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1

Explanation of Significant Difference (ESD) for the A-Area Burning/Rubble Pits (731-A/1A) and Rubble Pit (731-2A) (U)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The A-Area Burning/Rubble Pits (731-A/1A) and Rubble Pit (731-2A) (ABRP) operable unit (OU) is located in the northwest portion of Savannah River Site (SRS), approximately 2.4 kilometers (1.5 miles) south of the A/M Area operations. Between 1951 and 1973, Pits 731-A and 731-1A were used to burn paper, plastics, wood, rubber, rags, cardboard, oil, degreasers, and solvents. Combustible materials were burned monthly. After burning was discontinued in 1973, Pits 731-A and 731-1A were also converted to rubble pits and used to dispose of concrete rubble, bricks, tile, asphalt, plastics, metal, wood products, and rubber until about 1978. When the pits were filled to capacity, there were covered with compacted clay-rich native soils and vegetation was established. Pit 731-2A was only used as a rubble pit until 1983 after which the area was backfilled and seeded. Two other potential source areas within the OU were investigated and found to be clean. The water table aquifer (M-Area aquifer) was also investigated.

Morgan, Randall

2000-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

2

Baseline Risk Assessment for the F-Area Burning/Rubble Pits and Rubble Pit  

SciTech Connect

This document provides an overview of the Savannah River Site (SRS) and a description of the F-Area Burning/Rubble Pits (BRPs) and Rubble Pit (RP) unit. It also describes the objectives and scope of the baseline risk assessment (BRA).

Palmer, E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Results of Water and Sediment Toxicity Tests and Chemical Analyses Conducted at the Central Shops Burning Rubble Pit Waste Unit, January 1999  

SciTech Connect

The Central Shops Burning Rubble Pit Operable Unit consists of two inactive rubble pits (631-1G and 631-3G) that have been capped, and one active burning rubble pit (631-2G), where wooden pallets and other non-hazardous debris are periodically burned. The inactive rubble pits may have received hazardous materials, such as asbestos, batteries, and paint cans, as well as non-hazardous materials, such as ash, paper, and glass. In an effort to determine if long term surface water flows of potentially contaminated water from the 631-1G, 631-3G, and 631-2G areas have resulted in an accumulation of chemical constituents at toxic levels in the vicinity of the settling basin and wetlands area, chemical analyses for significant ecological preliminary constituents of concern (pCOCs) were performed on aqueous and sediment samples. In addition, aquatic and sediment toxicity tests were performed in accordance with U.S. EPA methods (U.S. EPA 1989, 1994). Based on the results of the chemical analyses, unfiltered water samples collected from a wetland and settling basins located adjacent to the CSBRP Operable Unit exceed Toxicity Reference Values (TRVs) for aluminum, barium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, and vanadium at one or more of the four locations that were sampled. The water contained very high concentrations of clay particles that were present as suspended solids. A substantial portion of the metals were present as filterable particulates, bound to the clay particles, and were therefore not biologically available. Based on dissolved metal concentrations, the wetland and settling basin exceeded TRVs for aluminum and barium. However, the background reference location also exceeded the TRV for barium, which suggests that this value may be too low, based on local geochemistry. The detection limits for both total and dissolved mercury were higher than the TRV, so it was not possible to determine if the TRV for mercury was exceeded. Dissolved metal levels of chromium, copper, iron, lead and vanadium were below the TRVs. Metal concentrations in the sediment exceeded the TRVs for arsenic, chromium, copper, and mercury but not for antimony and lead. The results of the water toxicity tests indicated no evidence of acute toxicity in any of the samples. The results of the chronic toxicity tests indicated possible reproductive impairment at two locations. However, the results appear to be anomalous, since the toxicity was unrelated to concentration, and because the concentrations of pCOCs were similar in the toxic and the non-toxic samples. The results of the sediment toxicity tests indicated significant mortality in all but one sample, including the background reference sediment. When the results of the CSBRP sediment toxicity tests were statistically compared to the result from the background reference sediment, there was no significant mortality. These results suggest that the surface water and sediment at the CSBRP Operable Unit are not toxic to the biota that inhabit the wetland and the settling basin.

Specht, W.L.

1999-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

4

Methods for predicting rubble motion during blasting  

SciTech Connect

Recent applications of explosives and blasting agents to rubble rock have led to requirements for more elaborate design and analysis methods. In most blasting uses, it is necessary not only to fracture the rock, but also to move the broken rubble in a predictable manner. Many in situ extraction techniques require rubblization to take place in a confined region where rock motion is a predominate factor in creating a permeable broken bed. In this paper, two analytical methods are presented which describe the large rubble motion during blasting. These methods provide the blast designer with a tool for evaluation and further refinement of blasting patterns and timing sequences.

Schamaun, J.T.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Methods for predicting rubble motion during blasting  

SciTech Connect

Recent applications of explosives and blasting agents to rubble rock have led to requirements for more elaborate design and analysis methods. Many in situ extraction techniques require rubblization to take place in a confined region where rock motion is a predominate factor in creating a permeable broken bed. Two analytical methods are presented which describe the large rubble motion during blasting. These methods are intended to provide the blast designer with a tool for evaluation and further refinement of blasting patterns and timing sequences. In both these methods, the rock medium is represented by a series of discrete, discontinuous regions (bodies, masses). The use of discontinuous techniques rather than the classical continuum methods, results in better approximations to the rubble motion. These regions are set in motion by pressure loads from the explosive. The motion of these regions is then calculated numerically using interaction laws between regions in contact. The basis for these models or methods is presented along with the background for selecting explosive pressure loads and rock mass material behavior. Typical examples, including both cratering and bench blasting geometries, are discussed which illustrate the use of these models to predict rubble motion. Such engineering representations appear to provide a practical method for use in predicting rubble motion and a tool for design evaluation of blasting in confined geometries.

Schamaun, J.T.

1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

ESTIMATE OF RADIUM-226 CONCENTRATIONS IN RUBBLED PCB WAREHOUSE...  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

IN RUBBLED PCB WAREHOUSE ON VICINITY PROPERTY B ADJACENT TO THE NIAGARA FALLS STORAGE SITE MAY 1987 Prepared for UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OAK RIDGE OPERATIONS...

7

Engineering model for predicting rubble motion during blasting  

SciTech Connect

Recent applications of explosives and blasting agents to rubble rock have led to requirements for more elaborate design and analysis methods. In most blasting uses, it is necessary not only to fracture the rock, but also to move the broken rubble in a predictable manner. Many in-situ extraction techniques require rubblization to take place in a confined region where rock motion is a predominate factor in creating a permeable broken bed. In this paper, an engineering model is presented which describes the large rubble motion during blasting. This model is intended to provide the blast designer with a tool for evaluation and further refinement of blasting patterns and timing sequences. In this model the rock medium is represented by a discrete series of circular regions of fractured material. These regions are set in motion by pressure loads from the explosive. The motion of the regions is calculated using a step-wise, explicit, numerical time integration method. Interaction of adjacent regions is based on inelastic impact of spherical bodies. The derivation of this model is presented along with the background for selecting loading pressure based on explosive behavior. Three typical examples, including both cratering and bench geometries, are discussed which illustrate the use of this model to predict rubble motion. This engineering representation appears to provide a practical model for use in predicting rubble motion and a tool for design evaluation of blasting in confined geometries. 15 figures.

Schamaun, J.T.

1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Engineering model for predicting rubble motion during blasting  

SciTech Connect

Recent applications of explosives and blasting agents to rubble rock have led to requirements for more elaborate design and analysis methods. In most blasting uses, it is necessary not only to fracture the rock, but also to move the broken rubble in a predictable manner. Many in situ extraction techniques require rubblization to take place in a confined region where rock motion is a predominate factor in creating a permeable broken bed. In this paper, an engineering model is presented which describes the large rubble motion during blasting. This model is intended to provide the blast designer with a tool for evaluation and further refinement of blasting patterns and timing sequences. In this model the rock medium is represented by a discrete series of circular regions of fractured material. These regions are set in motion by pressure loads from the explosive. The motion of the regions is calculated using a step-wise, explicit, numerical time integration method. Interaction of adjacent regions is based on inelastic impact of spherical bodies. The derivation of this model is presented along with the background for selecting loading pressure based on explosive behavior. Three typical examples, including both cratering and bench geometries, are discussed which illustrate the use of this model to predict rubble motion. This engineering representation appears to provide a practical model for use in predicting rubble motion and a tool for design evaluation of blasting in confined geometries. 15 figures, 1 table.

Schamaun, J.T.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Burns Prevention  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Burns Burns Burns can result from everyday things and activities in your home. The most common causes of burns are from scalds (steam, hot bath water, hot drinks and foods), fire, chemicals, electricity and overexposure to the sun. Some burns may be more serious than others. The severity of the burn is based on the depth of the burn. First degree burns are the least severe, and third degree burns are the most severe. Call 911 or seek medical attention if you are unsure of how severe your burn is. All burns are susceptible to tetanus (lockjaw). Get a tetanus shot every 10 years. If your last shot was 5 years ago, talk to your doctor - you may need a booster shot. Causes of Burns: Scalds Scalding injuries and burns are caused by hot tap water, hot beverages and food, and steam.

10

The burning bush  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ISSN 1948-6596 The burning bush Fire in Mediterraneandiscussion. Pre- scription burning is used in many forest

Schwilk, Dylan W

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Characterization of the Burma Road Rubble Pit at the Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Burma Road Rubble Pit (BRRP) is located at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The BRRP unit consists of two unlined earthen pits dug into surficial soil and filled with various waste materials. It was used from 1973--1983 for the disposal of dry inert rubble such as metal, concrete, lumber, poles, light fixtures, and glass. No record of the disposal of hazardous substances at the BRRP has been found. In 1983, the BRRP was closed by covering it with soil. In September 1988, a Ground Penetrating Radar survey detected three disturbed areas of soil near the BRRP, and a detailed and combined RCRA Facility Investigation/Remedial Investigation was conducted from November 1993 to February 1994 to determine whether hazardous substances were present in the subsurface, to evaluate the nature and extent of contamination, and to evaluate the risks posed to the SRS facility due to activities conducted at the BRRP site. Metals, semi-volatile organic compounds, volatile organic compounds, radionuclides and one pesticide (Aldrin) were detected in soil and groundwater samples collected from seventeen BRRP locations. A baseline risk assessment (BRA) was performed quantitatively to evaluate whether chemical and radionuclide concentrations detected in soil and groundwater at the BRRP posed an unacceptable threat to human health and the environment. The exposure scenarios identifiable for the BRRP were for environmental researchers, future residential and occupational land use. The total site noncancer hazard indices were below unity, and cancer risk levels were below 1.0E-06 for the existing and future case environmental researcher scenario. The future case residential and occupational scenarios showed total hazard and risk levels which exceeded US EPA criterion values relative to groundwater scenarios. For the most part, the total carcinogenic risks were within the 1.0E-04 to 1.0E-06 risk range. Only the future adult residential scenario was associated with risks exceeding 1.0E-04.

Ward, K.G.; Frazier, W.L.; McAdams, T.D.; McFalls, S.L.; Rabin, M. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Voss, L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)]|[Neptune and Co., Los Alamos, NM (United States)

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Burning plasmas  

SciTech Connect

The fraction of fusion-reaction energy that is released in energetic charged ions, such as the alpha particles of the D-T reaction, can be thermalized within the reacting plasma and used to maintain its temperature. This mechanism facilitates the achievement of very high energy-multiplication factors Q, but also raises a number of new issues of confinement physics. To ensure satisfactory reaction operation, three areas of energetic-ion interaction need to be addressed: single-ion transport in imperfectly symmetric magnetic fields or turbulent background plasmas; energetic-ion-driven (or stabilized) collective phenomena; and fusion-heat-driven collective phenomena. The first of these topics is already being explored in a number of tokamak experiments, and the second will begin to be addressed in the D-T-burning phase of TFTR and JET. Exploration of the third topic calls for high-Q operation, which is a goal of proposed next-generation plasma-burning projects. Planning for future experiments must take into consideration the full range of plasma-physics and engineering R D areas that need to be addressed on the way to a fusion power demonstration.

Furth, H.P.; Goldston, R.J.; Zweben, S.J. (Princeton Univ., NJ (USA). Plasma Physics Lab.); Sigmar, D.J. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (USA))

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Considerations for Prescribed Burning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Considerations for Prescribed Burning NEW M EX ICO S TAE U N I V E R SI T YT Cooperative Extension prescribed burns ...................... 1 Fire effects ................................................ 3 Justification for burning ......................................... 3 Reclamation versus

Castillo, Steven P.

14

System for producing a uniform rubble bed for in-situ processes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and a cutter are disclosed for producing a large cavity filled with a uniform bed of rubblized oil shale or other material, for in-situ processing. A raise drill head has a hollow body with a generally circular base and sloping upper surface. A hollow shaft extends from the hollow body. Cutter teeth are mounted on the upper surface of the body and relatively small holes are formed in the body between the cutter teeth. Relatively large peripheral flutes around the body allow material to drop below the drill head. A pilot hole is drilled into the oil shale deposit. The pilot hole is reamed into a large diameter hole by means of a large diameter raise drill head or cutter to produce a cavity filled with rubble. A flushing fluid, such as air, is circulated through the pilot hole during the reaming operation to remove fines through the raise drill, thereby removing sufficient material to create sufficient void space, and allowing the larger particles to fill the cavity and provide a uniform bed of rubblized oil shale.

Galloway, T.R.

1981-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

15

System for producing a uniform rubble bed for in situ processes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and a cutter for producing a large cavity filled with a uniform bed of rubblized oil shale or other material, for in situ processing. A raise drill head (72) has a hollow body (76) with a generally circular base and sloping upper surface. A hollow shaft (74) extends from the hollow body (76). Cutter teeth (78) are mounted on the upper surface of the body (76) and relatively small holes (77) are formed in the body (76) between the cutter teeth (78). Relatively large peripheral flutes (80) around the body (76) allow material to drop below the drill head (72). A pilot hole is drilled into the oil shale deposit. The pilot hole is reamed into a large diameter hole by means of a large diameter raise drill head or cutter to produce a cavity filled with rubble. A flushing fluid, such as air, is circulated through the pilot hole during the reaming operation to remove fines through the raise drill, thereby removing sufficient material to create sufficient void space, and allowing the larger particles to fill the cavity and provide a uniform bed of rubblized oil shale.

Galloway, Terry R. (Berkeley, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

System for producing a uniform rubble bed for in situ processes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and a cutter are disclosed for producing a large cavity filled with a uniform bed of rubblized oil shale or other material, for in situ processing. A raise drill head has a hollow body with a generally circular base and sloping upper surface. A hollow shaft extends from the hollow body. Cutter teeth are mounted on the upper surface of the body and relatively small holes are formed in the body between the cutter teeth. Relatively large peripheral flutes around the body allow material to drop below the drill head. A pilot hole is drilled into the oil shale deposit. The pilot hole is reamed into a large diameter hole by means of a large diameter raise drill head or cutter to produce a cavity filled with rubble. A flushing fluid, such as air, is circulated through the pilot hole during the reaming operation to remove fines through the raise drill, thereby removing sufficient material to create sufficient void space, and allowing the larger particles to fill the cavity and provide a uniform bed of rubblized oil shale. 4 figs.

Galloway, T.R.

1983-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

17

U.S. Department of Energy Categorical Exclusion ...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Well ASH-06 Tie-In to A-Area Burning Rubble Pit (ABRP) Soil Vapor Extraction Unit (SVEU) Savannah River Site AikenAikenSouth Carolina Well number ASH-06 Tie-In to the A-Area...

18

Spring Cleaning. Calorie Burning.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Spring Cleaning. Calorie Burning. Laundry: 73 Dusting: 85 Mopping the Floor: 153 Washing the Car Painting: 161 (Estimate based on 150 lb person per 30 minutes, more calories burned if weigh more, fewer calories burned if weigh less) Allergy Sufferers' Survival Guide > Wash your hair before bed to avoid

Acton, Scott

19

BNL | Biomass Burns  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Biomass Burn Observation Project (BBOP) Biomass Burn Observation Project (BBOP) Aerosols from biomass burning are recognized to perturb Earth's climate through the direct effect (both scattering and absorption of incoming shortwave radiation), the semi-direct effect (evaporation of cloud drops due to absorbing aerosols), and indirect effects (by influencing cloud formation and precipitation. Biomass burning is an important aerosol source, providing an estimated 40% of anthropogenically influenced fine carbonaceous particles (Bond, et al., 2004; Andrea and Rosenfeld, 2008). Primary organic aerosol (POA) from open biomass burns and biofuel comprises the largest component of primary organic aerosol mass emissions at northern temperate latitudes (de Gouw and Jimenez, 2009). Data from the IMPROVE

20

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Download CX-010140: Categorical Exclusion Determination Well ASH-06 Tie-In to A-Area Burning Rubble Pit (ABRP) Soil Vapor Extraction Unit (SVEU) CX(s) Applied: B6.1 Date: 0307...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "a-area burning rubble" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

CX-010140: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

CX-010140: Categorical Exclusion Determination Well ASH-06 Tie-In to A-Area Burning Rubble Pit (ABRP) Soil Vapor Extraction Unit (SVEU) CX(s) Applied: B6.1 Date: 0307...

22

Bittersweet and Burning Bush  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Bittersweet and Burning Bush Nature Bulletin No. 250 December 25, 1982 Forest Preserve District of Cook County George W. Dunne, President Roland F. Eisenbeis, Supt. of Conservation...

23

Challenge of efficiently retorting very nonuniform beds of oil shale rubble  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Recent experimental pilot scale retort work has shown significant declines in oil recovery yield as the size of the shale block increases. Current analyses of the problem are reviewed, together with experimental evidence for the key fluid mechanical, heat transfer and mass transfer processes that cause these lower yields. It is found that loss in retort oil yield is dominated by the flow patterns in the matrix material around the large blocks and by the thermal transient characteristics within the blocks. The principal mechanism appears to be burning and cracking of the produced oil in the gas phase near the larger shale blocks. The use of process control methods involving air/steam ratio, total flow, and flow variations coupled with monitored exit gas composition appears feasible to maximize oil production.

Galloway, T.R.

1979-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

24

Sun tanning/burning  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sun tanning/burning Sun tanning/burning Name: Richardo Cossyleon Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: Why doesn't the sun affect or burn people with dark pigment in their skin? Replies: Good question! The pigment, melanin, is more toward the surface of the upper skin layer and absorbs ultraviolet rays from the Sun or artificial sources. This absorption protects the lower layers from damage and inflammation (burning). A very dark skinned person may have over a 1000X the protection from UV compared to a fair skinned person. Fair skinned people should use sun-block lotions especially early in the warm season AND keep exposure to the sun, particularly at midday, to less than 30 min. Even if a person gets a good tan, the sun's UV will age the skin over time. It will get wrinkled and develop age lines, etc. after many years of exposure. Moderation is the key!

25

Open Burning Permit Events Management  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Open Burning Permit Events Management Form Revision Date: 09/29/2010 OpenBurningPermit.docx A Use being burned: (check all that apply) [ ] Small logs (less than 16 in. long) [ ] Finished Lumber________________________________ As the individual responsible for this event, I have read the attached Regulations for Open Burning. The sponsoring

Manning, Sturt

26

5, 27912831, 2005 Biomass burning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ACPD 5, 2791­2831, 2005 Biomass burning emissions P. Guyon et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction measurements of trace gas and aerosol particle emissions from biomass burning in Amazonia P. Guyon1 , G. Frank1. 2791 #12;ACPD 5, 2791­2831, 2005 Biomass burning emissions P. Guyon et al. Title Page Abstract

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

27

Smoke Management for Prescribed Burning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Smoke Management for Prescribed Burning E-1008 Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Oklahoma State University Smoke Management for Prescribed Burning Extension #12;#12;Smoke Management for Prescribed Burning John R. Weir Research Associate Natural Resource

Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

28

Burning Plasma Developments Presented to  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Burning Plasma Developments Dale Meade Presented to VLT Program Advisory Committee UCLA December 4 and Burning Plasma Issues · NSO PAC Activities First Meeting July 20-21, 2001 at GA Action Items and Status Second Meeting January 17-18, 2001 at MIT Agenda items · FuSAC Recommendation on a burning plasma

29

7, 1733917366, 2007 Biomass burning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ACPD 7, 17339­17366, 2007 Biomass burning plumes during the AMMA wet season experiment C. H. Mari a Creative Commons License. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions Tracing biomass burning plumes from. Mari (marc@aero.obs-mip.fr) 17339 #12;ACPD 7, 17339­17366, 2007 Biomass burning plumes during the AMMA

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

30

Bending Burning Matches and Crumpling Burning Paper Texas A&M University  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bending Burning Matches and Crumpling Burning Paper Zeki Melek Texas A&M University Department burning. Specifically, we can simulate the bending of burning matches, and the folding of burning paper interactively. 1 Introduction We present a simple method to increase the realism of the simu- lation of burning

Keyser, John

31

BLM Burns District Office | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Burns District Office Jump to: navigation, search Name BLM Burns District Office Place Hines, Oregon References BLM Burns District Office1 This article is a stub. You can help...

32

INHIBITION EFFECTS ON EXTINCTION OF POLYMER BURNING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ON EXTINCTION OF POLYMER BURNING* W.J. Pitz R.F. SawyerQuantitative determinations of burning rates, extinctionlayer at the surface of a burning polymer. The char l ayer

Pitz, W.J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Burning Plasma Support Research Program  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Burning Plasma Support Research Program on Alcator C-Mod Presented by: Stephen M. Wolfe Alcator C-Mod Five Year Proposal Review MIT Plasma Science & Fusion Center Cambridge, MA May...

34

Category:Burns, OR | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Burns, OR Burns, OR Jump to: navigation, search Go Back to PV Economics By Location Media in category "Burns, OR" The following 16 files are in this category, out of 16 total. SVFullServiceRestaurant Burns OR PacifiCorp (Oregon).png SVFullServiceRestauran... 71 KB SVHospital Burns OR PacifiCorp (Oregon).png SVHospital Burns OR Pa... 74 KB SVLargeHotel Burns OR PacifiCorp (Oregon).png SVLargeHotel Burns OR ... 74 KB SVLargeOffice Burns OR PacifiCorp (Oregon).png SVLargeOffice Burns OR... 69 KB SVMediumOffice Burns OR PacifiCorp (Oregon).png SVMediumOffice Burns O... 71 KB SVMidriseApartment Burns OR PacifiCorp (Oregon).png SVMidriseApartment Bur... 72 KB SVOutPatient Burns OR PacifiCorp (Oregon).png SVOutPatient Burns OR ... 69 KB SVPrimarySchool Burns OR PacifiCorp (Oregon).png

35

Patch Burning: Integrating Fire and Grazing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Patch Burning: Integrating Fire and Grazing to Promote Heterogeneity Patch Burning: Integrating Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service Oklahoma State University June 2013 #12;#12;Patch Burning: Integrating Fire and Grazing to Promote Heterogeneity Patch Burning: Integrating Fire and Grazing to Promote

Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

36

THE BURNING OF BIOMASS Economy, Environment, Health  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

THE BURNING OF BIOMASS Economy, Environment, Health Kees Kolff, MD, MPH April 21, 2012 #12;OUR #12;PT COGENERATION LLC A wood-burning cogeneration power plant - Generates electricity (for sale off paper making process, black and white liquor , sludge #12;SLASH BURNING Slash burned in 2008: Jefferson

37

FROM YEARNING TO BURNING Marshall Rosenbluth  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

FROM YEARNING TO BURNING Marshall Rosenbluth Possible broad-brush guidelines for "burning plasma" thinking December 6, 2000 The "yearn to burn" is well motivated. Most of us came into the fusion program for many years, the point at which science and the fusion energy goal converge is in a burning plasma

38

Patch Burning: Integrating Fire and Grazing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Patch Burning: Integrating Fire and Grazing to Promote Heterogeneity Patch Burning: Integrating Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service Oklahoma State University September 2007 #12;#12;Patch Burning: Integrating Fire and Grazing to Promote Heterogeneity Patch Burning: Integrating Fire and Grazing to Promote

Debinski, Diane M.

39

SUBCHAPTER D. OUTDOOR BURNING Sec. 352.081. REGULATION OF OUTDOOR BURNING. (a) In this  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SUBCHAPTER D. OUTDOOR BURNING Sec. 352.081. REGULATION OF OUTDOOR BURNING. (a) In this section measurement that takes into consideration the burning index, spread component, or ignition component court of a county by order may prohibit or restrict outdoor burning in general or outdoor burning

40

Hydrogen Burning on Magnetar Surfaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We compute the rate of diffusive nuclear burning for hydrogen on the surface of a "magnetar" (Soft Gamma-Ray Repeater or Anomalous X-Ray Pulsar). We find that hydrogen at the photosphere will be burned on an extremely rapid timescale of hours to years, depending on composition of the underlying material. Improving on our previous studies, we explore the effect of a maximally thick "inert" helium layer, previously thought to slow down the burning rate. Since hydrogen diffuses faster in helium than through heavier elements, we find this helium buffer actually increases the burning rate for magnetars. We compute simple analytic scalings of the burning rate with temperature and magnetic field for a range of core temperature. We conclude that magnetar photospheres are very unlikely to contain hydrogen. This motivates theoretical work on heavy element atmospheres that are needed to measure effective temperature from the observed thermal emission and constrains models of AXPs that rely on magnetar cooling through thick light element envelopes.

P. Chang; P. Arras; L. Bildsten

2004-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "a-area burning rubble" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Biomass Burning Observation Project Specifically,  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Burning Observation Project Burning Observation Project Specifically, the aircraft will obtain measurements of the microphysical, chemical, hygroscopic, and optical properties of aerosols. Data captured during BBOP will help scientists better understand how aerosols combine and change at a variety of distances and burn times. Locations Pasco, Washington. From July through September, the G-1 will be based out of its home base in Washington. From this location, it can intercept and measure smoke plumes from naturally occurring uncontrolled fires across Washington, Oregon, Idaho, Northern California, and Western Montana. Smoke plumes aged 0-5 hours are the primary targets for this phase of the campaign. Memphis, Tennessee. In October, the plane moves to Tennessee to sample prescribed

42

Open Burning (New Mexico) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Open Burning (New Mexico) Open Burning (New Mexico) Open Burning (New Mexico) < Back Eligibility Commercial Construction General Public/Consumer Industrial Residential Program Info Start Date 2003 State New Mexico Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider New Mexico Environment Department The New Mexico Environment Department's Air Quality Bureau regulates the open burning rules established by the Environmental Improvement Board. These rules are established to protect public health and welfare by establishing controls on pollution produced by open burning. Open burning is allowed for recreational and ceremonial purposes, for barbecuing, for heating purposes in fireplaces, for the noncommercial cooking of food for human consumption and for warming by small wood fires at construction

43

Paradigm Shift: Burning Coal to Geothermal | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Paradigm Shift: Burning Coal to Geothermal Paradigm Shift: Burning Coal to Geothermal Paradigm Shift: Burning Coal to Geothermal 20121120ballstatepresentation.pdf More Documents...

44

Analyzing and Tracking Burning Structures in Lean Premixed Hydrogen Flames  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

effects on cellular burning structures in lean premixedAnalyzing and Tracking Burning Structures in Lean Premixedthe turbulence of the burning process with the distribution

Bremer, Peer-Timo

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Practical tip: Precooling topical calcineurin inhibitors tube; reduces burning sensation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

inhibitors tube; reduces burning sensation Sultan Al-salkhenaizan@hotmail.com Abstract Burning sensation at theuse, does reduce the burning sensation and enable most

Al-Khenaizan, Sultan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

TQ2. Global Biomass Burning What is the impact of global biomass burning on the terrestrial  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

TQ2. Global Biomass Burning What is the impact of global biomass burning on the terrestrial and land use. MODIS active fire detections 2000-2006 for Southern California 2001-2004 mean annual burned (bottom), expressed as fraction of grid cell that burns each year. From Giglio et al. (2005), Atmos. Chem

Christian, Eric

47

Schoenberg, Chang, Pompa, Woods, Xu. Burning Index. 1 RH: Burning index in Los Angeles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Schoenberg, Chang, Pompa, Woods, Xu. Burning Index. 1 RH: Burning index in Los Angeles A Critical Assessment of the Burning Index in Los Angeles County, California Frederic Paik SchoenbergA,E , Chien: The effectiveness of the Burning Index (BI) in predicting wildfire ac- tivity is assessed using 25 years of area

Schoenberg, Frederic Paik (Rick)

48

Schoenberg, Chang, Keeley, Pompa, Woods, Xu. Burning Index. 1 RH: Burning index in Los Angeles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Schoenberg, Chang, Keeley, Pompa, Woods, Xu. Burning Index. 1 RH: Burning index in Los Angeles A Critical Assessment of the Burning Index in Los Angeles County, California Frederic Paik Schoenberg: The effectiveness of the Burning Index (BI) in predicting wildfire ac- tivity is assessed using 25 years of area

Schoenberg, Frederic Paik (Rick)

49

Biomass Burning: A Driver for Global Change!  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Biomass burning includes the burning of the world''s vegetation---forests, savannas, and agricultural lands---to clear the land and change its use. Only in the past decade have researchers realized the important contributions of biomass burning to the ...

Levine J. S.; III W. R. Cofer; Jr D. R. Cahoon; Winstead E. L.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

7, 80178033, 2007 burning-tropopause  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ACPD 7, 8017­8033, 2007 Biomass burning-tropopause mixing J. Brioude et al. Title Page Abstract Discussions Mixing between a stratospheric intrusion and a biomass burning plume J. Brioude1 , O. R. Cooper1.brioude@noaa.gov) 8017 #12;ACPD 7, 8017­8033, 2007 Biomass burning-tropopause mixing J. Brioude et al. Title Page

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

51

MFE Burning Plasmas Innovative Confinement Concepts (ICCs)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

MFE Burning Plasmas and Innovative Confinement Concepts (ICCs) Bick Hooper LLNL Presentation power requires: · A burning plasma experiment · An advancing portfolio of ICCs · Plasma physics unified Improved Configurations Magnetic Configurations Knowledge Base Burning Plasma Phys. & Tech. Knowledge Base

52

Actinide Burning in CANDU Reactors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Actinide burning in CANDU reactors has been studied as a method of reducing the actinide content of spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors, and thereby decreasing the associated long term decay heat load. In this work simulations were performed of actinides mixed with natural uranium to form a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel, and also mixed with silicon carbide to form an inert matrix (IMF) fuel. Both of these fuels were taken to a higher burnup than has previously been studied. The total transuranic element destruction calculated was 40% for the MOX fuel and 71% for the IMF. (authors)

Hyland, B.; Dyck, G.R. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario, K0J 1J0 (Canada)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

In Situ Burning of Oil Spills  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... burns, the Teflon filters were weighed and sealed in Petri dishes, while the ... terrain, solar heating and surface friction creates a tur- bulent wind field ...

2001-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

54

The Performance Culture of Burning Man.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Theatre in the United States for the last twenty years has been evolving in scope by way of a cultural phenomenon known as Burning Man. (more)

Clupper, Wendy Ann

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

AIAA 2001-0339 INTERMITTENT BURNING AND ITS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

AIAA 2001-0339 INTERMITTENT BURNING AND ITS CONTRIBUTION TO PLATEAU BURNING OF COMPOSITE and Astronautics, Inc. with permission. INTERMITTENT BURNING AND ITS CONTRIBUTION TO PLATEAU BURNING OF COMPOSITE; Fellow AIAA §Senior Research Engineer Abstract The plateau burning behavior of composite solid

Seitzman, Jerry M.

56

Uniform-burning matrix burner  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Computer simulation was used in the development of an inward-burning, radial matrix gas burner and heat pipe heat exchanger. The burner and exchanger can be used to heat a Stirling engine on cloudy days when a solar dish, the normal source of heat, cannot be used. Geometrical requirements of the application forced the use of the inward burning approach, which presents difficulty in achieving a good flow distribution and air/fuel mixing. The present invention solved the problem by providing a plenum with just the right properties, which include good flow distribution and good air/fuel mixing with minimum residence time. CFD simulations were also used to help design the primary heat exchanger needed for this application which includes a plurality of pins emanating from the heat pipe. The system uses multiple inlet ports, an extended distance from the fuel inlet to the burner matrix, flow divider vanes, and a ring-shaped, porous grid to obtain a high-temperature uniform-heat radial burner. Ideal applications include dish/Stirling engines, steam reforming of hydrocarbons, glass working, and any process requiring high temperature heating of the outside surface of a cylindrical surface.

Bohn, Mark S. (Golden, CO); Anselmo, Mark (Arvada, CO)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Visualizing Buoyant Burning Bubbles in Type Ia Supernovae at...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Burning in Supernovae Buoyant Burning Bubbles in Type Ia Supernovae bubble-s.jpeg Flame ignition in type Ia supernovae leads to isolated bubbles of burning buoyant fluid. As a...

58

REMOTE SENSING OF BURN SEVERITY AND THE INTERACTIONS BETWEEN BURN SEVERITY, TOPOGRAPHY AND VEGETATION IN INTERIOR ALASKA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

REMOTE SENSING OF BURN SEVERITY AND THE INTERACTIONS BETWEEN BURN SEVERITY, TOPOGRAPHY likely to change vegetation type. Finally, vegetation recovery, estimated using a remotely-sensed................................................................................6 Chapter 2. Mapping Burn Severity Using Satellite Remote Sensing..........................8

Ruess, Roger W.

59

FESAC Panel on Burning Plasmas 1.What scientific issues should be addressed by a burning plasma physics experiment and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

FESAC Panel on Burning Plasmas Charge 1.What scientific issues should be addressed by a burning of using various magnetic confinement concepts in studying burning plasma physics? As a part of your

60

New Computer Codes Unlock the Secrets of Cleaner Burning Coal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Codes Unlock the Secrets of Cleaner Burning Coal New Computer Codes Unlock the Secrets of Cleaner Burning Coal March 29, 2012 | Tags: Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR),...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "a-area burning rubble" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

The QSE-Reduced Nuclear Reaction Network for Silicon Burning.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Iron and neighboring nuclei are formed by silicon burning in massive stars before core collapse and during supernova outbursts. Complete and incomplete silicon burning is (more)

Parete-Koon, Suzanne T

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

OLIGOMERIZATION OF LEVOGLUCOSAN IN PROXIES OF BIOMASS BURNING AEROSOLS.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Biomass burning aerosols play an important role in the chemistry and physics of the atmosphere and therefore, affect global climate. Biomass burning aerosols are generally (more)

Holmes, Bryan J.

63

UNCORRECTED 2 Burning biodiversity: Woody biomass use by commercial  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

UNCORRECTED PROOF 2 Burning biodiversity: Woody biomass use by commercial 3 and subsistence groups as: Lisa Naughton-Treves et al., Burning biodiversity: Woody biomass use by commercial

Kammen, Daniel M.

64

Wood-Burning Heating System Deduction  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This statute allows individual taxpayers a deduction for the purchase and installation of a wood-burning heating system. The deduction is equal to the total cost of purchase and installation for...

65

Clean Burn Fuels LLC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

developer planning to build a 60m gallons per year (227.12m litres per year) bioethanol plant in Raeford, North Carolina. References Clean Burn Fuels LLC1 LinkedIn...

66

Simulation of a Burning Plasma C. Kessel, PPPL  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Simulation of a Burning Plasma Experiment C. Kessel, PPPL UFA Workshop on Burning Plasma Science, December 11-13, 2000 #12;FIRE Burning Plasma Discharge Simulation with TSC ELMy H-mode, N, R=2.0 m, Ip=6.5 MA #12;Burning Plasma Experiment Simultaneously Needs · L-H mode transition · Non

67

BURNING PLASMA NEXT STEPS: DISCUSSION OF KEY DEVELOPMENTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

BURNING PLASMA NEXT STEPS: DISCUSSION OF KEY DEVELOPMENTS Gerald A. Navratil Columbia University/FESAC Burning Plasma Strategy Dec 2002 NRC/NAS Interim Report on Burning Plasmas Jan 30, 2003 DOE of the physics of burning plasma, advance fusion technology, and contribute to the development of fusion energy

68

Analyzing and Tracking Burning Structures in Lean Premixed Hydrogen Flames  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Analyzing and Tracking Burning Structures in Lean Premixed Hydrogen Flames P.-T. Bremer1, G. Weber2 flames subject to different levels of tur- bulence. Due to their unstable nature, lean flames burn to quantitatively correlate the turbulence of the burning process with the distribution of burning regions, properly

69

Global observations of desert dust and biomass burning aerosols  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Global observations of desert dust and biomass burning aerosols Martin de Graaf KNMI #12; Outline · Absorbing Aerosol Index - Theory · Absorbing Aerosol Index - Reality · Biomass burning.6 Biomass burning over Angola, 09 Sep. 2004 Absorbing Aerosol Index PMD image #12;biomass burning ocean

Graaf, Martin de

70

Analyzing and Tracking Burning Structures in Lean Premixed Hydrogen Flames  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Analyzing and Tracking Burning Structures in Lean Premixed Hydrogen Flames Peer-Timo Bremer, Member levels of turbulence. Due to their unstable nature, lean flames burn in cells separated by locally the turbulence of the burning process with the distribution of burning regions, properly segmented and selected

Pascucci, Valerio

71

Effects of Range Burning on Kansas Flint Hills Soil  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Effects of Range Burning on Kansas Flint Hills Soil CLENTON E. OWENSBY AND JOHN BRUCE WYRILL, III Highlight: Two tallgrass prairie areas burned annually for 20 (grazed) nnd 48 (un. grazed) years ar-spring burned ungrared plots were generally higher in soil pH, organic ma~fer, and K than late-spring burned

Owensby, Clenton E.

72

Paradigm Shift: Burning Coal to Geothermal  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Paradigm Shift: Burning Coal Paradigm Shift: Burning Coal to Geothermal" November 20, 2012 jlowe@bsu.edu 765.285.2805 Ball State University Ball State University Administration Building 1899 Ball State 1920s Ball State University Ball State University (4) Coal Fired Boilers Installed 1941/1955 (3) Natural Gas Fired Boilers Installed in the 1970s Heat and Chilled Water Plant Operations Heat Plant: 4 Coal Fired Boilers 3 Natural Gas Fired Boilers 320,000 Lbs/Hr nameplate 240,000 Lbs/Hr current 700,000,000 Lbs/Year Chilled Water Plant: 5 Electrical Centrifugal Chillers 9,300 ton capacity 25,000,000 Ton Hours/Year Pollutants Produced from Burning 36,000 tons of Coal * Carbon Dioxide 85,000 tons (Global Warming)

73

Correlations between Optical, Chemical and Physical Properties of Biomass Burn Aerosols  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

laboratory measurements of biomass-burning emissions: 1.tar balls: Particles from biomass and biofuel burning, J.Eleuterio (2005), A review of biomass burning emissions part

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Do biomass burning aerosols intensify drought in equatorial Asia during El Niño?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

fication of drought-induced biomass burning in Indonesiavariability in global biomass burning emissions from 1997 toChemistry and Physics Do biomass burning aerosols intensify

Tosca, M. G; Randerson, J. T; Zender, C. S; Flanner, M. G; Rasch, P. J

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Do biomass burning aerosols intensify drought in equatorial Asia during El Niño?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of drought-induced biomass burning in Indonesia since 1960,variability in global biomass burning emissions from 1997 toand Physics Do biomass burning aerosols intensify drought in

Tosca, M. G; Randerson, J. T; Zender, C. S; Flanner, M. G; Rasch, P. J

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

A Hypothetical Burning-Velocity Formula for Very Lean Hydrogen-Air Mixtures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

K. Fig. 2 Comparisons of burning-velocity predictions withcurve), when an experimental burning velocity (points) of 53and calculated laminar burning velocities of lean hydrogen-

Grcar, Joseph F

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Reflective Terahertz Imaging for early diagnosis of skin burn severity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

97 Fig 7.3 Cross shaped brass brand used for burnFig 7.21 3-D drawing of the brass brand used for controlledfor imaging burns[10]. A brass brand heated to 315C was

TEWARI, PRIYAMVADA

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Biomass Burning and the Production of Greenhouse Gases  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Biomass burning is a source of greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. In addition, biomass burning is a source of chemically active gases, including carbon monoxide, nonmethane hydrocarbons, and nitric oxide. These gases, along ...

Levine J. S.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

How much carbon dioxide is produced by burning gasoline and ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

How much carbon dioxide is produced by burning gasoline and diesel fuel? About 19.64 pounds of carbon dioxide (CO 2) are produced from burning a gallon of gasoline ...

80

NETL: Releases & Briefs - Laser ignition for lean-burn engines  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Technology Laboratory have successfully operated a laser-spark lean-burn natural gas reciprocating engine. Development of lean-burn engines is driven by demand for higher...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "a-area burning rubble" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Reactive burn models and ignition & growth concept  

SciTech Connect

Plastic-bonded explosives are heterogeneous materials. Experimentally, shock initiation is sensitive to small amounts of porosity, due to the formation of hot spots (small localized regions of high temperature). This leads to the Ignition and Growth concept, introduced by Lee and Tarver in 1980, as the basis for reactive burn models. A homogeneized burn rate needs to account for three mesoscale physical effects (i) the density of burnt hot spots, which depends on the lead shock strength; (ii) the growth of the burn fronts triggered by hot spots, which depends on the local deflagration speed; (iii) a geometric factor that accounts for the overlap of deflagration wavelets from adjacent hot spots. These effects can be combined and the burn model defined by specifying the reaction progress variable {lambda}(t) as a function of a dimensionless reaction length {tau}{sub hs}(t)/{ell}{sub hs}, rather than by xpecifying an explicit burn rate. The length scale {ell}{sub hs} is the average distance between hot spots, which is proportional to [N{sub hs}(P{sub s})]{sup -1/3}, where N{sub hs} is the number density of hot spots activated by the lead shock. The reaction length {tau}{sub hs}(t) = {line_integral}{sub 0}{sup t} D(P(t'))dt' is the distance the burn front propagates from a single hot spot, where D is the deflagration speed and t is the time since the shock arrival. A key implementation issue is how to determine the lead shock strength in conjunction with a shock capturing scheme. They have developed a robust algorithm for this purpose based on the Hugoniot jump condition for the energy. The algorithm utilizes the time dependence of density, pressure and energy within each cell. The method is independent of the numerical dissipation used for shock capturing. It is local and can be used in one or more space dimensions. The burn model has a small number of parameters which can be calibrated to fit velocity gauge data from shock initiation experiments.

Menikoff, Ralph S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shaw, Milton S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Burning Thermals in Type Ia Supernovae A. J. Aspden1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Burning Thermals in Type Ia Supernovae A. J. Aspden1 , J. B. Bell1 , S. Dong2 , and S. E. Woosley2 ABSTRACT We develop a one-dimensional theoretical model for thermals burning in Type Ia supernovae based for the burning and for the expansion of the thermal due to changes in the background stratification found

Bell, John B.

83

Burning Plasma Physics Technical Subgroup of the Magnetic  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Burning Plasma Physics Technical Subgroup of the Magnetic Fusion Concepts Working Group 1999 Woolley, Stewart Zweben. #12;2 Contents 1. Introduction 3 2. Burning Plasma Physics Issues 8 2.1 Energetic and physics integration 22 3. Technical Readiness for a Burning Plasma Experiment 26 3.1 Background

84

A Next Step Burning Plasma Experiment Dale M. Meade  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Next Step Burning Plasma Experiment Dale M. Meade Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Fusion). ARIES Group #12;Advanced Toroidal Physics Fusion Plasma Conditions Burning Plasma Physics 1.0 0.5 Alpha Energy #12;Magnetic Fusion Science Issues - Strongly Coupled in a Fusion (Burning) Plasma Improved

85

Presented at UFA Burning Plasma Science Workshop II  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

FIRE D. Meade Presented at UFA Burning Plasma Science Workshop II General Atomics San Diego, CA May for a Next Step Experiment in Magnetic Fusion · Compact High Field Approach - General Parameters · Burning, Madison, WI · Charge for First and Second meetings Scientific value of a Burning Plasma experiment

86

Guanine tautomerism revealed by UVUV and IRUV hole burning spectroscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Guanine tautomerism revealed by UV­UV and IR­UV hole burning spectroscopy E. Nir Department spectroscopy. 1-methylguanine, in which the Keto­Enol tautomerism is blocked, shows hole burning spectra from hole burning SHB by using two counter- propagating dye laser pulses with a delay of about 150 ns

de Vries, Mattanjah S.

87

Stellar Burning Falk Herwig, Alexander Heger, and Frank  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Stellar Burning and Mixing Falk Herwig, Alexander Heger, and Frank Timmes (T-6); and Rob Hueckstaedt and Rob Coker (X-2); fherwig@lanl.gov D uring most phases of stellar evolution, nuclear burning nuclear burning in convective regions in which mixing and nuclear energy release proceeds on comparable

Herwig, Falk

88

Electromagnetically induced transparency over spectral hole-burning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electromagnetically induced transparency over spectral hole-burning temperature in a rare the spectral hole-burning temperature. The transmission of the probe laser beam is increased by a factor of exp over the spectral hole-burning temperature in a rare-earth­doped solid represents important progress

Shahriar, Selim

89

Supercritical Burning of Liquid Oxygen (LOX) Droplet with Detailed Chemistry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Supercritical Burning of Liquid Oxygen (LOX) Droplet with Detailed Chemistry J. DAOU,* P with diameter less than I pm vaporize before burning. A quasi-steady-like diffusion flame is then established is considered; temperature and pressure in the combustion chamber have a weak influence on the burning time

Heil, Matthias

90

Burning of high Tc bridges M. E. Gaevski,a)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Burning of high Tc bridges M. E. Gaevski,a) T. H. Johansen, Yu. Galperin,a) and H. Bratsberg February 1997; accepted for publication 24 September 1997 Burning of superconducting thin film bridges containing extended defects magneto-optic investigation is sufficient to locate the incipient burning region

Johansen, Tom Henning

91

December 2010 HYDROLOGIC AND VEGETAL RESPONSES TO PRESCRIBED BURNING AND  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

December 2010 HYDROLOGIC AND VEGETAL RESPONSES TO PRESCRIBED BURNING AND HERBICIDAL TREATMENT@nmsu.edu #12;i HYDROLOGIC AND VEGETAL RESPONSES TO PRESCRIBED BURNING AND HERBICIDAL TREATMENT OF BROOM both burning and spraying with herbicide. However, the broom snakeweed was not eradicated, and numbers

Johnson, Eric E.

92

LAMINAR BURNING VELOCITY OF GASOLINES WITH ADDITION OF ETHANOL  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 LAMINAR BURNING VELOCITY OF GASOLINES WITH ADDITION OF ETHANOL P. Dirrenberger1 , P.A. Glaude*1 (2014) 162-169" DOI : 10.1016/j.fuel.2013.07.015 #12;2 LAMINAR BURNING VELOCITY OF GASOLINES, Sweden Abstract The adiabatic laminar burning velocities of a commercial gasoline and of a model fuel (n

93

Hot Bottom Burning in Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hot Bottom Burning in Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars By J OHN C. LATTANZ I O 1 , CHERYL A. FROST 1 state of knowledge about the phenomenon of Hot Bottom Burning as seen in Asymptotic Giant Branch stars. This is illustrated with some results from new 6M fi stellar models. 1. Introduction and Motivation Hot Bottom Burning

Lattanzio, John

94

Burning Plasma Science Workshop Astrophysics and Laboratory Plasmas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Burning Plasma Science Workshop Astrophysics and Laboratory Plasmas Robert Rosner The University of Chicago Dec. 12, 2000 Austin, TX (http://flash.uchicago.edu) #12;Burning Plasma Science Workshop Austin ¥ Plasma conditions ¥ Overview of plasma physics issues for astrophysics ¥ Specific examples #12;Burning

95

Greyscale Photograph Geometry Informed by Dodging and Burning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Greyscale Photograph Geometry Informed by Dodging and Burning Carlos Phillips and Kaleem Siddiqi the same negative may vary in inten- sity values due, in part, to the liberal use of dodging and burning to linear dodging and burning. 1 Introduction Photographs are often used as test data in the computer vision

Siddiqi, Kaleem

96

Prescribed Burning in the Kings River Ecosystems Project Area: Lessons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Prescribed Burning in the Kings River Ecosystems Project Area: Lessons Learned1 David S. Mc burning was initiated in 1994 in two 32,000-acre watersheds in the Kings River District of the Sierra various effects of these fires. Approximately 11,900 acres of prescription burns were completed by the end

Standiford, Richard B.

97

Burning Plasma Physics -The Next Frontier Three Options  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Burning Plasma Physics - The Next Frontier Three Options (same scale) ITER-FEATFIRE IGNITOR US in Magnetic Fusion · Burning Plasma Performance Considerations · Compact High Field Approach - General for strengthening the base fusion sciences program 2. Directs DOE to submit a plan for a U.S. Burning Plasma

98

B. Gonalves, Workshop on "Burning Plasma" Physics and Simulation Tarragona, 3-4 July, 2005 Burning Plasma Diagnostics on JET  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

B. Gonçalves, Workshop on "Burning Plasma" Physics and Simulation Tarragona, 3-4 July, 2005 Burning;B. Gonçalves, Workshop on "Burning Plasma" Physics and Simulation Tarragona, 3-4 July, 2005 on "Burning Plasma" Physics and Simulation Tarragona, 3-4 July, 2005 3.5 MeV n 14 MeV DT 3.5 MeV n 14 MeV DT

99

Role of Fusion Product Measurements in Physics Understanding of a Burning Plasma (A25955)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Proc. Of Int. Workshop On Burning Plasma Diagnostics, Varenna, Italy, 2007International Workshop on Burning Plasma Diagnostics Varenna, IT, 2007999614195

Boivin, R.L.

2007-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

100

BIOMASS BURNING IN THE AMAZON: LINKS BETWEEN BURNING, SCIAMACHY TRACE GASES, AND AEROSOL AND SURFACE PROPERTIES FROM THE ORAC-AATSR RETRIEVAL  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

BIOMASS BURNING IN THE AMAZON: LINKS BETWEEN BURNING, SCIAMACHY TRACE GASES, AND AEROSOL@atm.ox.ac.uk AEROSOL AND GAS PROPERTIESSEASONALITY OF BURNING Biomass burning in the Amazon shows strong seasonal counts are generally highest up to 3 months after the burning of ground. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ESA

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "a-area burning rubble" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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101

An Interactive Simulation Framework for Burning Objects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a simulation framework to integrate several aspects of the combustion and burning process in a unified and modular manner. A simple three gas flame model is used to simulate a combustion process, while air motion is simulated as a single moving fluid. Solid objects inside the simulation domain can catch fire and start burning. Heat information is transferred from the fluid simulator to a solid simulator, while the solid simulator injects fuel into the fluid simulation. We also present a simple yet effective method for modeling of object decomposition under combustion using level set methods. The interaction between modules is presented as well as a discussion of fluid-solid coupling. All simulation modules run together at interactive rates, enabling the user to tweak the simulation parameters and setup for desired behavior 1. 1

Zeki Melek; John Keyser

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Operation Redwing. Project 4. 1. Chorioretinal burns  

SciTech Connect

This Redwing project was designed to furnish supplemental information on the requirements for protection against retinal burns, using both rabbits and monkeys as experimental animals. Chorioretinal burns were produced by various segments of the thermal pulse. This was accomplished by two series of time-fractionating shutters. The first group, the early closing shutters, were open at time zero and closed at increasing intervals of time. The second series, the delayed-opening shutters, were closed at time zero and subsequently opened for preselected time increments during the flash. The feasibility of protection by fixed-density optical filters was explored. Two types of protective electronic shutters were field tested. Additional objectives were to: (1) determine whether blink reflexes would prevent chorioretinal burns; (2) ascertain which portions of the time-intensity pulse can produce thermal injury to the retina and choroid of the eye; (3) determine the time required for blink reflex in rabbits and monkeys exposed to the extreme light intensity of the nuclear detonations; (4) explore the feasibility of ocular protection by means of fixed-density optical filters or combinations of filters; and (5) tests, under field conditions, protective shutter devices that are in the developmental state and are designed to close more rapidly than the blink reflex.

Fixott, R.; Pickering, J.E.; Williams, D.B.; Brown, D.V.L.; Rose, H.W.

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

U.S. BURNING PLASMA ORGANIZATION ACTIVITIES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The national U.S. Burning Plasma Organization (USBPO) was formed to provide an umbrella structure in the U.S. fusion science research community. Its main purpose is the coordination of research activities in the U.S. program relevant to burning plasma science and preparations for participation in the international ITER experiment. This grant provided support for the continuing development and operations of the USBPO in its first years of existence. A central feature of the USBPO is the requirement for broad community participation in and governance of this effort. We concentrated on five central areas of activity of the USBPO during this grant period. These included: 1) activities of the Director and support staff in continuing management and development of the USBPO activity; 2) activation of the advisory Council; 3) formation and initial research activities of the research community Topical Groups; 4) formation of Task Groups to perform specific burning plasma related research and development activities; 5) integration of the USBPO community with the ITER Project Office as needed to support ITER development in the U.S.

Raymond J. Fonck

2009-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

104

Interim Status Closure Plan Open Burning Treatment Unit Technical Area 16-399 Burn Tray  

SciTech Connect

This closure plan describes the activities necessary to close one of the interim status hazardous waste open burning treatment units at Technical Area (TA) 16 at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Facility), hereinafter referred to as the 'TA-16-399 Burn Tray' or 'the unit'. The information provided in this closure plan addresses the closure requirements specified in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Part 265, Subparts G and P for the thermal treatment units operated at the Facility under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Act. Closure of the open burning treatment unit will be completed in accordance with Section 4.1 of this closure plan.

Vigil-Holterman, Luciana R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

105

Neutrino-Accelerated Hot Hydrogen Burning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We examine the effects of significant electron anti-neutrino fluxes on hydrogen burning. Specifically, we find that the bottleneck weak nuclear reactions in the traditional pp-chain and the hot CNO cycle can be accelerated by anti-neutrino capture, increasing the energy generation rate. We also discuss how anti-neutrino capture reactions can alter the conditions for break out into the rp-process. We speculate on the impact of these considerations for the evolution and dynamics of collapsing very- and super- massive compact objects.

Chad T. Kishimoto; George M. Fuller

2006-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

106

'Live Burns' in Spartanburg, SC, Will Benefit Research and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... in Spartanburg, SC, battle a 'test burn' of an abandoned house in an ... organizations will turn abandoned wood-frame, single-family houses near ...

2013-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

107

Burns Harbor, Indiana: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

with form History Share this page on Facebook icon Twitter icon Burns Harbor, Indiana: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates...

108

C. Langton1, D. Kosson2 and H. Burns1  

G. Flach, R. Seitz, S. Marra, H. Burns, SRNL DOE-EM Project Manager: Pramod Mallick CBP Project Support Provided by EM-30 Contact Information

109

Biomass burning : particle emissions, characteristics, and airborne measurements.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Biomass burning started to attract attention since the last decade because of its impacts on the atmosphere and the environmental air quality, as well as (more)

Wardoyo, Arinto Yudi

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Advanced Nuclear Fuel Concepts for Minor Actinide Burning  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, New fuel cycle strategies entail advanced nuclear fuel concepts. This especially applies for the burning of minor actinides in a fast reactor cycle...

111

Burning Man: Transforming Community through Countercultural Ritual Process.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis will examine the countercultural event called Burning Man through the lens of the ritual process. Through the personal narratives of six main collaborators (more)

McCaffrey, Jessica

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Reflective Terahertz Imaging for early diagnosis of skin burn severity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of injuries caused by flame/flash burns[23, 24]. OtherDeep partial IIb Deep III Flame, chemical, electrical, hotliquids with high viscosity Flame, electrical, chemical,

TEWARI, PRIYAMVADA

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Issues in "Burning Plasma Science" S. J. Zweben, D. S. Darrow  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Issues in "Burning Plasma Science" S. J. Zweben, D. S. Darrow (with inputs from many people at PPPL) Burning Plasma Science Workshop Austin, Texas 12/11/00 · Burning plasma physics issues · Fusion energy development issues => big issue: local burn control in an AT · Our conclusions · Alternate path #12;Burning

114

Mechanistic Reactive Burn Modeling of Solid Explosives  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a computational framework for reactive burn modeling of solid explosives and the development of a test case where physical mechanisms represent RDX or RDX-based materials. The report is a sequel to LA-13794-MS, ''A Unifying Framework for Hot Spots and the Ignition of Energetic Materials,'' where we proposed a new approach to the building of a general purpose model that captures the essential features of the three primary origins of hot-spot formation: void collapse, shear banding, friction. The purpose of the present report is to describe the continuing task of coupling the unifying hot-spot model to hydrodynamic calculations to develop a mechanistic reactive burn model. The key components of the coupling include energy localization, the growth of hot spots, overall hot-spot behavior, and a phase-averaged mixture equation of state (EOS) in a Mie-Grueneisen form. The nucleation and growth of locally heated regions is modeled by a phenomenological treatment as well as a statistical model based on an exponential size distribution. The Mie-Grueneisen form of the EOS is one of many possible choices and is not a critical selection for implementing the model. In this report, model calculations are limited to proof-of-concept illustrations for shock loading. Results include (1) shock ignition and growth-to-detonation, (2) double shock ignition, and (3) quenching and reignition. A comparative study of Pop-plots is discussed based on the statistical model.

Y.Horie; Y.Hamate; D.Greening

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Modeling Deep Burn TRISO Particle Nuclear Fuel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Under the DOE Deep Burn program TRISO fuel is being investigated as a fuel form for consuming plutonium and minor actinides, and for greater efficiency in uranium utilization. The result will thus be to drive TRISO particulate fuel to very high burn-ups. In the current effort the various phenomena in the TRISO particle are being modeled using a variety of techniques. The chemical behavior is being treated utilizing thermochemical analysis to identify phase formation/transformation and chemical activities in the particle, including kernel migration. First principles calculations are being used to investigate the critical issue of fission product palladium attack on the SiC coating layer. Density functional theory is being used to understand fission product diffusion within the plutonia oxide kernel. Kinetic Monte Carlo techniques are shedding light on transport of fission products, most notably silver, through the carbon and SiC coating layers. The diffusion of fission products through an alternative coating layer, ZrC, is being assessed via DFT methods. Finally, a multiscale approach is being used to understand thermal transport, including the effect of radiation damage induced defects, in a model SiC material.

Besmann, Theodore M [ORNL; Stoller, Roger E [ORNL; Samolyuk, German D [ORNL; Schuck, Paul C [ORNL; Rudin, Sven [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Wills, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Wirth, Brian D. [University of California, Berkeley; Kim, Sungtae [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Morgan, Dane [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Szlufarska, Izabela [University of Wisconsin, Madison

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Impact of biomass burning on the atmosphere  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Fire has played an important part in biogeochemical cycling throughout most of the history of our planet. Ice core studies have been very beneficial in paleoclimate studies and constraining the budgets of biogeochemical cycles through the past 160,000 years of the Vostok ice core. Although to date there has been no way of determining cause and effect, concentration of greenhouse gases directly correlates with temperature in ice core analyses. Recent ice core studies on Greenland have shown that significant climate change can be very rapid on the order of a decade. This chapter addresses the coupled evolution of our planet`s atmospheric composition and biomass burning. Special attention is paid to the chemical and climatic impacts of biomass burning on the atmosphere throughout the last century, specifically looking at the cycles of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur. Information from ice core measurements may be useful in understanding the history of fire and its historic affect on the composition of the atmosphere and climate.

Dignon, J.

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Tropical biomass burning smoke plume size, shape, reflectance, and age based on 2001??2009 MISR imagery of Borneo  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

C. S. Zender et al. : Tropical biomass burning smoke plumeslaboratory measurements of biomass-burning emis- sions: 1.aerosol optical depth biomass burning events: a comparison

Zender, C. S.; Krolewski, A. G.; Tosca, M. G.; Randerson, J. T.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

PHOTOCHEMICAL AND NON-PHOTOCHEMICAL HOLE BURNING IN DIMETHYL-S-TETRAZINE IN A POLYVINYL CARBAZOLE FILM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

AND NON-PHOTOCHEMICAL HOLE BURNING IN DIMETHYL-S-TETRAZINE~ CA 95193 ABSTRACT Hole burning as well as uorescence lineamorphous organic hosts. burning. Evidence is presented for

Cuellar, E.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

On the burning behavior of pulverized coal chars  

SciTech Connect

A model that predicts the physical changes that pulverized coal char particles undergo during combustion has been developed. In the model, a burning particle is divided into a number of concentric annular volume elements. The mass loss rate, specific surface area, and apparent density in each volume element depend upon the local particle conditions, which vary as a consequence of the adsorbed oxygen and gas-phase oxygen concentration gradients inside the particle. The model predicts the particle's burning rate, temperature, diameter, apparent density, and specific surface area as combustion proceeds, given ambient conditions and initial char properties. A six-step heterogeneous reaction mechanism is used to describe carbon reactivity to oxygen. A distributed activation energy approach is used to account for the variation in desorption energies of adsorbed O-atoms on the carbonaceous surface. Model calculations support the three burning zones established for the oxidation of pulverized coal chars. The model indicates two types of zone II behavior, however. Under weak zone II burning conditions, constant-diameter burning occurs up to 30% to 50% conversion before burning commences with reductions in both size and apparent density. Under strong zone II conditions, particles burn with reductions in both size and apparent density after an initial short period (conversion) of constant-diameter burning. Model predictions reveal that early in the oxidation process, there is mass loss at constant diameter under all zone II burning conditions. Such weak and strong burning behavior cannot be predicted with the commonly used power-law model for the mode of burning employing a single value for the burning mode parameter. Model calculations also reveal how specific surface area evolves when oxidation occurs in the zone II burning regime. Based on the calculated results, a surface area submodel that accounts for the effects of pore growth and coalescence during combustion under zone I conditions was modified to permit the characterization of the variations in specific surface area that occur during char conversion under zones II conditions. The modified surface area model is applicable to all burning regimes. Calculations also indicate that the particle's effectiveness factor varies during conversion under zone II burning conditions. With the adsorption/desorption mechanism employed, a near first-order Thiele modulus-effectiveness factor relationship is obeyed over the particle's lifetime. (author)

Mitchell, Reginald E.; Ma, Liqiang; Kim, BumJick [Thermosciences Group, Mechanical Engineering Department, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-3032 (United States)

2007-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

120

Pre-burning wxperiments commence in August 2008. A controlled burning takes place late September 2008 and field observations continues untill at least  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pre-burning wxperiments commence in August 2008. A controlled burning takes place late September) and long-term (months to a years) effects of fires (burning) in macchia ecosystem on [i] soil emissions ecosystems, land use and land use change scenarios. October 29-30, 2007, Barcelona, Spain Effect of burning

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "a-area burning rubble" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Study of composite cement containing burned oil shale  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Study of composite cement containing burned oil shale Julien Ston Supervisors : Prof. Karen properties. SCMs can be by-products from various industries or of natural origin, such as shale. Oil shale correctly, give a material with some cementitious properties known as burned oil shale (BOS). This study

Dalang, Robert C.

122

Classification of burn degrees in grinding by neural nets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One of the problems found in the implementation of intelligent grinding process is the automatic detection of surface burn of the parts. Several systems of monitoring have been assessed by researchers in order to control the grinding process and guarantee ... Keywords: acoustic emission, burn, grinding, monitoring, neural network

Marcelo M. Spadotto; Paulo R. Aguiar; Carlos C. P. Souza; Eduardo C. Bianchi; Andr N. de Souza

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Method and apparatus to measure the depth of skin burns  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A new device for measuring the depth of surface tissue burns based on the rate at which the skin temperature responds to a sudden differential temperature stimulus. This technique can be performed without physical contact with the burned tissue. In one implementation, time-dependent surface temperature data is taken from subsequent frames of a video signal from an infrared-sensitive video camera. When a thermal transient is created, e.g., by turning off a heat lamp directed at the skin surface, the following time-dependent surface temperature data can be used to determine the skin burn depth. Imaging and non-imaging versions of this device can be implemented, thereby enabling laboratory-quality skin burn depth imagers for hospitals as well as hand-held skin burn depth sensors the size of a small pocket flashlight for field use and triage.

Dickey, Fred M. (Albuquerque, NM); Holswade, Scott C. (Albuquerque, NM)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Turbulent burning rates of methane and methane-hydrogen mixtures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Methane and methane-hydrogen (10%, 20% and 50% hydrogen by volume) mixtures have been ignited in a fan stirred bomb in turbulence and filmed using high speed cine schlieren imaging. Measurements were performed at 0.1 MPa (absolute) and 360 K. A turbulent burning velocity was determined for a range of turbulence velocities and equivalence ratios. Experimental laminar burning velocities and Markstein numbers were also derived. For all fuels the turbulent burning velocity increased with turbulence velocity. The addition of hydrogen generally resulted in increased turbulent and laminar burning velocity and decreased Markstein number. Those flames that were less sensitive to stretch (lower Markstein number) burned faster under turbulent conditions, especially as the turbulence levels were increased, compared to stretch-sensitive (high Markstein number) flames. (author)

Fairweather, M. [School of Process, Environmental and Materials Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Ormsby, M.P.; Sheppard, C.G.W. [School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Woolley, R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

125

Optimal Mechansim Design and Money Burning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mechanism design is now a standard tool in computer science for aligning the incentives of self-interested agents with the objectives of a system designer. There is, however, a fundamental disconnect between the traditional application domains of mechanism design (such as auctions) and those arising in computer science (such as networks): while monetary transfers (i.e., payments) are essential for most of the known positive results in mechanism design, they are undesirable or even technologically infeasible in many computer systems. Classical impossibility results imply that the reach of mechanisms without transfers is severely limited. Computer systems typically do have the ability to reduce service quality--routing systems can drop or delay traffic, scheduling protocols can delay the release of jobs, and computational payment schemes can require computational payments from users (e.g., in spam-fighting systems). Service degradation is tantamount to requiring that users burn money}, and such ``payments'' can...

Hartline, Jason D

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Microsoft PowerPoint - burns.ppt  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Evaluation of Low Evaluation of Low Tank Level Mixing Technologies for DOE High Level Waste Tank Retrieval (10516) Heather Burns Andrew Fellinger and Richard Minichan Savannah River National Laboratory March 7 - 11, 2010 Phoenix, Arizona Waste Management Symposia 2010 SRNL-STI-2010-00139 2 W A S T E M A N A G E M E N T S Y M P O S I A 2 0 1 0 Agenda Overview Background Why a retrieval knowledge center Initial objectives / goals Low Level Mixing Addressing a challenge through technology demonstration Evaluation criteria Instrumentation Test matrix HOW DID WE GET THERE? WHERE DID WE GO? "Building a Foundation" The challenges that lead to gaps in retrieval Development and mock-up of retrieval technologies 3 W A S T E M A N A G E M E N T S Y M P O S I A 2 0 1 0 Background -

127

Dynamic Optimization of Lean Burn Engine Aftertreatment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The competition to deliver fuel e#cient and environmentally friendly vehicles is driving the 1 2 Submitted to Journal of Dynamics Systems, Measurement, & Control automotive industry to consider ever more complex powertrain systems. Adequate performance of these new highly interactive systems can no longer be obtained through traditional approaches, which are intensive in hardware use and #nal control software calibration. This paper explores the use of Dynamic Programming to make model-based design decisions for a lean burn, direct injection spark ignition engine, in combination with a three way catalyst and an additional threeway catalyst, often referred to as a lean NOx trap. The primary contribution is the development ofavery rapid method to evaluate the tradeo#s in fuel economy and emissions for this novel powertrain system, as a function of design parameters and controller structure, over a standard emission test cycle. 1 Introduction Designing a powertrain system to m...

Jun-Mo Kang; Ilya Kolmanovsky; J. W. Grizzle

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Wood Burning Combined Cycle Power Plant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A combined cycle power plant utilizing wood waste products as a fuel has been designed. This plant will yield a 50% efficiency improvement compared to conventional wood-fueled steam power plants. The power plant features an externally-fired gas turbine combined cycle system that obtains its heat input from a high temperature, high pressure ceramic air heater burning wood waste products as a fuel. This paper presents the results of the design study including the cycle evaluation and a description of the major components of the power plant. The cycle configuration is based on maximum fuel efficiency with minimum capital equipment risk. The cycle discussion includes design point performance of the power plant. The design represents a significant step forward in wood-fueled power plants.

Culley, J. W.; Bourgeois, H. S.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Local Burn-Up Effects in the NBSR Fuel Element  

SciTech Connect

This study addresses the over-prediction of local power when the burn-up distribution in each half-element of the NBSR is assumed to be uniform. A single-element model was utilized to quantify the impact of axial and plate-wise burn-up on the power distribution within the NBSR fuel elements for both high-enriched uranium (HEU) and low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. To validate this approach, key parameters in the single-element model were compared to parameters from an equilibrium core model, including neutron energy spectrum, power distribution, and integral U-235 vector. The power distribution changes significantly when incorporating local burn-up effects and has lower power peaking relative to the uniform burn-up case. In the uniform burn-up case, the axial relative power peaking is over-predicted by as much as 59% in the HEU single-element and 46% in the LEU single-element with uniform burn-up. In the uniform burn-up case, the plate-wise power peaking is over-predicted by as much as 23% in the HEU single-element and 18% in the LEU single-element. The degree of over-prediction increases as a function of burn-up cycle, with the greatest over-prediction at the end of Cycle 8. The thermal flux peak is always in the mid-plane gap; this causes the local cumulative burn-up near the mid-plane gap to be significantly higher than the fuel element average. Uniform burn-up distribution throughout a half-element also causes a bias in fuel element reactivity worth, due primarily to the neutronic importance of the fissile inventory in the mid-plane gap region.

Brown N. R.; Hanson A.; Diamond, D.

2013-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

130

Furniture wood wastes: Experimental property characterisation and burning tests  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Referring to the industrial wood waste category (as dominant in the provincial district of Pesaro-Urbino, Marche Region, Italy), this paper deals with the experimental characterisation and the carrying out of non-controlled burning tests (at lab- and pilot-scale) for selected 'raw' and primarily 'engineered' ('composite') wood wastes. The property characterisation has primarily revealed the following aspects: potential influence on moisture content of local weather conditions at outdoor wood waste storage sites; generally, higher ash contents in 'engineered' wood wastes as compared with 'raw' wood wastes; and relatively high energy content values of 'engineered' wood wastes (ranging on the whole from 3675 to 5105 kcal kg{sup -1} for HHV, and from 3304 to 4634 kcal kg{sup -1} for LHV). The smoke qualitative analysis of non-controlled lab-scale burning tests has primarily revealed: the presence of specific organic compounds indicative of incomplete wood combustion; the presence exclusively in 'engineered' wood burning tests of pyrroles and amines, as well as the additional presence (as compared with 'raw' wood burning) of further phenolic and containing nitrogen compounds; and the potential environmental impact of incomplete industrial wood burning on the photochemical smog phenomenon. Finally, non-controlled pilot-scale burning tests have primarily given the following findings: emission presence of carbon monoxide indicative of incomplete wood combustion; higher nitrogen oxide emission values detected in 'engineered' wood burning tests as compared with 'raw' wood burning test; and considerable generation of the respirable PM{sub 1} fraction during incomplete industrial wood burning.

Tatano, Fabio [Faculty of Sciences and Technologies, University of Urbino 'Carlo Bo', Campus Scientifico - Sogesta, 61029 Urbino (Italy)], E-mail: fabio.tatano@uniurb.it; Barbadoro, Luca; Mangani, Giovanna; Pretelli, Silvia; Tombari, Lucia; Mangani, Filippo [Faculty of Sciences and Technologies, University of Urbino 'Carlo Bo', Campus Scientifico - Sogesta, 61029 Urbino (Italy)

2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

131

Oil/gas separator for installation at burning wells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An oil/gas separator is disclosed that can be utilized to return the burning wells in Kuwait to production. Advantageously, a crane is used to install the separator at a safe distance from the well. The gas from the well is burned off at the site, and the oil is immediately pumped into Kuwait's oil gathering system. Diverters inside the separator prevent the oil jet coming out of the well from reaching the top vents where the gas is burned. The oil falls back down, and is pumped from an annular oil catcher at the bottom of the separator, or from the concrete cellar surrounding the well.

Alonso, Carol T. (Orinda, CA); Bender, Donald A. (Dublin, CA); Bowman, Barry R. (Livermore, CA); Burnham, Alan K. (Livermore, CA); Chesnut, Dwayne A. (Pleasanton, CA); Comfort, III, William J. (Livermore, CA); Guymon, Lloyd G. (Livermore, CA); Henning, Carl D. (Livermore, CA); Pedersen, Knud B. (Livermore, CA); Sefcik, Joseph A. (Tracy, CA); Smith, Joseph A. (Livermore, CA); Strauch, Mark S. (Livermore, CA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Oil/gas separator for installation at burning wells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An oil/gas separator is disclosed that can be utilized to return the burning wells in Kuwait to production. Advantageously, a crane is used to install the separator at a safe distance from the well. The gas from the well is burned off at the site, and the oil is immediately pumped into Kuwait`s oil gathering system. Diverters inside the separator prevent the oil jet coming out of the well from reaching the top vents where the gas is burned. The oil falls back down, and is pumped from an annular oil catcher at the bottom of the separator, or from the concrete cellar surrounding the well.

Alonso, C.T.; Bender, D.A.; Bowman, B.R. [and others

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

133

Oil/gas separator for installation at burning wells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An oil/gas separator is disclosed that can be utilized to return the burning wells in Kuwait to production. Advantageously, a crane is used to install the separator at a safe distance from the well. The gas from the well is burned off at the site, and the oil is immediately pumped into Kuwait's oil gathering system. Diverters inside the separator prevent the oil jet coming out of the well from reaching the top vents where the gas is burned. The oil falls back down, and is pumped from an annular oil catcher at the bottom of the separator, or from the concrete cellar surrounding the well.

Alonso, C.T.; Bender, D.A.; Bowman, B.R.; Burnham, A.K.; Chesnut, D.A.; Comfort, W.J. III; Guymon, L.G.; Henning, C.D.; Pedersen, K.B.; Sefcik, J.A.; Smith, J.A.; Strauch, M.S.

1993-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

134

Can Consumers Escape the Market? Emancipatory Illuminations from Burning Man  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This ethnography explores the emancipatory dynamics of the Burning Man project, a one-week-long antimarket event. Practices used at Burning Man to distance consumers from the market include discourses supporting communality and disparaging market logics, alternative exchange practices, and positioning consumption as self-expressive art. Findings reveal several communal practices that distance consumption from broader rhetorics of efficiency and rationality. Although Burning Mans participants materially support the market, they successfully construct a temporary hypercommunity from which to practice divergent social logics. Escape from the market, if possible at all, must be conceived of as similarly temporary and local.

Robert V. Kozinets

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Spectral hole burning for stopping light  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose a novel protocol for storage and retrieval of photon wave packets in a $\\Lambda$-type atomic medium. This protocol derives from spectral hole burning and takes advantages of the specific properties of solid state systems at low temperature, such as rare earth ion doped crystals. The signal pulse is tuned to the center of the hole that has been burnt previously within the inhomogeneously broadened absorption band. The group velocity is strongly reduced, being proportional to the hole width. This way the optically carried information and energy is carried over to the off-resonance optical dipoles. Storage and retrieval are performed by conversion to and from ground state Raman coherence by using brief $\\pi$-pulses. The protocol exhibits some resemblance with the well known electromagnetically induced transparency process. It also presents distinctive features such as the absence of coupling beam. In this paper we detail the various steps of the protocol, summarize the critical parameters and theoretically examine the recovery efficiency.

R. Lauro; T. Chaneliere; J. -L. Le Gouet

2009-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

136

ARM - Field Campaign - Biomass Burning Observation Project - BBOP  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govCampaignsBiomass Burning Observation Project - BBOP govCampaignsBiomass Burning Observation Project - BBOP Campaign Links BNL BBOP Website ARM Aerial Facility Payload Science Plan Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Biomass Burning Observation Project - BBOP 2013.07.01 - 2013.10.24 Website : http://campaign.arm.gov/bbop/ Lead Scientist : Larry Kleinman For data sets, see below. Description This field campaign will address multiple uncertainties in aerosol intensive properties, which are poorly represented in climate models, by means of aircraft measurements in biomass burning plumes. Key topics to be investigated are: Aerosol mixing state and morphology Mass absorption coefficients (MACs) Chemical composition of non-refractory material associated with

137

The Way We Burn: Combustion, Climate, and Carbonaceous Particles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Way We Burn: Combustion, Climate, and Carbonaceous Particles Speaker(s): Tami Bond Date: June 5, 2002 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Carbonaceous particles-- which engineers...

138

Study of Buoyancy-Driven Turbulent Nuclear Burning and Validation...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Study of Buoyancy-Driven Turbulent Nuclear Burning and Validation of Type Ia Supernova Models PI Name: Don Lamb PI Email: lamb@oddjob.uchicago.edu Institution: ASCAlliance Flash...

139

Study of Buoyancy-Driven Turbulent Nuclear Burning and Validation...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

created from a simulation run on the Blue GeneP at the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility in 2009. Study of Buoyancy-Driven Turbulent Nuclear Burning and Validation of Type Ia...

140

Evaluation of the carbon content of aerosols from the burning...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Evaluation of the carbon content of aerosols from the burning of biomass in the Brazilian Amazon using thermal, optical and thermal-optical analysis methods Title Evaluation of the...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "a-area burning rubble" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Transuranic Burning Issues Related to a Second Geologic Repository  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report defines issues that need to be addressed by a development program recently initiated to establish the viability of a transuranic burning concept application that would achieve a substantial delay to the need date for a second geologic repository. The visualized transuranic burning concept application is one in which spent fuel created after a date in the 2010 time frame or later would be processed and the separated plutonium used to start up liquid metal reactors (LMRs).

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

I I Green, Lisle R. Burning by prescriptionin chaparral. Berkeley, Calif.: Pacific Southwest Forest  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;I I I I I Green, Lisle R. Burning.S. Dep. Agric.: 1981; Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-51. 36 p. 1 I Prescribed burning is frequently suggested for reducing conflagration costs in chaparral. Prepara- tion for a prescribed burn includes environmental

Standiford, Richard B.

143

THE BURNING ISSUES OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL WHAT WORKS AND WHAT DOESN'T  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 THE BURNING ISSUES OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL ­ WHAT WORKS AND WHAT DOESN'T By: Jack D devil burns and the Lord recycles." Perhaps these negative references to waste burning come from, the Valley of Hinnom south of ancient Jerusalem. This was the site of a foul, smoking, open burning garbage

Columbia University

144

Patch-Burning: "Rotational Grazing Without Fences" Using Fire and Grazing to Restore Diversity on Grasslands  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Patch-Burning: "Rotational Grazing Without Fences" Using Fire and Grazing to Restore Diversity characteristics. Patch Burning and Grazing Can Promote Diversity The objective of patch burning is to create State University burn portions of unfenced landscapes each year. Livestock focus grazing on recently

Debinski, Diane M.

145

Proceedings of the Sudden Oak Death Third Science Symposium Implementation of a Thinning and Burning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Burning Study in Tanoak-Redwood Stands in Santa Cruz and Mendocino Counties1 Kevin L. O'Hara2 and Kristen the effects of thinning and prescribed burning on infection and spread of Phytophthora ramorum. Study sites burning. Introduction Thinning and burning effects on infection by and spread of Phytophthora ramorum

Standiford, Richard B.

146

Fertilizing and Burning Flint Hills Bluestem CLENTON E. OWENSBY AND ED F. SMITH  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fertilizing and Burning Flint Hills Bluestem CLENTON E. OWENSBY AND ED F. SMITH Abstract Burned of nitrogen applied more than 80 lb N/acre did. Maintenance of good quality range was favored by burning and 0 and 40 lb N/acre compared to not burning and the same fertilizer rates. Eighty lb N/acre produced poor

Owensby, Clenton E.

147

Clean-Burning Wood Stove Grant Program (Maryland) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Clean-Burning Wood Stove Grant Program (Maryland) Clean-Burning Wood Stove Grant Program (Maryland) Clean-Burning Wood Stove Grant Program (Maryland) < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Bioenergy Program Info Start Date 09/07/2012 State Maryland Program Type State Rebate Program Rebate Amount Stick Burning Stove: $500 Pellet Burning Stove: $700 The Maryland Energy Administration (MEA) now offers the Clean Burning Wood Stove Grant program as part of its Residential Clean Energy Grant Program. The Clean Burning Wood Stove Grant program offers a flat grant award of $500 for stick burning wood stoves and $700 for pellet burning wood stoves that meet program eligibility requirements. Basic requirements for grant funding include: *The property must serve as primary residence *Clean burning wood stove must replace existing electric or non-natural gas

148

Topical Area MFE Title: Burning Plasma Science_____________________________________________ Description Fusion energy is released by burning light elements using nuclear reactions which consume mass and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Page 1 Topical Area MFE Title: Burning Plasma Science_____________________________________________ · Description Fusion energy is released by burning light elements using nuclear reactions which consume mass-sustained purely by its alpha particle heating. The science of burning plasmas consists of: (1) the physics

149

Topical Area: MFE Title: Burning Plasma Experimental Options______________________________ Description The options for a Next Step Burning Plasma Experiment are defined by the overall strategic  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Page 1 Topical Area: MFE Title: Burning Plasma Experimental Options______________________________ · Description The options for a Next Step Burning Plasma Experiment are defined by the overall strategic of developing and integrating burning plasma physics, long pulse physics and technology, and fusion technologies

150

On burning regimes and long duration X-ray bursts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydrogen and helium accreted onto a neutron star undergo thermonuclear burning. Explosive burning is observed as a type I X-ray burst. We describe the different burning regimes and focus on some of the current inconsistencies between theory and observations. Of special interest are the rare kinds of X-ray bursts such as carbon-fueled superbursts and helium-fueled intermediately long X-ray bursts. These bursts are thought to originate deeper in the neutron star envelope, such that they are probes of the thermal properties of the crust. We investigate the possibility of observing superbursts with the wide-field instruments INTEGRAL-ISGRI and Swift-BAT. We find that only the brightest bursts are detectable.

L. Keek; J. J. M. in 't Zand

2008-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

151

Theory of Antineutrino Monitoring of Burning MOX Plutonium Fuels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This letter presents the physics and feasibility of reactor antineutrino monitoring to verify the burnup of plutonium loaded in the reactor as a Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel. It examines the magnitude and temporal variation in the antineutrino signals expected for different MOX fuels, for the purposes of nuclear accountability and safeguards. The antineutrino signals from reactor-grade and weapons-grade MOX are shown to be distinct from those from burning low enriched uranium. Thus, antineutrino monitoring could be used to verify the destruction of plutonium in reactors, though verifying the grade of the plutonium being burned is found to be more challenging.

Hayes, A C; Nieto, Michael Martin; WIlson, W B

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Thermal regimes of high burn-up nuclear fuel rod  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The temperature distribution in the nuclear fuel rods for high burn-up is studied. We use the numerical and analytical approaches. It is shown that the time taken to have the stationary thermal regime of nuclear fuel rod is less than one minute. We can make the inference that the behavior of the nuclear fuel rod can be considered as a stationary task. Exact solutions of the temperature distribution in the fuel rods in the stationary case are found. Thermal regimes of high burn-up the nuclear fuel rods are analyzed.

Kudryashov, Nikolai A; Chmykhov, Mikhail A; 10.1016/j.cnsns.2009.05.063

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Theory of Antineutrino Monitoring of Burning MOX Plutonium Fuels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This letter presents the physics and feasibility of reactor antineutrino monitoring to verify the burnup of plutonium loaded in the reactor as a Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel. It examines the magnitude and temporal variation in the antineutrino signals expected for different MOX fuels, for the purposes of nuclear accountability and safeguards. The antineutrino signals from reactor-grade and weapons-grade MOX are shown to be distinct from those from burning low enriched uranium. Thus, antineutrino monitoring could be used to verify the destruction of plutonium in reactors, though verifying the grade of the plutonium being burned is found to be more challenging.

A. C. Hayes; H. R. Trellue; Michael Martin Nieto; W. B. WIlson

2011-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

154

Electron Dynamics of Silicon Surface States: Second-Harmonic Hole Burning on Si(111)7x7  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

States: Second-Harmonic Hole Burning on Si(111) 7 7 John A.transient spectral hole burning. Spectral holes induced by atransient spectral hole burning, i.e. , the surface-speci?c

McGuire, John A.; Raschke, Markus B.; Shen, Yuen-Ron

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Activities of the US Burning Plasma Organization Vice-Chair of Council,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is the principal coordinating body for MFE burning plasma research · It exists to advance the scientific to advance burning plasma research · Began with the 2006-7 ITER Design Review ­ US MFE community contributed

156

Ac#vi#es of the US Burning Plasma Organiza#on  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

=ons · USBPO ­ Coordinates US burning plasma research, to advance scien=fic understanding USBPO organizes the US Fusion Energy Science community to support burning plasma research 5 Charles Greenfield (Director) Amanda Hubbard (Deputy Director) Nermin

157

Physical and Chemical Characterization of Particulate and Gas phase Emissions from Biomass Burning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

during the open combustion of biomass in the laboratory, J.J. R. , and Veres, P. : Biomass burning in Siberia andOpen burning of agricultural biomass: Physical and chemical

Hosseini, Seyedehsan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Spatial hole burning in actively mode-locked quantum cascade lasers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A theoretical study of active mode-locking in quantum cascade lasers including spatial hole-burning is presented. It is found that spatial hole-burning reduces the pulse duration at the expense of slight pulse instability ...

Kartner, Franz X.

159

Department of Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering Fall 2012 Automation of Test Sample Burning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sample Burning Overview ArcelorMittal Steelton produces multiple grades of steel rail. Their operators's burning station by creating a safer process for cutting test-sample premium rails To design a system

Demirel, Melik C.

160

MODIS Reflectance and Active Fire Data for Burn Mapping in Colombia  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Satellite-based strategies for burned area mapping may rely on two types of remotely sensed data: postfire reflectance images and active fire detection. This study uses both methods in a synergistic way. In particular, burned area mapping is ...

Silvia Merino-de-Miguel; Federico Gonzlez-Alonso; Margarita Huesca; Dolors Armenteras; Carol Franco

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "a-area burning rubble" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

SIDA DemoEast programme in Estonia. Supply, delivery and installation of wood pellet burning equipment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

burning equipment SUMMARY DemoEast programme is a part of Baltic Billion Fund 2 with the overall aim and Kiltsi light oil fired boilers have been converted to wood pellets burning. The supplier

162

BURNING BURIED SUNSHINE: HUMAN CONSUMPTION OF ANCIENT SOLAR ENERGY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

BURNING BURIED SUNSHINE: HUMAN CONSUMPTION OF ANCIENT SOLAR ENERGY JEFFREY S. DUKES Department of as a vast store of solar energy from which society meets >80% of its current energy needs. Here, using of ancient solar energy decline, humans are likely to use an increasing share of modern solar resources. I

Dukes, Jeffrey

163

More than words : a biography of Daniel Francis Burns  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Daniel Francis Burns was born in Ireland in 1888 and immigrated to the United States in 1912. He married Mary O'Neill in 1923 and had a family of seven children. He worked as a police officer in the Boston Police Department ...

Burns, Matthew R. (Matthew Robert)

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Burning Man at Google: a cultural infrastructure for  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Burning Man at Google: a cultural infrastructure for new media production FRED TURNER Stanford's bohemian ethos supports new forms of production emerging in SiliconValley and especially at Google to shape and legitimate the collaborative manufacturing processes driving the growth of Google and other

Straight, Aaron

165

Sodium and sulfur release and recapture during black liquor burning  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this study was to provide data on sulfur and sodium volatilization during black liquor burning, and on SO2 capture by solid sodium carbonate and sodium chloride. This data was interpreted and modeled into rate equations suitable for use in computational models for recovery boilers.

Frederick, W.J.; Iisa, K.; Wag, K.; Reis, V.V.; Boonsongsup, L.; Forssen, M.; Hupa, M.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Major Conclusions of the MFE Study 1. Why a burning plasma Navratil  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of scientific maturity that we are ready to undertake the essential step of burning plasma research. · Present

167

Open Questions in Stellar Helium Burning Addressed With Real Photons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The outcome of helium burning is the formation of the two elements, carbon and oxygen. The ratio of carbon to oxygen at the end of helium burning is crucial for understanding the final fate of a progenitor star and the nucleosynthesis of heavy elements in Type II supernova, with oxygen rich star predicted to collapse to a black hole, and a carbon rich star to a neutron star. Type Ia supernovae (SNeIa) are used as standard candles for measuring cosmological distances with the use of an empirical light curve-luminosity stretching factor. It is essential to understand helium burning that yields the carbon/oxygen white dwarf and thus the initial stage of SNeIa. Since the triple alpha-particle capture reaction, $^{8}Be(\\alpha,\\gamma)^{12}C$, the first burning stage in helium burning, is well understood, one must extract the cross section of the $^{12}C(\\alpha,\\gamma)^{16}O$ reaction at the Gamow window (300 keV) with high accuracy of approximately 10% or better. This goal has not been achieved despite repeated strong statements that appeared in the literature. In particular constraint from the beta-delayed alpha-particle emission of $^{16}N$ were shown to not sufficiently restrict the p-wave cross section factor; e.g. a low value of $S_{E1}(300)$ can not be ruled out. Measurements at low energies, are thus mandatory for determining the elusive cross section factor for the $^{12}C(\\alpha,\\gamma)^{16}O$ reaction. We are constructing a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) for use with high intensity photon beams extracted from the HI$\\gamma$S/TUNL facility at Duke University to study the $^{16}O(\\gamma,\\alpha)^{12}C$ reaction, and thus the direct reaction at energies as low as 0.7 MeV. This work is in progress.

Moshe Gai

2003-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

168

Effect of inactive impurities on the burning of ICF targets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The efficiency of thermonuclear burning of the spherical deuterium-tritium (DT) plasma of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets in the presence of low-Z impurities (such as lithium, carbon, or beryllium) with arbitrary concentrations is investigated. The effect of impurities produced due to the mixing of the thermonuclear fuel with the material of the structural elements of the target during its compression on the process of target burning is studied, and the possibility of using solid noncryogenic thermonuclear fuels in ICF targets is analyzed. Analytical dependences of the ignition energy and target thermonuclear gain on the impurity concentration are obtained. The models are constructed for homogeneous and inhomogeneous plasmas for the case in which the burning is initiated in the central heated region of the target and then propagates into the surrounding relatively cold fuel. Two possible configurations of an inhomogeneous plasma, namely, an isobaric configuration formed in the case of spark ignition of the target and an isochoric configuration formed in the case of fast ignition, are considered. The results of numerical simulations of the burning of the DT plasma of ICF targets in a wide range of impurity concentrations are presented. The simulations were performed using the TEPA one-dimensional code, in which the thermonuclear burning kinetics is calculated by the Monte Carlo method. It is shown that the strongest negative effect related to the presence of impurities is an increase in the energy of target ignition. It is substantiated that the most promising solid noncryogenic fuel is DT hydride of beryllium (BeDT). The requirements to the plasma parameters at which BeDT can be used as a fuel in noncryogenic ICF targets are determined. Variants of using noncryogenic targets with a solid thermonuclear fuel are proposed.

Gus'kov, S. Yu. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Il'in, D. V.; Sherman, V. E. [St. Petersburg State Engineering Institute (Russian Federation)

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

169

Predictability of carbon emissions from biomass burning in Indonesia from 1997 to 2006  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Predictability of carbon emissions from biomass burning in Indonesia from 1997 to 2006 Robert D biomass burning C emissions in Indonesia for 1997­2006, obtained from the Global Fire Emissions Database), Predictability of carbon emissions from biomass burning in Indonesia from 1997 to 2006, J. Geophys. Res., 113, G

Field, Robert

170

SAE Paper 2004-01-2936 Molecular Structure Effects On Laminar Burning Velocities At  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 SAE Paper 2004-01-2936 Molecular Structure Effects On Laminar Burning Velocities At Elevated and Engineering Copyright © 2004 Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc ABSTRACT The laminar burning velocities and pressure of 304 kPa. Data have been acquired over the stoichiometry range of 0.55 1.4. The burning

Androulakis, Ioannis (Yannis)

171

Biomass burning emission inventory with daily resolution: Application to aircraft observations of Asian outflow  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Biomass burning emission inventory with daily resolution: Application to aircraft observations for biomass burning using AVHRR satellite observations of fire activity corrected for data gaps and scan angle biomass burning in SE Asia was a major contributor to the outflow of Asian pollution observed in TRACE

Palmer, Paul

172

Cellular burning in lean premixed turbulent hydrogen-air flames: coupling experimental and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cellular burning in lean premixed turbulent hydrogen-air flames: coupling experimental for burning the fuel-lean mixtures of hydrogen or hydrogen-rich syngas fuels obtained from the gasification, including those burning lean hydrogen at both at atmospheric and elevated pressures [6]. The low

Bell, John B.

173

Abstract The savannas (cerrado) of south-central Brazil are currently subjected to frequent anthropogenic burning,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

anthropogenic burning, causing widespread reduction in tree density. Increasing concentrations of atmospheric CO2 could reduce the im- pact of such frequent burning by increasing the availabili- ty CO2 and at two nutrient levels. To simulate burning, the plants were either clipped at 15 weeks

Jackson, Robert B.

174

CANDLE BURNING IN AN INVERTED JAR OVER WATER IN A TROUGH EXPERIMENT: SCIENCE TEACHERS' CONCEPTIONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CANDLE BURNING IN AN INVERTED JAR OVER WATER IN A TROUGH EXPERIMENT: SCIENCE TEACHERS' CONCEPTIONS contains about 20% oxygen despite our knowledge that burning in a closed environment does not consume during burning of carbon in oxygen (air) and the solubility rate of carbon dioxide in water

Knill, Oliver

175

Evolution of biomass burning aerosol properties from an agricultural fire in southern Africa  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Evolution of biomass burning aerosol properties from an agricultural fire in southern Africa Steven Met Office C-130 within a distinct biomass burning plume during the Southern AFricAn Regional science, and P. R. Buseck, Evolution of biomass burning aerosol properties from an agricultural fire in southern

Highwood, Ellie

176

IEA Workshop (W60) on Burning Plasmas and Simulation Name Institute Speaker/ C Title talk  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

IEA Workshop (W60) on Burning Plasmas and Simulation Name Institute Speaker/ C Title talk Start End 04-Jul-05 Session 1 Transport and Confinement in Burning Plasmas 8.30 8.40 Miura Y. JAERI- Naka chair Experiments on JET 10.00 10.20 Peng M. PPPL speaker NSTX Results relevant for Burning Plasmas 10.20 10

177

1 | Barbecues and Open Burning, September 2010 UC SANTA BARBARA POLICY AND PROCEDURE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 | Barbecues and Open Burning, September 2010 UC SANTA BARBARA POLICY AND PROCEDURE Barbecues and Open Burning Contact: Environmental Health and Safety, Campus Fire Marshal/Designee Updated: September 2, 2010 Supersedes: Burning and Open Fires on UCSB Property, February 1, 1985 Pages: 2 BARBECUES

178

Burning Forest Residues231 Corstorphine Road www.forestry.gov.uk  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Burning Forest Residues231 Corstorphine Road Edinburgh EH12 7AT www.forestry.gov.uk S E P T E M B E R 2 0 0 2 FCTN004 SUMMARY Burning forest residues is a traditional method of ground clearance following harvesting operations. Guidance is given on suitable types of cut material for burning, equipment

179

A HYPOTHETICAL BURNING-VELOCITY FORMULA FOR VERY LEAN HYDROGEN-AIR MIXTURES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 A HYPOTHETICAL BURNING-VELOCITY FORMULA FOR VERY LEAN HYDROGEN-AIR MIXTURES by Forman A. Williams experience strong diffusive-thermal types of cellular instabilities that tend to increase the laminar burning propagating, planar, hexagonal, close-packed array of flame balls, each burning as if it were an isolated

Geddes, Cameron Guy Robinson

180

Affordable Near-Term Burning-Plasma Experiments Dale M. Meade and Robert D. Woolley  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Affordable Near-Term Burning-Plasma Experiments Dale M. Meade and Robert D. Woolley Princeton more than one, where the dynamics of a burning plasma can be studied, optimized and understood so must be developed within the next decade that will lead to an Affordable Burning Plasma Experiment

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "a-area burning rubble" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Tundra burning in Alaska: Linkages to climatic change and sea ice retreat  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Tundra burning in Alaska: Linkages to climatic change and sea ice retreat Feng Sheng Hu,1 Philip E record. Tundra burning is potentially one such component. Here we report paleoecological evidence showing that recent tundra burning is unprecedented in the central Alaskan Arctic within the last 5000 years. Analysis

Hu, Feng Sheng

182

Nuclear quadrupole resonance of an electronically excited state from high-resolution hole-burning spectroscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nuclear quadrupole resonance of an electronically excited state from high-resolution hole-burning 2003; published 5 May 2003 Hole-burning spectroscopy can eliminate inhomogeneous broadening and thereby, the homogeneous linewidth is often small compared to the splittings due to nuclear-spin interactions. Hole-burning

Suter, Dieter

183

RH: Burning index in Los Angeles A Note on Non-parametric and Semi-parametric  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 RH: Burning index in Los Angeles A Note on Non-parametric and Semi-parametric Modeling for comparative purposes in order to assess the predictive performance of the Burning Index. 1 Department including the Burning Index (BI) at each of various Remote Automated Weather Stations (RAWS) in the United

Schoenberg, Frederic Paik (Rick)

184

Prescribed Burning Costs: Trends and Influences in the National Forest System1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Prescribed Burning Costs: Trends and Influences in the National Forest System1 David A. Cleaves,2 Service's National Forest System prescribed burning activity and costs are examined. Fuels management officers from 95 National Forests reported costs and acreage burned for 4 types of prescribed fire

Standiford, Richard B.

185

Mass burning rate of premixed stretched flames: integral analysis versus large activation energy asymptotics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mass burning rate of premixed stretched flames: integral analysis versus large activation energy, The Netherlands Abstract. New expressions for the mass burning rate are derived from a recently introduced burning rate. The consequences for experimental and numerical studies are investigated. Keywords: premixed

Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

186

A Compact Advanced Burning Plasma Experiment Dale M. Meade and Robert D. Woolley  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Compact Advanced Burning Plasma Experiment Dale M. Meade and Robert D. Woolley Princeton Plasma and optimization of a burning plasma. The achievement of an ignited (Q # 10) plasma will allow these scientific OBJECTIVES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR AN ADVANCED BURNING PLASMA PHYSICS EXPERIMENT The primary physics objectives

187

Direct and semi-direct aerosol effects of Southern African1 biomass burning aerosol2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Direct and semi-direct aerosol effects of Southern African1 biomass burning aerosol2 Naoko effects of biomass burning aerosols from Southern African fires9 during July-October are investigated region the overall TOA radiative effect from the23 biomass burning aerosols is almost zero due

Wood, Robert

188

Thank you for your interest in Fire Prevention! Burning Ban Flags  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thank you for your interest in Fire Prevention! Burning Ban Flags Texas A&M Forest Service image to the public, a signal to stop outdoor burning and begin conserving water. They are sold on outdoor burning as a wildfire prevention tool. To support this prevention effort, TFS posts a list

189

Forest Service -U.S. Department of Agriculture Prescribed Burning in the  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Forest Service - U.S. Department of Agriculture Prescribed Burning in the Interior Ponderosa Pine, California 94701 #12;Gordon, Donald T. 1967. Prescribed burning in the interior ponderosa pine type., illus. (U. S. Forest Serv. Res. Paper PSW- 45 ) Three prescribed burns, made in 1959-62, in the in

Standiford, Richard B.

190

Direct and semidirect aerosol effects of southern African biomass burning aerosol  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Direct and semidirect aerosol effects of southern African biomass burning aerosol Naoko Sakaeda,1 2011; published 21 June 2011. [1] Direct and semidirect radiative effects of biomass burning aerosols static stability. Over the entire region the overall TOA radiative effect from the biomass burning

Wood, Robert

191

Flames in Type Ia Supernova: Deflagration-Detonation Transition in the Oxygen Burning Flame  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Flames in Type Ia Supernova: Deflagration-Detonation Transition in the Oxygen Burning Flame S. E structure which, de- pending on density, may involve separate regions of carbon, oxygen and silicon burning, all propagating in a self-similar, subsonic front. The separation between these three burning regions

192

Impact of prescribed burning on endophytic insect communities of prairie perennials (Asteraceae  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Impact of prescribed burning on endophytic insect communities of prairie perennials (Asteraceae, Eurytomidae, Fire, Mordellidae, Population dynamics Abstract. Prescribed burning currently is used to preserve changes in plant communities brought about by burning, other species that are endemic to prairies may

Hanks, Lawrence M.

193

Second UFA Workshop on Burning Plasmas Experimental Approaches, Issues and Opportunities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Second UFA Workshop on Burning Plasmas Experimental Approaches, Issues and Opportunities R. Parker UFA Burning Plasma Workshop 1 May 2001 Why Are We Here? R. Parker Program Committee Chairman #12;Second UFA Workshop on Burning Plasmas Experimental Approaches, Issues and Opportunities R. Parker UFA

194

Chengdu 10/18/2006 Theory of Alfvn waves and energetic particle physics in burning plasmas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chengdu 10/18/2006 Theory of Alfvén waves and energetic particle physics in burning plasmas 1 IAEA FEC 2006 Liu Chen Theory of Alfvén waves and energetic particle physics in burning plasmas* 21.st IAEA and energetic particle physics in burning plasmas 2 IAEA FEC 2006 Liu Chen Outlines (I) Introduction (II) Linear

195

A Compact Advanced Burning Plasma Experiment Dale M. Meade and Robert D. Woolley  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Compact Advanced Burning Plasma Experiment Dale M. Meade and Robert D. Woolley Princeton Plasma and optimization of a burning plasma. The achievement of an ignited (Q 10) plasma will allow these scientific OBJECTIVES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR AN ADVANCED BURNING PLASMA PHYSICS EXPERIMENT The primary physics objectives

196

Bulk Burning Rate in Passive Reactive Diffusion. Peter Constantin Alexander Kiselev Adam Oberman  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bulk Burning Rate in Passive ­ Reactive Diffusion. Peter Constantin Alexander Kiselev Adam Oberman, diffuses, and reacts according to a KPP­type nonlinear reaction. We introduce a quantity, the bulk burning­defined notion of front speed. We establish rigorous lower bounds for the bulk burning rate that are linear

Ryzhik, Lenya

197

Kleinman 2013 Biomass Burn Plan B.ppt  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

if There are Few Fires? if There are Few Fires? Fire Plan Major focus is to sample fires in near-field where there are rapid changes, with a particular emphasis on soot, brown carbon, and SOA This includes sampling other sources for contrast Urban, Long range transport Plan B Same instruments can be used for multiple purposes Year to Year Burn Variability Fire Data from FINN version 1.0, courtesy of Christine Wiedinmyer Areas are ~ 1000 km by 1000 km centered on Pasco, WA and Little Rock, AK Year to year variability in Monthly Fire Emissions ~ factor of 10. Year to Year Burn Variability Fire Data from FINN version 1.0, courtesy of Christine Wiedinmyer Large year to year variability in Fire Counts Sometimes, 2 week periods between fire activity Other Soot/Brown Carbon Sources

198

NETL: News Release - Combustion Optimization Systems - Cleaner Coal Burning  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

"Combustion Optimization System" - Cleaner Coal Burning at Lower Costs "Combustion Optimization System" - Cleaner Coal Burning at Lower Costs DOE Joins with Sunflower Electric to Outfit Kansas Coal Plant with Lower Cost System to Cut Air Emissions FINNEY COUNTY, KS - A unique combination of high-tech combustion modifications and sophisticated control systems will be tested on a Kansas coal-fired power plant as part of the federal government's efforts to show how new technology can reduce air emissions and save costs for ratepayers. - Sunflower Electric's Holcomb Station - Sunflower Electric's Holcomb Station will be outfitted with a combination of innovative hardware and software to further reduce air emissions. - The U.S. Department of Energy and Sunflower Electric Power Corporation have signed an agreement to use the utility's Holcomb Station power plant in

199

New Computer Codes Unlock the Secrets of Cleaner Burning Coal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Codes Codes Unlock the Secrets of Cleaner Burning Coal New Computer Codes Unlock the Secrets of Cleaner Burning Coal March 29, 2012 | Tags: Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR), Combustion, Franklin, Hopper Linda Vu, lvu@lbl.gov, +1 510 495 2402 The Polk Power Station near Mulberry, Florida, is an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle gasification plant. It is capable of generating 313 megawatts of electricity - 250 megawatts of which are supplied to the electric grid. The plant's gas cleaning technology removes more than 98 percent of the sulfur in coal, converting it to a commercial product. Nitrogen oxide emissions are reduced by more than 90 percent. (Photo courtesy of DOE-NETL) Approximately half of all electricity used in the United States comes from

200

HERMES: A Model to Describe Deformation, Burning, Explosion, and Detonation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

HERMES (High Explosive Response to MEchanical Stimulus) was developed to fill the need for a model to describe an explosive response of the type described as BVR (Burn to Violent Response) or HEVR (High Explosive Violent Response). Characteristically this response leaves a substantial amount of explosive unconsumed, the time to reaction is long, and the peak pressure developed is low. In contrast, detonations characteristically consume all explosive present, the time to reaction is short, and peak pressures are high. However, most of the previous models to describe explosive response were models for detonation. The earliest models to describe the response of explosives to mechanical stimulus in computer simulations were applied to intentional detonation (performance) of nearly ideal explosives. In this case, an ideal explosive is one with a vanishingly small reaction zone. A detonation is supersonic with respect to the undetonated explosive (reactant). The reactant cannot respond to the pressure of the detonation before the detonation front arrives, so the precise compressibility of the reactant does not matter. Further, the mesh sizes that were practical for the computer resources then available were large with respect to the reaction zone. As a result, methods then used to model detonations, known as {beta}-burn or program burn, were not intended to resolve the structure of the reaction zone. Instead, these methods spread the detonation front over a few finite-difference zones, in the same spirit that artificial viscosity is used to spread the shock front in inert materials over a few finite-difference zones. These methods are still widely used when the structure of the reaction zone and the build-up to detonation are unimportant. Later detonation models resolved the reaction zone. These models were applied both to performance, particularly as it is affected by the size of the charge, and to situations in which the stimulus was less than that needed for reliable performance, whether as a result of accident, hazard, or a fault in the detonation train. These models describe the build-up of detonation from a shock stimulus. They are generally consistent with the mesoscale picture of ignition at many small defects in the plane of the shock front and the growth of the resulting hot-spots, leading to detonation in heterogeneous explosives such as plastic-bonded explosives (PBX). The models included terms for ignition, and also for the growth of reaction as tracked by the local mass fraction of product gas, {lambda}. The growth of reaction in such models incorporates a form factor that describes the change of surface area per unit volume (specific surface area) as the reaction progresses. For unimolecular crystalline-based explosives, the form factor is consistent with the mesoscale picture of a galaxy of hot spots burning outward and eventually interacting with each other. For composite explosives and propellants, where the fuel and oxidizer are segregated, the diffusion flame at the fuel-oxidizer interface can be interpreted with a different form factor that corresponds to grains burning inward from their surfaces. The form factor influences the energy release rate, and the amount of energy released in the reaction zone. Since the 19th century, gun and cannon propellants have used perforated geometric shapes that produce an increasing surface area as the propellant burns. This helps maintain the pressure as burning continues while the projectile travels down the barrel, which thereby increases the volume of the hot gas. Interior ballistics calculations use a geometric form factor to describe the changing surface area precisely. As a result, with a suitably modified form factor, detonation models can represent burning and explosion in damaged and broken reactant. The disadvantage of such models in application to accidents is that the ignition term does not distinguish between a value of pressure that results from a shock, and the same pressure that results from a more gradual increase. This disagrees with experiments, where

Reaugh, J E

2011-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "a-area burning rubble" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

HERMES: A Model to Describe Deformation, Burning, Explosion, and Detonation  

SciTech Connect

HERMES (High Explosive Response to MEchanical Stimulus) was developed to fill the need for a model to describe an explosive response of the type described as BVR (Burn to Violent Response) or HEVR (High Explosive Violent Response). Characteristically this response leaves a substantial amount of explosive unconsumed, the time to reaction is long, and the peak pressure developed is low. In contrast, detonations characteristically consume all explosive present, the time to reaction is short, and peak pressures are high. However, most of the previous models to describe explosive response were models for detonation. The earliest models to describe the response of explosives to mechanical stimulus in computer simulations were applied to intentional detonation (performance) of nearly ideal explosives. In this case, an ideal explosive is one with a vanishingly small reaction zone. A detonation is supersonic with respect to the undetonated explosive (reactant). The reactant cannot respond to the pressure of the detonation before the detonation front arrives, so the precise compressibility of the reactant does not matter. Further, the mesh sizes that were practical for the computer resources then available were large with respect to the reaction zone. As a result, methods then used to model detonations, known as {beta}-burn or program burn, were not intended to resolve the structure of the reaction zone. Instead, these methods spread the detonation front over a few finite-difference zones, in the same spirit that artificial viscosity is used to spread the shock front in inert materials over a few finite-difference zones. These methods are still widely used when the structure of the reaction zone and the build-up to detonation are unimportant. Later detonation models resolved the reaction zone. These models were applied both to performance, particularly as it is affected by the size of the charge, and to situations in which the stimulus was less than that needed for reliable performance, whether as a result of accident, hazard, or a fault in the detonation train. These models describe the build-up of detonation from a shock stimulus. They are generally consistent with the mesoscale picture of ignition at many small defects in the plane of the shock front and the growth of the resulting hot-spots, leading to detonation in heterogeneous explosives such as plastic-bonded explosives (PBX). The models included terms for ignition, and also for the growth of reaction as tracked by the local mass fraction of product gas, {lambda}. The growth of reaction in such models incorporates a form factor that describes the change of surface area per unit volume (specific surface area) as the reaction progresses. For unimolecular crystalline-based explosives, the form factor is consistent with the mesoscale picture of a galaxy of hot spots burning outward and eventually interacting with each other. For composite explosives and propellants, where the fuel and oxidizer are segregated, the diffusion flame at the fuel-oxidizer interface can be interpreted with a different form factor that corresponds to grains burning inward from their surfaces. The form factor influences the energy release rate, and the amount of energy released in the reaction zone. Since the 19th century, gun and cannon propellants have used perforated geometric shapes that produce an increasing surface area as the propellant burns. This helps maintain the pressure as burning continues while the projectile travels down the barrel, which thereby increases the volume of the hot gas. Interior ballistics calculations use a geometric form factor to describe the changing surface area precisely. As a result, with a suitably modified form factor, detonation models can represent burning and explosion in damaged and broken reactant. The disadvantage of such models in application to accidents is that the ignition term does not distinguish between a value of pressure that results from a shock, and the same pressure that results from a more gradual increase. This disagrees with experiments, where

Reaugh, J E

2011-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

202

Type Ia Supernova: Burning and Detonation in the Distributed Regime  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A simple, semi-analytic representation is developed for nuclear burning in Type Ia supernovae in the special case where turbulent eddies completely disrupt the flame. The speed and width of the ``distributed'' flame front are derived. For the conditions considered, the burning front can be considered as a turbulent flame brush composed of corrugated sheets of well-mixed flames. These flames are assumed to have a quasi-steady-state structure similar to the laminar flame structure, but controlled by turbulent diffusion. Detonations cannot appear in the system as long as distributed flames are still quasi-steady-state, but this condition is violated when the distributed flame width becomes comparable to the size of largest turbulent eddies. When this happens, a transition to detonation may occur. For current best estimates of the turbulent energy, the most likely density for the transition to detonation is in the range 0.5 - 1.5 x 10^7 g cm^{-3}.

S. E. Woosley

2007-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

203

Affordable Near-term Burning-plasma Experiments  

SciTech Connect

Fusion energy is a potential energy source for the future with plentiful fuel supplies and is expected to have benign environmental impact. The issue with fusion energy has been the scientific feasibility, and recently the cost of this approach. The key technical milestone for fusion is the achievement of a self-sustained fusion fire, ignition, in the laboratory. Despite 40 years of research and the expenditure of almost $20B worldwide, a self-sustained fusion fire has not yet been produced in the laboratory. The fusion program needs a test bed, preferably more than one, where the dynamics of a burning plasma can be studied, optimized and understood so that the engineering requirements for an engineering test reactor can be determined. Engineering and physics concepts must be developed within the next decade that will lead to an Affordable Burning Plasma Experiment if fusion is going to be perceived as making progress toward a potential long-range energy source.

D.M. Meade; R.D. Wooley

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Uniform DT 3T burn: computations and sensitivities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A numerical model was developed in C to integrate the nonlinear deutrium-tritium (DT) burn equations in a three temperature (3T) approximation for spatially uniform test problems relevant to Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). Base model results are in excellent agreement with standard 3T results. Data from NDI, SESAME, and TOPS databases is extracted to create fits for the reaction rate parameter, the Planck opacity, and the coupling frequencies of the plasma temperatures. The impact of different fits (e.g., TOPS versus SESAME opacity data, higher order polynomial fits ofNDI data for the reaction rate parameter) were explored, and sensitivity to several model inputs are presented including: opacity data base, Coulomb logarithm, and Bremsstrahlung. Sensitivity to numerical integration time step size, and the relative insensitivity to the discretized numerics and numerical integration method was demonstrated. Variations in the IC for densities and temperatures were explored, showing similar DT burn profiles in most cases once ignition occurs. A coefficient multiplying the Compton coupling term (default, A = 1) can be adjusted to approximate results from more sophisticated models. The coefficient was reset (A = 0.4) to match the maximum temperatures resulting from standard multi-group simulations of the base case test problem. Setting the coefficient to a larger value, (A = 0.6) matches maximum ion temperatures in a kinetic simulation of a high density ICF-like regime. Matching peak temperatures does not match entire temperature-time profiles, indicating the Compton coefficient is density and time dependent as the photon distribution evolves. In the early time burn during the ignition of the DT, the present model with modified Compton coupling provides a very simple method to obtain a much improved match to the more accurate solution from the multi-group radiation model for these DT burn regimes.

Vold, Erik [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hryniw, Natalia [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hansen, Jon A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kesler, Leigh A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Li, Frank [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

205

Analyzing and Tracking Burning Structures in Lean Premixed Hydrogen Flames  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper presents topology-based methods to robustly extract, analyze, and track features defined as subsets of isosurfaces. First, we demonstrate how features identified by thresholding isosurfaces can be defined in terms of the Morse complex. Second, we present a specialized hierarchy that encodes the feature segmentation independent of the threshold while still providing a flexible multi-resolution representation. Third, for a given parameter selection we create detailed tracking graphs representing the complete evolution of all features in a combustion simulation over several hundred time steps. Finally, we discuss a user interface that correlates the tracking information with interactive rendering of the segmented isosurfaces enabling an in-depth analysis of the temporal behavior. We demonstrate our approach by analyzing three numerical simulations of lean hydrogen flames subject to different levels of turbulence. Due to their unstable nature, lean flames burn in cells separated by locally extinguished regions. The number, area, and evolution over time of these cells provide important insights into the impact of turbulence on the combustion process. Utilizing the hierarchy we can perform an extensive parameter study without re-processing the data for each set of parameters. The resulting statistics enable scientist to select appropriate parameters and provide insight into the sensitivity of the results wrt. to the choice of parameters. Our method allows for the first time to quantitatively correlate the turbulence of the burning process with the distribution of burning regions, properly segmented and selected. In particular, our analysis shows that counter-intuitively stronger turbulence leads to larger cell structures, which burn more intensely than expected. This behavior suggests that flames could be stabilized under much leaner conditions than previously anticipated.

Bremer, Peer-Timo; Weber, Gunther; Pascucci, Valerio; Day, Marc; Bell, John

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Superheater Corrosion in Plants Burning High-Chlorine Coals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Corrosion caused by molten alkali sulfates can cause premature failure in superheaters and reheaters of coal-fired boilers. Coals with a high chlorine content are more likely to cause molten sulfate corrosion than those with a low chlorine content. Tests in a boiler burning coal with 0.37% chlorine and 1.3% sulfur show that stainless steels with at least 35% chromium are very corrosion resistant, while steels containing less than 20% chromium have high corrosion rates.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Evolution of the First Stars with Dark Matter Burning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent theoretical studies have revealed the possibly important role of the capture and annihilation process of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) for the first stars. Using new evolutionary models of metal-free massive stars, we investigate the impact of such ``dark matter burning'' for the first stars in different environments of dark matter (DM) halos, in terms of the ambient WIMP density (rho_chi). We find that, in agreement with existing literature, stellar life times can be significantly prolonged for a certain range of rho_\\chi (i.e., 10^{10} ~ 2*10^{11} GeV/cm3 may not undergo nuclear burning stages, confirming the previous work, and that ionizing photon fluxes from such DM supported stars are very weak. Delayed metal enrichment and slow reionization in the early universe would have resulted if most of the first stars had been born in DM halos with such high rho_\\chi, unless it had been lowered significantly below the threshold for efficient DM burning on a short time scale.

Sung-Chul Yoon; Fabio Iocco; Shizuka Akiyama

2008-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

208

PULSATIONS IN HYDROGEN BURNING LOW-MASS HELIUM WHITE DWARFS  

SciTech Connect

Helium core white dwarfs (WDs) with mass M {approx}< 0.20 M {sub sun} undergo several Gyr of stable hydrogen burning as they evolve. We show that in a certain range of WD and hydrogen envelope masses, these WDs may exhibit g-mode pulsations similar to their passively cooling, more massive carbon/oxygen core counterparts, the ZZ Cetis. Our models with stably burning hydrogen envelopes on helium cores yield g-mode periods and period spacings longer than the canonical ZZ Cetis by nearly a factor of 2. We show that core composition and structure can be probed using seismology since the g-mode eigenfunctions predominantly reside in the helium core. Though we have not carried out a fully nonadiabatic stability analysis, the scaling of the thermal time in the convective zone with surface gravity highlights several low-mass helium WDs that should be observed in search of pulsations: NLTT 11748, SDSS J0822+2753, and the companion to PSR J1012+5307. Seismological studies of these He core WDs may prove especially fruitful, as their luminosity is related (via stable hydrogen burning) to the hydrogen envelope mass, which eliminates one model parameter.

Steinfadt, Justin D. R. [Department of Physics, Broida Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Bildsten, Lars [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Kohn Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Arras, Phil, E-mail: jdrs@physics.ucsb.ed, E-mail: bildsten@kitp.ucsb.ed, E-mail: arras@virginia.ed [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States)

2010-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

209

Nuclear fusion in dense matter: Reaction rate and carbon burning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we analyze the nuclear fusion rate between equal nuclei for all five different nuclear burning regimes in dense matter (two thermonuclear regimes, two pycnonuclear ones, and the intermediate regime). The rate is determined by Coulomb barrier penetration in dense environments and by the astrophysical S-factor at low energies. We evaluate previous studies of the Coulomb barrier problem and propose a simple phenomenological formula for the reaction rate which covers all cases. The parameters of this formula can be varied, taking into account current theoretical uncertainties in the reaction rate. The results are illustrated for the example of the ^{12}C+^{12}C fusion reaction. This reaction is very important for the understanding of nuclear burning in evolved stars, in exploding white dwarfs producing type Ia supernovae, and in accreting neutron stars. The S-factor at stellar energies depends on a reliable fit and extrapolation of the experimental data. We calculate the energy dependence of the S-factor using a recently developed parameter-free model for the nuclear interaction, taking into account the effects of the Pauli nonlocality. For illustration, we analyze the efficiency of carbon burning in a wide range of densities and temperatures of stellar matter with the emphasis on carbon ignition at densities rho > 10^9 g/cc.

L. R. Gasques; A. V. Afanasjev; E. F. Aguilera; M. Beard; L. C. Chamon; P. Ring; M. Wiescher; D. G. Yakovlev

2005-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

210

Microsoft Word - Deep-Burn awardee team members _2_.doc  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DEEP-BURN AWARDEES RECIPIENTS RECIPIENT TEAM MEMBERS Advanced Modeling and Simulation Capability R&D for $1 million University of Chicago Argonne Argonne National Laboratory Oak Ridge National Laboratory Lawrence Livermore National Lab University of Michigan Transuranic Management Capabilities R&D for $6.3 million Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC Idaho National Laboratory Oak Ridge National Laboratory Argonne National Laboratory Los Alamos National Laboratory University of California, Berkeley University of Wisconsin University of Tennessee University of Nevada Las Vegas North Carolina State University Georgia Institute of Technology Pennsylvania State University Idaho State University Texas A&M University Logos Technologies

211

Hydrogen-burn survival: preliminary thermal model and test results  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report documents preliminary Hydrogen Burn Survival (HBS) Program experimental and analytical work conducted through February 1982. The effects of hydrogen deflagrations on safety-related equipment in nuclear power plant containment buildings are considered. Preliminary results from hydrogen deflagration experiments in the Sandia Variable Geometry Experimental System (VGES) are presented and analytical predictions for these tests are compared and discussed. Analytical estimates of component thermal responses to hydrogen deflagrations in the upper and lower compartments of an ice condenser, pressurized water reactor are also presented.

McCulloch, W.H.; Ratzel, A.C.; Kempka, S.N.; Furgal, D.T.; Aragon, J.J.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Employing the EPRI Vista Program for Test Burn Risk Assessment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The drive to use fuel switching as a means to meet more stringent SO2 and NOX emissions requirements has in many cases led to both a reduction in power station efficiency and a poorer net plant heat rate (NPHR) at the power station, as well as significant reductions in operating margins and increases in the risk of unit derates. One excellent method to manage or mitigate this risk is a comprehensive test burn for fuels under consideration. The objectives of this technical report are to demonstrate how th...

2011-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

213

Testing of the Burns-Milwaukee`s Sun Oven  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A Burns-Milwaukee Sun Oven was tested at Sandia`s Solar Thermal Test Facility. It was instrumented with five type K thermocouples to determine warm-up rates when empty and when a pot containing two liters of water was placed inside. It reached inside air temperatures above 160{degrees}C (320{degrees}F). It heated two liters of water from room temperatures to 80{degrees}C, (175{degrees}F), in 75 minutes. Observations were also made on the cooling and reheating rates during a cloud passage. The adverse effects of wind on operation of the solar oven was also noted.

Moss, T.A.

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Solar Proton Burning Process Revisited within a Covariant Model Based on the Bethe-Salpeter Formalism  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A covariant model based on the Bethe-Salpeter formalism is proposed for investigating the solar proton burning process $pp\\to De^+\

L. P. Kaptari; B. Kmpfer; E. Grosse

2000-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

215

An analysis of terrain roughness: Generating a GIS application for prescribed burning.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Prescribed burning is a technique used to rejuvenate pastures by enhancing wildlife habitat, brush control, and removing old growth. The technique has become a science (more)

Crawford, Matthew Allan

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

"Burning Man was better next year:" a phenomenology of community identity in the Black Rock counterculture.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This study illustrates and explains communal identity performance and maintenance as manifested by the participants in the counterculture community at Burning Man. This community is (more)

Kehoe, Kara Leeann

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Effects of prescribed burning on undesirable plant species and soil physical properties on tallgrass prairies.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Prescribed burning has been a common conservation practice on native prairie dating back to the days of pioneer settlement. Advantages include increased forage quality, reduction (more)

Ungerer, James L.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

O-1: Using of Spent Moulding Sands for Production of Burned ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The measurements of exhaust gases emissions performed during burning the products containing spent moulding sands as well as during the normal...

219

Coated Particle and Deep Burn Fuels Monthly Highlights December 2010  

SciTech Connect

During FY 2011 the CP & DB Program will report Highlights on a monthly basis, but will no longer produce Quarterly Progress Reports. Technical details that were previously included in the quarterly reports will be included in the appropriate Milestone Reports that are submitted to FCRD Program Management. These reports will also be uploaded to the Deep Burn website. The Monthly Highlights report for November 2010, ORNL/TM-2010/323, was distributed to program participants on December 9, 2010. The final Quarterly for FY 2010, Deep Burn Program Quarterly Report for July - September 2010, ORNL/TM-2010/301, was announced to program participants and posted to the website on December 28, 2010. This report discusses the following: (1) Thermochemical Data and Model Development - (a) Thermochemical Modeling, (b) Core Design Optimization in the HTR (high temperature helium-cooled reactor) Pebble Bed Design (INL), (c) Radiation Damage and Properties; (2) TRISO (tri-structural isotropic) Development - (a) TRU (transuranic elements) Kernel Development, (b) Coating Development; (3) LWR Fully Ceramic Fuel - (a) FCM Fabrication Development, (b) FCM Irradiation Testing (ORNL); (4) Fuel Performance and Analytical Analysis - Fuel Performance Modeling (ORNL).

Snead, Lance Lewis [ORNL; Bell, Gary L [ORNL; Besmann, Theodore M [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Nonphotochemical hole burning of the reaction center of Rhodopseudomonas viridis  

SciTech Connect

Reddy et al. (Science, accepted) have reported persistent, nonphotochemical hole-burned (NPHB) spectra for the Q[sub y] states of the reaction center of Rhodopseudomonas viridis. The photoinduced structural transformation was shown to be highly localized on the special pair. This transformation leads to a red shift of the special pair's lowest-energy absorption band, P960, of 150 cm[sup [minus]1] and a comparable blue shift for a state at 850 nm, which, as a consequence, could be assigned as being most closely associated with the upper dimer component. Additional experimental results are presented here together with a theoretical analysis of the extent to which the NPHB spectra provide information on the contribution from the bacteriochlorophyll monomers of the special pair to the Q[sub y] states that absorb higher in energy than P960. Structured photochemical hole-burned (PHB) spectra of P960 are also presented that underscore the importance of strong electron-phonon coupling from a broad distribution of modes with a mean frequency of 30 cm[sup [minus]1] for an understanding of the P960 absorption profile. These spectra also identify the zero-phonon hole of the strongly damped special pair marker mode (145 cm[sup [minus]1]) and its associated phonon sideband structure. Calculated spectra are presented which are in good agreement with the experimental PHB spectra. 30 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

Reddy, N.R.S.; Kolaczkowski, S.V.; Small, G.J. (Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States))

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "a-area burning rubble" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Testing of the Burns-Milwaukee's Sun Oven  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Burns-Milwaukee Sun Oven was tested at Sandia's Solar Thermal Test Facility. It was instrumented with five type K thermocouples to determine warm-up rates when empty and when a pot containing two liters of water was placed inside. It reached inside air temperatures above 160 o C (320 o F). It heated two liters of water from room temperature to 80 o C, (175 o F), in 75 minutes. Observations were also made on the cooling and reheating rates during a cloud passage. The adverse effects of wind on operation of the solar oven was also noted. ii 1 The Solar Thermal Design Assistance Center (STDAC) at Sandia National Laboratories evaluated a Sun Oven from Burns-Milwaukee at Sandia's Solar Thermal Test Facility in Albuquerque NM. It was designed for single family household cooking. It is targeting developing countries' alternative energy markets where conventional fuels are not available and wood is the primary fuel used for cooking. Because of the wide variety and types of solar...

Moss Solar Thermal; T. A. Moss

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Biogenic and biomass burning sources of acetone to the troposphere  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Acetone may be an important source of reactive odd hydrogen in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. This source of odd hydrogen may affect the concentration of a number of species, including ozone, nitrogen oxides, methane, and others. Traditional, acetone had been considered a by-product of the photochemical oxidation of other species, and had not entered models as a primary emission. However, recent work estimates a global source term of 40-60 Tg acetone/year. Of this, 25% is directly emitted during biomass burning, and 20% is directly emitted by evergreens and other plants. Only 3% is due to anthropogenic/industrial emissions. The bulk of the remainder, 51% of the acetone source, is a secondary product from the oxidation of propane, isobutane, and isobutene. Also, while it is speculated that the oxidation of pinene (a biogenic emission) may also contribute about 6 Tg/year, this term is highly uncertain. Thus, the two largest primary sources of acetone are biogenic emission and biomass burning, with industrial/anthropogenic emissions very small in comparison.

Atherton, C.S.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Burning state recognition of rotary kiln using ELMs with heterogeneous features  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Image based burning state recognition plays an important role in sintering process control of rotary kiln. Although many efforts on dealing with this problem have been made over the past years, the recognition performance cannot be satisfactory due to ... Keywords: Burning state, ELM, Eigen-flame image, Latent semantic analysis, Multivariate image analysis

Weitao Li; Dianhui Wang; Tianyou Chai

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Structured hole-burned spectra of reaction centers of rhodopseudomonas viridis  

SciTech Connect

Structured hole-burned spectra for P960 of Rps, viridis are reported which, for appropriate burn wavelengths, exhibit four holes (including a zero-phonon hole). The data indicate that two electronic states contribute significantly to P960 and suggest that the primary electron-transfer step should be modeled in terms of coupled adiabatic trimer states.

Tang, D.; Jankowiak, R.; Gillie, J.K.; Small, G.J.; Tiede, D.M.

1988-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

225

Fuel injection staged sectoral combustor for burning low-BTU fuel gas  

SciTech Connect

A high-temperature combustor for burning low-BTU coal gas in a gas turbine is described. The combustor comprises a plurality of individual combustor chambers. Each combustor chamber has a main burning zone and a pilot burning zone. A pipe for the low-BTU coal gas is connected to the upstream end of the pilot burning zone; this pipe surrounds a liquid fuel source and is in turn surrounded by an air supply pipe; swirling means are provided between the liquid fuel source and the coal gas pipe and between the gas pipe and the air pipe. Additional preheated air is provided by counter-current coolant air in passages formed by a double wall arrangement of the walls of the main burning zone communicating with passages of a double wall arrangement of the pilot burning zone; this preheated air is turned at the upstream end of the pilot burning zone through swirlers to mix with the original gas and air input (and the liquid fuel input when used) to provide more efficient combustion. One or more fuel injection stages (second stages) are provided for direct input of coal gas into the main burning zone. The countercurrent air coolant passages are connected to swirlers surrounding the input from each second stage to provide additional oxidant.

Vogt, Robert L. (Schenectady, NY)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Fuel injection staged sectoral combustor for burning low-BTU fuel gas  

SciTech Connect

A high-temperature combustor for burning low-BTU coal gas in a gas turbine is described. The combustor comprises a plurality of individual combustor chambers. Each combustor chamber has a main burning zone and a pilot burning zone. A pipe for the low-BTU coal gas is connected to the upstream end of the pilot burning zone: this pipe surrounds a liquid fuel source and is in turn surrounded by an air supply pipe: swirling means are provided between the liquid fuel source and the coal gas pipe and between the gas pipe and the air pipe. Additional preheated air is provided by counter-current coolant air in passages formed by a double wall arrangement of the walls of the main burning zone communicating with passages of a double wall arrangement of the pilot burning zone: this preheated air is turned at the upstream end of the pilot burning zone through swirlers to mix with the original gas and air input (and the liquid fuel input when used) to provide more efficient combustion. One or more fuel injection stages (second stages) are provided for direct input of coal gas into the main burning zone. The countercurrent air coolant passages are connected to swirlers surrounding the input from each second stage to provide additional oxidant.

Vogt, Robert L. (Schenectady, NY)

1985-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

227

Soot from the burning of fossil fuels and solid biofuels contributes far more to global  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Soot from the burning of fossil fuels and solid biofuels contributes far more to global warming Researchers ScienceDaily (July 30, 2010) -- Soot from the burning of fossil fuels and solid biofuels biofuels, such as wood, manure, dung, and other solid biomass used for home heating and cooking in many

228

FLAMES IN TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA: DEFLAGRATION-DETONATION TRANSITION IN THE OXYGEN-BURNING FLAME  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The flame in a Type Ia supernova is a conglomerate structure that, depending on density, may involve separate regions of carbon, oxygen, and silicon burning, all propagating in a self-similar, subsonic front. The separation between these three burning regions increases as the density declines until eventually, below about 2 x 10{sup 7} g cm{sup -3}, only carbon burning remains active, the other two burning phases having 'frozen out' on stellar scales. Between 2 and 3 x 10{sup 7} g cm{sup -3}, however, there remains an energetic oxygen-burning region that trails the carbon burning by an amount that is sensitive to the turbulence intensity. As the carbon flame makes a transition to the distributed regime (Karlovitz number {approx}> 10), the characteristic separation between the carbon- and oxygen-burning regions increases dramatically, from a fraction of a meter to many kilometers. The oxygen-rich mixture between the two flames is created at a nearly constant temperature, and turbulence helps to maintain islands of well-mixed isothermal fuel as the temperature increases. The delayed burning of these regions can be supersonic and could initiate a detonation.

Woosley, S. E. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Kerstein, A. R. [Combustion Research Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Aspden, A. J., E-mail: woosley@ucolick.org, E-mail: arkerst@sandia.gov, E-mail: ajaspden@lbl.gov [Center for Computational Sciences and Engineering, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, CA 94720 (United States)

2011-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

229

The Burning Issue By Alyssa A. Lappen and Jack D. Lauber  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Burning Issue By Alyssa A. Lappen and Jack D. Lauber FrontPageMagazine.com | March 1, 2006 in the U.S. By 1999, Japan was burning more than 74 percent of its municipal waste and landfilling only 20

Columbia University

230

A MODIS assessment of the summer 2007 extent burned in Greece  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Devastating fires affected Greece in the summer 2007, with the loss of more than 60 human lives, the destruction of more than 100 villages and hundreds of square kilometres of forest burned. This Letter presents a map of the extent burned and the approximate ...

Luigi Boschetti; David Roy; Paulo Barbosa; Roberto Boca; Chris Justice

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Experiments for the Measurement of LNG Mass Burning Rates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) is a commonly used flammable fuel that has safety concerns associated with vapor dispersion and radiation emitted from pool fires. The main objective of this effort is to advance the knowledge of pool fires and to expand the data that is commonly used to validate semi-empirical models. This includes evaluation of the methods that are utilized to obtain experimental values of mass burning rates, which are used in models where semi-empirical correlations cannot be applied. A total of three small-size experiments designed to study the radiative characteristics of LNG pool fires were carried out at Texas A & M University's Brayton Fire Training Field (BFTF). This set of experiments was designed to study how the heat feedback from the fire to the pool surface is subsequently distributed through the liquid volume and the validity of different methods for measuring burning rates. In this work, a number of semi-empirical correlations were used to predict the characteristics of the flame and examine the predictive accuracy of these correlations when compared to the values obtained experimentally. In addition, the heat transferred from the energy received at the pool's surface to the surroundings was investigated. Finally, the parameters that influenced the measurement of radiative head feedback to the liquid pool were analyzed to investigate potential causes of calibration drift in the instrumentation. The results of this work provided information regarding the validity of certain techniques for the measurement of mass burning rates and the use of correlations to predict the characteristics of an LNG pool fire on a small-scale. The findings from this work indicate that the energy received at the liquid surface was used entirely for evaporation and no indications of transmission to the surroundings were observed. Lastly, it was found that during the experiments, the sink temperature of the sensor was not constant, and therefore, the readings of the radiative heat were unreliable. This was due to the insufficient cooling effect of the water circulated. It was later shown in the laboratory that through a series of qualitative tests, a change of 20C in the cooling water resulted in a calibration drift.

Herrera Gomez, Lady Carolina

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Persistent infrared spectral hole burning of NO; ions in potassium halide crystals. I. Priric9ple and satellite.holle generation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Persistent infrared spectral hole burning of NO; ions in potassium halide crystals. I. Priric9ple spectroscopyand persistentinfrared spectralhole (PIRSH) burning separatelyand together. With interferometry cm --'and, with PIRSH burning, it has beendemijnstratedthat the narrowestlinesare

Sethna, James P.

233

Biomass burning sources of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, and non-methane hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect

Biomass burning is an important source of many key tropospheric species, including aerosols, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub {times}}=NO+NO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), methyl bromide (CH{sub 3}Br), ammonia (NH{sub 3}), non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and other species. These emissions and their subsequent products act as pollutants and affect greenhouse warming of the atmosphere. One important by-product of biomass burning is tropospheric ozone, which is a pollutant that also absorbs infrared radiation. Ozone is formed when CO, CH{sub 4}, and NMHCs react in the presence of NO{sub {times}} and sunlight. Ozone concentrations in tropical regions (where the bulk of biomass burning occurs) may increase due to biomass burning. Additionally, biomass burning can increase the concentration of nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}), a key component of acid rain.

Atherton, C.S.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Mercury Control Technologies for Electric Utilities Burning Lignite Coal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mercury control technologies for Mercury control technologies for electric utilities Burning lignite coal Background In partnership with a number of key stakeholders, the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy (DOE/FE), through its National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), has been carrying out a comprehensive research program since the mid-1990s focused on the development of advanced, cost-effective mercury (Hg) control technologies for coal-fired power plants. Mercury is a poisonous metal found in coal, which can be harmful and even toxic when absorbed from the environment and concentrated in animal tissues. Mercury is present as an unwanted by-product of combustion in power plant flue gases, and is found in varying percentages in three basic chemical forms(known as speciation): particulate-bound mercury, oxidized

235

Approximate Dynamic Programming Solutions for Lean Burn Engine Aftertreatment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The competition to deliver fuel e#cient and environmentally friendly vehicles is driving the automotive industry to consider ever more complex powertrain systems. Adequate performance of these new highly interactive systems can no longer be obtained through traditional approaches, which are intensive in hardware use and #nal control software calibration. This paper explores the use of dynamic programming to make model-based design decisions for a lean burn, direct injection spark ignition engine, in combination with a three way catalyst and lean NOx trap aftertreatment system. The primary contribution is the development ofavery rapid method to evaluate the tradeo#s in fuel economy and emissions for this novel powertrain system, as a function of design parameters and controller structure, over a standard emission test cycle. 1 Introduction Designing a powertrain system to meet drivability, fuel economy and emissions performance requirements is a complicated task. There are many tradeo...

Jun-Mo Kang; Ilya Kolmanovsky; J.W. Grizzle

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Exhaust gas purification system for lean burn engine  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An exhaust gas purification system for a lean burn engine includes a thermal mass unit and a NO.sub.x conversion catalyst unit downstream of the thermal mass unit. The NO.sub.x conversion catalyst unit includes at least one catalyst section. Each catalyst section includes a catalytic layer for converting NO.sub.x coupled to a heat exchanger. The heat exchanger portion of the catalyst section acts to maintain the catalytic layer substantially at a desired temperature and cools the exhaust gas flowing from the catalytic layer into the next catalytic section in the series. In a further aspect of the invention, the exhaust gas purification system includes a dual length exhaust pipe upstream of the NO.sub.x conversion catalyst unit. The dual length exhaust pipe includes a second heat exchanger which functions to maintain the temperature of the exhaust gas flowing into the thermal mass downstream near a desired average temperature.

Haines, Leland Milburn (Northville, MI)

2002-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

237

Explosive hydrogen burning during type I X-ray bursts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Explosive hydrogen burning in type I X-ray bursts (XRBs) comprise charged particle reactions creating isotopes with masses up to A~100. Since charged particle reactions in a stellar environment are very temperature sensitive, we use a realistic time-dependent general relativistic and self-consistent model of type I x-ray bursts to provide accurate values of the burst temperatures and densities. This allows a detailed and accurate time-dependent identification of the reaction flow from the surface layers through the convective region and the ignition region to the neutron star ocean. Using this, we determine the relative importance of specific nuclear reactions in the X-ray burst.

Jacob Lund Fisker; Hendrik Schatz; Friedrich-Karl Thielemann

2007-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

238

A Study of the Relation of Meteorological Variables to Monthly Provincial Area Burned by Wildfire in Canada (195380)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The relation between meteorological variables and the monthly area burned by wildfire from May to August 195380 in nine Canadian provinces was investigated. A purely statistical approach to estimating the monthly provincial area burned, using ...

M. D. Flannigan; J. B. Harrington

1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Biomass burning in Asia : annual and seasonal estimates and atmospheric emissions.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Estimates of biomass burning in Asia are developed to facilitate the modeling of Asian and global air quality. A survey of national, regional, and international publications on biomass burning is conducted to yield consensus estimates of 'typical' (i.e., non-year-specific) estimates of open burning (excluding biofuels). We conclude that 730 Tg of biomass are burned in a typical year from both anthropogenic and natural causes. Forest burning comprises 45% of the total, the burning of crop residues in the field comprises 34%, and 20% comes from the burning of grassland and savanna. China contributes 25% of the total, India 18%, Indonesia 13%, and Myanmar 8%. Regionally, forest burning in Southeast Asia dominates. National, annual totals are converted to daily and monthly estimates at 1{sup o} x 1{sup o} spatial resolution using distributions based on AVHRR fire counts for 1999--2000. Several adjustment schemes are applied to correct for the deficiencies of AVHRR data, including the use of moving averages, normalization, TOMS Aerosol Index, and masks for dust, clouds, landcover, and other fire sources. Good agreement between the national estimates of biomass burning and adjusted fire counts is obtained (R{sup 2} = 0.71--0.78). Biomass burning amounts are converted to atmospheric emissions, yielding the following estimates: 0.37 Tg of SO{sub 2}, 2.8 Tg of NO{sub x}, 1100 Tg of CO{sub 2}, 67 Tg of CO, 3.1 Tg of CH{sub 4}, 12 Tg of NMVOC, 0.45 Tg of BC, 3.3 Tg of OC, and 0.92 Tg of NH{sub 3}. Uncertainties in the emission estimates, measured as 95% confidence intervals, range from a low of {+-}65% for CO{sub 2} emissions in Japan to a high of {+-}700% for BC emissions in India.

Streets, D. G.; Yarber, K. F.; Woo, J.-H.; Carmichael, G. R.; Decision and Information Sciences; Univ. of Iowa

2003-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

240

Systems Analysis of a Compact Next Step Burning Plasma Experiment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new burning plasma systems code (BPSC) has been developed for analysis of a next step compact burning plasma experiment with copper-alloy magnet technology. We consider two classes of configurations: Type A, with the toroidal field (TF) coils and ohmic heating (OH) coils unlinked, and Type B, with the TF and OH coils linked. We obtain curves of the minimizing major radius as a function of aspect ratio R(A) for each configuration type for typical parameters. These curves represent, to first order, cost minimizing curves, assuming that device cost is a function of major radius. The Type B curves always lie below the Type A curves for the same physics parameters, indicating that they lead to a more compact design. This follows from that fact that a high fraction of the inner region, r < R-a, contains electrical conductor material. However, the fact that the Type A OH and TF magnets are not linked presents fewer engineering challenges and should lead to a more reliable design. Both the Type A and Type B curves have a minimum in major radius R at a minimizing aspect ratio A typically above 2.8 and at high values of magnetic field B above 10 T. The minimizing A occurs at larger values for longer pulse and higher performance devices. The larger A and higher B design points also have the feature that the ratio of the discharge time to the current redistribution time is largest so that steady-state operation can be more realistically prototyped. A sensitivity study is presented for the baseline Type A configuration showing the dependence of the results on the parameters held fixed for the minimization study.

S.C. Jardin; C.E. Kessel; D. Meade; C. Neumeyer

2002-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "a-area burning rubble" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Volume159,number 1 CHEMICALPHYSICS LETTERS 30 June 1989 TIME EVOLUTION OF NON-PHOTOCHEMICAL HOLE BURNING LINEWIDTHS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

BURNING LINEWIDTHS: OBSERVATION OF SPECTRAL DIFFUSION AT LONG TIMES K.A. LITTAU, Y.S. BAI and M.D. FAYER 18 April 1989 Time-dependent non-photochemical hole burning linewidths for cresyl violet in ethanol of experimental techniques used to measure op- tical dephasing in glasses e.g. hole burning [ 12 1,two- pulse

Fayer, Michael D.

242

Hole-burning techniques for isolation and study of individual hyperfine transitions in inhomogeneously broadened solids demonstrated in Pr3+  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hole-burning techniques for isolation and study of individual hyperfine transitions been limited. However, here we present spectroscopic techniques, based on spectral hole burning of hole-burning pulses is used to isolate selected transitions between hyperfine levels, which makes

Suter, Dieter

243

PUBLISHED ONLINE: 5 DECEMBER 2010 | DOI: 10.1038/NGEO1027 Recent acceleration of biomass burning and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

burning and carbon losses in Alaskan forests and peatlands Merritt R. Turetsky1 *, Evan S. Kane2 in burned area and fire frequency are expected to stimulate boreal carbon losses3­5 . However, the impact of wildfires on carbon emissions is also affected by the severity of burning. How climate change influences

Ruess, Roger W.

244

D. Moreau IEA W60 Burning Plasma Physics and Simulation, Tarragona, July 2005 INTEGRATED REAL-TIME CONTROL  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

D. Moreau IEA W60 Burning Plasma Physics and Simulation, Tarragona, July 2005 INTEGRATED REAL-TIME CONTROL FOR ADVANCED STEADY STATE SCENARIOS AND APPLICATIONS TO BURNING PLASMAS EFDA-JET CSU, Culham. Sartori, and many other JET-EFDA Contributors D. Moreau #12;D. Moreau IEA W60 Burning Plasma Physics

245

Studying trends in biomass burning aerosol using the Absorbing Aerosol Index derived from GOME, SCIAMACHY, and GOME-2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Studying trends in biomass burning aerosol using the Absorbing Aerosol Index derived from GOME burning events. It is found that the regional AAI data follow the regional tropospheric NO2 data well sensitive to desert dust aerosols (DDA) and biomass burning aerosols (BBA). See Figure 1. The AAI

Tilstra, Gijsbert

246

Burning A Disc Using InfraRecorder On the PC desktop, double click on the Accessories and Utilities folder.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Burning A Disc Using InfraRecorder On the PC desktop, double click on the Accessories and Utilities to burn. For Word, Excel, PDFs, etc., select Data Disc and CD or DVD as appropriate. At the next screen the pane to the upper left allows you to maneuver to the location of the file(s) you wish to burn. The pane

Kim, Duck O.

247

Texas A&M AgriLife Research Procedures 24.01.01.A0.09 Outdoor Burning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Texas A&M AgriLife Research Procedures 24.01.01.A0.09 Outdoor Burning Approved: October 5, 2000: August 27, 2014 Texas A&M AgriLife Research Procedure 24.01.01.A0.09 Outdoor Burning Page 1 of 2 PROCEDURE STATEMENT The Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) regulates outdoor burning (30 TAC

248

Measurement of adiabatic burning velocity in natural gas-like mixtures  

SciTech Connect

Experimental measurements of the adiabatic burning velocities were carried out for natural gas-like mixtures burning in air over a range of equivalence ratios at atmospheric pressure. Effect of CO{sub 2} dilution up to 60%, N{sub 2} dilution up to 40% and 25% enrichment of ethane on burning velocity of methane-air flames were studied. Heat flux method with setup similar to that of [K.J. Bosschaart, L.P.H. de Goey, Detailed analysis of the heat flux method for measuring burning velocity, Combustion and Flame 132 (2003) 170-180] was used for measurement of burning velocities. Initially experiments were done for methane-air and ethane-air mixtures at various equivalence ratios and the results were in good agreement with published data in the literature. Computations were performed using PREMIX code with GRI 3.0 reaction mechanism for all the mixtures. Predicted flame structures were used to the explain the effect of N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} dilution on burning velocity of methane-air flames. Peak burning velocity for CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2}-air mixtures occur near to {phi} = 1.0. (author)

Ratna Kishore, V.; Duhan, Nipun; Ravi, M.R.; Ray, Anjan [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110 016 (India)

2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

249

Interaction of the burning spherical droplets in oxygen-enriched turbulent environment  

SciTech Connect

Three-dimensional numerical studies on the interaction of vaporizing and burning droplets were conducted to understand the burning characteristics of multiple droplets in a turbulent environment. The burning droplets characteristics, such as lifetime, surface temperature, vaporization, reaction, and burning rate were examined for various oxygen mole-fractions and geometrical arrangements of droplets. Results from a single droplet combustion test were first verified and validated against existing experimental data. Results indicate that turbulent intensity has a moderate effect on droplet burning rate, but not as prominent an effect as the oxygen mole-fraction. At high oxygen mole-fractions, droplet lifetime was short due to enhanced burning. It is shown that evaporation processes of multiple droplets are notably affected by the inter-space distance between droplets both in streamwise and spanwise directions. The burning rate as a function of oxygen mole-fraction and inter-space distance is determined and can be used as a guideline for future studies on spray combustion. (author)

Cho, Chong Pyo [Automobile Energy and Environment Research Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research, 71-2 Jangdong, Yuseonggu, Daejeon, 305-343 (Korea); Kim, Ho Young; Yoon, Sam S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea University, Anamdong, 5-Ga, Sungbukgu, Seoul, 136-701 (Korea)

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

250

Addendum to High Pressure Burn Rate Measurements on an Ammonium Perchlorate Propellant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As part of a small follow-on study, the burn rate of the ammonium perchlorate (AP) based material TAL-1503 was studied at a relatively mild pressure. The goal of this final experiment was to burn TAL-1503 at the lowest pressures possible using the LLNL High Pressure Strand Burner (LLNL-HPSB). The following is a description of the experiment and the results with a brief discussion of data and a comparison to the higher pressure data. This is not meant to be a stand-alone report and readers should refer to the main report for experimental details and discussion. High pressure deflagration rate measurements of a unique AP/HTPB based material (TAL-1503) were performed using the LLNL high pressure strand burner apparatus. The material burns in a well behaved, laminar fashion between 20 and 300 MPa with a burn law of B = (0.6 {+-} 0.1) x P{sup (1.05{+-}0.02)} that was calculated based on the best data available from the experiments. In the pressure range of 2 and 10 MPa the material burned laminarly with a burn law of B = (2.0 {+-} 0.2) x P{sup (0.66{+-}0.05)}. In these results, B is the burn rate in mm/s and P is the pressure in units of MPa. Comparison of the TAL-1503 results with similar propellants that contain micrometer sized aluminum indicate that the burn rates are relatively unaffected by the aluminum. However, the pressure change is significantly larger when aluminum is present, most likely due to the high temperatures achieved from burning aluminum.

Glascoe, E A; Tan, N

2010-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

251

Emission and transport of cesium-137 from boreal biomass burning in the summer of 2010  

SciTech Connect

While atmospheric concentrations of cesium-137 have decreased since the nuclear testing era, resuspension of Cs-137 during biomass burning provides an ongoing emission source. The summer of 2010 was an intense biomass burning season in western Russia, with high levels of particulate matter impacting air quality and visibility. A radionuclide monitoring station in western Russia shows enhanced airborne Cs-137 concentrations during the wildfire period. Since Cs-137 binds to aerosols, satellite observations of aerosols and fire occurrences can provide a global-scale context for Cs-137 emissions and transport during biomass burning events.

Strode, S.; Ott, Lesley E.; Pawson, Steven; Bowyer, Ted W.

2012-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

252

Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 490: Station 44 Burn Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 490, Station 44 Burn Area is located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). CAU 490 is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) and includes for Corrective Action Sites (CASs): (1) Fire Training Area (CAS 03-56-001-03BA); (2) Station 44 Burn Area (CAS RG-56-001-RGBA); (3) Sandia Service Yard (CAS 03-58-001-03FN); and (4) Gun Propellant Burn Area (CAS 09-54-001-09L2).

K. B. Campbell

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Out of Ashes and Rubble: The Pirelli Tower  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

tower was novel, experimental architecture because it was the first skyscraper to be built in Italy; it was an extremely tall

Ziegler, Claudia J.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Environmental Assessment for the Replacement Source of Steam for A Area at the Savannah River Site  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

8 8 OCTOBER 2006 U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SAVANNAH RIVER OPERATIONS OFFICE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR THE REPLACEMENT SOURCE OF STEAM FOR A AREA AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE DOE/EA-1568 ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR THE REPLACEMENT SOURCE OF STEAM FOR A AREA AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE OCTOBER 2006 U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SAVANNAH RIVER OPERATIONS OFFICE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE ii TABLE OF CONTENTS Page 1.0 INTRODUCTION ...............................................................................................1 1.1 Background ..............................................................................................1 1.2 Purpose and Need for Proposed Action.....................................................1 2.0 PROPOSED ACTION AND ALTERNATIVES

255

Sectoral combustor for burning low-BTU fuel gas  

SciTech Connect

A high-temperature combustor for burning low-BTU coal gas in a gas turbine is disclosed. The combustor includes several separately removable combustion chambers each having an annular sectoral cross section and a double-walled construction permitting separation of stresses due to pressure forces and stresses due to thermal effects. Arrangements are described for air-cooling each combustion chamber using countercurrent convective cooling flow between an outer shell wall and an inner liner wall and using film cooling flow through liner panel grooves and along the inner liner wall surface, and for admitting all coolant flow to the gas path within the inner liner wall. Also described are systems for supplying coal gas, combustion air, and dilution air to the combustion zone, and a liquid fuel nozzle for use during low-load operation. The disclosed combustor is fully air-cooled, requires no transition section to interface with a turbine nozzle, and is operable at firing temperatures of up to 3000.degree. F. or within approximately 300.degree. F. of the adiabatic stoichiometric limit of the coal gas used as fuel.

Vogt, Robert L. (Schenectady, NY)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Vertical feed stick wood fuel burning furnace system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A new and improved stove or furnace for efficient combustion of wood fuel including a vertical feed combustion chamber for receiving and supporting wood fuel in a vertical attitude or stack, a major upper portion of the combustion chamber column comprising a water jacket for coupling to a source of water or heat transfer fluid and for convection circulation of the fluid for confining the locus of wood fuel combustion to the bottom of the vertical gravity feed combustion chamber. A flue gas propagation delay channel extending from the laterally directed draft outlet affords delayed travel time in a high temperature environment to assure substantially complete combustion of the gaseous products of wood burning with forced air as an actively induced draft draws the fuel gas and air mixture laterally through the combustion and high temperature zone. Active sources of forced air and induced draft are included, multiple use and circuit couplings for the recovered heat, and construction features in the refractory material substructure and metal component superstructure.

Hill, Richard C. (Orono, ME)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Vertical feed stick wood fuel burning furnace system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A stove or furnace for efficient combustion of wood fuel includes a vertical feed combustion chamber (15) for receiving and supporting wood fuel in a vertical attitude or stack. A major upper portion of the combustion chamber column comprises a water jacket (14) for coupling to a source of water or heat transfer fluid for convection circulation of the fluid. The locus (31) of wood fuel combustion is thereby confined to the refractory base of the combustion chamber. A flue gas propagation delay channel (34) extending laterally from the base of the chamber affords delayed travel time in a high temperature refractory environment sufficient to assure substantially complete combustion of the gaseous products of wood burning with forced air prior to extraction of heat in heat exchanger (16). Induced draft draws the fuel gas and air mixture laterally through the combustion chamber and refractory high temperature zone to the heat exchanger and flue. Also included are active sources of forced air and induced draft, multiple circuit couplings for the recovered heat, and construction features in the refractory material substructure and metal component superstructure.

Hill, Richard C. (Orono, ME)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Effects of actinide burning on waste disposal at Yucca Mountain  

SciTech Connect

Release rates of 15 radionuclides from waste packages expected to result from partitioning and transmutation of Light-Water Reactor (LWR) and Actinide-Burning Liquid-Metal Reactor (ALMR) spent fuel are calculated and compared to release rates from standard LWR spent fuel packages. The release rates are input to a model for radionuclide transport from the proposed geologic repository at Yucca Mountain to the water table. Discharge rates at the water table are calculated and used in a model for transport to the accessible environment, defined to be five kilometers from the repository edge. Concentrations and dose rates at the accessible environment from spent fuel and wastes from reprocessing, with partitioning and transmutation, are calculated. Partitioning and transmutation of LWR and ALMR spent fuel reduces the inventories of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium in the high-level waste by factors of 40 to 500. However, because release rates of all of the actinides except curium are limited by solubility and are independent of package inventory, they are not reduced correspondingly. Only for curium is the repository release rate much lower for reprocessing wastes.

Hirschfelder, J. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States)

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

>Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from Fossil-Fuel Burning, Hydraulic  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from Fossil-Fuel Burning, Hydraulic Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from Fossil-Fuel Burning, Hydraulic Cement Production, and Gas Flaring for 1995 on a One Degree Grid Cell Basis (NDP-058a) Prepared by Antoinette L. Brenkert Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6290 Date Published: February 1998 (Revised for the Web: 2003) CONTENTS Abstract Documentation file for Data Base NDP-058a (2-1998) Data Base NDP-058a (2-1998) Abstract Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from Fossil-Fuel Burning, Hydraulic Cement Production, and Gas Flaring for 1995 on a One Degree Grid Cell Basis. (March 1998) Antoinette L. Brenkert DOI: 10.3334/CDIAC/ffe.ndp058.2003 This data package presents the gridded (one degree latitude by one degree longitude) summed emissions from fossil-fuel burning, hydraulic cement

260

Production of CO2 from Fossil Fuel Burning by Fuel Type, 1860...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions Historical Global Estimates Production of CO2 from Fossil Fuel Burning by Fuel Type, 1860-1982 (NDP-006) DOI: 10.3334CDIACffe.ndp006 image Data image...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "a-area burning rubble" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Case study analysis of biomass burning plumes observed over Brazil during SAMBBA, September 2012  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Biomass burning is a huge source of atmospheric aerosols and is poorly understood leading to large uncertainties in estimates of radiative forcing of climate. Aerosols have both a direct effect on climate by reflecting and absorbing solar radiation and an indirect effect by acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and ice nuclei (IN). Biomass burning aerosols are produced from burning of vegetation with the vast majority occurring in the tropics. This research presents data collected during the aircraft campaign of the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) project during September and October 2012. A smouldering rainforest fire and a flaming savannah-like fire were selected for in-depth case studies of the atmospheric plume constituents and provide a comparison between the two fire types. The physiochemical characterization of the two plumes are identified

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

General analysis of breed-and-burn reactors and limited-separations fuel cycles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A new theoretical framework is introduced, the "neutron excess" concept, which is useful for analyzing breed-and-burn (B&B) reactors and their fuel cycles. Based on this concept, a set of methods has been developed which ...

Petroski, Robert C

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Proton emission imaging of the nuclear burn in inertial confinement fusion experiments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A proton core imaging system has been developed and extensively used for measuring the nuclear burn regions of inertial confinement fusion implosions. These imaging cameras, mounted to the 60-beam OMEGA laser facility, use ...

DeCiantis, Joseph Loreto

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Modeling the impacts of biomass burning on air quality in and around Mexico City  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The local and regional impacts of open fires and trash burning on ground-level ozone (O[subscript 3]) and fine carbonaceous aerosols in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) and surrounding region during two high fire ...

Lei, W.

265

Climate effects of seasonally varying Biomass Burning emitted Carbonaceous Aerosols (BBCA)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The climate impact of the seasonality of Biomass Burning emitted Carbonaceous Aerosols (BBCA) is studied using an aerosol-climate model coupled with a slab ocean model in a set of 60-year long simulations, driven by BBCA ...

Jeong, Gill-Ran

266

A Hypothetical Burning-Velocity Formula for Very Lean Hydrogen-Air Mixtures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

R.W. Shefer, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 28 (2003) 1131-1141. P.burning velocities of lean hydrogen-air flames at 1 atm andFORMULA FOR VERY LEAN HYDROGEN-AIR MIXTURES by Forman A.

Grcar, Joseph F

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Estimation of Shortwave Direct Radiative Forcing of Biomass-Burning Aerosols Using New Angular Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using a new angular distribution model (ADM) for smoke aerosols, the instantaneous top-of-atmosphere (TOA) shortwave aerosol radiative forcing (SWARF) is calculated for selected days over biomass-burning regions in South America. The visible and ...

Xiang Li; Sundar A. Christopher; Joyce Chou; Ronald M. Welch

2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Fossil Fuel and Biomass Burning Effect on ClimateHeating or Cooling?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Emission from burning of fossil fuels and biomass (associated with deforestation) generates a radiative forcing on the atmosphere and a possible climate chaw. Emitted trace gases heat the atmosphere through their greenhouse effect, while ...

Yoram J. Kaufman; Robert S. Fraser; Robert L. Mahoney

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

A Hypothetical Burning-Velocity Formula for Very Lean Hydrogen-Air Mixtures  

SciTech Connect

Very lean hydrogen-air mixtures experience strong diffusive-thermal types of cellular instabilities that tend to increase the laminar burning velocity above the value that applies to steady, planar laminar flames that are homogeneous in transverse directions. Flame balls constitute an extreme limit of evolution of cellular flames. To account qualitatively for the ultimate effect of diffusive-thermal instability, a model is proposed in which the flame is a steadily propagating, planar, hexagonal, close-packed array of flame balls, each burning as if it were an isolated, stationary, ideal flame ball in an infinite, quiescent atmosphere. An expression for the laminar burning velocity is derived from this model, which theoretically may provide an upper limit for the experimental burning velocity.

Williams, Forman; Williams, Forman A; Grcar, Joseph F

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

270

Contribution of garbage burning to chloride and PM[subscript 2.5] in Mexico City  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The contribution of garbage burning (GB) emissions to chloride and PM[subscript 2.5] in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) has been investigated for the period of 24 to 29 March during the MILAGRO-2006 campaign using ...

Li, G.

271

Effects of Moisture Released during Forest Burning on Fog Formation and Implications for Visibility  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Smoke from wildland burning in association with fog has been implicated as a visibility hazard over roadways in the United States. Visibilities at accident sites have been estimated in the range from 1 to 3 m (extinction coefficients between 1000 ...

Gary L. Achtemeier

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

In Situ Chemical Characterization of Aged Biomass-Burning Aerosols Impacting Cold Wave Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During the Ice in Clouds ExperimentLayer Clouds (ICE-L), aged biomass-burning particles were identified within two orographic wave cloud regions over Wyoming using single-particle mass spectrometry and electron microscopy. Using a suite of ...

Kerri A. Pratt; Andrew J. Heymsfield; Cynthia H. Twohy; Shane M. Murphy; Paul J. DeMott; James G. Hudson; R. Subramanian; Zhien Wang; John H. Seinfeld; Kimberly A. Prather

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Agricultural burning monitored for air pollutants in Imperial County; exposure reduction recommendations developed  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Handbook. Sacramento, CA. http://infohouse.p2ric.org/E-BAM Evaluation. Sacramento, CA. www.arb.ca.gov/carpa/Burning Methodology. Sacramento, CA. www.arb. ca.gov/ei/

Harnly, Martha; Naik-Patel, Kinnery; Wall, Stephen; Quintana, Penelope J. E.; Pon, Diamon; Wagner, Jeff

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Laminar burning velocities and flame instabilities of butanol isomers-air mixtures  

SciTech Connect

Laminar burning velocities and flame instabilities of the butanol-air premixed flames and its isomers are investigated using the spherically expanding flame with central ignition at initial temperature of 428 K and initial pressures of 0.10 MPa, 0.25 MPa, 0.50 MPa and 0.75 MPa. Laminar burning velocities and sensitivity factor of n-butanol-air mixtures are computed using a newly developed kinetic mechanism. Unstretched laminar burning velocity, adiabatic temperature, Lewis number, Markstein length, critical flame radius and Peclet number are obtained over a wide range of equivalence ratios. Effect of molecular structure on laminar burning velocity of the isomers of butanol is analyzed from the aspect of C-H bond dissociation energy. Study indicates that although adiabatic flame temperatures of the isomers of butanol are the same, laminar burning velocities give an obvious difference among the isomers of butanol. This indicates that molecular structure has a large influence on laminar burning velocities of the isomers of butanol. Branching (-CH3) will decrease laminar burning velocity. Hydroxyl functional group (-OH) attaching to the terminal carbon atoms gives higher laminar burning velocity compared to that attaching to the inner carbon atoms. Calculated dissociation bond energies show that terminal C-H bonds have larger bond energies than that of inner C-H bonds. n-Butanol, no branching and with hydroxyl functional group (-OH) attaching to the terminal carbon atom, gives the largest laminar burning velocity. tert-Butanol, with highly branching and hydroxyl functional group (-OH) attaching to the inner carbon atom, gives the lowest laminar burning velocity. Laminar burning velocities of iso-butanol and sec-butanol are between those of n-butanol and tert-butanol. The instant of transition to cellularity is experimentally determined for the isomers of butanol and subsequently interpreted on the basis of hydrodynamic and diffusion-thermal instabilities. Little effect on flame instability is observed for the isomers of butanol. Critical flame radii are the same for the isomers of butanol. Peclet number decreases with the increase in equivalence ratio. (author)

Gu, Xiaolei; Huang, Zuohua; Wu, Si; Li, Qianqian [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China)

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

275

Fire safety for your wood-burning appliance: tips for proper installation, operation, and maintenance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A dramatic increase in house fires caused by wood-burning appliances has accompanied the rediscovery of wood as an alternative heating fuel. The National Bureau of Standards attributed the majority of these fires to conditions related to the installation, operation or maintenance of the appliances rather than malfunctions or construction defects. This publication presents guidelines for the proper installation, use, and maintenance of wood-burning appliances in the home. (DMC)

Not Available

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

High Burn-Up Properties of the Fuel Variants Irradiated in IFA-649  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The "standard product" uranium dioxide (UO2) fuel pellet has remained unchanged for many years and provides excellent performance in all but the most extreme reactor operation. The requirement to prolong fuel residence in commercial reactors, thus increasing discharge levels of burn-up, has led to a need for detailed measurements of high burn-up properties under a variety of normal and off-normal conditions. The changes in fuel material properties, such as density and swelling, ...

2013-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

277

HOT BOTTOM BURNING IN INTERMEDIATE MASS STARS JOHN LATTANZIO 1;2 , CHERYL FROST 1;2 , ROBERT CANNON 2;3 , PETER WOOD 4  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

HOT BOTTOM BURNING IN INTERMEDIATE MASS STARS JOHN LATTANZIO 1;2 , CHERYL FROST 1;2 , ROBERT CANNON burning in the bottom of the convective envelope. We find strong CN cycling, with substantial Al include the recently discovered ``Hot Bottom Burning''. Hot Bottom Burning (hereafter HBB

Lattanzio, John

278

Journal of Fusion Energy, Vol. 20, No. 3, September 2001 ( 2002) Report of the FESAC Panel on a Burning Plasma Program  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on a Burning Plasma Program Strategy to Advance Fusion Energy Stewart Prager (Chair),1 Charles Baker,2 David a strategy for the study of burning fusion plasmas. Experimental study of a burning plasma has long been plasma state in the laboratory, uncover the new physics associated with the fusion burn, and develop

Najmabadi, Farrokh

279

Predicted effects of prescribed burning and harvesting on forest recovery and sustainability in southwest Georgia, USA  

SciTech Connect

A model-based analysis of the effect of prescribed burning and forest thinning or clear-cutting on stand recovery and sustainability was conducted at Fort Benning, GA, in the southeastern USA. Two experiments were performed with the model. In the first experiment, forest recovery from degraded soils was predicted for 100 years with or without prescribed burning. In the second experiment simulations began with 100 years of predicted stand growth, then forest sustainability was predicted for an additional 100 years under different combinations of prescribed burning and forest harvesting. Three levels of fire intensity (low, medium, and high), that corresponded to 17%, 33%, and 50% consumption of the forest floor C stock by fire, were evaluated at 1-, 2-, and 3-year fire return intervals. Relative to the control (no fire), prescribed burning with a 2- or 3-year return interval caused only a small reduction in predicted steady state soil C stocks ({le} 25%) and had no effect on steady state tree wood biomass, regardless of fire intensity. Annual high intensity burns did adversely impact forest recovery and sustainability (after harvesting) on less sandy soils, but not on more sandy soils that had greater N availability. Higher intensity and frequency of ground fires increased the chance that tree biomass would not return to pre-harvest levels. Soil N limitation was indicated as the cause of unsustainable forests when prescribed burns were too frequent or too intense to permit stand recovery.

Garten Jr, Charles T [ORNL

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Lessons learned from hydrogen generation and burning during the TMI-2 event  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This document summarizes what has been learned from generation of hydrogen in the reactor core and the hydrogen burn that occurred in the containment building of the Three Mile Island Unit No. 2 (TMI-2) nuclear power plant on March 28, 1979. During the TMI-2 loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA), a large quantity of hydrogen was generated by a zirconium-water reaction. The hydrogen burn that occurred 9 h and 50 min after the initiation of the TMI-2 accident went essentially unnoticed for the first few days. Even through the burn increased the containment gas temperature and pressure to 1200/sup 0/F (650/sup 0/C) and 29 lb/in/sup 2/ (200 kPa) gage, there was no serious threat to the containment building. The processes, rates, and quantities of hydrogen gas generated and removed during and following the LOCA are described in this report. In addition, the methods which were used to define the conditions that existed in the containment building before, during, and after the hydrogen burn are described. The results of data evaluations and engineering calculations are presented to show the pressure and temperature histories of the atmosphere in various containment segments during and after the burn. Material and equipment in reactor containment buildings can be protected from burn damage by the use of relatively simple enclosures or insulation.

Henrie, J.O.; Postma, A.K.

1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "a-area burning rubble" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Impacts of Nuclear Burning on Reviving Weak Shocks of Neutrino-Driven Supernova Explosions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We explore potential impacts of nuclear burning on assisting an onset of the neutrino-driven explosions of core-collapse supernovae. By changing the neutrino luminosity and its decay time to obtain parametric explosions in 1D and 2D models with or without a 13-isotope alpha network, we study how the inclusion of nuclear burning could affect the postbounce dynamics for four progenitor models. We find that the energy supply due to nuclear burning of infalling material behind the shock can energize the shock expansion especially for models that produce only marginal explosions in the absence of nuclear burning. These models enjoy the assistance from nuclear burning typically in the following two ways, whether the shock front passes through the silicon-rich layer, or later it touches to the oxygen-rich layer. Depending on the neutrino luminosity and its decay time, the explosion energy increases up to a few times 10^50 erg for models with nuclear burning compared to the corresponding models without. The differenc...

Nakamura, Ko; Kotake, Kei; Nishimura, Nobuya

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Modeling char oxidation behavior under Zone II burning conditions at elevated pressures  

SciTech Connect

For accurate modeling of the coal combustion process at elevated pressures, account must be made for variations in char-particle structure. As pressure is increased, particle swelling increases during the devolatilization of certain bituminous coals, yielding a variety of char-particle structures, from uniform high-density particles to thin-walled non-uniform low-density particles having large internal void volumes. Since under Zone II burning conditions the char conversion rate depends upon the accessibility of the internal surfaces, the char structure plays a key role in determining particle burnout times. In our approach to characterize the impact of char structure on particle burning rates, effectiveness factors appropriate for thin-walled cenospherical particles and thick-walled particles having a few large cavities are defined and related to the effectiveness factor for uniform high-density particles that have no large voids, only a random distribution of pores having a mean pore size in the sub-micron range. For the uniform case, the Thiele modulus approach is used to account for Zone 11 type burning in which internal burning is limited by the combined effects of pore diffusion and the intrinsic chemical reactivity of the carbonaceous material. In the paper, the impact of having a variety of char structures in a mix of particles burning under Zone II burning conditions is demonstrated.

Ma, L.Q.; Mitchell, R. [Stanford University, Stanford, CA (USA). High Temperature Gasdynamics Laboratory

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

283

Evolution of Massive Stars Up to the End of Central Oxygen Burning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a detailed study of the evolution of massive stars of masses 15, 20, 25 and 30 $\\msun$ assuming solar-like initial chemical composition. The stellar sequences were evolved through the advanced burning phases up to the end of core oxygen burning. We present a careful analysis of the physical characteristics of the stellar models. In particular, we investigate the effect of the still unsettled reaction $^{12}$C($\\alpha$,$\\gamma$)$^{16}$O on the advanced evolution by using recent compilations of this rate. We find that this rate has a significant impact on the evolution not only during the core helium burning phase, but also during the late burning phases, especially the shell carbon-burning. We have also considered the effect of different treatment of convective instability based on the Ledoux criterion in regions of varying molecular weight gradient during the hydrogen and helium burning phases. We compare our results with other investigations whenever available. Finally, our present study constitutes the basis of analyzing the nucleosynthesis processes in massive stars. In particular we will present a detail analysis of the {\\it s}-process in a forthcoming paper.

Mounib F. El Eid; Bradley S. Meyer; Lih-Sin The

2004-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

284

Carbon, water, and heat flux responses to experimental burning and drought  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon, water, and heat flux responses to experimental burning and drought Carbon, water, and heat flux responses to experimental burning and drought in a tallgrass prairie Title Carbon, water, and heat flux responses to experimental burning and drought in a tallgrass prairie Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2012 Authors Fischer, Marc L., Margaret S. Torn, David P. Billesbach, Geoffrey Doyle, Brian Northup, and Sebastien C. Biraud Journal Agricultural and Forest Meteorology Volume 166-167 Pagination 169-174 Keywords Carbon exchange, eddy covariance, Fire, Grassland, Prairie, Water stress Abstract Drought and fire are common disturbances to grassland ecosystems. We report two years of eddy covariance ecosystem-atmosphere fluxes and biometric variables measured in nearby burned and unburned pastures in the US Southern Great Plains. Over the course of the experiment, annual precipitation (∼600 mm yr-1) was lower than the long term mean (∼860 mm yr-1). Soil moisture decreased from productive conditions in March 2005 dry, unproductive conditions during the growing season starting in March 2006. Just prior to the burn in early March 2005, burned and unburned pastures contained 520 ± 60 and 360 ± 40 g C m-2 of total above ground biomass (AGB) and litter, respectively. The fire removed approximately 200 g C m-2 of litter and biomass. In the 2005 growing season following the burn, maximum green AGB was 450 ± 60 and 270 ± 40 g C m-2, with corresponding cumulative annual net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE) of -330 and -150 g C m-2 for the burned and unburned pastures, respectively. In contrast to NEE, cumulative mean sensible heat and water fluxes were approximately equal in both pastures during the growing season, suggesting either an increase in water use efficiency or a decrease in evaporation in the burned relative to the unburned pasture. In the 2006 growing season, dry conditions decreased carbon uptake and latent heat, and increased sensible heat fluxes. Peak AGB was reduced to 210 ± 30 g C m-2 and 140 ± 30 g C m-2 in the burned and unburned pastures, respectively, while NEE was near zero. These results suggest that the lack of precipitation was responsible for most of the interannual variation in carbon exchange for these un-irrigated prairie pastures.

285

Tailoring the plateau burning rates of composite propellants by the use of nanoscale additives  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Composite propellants are composed of a solid oxidizer that is mixed into a hydrocarbon binder that when polymerized results in a solid mass capable of self-sustained combustion after ignition. Plateau propellants exhibit burning rate curves that do not follow the typical linear relationship between burning rate and pressure when plotted on a log-log scale, and because of this deviation their burning behavior is classified as anomalous burning. It is not unusual for solid-particle additives to be added to propellants in order to enhance burning rate or other properties. However, the effect of nano-size solid additives in these propellants is not fully understood or agreed upon within the research community. The current project set out to explore what possible variables were creating this result and to explore new additives. This thesis contains a literature review chronicling the last half-century of research to better understand the mechanisms that govern anomalous burning and to shed light on current research into plateau and related propellants. In addition to the review, a series of experiments investigating the use of nanoscale TiO2-based additives in AP-HTPB composite propellants was performed. The baseline propellant consisted of either 70% or 80% monomodal AP (223 ?m) and 30% or 20% binder composed of IPDI-cured HTPB with Tepanol. Propellants burning rates were tested using a strand bomb between 500 and 2500 psi (34.0-170.1 atm). Analysis of the burning rate data shows that the crystal phase and synthesis method of the TiO2 additive are influential to plateau tailoring and to the apparent effectiveness of the additive in altering the burning rate of the composite propellant. Some of the discrepancy in the literature regarding the effectiveness of TiO2 as a tailoring additive may be due to differences in how the additive was produced. Doping the TiO2 with small amounts of metallic elements (Al, Fe, or Gd) showed additional effects on the burning rate that depend on the doping material and the amount of the dopant.

Stephens, Matthew Aaron

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

TAILORING THE PLATEAU BURNING RATES OF COMPOSITE PROPELLANTS BY THE USE OF NANOSCALE ADDITIVES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Composite propellants are composed of a solid oxidizer that is mixed into a hydrocarbon binder that when polymerized results in a solid mass capable of selfsustained combustion after ignition. Plateau propellants exhibit burning rate curves that do not follow the typical linear relationship between burning rate and pressure when plotted on a log-log scale, and because of this deviation their burning behavior is classified as anomalous burning. It is not unusual for solid-particle additives to be added to propellants in order to enhance burning rate or other properties. However, the effect of nano-size solid additives in these propellants is not fully understood or agreed upon within the research community. The current project set out to explore what possible variables were creating this result and to explore new additives. This thesis contains a literature review chronicling the last half-century of research to better understand the mechanisms that govern anomalous burning and to shed light on current research into plateau and related propellants. In addition to the review, a series of experiments investigating the use of nanoscale TiO2-based additives in AP-HTPB composite propellants was performed. The baseline propellant consisted of either 70% or 80% monomodal AP (223 ?m) and 30% or 20% binder composed of IPDI-cured HTPB with Tepanol. Propellants burning rates were tested using a strand bomb between 500 and 2500 psi (34.0-170.1 atm). Analysis of the burning rate data shows that the crystal phase and synthesis method of the TiO2 additive are influential to plateau tailoring and to the apparent effectiveness of the additive in altering the burning rate of the composite propellant. Some of the discrepancy in the literature regarding the effectiveness of TiO2 as a tailoring additive may be due to differences in how the additive was produced. Doping the TiO2 with small amounts of metallic elements (Al, Fe, or Gd) showed additional effects on the burning rate that depend on the doping material and the amount of the dopant.

Stephens, Matthew

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

U.S. Department of Energy Categorical Exclusion Determination Form  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Additional Characterization and Well Installations at the M-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility Additional Characterization and Well Installations at the M-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility Savannah River Site Aiken/Aiken/South Carolina Six wells will be drilled to depths ranging from approximately 100 to 200 feet to characterize the distal portion of the volatile organic compound (VOC) plume down-gradient of the A-Area Burning Rubble Pits/Miscellaneous Chemical Basin/Metals Burning Pit Operable Unit (ABRP/MCB/ MBP OU) airlift recirculation well system. The monitoring wells will be screened in the Upper or Lower Lost Lake Aquifer Zone (ULLAZ or LLLAZ). B3.1 - Site characterization and environmental monitoring Andrew R. Grainger Digitally signed by Andrew R. Grainger DN: cn=Andrew R. Grainger, o=DOE-SR, ou=EQMD, email=drew.grainger@srs.gov, c=US

288

CX-010313: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

3: Categorical Exclusion Determination 3: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-010313: Categorical Exclusion Determination Additional Characterization and Well Installations at the M-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility CX(s) Applied: B3.1 Date: 04/25/2013 Location(s): South Carolina Offices(s): Savannah River Operations Office Six wells will be drilled to depths ranging from approximately 100 to 200 feet to characterize the distal portion of the volatile organic compound (VOC) plume down-gradient of the A-Area Burning Rubble Pits/Miscellaneous Chemical Basin/Metals Burning Pit Operable Unit (ABRP/MCB/MBP OU) airlift recirculation well system. CX-010313.pdf More Documents & Publications CX-009066: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-010140: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-009110

289

U.S. Department of Energy Categorical Exclusion Determination Form  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Additional Characterization and Well Installations at the M-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility Additional Characterization and Well Installations at the M-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility Savannah River Site Aiken/Aiken/South Carolina Six wells will be drilled to depths ranging from approximately 100 to 200 feet to characterize the distal portion of the volatile organic compound (VOC) plume down-gradient of the A-Area Burning Rubble Pits/Miscellaneous Chemical Basin/Metals Burning Pit Operable Unit (ABRP/MCB/ MBP OU) airlift recirculation well system. The monitoring wells will be screened in the Upper or Lower Lost Lake Aquifer Zone (ULLAZ or LLLAZ). B3.1 - Site characterization and environmental monitoring Andrew R. Grainger Digitally signed by Andrew R. Grainger DN: cn=Andrew R. Grainger, o=DOE-SR, ou=EQMD, email=drew.grainger@srs.gov, c=US

290

Systematic approach to verification and validation: High explosive burn models  

SciTech Connect

Most material models used in numerical simulations are based on heuristics and empirically calibrated to experimental data. For a specific model, key questions are determining its domain of applicability and assessing its relative merits compared to other models. Answering these questions should be a part of model verification and validation (V and V). Here, we focus on V and V of high explosive models. Typically, model developers implemented their model in their own hydro code and use different sets of experiments to calibrate model parameters. Rarely can one find in the literature simulation results for different models of the same experiment. Consequently, it is difficult to assess objectively the relative merits of different models. This situation results in part from the fact that experimental data is scattered through the literature (articles in journals and conference proceedings) and that the printed literature does not allow the reader to obtain data from a figure in electronic form needed to make detailed comparisons among experiments and simulations. In addition, it is very time consuming to set up and run simulations to compare different models over sufficiently many experiments to cover the range of phenomena of interest. The first difficulty could be overcome if the research community were to support an online web based database. The second difficulty can be greatly reduced by automating procedures to set up and run simulations of similar types of experiments. Moreover, automated testing would be greatly facilitated if the data files obtained from a database were in a standard format that contained key experimental parameters as meta-data in a header to the data file. To illustrate our approach to V and V, we have developed a high explosive database (HED) at LANL. It now contains a large number of shock initiation experiments. Utilizing the header information in a data file from HED, we have written scripts to generate an input file for a hydro code, run a simulation, and generate a comparison plot showing simulated and experimental velocity gauge data. These scripts are then applied to several series of experiments and to several HE burn models. The same systematic approach is applicable to other types of material models; for example, equations of state models and material strength models.

Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Scovel, Christina A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

291

Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service Procedures 24.01.01.X0.09 Outdoor Burning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service Procedures 24.01.01.X0.09 Outdoor Burning Approved: October 5 Review: August 27, 2014 Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service Procedure 24.01.01.X0.09 Outdoor Burning burning (30 TAC 111.201-221).Those units located on the Texas A&M University campus will follow the Open

292

The short-term impacts of burning and mowing on prairie ant communities of the Oak Openings Region.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Controlled burning and mowing are among the most common forms of disturbance in prairie grasslands. Extensive studies on vegetative responses to fire, grazing, and mowing (more)

Friedrich, Russell L.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Sizing and burn time measurements of micron-sized metal powders  

SciTech Connect

Detailed ignition and combustion mechanisms are needed to develop optimized propellant and energetic formulations using micron-sized metal powders, such as aluminum. Combustion researchers have traditionally used relatively coarse metal particles to characterize the burn time dependence on particle size. However, measurements of burn times for particles below 10 {mu}m in diameter are still needed for aluminum powders and other metal fuels. The apparatus described here sizes the particles just before the ignition event, providing a direct correlation between individual particle size and its burn time. Two lasers were utilized: a 785 nm laser diode for sizing the particles and a 125 W CO{sub 2} laser for particle ignition. The particles crossed the 785 nm laser beam just before crossing the CO{sub 2} laser beam. The particle size was determined from the amplitude of the scattered 785 nm light pulse. The burn time was determined from the duration of the visible light emission produced from the ignited particle. The in situ measured particle size distributions compared well with the size distributions measured for the same powders by a commercial instrument using low angle laser light scattering. Our measurements with two nominally spherical aluminum powders, suggest that the burn times increase from 0.5 to {approx}2.5 ms as the particle diameters increase from 3 to 8 {mu}m.

Gill, Robert J.; Mohan, Salil; Dreizin, Edward L. [New Jersey Institute of Technology Newark, New Jersey 07102 (United States)

2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

294

Plastic packaging and burn-in effects on ionizing dose response in CMOS microcircuits  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Results are reported from an investigation of the effects of packaging and burn-in on the post-irradiation performance of National Semiconductor 54AC02 Quad 2-input NOR gates. The test population was drawn from a single wafer fabricated in the National process qualified under Mil-Prf-38535 to an ionizing radiation hardness of 100 krads(Si). The test sample was divided between plastic and ceramic packages. Additionally, half of the plastic samples and half of the two ceramic samples received a 168 hour/125 C burn-in. Two irradiation schemes were used. The first followed Mil-Std-883 Method 1019.4 (dose rate = 50 rads(Si)/s). The second used a low dose rate (0.1 rads(Si)/s). AC, DC, transfer function and functional behavior were monitored throughout the tests. Significant differences among the package types and burn-in variations were noted with the plastic, burned-in components demonstrating enhanced degradation. They show the worst post-irradiation parameter values as well as very broad post-irradiation parameter distributions. Degradation is highly dependent upon dose rate and anneal conditions. Two different radiation induced leakage paths have been identified, and their characteristics have been correlated to variations in high dose rate and low dose rate circuit performance. Caution is recommended for system developers to ensure that radiation hardness characterization is performed for the same package/burn-in configuration to be used in the system.

Clark, S.D.; Bings, J.P. [Naval Surface Warfare Center, Crane, IN (United States). Crane Div.; Maher, M.C.; Williams, M.K.; Alexander, D.R.; Pease, R.L.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Method and apparatus for controlling fuel/air mixture in a lean burn engine  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The system for controlling the fuel/air mixture supplied to a lean burn engine when operating on natural gas, gasoline, hydrogen, alcohol, propane, butane, diesel or any other fuel as desired. As specific humidity of air supplied to the lean burn engine increases, the oxygen concentration of exhaust gas discharged by the engine for a given equivalence ratio will decrease. Closed loop fuel control systems typically attempt to maintain a constant exhaust gas oxygen concentration. Therefore, the decrease in the exhaust gas oxygen concentration resulting from increased specific humidity will often be improperly attributed to an excessive supply of fuel and the control system will incorrectly reduce the amount of fuel supplied to the engine. Also, the minimum fuel/air equivalence ratio for a lean burn engine to avoid misfiring will increase as specific humidity increases. A relative humidity sensor to allow the control system to provide a more enriched fuel/air mixture at high specific humidity levels. The level of specific humidity may be used to compensate an output signal from a universal exhaust gas oxygen sensor for changing oxygen concentrations at a desired equivalence ratio due to variation in specific humidity specific humidity. As a result, the control system will maintain the desired efficiency, low exhaust emissions and power level for the associated lean burn engine regardless of the specific humidity level of intake air supplied to the lean burn engine.

Kubesh, John Thomas (San Antonio, TX); Dodge, Lee Gene (San Antonio, TX); Podnar, Daniel James (San Antonio, TX)

1998-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

296

Molecular Characterization of Nitrogen Containing Organic Compounds in Biomass Burning Aerosols Using High Resolution Mass Spectrometry  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Although nitrogen-containing organic compounds (NOC) are important components of atmospheric aerosols, little is known about their chemical compositions. Here we present detailed characterization of the NOC constituents of biomass burning aerosol (BBA) samples using high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI/MS). Accurate mass measurements combined with MS/MS fragmentation experiments of selected ions were used to assign molecular structures to individual NOC species. Our results indicate that N-heterocyclic alkaloid compounds - species naturally produced by plants and living organisms - comprise a substantial fraction of NOC in BBA samples collected from test burns of five biomass fuels. High abundance of alkaloids in test burns of ponderosa pine - a widespread tree in the western U.S. areas frequently affected by large scale fires - suggests that N-heterocyclic alkaloids in BBA can play a significant role in dry and wet deposition of fixed nitrogen in this region.

Laskin, Alexander; Smith, Jeffrey S.; Laskin, Julia

2009-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

297

Dredge-up and envelope burning in intermediate mass giants of very low metallicity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(abbreviated) The evolution of intermediate mass stars at very low metallicity during their final thermal pulse asymptotic giant branch phase is studied in detail. As representative examples models with initial masses of 4Msun and 5Msun with a metallicity of Z=0.0001 ([Fe/H] ~ -2.3) are discussed. The 1D stellar structure and evolution model includes time- and depth dependent overshooting motivated by hydrodynamical simulations, as well as a full nuclear network and time-dependent mixing. Particular attention is given to high time and space resolution to avoid numerical artefacts related to third dredge-up and hot-bottom burning predictions. The model calculations predict very efficient third dredge-up which mixes the envelope with the entire intershell layer or a large fraction thereof, and in some cases penetrates into the C/O core below the He-shell. In all cases primary oxygen is mixed into the envelope. The models predict efficient envelope burning during the interpulse phase. Depending on the envelope burning temperature, oxygen is destroyed to varying degrees. The combined effect of dredge-up and envelope burning does not lead to any significant oxygen depletion in any of the cases considered in this study. The large dredge-up efficiency in our model is closely related to the particular properties of the H-shell during the dredge-up phase in low-metallicity very metal poor stars, which is followed here over many thermal pulses. During the dredge-up phase, the temperature just below the convective boundary is large enough for protons to burn vigorously when they are brought into the C-rich environment below the convection boundary by the time- and depth dependent overshooting. H-burning luminosities of 10^5 to ~2* 10^6L_sun are generated. [...

Falk Herwig

2003-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

298

Data integrity review of Three Mile Island Unit 2. Hydrogen burn data. Volume 3  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

About 10 hours after the March 28, 1979 loss-of-coolant accident began at Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2), a hydrogen burn occurred inside the Reactor Building. This report reviews and presents data from 16 channels of resistance temperature detectors (RTDs), 2 steam generator pressure transmitters, 16 Reactor Building pressure switches, 2 channels of Reactor Building pressure measurements, and measurements of Reactor Building hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen concentrations with regard to their usefulness for determining the extent of the burn and the resulting pressure and temperature excursions inside the building.

Jacoby, J.K.; Nelson, R.A.; Nalezny, C.L.; Averill, R.H.

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Workshop (W60) on "Burning Plasma Physics and Simulation" 4-5 July 2005, University Campus, Tarragona, Spain  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Workshop will concentrate on burning plasma research in the areas of Plasma Transport and Confinement, MHD plasma research; · identify the need for further research; and · propose a road map for burning plasma research. Venue, Dates and Accommodation The Workshop will take place in University Campus, Tarragona

300

1 Characterization of carbonaceous aerosols outflow from India and 2 Arabia: Biomass/biofuel burning and fossil fuel combustion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Characterization of carbonaceous aerosols outflow from India and 2 Arabia: Biomass/biofuel tracer for biomass/biofuel burning, 16 number concentration of submicrometer carbon-containing particles and biomass/biofuel 22 burning are subject to long-range transport, thereby contributing to anthropogenic 23

Dickerson, Russell R.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "a-area burning rubble" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Evaluation of the carbon content of aerosols from the burn- ing of biomass in the Brazilian Amazon using thermal, op- tical and thermal-optical analysis methods  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Tar Balls from Smoldering Biomass Combustion. Atmos. Chem.gases and particles from biomass burning in Brazil, J. Ge-for smoke from African biomass burning, J. Geophys. Res. ,

Soto-Garcia, Lydia L.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Association between severity of prescribed burns and subsequent activity of conifer-infesting beetles in stands of longleaf pine  

SciTech Connect

A randomized complete block experiment was performed to measure the effect of prescribed, dormant-season burns of three different levels of severity (measured as fuel consumption and soil surface heating) on subsequent insect infestation and mortality of mature longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.). Multiple-funnel traps baited with a low release rate of turpentine and ethanol were used to monitor activity of certain coniferophagous beetles. Non-aggressive species, including the root beetles Hylastes salebrosus Eichhoff and H. tenuis Eichhoff, the ambrosia beetle Xyleborus pubescens Zimmermann, the reproduction weevil Pachylobius picivorus (Germar), and buprestid borers, were attracted to burned plots in numbers that correlated positively with burn severity. Beetle attraction to burned sites was greatest in the first weeks post-burn and disappeared by the second year. Two potential tree-killing bark beetles, Dendroctonus terebrans (Olivier) and Ips grandicollis (Eichhoff), were trapped in significant numbers but exhibited no attraction to burned plots. Tree mortality correlated significantly with the severity of the burns and amounted to 5% of stems in the hottest burn treatment after 3 years. The majority of the mortality was observed in the second and third years post-burn. Attacks of Ips and Dendroctonus bark beetles were apparent on nearly all dead or dying trees, and evidence suggested that root pathogens may have contributed to tree susceptibility to beetle attack and mortality. Our data indicate that selection of burn regimes that reduce or eliminate consumption of duff (e.g., favoring heading fires over backing fires) could significantly reduce mortality of longleaf pine managed for long rotations Published by Elsevier B.V.

Sullivan, Brian, T; Fettig, C. J.; Otrosina, William, J.; Dalusky, Mark, J.; Berrisford, C.W.

2003-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

303

Deuterium isotope effects during HMX combustion: Chemical kinetic burn-rate control mechanism verified  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The appearance of a significant deuterium isotope effect during the combustion of the solid HMX compound verifies that the chemical reaction kinetics is a major contributor in determining the experimentally observed or global burn rate. Burn rate comparison of HMX and its deuterium labeled HMX-d(8) analogue reveals a primary kinetic deuterium isotope effect (1 deg. KDIE) at 500 psig (3.55 MPa) and 1000 psig (6.99 MPa) pressure and selectively identifies covalent carbon-hydrogen bond rupture as the mechanistic step which ultimately controls the further HMX burn rate under the static combustion conditions of this experiment. The 1 deg. KDIE value further suggests the rate-limiting C-H bond rupture occurs during the solid state HMX decomposition/deflagration portion of the overall combustion event and is supported by other independently published studies. A possible anomalous KDIE result at 1500 psig (10.4 MPa) is addressed. This condensed phase KDIE approach illustrates a direct link between lower temperature/pressure thermal decomposition and deflagration processes and their potential applicability to the combustion regime. Most importantly, a new general method is demonstrated for mechanistic combustion investigations which selectively permits an in-situ identification of the compound's burn rate-controlling step.

Shackelford, S.A.; Goshgarian, B.B.; Chapman, R.D.; Askins, R.E.; Flanigan, D.A.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Prioritizing Burn-Injured Patients During a Disaster Carri W. Chan, Linda V. Green, Yina Lu  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

York City, this corresponds to 400 patients. There are currently 140 burn beds in the region which can on September 11, 2001, the US government initiated the development of disaster plans for resource allocation, Bravata et al. 2006). In the event of a nuclear attack, guidance is needed on whether people should

Chan, Carri W.

305

Remote sensing approaches for reconstructing fire perimeters and burn severity mosaics in desert spring ecosystems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Remote sensing approaches for reconstructing fire perimeters and burn severity mosaics in desert. Remote sensing methods have been used in other environments to gain information about fires that have reported sizes of less than one hectare. Additional refinement of remote sensing methods is necessary

Weisberg, Peter J.

306

Intra-Arterial Calcium Gluconate Treatment After Hydrofluoric Acid Burn of the Hand  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hydrofluoric acid (HF) is a colorless corrosive acid used in different industrial branches. Exposure to HF typically results from spills, and most often the hand or fingers are involved. Tissue damage through cutaneous HF exposure occurs through corrosive burns due to the free hydrogen ions and through skin penetration of the fluoride ions, causing a depletion of calcium in the deep tissue layers, ultimately leading to cell death and tissue necrosis. Treatment of HF burns consists of thoroughly flushing the exposed area with water and applying calcium gluconate gel to the skin. If topical treatment does not suffice, subcutaneous injections, as well as intravascular-both intravenous and intra-arterial-calcium gluconate therapy, have been advocated. We report for the first time a case of HF burn of the hand and digits associated with vasospasm. Pain and vasospasm were successfully treated by repeated intra-arterial calcium gluconate injection. We conclude that intra-arterial calcium gluconate injection is a successful and well-tolerated therapy for HF burn associated with Raynaud's syndrome. Intra-arterial injection allows for well-controlled delivery of therapy as well as assessment of the vascular status.

Thomas, D., E-mail: daniel.thomas@ukb.uni-bonn.de; Jaeger, U. [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik, Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Sagoschen, I. [Klinikum der Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet, Poison Control Center, Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik II (Germany); Lamberti, C. [Universitaet Bonn, Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik I (Germany); Wilhelm, K. [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik, Universitaet Bonn (Germany)

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

307

Excited state structure, energy and electron transfer dynamics of photosynthetic reaction centers: A hole burning study  

SciTech Connect

The excited state structure, early time energy and electron transfer dynamics for bacterial photosynthetic reaction center of Rhodoseudomonas viridis, Rhodobacter sphaeroides and green plant photosynthetic reaction center of Photosystem 2 (PS 2) have been determined by hole burning spectroscopy. Transient hole burned spectra of the bacterial reaction centers reveal a special pair Franck-Condon marker mode progression with a superimposed zero phonon hole. Such progression is found to be absent in green plant Photosystem 2 which raises the question of structural similarities between the PS 2 and bacterial reaction centers. The excited state decay times are obtained for all systems and found to be consistent with time domain experiments. Similar temperature dependence of the decay kinetics have been observed for both bacterial and PS 2 reaction centers. Study of different preparations of reaction center of Photosystem 2 utilizing hole burning spectroscopy indicates that Triton X-100 detergent significantly affect the absorption and persistent hole burned spectra and disrupts the energy transfer from the accessory chlorophyll to the active pheophytin. The comparison between the bacterial reaction centers and Photosystem 2 has been presented and discussed in order to understand the difference in their early time dynamics and the excited state structure. A theoretical model has been developed based on the principle of linear electron-phonon coupling and imhomogeneous broadening. Our experimental results are found to be in good agreement with the theoretical calculations. 335 refs., 43 figs.

Tang, De-Ming.

1991-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

308

Mechanisms for enhanced packaging and/or burn-in total dose sensitivity in microelectronics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ionizing radiation response of several semiconductor process technologies has been shown to be enhanced by plastic packaging and/or pre-conditioning (burn-in). Potential mechanisms for this effect are discussed and data on bipolar linear circuits are presented.

Pease, R.L.; Shaneyfelt, M.; Winokur, P. [and others

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Yield ResponsZs to Time of Burning in the Kansas Flint Hills1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Yield ResponsZs to Time of Burning in the Kansas Flint Hills1 CLENTON E. OWENSBY and KLING L Agricultural Experiment Station, Manhattan. Grazing managem,ent in the Kansas Flint Hills has tradition- ally, about 58 inches annually in central Louisiana and about 32 inches in the Flint Hills. Mc

Owensby, Clenton E.

310

Exposing the Nuclear Burning Ashes of Radius Expansion Type I X-ray Bursts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We solve for the evolution of the vertical extent of the convective region of a neutron star atmosphere during a Type I X-ray burst. The convective region is well-mixed with ashes of nuclear burning and its extent determines the rise time of the burst light curve. Using a full nuclear reaction network, we show that the maximum vertical extent of the convective region during photospheric radius expansion (RE) bursts can be sufficiently great that: (1) some ashes of burning are ejected by the radiation driven wind during the RE phase and, (2) some ashes of burning are exposed at the neutron star surface following the RE phase. We find that ashes with mass number A ~ 30 - 60 are mixed in with the ejected material. We calculate the expected column density of ejected and surface ashes in hydrogen-like states and determine the equivalent widths of the resulting photoionization edges from both the wind and neutron star surface. We find that these can exceed 100 eV and are potentially detectable. A detection would probe the nuclear burning processes and might enable a measurement of the neutron star gravitational redshift. In addition, we find that in bursts with pure helium burning layers, protons from (alpha, p) reactions cause a rapid onset of the 12C(p, gamma)13N(alpha, p)16O reaction sequence. The sequence bypasses the relatively slow 12C(alpha, gamma)16O reaction and leads to a sudden surge in energy production that is directly observable as a rapid (~ ms) increase in flux during burst rise.

Nevin N. Weinberg; Lars Bildsten; Hendrik Schatz

2005-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

311

The relationships between biomass burning, land-cover/use change, and the distribution of carbonaceous aerosols in mainland Southeast Asia: A review and synthesis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 The relationships between biomass burning, land-cover/use change, and the distribution. 793, The Ohio State University March 3, 2007 Biomass burning is a major source of black carbon directly and indirectly. Uncertainty regarding the contribution of biomass burning to the concentration

Shi, Tao

312

Infrared Hole Burning and Conformational Change in a Borane-Ammonia Complex Christopher A. Endicott, Herbert L. Strauss,* Chambers C. Hughes, and Dirk Trauner  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Infrared Hole Burning and Conformational Change in a Borane-Ammonia Complex Christopher A. Endicott)-borane containing one D atom has been examined. The N-D bands have been hole burned, and the resulting spectra hole burning on the N-D bands of a MOM complex in which the NH3 had been monosubstituted

Trauner, Dirk

313

Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 371, 13221326 (2006) doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2006.10753.x Pycnonuclear burning of 34  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

burning of 34 Ne in accreting neutron stars D. G. Yakovlev,1,2 L. Gasques2 and M. Wiescher2 1Ioffe Physico 28. Received 2006 June 24; in original form 2006 May 6 ABSTRACT We study the pycnonuclear burning. We argue that the theoretical time-scale for 34 Ne burning is currently very uncertain and ranges

314

57USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-158. 1995. Abstract: Despite a quarter of a century of prescribed burning by  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of prescribed burning by the National Park Service (NPS) in California, there is reason to believe that the fuels situation is getting worse rather than better. The area burned in the past 10 years has declined by 42 percent compared to the previous 10 years. The total area burned per year from wildfire

Standiford, Richard B.

315

Laboratory-Scale Burning and Characterizing of Composite Solid Propellant for Studying Novel Nanoparticle Synthesis Methods  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis examines the effects of nanoparticle, metal-oxide additives on the burning rate of composite solid propellants. Recent advancements in chemical synthesis techniques have allowed for the production of improved solid rocket propellant nano-scale additives. These additives show larger burning rate increases in composite propellants compared to previous additive generations. In addition to improving additive effectiveness, novel synthesis methods can improve manufacturability, reduce safety risks, and maximize energy efficiency of nano-scale burning rate enhancers. Several different nano-sized additives, each titania-based, were tested and compared for the same baseline AP/HTPB formulas and AP size distributions. The various methods demonstrate the evolution in our methods from spray-dried powders to pre-mixing the additive in the HTPB binder, and finally to a method of producing the additive directly in the binder as a nano-assembly. Burning rate increases as high as 80% at additive mass loadings of less than 0.5% were seen in non-aluminized, ammonium perchlorate-based propellants over the pressure spectrum of 500 psi (3.5 MPa) to 2250 psi (15.5 MPa). Increases in burning rate up to 73% were seen in similarly formulated aluminized propellants. During the past several years, the research team has refined laboratory-scale techniques for quickly and reliably assessing the mixing and performance of composite propellants with catalytic nanoparticle additives. This thesis also documents some of the details related to repeatability, accuracy, and realism of the methods used in the teams recent nano-additive research; it also introduces the latest techniques for producing propellants with nano-sized additives and provides new burning rate results for the entire scope of additives and mixing methods. Details on the propellant characterization methods with regard to physical and combustion properties are provided. Snapshots from atmospheric propellant combustion videos taken with a Photron FASTCAM SA3 high-speed camera are included along with existing pressure and light-emission responses.

Allen, Tyler Winston

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

CFD MODELING AND ANALYSIS FOR A-AREA AND H-AREA COOLING TOWERS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mechanical draft cooling towers are designed to cool process water via sensible and latent heat transfer to air. Heat and mass transfer take place simultaneously. Heat is transferred as sensible heat due to the temperature difference between liquid and gas phases, and as the latent heat of the water as it evaporates. Mass of water vapor is transferred due to the difference between the vapor pressure at the air-liquid interface and the partial pressure of water vapor in the bulk of the air. Equations to govern these phenomena are discussed here. The governing equations are solved by taking a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach. The purpose of the work is to develop a three-dimensional CFD model to evaluate the flow patterns inside the cooling tower cell driven by cooling fan and wind, considering the cooling fans to be on or off. Two types of the cooling towers are considered here. One is cross-flow type cooling tower located in A-Area, and the other is counterflow type cooling tower located in H-Area. The cooling tower located in A-Area is mechanical draft cooling tower (MDCT) consisting of four compartment cells as shown in Fig. 1. It is 13.7m wide, 36.8m long, and 9.4m high. Each cell has its own cooling fan and shroud without any flow communications between two adjacent cells. There are water distribution decks on both sides of the fan shroud. The deck floor has an array of about 25mm size holes through which water droplet falls into the cell region cooled by the ambient air driven by fan and wind, and it is eventually collected in basin area. As shown in Fig. 1, about 0.15-m thick drift eliminator allows ambient air to be humidified through the evaporative cooling process without entrainment of water droplets into the shroud exit. The H-Area cooling tower is about 7.3 m wide, 29.3 m long, and 9.0 m high. Each cell has its own cooling fan and shroud, but each of two corner cells has two panels to shield wind at the bottom of the cells. There is some degree of flow communications between adjacent cells through the 9-in gap at the bottom of the tower cells as shown in Fig. 2. Detailed geometrical dimensions for the H-Area tower configurations are presented in the figure. The model was benchmarked and verified against off-site and on-site test results. The verified model was applied to the investigation of cooling fan and wind effects on water cooling in cells when fans are off and on. This report will discuss the modeling and test results.

Lee, S.; Garrett, A.; Bollinger, J.

2009-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

317

Final Project Report INERT-MATRIX FUEL: ACTINIDE "BURNING" AND DIRECT DISPOSAL  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Project Report Project Report INERT-MATRIX FUEL: ACTINIDE "BURNING" AND DIRECT DISPOSAL Nuclear Engineering Education Research Program (grant # DE-FG07-99ID13767) Rodney C. Ewing (co-PI) Lumin Wang (co-PI) October 30,2002 For the Period of 07/01/1999 to 06/30/2002 Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences University of Michigan Ann Arbor, MI 48109 1 1. Background Excess actinides result from the dismantlement of nuclear weapons (239Pu) and the reprocessing of commercial spent nuclear fuel (mainly 241Am, Cm and 237Np). In Europe, Canada and Japan studies have determined much improved efficiencies for burn- up of actinides using inert-matrix fuels. This innovative approach also considers the properties of the inert-matrix fuel as a nuclear waste form for direct disposal after one-

318

Analysis of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 hydrogen burn. Volume 4  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As a basis for the analysis of the hydrogen burn which occurred in the Three Mile Island Containment on March 28, 1979, a study of recorded temperatures and pressures was made. Long-term temperature information was obtained from the multipoint temperature recorder which shows 12 containment atmosphere temperatures plotted every 6 min. The containment atmosphere pressure recorder provided excellent long- and short-term pressure information. Short-term information was obtained from the multiplex record of 24 channels of data, recorded every 3 sec, and the alarm printer record which shows status change events and prints out temperatures, pressures, and the time of the events. The timing of these four data recording systems was correlated and pertinent data were tabulated, analyzed, and plotted to show average containment temperature and pressure versus time. Photographs and videotapes of the containment entries provided qualitative burn information.

Henrie, J.O.; Postma, A.K.

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Plasma-wall interaction data needs critical to a Burning Core Experiment (BCX)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Division of Development and Technology has sponsored a four day US-Japan workshop ''Plasma-Wall Interaction Data Needs Critical to a Burning Core Experiment (BCX)'', held at Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California on June 24 to 27, 1985. The workshop, which brought together fifty scientists and engineers from the United States, Japan, Germany, and Canada, considered the plasma-material interaction and high heat flux (PMI/HHF) issues for the next generation of magnetic fusion energy devices, the Burning Core Experiment (BCX). Materials options were ranked, and a strategy for future PMI/HHF research was formulated. The foundation for international collaboration and coordination of this research was also established. This volume contains the last three of the five technical sessions. The first of the three is on plasma materials interaction issues, the second is on research facilities and the third is from smaller working group meetings on graphite, beryllium, advanced materials and future collaborations.

Not Available

1985-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Influence of gas compression on flame acceleration in the early stage of burning in tubes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The mechanism of finger flame acceleration at the early stage of burning in tubes has been observed experimentally by Clanet and Searby [Combust. Flame 105: 225 (1996)] for slow propane-air flames, and elucidated analytically and computationally by Bychkov et al. [Combust. Flame 150: 263 (2007)] in the limit of an incompressible flow. We analytically, experimentally and computationally study herein the finger flame acceleration for fast burning flames, when the gas compressibility assumes an important role. Specifically, we have developed a theory through small Mach number expansion up to the first-order terms, demonstrating that gas compression reduces the acceleration rate and thereby moderates the finger flame acceleration noticeably. We have also conducted experiments for hydrogen-oxygen mixtures with considerable initial values of the Mach number, showing finger flame acceleration with the acceleration rate much smaller than those obtained previously for hydrocarbon flames. Furthermore, we have performed...

Valiev, Damir; Kuznetsov, Mikhail; Eriksson, Lars-Erik; Law, Chung K; Bychkov, Vitaly

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "a-area burning rubble" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

K Basins floor sludge retrieval system knockout pot basket fuel burn accident  

SciTech Connect

The K Basins Sludge Retrieval System Preliminary Hazard Analysis Report (HNF-2676) identified and categorized a series of potential accidents associated with K Basins Sludge Retrieval System design and operation. The fuel burn accident was of concern with respect to the potential release of contamination resulting from a runaway chemical reaction of the uranium fuel in a knockout pot basket suspended in the air. The unmitigated radiological dose to an offsite receptor from this fuel burn accident is calculated to be much less than the offsite risk evaluation guidelines for anticipated events. However, because of potential radiation exposure to the facility worker, this accident is precluded with a safety significant lifting device that will prevent the monorail hoist from lifting the knockout pot basket out of the K Basin water pool.

HUNT, J.W.

1998-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

322

MA Transmutation Performance Simulation and Accompanied Burning-up Analysis for C-ADS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An accelerator-driven subcritical reactor functions well in incinerating high-level radiotoxic waste (HLW) as well as providing energy. China is on his way to establish such a facility to transmutate the annual 1000 tons of HLW. A neutronic analysis has been performed for a reference core with a special task of burning minor actinides 237Np, 241Am, 243Am and 244Cm. Instant operation parameters are determined, including neutron energy spectra, thermal power distribution and transmutation validation. Burning-up analysis is carried out to further confirm the incineration efficiency. The core parameters optimized in this work will be applied to simulate in-core fuel behavior in future research.

Ji-Lang Miao; Zi-Chen Zhao; Zhen-Qi Chang

2012-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

323

One-dimensional thermonuclear burn computations for the Reversed-Field Pinch Reactor (RFPR)  

SciTech Connect

Conceptual fusion reactor designs of the Reversed-Field Pinch Reactor (RFPR) have been based on profile-averaged zero-dimensional (point) plasma models. The plasma response/performance that has been predicted by the point plasma model is re-examined by a comprehensive one-dimensional (radial) burn code (RFPBRN) that has been developed and parametrically evaluated for the RFPR. The RFPR plasma parameters have been optimized and effects of turbulent transport and stability have been studied.

Nebel, R.A.; Miley, G.H.; Moses, R.W.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

The importance of the toroidal magnetic field for the feasibility of a tokamak burning plasma experiment  

SciTech Connect

The next step in the demonstration of the scientific feasibility of a tokamak fusion reactor is a DT burning plasma experiment for the study and control of self-heated plasmas. In this paper, the authors examine the role of the toroidal magnetic field on the confinement of a tokamak plasma in the ELMy H-mode regime--the operational regime foreseen for ITER.

Mazzucato, E.

2000-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

325

Process for clean-burning fuel from low-rank coal  

SciTech Connect

A process for upgrading and stabilizing low-rank coal involving the sequential processing of the coal through three fluidized beds; first a dryer, then a pyrolyzer, and finally a cooler. The fluidizing gas for the cooler is the exit gas from the pyrolyzer with the addition of water for cooling. Overhead gas from pyrolyzing is likely burned to furnish the energy for the process. The product coal exits with a tar-like pitch sealant to enhance its safety during storage.

Merriam, Norman W. (Laramie, WY); Sethi, Vijay (Laramie, WY); Brecher, Lee E. (Laramie, WY)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Fly Ash Carbon Burn-Out at TVA's Colbert and Shawnee Stations: Site Specific Application Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fly ash beneficiation using Carbon Burn-Out (CBO) technology offers the opportunity to market fly ash that was previously landfilled. This site application study of beneficiating pulverized coal boiler fly ash at Tennessee Valley Authority's Colbert and Shawnee Stations indicates this process is a cost effective solution for decreasing solid waste disposal, increasing landfill life, improving boiler heat rate, and generating a positive revenue stream.

1996-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

327

The role of actinide burning and the Integral Fast Reactor in the future of nuclear power  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A preliminary assessment is made of the potential role of actinide burning and the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) in the future of nuclear power. The development of a usable actinide burning strategy could be an important factor in the acceptance and implementation of a next generation of nuclear power. First, the need for nuclear generating capacity is established through the analysis of energy and electricity demand forecasting models which cover the spectrum of bias from anti-nuclear to pro-nuclear. The analyses take into account the issues of global warming and the potential for technological advances in energy efficiency. We conclude, as do many others, that there will almost certainly be a need for substantial nuclear power capacity in the 2000--2030 time frame. We point out also that any reprocessing scheme will open up proliferation-related questions which can only be assessed in very specific contexts. The focus of this report is on the fuel cycle impacts of actinide burning. Scenarios are developed for the deployment of future nuclear generating capacity which exploit the advantages of actinide partitioning and actinide burning. Three alternative reactor designs are utilized in these future scenarios: The Light Water Reactor (LWR); the Modular Gas-Cooled Reactor (MGR); and the Integral Fast Reactor (FR). Each of these alternative reactor designs is described in some detail, with specific emphasis on their spent fuel streams and the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle. Four separation and partitioning processes are utilized in building the future nuclear power scenarios: Thermal reactor spent fuel preprocessing to reduce the ceramic oxide spent fuel to metallic form, the conventional PUREX process, the TRUEX process, and pyrometallurgical reprocessing.

Hollaway, W.R.; Lidsky, L.M.; Miller, M.M.

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Hole burning in a nanomechanical resonator coupled to a Cooper pair box  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose a scheme to create holes in the statistical distribution of excitations of a nanomechanical resonator. It employs a controllable coupling between this system and a Cooper pair box. The success probability and the fidelity are calculated and compared with those obtained in the atom-field system via distinct schemes. As an application we show how to use the hole-burning scheme to prepare (low excited) Fock states.

C. Valverde; A. T. Avelar; B. Baseia

2011-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

329

The Short-Term Cooling but Long-Term Global Warming Due to Biomass Burning  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Biomass burning releases gases (e.g., CO2, CO, CH4, NOx, SO2, C2H6, C2H4, C3H8, C3H6) and aerosol particle components (e.g., black carbon, organic matter, K+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, NH4+, H+, Cl?, H2SO4, HSO4?, SO42?, NO3?). To date, the global-scale climate response of ...

Mark Z. Jacobson

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

The effects of technological change, experience and environmental regulation on the construction of coal-burning generating units  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper provides an empirical analysis of the technological, regulatory and organizational factors that have influenced the costs of building coal-burning steam-electric generating units over the past twenty year. We ...

Joskow, Paul L.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Forest Understory Fire in the Brazilian Amazon in ENSO and Non-ENSO Years: Area Burned and Committed Carbon Emissions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Understory fires, which burn the floor of standing forests, are one of the most important types of forest impoverishment in the Amazon, especially during the severe droughts of El NioSouthern Oscillation (ENSO) episodes. However, the authors ...

Ane Alencar; Daniel Nepstad; Mariadel Carmen Vera Diaz

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Formation of ozone and growth of aerosols in young smoke plumes from biomass burning: 1. Lagrangian parcel studies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have developed a new model of the gas- and aerosol-phase chemistry of biomass burning smoke plumes called Aerosol Simulation Program (ASP). Here we use ASP combined with a Lagrangian parcel model to simulate the chemistry ...

Alvarado, Matthew James

333

The 1985 Biomass Burning Season in South America: Satellite Remote Sensing of Fires, Smoke, and Regional Radiative Energy Budgets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using satellite imagery, more than five million square kilometers of the forest and cerrado regions over South America are extensively studied to monitor fires and smoke during the 1985 biomass burning season. The results are characterized for ...

Sundar A. Christopher; Min Wang; Todd A. Berendes; Ronald M. Welch; Shi-Keng Yang

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Mapping Burned Areas in a Mediterranean Environment Using Soft Integration of Spectral Indices from High-Resolution Satellite Images  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article presents a new method for burned area mapping using high-resolution satellite images in the Mediterranean ecosystem. In such a complex environment, high-resolution satellite images represent an appropriate data source for identifying ...

Mirco Boschetti; Daniela Stroppiana; Pietro Alessandro Brivio

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

In Dust We Trust: A Narrative Journey into the Communal Heart of Public Art at the Burning Man Festival.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The Burning Man Festival, a free-spirited yet highly sophisticated social experiment celebrating "radical self expression and radical self reliance" is well-known for its large-scale and (more)

Stewart, Karen Ann

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Airborne measurements of carbonaceous aerosols in southern Africa during the dry, biomass burning season  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Particulate matter collected aboard the University of Washington's Convair-580 research aircraft over southern Africa during the dry, biomass burning season was analyzed for total carbon, organic carbon, and black carbon contents using thermal and optical methods. Samples were collected in smoke plumes of burning savanna and in regional haze. A known artifact, produced by the adsorption of organic gases on the quartz filter substrates used to collect the particulate matter samples, comprised a significant portion of the total carbon collected. Consequently, conclusions derived from the data are greatly dependent on whether or not organic carbon concentrations are corrected for this artifact. For example, the estimated aerosol co-albedo (1 - single scattering albedo), which is a measure of aerosol absorption, of the biomass smoke samples is 60 percent larger using corrected organic carbon concentrations. Thus, the corrected data imply that the biomass smoke is 60 percent more absorbing than do the uncorrected data. The black carbon to (corrected) organic carbon mass ratio (BC/OC) of smoke plume samples (0.18/2610.06) is lower than that of samples collected in the regional haze (0.25/2610.08). The difference may be due to mixing of biomass smoke with background air characterized by a higher BC/OC ratio. A simple source apportionment indicates that biomass smoke contributes about three-quarters of the aerosol burden in the regional haze, while other sources (e.g., fossil fuel burning) contribute the remainder.

Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Novakov, T.; Hobbs, Peter V.; Magi, Brian

2002-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

337

Effect of Fuel Fraction on Small Modified CANDLE Burn-up Based Gas Cooled Fast Reactors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A conceptual design study of Gas Cooled Fast Reactors with Modified CANDLE Burn-up has been performed. The objective of this research is to get optimal design parameters of such type reactors. The parameters of nuclear design including the critical condition, conversion ratio, and burn-up level were compared. These parameters are calculated by variation in the fuel fraction 47.5% up to 70%. Two dimensional full core multi groups diffusion calculations was performed by CITATION code. Group constant preparations are performed by using SRAC code system with JENDL-3.2 nuclear data library. In this design the reactor cores with cylindrical cell two dimensional R-Z core models are subdivided into several parts with the same volume in the axial directions. The placement of fuel in core arranged so that the result of plutonium from natural uranium can be utilized optimally for 10 years reactor operation. Modified CANDLE burn-up was established successfully in a core radial width 1.4 m. Total thermal power output for reference core is 550 MW. Study on the effect of fuel to coolant ratio shows that effective multiplication factor (k{sub eff}) is in almost linear relations with the change of the fuel volume to coolant ratio.

Ariani, Menik [Departmen of Physics Bandung Institute of Technology, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40134 (Indonesia); Physics Department, Sriwijaya University, Kampus Indralaya, Ogan Ilir, Sumatera Selatan (Indonesia); Su'ud, Zaki; Waris, Abdul; Asiah, Nur [Departmen of Physics Bandung Institute of Technology, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40134 (Indonesia); Shafii, M. Ali [Departmen of Physics Bandung Institute of Technology, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40134 (Indonesia); Physics Department, Andalas University, Kampus Limau Manis, Padang, Sumatera Barat (Indonesia); Khairurrijal

2010-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

338

Review of D-T Experiments Relevant to Burning Plasma lssues  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Progress in the performance of tokamak devices has enabled not only the production of significant bursts of fusion energy from deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasmas in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) and the Joint European Torus (JET) but, more importantly, the initial study of the physics of burning magnetically confined plasmas. TFTR and JET, in conjunction with the worldwide fusion effort, have studied a broad range of topics including magnetohydrodynamic stability, transport, wave-particle interactions, the confinement of energetic particles, and plasma boundary interactions. D-T experiments differ in three principal ways from previous experiments: isotope effects associated with the use of deuterium-tritium fuel, the presence of fusion-generated alpha particles, and technology issues associated with tritium handling and increased activation. The effect of deuterium-tritium fuel and the presence of alpha particles are reviewed and placed in the perspective of the much larger worldwide database using deuterium fuel and theoretical understanding. Both devices have contributed substantially in addressing the scientific and technical issues associated with burning plasmas. However, future burning plasma experiments will operate with larger ratios of alpha heating power to auxiliary power and will be able to access additional alpha-particle physics issues. The scientific opportunities for extending our understanding ofburning plasmas beyond that provided by current experiments are described. Keywords: deuterium-tritium, alpha-particle physics, isotope scaling, ICRF heating, JET, TFTR

Hawryluk R. J

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Case Study of Water-Soluble Metal Containing Organic Constituents of Biomass Burning Aerosol  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Natural and prescribed biomass fires are a major source of atmospheric aerosols that can persist in the atmosphere for long periods of time. Biomass burning aerosols (BBA) can be associated with long range transport of water soluble N?, S?, P?, and metal?containing species. In this study, BBA samples were collected using a particle?into?liquid sampler (PILS) from laboratory burns of vegetation collected on military bases in the southeastern and southwestern United States. The samples were then analyzed using high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI/HR?MS) that enabled accurate mass measurements for hundreds of species with m/z values between 70 and 1000 and assignment of probable elemental formulae. Mg, Al, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Ba?containing organometallic species were identified. The results suggest that the biomass may have accumulated metal?containing species that were reemitted during biomass burning. Further research into the sources, persistence, and dispersion of metal?containing aerosols as well as their environmental effects is needed.

Chang-Graham, Alexandra L.; Profeta, Luisa Tm; Johnson, Timothy J.; Yokelson, Robert J.; Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Julia

2011-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

340

Apparatus and method for burning a lean, premixed fuel/air mixture with low NOx emission  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus for enabling a burner to stably burn a lean fuel/air mixture. The burner directs the lean fuel/air mixture in a stream. The apparatus comprises an annular flame stabilizer; and a device for mounting the flame stabilizer in the fuel/air mixture stream. The burner may include a body having an internal bore, in which case, the annular flame stabilizer is shaped to conform to the cross-sectional shape of the bore, is spaced from the bore by a distance greater than about 0.5 mm, and the mounting device mounts the flame stabilizer in the bore. An apparatus for burning a gaseous fuel with low NOx emissions comprises a device for premixing air with the fuel to provide a lean fuel/air mixture; a nozzle having an internal bore through which the lean fuel/air mixture passes in a stream; and a flame stabilizer mounted in the stream of the lean fuel/air mixture. The flame stabilizer may be mounted in the internal bore, in which case, it is shaped and is spaced from the bore as just described. In a method of burning a lean fuel/air mixture, a lean fuel/air mixture is provided, and is directed in a stream; an annular eddy is created in the stream of the lean fuel/air mixture; and the lean fuel/air mixture is ignited at the eddy.

Kostiuk, Larry W. (Edmonton, CA); Cheng, Robert K. (Kensington, CA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "a-area burning rubble" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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341

Selective NOx Recirculation for Stationary Lean-Burn Natural Gas Engines  

SciTech Connect

Nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) generated by internal combustion (IC) engines are implicated in adverse environmental and health effects. Even though lean-burn natural gas engines have traditionally emitted lower oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions compared to their diesel counterparts, natural gas engines are being further challenged to reduce NOx emissions to 0.1 g/bhp-hr. The Selective NOx Recirculation (SNR) approach for NOx reduction involves cooling the engine exhaust gas and then adsorbing the NOx from the exhaust stream, followed by the periodic desorption of NOx. By sending the desorbed NOx back into the intake and through the engine, a percentage of the NOx can be decomposed during the combustion process. SNR technology has the support of the Department of Energy (DOE), under the Advanced Reciprocating Engine Systems (ARES) program to reduce NOx emissions to under 0.1 g/bhp-hr from stationary natural gas engines by 2010. The NO decomposition phenomenon was studied using two Cummins L10G natural gas fueled spark-ignited (SI) engines in three experimental campaigns. It was observed that the air/fuel ratio ({lambda}), injected NO quantity, added exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) percentage, and engine operating points affected NOx decomposition rates within the engine. Chemical kinetic model predictions using the software package CHEMKIN were performed to relate the experimental data with established rate and equilibrium models. The model was used to predict NO decomposition during lean-burn, stoichiometric burn, and slightly rich-burn cases with added EGR. NOx decomposition rates were estimated from the model to be from 35 to 42% for the lean-burn cases and from 50 to 70% for the rich-burn cases. The modeling results provided an insight as to how to maximize NOx decomposition rates for the experimental engine. Results from this experiment along with chemical kinetic modeling solutions prompted the investigation of rich-burn operating conditions, with added EGR to prevent preignition. It was observed that the relative air/fuel ratio, injected NO quantity, added EGR fraction, and engine operating points affected the NO decomposition rates. While operating under these modified conditions, the highest NO decomposition rate of 92% was observed. In-cylinder pressure data gathered during the experiments showed minimum deviation from peak pressure as a result of NO injections into the engine. A NOx adsorption system, from Sorbent Technologies, Inc., was integrated with the Cummins engine, comprised a NOx adsorbent chamber, heat exchanger, demister, and a hot air blower. Data were gathered to show the possibility of NOx adsorption from the engine exhaust, and desorption of NOx from the sorbent material. In order to quantify the NOx adsorption/desorption characteristics of the sorbent material, a benchtop adsorption system was constructed. The temperature of this apparatus was controlled while data were gathered on the characteristics of the sorbent material for development of a system model. A simplified linear driving force model was developed to predict NOx adsorption into the sorbent material as cooled exhaust passed over fresh sorbent material. A mass heat transfer analysis was conducted to analyze the possibility of using hot exhaust gas for the desorption process. It was found in the adsorption studies, and through literature review, that NO adsorption was poor when the carrier gas was nitrogen, but that NO in the presence of oxygen was adsorbed at levels exceeding 1% by mass of the sorbent. From the three experimental campaigns, chemical kinetic modeling analysis, and the scaled benchtop NOx adsorption system, an overall SNR system model was developed. An economic analysis was completed, and showed that the system was impractical in cost for small engines, but that economies of scale favored the technology.

Nigel N. Clark

2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

342

Correlation of turbulent burning velocities of ethanol-air, measured in a fan-stirred bomb up to 1.2 MPa  

SciTech Connect

The turbulent burning velocity is defined by the mass rate of burning and this also requires that the associated flame surface area should be defined. Previous measurements of the radial distribution of the mean reaction progress variable in turbulent explosion flames provide a basis for definitions of such surface areas for turbulent burning velocities. These inter-relationships. in general, are different from those for burner flames. Burning velocities are presented for a spherical flame surface, at which the mass of unburned gas inside it is equal to the mass of burned gas outside it. These can readily be transformed to burning velocities based on other surfaces. The measurements of the turbulent burning velocities presented are the mean from five different explosions, all under the same conditions. These cover a wide range of equivalence ratios, pressures and rms turbulent velocities for ethanol-air mixtures. Two techniques are employed, one based on measurements of high speed schlieren images, the other on pressure transducer measurements. There is good agreement between turbulent burning velocities measured by the two techniques. All the measurement are generalised in plots of burning velocity normalised by the effective unburned gas rms velocity as a function of the Karlovitz stretch factor for different strain rate Markstein numbers. For a given value of this stretch factor a decrease in Markstein number increases the normalised burning velocity. Comparisons are made with the findings of other workers. (author)

Bradley, D.; Lawes, M.; Mansour, M.S. [School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Leeds (United Kingdom)

2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

343

The deposition and burning characteristics during slagging co-firing coal and wood: modeling and numerical simulation  

SciTech Connect

Numerical analysis was used to study the deposition and burning characteristics of combining co-combustion with slagging combustion technologies in this paper. The pyrolysis and burning kinetic models of different fuels were implanted into the WBSF-PCC2 (wall burning and slag flow in pulverized co-combustion) computation code, and then the slagging and co-combustion characteristics (especially the wall burning mechanism of different solid fuels and their effects on the whole burning behavior in the cylindrical combustor at different mixing ratios under the condition of keeping the heat input same) were simulated numerically. The results showed that adding wood powder at 25% mass fraction can increase the temperature at the initial stage of combustion, which is helpful to utilize the front space of the combustor. Adding wood powder at a 25% mass fraction can increase the reaction rate at the initial combustion stage; also, the coal ignitability is improved, and the burnout efficiency is enhanced by about 5% of suspension and deposition particles, which is helpful for coal particles to burn entirely and for combustion devices to minimize their dimensions or sizes. The results also showed that adding wood powder at a proper ratio is helpful to keep the combustion stability, not only because of the enhancement for the burning characteristics, but also because the running slag layer structure can be changed more continuously, which is very important for avoiding the abnormal slag accumulation in the slagging combustor. The theoretic analysis in this paper proves that unification of co-combustion and slagging combustion technologies is feasible, though more comprehensive and rigorous research is needed.

Wang, X.H.; Zhao, D.Q.; Jiang, L.Q.; Yang, W.B. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ghangzhou (China)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Radioactivity in smoke particulates from prescribed burns at the Savannah River Site and at selected southeastern United States forests.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study we compare airborne radionuclide concentrations during prescribed burns at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and a sample of forests in the Southeastern United States. The spatial trends of airborne radionuclide concentrations from prescribed burn areas at SRS are also characterized. Total suspended particulate (TSP) samples were taken at three settings (subsequently termed burn sample populations): during prescribed burns at SRS (n = 34), on nonburn days at SRS (n = 12) and during prescribed burns at five offsite locations in the Southeastern United States (n = 2 per location). Mass concentrations of TSP were calculated and alpha, beta and gamma spectroscopy was performed to determine radionuclide activity concentrations. Spatial correlation in radionuclide concentration was assessed and ordinary kriging was used to create continuous surface maps across our study area. Median activity concentrations of natural radionuclides including {sup 40}K, thorium and uranium isotopes (n = 34) were higher in samples from SRS prescribed fires (p radionuclides did not significantly differ among burn sample populations except for {sup 238}Pu (p = 0.0022) and {sup 239,240}Pu (p = 0.014) with median concentrations of 8.41 x 10{sup -4} and 6.72 x 10{sup -5} pCi m{sup -3} at SRS compared to 1.55 x 10{sup -4} and -7.07 x 10{sup -6} pCi m{sup -3} (nonburn days) and 1.46 x 10{sup -4} and 2.78 x 10{sup -6} pCi m{sup 3} (offsite burns) respectively. Results from our spatial analysis found that only {sup 40}K demonstrated significant spatial correlation (X{sup 2} = 15.48, p = 0.0004) and spatial trends do not appear to directly link areas with higher activity concentrations with SRS facilities.

Commodore, Adwoa, A.; Jannik, G. Timothy; Eddy, Teresa, P.; Rathbun, Stephen, L.; Hejl, Anna, M.; Pearce, John, L.; Irvin-Barnwell, Elizabeth, A.; Naeher, Luke, P.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

America Burning  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Much more energy and funds need to be devoted to fire pre- vention, which could yield huge payoffs in lives and property saved. ...

2006-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

346

Burning Daylight.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? This collection of short stories seeks to detail simple acts that are regarded as simple by everyone but the main characters. These characters vary (more)

Mason, Ryan K.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Method for correcting for isotope burn-in effects in fission neutron dosimeters  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for correcting for effect of isotope burn-in in fission neutron dosimeters. Two quantities are measured in order to quantify the "burn-in" contribution, namely P.sub.Z',A', the amount of (Z', A') isotope that is burned-in, and F.sub.Z', A', the fissions per unit volume produced in the (Z', A') isotope. To measure P.sub.Z', A', two solid state track recorder fission deposits are prepared from the very same material that comprises the fission neutron dosimeter, and the mass and mass density are measured. One of these deposits is exposed along with the fission neutron dosimeter, whereas the second deposit is subsequently used for observation of background. P.sub.Z', A' is then determined by conducting a second irradiation, wherein both the irradiated and unirradiated fission deposits are used in solid state track recorder dosimeters for observation of the absolute number of fissions per unit volume. The difference between the latter determines P.sub.Z', A' since the thermal neutron cross section is known. F.sub.Z', A' is obtained by using a fission neutron dosimeter for this specific isotope, which is exposed along with the original threshold fission neutron dosimeter to experience the same neutron flux-time history at the same location. In order to determine the fissions per unit volume produced in the isotope (Z', A') as it ingrows during the irradiation, B.sub.Z', A', from these observations, the neutron field must generally be either time independent or a separable function of time t and neutron energy E.

Gold, Raymond (Richland, WA); McElroy, William N. (Richland, WA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Oxidation of volatiles in residential wood burning equipment. Final technical report, September 1980-February 1984  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of this project are to measure, through the use of laboratory combustors, those conditions which promote complete combustion of wood volatiles in residential wood burning equipment. The conditions of interest are combustion temperature, residence time, stoichiometry, and air mixing. The project objectives are met through two laboratory approaches: (1) model compound studies: in order to measure the overall rates of oxidative pyrolysis of biomass volatiles, and to determine the types of intermediate organic species which are likely to form as part of this process, model compounds have been reacted in a specialized jet-stirred reactor, which has been developed as part of this research. (2) high-intensity wood combustion: in order to study the clean combustion of wood, that is, to investigate the conceptual design features required for clean burning, and to ascertain the levels and types of pollutant and condensible species which are most difficult to oxidize, a high-intensity, research wood combustor has been developed and examined for the different phases of the wood burning cycle. Although the objectives of the project have been met, it has not been possible, because of support limitations, to thoroughly explore several interesting aspects which have arisen because of this research. For example, a third laboratory system in which wood pyrolysis gas is injected directly into the a well characterized reactor, so that the kinetics and mechanisms of the gas-phase reaction of the actual biomass volatiles can be studied, could not be thoroughly developed. Refinements in the high-intensity wood combustor, which would bring its design features closer to practicality for the industry, could not be considered. 32 references, 37 figures, 10 tables.

Malte, P.C.; Thornton, M.M.; Kamber, P.D.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

MILLIHERTZ QUASI-PERIODIC OSCILLATIONS AND THERMONUCLEAR BURSTS FROM TERZAN 5: A SHOWCASE OF BURNING REGIMES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a comprehensive study of the thermonuclear bursts and millihertz quasi-periodic oscillations (mHz QPOs) from the neutron star (NS) transient and 11 Hz X-ray pulsar IGR J17480-2446, located in the globular cluster Terzan 5. The increase in burst rate that we found during its 2010 outburst, when persistent luminosity rose from 0.1 to 0.5 times the Eddington limit, is in qualitative agreement with thermonuclear burning theory yet contrary to all previous observations of thermonuclear bursts. Thermonuclear bursts gradually evolved into a mHz QPO when the accretion rate increased, and vice versa. The mHz QPOs from IGR J17480-2446 resemble those previously observed in other accreting NSs, yet they feature lower frequencies (by a factor {approx}3) and occur when the persistent luminosity is higher (by a factor 4-25). We find four distinct bursting regimes and a steep (close to inverse cubic) decrease of the burst recurrence time with increasing persistent luminosity. We compare these findings to nuclear burning models and find evidence for a transition between the pure helium and mixed hydrogen/helium ignition regimes when the persistent luminosity was about 0.3 times the Eddington limit. We also point out important discrepancies between the observed bursts and theory, which predicts brighter and less frequent bursts, and suggest that an additional source of heat in the NS envelope is required to reconcile the observed and expected burst properties. We discuss the impact of NS magnetic field and spin on the expected nuclear burning regimes, in the context of this particular pulsar.

Linares, M.; Chakrabarty, D. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Altamirano, D. [Astronomical Institute 'Anton Pannekoek', University of Amsterdam and Center for High-Energy Astrophysics, P.O. BOX 94249, 1090 GE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Cumming, A. [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 Rue University, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Keek, L. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

The closed cycle gas turbine, the most efficient turbine burning any fuel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There are two types of gas turbines. The open cycle is very well known as, for example, the JET. The closed cycle in the U.S.A. is just starting to be well known. In Europe, the closed cycle gas turbine has been used in power plants, especially in Germany, and have been very efficient in burning coal. Concentrated in this paper is the Closed Cycle Gas Turbine (CCGT) as it is the most efficient type of turbine. There are the following sections in this paper: closed cycle gas turbine in more detail; various advantages of the CCGT; Nuclear power; and three comments.

Sawyer, R.T.

1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Process for clean-burning fuel from low-rank coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for upgrading and stabilizing low-rank coal involving the sequential processing of the coal through three fluidized beds; first a dryer, then a pyrolyzer, and finally a cooler. The fluidizing gas for the cooler is the exit gas from the pyrolyzer with the addition of water for cooling. Overhead gas from pyrolyzing is likely burned to furnish the energy for the process. The product coal exits with a tar-like pitch sealant to enhance its safety during storage. 1 fig.

Merriam, N.W.; Sethi, V.; Brecher, L.E.

1994-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

352

NOx Reduction Assessment for Tangentially Fired Boilers Burning Powder River Basin Coal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to assess the feasibility of and the most cost-effective approaches for reducing nitrous oxide (NOx) emissions for tangentially fired boilers burning Powder River Basin (PRB) coal in order to achieve average NOx emission rates of 0.15 lb/mmBtu (110 ppm), or lower. This is typically achievable by a deep level of combustion air staging, which may be possible if operational issues experienced during low combustion air operation (for example, slagging) can be mitigated. Acc...

2010-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

353

Experimental Approach to Stellar Reactions with RI Beams - Overview of Experiments on Hydrogen Burning -  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

After a short review on resent developments achieved in astrophysics in the past years since last NN conference, experimental efforts in nuclear astrophysics primarily with RI beams were revisited, especially on the works relevant to neutron-deficient nuclei, the other half of the nuclear chart reviewed by Rehm in this conference. A new interesting recognition discussed in the past years is the important role of explosive hydrogen burning process in the very early stage of type II supernovae. A new broadening research field related to the first generation stars both from observations as well as from nuclear astrophysics was also discussed.

S. Kubono

2007-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

354

Method of burning sulfur-containing fuels in a fluidized bed boiler  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of burning a sulfur-containing fuel in a fluidized bed of sulfur oxide sorbent wherein the overall utilization of sulfur oxide sorbent is increased by comminuting the bed drain solids to a smaller average particle size, preferably on the order of 50 microns, and reinjecting the comminuted bed drain solids into the bed. In comminuting the bed drain solids, particles of spent sulfur sorbent contained therein are fractured thereby exposing unreacted sorbent surface. Upon reinjecting the comminuted bed drain solids into the bed, the newly-exposed unreacted sorbent surface is available for sulfur oxide sorption, thereby increasing overall sorbent utilization.

Jones, Brian C. (Windsor, CT)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Evaluation of the carbon content of aerosols from the burn- ing of biomass in the Brazilian Amazon using thermal, op- tical and thermal-optical analysis methods  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

from Smoldering Biomass Combustion. Atmos. Chem. Phys. , 10,aerosols emitted during biomass combustion [Robinson et al.burning samples. Combustion of biomass produces EC a and

Soto-Garcia, Lydia L.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Measurements of aerosol properties from aircraft, satellite and ground-based remote sensing: a case-study from the Dust and Biomass-burning Experiment (DABEX)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Measurements of aerosol properties from aircraft, satellite and ground-based remote sensing: A case study from the Dust and Biomass burning Experiment (DABEX)

Johnson, B. T.; Christopher, S.; Haywood, J.; Osborne, S. R.; McFarlane, Sally; Hsu, C.; Salustro, C.; Kahn, Ralph

2009-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

357

Laminar burning speed and flame structure of 1,1-difluoroethane (HFC-152a)/air and difluoromethane (HFC-32)/air mixtures.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Of recent importance is the laminar burning speed of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) used in the refrigerant industry. Since the adoption of the Montreal Protocol in 1989 (more)

Bennett, Casey Paul

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Results of emissions testing while burning densified refuse derived fuel, Dordt College, Sioux Center, Iowa  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Pacific Environmental Services, Inc. provided engineering and source testing services to the Council of Great Lake Governors to support their efforts in promoting the development and utilization of densified refuse derived fuels (d-RDF) and pelletized wastepaper fuels in small steam generating facilities. The emissions monitoring program was designed to provide a complete air emissions profile while burning various refuse derived fuels. The specific goal of this test program was to conduct air emissions tests at Dordt College located in Sioux Center, Iowa and to identify a relationship between fuel types and emission characteristics. The sampling protocol was carried out June 12 through June 20, 1989 on boiler {number sign}4. This unit had been previously modified to burn d-RDF. The boiler was not equipped with any type of air pollution control device so the emissions samples were collected from the boiler exhaust stack on the roof of the boilerhouse. The emissions that were sampled included: particulates; PM{sub 10} particulates; hydrochloric acid; dioxins; furans; polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB); metals and continuous monitors for CO, CO{sub 2}O{sub 2}SO{sub x}NO{sub x} and total hydrocarbons. Grab samples of the fuels were collected, composited and analyzed for heating value, moisture content, proximate and ultimate analysis, ash fusion temperature, bulk density and elemental ash analysis. Grab samples of the boiler ash were also collected and analyzed for total hydrocarbons total dioxins, total furans, total PCBs and heavy metals. 77 figs., 20 tabs.

Not Available

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Coated Particle Fuel and Deep Burn Program Monthly Highlights January 2011  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During FY 2011 the CP & DB Program will report Highlights on a monthly basis, but will no longer produce Quarterly Progress Reports. Technical details that were previously included in the quarterly reports will be included in the appropriate Milestone Reports that are submitted to FCRD Program Management. These reports will also be uploaded to the Deep Burn website. The Monthly Highlights report for December 2010, ORNL/TM-2011/10, was distributed to program participants on January 12, 2011. As reported last month, the final Quarterly for FY 2010, Deep Burn Program Quarterly Report for July - September 2010, ORNL/TM-2010/301, was announced to program participants and posted to the website on December 28, 2010. This report discusses the following: (1) Thermochemical Data and Model Development - (a) Thermochemical Modeling, (b) Actinide and Fission Product Transport, (c) Radiation Damage and Properties; (2) TRU (transuranic elements) TRISO (tri-structural isotropic) Development - (a) TRU Kernel Development, (b) Coating Development; (3) Advanced TRISO Applications - Metal Matrix Fuels for LWR; (4) LWR Fully Ceramic Fuel - (a) FCM Fabrication Development, (b) FCM Irradiation Testing; (5) Fuel Performance and Analytical Analysis - Fuel Performance Modeling.

Snead, Lance Lewis [ORNL; Bell, Gary L [ORNL; Besmann, Theodore M [ORNL

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Coated Particle Fuel and Deep Burn Program Monthly Highlights February 2011  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During FY 2011 the CP & DB Program will report Highlights on a monthly basis, but will no longer produce Quarterly Progress Reports. Technical details that were previously included in the quarterly reports will be included in the appropriate Milestone Reports that are submitted to FCRD Program Management. These reports will also be uploaded to the Deep Burn website. The Monthly Highlights report for January 2010, ORNL/TM-2011/30, was distributed to program participants on February 8, 2011. As reported previously, the final Quarterly for FY 2010, Deep Burn Program Quarterly Report for July - September 2010, ORNL/TM-2010/301, was announced to program participants and posted to the website on December 28, 2010. This report discusses the following: (1) Thermochemical Data and Model Development - (a) Thermochemical Modeling, (b) Actinide and Fission Product Transport, (c) Radiation Damage and Properties; (2) TRU (transuranic elements) TRISO (tri-structural isotropic) Development - (a) TRU Kernel Development, (b) Coating Development; (3) Advanced TRISO Applications - Metal Matrix Fuels for LWR; (4) LWR Fully Ceramic Fuel - (a) FCM Fabrication Development, (b) FCM Irradiation Testing; and (5) Fuel Performance and Analytical Analysis - Fuel Performance Modeling.

Snead, Lance Lewis [ORNL; Bell, Gary L [ORNL; Besmann, Theodore M [ORNL

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "a-area burning rubble" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Coated Particle Fuel and Deep Burn Program Monthly Highlights March 2011  

SciTech Connect

During FY 2011 the CP & DB Program will report Highlights on a monthly basis, but will no longer produce Quarterly Progress Reports. Technical details that were previously included in the quarterly reports will be included in the appropriate Milestone Reports that are submitted to FCRD Program Management. These reports will also be uploaded to the Deep Burn website. The Monthly Highlights report for February 2011, ORNL/TM-2011/71, was distributed to program participants on March 8, 2011. As reported previously, the final Quarterly for FY 2010, Deep Burn Program Quarterly Report for July - September 2010, ORNL/TM-2010/301, was announced to program participants and posted to the website on December 28, 2010. This report discusses the following: (1) Thermochemical Data and Model Development - (a) Thermochemical Modeling, (b) Thermomechanical Behavior, (c) Actinide and Fission Product Transport, (d) Radiation Damage and Properties; (2) TRU (transuranic elements) TRISO (tri-structural isotropic) Development - (a) TRU Kernel Development, (b) Coating Development; (3) Advanced TRISO Applications - Metal Matrix Fuels for LWR; (4) LWR Fully Ceramic Fuel - (a) FCM Fabrication Development, (b) FCM Irradiation Testing; and (5) Fuel Performance and Analytical Analysis - Fuel Performance Modeling.

Snead, Lance Lewis [ORNL; Bell, Gary L [ORNL; Besmann, Theodore M [ORNL

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Dredge-up and envelope burning in intermediate mass giants of very low metallicity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(abbreviated) The evolution of intermediate mass stars at very low metallicity during their final thermal pulse asymptotic giant branch phase is studied in detail. As representative examples models with initial masses of 4Msun and 5Msun with a metallicity of Z=0.0001 ([Fe/H] ~ -2.3) are discussed. The 1D stellar structure and evolution model includes time- and depth dependent overshooting motivated by hydrodynamical simulations, as well as a full nuclear network and time-dependent mixing. Particular attention is given to high time and space resolution to avoid numerical artefacts related to third dredge-up and hot-bottom burning predictions. The model calculations predict very efficient third dredge-up which mixes the envelope with the entire intershell layer or a large fraction thereof, and in some cases penetrates into the C/O core below the He-shell. In all cases primary oxygen is mixed into the envelope. The models predict efficient envelope burning during the interpulse phase. Depending on the envelope b...

Herwig, F

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Coated Particle Fuel and Deep Burn Program Monthly Highlights May 2011  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During FY 2011 the CP & DB Program will report Highlights on a monthly basis, but will no longer produce Quarterly Progress Reports. Technical details that were previously included in the quarterly reports will be included in the appropriate Milestone Reports that are submitted to FCRD Program Management. These reports will also be uploaded to the Deep Burn website. The Monthly Highlights report for April 2011, ORNL/TM-2011/125, was distributed to program participants on May 10, 2011. As reported previously, the final Quarterly for FY 2010, Deep Burn Program Quarterly Report for July - September 2010, ORNL/TM-2010/301, was announced to program participants and posted to the website on December 28, 2010. This report discusses the following: (1) Fuel Performance Modeling - Fuel Performance Analysis; (2) Thermochemical Data and Model Development - (a) Thermochemical Modeling, (b) Thermomechanical Modeling, (c) Actinide and Fission Product Transport; (3) TRU (transuranic elements) TRISO (tri-structural isotropic) Development - (a) TRU Kernel Development, (b) Coating Development; and (4) LWR Fully Ceramic Fuel - (a) FCM Fabrication Development, (b) FCM Irradiation Testing.

Snead, Lance Lewis [ORNL; Bell, Gary L [ORNL; Besmann, Theodore M [ORNL

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Coated Particle Fuel and Deep Burn Program Monthly Highlights June 2011  

SciTech Connect

During FY 2011 the CP & DB Program will report Highlights on a monthly basis, but will no longer produce Quarterly Progress Reports. Technical details that were previously included in the quarterly reports will be included in the appropriate Milestone Reports that are submitted to FCRD Program Management. These reports will also be uploaded to the Deep Burn website. The Monthly Highlights report for May 2011, ORNL/TM-2011/126, was distributed to program participants on June 9, 2011. As reported previously, the final Quarterly for FY 2010, Deep Burn Program Quarterly Report for July - September 2010, ORNL/TM-2010/301, was announced to program participants and posted to the website on December 28, 2010. This report discusses the following: (1) Fuel Performance Modeling - Fuel Performance Analysis; (2) Thermochemical Data and Model Development - (a) Thermochemical Behavior, (b) Thermomechanical Modeling, (c) Actinide and Fission Product Transport; (3) TRU (transuranic elements) TRISO (tri-structural isotropic) Development - (a) TRU Kernel Development, (b) Coating Development; and (4) LWR Fully Ceramic Fuel - (a) FCM Fabrication Development, (b) FCM Irradiation Testing.

Snead, Lance Lewis [ORNL; Bell, Gary L [ORNL; Besmann, Theodore M [ORNL

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Effects of flow transients on the burning velocity of hydrogen-air premixed flames  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The effects of unsteady strain rate on the burning velocity of hydrogen-air premixed flames are studied in an opposed nozzle configuration. The numerical method employs adaptive time integration of a system of differential-algebraic equations. Detailed hydrogen-air kinetic mechanism and transport properties are considered. The equivalence ratio is varied from lean to rich premixtures in order to change the effective Lewis number. Steady Markstein numbers for small strain rate are computed and compared with experiment. Different definitions of flame burning velocity are examined under steady and unsteady flow conditions. It is found that, as the unsteady frequency increases, large deviations between different flame speeds are noted depending on the location of the flame speed evaluation. Unsteady flame response is investigated in terms of the Markstein transfer function which depends on the frequency of oscillation. In most cases, the flame speed variation attenuates at higher frequencies, as the unsteady frequency becomes comparable to the inverse of the characteristic flame time. Furthermore, unique resonance-like behavior is observed for a range of rich mixture conditions, consistent with previous studies with linearized theory.

H. G. Im; J. H. Chen

2000-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

366

Inclusion of biomass burning in WRF-Chem: Impact of wildfires on weather forecasts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A plume rise algorithm for wildfires was included in WRF-Chem, and applied to look at the impact of intense wildfires during the 2004 Alaska wildfire season on weather forecasts using model resolutions of 10km and 2km. Biomass burning emissions were estimated using a biomass burning emissions model. In addition, a 1-D, time-dependent cloud model was used online in WRF-Chem to estimate injection heights as well as the final emission rates. It was shown that with the inclusion of the intense wildfires of the 2004 fire season in the model simulations, the interaction of the aerosols with the atmospheric radiation led to significant modifications of vertical profiles of temperature and moisture in cloud-free areas. On the other hand, when clouds were present, the high concentrations of fine aerosol (PM2.5) and the resulting large numbers of Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) had a strong impact on clouds and microphysics, with decreased precipitation coverage and precipitation amounts during the first 12 hours of the integration, but significantly stronger storms during the afternoon hours.

Grell, G. A.; Freitas, Saulo; Stuefer, Martin; Fast, Jerome D.

2011-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

367

The Cellular Burning Regime in Type Ia Supernova Explosions - I. Flame Propagation into Quiescent Fuel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a numerical investigation of the cellular burning regime in Type Ia supernova explosions. This regime holds at small scales (i.e. below the Gibson scale), which are unresolved in large-scale Type Ia supernova simulations. The fundamental effects that dominate the flame evolution here are the Landau-Darrieus instability and its nonlinear stabilization, leading to a stabilization of the flame in a cellular shape. The flame propagation into quiescent fuel is investigated addressing the dependence of the simulation results on the specific parameters of the numerical setup. Furthermore, we investigate the flame stability at a range of fuel densities. This is directly connected to the questions of active turbulent combustion (a mechanism of flame destabilization and subsequent self-turbulization) and a deflagration-to-detonation transition of the flame. In our simulations we find no substantial destabilization of the flame when propagating into quiescent fuels of densities down to ~10^7 g/cm^3, corroborating fundamental assumptions of large-scale SN Ia explosion models. For these models, however, we suggest an increased lower cutoff for the flame propagation velocity to take the cellular burning regime into account.

F. K. Roepke; W. Hillebrandt; J. C. Niemeyer

2003-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

368

Long-term tradeoffs between nuclear- and fossil-fuel burning  

SciTech Connect

A global energy/economics/environmental (E{sup 3}) model has been adapted with a nuclear energy/materials model to understand better {open_quotes}top-level{close_quotes}, long-term trade offs between civilian nuclear power, nuclear-weapons proliferation, fossil-fuel burning, and global economic welfare. Using a {open_quotes}business-as-usual{close_quotes} (BAU) point-of-departure case, economic, resource, proliferation-risk implications of plutonium recycle in LAIRs, greenhouse-gas-mitigating carbon taxes, and a range of nuclear energy costs (capital and fuel) considerations have been examined. After describing the essential elements of the analysis approach being developed to support the Los Alamos Nuclear Vision Project, preliminary examples of parametric variations about the BAU base-case scenario are presented. The results described herein represent a sampling from more extensive results collected in a separate report. The primary motivation here is: (a) to compare the BAU basecase with results from other studies; (b) to model on a regionally resolved global basis long-term (to year {approximately}2100) evolution of plutonium accumulation in a variety of forms under a limited range of fuel-cycle scenarios; and (c) to illustrate a preliminary connectivity between risks associated with nuclear proliferation and fossil-fuel burning (e.g., greenhouse-gas accumulations).

Krakowski, R.A.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

369

SELECTIVE NOx RECIRCULATION FOR STATIONARY LEAN-BURN NATURAL GAS ENGINES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The research program conducted at the West Virginia University Engine and Emissions Research Laboratory (EERL) is working towards the verification and optimization of an approach to remove nitric oxides from the exhaust gas of lean burn natural gas engines. This project was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) under contract number: DE-FC26-02NT41608. Selective NOx Recirculation (SNR) involves three main steps. First, NOx is adsorbed from the exhaust stream, followed by periodic desorption from the aftertreatment medium. Finally the desorbed NOx is passed back into the intake air stream and fed into the engine, where a percentage of the NOx is decomposed. This reporting period focuses on the NOx decomposition capability in the combustion process. Although researchers have demonstrated NOx reduction with SNR in other contexts, the proposed program is needed to further understand the process as it applies to lean burn natural gas engines. SNR is in support of the Department of Energy goal of enabling future use of environmentally acceptable reciprocating natural gas engines through NOx reduction under 0.1 g/bhp-hr. The study of decomposition of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) during combustion in the cylinder was conducted on a 1993 Cummins L10G 240 hp lean burn natural gas engine. The engine was operated at different air/fuel ratios, and at a speed of 800 rpm to mimic a larger bore engine. A full scale dilution tunnel and analyzers capable of measuring NOx, CO{sub 2}, CO, HC concentrations were used to characterize the exhaust gas. Commercially available nitric oxide (NO) was used to mimic the NOx stream from the desorption process through a mass flow controller and an injection nozzle. The same quantity of NOx was injected into the intake and exhaust line of the engine for 20 seconds at various steady state engine operating points. NOx decomposition rates were obtained by averaging the peak values at each set point minus the baseline and finding the ratio between the injected NO amounts. It was observed that the air/fuel ratio, injected NO quantity and engine operating points affected the NOx decomposition rates of the natural gas engine. A highest NOx decomposition rate of 27% was measured from this engine. A separate exploratory tests conducted with a gasoline engine with a low air/fuel ratio yielded results that suggested, that high NOx decomposition rates may be possible if a normally lean burn engine were operated at conditions closer to stoichiometric, with high exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) for a brief period of time during the NOx decomposition phase and with a wider range of air/fuel ratios. Chemical kinetic model predictions using CHEMKIN were performed to relate the experimental data with the established rate and equilibrium models. NOx decomposition rates from 35% to 42% were estimated using the CHEMKIN software. This provided insight on how to maximize NOx decomposition rates for a large bore engine. In the future, the modeling will be used to examine the effect of higher NO{sub 2}/NO ratios that are associated with lower speed and larger bore lean burn operation.

Nigel Clark; Gregory Thompson; Richard Atkinson; Chamila Tissera; Matt Swartz; Emre Tatli; Ramprabhu Vellaisamy

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Development of a closed-loop, lean-burn natural gas engine control system. Final report, February 1993-December 1995  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project was to develop a closed-loop, lean-burn control system for medium and heavy duty, lean-burn, gaseous fueled engines. The closed-loop F/A ratio control system was designed to provide diesel engine-like performance and fuel economy, and take advantage of the emissions benefits of a gaseous fueled engine. The control system was designed to have the processing power and I/O capacity to accommodate the engine Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM`s).

Morris, D.A.

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Epoxy-borax-coal tar composition for a radiation protective, burn resistant drum liner and centrifugal casting method  

SciTech Connect

A boron containing burn resistant, low level radiation protection material useful, for example, as a liner for radioactive waste disposal and storage, a component for neutron absorber, and a shield for a neutron source. The material is basically composed of Borax in the range of 25-50%, coal tar in the range of 25-37.5%, with the remainder being an epoxy resin mix. A preferred composition is 50% Borax, 25% coal tar and 25% epoxy resin. The material is not susceptible to burning and is about 1/5 the cost of existing radiation protection material utilized in similar applications.

Taylor, Robert S. (Livermore, CA); Boyer, Norman W. (Livermore, CA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

"Quantum" Chaos and Stability Condition of Soliton-like Waves of Nuclear Burning in Neutron-Multiplicating Media  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We show that the stability condition for the soliton-like wave of nuclear burning in neutron-multiplicating medium is determined in general by two conditions. The first condition (necessary) is determined by relationship between the equilibrium concentration and critical concentration of active (fissile) isotope, that is a consequence of the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization condition. The second condition (sufficient) is set by the so-called Wigner quantum statistics, or more accurately, by a ststistics of the Gaussian simplectic ensembles with respect to the parameter that describes the squared width of burning wave front of nuclear fuel active component.

Rusov, V D; Tarasov, V A; Zelentsova, T N; Sharf, I V; Chernezhenko, S A; Byegunova, O A

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Biomass burning and the production of greenhouse gases, in Climate Biosphere Interaction: Biogenic Emissions and the Environmental Effects of Climate Change, edited by  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Biomass burning is a source of greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. In addition, biomass burning is a source of chemically active gases, including carbon monoxide, nonmethane hydrocarbons, and nitric oxide. These gases, along with methane, lead to the chemical production of tropospheric ozone (another greenhouse gas) as well as control the concentration of the

Joel S. Levine

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Exam Stochastic Processes 2WB08 January 29, 2007 A light bulb burns for an amount of time having distribution F(), with Laplace trans-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Exam Stochastic Processes 2WB08 ­ January 29, 2007 Problem 1: A light bulb burns for an amount moment µ2. When the light bulb burns out, it is immediately replaced by another light bulb which has the same life time distribution F(·), etc. Let m(t) be the mean number of replacements of light bulbs upto

Giardinà, Cristian

375

Workshop: Novas Abordagens para Monitorar a Queima de Biomassa (New Approaches to Monitor Biomass Burning) Coordenador: Emilio Chuvieco (University of Alcal, Spain)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Workshop: Novas Abordagens para Monitorar a Queima de Biomassa (New Approaches to Monitor Biomass relevant topics associated to monitoring biomass burnings from satellite data, both at global and regional scales. Hora Título das Palestras Apresentador 9:00 Opening 9:10 Global Monitoring of Biomass Burning

376

Deep Burn Fuel Cycle Integration: Evaluation of Two-Tier Scenarios  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The use of a deep burn strategy using VHTRs (or DB-MHR), as a means of burning transuranics produced by LWRs, was compared to performing this task with LWR MOX. The spent DB-MHR fuel was recycled for ultimate final recycle in fast reactors (ARRs). This report summarizes the preliminary findings of the support ratio (in terms of MWth installed) between LWRs, DB-MHRs and ARRs in an equilibrium two-tier fuel cycle scenario. Values from literature were used to represent the LWR and DB-MHR isotopic compositions. A reactor physics simulation of the ARR was analyzed to determine the effect that the DB-MHR spent fuel cooling time on the ARR transuranic consumption rate. These results suggest that the cooling time has some but not a significant impact on the ARRs conversion ratio and transuranic consumption rate. This is attributed to fissile worth being derived from non-fissile or threshold-fissioning isotopes in the ARRs fast spectrum. The fraction of installed thermal capacity of each reactor in the DB-MHR 2-tier fuel cycle was compared with that of an equivalent MOX 2-tier fuel cycle, assuming fuel supply and demand are in equilibrium. The use of DB-MHRs in the 1st-tier allows for a 10% increase in the fraction of fleet installed capacity of UO2-fueled LWRs compared to using a MOX 1st-tier. Also, it was found that because the DB-MHR derives more power per unit mass of transuranics charged to the fresh fuel, the front-end reprocessing demand is less than MOX. Therefore, more fleet installed capacity of DB-MHR would be required to support a given fleet of UO2 LWRs than would be required of MOX plants. However, the transuranic deep burn achieved by DB-MHRs reduces the number of fast reactors in the 2nd-tier to support the DB-MHRs back-end transuranic output than if MOX plants were used. Further analysis of the relative costs of these various types of reactors is required before a comparative study of these options could be considered complete.

S. Bays; H. Zhang; M. Pope

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Direct and semidirect aerosol effects of Southern African biomass burning aerosol  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The direct and semi-direct radiative effects of biomass burning aerosols from Southern African fires during July-October are investigated using 20 year runs of the Community Atmospheric Model (CAM) coupled to a slab ocean model. The aerosol optical depth is constrained using observations in clear skies from MODIS and for aerosol layers above clouds from CALIPSO. Over the ocean, where the absorbing biomass burning aerosol layers are primarily located above cloud, negative top of atmosphere (TOA) semi-direct radiative effects associated with increased low cloud cover dominate over a weaker positive all-sky direct radiative effect (DRE). In contrast, over the land where the aerosols are often below or within cloud layers, reductions in cloud liquid water path (LWP) lead to a positive semi-direct radiative effect that dominates over a near-zero DRE. Over the ocean, the cloud response can be understood as a response to increased lower tropospheric stability (LTS) which is caused both by aerosol absorptive warming in overlying layers and surface cooling in response to direct aerosol forcing. The ocean cloud changes are robust to changes in the cloud parameterization (removal of the hard-wired dependence of clouds on LTS), suggesting that they are physically realistic. Over land where cloud cover changes are minimal, decreased LWP is consistent with weaker convection driven by increased static stability. Over the entire region the overall TOA radiative effect from the biomass burning aerosols is almost zero due to opposing effects over the land and ocean. However, the surface forcing is strongly negative requiring a reduction in precipitation. This is primarily realized through reductions in convective precipitation on both the southern and northern flanks of the convective precipitation region spanning the equatorial rainforest and the ITCZ in the southern Sahel. The changes are consistent with the low-level aerosol forced cooling pattern. The results highlight the importance of semi-direct radiative effects and precipitation responses for determining the climatic effects of aerosols in the African region.

Sakaeda, Naoko; Wood, Robert; Rasch, Philip J.

2011-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

378

Geographic Patterns of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil-Fuel Burning,  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions » Gridded Estimates for Benchmark Years Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions » Gridded Estimates for Benchmark Years Geographic Patterns of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil-Fuel Burning, Hydraulic Cement Production, and Gas Flaring on a One Degree by One Degree Grid Cell Basis: 1950 to 1990 (NDP-058) data Data image ASCII Text Documentation PDF file PDF file Contributors R. J. Andres, G. Marland, I. Fung, and E. Matthews (contributors) DOI DOI: 10.3334/CDIAC/ffe.ndp058 This data package presents data sets recording 1° latitude by 1° longitude CO2 emissions in units of thousand metric tons of carbon per year from anthropogenic sources for 1950, 1960, 1970, 1980, and 1990. Detailed geographic information on CO2 emissions can be critical in understanding the pattern of the atmospheric and biospheric response to these emissions.

379

Environmental performance of air staged combustor with flue gas recirculation to burn coal/biomass  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The environmental and thermal performance of a 1.07 m diameter, 440 kW atmospheric fluidized bed combustor operated at 700{degrees}C-920{degrees}C and burning coal was studied. Flue gas recirculation was incorporated to enhance the thermal performance and air staging was used to control emissions of SO{sub 2}, CO, NO{sub x} and N{sub 2}O. Studies focused on the effect of excess air, firing rate, and use of sorbent on system performance. The recirculation-staging mode with limestone had the highest thermal efficiency (0.67) using the firing equation. Emission data showed that flue gas recirculation (ratio of 0.7) significantly reduced NO{sub x} emissions; and that use of limestone sorbent at a Ca/S ratio of 3 reduced SO{sub 2} emissions by 64% to approximately 0.310 g/MJ.

Anuar, S.H.; Keener, H.M.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

380

DOE/SC-ARM-13-014 Biomass Burning Observation Project Science  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

4 4 Biomass Burning Observation Project Science Plan LI Kleinman AJ Sedlacek September 2013 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the U.S. Government or any agency thereof. The views and

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "a-area burning rubble" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

OXIDATION OF MERCURY ACROSS SCR CATALYSTS IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS BURNING LOW RANK FUELS  

SciTech Connect

This is the fifth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-03NT41728. The objective of this program is to measure the oxidation of mercury in flue gas across SCR catalyst in a coal-fired power plant burning low rank fuels using a slipstream reactor containing multiple commercial catalysts in parallel. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Argillon GmbH are providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. During this quarter, the available data from laboratory, pilot and full-scale SCR units was reviewed, leading to hypotheses about the mechanism for mercury oxidation by SCR catalysts.

Constance Senior

2004-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

382

Vortex combustor for low NOX emissions when burning lean premixed high hydrogen content fuel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A trapped vortex combustor. The trapped vortex combustor is configured for receiving a lean premixed gaseous fuel and oxidant stream, where the fuel includes hydrogen gas. The trapped vortex combustor is configured to receive the lean premixed fuel and oxidant stream at a velocity which significantly exceeds combustion flame speed in a selected lean premixed fuel and oxidant mixture. The combustor is configured to operate at relatively high bulk fluid velocities while maintaining stable combustion, and low NOx emissions. The combustor is useful in gas turbines in a process of burning synfuels, as it offers the opportunity to avoid use of diluent gas to reduce combustion temperatures. The combustor also offers the possibility of avoiding the use of selected catalytic reaction units for removal of oxides of nitrogen from combustion gases exiting a gas turbine.

Steele, Robert C; Edmonds, Ryan G; Williams, Joseph T; Baldwin, Stephen P

2012-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

383

Overlapping of the devolatilization and char combustion stages in the burning of coal particles  

SciTech Connect

The oxygen content at the surface of a fuel particle can significantly exceed zero during the devolatilization stage of combustion, despite the flux of volatiles from the surface and also gas phase reactions. This implies that char oxidation can take place simultaneously. This overlapping of the devolatilization and char combustion stages is studied by modeling. The rates of gas phase reactions around the particle influence the availability of oxygen at the surface of a burning particle and they are accounted for by using a two-step global model for combustion of volatiles. The effects of particle size, ambient temperature, and oxygen concentration on the degree of overlap are studied. The study provides theoretical and experimental evidence that the combustion time of a particle does not always increase with its size at constant ambient conditions, but there can be a specific particle size giving a maximum combustion rate.

Veras, C.A.G. [Escola Politecnica da Univ., Sao Paulo (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica; Saastamoinen, J.; Aho, M. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Carvalho, J.A. Jr. [Inst. Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Cachoeira Paulista, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Investigation of hydrogen-burn damage in the Three Mile Island Unit 2 reactor building  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

About 10 hours after the March 28, 1979 Loss-of-Coolant Accident began at Three Mile Island Unit 2, a hydrogen deflagration of undetermined extent occurred inside the reactor building. Examinations of photographic evidence, available from the first fifteen entries into the reactor building, yielded preliminary data on the possible extent and range of hydrogen burn damage. These data, although sparse, contributed to development of a possible damage path and to an estimate of the extent of damage to susceptible reactor building items. Further information gathered from analysis of additional photographs and samples can provide the means for estimating hydrogen source and production rate data crucial to developing a complete understanding of the TMI-2 hydrogen deflagration. 34 figures.

Alvares, N.J.; Beason, D.G.; Eidem, G.R.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Report on electrocutions, electric shock, and electric burn injuries involving consumer products. final report  

SciTech Connect

This report provides direction to a project to reduce the number of electrocution, electric shock and electric burn injuries. The first section uses CPSC data to rank the consumer products involved in these accidents on the basis of frequency, severity, and number of products in use. It also analyzes demographic and accident characteristics. The second section contains a technical review of accidents occurring in eight product groups: Portable Power Tools; Welders, Battery Chargers and Inverters; Personal Hygiene Products; Entertainment Products; Lawn and Garden Tools; Installed Stoves, Ranges and Cook Tops; Refrigerators and Freezers; and Fans. This section also includes a review of the relevant Underwriters Laboratories (UL) standards and suggestions for potential action to reduce the accidents involving these eight product groups.

Not Available

1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Residential wood burning: Energy modeling and conventional fuel displacement in a national sample  

SciTech Connect

This research studied the natural, built, and behavioral factors predictive of energy consumption for residential space heating with wood or conventional fuels. This study was a secondary analysis of survey data from a nationwide representative sample of 5,682 households collected DOE in the 1984-1985 REC survey. Included were: weather, census division and utility data, interviewer-supplied dwelling measurements and respondent-reported energy-related family behaviors. Linear-regression procedures were used to develop a model that identified key determinants accounting for the variability in wood consumption. A nonlinear-regression model was employed to estimate the amount of conventional fuels used for space heating. The model was also used to estimate the amount of conventional fuels being displaced by wood-heating systems. There was a significant (p {le} .05) linear relationship between the dependent variable, square root of cords burned, various independent variables.

Warsco, K.S.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Development of Burning Plasma and Advanced Scenarios in the DIII-D Tokamak  

SciTech Connect

Significant progress in the development of burning plasma scenarios, steady-state scenarios at high fusion performance, and basic tokamak physics has been made by the DIII-D Team. Discharges similar to the ITER baseline scenario have demonstrated normalized fusion performance nearly 50% higher than required for Q = 10 in ITER, under stationary conditions. Discharges that extrapolate to Q {approx} 10 for longer than one hour in ITER at reduced current have also been demonstrated in DIII-D under stationary conditions. Proof of high fusion performance with full noninductive operation has been obtained. Underlying this work are studies validating approaches to confinement extrapolation, disruption avoidance and mitigation, tritium retention, ELM avoidance, and operation above the no-wall pressure limit. In addition, the unique capabilities of the DIII-D facility have advanced studies of the sawtooth instability with unprecedented time and space resolution, threshold behavior in the electron heat transport, and rotation in plasmas in the absence of external torque.

Luce, T C

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Development of Burning Plasma and Advanced Scenarios in the DIII-D Tokamak  

SciTech Connect

Significant progress in the development of burning plasma scenarios, steady-state scenarios at high fusion performance, and basic tokamak physics has been made by the DIII-D Team. Discharges similar to the ITER baseline scenario have demonstrated normalized fusion performance nearly 50% higher than required for Q = 10 in ITER, under stationary conditions. Discharges that extrapolate to Q {approx} 10 for longer than one hour in ITER at reduced current have also been demonstrated in DIII-D under stationary conditions. Proof of high fusion performance with full noninductive operation has been obtained. Underlying this work are studies validating approaches to confinement extrapolation, disruption avoidance and mitigation, tritium retention, ELM avoidance, and operation above the no-wall pressure limit. In addition, the unique capabilities of the DIII-D facility have advanced studies of the sawtooth instability with unprecedented time and space resolution, threshold behavior in the electron heat transport, and rotation in plasmas in the absence of external torque.

Luce, T C

2004-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

389

SystemBurn: Principles of Design and Operation Release 3.0  

SciTech Connect

As high performance computing technology progresses toward the progressively more extreme scales required to address critical computational problems of both national and global interest, power and cooling for these extreme scale systems is becoming a growing concern. A standardized methodology for testing system requirements under maximal system load and validating system environmental capability to meet those requirements is critical to maintaining system stability and minimizing power and cooling risks for high end data centers. Moreover, accurate testing permits the high end data center to avoid issues of under- or over-provisioning power and cooling capacity saving resources and mitigating hazards. Previous approaches to such testing have employed an ad hoc collection of tools, which have been anecdotally perceived to produce a heavy system load. In this report, we present SystemBurn, a software tool engineered to allow a system user to methodically create a maximal system load on large scale systems for the purposes of testing and validation.

Dobson, Jonathan D [ORNL; Kuehn, Jeffery A [ORNL; Poole, Stephen W [ORNL; Hodson, Stephen W [ORNL; Glandon, Steven R [ORNL; Reister, David B [ORNL; Lewkow, Nicholas R [ORNL; Peek, Jacob T [ORNL

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

SystemBurn: Principles of Design and Operation, Release 2.0  

SciTech Connect

As high performance computing technology progresses toward the progressively more extreme scales required to address critical computational problems of both national and global interest, power and cooling for these extreme scale systems is becoming a growing concern. A standardized methodology for testing system requirements under maximal system load and validating system environmental capability to meet those requirements is critical to maintaining system stability and minimizing power and cooling risks for high end data centers. Moreover, accurate testing permits the high end data center to avoid issues of under- or over-provisioning power and cooling capacity saving resources and mitigating hazards. Previous approaches to such testing have employed an ad hoc collection of tools, which have been anecdotally perceived to produce a heavy system load. In this report, we present SystemBurn, a software tool engineered to allow a system user to methodically create a maximal system load on large scale systems for the purposes of testing and validation.

Kuehn, Jeffery A [ORNL; Poole, Stephen W [ORNL; Hodson, Stephen W [ORNL; Lothian, Josh [ORNL; Dobson, Jonathan D [ORNL; Reister, David B [ORNL; Lewkow, Nicholas R [ORNL; Glandon, Steven R [ORNL; Peek, Jacob T [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

An Infrared Spectral Database for Detection of Gases Emitted by Biomass Burning  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We report the construction of a database of infrared spectra aimed at detecting the gases emitted by biomass burning (BB). The project uses many of the methods of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) infrared database, but the selection of the species and special experimental considerations are optimized. Each spectrum is a weighted average derived from 10 or more individual measurements. Each composite has a spectral range from ? 600 cm-1 to ? 6500 cm-1 with an instrumental apodized resolution of 0.11 cm-1. The resolution was chosen to bring out all spectral features, but recognizing that pressure broadening at 760 Torr results in essentially all ro-vibrational lines having these or greater linewidths.

Johnson, Timothy J.; Profeta, Luisa TM; Sams, Robert L.; Griffith, David WT; Yokelson, Robert L.

2010-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

392

Impact of biomass burning aerosol on the monsoon circulation transition over Amazonia  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Ensemble simulations of a regional climate model (RegCM3) forced by aerosol radiative forcing suggest that biomass burning aerosols can work against the seasonal monsoon circulation transition, thus re-enforce the dry season rainfall pattern for Southern Amazonia. Strongly absorbing smoke aerosols warm and stabilize the lower troposphere within the smoke center in southern Amazonia (where aerosol optical depth > 0.3). These changes increase the surface pressure in the smoke center, weaken the southward surface pressure gradient between northern and southern Amazonia, and consequently induce an anomalous moisture divergence in the smoke center and an anomalous convergence occurs in northwestern Amazonia (5S-5N, 60W-40 70W). The increased atmospheric thermodynamic stability, surface pressure, and divergent flow in Southern Amazonia may inhibit synoptic cyclonic activities propagated from extratropical South America, and re-enforce winter-like synoptic cyclonic activities and rainfall in southeastern Brazil, Paraguay and northeastern Argentina.

Zhang, Y.; Fu, Rong; Yu, Hongbin; Qian, Yun; Dickinson, Robert; Silva Dias, Maria Assuncao F.; da Silva Dias, Pedro L.; Fernandes, Katia

2009-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

393

Vortex combustor for low NOx emissions when burning lean premixed high hydrogen content fuel  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A trapped vortex combustor. The trapped vortex combustor is configured for receiving a lean premixed gaseous fuel and oxidant stream, where the fuel includes hydrogen gas. The trapped vortex combustor is configured to receive the lean premixed fuel and oxidant stream at a velocity which significantly exceeds combustion flame speed in a selected lean premixed fuel and oxidant mixture. The combustor is configured to operate at relatively high bulk fluid velocities while maintaining stable combustion, and low NOx emissions. The combustor is useful in gas turbines in a process of burning synfuels, as it offers the opportunity to avoid use of diluent gas to reduce combustion temperatures. The combustor also offers the possibility of avoiding the use of selected catalytic reaction units for removal of oxides of nitrogen from combustion gases exiting a gas turbine.

Steele, Robert C. (Woodinville, WA); Edmonds, Ryan G. (Renton, WA); Williams, Joseph T. (Kirkland, WA); Baldwin, Stephen P. (Winchester, MA)

2009-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

394

Influence of aerosols from biomass burning on the spectral analysis of Cherenkov telescopes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

During the last decade, imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs) have proven themselves as astronomical detectors in the very-high-energy (VHE; E>0.1 TeV) regime. The IACT technique observes the VHE photons indirectly, using the Earth's atmosphere as a calorimeter. Much of the calibration of Cherenkov telescope experiments is done using Monte Carlo simulations of the air shower development, Cherenkov radiation and detector, assuming certain models for the atmospheric conditions. Any deviation of the real conditions during observations from the assumed atmospheric model will result in a wrong reconstruction of the primary gamma-ray energy and the resulting source spectra. During eight years of observations, the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) has experienced periodic natural as well as anthropogenic variations of the atmospheric transparency due to aerosols created by biomass burning. In order to identify data that have been taken under such long-term reductions in atmospheric transparency, ...

Reyes, R de los; Bernloehr, K; Krueger, P; Deil, C; Gast, H; Kosack, K; Marandon, V

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Investigation of the fundamental constants stability based on the reactor Oklo burn-up analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The burn-up for SC56-1472 sample of the natural Oklo reactor zone 3 was calculated using the modern Monte Carlo codes. We reconstructed the neutron spectrum in the core by means of the isotope ratios: $^{147}$Sm/$^{148}$Sm and $^{176}$Lu/$^{175}$Lu. These ratios unambiguously determine the spectrum index and core temperature. The effective neutron absorption cross section of $^{149}$Sm calculated using this spectrum was compared with experimental one. The disagreement between these two values allows to limit a possible shift of the low laying resonance of $^{149}$Sm even more . Then, these limits were converted to the limits for the change of the fine structure constant $\\alpha$. We found that for the rate of $\\alpha$ change the inequality $|\\delta \\dot{\\alpha}/\\alpha| \\le 5\\cdot 10^{-18}$ is fulfilled, which is of the next higher order than our previous limit.

M. S. Onegin

2010-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

396

Ex-vessel remote maintenance development plans for the Burning Plasma Experiment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Remote maintenance (RM) is fundamental to the basic design requirements of the Burning Plasma Experiment (BPX), and an extensive RM development and demonstration program is planned to meet these requirements. The program first draws from the experience base that exists in the fission community and Europe's Joint European Torus (JET) Project. Successful solutions are applied where possible and, in many cases, improved in order to achieve the performance demanded by a multiyear program that must be capable of efficiently executing RM procedures. Early, concurrent efforts in the design and fabrication of prototype remote handling (RH) equipment, remote tooling, and maintainable machine components will precede an extensive use of mock-up equipment in order to test, develop, and demonstrate the technology. 7 refs,. 5 figs.

Burgess, T.W.; Davis, F.C.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Transmutation Analysis of Enriched Uranium and Deep Burn High Temperature Reactors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High temperature reactors (HTRs) have been under consideration for production of electricity, process heat, and for destruction of transuranics for decades. As part of the transmutation analysis efforts within the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR&D) campaign, a need was identified for detailed discharge isotopics from HTRs for use in the VISION code. A conventional HTR using enriched uranium in UCO fuel was modeled having discharge burnup of 120 GWd/MTiHM. Also, a deep burn HTR (DB-HTR) was modeled burning transuranic (TRU)-only TRU-O2 fuel to a discharge burnup of 648 GWd/MTiHM. For each of these cases, unit cell depletion calculations were performed with SCALE/TRITON. Unit cells were used to perform this analysis using SCALE 6.1. Because of the long mean free paths (and migration lengths) of neutrons in HTRs, using a unit cell to represent a whole core can be non-trivial. The sizes of these cells were first set by using Serpent calculations to match a spectral index between unit cell and whole core domains. In the case of the DB-HTR, the unit cell which was arrived at in this way conserved the ratio of fuel to moderator found in a single block of fuel. In the conventional HTR case, a larger moderator-to-fuel ratio than that of a single block was needed to simulate the whole core spectrum. Discharge isotopics (for 500 nuclides) and one-group cross-sections (for 1022 nuclides) were delivered to the transmutation analysis team. This report provides documentation for these calculations. In addition to the discharge isotopics, one-group cross-sections were provided for the full list of 1022 nuclides tracked in the transmutation library.

Michael A. Pope

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Coated Particle Fuel and Deep Burn Program Monthly Highlights April 2011  

SciTech Connect

The baseline change proposal BCP-FCRD-11026 submitted to change the due date for M21AF080202 'Demonstrate fabrication of Transuranic kernels of Plutonium-239/3.5at%Neptunium-237 using newly installed glove box facilities in ORNL 7930 hot cell complex' from 4/25/11 to 3/30/12 was approved this month. During FY 2011 the CP & DB Program will report Highlights on a monthly basis, but will no longer produce Quarterly Progress Reports. Technical details that were previously included in the quarterly reports will be included in the appropriate Milestone Reports that are submitted to FCRD Program Management. These reports will also be uploaded to the Deep Burn website. The Monthly Highlights report for March 2011, ORNL/TM-2011/96, was distributed to program participants on April 8, 2011. As reported previously, the final Quarterly for FY 2010, Deep Burn Program Quarterly Report for July - September 2010, ORNL/TM-2010/301, was announced to program participants and posted to the website on December 28, 2010. This report discusses the following: (1) Thermochemical Data and Model Development - (a) Thermochemical Modeling, (b) Thermomechanical Behavior, (c) Actinide and Fission Product Transport, (d) Radiation Damage and Properties; (2) TRU (transuranic elements) TRISO (tri-structural isotropic) Development - (a) TRU Kernel Development, (b) Coating Development; (3) Advanced TRISO Applications - Metal Matrix Fuels for LWR; (4) LWR Fully Ceramic Fuel - (a) FCM Fabrication Development, (b) FCM Irradiation Testing; (5) Fuel Performance and Analytical Analysis - Fuel Performance Modeling; and (6) ZrC Properties and Handbook - Properties of ZrC.

Snead, Lance Lewis [ORNL; Bell, Gary L [ORNL; Besmann, Theodore M [ORNL

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Nonphotochemical Hole-Burning Studies of Energy Transfer Dynamics in Antenna Complexes of Photosynthetic Bacteria  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This thesis contains the candidate's original work on excitonic structure and energy transfer dynamics of two bacterial antenna complexes as studied using spectral hole-burning spectroscopy. The general introduction is divided into two chapters (1 and 2). Chapter 1 provides background material on photosynthesis and bacterial antenna complexes with emphasis on the two bacterial antenna systems related to the thesis research. Chapter 2 reviews the underlying principles and mechanism of persistent nonphotochemical hole-burning (NPHB) spectroscopy. Relevant energy transfer theories are also discussed. Chapters 3 and 4 are papers by the candidate that have been published. Chapter 3 describes the application of NPHB spectroscopy to the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) complex from the green sulfur bacterium Prosthecochloris aestuarii; emphasis is on determination of the low energy vibrational structure that is important for understanding the energy transfer process associated within three lowest energy Q{sub y}-states of the complex. The results are compared with those obtained earlier on the FMO complex from Chlorobium tepidum. In Chapter 4, the energy transfer dynamics of the B800 molecules of intact LH2 and B800-deficient LH2 complexes of the purple bacterium Rhodopseudomonas acidophila are compared. New insights on the additional decay channel of the B800 ring of bacteriochlorophyll{sub a} (BChl{sub a}) molecules are provided. General conclusions are given in Chapter 5. A version of the hole spectrum simulation program written by the candidate for the FMO complex study (Chapter 3) is included as an appendix. The references for each chapter are given at the end of each chapter.

Satoshi Matsuzaki

2002-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

400

Modeling the spectral optical properties of ammonium sulfate and biomass burning aerosols  

SciTech Connect

The importance of including the global and regional radiative effects of aerosols in climate models has increasingly been realized. Accurate modeling of solar radiative forcing due to aerosols from anthropogenic sulfate and biomass burning emissions requires adequate spectral resolution and treatment of spatial and temporal variability. The variation of aerosol spectral optical properties with local relative humidity and dry aerosol composition must be considered. Because the cost of directly including Mie calculations within a climate model is prohibitive, parameterizations from offline calculations must be used. Starting from a log-normal size distribution of dry ammonium sulfate, we developed optical properties for tropospheric sulfate aerosol at 15 relative humidities up to 99 percent. The resulting aerosol size distributions were then used to calculate bulk optical properties at wavelengths between 0.175 {micro}m and 4 {micro}m. Finally, functional fits of optical properties were made for each of 12 wavelength bands as a function of relative humidity. Significant variations in optical properties occurred across the total solar spectrum. Relative increases in specific extinction and asymmetry factor with increasing relative humidity became larger at longer wavelengths. Significant variation in single-scattering albedo was found only in the longest near-IR band. This is also the band with the lowest albedo. A similar treatment was done for aerosols from biomass burning. In this case, size distributions were taken as having two carbonaceous size modes and a larger dust mode. The two carbonaceous modes were considered to be humidity dependent. Equilibrium size distributions and compositions were calculated for 15 relative humidities and five black carbon fractions. Mie calculations and Chandrasekhar averages of optical properties were done for each of the resulting 75 cases. Finally, fits were made for each of 12 spectral bands as functions of relative humidity and black carbon fraction.

Grant, K.E.; Chuang, C.C.; Grossman, A.S.; Penner, J.E. [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "a-area burning rubble" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Vertical distribution and radiative effects of mineral dust and biomass burning aerosol over West Africa during DABEX  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents measurements of the vertical distribution of aerosol extinction coefficient over West Africa, during the Dust and Biomass burning aerosol Experiment (DABEX) / African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis dry season Special Observing period zero (AMMA-SOP0). In situ aircraft measurements from the UK FAAM aircraft are compared with two ground based lidars (POLIS and ARM MPL) and an airborne lidar on an ultra-light aircraft. In general mineral dust was observed at low altitudes (up to 2km) and a mixture of biomass burning aerosol and dust was observed at altitudes of 2-5km. The study exposes difficulties associated with spatial and temporal variability when inter-comparing aircraft and ground measurements. Averaging over many profiles provided a better means of assessing consistent errors and biases associated with in situ sampling instruments and retrievals of lidar ratios. Shortwave radiative transfer calculations and a 3-year simulation with the HadGEM2-A climate model show that the radiative effect of biomass burning aerosol is somewhat sensitive to the vertical distribution of aerosol. Results show a 15% increase in absorption of solar radiation by elevated biomass burning aerosol when the observed low-level dust layer is included as part of the background atmospheric state in the model. This illustrates that the radiative forcing of anthropogenic absorbing aerosol is sensitive to the treatment of other aerosol species and that care is needed in simulating natural aerosols assumed to exist in the pre-industrial, or natural state of the atmosphere.

Johnson, Ben; Heese, B.; McFarlane, Sally A.; Chazette, P.; Jones, A.; Bellouin, N.

2008-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

402

Photochemical hole burning and strong electron-phonon coupling: primary donor states of reaction centers of photosynthetic bacteria  

SciTech Connect

A theory for photochemical hole burning valid for arbitrarily strong linear electron-phonon coupling is developed and applied to the P-870 and P-960 states of Rh. sphaeroides and viridis. The mechanism responsible for the unusually large hole widths of these states is established.

Hayes, J.M.; Small, G.J.

1986-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

403

L. John Perkins LLNL 5/8/01 Ignition/Burn is a Done Deal Or is It?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

critical at Hanford (fission's "ignition/burn" experiment) 1945 The rest is history! #12;L. John Perkins There is No Fusion Analogy (Unfortunately!) 4m ~4.5m CP-1 FIRE #12;L. John Perkins LLNL 5/8/01 The Hanford Pile B-100's sub-critical experiments (No parallel) Fermi's CP-1 zero power pile ITER / FIRE / Ignitor.... Hanford

404

ERRATA SHEET for Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 490: Station 44 Burn Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

Section 2.1.1.3 of the Table of Contents reference on Page v and on Page 12 of the Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 490: Station 44 Burn Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada erroneously refers to the Nevada Environmental Policy Act Determination. The correct title of the referenced document is the National Environmental Policy Act Determination.

K. B. Campbell

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

The Persistence of Seeding Effects in a Winter Orographic Cloud Seeded with Silver Iodide Burned in Acetone  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A single case-study of a winter orographic cloud over the central Sierra Nevada is presented in which the effects of aerial seeding with silver iodide, an AgI NH4C1O4 mixture burned in acetone, were observed to persist for over 90 min after ...

Terry Deshler; David W. Reynolds

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Revision of the 15N(p,?)16O reaction rate and oxygen abundance in H-burning zones  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The NO cycle takes place in the deepest layer of a H-burning core or shell, when the temperature exceeds T {\\simeq} 30 {\\cdot} 106 K. The O depletion observed in some globular cluster giant stars, always associated with a Na enhancement, may be due to either a deep mixing during the RGB (red giant branch) phase of the star or to the pollution of the primordial gas by an early population of massive AGB (asymptotic giant branch) stars, whose chemical composition was modified by the hot bottom burning. In both cases, the NO cycle is responsible for the O depletion. The activation of this cycle depends on the rate of the 15N(p,{\\gamma})16O reaction. A precise evaluation of this reaction rate at temperatures as low as experienced in H-burning zones in stellar interiors is mandatory to understand the observed O abundances. We present a new measurement of the 15N(p,{\\gamma})16O reaction performed at LUNA covering for the first time the center of mass energy range 70-370 keV, which corresponds to stellar temperatures between 65 {\\cdot} 106 K and 780 {\\cdot}106 K. This range includes the 15N(p,{\\gamma})16O Gamow-peak energy of explosive H-burning taking place in the external layer of a nova and the one of the hot bottom burning (HBB) nucleosynthesis occurring in massive AGB stars. With the present data, we are also able to confirm the result of the previous R-matrix extrapolation. In particular, in the temperature range of astrophysical interest, the new rate is about a factor of 2 smaller than reported in the widely adopted compilation of reaction rates (NACRE or CF88) and the uncertainty is now reduced down to the 10% level.

A. Caciolli; C. Mazzocchi; V. Capogrosso; D. Bemmerer; C. Broggini; P. Corvisiero; H. Costantini; Z. Elekes; A. Formicola; Zs. Fulop; G. Gervino; A. Guglielmetti; C. Gustavino; Gy. Gyurky; G. Imbriani; M. Junker; A. Lemut; M. Marta; R. Menegazzo; S. Palmerini; P. Prati; V. Roca; C. Rolfs; C. Rossi Alvarez; E. Somorjai; O. Straniero; F. Strieder; F. Terrasi; H. P. Trautvetter; A. Vomiero

2011-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

407

Analysis of mass loss of a coal particle during the course of burning in a flow of inert material  

SciTech Connect

This paper is an attempt to explain the role of erosion during the process of coal combustion in a circulating fluidized bed. Different kinds of carbon deposits found in Poland, both bituminous as well as lignite with the particle of 10 mm in diameter were the subject of the research. According to many publications it is well known that erosion plays a significant role in coal combustion, by changing its mechanism as well as generating an additional mass loss of the mother particle. The purpose of this research was to determine the influence of an inert material on an erosive mass loss of a single coal particle burning in a two-phase flow. The determination of the influence of a coal type, the rate of flow of inert material and the temperature inside the furnace on the erosive mass loss of burning coal particle was also taken into consideration. The results obtained indicate that the velocity of the erosive mass loss depends on the chemical composition and petrographic structure of burning coal. The mechanical interaction of inert and burning coal particles leads to the shortening of the period of overall mass loss of the coal particle by even two times. The increase in the rate of flow of the inert material intensifies the generation of mass loss by up to 100%. The drop in temperature which slows down the combustion process, decreases the mass loss of the coal particle as the result of mechanical interaction of the inert material. As was observed, the process of percolation plays a significant role by weakening the surface of the burning coal. (author)

Pelka, Piotr [Czestochowa University of Technology, Department of Boilers and Thermodynamics, Armii Krajowej 19c, Czestochowa, Silesia 42-200 (Poland)

2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

408

GROUP 4: Is biomass burning carbon-neutral? Global environment aspect. It is argued that since trees take CO2 out of the air and give off oxygen as they grow,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

GROUP 4: Is biomass burning carbon-neutral? Global environment aspect. It is argued that since trees take CO2 out of the air and give off oxygen as they grow, that by burning them we are just putting in terms of CO2 in the atmosphere. Investigate the national scene, which seems very pro- biomass burning

409

A feasibility study of reactor-based deep-burn concepts.  

SciTech Connect

A systematic assessment of the General Atomics (GA) proposed Deep-Burn concept based on the Modular Helium-Cooled Reactor design (DB-MHR) has been performed. Preliminary benchmarking of deterministic physics codes was done by comparing code results to those from MONTEBURNS (MCNP-ORIGEN) calculations. Detailed fuel cycle analyses were performed in order to provide an independent evaluation of the physics and transmutation performance of the one-pass and two-pass concepts. Key performance parameters such as transuranic consumption, reactor performance, and spent fuel characteristics were analyzed. This effort has been undertaken in close collaborations with the General Atomics design team and Brookhaven National Laboratory evaluation team. The study was performed primarily for a 600 MWt reference DB-MHR design having a power density of 4.7 MW/m{sup 3}. Based on parametric and sensitivity study, it was determined that the maximum burnup (TRU consumption) can be obtained using optimum values of 200 {micro}m and 20% for the fuel kernel diameter and fuel packing fraction, respectively. These values were retained for most of the one-pass and two-pass design calculations; variation to the packing fraction was necessary for the second stage of the two-pass concept. Using a four-batch fuel management scheme for the one-pass DB-MHR core, it was possible to obtain a TRU consumption of 58% and a cycle length of 286 EFPD. By increasing the core power to 800 MWt and the power density to 6.2 MW/m{sup 3}, it was possible to increase the TRU consumption to 60%, although the cycle length decreased by {approx}64 days. The higher TRU consumption (burnup) is due to the reduction of the in-core decay of fissile Pu-241 to Am-241 relative to fission, arising from the higher power density (specific power), which made the fuel more reactivity over time. It was also found that the TRU consumption can be improved by utilizing axial fuel shuffling or by operating with lower material temperatures (colder core). Results also showed that the transmutation performance of the one-pass deep-burn concept is sensitive to the initial TRU vector, primarily because longer cooling time reduces the fissile content (Pu-241 specifically.) With a cooling time of 5 years, the TRU consumption increases to 67%, while conversely, with 20-year cooling the TRU consumption is about 58%. For the two-pass DB-MHR (TRU recycling option), a fuel packing fraction of about 30% is required in the second pass (the recycled TRU). It was found that using a heterogeneous core (homogeneous fuel element) concept, the TRU consumption is dependent on the cooling interval before the 2nd pass, again due to Pu-241 decay during the time lag between the first pass fuel discharge and the second pass fuel charge. With a cooling interval of 7 years (5 and 2 years before and after reprocessing) a TRU consumption of 55% is obtained. With an assumed ''no cooling'' interval, the TRU consumption is 63%. By using a cylindrical core to reduce neutron leakage, TRU consumption of the case with 7-year cooling interval increases to 58%. For a two-pass concept using a heterogeneous fuel element (and homogeneous core) with first and second pass volume ratio of 2:1, the TRU consumption is 62.4%. Finally, the repository loading benefits arising from the deep-burn and Inert Matrix Fuel (IMF) concepts were estimated and compared, for the same initial TRU vector. The DB-MHR concept resulted in slightly higher TRU consumption and repository loading benefit compared to the IMF concept (58.1% versus 55.1% for TRU consumption and 2.0 versus 1.6 for estimated repository loading benefit).

Kim, T. K.; Taiwo, T. A.; Hill, R. N.; Yang, W. S.

2005-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

410

OXIDATION OF MERCURY ACROSS SCR CATALYSTS IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS BURNING LOW RANK FUELS  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this program were to measure the oxidation of mercury in flue gas across SCR catalyst in a coal-fired power plant burning low rank fuels using a slipstream reactor containing multiple commercial catalysts in parallel and to develop a greater understanding of mercury oxidation across SCR catalysts in the form of a simple model. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Argillon GmbH provided co-funding for this program. REI used a multicatalyst slipstream reactor to determine oxidation of mercury across five commercial SCR catalysts at a power plant that burned a blend of 87% subbituminous coal and 13% bituminous coal. The chlorine content of the blend was 100 to 240 {micro}g/g on a dry basis. Mercury measurements were carried out when the catalysts were relatively new, corresponding to about 300 hours of operation and again after 2,200 hours of operation. NO{sub x}, O{sub 2} and gaseous mercury speciation at the inlet and at the outlet of each catalyst chamber were measured. In general, the catalysts all appeared capable of achieving about 90% NO{sub x} reduction at a space velocity of 3,000 hr{sup -1} when new, which is typical of full-scale installations; after 2,200 hours exposure to flue gas, some of the catalysts appeared to lose NO{sub x} activity. For the fresh commercial catalysts, oxidation of mercury was in the range of 25% to 65% at typical full-scale space velocities. A blank monolith showed no oxidation of mercury under any conditions. All catalysts showed higher mercury oxidation without ammonia, consistent with full-scale measurements. After exposure to flue gas for 2,200 hours, some of the catalysts showed reduced levels of mercury oxidation relative to the initial levels of oxidation. A model of Hg oxidation across SCRs was formulated based on full-scale data. The model took into account the effects of temperature, space velocity, catalyst type and HCl concentration in the flue gas.

Constance Senior

2004-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

411

Conceptual Design study of Small Long-life Gas Cooled Fast Reactor With Modified CANDLE Burn-up Scheme  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, conceptual design study of Small Long-life Gas Cooled Fast Reactors with Natural Uranium as Fuel Cycle Input has been performed. In this study Gas Cooled Fast Reactor is slightly modified by employing modified CANDLE burn-up scheme so that it can use Natural Uranium as fuel cycle input. Due to their hard spectrum, GCFR in this study showed very good performance in converting U-238 to plutonium in order to maintain the operation condition requirement of long-life reactors. Due to the limitation of thermal hydraulic aspects, the average power density of the proposed design is selected about 70 W/cc. With such condition we got an optimal design of 325 MWt reactors which can be operated 10 years without refueling and fuel shuffling and just need natural uranium as fuel cycle input. The average discharge burn-up is about 290 GWd/ton HM.

Nur Asiah, A.; Su'ud, Zaki [Nuclear Physics and Biophysics Research Division, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia); Ferhat, A. [National Nuclear Energ Agency of Indonesia (BATAN) (Indonesia); Sekimoto, H. [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan)

2010-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

412

Method for detecting and correcting for isotope burn-in during long-term neutron dosimetry exposure  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for detecting and correcting for isotope burn-in during-long term neutron dosimetry exposure. In one embodiment, duplicate pairs of solid state track recorder fissionable deposits are used, including a first, fissionable deposit of lower mass to quantify the number of fissions occuring during the exposure, and a second deposit of higher mass to quantify the number of atoms of for instance .sup.239 Pu by alpha counting. In a second embodiment, only one solid state track recorder fissionable deposit is used and the resulting higher track densities are counted with a scanning electron microscope. This method is also applicable to other burn-in interferences, e.g., .sup.233 U in .sup.232 Th or .sup.238 Pu in .sup.237 Np.

Ruddy, Francis H. (Monroeville, PA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) Assessment FINAL Specialist Report GEOLOGIC HAZARDS Station Fire, Angeles N.F.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Three USFS BAER Team geologists assessed increased risks from geologic hazards within the 161,000 acre Station Fire. Watershed response to moderate and high severity burned areas will depend on storm intensity and duration, but is likely to be threatening to life, property and natural resources, and costly. Even small storms have a high to severe relative hazard rating for dangerous debris flows across most of the burned area. Most treatments to reduce debris flow risk were deemed not feasible, not effective, and cost prohibitive. Rockfall, debris slides and dry ravel will add additional hazard and sediment bulk to flood flows. Debris basins will fill quickly, and could overtop and damage downstream communities and infrastructure. Debris storage sites are lacking. Abandoned mines are exposed and add additional hazards. Treatment options are few, and warning systems and public education are critical.

Jerry Degraff Geologist; Sierra N. F; Jonathan Yonni; Schwartz Geologist; Angeles N. F

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Production of 26Al, 44Ti and 60Fe in Supernovae-sensitivity to the helium burning rates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have studied the sensitivity of supernova production of the gamma emitting nuclei 26Al, 44Ti and 60Fe to variations of the rates of the triple alpha and 12C(alpha, gamma) reactions. Over a range of twice their experimental uncertainties we find variations in the production of 60Fe by more than a factor of five. Smaller variations, about a factor of two to three, were observed for 26Al and 44Ti. The yields of these isotopes change significantly when the abundances of Lodders (2003) are used instead of those of Anders and Grevesse (1989). These sensitivities will limit conclusions based on a comparison of observed gamma ray intensities and stellar models until the helium burning rates are better known. Prospects for improving the helium burning rates are discussed and a new version of the Boyes rate for 12C(alpha, gamma} is presented.

Clarisse Tur; Alexander Heger; Sam M. Austin

2010-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

415

JV Task 126 - Mercury Control Technologies for Electric Utilities Burning Bituminous Coal  

SciTech Connect

The EERC developed an applied research consortium project to test cost-effective mercury (Hg) control technologies for utilities burning bituminous coals. The project goal was to test innovative Hg control technologies that have the potential to reduce Hg emissions from bituminous coal-fired power plants by {ge}90% at costs of one-half to three-quarters of current estimates for activated carbon injection (ACI). Hg control technology evaluations were performed using the EERC's combustion test facility (CTF). The CTF was fired on pulverized bituminous coals at 550,000 Btu/hr (580 MJ/hr). The CTF was configured with the following air pollution control devices (APCDs): selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit, electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and wet flue gas desulfurization system (WFDS). The Hg control technologies investigated as part of this project included ACI (three Norit Americas, Inc., and eleven Envergex sorbents), elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) oxidation catalysts (i.e., the noble metals in Hitachi Zosen, Cormetech, and Hitachi SCR catalysts), sorbent enhancement additives (SEAs) (a proprietary EERC additive, trona, and limestone), and blending with a Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal. These Hg control technologies were evaluated separately, and many were also tested in combination.

Jason Laumb; John Kay; Michael Jones; Brandon Pavlish; Nicholas Lentz; Donald McCollor; Kevin Galbreath

2009-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

416

Quantitative measurement of atomic sodium in the plume of a single burning coal particle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The release of volatile sodium during coal combustion is a significant factor in the fouling and corrosion of heat transfer surfaces within industrial coal-fired boilers. A method for measuring the temporal release of atomic sodium from a single coal particle is described. Laser absorption was used to calibrate laser-induced fluorescence measurements of atomic sodium utilising the sodium D1 line (589.59 nm) in a purpose-designed flat flame environment. The calibration was then applied to planar laser-induced fluorescence measurements of sodium atoms in the plume from a single Victorian brown coal particle (53 mg) suspended within the flat flame. The peak concentration of atomic sodium was approximately 64.1 ppb after 1080.5 s, which appears to correspond to the end of char combustion. To our knowledge this is the first in situ quantitative measurement of the concentration field of atomic sodium in the plume above a burning particle. A simple kinetic model has been used to estimate the rate of sodium decay in the post-flame gases. Comparison of the estimated and measured decay rates showed reasonable agreement. (author)

van Eyk, P.J.; Ashman, P.J.; Alwahabi, Z.T. [Cooperative Research Centre for Clean Power from Lignite, School of Chemical Engineering, The University of Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia); Nathan, G.J. [School of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia)

2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

417

LAKESHORE AVON BR ANT-EDEN ALD EN-LANC ASTER AU BURN W SH ELDON  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

81 81 § ¨ ¦ 81 LAKESHORE AVON BR ANT-EDEN ALD EN-LANC ASTER AU BURN W SH ELDON CALEDONIA HURON C REEK LEIC EST ER COL DEN ASH FORD INDIAN FALLS LAWTONS SAR DINIA RPD-037 -2 GLENWOOD PU LASKI PAVILION CON CORD COL LINS N ELM A ORC HARD PARK-H AMBU RG DANLEY CORNERS ST ILLWAT ER CHAFF EE-ARCAD E FAYETT E-WATERLOO LAKEVIEW JAVA SEN EC A W ELLER Y AU RORA E ZOAR BU FFALO TIOGA SILVER LAKE AKR ON ROM E RAT HBON E ALM A BET HANY WYOMING ULYSSES BR ANCH W SAN DY CREEK COL LINS BLOOMFIELD E LEBANON STATE LINE ALLEN CHUR CHVILLE BATH ATT ICA ELLI COT VILLE ROU LETT E BR ADFORD BU FFALO CREEK PEN N YAN N BEECH HILL-INDEPENDENC E GERRY-CH ARLOTTE STAGECOACH CHIPMUN K HEBRON VIN CENT BALD WI NSVILLE AKELEY OLEAN COWLESVILLE AN NIN SMET HPORT BR ADLEY BR OOK BU STI FIVE MILE BLOOMFIELD W SEN EC A FALLS NILE STAGECOACH LEWIS R UN BR ADFORD CAMDEN VAN ETT EN ROAN OKE SH ARON RICHBU RG FULTON N FINN EGAN H ILL TONAWANDA

418

Fast-regenerable sulfur dioxide absorbents for lean-burn diesel engine emission control  

SciTech Connect

It is known that sulfur oxides contribute significantly and deleteriously to the overall performance of lean-burn diesel engine aftertreatment systems, especially in the case of NOx traps. A Ag-based, fast regenerable SO2 absorbent has been developed and will be described. Over a temperature range of 300oC to 550oC, it absorbs almost all of the SO2 in the simulated exhaust gases during the lean cycles and can be fully regenerated by the short rich cycles at the same temperature. Its composition has been optimized as 1 wt% Pt-5wt%Ag-SiO2, and the preferred silica source for the supporting material has been identified as inert Cabosil fumed silica. The thermal instability of Ag2O under fuel-lean conditions at 230oC and above makes it possible to fast regenerate the sulfur-loaded absorbent during the following fuel-rich cycles. Pt catalyst helps reducing Ag2SO4 during rich cycles at low temperatures. And the chemically inert fumed SiO2 support gives the absorbent long term stability. This absorbent shows great potential to work under the same lean-rich cycling conditions as those imposed on the NOx traps, and thus, can protect the downstream particulate filter and the NOx trap from sulfur poisoning.

Li, Liyu; King, David L.

2010-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

419

Results of the PDF{trademark} test burn at Clifty Creek Station  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Process Derived Fuel (PDF{sup TM}) from the ENCOAL process is different from other coals used to generate steam for the power industry. Although PDF{sup TM} is currently produced from Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal, the coal structure changes during processing. Compared to the parent coal, PDF{sup TM} contains much less moisture and slightly lower volatile matter resulting in a higher heating value and higher ash per million Btu. These coal properties can potentially benefit utility boiler performance. Combining the high combustion reactivity typical of PRB coals with significantly reduced moisture should produce higher flame zone temperatures and shorter flames. As a result, some boilers may experience increased steam production, better burnout, or lower excess air. The objective of the work contracted to Quinapoxet Engineering was to quantify the impacts of burning PDF{sup TM} on boiler performance at Clifty Creek Unit 3. A unique optical temperature monitor called SpectraTemp was used to measure changes in furnace exit gas temperature (FEGT) with time and boiler operating parameters for both PDF{sup TM} blends as well as a baseline coal blend consisting of 60% PRB coal, 20% Ohio coal, and 20% low-volatile eastern bituminous coal from Virginia. FEGT was then related to net plant heat rate, NO{sub x} emissions, and electrostatic precipitator performance.

Johnson, S.A.; Knottnerus, B.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

A compact breed and burn fast reactor using spent nuclear fuel blanket  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A long-life breed-and-burn (B and B) type fast reactor has been investigated from the neutronics points of view. The B and B reactor has the capability to breed the fissile fuels and use the bred fuel in situ in the same reactor. In this work, feasibility of a compact sodium-cooled B and B fast reactor using spent nuclear fuel as blanket material has been studied. In order to derive a compact B and B fast reactor, a tight fuel lattice and relatively large fuel pin are used to achieve high fuel volume fraction. The core is initially loaded with an LEU (Low Enriched Uranium) fuel and a metallic fuel is used in the core. The Monte Carlo depletion has been performed for the core to see the long-term behavior of the B and B reactor. Several important parameters such as reactivity coefficients, delayed neutron fraction, prompt neutron generation lifetime, fission power, and fast neutron fluence, are analyzed through Monte Carlo reactor analysis. Evolution of the core fuel composition is also analyzed as a function of burnup. Although the long-life small B and B fast reactor is found to be feasible from the neutronics point of view, it is characterized to have several challenging technical issues including a very high fast neutron fluence of the structural materials. (authors)

Hartanto, D.; Kim, Y. [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology KAIST, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "a-area burning rubble" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Molecular Characterization of Biomass Burning Aerosols Using High Resolution Mass Spectrometry  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Chemical characterizations of atmospheric aerosols is a serious analytical challenge because of the complexity of particulate matter analyte composed of a large number of compounds with a wide range of molecular structures, physico-chemical properties, and reactivity. In this study chemical composition of biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA) samples is characterized by high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI/MS). Accurate mass measurement combined with Kendrick analysis allowed us to assign elemental composition for hundreds of compounds in the range of m/z values of 50-1000. ESI/MS spectra of different BBOA samples contain a variety of distinct, sample specific, characteristic peaks that can be used as unique markers for different types of biofuels. Our results indicate that a significant number of high-MW organic compounds in BBOA samples are highly oxidized polar species that can be efficiently detected using ESI/MS but are difficult to observe using the conventional GCMS analysis of aerosol samples. The average O:C ratios obtained for each of the BBOA samples studied in this work are in a strikingly good agreement with the previously reported values obtained using STXM/NEXAFS. The degree of unsaturation of detected organic compounds shows a clear decrease with increase in the molecular weight of the anyalyte molecules. The decrease is particularly pronounced for the samples containing a large number of CH2-based homologous series.

Smith, Jeffrey S.; Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Julia

2009-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

422

Propagation of nuclear data uncertainties for ELECTRA burn-up calculations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The European Lead-Cooled Training Reactor (ELECTRA) has been proposed as a training reactor for fast systems within the Swedish nuclear program. It is a low-power fast reactor cooled by pure liquid lead. In this work, we propagate the uncertainties in Pu-239 transport data to uncertainties in the fuel inventory of ELECTRA during the reactor life using the Total Monte Carlo approach (TMC). Within the TENDL project the nuclear models input parameters were randomized within their uncertainties and 740 Pu-239 nuclear data libraries were generated. These libraries are used as inputs to reactor codes, in our case SERPENT, to perform uncertainty analysis of nuclear reactor inventory during burn-up. The uncertainty in the inventory determines uncertainties in: the long-term radio-toxicity, the decay heat, the evolution of reactivity parameters, gas pressure and volatile fission product content. In this work, a methodology called fast TMC is utilized, which reduces the overall calculation time. The uncertainty in the ...

ostrand, H; Duan, J; Gustavsson, C; Koning, A; Pomp, S; Rochman, D; Osterlund, M

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Burning of an hadronic star into a quark or a hybrid star  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the hydrodynamical transition from an hadronic star into a quark or a hybrid star. We discuss the possible mode of burning, using a fully relativistic formalism and realistic Equations of State in which hyperons can be present. We take into account the possibility that quarks form a diquark condensate. We also discuss the formation of a mixed phase of hadrons and quarks, and we indicate which region of the star can rapidly convert in various possible scenarios. An estimate of the final temperature of the system is provided. We find that the conversion process always corresponds to a deflagration and never to a detonation. Hydrodynamical instabilities can develop on the front. We estimate the increase in the conversion's velocity due to the formation of wrinkles and we find that, although the increase is significant, it is not sufficient to transform the deflagration into a detonation in essentially all realistic scenarios. Concerning convection, it does not always develop. In particular the system does not develop convection if hyperons are not present in the initial phase and if the newly formed quark phase is made of ungapped (or weakly gapped) quarks. At the contrary, the process of conversion from ungapped quark matter to gapped quarks always allows the formation of a convective layer. Finally, we discuss possible astrophysical implications of our results.

Alessandro Drago; Andrea Lavagno; Irene Parenti

2005-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

424

The Cellular Burning Regime in Type Ia Supernova Explosions - II. Flame Propagation into Vortical Fuel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the interaction of thermonuclear flames in Type Ia supernova explosions with vortical flows by means of numerical simulations. In our study, we focus on small scales, where the flame propagation is no longer dominated by the turbulent cascade originating from large-scale effects. Here, the flame propagation proceeds in the cellular burning regime, resulting from a balance between the Landau-Darrieus instability and its nonlinear stabilization. The interaction of a cellularly stabilized flame front with a vortical fuel flow is explored applying a variety of fuel densities and strengths of the velocity fluctuations. We find that the vortical flow can break up the cellular flame structure if it is sufficiently strong. In this case the flame structure adapts to the imprinted flow field. The transition from the cellularly stabilized front to the flame structure dominated by vortices of the flow proceeds in a smooth way. The implications of the results of our simulations for Type Ia Supernova explosion models are discussed.

F. K. Roepke; W. Hillebrandt; J. C. Niemeyer

2003-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

425

Propagation of nuclear data uncertainties for ELECTRA burn-up calculations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The European Lead-Cooled Training Reactor (ELECTRA) has been proposed as a training reactor for fast systems within the Swedish nuclear program. It is a low-power fast reactor cooled by pure liquid lead. In this work, we propagate the uncertainties in Pu-239 transport data to uncertainties in the fuel inventory of ELECTRA during the reactor life using the Total Monte Carlo approach (TMC). Within the TENDL project the nuclear models input parameters were randomized within their uncertainties and 740 Pu-239 nuclear data libraries were generated. These libraries are used as inputs to reactor codes, in our case SERPENT, to perform uncertainty analysis of nuclear reactor inventory during burn-up. The uncertainty in the inventory determines uncertainties in: the long-term radio-toxicity, the decay heat, the evolution of reactivity parameters, gas pressure and volatile fission product content. In this work, a methodology called fast TMC is utilized, which reduces the overall calculation time. The uncertainty in the long-term radiotoxicity, decay heat, gas pressure and volatile fission products were found to be insignificant. However, the uncertainty of some minor actinides were observed to be rather large and therefore their impact on multiple recycling should be investigated further. It was also found that, criticality benchmarks can be used to reduce inventory uncertainties due to nuclear data. Further studies are needed to include fission yield uncertainties, more isotopes, and a larger set of benchmarks.

H. Sjstrand; E. Alhassan; J. Duan; C. Gustavsson; A. Koning; S. Pomp; D. Rochman; M. sterlund

2013-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

426

Structure and marker mode of the primary electron donor state absorption of photosynthetic bacteria: Hole-burned spectra  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Structured photochemical hole-burned spectra are presented for P870 and P960 of the reaction centers (RC) of Rhodobacter sphaeroides and Rhodopseudomonas viridis. A special pair marker mode Franck-Condon progression is identified. The zero-phonon holes yield P870* and P960* decay times in good agreement with the time domain values. Site excitation energy selection is used to establish correlation between a higher energy RC state of Rps. viridis and P960*.

Johnson, S.G.; Tang, D.; Jankowiak, R.; Hayes, J.M.; Small, G.J. (Iowa State Univ., Ames (USA)); Tiede, D.M. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))

1989-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

427

Deep burn strategy for the optimized incineration of reactor waste plutonium in pebble bed high temperature gascooled reactors / Serfontein D.E.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In this thesis advanced fuel cycles for the incineration, i.e. deepburn, of weaponsgrade plutonium, reactorgrade plutonium from pressurised light water reactors and reactorgrade plutonium + (more)

Serfontein, Dawid Eduard.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

U.K. HiGEM: Simulations of Desert Dust and Biomass Burning Aerosols with a High-Resolution Atmospheric GCM  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The atmospheric component of the United Kingdoms new High-resolution Global Environmental Model (HiGEM) has been run with interactive aerosol schemes that include biomass burning and mineral dust. Dust emission, transport, and deposition are ...

M. J. Woodage; A. Slingo; S. Woodward; R. E. Comer

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Solar proton burning, photon and anti-neutrino disintegration of the deuteron in the relativistic field theory model of the deuteron  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The relativistic field theory model of the deuteron (RFMD) is applied to the calculation of the astrophysical factor S_{pp}(0) for the process of the solar proton burning p + p -> D + e^+ + \

A. N. Ivanov; H. Oberhummer; N. I. Troitskaya; M. Faber

1998-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

430

Monitoring Soil Erosion on a Burned Site in the Mojave-Great Basin Transition Zone: Final Report for the Jacob Fire Site  

SciTech Connect

A historic return interval of 100 years for large fires in the U.S. southwestern deserts is being replaced by one where fires may reoccur as frequently as every 20 to 30 years. The shortened return interval, which translates to an increase in fires, has implications for management of Soil Corrective Action Units (CAUs) and Corrective Action Sites (CASs) for which the Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office has responsibility. A series of studies was initiated at uncontaminated analog sites to better understand the possible impacts of erosion and transport by wind and water should contaminated soil sites burn. The first of these studies was undertaken at the Jacob Fire site approximately 12 kilometers (7.5 miles) north of Hiko, Nevada. A lightning-caused fire burned approximately 200 hectares during August 6-8, 2008. The site is representative of a transition between Mojave and Great Basin desert ecoregions on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), where the largest number of Soil CAUs/CASs are located. The area that burned at the Jacob Fire site was primarily a Coleogyne ramosissima (blackbrush) and Ephedra nevadensis (Mormon tea) community, also an abundant shrub assemblage in the similar transition zone on the NNSS. This report summarizes three years of measurements after the fire. Seven measurement campaigns at the Jacob Fire site were completed. Measurements were made on burned ridge (upland) and drainage sites, and on burned and unburned sites beneath and between vegetation. A Portable In-Situ Wind Erosion Lab (PI-SWERL) was used to estimate emissions of suspended particles at different wind speeds. Context for these measurements was provided through a meteorological tower that was installed at the Jacob Fire site to obtain local, relevant environmental parameters. Filter samples, collected from the exhaust of the PI-SWERL during measurements, were analyzed for chemical composition. Runoff and water erosion were quantified through a series of rainfall/runoff simulation tests in which controlled amounts of water were delivered to the soil surface in a specified amount of time. Runoff data were collected from understory and interspace soils on burned ridge and drainage areas. Runoff volume and suspended sediment in the runoff were sampled; the particle size distribution of the sediment was determined by laboratory analysis. Several land surface and soil characteristics associated with runoff were integrated by the calculation of site-specific curve numbers. Several vegetation surveys were conducted to assess post-burn recovery. Data from plots in both burned and unburned areas included species identification, counts, and location. Characterization of fire-affected area included measures at both the landscape scale and at specific sites. Although wind erosion measurements indicate that there are seasonal influences on almost all parameters measured, several trends were observed. PI-SWERL measurements indicated the potential for PM10 windblown dust emissions was higher on areas that were burned compared to areas that were not. Among the burned areas, understory soils in drainage areas were the most emissive, and interspace soils along burned ridges were least emissive. By 34 months after the burn (MAB), at the end of the study, emissions from all burned soil sites were virtually indistinguishable from unburned levels. Like the amount of emissions, the chemical signature of the fire (indicated by the EC-Soil ratio) was elevated immediately after the fire and approached pre-burn levels by 24 MAB. Thus, the potential for wind erosion at the Jacob Fire site, as measured by the amount and type of emissions, increased significantly after the fire and returned to unburned levels by 24 MAB. The effect of fire on the potential for water erosion at the Jacob Fire site was more ambiguous. Runoff and sediment from ridge interspace soils and unburned interspace soils were similar throughout the study period. Seldom, if ever, did runoff and sediment occur in burned drainage area soils. Fo

Miller, Julianne [DRI] DRI; Etyemezian, Vic [DRI] DRI; Cablk, Mary E. [DRI] DRI; Shillito, Rose [DRI] DRI; Shafer, David [DOE Grand Junction, Colorado] DOE Grand Junction, Colorado

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Predicted Effects of Prescribed Burning and Timber Management on Forest Recovery and Sustainability at Fort Benning, Georgia  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this work was to use a simple compartment model of soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) dynamics to predict forest recovery on degraded soils and forest sustainability, following recovery, under different regimes of prescribed fire and timber management. This report describes the model and a model-based analysis of the effect of prescribed burning and forest thinning or clearcutting on stand recovery and sustainability at Fort Benning, GA. I developed the model using Stella{reg_sign} Research Software (High Performance Systems, Inc., Hanover, NH) and parameterized the model using data from field studies at Fort Benning, literature sources, and parameter fitting. The model included (1) a tree biomass submodel that predicted aboveground and belowground tree biomass, (2) a litter production submodel that predicted the dynamics of herbaceous aboveground and belowground biomass, (3) a soil C and N submodel that predicted soil C and N stocks (to a 30 cm soil depth) and net soil N mineralization, and (4) an excess N submodel that calculated the difference between predicted plant N demands and soil N supplies. There was a modeled feedback from potential excess N (PEN) to tree growth such that forest growth was limited under conditions of N deficiency. Two experiments were performed for the model-based analysis. In the first experiment, forest recovery from barren soils was predicted for 100 years with or without prescribed burning and with or without timber management by thinning or clearcutting. In the second experiment, simulations began with 100 years of predicted forest growth in the absence of fire or harvesting, and sustainability was predicted for a further 100 years either with or without prescribed burning and with or without forest management. Four performance variables (aboveground tree biomass, soil C stocks, soil N stocks, and PEN) were used to evaluate the predicted effects of timber harvesting and prescribed burning on forest recovery and sustainability. Predictions of forest recovery and sustainability were directly affected by how prescribed fire affected PEN. Prescribed fire impacted soil N supplies by lowering predicted soil C and N stocks which reduced the soil N pool that contributed to the predicted annual flux of net soil N mineralization. On soils with inherently high N availability, increasing the fire frequency in combination with stand thinning or clearcutting had little effect on predictions of forest recovery and sustainability. However, experiments with the model indicated that combined effects of stand thinning (or clearcutting) and frequent prescribed burning could have adverse effects on forest recovery and sustainability when N availability was just at the point of limiting forest growth. Model predictions indicated that prescribed burning with a 3-year return interval would decrease soil C and N stocks but not adversely affect forest recovery from barren soils or sustainability following ecosystem recovery. On soils with inherently low N availability, prescribed burning with a 2-year return interval depressed predicted soil C and N stocks to the point where soil N deficiencies prevented forest recovery as well as forest sustainability following recovery.

Garten, C.T.,JR.

2004-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

432

Powder Metallurgy of Uranium Alloy Fuels for TRU-Burning Reactors Final Technical Report  

SciTech Connect

Overview Fast reactors were evaluated to enable the transmutation of transuranic isotopes generated by nuclear energy systems. The motivation for this was that TRU isotopes have high radiotoxicity and relatively long half-lives, making them unattractive for disposal in a long-term geologic repository. Fast reactors provide an efficient means to utilize the energy content of the TRUs while destroying them. An enabling technology that requires research and development is the fabrication metallic fuel containing TRU isotopes using powder metallurgy methods. This project focused upon developing a powder metallurgical fabrication method to produce U-Zr-transuranic (TRU) alloys at relatively low processing temperatures (500C to 600C) using either hot extrusion or alpha-phase sintering for charecterization. Researchers quantified the fundamental aspects of both processing methods using surrogate metals to simulate the TRU elements. The process produced novel solutions to some of the issues relating to metallic fuels, such as fuel-cladding chemical interactions, fuel swelling, volatility losses during casting, and casting mold material losses. Workscope There were two primary tasks associated with this project: 1. Hot working fabrication using mechanical alloying and extrusion Design, fabricate, and assemble extrusion equipment Extrusion database on DU metal Extrusion database on U-10Zr alloys Extrusion database on U-20xx-10Zr alloys Evaluation and testing of tube sheath metals 2. Low-temperature sintering of U alloys Design, fabricate, and assemble equipment Sintering database on DU metal Sintering database on U-10Zr alloys Liquid assisted phase sintering on U-20xx-10Zr alloys Appendices Outline Appendix A contains a Fuel Cycle Research & Development (FCR&D) poster and contact presentation where TAMU made primary contributions. Appendix B contains MSNE theses and final defense presentations by David Garnetti and Grant Helmreich outlining the beginning of the materials processing setup. Also included within this section is a thesis proposal by Jeff Hausaman. Appendix C contains the public papers and presentations introduced at the 2010 American Nuclear Society Winter Meeting. Appendix AMSNE theses of David Garnetti and Grant Helmreich and proposal by Jeff Hausaman A.1 December 2009 Thesis by David Garnetti entitled Uranium Powder Production Via Hydride Formation and Alpha Phase Sintering of Uranium and Uranium-Zirconium Alloys for Advanced Nuclear Fuel Applications A.2 September 2009 Presentation by David Garnetti (same title as document in Appendix B.1) A.3 December 2010 Thesis by Grant Helmreich entitled Characterization of Alpha-Phase Sintering of Uranium and Uranium-Zirconium Alloys for Advanced Nuclear Fuel Applications A.4 October 2010 Presentation by Grant Helmreich (same title as document in Appendix B.3) A.5 Thesis Proposal by Jeffrey Hausaman entitled Hot Extrusion of Alpha Phase Uranium-Zirconium Alloys for TRU Burning Fast Reactors Appendix BExternal presentations introduced at the 2010 ANS Winter Meeting B.1 J.S. Hausaman, D.J. Garnetti, and S.M. McDeavitt, Powder Metallurgy of Alpha Phase Uranium Alloys for TRU Burning Fast Reactors, Proceedings of 2010 ANS Winter Meeting, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA, November 7-10, 2010 B.2 PowerPoint Presentation Slides from C.1 B.3 G.W. Helmreich, W.J. Sames, D.J. Garnetti, and S.M. McDeavitt, Uranium Powder Production Using a Hydride-Dehydride Process, Proceedings of 2010 ANS Winter Meeting, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA, November 7-10, 2010 B.4. PowerPoint Presentation Slides from C.3 B.5 Poster Presentation from C.3 Appendix CFuel cycle research and development undergraduate materials and poster presentation C.1 Poster entitled Characterization of Alpha-Phase Sintering of Uranium and Uranium-Zirconium Alloys presented at the Fuel Cycle Technologies Program Annual Meeting C.2 April 2011 Honors Undergraduate Thesis by William Sames, Research Fellow, entitled Uranium Metal Powder Production, Particle Dis

Sean M. McDeavitt

2011-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

433

OXIDATION OF MERCURY ACROSS SCR CATALYSTS IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS BURNING LOW RANK FUELS  

SciTech Connect

This is the third Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-03NT41728. The objective of this program is to measure the oxidation of mercury in flue gas across SCR catalyst in a coal-fired power plant burning low rank fuels using a slipstream reactor containing multiple commercial catalysts in parallel. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Argillon GmbH are providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. During this quarter, the second set of mercury measurements was made after the catalysts had been exposed to flue gas for about 2,000 hours. There was good agreement between the Ontario Hydro measurements and the SCEM measurements. Carbon trap measurements of total mercury agreed fairly well with the SCEM. There did appear to be some loss of mercury in the sampling system toward the end of the sampling campaign. NO{sub x} reductions across the catalysts ranged from 60% to 88%. Loss of total mercury across the commercial catalysts was not observed, as it had been in the March/April test series. It is not clear whether this was due to aging of the catalyst or to changes in the sampling system made between March/April and August. In the presence of ammonia, the blank monolith showed no oxidation. Two of the commercial catalysts showed mercury oxidation that was comparable to that in the March/April series. The other three commercial catalysts showed a decrease in mercury oxidation relative to the March/April series. Oxidation of mercury increased without ammonia present. Transient experiments showed that when ammonia was turned on, mercury appeared to desorb from the catalyst, suggesting displacement of adsorbed mercury by the ammonia.

Constance Senior; Temi Linjewile

2003-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

434

Selective NOx Recirculation for Stationary Lean-Burn Natural Gas Engines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Selective NOx Recirculation (SNR) involves cooling the engine exhaust gas and then adsorbing the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from the exhaust stream, followed by the periodic desorption of NOx. By returning the desorbed, concentrated NOx into the engine intake and through the combustion chamber, a percentage of the NOx is decomposed during the combustion process. An initial study of NOx decomposition during lean-burn combustion was concluded in 2004 using a 1993 Cummins L10G 240hp natural gas engine. It was observed that the air/fuel ratio, injected NO (nitric oxide) quantity and engine operating points affected NOx decomposition rates of the engine. Chemical kinetic modeling results were also used to determine optimum NOx decomposition operating points and were published in the 2004 annual report. A NOx decomposition rate of 27% was measured from this engine under lean-burn conditions while the software model predicted between 35-42% NOx decomposition for similar conditions. A later technology 1998 Cummins L10G 280hp natural gas engine was procured with the assistance of Cummins Inc. to replace the previous engine used for 2005 experimental research. The new engine was equipped with an electronic fuel management system with closed-loop control that provided a more stable air/fuel ratio control and improved the repeatability of the tests. The engine was instrumented with an in-cylinder pressure measurement system and electronic controls, and was adapted to operate over a range of air/fuel ratios. The engine was connected to a newly commissioned 300hp alternating current (AC) motoring dynamometer. The second experimental campaign was performed to acquire both stoichiometric and slightly rich (0.97 lambda ratio) burn NOx decomposition rates. Effects of engine load and speed on decomposition were quantified, but Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) was not varied independently. Decomposition rates of up to 92% were demonstrated. Following recommendations at the 2004 ARES peer review meeting at Argonne National Laboratories, in-cylinder pressure was measured to calculate engine indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) changes due to NOx injections and EGR variations, and to observe conditions in the cylinder. The third experimental campaign gathered NOx decomposition data at 800, 1200 and 1800 rpm. EGR was added via an external loop, with EGR ranging from zero to the point of misfire. The air/fuel ratio was set at both stoichiometric and slightly rich conditions, and NOx decomposition rates were calculated for each set of runs. Modifications were made to the engine exhaust manifold to record individual exhaust temperatures. The three experimental campaigns have provided the data needed for a comprehensive model of NOx decomposition during the combustion process, and data have confirmed that there was no significant impact of injected NO on in-cylinder pressure. The NOx adsorption system provided by Sorbent Technologies Corp. (Twinsburg, OH), comprised a NOx adsorber, heat exchanger and a demister. These components were connected to the engine, and data were gathered to show both the adsorption of NOx from the engine, and desorption of NOx from the carbon-based sorbent material back into the engine intake, using a heated air stream. In order to quantify the NOx adsorption/desorption characteristics of the sorbent material, a bench top adsorption system was constructed and instrumented with thermocouples and the system output was fed into a NOx analyzer. The temperature of this apparatus was controlled while gathering data on the characteristics of the sorbent material. These data were required for development of a system model. Preliminary data were gathered in 2005, and will continue in early 2006. To assess the economic benefits of the proposed SNR technology the WVU research team has been joined in the last quarter by Dr Richard Turton (WVU-Chemical Engineering), who is modeling, sizing and costing the major components. The tasks will address modeling and preliminary design of the heat exchanger, demister and NOx sorbent chamber s

Nigel Clark; Gregory Thompson; Richard Atkinson; Richard Turton; Chamila Tissera; Emre Tatli; Andy Zimmerman

2005-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

435

High-nitrogen-metal complexes as burning-rate modifiers for the aluminum-water propellant system  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The reactions of electropositive metals, such as aluminum, with water have long been utilized in explosive and propellant formulations, but until recently this has mostly been limited to the water formed as a product gas from the decomposition of another energetic system . Recently, however, with the increased availability of nano-particulate materials, the direct reaction of nano-aluminum (nAl) with water as an oxidizer has been investigated as a propellant system due to high reaction temperatures and the production of hydrogen as the primary gaseous species. This system could be useful for intra-planetary travel where non-terrestrial water is harvested for the oxidizer. Here we present the study of nAl, mixed at a stoichiometric ratio with water ({Phi} = 1) with the highly water soluble metal complexes of bis(tetrazolato)amine (BTA) added at 5, 15,30 and 50 wt% in the case of FeBTA and 5 and 15 wt% in the case of NiBTA and CoBTA. The basic structure of the BTA complexes is shown below where M = Fe, Ni or Co, and x = 3 for Fe and Co and x = 2 for Ni. The particle size of nAl studied was primarily 38 nm with various studies with the particle size of 80 nm. The FeBT A at a loading of 15 wt% gave the highest burning rate enhancement (4.6x at {approx}6.8 MPa), while retaining a low pressure exponent (0.21 compared to 0.24 for nA/H{sub 2}O). At 15 wt% the Ni and Co increased the burning rate, but also increased the pressure exponents. The burning rate of the FeBTA modified material with 80 nm Al decreased as the weight percent of FeBTA was increased, which also tracked decrease in the calculated specific impulse of the mixtures.

Tappan, Bryce C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mason, Benjamin A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Comparison of iso-octane burning rates between single-phase and two-phase combustion for small droplets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two-phase combustion is a widespread mechanism of energy conversion that is of practical importance in gas turbines, diesel and spark ignition engines, furnaces, and hazardous environments. However, the exploration of important parameters in combustion systems of practical application is difficult, due to the multiplicity of dependent variables. In the present work, combustion rates of well-defined droplet suspensions of iso-octane have been measured using techniques employed for gaseous combustion. This required a full characterization of the aerosols produced in the combustion apparatus, which determined that the maximum droplet size produced was around 30 {mu}m. Comparisons of two-phase with single-phase laminar mixtures suggest that there were negligible differences in the burning velocity of an aerosol and a gaseous mixture at the same overall equivalence ratio and similar conditions for iso-octane. At high stretch rates, flames remained smooth and droplet enhancement was negligible. However, at lower rates of stretch, both gaseous and aerosol flames became unstable and cellular, and this cellularity, in some cases, increased the burning rate. The values of Markstein length measured for aerosol flames had trends similar to those for gaseous-phase mixtures (Markstein length decreased with equivalence ratio), but were lower than in gaseous combustion. The values of Markstein length in aerosol flames also decreased with liquid equivalence ratio and/or Sauter mean diameter. All this indicates a higher tendency to instabilities in aerosol flames compared to gaseous combustion. A qualitative explanation for the lower values of Markstein length in aerosol combustion is given. It is suggested in the present work that aerosol flames became unstable, and hence had faster burning rates, under conditions that would not result in unstable gaseous flames. Comparisons, qualitative and in terms of dimensionless groups, of two-phase with single-phase turbulent combustion also suggest no enhancement. (author)

Lawes, M.; Lee, Y. [School of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Leeds (United Kingdom); Marquez, N. [Escuela de Ingenieria Mecanica, Universidad del Zulia, Maracaibo 4011 Apto. 526 (Venezuela)

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

SRC burn test in 700-hp oil-designed boiler. Annex Volume C. Boiler emission report. Final technical report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Solvent-Refined Coal (SRC) test burn program was conducted at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) located in Bruceton, Pa. One of the objectives of the study was to determine the feasibility of burning SRC fuels in boilers set up for fuel oil firing and to characterize emissions. Testing was conducted on the 700-hp oil-fired boiler used for research projects. No. 6 fuel oil was used for baseline data comparison, and the following SRC fuels were tested: SRC Fuel (pulverized SRC), SRC Residual Oil, and SRC-Water Slurry. Uncontrolled particulate emission rates averaged 0.9243 lb/10/sup 6/ Btu for SRC Fuel, 0.1970 lb/10/sup 6/ Btu for SRC Residual Oil, and 0.9085 lb/10/sup 6/ Btu for SRC-Water Slurry. On a lb/10/sup 6/ Btu basis, emissions from SRC Residual Oil averaged 79 and 78%, respectively, lower than the SRC Fuel and SRC-Water Slurry. The lower SRC Residual Oil emissions were due, in part, to the lower ash content of the oil and more efficient combustion. The SRC Fuel had the highest emission rate, but only 2% higher than the SRC-Water Slurry. Each fuel type was tested under variable boiler operating parameters to determine its effect on boiler emissions. The program successfully demonstrated that the SRC fuels could be burned in fuel oil boilers modified to handle SRC fuels. This report details the particulate emission program and results from testing conducted at the boiler outlet located before the mobile precipitator take-off duct. The sampling method was EPA Method 17, which uses an in-stack filter.

Not Available

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Reactivity loss validation of high burn-up PWR fuels with pile-oscillation experiments in MINERVE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ALIX experimental program relies on the experimental validation of the spent fuel inventory, by chemical analysis of samples irradiated in a PWR between 5 and 7 cycles, and also on the experimental validation of the spent fuel reactivity loss with bum-up, obtained by pile-oscillation measurements in the MINERVE reactor. These latter experiments provide an overall validation of both the fuel inventory and of the nuclear data responsible for the reactivity loss. This program offers also unique experimental data for fuels with a burn-up reaching 85 GWd/t, as spent fuels in French PWRs never exceeds 70 GWd/t up to now. The analysis of these experiments is done in two steps with the APOLLO2/SHEM-MOC/CEA2005v4 package. In the first one, the fuel inventory of each sample is obtained by assembly calculations. The calculation route consists in the self-shielding of cross sections on the 281 energy group SHEM mesh, followed by the flux calculation by the Method Of Characteristics in a 2D-exact heterogeneous geometry of the assembly, and finally a depletion calculation by an iterative resolution of the Bateman equations. In the second step, the fuel inventory is used in the analysis of pile-oscillation experiments in which the reactivity of the ALIX spent fuel samples is compared to the reactivity of fresh fuel samples. The comparison between Experiment and Calculation shows satisfactory results with the JEFF3.1.1 library which predicts the reactivity loss within 2% for burn-up of {approx}75 GWd/t and within 4% for burn-up of {approx}85 GWd/t. (authors)

Leconte, P.; Vaglio-Gaudard, C.; Eschbach, R.; Di-Salvo, J.; Antony, M.; Pepino, A. [CEA, DEN, DER, Cadarache, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Excitation energy transfer in natural photosynthetic complexes and chlorophyll trefoils: hole-burning and single complex/trefoil spectroscopic studies  

SciTech Connect

In this project we studied both natural photosynthetic antenna complexes and various artificial systems (e.g. chlorophyll (Chl) trefoils) using high resolution hole-burning (HB) spectroscopy and excitonic calculations. Results obtained provided more insight into the electronic (excitonic) structure, inhomogeneity, electron-phonon coupling strength, vibrational frequencies, and excitation energy (or electron) transfer (EET) processes in several antennas and reaction centers. For example, our recent work provided important constraints and parameters for more advanced excitonic calculations of CP43, CP47, and PSII core complexes. Improved theoretical description of HB spectra for various model systems offers new insight into the excitonic structure and composition of low-energy absorption traps in very several antenna protein complexes and reaction centers. We anticipate that better understanding of HB spectra obtained for various photosynthetic complexes and their simultaneous fits with other optical spectra (i.e. absorption, emission, and circular dichroism spectra) provides more insight into the underlying electronic structures of these important biological systems. Our recent progress provides a necessary framework for probing the electronic structure of these systems via Hole Burning Spectroscopy. For example, we have shown that the theoretical description of non-resonant holes is more restrictive (in terms of possible site energies) than those of absorption and emission spectra. We have demonstrated that simultaneous description of linear optical spectra along with HB spectra provides more realistic site energies. We have also developed new algorithms to describe both nonresonant and resonant hole-burn spectra using more advanced Redfield theory. Simultaneous description of various optical spectra for complex biological system, e.g. artificial antenna systems, FMO protein complexes, water soluble protein complexes, and various mutants of reaction centers continues; this work is supported by the new DOE BES grant.

Ryszard Jankowiak, Kansas State University, Department of Chemistry, CBC Bldg., Manhattan KS, 66505; Phone: (785) 532-6785

2012-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

440

Collisional and Radiative Effects in Transient sub-Doppler Hole Burning: Double Resonance Measurements in CN  

SciTech Connect

We report transient hole-burning and saturation recovery measurements in the CN radical with MHz frequency resolution and 20 ns time resolution. Narrow velocity groups of individual hyperfine levels of selected rotational states in CN (X{sup 2} {Sigma}{sup +}) are depleted and excited (A{sup 2}{pi}{sub i}) with a saturation laser and probed by a counterpropagating, frequency modulated probe beam. Recent work in our lab has used this method to measure and characterize the hyperfine splittings for a set of rotational, fine structure, and parity components of CN (A{sup 2}{pi}{sub i}, v=1). Extending this work, we report time and frequency dependence of the saturation signals following abrupt switching of the CW saturation beam on and off with an electro-optic amplitude modulator. Recovery of the unsaturated absorption following the turnoff of the saturation beam follows pressure-dependent kinetics, driven by collisions with the undissociated NCCN precursor with a rate coefficient of 2 x 10{sup -9} cm{sup 3} s{sup -1} molec{sup -1}. Similar recovery kinetics are observed for two-level saturation resonances, where the signal observed is a combination of X- and A-state kinetics, as well as for three-level crossover resonances, which can be chosen to probe selectively the holefilling in the X state or the decay of velocity-selected A state radicals. The observed recovery rates are 8-10 times faster than the estimated rotationally inelastic contribution. The observed recovery rates are likely dominated by velocity-changing collisions in both X and A states, occurring with similar rates, despite the large difference in the properties of these electronic states. Transient signal risetimes following the turning on of the saturation pulse are consistent with the expected Rabi frequency. At lower pressures ({approx}50 mTorr) and higher beam power ({approx}200 mW), we can observe multiple Rabi cycles before collisions disrupt the coherent excitation and the transient signal reaches a steady state.

Hause,M.L.; Hall,G.; Sears, T.J.

2009-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

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441

Investigation of the optical and cloud forming properties of pollution, biomass burning, and mineral dust aerosols  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This dissertation describes the use of measured aerosol size distributions and size-resolved hygroscopic growth to examine the physical and chemical properties of several particle classes. The primary objective of this work was to investigate the optical and cloud forming properties of a range of ambient aerosol types measured in a number of different locations. The tool used for most of these analyses is a differential mobility analyzer / tandem differential mobility analyzer (DMA / TDMA) system developed in our research group. To collect the data described in two of the chapters of this dissertation, an aircraft-based version of the DMA / TDMA was deployed to Japan and California. The data described in two other chapters were conveniently collected during a period when the aerosol of interest came to us. The unique aspect of this analysis is the use of these data to isolate the size distributions of distinct aerosol types in order to quantify their optical and cloud forming properties. I used collected data during the Asian Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-Asia) to examine the composition and homogeneity of a complex aerosol generated in the deserts and urban regions of China and other Asian countries. An aircraft-based TDMA was used for the first time during this campaign to examine the size-resolved hygroscopic properties of the aerosol. The Asian Dust Above Monterey (ADAM-2003) study was designed both to evaluate the degree to which models can predict the long-range transport of Asian dust, and to examine the physical and optical properties of that aged dust upon reaching the California coast. Aerosol size distributions and hygroscopic growth were measured in College Station, Texas to investigate the cloud nucleating and optical properties of a biomass burning aerosol generated from fires on the Yucatan Peninsula. Measured aerosol size distributions and size-resolved hygroscopicity and volatility were used to infer critical supersaturation distributions of the distinct particle types that were observed during this period. The predicted cloud condensation nuclei concentrations were used in a cloud model to determine the impact of the different aerosol types on the expected cloud droplet concentration. RH-dependent aerosol extinction coefficients were also calculated.

Lee, Yong Seob

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Study of Thermonuclear Alfven Instabilities in Next Step Burning Plasma Experiments  

SciTech Connect

A study is presented for the stability of alpha-particle driven shear Alfven Eigenmodes (AE) for the normal parameters of the three major burning plasma proposals, ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor), FIRE (Fusion Ignition Research Experiment), and IGNITOR (Ignited Torus). A study of the JET (Joint European Torus) plasma, where fusion alphas were generated in tritium experiments, is also included to attempt experimental validation of the numerical predictions. An analytic assessment of Toroidal AE (TAE) stability is first presented, where the alpha particle beta due to the fusion reaction rate and electron drag is simply and accurately estimated in 7-20 keV plasma temperature regime. In this assessment the hot particle drive is balanced against ion-Landau damping of the background deuterons and electron collision effects and stability boundaries are determined. Then two numerical studies of AE instability are presented. In one the High-n stability code HINST is used . This code is capable of predicting instabilities of low and moderately high frequency Alfven modes. HINST computes the non-perturbative solution of the Alfven eigenmodes including effects of ion finite Larmor radius, orbit width, trapped electrons etc. The stability calculations are repeated using the global code NOVAK. We show that for these tokamaks the spectrum of the least stable AE modes are TAE that appear at medium-/high-n numbers. In HINST TAEs are locally unstable due to the alphas pressure gradient in all the devices under the consideration except IGNITOR. However, NOVAK calculations show that the global mode structure enhances the damping mechanisms and produces stability in all configurations considered here. A serious question remains whether the perturbation theory used in NOVAK overestimates the stability predictions, so that it is premature to conclude that the nominal operation of all three proposals are stable to AEs. In addition NBI ions produce a strong stabilizing effect for JET. However, in ITER the beam energies needed to penetrate to the core must be high so that a diamagnetic drift frequency comparable to that of the alpha particles is produced by the beam ions which induces a destabilizing effect.

N.N. Gorelenkov; H.L. Berk; R. Budny; C.Z. Cheng; G.-Y. Fu; W.W. Heidbrink; G. Kramer; D. Meade; and R. Nazikian

2002-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

443

Comparison of zero-dimensional and one-dimensional thermonuclear burn computations for the reversed-field pinch reactor (RFPR)  

SciTech Connect

Conceptual fusion reactor designs of the Reversed-Field Pinch Reactor (RFPR) have been based on profile-averaged zero-dimensional (point) plasma models. The plasma response/performance that has been predicted by the point plasma model is re-examined by a comprehensive one-dimensional (radial) burn code that has been developed and parametrically evaluated for the RFPR. Agreement is good between the zero-dimensional and one-dimensional models, giving more confidence in the RFPR design point reported previously from the zero-dimensional analysis.

Nebel, R.A.; Hagenson, R.L.; Moses, R.W.; Krakowski, R.A.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 128-B-3 Burn Pit Site, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-058  

SciTech Connect

The 128-B-3 waste site is a former burn and disposal site for the 100-B/C Area, located adjacent to the Columbia River. The 128-B-3 waste site has been remediated to meet the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results of sampling at upland areas of the site also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

L. M. Dittmer

2006-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

445

Final Report for SERDP Project RC-1649: Advanced Chemical Measurements of Smoke from DoD-prescribed Burns  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Objectives: Project RC-1649, Advanced Chemical Measurement of Smoke from DoD-prescribed Burns was undertaken to use advanced instrumental techniques to study in detail the particulate and vapor-phase chemical composition of the smoke that results from prescribed fires used as a land management tool on DoD bases, particularly bases in the southeastern U.S. The statement of need (SON) called for (1) improving characterization of fuel consumption and (2) improving characterization of air emissions under both flaming and smoldering conditions with respect to volatile organic compounds, heavy metals, and reactive gases. The measurements and fuels were from several bases throughout the southeast (Camp Lejeune, Ft. Benning, and Ft. Jackson) and were carried out in collaboration and conjunction with projects 1647 (models) and 1648 (particulates, SW bases). Technical Approach: We used an approach that featured developing techniques for measuring biomass burning emission species in both the laboratory and field and developing infrared (IR) spectroscopy in particular. Using IR spectroscopy and other methods, we developed emission factors (EF, g of effluent per kg of fuel burned) for dozens of chemical species for several common southeastern fuel types. The major measurement campaigns were laboratory studies at the Missoula Fire Sciences Laboratory (FSL) as well as field campaigns at Camp Lejeune, NC, Ft. Jackson, SC, and in conjunction with 1648 at Vandenberg AFB, and Ft. Huachuca. Comparisons and fusions of laboratory and field data were also carried out, using laboratory fuels from the same bases. Results: The project enabled new technologies and furthered basic science, mostly in the area of infrared spectroscopy, a broadband method well suited to biomass burn studies. Advances in hardware, software and supporting reference data realized a nearly 20x improvement in sensitivity and now provide quantitative IR spectra for potential detection of ~60 new species and actual field quantification of several new species such as nitrous acid, glycolaldehyde, ?-/?-pinene and D-limonene. The new reference data also permit calculation of the global warming potential (GWP) of the greenhouse gases by enabling 1) detection of their ambient concentrations, and 2) quantifying their ability to absorb IR radiation.

Johnson, Timothy J.; Weise, David; Lincoln, E. N.; Sams, Robert L.; Cameron, Melanie; Veres, Patrick; Yokelson, Robert J.; Urbanski, Shawn; Profeta, Luisa T.; Williams, S.; Gilman, Jessica; Kuster, W. C.; Akagi, Sheryl; Stockwell, Chelsea E.; Mendoza, Albert; Wold, Cyle E.; Warneke, Carsten; de Gouw, Joost A.; Burling, Ian R.; Reardon, James; Schneider, Matthew D.; Griffith, David WT; Roberts, James M.

2013-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

446

Experimental investigation of H/sub 2/ combustion in the Sandia VGES intermediate-scale burn tank. [PWR; BWR  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Sandia National Laboratories is presently involved in several NRC-sponsored experimental projects to provide data that will help quantify the threat of hydrogen combustion during LWR accidents. One project, which employs several experimental facilities: is the Variable Geometry Experimental System (VGES). The purpose of this paper is to present the experimental results from one of these facilities; the intermediate-scale burn tank (approx.5m/sup 3/). The data provided by this facility can be used in the development and assessment of analytical models used to predict hydrogen combustion behavior.

Benedick, W.B.; Cummings, J.C.; Berman, M.; Prassinos, P.G.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Efficient spectral hole-burning and atomic frequency comb storage in Nd3+:YLiF4  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present spectral hole-burning measurements of the $^{4}I_{9/2}\\rightarrow{}^4F_{3/2}$ transition in Nd$^{3+}$:YLiF$_4$. The isotope shifts of Nd$^{3+}$ can be directly resolved in the optical absorption spectrum. We report atomic frequency comb storage with an echo efficiency of up to 35% and a memory bandwidth of 60 MHz in this material. The interesting properties show the potential of this material for use in both quantum and classical information processing.

Zong-Quan Zhou; Jian Wang; Chuan-Feng Li; Guang-Can Guo

2013-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

448

Monitoring Soil Erosion of a Burn Site in the Central Basin and Range Ecoregion: Final Report on Measurements at the Gleason Fire Site, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

The increase in wildfires in arid and semi-arid parts of Nevada and elsewhere in the southwestern United States has implications for post-closure management and long-term stewardship for Soil Corrective Action Units (CAUs) on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) for which the Nevada Field Office of the United States Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration has responsibility. For many CAUs and Corrective Action Sites, where closure-in-place alternatives are now being implemented or considered, there is a chance that these sites could burn over at some time while they still pose a risk to the environment or human health, given the long half lives of some of the radionuclide contaminants. This study was initiated to examine the effects and duration of wildfire on wind and water erodibility on sites analogous to those that exist on the NNSS. The data analyzed herein were gathered at the prescribed Gleason Fire site near Ely, Nevada, a site comparable to the northern portion of the NNSS. Quantification of wind erosion was conducted with a Portable In-Situ Wind ERosion Lab (PI-SWERL) on unburned soils, and on interspace and plant understory soils within the burned area. The PI-SWERL was used to estimate emissions of suspendible particles (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters less than or equal to 10 micrometers) at different wind speeds. Filter samples, collected from the exhaust of the PI-SWERL during measurements, were analyzed for chemical composition. Based on nearly three years of data, the Gleason Fire site does not appear to have returned to pre burn wind erosion levels. Chemical composition data of suspendible particles are variable and show a trend toward pre-burn levels, but provide little insight into how the composition has been changing over time since the fire. Soil, runoff, and sediment data were collected from the Gleason Fire site to monitor the water erosion potential over the nearly three-year period. Soil hydrophobicity (water repellency) was noted on burned understory soils up to 12 months after the fire, as was the presence of ash on the soil surface. Soil deteriorated from a strong, definable pre-fire structure to a weakly cohesive mass (unstructured soil) immediately after the fire. Surface soil structure was evident 34 months after the fire at both burned and unburned sites, but was rare and weaker at burned sites. The amount of runoff and sediment was highly variable, but runoff occurred more frequently at burned interspace sites compared to burned understory and unburned interspace sites up to 34 months after the burn. No discernible pattern was evident on the amount of sediment transported, but the size of sediment from burned understory sites was almost double that of burned and unburned interspace soils after the fire, and decreased over the monitoring period. Curve numbers, a measure of the runoff potential, did not indicate any obvious runoff response to the fire. However, slight seasonal changes in curve numbers and runoff potential and, therefore, post-fire runoff response may be a function of fire impacts as well as the time of year that precipitation occurs. Site (interspace or understory) differences in soil properties and runoff persisted even after the fire. Vegetation data showed the presence of invasive grasses after the fire. Results from analysis of wind and water coupled with the spatial analysis of vegetation suggest that wind erosion may continue to occur due to the additional exposed soil surface (burned understory sites) until vegetation becomes re-established, and runoff may occur more frequently in interspace sites. The potential for fire-related wind erosion and water erosion may persist beyond three years in this system.

Miller, Julianne [DRI] [DRI; Etyemezian, Vicken [DRI] [DRI; Shillito, Rose [DRI] [DRI; Cablk, Mary [DRI] [DRI; Fenstermaker, Lynn [DRI] [DRI; Shafer, David [DOE Legacy Management] [DOE Legacy Management

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 4): New Hanover County Airport Burn Pit Site, New Hanover County, Wilmington, NC. (First remedial action), September 1992. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The New Hanover site was located on Gardner Road approximately 500 feet west of the New Hanover County Airport terminal, New Hanover, North Carolina. From 1968 to 1979, the site was used for fire-fighter training purposes. During training exercises, jet fuel, gasoline, petroleum storage bottoms, fuel oil, kerosene, and sorbent materials from oil spill cleanup were burned in a pit. During its active years, water from the pit was allowed to flow onto land surfaces. Inspections conducted after the pit was abandoned showed that most of the standing liquid in the pit was water. In addition to the burn pit area, fire-fighting activities resulted in contamination at several other site areas, including an auto burn area; a railroad tank burn area; an aircraft mock-up area; a fuel tank and pipelines area; and two stained soil areas north of the burn pit. The ROD addressed restoration of the aquifer to drinking water quality as a final action for the site. The primary contaminants of concern that affect the soil and ground water were VOCs, including benzene; and metals, including chromium and lead.

Not Available

1992-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

450

FURTHER STUDIES ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EXPOSURE TIME AND DEPTH OF DAMAGE OF MODERATE AND SEVERE CUTANEOUS BURNS  

SciTech Connect

To extend our earlier studies on the relationship between exposure time and depth of damage of moderate and severe burns, injuries were produced by each of six radiant exposures delivered during varying exposure times. The exposures investigated were: 5, 8, 10, 13, 16, and 20 calories per square centimeter. Within this range, as the radiant exposure increased, the exposure time for the production of maximum damage also increased. Injury from a given radiant exposure was less with exposure times either longer or shorter than some immediate time which led to the most severe injury. The relationship between steam bleb formation and decreased depth of injury from short exposure times is pointed out. When the superficial layers of the skin become so hot that vaporization of tissue fluid occurs, energy which might otherwise damage the deep layers is diverted by the conversion of water to steam. For radiant exposures between 8 cal/cm/sup 2/ and 20 cal/cm/sup 2/ delivered with a square pulse, it is possible to predict with fair accuracy the exposure time which will result in the deepest burn. (auth)

Payne, F.W.; Hinshaw, J.R.

1957-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

451

Solar proton burning, neutrino disintegration of the deuteron and pep process in the relativistic field theory model of the deuteron  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The astrophysical factor S_pp(0) for the solar proton burning, p + p -> D + positron + neutrino, is recalculated in the relativistic field theory model of the deuteron (RFMD). We obtain S_pp(0) = 4.08 x 10^{-25} MeV b which agrees good with the recommended value S_pp(0) = 4.00 x 10^{-25} MeV b. The amplitude of low-energy elastic proton-proton (pp) scattering in the singlet S-wave state with the Coulomb repulsion contributing to the amplitude of the solar proton burning is described in terms of the S-wave scattering length and the effective range. This takes away the problem pointed out by Bahcall and Kamionkowski (Nucl. Phys. A625 (1997) 893) that in the RFMD one cannot describe low-energy elastic pp scattering with the Coulomb repulsion in agreement with low-energy nuclear phenomenology. The cross section for the neutrino disintegration of the deuteron, neutrino + D -> electron + p + p, is calculated with respect to S_pp(0) for neutrino energies from threshold to 10 MeV. The results can be used for the analysis of the data which will be obtained in the experiments planned by SNO. The astrophysical factor S_pep(0) for the pep process, p + electron + p -> neutrino + D, is calculated relative to S_pp(0) in complete agreement with the result obtained by Bahcall and May (ApJ. 155 (1969) 501).

A. N. Ivanov; H. Oberhummer; N. I. Troitskaya; M. Faber

1999-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

452

Optical Readout Time Projection Chamber (O-TPC) for a Study of Oxygen Formation In Stellar Helium Burning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We are developing an Optical Readout Time Projection Chamber (O-TPC) detector for the study of the 12C(a,g)16O reaction that determines the ratio of carbon to oxygen in helium burning. This ratio is crucial for understanding the final fate of a progenitor star and the nucleosynthesis of elements prior to a Type II supernova; an oxygen rich star is predicted to collapse to a black hole, and a carbon rich star to a neutron star. Type Ia supernovae (SNeIa) are used as standard candles for measuring cosmological distances with the use of an empirical light curve-luminosity stretching factor. It is essential to understand helium burning that yields the carbon/oxygen white dwarf and thus the initial stage of SNeIa. The O-TPC is intended for use with high intensity photon beams extracted from the HIgS/TUNL facility at Duke University to study the 16O(g,a)12C reaction, and thus the direct reaction at energies as low as 0.7 MeV. We are conducting a systematical study of the best oxygen containing gas with light emitting admixture(s) for use in such an O-TPC. Preliminary results with CO_2 + TEA mixture were obtained

Moshe Gai; Amos Breskin; Rachel Chechik; Volker Dangendorf; Henry R. Weller

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Waste tank 241-SY-101 dome airspace and ventilation system response to a flammable gas plume burn  

SciTech Connect

A series of flammable gas plume burn and transient pressure analyses have been completed for a nuclear waste tank (241-SY-101) and associated tank farm ventilation system at the U.S. Department of Energy`s Hanford facility. The subject analyses were performed to address issues concerning the effects of transient pressures resulting from igniting a small volume of concentrated flammable gas just released from the surface of the waste as a plume and before the flammable gas concentration could be reduced by mixing with the dome airspace by local convection and turbulent diffusion. Such a condition may exist as part of an in progress episode gas release (EGR) or gas plume event. The analysis goal was to determine the volume of flammable gas that if burned within the dome airspace would result in a differential pressure, after propagating through the ventilation system, greater than the current High Efficiency Particulate Filter (HEPA) limit of 2.49 KPa (10 inches of water or 0. 36 psi). Such a pressure wave could rupture the tank ventilation system inlet and outlet HEPA filters leading to a potential release of contaminants to the environment

Heard, F.J.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

From Solar Proton Burning to Pionic Deuterium through the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model of light nuclei  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Within the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model of light nuclei (the NNJL model), describing strong low-energy nuclear interactions, we compute the width of the energy level of the ground state of pionic deuterium. The theoretical value fits well the experimental data. Using the cross sections for the reactions nu_e + d -> p + p + e^- and nu_e + d -> p + n + nu_e, computed in the NNJL model, and the experimental values of the events of these reactions, detected by the SNO Collaboration, we compute the boron neutrino fluxes. The theoretical values agree well with the experimental data and the theoretical predictions within the Standard Solar Model by Bahcall. We argue the applicability of the constraints on the astrophysical factor for the solar proton burning, imposed by helioseismology, to the width of the energy level of the ground state of pionic deuterium. We show that the experimental data on the width satisfy these constraints. This testifies an indirect measurement of the recommended value of the astrophysical factor for the solar proton burning in terrestrial laboratories in terms of the width of the energy level of the ground state of pionic deuterium.

A. N. Ivanov; M. Cargnelli; M. Faber; H. Fuhrmann; V. A. Ivanova; J. Marton; N. I. Troitskaya; J. Zmeskal

2004-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

455

On the Sensitivity of Massive Star Nucleosynthesis and Evolution to Solar Abundances and to Uncertainties in Helium Burning Reaction Rates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We explore the dependence of pre-supernova evolution and supernova nucleosynthesis yields on the uncertainties in helium burning reaction rates. Using the revised solar abundances of Lodders (2003) for the initial stellar composition, instead of those of Anders & Grevesse (1989), changes the supernova yields and limits the constraints that those yields place on the 12C(a,g)16O reaction rate. The production factors of medium-weight elements (A = 16-40) were found to be in reasonable agreement with observed solar ratios within the current experimental uncertainties in the triple alpha reaction rate. Simultaneous variations by the same amount in both reaction rates or in either of them separately, however, can induce significant changes in the central 12C abundance at core carbon ignition and in the mass of the supernova remnant. It therefore remains important to have experimental determinations of the helium burning rates so that their ratio and absolute values are known with an accuracy of 10% or better.

Clarisse Tur; Alexander Heger; Sam M. Austin

2007-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

456

Direct Measurement of Initial Enrichment, Burn-up and Cooling Time of Spent Fuel Assembly with a Differential Die-Away Technique Based Instrument  

SciTech Connect

An outline of this presentation of what a Differential Die-Away (DDA) instrument can do are: (1) Principle of operation of DDA instrument; (2) Determination of initial enrichment (IE) ({sigma} < 5%); (3) Determination of burn up (BU) ({sigma} {approx} 6%); (4) Determination of cooling time (CT) ({sigma} {approx} 20-50%); and (5) DDA instrument as a standalone device. DDA response (fresh fuel vs. spent fuel) is: (1) Fresh fuel => DDA response increases (die-away time is longer) with increasing fissile content; and (2) Spent fuel => DDA response decreases (die-away time is shorter) with higher burn-up (i.e. more neutron absorbers present).

Henzl, Vladimir [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tobin, Stephen J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

457

Deep Burn: Development of Transuranic Fuel for High-Temperature Helium-Cooled Reactors- Monthly Highlights November 2010  

SciTech Connect

During FY 2011 the DB Program will report Highlights on a monthly basis, but will no longer produce Quarterly Progress Reports. Technical details that were previously included in the quarterly reports will be included in the appropriate Milestone Reports that are submitted to FCRD Program Management. These reports will also be uploaded to the Deep Burn website. The Monthly Highlights report for October 2010, ORNL/TM-2010/300, was distributed to program participants on November 29, 2010. This report discusses the following: (1) Thermochemical Data and Model Development; (2) TRU (transuranic elements) TRISO (tri-structural isotropic) Development - (a) TRU Kernel Development, (b) Coating Development; (3) LWR Fully Ceramic Fuel - (a) FCM Fabrication Development, (b) FCM Irradiation Testing.

Snead, Lance Lewis [ORNL; Bell, Gary L [ORNL; Besmann, Theodore M [ORNL

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

High Temperature Reactor (HTR) Deep Burn Core and Fuel Analysis: Design Selection for the Prismatic Block Reactor  

SciTech Connect

The Deep Burn (DB) Project is a U.S. Department of Energy sponsored feasibility study of Transuranic Management using high burnup fuel in the high temperature helium cooled reactor (HTR). The DB Project consists of seven tasks: project management, core and fuel analysis, spent fuel management, fuel cycle integration, TRU fuel modeling, TRU fuel qualification, and HTR fuel recycle. In the Phase II of the Project, we conducted nuclear analysis of TRU destruction/utilization in the HTR prismatic block design (Task 2.1), deep burn fuel/TRISO microanalysis (Task 2.3), and synergy with fast reactors (Task 4.2). The Task 2.1 covers the core physics design, thermo-hydraulic CFD analysis, and the thermofluid and safety analysis (low pressure conduction cooling, LPCC) of the HTR prismatic block design. The Task 2.3 covers the analysis of the structural behavior of TRISO fuel containing TRU at very high burnup level, i.e. exceeding 50% of FIMA. The Task 4.2 includes the self-cleaning HTR based on recycle of HTR-generated TRU in the same HTR. Chapter IV contains the design and analysis results of the 600MWth DB-HTR core physics with the cycle length, the average discharged burnup, heavy metal and plutonium consumptions, radial and axial power distributions, temperature reactivity coefficients. Also, it contains the analysis results of the 450MWth DB-HTR core physics and the analysis of the decay heat of a TRU loaded DB-HTR core. The evaluation of the hot spot fuel temperature of the fuel block in the DB-HTR (Deep-Burn High Temperature Reactor) core under full operating power conditions are described in Chapter V. The investigated designs are the 600MWth and 460MWth DB-HTRs. In Chapter VI, the thermo-fluid and safety of the 600MWth DB-HTRs has been analyzed to investigate a thermal-fluid design performance at the steady state and a passive safety performance during an LPCC event. Chapter VII describes the analysis results of the TRISO fuel microanalysis of the 600MWth and 450MWth DB-HTRs. The TRISO fuel microanalysis covers the gas pressure buildup in a coated fuel particle including helium production, the thermo-mechanical behavior of a CFP, the failure probabilities of CFPs, the temperature distribution in a CPF, and the fission product (FP) transport in a CFP and a graphite. In Chapter VIII, it contains the core design and analysis of sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) with deep burn HTR reactor. It considers a synergistic combination of the DB-MHR and an SFR burner for a safe and efficient transmutation of the TRUs from LWRs. Chapter IX describes the design and analysis results of the self-cleaning (or self-recycling) HTR core. The analysis is considered zero and 5-year cooling time of the spent LWR fuels.

Francesco Venneri; Chang-Keun Jo; Jae-Man Noh; Yonghee Kim; Claudio Filippone; Jonghwa Chang; Chris Hamilton; Young-Min Kim; Ji-Su Jun; Moon-Sung Cho; Hong-Sik Lim; MIchael A. Pope; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; Vincent Descotes; Brian Boer

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Multi-energy x-ray imaging and sensing for diagnostic and control of the burning plasma  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

New diagnostic and sensor designs are needed for future burning plasma (BP) fusion experiments, having good space and time resolution and capable of prolonged operation in the harsh BP environment. We evaluate the potential of multi-energy x-ray imaging with filtered detector arrays for BP diagnostic and control. Experimental studies show that this simple and robust technique enables measuring with good accuracy, speed, and spatial resolution the T{sub e} profile, impurity content, and MHD activity in a tokamak. Applied to the BP this diagnostic could also serve for non-magnetic sensing of the plasma position, centroid, ELM, and RWM instability. BP compatible x-ray sensors are proposed using 'optical array' or 'bi-cell' detectors.

Stutman, D.; Tritz, K.; Finkenthal, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

460

A high-porosity limit for the transition from conductive to convective burning in gas-permeable explosives  

SciTech Connect

The experimentally known phenomenon of an abrupt transition from slow conductive to fast convective (penetrative) burning in a confined gas-permeable explosive is discussed. A simple model, involving only the most essential physical ingredients, is formulated and analyzed. In addition to commonly utilized assumptions of the solid-gas thermal equilibrium, validity of Darcy's law, immobility of the solid phase, and one-step Arrhenius kinetics, the model employs the distinguished limit combining high-porosity with high solid/gas density ratio, resulting in conservation of enthalpy, advantageous for theoretical analysis. A good qualitative agreement between theoretical and experimental dependencies is obtained. The transition is triggered by a localized autoignition in the extended resistance-induced preheat zone formed ahead of the advancing deflagration, provided the pressure difference between hot gas products and gases deep inside the pores of the unburned solid exceeds a certain critical level. In line with observations the critical overpressure increases with diminishing permeability. (author)

Kagan, Leonid; Sivashinsky, Gregory [Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, School of Mathematical Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)

2010-02-15T23:59:59.000Z