopreventive activity of compounds extracted from Casearia sylvestris (Salicaceae) Sw against DNA damage induced by particulate matter emitted by sugarcane burning near Araraquara, Brazil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prieto, A.M.; Santos, A.G.; Csipak, A.R.; Caliri, C.M.; Silva, I.C.; Arbex, M.A.; Silva, F.S.; Marchi, M.R.R.

    2012-12-15

    Ethanolic extract of Casearia sylvestris is thought to be antimutagenic. In this study, we attempted to determine whether this extract and casearin X (a clerodane diterpene from C. sylvestris) are protective against the harmful effects of airborne pollutants from sugarcane burning. To that end, we used the Tradescantia micronucleus test in meiotic pollen cells of Tradescantia pallida, the micronucleus test in mouse bone marrow cells, and the comet assay in mouse blood cells. The mutagenic compound was total suspended particulate (TSP) from air. For the Tradescantia micronucleus test, T. pallida cuttings were treated with the extract at 0.13, 0.25, or 0.50 mg/ml. Subsequently, TSP was added at 0.3 mg/ml, and tetrads from the inflorescences were examined for micronuclei. For the micronucleus test in mouse bone marrow cells and the comet assay in mouse blood cells, Balb/c mice were treated for 15 days with the extract3.9, 7.5, or 15.0 mg/kg body weight (BW)or with casearin X0.3, 0.25, or 1.2 mg/kg BWafter which they received TSP (3.75 mg/kg BW). In T. pallida and mouse bone marrow cells, the extract was antimutagenic at all concentrations tested. In mouse blood cells, the extract was antigenotoxic at all concentrations, whereas casearin X was not antimutagenic but was antigenotoxic at all concentrations. We conclude that C. sylvestris ethanolic extract and casearin X protect DNA from damage induced by airborne pollutants from sugarcane burning. -- Highlights: ? We assessed DNA protection of C. sylvestris ethanolic extract. ? We assessed DNA protection of casearin X. ? We used Tradescantia pallida micronucleus test as screening. ? We used comet assay and micronucleus test in mice. ? The compounds protected DNA against sugar cane burning pollutants.

  10. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 128-B-2, 100-B Burn Pit #2 Waste Site, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2005-038

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. A. Carlson

    2005-12-21

    The 128-B-2 waste site was a burn pit historically used for the disposal of combustible and noncombustible wastes, including paint and solvents, office waste, concrete debris, and metallic debris. This site has been remediated by removing approximately 5,627 bank cubic meters of debris, ash, and contaminated soil to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  11. Lean-Burn Stationary Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine Operation with a Prototype Miniature Diode Side Pumped Passively Q-switched Laser Spark Plug

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McIntyre, D.L.; Woodruff, S.D.; McMillian, M.H.; Richardson, S.W.; Gautam, Mridul

    2008-04-01

    To meet the ignition system needs of large bore lean burn stationary natural gas engines a laser diode side pumped passively Q-switched laser igniter was developed and used to ignite lean mixtures in a single cylinder research engine. The laser design was produced from previous work. The in-cylinder conditions and exhaust emissions produced by the miniaturized laser were compared to that produced by a laboratory scale commercial laser system used in prior engine testing. The miniaturized laser design as well as the combustion and emissions data for both laser systems was compared and discussed. It was determined that the two laser systems produced virtually identical combustion and emissions data.

  12. System Study of Rich Catalytic/Lean burn (RCL) Catalytic Combustion for Natural Gas and Coal-Derived Syngas Combustion Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shahrokh Etemad; Lance Smith; Kevin Burns

    2004-12-01

    Rich Catalytic/Lean burn (RCL{reg_sign}) technology has been successfully developed to provide improvement in Dry Low Emission gas turbine technology for coal derived syngas and natural gas delivering near zero NOx emissions, improved efficiency, extending component lifetime and the ability to have fuel flexibility. The present report shows substantial net cost saving using RCL{reg_sign} technology as compared to other technologies both for new and retrofit applications, thus eliminating the need for Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) in combined or simple cycle for Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and natural gas fired combustion turbines.

  13. PLANETS AROUND LOW-MASS STARS. III. A YOUNG DUSTY L DWARF COMPANION AT THE DEUTERIUM-BURNING LIMIT ,

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowler, Brendan P.; Liu, Michael C.; Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; Dupuy, Trent J.

    2013-09-01

    We report the discovery of an L-type companion to the young M3.5V star 2MASS J01225093-2439505 at a projected separation of 1.''45 ( Almost-Equal-To 52 AU) as part of our adaptive optics imaging search for extrasolar giant planets around young low-mass stars. 2MASS 0122-2439 B has very red near-infrared colors similar to the HR 8799 planets and the reddest known young/dusty L dwarfs in the field. Moderate-resolution (R Almost-Equal-To 3800) 1.5-2.4 {mu}m spectroscopy reveals a near-infrared spectral type of L4-L6 and an angular H-band shape, confirming its cool temperature and young age. The kinematics of 2MASS 0122-2439 AB are marginally consistent with members of the {approx}120 Myr AB Dor young moving group based on the photometric distance to the primary (36 {+-} 4 pc) and our radial velocity measurement of 2MASS 0122-2439 A from Keck/HIRES. We adopt the AB Dor group age for the system, but the high energy emission, lack of Li I {lambda}6707 absorption, and spectral shape of 2MASS 0122-2439 B suggest a range of {approx}10-120 Myr is possible. The age and luminosity of 2MASS 0122-2439 B fall in a strip where ''hot-start'' evolutionary model mass tracks overlap as a result of deuterium burning. Several known substellar companions also fall in this region (2MASS J0103-5515 ABb, AB Pic b, {kappa} And b, G196-3 B, SDSS 2249+0044 B, LP 261-75 B, HD 203030 B, and HN Peg B), but their dual-valued mass predictions have largely been unrecognized. The implied mass of 2MASS 0122-2439 B is Almost-Equal-To 12-13 M{sub Jup} or Almost-Equal-To 22-27 M{sub Jup} if it is an AB Dor member, or possibly as low as 11 M{sub Jup} if the wider age range is adopted. Evolutionary models predict an effective temperature for 2MASS 0122-2439 B that corresponds to spectral types near the L/T transition ( Almost-Equal-To 1300-1500 K) for field objects. However, we find a mid-L near-infrared spectral type, indicating that 2MASS 0122-2439 B represents another case of photospheric dust being retained to cooler temperatures at low surface gravities, as seen in the spectra of young (8-30 Myr) planetary companions. Altogether, the low mass, low temperature, and red colors of 2MASS 0122-2439 B make it a bridge between warm planets like {beta} Pic b and cool, very dusty ones like HR 8799 bcde.

  14. Erosion Potential of a Burn Site in the Mojave-Great Basin Transition Zone: Interim Summary of One Year of Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Etyemezian, V.; Shafer, D.; Miller, J.; Kavouras, I.; Campbell, S.; DuBois, D.; King, J.; Nikolich, G.; Zitzer, S.

    2010-05-18

    A historic return interval of 100 years for large fires in deserts in the Southwest U.S. is being replaced by one where fires may reoccur as frequently as every 20 to 30 years. This increase in fires has implications for management of Soil Sub-Project Corrective Action Units (CAUs) for which the Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site office (NNSA/NSO) has responsibility. A series of studies has been initiated at uncontaminated analog sites to better understand the possible impacts of erosion and transport by wind and water should contaminated soil sites burn over to understand technical and perceived risk they might pose to site workers and public receptors in communities around the NTS, TTR, and NTTR; and to develop recommendations for stabilization and restoration after a fire. The first of these studies was undertaken at the Jacob fire, a lightning-caused fire approximately 12 kilometers north of Hiko, Nevada, that burned approximately 200 ha between August 6-8, 2008, and is representative of a transition zone on the NTS between the Mojave and Great Basin Deserts, where the largest number of Soil Sub-Project CAUs/CASs are located.

  15. Nonequilibrium phenomena and determination of plasma parameters in the hot core of the cathode region in free-burning arc discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuehn, Gerrit; Kock, Manfred

    2007-01-15

    We present spectroscopic measurements of plasma parameters (electron density n{sub e}, electron temperature T{sub e}, gas temperature T{sub g}, underpopulation factor b) in the hot-core region in front of the cathode of a low-current, free-burning arc discharge in argon under atmospheric pressure. The discharge is operated in the hot-core mode, creating a hot cathode region with plasma parameters similar to high-current arcs in spite of the fact that we use comparatively low currents (less than 20 A). We use continuum emission and (optically thin) line emission to determine n{sub e} and T{sub e}. We apply relaxation measurements based on a power-interruption technique to investigate deviations from local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). These measurements let us determine the gas temperature T{sub g}. All measurements are performed side-on with charge-coupled-device cameras as detectors, so that all measured plasma parameters are spatially resolved after an Abel inversion. This yields the first ever spatially resolved observation of the non-LTE phenomena of the hot core in the near-cathode region of free-burning arcs. The results only partly coincide with previously published predictions and measurements in the literature.

  16. High Temperature Reactor (HTR) Deep Burn Core and Fuel Analysis: Design Selection for the Prismatic Block Reactor With Results from FY-2011 Activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael A. Pope

    2011-10-01

    The Deep Burn (DB) Project is a U.S. Department of Energy sponsored feasibility study of Transuranic Management using high burnup fuel in the high temperature helium cooled reactor (HTR). The DB Project consists of seven tasks: project management, core and fuel analysis, spent fuel management, fuel cycle integration, TRU fuel modeling, TRU fuel qualification, and HTR fuel recycle. In the Phase II of the Project, we conducted nuclear analysis of TRU destruction/utilization in the HTR prismatic block design (Task 2.1), deep burn fuel/TRISO microanalysis (Task 2.3), and synergy with fast reactors (Task 4.2). The Task 2.1 covers the core physics design, thermo-hydraulic CFD analysis, and the thermofluid and safety analysis (low pressure conduction cooling, LPCC) of the HTR prismatic block design. The Task 2.3 covers the analysis of the structural behavior of TRISO fuel containing TRU at very high burnup level, i.e. exceeding 50% of FIMA. The Task 4.2 includes the self-cleaning HTR based on recycle of HTR-generated TRU in the same HTR. Chapter IV contains the design and analysis results of the 600MWth DB-HTR core physics with the cycle length, the average discharged burnup, heavy metal and plutonium consumptions, radial and axial power distributions, temperature reactivity coefficients. Also, it contains the analysis results of the 450MWth DB-HTR core physics and the analysis of the decay heat of a TRU loaded DB-HTR core. The evaluation of the hot spot fuel temperature of the fuel block in the DB-HTR (Deep-Burn High Temperature Reactor) core under full operating power conditions are described in Chapter V. The investigated designs are the 600MWth and 460MWth DB-HTRs. In Chapter VI, the thermo-fluid and safety of the 600MWth DB-HTRs has been analyzed to investigate a thermal-fluid design performance at the steady state and a passive safety performance during an LPCC event. Chapter VII describes the analysis results of the TRISO fuel microanalysis of the 600MWth and 450MWth DB-HTRs. The TRISO fuel microanalysis covers the gas pressure buildup in a coated fuel particle including helium production, the thermo-mechanical behavior of a CFP, the failure probabilities of CFPs, the temperature distribution in a CPF, and the fission product (FP) transport in a CFP and a graphite. In Chapter VIII, it contains the core design and analysis of sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) with deep burn HTR reactor. It considers a synergistic combination of the DB-MHR and an SFR burner for a safe and efficient transmutation of the TRUs from LWRs. Chapter IX describes the design and analysis results of the self-cleaning (or self-recycling) HTR core. The analysis is considered zero and 5-year cooling time of the spent LWR fuels.

  17. Estimates of global, regional, and national annual CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil-fuel burning, hydraulic cement production, and gas flaring: 1950--1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boden, T.A.; Marland, G.; Andres, R.J.

    1995-12-01

    This document describes the compilation, content, and format of the most comprehensive C0{sub 2}-emissions database currently available. The database includes global, regional, and national annual estimates of C0{sub 2} emissions resulting from fossil-fuel burning, cement manufacturing, and gas flaring in oil fields for 1950--92 as well as the energy production, consumption, and trade data used for these estimates. The methods of Marland and Rotty (1983) are used to calculate these emission estimates. For the first time, the methods and data used to calculate CO, emissions from gas flaring are presented. This C0{sub 2}-emissions database is useful for carbon-cycle research, provides estimates of the rate at which fossil-fuel combustion has released C0{sub 2} to the atmosphere, and offers baseline estimates for those countries compiling 1990 C0{sub 2}-emissions inventories.

  18. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 484: Surface Debris, Waste Sites, and Burn Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bechel Nevada

    2004-05-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration plan details the activities necessary to close Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 484: Surface Debris, Waste Sites, and Burn Area (Tonopah Test Range). CAU 484 consists of sites located at the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, and is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. CAU 484 consists of the following six Corrective Action Sites: (1) CAS RG-52-007-TAML, Davis Gun Penetrator Test; (2) CAS TA-52-001-TANL, NEDS Detonation Area; (3) CAS TA-52-004-TAAL, Metal Particle Dispersion Test; (4) CAS TA-52-005-TAAL, Joint Test Assembly DU Sites; (5) CAS TA-52-006-TAPL, Depleted Uranium Site; and (6) CAS TA-54-001-TANL, Containment Tank and Steel Structure

  19. Design of an Actinide Burning, Lead or Lead-Bismuth Cooled Reactor That Produces Low Cost Electricty - FY-02 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mac Donald, Philip Elsworth; Buongiorno, Jacopo

    2002-10-01

    The purpose of this collaborative Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project is to investigate the suitability of lead or lead-bismuth cooled fast reactors for producing low-cost electricity as well as for actinide burning. The goal is to identify and analyze the key technical issues in core neutronics, materials, thermal-hydraulics, fuels, and economics associated with the development of this reactor concept. Work has been accomplished in four major areas of research: core neutronic design, plant engineering, material compatibility studies, and coolant activation. The publications derived from work on this project (since project inception) are listed in Appendix A. This is the third in a series of Annual Reports for this project, the others are also listed in Appendix A as FY-00 and FY-01 Annual Reports.

  20. Design of an Actinide Burning, Lead or Lead-Bismuth Cooled Reactor that Produces Low Cost Electricity FY-01 Annual Report, October 2001

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mac Donald, Philip Elsworth; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Davis, Cliff Bybee; Herring, James Stephen; Loewen, Eric Paul; Smolik, Galen Richard; Weaver, Kevan Dean; Todreas, N.

    2001-10-01

    The purpose of this collaborative Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project is to investigate the suitability of lead or lead-bismuth cooled fast reactors for producing low-cost electricity as well as for actinide burning. The goal is to identify and analyze the key technical issues in core neutronics, materials, thermal-hydraulics, fuels, and economics associated with the development of this reactor concept. Work has been accomplished in four major areas of research: core neutronic design, plant engineering, material compatibility studies, and coolant activation. The publications derived from work on this project (since project inception) are listed in Appendix A.

  1. Evaluation of hoop creep behaviors in long-term dry storage condition of pre-hydrided and high burn-up nuclear fuel cladding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Sun-Ki; Bang, J.G.; Kim, D.H.; Yang, Y.S.

    2007-07-01

    Related to the degradation of the mechanical properties of Zr-based nuclear fuel cladding tubes under long term dry storage condition, the mechanical tests which can simulate the degradation of the mechanical properties properly are needed. Especially, the degradation of the mechanical properties by creep mechanism seems to be dominant under long term dry storage condition. Accordingly, in this paper, ring creep tests were performed in order to evaluate the creep behaviors of high burn-up fuel cladding under a hoop loading condition in a hot cell. The tests are performed with Zircaloy-4 fuel cladding whose burn-up is approximately {approx}60,000 MWd/tU in the temperature range from 350 deg. to 550 deg.. The tests are also performed with pre-hydrided Zircaloy-4 and ZIRLO up to 1,000 ppm. First of all, the hoop loading grip for the ring creep test was designed in order that a constant curvature of the specimen was maintained during the creep deformation, and the graphite lubricant was used to minimize the friction between the outer surface of the die insert and the inner surface of the ring specimen. The specimen for the ring creep test was designed to limit the deformation within the gauge section and to maximize the uniformity of the strain distribution. It was confirmed that the mechanical properties under a hoop loading condition can be correctly evaluated by using this test technique. In this paper, secondary creep rate with increasing hydrogen content are drawn, and then kinetic data such as pre-exponential factor and activation energy for creep process are also drawn. In addition, creep life are predicted by obtaining LMP (Larson-Miller parameter) correlation in the function of hydrogen content and applied stress to yield stress ratio. (authors)

  2. Savannah River Site RCRA/CERCLA/NEPA integrated investigation case study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, D.R.; Thomas, R.; Wilson, M.P.

    1992-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a US Department of Energy facility placed on the Superfund National Priority List in 1989. Numerous past disposal facilities and contaminated areas are undergoing the integrated regulatory remediation process detailed in the draft SRS Federal Facility Agreement. This paper will discuss the integration of these requirements by highlighting the investigation of the D-Area Burning/Rubble Pits, a typical waste unit at SRS.

  3. Savannah River Site RCRA/CERCLA/NEPA integrated investigation case study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, D.R.; Thomas, R.; Wilson, M.P.

    1992-07-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a US Department of Energy facility placed on the Superfund National Priority List in 1989. Numerous past disposal facilities and contaminated areas are undergoing the integrated regulatory remediation process detailed in the draft SRS Federal Facility Agreement. This paper will discuss the integration of these requirements by highlighting the investigation of the D-Area Burning/Rubble Pits, a typical waste unit at SRS.

  4. Impact of operating parameters changing on energy, environment and economic efficiencies of a lean burn gas engine used in a cogeneration plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lemoult, B.; Tazerout, M.; Rousseau, S.

    1998-07-01

    The facts that national electrical company Electricite de France (EDF) has a monopoly on electrical power production in France and an extensive installed base of nuclear power plants, explain the difficulty encountered in developing cogeneration technology in France. Cogeneration only really first appeared in this country in the early 1990's, with the liberalization of energy markets and the government's encouragement. Since then, the number of cogeneration plants has continuously increased and electrical generating capacity is now approximately 1,200 MWe. Turbine and reciprocating engines (most of which are natural gas fired) account respectively for about 55% and 45% of the installed power. Unlike other countries, such as Germany--which has about two thousand 500 kWe and smaller units--the future of low-power cogeneration in France is far from assured, and there are currently less than 10 such plants. To help develop this efficient technology for producing electrical power and hot water, the Ecole des Mines de Nantes purchased a 210 kWe cogeneration generator set in 1996. This facility provides all or part of the school's electrical and heat requirements during five months between November and March. This cogeneration facility is also used during the rest of the year to perform research experiments in the field of lean-burn natural gas combustion. Lastly, it is also used to provide training for industry in cogeneration technology. Within this context, work was undertaken to study the set's energy and emissions performance, in relation to such parameters as spark advance and air factor, and at various loads.

  5. Overburden characterization and post-burn study of the Hanna IV, underground coal gasification site, Wyoming, and comparison to other Wyoming UCG sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marcouiller, B.A.; Burns, L.K.; Ethridge, F.G.

    1984-11-01

    Analysis of 21 post-burn cores taken from the Hanna IV UCG site allows 96 m (315 ft) of overburden to be subdivided into four local stratigraphic units. The 7.6 m (25 ft) thick Hanna No. 1 coal seam is overlain by a laterally discontinuous, 3.3 m (11 ft) thick shaley mudstone (Unit A') in part of the Hanna IV site. A more widespread, 30 m (90 ft) thick well-indurated sandstone (Unit A) overlies the A' unit. Unit A is the roof rock for both of the Hanna IV cavities. Overlying Unit A is a 33 m (108 ft) thick sequence of mudstone and claystone (Unit B), and the uppermost unit at the Hanna IV site (Unit C) is a coarse-grained sandstone that ranges in thickness from 40 to 67 m (131 to 220 ft). Two elliptical cavities were formed during the two phases of the Hanna IV experiment. The larger cavity, Hanna IVa, is 45 x 15 m in plan and has a maximum height of 18 m (59 ft) from the base of the coal seam to the top of the cavity; the Hanna IVb cavity is 40 x 15 m in plan and has a maximum height of 11 m (36 ft) from the base of the coal seam to the top of the cavity. Geotechnical tests indicated that the Hanna IV overburden rocks were moderately strong to strong, based on the empirical classification of Broch and Franklin (1972), and a positive, linear correlation exists between rock strength and volume percent calcite cement. There is an inverse linear correlation between rock strength and porosity for the Hanna IV overburden rocks. 28 refs., 34 figs., 13 tabs..

  6. Sandia National Laboratories: Burning Rubber

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... The tip of the machine is so fine it can sample spots that are one-third the diameter of a ... Signals from distinguishing chemical structures can fade or disappear during aging. This ...

  7. CARS diagnostics of the burning of H{sub 2} - O{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} - O{sub 2} mixtures at high temperatures and pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vereshchagin, K A; Smirnov, Valery V; Stel'makh, O M; Fabelinskii, V I

    2012-01-31

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectroscopy is used to determine the parameters of gaseous combustion products of hydrogen and hydrocarbon fuels with oxygen at high temperatures and pressures. The methodical aspects of CARS thermometry, which are related to the optimal choice of molecules (diagnostic references) and specific features of their spectra, dependent on temperature and pressure, are analysed. Burning is modelled under the conditions similar to those of real spacecraft propulsion systems using a specially designed laboratory combustion chamber, operating in the pulse-periodic regime at high temperatures (to 3500 K) and pressures (to 20 MPa) of combustion products. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  8. Response measurement of single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamond radiation detector for intense X-rays aiming at neutron bang-time and neutron burn-history measurement on an inertial confinement fusion with fast ignition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shimaoka, T. Kaneko, J. H.; Tsubota, M.; Arikawa, Y.; Nagai, T.; Kojima, S.; Abe, Y.; Sakata, S.; Fujioka, S.; Nakai, M.; Shiraga, H.; Azechi, H.; Isobe, M.; Sato, Y.; Chayahara, A.; Umezawa, H.; Shikata, S.

    2015-05-15

    A neutron bang time and burn history monitor in inertial confinement fusion with fast ignition are necessary for plasma diagnostics. In the FIREX project, however, no detector attained those capabilities because high-intensity X-rays accompanied fast electrons used for plasma heating. To solve this problem, single-crystal CVD diamond was grown and fabricated into a radiation detector. The detector, which had excellent charge transportation property, was tested to obtain a response function for intense X-rays. The applicability for neutron bang time and burn history monitor was verified experimentally. Charge collection efficiency of 99.5% 0.8% and 97.1% 1.4% for holes and electrons were obtained using 5.486 MeV alpha particles. The drift velocity at electric field which saturates charge collection efficiency was 1.1 0.4 10{sup 7} cm/s and 1.0 0.3 10{sup 7} cm/s for holes and electrons. Fast response of several ns pulse width for intense X-ray was obtained at the GEKKO XII experiment, which is sufficiently fast for ToF measurements to obtain a neutron signal separately from X-rays. Based on these results, we confirmed that the single-crystal CVD diamond detector obtained neutron signal with good S/N under ion temperature 0.51 keV and neutron yield of more than 10{sup 9} neutrons/shot.

  9. Federal Facility Agreement progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The (SRS) Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) was made effective by the US. Environmental Protection Agency Region IV (EPA) on August 16, 1993. To meet the reporting requirements in Section XXV of the Agreement, the FFA Progress Report was developed. The FFA Progress Report is the first of a series of quarterly progress reports to be prepared by the SRS. As such this report describes the information and action taken to September 30, 1993 on the SRS units identified for investigation and remediation in the Agreement. This includes; rubble pits, runoff basins, retention basin, seepage basin, burning pits, H-Area Tank 16, and spill areas.

  10. Femtosecond nonlinear spectroscopy at surfaces: Second-harmonic probing of hole burning at the Si(111)7x7 surface and fourier-transform sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGuire, John Andrew

    2004-11-24

    The high temporal resolution and broad bandwidth of a femtosecond laser system are exploited in a pair of nonlinear optical studies of surfaces. The dephasing dynamics of resonances associated with the adatom dangling bonds of the Si(111)7 x 7 surface are explored by transient second-harmonic hole burning, a process that can be described as a fourth-order nonlinear optical process. Spectral holes produced by a 100 fs pump pulse at about 800 nm are probed by the second harmonic signal of a 100 fs pulse tunable around 800 nm. The measured spectral holes yield homogeneous dephasing times of a few tens of femtoseconds. Fits with a Lorentzian spectral hole centered at zero probe detuning show a linear dependence of the hole width on pump fluence, which suggests that charge carrier-carrier scattering dominates the dephasing dynamics at the measured excitation densities. Extrapolation of the deduced homogeneous dephasing times to zero excitation density yields an intrinsic dephasing time of {approx} 70 fs. The presence of a secondary spectral hole indicates that scattering of the surface electrons with surface optical phonons at 570 cm{sup -1} occurs within the first 200 fs after excitation. The broad bandwidth of femtosecond IR pulses is used to perform IR-visible sum frequency vibrational spectroscopy. By implementing a Fourier-transform technique, we demonstrate the ability to obtain sub-laser-bandwidth spectral resolution. FT-SFG yields a greater signal when implemented with a stretched visible pulse than with a femtosecond visible pulse. However, when compared with multichannel spectroscopy using a femtosecond IR pulse but a narrowband visible pulse, Fourier-transform SFG is found to have an inferior signal-to-noise ratio. A mathematical analysis of the signal-to-noise ratio illustrates the constraints on the Fourier-transform approach.

  11. Catalysts For Lean Burn Engine Exhaust Abatement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ott, Kevin C. (Los Alamos, NM); Clark, Noline C. (Jemez Springs, NM); Paffett, Mark T. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2004-04-06

    The present invention provides a process for catalytically reducing nitrogen oxides in an exhaust gas stream containing nitrogen oxides and a reductant material by contacting the gas stream under conditions effective to catalytically reduce the nitrogen oxides with a catalyst comprising a aluminum-silicate type material and a minor amount of a metal, the catalyst characterized as having sufficient catalytic activity so as to reduce the nitrogen oxides by at least 60 percent under temperatures within the range of from about 200.degree. C. to about 400.degree. C.

  12. Catalysts for lean burn engine exhaust abatement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ott, Kevin C.; Clark, Noline C.; Paffett, Mark T.

    2006-08-01

    The present invention provides a process for catalytically reducing nitrogen oxides in an exhaust gas stream containing nitrogen oxides and a reductant material by contacting the gas stream under conditions effective to catalytically reduce the nitrogen oxides with a catalyst comprising a aluminum-silicate type material and a minor amount of a metal, the catalyst characterized as having sufficient catalytic activity so as to reduce the nitrogen oxides by at least 60 percent under temperatures within the range of from about 200.degree. C. to about 400.degree. C.

  13. Catalysts for lean burn engine exhaust abatement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ott, Kevin C. (Los Alamos, NM); Clark, Noline C. (Jemez Springs, NM); Paffett, Mark T. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2003-01-01

    The present invention provides a process for catalytically reducing nitrogen oxides in an exhaust gas stream containing nitrogen oxides and a reductant material by contacting the gas stream under conditions effective to catalytically reduce the nitrogen oxides with a catalyst comprising a aluminum-silicate type material and a minor amount of a metal, the catalyst characterized as having sufficient catalytic activity so as to reduce the nitrogen oxides by at least 60 percent under temperatures within the range of from about 200.degree. C. to about 400.degree. C.

  14. CX-00035 _Prescribed_burning.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  15. Prescribed_Burn_2010-cx-00021.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  16. ARM-2007-GRL-Burn-20070323.ppt

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  17. Thermomagnetic burn control for magnetic fusion reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rawls, John M. (Del Mar, CA); Peuron, Unto A. (Solana Beach, CA)

    1982-01-01

    Apparatus is provided for controlling the plasma energy production rate of a magnetic-confinement fusion reactor, by controlling the magnetic field ripple. The apparatus includes a group of shield sectors (30a, 30b, etc.) formed of ferromagnetic material which has a temperature-dependent saturation magnetization, with each shield lying between the plasma (12) and a toroidal field coil (18). A mechanism (60) for controlling the temperature of the magnetic shields, as by controlling the flow of cooling water therethrough, thereby controls the saturation magnetization of the shields and therefore the amount of ripple in the magnetic field that confines the plasma, to thereby control the amount of heat loss from the plasma. This heat loss in turn determines the plasma state and thus the rate of energy production.

  18. Thermomagnetic burn control for magnetic fusion reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rawls, J.M.; Peuron, A.U.

    1980-07-01

    Apparatus is provided for controlling the plasma energy production rate of a magnetic-confinement fusion reactor, by controlling the magnetic field ripple. The apparatus includes a group of shield sectors formed of ferromagnetic material which has a temperature-dependent saturation magnetization, with each shield lying between the plasma and a toroidal field coil. A mechanism for controlling the temperature of the magnetic shields, as by controlling the flow of cooling water therethrough, thereby controls the saturation magnetization of the shields and therefore the amount of ripple in the magnetic field that confines the plasma, to thereby control the amount of heat loss from the plasma. This heat loss in turn determines the plasma state and thus the rate of energy production.

  19. ARM - Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Project (BBOP) Related Links BBOP Home Outreach News & Press Backgrounder (PDF, 2.1MB) Images ARM flickr site ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Deployment Operations Airborne Measurements Science Plan (PDF, 2.2MB) BBOP wiki Login Required Data Sets Experiment Planning Proposal Abstract and Related Campaigns BBOP Breakout Session, ASR Science Team Meeting, March 2014 BBOP Breakout Session, ASR Science Team Meeting, March 2013 BNL BBOP Website Contacts Larry Kleinman, Lead Scientist Arthur

  20. Fluidized bed paint stripping and sludge burning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhatia, J.; Staffin, H.K.

    1986-01-01

    High volume automated painting, as encountered in the painting of automobiles and appliances, requires that the item being painted be positioned in a conveying frame or fixture so that the painting machine or robot achieves a reproducible, high quality paint job. These conveying frames or fixtures are extensive fabrications carefully designed to position and support the item being painted. In the case of automotive painting, they are rather large and involve substantial weights, because they must be capable of supporting and positioning auto bodies and large sub-assemblies.

  1. Mass-burn WTE plant takes trash burning into new era

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-04-01

    An arsenal of state-of-the-art air-pollution-control equipment and demonstration of a 1,300-psig steam cycle characterize this facility, which efficiently produces clean power from trash. A successful waste-to-energy (WTE) project has been completely redefined in this ``not-in-my-backyard`` era. This new definition of success is no longer limited to achieving desired performance, capacity, availability, and profitability goals. According to William Taylor, plant manager, a successful project must also meet the nebulous requirement of ``being a good neighbor,`` which is often the more difficult challenge to meet.

  2. Method of burning lightly loaded coal-water slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krishna, C.R.

    1984-07-27

    In a preferred arrangement of the method of the invention, a lightly loaded coal-water slurry, containing in the range of approximately 40% to 52% + 2% by weight coal, is atomized to strip water from coal particles in the mixture. Primary combustor air is forced around the atomized spray in a combustion chamber of a combustor to swirl the air in a helical path through the combustion chamber. A flame is established within the combustion chamber to ignite the stripped coal particles, and flame temperature regulating means are provided for maintaining the flame temperature within a desired predetermined range of temperatures that is effective to produce dry, essentially slag-free ash from the combustion process.

  3. Economic assessment of coal-burning locomotives: Topical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-02-01

    The General Electric Company embarked upon a study to evaluate various alternatives for the design and manufacture a coal fired locomotive considering various prime movers, but retaining the electric drive transmission. The initial study was supported by the Burlington-Northern and Norfolk-Southern railroads, and included the following alternatives: coal fired diesel locomotive; direct fired gas turbine locomotives; direct fired gas turbine locomotive with steam injection; raw coal gasifier gas turbine locomotive; and raw coal fluid bed steam turbine locomotive. All alternatives use the electric drive transmission and were selected for final evaluation. The first three would use a coal water slurry as a fuel, which must be produced by new processing plants. Therefore, use of a slurry would require a significant plant capital investment. The last two would use classified run-of-the-mine (ROM) coal with much less capital expenditure. Coal fueling stations would be required but are significantly lower in capital cost than a coal slurry plant. For any coal fired locomotive to be commercially viable, it must pass the following criteria: be technically feasible and environmentally acceptable; meet railroads' financial expectations; and offer an attractive return to the locomotive manufacturer. These three criteria are reviewed in the report.

  4. Hospital to save $71,800/year burning trash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hume, M.

    1984-01-01

    A waste-to-steam dual-fuel boiler system will save the Geisinger Medical Center in Pennsylvania $71,800 a year in avoided natural gas, trash-hauling, and incinerating costs. In operation less than a year, the system currently generates 6.3% of hospital steam for an anticipated three-year payback. A waste-heat-recovery system, with a net cost of $360,000, will pay for itself in an estimated five years. The case-history report describes how the system fits into hospital operations. (DCK)

  5. Gyrokinetic Particle Simulation of Turbulent Transport in Burning Plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diamond, P.H.; Lin, Z.; Wang, W.; Horton, W.; Klasky, S.; Decyk, V.; Ma, K.-L.; Chames, J.; Adams, M.

    2011-09-21

    The three-year project GPS-TTBP resulted in over 152 publications and 135 presentations. This summary focuses on the scientific progress made by the project team. A major focus of the project was on the physics intrinsic rotation in tokamaks. Progress included the first ever flux driven study of net intrinsic spin-up, mediated by boundary effects (in collaboration with CPES), detailed studies of the microphysics origins of the Rice scaling, comparative studies of symmetry breaking mechanisms, a pioneering study of intrinsic torque driven by trapped electron modes, and studies of intrinsic rotation generation as a thermodynamic engine. Validation studies were performed with C-Mod, DIII-D and CSDX. This work resulted in very successful completion of the FY2010 Theory Milestone Activity for OFES, and several prominent papers of the 2008 and 2010 IAEA Conferences. A second major focus was on the relation between zonal flow formation and transport non-locality. This culminated in the discovery of the ExB staircase - a conceptually new phenomenon. This also makes useful interdisciplinary contact with the physics of the PV staircase, well-known in oceans and atmospheres. A third topic where progress was made was in the simulation and theory of turbulence spreading. This work, now well cited, is important for understanding the dynamics of non-locality in turbulent transport. Progress was made in studies of conjectured non-diffusive transport in trapped electron turbulence. Pioneering studies of ITB formation, coupling to intrinsic rotation and hysteresis were completed. These results may be especially significant for future ITER operation. All told, the physics per dollar performance of this project was quite good. The intense focus was beneficial and SciDAC resources were essential to its success.

  6. Ignition and burn of a small magnetized fuel target

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirkpatrick, Ronald C.

    2012-06-01

    The crucial step for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is ignition, which leads to sufficiently high gain to enable design of a power producing system. Thus far, this step has not been demonstrated. Magnetized targets may provide an alternative path to ignition. In addition, the 1-D calculations presented here suggest that this approach may provide the gain and other characteristics needed for a practical fusion reactor.

  7. "Plasma stability and burn control" Inventor...--.. Richard J...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    relevant to power plant operation. To decrease the fatigue in a key components in a power plant associated with thermal cycling, it would be advantageous to independently control...

  8. Investigation of NO2 Oxidation Kinetics and Burning Mode for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Duty Diesel Particulate: Contrasting O2 and NO2 Oxidation Reports on preliminary measurements of particulate reactivity and changes in microstructure upon exposure to NO2, which...

  9. Burning Modes and Oxidation Rates of Soot: Relevance to Diesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (OFCVT). PDF icon deer07vanderwal.pdf More Documents & Publications Soot Nanostructure: Definition, Quantification, and Implications Towards Fuel-Efficient DPF Systems:...

  10. Long-Haul Truck Idling Burns Up Profits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-08-12

    Long-haul truck drivers perform a vitally important service. In the course of their work, they must take rest periods as required by federal law. Most drivers remain in their trucks, which they keep running to provide power for heating, cooling, and other necessities. Such idling, however, comes at a cost; it is an expensive and polluting way to keep drivers safe and comfortable. Increasingly affordable alternatives to idling not only save money and reduce pollution, but also help drivers get a better night's rest.

  11. Multiparameter measurement utilizing poloidal polarimeter for burning plasma reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Imazawa, Ryota; Kawano, Yasunori; Itami, Kiyoshi; Kusama, Yoshinori

    2014-08-21

    The authors have made the basic and applied research on the polarimeter for plasma diagnostics. Recently, the authors have proposed an application of multiparameter measurement (magnetic field, B, electron density, n{sub e}, electron temperature, T{sub e}, and total plasma current, I{sub p}) utilizing polarimeter to future fusion reactors. In this proceedings, the brief review of the polarimeter, the principle of the multiparameter measurement and the progress of the research on the multiparameter measurement are explained. The measurement method that the authors have proposed is suitable for the reactor for the following reasons; multiparameters can be obtained from a small number of diagnostics, the proposed method does not depend on time-history, and far-infrared light utilized by the polarimeter is less sensitive to degradation of of optical components. Taking into account the measuring error, performance assessment of the proposed method was carried. Assuming that the error of ?? and ?? were 0.1 and 0.6, respectively, the error of reconstructed j{sub ?}, n{sub e} and T{sub e} were 12 %, 8.4 % and 31 %, respectively. This study has shown that the reconstruction error can be decreased by increasing the number of the wavelength of the probing laser and by increasing the number of the viewing chords. For example, By increasing the number of viewing chords to forty-five, the error of j{sub ?}, n{sub e} and T{sub e} were reduced to 4.4 %, 4.4 %, and 17 %, respectively.

  12. Advanced Lean-Burn DI Spark Ignition Fuels Research

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation

  13. Next-generation Ultra-Lean Burn Powertrain

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  14. Advanced Lean-Burn DI Spark Ignition Fuels Research

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  15. Advanced Lean-Burn DI Spark Ignition Fuels Research

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C.

  16. Advanced Lean-Burn DI Spark Ignition Fuels Research

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  17. Passive Ammonia SCR for Lean Burn SIDI Engines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Passive NH3 SCR has been demonstrated as a high efficiency and low cost alternative lean NOx aftertreatment technology for stratified gasoline engines.

  18. Double, Double Toil and Trouble: Tungsten Burns and Helium Bubbles...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    larger when it bursts, creating more surface debris. The colors indicate helium atoms (blue) and tungsten atoms (red). The Science When simulated helium (He) bubbles grow quickly,...

  19. Limited_Burn_CX_10-26-09.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  20. Piloted rich-catalytic lean-burn hybrid combustor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Newburry, Donald Maurice (Orlando, FL)

    2002-01-01

    A catalytic combustor assembly which includes, an air source, a fuel delivery means, a catalytic reactor assembly, a mixing chamber, and a means for igniting a fuel/air mixture. The catalytic reactor assembly is in fluid communication with the air source and fuel delivery means and has a fuel/air plenum which is coated with a catalytic material. The fuel/air plenum has cooling air conduits passing therethrough which have an upstream end. The upstream end of the cooling conduits is in fluid communication with the air source but not the fuel delivery means.

  1. GYROKINETIC PARTICLE SIMULATION OF TURBULENT TRANSPORT IN BURNING PLASMAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horton, Claude Wendell

    2014-06-10

    The SciDAC project at the IFS advanced the state of high performance computing for turbulent structures and turbulent transport. The team project with Prof Zhihong Lin [PI] at Univ California Irvine produced new understanding of the turbulent electron transport. The simulations were performed at the Texas Advanced Computer Center TACC and the NERSC facility by Wendell Horton, Lee Leonard and the IFS Graduate Students working in that group. The research included a Validation of the electron turbulent transport code using the data from a steady state university experiment at the University of Columbia in which detailed probe measurements of the turbulence in steady state were used for wide range of temperature gradients to compare with the simulation data. These results were published in a joint paper with Texas graduate student Dr. Xiangrong Fu using the work in his PhD dissertation. X.R. Fu, W. Horton, Y. Xiao, Z. Lin, A.K. Sen and V. Sokolov, Validation of electron Temperature gradient turbulence in the Columbia Linear Machine, Phys. Plasmas 19, 032303 (2012).

  2. Hanford Site production reactor data pertinent to actinide burning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toffer, H.; Roblyer, S.P.

    1993-06-01

    During the 44 years of operation, irradiation of special actinides occurred in the Hanford Site production reactors. The data derived from such irradiations could be of value to advanced actinide burners having a thermal neutron spectrum. Recently, such information has become unclassified and, therefore available for public release. This data is discussed in this report.

  3. Facility Closure Report for Tunnel U16a, Area 16, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2009-07-01

    U16a is not listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. The closure of U16a was sponsored by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) and performed with the cooperation of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection. This report documents closure of this site as identified in the DTRA Fiscal Year 2008 Statement of Work, Task 6.3. Closure activities included: Removing and disposing of a shack and its contents Disposing of debris from within the shack and in the vicinity of the tunnel entrance Verifying that the tunnel is empty Welding screened covers over tunnel vent holes to limit access and allow ventilation Constructing a full-tunnel cross-section fibercrete bulkhead to prevent access to the tunnel Field activities were conducted from July to August 2008.

  4. MHK Technologies/Tidal Lagoons | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to shape the output curve in order to dispatch power in response to demand price signals. The impoundment structure is a conventional rubble mound breakwater (loose rock,...

  5. L-Area Reactor - 1993 annual - groundwater monitoring report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chase, J.A.

    1994-09-01

    Groundwater was sampled and analyzed during 1993 from wells monitoring the water table at the following locations in L Area: the L-Area Acid/Caustic Basin (four LAC wells), L-Area Research Wells in the southern portion of the area (outside the fence; three LAW wells), the L-Area Oil and Chemical Basin (four LCO wells), the L-Area Disassembly Basin (two LDB wells), the L-Area Burning/Rubble Pit (four LRP wells), and the L-Area Seepage Basin (four LSB wells). During 1993, tetrachloroethylene was detected above its drinking water standard (DWS) in the LAC, LAW, LCO, and LDB well series. Lead exceeded its 50 {mu}g/L standard in the LAW, LDB, and LRP series, and tritium was above its DWS in the LAW, LCO, and LSB series. Apparently anomalous elevated levels of the common laboratory contaminant bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate were reported during first quarter in one well each in the LAC series and LCO series, and during third quarter in a different LCO well. Extensive radionuclide analyses were performed during 1993 in the LAC, LAW, and LCO well series. No radionuclides other than tritium were reported above DWS or Flag 2 criteria.

  6. Trends in characteristics of hazardous waste-derived fuel burned for energy recovery in cement kilns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lusk, M.G.; Campbell, C.S.

    1996-12-31

    The Cement Kiln Recycling Coalition (CKRC) is a national trade association representing virtually all the U.S. cement companies involved in the use of waste-derived fuel in the cement manufacturing process as well as those companies involved in the collection, processing, managing, and marketing of such fuel. CKRC, in conjunction with the National Association of Chemical Recyclers (NACR), completed several data collection activities over the past two years to provide the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other interested parties with industry-wide trend analyses. The analyses evaluated the content of specific metals in waste fuels utilized by cement kilns, average Btu value of substitute fuels used by kilns, and provides insight into the trends of these properties. With the exception of the data collected by NACR, the study did not evaluate materials sent to hazardous waste incinerators or materials that are combusted at {open_quotes}on-site{close_quotes} facilities.

  7. Electron kinetic effects on interferometry, polarimetry and Thomson scattering measurements in burning plasmas (invited)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mirnov, V. V.; Hartog, D. J. Den; Duff, J.; Parke, E.; Brower, D. L.; Ding, W. X.

    2014-11-15

    At anticipated high electron temperatures in ITER, the effects of electron thermal motion on Thomson scattering (TS), toroidal interferometer/polarimeter (TIP), and poloidal polarimeter (PoPola) diagnostics will be significant and must be accurately treated. The precision of the previous lowest order linear in ? = T{sub e}/m{sub e}c{sup 2} model may be insufficient; we present a more precise model with ?{sup 2}-order corrections to satisfy the high accuracy required for ITER TIP and PoPola diagnostics. The linear model is extended from Maxwellian to a more general class of anisotropic electron distributions that allows us to take into account distortions caused by equilibrium current, ECRH, and RF current drive effects. The classical problem of the degree of polarization of incoherent Thomson scattered radiation is solved analytically exactly without any approximations for the full range of incident polarizations, scattering angles, and electron thermal motion from non-relativistic to ultra-relativistic. The results are discussed in the context of the possible use of the polarization properties of Thomson scattered light as a method of T{sub e} measurement relevant to ITER operational scenarios.

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF BURN TEST SPECIFICATIONS FOR FIRE PROTECTION MATERIALS IN RAM PACKAGES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, N.

    2010-03-03

    The regulations in 10 CFR 71 require that the radioactive material (RAM) packages must be able to withstand specific fire conditions given in 10 CFR 71.73 during Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC). This requirement is normally satisfied by extensive testing of full scale test specimens under required test conditions. Since fire test planning and execution is expensive and only provides a single snapshot into a package performance, every effort is made to minimize testing and supplement tests with results from computational thermal models. However, the accuracy of such thermal models depends heavily on the thermal properties of the fire insulating materials that are rarely available at the regulatory fire temperatures. To the best of authors knowledge no test standards exist that could be used to test the insulating materials and derive their thermal properties for the RAM package design. This paper presents a review of the existing industry fire testing standards and proposes testing methods that could serve as a standardized specification for testing fire insulating materials for use in RAM packages.

  9. Mitigation Options in Forestry, Land-Use, Change and Biomass Burning in Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makundi, Willy R.

    1998-06-01

    Mitigation options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and sequester carbon in land use sectors are describe in some detail. The paper highlights those options in the forestry sector, which are more relevant to different parts of Africa. It briefly outlines a bottom-up methodological framework for comprehensively assessing mitigation options in land use sectors. This method emphasizes the application of end-use demand projections to construct a baseline and mitigation scenarios and explicitly addresses the carbon storage potential on land and in wood products, as well as use of wood to substitute for fossil fuels. Cost-effectiveness indicators for ranking mitigation options are proposed, including those, which account for non-carbon monetary benefits such as those derived from forest products, as well as opportunity cost of pursuing specific mitigation option. The paper finally surveys the likely policies, barriers and incentives to implement such mitigation options in African countries .

  10. A University Consortium on Efficient and Clean High-Pressure, Lean Burn (HPLB) Engines

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C.

  11. Simulation of NOx emission in circulating fluidized beds burning low-grade fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Afsin Gungor

    2009-05-15

    Nitrogen oxides are a major environmental pollutant resulting from combustion. This paper presents a modeling study of pollutant NOx emission resulting from low-grade fuel combustion in a circulating fluidized bed. The simulation model accounts for the axial and radial distribution of NOx emission in a circulating fluidized bed (CFB). The model results are compared with and validated against experimental data both for small-size and industrial-size CFBs that use different types of low-grade fuels given in the literature. The present study proves that CFB combustion demonstrated by both experimental data and model predictions produces low and acceptable levels of NOx emissions resulting from the combustion of low-grade fuels. Developed model can also investigate the effects of different operational parameters on overall NOx emission. As a result of this investigation, both experimental data and model predictions show that NOx emission increases with the bed temperature but decreases with excess air if other parameters are kept unchanged. 37 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. A Numerical Investigation into the Anomalous Slight NOx Increase when Burning Biodiesel: A New (Old) Theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ban-Weiss, G A; Chen, J Y; Buchholz, B A; Dibble, R W

    2007-01-30

    Biodiesel is a notable alternative to petroleum derived diesel fuel because it comes from natural domestic sources and thus reduces dependence on diminishing petroleum fuel from foreign sources, it likely lowers lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions, and it lowers an engine's emission of most pollutants as compared to petroleum derived diesel. However, the use of biodiesel often slightly increases a diesel engine's emission of smog forming nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) relative to petroleum diesel. In this paper, previously proposed theories for this slight NOx increase are reviewed, including theories based on biodiesel's cetane number, which leads to differing amounts of charge preheating, and theories based on the fuel's bulk modulus, which affects injection timing. This paper proposes an additional theory for the slight NO{sub x} increase of biodiesel. Biodiesel typically contains more double bonded molecules than petroleum derived diesel. These double bonded molecules have a slightly higher adiabatic flame temperature, which leads to the increase in NOx production for biodiesel. Our theory was verified using numerical simulations to show a NOx increase, due to the double bonded molecules, that is consistent with observation. Further, the details of these numerical simulations show that NOx is predominantly due to the Zeldovich mechanism.

  13. Advanced Lean-Burn DI Spark Ignition Fuels Research | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    09 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon ft_06_sjoberg.pdf More Documents & Publications HCCI and Stratified-Charge CI Engine Combustion

  14. Neutronics of accelerator-driven subcritical fission for burning transuranics in used nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sattarov, A.; Assadi, S.; Badgley, K.; Baty, A.; Comeaux, J.; Gerity, J.; Kellams, J.; Mcintyre, P.; Pogue, N.; Sooby, E.; Tsvetkov, P.; Rosaire, G.; Mann, T.

    2013-04-19

    We report the development of a conceptual design for accelerator-driven subcritical fission in a molten salt core (ADSMS). ADSMS is capable of destroying all of the transuranics at the same rate and proportion as they are produced in a conventional nuclear power plant. The ADSMS core is fueled solely by transuranics extracted from used nuclear fuel and reduces its radiotoxicity by a factor 10,000. ADSMS offers a way to close the nuclear fuel cycle so that the full energy potential in the fertile fuels uranium and thorium can be recovered.

  15. Transient Safety Analysis of Fast Spectrum TRU Burning LWRs with Internal Blankets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Downar, Thomas; Zazimi, Mujid; Hill, Bob

    2015-01-31

    The objective of this proposal was to perform a detailed transient safety analysis of the Resource-Renewable BWR (RBWR) core designs using the U.S. NRC TRACE/PARCS code system. This project involved the same joint team that has performed the RBWR design evaluation for EPRI and therefore be able to leverage that previous work. And because of their extensive experience with fast spectrum reactors and parfait core designs, ANL was also part the project team. The principal outcome of this project was the development of a state-of-the-art transient analysis capability for GEN-IV reactors based on Monte Carlo generated cross sections and the US NRC coupled code system TRACE/PARCS, and a state-of-the-art coupled code assessment of the transient safety performance of the RBWR.

  16. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Next-generation Ultra-Lean Burn Powertrain

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by MAHLE Powertrain LLC at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about next-generation ultra...

  17. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Next-Generation Ultra Lean Burn Powertrain

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by MAHLE Powertrain, LLC at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about next-generation ultra...

  18. A University Consortium on Efficient and Clean High-Pressure, Lean Burn (HPLB) Engines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  19. A University Consortium on Efficient and Clean High-Pressure, Lean Burn (HPLB) Engines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation

  20. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Advanced Lean-Burn DI Spark Ignition Fuels Research

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Sandia National Laboratories at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about advanced lean...

  1. Gyrokinetic Particle Simulation of Turbulent Transport in Burning Plasmas (GPS - TTBP) Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chame, Jacqueline

    2011-05-27

    The goal of this project is the development of the Gyrokinetic Toroidal Code (GTC) Framework and its applications to problems related to the physics of turbulence and turbulent transport in tokamaks,. The project involves physics studies, code development, noise effect mitigation, supporting computer science efforts, diagnostics and advanced visualizations, verification and validation. Its main scientific themes are mesoscale dynamics and non-locality effects on transport, the physics of secondary structures such as zonal flows, and strongly coherent wave-particle interaction phenomena at magnetic precession resonances. Special emphasis is placed on the implications of these themes for rho-star and current scalings and for the turbulent transport of momentum. GTC-TTBP also explores applications to electron thermal transport, particle transport; ITB formation and cross-cuts such as edge-core coupling, interaction of energetic particles with turbulence and neoclassical tearing mode trigger dynamics. Code development focuses on major initiatives in the development of full-f formulations and the capacity to simulate flux-driven transport. In addition to the full-f -formulation, the project includes the development of numerical collision models and methods for coarse graining in phase space. Verification is pursued by linear stability study comparisons with the FULL and HD7 codes and by benchmarking with the GKV, GYSELA and other gyrokinetic simulation codes. Validation of gyrokinetic models of ion and electron thermal transport is pursed by systematic stressing comparisons with fluctuation and transport data from the DIII-D and NSTX tokamaks. The physics and code development research programs are supported by complementary efforts in computer sciences, high performance computing, and data management.

  2. Selenium And Arsenic Speciation in Fly Ash From Full-Scale Coal-Burning Utility Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huggins, F.E.; Senior, C.L.; Chu, P.; Ladwig, K.; Huffman, G.P.; /Kentucky U. /Reaction Engin. Int. /Elect. Power Res. Inst., Palo Alto

    2007-07-09

    X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy has been used to determine directly the oxidation states and speciation of selenium and arsenic in 10 fly ash samples collected from full-scale utility plants. Such information is needed to assess the health risk posed by these elements in fly ash and to understand their behavior during combustion and in fly ash disposal options, such as sequestration in tailings ponds. Selenium is found predominantly as Se(IV) in selenite (SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-}) species, whereas arsenic is found predominantly as As(V) in arsenate (AsO{sub 4}{sup 3-}) species. Two distinct types of selenite and arsenate spectra were observed depending upon whether the fly ash was derived from eastern U.S. bituminous (Fe-rich) coals or from western subbituminous or lignite (Ca-rich) coals. Similar spectral details were observed for both arsenic and selenium in the two different types of fly ash, suggesting that the post-combustion behavior and capture of both of these elements are likely controlled by the same dominant element or phase in each type of fly ash.

  3. LAKESHORE AVON BR ANT-EDEN ALD EN-LANC ASTER AU BURN W SH ELDON

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    BOE Reserve Class No 2001 reserves 0.1 - 10 MBOE 10.1 - 100 MBOE 100.1 - 1000 MBOE 1000.1 - 10,000 MBOE 10,000.1 - 100,000 MBOE > 100,000 MBOE Appalachian Basin Boundary C a n a d a N Y P A N Y U S A Appalachian Basin, NY Area (Panel 1 of 7) Oil and Gas Fields By 2001 BOE

  4. LAKESHORE AVON BR ANT-EDEN ALD EN-LANC ASTER AU BURN W SH ELDON

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Liquids Reserve Class No 2001 Liiquids Reserves 0.1 - 10 Mbbl 10.1 - 100 Mbbl 100.1 - 1000 Mbbl 1000.1 - 10,000 Mbbl Appalachian Basin Boundary C a n a d a N Y P A N Y U S A Appalachian Basin, NY Area (Panel 1 of 7) Oil and Gas Fields By 2001 Liquids

  5. Kudzu (Pueraria montana) community responses to herbicides, burning, and high-density loblolly pine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.B. Harrington; L.T. Rader-Dixon; J.W. Taylor, Jr.

    2003-11-01

    Kudzu is an aggressive, nonnative vine that currently dominates an estimated 810,000 ha of mesic forest communities in the eastern United States. To test an integrated method of weed control, abundances of kudzu and other plant species were compared during 4 yr after six herbicide treatments (clopyralid, triclopyr, metsulfuron, picloram 1 2,4-D, tebuthiuron, and a nonsprayed check), in which loblolly pines were planted at three densities (0, 1, and 4 seedlings m22) to induce competition and potentially delay kudzu recovery. This split-plot design was replicated on each of the four kudzu-dominated sites near Aiken, SC. Relative light intensity (RLI) and soil water content (SWC) were measured periodically to identify mechanisms of interference among plant species. Two years after treatment (1999), crown coverage of kudzu averaged , 2% in herbicide plots compared with 93% in the nonsprayed check, and these differences were maintained through 2001, except in clopyralid plots where kudzu cover increased to 15%. In 2001, pine interference was associated with 33, 56, and 67% reductions in biomass of kudzu, blackberry, and herbaceous vegetation, respectively. RLI in kudzu-dominated plots (4 to 15% of full sun) generally was less than half that of herbicide-treated plots. SWC was greatest in tebuthiuron plots, where total vegetation cover averaged 26% compared with 77 to 111% in other plots. None of the treatments eradicated kudzu, but combinations of herbicides and induced pine competition delayed its recovery.

  6. High Burn-Up Spent Nuclear Fuel Vibration Integrity Study 15134

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jy-An John; Wang, Hong; Jiang, Hao; Bevard, Bruce Balkcom; Howard, Rob L; Scaglione, John M

    2015-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed the cyclic integrated reversible-bending fatigue tester (CIRFT) approach to successfully demonstrate the controllable fatigue fracture on high burnup (HBU) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a normal vibration mode. CIRFT enables examination of the underlying mechanisms of SNF system dynamic performance. Due to the inhomogeneous composite structure of the SNF system, the detailed mechanisms of the pellet-pellet and pellet-clad interactions and the stress concentration effects at the pellet-pellet interface cannot be readily obtained from a CIRFT system measurement. Therefore, finite element analyses (FEAs) are used to translate the global moment-curvature measurement into local stress-strain profiles for further investigation. The major findings of CIRFT on the HBU SNF are as follows: SNF system interface bonding plays an important role in SNF vibration performance. Fuel structure contributes to SNF system stiffness. There are significant variations in stress and curvature of SNF systems during vibration cycles resulting from segment pellets and clad interactions. SNF failure initiates at the pellet-pellet interface region and appears to be spontaneous.

  7. SciDAC Center for Gyrokinetic Particle Simulation of Turbulent Transport in Burning Plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Zhihong

    2013-12-18

    During the first year of the SciDAC gyrokinetic particle simulation (GPS) project, the GPS team (Zhihong Lin, Liu Chen, Yasutaro Nishimura, and Igor Holod) at the University of California, Irvine (UCI) studied the tokamak electron transport driven by electron temperature gradient (ETG) turbulence, and by trapped electron mode (TEM) turbulence and ion temperature gradient (ITG) turbulence with kinetic electron effects, extended our studies of ITG turbulence spreading to core-edge coupling. We have developed and optimized an elliptic solver using finite element method (FEM), which enables the implementation of advanced kinetic electron models (split-weight scheme and hybrid model) in the SciDAC GPS production code GTC. The GTC code has been ported and optimized on both scalar and vector parallel computer architectures, and is being transformed into objected-oriented style to facilitate collaborative code development. During this period, the UCI team members presented 11 invited talks at major national and international conferences, published 22 papers in peer-reviewed journals and 10 papers in conference proceedings. The UCI hosted the annual SciDAC Workshop on Plasma Turbulence sponsored by the GPS Center, 2005-2007. The workshop was attended by about fifties US and foreign researchers and financially sponsored several gradual students from MIT, Princeton University, Germany, Switzerland, and Finland. A new SciDAC postdoc, Igor Holod, has arrived at UCI to initiate global particle simulation of magnetohydrodynamics turbulence driven by energetic particle modes. The PI, Z. Lin, has been promoted to the Associate Professor with tenure at UCI.

  8. Study of {sup 24}Mg resonances relevant for carbon burning nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toki?, V.; Soi?, N.; Blagus, S.; Fazini?, S.; Jelavi?-Malenica, D.; Miljani?, D.; Prepolec, L.; Skukan, N.; Szilner, S.; Uroi?, M.; Milin, M.; Di Pietro, A.; Figuera, P.; Fisichella, M.; Lattuada, M.; Scuderi, V.; Strano, E.; Torresi, D.; Freer, M.; Ziman, V.; and others

    2014-05-09

    We have studied decays of resonances in {sup 24}Mg at excitation energies above the {sup 12}C+{sup 12}C decay threshold, using {sup 12}C({sup 16}O,?){sup 24}Mg* reaction. This experiment has been performed at INFNLNS, using Tandem accelerator beam of 16O at E = 94 MeV. Some preliminary results are presented.

  9. Engineering and Physics Optimization of Breed and Burn Fast Reactor Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael J. Driscoll; Pavel Hejzlar; Peter Yarsky; Dan Wachs; Kevan Weaver; Ken Czerwinski; Michael Pope; Cliff Davis; Theron Marshall; James Parry

    2005-12-09

    This project is organized under four major tasks (each of which has two or more subtasks) with contributions among the three collaborating organizations (MIT, INEEL and ANL-West): Task A: Core Physics and Fuel Cycle; Task B: Core Thermal Hydraulics; Task C: Plant Design Task; and D: Fuel Design.

  10. Voluntary Protection Program Onsite Review, Burns & McDonnell- Facility Engineering Services, LLC- September 2015

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Recertification of FES as a Star Participant in the Department of Energy Voluntary Protection Program.

  11. Underground Coal Gasification Program

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1994-12-01

    CAVSIM is a three-dimensional, axisymmetric model for resource recovery and cavity growth during underground coal gasification (UCG). CAVSIM is capable of following the evolution of the cavity from near startup to exhaustion, and couples explicitly wall and roof surface growth to material and energy balances in the underlying rubble zones. Growth mechanisms are allowed to change smoothly as the system evolves from a small, relatively empty cavity low in the coal seam to a large,more » almost completely rubble-filled cavity extending high into the overburden rock. The model is applicable to nonswelling coals of arbitrary seam thickness and can handle a variety of gas injection flow schedules or compositions. Water influx from the coal aquifer is calculated by a gravity drainage-permeation submodel which is integrated into the general solution. The cavity is considered to consist of up to three distinct rubble zones and a void space at the top. Resistance to gas flow injected from a stationary source at the cavity floor is assumed to be concentrated in the ash pile, which builds up around the source, and also the overburden rubble which accumulates on top of this ash once overburden rock is exposed at the cavity top. Char rubble zones at the cavity side and edges are assumed to be highly permeable. Flow of injected gas through the ash to char rubble piles and the void space is coupled by material and energy balances to cavity growth at the rubble/coal, void/coal and void/rock interfaces. One preprocessor and two postprocessor programs are included - SPALL calculates one-dimensional mean spalling rates of coal or rock surfaces exposed to high temperatures and generates CAVSIM input: TAB reads CAVSIM binary output files and generates ASCII tables of selected data for display; and PLOT produces dot matrix printer or HP printer plots from TAB output.« less

  12. Assessment of the percent status of burning refuse-derived fuel as a fuel supplement in the cement kiln industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1981-09-01

    The purpose of the project was to solicit information on the use of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) in cement kilns by survey, follow up the mailed survey with telephone calls to the recipients, and assemble collected information into a report. A list of companies that had some experience with RFD was compiled and is presented in Appendix A. The procedure for conducting the survey is explained. A copy of the questionnaire is presented in Appendix B. The letters of response are reproduced in Appendix C. Two completed forms were received and clear conclusions are summarized. The effort was terminated and no final report was assembled.

  13. Century-long Record of Black Carbon in an Ice Core from the Eastern Pamirs: Estimated Contributions from Biomass Burning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Mo; Xu, B.; Kaspari, Susan D.; Gleixner, Gerd; Schwab, Valerie; Zhao, Huabiao; Wang, Hailong; Yao, Ping

    2015-08-01

    We analyzed refractory black carbon (rBC) in an ice core spanning 1875-2000 AD from Mt. Muztagh Ata, the Eastern Pamirs, using a Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2). Additionally a pre-existing levoglucosan record from the same ice core was used to differentiate rBC that originated from open fires, energy-related combustion of biomass, and fossil fuel combustion. Mean rBC concentrations increased four-fold since the mid-1970s and reached maximum values at the end of 1980s. The observed decrease of the rBC concentrations during the 1990s was likely driven by the economic recession of former USSR countries in Central Asia. Levoglucosan concentrations showed a similar temporal trend to rBC concentrations, exhibiting a large increase around 1980 AD followed by a decrease in the 1990s that was likely due to a decrease in energy-related biomass combustion. The time evolution of levoglucosan/rBC ratios indicated stronger emissions from open fires during the 1940s-1950s, while the increase in rBC during the 1980s-1990s was caused from an increase in energy-related combustion of biomass and fossil fuels.

  14. Smoke hazards resulting from the burning of shipboard paints. Part 3. Interim report, 1 September 1981-31 August 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, F.W.; Powell, E.A.; Zinn, B.T.

    1987-09-18

    Investigations continued to evaluate the hazards caused by smoke formation in shipboard fires. The physical properties of the smoke particulates generated during combustion were determined for two types of paints used by the U.S. Navy in ships and submarines. These were a chlorinated alkyd paint and and intumescent paint. The physical properties measured were particle size distribution, mean particle diameter, mass fraction of fuel converted to particulates, optical density, particle refractive index, and particulate volume fraction. The dependence of these properties on the temperature of the test-chamber atmosphere (room temperature to a maximum of 300/sup 0/C) and the mode of combustion (flamming or smoldering) was determined for both materials. The results of this study indicated that both paints produce smoke with a log-normal particle size distribution during smoldering combustion in the room temperature tests. Optical measurements made during these tests show that both paints produce smoke particulates with mean diameters that vary with time between 0.6 and 1.2 microm. Under these conditions the chlorinated alkyd paint produces pale yellow spherical liquid droplets, while the intumescent paint produces a mixture of light tan and white solid particles.

  15. Feasibility study of burning waste paper in coal-fired boilers on Air Force installations. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.P.

    1993-09-01

    This thesis examined the feasibility of using waste paper derived fuel in coal-fired boilers on Air Force installations in an attempt to help solve air pollution and solid waste disposal problems. The implementation of waste paper derived fuel was examined from both a technical acceptability and an economic feasibility viewpoint. The majority of data for this study was obtained through literature reviews and personal interviews. Waste paper was found to be technically acceptable for use as fuel. However, waste paper has certain characteristics that may create problems during combustion and therefore further research is required. These problems included the possibility of increased nitrous oxide emissions, increased volatile emissions, dioxin and furan emissions, formation of hydrochloric acid, and the presence of heavy metals in emissions and ash.

  16. Type B Accident Investigation Board Report on the September 7, 2001, Burn Accident at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Building 9210

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This report is an independent product of the Type B Investigation Board appointed by G. Leah Dever, Manager, Oak Ridge Operations Office, U.S. Department of Energy.

  17. Prospects for measuring the fuel ion ratio in burning ITER plasmas using a DT neutron emission spectrometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hellesen, C.; Skiba, M., E-mail: mateusz.skiba@physics.uu.se; Dzysiuk, N.; Weiszflog, M.; Hjalmarsson, A.; Ericsson, G.; Conroy, S.; Andersson-Sundn, E.; Eriksson, J.; Binda, F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Uppsala (EURATOM-VR Association), SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2014-11-15

    The fuel ion ratio n{sub t}/n{sub d} is an essential parameter for plasma control in fusion reactor relevant applications, since maximum fusion power is attained when equal amounts of tritium (T) and deuterium (D) are present in the plasma, i.e., n{sub t}/n{sub d} = 1.0. For neutral beam heated plasmas, this parameter can be measured using a single neutron spectrometer, as has been shown for tritium concentrations up to 90%, using data obtained with the MPR (Magnetic Proton Recoil) spectrometer during a DT experimental campaign at the Joint European Torus in 1997. In this paper, we evaluate the demands that a DT spectrometer has to fulfill to be able to determine n{sub t}/n{sub d} with a relative error below 20%, as is required for such measurements at ITER. The assessment shows that a back-scattering time-of-flight design is a promising concept for spectroscopy of 14 MeV DT emission neutrons.

  18. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 484: Surface Debris, Waste Sites, and Burn Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-09-01

    File Part 2 of 10 (Comprises Appendices C through O, Library Distribution List, and Geophysics Data Images

  19. An economic analysis of a light and heavy water moderated reactor synergy: burning americium using recycled uranium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wojtaszek, D.; Edwards, G.

    2013-07-01

    An economic analysis is presented for a proposed synergistic system between 2 nuclear utilities, one operating light water reactors (LWR) and another running a fleet of heavy water moderated reactors (HWR). Americium is partitioned from LWR spent nuclear fuel (SNF) to be transmuted in HWRs, with a consequent averted disposal cost to the LWR operator. In return, reprocessed uranium (RU) is supplied to the HWRs in sufficient quantities to support their operation both as power generators and americium burners. Two simplifying assumptions have been made. First, the economic value of RU is a linear function of the cost of fresh natural uranium (NU), and secondly, plutonium recycling for a third utility running a mixed oxide (MOX) fuelled reactor fleet has been already taking place, so that the extra cost of americium recycling is manageable. We conclude that, in order for this scenario to be economically attractive to the LWR operator, the averted disposal cost due to partitioning americium from LWR spent fuel must exceed 214 dollars per kg, comparable to estimates of the permanent disposal cost of the high level waste (HLW) from reprocessing spent LWR fuel. (authors)

  20. Microsoft Word - FOI 2015-01133.Ack.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    relating to or mentioning work done at the facility or supervised by Burns and Roe Enterprises, Inc., Winona Hudson Corporation, Burns and Roe Group, Inc., Burns and Roe...

  1. Electricity Monthly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Coal has also lost market share to natural gas in all regions of the country. Days of burn Days of burn by coal rank Capacity by days of burn The average number of days of burn...

  2. CX-010400: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Engineered Rubble Pile for Training Exercises at the Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response Training and Education Facility CX(s) Applied: B1.15 Date: 05/16/2013 Location(s): Washington Offices(s): River Protection-Richland Operations Office

  3. Fire and explosion hazards of oil shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The US Bureau of Mines publication presents the results of investigations into the fire and explosion hazards of oil shale rocks and dust. Three areas have been examined: the explosibility and ignitability of oil shale dust clouds, the fire hazards of oil shale dust layers on hot surfaces, and the ignitability and extinguishment of oil shale rubble piles. 10 refs., 54 figs., 29 tabs.

  4. The twentieth oil shale symposium proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 20 selections. Some of the titles are: The technical contributions of John Ward Smith in oil shale research; Oil shale rubble fires: ignition and extinguishment; Fragmentation of eastern oil shale for in situ recovery; A study of thermal properties of Chinese oil shale; and Natural invasion of native plants on retorted oil shale.

  5. Fire and explosion hazards of oil shale. Report of Investigations/1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This publication presents the results of investigations into the fire and explosion hazards of oil-shale rocks and dust. Three areas were examined: the explosibility and ignitability of oil-shale dust clouds, the fire hazards of oil-shale dust layers on hot surfaces, and the ignitability and extinguishment of oil shale rubble piles.

  6. Development of a He{sup -} and He{sup 0} beam source for alpha particle measurement in a burning plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanaka, N.; Sasao, M.; Terai, K.; Okamoto, A.; Kitajima, S.; Yamaoka, H.; Wada, M.

    2012-02-15

    Proof of principle experiments of neutral helium beam production for alpha particle diagnostics was carried out on a test stand. Negative helium ions were produced in the Li charge exchange cell, in which stable and long time operation was possible. He{sup -} beam was accelerated to 157 keV. Finally, He{sup 0} beam was successfully produced after the flight in the drift-tube through the auto-electron-detachment process from He{sup -} to He{sup 0}. A neutral beam detector using a pyroelectric device was also developed to measure He{sup 0} beam intensity. The metastable component in the neutral helium beam was found to be less than 2%.

  7. Final closure plan for the high-explosives open burn treatment facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Experimental Test Site 300

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathews, S.

    1997-04-01

    This document addresses the interim status closure of the HE Open Bum Treatment Facility, as detailed by Title 22, Division 4.5, Chapter 15, Article 7 of the Califonia Code of Regulations (CCR) and by Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 265, Subpart G, ``Closure and Post Closure.`` The Closure Plan (Chapter 1) and the Post- Closure Plan (Chapter 2) address the concept of long-term hazard elimination. The Closure Plan provides for capping and grading the HE Open Bum Treatment Facility and revegetating the immediate area in accordance with applicable requirements. The Closure Plan also reflects careful consideration of site location and topography, geologic and hydrologic factors, climate, cover characteristics, type and amount of wastes, and the potential for contaminant migration. The Post-Closure Plan is designed to allow LLNL to monitor the movement, if any, of pollutants from the treatment area. In addition, quarterly inspections will ensure that all surfaces of the closed facility, including the cover and diversion ditches, remain in good repair, thus precluding the potential for contaminant migration.

  8. Electricity Monthly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    cheap price of natural gas reduced coals share of electricity production. Days of Burn Days of burn Coal capacity The average number of days of burn held at electric power...

  9. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    regions) drove the overall decrease in natural gas for power generation (power burn). Power burn in those regions fell by 17.4%, 11.6%, and 18.2%, respectively. Power burn...

  10. Review of subsidence prediction research conducted at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutherland, H.J.; Schuler, K.W.

    1982-04-01

    This paper reviews the results of the subsidence research program at Sandia National Laboratories. The manuscript highlights the following: the application of empirical methods (profile functions) to the subsidence above longwall panels in the US; the use of the rubble model to describe the behavior of broken strata as it distends when it falls to the mine floor (or top of the rubble pile) and then is subsequently compacted as it is loaded by overlying elements of strata; and, the application of physical modeling techniques (centrifuge simulations) and numerical techniques to study the failure mechanisms in highly structured stratigraphy. The capabilities of the latter two are illustrated by comparing their predictions to the results of a field case that has complicated stratigraphy.

  11. Gas seal for an in situ oil shale retort and method of forming thermal barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burton, III, Robert S.

    1982-01-01

    A gas seal is provided in an access drift excavated in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. The access drift is adjacent an in situ oil shale retort and is in gas communication with the fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale formed in the in situ oil shale retort. The mass of formation particles extends into the access drift, forming a rubble pile of formation particles having a face approximately at the angle of repose of fragmented formation. The gas seal includes a temperature barrier which includes a layer of heat insulating material disposed on the face of the rubble pile of formation particles and additionally includes a gas barrier. The gas barrier is a gas-tight bulkhead installed across the access drift at a location in the access drift spaced apart from the temperature barrier.

  12. Explosive fragmentation of oil shale: Results from Colony and Anvil Points Mines, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dick, R.D.; Fourney, W.L.; Young, C. III

    1992-12-31

    From 1978 through 1983, numerous oil shale fragmentation tests were conducted at the Colony and Anvil Points Mines, Colorado. These experiments were part of an investigation to determine factors required for the adequate fragmentation of oil shale and to evaluate the feasibility of using the vertical modified in situ retort (VMIS) method for recovery of kerogen from oil shale. The objective of this research was to support the design of a large volume (10{sup 4} m{sup 3}) rubble bed for in situ processing. In addition, this rubble bed was to be formed in a large single-blast event which included decked charges, time delays, and multiple boreholes. Results are described.

  13. Chemical processing in geothermal nuclear chimney

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krikorian, O.H.

    1973-10-01

    A closed rubble filled nuclear chimney is provided in a subterranean geothermal formation by detonation of a nuclear explosive device therein, with reagent input and product output conduits connecting the chimney cavity with appropriate surface facilities. Such facilities will usually comprise reagent preparation, product recovery and recycle facilities. Proccsses are then conducted in the nuclear chimney which processes are facilitated by temperature, pressure, catalytic and other conditions existent or which are otherwise provided in the nuclear chimney. (auth)

  14. Retrofit Ventilation Strategies in Multifamily Buildings Webinar

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Foundation Retrofits Building America Webinar November 30, 2011 Kohta Ueno Hybrid Foundation Retrofits 2 Background Hybrid Foundation Retrofits 3 Background  Space conditioning energy use for basements  Known moisture-safe solutions (previous research)  Persistent bulk water (leakage) issues  Retrofits of existing foundations  Especially uneven wall (rubble stone) foundations  "Hybrid" insulation and bulk water control assemblies Hybrid Foundation Retrofits 4

  15. Recycling Building Foundation at the Weldon Spring, Missouri, Site |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Recycling Building Foundation at the Weldon Spring, Missouri, Site Recycling Building Foundation at the Weldon Spring, Missouri, Site October 12, 2015 - 11:57am Addthis What does this project do? Goal 4. Optimize the use of land and assets. (top) Foundation removal and (bottom) concrete rubble survey. A 32,635-square-foot administration building was built in 1990 to provide office space for hundreds of Weldon Spring, Missouri, Site Remedial Action Project workers. The

  16. raffinate_pit.cdr

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    When the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant was operational from 1957 to 1966, four unlined pits were constructed to store waste products from the uranium refining process. These wastes (called raffinates) were placed in the pits in the form of liquids and fine-grained sludges. In addition, thousands of drums and hundreds of tons of rubble from earlier decontamination activities were disposed of, primarily in Raffinate Pit 4. Removal of debris was the first step in the overall cleanup of the raffinate

  17. Reciprocating Engines in Support of Grid Modernization

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines Lean Burn Rich Burn GE (Waukesha, Jenbacher), ... Grid Services - CAISO Grid Service Description NG Recips Frequency Regulation >500kW, max ...

  18. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    declined 5.3%. Overall consumption of gas for electric power generation (power burn) fell 3.9%, but there were some regional variations. In particular, power burn...

  19. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    week over week, and consumption of natural gas for electric power generation (power burn) increased 14.5%. Despite decreased power burn in the Pacific Northwest, Rockies, and...

  20. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    to the last report week, with total natural gas used for power generation (power burn) flat. Regional power burn increases in the Midwest (18%), Southeast (4%), Texas (8%),...

  1. Microsoft Word - Letter to Region-Dig signed.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    October 13, 2009. BPA is still evaluating the Opinion and potential implications regarding longer term DSI service. Sincerely, s Allen L. Burns Allen L. Burns, Acting Deputy...

  2. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Renewable Fuels Wood-Burning Heating System Deduction This statute allows individual taxpayers a deduction for the purchase and installation of a wood-burning heating system. The...

  3. Microsoft Word - DOE-ID-INL-15-006.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    an innovative nuclear waste burning system by fast reactor using Uranium (U)-free metallic fuel. U-free metallic fuel is considered a promising technology to burn...

  4. Characterization of in situ oil shale retorts prior to ignition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turner, Thomas F. (Laramie, WY); Moore, Dennis F. (Laramie, WY)

    1984-01-01

    Method and system for characterizing a vertical modified in situ oil shale retort prior to ignition of the retort. The retort is formed by mining a void at the bottom of a proposed retort in an oil shale deposit. The deposit is then sequentially blasted into the void to form a plurality of layers of rubble. A plurality of units each including a tracer gas cannister are installed at the upper level of each rubble layer prior to blasting to form the next layer. Each of the units includes a receiver that is responsive to a coded electromagnetic (EM) signal to release gas from the associated cannister into the rubble. Coded EM signals are transmitted to the receivers to selectively release gas from the cannisters. The released gas flows through the retort to an outlet line connected to the floor of the retort. The time of arrival of the gas at a detector unit in the outlet line relative to the time of release of gas from the cannisters is monitored. This information enables the retort to be characterized prior to ignition.

  5. NUMERICAL MODELING OF THE DISRUPTION OF COMET D/1993 F2 SHOEMAKER-LEVY 9 REPRESENTING THE PROGENITOR BY A GRAVITATIONALLY BOUND ASSEMBLAGE OF RANDOMLY SHAPED POLYHEDRA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Movshovitz, Naor; Asphaug, Erik; Korycansky, Donald

    2012-11-10

    We advance the modeling of rubble-pile solid bodies by re-examining the tidal breakup of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9, an event that occurred during a 1.33 R encounter with Jupiter in 1992 July. Tidal disruption of the comet nucleus led to a chain of sub-nuclei {approx}100-1000 m diameter; these went on to collide with the planet two years later. They were intensively studied prior to and during the collisions, making SL9 the best natural benchmark for physical models of small-body disruption. For the first time in the study of this event, we use numerical codes treating rubble piles as collections of polyhedra. This introduces forces of dilatation and friction, and inelastic response. As in our previous studies we conclude that the progenitor must have been a rubble pile, and we obtain approximately the same pre-breakup diameter ({approx}1.5 km) in our best fits to the data. We find that the inclusion of realistic fragment shapes leads to grain locking and dilatancy, so that even in the absence of friction or other dissipation we find that disruption is overall more difficult than in our spheres-based simulations. We constrain the comet's bulk density at {rho}{sub bulk} {approx} 300-400 kg m{sup -3}, half that of our spheres-based predictions and consistent with recent estimates derived from spacecraft observations.

  6. EA-0405: Finding of No Significant Impact

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Innovative Sulfur Dioxide Scrubbing System for Coal Burning Cement Kilns, Passamaquoddy Tribe Thomaston, Maine

  7. Thermal Removal of Tritium from Concrete and Soil to Reduce Groundwater Impacts - 13197

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, Dennis G.; Blount, Gerald C.; Wells, Leslie H.; Cardoso, Joao E.; Kmetz, Thomas F.; Reed, Misty L.

    2013-07-01

    Legacy heavy-water moderator operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) have resulted in the contamination of equipment pads, building slabs, and surrounding soil with tritium. At the time of discovery the tritium had impacted the shallow (< 3-m) groundwater at the facility. While tritium was present in the groundwater, characterization efforts determined that a significant source remained in a concrete slab at the surface and within the associated vadose zone soils. To prevent continued long-term impacts to the shallow groundwater a CERCLA non-time critical removal action for these source materials was conducted to reduce the leaching of tritium from the vadose zone soils and concrete slabs. In order to minimize transportation and disposal costs, an on-site thermal treatment process was designed, tested, and implemented. The on-site treatment consisted of thermal detritiation of the concrete rubble and soil. During this process concrete rubble was heated to a temperature of 815 deg. C (1,500 deg. F) resulting in the dehydration and removal of water bound tritium. During heating, tritium contaminated soil was used to provide thermal insulation during which it's temperature exceeded 100 deg. C (212 deg. F), causing drying and removal of tritium. The thermal treatment process volatiles the water bound tritium and releases it to the atmosphere. The released tritium was considered insignificant based upon Clean Air Act Compliance Package (CAP88) analysis and did not exceed exposure thresholds. A treatability study evaluated the effectiveness of this thermal configuration and viability as a decontamination method for tritium in concrete and soil materials. Post treatment sampling confirmed the effectiveness at reducing tritium to acceptable waste site specific levels. With American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funding three additional treatment cells were assembled utilizing commercial heating equipment and common construction materials. This provided a total of four units to batch treat concrete rubble and soil. Post treatment sampling verified that the activity in the treated soil and concrete met the treatment standards for each medium which allowed the treated concrete rubble and soil to be disposed of on-site as backfill. During testing and operations a total of 1,261-m{sup 3} (1,650-yd{sup 3}) of contaminated concrete and soils were treated with an actual incurred cost of $3,980,000. This represents a unit treatment cost of $3,156/m{sup 3} ($2,412/yd{sup 3}). In 2011 the project was recognized with an e-Star Sustainability Award by DOE's Office of Environmental Management. (authors)

  8. Measure Guideline: Hybrid Foundation Insulation Retrofits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ueno, K.; Lstiburek, J.

    2012-05-01

    This measure guideline provides recommendations for designs and variations for retrofit hybrid assemblies in improving interior foundation insulation and water management of basements. Variations include closed cell spray foam (ccSPF) with membrane waterproofing or air gap membrane drainage layers, rigid board foam insulation at flat walls (cast concrete or CMU block), a 'partial drainage' detail making use of the bulk water drainage that occurs through the field of a rubble stone wall, and non-drained spray foam assemblies (including slab insulation).

  9. Measure Guideline. Hybrid Foundation Insulation Retrofits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ueno, K.; Lstiburek, J.

    2012-05-01

    This measure guideline provides recommendations for designs and variations for retrofit hybrid assemblies in improving interior foundation insulation and water management of basements. Variations include closed cell spray foam (ccSPF) with membrane waterproofing or air gap membrane drainage layers, rigid board foam insulation at flat walls (cast concrete or CMU block), a partial drainage detail making use of the bulk water drainage that occurs through the field of a rubble stone wall, and non-drained spray foam assemblies (including slab insulation).

  10. Success Stories T E C H T R A N S F E R

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Success Stories T E C H T R A N S F E R 2 0 1 2 S A N D I A N AT I O N A L L A B O R AT O R I E S Securing a peaceful and free world through technology 2 Sandia National Laboratories Front Cover: Sandia's GEMINI-Scout Mine Rescue Robot is equipped to handle any number of obstacles, including rubble piles and flooded rooms, to help rescuers reach trapped miners safely and efficiently. (Photo by Randy Montoya) 3 Tech Transfer Success Stories * 2012 4 Acoustic Wave Biosensor: Rapid Point-of-Care

  11. Issue

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    01 October 2004 Remembering the B-Complex Piece by piece it was decommissioned through the summer of 2004. August, when the bulldozers arrived to tear down all that remained of buildings B-1 and B-2. 650 NNSA/NSO contractor employees lay in the parking lot, a heap of rubble and debris. The demolition of buildings B-1 and B-2 in the NNSA/NSO Nevada Support Facility complex surprised no one. The buildings were the subject of a lengthy investigation after it was revealed, in March 2002, that a

  12. Remaining Sites Verification Package for 132-D-3, 1608-D Effluent Pumping Station, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2005-033

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. A. Carlson

    2006-05-09

    Decommissioning and demolition of the 132-D-3 site, 1608-D Effluent Pumping Station was performed in 1986. Decommissioning included removal of equipment, water, and sludge for disposal as radioactive waste. The at- and below-grade structure was demolished to at least 1 m below grade and the resulting rubble buried in situ. The area was backfilled to grade with at least 1 m of clean fill and contoured to the surrounding terrain. Residual concentrations support future land uses that can be represented by a rural-residential scenario and pose no threat to groundwater or the Columbia River based on RESRAD modeling.

  13. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    sectors, a 14.5% increase in natural gas consumed in the power sector (power burn) moved overall demand up for the week. The largest percentage gains in power burn...

  14. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a 23 Bcf week-over-week increase in the use of natural gas for power generation (power burn). The highest power burn increases occurred in the Southeast, where the primary source...

  15. Sandia Sled Track PNOV Press Release

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    current electronic detonator in a trainer device that resulted in a first- degree burn on a finger and second-degree burns on a thumb, finger and abdomen. NNSA cited LANS for...

  16. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    was about 17 percent higher than November of the previous year. Bentek's reported power burn on Wednesday increased to 7.5 Bcf. Last November, power burn in the region averaged 4.5...

  17. Electricity Monthly Update - Energy Information Administration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of coal currently stockpiled at the facility. We call this calculated value days of burn. EIA groups coal plants into three days of burn categories: those with less than 30...

  18. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    | Storage In the News: Cold temperatures, low prices lead to record-high winter power burn Consumption of natural gas for electric power generation (power burn) in 2015 hit...

  19. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    a 4.3% decline in the West. LNG imports rose, but remained at minimal levels. Power burn drives consumption increases. Natural gas used for power generation (power burn) rose...

  20. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    growth. Consumption of natural gas used for electrical power generation (power burn) decreased 1.9%, despite a 9.6% increase in power burn in the Southeast (the largest...

  1. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    to an increase in natural gas consumed in the electric generation sector (power burn). However, despite power burn averaging 27 Bcfd since the beginning of April, 18.4%...

  2. Department of Energy Offers $17 Million Conditional Commitment...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    balance power generation and consumption on the grid, is maintained by burning additional fossil fuels at power plants. The AES project eliminates the need to burn fossil fuels and...

  3. Microsoft Word - Agreement to amend 1-13-09 electronic signature...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    about this issue, please call Mark Miller at (503) 230-4003 or Heidi Helwig of the Public Affairs Office at (503) 230-3458. Sincerely, s Allen L. Burns Allen L. Burns,...

  4. BPA-2012-00740-FOIA Correspondence

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 In reply refer to: DK-7 Haversfield Aviation Attn: Robert Burns 1750 Emmitsburg Road Gettysburg, PA 17325 FOIA BPA-2012-00740-F Dear Mr. Burns: Thank you for your request for...

  5. Portland HQ Letterhead

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    call Mark Symonds at 503-230-3027 or Heidi Helwig of the Public Affairs Office at 503-230-3458. Sincerely, s Allen L. Burns Allen L. Burns, Vice President, Bulk Marketing...

  6. Department

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    20, 2010 Mr. James Burns Law Offices of James Burns, P.S. 2200 Fourth Avenue Seattle, Washington 98121-2087 Dear Mr. Bums: FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT REQUEST (FOI 2010-01283) You...

  7. Research Highlight

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    dependence (w) for biomass burning and biofuel combustion sources, and (c) w and (d) ... of wavelength and BC-to-OA ratio for biomass burning and biofuel combustion sources. ...

  8. #AskEnergySaver: Home Heating | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    via email IW: It's not the fuel, it's how you burn it. Any fossil fuel -- gas, oil or propane -- or even wood or coal needs to be completely burned and its energy extracted as...

  9. National Ignition Facility | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    and Evaluation Inertial Confinement Fusion ICF Facilities National Ignition ... leading to demonstrate fusion ignition and thermonuclear burn in the laboratory. ...

  10. Measurement and Characterization of Unregulated Emissions from...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Publications Ethanol Effects on Lean-Burn and Stoichiometric GDI Emissions Measurement and Characterization of Unregulated Emissions from Advanced Technologies...

  11. ARM - Feature Stories and Releases Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    13, 2013 [Facility News, Feature Stories and Releases] Research Flights Completed for Biomass Burning Field Campaign Bookmark and Share The Gulstream-1 heads toward a smoke plume during a research flight for the Biomass Burning Observation Project. The Gulstream-1 heads toward a smoke plume during a research flight for the Biomass Burning Observation Project. In late October, the ARM Aerial Facility wrapped up a busy season of research flights for the Biomass Burning Observation Project, using a

  12. Comparison of the Acceptability of Various Oil Shale Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burnham, A K; McConaghy, J R

    2006-03-11

    While oil shale has the potential to provide a substantial fraction of our nation's liquid fuels for many decades, cost and environmental acceptability are significant issues to be addressed. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) examined a variety of oil shale processes between the mid 1960s and the mid 1990s, starting with retorting of rubble chimneys created from nuclear explosions [1] and ending with in-situ retorting of deep, large volumes of oil shale [2]. In between, it examined modified-in-situ combustion retorting of rubble blocks created by conventional mining and blasting [3,4], in-situ retorting by radio-frequency energy [5], aboveground combustion retorting [6], and aboveground processing by hot-solids recycle (HRS) [7,8]. This paper reviews various types of processes in both generic and specific forms and outlines some of the tradeoffs for large-scale development activities. Particular attention is given to hot-recycled-solids processes that maximize yield and minimize oil shale residence time during processing and true in-situ processes that generate oil over several years that is more similar to natural petroleum.

  13. Process of breaking and rendering permeable a subterranean rock mass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lekas, Mitchell A. (Concord, CA)

    1980-01-01

    The process of the present invention involves the following steps: producing, as by hydrofracing, a substantially horizontal fracture in the subterranean rock mass to be processed; emplacing an explosive charge in the mass in spaced juxtaposed position to the fracture; enlarging the fracture to create a void space thereat, an initial lifting of the overburden, and to provide a free face juxtaposed to and arranged to cooperate with the emplaced explosive charge; and exploding the charge against the free face for fragmenting the rock and to distribute the space, thus providing fractured, pervious, rubble-ized rock in an enclosed subterranean chamber. Firing of the charge provides a further lifting of the overburden, an enlargement of the chamber and a larger void space to distribute throughout the rubble-ized rock within the chamber. In some forms of the invention an explosive charge is used to produce a transitory enlargement of the fracture, and the juxtaposed emplaced charge is fired during the critical period of enlargement of the fracture.

  14. Plutonium Isotopes in the Terrestrial Environment at the Savannah River Site, USA. A Long-Term Study

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Armstrong, Christopher R.; Nuessle, Patterson R.; Brant, Heather A.; Hall, Gregory; Halverson, Justin E.; Cadieux, James R.

    2015-01-16

    This work presents the findings of a long term plutonium study at Savannah River Site (SRS) conducted between 2003 and 2013. Terrestrial environmental samples were obtained at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) in A-area. Plutonium content and isotopic abundances were measured over this time period by alpha spectrometry and three stage thermal ionization mass spectrometry (3STIMS). Here we detail the complete sample collection, radiochemical separation, and measurement procedure specifically targeted to trace plutonium in bulk environmental samples. Total plutonium activities were determined to be not significantly above atmospheric global fallout. However, the 238Pu/239+240Pu activity ratios attributed to SRS are abovemore » atmospheric global fallout ranges. The 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios are reasonably consistent from year to year and are lower than fallout, while the 242Pu/239Pu atom ratios are higher than fallout values. Overall, the plutonium signatures obtained in this study reflect a mixture of weapons-grade, higher burn-up, and fallout material. This study provides a blue print for long term low level monitoring of plutonium in the environment.« less

  15. Progress on a New Integrated 3-D UCG Simulator and its Initial Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nitao, J J; Camp, D W; Buscheck, T A; White, J A; Burton, G C; Wagoner, J L; Chen, M

    2011-09-22

    A comprehensive simulator is being developed for underground coal gasification (UCG), with the capability to support site selection, design, hazard analyses, operations, and monitoring (Nitao et al., 2010). UCG is computationally challenging because it involves tightly-coupled multi-physical/chemical processes, with vastly different timescales. This new capability will predict cavity growth, product gas composition and rate, and the interaction with the host environment, accounting for site characteristics, injection gas composition and rate, and associated water-well extraction rates. Progress on the new simulator includes completion and system integration of a wall model, a rock spalling model, a cavity boundary tracking model, a one-dimensional cavity gas reactive transport model, a rudimentary rubble heat, mass, and reaction model, and coupling with a pre-existing hydrology simulator. An existing geomechanical simulator was enhanced to model cavity collapse and overburden subsidence. A commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code is being evaluated to model cavity gas flow and combustion in two and three dimensions. Although the simulator is midway in its development, it was applied to modeling the Hoe Creek III field test (Stephens, 1981) conducted in the 1970s, in order to evaluate and demonstrate the simulator's basic capabilities, gain experience, and guide future development. Furthermore, it is consistent with our philosophy of incremental, spiral software development, which helps in identifying and resolving potential problems early in the process. The simulation accounts for two coal seams, two injection points, and air and oxygen phases. Approximate extent and shape of cavity growth showed reasonable agreement with interpreted field data. Product gas composition and carbon consumed could not be simultaneously matched for a given set of parameter values due to the rudimentary rubble model currently used, although they can be matched using separate parameter sets. This result is not surprising and confirms plans for a more sophisticated rubble model as our next step, as well as adding geomechanical collapse modeling and higher accuracy cavity gas reactive transport models. The results are very encouraging and demonstrate that our approach is sound.

  16. Factors affecting the recognition of faults exposed in exploratory trenches. Bulletin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonilla, M.G.; Lienkaemper, J.J.

    1991-01-01

    During excavation of the reactor shaft at the proposed Bodega Head nuclear reactor in California, a fault was found in the sediments overlying bedrock. This apparent lack of a complete connection with the bedrock fault led to disagreement as to whether the fault in the sediments was of tectonic or landslide origin. The report provides information on some of the conditions under which fault strands in trench walls are either difficult to see or die out, and the frequency of occurrence of these phenomena. Information is also provided on the widths of fault zones, on the deformation of the hanging wall and footwall of dip-slip faults, and on the frequency of occurrence of pebble rotation, open fissures, gouge, slickensides, mixing, fault breccia, fault rubble, crushing, polishing, water barriers, and liquefaction effects. Short summaries of information relating to fault strands that are poorly expressed or that die out have already been published (Bonilla and Lienkaemper, 1988, 1990).

  17. Modeling of BWR core meltdown accidents - for application in the MELRPI. MOD2 computer code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koh, B R; Kim, S H; Taleyarkhan, R P; Podowski, M Z; Lahey, Jr, R T

    1985-04-01

    This report summarizes improvements and modifications made in the MELRPI computer code. A major difference between this new, updated version of the code, called MELRPI.MOD2, and the one reported previously, concerns the inclusion of a model for the BWR emergency core cooling systems (ECCS). This model and its computer implementation, the ECCRPI subroutine, account for various emergency injection modes, for both intact and rubblized geometries. Other changes to MELRPI deal with an improved model for canister wall oxidation, rubble bed modeling, and numerical integration of system equations. A complete documentation of the entire MELRPI.MOD2 code is also given, including an input guide, list of subroutines, sample input/output and program listing.

  18. Further RAGE modeling of asteroid mitigation: surface and subsurface explosions in porous objects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weaver, Robert P; Plesko, Catherine S; Dearholt, William R

    2011-01-03

    Disruption or mitigation of a potentially hazardous object (PHO) by a high-energy subsurface burst is considered. This is just one possible method of impact-hazard mitigation. We present RAGE hydrocode models of the shock-generated disruption of PHOs by subsurface nuclear bursts using scenario-specific models from realistic RADAR shape models. We will show 2D and 3D models for the disruption by a large energy source at the center of such PHO models ({approx}100 kt-10 Mt) specifically for the shape of the asteroid 25143 Itokawa. We study the effects of non-uniform composition (rubble pile), shallow buried bursts for the optimal depth of burial and porosity.

  19. Niagara Falls Storage Site environmental monitoring report. Calendar year 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-07-01

    During 1983, an environmental monitoring program was continued at the Niagara Falls Storage Site, a United States Department of Energy (DOE) surplus facility located in Niagara County, New York presently used for the storage of radioactive residues, contaminated soils and rubble. The monitoring program at NFSS measures radon concentrations in air, uranium and radium concentrations in surface water, groundwater, and sediments, and external gamma exposure rates. Radiation doses to the public are also calculated. Environmental samples collected are analyzed to determine compliance with applicable standards. Comparison of 1983 monitoring results with 1982 results shows a significant decrease in radon levels at almost every monitoring location. External gamma exposure rates also showed a general decrease. 9 references, 10 figures, 11 tables

  20. Fire in the hole - Paging in mines from Pennsylvania to China, coal fires threaten towns, poison air and water, and add to global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krajick, K.

    2005-05-01

    China has the most coal fires, but India has the largest concentration of them. The effect of coal fires on the once thriving town of Centralia, Pennsylvania is described. There have been eight attempts to put the fire out using different methods (it has been burning for 43 years), but has now been left to burn. It could burn for another 205 years. The population of the town have mostly been relocated.

  1. AAAS Fellows

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Burns, Hay named new AAAS Fellows February 3, 2009 LOS ALAMOS, New Mexico, February 3, 2009-Laboratory researchers Carol Burns and Jeffrey Hay are new 2008 Fellows of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. The AAAS is the world's largest general scientific society and publisher of the journal Science. Burns is a Laboratory Fellow and the group leader for the Nuclear and Radiochemistry Group. She has served as a senior policy analyst in the White House Office of Science and

  2. Plasma enhancement of combustion of solid fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Askarova, A.S.; Karpenko, E.I.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B.

    2006-03-15

    Plasma fuel systems that increase the coal burning efficiency are discussed. The systems were tested for fuel oil-free startup of boilers and stabilizating a pulverized-coal flame in power-generating boilers equipped with different types of burner and burning all types of power-generating coal. Plasma ignition, thermochemical treatment of an air-fuel mixture prior to combustion, and its burning in a power-generating boiler were numerically simulated. Environmental friendliness of the plasma technology was demonstrated.

  3. Flames in Type Ia Supernova: Deflagration-Detonation Transition in the

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Oxygen Burning Flame. (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Flames in Type Ia Supernova: Deflagration-Detonation Transition in the Oxygen Burning Flame. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Flames in Type Ia Supernova: Deflagration-Detonation Transition in the Oxygen Burning Flame. Abstract not provided. Authors: Kerstein, Alan R. ; Woosley, Stan E. ; Aspden, Andrew J. Publication Date: 2010-10-01 OSTI Identifier: 1121667 Report Number(s): SAND2010-7483J 485788 DOE

  4. Energy Department Announces $2.5 Million to Advance Technologies for

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Clean-Burning, Efficient Biomass Cookstoves | Department of Energy 2.5 Million to Advance Technologies for Clean-Burning, Efficient Biomass Cookstoves Energy Department Announces $2.5 Million to Advance Technologies for Clean-Burning, Efficient Biomass Cookstoves April 13, 2012 - 10:39am Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - The Energy Department today announced up to $2.5 million available this year for applied research to advance clean biomass cookstove technologies for use in developing countries. The

  5. EERE Success Story-Fundamental Studies in Catalysis Enabled the use of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Efficient "Lean-Burn" Engines for Vehicle Transportation | Department of Energy Fundamental Studies in Catalysis Enabled the use of Efficient "Lean-Burn" Engines for Vehicle Transportation EERE Success Story-Fundamental Studies in Catalysis Enabled the use of Efficient "Lean-Burn" Engines for Vehicle Transportation May 7, 2015 - 1:29pm Addthis Building on a catalysis research program sponsored by EERE's Vehicles Technology Office (VTO) and DOE's Office of

  6. Microsoft Word - foi 2014-00627.Final.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Certified Mail March 4, 2014 Mr. James D. Burns Law Offices of James D. Burns 2200 4 th Avenue Seattle, Washington 98121 Dear Mr. Burns: FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT REQUEST (FOI 2014-00627) This letter is in response to the electronic Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request seeking all documents pertaining to the use or purchase of NARCO, also known as North American Refractories Company, at the Hanford Nuclear Plant in Richland, Washington, during the 1955- 1980 period. In a telephone

  7. Method to Increase 3He Supply for Use in Small Clean Fusion Reactors |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Increase 3He Supply for Use in Small Clean Fusion Reactors A method is described how to fuel many small D-3He burning FRC fusion reactors by building a remote D-D burning reactor twin (for each D-3He burning reactor) to breed 3He. Both reactors would employ our novel fusion ash exhaust technique. No.: M-897

  8. Categorical Exclusion Determinations: B1.12 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 Categorical Exclusion Determinations: B1.12 Existing Regulations B1.12: Detonation or burning of explosives or propellants after testing Outdoor detonation or burning of explosives or propellants that failed (duds), were damaged (such as by fracturing), or were otherwise not consumed in testing. Outdoor detonation or burning would be in areas designated and routinely used for those purposes under existing applicable permits issued by Federal, state, and local authorities (such as a permit for

  9. The Role Of IC Engines In Future Energy Use | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Of IC Engines In Future Energy Use The Role Of IC Engines In Future Energy Use Reviews future market trends and forecasts, and future engine challenges and research focus PDF icon deer11_blaxill.pdf More Documents & Publications Next-generation Ultra-Lean Burn Powertrain Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Next-generation Ultra-Lean Burn Powertrain Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Next-Generation Ultra Lean Burn Powertrain

  10. Fundamental Studies in Catalysis Enabled the use of Efficient

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    "Lean-Burn" Engines for Vehicle Transportation | Department of Energy Fundamental Studies in Catalysis Enabled the use of Efficient "Lean-Burn" Engines for Vehicle Transportation Fundamental Studies in Catalysis Enabled the use of Efficient "Lean-Burn" Engines for Vehicle Transportation May 7, 2015 - 1:29pm Addthis Building on a catalysis research program sponsored by EERE's Vehicles Technology Office (VTO) and DOE's Office of Science, researchers at Cummins,

  11. Linkages from DOE's Vehicle Technologies R&D in Advanced Combustion to More

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficient, Cleaner-Burning Engines | Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies R&D in Advanced Combustion to More Efficient, Cleaner-Burning Engines Linkages from DOE's Vehicle Technologies R&D in Advanced Combustion to More Efficient, Cleaner-Burning Engines This report uses bibliometric analysis, supported by interview and review of documents and databases, to trace linkages from knowledge outputs resulting from DOE's advances in vehicle engine combustion to downstream innovations

  12. Quaternary sedimentation and diagenesis in a high-latitude reef, Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Western Australia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosen, M.R.; Collins, L.B. (Curtin Univ. of Technology, Perth, Western Australia (Australia)); Wyrwoll, K.H.; Hatcher, B.G. (Univ. of Western Australia, Perth (Australia))

    1990-05-01

    The Houtman Abrolhos reefs are located 80 km off the west coast of Australia between latitudes 28 and 29{degree} south. The islands are situated on three Pleistocene carbonate reef platforms which rise above the surrounding shelf. The modern coral reefs are close to the geographic limit for coral growth in the southern hemisphere and survive due to the presence of the Leeuwin current (a poleward-flowing warm stream). Two major shallow-water benthic communities coexist in the Abrolhos: a macroalgal-dominated community on the windward platform margins and a coral-dominated community on the leeward margins. These communities overlap-particularly in the platform lagoons, where competition between macroalgae and corals is intense. This interaction has been suggested as a major factor controlling the growth of cord reefs at high latitudes. The Holocene carbonate sediments lack nonskeletal components and are dominated by coral and coralline algal fragments with subordinate molluskan and echinoderm debris. The accumulations can be grouped into the following major facies: (1) coral framestone and coralline algal/serpulid boundstone, (2) submarine sand sheets, (3) subaerial coral storm ridges, (4-) peritidal to subtidal shingle and rubble veneers composed of dominantly coral debris, and (5) eolian dunes and beach sand. The Holocene sediment is a thin (< 2 m) veneer on the Pleistocene reef platform, which is emergent as small islands. The Pleistocene platform is composed of reef facies that can be directly related to the Holocene sediments. The platform is composed of framestone and boundstone facies (corals and coralline algal/serpulid facies), rudstones (submarine coral rubble facies), planar-bedded skeletal grainstones dipping 12-13{degree} (submarine sand sheet and peritidal shingle facies), and large 15-m-high eolianite dunes (eolian dune facies).

  13. Removal of Contaminants from Equipment and Debris and Waste Minimization Using the TECHXTRACT(TM) Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jorg Schwitzgebel; Klaus Schwitzgebel; Michael W. Bonem; Ronald E. Borah

    1998-12-09

    From September, 1996 through July, 1997, EET, Inc. conducted a series of experiments under a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Program Research and Development Agreement (PRDA). This project, entitled "Removal of Contaminants from Equipment and Debris and Waste Minimization Using the TECHXTRACT Technology" was conducted under DOE Contract DE-AC21- 96MC33138, administered by the Federal Energy Technology Center. The contract is divided into two phases - a base phase during which bench scale testing was conducted; and an optional phase for a field demonstration of a full-scale system. This report documents the results from the base phase of the contract. The base phase included the following major elements: - Evaluation of the effectiveness of various decontamination options, using both surrogate and radioactively contaminated samples. - Evaluation of various methods for the treatment of the secondary waste streams from the preferred decontamination system(s). - Evaluation of decontamination effectiveness for concrete rubble. - Preliminary engineering design and cost estimation for a full-scale system. - Preliminary economic analysis of the proposed system versus other currently available options for disposition of the materials. Results from the base phase, which are described in the following report, are very positive. Testing has shown that free release requirements and extremely high decontamination factors can be achieved for a variety of materials and radionuclides. Results for concrete rubble decontamination were less conclusive. The bench scale testing has led to the design of two different systems, both based on the TECHXTRACT chemistry, for potential full-scale demonstration. Based on the preliminary economic analysis, this system compares favorably with currently available commercial options, including disposal.

  14. DOE/EIS-0236-S1F; National Ignition Facility Final Supplemental...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    element of science-based stockpile stewardship. It will allow experimental study of thermonuclear burn in the laboratory. It will extend the range of investigations of...

  15. DOE/EIS-0236-S1F; National Ignition Facility Final Supplemental...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    practical application in nuclear weapons programs. It will allow experimental study of thermonuclear burn in the laboratory. It will extend the range of investigations of...

  16. LA-UR-

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Intended for: Kerberized Network File System for Clusters Ian Burns Christopher Hoffman Paige Ashlynn ElectronicWorld-wide Web Academic Distribution Los Alamos National...

  17. Scientists uncover combustion mechanism to better predict warming...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    predict warming by wildfires Scientists have uncovered key attributes of so-called "brown carbon" from wildfires. August 4, 2014 Wildfire fuel being burned in the fire...

  18. DOE Exascale Initiative

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... nuclear proliferation and nuclear terrorism * Reducing role of weapons * Maintaining ... Non-Proliferation and Nuclear Counter Terrorism Thermonuclear burn p, D, T, He 3 ,He 4 ...

  19. National Lab Helping to Train Operators for Next Generation of Power Plants

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Students in West Virginia are receiving hands-on experience for careers at cleaner-burning coal-fired power plants.

  20. Fast soft x-ray images of magnetohydrodynamic phenomena in NSTX...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of these affect fast particle losses, which are of major concern for future burning plasma experiments. Usual diagnostics for studying these phenomena are arrays of Mirnov coils...

  1. MEMORANDUM FOR SEAN LEV DEPUTY GENERAL COUNSEL FOR ENVIRONMENT...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    eradicate Burning, and Revegetation Methods on the 150,000 noxious weeds and invasive plants, and promote desirable plant species and wildlife Hanford Site, Richland,...

  2. Type B Accident Investigation of the Savannah River Site Arc...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Type B Accident Investigation Board investigation of the September 23, 2009, employee burn injury at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) D Area powerhouse....

  3. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    JUMP TO: In The News | Overview | PricesDemandSupply | Storage In the News: Power burn reaches record January and February levels, driven by weather and structural change...

  4. Particulate Matter Characteristics for Highly Dilute Stoichiometric...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PDF icon p-24storey.pdf More Documents & Publications Ethanol Effects on Lean-Burn and Stoichiometric GDI Emissions Effects of Advanced Combustion Technologies on...

  5. Durham County, North Carolina: Energy Resources | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    LLC AEPNC Albemarle Biorefinery Inc BGT Biogasoline Carolina Solar Energy CSE Clean Burn Fuels LLC Cree Inc Cree LED Lighting Solutions Formerly LED Lighting Fixtures LLF Eaton...

  6. Tag: fire protection | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    participate in the CNSUniversity of Tennessee's Fire Protection Engineering program burn class. More... Category: Partnerships CNS, University of Tennessee partner on new fire...

  7. This Week In Petroleum Summary Printer-Friendly Version

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    that some commercial, industrial, and electricity generating customers that typically burn natural gas delivered under less-expensive non-firm contracts are turning to oil...

  8. Scientists ignite aluminum water mix

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of a chemical reaction - is a primary function in determining nanoaluminum combustion burn rates. "It's been long understood that nanoscale aluminum particles, 110 nanometers and...

  9. DOE CD-4 Review of the MINERvA Project

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Assessment Document (with signatures) (pdf) Integrated Safety Management Document (pdf) Burn Test Results (pdf) Project Execution Plan (22207 Version with signatures) (pdf) Other...

  10. Sandia Energy - Particle Ignition and Char Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the top right shows a collection of streaks from injected particles as they ignite and burn while flowing upward. Figure 1. Schematic of Sandia's optical entrained flow reactor...

  11. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    weather, which reduced the volume of natural gas used for electricity generation (power burn) for air conditioning and heating. Natural gas production: Natural gas production...

  12. Natural Gas Weekly Update, Printer-Friendly Version

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    most likely the result of moderate temperatures compared to this time last year. Power burn near the end of the report week declined substantially, specifically in the Midwest,...

  13. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    because of higher levels of natural gas consumed in the electric power sector (power burn). Prices at Transcontinental Pipeline's Zone 6 trading point for delivery into New York...

  14. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    While total consumption was down by 4.3 percent from the previous week, with power burn and residentialcommercial consumption showing the largest decreases, total consumption...

  15. AeroFabrika | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    aircraft with teh use of diesel and hybrid propulsion technologies for much lower fuel burn and higher cruise speed with increased carrying capacity with significantly reduced...

  16. Indian Institute of Petroleum Dehradrun | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Uttar Pradesh, India Zip: 488005 Product: Uses sugarcane and sugarcane juice to burn in underground furnaces to produce Gur. References: Indian Institute of Petroleum,...

  17. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    imports in the Midwest and Northeast. LNG imports remain at minimal levels. Power burn decline drives reduced overall consumption. Natural gas used for power generation...

  18. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    commercial consumption rose 12.9 percent, partially offsetting the declines in power burn. The rise in residential and commercial consumption reflects increases in heating...

  19. Measurement and Characterization of Unregulated Emissions from...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PDF icon ace045storey2011o.pdf More Documents & Publications Ethanol Effects on Lean-Burn and Stoichiometric GDI Emissions Measurement and Characterization of Unregulated...

  20. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    hitting parts of the Northeast on Tuesday and Wednesday, natural gas used for power burn in this region increased significantly, gaining 47.2 percent between Monday and...

  1. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    a partially offsetting 6.0 percent week-over-week gain attributed to increased power burn in key regions including the Northeast, Midwest, Southeast, and Midcontinent. Total...

  2. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    combined with a reduction of natural gas consumed for power generation (power burn) this year compared to 2012. Natural gas consumption over the April-through-October...

  3. 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of a chemical reaction - is a primary function in determining nanoaluminum combustion burn rates. - 2 - "It's been long understood that nanoscale aluminum particles, 110...

  4. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    most likely the result of moderate temperatures compared to this time last year. Power burn near the end of the report week declined substantially, specifically in the Midwest,...

  5. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    week. Total demand was relatively flat during the report week, with increases in power burn offsetting declines in residential, commercial, and industrial consumption. Consumption...

  6. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    far, have curtailed growth in natural gas consumed for electric power generation (power burn). However, while high natural gas production growth and flat natural gas consumption...

  7. CNS partners with The University of Tennessee on new graduate...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pantex Plant and Y-12 employees participate in the CNSUniversity of Tennessee's Fire Protection Engineering program burn class at the Knoxville Fire Department Training Academy...

  8. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    DemandSupply | Storage In the News: Natural gas consumed for power generation (power burn) declined slightly for the report week, while remaining high for recent years. After...

  9. Tag: Partnerships | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    participate in the CNSUniversity of Tennessee's Fire Protection Engineering program burn class. More... Category: Partnerships CNS officials provide industry with primer on...

  10. Tag: partnerships | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    participate in the CNSUniversity of Tennessee's Fire Protection Engineering program burn class. More... Category: Partnerships CNS officials provide industry with primer on...

  11. The National Bioenergy Center Laying the Foundation for Biorefineries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-08-01

    Advanced biomass conversion technology will play a major role in eliminating the need for imported oil and the generation of greenhouse gases from burning fossil fuels.

  12. Company Name Company Name Address Place Zip Sector Product Website

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    domestic heating systems combining solar passive wood burning geothermal heat pumps and fossil fuel Elemental Energy Elemental Energy SW nd Ave Portland Oregon United States...

  13. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    records, and for capturing each of four broad classes of aerosol airmass types: maritime, biomass burning, desert dust, and continental aerosols. For instantaneous matchups...

  14. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    waste and increased efficiency in fossil-fuel burning facilities. Energy sources based on fossil fuels, nuclear fuels or geothermal energy are not eligible... Eligibility:...

  15. CX-007613: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Next Generation Ultra Lean Burn Powertrain CX(s) Applied: A9 Date: 01/10/2012 Location(s): California Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  16. Micro Bubble Technologies Inc MBT | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sector: Carbon Product: US-Korean maker of cleaner burning fuel and carbon nanotube batteries. Coordinates: 41.740155, -71.308294 Show Map Loading map......

  17. Washita County, Oklahoma: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Number 3 Climate Zone Subtype A. Places in Washita County, Oklahoma Bessie, Oklahoma Burns Flat, Oklahoma Canute, Oklahoma Clinton, Oklahoma Colony, Oklahoma Corn, Oklahoma Dill...

  18. EA-1861: Final Environmental Assessment | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    project). The proposed project would reduce the amount of natural gas the plant burns to provide high-pressure steam for operations. The project would also reduce the...

  19. Laramie County, Wyoming: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wyoming Cheyenne Light Fuel & Power Co Places in Laramie County, Wyoming Albin, Wyoming Burns, Wyoming Cheyenne, Wyoming Fox Farm-College, Wyoming Pine Bluffs, Wyoming Ranchettes,...

  20. North Carolina's 13th congressional district: Energy Resources...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of North Carolina CPS Biofuels Clean Burn Fuels LLC Eaton Powerware INI Power Systems Methane Power Inc Microcell Corp North Carolina State Energy Office North Carolina State...

  1. North Carolina's 2nd congressional district: Energy Resources...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    BGT Biogasoline CPS Biofuels Clean Burn Fuels LLC Eaton Powerware INI Power Systems Methane Power Inc Microcell Corp North Carolina State Energy Office North Carolina State...

  2. Backyard waste management - problems and benefits of individuals managing their solid waste at home

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whalen, M.

    1995-05-01

    The problems and benefits of individuals managing their solid wastes at home are surveyed. The survey indicates that as the population rises people tend to burn only the combustible portions of their waste. Some communities have limited ordinances that ban the burning of raw garbage, but other municipalities allow residents to burn all of their wastestream, even though some materials are not combustible and cannot be burned. Potential environmental effects involve both the ash residue and the air emissions. While selected burning can reduce some of the environmental hazards these would probably only be marginally less than the impacts of burning it all. The study clearly indicates that the environmental problems of burn barrels are not insignificant. However, the attitudes and motivations of those who burn waste will have to be addressed by the communities that attempt or should attempt to control this problem. These include: avoidance of waste collection costs; availability of trash cartage services; and habit. Habit is probably as strong a motivation as cost avoidance and ease of collection combined. Residents have often burned trash for several generations and regard the practice as a {open_quotes}god-given right.{close_quotes}

  3. Sunzia Southwest | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and permits for construction activities would be obtained. Open burning of construction trash would not be allowed unless permitted by appropriate authorities. Cultural Resources...

  4. Mona to Oquirrh Transmission | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and permits for construction activities would be obtained. Open burning of construction trash would not be allowed, unless permitted by appropriate authorities. Cultural Resources...

  5. Greenwood Technologies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zip: 98005 Sector: Efficiency Product: Greenwood Technologies sells high efficiency wood burning stoves Coordinates: 47.61002, -122.187549 Show Map Loading map......

  6. bib-sunflower | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PDF-41KB entitled "'Combustion Optimization System' - Cleaner Coal Burning at Lower Costs" (Jan 2003) Environmental Reports Environmental Assessment for the Commercial...

  7. This Week In Petroleum Printer-Friendly Version

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    and industrial sectors. Dual-fired units can burn the less expensive fuel, subject to environmental restrictions. However, potential fuel switching is not limited to dual-fired...

  8. Sandia Energy - Exhaust Aftertreatment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    elementary reaction mechanisms for emerging technologies that remove nitrogen oxides (NOx) from the exhaust of lean-burn engines such as diesels. This longstanding problem...

  9. INOV8 International Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    International Inc Place: La Crosse, Wisconsin Zip: 54601 Product: Manufacturer of waste oil furnaces and used oil burning evaporators. Recently opened a waste oil filling station...

  10. bcpcfmg-encoal | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Results of the PDFT Test Burn at Clifty Creek Station, Topical Report PDF-450KB (Oct 1996) Clean Coal Reference Plant: Pulverized ENCOAL PDF Fired Boiler, Topical Report ...

  11. Flames in Type Ia Supernova: Deflagration-Detonation Transition...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Flames in Type Ia Supernova: Deflagration-Detonation Transition in the Oxygen Burning Flame. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Flames in Type Ia...

  12. MEMORANDUM FOR: JOHN CONTI ASSISTANT ADMINISTRATOR FOR ENERGY

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Marilyn (Georgia Tech) Burns, Stephanie (IMT) Carroll, Ryan (Alliance for Green Heat) Chase, Alex (Energy Solutions) Cogan, Jonathan (EIA OC) Conti, John (EIA OEA) Cureg, Edgardo ...

  13. Research Highlight

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Burning on the Prairies Submitter: Bhattacharya, A., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Area of Research: Radiation Processes Working Group(s): Cloud-Aerosol-Precipitation...

  14. Dep

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Best Demonstrated Available Technology. Code of Federal ... standard temperature and pressure; or (8) fits within the ... to burn hazardous waste in a boiler and industrial furn ace. ...

  15. 10-29-09_Final_Testimony_(Synakowski).pdf

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    aim, namely, to develop the scientific basis for a sound and revealing burning plasma research program and to develop fusion plasma science more generally. The national...

  16. Fuel Systems Solutions Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    company with divisions focusing on bringing cleaner-burning gaseous fuel (such as propane and natural gas) technology to various types of vehicles. References: Fuel Systems...

  17. Towards Fuel-Efficient DPF Systems: Understanding the Soot Oxidation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Burning Modes and Oxidation Rates of Soot: Relevance to Diesel Particulate Traps Soot Nanostructure: Definition, Quantification, and Implications DPF Performance with Biodiesel ...

  18. Type B Accident Investigation Report of the October 28, 2004...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Injuries Sustained During an Office of Secure Transportation Joint Training Exercise at Fort Hunter-Liggett, CA Type B Accident Investigation Report of the October 28, 2004, Burn...

  19. 06-GA50035f_2-col.p65

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    fast neutrons to fission, or split apart, long-lived transuranics. Here, "burn" does not mean incinerate or combust; it means to transmute or convert transuranics into...

  20. DOE/EIS-0236-S1F; National Ignition Facility Final Supplemental...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    application in nuclear weapons programs. It will allow experimental study of thermonuclear burn in the laboratory. It will extend the range of investigations of important...

  1. DOE/EIS-0236-S1F; National Ignition Facility Final Supplemental...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    element of science-based stockpile stewardship. It will allow experimental study of thermonuclear burn in the laboratory. It will extend the range of investigations of important...

  2. Eisenbeiss Solar AG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    domestic heating systems combining solar passive, wood burning, geothermal heat pumps and fossil fuel. Coordinates: 48.370335, 10.897892 Show Map Loading map......

  3. Effects of Ignition Quality and Fuel Composition on Critical...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in Fuel Spray and Combustion Modeling for Compression Ignition Engine Applications A University Consortium on Efficient and Clean High-Pressure, Lean Burn (HPLB) Engines

  4. A University Consortium on Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications A University Consortium on Efficient and Clean High-Pressure, Lean Burn (HPLB) Engines A University Consortium on High Pressure, Lean Combustion for ...

  5. Kwikpower International | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and commercialize, innovative and cost effective technologies to produce clean burning alternative fuels or bio-based chemicals from waste. Coordinates: 51.489441, -0.26194...

  6. EA-1994: Malheur Resource Area Jonesboro Diversion Dam Replacement...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Burns Paiute Tribe for replacement of an existing diversion dam and installation of a fish passage structure. BPA's proposed action was to fund the project. PUBLIC COMMENT...

  7. First-of-its-Kind Carbon Capture and Conversion Demonstration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The SkyMine technology was designed to retrofit existing coal-burning facilities, but also has potential applications for heavy industry, including cement, glass, steel and natural ...

  8. Degradation in PV Encapsulation Transmittance: An Interlaboratory...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fanny ; Ballion, Amal ; Kohl, Michael ; Bokria, Jayesh G. ; Bruckman, Laura S. ; French, Roger H. ; Burns, David ; Phillips, Nancy H. ; Feng ; Jiangtao ; Elliott, Lamont ;...

  9. Extrapolating Accelerated UV Weathering Data: Perspective from...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Amal ; Bokria, Jayesh G. ; Bruckman, Laura S. ; Burns, David M. ; Elliott, Lamont ; French, Roger H. ; Fowler, Sean ; Gu, Xiaohong ; Honeker, Christian C. ; Kempe, Michael D. ;...

  10. Advanced Computational Methods for Turbulence and Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    flow, local burning, and emissions across a range of flow and fueling scenarios at a spectacular level of detail (see image). The simulated chemical details are experimentally...

  11. CX-004126: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Machine Shop Equipment BurnCX(s) Applied: B1.12Date: 08/02/2010Location(s): New MexicoOffice(s): Sandia Site Office

  12. An Inside Look at a MOF in Action

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    measurements of chemical and electronic signatures inside of a MOF during gas adsorption. Groups Team Up to Mop Up with MOFs Carbon dioxide gas released during the burning...

  13. American Energy Systems Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Systems Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: American Energy Systems Inc Place: Minnesota Zip: 55350 Product: Biofuel burning appliance manufacturer (pellets & corn). References:...

  14. DubeyISDAC-ARM09.ppt

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Anthropogenic sources of soot (industrial, biofuel, fires) Sources in northern Europe and ... AEROSOL FORCING Add Fossil + Biofuel to current Biomass Burning Black carbon ...

  15. Home

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    C. Burns, University of Notre Dame Laura Gagliardi, University of Minnesota 2. Complex Ceramic and Metallic Materials Theme Leads: Alexandra Navrotsky, University of California,...

  16. file://C:\\MyFiles\\TeamWorks%20Website\\index.htm

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    WTS May Service Awards 15 years Barry Brown Gerald Burns Reymundo Carrasco John Dorado Ron Head Michael James Dennis Mathieu Raul Navarrete 20 years Janet Miehls What's...

  17. SREL Reprint #3007

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    differences between fire treatments developed after the 2nd year. Mortality of tagged woody seedlings was greater after fire in burned compared to unburned sites and in clayey...

  18. Winning the Future with a Responsible Budget | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Team, including, left to right, Joe Moore, Bob Anderson, Stephanie Puckett, Matt Vick, Lisa Burns, Vince Adams, Stephanie McLaughlin, Frank Johnston, and Ron Shelato. ...

  19. Eye-popping, mind-expanding scenes of science > EMC2 News > The...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Roger Segelken Jason KoskiUniversity Photography Joseph Burns, Ph.D. '66, the Irving Porter Church Professor of Engineering, professor of astronomy and dean of the university...

  20. This Week In Petroleum Printer-Friendly Version

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    no Federal sulfur content restrictions. Several northeastern States are leading a transition to cleaner burning heating fuels by decreasing sulfur content in heating oil. Table...

  1. Secretary Bodman Meets with Senators, Commits to Further Discussion...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The meeting today with Secretary Bodman was attended by Senators Craig, Cantwell, Smith, Burns and Wyden. Media contact(s): Craig Stevens, 202586-4940 Addthis Related Articles ...

  2. 07-2015 | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... as concerns about the environmental impact of burning fossil fuels grew, scientists at NETL conducted groundbreaking research on the causes of air pollution in American cities. ...

  3. Microsoft Word - SBE Final EA 3-24-2010.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... These regulations are outlined in VAC Title 10, Part 1, Chapter 23: Vermont Air Pollution Control Regulations. They include: * Open Burning Prohibited (Subsection 5-201) * ...

  4. Development of an Airless Thermal Enhancer | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Development of a Thermal Enhancer for Combined Partial Range Burning and Hydrocarbon Dosing Thermal Enhancer - Airless Exhaust Thermal Management Device SCR...

  5. Your Home Fire Safety Checklist

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to resist cigarette ignition. * Look for fabrics made predominantly from thermo-plas- tic fibers (nylon, polyester, acrylic, olefin) because they resist ignition by burning...

  6. Crosswalk pothole fixed | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    hazard in freezing conditions. THINK: Burns reported the problem to ESH&A's Shawn Nelson, who forwarded the issue to Iowa State University's Facilities Planning and Management...

  7. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Have feedback or suggestions for a way to improve these results? Weapons Science Program Integration Nuclear Physics White, Morgan C. ; Bredeweg, Todd Allen ; Burns, Carol J. ; ...

  8. National Ignition Facility & Photon Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    energy, have been pumping out electric power for more than 50 years. But achieving nuclear fusion burn and gain has not yet been demonstrated as viable for energy...

  9. P.L. 94-163, "Energy Policy and Conservation Act" (EPCA) (1975)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-12-13

    Energy Policy and Conservation Act. Bill Summary & Status 94th Congress. Issue orders prohibiting power plants and major fuel burning installations from using natural gas or petroleum products as fuel if they had been capable on June 22, 1974, of burning coal.

  10. Type A Accident Investigation Board Report on the February 13, 1997, Welding/Cutting Fatality at the K-33 Building, K-25 Site, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On February 13, 1997, at approximately 11:10 a.m., a welder (referred to as “the Welder”) using a cutting torch at the K-33 Building, Oak Ridge K-25 Site, Oak Ridge Reservation, was fatally burned after being totally engulfed in flames when his anti-contamination coveralls and blue general-purpose coveralls burned.

  11. Second generation PFBC systems research and development: Phase 2, Topping combustor testing at UTSI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johanson, N.R.; Foote, J.P.

    1992-12-01

    This report describes a second generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) power plant. The topping combustor testing is briefly described. The topping combustor burns low BTU gas produced from substoichiometric combustion of coal in a pressurized carbonizer. Char produced is burned in a PFBC.

  12. Second generation PFBC systems research and development: Phase 2, Topping combustor testing at UTSI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johanson, N.R.; Foote, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes a second generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) power plant. The topping combustor testing is briefly described. The topping combustor burns low BTU gas produced from substoichiometric combustion of coal in a pressurized carbonizer. Char produced is burned in a PFBC.

  13. Overview of the energy from a waste facility at Occidental Chemical

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blasius, G.F.

    1985-01-01

    The startup and operational problems and solutions concerned with processing and burning MSW to produce steam and electricity at Occidental's Niagara Falls chemical complex are reviewed. The facility was designed to burn 2000 tons per day of municipal waste, and produce 600,000number/HR steam and 37 mw of electricity.

  14. 08-02-2010 NNSA-B-10-0295

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    10-0295 Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) proposes to heat equipment formerly used in the SNL/NM explosives machine shop to burn off any traces of explosives residue that may still be present in trace amounts on the equipment. ✖ Sandia Site Office Machine Shop Equipment Burn Sandia National Laboratories - New Mexico

  15. Combustion performance of porous silicon-based energetic composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mason, Benjamin Aaron; Son, Steve F; Asay, Blaine W; Cho, Kevin Y

    2009-01-01

    The combustion performance of oxidizer filled porous silicon(PSi) was studied. PSi samples with diameters of 2.54 cm were fabricated by electrochemical etching. The % porosity of the samples ranged from 55 to 82%. The samples were cut into 3-5 mm strips and filled with the oxidizers NaClO{sub 4} x 1H{sub 2}O, Ca(ClO{sub 4}){sub 2} x 4H{sub 2}O, S and perfluoropolyether (PFPE). The filled PSi was then burned by igniting the sample with a hot NiChrome{trademark} wire. The burns were recorded using high speed photography from which bring rates were calculated. That burning rates showed a strong dependency on quality of the oxidizer loading. The % porosity did not appear to have a direct affect on the burning rates for those studied. PSi loaded with NaClO{sub 4} x 1H{sub 2}O produced burning rates that ranged from 216-349 cm/s. PSi loaded with Ca(ClO{sub 4}){sub x}x 4 H{sub 2}O had burning rates of 154-285 cm/s. An S filled PSi sample burned a rate of 16 to 290 cm/s, and perfluoropolyether loaded PSi burned at a rate of 1.4 cm/s.

  16. Ultralean low swirl burner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cheng, Robert K. (Kensington, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A novel burner and burner method has been invented which burns an ultra lean premixed fuel-air mixture with a stable flame. The inventive burning method results in efficient burning and much lower emissions of pollutants such as oxides of nitrogen than previous burners and burning methods. The inventive method imparts weak swirl (swirl numbers of between about 0.01 to 3.0) on a fuel-air flow stream. The swirl, too small to cause recirculation, causes an annulus region immediately inside the perimeter of the fuel-air flow to rotate in a plane normal to the axial flow. The rotation in turn causes the diameter of the fuel-air flow to increase with concomitant decrease in axial flow velocity. The flame stabilizes where the fuel-air mixture velocity equals the rate of burning resulting in a stable, turbulent flame.

  17. Ultralean low swirl burner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cheng, R.K.

    1998-04-07

    A novel burner and burner method has been invented which burns an ultra lean premixed fuel-air mixture with a stable flame. The inventive burning method results in efficient burning and much lower emissions of pollutants such as oxides of nitrogen than previous burners and burning methods. The inventive method imparts weak swirl (swirl numbers of between about 0.01 to 3.0) on a fuel-air flow stream. The swirl, too small to cause recirculation, causes an annulus region immediately inside the perimeter of the fuel-air flow to rotate in a plane normal to the axial flow. The rotation in turn causes the diameter of the fuel-air flow to increase with concomitant decrease in axial flow velocity. The flame stabilizes where the fuel-air mixture velocity equals the rate of burning resulting in a stable, turbulent flame. 11 figs.

  18. Quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) procedures for hazardous-waste incineration. Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dux, T.; Gilford, P.; Bergman, F.; Boomer, B.; Hooton, D.

    1990-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has promulgated regulations for hazardous waste incinerators under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. These regulations require the permit applicant to conduct trial burns to demonstrate compliance with the regulatory limits and provide data needed to write the individual permits. Trial burns require a Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) with quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) procedures to control and evaluate data quality. The primary focus of the handbook is the trial burn itself; however, a discussion of the QA/QC for routine incinerator monitoring and permit compliance is included in a separate chapter. The area has slightly different requirements and objectives from those of the trial burn. The trial burn should be viewed as a short-term project with a defined beginning and end, while compliance monitoring is considered an ongoing process.

  19. Preparation of grout for stabilization of abandoned in-situ oil shale retorts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mallon, Richard G. (Livermore, CA)

    1982-01-01

    A process for the preparation of grout from burned shale by treating the burned shale in steam at approximately 700.degree. C. to maximize the production of the materials alite and larnite. Oil shale removed to the surface during the preparation of an in-situ retort is first retorted on the surface and then the carbon is burned off, leaving burned shale. The burned shale is treated in steam at approximately 700.degree. C. for about 70 minutes. The treated shale is then ground and mixed with water to produce a grout which is pumped into an abandoned, processed in-situ retort, flowing into the void spaces and then bonding up to form a rigid, solidified mass which prevents surface subsidence and leaching of the spent shale by ground water.

  20. The effect of 12C + 12C rate uncertainties on the weak s-process component

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fryer, Christopher Lee; Hungerford, Aimee L; Hirschi, Raphael; Pignatari, Marco; Bennett, Michael E; Diehl, Steven; Herwig, Falk; Hillary, William; Richman, Debra; Rockefeller, Gabriel; Timmes, Frank X; Wiescher, Michael

    2010-09-10

    The contribution by massive stars (M > 15M{sub {circle_dot}}) to the weak s-process component of the solar system abundances is primarily due to the {sup 22}Ne neutron source, which is activated near the end of helium-core burning. The residual {sup 22}Ne left over from helium-core burning is then reignited during carbon burning, initiating further s-processing that modifies the isotopic distribution. This modification is sensitive to the stellar structure and the carbon burning reaction rate. Recent work on the {sup 12}C + {sup 12}C reaction suggests that resonances located within the Gamow peak may exist, causing a strong increase in the astrophysical S-factor and consequently the reaction rate. To investigate the effect of such a rate, 25M{sub {circle_dot}} stellar models with different carbon burning rates, at solar metallicity, were generated using the Geneva Stellar Evolution Code (GENEC) with nucleosynthesis post-processing calculated using the NuGrid Multi-zone Post-Processing Network code (MPPNP). A strongly enhanced rate can cause carbon burning to occur in a convective core rather than a radiative one and the convective core mixes the matter synthesized there up into the carbon shell, significantly altering the initial composition of the carbon-shell. In addition, an enhanced rate causes carbon-shell burning episodes to ignite earlier in the evolution of the star, igniting the {sup 22}Ne source at lower temperatures and reducing the neutron density.

  1. Current issues in natural gas lubrication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reber, J.

    1997-10-01

    Because of the ability of natural gas to burn completely relatively easily, supplying excess oxygen to promote complete reactions is a viable alternative to catalysts. Hence, lean burn technology has a natural fit for this industry. Lube oil is not adversely affected by lean burn operation. There is a slight tendency to cause more oil nitration than oxidation, but the real difference is not significant. Operators may notice somewhat more varnish (caramel color) and less sludge (black) as a result. Because the fuel is burned more completely, there is less problem with fuel-derived oil contamination. Also because of the excess air in the combustion chamber, overall cylinder temperature is lower, causing less stress on the oil. Oil life is generally lengthened. One common misconception that lean burn engines require different lubricants may stem from a change at Waukesha Engine Division--Dresser Industries. Waukesha has changed its lube oil requirements for VHP 3521, 5115, 7042, 9390 GL turbocharged and lean burn model engines. The lube oil specification for these engines is 1% to 1.7% ash with the same 0.10% zinc maximum. This change is not because of the lean burn nature of these engines, rather it is because of drastically decreased lube oil consumption. With less oil consumption, less ash is carried to the critical exhaust valve seat area to prevent valve recession.

  2. Completion Report for Model Evaluation Well ER-5-5: Corrective Action Unit 98: Frenchman Flat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Underground Test Area and Boreholes Programs and Operations

    2013-01-18

    Model Evaluation Well ER-5-5 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of Nevada Environmental Management Operations at the Nevada National Security Site (formerly known as the Nevada Test Site). The well was drilled in July and August 2012 as part of a model evaluation well program in the Frenchman Flat area of Nye County, Nevada. The primary purpose of the well was to provide detailed geologic, hydrogeologic, chemical, and radiological data that can be used to test and build confidence in the applicability of the Frenchman Flat Corrective Action Unit flow and transport models for their intended purpose. In particular, this well was designed to obtain data to evaluate the uncertainty in model forecasts of contaminant migration from the upgradient underground nuclear test MILK SHAKE, conducted in Emplacement Hole U-5k in 1968, which were considered to be uncertain due to the unknown extent of a basalt lava-flow aquifer present in this area. Well ER-5-5 is expected to provide information to refine the Phase II Frenchman Flat hydrostratigraphic framework model, if necessary, as well as to support future groundwater flow and transport modeling. The 31.1-centimeter (cm) diameter hole was drilled to a total depth of 331.3 meters (m). The completion string, set at the depth of 317.2 m, consists of 16.8-cm stainless-steel casing hanging from 19.4-cm carbon-steel casing. The 16.8-cm stainless-steel casing has one slotted interval open to the basalt lava-flow aquifer and limited intervals of the overlying and underlying alluvial aquifer. A piezometer string was also installed in the annulus between the completion string and the borehole wall. The piezometer is composed of 7.3-cm stainless-steel tubing suspended from 6.0-cm carbon-steel tubing. The piezometer string was landed at 319.2 m, to monitor the basalt lava-flow aquifer. Data collected during and shortly after hole construction include composite drill cuttings samples collected every 3.0 m, various geophysical logs, preliminary water quality measurements, and water-level measurements. The well penetrated 331.3 m of Quaternary–Tertiary alluvium, including an intercalated layer of saturated basalt lava rubble. No well development or hydrologic testing was conducted in this well immediately after completion; however, a preliminary water level was measured in the piezometer string at the depth of 283.4 m on September 25, 2012. No tritium above the minimum detection limit of the field instruments was detected in this hole. Future well development, sampling, and hydrologic testing planned for this well will provide more accurate hydrologic information for this site. The stratigraphy, general lithology, and water level were as expected, though the expected basalt lava-flow aquifer is basalt rubble and not the dense, fractured lava as modeled. The lack of tritium transport is likely due to the difference in hydraulic properties of the basalt lava-flow rubble encountered in the well, compared to those of the fractured aquifer used in the flow and transport models.

  3. National Ignition Facility & Photon Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    making a star 17 How to make a miniature star The idea for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) grew out of a decades-long effort to generate fusion burn and energy gain in the laboratory. Current nuclear power plants, which use the splitting of atoms (fission) to produce energy, have been pumping out electric power for more than 50 years. But achieving nuclear fusion burn and gain has not yet been demonstrated as viable for energy production. For fusion burn and gain to occur, a special fuel

  4. ARM - Blog Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    April 19, 2013 [BBOP, Blog, Field Notes] Searching for Elusive Plumes in the United States Bookmark and Share Interview with scientists spearheading a research campaign: 120 flight hours through burning biomasses in the Pacific Northwest and Memphis this summer. From "flash" to "smoldering" to"'aging"-I'm not talking about men or women. It is fires-specifically those from burning organic matter, also called 'burning biomasses.' Fires are sparked by a large number of

  5. Fusion reactions in nuclear astrophysics: The MUSIC approach

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    reactions in nuclear astrophysics: The MUSIC approach The MUSIC approach Sergio Almaraz-Calderon Sergio Almaraz-Calderon Physics Division Argonne National Laboratory 2014 ATLAS USER'S MEETING 05/15/2014 Carbon burning reactions in the stars Carbon burning in massive stars Ignition phase of Type Ia supernovae X-ray binaries NASA/CXC/PSU/L University of Chicago Flash Center S. Almaraz-Calderon ATLAS user's meeting 05/15/2014 H. Schatz X-Ray Bursts and Superbursts ● H and He burning (rp-process)

  6. -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jeff Donaldson, 702/295-3348 March 26, 2015 donaldjw@nv.doe.gov NNSS, BOULDER CITY FIREFIGHTERS JOIN FORCES FOR BURN DRILL LAS VEGAS, Nev. - Firefighters from the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and the Boulder City Fire Department joined forces for the first time March 24-26 to conduct a Live Burn Drill at the Las Vegas Fire and Rescue Training Center on Bonanza Road. The training, which has firefighters entering different floors of a burn tower and locating and extinguishing a pre-set

  7. Inertial Confinement Fusion: How to Make a Star

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Inertial Confinement Fusion: How to Make a Star The idea for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) grew out of the decades-long effort to generate fusion burn and gain in the laboratory. Current nuclear power plants, which use fission, or the splitting of atoms to produce energy, have been pumping out electric power for more than 50 years. But achieving nuclear fusion burn and gain has not yet been demonstrated to be viable for electricity production. For fusion burn and gain to occur, a special

  8. Las Conchas Wildfire

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Las Conchas Wildfire Las Conchas Wildfire In 2011, the Las Conchas fire burned nearly 157,000 acres, some of which drained into LANL. In 2000, the Cerro Grande fire burned nearly 7,000 acres on LANL property and nearly 47,000 acres total. August 1, 2013 A NASA picture of the Las Conchas wildfire smoke plume. A NASA picture of the Las Conchas wildfire smoke plume. What happens when a fire severely burns an area? The area cannot retain rainwater as easily and more runs off. LANL installs and

  9. Microsoft Word - FOI 2013-00769.FINAL.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    March 25, 2013 CERTIFIED MAIL Mr. James D. Burns Law Offices of James D. Burns 2200 4 th Avenue Seattle, Washington 98121 Dear Mr. Burns: FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT REQUEST (FOI 2013-00769) This office is in receipt of your letter requesting "all documents pertaining to use or purchase of CAPCO, also known as Cement Asbestos Products Company, at Hanford Nuclear Plant in Richland, Washington during the 1963-1980 period." We have conducted a thorough search using the multiple databases

  10. Wood and Pellet Heating | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Heat & Cool » Home Heating Systems » Wood and Pellet Heating Wood and Pellet Heating A wood stove on a stone hearth. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/King_Louie A wood stove on a stone hearth. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/King_Louie Today you can choose from a new generation of wood- and pellet-burning appliances that are cleaner burning, more efficient, and powerful enough to heat many average-sized, modern homes. Pellet fuel appliances burn small pellets that measure 3/8 to 1

  11. Wood and Pellet Heating | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Home Heating Systems » Wood and Pellet Heating Wood and Pellet Heating A wood stove on a stone hearth. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/King_Louie A wood stove on a stone hearth. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/King_Louie Today you can choose from a new generation of wood- and pellet-burning appliances that are cleaner burning, more efficient, and powerful enough to heat many average-sized, modern homes. Pellet fuel appliances burn small pellets that measure 3/8 to 1 inch in length.

  12. A QUARTERLY RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT JOURNAL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8, NO.1 SPRING * 2006 Coal: The fuel of the future? Understanding why batteries fail Going ... Chris Shaddix studies an experiment to optimize the burning of coal at Sandia's Combustion ...

  13. Municipal solid waste as a utility fuel in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGowin, C.R.

    1985-01-01

    The paper considers alternate utility roles in refuse to energy projects and alternate technologies including co-firing of refuse and coal in utility boilers and refuse burning in dedicated boilers. Energy recovery efficiency and economics of technologies are compared.

  14. EA-1994: Finding of No Significant Impact | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    impacts of the proposed authorization of a right of way to the Burns Paiute Tribe for replacement of an existing diversion dam and installation of a fish passage structure. ...

  15. CX-006849: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    gridSMART - Public Service Company of OklahomaCX(s) Applied: B5.1Date: 09/16/2011Location(s): Tulsa; Burns Flat, OklahomaOffice(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office

  16. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    5% and 2%, respectively. Power burn, which started the week at 33.4 Bcfd, dropped to stay below 33 Bcfd from Friday to Sunday, and then rose to 34.1 Bcfd on Monday, the report...

  17. Marin County- Wood Stove Replacement Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Homes in the San Geronimo Valley (Forest Knolls, Lagunitas, San Geronimo, and Woodacre) can receive a rebate of $1,500 for the removal and replacement of non-certified wood burning appliances with...

  18. Slide 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2011 How Does the Exhauster Work 3 4 Incidents at POR-107 August 19, 2011, the solid state relay burned up and the circuit (energized) sending full power to the heater core...

  19. Two Electron Holes in Hematite Facilitate Water Splitting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by-product is nonpolluting water vapor. The problem, however, is that the production of hydrogen-via the process of water splitting-currently requires the burning of traditional...

  20. CNMS User Newsletter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    at the 4th annual Na onal User Facility Science Expo for the U.S. House of Representa ves in the foyer of the Ray- burn House Office Building, Capitol Hill Washington D.C.....