Powered by Deep Web Technologies
Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "9999 9999 9999" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

NETL: News Release - 99.99% Clean...DOE Signs Agreement to Install Advanced  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

99.99% Clean...DOE Signs Agreement to Install Advanced Pollution Control Device on S. Dakota Power Plant 99.99% Clean...DOE Signs Agreement to Install Advanced Pollution Control Device on S. Dakota Power Plant Leading-Edge System Virtually Eliminates Emissions of Microscopic Ash Particles - Otter Tail's Big Stone Power Plant - South Dakota's Big Stone Plant will soon get an environmental upgrade that will virtually eliminate particulate emissions. Photo: Otter Tail Power Co. MILBANK, SD - By this fall South Dakota will likely host one of the world's cleanest coal plants in terms of the tiny specks of fly ash emitted from its smokestack. A cooperative agreement signed between the U.S. Department of Energy and the Otter Tail Power Company paves the way for installation of a new type of pollution control device on the 450-megawatt Big Stone Power Plant in Milbank, South Dakota.

2

Data:8b9a95e2-424c-4c6e-81af-7d151eba9999 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

e2-424c-4c6e-81af-7d151eba9999 e2-424c-4c6e-81af-7d151eba9999 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Johnson County Rural E M C Effective date: 2011/10/01 End date if known: Rate name: Single Phase Commercial Service Sector: Residential Description: Availability Available in all territory served by the Corporation, in accordance with the Corporation Service Rules and Regulations. Members having their principal place of business on the same premises as their home may include service for both on the same meter, in which case all service will be billed under the schedule using the rate set out below. If the member prefers, provisions may be made for two meters, in which case usage for residential purposes will be billed under the appropriate residential schedule, and usage for business purposes will be billed under this Schedule SPC. Applicability Applicable to commercial consumers up to and including 100 kVA. In general, motors having a rated capacity in excess of ten horsepower (10 h.p.) should be a three-phase service. The Corporation's Engineering department must approve any variances.

3

Data:9dffc919-09f6-464a-9798-5f0e9999d2b0 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

dffc919-09f6-464a-9798-5f0e9999d2b0 dffc919-09f6-464a-9798-5f0e9999d2b0 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Electrical Dist No3 Pinal Cnty Effective date: 2011/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: RATE NO. 01 TOU-A RESIDENTIAL SERVICE TIME-OF-USE-Underground Sector: Residential Description: Applicability: To residential use only in single private residences or a single unit in a multiple apartment through one point of delivery and measured through one meter. Monthly minimum bill: $30.00 Source or reference: http://www.ed3online.org/view/70 Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW)

4

Celebrating 10 Years of Innovation in Tourism 1999-2009 NZTRI I Private Bag 92006 I Auckland 1142 I New Zealand I Ph (+64 9) 921 9999 ext 8890 I nztri@aut.ac.nz I www.nztri.org  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Celebrating 10 Years of Innovation in Tourism 1999-2009 NZTRI I Private Bag 92006 I Auckland 1142 I New Zealand I Ph (+64 9) 921 9999 ext 8890 I nztri@aut.ac.nz I www.nztri.org The New Zealand Tourism Tourism · Technology Associate Director - Pacific Islands Tourism: Dr Simon Milne Simon Milne is Director

5

Celebrating 10 Years of Innovation in Tourism 1999-2009 NZTRI I Private Bag 92006 I Auckland 1142 I New Zealand I Ph (+64 9) 921 9999 ext 8890 I nztri@aut.ac.nz I www.nztri.org  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Celebrating 10 Years of Innovation in Tourism 1999-2009 NZTRI I Private Bag 92006 I Auckland 1142 I New Zealand I Ph (+64 9) 921 9999 ext 8890 I nztri@aut.ac.nz I www.nztri.org The New Zealand Tourism Tourism · Technology Associate Director - Indigenous Tourism: Dr Hamish Bremner Hamish Bremner received

6

Celebrating 10 Years of Innovation in Tourism 1999-2009 NZTRI I Private Bag 92006 I Auckland 1142 I New Zealand I Ph (+64 9) 921 9999 ext 8890 I nztri@aut.ac.nz I www.nztri.org  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Celebrating 10 Years of Innovation in Tourism 1999-2009 NZTRI I Private Bag 92006 I Auckland 1142 I New Zealand I Ph (+64 9) 921 9999 ext 8890 I nztri@aut.ac.nz I www.nztri.org The New Zealand Tourism Tourism · Technology Associate Director - Event Tourism: Dr Geoff Dickson Geoff Dickson joined the School

7

Geographical Distribution of Biomass Carbon in Tropical Southeast Asian  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

First and Last Ten Lines of the Composite ASCII Data Files se_asia.dat and First and Last Ten Lines of the Composite ASCII Data Files se_asia.dat and se_asiax.dat se_asia.dat First 10 lines: 1 44.2828 36.2251 -9999 -9999 -9999 -9999 -9999 -9999 -9999 -9999 -9999 -9999 -9999 -9999 2 44.3217 36.2333 -9999 -9999 -9999 -9999 -9999 -9999 -9999 -9999 -9999 -9999 -9999 -9999 3 44.3605 36.2416 -9999 -9999 -9999 -9999 -9999 -9999 -9999 -9999 -9999 -9999 -9999 -9999 4 44.3994 36.2498 -9999 -9999 -9999 -9999 -9999 -9999 -9999 -9999 -9999 -9999 -9999 -9999 5 44.4382 36.258 -9999 -9999 -9999 -9999 -9999 -9999 -9999 -9999 -9999 -9999 -9999 -9999 6 44.4771 36.2663 -9999 -9999 -9999 -9999 -9999 -9999 -9999 -9999 -9999 -9999 -9999 -9999 7 44.5159 36.2745 -9999 -9999 -9999 -9999 -9999 -9999 -9999 -9999 -9999 -9999 -9999

8

Standard molar Gibbs free energy of formation of Pb5CrO8(s), Pb2CrO5(s), and PbCrO4(s)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

purity 99.999%, M/s. Inox Air Products Ltd. , India) throughsource (99.99%, M/s. Inox Air Products Ltd. , India) or by

Sahu, Sulata Kumari

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Supporting Information Localized Pd Overgrowth on Cubic Pt Nanocrystals for Enhanced  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. For CO stripping experiments, CO gas (Praxair, 99.99%) was bubbled at an open circuit through 0.5 M H2SO4

Yang, Peidong

10

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON IMAGE PROCESSING, VOL. XX, NO. X, MONTH XXXX 1 Multivariate slow feature analysis and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

: correlations with original sources:0.9985, 0.9999, 0.9877, 0.9975 Number of sources is different from number

Minh, Ha Quang

11

Bandgap engineering of CdxZn1xTe nanowires Keivan Davami,a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

junction. These structures have been used in solar cells2,3 and eld effect transistors.4 Alloy nanowires device fabrication. Alloy nano- wires in various systems have been used to construct solar cells into a furnace. In a set of trial experiments, ZnTe (99.99% Aldrich) and CdTe (99.99% Aldrich) source powders

Cuniberti, Gianaurelio

12

Polycrystalline Silicon Solar Cells Fabricated by Pulsed Rapid Thermal Annealing of Amorphous Silicon  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

). The gas supply into the reactor through the mass flow controllers include: N2 (ultra high purity, Acetylene Oxygen Company), N2 (semiconductor, 99.9999% purity, Praxair), Ar (semiconductor, 99.9999% purity, Praxair), SiH4 (semiconductor, 99.999% Air... Liquide), B2H6 (2 % in H2, 99.999% purity, Air Liquide), PH3 (7.1 % in H2, 99.999%, Air Liquide), NH3 (semiconductor, 99.999% purity, Matheson Tri-Gas), and H2 (semiconductor, 99.9999% purity, Praxair). Figure 4 shows the heating zones and the dimension...

Lee, I-Syuan

2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

13

Light Effects on the Charge Storage in the A-SI:H Pin Diode  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

: N2 (ultra high purity, Acetylene Oxygen Company), N2 (semiconductor, 99.9999% purity, Praxair), Ar (semiconductor, 99.9999% purity, Praxair), SiH4 (semiconductor, 99.999%, Air Liquide), B2H6 (2 % in H2, 99.999% purity, Air Liquide), PH3 (7....1 % in H2, 99.999%, Air Liquide), NH3 (semiconductor, 99.999% purity, Matheson Tri-Gas), and H2 (semiconductor, 99.9999% purity, Praxair). Figure 5 shows the heating zones and the dimension of the reactor chamber. The substrate was placed in the same...

Wu, Shu-Hsien

2013-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

14

Employee Concerns Program  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the following avenues: Call ECP 24-Hour Helpline: (505) 665-9999 (No Caller ID) Call Ethics & Compliance Group: (505) 667-7506 Fax a concern: (505) 665-3664 Send an email:...

15

E-Print Network 3.0 - air methane vam Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reagents Methane (99.99 v.%, Air Products and Chemicals, Inc.) and propane (99.0 v.%, Praxair) were used... of carbon catalyst activation on the rate of methane decomposition...

16

Open Archive TOULOUSE Archive Ouverte (OATAO) OATAO is an open access repository that collects the work of Toulouse researchers and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

growth rate [1,2] and the most common base material for photovoltaic cell is Solar-AES analysis: the recovered Si purity was assumed to be higher than 99.99%. 1. Introduction Photovoltaic

Mailhes, Corinne

17

,"Geographic Area",,,"Voltage",,,"Capacity Rating (MVa)","In...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Construction","Reliability",0 ,"US","SERC","-","AC","200-299",230,602,6,2011,"Lansing Smith","Laguna Beach",14,"OH - Overhead","steel","single pole",1351,"ACSR","Single",1,1,9999...

18

Water washable stainless steel HEPA filter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is a high efficiency particulate (HEPA) filter apparatus and system, and method for assaying particulates. The HEPA filter provides for capture of 99.99% or greater of particulates from a gas stream, with collection of particulates on the surface of the filter media. The invention provides a filter system that can be cleaned and regenerated in situ.

Phillips, Terrance D. (617 Chestnut Ct., Aiken, SC 29803)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

PHYSICAL REVIEW B 83, 075430 (2011) Scanning tunneling microscope investigation of local density of states in Al-doped ZnO thin films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. INTRODUCTION Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) is an important mate- rial for incorporation into optoelectronic.2 wt. percent target (99.99%, ACI Alloys, Inc.). The RF power, substrate heater temperature, Ar flow of this AZO film which exhibits low absorption over the wavelength range = 400­1100 nm relevant to many

Russell, Kasey

20

MSU Extension offers this water resistant identification guide ideal for field use developed by Extension specialists. The guide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

MSU Extension offers this water resistant identification guide ideal for field use developed.00 to 79.99 $9.00 $80.00 to 99.99 $12.00 $100 to 149.99 $15.00 $150.00 + $17.00 Bulk orders: Call Bulletin

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "9999 9999 9999" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

A Stochastic Framework for Ground Vehicle Simulation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.9804 1.0318 1.0102 1.0421 0.9688 1.0377 0.9786 0.9510 1.0165 0.9711 1.0447 0.9612 0.9975 0.9999 1.0697 0

Negrut, Dan

22

Chromatographer and the ComputerNon-Routine GC Laboratory Applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Sample: 0.5 ml Phillips Research Grade Ethylene split 50:50 between columns. GC Conditions...9 999.9 Table VIII. Impurities in Ethylene--Trace Analysis Using On-Line Computer...Company, Bishop, Texas, and J. G. W. Price, Celanese Chemical Company, Technical......

F. Baumann; A. C. Brown; M. B. Mitchell

1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Lift 1Lift 2 Vertical Circulation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

9999:2008. British Standards 8300:2008 Building Regulations Approved Document K 2013 Edition Areas intercoms), and are compliant to the British Standard 5935 and Building Regulations Part K, with every building and its courtyards. There are currently twenty separate staircases connecting the various levels

Flynn, E. Victor

24

DIRECTIONS TO THE UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS AMHERST CAMPUS From the South  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

"From the South" directions above.) Logan International Airport (Boston) is 90 miles east of UMass for Interstate 91 (south) and use the "From the North" directions above. By Air: Bradley International Airport.) By Bus: Peter Pan Bus Lines (800-343-9999) links the campus to Bradley and Logan airports as well

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

25

DIRECTIONS TO THE UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS AMHERST CAMPUS From the South  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(north) and use "From the South" directions above.) Logan International Airport (Boston) is 90 miles east International Airport (Hartford/Springfield) is 45 miles south of UMass Amherst. (Follow signs to Interstate 91 above.) By Bus: Peter Pan Bus Lines (800-343-9999) links the campus to Bradley and Logan airports

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

26

Development and Validation of an RP-HPLC Method to Quantitate Acyclovir in Cross-Linked Chitosan Microspheres Produced by Spray Drying  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......ACV) in cross-linked chitosan microspheres produced by spray...coefficient of 0.9999. The chitosan and the tripolyphosphate in...quantitate ACV in cross-linked chitosan microspheres. Introduction...activity. It is a highly potent inhibitor of herpes simplex virus......

Hellen Karine Stulzer; Monika Piazzon Tagliari; Fbio S. Murakami; Marcos A.S. Silva; Mauro C.M. Laranjeira

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Data:7d60fdb0-b014-4889-8061-e473d0810742 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Applicable to contracts with contract demands of 5,000 kW - 9,999 kW with a monthly energy usage equal to or greater than 400 hours per kW of contract demand and who are...

28

Growth of carbon nanotubes using nanocrystalline carbon catalyst Yong Seob Park a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

], hydrogen storage, chemical sensors, and composite reinforcing materials [4]. CNTs are known to have better metal catalyst layers by the hot filament plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (HF- PECVD) system and pure (99.99%) argon. Prior to the nc-C film deposition, the process chamber was pumped down to a base

Hong, Byungyou

29

F:\SHARE\SE\Web_Origs\Wrk_Jan\00-055\U0027401.PDF  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

GJO-99-99-TAR GJO-99-99-TAR Phase I Ground Water Compliance Action Plan for the Tuba City, Arizona, UMTRA Site June 1999 Prepared by U.S. Department of Energy Grand Junction Office Grand Junction, Colorado Project Number UGW-511-0023-05-000 Document Number U0027401 Work Performed under DOE Contract No. DE-AC13-96GJ87335 Document Number U0027401 Contents DOE/Grand Junction Office Phase I Ground Water Compliance Action Plan for Tuba City, Arizona June 1999 Page iii Contents Page 1.0 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1 2.0 Site Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 2.1 Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 2.2 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

30

Studies on Selective Adsorption of Biogas Components on Pillared Clays: Approach for Biogas Improvement  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The adsorption isotherms for pure component gases were determined for each PILC, up to 103 kPa. ... Among the four PILCs, a ZrO2 PILC was found to be the most suitable material, in terms of separation possibility. ... Pure gas isotherms, viz., those for carbon dioxide, ethane (Air Liquide, 99.995%), methane (Matheson, 99.995%), and nitrogen (99.99%), were measured on each PILC. ...

Joo Pires; Vipin K. Saini; Moiss L. Pinto

2008-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

31

A chemosensory system that regulates biofilm formation through modulation of cyclic diguanylate levels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...9997 2.52E-05 Probable exopolysaccharide transporter PA2235_pslE_at 2.1 0.9998 1.23E-05 Hypothetical PA2236_pslF_at 2.0 0.9999 5.33E-06 Hypothetical PA2237_pslG_at 2.7 1.0000 4.22E-08 Probable glycosyl hydrolase PA2238...

Jason W. Hickman; Delia F. Tifrea; Caroline S. Harwood

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Probability Tables for Mendelian Ratios with Small Numbers.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-called ex- Total ...-...-..-..-....-.--. .9999 pected may lead to error in interpretation rather than serving as a valuable aid as it does with large numbers. Examples with other small numbers could be given, but this should iIIustrate the points... is set off so as to show the point beyond which the total probability in that direction is .0050 or less. Mendelian Ratios Combi- 1 130 121 112 10 3 9 4 8 5 7 6 6 7 5 8 4 9 3 10 2 11 .On95 0028 .O002 .. -- I ---- - 1 12 .0016 .0004...

Warwick, B. L. (Bruce L.)

1932-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

An Interim Evaluation: The Effectiveness of Nonprofessionals in Cooperative Extension Education for Low-Income Farmers.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

was 41.5 and the range was from 24 to 59. All had some agricultural experience and one was a college graduate. 1. A comparison of Texas farms by economic classification for 1969 and 1964. .Lut~omic classification % farmers Av. value per farm... % change (Value of product sold) 1969 1964 1969 1964 in av. value 1 ($40,000 or more) 11 ($20,000 to $39,999) Ill ($10,000 to $19,999) IV ($5,000 to $9,999) V ($2,500 to $4,999) Vl ($50 to $2,499) VII (Part-time)' \\lllf (part-retirement)b TOTALS...

Ladewig, Howard W.; Edmondson, Vance W.

1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Thermal treatment for VOC control  

SciTech Connect

Catalytic and thermal oxidation are well-established technologies for controlling volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Oxidation destroys pollutants, rather than capturing them. Oxidation units can destroy nearly 100% of VOC and toxic emissions targeted by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990--some systems attain destruction efficiencies over 99.99%. To assist in the design of these systems, an engineer will often look a/t the heat of combustion of the gas stream, along with the type of pollutant, to best determine the correct type of oxidation device to use. The paper discusses catalytic and thermal oxidation, energy recovery, and equipment for these processes.

Cloud, R.A. [Huntington Environmental Systems, Schaumburg, IL (United States)

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Praxair extending hydrogen pipeline in Southeast Texas  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that Praxair Inc., an independent corporation created by the spinoff of Union Carbide Corp.'s Linde division, is extending its high purity hydrogen pipeline system from Channelview, Tex., to Port Arthur, Tex. The 70 mile, 10 in. extension begins at a new pressure swing adsorption (PSA) purification unit next to Lyondell Petrochemical Co.'s Channelview plant. The PSA unit will upgrade hydrogen offgas from Lyondell's methanol plant to 99.99% purity hydrogen. The new line, advancing at a rate of about 1 mile/day, will reach its first customer, Star Enterprise's 250,000 b/d Port Arthur refinery, in September.

Not Available

1992-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

36

Ultra-broadband polarisers based on metastable free-standing aligned carbon nanotube membranes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by the plasma edge (?p) which was empirically evaluated to be around 4.6 eV [35]. In the practical limit, as the pitch tends toward zero, the upper polarisation of the apparent dense wire grid tends towards that of bulk structured graphites (2.0-7.0 e... acetone bath and rinsed with IPA, DI water and dried with ultra-high purity N2. 101 nm Al2Ox (99.99%) was deposited in a custom-built magnetron sputterer and natively oxidised upon exposure to ambient atmosphere. A 1.00.1 nm Fe (99.95%) catalyst...

Cole, Matthew T.; Doherty, Matthew; Parmee, Richard; Dawson, Paul; Milne, William I.

2014-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

37

Notes 15. Gas Bearings for oil-free MTM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

kWatt 4 Micro Gas Turbines 100 Turbec, ABB & Volvo 70, 250 Ingersoll Rand 175 General Electric 35, 60, 80, 150 Elliott Energy Systems 30, 60, 200 Capstone 25, 80 Bowman OUTPUT POWER (kW) MANUFACTURER Microturbine Power Conversion Technology Review..., ORNL/TM-2003/74. Cogeneration systems with high efficiency ? Multiple fuels (best if free) ? 99.99X% Reliability ? Low emissions ? Reduced maintenance ? Lower lifecycle cost 60kW MGT www.microturbine.com Hybrid System : MGT with Fuel Cell can reach...

San Andres, Luis

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Microsoft Word - table_23.doc  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

7 7 Residential Commercial Industrial Vehicle Fuel Electric Power State Average Price Percent of Total Volume Delivered Average Price Percent of Total Volume Delivered Average Price Percent of Total Volume Delivered Average Price Average Price Alabama ..................... 13.34 99.99 10.91 81.99 7.34 20.03 -- 6.24 Alaska......................... 4.88 100.00 4.14 55.48 3.62 66.78 -- 2.79 Arizona ....................... 12.16 100.00 8.50 93.89 6.91 55.15 6.57 5.84 Arkansas .................... 11.73 100.00 8.86 80.30 8.03 5.67 6.86 6.19 California .................... 9.86 96.51 8.63 71.17 7.89 5.25 6.97 6.05 Colorado..................... 8.47 99.99 7.48 94.67 6.54 0.77 5.99 5.65 Connecticut................. 14.06 98.62 11.31 68.99 9.32 43.99 12.65 W

39

 

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

150k samples using 250 gauss points in r out to 25.00 fm 150k samples using 250 gauss points in r out to 25.00 fm K = momentum in fm**-1 RHOKN1 = neutron momentum distribution in fm**3 DRHOKN1 = Monte Carlo error bar (1 sigma) 4*PI*TOTINT(RHOKN1*K**2:K)/(2*PI)**3 = 3.9999 RHOKP1 = proton momentum distribution in fm**3 DRHOKP1 = Monte Carlo error bar (1 sigma) 4*PI*TOTINT(RHOKP1*K**2:K)/(2*PI)**3 = 2.9999 Kinetic energy .5*(HC**2/MP)*4*PI*TOTINT(RHOKP1*K**4:K)/(2*PI)**3 = 80.224 .5*(HC**2/MN)*4*PI*TOTINT(RHOKN1*K**4:K)/(2*PI)**3 = 97.294 177.518 K RHOKN1 DRHOKN1 RHOKP1 DRHOKP1 **** *********** ********* *********** ********* 0 495.4 1.7788 482 1.1043 .1 499.2 1.3405 472.6 .7574 .2 499.2 .82984 443.4 .52614 .3 477.2 .5743 394.7 .38471

40

Consistency tests for Planck and WMAP in the low multipole domain  

SciTech Connect

Recently, full sky maps from Planck have been made publicly available. In this paper, we do consistency tests for the three Planck CMB sky maps. We assume that the difference between two maps represents the contributions from systematics, noise, foregrounds and other sources, and that a precise representation of the Cosmic Microwave Background should be uncorrelated with it. We investigate the cross correlation in pixel space between the difference maps and the various Planck maps and find no significant correlations, in comparison to 10000 random Gaussian simulated maps. Additionally we investigate the difference map between the WMAP ILC 9 year map and the ILC 7 year map. We perform cross correlations between this difference map, and the ILC9 and ILC7, and find significant correlations only for the ILC9, at more than the 99.99% level. Likewise, a comparison between the Planck NILC map and the WMAP ILC9 map, shows a strong correlation for the ILC9 map with the difference map, also at more than the 99.99% level. Thus the ILC9 appears to be more contaminated than the ILC7, which should be taken into consideration when using WMAP maps for cosmological analyses.

Frejsel, A.; Hansen, M.; Liu, H., E-mail: frejsel@nbi.dk, E-mail: kirstejn@nbi.dk, E-mail: liuhao@nbi.dk [Niels Bohr Institute and Discovery Center, Blegdamsvej 17, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "9999 9999 9999" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

TableHC11.3.xls  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0.6 0.6 15.1 5.5 Household Size 1 Person............................................................... 30.0 5.5 3.8 1.7 2 Persons.............................................................. 34.8 6.5 4.8 1.7 3 Persons.............................................................. 18.4 3.4 2.4 1.1 4 Persons.............................................................. 15.9 3.0 2.4 0.7 5 Persons.............................................................. 7.9 1.4 1.2 0.2 6 or More Persons................................................. 4.1 0.7 0.6 0.1 2005 Annual Household Income Category Less than $9,999.................................................. 9.9 1.9 1.4 0.5 $10,000 to $14,999............................................... 8.5 1.8 1.4 0.4 $15,000 to $19,999...............................................

42

TableHC14.3.xls  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4.2 4.2 7.6 16.6 Household Size 1 Person............................................................... 30.0 5.7 1.5 4.2 2 Persons.............................................................. 34.8 7.4 2.9 4.5 3 Persons.............................................................. 18.4 3.9 1.2 2.7 4 Persons.............................................................. 15.9 4.0 1.1 2.9 5 Persons.............................................................. 7.9 1.7 0.5 1.3 6 or More Persons................................................. 4.1 1.5 0.4 1.1 2005 Annual Household Income Category Less than $9,999.................................................. 9.9 1.6 0.4 1.2 $10,000 to $14,999............................................... 8.5 1.6 0.4 1.2 $15,000 to $19,999...............................................

43

ENERGY RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ADMlNlSTRATldN CHICAGO OPERATIONS OFFICE  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ADMlNlSTRATldN RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ADMlNlSTRATldN CHICAGO OPERATIONS OFFICE 9999 SOUTH CASS AVENUE - .~-- ARGONNE, ILL!&+ bt.499 _ In Reply Refer TO: SEP. 1 61975 Martin B. Biles, Director Division of Operational Safety, HQ CARNEGIE-MELLON UNIVERSITY (CMU) CYCLOTRON DISMANTLING PROJECT The purpose of this memorandum is to summarize the dismantling activities which have been performed or are planned at the CMU, Nuclear Research Center, Saxonburg, Pennsylvania, site for purposes of preparing the site for unrestricted release from a radiological standpoint. Facility Description and Background Attachment 1 shows a schematic of the main building (which housed the synchrocyclotron, laboratories, machine shop, and offices) and adjacent ancillary facilities. Not shown (direction of location shown by arrows)

44

Kankakee Valley Rural E M C | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

M C M C Jump to: navigation, search Name Kankakee Valley Rural E M C Place Indiana Utility Id 9999 Utility Location Yes Ownership C NERC Location ECAR NERC RFC Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Envirowatt Residential Electric Service(Manually Read Meter) Residential General Service Non-Demand(Using Manually read meter)) Residential General Service Non-Demand(Using Manually read meter)) Commercial RATE SCHEDULE A: RESIDENTIAL ELECTRIC SERVICE RATE SCHEDULE Residential Rate Schedule A1: Envirowatt Residential Electric Service Rate Schedule

45

AT&T, INC.'s REPLY COMMENTS EXHIBIT 1  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

AT&T, INC.'s REPLY COMMENTS AT&T, INC.'s REPLY COMMENTS EXHIBIT 1 Application Security BW Reliability Coverage Latency Emergency Power 1 AMR High 14-100 Kbps/ node 99.0-99.99 20%- 100% 2000 ms 0-4 hours DLC High 14-100 Kbps/ node 99.0-99.99 20%- 100% 2000 ms 0-4 hours Real-time pricing High 14-100 Kbps/ node 99.0-99.99 20%- 100% 2000 ms 0-4 hours Distributed Generation High 9.6-56 kbps 99.0- 99.99% 90-100% 300-2000 ms 0-1 hour Charging PEVs at home Medium 9.6-56 kbps 99.0-

46

S A V A N N A H R I V E R S I T E  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

National Laboratory's (SRNL) National Laboratory's (SRNL) Analytical Laboratories have supported SRS operations for more than 55 years, providing high quality analyti- cal, radiometric and environmental monitoring data to a range of customers. Since the mid-1950s, the labs have provided a diverse array of scientific and technical services in support of Site missions. The labs perform analyses on a wide range of matrices, such as soil, water, gases, foodstuffs, decommission- ing debris, waste and process control samples. The laboratories maintain certifications and qualifications through a variety of govern- ing bodies, which allow multiple applications of laboratories services. Over 100,000 samples are processed yearly, producing 300,000 determinations with an error-free rate averaging 99.99 percent.

47

TableHC15.3.xls  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7.1 7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Household Size 1 Person.......................................................................... 30.0 1.8 1.9 2.0 3.2 2 Persons........................................................................ 34.8 2.2 2.3 2.4 3.2 3 Persons........................................................................ 18.4 1.1 1.3 1.2 1.8 4 Persons........................................................................ 15.9 1.0 0.9 1.0 2.3 5 Persons........................................................................ 7.9 0.6 0.6 0.9 0.9 6 or More Persons........................................................... 4.1 0.4 Q 0.5 0.7 2005 Annual Household Income Category Less than $9,999............................................................. 9.9 0.8 0.7 0.9 1.0 $10,000 to $14,999..........................................................

48

CARBON FLUX TO THE ATMOSPHERE FROM LAND-USE CHANGES: 1850 TO 1990 (APPENDIX  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

E: FULL LISTING OF COMPARE.DAT (FILE 4) E: FULL LISTING OF COMPARE.DAT (FILE 4) The following is a full listing of ascii file compare.dat (File 4), which is also provided, in binary spreadsheet format, as file compare.wk1 (File 5). This file compares the estimated global total net flux of carbon to the atmosphere from land-use change, from 1850 to 1990, by year, for this database (Houghton 1999) and three earlier publications (Houghton et al. 1983, Houghton and Skole 1990, and Houghton and Hackler 1995). Note that the data for the period 1850 through 1859 attributed below to Houghton et al. (1983) were not actually presented in that publication but are present in the data used in that publication. Units = Pg of carbon (1 petagram = 1015 grams); -9.999 denotes missing value Year Houghton Houghton Houghton Houghton

49

_PART I - THE SCHEDULE  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

15 dated 9/9/13 Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000 15 dated 9/9/13 Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000 Modification No. M202 Part I - The Schedule Sections B through H TABLE OF CONTENTS B-1 SERVICES BEING ACQUIRED ...................................................................................... 4 B-2 CONTRACT TYPE AND VALUE (Rev. M218, M222, M236, M241, M261, M266, M288, M293, M312, M319, M344, M365, M400, M404, M443, M448, M473, M484, M0512, A0514) ............................................................................................................................ 4 B-3 AVAILABILITY OF APPROPRIATED FUNDS ................................................................. 8 B-9999 AMERICAN RECOVERY AND REINVESTMENT ACT WORK VALUES (Added M331; Modified: A335, A336, A340, A341, A342, A346, A347, A348, A349, A350,

50

Photovoltaic Silicon Cell Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Silicon Cell Basics Silicon Cell Basics Photovoltaic Silicon Cell Basics August 20, 2013 - 2:19pm Addthis Silicon-used to make some the earliest photovoltaic (PV) devices-is still the most popular material for solar cells. Silicon is also the second-most abundant element in the Earth's crust (after oxygen). However, to be useful as a semiconductor material in solar cells, silicon must be refined to a purity of 99.9999%. In single-crystal silicon, the molecular structure-which is the arrangement of atoms in the material-is uniform because the entire structure is grown from the same crystal. This uniformity is ideal for transferring electrons efficiently through the material. To make an effective PV cell, however, silicon has to be "doped" with other elements to make n-type and p-type layers.

51

CX-000836: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

36: Categorical Exclusion Determination 36: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-000836: Categorical Exclusion Determination Energy Savings Performance Contracts (4494) CX(s) Applied: B2.5 Date: 02/11/2010 Location(s): Oak Ridge, Tennessee Office(s): Y-12 Site Office This project would replace approximately 760 steam traps and 60 vacuum breakers; update the condensate return system with pipe, insulation, and pump/tank units; replace pumps and install controls in buildings 9768-8, 11, and 13, replace transformer in building 9767-13 and heat exchanger in building 9767-11; install new demineralized water system in building 9999-3 and transfer pumps near building 9404-17. DOCUMENT(S) AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD CX-000836.pdf More Documents & Publications CX-000559: Categorical Exclusion Determination

52

Borough of Milltown, New Jersey (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jersey (Utility Company) Jersey (Utility Company) Jump to: navigation, search Name Borough of Milltown Place New Jersey Utility Id 12608 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location RFC NERC RFC Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png General Service (Customer A)(20 Kw to 99.99 Kw) Commercial General Service (Customer B)(less than 20 Kw) Commercial Large Power and Lighting Service Commercial Residential Rates Residential Residential Rates (Heat Pump Service) Residential Average Rates Residential: $0.1860/kWh Commercial: $0.1860/kWh Industrial: $0.1860/kWh

53

CARBON FLUX TO THE ATMOSPHERE FROM LAND-USE CHANGES: 1850 TO 1990 (APPENDIX  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A: ECOSYSTEM AREA BY REGION A: ECOSYSTEM AREA BY REGION This listing indicates the area (in units of 106 hectare) in different ecosystems for the nine regions in this database, for the years 1700, 1850, and 1990, along with the percent change from 1850 to 1990. The values in this listing replace the values in files areas.* in Houghton and Hackler (1995), the previous version of this database. Missing values are denoted by -9999. % Change 1700 1850 1990 1850-1990 North America Temperate evergreen forest 236 222 215 -0.03 Temperate deciduous forest 157 125 118 -0.06 Boreal forest 325 325 322 -0.01 Temperate woodland/shrubland 302 302 292 -0.03 Temperate grassland 568 481 172 -0.64

54

Document  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

781 Federal Register 781 Federal Register / Vol. 73, No. 231 / Monday, December 1, 2008 / Notices Management Plan (35 points) * The extent to which the offeror provides a description of its plan for managing the project in a clear and sequential fashion, and the extent to which that plan provides credible evidence that the management of personnel, physical resources, activities, and work production will result in a robust portal with a 99.99 percent ''uptime rate.'' (20 points) * The quality of the offeror's plans to establish and work with an advisory committee that has appropriate expertise to advise the offeror on its implementation of the project. (5 points) * The extent to which the time commitments of the offeror's staff are appropriate to operating and maintaining U.S.A. Learns Web Portal.

55

Hydrogen production in Multi-Channel Membrane Reactor via Steam Methane Reforming and Methane Catalytic Combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A novel Multi-Channel Membrane Reactor (MCMR) was designed and built for the small-scale production of hydrogen via Steam Methane Reforming (SMR). The prototype alternates an SMR gas channel to produce hydrogen catalytically, with a Methane Catalytic Combustion (MCC) gas channel to provide the heat of reaction needed by the endothermic reforming. A palladiumsilver membrane inside the reforming gas channel shifts the reaction equilibrium, allowing lower operating temperatures, and producing pure hydrogen in a single vessel. Using an innovative air-spray coating technique, channels were coated with RuMgOLa2O3/?-Al2O3 and Pd/?-Al2O3 catalyst particles for the SMR and MCC reactions, respectively. Results for the proof-of-concept MCMR showed that methane conversion in the reformer of 91% and a hydrogen purity in excess of 99.99% were possible with the reformer operating at 570C and 15bar.

Alexandre Vigneault; John R. Grace

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Heterogeneous Oxidation of Carbonyl Sulfide on Atmospheric Particles and Alumina  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The specifications of gases used in this experiment are as follows without further purification:? OCS (2%, OCS/N2, Scott Specialty Gases Inc.), O2 (99.99% purity, Beijing AP BEIFEN Gases Inc.), H2 (99.999% purity, GCD-300B high purity hydrogen generator, China Bchp Analytical Technology Co. Ltd.). ... To confirm our assignment about the surface SO42- species, 1.0 g of preoxidized Al2O3 sample after exposure to a flow of 500 ppm OCS + 95% O2 at 298 K for 2 h was analyzed by ion chromatography (DIONEX, CA); 2.43 mg/L SO42- can be detected (sample stirred with 100 mL deionized water, and then filtered through a 0.45-?m filter). ... Since the real atmospheric particle sample has relatively high surface area (4.8 m2/g), its influence on the conversion of OCS in atmosphere is not neglectable. ...

Hong He; Junfeng Liu; Yujing Mu; Yunbo Yu; Meixue Chen

2005-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

57

Injection pressure falloff with flooded zone  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

D. 0J Gl IU Z O I t. IA st Ol 182 18 18-2 18 1 188 181 Epuivalerit Time (hr) 182 Fig. 18 ? Radial type curve analysis of Well No. 2 field test data. 29 k (md) IEI ( e-se) Ls (00. ) CR('D C (Cblsp ) CUP ~ 42'77 (4, (k ee. 00... 79 49 3512. . 79932-91 -3. 991 . 9999 Ql t: Z 18~ O 18 18-2 ?J 18 ? 1 188 18 18 Equivalent Time (hr ) Fit;. 9 ? Radial type analysis of Well No. l field test data, 20 184 k ( d& "- 3. 921 II ( d-ft. & = 66. 66 Lf &ft& = te. 61 C fo...

Ariadji, Tutuka

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

58

Perfusion measurement with Rubidium 81 to Krypton 81m ratio  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

OF'IIN=1 WRI II:(II?FV?6) 6 FORMAT( 'Of'RIN f'? ( r A r 8) I ' ?4r*J. ) REAlt & IDEV r 22) I AN' IPRIN I. =O IF( (IANS. AND. '377) . EQ, '102 & IF'RINT--1 IF ( & IANS . ANIt, ' 377 &, EO. ' 1 0 I ):. 'f1 IN I;-0 WRITE (1DEV ~ 7) 7 FORMAT&' TTY... & IDEV r 48) GQ TQ 43 WRITE & IDEV r 47) FORM4T& 'OINPLIT 6 BKGD CHANNELS TO AVERAGE I ' r f r Ai) READ ( I DE V r 114 i I B*VG IF& IBAVG. LE. O) GO TO 9999 WRITE & IDEV r 52) FORMAT(' DISPLAY ((0=NO)ri=KRr2=PB!3=RB/KR)l 're A1) READ&IDEV!114...

Beasley, Charles Ward

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

59

VAC*TRAX vacuum thermal desorption  

SciTech Connect

Pilot VAC*TRAX treatability tests were conducted on RCRA, TSCA, and RCRA/radioactive mixed wastes, to determine the efficiency in remediating organics` contaminated solids. The process volatilizes organic compounds by indirectly heating the feed material in a vacuum batch dryer and condensing the organics separately from the remaining solids. Contaminants included tetrachloroethene, bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, pentachlorophenol, and PCBs. Treatment specifications were met: a tetrachloroethene removal >99.99% and PCB removal from a starting level of 990 ppM to a final level of <1 ppM. One test run was spiked with MoO{sub 3}, as a uranium simulant; the Mo remained in the treated solids, not transferring to the condensate. In the mixed waste tests, uranium present in a feed soil remained in the soil. Economic viability was demonstrated by achieving excellent treatment on a routine basis with both 4 and 6 hour heating cycles.

NONE

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Variability of hot mix asphalt produced with reclaimed asphalt pavement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

/8"-No. 4 No. 4-No. 10 No. 10-No. 40 No. 40-No. 80 No. 80-No. 200 No. 200- Sum Sample Size 76 76 76 76 76 76 Mean Y 0. 0001 0. 1463 0. 3672 0. 2806 0. 1923 0. 0135 Stdev S 0. 0002 0. 0102 0. 0186 0. 0207 0. 0158 0. 0026 Y(1 ? Y) 0. 0001 0. 1249 0... No. 10 No. 40 No. 80 No. 200 Sample Size 76 76 76 76 76 76 Mean X 0. 9999 0. 8536 0. 4864 0. 2058 0. 0135 Stdev S 0. 0002 0. 0102 0. 0238 0. 0159 0. 0026 2C(1 ? X) 0. 0001 0. 1250 0. 2498 0. 1635 0. 0133 Variance S 2 6. 23E-08 1. 05E-04 5. 65E-04...

Yang, Guiqin

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "9999 9999 9999" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

TableHC10.3.xls  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

20.6 20.6 25.6 40.7 24.2 Household Size 1 Person.......................................................................... 30.0 5.5 7.3 11.5 5.7 2 Persons........................................................................ 34.8 6.5 8.4 12.5 7.4 3 Persons........................................................................ 18.4 3.4 4.1 7.0 3.9 4 Persons........................................................................ 15.9 3.0 3.2 5.6 4.0 5 Persons........................................................................ 7.9 1.4 1.8 2.9 1.7 6 or More Persons........................................................... 4.1 0.7 0.7 1.2 1.5 2005 Annual Household Income Category Less than $9,999............................................................. 9.9 1.9 2.3 4.1 1.6 $10,000 to $14,999..........................................................

62

TableHC13.3.xls  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0.7 0.7 21.7 6.9 12.1 Household Size 1 Person.......................................................................... 30.0 11.5 6.2 2.1 3.2 2 Persons........................................................................ 34.8 12.5 6.5 2.1 3.9 3 Persons........................................................................ 18.4 7.0 4.0 1.1 1.8 4 Persons........................................................................ 15.9 5.6 2.9 1.2 1.5 5 Persons........................................................................ 7.9 2.9 1.5 0.3 1.1 6 or More Persons........................................................... 4.1 1.2 0.5 Q 0.6 2005 Annual Household Income Category Less than $9,999............................................................. 9.9 4.1 2.1 0.6 1.4 $10,000 to $14,999..........................................................

63

TableHC8.3.xls  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7.1 7.1 19.0 22.7 22.3 Household Size 1 Person.......................................................................... 30.0 14.7 5.1 5.1 5.1 2 Persons........................................................................ 34.8 12.8 6.1 7.5 8.5 3 Persons........................................................................ 18.4 7.6 3.0 3.8 3.9 4 Persons........................................................................ 15.9 6.8 2.6 3.3 3.1 5 Persons........................................................................ 7.9 3.3 1.5 2.1 1.0 6 or More Persons........................................................... 4.1 1.9 0.7 0.8 0.7 2005 Annual Household Income Category Less than $9,999............................................................. 9.9 5.2 1.6 1.2 1.9 $10,000 to $14,999..........................................................

64

TableHC12.3.xls  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5.6 5.6 17.7 7.9 Household Size 1 Person............................................................... 30.0 7.3 5.0 2.3 2 Persons.............................................................. 34.8 8.4 5.7 2.7 3 Persons.............................................................. 18.4 4.1 3.0 1.1 4 Persons.............................................................. 15.9 3.2 2.2 1.0 5 Persons.............................................................. 7.9 1.8 1.4 0.4 6 or More Persons................................................. 4.1 0.7 0.4 0.3 2005 Annual Household Income Category Less than $9,999.................................................. 9.9 2.3 1.8 0.5 $10,000 to $14,999............................................... 8.5 2.0 1.4 0.6 $15,000 to $19,999...............................................

65

Table 10. Supply and Disposition of Electricity, 1990 Through 2010 (Million Kilo  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Jersey" Jersey" "Category",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Supply" "Generation" " Electric Utilities",36489,37029,31167,34285,31932,27088,19791,23761,35911,38868,25254,1630,1569,1910,1649,1249,1043,-191,-206,-187,-186 " Independent Power Producers",253,716,1240,1099,1408,1434,1700,1556,1138,1229,15677,41097,43924,41228,42169,46809,48723,51439,52292,52182,56686 " Combined Heat and Power, Electric",2202,3824,8384,9975,12108,13591,13156,13370,13598,13525,14104,13418,13693,12777,10705,11365,9999,10653,10740,8717,8041 "Electric Power Sector Generation Subtotal",38943,41569,40791,45359,45448,42113,34647,38687,50647,53622,55035,56145,59186,55916,54523,59422,59765,61901,62825,60712,64540

66

tablehc6.3.xls  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

30.0 30.0 34.8 18.4 15.9 12.0 Household Size 1 Person.......................................................... 30.0 30.0 N N N N 2 Persons........................................................ 34.8 N 34.8 N N N 3 Persons........................................................ 18.4 N N 18.4 N N 4 Persons........................................................ 15.9 N N N 15.9 N 5 Persons........................................................ 7.9 N N N N 7.9 6 or More Persons........................................... 4.1 N N N N 4.1 2005 Annual Household Income Category Less than $9,999............................................. 9.9 5.9 1.4 1.1 0.7 0.7 $10,000 to $14,999.......................................... 8.5 4.2 2.0 0.9 0.7 0.7 $15,000 to $19,999.......................................... 8.4 3.3 2.5

67

Response of structural materials to radiation environments  

SciTech Connect

An evaluation of proton and neutron damage to aluminum, stainless steel, nickel alloys, and various aluminum alloys has been performed. The proton studies were conducted at energies of 200 MeV, 800 MeV, and 23.5 GeV. The proton studies consisted of evaluation and characterization of proton-irradiated window/target materials from accelerators and comparison to nonirradiated archival materials. The materials evaluated for the proton irradiations included 99.9999 wt% aluminum, 1100 aluminum, 5052 aluminum, 304 stainless steel, and inconel 718. The neutron damage research centered on 6061 T-6 aluminum which was obtained from a control-rod follower from the Brookhaven National Laboratory`s (BNL) High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR). This material had received thermal neutron fluence up to {approximately}4 {times} 10{sup 23} n/cm{sup 2}. The possible effects of thermal-to-fast neutron flux ratios are discussed. The increases in tensile strength in the proton-irradiated materials is shown to be the result of atomic displacements. These displacements cause interstitials and vacancies which aggregate into defect clusters which result in radiation hardening of the materials. Production of gas (helium) in the grain boundaries of proton irradiated 99.9999 wt% aluminum is also discussed. The major factor contributing to the mechanical-property changes in the neutron-irradiated 6061 T-6 aluminum is the production of transmutation products formed by interactions of the aluminum with thermal neutrons. The metallurgical and mechanical-property evaluations for the research consisted of electron microscopy (both scanning and transmission), tensile testing, and microhardness testing.

Czajkowski, C.J.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Distillation of hydrogen isotopes for polarized HD target  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have developed a cryogenic distillation system to purify Hydrogen-Deuteride (HD) gas for a polarized HD target in LEPS experiments at SPring-8. A small amount of ortho-H$_2$ ($\\sim$0.01%) in the HD gas plays an important role in efficiently polarizing the HD target. Since there are 1$\\sim$5% impurities of H$_2$ and D$_2$ in commercially available HD gases, it is inevitable that the HD gas is purified up to $\\sim$99.99%. The distillation system has a cryogenic pot (17$\\sim$21 K) containing many small stainless steel cells called Heli-pack. Commercial HD gas with an amount of 5.2 mol is fed into the pot. We carried out three distillation runs by changing temperatures (17.5 K and 20.5 K) and gas extraction speeds (1.3 ml/min and 5.2 ml/min). The extracted gas was analyzed by using a gas analyzer system combining a quadrupole mass spectrometer with a gas chromatograph. The HD gas of 1 mol with a purity better than 99.99% has been successfully obtained. The effective NTS (Number of Theoretical Stages), which is an indicator of the distillator performances, is obtained as 37.2$\\pm$0.6. This value is in reasonable agreement with a designed value of 37.9. The HD target is expected to be efficiently polarized under a well-controlled condition by doping an optimal amount of ortho-H$_2$ to the purified HD gas.

T. Ohta; S. Bouchigny; J. -P. Didelez; M. Fujiwara; K. Fukuda; H. Kohri; T. Kunimatsu; C. Morisaki; S. Ono; G. Rouill'; M. Tanaka; K. Ueda; M. Uraki; M. Utsuro; S. Y. Wang; M. Yosoi

2011-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

69

SEDIMENT DECONTAMINATION TREATMENT TRAIN: COMMERCIAL-SCALE DEMONSTRATION FOR THE PORT OF NEW YORK/NEW JERSEY  

SciTech Connect

Decontamination and beneficial use of dredged material is a component of a comprehensive Dredged Material Management Plan for the Port of New York and New Jersey. The authors describe here a regional contaminated sediment decontamination program that is being implemented to meet the needs of the Port. The components of the train include: (1) dredging and preliminary physical processing (materials handling), (2) decontamination treatment, (3) beneficial use, and (4) public outreach. Several types of treatment technologies suitable for use with varying levels of sediment contamination have been selected based on the results of bench- and pilot-scale tests. This work is being conducted under the auspices of the Water Resources Development Act (WRDA). The use of sediment washing is suitable for sediments with low to moderate contamination levels, typical of industrialized waterways. BioGenesis Enterprises and Roy F. Weston, Inc. performed the first phase of an incremental decontamination demonstration with the goal of decontaminating 700 cubic yards (cy) (pilot-scale) for engineering design and cost economics information for commercial scale operations. This pilot test was completed in March, 1999. The next phase will scale-up to operation of a commercial facility capable of treating 40 cy/hr. It is anticipated that this will be completed by January 2000 (250,000 cy/yr). Manufactured topsoil is one beneficial use product from this process. Tests of two high-temperature treatment technologies are also in progress. They are well suited to produce almost complete destruction of organic compounds in moderate to highly contaminated dredged materials and for production of high-value beneficial reuse products. The Institute of Gas Technology is demonstrating a natural gas-fired thermochemical manufacturing process with an initial treatment capacity of 30,000 cy/yr into operation by the fall of 1999. Design and construction of a 100,000 cy/yr facility will be based on the operational results obtained from the demonstration facility. The decontaminated dredged material will be converted to a construction-grade cement. Prior bench- and pilot-scale tests showed that this treatment removes 99.99% of the organic contaminants and immobilizes the metals. The Westinghouse Science and Technology Center has demonstrated use of a high-temperature plasma to achieve 99.99% removal efficiencies for organic contaminants while immobilizing metals in a glass matrix. It was shown that a glass product such as tiles or fibers can be produced and that it can be used for manufacturing high quality glass tiles on a commercial scale.

JONES,K.W.; STERN,E.A.; DONATO,K.R.; CLESCERI,N.L.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Data:8d487701-c1da-437a-b20e-87dc9dbe518d | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

01-c1da-437a-b20e-87dc9dbe518d 01-c1da-437a-b20e-87dc9dbe518d No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Taylor County Rural E C C Effective date: 2011/06/01 End date if known: Rate name: Schedule B2 - Large Industrial Rate Sector: Industrial Description: Applicable to contracts with demands of 5,000 to 9,999 KW with a monthly energy usage equal to or greater than 400 hours per KW of billing demand. Source or reference: Kentucky Public Service Commission Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh):

71

TableHC9.3.xls  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

10.9 10.9 26.1 27.3 24.0 22.8 Household Size 1 Person................................................................ 30.0 2.6 7.9 7.3 6.5 5.8 2 Persons.............................................................. 34.8 4.3 7.7 8.2 7.1 7.5 3 Persons.............................................................. 18.4 1.8 4.2 4.8 3.9 3.7 4 Persons.............................................................. 15.9 1.2 3.7 4.0 3.9 2.9 5 Persons.............................................................. 7.9 0.7 1.8 2.0 1.4 2.0 6 or More Persons................................................. 4.1 0.3 0.8 1.0 1.1 0.8 2005 Annual Household Income Category Less than $9,999................................................... 9.9 0.4 2.8 2.4 2.2 2.1 $10,000 to $14,999................................................

72

Microsoft Word - 20050821_Appendix_A.doc  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

A8. U.S. Vehicle Fuel Consumption by Family Income and Poverty Status, 2001 (Billion Gallons) A8. U.S. Vehicle Fuel Consumption by Family Income and Poverty Status, 2001 (Billion Gallons) ENERGY INFORMATION ADMINISTRATION / HOUSEHOLD VEHICLES ENERGY USE: LATEST A N D TRENDS 79 2001 Family Income (dollars) Income Relative to Poverty Line 2001 Household and Vehicle Characteristics Total Less than 5,000 5,000 to 9,999 10,000 to 14,999 15,000 to 19,999 20,000 to 24,999 25,000 to 34,999 35,000 to 49,999 50,000 or 74,999 75,000 or More Don't Know Below 100 % 100 to 150 % Above 150 % Don't Know Household Characteristics Total.............................. 113.1 1.1 2.6 3.0 4.9 4.5 12.5 22.3 24.0 31.9 6.2 6.7 6.2 93.9 6.2 Census Region and Division

73

Microsoft Word - 20050821_Appendix_A.doc  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

A7. U.S. Vehicle-Miles Traveled by Family Income and Poverty Status, 2001 (Billion Miles) A7. U.S. Vehicle-Miles Traveled by Family Income and Poverty Status, 2001 (Billion Miles) ENERGY INFORMATION ADMINISTRATION / HOUSEHOLD VEHICLES ENERGY USE: LATEST A N D TRENDS 75 2001 Family Income (dollars) Income Relative to Poverty Line 2001 Household and Vehicle Characteristics Total Less than 5,000 5,000 to 9,999 10,000 to 14,999 15,000 to 19,999 20,000 to 24,999 25,000 to 34,999 35,000 to 49,999 50,000 to 74,999 75,000 or More Don't Know Below 100 % 100 to 150 % Above 150 % Don't Know Household Characteristics Total.............................. 2,287 23 55 62 102 93 257 450 484 639 123 139 130 1,895 123 Census Region and Division

74

tablehc4.3.xls  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

33.0 33.0 8.0 3.4 5.9 14.4 1.2 Household Size 1 Person......................................................... 30.0 11.4 1.6 1.0 1.9 6.6 0.3 2 Persons........................................................ 34.8 8.0 1.9 0.8 1.5 3.5 0.3 3 Persons........................................................ 18.4 5.6 1.5 0.7 1.2 1.9 0.2 4 Persons........................................................ 15.9 4.3 1.3 0.6 0.7 1.6 Q 5 Persons........................................................ 7.9 2.0 0.9 0.2 0.3 0.4 Q 6 or More Persons........................................... 4.1 1.7 0.8 Q 0.3 0.4 Q 2005 Annual Household Income Category Less than $9,999............................................. 9.9 5.2 0.6 0.7 1.1 2.7 Q $10,000 to $14,999......................................... 8.5 4.6 0.8 0.3 0.9 2.4 Q $15,000 to $19,999.........................................

75

 

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

-- AV18+UX -- 05-Sep-13 -- AV18+UX -- 05-Sep-13 VMC 20k samples using 250 gauss points in r out to 25.00 fm K = momentum in 1/fm RHOKN = neutron momentum distribution in fm**3 DRHOKN = Monte Carlo error bar (1 sigma) 4*PI*TOTINT(RHOKN*K**2:K)/(2*PI)**3 = 4.9999 RHOKP = proton momentum distribution in fm**3 DRHOKP = Monte Carlo error bar (1 sigma) 4*PI*TOTINT(RHOKP*K**2:K)/(2*PI)**3 = 4 Kinetic energy .5*(HC**2/MP)*4*PI*TOTINT(RHOKP*K**4:K)/(2*PI)**3 = 119.21 .5*(HC**2/MP)*4*PI*TOTINT(RHOKN*K**4:K)/(2*PI)**3 = 135.68 = 254.89 K RHOKN DRHOKN RHOKP DRHOKP **** *********** ********* *********** ********* 0 471.4 1.5677 493.6 .87357 .1 479.1 1.462 486.1 .82165 .2 491.7 1.1953 463.1 .69321 .3 488 .86019 423.5 .53537

76

TableHC2.3.xls  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Total................................................................... Total................................................................... 111.1 78.1 64.1 4.2 1.8 2.3 5.7 Household Size 1 Person......................................................... 30.0 18.6 13.2 1.4 0.7 1.3 2.1 2 Persons........................................................ 34.8 26.8 22.9 1.3 0.5 0.7 1.4 3 Persons........................................................ 18.4 12.8 10.7 0.5 0.4 Q 1.0 4 Persons........................................................ 15.9 11.5 9.8 0.6 Q Q 0.9 5 Persons........................................................ 7.9 5.9 5.3 0.2 Q Q 0.3 6 or More Persons........................................... 4.1 2.4 2.1 Q Q N Q 2005 Annual Household Income Category Less than $9,999............................................. 9.9 4.7 3.1 0.3 0.3 Q 0.8 $10,000 to $14,999.........................................

77

 

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

He -- AV18+UX -- 12-Apr-13 He -- AV18+UX -- 12-Apr-13 VMC 100k samples using 250 gauss points in r out to 25.00 fm K = momentum in 1/fm RHOKP = proton momentum distribution in fm**3 DRHOKP = Monte Carlo error bar (1 sigma) 4*PI*TOTINT(RHOKP*K**2:K)/(2*PI)**3 = 1.9999 RHOKN = neutron momentum distribution in fm**3 DRHOKN = Monte Carlo error bar (1 sigma) 4*PI*TOTINT(RHOKN*K**2:K)/(2*PI)**3 = 5.9997 Kinetic energy .5*(HC**2/MN)*4*PI*TOTINT(RHOKN*K**4:K)/(2*PI)**3 = 111.59 .5*(HC**2/MP)*4*PI*TOTINT(RHOKP*K**4:K)/(2*PI)**3 = 60.26 = 171.85 K RHOKP DRHOKP RHOKN DRHOKN **** *********** ********* *********** ********* 0 395.8 .4336 322.6 3.8764 .1 381.8 .41069 489 3.4493 .2 342.8 .35723 779.6 2.4664 .3 287.6 .29048 911.2 1.492

78

 

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

He(0+) -- AV18+UX -- 24-Apr-13 He(0+) -- AV18+UX -- 24-Apr-13 VMC 200k samples using 250 gauss points in r out to 25.00 fm K = momentum in fm**-1 RHOKP = proton momentum distribution in fm**3 DRHOKP = Monte Carlo error bar (1 sigma) 4*PI*TOTINT(RHOKP*K**2:K)/(2*PI)**3 = 2 RHOKN = neutron momentum distribution in fm**3 DRHOKN = Monte Carlo error bar (1 sigma) 4*PI*TOTINT(RHOKN*K**2:K)/(2*PI)**3 = 3.9999 Kinetic energy .5*(HC**2/MN)*4*PI*TOTINT(RHOKN*K**4:K)/(2*PI)**3 = 76.244 .5*(HC**2/MP)*4*PI*TOTINT(RHOKP*K**4:K)/(2*PI)**3 = 55.322 = 131.566 K RHOKP DRHOKP RHOKN DRHOKN **** *********** ********* *********** ********* 0 460.6 .45665 533 4.2624 .1 441.6 .42681 669.8 3.4945 .2 390 .35171 843.2 2.0987

79

 

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

11-Apr-13 11-Apr-13 VMC 200k samples using 200 gauss points in r out to 20.00 fm K = momentum in 1/fm RHOKP = proton momentum distribution in fm**3 DRHOKP = Monte Carlo error bar (1 sigma) 4*PI*TOTINT(RHOKP*K**2:K)/(2*PI)**3 = 2.9999 Kinetic energy .5*(HC**2/MP)*4*PI*TOTINT(RHOKP*K**4:K)/(2*PI)**3 = 72.31 .5*(HC**2/MN)*4*PI*TOTINT(RHOKN*K**4:K)/(2*PI)**3 = 72.21 = 144.52 K RHOKP DRHOKP **** *********** ********* 0 576.6 1.5998 .1 571.6 1.394 .2 545.3 .95599 .3 483.7 .54967 .4 392.6 .28631 .5 292.74 .16196 .6 203.2 .11249 .7 133.59 .084216 .8 84.46 .061093 .9 52.09 .042132 1 31.7 .027818 1.1 19.211 .018165 1.2 11.686 .012798 1.3 7.181 .010731

80

S:\VM3\RX97\TBL_LIST.WPD  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1997 1997 Household Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total Four Most Populated States RSE Row Factors New York California Texas Florida 0.4 1.1 1.2 1.4 1.4 Total .............................................................. 101.5 6.8 11.5 7.0 5.9 NF 1997 Household Income Category Less than $5,000 ......................................... 3.8 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.1 16.2 $5,000 to $9,999 ......................................... 9.6 0.9 1.1 0.6 0.7 14.2 $10,000 to $14,999 ..................................... 10.3 0.4 1.6 0.8 0.7 14.3 $15,000 to $19,999 ..................................... 10.4 0.4 1.6 0.6 0.6 11.0 $20,000 to $24,999 ..................................... 8.4 0.5 0.8 0.7 0.5 11.2 $25,000 to $34,999 ..................................... 15.6 1.2 1.5 1.0 0.8 10.5 $35,000 to $49,999 .....................................

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "9999 9999 9999" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Total....................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

14.7 14.7 7.4 12.5 12.5 18.9 18.6 17.3 9.2 Household Size 1 Person.......................................................... 30.0 4.6 2.5 3.7 3.2 5.4 5.5 3.7 1.6 2 Persons......................................................... 34.8 4.3 1.9 4.4 4.1 5.9 5.3 5.5 3.4 3 Persons......................................................... 18.4 2.5 1.3 1.7 1.9 2.9 3.5 2.8 1.6 4 Persons......................................................... 15.9 1.9 0.8 1.5 1.6 3.0 2.5 3.1 1.4 5 Persons......................................................... 7.9 0.8 0.4 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.1 1.5 0.9 6 or More Persons........................................... 4.1 0.5 0.3 0.3 0.6 0.5 0.7 0.8 0.4 2005 Annual Household Income Category Less than $9,999............................................. 9.9 1.9 1.1 1.3 0.9 1.7 1.3 1.1 0.5 $10,000 to $14,999..........................................

82

Data:04b45a6f-0577-41c6-8a17-8b7a5eb954f1 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

0577-41c6-8a17-8b7a5eb954f1 0577-41c6-8a17-8b7a5eb954f1 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Nolin Rural Electric Coop Corp Effective date: 2011/06/01 End date if known: Rate name: Schedule 13- Industrial C Sector: Industrial Description: Entire Service Area- applicable to contracts with contract demands of 5,000 to 9,999 kW with a monthly energy equal to or greater than 425 hours pr kW of contract demand. Source or reference: Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh): History (months):

83

Data:C8e3890a-9d96-4b31-8834-d726b8854ee9 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

90a-9d96-4b31-8834-d726b8854ee9 90a-9d96-4b31-8834-d726b8854ee9 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Nolin Rural Electric Coop Corp Effective date: 2011/06/01 End date if known: Rate name: Schedule 10 - Industrial Sector: Lighting Description: Applicable to contracts with contract demands of 5,000 to 9,999 kW with a monthly energy usage equal to or greater than 425 hours per kW of contract demand. Source or reference: www.nolinrecc.com Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh): History (months):

84

Welcome to Analytical Labs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Services Services Our Capabilities Analytical Laboratories at the SRS performs analyses on a wide range of materials, including soil, water, gases, foodstuffs, decommissioning debris, waste, urine, fecal matter and process control samples. The laboratories maintain certifications and qualifications through a variety of governing bodies, which allows multiple applications of our services. Each year, we process over 200,000 samples and over half a million determinations, with an error-free rate better than 99.99%. Our Services We offer a full complement of nuclear counting and chemical processing methods, including microwave/hot block digestion of solids; alpha pulse height analyzer (PHA), gamma PHA and liquid scintillation counter, diode array spectrophotometer, ICP emission spectrometer, ICP mass spectrometer, thermal ionization mass spectrometer, chemical titrators, and IR analyzer. In addition, we offer unique environmental and industrial hygiene analytical services, including rapid analysis of radiological contaminants in water, soil, and human matrices; Radiological American Industrial Hygiene Association-accredited beryllium, lead, other metals, hexavalent chromium, and asbestos analyses.

85

Microsoft Word - NGAMaster_State_TablesNov12.doc  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

7 7 Residential Commercial Industrial Vehicle Fuel Electric Power State Average Price Percent of Total Volume Delivered Average Price Percent of Total Volume Delivered Average Price Percent of Total Volume Delivered Average Price Average Price Alabama ..................... 11.81 99.98 10.07 81.91 6.64 21.24 -- 5.80 Alaska......................... 4.39 100.00 3.58 59.09 1.75 82.81 -- 2.33 Arizona ....................... 11.31 98.89 7.84 90.70 6.54 39.95 5.65 5.14 Arkansas .................... 10.33 100.00 7.67 81.88 6.94 5.35 5.28 4.37 California .................... 9.13 99.56 8.15 62.34 7.19 5.47 5.76 5.49 Colorado..................... 6.61 99.99 5.93 95.34 4.46 0.93 4.16 4.38 Connecticut................. 12.77 98.73 10.47 68.14 7.52 45.33 10.72 W

86

 

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

B(3+) -- AV18+UX -- 20-Apr-13 B(3+) -- AV18+UX -- 20-Apr-13 VMC 16k samples using 250 gauss points in r out to 25.00 fm K = momentum in 1/fm RHOKP = proton momentum distribution in fm**3 DRHOKP = Monte Carlo error bar (1 sigma) 4*PI*TOTINT(RHOKP*K**2:K)/(2*PI)**3 = 4.9999 Kinetic energy .5*(HC**2/MP)*4*PI*TOTINT(RHOKP*K**4:K)/(2*PI)**3 = 143.51 .5*(HC**2/MN)*4*PI*TOTINT(RHOKN*K**4:K)/(2*PI)**3 = 143.31 = 286.82 K RHOKP DRHOKP **** *********** ********* 0 399.5 2.4474 .1 407.9 2.3077 .2 424.2 1.9399 .3 430.2 1.466 .4 412.1 1.0128 .5 367.7 .6665 .6 305.1 .45585 .7 236.17 .34323 .8 171.72 .26901 .9 118.01 .20334 1 77.27 .14365 1.1 48.58 .095278 1.2 29.6 .062606 1.3 17.665 .046922

87

Microsoft Word - 20050821_Appendix_A.doc  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

A9. U.S. Average Vehicle-Miles Traveled by Family Income and Poverty Status, 2001 (Thousand A9. U.S. Average Vehicle-Miles Traveled by Family Income and Poverty Status, 2001 (Thousand Miles per Household) ENERGY INFORMATION ADMINISTRATION / HOUSEHOLD VEHICLES ENERGY USE: LATEST A N D TRENDS 83 2001 Family Income (dollars) Income Relative to Poverty Line 2001 Household Characteristics Total Less than 5,000 5,000 to 9,999 10,000 to 14,999 15,000 to 19,999 20,000 to 24,999 25,000 to 34,999 35,000 to 49,999 50,000 or 74,999 75,000 or More Don't Know Below 100 % 100 to 150 % Above 150 % Don't Know Household Characteristics Total.............................. 23.1 13.3 13.5 13.2 16.3 16.4 19.3 23.9 28.1 31.0 19.0 16.0 18.2 24.7 19.0 Census Region and Division

88

Microsoft Word - table_23.doc  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4 4 Table 23. Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Consumers by State and Sector, 2005 (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Alabama ............................... 15.82 100.00 13.13 81.65 9.51 23.59 -- 9.67 Alaska................................... 5.73 100.00 4.93 51.19 2.59 68.65 -- 3.42 Arizona ................................. 13.54 100.00 9.85 93.29 8.53 43.63 7.91 8.24 Arkansas............................... 13.65 100.00 10.20 74.07 9.44 5.23 10.16 8.59 California .............................. 11.86 99.66 10.69 68.67 9.84 5.46 8.80 8.09 Colorado ............................... 10.29 99.99 9.39 95.15 8.68 0.59 8.17 7.41 Connecticut........................... 16.24 98.75 13.00 70.34 11.68 46.41 14.60 9.31 District of Columbia............... 16.87 79.76 13.17 100.00 --

89

Data:9c155141-a9cc-4469-ab9e-4a9d62e1d912 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

1-a9cc-4469-ab9e-4a9d62e1d912 1-a9cc-4469-ab9e-4a9d62e1d912 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Salt River Electric Coop Corp Effective date: 2011/06/01 End date if known: Rate name: Large Power 3,000 kW and over (3000 kW - 9999 kW) Sector: Industrial Description: Available to all commercial and industrial consumers for lighting and/or heating or/or power, and who are served directly from a distribution substation of 3000 kW capacity or above. Source or reference: www.srelectric.com Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months):

90

Innovative fossil fuel fired vitrification technology for soil remediation. Volume 1, Phase 1: Annual report, September 28, 1992--August 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

Vortex has successfully completed Phase 1 of the ``Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation`` program with the Department of Energy (DOE) Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The Combustion and Melting System (CMS) has processed 7000 pounds of material representative of contaminated soil that is found at DOE sites. The soil was spiked with Resource Conversation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals surrogates, an organic contaminant, and a surrogate radionuclide. The samples taken during the tests confirmed that virtually all of the radionuclide was retained in the glass and that it did not leach to the environment. The organic contaminant, anthracene, was destroyed during the test with a Destruction and Removal Efficiency (DRE) of at least 99.99%. RCRA metal surrogates, that were in the vitrified product, were retained and will not leach to the environment--as confirmed by the TCLP testing. Semi-volatile RCRA metal surrogates were captured by the Air Pollution Control (APC) system, and data on the amount of metal oxide particulate and the chemical composition of the particulate were established for use in the Phase 2 APC system design. This topical report will present a summary of the activities conducted during Phase 1 of the ``Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation`` program. The report includes the detail technical data generated during the experimental program and the design and cost data for the preliminary Phase 2 plant.

Not Available

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Evaluation of the efficiency of polysulfone ultrafiltration membrane-based water purifiers for microbiological decontamination  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Indigenously developed polysulfone Ultrafiltration (UF) membrane-based domestic and industrial water purification units were evaluated for their ability to filter bacteria and viruses from water. Escherichia coli (105 cfu/ml) and P1 phage (106 pfu/ml) were filtered through a Domestic Water Purifier (DWP) (dead-end UF unit) and a large-scale spiral water purifier (cross-flow UF unit) and the filtrates were analysed for bacterial and phage counts. Both units were found to be efficient in the complete removal of E. coli and a 99.99% removal of the P1 phage was observed. Both the domestic and industrial water purifiers are highly efficient in the removal of bacteria and viruses. UF membranes were also characterised for Molecular Weight Cut-Off (MWCO) by the polyethylene glycol and polyethylene oxide methods, which showed that MWCO was 6065 kDa. These MWCO results were further validated using the Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) rejection behaviour of these membranes, which showed about 90% rejection. The technique involving the estimation of MWCO, coupled with the rejection characteristics of E. coli and P1 phage, provides an excellent tool to evaluate the efficiency of water purifiers based on UF membrane technology.

V. Nagar; R. Shashidhar; A.K. Sharma; J.R. Bandekar; R.C. Bindal; S. Prabhakar; P.K. Tewari

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Test of electron beam technology on Savannah River Laboratory low-activity aqueous waste for destruction of benzene, benzene derivatives, and bacteria  

SciTech Connect

High energy radiation was studied as a means for destroying hazardous organic chemical wastes. Tests were conducted at bench scale with a {sup 60}Co source, and at full scale (387 l/min) with a 1.5 MV electron beam source. Bench scale tests for both benzene and phenol included 32 permutations of water quality factors. For some water qualities, as much as 99.99% of benzene or 90% of phenol were removed by 775 krads of {sup 60}Co irradiation. Full scale testing for destruction of benzene in a simulated waste-water mix showed loss of 97% of benzene following an 800 krad dose and 88% following a 500 krad dose. At these loss rates, approximately 5 Mrad of electron beam irradiation is required to reduce concentrations from 100 g/l to drinking water quality (5 {mu}g/l). Since many waste streams are also inhabited by bacterial populations which may affect filtering operations, the effect of irradiation on those populations was also studied. {sup 60}Co and electron beam irradiation were both lethal to the bacteria studied at irradiation levels far lower than were necessary to remove organic contaminants.

Dougal, R.A. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Multicolour Photometric Study of M31 Globular Clusters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present the photometry of 30 globular clusters (GCs) and GC candidates in 15 intermediate-band filters covering from ~3000 to ~10000 \\AA using the archival CCD images of M31 observed as part of the Beijing - Arizona - Taiwan - Connecticut (BATC) Multicolour Sky Survey. We transform these intermediate-band photometric data to the photometry in the standard UBVRI broad-bands. These M31 GC candidates are selected from the Revised Bologna Catalogue (RBC V.3.5), and most of these candidates do not have any photometric data. Therefore the present photometric data are supplement to RBC V.3.5. We find that 4 out of 61 GCs and GC candidates in RBC V.3.5 do not show any signal on the BATC images at their locations. By linear fit of the distribution in colour-magnitude diagram of blue GCs and GC candidates using the data from RBC V.3.5, and in this study we find the ``blue-tilt'' of blue M31 GCs with a high confidence at 99.95% or 3.47 sigma for the confirmed GCs, and >99.99% or 4.87 sigma for GCs and GC candidates.

Fan, Z; Zhou, X

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Molten Salt Oxidation of mixed wastes  

SciTech Connect

Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) can be characterized as a simple noncombustion process; the basic concept is to introduce air and wastes into a bed of molten salt, oxidize the organic wastes in the molten salt, use the heat of oxidation to keep the salt molten and remove the salt for disposal or processing and recycling. The process has been developed through bench-scale and pilot-scale testing, with successful destruction demonstration of a wide variety of hazardous and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes including chemical warfare agents, combustible solids, halogenated solvents, polychlorinated biphenyls, plutonium-contaminated solids, uranium-contaminated solvents and fission product-contaminated oil. The MSO destruction efficiency of the hazardous organic constituents in the wastes exceeds 99.9999%. Radioactive species, such as actinides and rare earth fission products, are retained in the salt bath. These elements can be recovered from the spent salt using conventional chemical processes, such as ion exchange, to render the salt as nonradioactive and nonhazardous. This paper reviews the principles and capabilities of MSO, previous mixed waste studies, and a new US Department of Energy program to demonstrate the process for the treatment of mixed wastes.

Gay, R.L.; Navratil, J.D.; Newman, C. [Rockwell International Corp., Canoga Park, CA (United States). Rocketdyne Div.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

95

Novel method for making semiconductor chips. Seventh quarterly and final report, January 7, 1995--May 7, 1995  

SciTech Connect

Work under DOE Grant No. DE-FG47-93R701314, to investigate a Novel Process for Fabricating MOSFET Devices, has progressed to a point where feasibility of producing MOSFETS using Chromium Disilicide Schottky barrier junctions at Source and Drain has been shown. Devices fabricated, however, show inconsistent operating characteristics from device to device, and further work is required to overcome the defects. Some fabrication procedures have produced a relatively high, (e.g., ninety-five (95%) percent), yield of devices on a substrate which show at least some transistor action, while others have resulted in very low yield, (e.g., five (5%) percent). Consistency of results from device to device is less than desired. However, considering that the University of Nebraska at Lincoln (UNL) Electrical Engineering Fabrication Lab is not what industry can provide, it is reasonable to project that essentially one-hundred (99.99+%) percent yield should be achievable in an industrial setting because of the simplicity in the fabrication procedure.

NONE

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Steam reforming of low-level mixed waste. Final report  

SciTech Connect

ThermoChem has successfully designed, fabricated and operated a nominal 90 pound per hour Process Development Unit (PDU) on various low-level mixed waste surrogates. The design, construction, and testing of the PDU as well as performance and economic projections for a 300-lb/hr demonstration and commercial system are described. The overall system offers an environmentally safe, non-incinerating, cost-effective, and publicly acceptable method of processing LLMW. The steam-reforming technology was ranked the No. 1 non-incineration technology for destruction of hazardous organic wastes in a study commissioned by the Mixed Waste Focus Area and published in April 1997. The ThermoChem steam-reforming system has been developed over the last 13 years culminating in this successful test campaign on LLMW surrogates. Six surrogates were successfully tested including a 750-hour test on material simulating a PCB- and Uranium-contaminated solid waste found at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The test results indicated essentially total (> 99.9999%) destruction of RCRA and TSCA hazardous halogenated organics, significant levels of volume reduction (> 400 to 1), and retention of radionuclides in the volume-reduced solids. Economic evaluations have shown the steam-reforming system to be very cost competitive with more conventional and other emerging technologies.

NONE

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Steam Reforming of Low-Level Mixed Waste  

SciTech Connect

Under DOE Contract No. DE-AR21-95MC32091, Steam Reforming of Low-Level Mixed Waste, ThermoChem has successfully designed, fabricated and operated a nominal 90 pound per hour Process Development Unit (PDU) on various low-level mixed waste surrogates. The design construction, and testing of the PDU as well as performance and economic projections for a 500- lb/hr demonstration and commercial system are described. The overall system offers an environmentally safe, non-incinerating, cost-effective, and publicly acceptable method of processing LLMW. The steam-reforming technology was ranked the No. 1 non-incineration technology for destruction of hazardous organic wastes in a study commissioned by the Mixed Waste Focus Area published April 1997.1 The ThermoChem steam-reforming system has been developed over the last 13 years culminating in this successful test campaign on LLMW surrogates. Six surrogates were successfidly tested including a 750-hour test on material simulating a PCB- and Uranium- contaminated solid waste found at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The test results indicated essentially total (>99.9999oA) destruction of RCRA and TSCA hazardous halogenated organics, significant levels of volume reduction (> 400 to 1), and retention of radlonuclides in the volume-reduced solids. Cost studies have shown the steam-reforming system to be very cost competitive with more conventional and other emerging technologies.

None

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Innovative fossil fuel fired vitrification technology for soil remediation. Phase 1  

SciTech Connect

Vortec has successfully completed Phase 1 of the ``Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation`` program. The Combustion and Melting System (CMS) has processed 7000 pounds of material representative of contaminated soil that is found at DOE sites. The soil was spiked with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals surrogates, an organic contaminant, and a surrogate radionuclide. The samples taken during the tests confirmed that virtually all of the radionuclide was retained in the glass and that it did not leach to the environment-as confirmed by both ANS 16.1 and Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) testing. The organic contaminant, anthracene, was destroyed during the test with a Destruction and Removal Efficiency (DRE) of at least 99.99%. RCRA metal surrogates, that were in the vitrified product, were retained and did not leach to the environment as confirmed by the TCLP testing. Semi-volatile RCRA metal surrogates were captured by the Air Pollution Control (APC) system, and data on the amount of metal oxide particulate and the chemical composition of the particulate were established for use in the Phase 2 APC subsystem design.

Not Available

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, and electrochemistry of the iron and nickel base alloys in caustic environments  

SciTech Connect

The electrochemical behavior of high purity (99.95% to 99.99%) iron in 0.6M NaCl and 1.0M Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ containing H/sub 2/S (50 ppM to 34,000 ppM) was studied using cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, and slow scan rate polarization. Results have indicated that iron does undergo passivation in sulfate solutions containing H/sub 2/S. Iron dissolution depends on the presence of Cl/sup -/, the concentration of H/sub 2/S and solution pH. An equation is given that describes the anodic Tafel current densities. The slow strain rate test was used to evaluate the effect of electrode potential on the susceptibility of 2-1/4Cr, Mo steel to stress corrosion cracking in boiling 50% NaOH solution. Susceptibility decreased and general corrosion increased with increasing potentials. Failures contained a combination of ductile and brittle fracture. Time-to-failure was longest for controlled potentials of -700 and -600mV (Hg/HgO reference) in the -1100 to -400mV range used in this study.

Koehler, R.; Beck, F. H.; Agrawal, A. K.; Soendjasmono, B.; Staehle, R. W.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Evidence of thermonuclear flame spreading on neutron stars from burst rise oscillations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Burst oscillations during the rising phases of thermonuclear X-ray bursts are usually believed to originate from flame spreading on the neutron star surface. However, the decrease of fractional oscillation amplitude with rise time, which provides a main observational support for the flame spreading model, have so far been reported from only a few bursts. Moreover, the non-detection and intermittent detections of rise oscillations from many bursts are not yet understood considering the flame spreading scenario. Here, we report the decreasing trend of fractional oscillation amplitude from an extensive analysis of a large sample of Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer Proportional Counter Array bursts from ten neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries. This trend is 99.99% significant for the best case, which provides, to the best of our knowledge, by far the strongest evidence of such trend. Moreover, it is important to note that an opposite trend is not found from any of the bursts. The concave shape of the fractional ampli...

Chakraborty, Manoneeta

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "9999 9999 9999" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Gas chromatographic determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water and smoked rice samples after solid-phase microextraction using multiwalled carbon nanotube loaded hollow fiber  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A novel solid-phase microextraction fiber was prepared based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) loaded on hollow fiber membrane pores. Stainless steel wire was used as unbreakable support. The major advantages of the proposed fiber are its (a) high reproducibility due to the uniform structure of the hollow fiber membranes, (b) high extraction capacity related to the porous structure of the hollow fiber and outstanding adsorptive characteristics of MWCNTs. The proposed fiber was applied for the microextraction of five representative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from aqueous media (river and hubblebubble water) and smoked rice samples followed by gas chromatographic determination. Analytical merits of the method, including high correlation coefficients [(0.99630.9992) and (0.99820.9999)] and low detection limits [(9.013.0ngL?1) and (40.0150.0ngkg?1)] for water and rice samples, respectively, made the proposed method suitable for the ultra-trace determination of PAHs.

Amir Abbas Matin; Pourya Biparva; Mohammad Gheshlaghi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

tablehc3.3.xls  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

8.1 8.1 64.1 4.2 1.8 2.3 5.7 Household Size 1 Person......................................................... 30.0 18.6 13.2 1.4 0.7 1.3 2.1 2 Persons........................................................ 34.8 26.8 22.9 1.3 0.5 0.7 1.4 3 Persons........................................................ 18.4 12.8 10.7 0.5 0.4 Q 1.0 4 Persons........................................................ 15.9 11.5 9.8 0.6 Q Q 0.9 5 Persons........................................................ 7.9 5.9 5.3 0.2 Q Q 0.3 6 or More Persons........................................... 4.1 2.4 2.1 Q Q N Q 2005 Annual Household Income Category Less than $9,999............................................. 9.9 4.7 3.1 0.3 0.3 Q 0.8 $10,000 to $14,999......................................... 8.5 3.9 2.7 Q Q Q 0.8 $15,000 to $19,999.........................................

103

Microsoft Word - 20050821_Appendix_A.doc  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0. U.S. Average Vehicle Fuel Consumption by Family Income and Poverty Status, 2001 (Gallons 0. U.S. Average Vehicle Fuel Consumption by Family Income and Poverty Status, 2001 (Gallons per Household) ENERGY INFORMATION ADMINISTRATION / HOUSEHOLD VEHICLES ENERGY USE: LATEST A N D TRENDS 86 2001 Family Income (dollars) Income Relative to Poverty Line 2001 Household Characteristics Total Less than 5,000 5,000 to 9,999 10,000 to 14,999 15,000 to 19,999 20,000 to 24,999 25,000 to 34,999 35,000 to 49,999 50,000 to 75,000 75,000 or More Don't Know Below 100 % 100 to 150 % Above 150 % Don't Know Total.............................. 1,143 620 647 644 788 794 940 1,183 1,393 1,549 957 942 1,363 1,546 957 Census Region and Division Northeast......................... 1,027 547 625 515 621 592 784 1,081 1,202 1,348 903 624 750 1,087 903

104

Table 4  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6. Light Usage by Family Income Category, Percent of U.S. 6. Light Usage by Family Income Category, Percent of U.S. Households, 1993 1993 Family Income Category Housing Unit and Household Characteristics Total Less than $5,000 $5,000 to $9,999 $10,000 to $14,999 $15,000 to $19,999 $20,000 to $24,999 $25,000 to $34,999 $35,000 to $49,999 $50,000 to $49,000 $75,000 or More RSE Column Factors: 0.4 1.8 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.2 0.9 0.8 0.9 1.1 RSE Row Factor Total............................................... 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 0.0 Indoor Electric Lights Total Number Lights 1 to 4 Hours None......................................... 10.0 18.7 14.0 12.7 10.0 10.2 9.0 7.6 8.0 6.3 12.08 1 ................................................ 22.9 35.8 33.0 29.5 28.4 22.6 24.1 16.1 13.9 14.1 6.91 2 ................................................ 28.4

105

Data:4ffd5655-3e74-4f84-8aa0-9c1e87e57c40 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

ffd5655-3e74-4f84-8aa0-9c1e87e57c40 ffd5655-3e74-4f84-8aa0-9c1e87e57c40 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Salt River Electric Coop Corp Effective date: 2011/06/01 End date if known: Rate name: Large Power 5,000 kW - 9,999 kW Sector: Industrial Description: Source or reference: www.srelectric.om Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh): History (months): Service Voltage Minimum (V): Maximum (V): Character of Service Voltage Category: Phase Wiring: << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> << Previous 1

106

Storing quantum information for 30 seconds in a nanoelectronic device  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The spin of an electron or a nucleus in a semiconductor [1] naturally implements the unit of quantum information -- the qubit -- while providing a technological link to the established electronics industry [2]. The solid-state environment, however, may provide deleterious interactions between the qubit and the nuclear spins of surrounding atoms [3], or charge and spin fluctuators in defects, oxides and interfaces [4]. For group IV materials such as silicon, enrichment of the spin-zero 28-Si isotope drastically reduces spin-bath decoherence [5]. Experiments on bulk spin ensembles in 28-Si crystals have indeed demonstrated extraordinary coherence times [6-8]. However, it remained unclear whether these would persist at the single-spin level, in gated nanostructures near amorphous interfaces. Here we present the coherent operation of individual 31-P electron and nuclear spin qubits in a top-gated nanostructure, fabricated on an isotopically engineered 28-Si substrate. We report new benchmarks for coherence time (> 30 seconds) and control fidelity (> 99.99%) of any single qubit in solid state, and perform a detailed noise spectroscopy [9] to demonstrate that -- contrary to widespread belief -- the coherence is not limited by the proximity to an interface. Our results represent a fundamental advance in control and understanding of spin qubits in nanostructures.

Juha T. Muhonen; Juan P. Dehollain; Arne Laucht; Fay E. Hudson; Takeharu Sekiguchi; Kohei M. Itoh; David N. Jamieson; Jeffrey C. McCallum; Andrew S. Dzurak; Andrea Morello

2014-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

107

An investigation on recycling the recovered uranium from electro-refining process in a CANDU reactor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Feasibility studies for recycling the recovered uranium from electro-refining process of pyroprocessing into a Canada Deuterium Uranium (CANDU) reactor have been carried out with a source term analysis code ORIGEN-S, a reactor lattice analysis code WIMS-AECL, and a Monte Carlo analysis code MCNPX. The uranium metal can be recovered in a solid cathode during an electro-refining process and has a form of a dendrite phase with about 99.99% expecting recovery purity. Considering some impurities of transuranic (TRU) elements and fission products in the recovered uranium, sensitivity calculations were also performed for the compositions of impurities. For a typical spent PWR fuel of 3.0wt.% of uranium enrichment, 30GWD/tU burnup and 10years cooling, the recovered uranium exhibited an extended burnup up to 14GWD/tU. And among the several safety parameters, the void reactivity at the equilibrium state was estimated 15mk. Additionally, a simple sphere model was constructed to analyze surface dose rates with the Monte Carlo calculations. It was found that the recovered uranium from the spent PWR fuel by electro-refining process has a significant radioactivity depending on the impurities such as fission products.

Chang Je Park; Kweon Ho Kang; Jung Won Lee; Ki Seog Seo

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Deuterium Depth Profile in Neutron-Irradiated Tungsten Exposed to Plasma  

SciTech Connect

The effect of radiation damage has been mainly simulated using high-energy ion bombardment. The ions, however, are limited in range to only a few microns into the surface. Hence, some uncertainty remains about the increase of trapping at radiation damage produced by 14 MeV fusion neutrons, which penetrate much farther into the bulk material. With the Japan-US joint research project: Tritium, Irradiations, and Thermofluids for America and Nippon (TITAN), the tungsten samples (99.99 % pure from A.L.M.T., 6mm in diameter, 0.2mm in thickness) were irradiated to high flux neutrons at 50 C and to 0.025 dpa in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Subsequently, the neutron-irradiated tungsten samples were exposed to a high-flux deuterium plasma (ion flux: 1021-1022 m-2s-1, ion fluence: 1025-1026 m-2) in the Tritium Plasma Experiment (TPE) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). First results of deuterium retention in neutron-irradiated tungsten exposed in TPE have been reported previously. This paper presents the latest results in our on-going work of deuterium depth profiling in neutron-irradiated tungsten via nuclear reaction analysis. The experimental data is compared with the result from non neutron-irradiated tungsten, and is analyzed with the Tritium Migration Analysis Program (TMAP) to elucidate the hydrogen isotope behavior such as retention and depth distribution in neutron-irradiated and non neutron-irradiated tungsten.

Masashi Shimada; G. Cao; Y. Hatano; T. Oda; Y. Oya; M. Hara; P. Calderoni

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Recommended surrogate PCB waste feed and fuel compositions to meet requirements given in Spec. K/D 5552 for test burns in the Martin Marietta Energy Systems Inc. incinerator  

SciTech Connect

Waste feed heats of combustion, principle organic hazardous constituents (POHCs), ash contents, and organic chlorine concentrations are specified in Table 3 of Spec. No. K/D-5552 for test burns 1 through 7 in the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. incinerator. The first four tests are intended to demonstrate that the incinerator will meet RCRA emission standards, HCl removal efficiencies, and requirements for destruction of POHCs. A mix containing 1,2-dichloro-, 1,2,4-trichloro-, and 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzenes with a small amount of hexachlorobenzene is recommended as a PCB surrogate for test burns 5 and 6 to simulate the destructibility of PCBs in plant wastes. The mix would be diluted with appropriate amounts of dimethyl malonate and kerosene to obtain a homogeneous solution having the required heat of combustion and chlorine content for the liquid waste feeds. For test burn 7 the polychlorinated benzene mix would contain a small amount of hexachlorobenzene with larger amounts of 1,2,4,5-tetrachloro- and 1,2,4-trichlorobenzenes. The composition of the polychlorinated mixes is such that they should be comparable to Aroclor 1254 in overall destructibility by incineration, and achievement of a DRE for hexachlorobenzene greater than 99.99% in the test burns should provide assurance that the incinerator will be able to destroy PCBs in Aroclor 1260, which is the most refractory PCB mix present in plant wastes. If hexachlorobenzene is not available for these tests, hexachlorocyclopentadiene is recommended as a substitute for hexachlorobenzene in tests 5-7, which involve a PCB surrogate, and hexachloroethane is recommended as the alternative solid waste feed for test 4. Solutions containing kerosene and methanol are recommended as liquid fuels for tests 1 and 4 to achieve the required heats of combustion, while a dimethyl malonate-methanol solution is recommended to achieve the 7000 Btu/lb heat of combustion for test burn 2.

Anderson, R.W.

1984-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

110

Strong-coupling ansatz for the one-dimensional Fermi gas in a harmonic potential  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The one-dimensional (1D) Fermi gas with repulsive short-range interactions provides an important model of strong correlations and is often amenable to exact methods. However, in the presence of confinement, no exact solution is known for an arbitrary number of strongly interacting fermions. Here, we propose a novel ansatz for generating the lowest-energy wavefunctions of the repulsive 1D Fermi gas in a harmonic potential near the Tonks-Girardeau (TG) limit of infinite interactions. We specialize to the case of a single impurity interacting with $N$ majority particles, where we may derive analytic forms of the approximate wavefunctions. Comparing with exact numerics, we show that the overlap between the wavefunctions from our ansatz and the exact ones in the ground-state manifold exceeds 0.9997 for $N\\leq8$. Moreover, the overlap for the ground-state wavefunction extrapolates to 0.9999 as $N\\to\\infty$. Thus our ansatz is essentially indistinguishable from numerically exact results in both the few- and many-body limits. In the large $N$ limit, we find that the impurity probability density in the ground state is only slightly perturbed by the infinitely repulsive interactions, while the quasiparticle residue vanishes as the many-body limit is approached, reflecting the Anderson orthogonality catastrophe. We derive an effective Heisenberg spin-chain model for the regime near the TG limit, within which our ansatz is exact. Here, we find that the impurity eigenstates in the spin basis correspond to discrete Chebyshev polynomials. The energy of states in excited manifolds is calculated using a dynamical SO(2,1) symmetry, which provides an exact relation between states related by a scaling transformation. We finally show how our results for the wavefunctions and the energy spectrum can be detected in cold atomic gases via collective-mode, tunneling, and radio-frequency experiments.

Jesper Levinsen; Pietro Massignan; Georg M. Bruun; Meera M. Parish

2014-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

111

Overview of the US-Japan collaborative investigation on hydrogen isotope retention in neutron-irradiated and ion-damaged tungsten  

SciTech Connect

Plasma-facing components (PFCs) will be exposed to 14 MeV neutrons from deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion reactions, and tungsten, a candidate PFC for the divertor in ITER, is expected to receive a neutron dose of 0.7 displacement per atom (dpa) by the end of operation in ITER. The effect of neutron-irradiation damage has been mainly simulated using high-energy ion bombardment. While this prior database of results is quite valuable for understanding the behavior of hydrogen isotopes in PFCs, it does not encompass the full range of effects that must be considered in a practical fusion environment due to short penetration depth, damage gradient, high damage rate, and high PKA energy spectrum of the ion bombardment. In addition, neutrons change the elemental composition via transmutations, and create a high radiation environment inside PFCs, which influence the behavior of hydrogen isotope in PFCs, suggesting the utilization of fission reactors is necessary for neutron irradiation. Therefore, the effort to correlate among high-energy ions, fission neutrons, and fusion neutrons is crucial for accurately estimating tritium retention under a neutron-irradiation environment. Under the framework of the US-Japan TITAN program, tungsten samples (99.99 at. % purity from A.L.M.T. Co.) were irradiated by neutron in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR), ORNL, at 50 and 300C to 0.025, 0.3, and 1.2 dpa, and the investigation of deuterium retention in neutron-irradiation was performed in the INL Tritium Plasma Experiment (TPE), the unique high-flux linear plasma facility that can handle tritium, beryllium and activated materials. This paper reports the recent results from the comparison of ion-damaged tungsten via various ion species (2.8 MeV Fe2+, 20 MeV W2+, and 700 keV H-) with that from neutron-irradiated tungsten to identify the similarities and differences among them.

Masashi Shimada; Y. Hatano; Y. Oya; T. Oda; M. Hara; G. Cao; M. Kobayashi; M. Sokolov; H. Watanabe; B. Tyburska; Y. Ueda; P. Calderoni

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Performance of two fluid bed sludge incinerators with air pollution control systems consisting of a venturi scrubber and wet electrostatic precipitator  

SciTech Connect

Performance tests were recently conducted on two new Hankin Fluid Bed Incineration Systems installed at publicly owned sewage treatment works in New Jersey. The purpose of the tests was to show that the systems met emission limits set by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and Energy (NJDEPE), and that the systems met throughput and fuel consumption requirements. These systems, consisting of a fluid bed incinerator, heat exchanger, venturi scrubber, tray cooler, and wet electrostatic precipitator, were tested for emissions of heavy metals, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, hydrogen chloride, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, and opacity. Both yielded emissions that were well within the stringent limits set by the NJDEPE in the operating permits. The incinerators exhibited a high level of fuel efficiency with fuel oil consumption averaging 5.5 and 6.0 gallons per ton of wet sludge. In addition, combustion efficiency was high, with a maximum average CO of 7.39 ppmvd and VOCs of 1.39 ppmvd (both corrected to 7% O{sub 2}). The air pollution control equipment showed very high removal efficiencies. Except for Mercury, collection efficiencies for all heavy metals fell within 98.7% to 99.999%. Particulate collection efficiency averaged 99.97 and 99.99%. Collection efficiency for HCl averaged 99.2% and 99.92%, and for SO{sub 2} averages were 97.1% and 94.8%. Finally, the level of NO{sub x} in the stack was extremely low with averages of 17.33 ppmvd and 14.19 ppmvd (corrected to 7% O{sub 2}) for the two systems.

Zaman, R.U. [Hankin Environmental Systems Inc., Somerville, NJ (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

113

DESTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION FOR ORGANICS IN TRANSURANIC WASTE  

SciTech Connect

General Atomics (GA) has recently completed a Phase I program for the development of a two-step alternative to incineration for the destruction of organics in transuranic wastes at the Savannah River Site. This process is known as thermal desorption-supercritical water oxidation, or TD-SCWO. The GA TD process uses heat to volatilize and transport organics from the waste material for subsequent treatment by SCWO. SCWO oxidizes organics in a steam medium at elevated temperatures and pressures in a manner that achieves excellent destruction efficiencies and compliance with all environmental requirements without the need for complex pollution-abatement equipment. This application of TD-SCWO is focused on a full-scale batch process for 55-gallon drums of mixed transuranic waste at the Savannah River Site. The Phase I reduced-scale test results show that the process operates as intended on surrogate waste matrices chosen to be representative of Savannah River Site transuranic mixed wastes. It provides a high degree of hydrogen removal and full containment of the radionuclide surrogate, with minimal requirements for pre-treatment and post-treatment. Other test objectives were to verify that the process produces no dioxins or furans, and meets all applicable regulatory criteria for retention of toxic metals, particulate, and criteria pollutants, while meeting WIPP/WAC and TRUPACT-II requirements. Thermal desorption of surrogate SRS mixed wastes at 500 psi and 1000 F met all tested requirements for WIPP/WAC and TRUPACT-II. SCWO of the desorbed surrogate organic materials at 500 psi and 1500 F also appears to meet all requirements for a nonincineration alternative, although >99.99% DRE for chlorinated solvents has not yet been demonstrated.

Mike Spritzer

2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

HST photometry of dwarf elliptical galaxies in Coma, and an explanation for the alleged structural dichotomy between dwarf and bright elliptical galaxies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have analyzed archival HST F606W images of 18 dwarf elliptical (dE) galaxy candidates in the Coma Cluster. We model the full radial extent of their light-profiles by simultaneously fitting a PSF-convolved Sersic R^(1/n) model and, when necessary, either a central point-source or a central PSF-convolved Gaussian. The luminosities of the central component L_nuc scale with the host galaxy luminosity L_gal such that L_nuc = 10^(4.76 +/- 0.10)*(L_gal/10^7)^(0.87 +/- 0.26). The underlying host galaxies display systematic departures from an exponential model that are correlated with the model-independent host galaxy luminosity and are not due to biasing from the nuclear component. The Pearson correlation coefficient between log(n) and central galaxy surface brightness mu_0 (excluding the flux from extraneous central components) is -0.83 at a significance level of 99.99%. The Pearson correlation coefficient between the logarithm of the Sersic index `n' and the host galaxy magnitude is -0.77 at a significance of 99.9%. We explain the observed relationship between dE galaxy luminosity and inner logarithmic profile slope (gamma-prime) as a by-product of the correlation between luminosity and Sersic index n. Including, from the literature, an additional 232 dE and E galaxies spanning 10 mag in absolute magnitude (M), the dE galaxies are shown to display a continuous sequence with the brighter E galaxies such that mu_0 brightens linearly with M until core formation causes the most luminous (M_B _e) diagram, and the _e-log(R_e) diagram have nothing to do with core formation, and are in fact expected from the continuous and linear relation between M and mu_0 and M and log(n).

Alister W. Graham; Rafael Guzman

2003-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

115

Photoconductivity in reactively evaporated copper indium selenide thin films  

SciTech Connect

Copper indium selenide thin films of composition CuInSe{sub 2} with thickness of the order of 130 nm are deposited on glass substrate at a temperature of 423 5 K and pressure of 10{sup ?5} mbar using reactive evaporation, a variant of Gunther's three temperature method with high purity Copper (99.999%), Indium (99.999%) and Selenium (99.99%) as the elemental starting materials. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies shows that the films are polycrystalline in nature having preferred orientation of grains along the (112) plane. The structural type of the film is found to be tetragonal with particle size of the order of 32 nm. The structural parameters such as lattice constant, particle size, dislocation density, number of crystallites per unit area and strain in the film are also evaluated. The surface morphology of CuInSe{sub 2} films are studied using 2D and 3D atomic force microscopy to estimate the grain size and surface roughness respectively. Analysis of the absorption spectrum of the film recorded using UV-Vis-NIR Spectrophotometer in the wavelength range from 2500 nm to cutoff revealed that the film possess a direct allowed transition with a band gap of 1.05 eV and a high value of absorption coefficient (?) of 10{sup 6} cm{sup ?1} at 570 nm. Photoconductivity at room temperature is measured after illuminating the film with an FSH lamp (82 V, 300 W). Optical absorption studies in conjunction with the good photoconductivity of the prepared p-type CuInSe{sub 2} thin films indicate its suitability in photovoltaic applications.

Urmila, K. S., E-mail: urmilaks7@gmail.com; Asokan, T. Namitha, E-mail: urmilaks7@gmail.com; Pradeep, B., E-mail: urmilaks7@gmail.com [Solid State Physics Laboratory, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi, Kerala (India); Jacob, Rajani; Philip, Rachel Reena [Thin Film Research Laboratory, Union Christian College, Aluva, Kerala (India)

2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

116

Pyrolysis Autoclave Technology Demonstration Program for Treatment of DOE Solidified Organic Wastes  

SciTech Connect

In the summer of 2005, MSE Technologies Applications, Inc. (MSE) and THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC (TTT) conducted a demonstration test of the Thermal Organic Reduction (THOR{sup sm}) in-drum pyrolysis autoclave system under contract to the Department of Energy. The purpose of the test was to demonstrate that the THOR{sup sm} pyrolysis autoclave system could successfully treat solidified organic waste to remove organics from the waste drums. The target waste was created at Rocky Flats and currently resides at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Removing the organics from these drums would allow them to be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for disposal. Two drums of simulated organic setup waste were successfully treated. The simulated waste was virtually identical to the expected waste except for the absence of radioactive components. The simulated waste included carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, Texaco Regal oil, and other organics mixed with calcium silicate and Portland cement stabilization agents. The two-stage process consisted of the THOR{sup sm} electrically heated pyrolysis autoclave followed by the MSE off gas treatment system. The treatment resulted in a final waste composition that meets the requirements for WIPP transportation and disposal. There were no detectable volatile organic compounds in the treated solid residues. The destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) for total organics in the two drums ranged from >99.999% to >99.9999%. The operation of the process proved to be easily controllable using the pyrolysis autoclave heaters. Complete treatment of a fully loaded surrogate waste drum including heat-up and cooldown took place over a two-day period. This paper discusses the results of the successful pyrolysis autoclave demonstration testing. (authors)

Roesener, W.S.; Mason, J.B.; Ryan, K. [THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC, 7800 E Union Ave, Denver, CO 80237 (United States); Bryson, S. [MSE Technologies Applications, Inc., 200 Technology Way, Butte, MT 59702 (United States); Eldredge, H.B. [Eldredge Engineering, P.A., 1090 Blue Ridge Dr., Idaho Falls, ID 83402 (United States)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Differentiating dark energy and modified gravity with galaxy redshift surveys  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The observed cosmic acceleration today could be due to an unknown energy component (dark energy), or a modification to general relativity (modified gravity). If dark energy models and modified gravity models are required to predict the same cosmic expansion history H(z), they will predict different growth rate for cosmic large scale structure, f_g(z)=d\\ln \\delta/d\\ln a (\\delta=(\\rho_m-\\bar{\\rho_m})/\\bar{\\rho_m}), a is the cosmic scale factor). If gravity is not modified, the measured H(z) leads to a unique prediction for f_g(z), f_g^H(z). Comparing f_g^H(z) with the measured f_g(z) provides a transparent and straightforward test of gravity. We show that a simple \\chi^2 test provides a general figure-of-merit for our ability to distinguish between dark energy and modified gravity given the measured H(z) and f_g(z). We study a magnitude-limited NIR galaxy redshift survey covering >10,000 (deg)^2 and the redshift range of 0.5dark energy model that predict the same expansion history, a survey area of 11,931 (deg)^2 is required to rule out the DGP gravity model at the 99.99% confidence level. It is feasible for such a galaxy redshift survey to be carried out by the next generation space missions from NASA and ESA, and it will revolutionize our understanding of the universe by differentiating between dark energy and modified gravity.

Yun Wang

2007-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

118

Differentiating dark energy and modified gravity with galaxy redshift surveys  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The observed cosmic acceleration today could be due to an unknown energy component (dark energy), or a modification to general relativity (modified gravity). If dark energy models and modified gravity models are required to predict the same cosmic expansion history H(z), they will predict different growth rates for cosmic large scale structure, fg(z). If gravity is not modified, the measured H(z) leads to a unique prediction for fg(z), fgH(z), if dark energy and dark matter are separate. Comparing fgH(z) with the measured fg(z) provides a transparent and straightforward test of gravity. We show that a simple ?2 test provides a general figure of merit for our ability to distinguish between dark energy and modified gravity given the measured H(z) and fg(z). We find that a magnitude-limited NIR galaxy redshift survey covering >10?000(deg)2 and a redshift range of 0.5zH(z) to 12% accuracy via baryon acoustic oscillation measurements, and fg(z) to the accuracy of a few per cent via the measurement of redshift-space distortions and the bias factor which describes how light traces mass. We show that if the H(z) data are fitted by both a DGP gravity model and an equivalent dark energy model that predict the same H(z), a survey area of 11?931(deg)2 is required to rule out the DGP gravity model at the 99.99% confidence level. It is feasible for such a galaxy redshift survey to be carried out by the next generation space missions from NASA and ESA, and it will revolutionize our understanding of the universe by differentiating between dark energy and modified gravity.

Yun Wang

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Head-end process for the reprocessing of HTGR spent fuel  

SciTech Connect

The reprocessing of HTGR spent fuels is in favor of the sustainable development of nuclear energy to realize the maximal use of nuclear resource and the minimum disposal of nuclear waste. The head-end of HTGR spent fuels reprocessing is different from that of the LWR spent fuels reprocessing because of the difference of spent fuel structure. The dismantling of the graphite spent fuel element and the highly effective dissolution of fuel kernel is the most difficult process in the head end of the reprocessing. Recently, some work on the head-end has been done in China. First, the electrochemical method with nitrate salt as electrolyte was studied to disintegrate the graphite matrix from HTGR fuel elements and release the coated fuel particles, to provide an option for the head-end technology of reprocessing. The results show that the graphite matrix can be effectively separated from the coated particle without any damage to the SiC layer. Secondly, the microwave-assisted heating was applied to dissolve the UO{sub 2} kernel from the crashed coated fuel particles. The ceramic UO{sub 2} as the solute has a good ability to absorb the microwave energy. The results of UO{sub 2} kernel dissolution from crushed coated particles by microwave heating show that the total dissolution percentage of UO{sub 2} is more than 99.99% after 3 times cross-flow dissolution with the following parameters: 8 mol/L HNO{sub 3}, temperature 100 Celsius degrees, initial ratio of solid to liquid 1.2 g/ml. (authors)

Chen, J.; Wen, M. [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Bejing 10084 (China)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Table 4  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5. Light Usage by Family Income Category, Million U.S. Households, 5. Light Usage by Family Income Category, Million U.S. Households, 1993 1993 Family Income Category Housing Unit and Household Characteristics Total Less than $5,000 $5,000 to $9,999 $10,000 to $14,999 $15,000 to $19,999 $20,000 to $24,999 $25,000 to $34,999 $35,000 to $49,999 $50,000 to $49,000 $75,000 or More RSE Column Factors: 0.4 1.9 1.2 1.1 1.2 1.2 0.9 0.8 0.9 1.2 RSE Row Factors Total............................................... 96.6 4.1 10.6 11.1 9.6 8.7 14.1 17.5 12.6 8.3 3.98 Indoor Electric Lights Total Number Lights 1 to 4 Hours None......................................... 9.6 0.8 1.5 1.4 1.0 0.9 1.3 1.3 1.0 0.5 12.52 1 ................................................ 22.1 1.5 3.5 3.3 2.7 2.0 3.4 2.8 1.8 1.2 7.83 2 ................................................ 27.4 0.9 3.1 3.3 2.9 3.2 3.8 4.9 3.3 2.0

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "9999 9999 9999" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

High Temperature Calcination - MACT Upgrade Equipment Pilot Plant Test  

SciTech Connect

About one million gallons of acidic, hazardous, and radioactive sodium-bearing waste are stored in stainless steel tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), which is a major operating facility of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Calcination at high-temperature conditions (600 C, with alumina nitrate and calcium nitrate chemical addition to the feed) is one of four options currently being considered by the Department of Energy for treatment of the remaining tank wastes. If calcination is selected for future processing of the sodium-bearing waste, it will be necessary to install new off-gas control equipment in the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) to comply with the Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards for hazardous waste combustors and incinerators. This will require, as a minimum, installing a carbon bed to reduce mercury emissions from their current level of up to 7,500 to <45 {micro}g/dscm, and a staged combustor to reduce unburned kerosene fuel in the off-gas discharge to <100 ppm CO and <10 ppm hydrocarbons. The staged combustor will also reduce NOx concentrations of about 35,000 ppm by 90-95%. A pilot-plant calcination test was completed in a newly constructed 15-cm diameter calciner vessel. The pilot-plant facility was equipped with a prototype MACT off-gas control system, including a highly efficient cyclone separator and off-gas quench/venturi scrubber for particulate removal, a staged combustor for unburned hydrocarbon and NOx destruction, and a packed activated carbon bed for mercury removal and residual chloride capture. Pilot-plant testing was performed during a 50-hour system operability test January 14-16, followed by a 100-hour high-temperature calcination pilot-plant calcination run January 19-23. Two flowsheet blends were tested: a 50-hour test with an aluminum-to-alkali metal molar ratio (AAR) of 2.25, and a 50-hour test with an AAR of 1.75. Results of the testing indicate that sodium-bearing waste can be successfully calcined at 600 C with an AAR of 1.75. Unburned hydrocarbons are reduced to less than 10 ppm (7% O2, dry basis), with >90% reduction of NOx emissions. Mercury removal by the carbon bed reached 99.99%, surpassing the control efficiency needed to meet MACT emissions standards. No deleterious impacts on the carbon bed were observed during the tests. The test results imply that upgrading the NWCF calciner with a more efficient cyclone separator and the proposed MACT equipment can process the remaining tanks wastes in 3 years or less, and comply with the MACT standards.

Richard D. Boardman; B. H. O'Brien; N. R. Soelberg; S. O. Bates; R. A. Wood; C. St. Michel

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Towards the development of high temperature comparison artifacts for radiation thermometry  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the methodology and first results of the development of high temperature fixed point artifacts of unknown temperature suitable for scale comparison purposes. This study is being undertaken at the Thermal Metrology Division of Inmetro, Brazil, as part of PhD studies. In this initial phase of the study two identical cobalt carbon eutectic cells were constructed and one doped with a known amount of copper. This was an attempt to achieve a controlled change in the transition temperature of the alloy during melting. Copper was chosen due to the relatively simple phase diagram it forms with carbon and cobalt. The cobalt, in powder form, was supplied by Alfa Aesar at 99.998 % purity, and was mixed with carbon powder (1,9 % by weight) of 99.9999 % purity. Complete filling of the crucible took 6 steps and was performed in a vertical furnace with graphite heating elements, in an inert gas atmosphere. The temperature measurements were performed using a KE LP3 radiation thermometer, which was previously evaluated for spectral responsivity, linearity and size-of-source effect (SSE). During these measurements, the thermometer stability was periodically checked using a silver fixed point blackbody maintained in a three zone furnace. The main purpose of the first part of this study is to dope a series of Co-C blackbody with differing amounts of copper, in order to alter their temperatures whilst still retaining good melting plateau performance. The long-term stability of the adjusted transition temperatures will also be investigated. Other dopants will be studied as the research progresses, and thermo chemical modeling will be performed in an attempt to understand the change in temperature with dopant concentration and so help select suitable dopants in the future. The overall objective is to construct comparison artifacts that have good performance, in terms of plateau shape and long-term temperature stability, but with unknown temperatures. These can then be used as comparison artifacts with no participant, except the pilot, knowing the temperature a priori.

Teixeira, R. N. [Inmetro, Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil)] [Inmetro, Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil); Machin, G. [NPL, Teddington (United Kingdom)] [NPL, Teddington (United Kingdom); Orlando, A. [PUC-Rio, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)] [PUC-Rio, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2013-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

123

Alternate Methods For Eluting Cesium From Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Resin  

SciTech Connect

A Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) system has been proposed for removing cesium from the supernate and dissolved salt solutions in the high level waste tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The SCIX system could use either crystalline silicotitanate (CST) an inorganic, non-regenerable sorbent or spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF), a new regenerable resin, to remove cesium from the waste solutions. The standard method for eluting the cesium from the RF resin uses 15-20 bed volumes (BV) of 0.5 M nitric acid (HNO3). The nitric acid eluate, containing the radioactive cesium, would be combined with the sludge from the waste tanks, and would be converted into glass at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at SRS. The amount of nitric acid generated by the standard elution method exceeds the capacity of DWPF to destroy the nitrate ions and maintain the required chemical reducing conditions in the glass melt. Alternate methods for eluting the resin have been tested, including using lower concentrations of nitric acid, other acids, and changing the flow regimes. About 4 bed volumes of 0.5 M nitric acid are required to remove the sodium (titrate the resin) and most of the cesium from the resin, so the bulk of the acid used for the standard elution method removes a very small quantity of cesium from the resin. The resin was loaded with 9.5 g Cs/L of resin prior to elution, which is the maximum expected loading for RF resin treating the actual dissolved salt waste at SRS. For the baseline elution method, 465 g of nitrate is used per liter of resin, and >99.9999% of the cesium is removed from the resin. An alternative method that used 4 bed volumes of 0.5 M HNO3 followed by 11 bed volumes of 0.05 M HNO3, used 158 g of nitrate per liter of resin (66% less nitrate than used for the standard elution) and removed >99.998% of the cesium. A staccato flow mode using 0.5 M HNO3 (1 hr on at 1 BV/hr, followed by 3 hrs off) after the resin had been titrated using a continuous flow of acid at 1 BV/hr removed 99.9998% of the cesium while using 12 BV of acid (20% less than the baseline). Formic acid was slightly less efficient than nitric acid for eluting the resin, but 20 BV of 0.5 M HCOOH removed 99.98% of the cesium from the resin.

Taylor, Paul Allen [ORNL; Johnson, Heather Lauren [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

CARBON BED MERCURY EMISSIONS CONTROL FOR MIXED WASTE TREATMENT  

SciTech Connect

Mercury has had various uses in nuclear fuel reprocessing and other nuclear processes, and so is often present in radioactive and mixed (both radioactive and hazardous according tohe Resource Conservation and Recovery Act) wastes. Depending on regulatory requirements, the mercury in the off-gas must be controlled with sometimes very high efficiencies. Compliance to the Hazardous Waste Combustor (HWC) Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards can require off-gas mercury removal efficiencies up to 99.999% for thermally treating some mixed waste streams. Several test programs have demonstrated this level of off-gas mercury control using fixed beds of granular sulfur-impregnated activated carbon. Other results of these tests include: (a) The depth of the mercury control mass transfer zone was less than 15-30 cm for the operating conditions of these tests, (b) MERSORB carbon can sorb Hg up to 19 wt% of the carbon mass, and (c) the spent carbon retained almost all (98 99.99%) of the Hg; but when even a small fraction of the total Hg dissolves, the spent carbon can fail the TCLP test when the spent carbon contains high Hg concentrations. Localized areas in a carbon bed that become heated through heat of adsorption, to temperatures where oxidation occurs, are referred to as bed hot spots. Carbon bed hot spots must be avoided in processes that treat radioactive and mixed waste. Key to carbon bed hot spot mitigation are (a) designing for sufficient gas velocity, for avoiding gas flow maldistribution, and for sufficient but not excessive bed depth, (b) monitoring and control of inlet gas flowrate, temperature, and composition, (c) monitoring and control of in-bed and bed outlet gas temperatures, and (d) most important, monitoring of bed outlet CO concentrations. An increase of CO levels in the off-gas downstream of the carbon bed to levels about 50-100 ppm higher than the inlet CO concentration indicate CO formation in the bed, caused by carbon bed hot spots. Corrective actions must be implemented quickly if bed hot spots are detected, using a graded approach and sequence starting with corrective actions that are simple, quick, cause the least impact to the process, and are easiest to recover from. Multiple high and high-high alarm levels should be used, with appropriate corrective actions for each level.

Nick Soelberg; Joe Enneking

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Nanoporous, Metal Carbide, Surface Diffusion Membranes for High Temperature Hydrogen Separations  

SciTech Connect

Colorado School of Mines (CSM) developed high temperature, hydrogen permeable membranes that contain no platinum group metals with the goal of separating hydrogen from gas mixtures representative of gasification of carbon feedstocks such as coal or biomass in order to meet DOE NETL 2015 hydrogen membrane performance targets. We employed a dual synthesis strategy centered on transition metal carbides. In the first approach, novel, high temperature, surface diffusion membranes based on nanoporous Mo{sub 2}C were fabricated on ceramic supports. These were produced in a two step process that consisted of molybdenum oxide deposition followed by thermal carburization. Our best Mo{sub 2}C surface diffusion membrane achieved a pure hydrogen flux of 367 SCFH/ft{sup 2} at a feed pressure of only 20 psig. The highest H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivity obtained with this approach was 4.9. A transport model using dusty gas theory was derived to describe the hydrogen transport in the Mo{sub 2}C coated, surface diffusion membranes. The second class of membranes developed were dense metal foils of BCC metals such as vanadium coated with thin (< 60 nm) Mo{sub 2}C catalyst layers. We have fabricated a Mo{sub 2}C/V composite membrane that in pure gas testing delivered a H{sub 2} flux of 238 SCFH/ft{sup 2} at 600 C and 100 psig, with no detectable He permeance. This exceeds the 2010 DOE Target flux. This flux is 2.8 times that of pure Pd at the same membrane thickness and test conditions and over 79% of the 2015 flux target. In mixed gas testing we achieved a permeate purity of ?99.99%, satisfying the permeate purity milestone, but the hydrogen permeance was low, ~0.2 SCFH/ft{sup 2}.psi. However, during testing of a Mo{sub 2}C coated Pd alloy membrane with DOE 1 feed gas mixture a hydrogen permeance of >2 SCFH/ft{sup 2}.psi was obtained which was stable during the entire test, meeting the permeance associated with the 2010 DOE target flux. Lastly, the Mo{sub 2}C/V composite membranes were shown to be stable for at least 168 hours = one week, including cycling at high temperature and alternating He/H{sub 2} exposure.

Way, J.; Wolden, Colin

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

126

Prospective study evaluating the use of IV contrast on IMRT treatment planning for lung cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate the impact of exclusively using intravenous (IV) contrast x-ray computed tomography (CT) scans on lung cancer intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment planning. Methods: Eight patients with lung cancer (one small cell, seven nonsmall cell) scheduled to receive IMRT consented to acquisition of simulation CT scans with and without IV contrast. Clinical treatment plans optimized on the noncontrast scans were recomputed on contrast scans and dose coverage was compared, along with the ? passing rates. Results: IV contrast enhanced scans provided better target and critical structure conspicuity than the noncontrast scans. Using noncontrast scan as a reference, the median absolute/relative differences in mean, maximum, and minimum doses to the planning target volume (PTV) were ?4.5 cGy/?0.09%, 41.1 cGy/0.62%, and ?19.7 cGy/?0.50%, respectively. Regarding organs-at-risk (OARs), the median absolute/relative differences of maximum dose to heart was ?13.3 cGy/?0.32%, to esophagus was ?63.4 cGy/?0.89%, and to spinal cord was ?16.3 cGy/?0.46%. The median heart region of interest CT Hounsfield Unit (HU) number difference between noncontrast and contrast scans was 136.4 HU (range, 94.2161.8 HU). Subjectively, the regions with absolute dose differences greater than 3% of the prescription dose were small and typically located at the patient periphery and/or at the beam edges. The median ? passing rate was 0.9981 (range, 0.96540.9999) using 3% absolute dose difference/3 mm distance-to-agreement criteria. Overall, all evaluated cases were found to be clinically equivalent. Conclusions: PTV and OARs dose differences between noncontrast and contrast scans appear to be minimal for lung cancer patients undergoing IMRT. Using IV contrast scans as the primary simulation dataset could increase treatment planning efficiency and accuracy by avoiding unnecessary scans, manually region overriding, and planning errors caused by nonperfect image registrations.

Li, Hua, E-mail: huli@radonc.wustl.edu; Bottani, Beth; DeWees, Todd; Michalski, Jeff M.; Mutic, Sasa; Bradley, Jeffrey D.; Robinson, Clifford G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States); Low, Daniel A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

127

Destruction behavior of hexabromocyclododecanes during incineration of solid waste containing expanded and extruded polystyrene insulation foams  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) have been used for flame retardation mainly in expanded polystyrene (EPS) and extruded polystyrene (XPS) insulation foams. Controlled incineration experiments with solid wastes containing each of EPS and XPS were conducted using a pilot-scale incinerator to investigate the destruction behavior of \\{HBCDs\\} and their influence on the formation of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/DFs). EPS and XPS materials were respectively blended with refuse derived fuel (RDF) as input wastes for incineration. Concentrations of \\{HBCDs\\} contained in the EPS- and XPS-added RDFs, were 140 and 1100mgkg?1, respectively. In which ?-HBCD was dominant (68% of the total HBCD content) in EPS-added RDF and ?-HBCD accounted for 73% of the total \\{HBCDs\\} in XPS-added RDF. During the incineration experiments with EPS and XPS, primary and secondary combustion zones were maintained at temperatures of 840C and 900C. The residence times of waste in the primary combustion zone and flue gas in the secondary combustion zone was 30min and three seconds, respectively. \\{HBCDs\\} were steadily degraded in the combustion chambers and ?-, ?-, and ?-HBCD behaved similarly. Concentration levels of the total \\{HBCDs\\} in the bag filter exit gas for the two experiments with EPS and XPS were 0.7 and 0.6ng m N - 3 , respectively. \\{HBCDs\\} were also not detected (<0.2ngg?1) in the bottom and fly ash samples. From the obtained results, it was calculated that \\{HBCDs\\} were sufficiently destroyed in the whole incineration process with destruction efficiencies of more than 99.9999 for both of EPS and XPS cases. For PBDD/DFs, the levels detected in the bottom and fly ash samples were very low (0.028ngg?1 at maximum). In the case of XPS-added experiment, 2,3,7,8-TeBDD and 2,3,7,8-TeBDF were determined in the flue gas at levels (0.050.07ng m N - 3 ) slightly over the detection limits in the environmental emission gas samples, suggesting \\{HBCDs\\} in XPS are possibly a precursor of detected PBDD/DFs. Operational care should be taken when the ratio of HBCD-containing polystyrene is increased in the input wastes just to make sure of formation prevention and emission control of PBDD/DFs. The concentrations and congener patterns of PCDD/DFs and dl-PCBs in the samples during the three experiments were not affected by an addition of HBCDs.

Hidetaka Takigami; Mafumi Watanabe; Natsuko Kajiwara

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Extended (5-year) Outcomes of Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Using MammoSite Balloon Brachytherapy: Patterns of Failure, Patient Selection, and Dosimetric Correlates for Late Toxicity  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) with balloon and catheter-based brachytherapy has gained increasing popularity in recent years and is the subject of ongoing phase III trials. Initial data suggest promising local control and cosmetic results in appropriately selected patients. Long-term data continue to evolve but are limited outside of the context of the American Society of Breast Surgeons Registry Trial. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review of 157 patients completing APBI after breast-conserving surgery and axillary staging via high-dose-rate {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy from June 2002 to December 2007 was made. APBI was delivered with a single-lumen MammoSite balloon-based applicator to a median dose of 34 Gy in 10 fractions over a 5-day period. Tumor coverage and critical organ dosimetry were retrospectively collected on the basis of computed tomography completed for conformance and symmetry. Results: At a median follow-up time of 5.5 years (range, 0-10.0 years), the 5-year and 7-year actuarial incidences of ipsilateral breast control were 98%/98%, of nodal control 99%/98%, and of distant control 99%/99%, respectively. The crude rate of ipsilateral breast recurrence was 2.5% (n=4); of nodal failure, 1.9% (n=3); and of distant failure, 0.6% (n=1). The 5-year and 7-year actuarial overall survival rates were 89%/86%, with breast cancerspecific survival of 100%/99%, respectively. Good to excellent cosmetic outcomes were achieved in 93.4% of patients. Telangiectasia developed in 27% of patients, with 1-year, 3-year, and 5-year actuarial incidence of 7%/24%/33%; skin dose >100% significantly predicted for the development of telangiectasia (50% vs 14%, P<.0001). Conclusions: Long-term single-institution outcomes suggest excellent tumor control, breast cosmesis, and minimal late toxicity. Skin toxicity is a function of skin dose, which may be ameliorated with dosimetric optimization afforded by newer multicatheter brachytherapy applicators and a more rigorous skin dose constraint of ?100%.

Vargo, John A.; Verma, Vivek; Kim, Hayeon; Kalash, Ronny; Heron, Dwight E.; Johnson, Ronald; Beriwal, Sushil, E-mail: beriwals@upmc.edu

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

LowerColoradoRiver_Comments_FutureComms.pdf  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Remote Meter Reading (based on hourly reads) n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a Direct Load Control n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a Real time pricing n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a At the customer premises n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a At charging stations n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 450 9,000 72 hrs 1,000,000 kbps 90% 500 ms 99.9999% 5 6 3 n/a n/a n/a

130

EVALUATION OF AP-FARM SIMULANT COMPOSITION FOR ROTARY MICROFILTER TESTING  

SciTech Connect

This document identifies the feed composition of a Hanford AP tank farm simulant for rotary microfiltration testing. The composition is based on an Hanford Tank Waste Operations Simulator (HTWOS) model run in combination with Tank Waste Information Network (TWINS) data and mineralogical studies of actual waste solids. The feed simulant is intended to be used in test runs at SRNL. The simulant will be prepared in two parts: (1) A supernate, composed of water-soluble salts and (2) The undissolved (actually, undissolvable) solids. Test slurries with distinct solids concentrations (e.g., 0.5, 5 and 10 wt%) are then prepared as needed. The base for the composition of supernate and solids is the modeled feed sequence for a deployment scenario of the Supplemental Pretreatment units within AP-farm. These units comprise a filtration part, the RMF, and a Cesium-removal part, a Small Column Ion Exchange. The primary use of this simulant is for filtration testing - however, in case that it is also used for ion-exchange tests, the amount of Cs-137 that would need to be added is available in Table 1 and Attachment 3. A modified model run (MMR-049) of the Hanford Tank Waste Operations Simulator (HTWOS) system plan 6 case 3 was performed to identify the feed sequence. Case 3 assumed supplemental treatment besides the low activity waste (LAW) melter with supplemental pretreatment supporting the pretreatment facility. The MMR did not cap the duration of supplemental pretreatment to 15 months, but rather used it throughout the entire treatment mission as an add-on option to the pretreatment facility at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Tank 241-AP-105 (AP-105) was chosen as the feed tank to the filtration unit. Other parameters included a fixed minimum of 0.5 wt% solids in the feed and a maximum Na-concentration of 5M in the supernate. The solids rejection from the filtration unit was set to 99.99% and the maximum allowed amount of solids within tank AP-105 was set to 10 wt%. A comprehensive description of the run and the full suite of results were issued as SVF-2364-00. The list of individual feed events including the amounts of liquid and solids transferred for the first five years is added as Attachment 2; the chemical composition of the supernate feed comprises Attachment 3. For the simulant composition, only the first five years of proposed feed delivery were taken into account. The main outcome of MMR-049 was that for the first five years, the feed would come mostly from AP-farms. Multiple delivery campaigns to AP-105 are included in this average feed, while minimizing the amount of contributing tanks to the solids in the feed mix.

HUBER HJ

2011-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

131

Low Temperature Reduction of Alumina Using Fluorine Containing Ionic Liquids  

SciTech Connect

The major objective of the project is to establish the feasibility of using specific ionic liquids capable of sustaining aluminum electrolysis near room temperature at laboratory and batch recirculation scales. It will explore new technologies for aluminum and other valuable metal extraction and process methods. The new technology will overcome many of the limitations associated with high temperatures processes such as high energy consumption and corrosion attack. Furthermore, ionic liquids are non-toxic and could be recycled after purification, thus minimizing extraction reagent losses and environmental pollutant emissions. Ionic liquids are mixture of inorganic and organic salts which are liquid at room temperature and have wide operational temperature range. During the last several years, they were emerging as novel electrolytes for extracting and refining of aluminum metals and/or alloys, which are otherwise impossible using aqueous media. The superior high temperature characteristics and high solvating capabilities of ionic liquids provide a unique solution to high temperature organic solvent problems associated with device internal pressure build-up, corrosion, and thermal stability. However their applications have not yet been fully implemented due to the insufficient understanding of the electrochemical mechanisms involved in processing of aluminum with ionic liquids. Laboratory aluminum electrodeposition in ionic liquids has been investigated in chloride and bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide based ionic liquids. The electrowinning process yielded current density in the range of 200-500 A/m2, and current efficiency of about 90%. The results indicated that high purity aluminum (>99.99%) can be obtained as cathodic deposits. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry studies have shown that initial stages of aluminum electrodeposition in ionic liquid electrolyte at 30C was found to be quasi-reversible, with the charge transfer coefficient (0.40). Nucleation phenomena involved in aluminum deposition on copper in AlCl3-BMIMCl electrolyte was found to be instantaneous followed by diffusion controlled three-dimensional growth of nuclei. Diffusion coefficient (Do) of the electroactive species Al2Cl7 ion was in the range from 6.5 to 3.9107 cm2?s1 at a temperature of 30C. Relatively little research efforts have been made toward the fundamental understanding and modeling of the species transport and transformation information involved in ionic liquid mixtures, which eventually could lead to quantification of electrochemical properties. Except that experimental work in this aspect usually is time consuming and expensive, certain characteristics of ionic liquids also made barriers for such analyses. Low vapor pressure and high viscosity make them not suitable for atomic absorption spectroscopic measurement. In addition, aluminum electrodeposition in ionic liquid electrolytes are considered to be governed by multi-component mass, heat and charge transport in laminar and turbulent flows that are often multi-phase due to the gas evolution at the electrodes. The kinetics of the electrochemical reactions is in general complex. Furthermore, the mass transfer boundary layer is about one order of magnitude smaller than the thermal and hydrodynamic boundary layer (Re=10,000). Other phenomena that frequently occur are side reactions and temperature or concentration driven natural convection. As a result of this complexity, quantitative knowledge of the local parameters (current densities, ion concentrations, electrical potential, temperature, etc.) is very difficult to obtain. This situation is a serious obstacle for improving the quality of products, efficiency of manufacturing and energy consumption. The gap between laboratory/batch scale processing with global process control and nanoscale deposit surface and materials specifications needs to be bridged. A breakthrough can only be realized if on each scale the occurring phenomena are understood and quantified. Multiscale numerical modeling nevertheless can help t

Dr. R. G. Reddy

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Solvated Electron Technology{sup TM}. Non-Thermal Alternative to Waste Incineration  

SciTech Connect

Solvated Electron Technology (SET{sup TM}) is a patented non-thermal alternative to incineration for treating Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and other mixed waste by destroying organic hazardous components. SET{sup TM} is a treatment process that destroys the hazardous components in mixed waste by chemical reduction. The residual material meets land disposal restriction (LDR) and TSCA requirements for disposal. In application, contaminated materials are placed into a treatment cell and mixed with the solvated electron solution. In the case of PCBs or other halogenated contaminants, chemical reactions strip the halogen ions from the chain or aromatic ring producing sodium chloride and high molecular weight hydrocarbons. At the end of the reaction, ammonia within the treatment cell is removed and recycled. The reaction products (such as sodium salts) produced in the process remain with the matrix. The SET{sup TM} process is 99.999% effective in destroying: polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs); trichloroethane (TCA) and trichloroethene (TCE); dioxins; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); benzene, toluene, xylene (BTX); pesticides; fungicides; herbicides; chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs); hydro-chlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), explosives and chemical-warfare agents; and has successfully destroyed many of the wastes listed in 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 261. In September 2007, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a Research and Development permit for SET for chemical destruction of 'pure' Pyranol, which is 60% PCBs. These tests were completed in November 2007. SET{sup TM} is recognized by EPA as a non-thermal process equivalent to incineration and three SET{sup TM} systems have been permitted by EPA as commercial mobile PCB destruction units. This paper describes in detail the results of select bench-, pilot-, and commercial-scale treatment of hazardous and mixed wastes for EPA, Department of Energy (DOE), and the Department of Defense(DoD), and the applicability of SET{sup TM} to currently problematic waste streams that have very limited treatment alternatives. In summary: SET{sup TM} operates as a non-thermal destruction process under low pressure. The process occurs in a closed system producing no hazardous off-gases and no regulated by-products such as dioxins or furans or their precursors. Advantages of SET{sup TM} include: - Organic contaminants are destroyed, not just removed, diluted or concentrated. - Operates as a closed system - produces no regulated secondary wastes. - Holds an EPA permit for PCB destruction. - Operates at ambient temperatures (70 deg. F). - Portable and sets up quickly in less than 4000 square feet of space. - Scalable to accommodate any size waste stream. - Requires minimal amounts of power, water and infrastructure. - Applicable to heterogeneous waste streams in all phases. The SET{sup TM} process is 99.9999% effective in destroying organic constituents of RCRA and TSCA waste, explosives and chemical-warfare agents; and has successfully destroyed many of the wastes listed in 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 261. The residual material meets land disposal restriction (LDR) and TSCA requirements for disposal. In November 2007, Commodore completed a treatability study on Pyranol to determine the effectiveness of SET{sup TM} treatment on oil containing 600,000 PPM PCBs. Laboratory results proved destruction of PCBs to less than 1 PPM at low temperatures and pressures. SET{sup TM} is a proven, safe and cost-effective alternative to incineration for some of the most difficult waste treatment problems that exist today. (authors)

Foutz, W.L.; Rogers, J.E.; Mather, J.D. [Commodore Advanced Sciences, Inc., Richland, WA (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure October 2013  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. Over the past 5-year period, the occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. As an indicator of the overall amount of radiation dose received during the conduct of operations at DOE, the report includes information on collective total effective dose (TED). The TED is comprised of the effective dose (ED) from external sources, which includes neutron and photon radiation, and the internal committed effective dose (CED), which results from the intake of radioactive material into the body. The collective ED from photon exposure decreased by 23% between 2011 and 2012, while the neutron dose increased by 5%. The internal dose components of the collective TED decreased by 7%. Over the past 5-year period, 99.99% of the individuals receiving measurable TED have received doses below the 2 roentgen equivalent in man (rems) (20 millisievert [mSv]) TED administrative control level (ACL), which is well below the DOE regulatory limit of 5 rems (50 mSv) TED annually. The occupational radiation exposure records show that in 2012, DOE facilities continued to comply with DOE dose limits and ACLs and worked to minimize exposure to individuals. The DOE collective TED decreased 17.1% from 2011 to 2012. The collective TED decreased at three of the five sites with the largest collective TED. u Idaho Site Collective dose reductions were achieved as a result of continuing improvements at the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP) through the planning of drum movements that reduced the number of times a container is handled; placement of waste containers that created highradiation areas in a centralized location; and increased worker awareness of high-dose rate areas. In addition, Idaho had the largest decrease in the total number of workers with measurable TED (1,143 fewer workers). u Hanford Site (Hanford) An overall reduction of decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) and Transuranic (TRU) retrieval activities resulted in collective dose reductions. u Savannah River Site (SRS) Reductions were achieved through ALARA initiatives employed site wide. The Solid Waste Management Facility used extended specialty tools, cameras and lead shield walls to facilitate removal of drums. These tools and techniques reduce exposure time through improved efficiency, increase distance from the source of radiation by remote monitoring, shield the workers to lower the dose rate, and reduce the potential for contamination and release of material through repacking of waste. Overall, from 2011 to 2012, there was a 19% decrease in the number of workers with measurable dose. Furthermore, due to a slight decrease in both the DOE workforce (7%) and monitored workers (10%), the ratio of workers with measurable doses to monitored workers decreased to 13%. Another primary indicator of the level of radiation exposure covered in this report is the average measurable dose, which normalizes the collective dose over the population of workers who actually received a measurable dose. The average measurable TED in

none,

2012-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

134

Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

8, 1999 8, 1999 http://www.eia.doe.gov N Y M E X F u t u r e P r i c e s v s H e n r y H u b S p o t P r ic e s 1 . 5 0 1 . 7 0 1 . 9 0 2 . 1 0 2 . 3 0 2 . 5 0 2 . 7 0 2 . 9 0 3 . 1 0 3 . 3 0 3 . 5 0 3 . 7 0 3 . 9 0 4 . 1 0 4 . 3 0 4 . 5 0 Dollars Per Million BTU N Y M E X S e t t le m e n t P r ic e H e n r y H u b S p o t W T I in $ / M M B t u N o te : T h e H e n r y H u b s p o t p r ic e is fr o m t h e G A S D A IL Y a n d is t h e m id p o in t o f th e ir h ig h a n d lo w p r ic e f o r a d a y . T h e d a te s m a r k e d 0 . 0 0 M O N T H N Y M E X D e liv e r y M o n t h ( n e a r - m o n t h c o n t r a c t ) H o l i d a y S E P T E M B E R 8 /2 7 /9 9 O C T O B E R 9 /2 8 /9 9 N O V E M B E R 7 /2 8 /9 9 A U G U S T T e n -Y e a r A v e r a g e o f H ig h T e m p e r a t u r e s , a n d D a il y H i g h e s t a n d L o w e s t H i g h T e m p e r a t u r e s fo r 6 C it i e s , M a y - S e p t e m b e r ( D a lla s / F t W o r t h , H o u s t o n , L o s A n g e le s , M ia m i, N e w O r le a n s , N e w Y o r k ) 0 2 0 4 0 6 0 8 0 1 0 0 1 2 0 8/22/99 8/24/99 8/26/99 8/28/99 8/30/99 9/1/99 9/3/99 9/5/99 9/7/99 9/9/99 9/11/99 9/13/99 9/15/99 9/17/99 9/19/99 9/21/99