National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for 8water 9market transformation

  1. 16 TAC 3.8 - Water Protection | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation: 16 TAC 3.8 - Water ProtectionLegal Published NA Year Signed or Took Effect 2013 Legal Citation...

  2. TRANSFORMER

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, W.R.

    1959-08-25

    Transformers of a type adapted for use with extreme high power vacuum tubes where current requirements may be of the order of 2,000 to 200,000 amperes are described. The transformer casing has the form of a re-entrant section being extended through an opening in one end of the cylinder to form a coaxial terminal arrangement. A toroidal multi-turn primary winding is disposed within the casing in coaxial relationship therein. In a second embodiment, means are provided for forming the casing as a multi-turn secondary. The transformer is characterized by minimized resistance heating, minimized external magnetic flux, and an economical construction.

  3. "Table HC11.8 Water Heating Characteristics by Northeast Census Region, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Water Heating Characteristics by Northeast Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"Northeast Census Region" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Census Division" ,,"Total Northeast" "Water Heating Characteristics",,,"Middle Atlantic","New England" "Total",111.1,20.6,15.1,5.5 "Number of Water Heaters" "1.",106.3,19.6,14.4,5.2 "2 or

  4. "Table HC13.8 Water Heating Characteristics by South Census Region, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Water Heating Characteristics by South Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"South Census Region" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Census Division" ,,"Total South" "Water Heating Characteristics",,,"South Atlantic","East South Central","West South Central" "Total",111.1,40.7,21.7,6.9,12.1 "Number of Water Heaters" "1.",106.3,39,21.1,6.6,11.3 "2

  5. "Table HC14.8 Water Heating Characteristics by West Census Region, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Water Heating Characteristics by West Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"West Census Region" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Census Division" ,,"Total West" "Water Heating Characteristics",,,"Mountain","Pacific" "Total",111.1,24.2,7.6,16.6 "Number of Water Heaters" "1.",106.3,23.2,7.1,16.1 "2 or More",3.7,1,0.4,0.6 "Do Not Use Hot

  6. "Table HC12.8 Water Heating Characteristics by Midwest Census Region, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Water Heating Characteristics by Midwest Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"Midwest Census Region" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Census Division" ,,"Total Midwest" "Water Heating Characteristics",,,"East North Central","West North Central" "Total",111.1,25.6,17.7,7.9 "Number of Water Heaters" "1.",106.3,24.5,17.1,7.4 "2 or More",3.7,0.9,0.5,0.4

  7. "Table HC10.8 Water Heating Characteristics by U.S. Census Region, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Water Heating Characteristics by U.S. Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,"Housing Units (millions)","U.S. Census Region" "Water Heating Characteristics",,"Northeast","Midwest","South","West" "Total",111.1,20.6,25.6,40.7,24.2 "Number of Water Heaters" "1.",106.3,19.6,24.5,39,23.2 "2 or More",3.7,0.3,0.9,1.5,1 "Do Not Use Hot

  8. "Table HC3.8 Water Heating Characteristics by Owner-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Water Heating Characteristics by Owner-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,," Owner-Occupied Housing Units (millions)","Type of Owner-Occupied Housing Unit" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions" ,,,"Single-Family Units",,"Apartments in Buildings With--" "Water Heating Characteristics",,,"Detached","Attached","2 to 4 Units","5 or More Units","Mobile

  9. "Table HC4.8 Water Heating Characteristics by Renter-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Water Heating Characteristics by Renter-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,," Renter-Occupied Housing Units (millions)","Type of Renter-Occupied Housing Unit" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions" ,,,"Single-Family Units",,"Apartments in Buildings With--" "Water Heating Characteristics",,,"Detached","Attached","2 to 4 Units","5 or More Units","Mobile

  10. "Table HC15.8 Water Heating Characteristics by Four Most Populated States, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Water Heating Characteristics by Four Most Populated States, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,"Housing Units (millions)","Four Most Populated States" "Water Heating Characteristics",,"New York","Florida","Texas","California" "Total",111.1,7.1,7,8,12.1 "Number of Water Heaters" "1.",106.3,6.5,6.9,7.4,11.7 "2 or More",3.7,"Q","Q",0.5,0.4 "Do

  11. Market Transformation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-09-01

    Summarizes the goals and activities of the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program efforts within its market transformation subprogram.

  12. Market Transformation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-02-15

    This Fuel Cell Technologies Program fact sheet outlines current status and challenges in the market transformation of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies.

  13. Market Transformation

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This Fuel Cell Technologies Program fact sheet outlines current status and challenges in the market transformation of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies.

  14. RF transformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, James L.; Helenberg, Harold W.; Kilsdonk, Dennis J.

    1979-01-01

    There is provided an improved RF transformer having a single-turn secondary of cylindrical shape and a coiled encapsulated primary contained within the secondary. The coil is tapered so that the narrowest separation between the primary and the secondary is at one end of the coil. The encapsulated primary is removable from the secondary so that a variety of different capacity primaries can be utilized with one secondary.

  15. TRANSFORMER APPARATUS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfgang, F.; Nicol, J.

    1962-11-01

    Transformer apparatus is designed for measuring the amount of a paramagnetic substance dissolved or suspended in a diamagnetic liquid. The apparatus consists of a cluster of tubes, some of which are closed and have sealed within the diamagnetic substance without any of the paramagnetic material. The remaining tubes are open to flow of the mix- ture. Primary and secondary conductors are wrapped around the tubes in such a way as to cancel noise components and also to produce a differential signal on the secondaries based upon variations of the content of the paramagnetic material. (AEC)

  16. Transforming a Transformative School | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transforming a Transformative School Transforming a Transformative School October 11, 2012 - 10:14am Addthis During a yearlong renovation, Harding Charter Preparatory school upgraded lighting fixtures, installed a new heating and cooling system, and replaced the entry doors. The new doors allow daylight into the school and restore the historical building envelope. | Photo courtesy of John Winkel, Energy Department. During a yearlong renovation, Harding Charter Preparatory school upgraded

  17. Sandia Energy - Solar Market Transformation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Market Transformation Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Photovoltaics Solar Market Transformation Solar Market TransformationTara...

  18. Mechanisms of transformation toughening

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, G.B.

    1992-02-01

    Modelling the thermodynamics and kinetics of isothermal martensitic transformation under stress, transformation toughening in austenitic steels, and dispersed phase transformation plasticity in low alloy steels are discussed briefly in this progress report for Doe Grant DE-FG02-88ER45365.

  19. HPC Transforms Cosmology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Debbie Bard » HPC Transforms Cosmology HPC Transforms Cosmology December 3, 2015 by Debbie Bard (originally posted in http://www.scientificcomputing.com/blogs/2015/10/hpc-transforms-cosmology) Visualization of dark matter in the Dark Sky Simulation, the first trillion-particle simulation to be made publicly available. It spans a region nearly 40 billion light-years across, and was produced using 80 million CPU hours on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Titan supercomputer. Courtesy of the Dark

  20. National Power Transformer Reserve

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Alliance for FLEX Emergency Response (SAFER) team, to implement off-site capabilities in ... warehouses would have predefined restoration transformers for rapid recovery. ...

  1. Market Transformation Fact Sheet

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This fact sheet describes the Fuel Cell Technologies Office's Market Transformation strategies and activities, which are aimed at accelerating early market adoption and advancing pre-competitive technologies.

  2. Biochemical transformation of coals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, Mow S. (Rocky Point, NY); Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY)

    1999-03-23

    A method of biochemically transforming macromolecular compounds found in solid carbonaceous materials, such as coal is provided. The preparation of new microorganisms, metabolically weaned through challenge growth processes to biochemically transform solid carbonaceous materials at extreme temperatures, pressures, pH, salt and toxic metal concentrations is also disclosed.

  3. Deployment & Market Transformation (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-04-01

    NREL's deployment and market transformation (D and MT) activities encompass the laboratory's full range of technologies, which span the energy efficiency and renewable energy spectrum. NREL staff educates partners on how they can advance sustainable energy applications and also provides clients with best practices for reducing barriers to innovation and market transformation.

  4. Biochemical transformation of coals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, M.S.; Premuzic, E.T.

    1999-03-23

    A method of biochemically transforming macromolecular compounds found in solid carbonaceous materials, such as coal is provided. The preparation of new microorganisms, metabolically weaned through challenge growth processes to biochemically transform solid carbonaceous materials at extreme temperatures, pressures, pH, salt and toxic metal concentrations is also disclosed. 7 figs.

  5. Series Transmission Line Transformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buckles, Robert A.; Booth, Rex; Yen, Boris T.

    2004-06-29

    A series transmission line transformer is set forth which includes two or more of impedance matched sets of at least two transmissions lines such as shielded cables, connected in parallel at one end ans series at the other in a cascading fashion. The cables are wound about a magnetic core. The series transmission line transformer (STLT) which can provide for higher impedance ratios and bandwidths, which is scalable, and which is of simpler design and construction.

  6. Buildings Energy Data Book

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    1.1 Buildings Sector Energy Consumption 1.2 Building Sector Expenditures 1.3 Value of Construction and Research 1.4 Environmental Data 1.5 Generic Fuel Quad and Comparison 1.6 Embodied Energy of Building Assemblies 2The Residential Sector 3Commercial Sector 4Federal Sector 5Envelope and Equipment 6Energy Supply 7Laws, Energy Codes, and Standards 8Water 9Market Transformation Glossary Acronyms and Initialisms Technology Descriptions Building Descriptions Other Data Books Biomass Energy

  7. Buildings Energy Data Book

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    4.1 Federal Buildings Energy Consumption 4.2 Federal Buildings and Facilities Characteristics 4.3 Federal Buildings and Facilities Expenditures 4.4 Legislation Affecting Energy Consumption of Federal Buildings and Facilities 5Envelope and Equipment 6Energy Supply 7Laws, Energy Codes, and Standards 8Water 9Market Transformation Glossary Acronyms and Initialisms Technology Descriptions Building Descriptions Other Data Books Biomass Energy Transportation Energy Power Technologies Hydrogen Download

  8. Buildings Energy Data Book

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    6.1 Electric Utility Energy Consumption 6.2 Electricity Generation, Transmission, and Distribution 6.3 Natural Gas Production and Distribution 6.4 Electric and Generic Quad Carbon Emissions 6.5 Public Benefit Funds/System Benefit Funds 7Laws, Energy Codes, and Standards 8Water 9Market Transformation Glossary Acronyms and Initialisms Technology Descriptions Building Descriptions Other Data Books Biomass Energy Transportation Energy Power Technologies Hydrogen Download the Entire Book Skip down to

  9. Buildings Energy Data Book

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    7.1 National Legislation 7.2 Federal Tax Incentives 7.3 Efficiency Standards for Residential HVAC 7.4 Efficiency Standards for Commercial HVAC 7.5 Efficiency Standards for Residential Appliances 7.6 Efficiency Standards for Lighting 7.7 Water Use Standards 7.8 State Building Energy Codes 8Water 9Market Transformation Glossary Acronyms and Initialisms Technology Descriptions Building Descriptions Other Data Books Biomass Energy Transportation Energy Power Technologies Hydrogen Download the Entire

  10. Sandia Energy - Past Market Transformation Activities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Past Market Transformation Activities Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Photovoltaics Solar Market Transformation Past Market Transformation...

  11. Reduction/Transformation Operators

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2006-09-01

    RTOp (reduction/transformation operators) is a collection of C++ software that provides the basic mechanism for implementinig vector operations in a flexible and efficient manner. This is the main interface utilized by Thyra to allow for the specification of specific vector reduction and/or transformation operations. The RTOp package contains three different types of software. (a) a small number of interoperability interfaces. (b) support software including code for the parallel SPMD mode based on only Teuchos::Comm(and notmore » MPl directly(, and (c) a library of pre-implemented RTOp subclasses for everything from simple AXPYs and norms, to more specialized vector operations. RTOp allows an algorithm developer to implement their own RTOp subclasses in a way that is independent from any specific serial, parallel, out-of-core or other type of vector implementation. RTOp is a required package by Thyra and MOOCHO. (c)« less

  12. SEP Success Story: Transforming a Transformative School | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy Transforming a Transformative School SEP Success Story: Transforming a Transformative School October 11, 2012 - 9:35am Addthis During a yearlong renovation, Harding Charter Preparatory school upgraded lighting fixtures, installed a new heating and cooling system, and replaced the entry doors. The new doors allow daylight into the school and restore the historical building envelope. | Photo courtesy of John Winkel, Energy Department. During a yearlong renovation, Harding Charter

  13. Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers; Jake P. Gentle; Jason W. Bush

    2012-05-01

    The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of key transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturers factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCBs actual data is not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.

  14. Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers; Jake P. Gentle; Jason W. Bush

    2012-05-01

    The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of “key” transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturer’s factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCB’s actual data is not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.

  15. Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers; Jake P. Gentle; Jason W. Bush

    2012-08-01

    The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of “key” transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturer’s factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCB’s actual data is not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.

  16. Transform Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: Transform Solar Place: Boise, Idaho Product: Idaho-based PV module maker and joint venture between Micron and Origin Energy. Coordinates: 43.60698, -116.193409...

  17. National Symposium on Market Transformation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hosted by the American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy (ACEEE) and the Consortium for Energy Efficiency (CEE), this three-day conference features speakers covering topics within the scope of market transformation.

  18. Market Transformation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Market Transformation Market Transformation Significant research and development progress has paved the way for fuel cells to enter today's commercial marketplace for a variety of applications, including specialty vehicles and stationary and portable power. The growing number of commercial products, in combination with the federal and state financial incentives available now, are instrumental in supporting the role that fuel cells play in our nation's energy portfolio. Through its market

  19. Ultrafast Transformations in Superionic Nanocrystals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ultrafast Transformations in Superionic Nanocrystals Ultrafast Transformations in Superionic Nanocrystals Print Wednesday, 29 January 2014 00:00 A superionic material is a multi-component solid with simultaneous characteristics of both a solid and a liquid. Above a critical temperature associated with a structural phase transition, one of the atomic species in the material will exhibit liquid-like ionic conductivity and dynamic disorder within the rigid crystalline structure of the other.

  20. Metamaterial flexible sheets could transform optics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Metamaterial flexible sheets could transform optics Metamaterial flexible sheets could transform optics Advances would boost security screening systems, infrared thermal cameras,...

  1. Department of Energy/ National Power Transformer Reserve

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    prior experience selling large power transformers in excess of 400 MVA to a US ... Large power transformers are one of the most critical components within the power system ...

  2. National Electric Delivery Technologies Roadmap: Transforming...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Delivery Technologies Roadmap: Transforming the Grid to Revolutionize Electric Power in North America National Electric Delivery Technologies Roadmap: Transforming the Grid to ...

  3. Market Transformation: Fuel Cell Early Adoption (Presentation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transformation: Fuel Cell Early Adoption (Presentation) Market Transformation: Fuel Cell Early Adoption (Presentation) Presented at the DOE Fuel Cell Pre-Solicitation Workshop held ...

  4. Efficient transformer for electromagnetic waves

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, R.B.

    A transformer structure for efficient transfer of electromagnetic energy from a transmission line to an unmatched load provides voltage multiplication and current division by a predetermined constant. Impedance levels are transformed by the square of that constant. The structure includes a wave splitter, connected to an input transmission device and to a plurality of output transmission devices. The output transmission devices are effectively connected in parallel to the input transmission device. The output transmission devices are effectively series connected to provide energy to a load. The transformer structure is particularly effective in increasing efficiency of energy transfer through an inverting convolute structure by capturing and transferring energy losses from the inverter to the load.

  5. Phase Transformations in Confined Nanosystems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shield, Jeffrey E.; Belashchenko, Kirill

    2014-04-29

    This project discovered that non-equilibrium structures, including chemically ordered structures not observed in bulk systems, form in isolated nanoscale systems. Further, a generalized model was developed that effectively explained the suppression of equilibrium phase transformations. This thermodynamic model considered the free energy decrease associated with the phase transformation was less than the increase in energy associated with the formation of an interphase interface, therefore inhibiting the phase transformation. A critical diameter exists where the system transitions to bulk behavior, and a generalized equation was formulated that successfully predicted this transition in the Fe-Au system. This provided and explains a new route to novel structures not possible in bulk systems. The structural characterization was accomplished using transmission electron microscopy in collaboration with Matthew Kramer of Ames Laboratory. The PI and graduate student visited Ames Laboratory several times a year to conduct the experiments.

  6. Development of Toroidal Core Transformers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leon, Francisco

    2014-05-31

    The original objective of this project was to design, build and test a few prototypes of singlephase dry-type distribution transformers of 25 kVA, 2.4 kV primary to 120 V transformers using cores made of a continuous steel strip shaped like a doughnut (toroid). At different points during the development of the project, the scope was enhanced to include the more practical case of a 25 kVA transformer for a 13.8 kV primary system voltage. Later, the scope was further expanded to design and build a 50 kVA unit to transformer voltage from 7.62 kV to 2x120 V. This is a common transformer used by Con Edison of New York and they are willing to test it in the field. The project officially started in September 2009 and ended in May 2014. The progress was reported periodically to DOE in eighteen quarterly reports. A Continuation Application was submitted to DOE in June 2010. In May 2011 we have requested a non-cost extension of the project. In December 2011, the Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO) was updated to reflect the real conditions and situation of the project as of 2011. A second Continuation Application was made and funding was approved in 2013 by DOE and the end date was extended to May 2014.The technical challenges that were overcome in this project include: the development of the technology to pass the impulse tests, derive a model for the thermal performance, produce a sound mechanical design, and estimate the inrush current. However, the greatest challenge that we faced during the development of the project was the complications of procuring the necessary parts and materials to build the transformers. The actual manufacturing process is relatively fast, but getting all parts together is a very lengthy process. The main products of this project are two prototypes of toroidal distribution transformers of 7.62 kV (to be used in a 13.8 kV system) to 2x120 V secondary (standard utilization voltage); one is rated at 25 kVA and the other at 50 kVA. The 25 kVA transformer passed the impulse test in KEMA high-voltage laboratories. Additional products include: nine papers published in the IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, one patent has been filed, three PhD students were supported from beginning to graduation, five postdoctoral fellows, and three MSc students were partially supported. The electrical characteristics of our dry-type toroidal transformers are similar to those of the oil-immersed pole mounted transformers currently in use by many utilities, but toroids have higher efficiency. The no-load losses of the 50 kVA prototype are only 45 W. A standard transformer has no-load losses between 90 and 240 W. Thus, even the finest transformer built today with standard technology has double the amount of no-load losses than the prototype toroidal transformer. When the manufacturing process is prepared for mass production, the cost of a dry-type toroidal transformer would be similar to the price of an oil-filed standard design. However, because of the greatly reduced losses, the total ownership cost of a toroidal transformer could be about half of a traditional design. We got a grant from Power Bridge NY in the amount of $149,985 from June 2014 to May 2015 to continue developing the transformer with commercialization objectives. We are considering the possibility to incorporate a company to manufacture the transformers and have contacted investors. The current status of the real life testing is as follows: after several months of silence, Con Edison has re-started conversations and has shown willingness to test the transformer. Other companies, PSE&G and National Grid have recently also shown interest and we will present our product to them soon.

  7. SPOT Suite Transforms Beamline Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SPOT Suite Transforms Beamline Science SPOT Suite Transforms Beamline Science SPOT Suite brings advanced algorithms, high performance computing and data management to the masses August 18, 2014 Contact: Linda Vu, +1 510 495 2402, lvu@lbl.gov als.jpg Advanced Light Source (ALS) at Berkeley Lab (Photo by Roy Kaltschmidt) Some mysteries of science can only be explained on a nanometer scale -even smaller than a single strand of human DNA, which is about 2.5 nanometers wide. At this scale, scientists

  8. Marketing and Market Transformation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Market Transformation Marketing and Market Transformation Presents how going green will grow your business, as well as how programs can overcome appraisal challenges. PDF icon Marketing and Market Transformation Presentation More Documents & Publications Marketing and Market Transformation Working with the Real Estate Sector Trends in Real Estate and Energy Efficiency

  9. Transformational Manufacturing | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transformational Manufacturing Argonne's new Advanced Battery Materials Synthesis and Manufacturing R&D Program focuses on scalable process R&D to produce advanced battery materials in sufficient quantity for industrial testing. The U.S. manufacturing industry consumes more than 30 quadrillion Btu of energy per year, directly employs about 12 million people and generates another 7 million jobs in related businesses. Argonne is working with industry to develop innovative and

  10. Ultrafast Transformations in Superionic Nanocrystals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ultrafast Transformations in Superionic Nanocrystals Print A superionic material is a multi-component solid with simultaneous characteristics of both a solid and a liquid. Above a critical temperature associated with a structural phase transition, one of the atomic species in the material will exhibit liquid-like ionic conductivity and dynamic disorder within the rigid crystalline structure of the other. Discovered by Michael Faraday almost 200 years ago, superionic materials today hold promise

  11. Ultrafast Transformations in Superionic Nanocrystals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ultrafast Transformations in Superionic Nanocrystals Print A superionic material is a multi-component solid with simultaneous characteristics of both a solid and a liquid. Above a critical temperature associated with a structural phase transition, one of the atomic species in the material will exhibit liquid-like ionic conductivity and dynamic disorder within the rigid crystalline structure of the other. Discovered by Michael Faraday almost 200 years ago, superionic materials today hold promise

  12. Ultrafast Transformations in Superionic Nanocrystals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transformations in Superionic Nanocrystals Print A superionic material is a multi-component solid with simultaneous characteristics of both a solid and a liquid. Above a critical temperature associated with a structural phase transition, one of the atomic species in the material will exhibit liquid-like ionic conductivity and dynamic disorder within the rigid crystalline structure of the other. Discovered by Michael Faraday almost 200 years ago, superionic materials today hold promise for use in

  13. biomass-to-biofuels transformation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    biomass-to-biofuels transformation - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management

  14. Ultrafast Transformations in Superionic Nanocrystals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ultrafast Transformations in Superionic Nanocrystals Print A superionic material is a multi-component solid with simultaneous characteristics of both a solid and a liquid. Above a critical temperature associated with a structural phase transition, one of the atomic species in the material will exhibit liquid-like ionic conductivity and dynamic disorder within the rigid crystalline structure of the other. Discovered by Michael Faraday almost 200 years ago, superionic materials today hold promise

  15. Ultrafast Transformations in Superionic Nanocrystals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ultrafast Transformations in Superionic Nanocrystals Print A superionic material is a multi-component solid with simultaneous characteristics of both a solid and a liquid. Above a critical temperature associated with a structural phase transition, one of the atomic species in the material will exhibit liquid-like ionic conductivity and dynamic disorder within the rigid crystalline structure of the other. Discovered by Michael Faraday almost 200 years ago, superionic materials today hold promise

  16. Ultrafast Transformations in Superionic Nanocrystals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ultrafast Transformations in Superionic Nanocrystals Print A superionic material is a multi-component solid with simultaneous characteristics of both a solid and a liquid. Above a critical temperature associated with a structural phase transition, one of the atomic species in the material will exhibit liquid-like ionic conductivity and dynamic disorder within the rigid crystalline structure of the other. Discovered by Michael Faraday almost 200 years ago, superionic materials today hold promise

  17. Buildings Energy Data Book

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    2.1 Residential Sector Energy Consumption 2.2 Residential Sector Characteristics 2.3 Residential Sector Expenditures 2.4 Residential Environmental Data 2.5 Residential Construction and Housing Market 2.6 Residential Home Improvements 2.7 Multi-Family Housing 2.8 Industrialized Housing 2.9 Low-Income Housing 3Commercial Sector 4Federal Sector 5Envelope and Equipment 6Energy Supply 7Laws, Energy Codes, and Standards 8Water 9Market Transformation Glossary Acronyms and Initialisms Technology

  18. Buildings Energy Data Book

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    3.1 Commercial Sector Energy Consumption 3.2 Commercial Sector Characteristics 3.3 Commercial Sector Expenditures 3.4 Commercial Environmental Emissions 3.5 Commercial Builders and Construction 3.6 Office Building Markets and Companies 3.7 Retail Markets and Companies 3.8 Hospitals and Medical Facilities 3.9 Educational Facilities 3.10 Hotels/Motels 4Federal Sector 5Envelope and Equipment 6Energy Supply 7Laws, Energy Codes, and Standards 8Water 9Market Transformation Glossary Acronyms and

  19. Buildings Energy Data Book

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    5.1 Building Materials/Insulation 5.2 Windows 5.3 Heating, Cooling, and Ventilation Equipment 5.4 Water Heaters 5.5 Thermal Distribution Systems 5.6 Lighting 5.7 Appliances 5.8 Active Solar Systems 5.9 On-Site Power 6Energy Supply 7Laws, Energy Codes, and Standards 8Water 9Market Transformation Glossary Acronyms and Initialisms Technology Descriptions Building Descriptions Other Data Books Biomass Energy Transportation Energy Power Technologies Hydrogen Download the Entire Book Skip down to the

  20. 2016 National Symposium on Market Transformation | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    National Symposium on Market Transformation 2016 National Symposium on Market Transformation March 20, 2016 9:00AM EDT to March 22, 2016 5:00PM EDT Hyatt Regency Baltimore ...

  1. Solar Energy Technologies Program: Market Transformation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-10-26

    Fact sheet summarizing the goals and activities of the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program efforts within its market transformation subprogram

  2. Sandia Energy - Energy Supply Transformation Needed

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    News Distribution Grid Integration News & Events Systems Analysis Energy Assurance Microgrid Transmission Grid Integration Systems Engineering Energy Supply Transformation...

  3. Mechanisms of cellular transformation by carcinogenic agents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grunberger, D.; Goff, S.P.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 14 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: DNA Modification by Chemical Carcinogens; Role of DNA Lesions and Repair in the Transformation of Human Cells; The Induction and Regulation of Radiogenic Transformation In Vitro: Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms; Cellular Transformation by Adenoviruses; and The fos Gene.

  4. High flux solar energy transformation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winston, Roland; Gleckman, Philip L.; O'Gallagher, Joseph J.

    1991-04-09

    Disclosed are multi-stage systems for high flux transformation of solar energy allowing for uniform solar intensification by a factor of 60,000 suns or more. Preferred systems employ a focusing mirror as a primary concentrative device and a non-imaging concentrator as a secondary concentrative device with concentrative capacities of primary and secondary stages selected to provide for net solar flux intensification of greater than 2000 over 95 percent of the concentration area. Systems of the invention are readily applied as energy sources for laser pumping and in other photothermal energy utilization processes.

  5. High flux solar energy transformation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winston, R.; Gleckman, P.L.; O'Gallagher, J.J.

    1991-04-09

    Disclosed are multi-stage systems for high flux transformation of solar energy allowing for uniform solar intensification by a factor of 60,000 suns or more. Preferred systems employ a focusing mirror as a primary concentrative device and a non-imaging concentrator as a secondary concentrative device with concentrative capacities of primary and secondary stages selected to provide for net solar flux intensification of greater than 2000 over 95 percent of the concentration area. Systems of the invention are readily applied as energy sources for laser pumping and in other photothermal energy utilization processes. 7 figures.

  6. Nonferromagnetic linear variable differential transformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellis, James F.; Walstrom, Peter L.

    1977-06-14

    A nonferromagnetic linear variable differential transformer for accurately measuring mechanical displacements in the presence of high magnetic fields is provided. The device utilizes a movable primary coil inside a fixed secondary coil that consists of two series-opposed windings. Operation is such that the secondary output voltage is maintained in phase (depending on polarity) with the primary voltage. The transducer is well-suited to long cable runs and is useful for measuring small displacements in the presence of high or alternating magnetic fields.

  7. Computing Instantaneous Frequency by normalizing Hilbert Transform

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huang, Norden E.

    2005-05-31

    This invention presents Normalized Amplitude Hilbert Transform (NAHT) and Normalized Hilbert Transform(NHT), both of which are new methods for computing Instantaneous Frequency. This method is designed specifically to circumvent the limitation set by the Bedorsian and Nuttal Theorems, and to provide a sharp local measure of error when the quadrature and the Hilbert Transform do not agree. Motivation for this method is that straightforward application of the Hilbert Transform followed by taking the derivative of the phase-angle as the Instantaneous Frequency (IF) leads to a common mistake made up to this date. In order to make the Hilbert Transform method work, the data has to obey certain restrictions.

  8. Chemical Transformation - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Read More Chemical Transformation January 13, 2015, Research Highlights ... Read More Chemical Transformation December 16, 2014, Research Highlights Electrode ...

  9. Energy Technology Solutions: Public-Private Partnerships Transforming...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Technology Solutions: Public-Private Partnerships Transforming Industry, November 2010 Energy Technology Solutions: Public-Private Partnerships Transforming Industry, ...

  10. NEMA Distribution Transformers, CCE Overview and Update presentation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Distribution Transformers, CCE Overview and Update presentation, dated 05242011 NEMA Distribution Transformers, CCE Overview and Update presentation, dated 05242011 This ...

  11. One-way transformation of information

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, James A.

    1989-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided for one-way transformation of data according to multiplication and/or exponentiation modulo a prime number. An implementation of the invention permits the one way residue transformation, useful in encryption and similar applications, to be implemented by n-bit computers substantially with no increase in difficulty or complexity over a natural transformation thereby, using a modulus which is a power of two.

  12. 500 kV Spare Transformer Procurement

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Procurement capital project is for the acquisition of five, 500 kV spare transformers, which are to be strategically located throughout the system, and for the...

  13. Titanium ? - ? phase transformation pathway and a predicted...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Titanium - phase transformation pathway and a predicted metastable structure Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on January 14,...

  14. CSV to ISO XML metadata transformation tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2009-08-01

    Django app for converting CSV records to XML metadata documents. This transformation from the metadata content model to parsed ISO XML documents allows for metadata integration into NGDS.

  15. Ecology Action: Small Market Advanced Retrofit Transformation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ecology Action: Small Market Advanced Retrofit Transformation Program (SMART) Lead Performer: Ecology Action - Santa Cruz, CA Partners: - New Buildings Institute - Portland, OR - ...

  16. Wavelet transform techniques and signal analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perez, R.B.; Mattingly, J.K. Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering); Perez, J.S. . Facultad de Informatica)

    1993-01-01

    Traditionally, the most widely used signal analysis tool is the Fourier transform which, by producing power spectral densities (PSDs), allows time dependent signals to be studied in the frequency domain. However, the Fourier transform is global -- it extends over the entire time domain -- which makes it ill-suited to study nonstationary signals which exhibit local temporal changes in the signal's frequency content. To analyze nonstationary signals, the family of transforms commonly designated as short-time Fourier transforms (STFTs), capable of identifying temporally localized changes in the signal's frequency content, were developed by employing window functions to isolate temporal regions of the signal. For example, the Gabor STFT uses a Gaussian window. However, the applicability of STFTs is limited by various inadequacies. The Wavelet transform (NW), recently developed by Grossman and Morlet and explored in depth by Daubechies (2) and Mallat, remedies the inadequacies of STFTs. Like the Fourier transform, the WT can be implemented as a discrete transform (DWT) or as a continuous (integral) transform (CWT). This paper briefly illustrates some of the potential applications of the wavelet transform algorithms to signal analysis.

  17. Wavelet transform techniques and signal analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perez, R.B.; Mattingly, J.K. |; Perez, J.S.

    1993-03-01

    Traditionally, the most widely used signal analysis tool is the Fourier transform which, by producing power spectral densities (PSDs), allows time dependent signals to be studied in the frequency domain. However, the Fourier transform is global -- it extends over the entire time domain -- which makes it ill-suited to study nonstationary signals which exhibit local temporal changes in the signal`s frequency content. To analyze nonstationary signals, the family of transforms commonly designated as short-time Fourier transforms (STFTs), capable of identifying temporally localized changes in the signal`s frequency content, were developed by employing window functions to isolate temporal regions of the signal. For example, the Gabor STFT uses a Gaussian window. However, the applicability of STFTs is limited by various inadequacies. The Wavelet transform (NW), recently developed by Grossman and Morlet and explored in depth by Daubechies (2) and Mallat, remedies the inadequacies of STFTs. Like the Fourier transform, the WT can be implemented as a discrete transform (DWT) or as a continuous (integral) transform (CWT). This paper briefly illustrates some of the potential applications of the wavelet transform algorithms to signal analysis.

  18. Marketing and Market Transformation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Marketing and Market Transformation Presents how going green will grow your business, as ... Working with the Real Estate Sector Trends in Real Estate and Energy Efficiency

  19. Transformers: The Levers and Gears of Electricity

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This video is a great resource for teachers, demonstrating how transformers work. It includes experiments and demos that can be shared with students.

  20. Ad Lucem: Modeling Market Transformation Pathways Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This white paper summarizes the information discussed during the Ad Lucem: Modeling Market Transformation Pathways Workshop, Feb. 17, 2012, in Berkeley, California.

  1. Secretary Chu Discovers Transformers in Wisconsin | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Employees of the Waukesha Electric Systems give Secretary Chu a tour of the transformer manufacturing plant. | Courtesy of Waukesha Electric Systems Employees of the Waukesha ...

  2. Investigating Processes of Nanocrystal Formation and Transformation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Investigating Processes of Nanocrystal Formation and Transformation via Liquid Cell TEM Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Investigating Processes of Nanocrystal Formation...

  3. Enterprise transformation :lessons learned, pathways to success.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slavin, Adam M.; Woodard, Joan Brune

    2006-05-01

    In this report, we characterize the key themes of transformation and tie them together in a ''how to'' guide. The perspectives were synthesized from strategic management literature, case studies, and from interviews with key management personnel from private industry on their transformation experiences.

  4. Biochemical transformation of solid carbonaceous material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, Mow S. (Rocky Point, NY); Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY)

    2001-09-25

    A method of biochemically transforming macromolecular compounds found in solid carbonaceous materials, such as coal is provided. The preparation of new microorganisms, metabolically weaned through challenge growth processes to biochemically transform solid carbonaceous materials at extreme temperatures, pressures, pH, salt and toxic metal concentrations is also disclosed.

  5. Feasibility of SF6 Gas-Insulated Transformers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Feasibility of SF 6 Gas-Insulated Transformers Brandon Bouwman, P.E. Electrical Engineer, Generation Equipment Section Hydroelectric Design Center 14 June 2012 BUILDING STRONG ® PORTLAND DISTRICT 2 Outline  Transformer Background & Basics  Oil-filled transformers  Oil-filled transformer concerns  Gas-insulated transformers (GIT)  Gas-insulated transformer benefits  Gas-insulated transformer concerns  Risks and Unknowns  Questions? BUILDING STRONG ® PORTLAND DISTRICT

  6. Darboux transformation for the NLS equation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aktosun, Tuncay; Mee, Cornelis van der

    2010-03-08

    We analyze a certain class of integral equations associated with Marchenko equations and Gel'fand-Levitan equations. Such integral equations arise through a Fourier transformation on various ordinary differential equations involving a spectral parameter. When the integral operator is perturbed by a finite-rank perturbation, we explicitly evaluate the change in the solution in terms of the unperturbed quantities and the finite-rank perturbation. We show that this result provides a fundamental approach to derive Darboux transformations for various systems of ordinary differential operators. We illustrate our theory by providing the explicit Darboux transformation for the Zakharov-Shabat system and show how the potential and wave function change when a simple discrete eigenvalue is added to the spectrum, and thus we also provide a one-parameter family of Darboux transformations for the nonlinear Schroedinger equation.

  7. 2010 Solar Market Transformation Analysis and Tools

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2010-04-01

    This document describes the DOE-funded solar market transformation analysis and tools under development in Fiscal Year 2010 so that stakeholders can access available resources and get engaged where interested.

  8. Tag: transformation | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    transformation Tag: transformation Displaying 1 - 10 of 21... Category: About Extended Life Program asks 'How do you make your buildings last?' Y-12 is developing an Extended Life Program, or ELP, for Buildings 9215 and 9204-2E, two key processing facilities at the site. More... Category: About Revitalizing the Infrastructure: Building 9995 NPO Program Manager David Wall points out infrastructure upgrades during a recent tour of Y-12's Building 9995. More... Category: About Getting on the same

  9. Density driven structural transformations in amorphous semiconductor

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    clathrates (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Density driven structural transformations in amorphous semiconductor clathrates Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Density driven structural transformations in amorphous semiconductor clathrates Authors: Tulk, C.A. ; dos Santos, A.M. ; Neuefeind, J.C. ; Molaison, J.J. ; Sales, B.C. ; Honkimäki, V. [1] ; ESRF) [2] + Show Author Affiliations (ORNL) ( Publication Date: 2015-09-22 OSTI Identifier: 1221429 Resource Type: Journal Article

  10. Density driven structural transformations in amorphous semiconductor

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    clathrates (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Density driven structural transformations in amorphous semiconductor clathrates Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Density driven structural transformations in amorphous semiconductor clathrates The pressure induced crystalline collapse at 14.7 GPa and polyamorphic structures of the semiconductor clathrate Sr8Ga16Ge30 are reported up to 35 GPa. In-situ total scattering measurements under pressure allow the direct microscopic inspection

  11. Metamaterial flexible sheets could transform optics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Metamaterial flexible sheets could transform optics Metamaterial flexible sheets could transform optics Advances would boost security screening systems, infrared thermal cameras, energy harvesting, and radar systems June 5, 2013 A burst of laser energy 50 times greater than the worldwide output of electrical power slams into an extremely thin foil target to produce neutrons at Los Alamos National Laboratory's TRIDENT laser facility during a recent experiment, which proved that laser-driven

  12. Transforming PV Installations toward Dispatchable, Schedulable Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solutions | Department of Energy Transforming PV Installations toward Dispatchable, Schedulable Energy Solutions Transforming PV Installations toward Dispatchable, Schedulable Energy Solutions Advanced Energy logo.png -- This project is inactive -- Advanced Energy (AE) will address three important needs in the further deployment of photovoltaic (PV) systems: 1) demonstrating and commercializing a new anti-islanding method utilizing Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs), 2) demonstrating a set of

  13. Darboux transformation and nonclassical orthogonal polynomials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samsonov, B.F.; Ovcharov, I.N.

    1995-10-01

    A Darboux transformation of order N is introduced for the Schroedinger equation. The relation between this transformation and the factorization method is treated in detail for N = 2. It is noted that the potential of the new Schroedinger depends on 2N parameters. A new exactly solvable potential is obtained from the harmonic oscillator potential. The polynomials appearing in the new Schroedinger equation are investigated in detail.

  14. Microsoft PowerPoint - SWPA Transformer Oil Spill Risk Final...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to the issue of secondary containment of oil for transformers in service at Corps ... Scope Scope 397,000 Gallons of Oil 397,000 Gallons of Oil 69 Transformers 69 Transformers ...

  15. Influence of Iron Redox Transformations on Plutonium Sorption...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Influence of Iron Redox Transformations on Plutonium Sorption to Sediments Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Influence of Iron Redox Transformations on Plutonium Sorption ...

  16. Chemical Transformation - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Read More Chemical Transformation June 19, 2014, Research Highlights Trace Water Catalyzes ... Read More Chemical Transformation Electrochemical Discovery Laboratory June 18, 2014, ...

  17. Chemical Transformation - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Read More Chemical Transformation June 5, 2015, Research Highlights Biphasic Electrode ... Read More Chemical Transformation Redox Flow April 27, 2015, Research Highlights ...

  18. Chemical Transformation - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemical Transformation A second energy storage concept being pursued by JCESR is chemical transformation. This concept involves replacement of intercalation of the working ion at ...

  19. Metal Ion-Assisted Transformations of 2-Pyridinealdoxime and...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Metal Ion-Assisted Transformations of 2-Pyridinealdoxime and Hexafluorophosphate Metal Ion-Assisted Transformations of 2-Pyridinealdoxime and Hexafluorophosphate Print Monday, 05...

  20. EERE Success Story-Vortex Hydro Energy Develops Transformational...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vortex Hydro Energy Develops Transformational Technology to Harness Energy from Water Currents EERE Success Story-Vortex Hydro Energy Develops Transformational Technology to ...

  1. Vortex Hydro Energy Develops Transformational Technology to Harness...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vortex Hydro Energy Develops Transformational Technology to Harness Energy from Water Currents Vortex Hydro Energy Develops Transformational Technology to Harness Energy from Water ...

  2. Iowa: West Union Green Transformation Project | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    West Union Green Transformation Project Iowa: West Union Green Transformation Project ... These grant funds will be used to close up their buildings-making them more energy ...

  3. Planar Optical Waveguide Coupler Transformers for High-Power...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Planar Optical Waveguide Coupler Transformers for High-Power Solar Enegy Collection and Transmission Planar Optical Waveguide Coupler Transformers for High-Power Solar Enegy ...

  4. Driving Transformation to Energy Efficient Buildings:Policies...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Transformation to Energy Efficient Buildings:Policies and Actions Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Driving Transformation to Energy Efficient...

  5. Request for Information on a National Power Transformer Reserve...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Power Transformer Reserve: Federal Register Notice Volume 80, No. 131 - July 9, 2015 Request for Information on a National Power Transformer Reserve: Federal Register Notice ...

  6. Institute for Atom-Efficient Chemical Transformations Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Institute for Atom-Efficient Chemical Transformations - an Energy Frontier Research Center The Institute for Atom-Efficient Chemical Transformations (IACT) employs a...

  7. Institute for Atom-Efficient Chemical Transformations Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    scientific roadblocks to U.S. energy security. Institute for Atom-Efficient Chemical Transformations The Institute for Atom-Efficient Chemical Transformations (IACT)...

  8. Benefits of Using Mobile Transformers and Mobile Substations...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Using Mobile Transformers and Mobile Substations for Rapidly Restoring Electrical Service: ... Benefits of Using Mobile Transformers and Mobile Substations for Rapidly Restoring ...

  9. Phase coexistence and transformations in field-cooled ternary...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Phase coexistence and transformations in field-cooled ternary piezoelectric single ... Title: Phase coexistence and transformations in field-cooled ternary piezoelectric single ...

  10. Report of the ADVANCED NUCLEAR TRANSFORMATION TECHNOLOGY SUBCOMMITTEE...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of the ADVANCED NUCLEAR TRANSFORMATION TECHNOLOGY SUBCOMMITTEE of the NUCLEAR ENERGY RESEARCH ADVISORY COMMITTEE Report of the ADVANCED NUCLEAR TRANSFORMATION TECHNOLOGY...

  11. Y-12 and the 2000 decade ? Modernization to Transformation,...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transformation, part 2 As we continue with Tom Smith's account of the transition from "Modernization" to "Transformation" he notes, "The original plan was to put three new special...

  12. 2015 Peer Review Presentations-Demonstration and Market Transformation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Demonstration and Market Transformation 2015 Peer Review Presentations-Demonstration and Market Transformation The Bioenergy Technologies Office hosted its 2015 Project Peer Review ...

  13. Orthogonal Transformations for the Ensemble Kalman Filter (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Orthogonal Transformations for the Ensemble Kalman Filter Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Orthogonal Transformations for the Ensemble Kalman Filter You are accessing ...

  14. Orthogonal Transformations for the Ensemble Kalman Filter (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Orthogonal Transformations for the Ensemble Kalman Filter Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Orthogonal Transformations for the Ensemble Kalman Filter Authors: Godinez ...

  15. Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: Transformations...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Transformations, Inc. Net Zero Energy Communities (Fact Sheet) Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: Transformations, Inc. Net Zero Energy Communities (Fact Sheet)...

  16. Commissioning of the new AGS MMPS transformers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bajon,E.; Badea, V. S.; Bannon, M.; Bonati, R.; Marneris, I. M.; Porqueddu, r.; Roser, T.; Sandberg, J.; Savatteri, S.

    2009-05-04

    The Brookhaven AGS Main Magnet Power Supply (MMPS) is a thyristor control supply rated at 5500 Amps. +/-9000 Volts. The peak magnet power is 50 MWatts. The power supply is fed from a motor/generator manufactured by Siemens. During rectify and invert operation the P Bank power supplies are used. During the flattops the F Bank power supplies are used. The P Bank power supplies are fed from two 23 MVA transformers and the F Bank power supplies are fed from two 5.3 MYA transformers. The fundamental frequency of the F Bank power supplies is 1440 Hz, however the fundamental frequency of the P banks was 720 Hz. It was very important to reduce the ripple during rectify to improve polarized proton operations. For this reason and also because the original transformers were 45 years old we replaced these transformers with new ones and we made the fundamental frequency of both P and F banks 1440 Hz. This paper will highlight the major hurdles that were involved during the installation of the new transformers. It will present waveforms while running at different power levels up to 6MW full load. It will show the transition from the F-Bank power supplies to the P-Banks and also show the improvements in ripple made on the P-Bank power supplies.

  17. Linear transformer driver for pulse generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Alexander A; Mazarakis, Michael G; Sinebryukhov, Vadim A; Volkov, Sergey N; Kondratiev, Sergey S; Alexeenko, Vitaly M; Bayol, Frederic; Demol, Gauthier; Stygar, William A

    2015-04-07

    A linear transformer driver includes at least one ferrite ring positioned to accept a load. The linear transformer driver also includes a first power delivery module that includes a first charge storage devices and a first switch. The first power delivery module sends a first energy in the form of a first pulse to the load. The linear transformer driver also includes a second power delivery module including a second charge storage device and a second switch. The second power delivery module sends a second energy in the form of a second pulse to the load. The second pulse has a frequency that is approximately three times the frequency of the first pulse. The at least one ferrite ring is positioned to force the first pulse and the second pulse to the load by temporarily isolating the first pulse and the second pulse from an electrical ground.

  18. eXtension: Transformation of Cooperative Extension

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    eXtension eXtension Transformation of Transformation of Cooperative Extension Cooperative Extension Kevin Gamble State Energy Advisory Board October 17, 2007 eXtension eXtension, the nation's first 24/7/365 collaboratively built non-formal education and information system available on any Internet-ready device How it works How it works ... ... P P P r r r o o o d d d u u u c c c t t t s s s Basic Information Ask the Experts FAQs Distance Diagnostics Discussion & Chat Decision Tools

  19. Information retrieval system utilizing wavelet transform

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brewster, Mary E.; Miller, Nancy E.

    2000-01-01

    A method for automatically partitioning an unstructured electronically formatted natural language document into its sub-topic structure. Specifically, the document is converted to an electronic signal and a wavelet transform is then performed on the signal. The resultant signal may then be used to graphically display and interact with the sub-topic structure of the document.

  20. Staring 2-D hadamard transform spectral imager

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gentry, Stephen M.; Wehlburg, Christine M.; Wehlburg, Joseph C.; Smith, Mark W.; Smith, Jody L.

    2006-02-07

    A staring imaging system inputs a 2D spatial image containing multi-frequency spectral information. This image is encoded in one dimension of the image with a cyclic Hadamarid S-matrix. The resulting image is detecting with a spatial 2D detector; and a computer applies a Hadamard transform to recover the encoded image.

  1. Transformer Recharging with Alpha Channeling in Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N.J. Fisch

    2009-12-21

    Transformer recharging with lower hybrid waves in tokamaks can give low average auxiliary power if the resistivity is kept high enough during the radio frequency (rf) recharging stage. At the same time, operation in the hot ion mode via alpha channeling increases the effective fusion reactivity. This paper will address the extent to which these two large cost saving steps are compatible. __________________________________________________

  2. 2010 Solar Market Transformation Analysis and Tools

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is an overview describing the solar analysis and tool development projects funded by the DOE Market Transformation team for fiscal year 2010. These quick snapshots are intended to give you a basic look at the scope, timeline, and expected deliverables for each project.

  3. Two-dimensional fourier transform spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeFlores, Lauren; Tokmakoff, Andrei

    2013-09-03

    The present invention relates to a system and methods for acquiring two-dimensional Fourier transform (2D FT) spectra. Overlap of a collinear pulse pair and probe induce a molecular response which is collected by spectral dispersion of the signal modulated probe beam. Simultaneous collection of the molecular response, pulse timing and characteristics permit real time phasing and rapid acquisition of spectra. Full spectra are acquired as a function of pulse pair timings and numerically transformed to achieve the full frequency-frequency spectrum. This method demonstrates the ability to acquire information on molecular dynamics, couplings and structure in a simple apparatus. Multi-dimensional methods can be used for diagnostic and analytical measurements in the biological, biomedical, and chemical fields.

  4. Nano-fabricated plasmonic optical transformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Choo, Hyuck; Cabrini, Stefano; Schuck, P. James; Liang, Xiaogan; Yablonovitch, Eli

    2015-06-09

    The present invention provides a plasmonic optical transformer to produce a highly focuses optical beam spot, where the transformer includes a first metal layer, a dielectric layer formed on the first metal layer, and a second metal layer formed on the dielectric layer, where the first metal layer, the dielectric layer, and the second layer are patterned to a shape including a first section having a first cross section, a second section following the first section having a cross-section tapering from the first section to a smaller cross-section, and a third section following the second section having a cross-section matching the tapered smaller cross-section of the second section.

  5. Detrecting and Locating Partial Discharges in Transformers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shourbaji, A.; Richards, R.; Kisner, R. A.; Hardy, J.

    2005-02-04

    A collaborative research between the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the American Electric Power (AEP), the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), and the State of Ohio Energy Office (OEO) has been formed to conduct a feasibility study to detect and locate partial discharges (PDs) inside large transformers. The success of early detection of the PDs is necessary to avoid costly catastrophic failures that can occur if the process of PD is ignored. The detection method under this research is based on an innovative technology developed by ORNL researchers using optical methods to sense the acoustical energy produced by the PDs. ORNL researchers conducted experimental studies to detect PD using an optical fiber as an acoustic sensor capable of detecting acoustical disturbances at any point along its length. This technical approach also has the potential to locate the point at which the PD was sensed within the transformer. Several optical approaches were experimentally investigated, including interferometric detection of acoustical disturbances along the sensing fiber, light detection and ranging (LIDAR) techniques using frequency modulation continuous wave (FMCW), frequency modulated (FM) laser with a multimode fiber, FM laser with a single mode fiber, and amplitude modulated (AM) laser with a multimode fiber. The implementation of the optical fiber-based acoustic measurement technique would include installing a fiber inside a transformer allowing real-time detection of PDs and determining their locations. The fibers are nonconductive and very small (core plus cladding are diameters of 125 μm for single-mode fibers and 230 μm for multimode fibers). The research identified the capabilities and limitations of using optical technology to detect and locate sources of acoustical disturbances such as in PDs in large transformers. Amplitude modulation techniques showed the most promising results and deserve further research to better quantify the technique’s sensitivity and its ability to characterize a PD event. Other sensing techniques have been also identified, such as the wavelength shifting fiber optics and custom fabricated fibers with special coatings.

  6. Residential market transformation: National and regional indicators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Wie McGrory, Laura L.; McNamara, Maureen; Suozzo, Margaret

    2000-06-01

    A variety of programs are underway to address market barriers to the adoption of energy-efficient residential technologies and practices. Most are administered by utilities, states, or regions that rely on the Energy Star as a consistent platform for program marketing and messaging. This paper reviews regional and national market transformation activities for three key residential end-uses -- air conditioning, clothes washing, and lighting -- characterizing current and ongoing programs; reporting on progress; identifying market indicators; and discussing implications.

  7. Transformation of gram positive bacteria by sonoporation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Yunfeng; Li, Yongchao

    2014-03-11

    The present invention provides a sonoporation-based method that can be universally applied for delivery of compounds into Gram positive bacteria. Gram positive bacteria which can be transformed by sonoporation include, for example, Bacillus, Streptococcus, Acetobacterium, and Clostridium. Compounds which can be delivered into Gram positive bacteria via sonoporation include nucleic acids (DNA or RNA), proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, viruses, small organic and inorganic molecules, and nano-particles.

  8. Magnetostructural phase transformations in Tb 1-x Mn 2 (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Magnetostructural phase transformations in Tb 1-x Mn 2 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Magnetostructural phase transformations in Tb 1-x Mn 2 You are accessing a ...

  9. Methods of Using Alpha Channeling Together with Transformer Recharging...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Methods of Using Alpha Channeling Together with Transformer Recharging A tokamak current can be sustained using rf waves for transformer recharging at low density and high-Z with...

  10. Market Transformation: Solar Energy Technologies Program (SETP) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-10-01

    Fact sheet summarizing the goals and activities of the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program efforts within its market transformation subprogram.

  11. Confined martensitic phase transformation kinetics and lattice dynamics in

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ni-Co-Fe-Ga shape memory alloys (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Confined martensitic phase transformation kinetics and lattice dynamics in Ni-Co-Fe-Ga shape memory alloys Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Confined martensitic phase transformation kinetics and lattice dynamics in Ni-Co-Fe-Ga shape memory alloys Here we describe insights into the phase transformation kinetics and lattice dynamics associated with the newly discovered confined martensitic transformation, which are

  12. Institute for Market Transformation: Putting Data to Work | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Institute for Market Transformation: Putting Data to Work Institute for Market Transformation: Putting Data to Work Institute for Market Transformation: Putting Data to Work Lead Performer: Institute for Market Transformation (IMT) - Washington, DC Partners: -- Vermont Energy Investment Corporation/District of Columbia Sustainable Energy Utility (VEIC/DCSEU) -- District of Columbia Department of Energy and Environment (DOEE) -- New York State Energy Research and Development Authority

  13. Ad Lucem: Modeling of Market Transformation Pathways Workshop Agenda

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document details the agenda for the DOE Ad Lucem: Modeling of Market Transformation Pathways Workshop on Feb. 17, 2012.

  14. In-situ characterization of transformation plasticity during an isothermal austenite-to-bainite phase transformation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holzweissig, M.J.; Canadinc, D.; Maier, H.J.

    2012-03-15

    This paper elucidates the stress-induced variant selection process during the isothermal austenite-to-bainite phase transformation in a tool steel. Specifically, a thorough set of experiments combining electron backscatter diffraction and in-situ digital image correlation (DIC) was carried out to establish the role of superimposed stress level on the evolution of transformation plasticity (TP) strains. The important finding is that TP increases concomitant with the superimposed stress level, and strain localization accompanies phase transformation at all stress levels considered. Furthermore, TP strain distribution within the whole material becomes more homogeneous with increasing stress, such that fewer bainitic variants are selected to grow under higher stresses, yielding a more homogeneous strain distribution. In particular, the bainitic variants oriented along [101] and [201] directions are favored to grow parallel to the loading axis and are associated with large TP strains. Overall, this very first in-situ DIC investigation of the austenite-to-bainite phase transformation in steels evidences the clear relationship between the superimposed stress level, variant selection, and evolution of TP strains. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Local variations of strain were observed by DIC throughout the phase transformation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The study clearly established the role of the stress-induced variant selection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Variant selection is a key parameter that governs distortion.

  15. Transformer current sensor for superconducting magnetic coils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shen, S.S.; Wilson, C.T.

    1985-04-16

    The present invention is a current transformer for operating currents larger than 2kA (two kiloamps) that is capable of detecting a millivolt level resistive voltage in the presence of a large inductive voltage. Specifically, the present invention includes substantially cylindrical primary turns arranged to carry a primary current and substantially cylindrical secondary turns arranged coaxially with and only partially within the primary turns, the secondary turns including an active winding and a dummy winding, the active and dummy windings being coaxial, longitudinally separated and arranged to mutually cancel voltages excited by commonly experienced magnetic fields, the active winding but not the dummy winding being arranged within the primary turns.

  16. Transforming the U.S. Energy Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larry Demick

    2010-07-01

    The U.S. energy infrastructure is among the most reliable, accessible and economic in the world. On the other hand, the U.S. energy infrastructure is excessively reliant on foreign sources of energy, experiences high volatility in energy prices, does not practice good stewardship of finite indigenous energy resources and emits significant quantities of greenhouse gases (GHG). This report presents a Technology Based Strategy to achieve a full transformation of the U.S. energy infrastructure that corrects these negative factors while retaining the positives.

  17. Phase Transformations in Cast Duplex Stainless Steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon-Jun Kim

    2004-12-19

    Duplex stainless steels (DSS) constitute both ferrite and austenite as a matrix. Such a microstructure confers a high corrosion resistance with favorable mechanical properties. However, intermetallic phases such as {sigma} and {chi} can also form during casting or high-temperature processing and can degrade the properties of the DSS. This research was initiated to develop time-temperature-transformation (TTT) and continuous-cooling-transformation (CCT) diagrams of two types of cast duplex stainless steels, CD3MN (Fe-22Cr-5Ni-Mo-N) and CD3MWCuN (Fe-25Cr-7Ni-Mo-W-Cu-N), in order to understand the time and temperature ranges for intermetallic phase formation. The alloys were heat treated isothermally or under controlled cooling conditions and then characterized using conventional metallographic methods that included tint etching, and also using electron microscopy (SEM, TEM) and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (WDS). The kinetics of intermetallic-phase ({sigma} + {chi}) formation were analyzed using the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (MA) equation in the case of isothermal transformations and a modified form of this equation in the case of continuous cooling transformations. The rate of intermetallic-phase formation was found to be much faster in CD3MWCuN than CD3MN due mainly to differences in the major alloying contents such as Cr, Ni and Mo. To examine in more detail the effects of these elements of the phase stabilities; a series of eight steel castings was designed with the Cr, Ni and Mo contents systematically varied with respect to the nominal composition of CD3MN. The effects of varying the contents of alloying additions on the formation of intermetallic phases were also studied computationally using the commercial thermodynamic software package, Thermo-Calc. In general, {sigma} was stabilized with increasing Cr addition and {chi} by increasing Mo addition. However, a delicate balance among Ni and other minor elements such as N and Si also exists. Phase equilibria in DSS can be affected by local composition fluctuations in the cast alloy. This may cause discrepancy between thermodynamic prediction and experimental observation.

  18. Linear Transformation Method for Multinuclide Decay Calculation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding Yuan

    2010-12-29

    A linear transformation method for generic multinuclide decay calculations is presented together with its properties and implications. The method takes advantage of the linear form of the decay solution N(t) = F(t)N{sub 0}, where N(t) is a column vector that represents the numbers of atoms of the radioactive nuclides in the decay chain, N{sub 0} is the initial value vector of N(t), and F(t) is a lower triangular matrix whose time-dependent elements are independent of the initial values of the system.

  19. Building Energy Performance Data Transforming Markets

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Building Energy Performance Data Transforming Markets Cliff M ajersik, Execu2ve D irector cliff@imt.org;@IMTCliff. June 16, 2015 US spends $400 billion per year to power b uildings The b uilding s ector i s t he d ominant u ser o f e nergy a nd generator o f C O 2 e missions i n t he U .S. T his i s m ore t rue i n c ities due t o d ensity. 38 70 51 65 75 62 75 74 US Chicago Dallas Minneapolis New York City Philadelphia Salt Lake City Washington, DC Percentage of Total Carbon Emissions from

  20. Optimization of distribution transformer efficiency characteristics. Final report, March 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    A method for distribution transformer loss evaluation was derived. The total levalized annual cost method was used and was extended to account properly for conditions of energy cost inflation, peak load growth, and transformer changeout during the evaluation period. The loss costs included were the no-load and load power losses, no-load and load reactive losses, and the energy cost of regulation. The demand and energy components of loss costs were treated separately to account correctly for the diversity of load losses and energy cost inflation. The complete distribution transformer loss evaluation equation is shown, with the nomenclature and definitions for the parameters provided. Tasks described are entitled: Establish Loss Evaluation Techniques; Compile System Cost Parameters; Compile Load Parameters and Loading Policies; Develop Transformer Cost/Performance Relationship; Define Characteristics of Multiple Efficiency Transformer Package; Minimize Life Cycle Cost Based on Single Efficiency Characteristic Transformer Design; Minimize Life Cycle Cost Based on Multiple Efficiency Characteristic Transformer Design; and Interpretation.

  1. Apparatus and method for transforming living cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Okandan, Murat; Galambos, Paul C.

    2003-11-11

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for in vitro transformation of living cells. The apparatus, which is formed as a microelectromechanical device by surface micromachining, can be used to temporarily disrupt the cell walls or membrane of host cells one at a time so that a particular substance (e.g. a molecular tag, nucleic acid, bacteria, virus etc.) can be introduced into the cell. Disruption of the integrity of the host cells (i.e. poration) can be performed mechanically or electrically, or by both while the host cells are contained within a flow channel. Mechanical poration is possible using a moveable member which has a pointed or serrated edge and which is driven by an electrostatic actuator to abrade, impact or penetrate the host cell. Electroporation is produced by generating a relatively high electric field across the host cell when the host cell is located in the flow channel between a pair of electrodes having a voltage applied therebetween.

  2. Microbial Transformations of Actinides and Other Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francis,A.J.; Dodge, C. J.

    2009-01-07

    Microorganisms can affect the stability and mobility of the actinides and other radionuclides released from nuclear fuel cycle and from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Under appropriate conditions, microorganisms can alter the chemical speciation, solubility and sorption properties and thus could increase or decrease the concentrations of radionuclides in solution in the environment and the bioavailability. Dissolution or immobilization of radionuclides is brought about by direct enzymatic action or indirect non-enzymatic action of microorganisms. Although the physical, chemical, and geochemical processes affecting dissolution, precipitation, and mobilization of radionuclides have been extensively investigated, we have only limited information on the effects of microbial processes and biochemical mechanisms which affect the stability and mobility of radionuclides. The mechanisms of microbial transformations of the major and minor actinides U, Pu, Cm, Am, Np, the fission products and other radionuclides such as Ra, Tc, I, Cs, Sr, under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in the presence of electron donors and acceptors are reviewed.

  3. Transformer current sensor for superconducting magnetic coils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shen, Stewart S.; Wilson, C. Thomas

    1988-01-01

    A transformer current sensor having primary turns carrying a primary current for a superconducting coil and secondary turns only partially arranged within the primary turns. The secondary turns include an active winding disposed within the primary turns and a dummy winding which is not disposed in the primary turns and so does not experience a magnetic field due to a flow of current in the primary turns. The active and dummy windings are wound in opposite directions or connected in series-bucking relationship, and are exposed to the same ambient magnetic field. Voltages which might otherwise develop in the active and dummy windings due to ambient magnetic fields thus cancel out. The resultant voltage is purely indicative of the rate of change of current flowing in the primary turns.

  4. Invariant relationships deriving from classical scaling transformations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bludman, Sidney; Kennedy, Dallas C.

    2011-04-15

    Because scaling symmetries of the Euler-Lagrange equations are generally not variational symmetries of the action, they do not lead to conservation laws. Instead, an extension of Noether's theorem reduces the equations of motion to evolutionary laws that prove useful, even if the transformations are not symmetries of the equations of motion. In the case of scaling, symmetry leads to a scaling evolutionary law, a first-order equation in terms of scale invariants, linearly relating kinematic and dynamic degrees of freedom. This scaling evolutionary law appears in dynamical and in static systems. Applied to dynamical central-force systems, the scaling evolutionary equation leads to generalized virial laws, which linearly connect the kinetic and potential energies. Applied to barotropic hydrostatic spheres, the scaling evolutionary equation linearly connects the gravitational and internal energy densities. This implies well-known properties of polytropes, describing degenerate stars and chemically homogeneous nondegenerate stellar cores.

  5. NREL: Measurements and Characterization - Fourier-Transform Infrared and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Raman Spectroscopy Fourier-Transform Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy Image of FTIR map FTIR mapping capabilities are extremely useful for the quick, nondestructive characterization of heterogeneous free carrier properties of transparent conduction oxides. Infrared spectroscopy is a nondestructive, highly sensitive technique that provides information about impurities, chemical environment, and free-carrier properties. Performing both Fourier transform (FT)-Raman and Fourier transform infrared

  6. ARPA-E Issues Open Call for Transformational Energy Technologies |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Issues Open Call for Transformational Energy Technologies ARPA-E Issues Open Call for Transformational Energy Technologies March 2, 2012 - 2:31pm Addthis Washington, D.C. - Today, the Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy (ARPA-E) issued a $150 million funding opportunity open to all transformational energy technologies to support the Obama Administration's all-of-the-above approach to solving our nation's most pressing energy challenges. This Open Funding

  7. Recovery Act Projects Funded for Fuel Cell Market Transformation |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Recovery Act Projects Funded for Fuel Cell Market Transformation Recovery Act Projects Funded for Fuel Cell Market Transformation Following the fuel cell funding announcement, DOE funded the fuel cell market transformation projects listed below. These projects focus on fuel cell systems in emergency backup power, material handling, and combined heat and power applications, with the goal of improving the potential of fuel cells to provide power in stationary, portable,

  8. Improved technique for one-way transformation of information

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, J.A.

    1987-05-11

    Method and apparatus are provided for one-way transformation of data according to multiplication and/or exponentiation modulo a prime number. An implementation of the invention permits the one way residue transformation, useful in encryption and similar applications, to be implemented by n-bit computers substantially with no increase in difficulty or complexity over a natural transformation thereby, using a modulus which is a power of two. 9 figs.

  9. Transform, Protect and Advance - DOE's IT Modernization Strategy |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Transform, Protect and Advance - DOE's IT Modernization Strategy Transform, Protect and Advance - DOE's IT Modernization Strategy September 5, 2012 - 12:57pm Addthis The Obama Administration's Digital Government Strategy provides a vision for a 21st century government that lays a strong foundation for modernizing technology services across the Federal Government. At Energy, we're implementing a three-pillar approach -- Transform, Protect and Advance - as part of this

  10. NEMA Distribution Transformers, CCE Overview and Update presentation, dated

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    05/24/2011 | Department of Energy Distribution Transformers, CCE Overview and Update presentation, dated 05/24/2011 NEMA Distribution Transformers, CCE Overview and Update presentation, dated 05/24/2011 This document is the U.S. Department of Energys presentation titled NEMA Distribution Transformers, CCE Overview and UpdateŽ, date - May 24, 2011 PDF icon nema_distributiontransformers_presentation.pdf More Documents & Publications Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products

  11. 2015 Peer Review Presentations-Demonstration and Market Transformation |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Demonstration and Market Transformation 2015 Peer Review Presentations-Demonstration and Market Transformation The Bioenergy Technologies Office hosted its 2015 Project Peer Review on March 23-27, 2015, at the Hilton Mark Center in Alexandria, Virginia. The presentations from the demonstration and market transformation sessions are available to view and download below. For detailed session descriptions and presentation titles, view the 2015 Project Peer Review Program

  12. Distribution-Transformer Level Flynn, Eric B. [Los Alamos National

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Taming the Grid: Dynamic Load Composition Quantification at the Distribution-Transformer Level Flynn, Eric B. Los Alamos National Laboratory; Holby, Edward F. Los Alamos...

  13. Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: Transformations...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    In 2009, Transformations, Inc. partnered with the Building Science Corporation team to build new net zero energy houses in three developments in Massachusetts that achieve a 45% ...

  14. Coexistence pressure for a martensitic transformation from theory...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for a martensitic transformation from theory and experiment: Revisiting the bcc-hcp transition of iron under pressure Citation Details In-Document Search This content will...

  15. Chemical Transformations | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Chemical Transformations Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, & Biosciences (CSGB) Division CSGB Home About Research Areas Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) DOE Energy Innovation ...

  16. Phase-field Modeling of Displacive Phase Transformations in Elasticall...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Phase-field Modeling of Displacive Phase Transformations in Elastically Anisotropic and Inhomogeneous Polycrystals Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Phase-field Modeling...

  17. Comments of the Institute for Market Transformation on the Dept...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Institute for Market Transformation on the Dept. of Energy's Energy Efficiency and Sustainable Design Standards for New Federal Buildings: Notice of Proposed Rulemaking Comments of ...

  18. An Iterated, Multipoint Differential Transform Method for Numerically...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ...Value Problems Citation Details In-Document Search Title: An Iterated, Multipoint Differential Transform Method for Numerically Evolving Partial Differential Equation Initial-Value ...

  19. Final Report - Hawaii's Clean Energy Transformation and Grid...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Final Report - Hawaii's Clean Energy Transformation and Grid Connection Awardee: Hawaii Department of Business, Economic Development, and Tourism Location: Honolulu, HI Subprogram: ...

  20. Erratum: "A transformed framework for dynamic correlation in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Erratum: "A transformed framework for dynamic correlation in multireference problems" J. Chem. Phys. 142, 124107 (2015) Authors: Sokolov, Alexander Yu. 1 ; Chan, Garnet ...

  1. Saturable inductor and transformer structures for magnetic pulse compression

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Birx, Daniel L.; Reginato, Louis L.

    1990-01-01

    Saturable inductor and transformer for magnetic compression of an electronic pulse, using a continuous electrical conductor looped several times around a tightly packed core of saturable inductor material.

  2. Transforming Ordinary Buildings into Smart Buildings via Low...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CONTACTS DOE Technology Manager: Marina Sofos Lead Performer: Case Western Reserve University Related Publications PDF icon 2016 BTO Peer Review Presentation-Transforming Ordinary ...

  3. Pressure-Induced Amorphization and Phase Transformations in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Pressure-Induced Amorphization and Phase Transformations in beta-LiAlSiOsubscript 4 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Pressure-Induced Amorphization ...

  4. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Phase Transformation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in High Pressure Die Cast Magnesium Alloys Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Phase Transformation Kinetics and Alloy Microsegregation in High Pressure Die Cast ...

  5. Chicago Region Solar Market Transformation Team SunShot Initiative...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5, 2013 Chicago Region Solar Market Transformation Team SunShot Initiative - Rooftop Solar Challenge (RSC) I Final Report To: Josh Huneycutt, DOE Program Administrator This final ...

  6. On the massive transformation from ferrite to austenite in laser...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    austenite in laser welded mo-bearing stainless steels. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: On the massive transformation from ferrite to austenite in laser welded ...

  7. Beijing Transform United New Energy Investment Co Ltd | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    United New Energy Investment Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Beijing Transform United New Energy Investment Co.,Ltd. Place: Beijing, China Zip: 100005 Product: The clean...

  8. Wind Turbine Manufacturing Transforms with Three-Dimensional Printing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    From medical devices to airplane components, three-dimensional (3-D) printing (also called additive manufacturing) is transforming the manufacturing industry. Now, research that supports the Energy...

  9. Dominican Republic-Fast-Track Development of TransformativeClimate...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fast-Track Development of Transformative Climate-Compatible Development Plans and Building of Regional and Local Capacities Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Dominican...

  10. Bold, Transformational Energy Research Projects Win $151 Million...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ARPA-E's mission is to develop nimble, creative and inventive approaches to transform the ... This development has the potential to greatly increase domestic production of clean fuel ...

  11. The Fuel Cell Mobile Light Project - A DOE Market Transformation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Cell Mobile Light Project -- A DOE Market Transformation Activity-- Lennie Klebanoff ... Systems Torsten Erbel Multiquip Inc. DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Webinar November 13, ...

  12. Expanding Transformer Production for U.S. Market

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Metglas, which makes Amorphous Metal Transformers from an amorphous metal alloy with unique mechanical and magnetic properties, is creating jobs from advance manufacturing tax credits.

  13. Crystalline to amorphous transformation in silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheruvu, S.M.

    1982-09-01

    In the present investigation, an attempt was made to understand the fundamental mechanism of crystalline-to-amorphous transformation in arsenic implanted silicon using high resolution electron microscopy. A comparison of the gradual disappearance of simulated lattice fringes with increasing Frenkel pair concentration with the experimental observation of sharp interfaces between crystalline and amorphous regions was carried out leading to the conclusion that when the defect concentration reaches a critical value, the crystal does relax to an amorphous state. Optical diffraction experiments using atomic models also supported this hypothesis. Both crystalline and amorphous zones were found to co-exist with sharp interfaces at the atomic level. Growth of the amorphous fraction depends on the temperature, dose rate and the mass of the implanted ion. Preliminary results of high energy electron irradiation experiments at 1.2 MeV also suggested that clustering of point defects occurs near room temperature. An observation in a high resolution image of a small amorphous zone centered at the core of a dislocation is presented as evidence that the nucleation of an amorphous phase is heterogeneous in nature involving clustering or segregation of point defects near existing defects.

  14. Smart Grid - Transforming Power System Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widergren, Steven E.; Kirkham, Harold

    2010-04-28

    AbstractElectric power systems are entering a new realm of operations. Large amounts of variable generation tax our ability to reliably operate the system. Couple this with a greater reliance on the electricity network to serve consumer demand that is likely to rise significantly even as we drive for greater efficiency. Trade-offs between energy and environmental needs will be constantly negotiated, while a reliable supply of electricity needs even greater assurance in a world where threats of disruption have risen. Smart grid capabilities are being proposed to help address the challenges confronting system operations. This paper reviews the impact of smart grid functionality on transforming power system operations. It explores models for distributed energy resources (DER generation, storage, and load) that are appearing on the system. It reviews the evolving nature of electricity markets to deal with this complexity and a change of emphasis on signals from these markets to affect power system control. Smart grid capabilities will also impact reliable operations, while cyber security issues must be addressed as a culture change that influences all system design, implementation, and maintenance. Lastly, the paper explores significant questions for further research and the need for a simulation environment that supports such investigation and informs deployments to mitigate operational issues as they arise.

  15. Wedge assembly for electrical transformer component spacing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baggett, Franklin E.; Cage, W. Franklin

    1991-01-01

    A wedge assembly that is easily inserted between two surfaces to be supported thereby, and thereafter expanded to produce a selected spacing between those surfaces. This wedge assembly has two outer members that are substantially identical except that they are mirror images of each other. Oppositely directed faces of these of these outer members are substantially parallel for the purpose of contacting the surfaces to be separated. The outer faces of these outer members that are directed toward each other are tapered so as to contact a center member having complementary tapers on both faces. A washer member is provided to contact a common end of the outer members, and a bolt member penetrates this washer and is threadably received in a receptor of the center member. As the bolt member is threaded into the center member, the center member is drawn further into the gap between the outer members and thereby separates these outer members to contact the surfaces to be separated. In the preferred embodiment, the contacting surfaces of the outer member and the center member are provided with guide elements. The wedge assembly is described for use in separating the secondary windings from the laminations of an electrical power transformer.

  16. FINAL REPORT: Transformational electrode drying process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Claus Daniel, C.; Wixom, M.

    2013-12-19

    This report includes major findings and outlook from the transformational electrode drying project performance period from January 6, 2012 to August 1, 2012. Electrode drying before cell assembly is an operational bottleneck in battery manufacturing due to long drying times and batch processing. Water taken up during shipment and other manufacturing steps needs to be removed before final battery assembly. Conventional vacuum ovens are limited in drying speed due to a temperature threshold needed to avoid damaging polymer components in the composite electrode. Roll to roll operation and alternative treatments can increase the water desorption and removal rate without overheating and damaging other components in the composite electrode, thus considerably reducing drying time and energy use. The objective of this project was the development of an electrode drying procedure, and the demonstration of processes with no decrease in battery performance. The benchmark for all drying data was an 80°C vacuum furnace treatment with a residence time of 18 – 22 hours. This report demonstrates an alternative roll to roll drying process with a 500-fold improvement in drying time down to 2 minutes and consumption of only 30% of the energy compared to vacuum furnace treatment.

  17. Transformation of Bacillus Subtilis with cloned thymidylate synthetases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rubin, Edward M.

    1980-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis carries two genes, thyA and thyB, each encoding different protein products, with thymidylate synthetase (TSase) activity. Either of these genes alone is sufficient for thymidine independence in B. subtilis. In addition there exist two B. subtilis temperate bacteriophages which upon infection of thymine requiring auxotrophs results in conversion of the organism to thymine independence. Chimeric plasmids selected for Thy/sup +/ transforming activity in E. coli were constructed and then used as a source of defined highly enriched DNA with which to transform competent B. subtilis. These plasmids were studied for their: (1) abiility to transform B. subtilis to thymine independence; (2) site of integration within the B. subtilis chromosome upon transformation; (3) phenotype of Thy/sup +/ plasmid generated transformants; and (4) nucleotide sequence homology among the cloned DNA fragments conferring thymine independence. Plasmids containing the two bacteriophage thy genes displayed the phenotype associated with thyA, whereas the plasmids containing the cloned B. subtilis chromosomal genes displayed the phenotype associated with thyB. Utilizing similar technology, the ability of an entirely foreign hybred bacterial plasmiid to transform B. subtilis was examined. In this case the gene from E. coli encoding thymidylate synthetase was cloned in the plasmid pBR322. The resulting chimeric plasmid was effective in transforming both E. coli and B. subtilis to thymine prototrophy. Uncloned linear E. coli chromosomal DNA was unable to transform thymine requiring strains of B. subtilis to thymine independence. Although the Thy/sup +/ transformants of E. coli contained plasmid DNA, the Thy/sup +/ transformants derived from the transformation of B. subtilis did not contain detectable extrachromosomal DNA. Instead the DNA from the chimeric plasmid was integrated into the chromosome of B. subtilis. (ERB)

  18. Multiple DC, single AC converter with a switched DC transformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donnelly, M.K.; Hammerstrom, D.J.

    1997-05-20

    The invention is an improvement of the PASC inverter, wherein the improvements include the reduction from two shorting gates per transformer to one shorting gate per transformer and replacement of active control of the shorting gate with passive control of the shorting gate. Further advantages are obtained through the use of anti-parallel gate sets. 14 figs.

  19. Multiple DC, single AC converter with a switched DC transformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donnelly, Matthew K.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.

    1997-01-01

    The invention is an improvement of the PASC inverter, wherein the improvements include the reduction from two shorting gates per transformer to one shorting gate per transformer and replacement of active control of the shorting gate with passive control of the shorting gate. Further advantages are obtained through the use of anti-parallel gate sets.

  20. Dcm methylation is detrimental to plasmid transformation in Clostridium thermocellum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guss, Adam M; Olson, Daniel G.; Caiazza, Nicky; Lynd, Lee R

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Industrial production of biofuels and other products by cellulolytic microorganisms is of interest but hindered by the nascent state of genetic tools. Although a genetic system for Clostridium thermocellum DSM1313 has recently been developed, available methods achieve relatively low efficiency and similar plasmids can transform C. thermocellum at dramatically different efficiencies. RESULTS: We report an increase in transformation efficiency of C. thermocellum for a variety of plasmids by using DNA that has been methylated by Escherichia coli Dam but not Dcm methylases. When isolated from a dam+ dcm+ E. coli strain, pAMG206 transforms C. thermocellum 100-fold better than the similar plasmid pAMG205, which contains an additional Dcm methylation site in the pyrF gene. Upon removal of Dcm methylation, transformation with pAMG206 showed a four- to seven-fold increase in efficiency; however, transformation efficiency of pAMG205 increased 500-fold. Removal of the Dcm methylation site from the pAM205 pyrF gene via silent mutation resulted in increased transformation efficiencies equivalent to that of pAMG206. Upon proper methylation, transformation efficiency of plasmids bearing the pMK3 and pB6A origins of replication increased ca. three orders of magnitude. CONCLUSION: E. coli Dcm methylation decreases transformation efficiency in C. thermocellum DSM1313. The use of properly methylated plasmid DNA should facilitate genetic manipulation of this industrially relevant bacterium.

  1. Transforming Commercial Building Operations - 2013 BTO Peer Review |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Commercial Building Operations - 2013 BTO Peer Review Transforming Commercial Building Operations - 2013 BTO Peer Review Commercial Buildings Integration Project for the 2013 Building Technologies Office's Program Peer Review PDF icon commlbldgs13_underhill_040413.pdf More Documents & Publications Transforming the Commercial Building Operations - 2014

  2. COMPOSE-HPC: A Transformational Approach to Exascale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernholdt, David E; Allan, Benjamin A.; Armstrong, Robert C.; Chavarria-Miranda, Daniel; Dahlgren, Tamara L.; Elwasif, Wael R; Epperly, Tom; Foley, Samantha S; Hulette, Geoffrey C.; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Prantl, Adrian; Panyala, Ajay; Sottile, Matthew

    2012-04-01

    The goal of the COMPOSE-HPC project is to 'democratize' tools for automatic transformation of program source code so that it becomes tractable for the developers of scientific applications to create and use their own transformations reliably and safely. This paper describes our approach to this challenge, the creation of the KNOT tool chain, which includes tools for the creation of annotation languages to control the transformations (PAUL), to perform the transformations (ROTE), and optimization and code generation (BRAID), which can be used individually and in combination. We also provide examples of current and future uses of the KNOT tools, which include transforming code to use different programming models and environments, providing tests that can be used to detect errors in software or its execution, as well as composition of software written in different programming languages, or with different threading patterns.

  3. Bioenergy in Energy Transformation and Climate Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rose, Steven K.; Kriegler, Elmar; Bibas, Ruben; Calvin, Katherine V.; Popp, Alexander; van Vuuren, Detlef; Weyant, John

    2014-04-01

    Unlike fossil fuels, biomass is a renewable resource that can sequester carbon during growth, be converted to energy, and then re-grown. Biomass is also a flexible fuel that can service many end-uses. This paper explores the importance of bioenergy to potential future energy transformation and climate change management. Using a model comparison of fifteen models, we characterize and analyze future dependence on, and the value of, bioenergy in achieving potential long-run climate objectivesreducing radiative forcing to 3.7 and 2.8 W/m2 in 2100 (approximately 550 and 450 ppm carbon dioxide equivalent atmospheric concentrations). Model scenarios project, by 2050, bioenergy growth of 2 to 10% per annum reaching 5 to 35 percent of global primary energy, and by 2100, bioenergy becoming 15 to 50 percent of global primary energy. Non-OECD regions are projected to be the dominant suppliers of biomass, as well as consumers, with up to 35 percent of regional electricity from biopower by 2050, and up to 70 percent of regional liquid fuels from biofuels by 2050. Bioenergy is found to be valuable to many models with significant implications for mitigation costs and world consumption. The availability of bioenergy, in particular biomass with carbon dioxide capture and storage (BECCS), notably affects the cost-effective global emissions trajectory for climate management by accommodating prolonged near-term use of fossil fuels. We also find that models cost-effectively trade-off land carbon and nitrous oxide emissions for the long-run climate change management benefits of bioenergy. Overall, further evaluation of the viability of global large-scale bioenergy is merited.

  4. Y-12 and the 2000 decade … Modernization to Transformation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transformation Tom Smith, who for a number of years has led the forward thinking and long-range planning functions at Y-12, observed the following about the Infrastructure ...

  5. Combinatorial discovery of enzymes with utility in biomass transformation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, Brian G; Elsen, Nathaniel L

    2015-02-03

    Methods for the cell-free identification of polypeptide and polypeptide combinations with utility in biomass transformation, as well as specific novel polypeptides and cell-free systems containing polypeptide combinations discovered by such methods are disclosed.

  6. Methods for performing fast discrete curvelet transforms of data

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Candes, Emmanuel; Donoho, David; Demanet, Laurent

    2010-11-23

    Fast digital implementations of the second generation curvelet transform for use in data processing are disclosed. One such digital transformation is based on unequally-spaced fast Fourier transforms (USFFT) while another is based on the wrapping of specially selected Fourier samples. Both digital transformations return a table of digital curvelet coefficients indexed by a scale parameter, an orientation parameter, and a spatial location parameter. Both implementations are fast in the sense that they run in about O(n.sup.2 log n) flops for n by n Cartesian arrays or about O(N log N) flops for Cartesian arrays of size N=n.sup.3; in addition, they are also invertible, with rapid inversion algorithms of about the same complexity.

  7. EERE Success Story-Iowa: West Union Green Transformation Project...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    West Union Green Transformation Project EERE Success Story-Iowa: West Union Green ... These grant funds will be used to close up their buildings-making them more energy ...

  8. TRANSFORMER FOR JOINING UNBALANCED TO BALANCED TRANSMISSION MEANS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bittner, B.J.; Opperman, R.H.

    1960-06-28

    An improved transformer is invented for joining an unbalanced transmission means to a balanced transmission means and is useful, for example, in transmitting an electromagnetic signal from a coaxial cable to a balanced dipole antenna.

  9. NEMA Distribution Transformers, CCE Overview and Update presentation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    NEMA Distribution Transformers CCE Overview and Update May 24, 2011 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Agenda Certified Ratings Basic Model and kVA Grouping Explanation Certification 2 | Building ...

  10. Market Transformation in Connecticut: Integrating Home Performance Into Existing Trades

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Market Transformation in Connecticut: Integrating Home Performance Into Existing Trades, Evolving to Whole Home Success, Session 2: Sustainable Business Models presentation. Provides an overview of Connecticut's various home energy programs, the Connecticut Energy Efficiency Fund, and contractor involvement.

  11. Pressure-Induced Structural Transformations of ZnO Nanowires...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Pressure-Induced Structural Transformations of ZnO Nanowires Probed by X-ray Diffraction Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Pressure-Induced Structural ...

  12. Live Broadcast on Transforming Digital Technologies Across Government

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On Thursday, March 24 at 1:00pm ET, join the Office of the Chief Information Office for a discussion on transforming digital technologies across the federal government.

  13. Reverse phase transformation of martensite to austenite in stainless...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    steels: a 3D phase-field study Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Reverse phase transformation of martensite to austenite in stainless steels: a 3D phase-field ...

  14. PRESENTATION: TRANSFORMATION OF THE GRID | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    THE SUNSHOT INITIATIVE PRESENTATION: OVERVIEW OF THE SUNSHOT INITIATIVE A briefing to the Secretary's Energy Advisory Board on the SunShot Initiative delivered by Minh Le, Director of the SunShot Initiative. PDF icon Overview of the SunShot Initiative More Documents & Publications 2014 SunShot Initiative Portfolio Book: Introduction SunShot Initiative 2014 Portfolio Overview Download the Final Agenda

    TRANSFORMATION OF THE GRID PRESENTATION: TRANSFORMATION OF THE GRID A briefing to the

  15. Martensite transformation of epitaxial Ni-Ti films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buschbeck, J.; Kozhanov, A.; Kawasaki, J. K.; James, R. D.; Palmstroem, C. J.

    2011-05-09

    The structure and phase transformations of thin Ni-Ti shape memory alloy films grown by molecular beam epitaxy are investigated for compositions from 43 to 56 at. % Ti. Despite the substrate constraint, temperature dependent x-ray diffraction and resistivity measurements reveal reversible, martensitic phase transformations. The results suggest that these occur by an in-plane shear which does not disturb the lattice coherence at interfaces.

  16. Final Project Report: A Polyhedral Transformation Framework for Compiler Optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sadayappan, Ponnuswamy; Rountev, Atanas

    2015-06-15

    The project developed the polyhedral compiler transformation module PolyOpt/Fortran in the ROSE compiler framework. PolyOpt/Fortran performs automated transformation of affine loop nests within FORTRAN programs for enhanced data locality and parallel execution. A FORTAN version of the Polybench library was also developed by the project. A third development was a dynamic analysis approach to gauge vectorization potential within loops of programs; software (DDVec) for automated instrumentation and dynamic analysis of programs was developed.

  17. Phase-field Modeling of Displacive Phase Transformations in Elastically

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Anisotropic and Inhomogeneous Polycrystals (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Phase-field Modeling of Displacive Phase Transformations in Elastically Anisotropic and Inhomogeneous Polycrystals Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Phase-field Modeling of Displacive Phase Transformations in Elastically Anisotropic and Inhomogeneous Polycrystals Authors: Heo, T W ; Chen, L Q Publication Date: 2014-03-06 OSTI Identifier: 1169262 Report Number(s): LLNL-JRNL-651372 DOE Contract Number:

  18. Portsmouth Educational Outreach Seeks to Transform Lives of Area Students |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Educational Outreach Seeks to Transform Lives of Area Students Portsmouth Educational Outreach Seeks to Transform Lives of Area Students January 29, 2014 - 12:00pm Addthis Students participating in the Science Alliance enjoyed hands-on exhibits and discussions with scientists, engineers and specialists in a range of fields. Students participating in the Science Alliance enjoyed hands-on exhibits and discussions with scientists, engineers and specialists in a range of

  19. Request for Information on a National Power Transformer Reserve: Federal

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Register Notice Volume 80, No. 131 - July 9, 2015 | Department of Energy a National Power Transformer Reserve: Federal Register Notice Volume 80, No. 131 - July 9, 2015 Request for Information on a National Power Transformer Reserve: Federal Register Notice Volume 80, No. 131 - July 9, 2015 The Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE), is seeking comments and information from interested parties to inform its policy development related to the

  20. Pressure-Induced Amorphization and Phase Transformations in

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    [beta]-LiAlSiO[subscript 4] (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Pressure-Induced Amorphization and Phase Transformations in [beta]-LiAlSiO[subscript 4] Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Pressure-Induced Amorphization and Phase Transformations in [beta]-LiAlSiO[subscript 4] Authors: Zhang, Jianzhong ; Zhao, Yusheng ; Xu, Hongwu ; Zelinskas, Matthew V. ; Wang, Liping ; Wang, Yanbin ; Uchida, Takeyuki [1] ; UC) [2] ; LANL) [2] ; Buffalo) [2] + Show Author Affiliations

  1. Downhole Sensor Holds Transformative Potential | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Downhole Sensor Holds Transformative Potential Downhole Sensor Holds Transformative Potential December 13, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis Long-term operation of electronics at high temperatures remains a challenge for the geothermal sector; many downhole sensors are prone to failure when deployed in high-temperature wells, which limits the availability and complexity of logging tools available for use in geothermal energy extraction. Funded by a GTO Recovery Act award, GE Global Research has elevated

  2. SAR image formation with azimuth interpolation after azimuth transform

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doerry; Armin W. , Martin; Grant D. , Holzrichter; Michael W.

    2008-07-08

    Two-dimensional SAR data can be processed into a rectangular grid format by subjecting the SAR data to a Fourier transform operation, and thereafter to a corresponding interpolation operation. Because the interpolation operation follows the Fourier transform operation, the interpolation operation can be simplified, and the effect of interpolation errors can be diminished. This provides for the possibility of both reducing the re-grid processing time, and improving the image quality.

  3. National Electric Delivery Technologies Roadmap: Transforming the Grid to

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Revolutionize Electric Power in North America | Department of Energy Delivery Technologies Roadmap: Transforming the Grid to Revolutionize Electric Power in North America National Electric Delivery Technologies Roadmap: Transforming the Grid to Revolutionize Electric Power in North America This Roadmap provides a framework for all of the stakeholders that comprise the electric industry to work together to achieve common aims. PDF icon National Electric Delivery Technologies Roadmap:

  4. 3 Innovations That Are Transforming America's Home Building Industry |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 3 Innovations That Are Transforming America's Home Building Industry 3 Innovations That Are Transforming America's Home Building Industry December 12, 2013 - 3:07pm Addthis A worker caulks the exterior of a home window. Advanced window framing techniques can help homeowners save energy and money. | Photo courtesy of Weatherization Assistance Program Technical Center A worker caulks the exterior of a home window. Advanced window framing techniques can help homeowners save

  5. NREL: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Research - Market Transformation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Market Transformation NREL's market transformation activities address technical and non-technical barriers to the commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies to ensure that laboratory advances can be realized in the marketplace. Projects focus on deploying hydrogen and fuel cells in key early markets-specialty vehicles, backup and remote power, portable power, and primary power for critical applications such as hospitals or data centers-and renewable hydrogen production

  6. Erratum: "A transformed framework for dynamic correlation in

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    multireference problems" [J. Chem. Phys. 142, 124107 (2015)] (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Erratum: "A transformed framework for dynamic correlation in multireference problems" [J. Chem. Phys. 142, 124107 (2015)] Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on February 3, 2017 Title: Erratum: "A transformed framework for dynamic correlation in multireference problems" [J. Chem. Phys. 142, 124107 (2015)] Authors: Sokolov,

  7. Grain orientation dependence of phase transformation in the shape memory

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    alloy Nickel-Titanium (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES Grain orientation dependence of phase transformation in the shape memory alloy Nickel-Titanium This content will become publicly available on May 20, 2017 « Prev Next » Title: Grain orientation dependence of phase transformation in the shape memory alloy Nickel-Titanium Authors: Kimiecik, Michael ; Wayne Jones, J. ; Daly, Samantha Publication Date: 2015-08-01 OSTI Identifier: 1251238 Grant/Contract Number: SC0003996 Type: Publisher's

  8. Grain orientation dependence of phase transformation in the shape memory

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    alloy Nickel-Titanium (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Grain orientation dependence of phase transformation in the shape memory alloy Nickel-Titanium Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on May 20, 2017 Title: Grain orientation dependence of phase transformation in the shape memory alloy Nickel-Titanium Authors: Kimiecik, Michael ; Wayne Jones, J. ; Daly, Samantha Publication Date: 2015-08-01 OSTI Identifier: 1251238 Grant/Contract Number:

  9. Influence of Iron Redox Transformations on Plutonium Sorption to Sediments

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Influence of Iron Redox Transformations on Plutonium Sorption to Sediments Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Influence of Iron Redox Transformations on Plutonium Sorption to Sediments Plutonium subsurface mobility is primarily controlled by its oxidation state, which in turn is loosely coupled to the oxidation state of iron in the system. Experiments were conducted to examine the effect of sediment iron mineral composition and oxidation state on

  10. Monitoring CO2 intrusion and associated geochemical transformations in a

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    shallow groundwater system using complex electrical methods (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Monitoring CO2 intrusion and associated geochemical transformations in a shallow groundwater system using complex electrical methods Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Monitoring CO2 intrusion and associated geochemical transformations in a shallow groundwater system using complex electrical methods Authors: Dafflon, B. ; Wu, Y. ; Hubbard, S. S. ; Birkholzer, J. T. ; Daley, T. M. ; Pugh,

  11. Monitoring CO2 intrusion and associated geochemical transformations in a

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    shallow groundwater system using complex electrical methods (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Monitoring CO2 intrusion and associated geochemical transformations in a shallow groundwater system using complex electrical methods Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Monitoring CO2 intrusion and associated geochemical transformations in a shallow groundwater system using complex electrical methods × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This

  12. VIDEO: Transforming a House into a Home | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transforming a House into a Home VIDEO: Transforming a House into a Home October 28, 2013 - 10:30am Addthis In the video above, Lakiya Culley talks about how her solar-powered, passive home, located in D.C.'s Deanwood neighborhood, has changed her family's future. | Video by Matty Greene, Energy Department. Rebecca Matulka Rebecca Matulka Former Digital Communications Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Matty Greene Matty Greene Former Videographer At universities all across the country,

  13. Vice President Biden Announces Recovery Act Funding for 37 Transformational

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Research Projects | Department of Energy Recovery Act Funding for 37 Transformational Energy Research Projects Vice President Biden Announces Recovery Act Funding for 37 Transformational Energy Research Projects April 29, 2010 - 12:00am Addthis Washington, DC - At a Recovery Act Cabinet Meeting today, Vice President Joe Biden and Secretary of Energy Steven Chu announced that the U.S. Department of Energy is awarding $106 million in funding for 37 ambitious research projects that could

  14. Building America Expert Meeting: Transforming Existing Buildings through

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    New Media--An Idea Exchange | Department of Energy Transforming Existing Buildings through New Media--An Idea Exchange Building America Expert Meeting: Transforming Existing Buildings through New Media--An Idea Exchange This report describes results of a Building America expert meeting on September 13, 2011, in Las Vegas, Nevada, hosted by the Building America Retrofit Alliance (BARA). This meeting provided a forum for presentations and discussions on the use of new media to work with

  15. Surface transformations of platinum grains from Fifield, New South Wales,

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Australia (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Surface transformations of platinum grains from Fifield, New South Wales, Australia Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Surface transformations of platinum grains from Fifield, New South Wales, Australia Authors: Campbell, S. Gordon ; Reith, Frank ; Etschmann, Barbara ; Brugger, Joël ; Martinez-Criado, Gema ; Gordon, Robert A. ; Southam, Gordon [1] ; CLS) [2] ; Monash) [2] ; SA Museum) [2] ; ESRF) [2] ; UWO) [2] ; Queensland) [2] + Show

  16. An Iterated, Multipoint Differential Transform Method for Numerically

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Evolving Partial Differential Equation Initial-Value Problems (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: An Iterated, Multipoint Differential Transform Method for Numerically Evolving Partial Differential Equation Initial-Value Problems Citation Details In-Document Search Title: An Iterated, Multipoint Differential Transform Method for Numerically Evolving Partial Differential Equation Initial-Value Problems Authors: Finkel, H. J. [1] + Show Author Affiliations (LCF) Publication

  17. November 2014 PSERC Webinar: Transforming the Grid from the Distribution

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    System Out | Department of Energy 2014 PSERC Webinar: Transforming the Grid from the Distribution System Out November 2014 PSERC Webinar: Transforming the Grid from the Distribution System Out October 13, 2014 - 5:57pm Addthis The DOE-funded Power Systems Engineering Research Center (PSERC) is offering a free public webinar presenting the challenges and opportunities associated with dynamic distribution system architecture. This new dynamic distribution system connects central and local

  18. EERE Success Story-Vortex Hydro Energy Develops Transformational

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technology to Harness Energy from Water Currents | Department of Energy Vortex Hydro Energy Develops Transformational Technology to Harness Energy from Water Currents EERE Success Story-Vortex Hydro Energy Develops Transformational Technology to Harness Energy from Water Currents April 10, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis EERE is funding Vortex Hydro Energy to commercialize the Vortex Induced Vibration Aquatic Clean Energy (VIVACE) converter, which is a University of Michigan-patented marine and

  19. Energy Technology Solutions: Public-Private Partnerships Transforming

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Industry, November 2010 | Department of Energy Energy Technology Solutions: Public-Private Partnerships Transforming Industry, November 2010 Energy Technology Solutions: Public-Private Partnerships Transforming Industry, November 2010 PDF icon itp_successes.pdf More Documents & Publications Energy Technology Solutions ITP Energy Intensive Processes: Energy-Intensive Processes Portfolio: Addressing Key Energy Challenges Across U.S. Industry Energy-Intensive Processes Portfolio: Addressing

  20. Chemical Transformation - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemical Transformation December 21, 2015, Research Highlights Redox Mediators that Promote Three-Dimensional Growth of Li2S on Carbon Current Collectors in Lithium-Sulfur Batteries Developed, from computation and experiment, redox mediators that allow 3-D growth of Li2S on carbon current collectors for greater capacity utilization in Li-S batteries ... Read More Chemical Transformation Electrolyte Genome December 21, 2015, Research Highlights Compliant Glass-Polymer Hybrid Single

  1. Phase-field Modeling of Nucleation in Solid-State Phase Transformation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Nucleation in Solid-State Phase Transformations Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Phase-field Modeling of Nucleation in Solid-State Phase Transformations You ...

  2. Mathematical investigation of one-way transform matrix options.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, James Arlin

    2006-01-01

    One-way transforms have been used in weapon systems processors since the mid- to late-1970s in order to help recognize insertion of correct pre-arm information while maintaining abnormal-environment safety. Level-One, Level-Two, and Level-Three transforms have been designed. The Level-One and Level-Two transforms have been implemented in weapon systems, and both of these transforms are equivalent to matrix multiplication applied to the inserted information. The Level-Two transform, utilizing a 6 x 6 matrix, provided the basis for the ''System 2'' interface definition for Unique-Signal digital communication between aircraft and attached weapons. The investigation described in this report was carried out to find out if there were other size matrices that would be equivalent to the 6 x 6 Level-Two matrix. One reason for the investigation was to find out whether or not other dimensions were possible, and if so, to derive implementation options. Another important reason was to more fully explore the potential for inadvertent inversion. The results were that additional implementation methods were discovered, but no inversion weaknesses were revealed.

  3. A model for heterogeneous materials including phase transformations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Addessio, F.L.; Clements, B.E.; Williams, T.O.

    2005-04-15

    A model is developed for particulate composites, which includes phase transformations in one or all of the constituents. The model is an extension of the method of cells formalism. Representative simulations for a single-phase, brittle particulate (SiC) embedded in a ductile material (Ti), which undergoes a solid-solid phase transformation, are provided. Also, simulations for a tungsten heavy alloy (WHA) are included. In the WHA analyses a particulate composite, composed of tungsten particles embedded in a tungsten-iron-nickel alloy matrix, is modeled. A solid-liquid phase transformation of the matrix material is included in the WHA numerical calculations. The example problems also demonstrate two approaches for generating free energies for the material constituents. Simulations for volumetric compression, uniaxial strain, biaxial strain, and pure shear are used to demonstrate the versatility of the model.

  4. Transformer coupling for transmitting direct current through a barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, R.L.; Guilford, R.P.; Stichman, J.H.

    1987-06-29

    The transmission system for transmitting direct current from an energy source on one side of an electrical and mechanical barrier to a load on the other side of the barrier utilizes a transformer comprising a primary core on one side of the transformer and a secondary core on the other side of the transformer. The cores are magnetically coupled selectively by moving a magnetic ferrite coupler in and out of alignment with the poles of the cores. The direct current from the energy source is converted to a time varying current by an oscillating circuit, which oscillating circuit is optically coupled to a secondary winding on the secondary core to interrupt oscillations upon the voltage in the secondary winding exceeding a preselected level. 4 figs.

  5. Transformer coupling for transmitting direct current through a barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Ralph L.; Guilford, Richard P.; Stichman, John H.

    1988-01-01

    The transmission system for transmitting direct current from an energy source on one side of an electrical and mechanical barrier to a load on the other side of the barrier utilizes a transformer comprising a primary core on one side of the transformer and a secondary core on the other side of the transformer. The cores are magnetically coupled selectively by moving a magnetic ferrite coupler in and out of alignment with the poles of the cores. The direct current from the energy source is converted to a time varying current by an oscillating circuit, which oscillating circuit is optically coupled to a secondary winding on the secondary core to interrupt oscillations upon the voltage in the secondary winding exceeding a preselected level.

  6. Predicting the onset of transformation under noncontinuous cooling conditions. Part 2: Application to the austenite pearlite transformation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pham, T.T.; Hawbolt, E.B.; Brimacombe, J.K.

    1995-08-01

    A detailed review of the additivity principle with respect to the incubation of the austenite decomposition was summarized in Part 1 of this two-part series and led to the concept of an ideal time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagram. This curve is characteristic of the chemistry and austenite grain size in the steel and allows nonisothermal behavior to be described assuming additivity holds. The derivation of mathematical relationships between the ideal and experimental cooling data was presented in the first article. In this second article, an ideal curve for the austenite-to-pearlite transformation was derived from cooling data. The applicability of the ideal TTT curve for predicting the start of transformation under continuous cooling conditions was assessed for a range of cooling rates. Experiments were conducted under both isothermal and varying temperature conditions, including an industrial cooling schedule, using a Gleeble Thermal Simulator. Reasonable agreement was found between the predictions and the observed transformation start temperatures; predictions were consistent and compared favorably against other methods which have been frequently used to estimate the transformation start temperature for nonisothermal conditions.

  7. Application of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to silica diagenesis: The opal-A to opal-CT transformation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rice, S.B.; Freund, H.; Huang, W.L.; Clouse, J.A.; Isaacs, C.M.

    1995-10-02

    An important goal in silica diagenesis research is to understand the kinetics of opal transformation from noncrystalline opal-A to the disordered silica polymorph opal-CT. Because the conventional technique for monitoring the transformation, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), is applicable only to phases with long-range order, the authors used Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to monitor the transformation. They applied this technique, combined with XRD and TEM, to experimental run products and natural opals from the Monterey Formation and from siliceous deposits in the western Pacific Ocean. Using a ratio of two infrared absorption intensities ({omega} = I{sub 472 cm{sup {minus}1}}/I{sub 500 cm{sup {minus}1}}), the relative proportions of opal-A and opal-CT can be determined. The progress of the transformation is marked by changes in slope of {omega} vs. depth or time when a sufficient stratigraphic profile is available. There are three stages in the opal-A to opal-CT reaction: (1) opal-A dissolution; (2) opal-CT precipitation, whose end point is marked by completion of opal-A dissolution; and (3) opal-CT ordering, during which tridymite stacking is eliminated in favor of crystobalite stacking.

  8. Monitoring & Diagnosis of Transformers | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Monitoring and Diagnosis of Transformers Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) Monitoring and Diagnosis of Transformers Luiz Felipe Willcox 2015.04.30 It was a Friday evening in the spring of 1994 and I was going out for a pizza with my old man. I had just received my degree in electrical engineering. As my

  9. Correlation between Fermi surface transformations and superconductivity in

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the electron-doped high- T c superconductor Nd 2 - x Ce x CuO 4 (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Correlation between Fermi surface transformations and superconductivity in the electron-doped high- T c superconductor Nd 2 - x Ce x CuO 4 Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on August 31, 2016 Title: Correlation between Fermi surface transformations and superconductivity in the electron-doped high- T c superconductor Nd 2 - x Ce x

  10. Reverse phase transformation of martensite to austenite in stainless

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    steels: a 3D phase-field study (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Reverse phase transformation of martensite to austenite in stainless steels: a 3D phase-field study Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Reverse phase transformation of martensite to austenite in stainless steels: a 3D phase-field study Authors: Yeddu, Hemantha K. [1] ; Lookman, Turab [1] ; Saxena, Avadh B. [1] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory Publication Date: 2014-08-19 OSTI Identifier:

  11. Diffractive optical elements for transformation of modes in lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sridharan, Arun K.; Pax, Paul H.; Heebner, John E.; Drachenberg, Derrek R.; Armstrong, James P.; Dawson, Jay W.

    2015-09-01

    Spatial mode conversion modules are described, with the capability of efficiently transforming a given optical beam profile, at one plane in space into another well-defined optical beam profile at a different plane in space, whose detailed spatial features and symmetry properties can, in general, differ significantly. The modules are comprised of passive, high-efficiency, low-loss diffractive optical elements, combined with Fourier transform optics. Design rules are described that employ phase retrieval techniques and associated algorithms to determine the necessary profiles of the diffractive optical components. System augmentations are described that utilize real-time adaptive optical techniques for enhanced performance as well as power scaling.

  12. Phase transformations in steels: Processing, microstructure, and performance

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gibbs, Paul J.

    2014-04-03

    In this study, contemporary steel research is revealing new processing avenues to tailor microstructure and properties that, until recently, were only imaginable. Much of the technological versatility facilitating this development is provided by the understanding and utilization of the complex phase transformation sequences available in ferrous alloys. Today we have the opportunity to explore the diverse phenomena displayed by steels with specialized analytical and experimental tools. Advances in multi-scale characterization techniques provide a fresh perspective into microstructural relationships at the macro- and micro-scale, enabling a fundamental understanding of the role of phase transformations during processing and subsequent deformation.

  13. Secretary Moniz Awards $125 Million for 41 Transformational Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Technology Projects Ahead of COP21 in Paris | Department of Energy Awards $125 Million for 41 Transformational Energy Technology Projects Ahead of COP21 in Paris Secretary Moniz Awards $125 Million for 41 Transformational Energy Technology Projects Ahead of COP21 in Paris November 23, 2015 - 3:36pm Addthis News Media Contact 202-586-4940 DOENews@hq.doe.gov WASHINGTON - U.S. Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz today announced $125 million across 41 cutting-edge energy technologies awarded by the

  14. EERE Success Story-Iowa: West Union Green Transformation Project |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy West Union Green Transformation Project EERE Success Story-Iowa: West Union Green Transformation Project March 17, 2014 - 11:26am Addthis Utilizing funding from EERE and cost shares from other federal agencies, the City of West Union, Iowa, drilled geothermal wells in order to install a closed-loop geothermal heating and cooling system. The system is designed to serve 330,000 square feet of mixed used space in the downtown area, including 80% of the 60 downtown

  15. Fourier-transform and global contrast interferometer alignment methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldberg, Kenneth A.

    2001-01-01

    Interferometric methods are presented to facilitate alignment of image-plane components within an interferometer and for the magnified viewing of interferometer masks in situ. Fourier-transforms are performed on intensity patterns that are detected with the interferometer and are used to calculate pseudo-images of the electric field in the image plane of the test optic where the critical alignment of various components is being performed. Fine alignment is aided by the introduction and optimization of a global contrast parameter that is easily calculated from the Fourier-transform.

  16. Materials and Sensor R&D to Transform the Nuclear Stockpile: Livermore?s

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Transformational Materials Initiative (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Materials and Sensor R&D to Transform the Nuclear Stockpile: Livermore?s Transformational Materials Initiative Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Materials and Sensor R&D to Transform the Nuclear Stockpile: Livermore?s Transformational Materials Initiative As the nation's nuclear weapons age and the demands placed on them change, significant challenges face the nuclear stockpile. Risks include material

  17. Materials and Sensor R&D to Transform the Nuclear Stockpile: Livermore?s

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Transformational Materials Initiative (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Materials and Sensor R&D to Transform the Nuclear Stockpile: Livermore?s Transformational Materials Initiative Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Materials and Sensor R&D to Transform the Nuclear Stockpile: Livermore?s Transformational Materials Initiative × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and

  18. A Superconducting transformer system for high current cable testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Godeke, A.; Dietderich, D. R.; Joseph, J. M.; Lizarazo, J.; Prestemon, S. O.; Miller, G.; Weijers, H. W.

    2010-02-15

    This article describes the development of a direct-current (dc) superconducting transformer system for the high current test of superconducting cables. The transformer consists of a core-free 10 464 turn primary solenoid which is enclosed by a 6.5 turn secondary. The transformer is designed to deliver a 50 kA dc secondary current at a dc primary current of about 50 A. The secondary current is measured inductively using two toroidal-wound Rogowski coils. The Rogowski coil signal is digitally integrated, resulting in a voltage signal that is proportional to the secondary current. This voltage signal is used to control the secondary current using a feedback loop which automatically compensates for resistive losses in the splices to the superconducting cable samples that are connected to the secondary. The system has been commissioned up to 28 kA secondary current. The reproducibility in the secondary current measurement is better than 0.05% for the relevant current range up to 25 kA. The drift in the secondary current, which results from drift in the digital integrator, is estimated to be below 0.5 A/min. The system's performance is further demonstrated through a voltage-current measurement on a superconducting cable sample at 11 T background magnetic field. The superconducting transformer system enables fast, high resolution, economic, and safe tests of the critical current of superconducting cable samples.

  19. Spheromak reactor with poloidal flux-amplifying transformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Furth, Harold P.; Janos, Alan C.; Uyama, Tadao; Yamada, Masaaki

    1987-01-01

    An inductive transformer in the form of a solenoidal coils aligned along the major axis of a flux core induces poloidal flux along the flux core's axis. The current in the solenoidal coil is then reversed resulting in a poloidal flux swing and the conversion of a portion of the poloidal flux to a toroidal flux in generating a spheromak plasma wherein equilibrium approaches a force-free, minimum Taylor state during plasma formation, independent of the initial conditions or details of the formation. The spheromak plasma is sustained with the Taylor state maintained by oscillating the currents in the poloidal and toroidal field coils within the plasma-forming flux core. The poloidal flux transformer may be used either as an amplifier stage in a moving plasma reactor scenario for initial production of a spheromak plasma or as a method for sustaining a stationary plasma and further heating it. The solenoidal coil embodiment of the poloidal flux transformer can alternately be used in combination with a center conductive cylinder aligned along the length and outside of the solenoidal coil. This poloidal flux-amplifying inductive transformer approach allows for a relaxation of demanding current carrying requirements on the spheromak reactor's flux core, reduces plasma contamination arising from high voltage electrode discharge, and improves the efficiency of poloidal flux injection.

  20. Saturating time-delay transformer for overcurrent protection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Praeg, Walter F.

    1977-01-01

    Electrical loads connected to d-c supplies are protected from damage by overcurrent in the case of a load fault by connecting in series with the load a saturating transformer that detects a load fault and limits the fault current to a safe level for a period long enough to correct the fault or else disconnect the power supply.

  1. Saturating time-delay transformer for overcurrent protection. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Praeg, W.F.

    1975-12-18

    Electrical loads connected to dc supplies are protected from damage by overcurrent in the case of a load fault by connecting in series with the load a saturating transformer that detects a load fault and limits the fault current to a safe level for a period long enough to correct the fault or else disconnect the power supply.

  2. New Modularization Framework Transforms FAST Wind Turbine Modeling Tool

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory recently released an expanded version of its FAST wind turbine computer-aided engineering tool under a new modularization framework. The new framework will transform FAST into a powerful, robust, and flexible modeling software for wind and water power technology developers.

  3. DOE Selects 16 Transformational Carbon Capture Technologies Projects for Funding

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has selected 16 projects to receive funding through NETL’s Carbon Capture Program. The program funds development and testing of transformational carbon dioxide (CO2) capture systems for new and existing coal-based power plants.

  4. Atomic Structure and Phase Transformations in Pu Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, A J; Cynn, H; Blobaum, K M; Wall, M A; Moore, K T; Evans, W J; Farber, D L; Jeffries, J R; Massalski, T B

    2008-04-28

    Plutonium and plutonium-based alloys containing Al or Ga exhibit numerous phases with crystal structures ranging from simple monoclinic to face-centered cubic. Only recently, however, has there been increased convergence in the actinides community on the details of the equilibrium form of the phase diagrams. Practically speaking, while the phase diagrams that represent the stability of the fcc {delta}-phase field at room temperature are generally applicable, it is also recognized that Pu and its alloys are never truly in thermodynamic equilibrium because of self-irradiation effects, primarily from the alpha decay of Pu isotopes. This article covers past and current research on several properties of Pu and Pu-(Al or Ga) alloys and their connections to the crystal structure and the microstructure. We review the consequences of radioactive decay, the recent advances in understanding the electronic structure, the current research on phase transformations and their relations to phase diagrams and phase stability, the nature of the isothermal martensitic {delta} {yields} {alpha}{prime} transformation, and the pressure-induced transformations in the {delta}-phase alloys. New data are also presented on the structures and phase transformations observed in these materials following the application of pressure, including the formation of transition phases.

  5. Electrical Core Transformer for Grid Improvement Incorporating Wire Magnetic Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrie R. Buswell, PhD; Dennis Jacobs, PhD; Steve Meng

    2012-03-26

    The research reported herein adds to the understanding of oil-immersed distribution transformers by exploring and demonstrating potential improvements in efficiency and cost utilizing the unique Buswell approach wherein the unit is redesigned, replacing magnetic sheet with wire allowing for improvements in configuration and increased simplicity in the build process. Exploration of new designs is a critical component in our drive to assure reduction of energy waste, adequate delivery to the citizenry, and the robustness of U.S. manufacturing. By moving that conversation forward, this exploration adds greatly to our base of knowledge and clearly outlines an important avenue for further exploration. This final report shows several advantages of this new transformer type (outlined in a report signed by all of our collaborating partners and included in this document). Although materials development is required to achieve commercial potential, the clear benefits of the technology if that development were a given is established. Exploration of new transformer types and further work on the Buswell design approach is in the best interest of the public, industry, and the United States. Public benefits accrue from design alternatives that reduce the overall use of energy, but it must be acknowledged that new DOE energy efficiency standards have provided some assurance in that regard. Nonetheless the burden of achieving these new standards has been largely shifted to the manufacturers of oil-immersed distribution transformers with cost increasing up to 20% of some units versus 2006 when this investigation was started. Further, rising costs have forced the industry to look closely are far more expensive technologies which may threaten U.S. competitiveness in the distribution transformer market. This concern is coupled with the realization that many units in the nation's grid are beyond their optimal life which suggests that the nation may be headed for an infrastructure crisis that U.S. industry is ill prepared to handle which could further challenge U.S. competitiveness.

  6. Fundamental Mechanisms Driving the Amorphous to Crystalline Phase Transformation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reed, B W; Browning, N D; Santala, M K; LaGrange, T; Gilmer, G H; Masiel, D J; Campbell, G H; Raoux, S; Topuria, T; Meister, S; Cui, Y

    2011-01-04

    Phase transformations are ubiquitous, fundamental phenomena that lie at the heart of many structural, optical and electronic properties in condensed matter physics and materials science. Many transformations, especially those occurring under extreme conditions such as rapid changes in the thermodynamic state, are controlled by poorly understood processes involving the nucleation and quenching of metastable phases. Typically these processes occur on time and length scales invisible to most experimental techniques ({micro}s and faster, nm and smaller), so our understanding of the dynamics tends to be very limited and indirect, often relying on simulations combined with experimental study of the ''time infinity'' end state. Experimental techniques that can directly probe phase transformations on their proper time and length scales are therefore key to providing fundamental insights into the whole area of transformation physics and materials science. LLNL possesses a unique dynamic transmission electron microscope (DTEM) capable of taking images and diffraction patterns of laser-driven material processes with resolution measured in nanometers and nanoseconds. The DTEM has previously used time-resolved diffraction patterns to quantitatively study phase transformations that are orders of magnitude too fast for conventional in situ TEM. More recently the microscope has demonstrated the ability to directly image a reaction front moving at {approx}13 nm/ns and the nucleation of a new phase behind that front. Certain compound semiconductor phase change materials, such as Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} (GST), Sb{sub 2}Te and GeSb, exhibit a technologically important series of transformations on scales that fall neatly into the performance specifications of the DTEM. If a small portion of such material is heated above its melting point and then rapidly cooled, it quenches into an amorphous state. Heating again with a less intense pulse leads to recrystallization into a vacancy-stabilized metastable rock salt structure. Each transformation takes {approx}10-100 ns, and the cycle can be driven repeatedly a very large number of times with a nanosecond laser such as the DTEM's sample drive laser. These materials are widely used in optical storage devices such as rewritable CDs and DVDs, and they are also applied in a novel solid state memory technology - phase change memory (PCM). PCM has the potential to produce nonvolatile memory systems with high speed, extreme density, and very low power requirements. For PCM applications several materials properties are of great importance: the resistivities of both phases, the crystallization temperature, the melting point, the crystallization speed, reversibility (number of phase-transformation cycles without degradation) and stability against crystallization at elevated temperature. For a viable technology, all these properties need to have good scaling behavior, as dimensions of the memory cells will shrink with every generation. In this LDRD project, we used the unique single-shot nanosecond in situ experimentation capabilities of the DTEM to watch these transformations in GST on the time and length scales most relevant for device applications. Interpretation of the results was performed in conjunction with atomistic and finite-element computations. Samples were provided by collaborators at IBM and Stanford University. We observed, and measured the kinetics of, the amorphous-crystalline and melting-solidification transitions in uniform thin-film samples. Above a certain threshold, the crystal nucleation rate was found to be enormously high (with many nuclei appearing per cubic {micro}m even after nanosecond-scale incubation times), in agreement with atomistic simulation and consistent with an extremely low nucleation barrier. We developed data reduction techniques based on principal component analysis (PCA), revealing the complex, multi-dimensional evolution of the material while suppressing noise and irrelevant information. Using a novel specimen geometry, we also achieved repeated switching betw

  7. Nanowire growth by an electron beam induced massive phase transformation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sood, Shantanu; Kisslinger, Kim; Gouma, Perena

    2014-11-15

    Tungsten trioxide nanowires of a high aspect ratio have been synthesized in-situ in a TEM under an electron beam of current density 14A/cm² due to a massive polymorphic reaction. Sol-gel processed pseudocubic phase nanocrystals of tungsten trioxide were seen to rapidly transform to one dimensional monoclinic phase configurations, and this reaction was independent of the substrate on which the material was deposited. The mechanism of the self-catalyzed polymorphic transition and accompanying radical shape change is a typical characteristic of metastable to stable phase transformations in nanostructured polymorphic metal oxides. A heuristic model is used to confirm the metastable to stablemore » growth mechanism. The findings are important to the control electron beam deposition of nanowires for functional applications starting from colloidal precursors.« less

  8. Nanowire growth by an electron beam induced massive phase transformation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sood, Shantanu; Kisslinger, Kim; Gouma, Perena

    2014-11-15

    Tungsten trioxide nanowires of a high aspect ratio have been synthesized in-situ in a TEM under an electron beam of current density 14A/cm due to a massive polymorphic reaction. Sol-gel processed pseudocubic phase nanocrystals of tungsten trioxide were seen to rapidly transform to one dimensional monoclinic phase configurations, and this reaction was independent of the substrate on which the material was deposited. The mechanism of the self-catalyzed polymorphic transition and accompanying radical shape change is a typical characteristic of metastable to stable phase transformations in nanostructured polymorphic metal oxides. A heuristic model is used to confirm the metastable to stable growth mechanism. The findings are important to the control electron beam deposition of nanowires for functional applications starting from colloidal precursors.

  9. Magnetostructural phase transformations in Tb 1-x Mn 2

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zou, Junding; Paudyal, Durga; Liu, Jing; Mudryk, Yaroslav; Pecharsky, Vitalij K.; Gschneidner, Karl A.

    2015-01-16

    Magnetism and phase transformations in non-stoichiometric Tb1-xMn2 (x = 0.056, 0.039) have been studied as functions of temperature and magnetic field using magnetization, heat capacity, and X-ray powder diffraction measurements. Lowering the temperature, the compounds sequentially order ferrimagnetically and antiferromagnetically, and finally, exhibit spin reorientation transitions. Moreover, these structural distortions from room temperature cubic to low temperature rhombohedral structures occur at TN, and are accompanied by large volume changes reaching ~-1.27% and -1.42%, respectively. First principles electronic structure calculations confirm the phase transformation from the ferrimagnetic cubic structure to the antiferromagnetic rhombohedral structure in TbMn2.

  10. Isomorphic phase transformation in shocked cerium using molecular dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dupont, Virginie; Germann, Timothy C; Chen, Shao - Ping

    2010-08-12

    Cerium (Ce) undergoes a significant ({approx}16%) volume collapse associated with an isomorphic fcc-fcc phase transformation when subject to compressive loading. We present here a new Embedded Atom Method (EAM) potential for Cerium that models two minima for the two fcc phases. We show results from its use in Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations of Ce samples subjected to shocks with pressures ranging from 0.5 to 25 GPa. A split wave structure is observed, with an elastic precursor followed by a plastic wave. The plastic wave causes the expected fcc-fcc phase transformation. Comparisons to experiments and MD simulations on Cesium (Cs) indicate that three waves could be observed. The construction of the EAM potential may be the source of the difference.

  11. Cooperative Catalyst leads to Transformative Results | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cooperative Catalyst leads to Transformative Results Capitalizing on the concept that everything proceeds faster with a little cooperation, researchers showed how designing cooperation into solid catalysts leads to enormous benefits.Catalysts attached to a porous solid support are preferred industrially because they are easier to separate from liquid products and reuse. But, these bound catalysts typically do not perform as well and probing their interiors to figure out how to improve them has

  12. Apparatus and methods for continuous beam fourier transform mass spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McLuckey, Scott A.; Goeringer, Douglas E.

    2002-01-01

    A continuous beam Fourier transform mass spectrometer in which a sample of ions to be analyzed is trapped in a trapping field, and the ions in the range of the mass-to-charge ratios to be analyzed are excited at their characteristic frequencies of motion by a continuous excitation signal. The excited ions in resonant motions generate real or image currents continuously which can be detected and processed to provide a mass spectrum.

  13. NREL: Technology Deployment - Solar Deployment and Market Transformation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Deployment and Market Transformation NREL enables faster, easier, and less expensive solar installations by applying our expertise and knowledge to projects that addresses challenges, inefficiencies, and market barriers to solar technology deployment. Northeast Denver Housing Center Solarize Grassroots Movement Drives Down Solar Prices 30% in Portland, Oregon Solarize Northeast Denver Housing Center NREL Identifies PV for 28 Affordable Housing Units Our technical experts work with

  14. The Structural Evolution and Diffusion During the Chemical Transformation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from Cobalt to Cobalt Phosphide Nanoparticles > Research Highlights > Research > The Energy Materials Center at Cornell Research Highlights In This Section The Structural Evolution and Diffusion During the Chemical Transformation from Cobalt to Cobalt Phosphide Nanoparticles Joint Density-Functional Theory of Electrochemistry Double-band Electrode Channel Flow DEMS Cell Sulfur@Carbon Cathodes for Lithium Sulfur Batteries Better Ham & Cheese: Enhanced Anodes and Cathodes for Fuel

  15. SC15 High Performance Computing (HPC) Transforms Batteries - Joint Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Energy Storage Research September 21, 2015, Videos SC15 High Performance Computing (HPC) Transforms Batteries A new breakthrough battery-one that has significantly higher energy, lasts longer, and is cheaper and safer-will likely be impossible without a new material discovery. Kristin Persson and other JCESR scientists at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory are taking some of the guesswork out of the discovery process with the Electrolyte Genome Project. Electrolyte Genome

  16. Our Transforming Energy Economy: Pathways to a Decarbonized Future -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Continuum Magazine | NREL Photo of natural gas pipeline, with two long pipes stretching into the distance supported at each flange by an underlying structure. JISEA's focus on the synergy of natural gas and renewable energy provides critical insights within the changing landscape of energy in the United States. Photo provided by iStock Our Transforming Energy Economy: Pathways to a Decarbonized Future A growing body of work on the nexus of natural gas and renewable energy offers insight on a

  17. Transforming Ordinary Buildings into Smart Buildings via Low-Cost,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Self-Powering Wireless Sensors and Sensor Networks | Department of Energy Ordinary Buildings into Smart Buildings via Low-Cost, Self-Powering Wireless Sensors and Sensor Networks Transforming Ordinary Buildings into Smart Buildings via Low-Cost, Self-Powering Wireless Sensors and Sensor Networks Lead Performer: Case Western Reserve University - Cleveland, OH Partner: Intwine Inc. - Cleveland, OH DOE Funding: $750,000 Cost Share: N/A Project Term: October 2014 - September 2016 Funding

  18. Transforming the Commercial Building Operations - 2014 BTO Peer Review |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy the Commercial Building Operations - 2014 BTO Peer Review Transforming the Commercial Building Operations - 2014 BTO Peer Review Project Objective The overall goal of this project is to train building operations staff and service providers in a systematic process for identifying and correcting no-cost building operational problems that lead to energy waste. Such a training program gives building operators the "how to" on operating buildings efficiently with

  19. Non-Equilibrium Pathways during Electrochemical Phase Transformations in

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Single Crystals Revealed by Dynamic Chemical Imaging at Nanoscale Resolution | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Non-Equilibrium Pathways during Electrochemical Phase Transformations in Single Crystals Revealed by Dynamic Chemical Imaging at Nanoscale Resolution Friday, February 27, 2015 The energy density of current batteries is limited by the practical capacity of the positive electrode, which is the determined by the properties of the active material and its concentration in the

  20. Science on Saturday: Reimagining the Possible: Scientific Transformations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Shaping the Path Towards Fusion Energy | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab March 5, 2016, 9:30am Science On Saturday MBG Auditorium at PPPL Science on Saturday: Reimagining the Possible: Scientific Transformations Shaping the Path Towards Fusion Energy Dr. Edmund Synakowski Department of Energy, Office of Science Abstract: PDF icon Synakowski.pdf Science_on_Saturday05Mar2016_ESynakowski Contact Information Coordinator(s): Ms. Deedee Ortiz-Arias dortiz@pppl.gov Host(s): Dr. Andrew Zwicker

  1. Fundamental study of the relationship of austenite-ferrite transformation

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    details to austenite retention in carbon steels | Department of Energy 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon lm017_santella_2011_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Fundamental study of the relationship of austenite-ferrite transformation details to austenite retention in carbon steels FSW & USW Solid State Joining of Magnesium to Steel Characterization of Thermo-Mechanical Behaviors of Advanced

  2. Transforming Epidemiology for 21st Century Medicine and Public Health

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khoury, Muin J; Lam, Tram Kim; Ioannidis, John; Hartge, Patricia; Spitz, Margaret R.; Buring, Julie E.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Tourassi, Georgia; Zauber, Ann; Schully, Sheri D

    2013-01-01

    n 2012, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) engaged the scientific community to provide a vision for cancer epidemiology in the 21st century. Eight overarching thematic recommendations, with proposed corresponding actions for consideration by funding agencies, professional societies, and the research community emerged from the collective intellectual discourse. The themes are (i) extending the reach of epidemiology beyond discovery and etiologic research to include multilevel analysis, intervention evaluation, implementation, and outcomes research; (ii) transforming the practice of epidemiology by moving toward more access and sharing of protocols, data, metadata, and specimens to foster collaboration, to ensure reproducibility and replication, and accelerate translation; (iii) expanding cohort studies to collect exposure, clinical, and other information across the life course and examining multiple health-related endpoints; (iv) developing and validating reliable methods and technologies to quantify exposures and outcomes on a massive scale, and to assess concomitantly the role of multiple factors in complex diseases; (v) integrating big data science into the practice of epidemiology; (vi) expanding knowledge integration to drive research, policy, and practice; (vii) transforming training of 21st century epidemiologists to address interdisciplinary and translational research; and (viii) optimizing the use of resources and infrastructure for epidemiologic studies. These recommendations can transform cancer epidemiology and the field of epidemiology, in general, by enhancing transparency, interdisciplinary collaboration, and strategic applications of new technologies. They should lay a strong scientific foundation for accelerated translation of scientific discoveries into individual and population health benefits.

  3. An accurate continuous calibration system for high voltage current transformer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tong Yue; Li Binhong

    2011-02-15

    A continuous calibration system for high voltage current transformers is presented in this paper. The sensor of this system is based on a kind of electronic instrument current transformer, which is a clamp-shape air core coil. This system uses an optical fiber transmission system for its signal transmission and power supply. Finally the digital integrator and fourth-order convolution window algorithm as error calculation methods are realized by the virtual instrument with a personal computer. It is found that this system can calibrate a high voltage current transformer while energized, which means avoiding a long calibrating period in the power system and the loss of power metering expense. At the same time, it has a wide dynamic range and frequency band, and it can achieve a high accuracy measurement in a complex electromagnetic field environment. The experimental results and the on-site operation results presented in the last part of the paper, prove that it can reach the 0.05 accuracy class and is easy to operate on site.

  4. Texture evolution during nitinol martensite detwinning and phase transformation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, S.; Schaffer, J. E.; Ren, Y.

    2013-12-09

    Nitinol has been widely used to make medical devices for years due to its unique shape memory and superelastic properties. However, the texture of the nitinol wires has been largely ignored due to inherent complexity. In this study, in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction has been carried out during uniaxial tensile testing to investigate the texture evolution of the nitinol wires during martensite detwinning, variant reorientation, and phase transformation. It was found that the thermal martensitic nitinol wire comprised primarily an axial (1{sup ¯}20), (120), and (102)-fiber texture. Detwinning initially converted the (120) and (102) fibers to the (1{sup ¯}20) fiber and progressed to a (1{sup ¯}30)-fiber texture by rigid body rotation. At strains above 10%, the (1{sup ¯}30)-fiber was shifted to the (110) fiber by (21{sup ¯}0) deformation twinning. The austenitic wire exhibited an axial (334)-fiber, which transformed to the near-(1{sup ¯}30) martensite texture after the stress-induced phase transformation.

  5. Wavelength-encoded tomography based on optical temporal Fourier transform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Chi; Wong, Kenneth K. Y.

    2014-09-01

    We propose and demonstrate a technique called wavelength-encoded tomography (WET) for non-invasive optical cross-sectional imaging, particularly beneficial in biological system. The WET utilizes time-lens to perform the optical Fourier transform, and the time-to-wavelength conversion generates a wavelength-encoded image of optical scattering from internal microstructures, analogous to the interferometery-based imaging such as optical coherence tomography. Optical Fourier transform, in principle, comes with twice as good axial resolution over the electrical Fourier transform, and will greatly simplify the digital signal processing after the data acquisition. As a proof-of-principle demonstration, a 150?-?m (ideally 36??m) resolution is achieved based on a 7.5-nm bandwidth swept-pump, using a conventional optical spectrum analyzer. This approach can potentially achieve up to 100-MHz or even higher frame rate with some proven ultrafast spectrum analyzer. We believe that this technique is innovative towards the next-generation ultrafast optical tomographic imaging application.

  6. Large Power Transformers and the U.S. Electric Grid Report Update...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    "Large Power Transformers and the U.S. Electric Grid" Report (June 2012) Request for Information on a National Power Transformer Reserve: Federal Register Notice Volume 80, No. 131 ...

  7. Getting from here to there – energy technology transformation pathways in the EMF-27 scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krey, Volker; Luderer, Gunnar; Clarke, Leon E.; Kriegler, Elmar

    2014-04-01

    This apper discusses Getting from here to there – energy technology transformation pathways in the EMF-27 scenarios

  8. Mechanisms of transformation toughening. Progress report, 1 August 1988--31 July 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, G.B.

    1992-02-01

    Modelling the thermodynamics and kinetics of isothermal martensitic transformation under stress, transformation toughening in austenitic steels, and dispersed phase transformation plasticity in low alloy steels are discussed briefly in this progress report for Doe Grant DE-FG02-88ER45365.

  9. Status Report on Power System Transformation: A 21st Century Power Partnership Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Mackay; Martinot, Eric; Cox, Sadie; Speer, Bethany; Zinaman, Owen; Booth, Sam; Zissler, Romain; Cochran, Jaquelin; Soonee, S. K.; Audinet, Pierre; Munuera, Luis; Arent, Doug

    2015-05-27

    This report has three primary goals: (1) to articulate the concept of power system transformation; (2) to explore the current global landscape of ‘innovations’ that constitute power system transformation and provide evidence of how these innovations are emerging; and (3) to suggest an analytical framework for assessing the status of power system transformation on an on-going basis.

  10. Low Dose Suppression of Neoplastic Transformation in Vitro

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Leslie Redpath

    2012-05-01

    This grant was to study the low dose suppression of neoplastic transformation in vitro and the shape of the dose-response curve at low doses and dose-rates of ionizing radiation. Previous findings had indicated a suppression of transformation at dose <10cGy of low-LET radiation when delivered at high dose-rate. The present study indicates that such suppression extends out to doses in excess of 100cGy when the dose (from I-125 photons) is delivered at dose-rates as low as 0.2 mGy/min and out to in excess of {approx}25cGy the highest dose studied at the very low dose-rate of 0.5 mGy/day. We also examined dose-rate effects for high energy protons (which are a low-LET radiation) and suppression was evident below {approx}10cGy for high dose-rate delivery and at least out to 50cGy for low dose-rate (20cGy/h) delivery. Finally, we also examined the effect of low doses of 1 GeV/n iron ions (a high-LET radiation) delivered at high dose-rate on transformation at low doses and found a suppression below {approx}10cGy that could be attributable to an adaptive response in bystander cells induced by the associated low-LET delta rays. These results have implications for cancer risk assessment at low doses.

  11. NREL Supports Native American Tribes in Clean Energy Transformational

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Leadership - News Feature | NREL NREL Supports Native American Tribes in Clean Energy Transformational Leadership March 30, 2016 Photo of a group of wind turbines in an open area. A wind farm developed in California by the Campo Band of Mission Indians of the Kumeyaay Nation. Photo from Campo Band In the redwood country of northern California, where arboreal giants can live to be 2,000 years old and can reach heights of more than 375 feet, the Blue Lake Rancheria Tribe has also grown

  12. Multiple Reference Fourier Transform Holography: Five Images for the Price

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of One Multiple Reference Fourier Transform Holography: Five Images for the Price of One Improving the quality of a high magnification image on an optical microscope is simply a matter of cranking up the intensity of the illumination lamp. The same is true for x-ray microscopes, but complications arise when there just aren't enough x-rays or even worse when the sample is susceptible to damage caused by the intense x-ray beam. To address these challenges we have demonstrated a novel technique

  13. Temperature limited heaters using phase transformation of ferromagnetic material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vitek, John Michael [Oak Ridge, TN; Brady, Michael Patrick [Oak Ridge, TN

    2009-10-06

    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. Systems and methods for making heaters are described herein. At least one heater includes a ferromagnetic conductor and an electrical conductor. The electrical conductor is electrically coupled to the ferromagnetic conductor. The heater provides a first amount of heat at a lower temperature. The heater may provide a second reduced amount of heat when the heater reaches a selected temperature, or enters a selected temperature range, at which the ferromagnetic conductor undergoes a phase transformation.

  14. Coresident sensor fusion and compression using the wavelet transform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yocky, D.A.

    1996-03-11

    Imagery from coresident sensor platforms, such as unmanned aerial vehicles, can be combined using, multiresolution decomposition of the sensor images by means of the two-dimensional wavelet transform. The wavelet approach uses the combination of spatial/spectral information at multiple scales to create a fused image. This can be done in both an ad hoc or model-based approach. We compare results from commercial ``fusion`` software and the ad hoc, wavelet approach. Results show the wavelet approach outperforms the commercial algorithms and also supports efficient compression of the fused image.

  15. Stability of linear systems in second-order form based on structure preserving similarity transformations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoustrup, Jakob; Pommer, Christian; Kliem, Wolfhard

    2015-10-31

    This paper deals with two stability aspects of linear systems of the form I ¨ x +B˙ x +Cx = 0 given by the triple (I;B;C). A general transformation scheme is given for a structure and Jordan form preserving transformation of the triple. We investigate how a system can be transformed by suitable choices of the transformation parameters into a new system (I;B1;C1) with a symmetrizable matrix C1. This procedure facilitates stability investigations. We also consider systems with a Hamiltonian spectrum which discloses marginal stability after a Jordan form preserving transformation.

  16. Method to transform algae, materials therefor, and products produced thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunahay, T.G.; Roessler, P.G.; Jarvis, E.E.

    1997-08-26

    Disclosed is a method to transform chlorophyll C-containing algae. The method includes introducing a recombinant molecule comprising a nucleic acid molecule encoding a dominant selectable marker operatively linked to an algal regulatory control sequence into a chlorophyll C-containing alga in such a manner that the marker is produced by the alga. In a preferred embodiment the algal regulatory control sequence is derived from a diatom and preferably Cyclotella cryptica. Also disclosed is a chimeric molecule having one or more regulatory control sequences derived from one or more chlorophyll C-containing algae operatively linked to a nucleic acid molecule encoding a selectable marker, an RNA molecule and/or a protein, wherein the nucleic acid molecule does not normally occur with one or more of the regulatory control sequences. Further, specifically disclosed are molecules pACCNPT10, pACCNPT4.8 and pACCNPT5.1. The methods and materials of the present invention provide the ability to accomplish stable genetic transformation of chlorophyll C-containing algae. 2 figs.

  17. WAVEMOTH-FAST SPHERICAL HARMONIC TRANSFORMS BY BUTTERFLY MATRIX COMPRESSION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seljebotn, D. S.

    2012-03-01

    We present Wavemoth, an experimental open source code for computing scalar spherical harmonic transforms (SHTs). Such transforms are ubiquitous in astronomical data analysis. Our code performs substantially better than existing publicly available codes owing to improvements on two fronts. First, the computational core is made more efficient by using small amounts of pre-computed data, as well as paying attention to CPU instruction pipelining and cache usage. Second, Wavemoth makes use of a fast and numerically stable algorithm based on compressing a set of linear operators in a pre-computation step. The resulting SHT scales as O(L{sup 2}log{sup 2} L) for the resolution range of practical interest, where L denotes the spherical harmonic truncation degree. For low- and medium-range resolutions, Wavemoth tends to be twice as fast as libpsht, which is the current state-of-the-art implementation for the HEALPix grid. At the resolution of the Planck experiment, L {approx} 4000, Wavemoth is between three and six times faster than libpsht, depending on the computer architecture and the required precision. Because of the experimental nature of the project, only spherical harmonic synthesis is currently supported, although adding support for spherical harmonic analysis should be trivial.

  18. Method to transform algae, materials therefor, and products produced thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunahay, Terri Goodman; Roessler, Paul G.; Jarvis, Eric E.

    1997-01-01

    Disclosed is a method to transform chlorophyll C-containing algae which includes introducing a recombinant molecule comprising a nucleic acid molecule encoding a dominant selectable marker operatively linked to an algal regulatory control sequence into a chlorophyll C-containing alga in such a manner that the marker is produced by the alga. In a preferred embodiment the algal regulatory control sequence is derived from a diatom and preferably Cyclotella cryptica. Also disclosed is a chimeric molecule having one or more regulatory control sequences derived from one or more chlorophyll C-containing algae operatively linked to a nucleic acid molecule encoding a selectable marker, an RNA molecule and/or a protein, wherein the nucleic acid molecule does not normally occur with one or more of the regulatory control sequences. Further specifically disclosed are molecules pACCNPT10, pACCNPT4.8 and pACCNPT5.1. The methods and materials of the present invention provide the ability to accomplish stable genetic transformation of chlorophyll C-containing algae.

  19. Flow directing means for air-cooled transformers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jallouk, Philip A.

    1977-01-01

    This invention relates to improvements in systems for force-cooling transformers of the kind in which an outer helical winding and an insulation barrier nested therein form an axially extending annular passage for cooling-fluid flow. In one form of the invention a tubular shroud is positioned about the helical winding to define an axially extending annular chamber for cooling-fluid flow. The chamber has a width in the range of from about 4 to 25 times that of the axially extending passage. Two baffles extend inward from the shroud to define with the helical winding two annular flow channels having hydraulic diameters smaller than that of the chamber. The inlet to the chamber is designed with a hydraulic diameter approximating that of the coolant-entrance end of the above-mentioned annular passage. As so modified, transformers of the kind described can be operated at significantly higher load levels without exceeding safe operating temperatures. In some instances the invention permits continuous operation at 200% of the nameplate rating.

  20. Plants having modified response to ethylene by transformation with an ETR nucleic acid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meyerowitz, Elliott M.; Chang, Caren; Bleecker, Anthony B.

    2001-01-01

    The invention includes transformed plants having at least one cell transformed with a modified ETR nucleic acid. Such plants have a phenotype characterized by a decrease in the response of at least one transformed plant cell to ethylene as compared to a plant not containing the transformed plant cell. Tissue and/or temporal specificity for expression of the modified ETR nucleic acid is controlled by selecting appropriate expression regulation sequences to target the location and/or time of expression of the transformed nucleic acid. The plants are made by transforming at least one plant cell with an appropriate modified ETR nucleic acid, regenerating plants from one or more of the transformed plant cells and selecting at least one plant having the desired phenotype.

  1. Parallelization and checkpointing of GPU applications through program transformation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solano-Quinde, Lizandro Dami#19;an

    2012-11-15

    GPUs have emerged as a powerful tool for accelerating general-purpose applications. The availability of programming languages that makes writing general-purpose applications for running on GPUs tractable have consolidated GPUs as an alternative for accelerating general purpose applications. Among the areas that have beneffited from GPU acceleration are: signal and image processing, computational fluid dynamics, quantum chemistry, and, in general, the High Performance Computing (HPC) Industry. In order to continue to exploit higher levels of parallelism with GPUs, multi-GPU systems are gaining popularity. In this context, single-GPU applications are parallelized for running in multi-GPU systems. Furthermore, multi-GPU systems help to solve the GPU memory limitation for applications with large application memory footprint. Parallelizing single-GPU applications has been approached by libraries that distribute the workload at runtime, however, they impose execution overhead and are not portable. On the other hand, on traditional CPU systems, parallelization has been approached through application transformation at pre-compile time, which enhances the application to distribute the workload at application level and does not have the issues of library-based approaches. Hence, a parallelization scheme for GPU systems based on application transformation is needed. Like any computing engine of today, reliability is also a concern in GPUs. GPUs are vulnerable to transient and permanent failures. Current checkpoint/restart techniques are not suitable for systems with GPUs. Checkpointing for GPU systems present new and interesting challenges, primarily due to the natural differences imposed by the hardware design, the memory subsystem architecture, the massive number of threads, and the limited amount of synchronization among threads. Therefore, a checkpoint/restart technique suitable for GPU systems is needed. The goal of this work is to exploit higher levels of parallelism and to develop support for application-level fault tolerance in applications using multiple GPUs. Our techniques reduce the burden of enhancing single-GPU applications to support these features. To achieve our goal, this work designs and implements a framework for enhancing a single-GPU OpenCL application through application transformation.

  2. Anomalous compression behavior of germanium during phase transformation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, Xiaozhi; Tan, Dayong; Ren, Xiangting; Yang, Wenge E-mail: duanweihe@scu.edu.cn; He, Duanwei E-mail: duanweihe@scu.edu.cn; Mao, Ho-Kwang

    2015-04-27

    In this article, we present the abnormal compression and plastic behavior of germanium during the pressure-induced cubic diamond to β-tin structure transition. Between 8.6 GPa and 13.8 GPa, in which pressure range both phases are co-existing, first softening and followed by hardening for both phases were observed via synchrotron x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. These unusual behaviors can be interpreted as the volume misfit between different phases. Following Eshelby, the strain energy density reaches the maximum in the middle of the transition zone, where the switch happens from softening to hardening. Insight into these mechanical properties during phase transformation is relevant for the understanding of plasticity and compressibility of crystal materials when different phases coexist during a phase transition.

  3. Sparse matrix transform for fast projection to reduced dimension

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Theiler, James P; Cao, Guangzhi; Bouman, Charles A

    2010-01-01

    We investigate three algorithms that use the sparse matrix transform (SMT) to produce variance-maximizing linear projections to a lower-dimensional space. The SMT expresses the projection as a sequence of Givens rotations and this enables computationally efficient implementation of the projection operator. The baseline algorithm uses the SMT to directly approximate the optimal solution that is given by principal components analysis (PCA). A variant of the baseline begins with a standard SMT solution, but prunes the sequence of Givens rotations to only include those that contribute to the variance maximization. Finally, a simpler and faster third algorithm is introduced; this also estimates the projection operator with a sequence of Givens rotations, but in this case, the rotations are chosen to optimize a criterion that more directly expresses the dimension reduction criterion.

  4. Method and apparatus for calibrating a linear variable differential transformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pokrywka, Robert J.

    2005-01-18

    A calibration apparatus for calibrating a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) having an armature positioned in au LVDT armature orifice, and the armature able to move along an axis of movement. The calibration apparatus includes a heating mechanism with an internal chamber, a temperature measuring mechanism for measuring the temperature of the LVDT, a fixture mechanism with an internal chamber for at least partially accepting the LVDT and for securing the LVDT within the heating mechanism internal chamber, a moving mechanism for moving the armature, a position measurement mechanism for measuring the position of the armature, and an output voltage measurement mechanism. A method for calibrating an LVDT, including the steps of: powering the LVDT; heating the LVDT to a desired temperature; measuring the position of the armature with respect to the armature orifice; and measuring the output voltage of the LVDT.

  5. MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATIONS OF RADIONUCLIDES RELEASED FROM NUCLEAR FUEL REPROCESSING PLANTS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FRANCIS,A.J.

    2006-10-18

    Microorganisms can affect the stability and mobility of the actinides U, Pu, Cm, Am, Np, and the fission products Tc, I, Cs, Sr, released from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Under appropriate conditions, microorganisms can alter the chemical speciation, solubility and sorption properties and thus could increase or decrease the concentrations of radionuclides in solution and the bioavailability. Dissolution or immobilization of radionuclides is brought about by direct enzymatic action or indirect non-enzymatic action of microorganisms. Although the physical, chemical, and geochemical processes affecting dissolution, precipitation, and mobilization of radionuclides have been investigated, we have only limited information on the effects of microbial processes. The mechanisms of microbial transformations of the major and minor actinides and the fission products under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in the presence of electron donors and acceptors are reviewed.

  6. Photoacoustic transformation of Bessel light beams in magnetoactive superlattices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mityurich, G. S.; Chernenok, E. V.; Sviridova, V. V.; Serdyukov, A. N.

    2015-03-15

    Photoacoustic transformation of the TE mode of a Bessel light beam (BLB) has been studied for piezoelectric detection in short-period superlattices formed by magnetoactive crystals of bismuth germanate (Bi{sub 12}GeO{sub 20}) and bismuth silicate (Bi{sub 12}SiO{sub 20}) types. It is shown that the resulting signal amplitude can be controlled using optical schemes of BLB formation with a tunable cone angle. A resonant increase in the signal amplitude has been found in the megahertz range of modulation frequencies and its dependences on the BLB modulation frequency, geometric sizes of the two-layer structure and piezoelectric transducer, radial coordinate of the polarization BLB mode, and dissipative superlattice parameters are analyzed.

  7. Structural transformation of nickel hydroxide films during anodic oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crocker, R.W.; Muller, R.H.

    1992-05-01

    The transformation of anodically formed nickel hydroxide/oxy-hydroxide electrodes has been investigated. A mechanism is proposed for the anodic oxidation reaction, in which the reaction interface between the reduced and oxidized phases of the electrode evolves in a nodular topography that leads to inefficient utilization of the active electrode material. In the proposed nodular transformation model for the anodic oxidation reaction, nickel hydroxide is oxidized to nickel oxy-hydroxide in the region near the metal substrate. Since the nickel oxy-hydroxide is considerably more conductive than the surrounding nickel hydroxide, as further oxidation occurs, nodular features grow rapidly to the film/electrolyte interface. Upon emerging at the electrolyte interface, the reaction boundary between the nickel hydroxide and oxy-hydroxide phases spreads laterally across the film/electrolyte interface, creating an overlayer of nickel oxy-hydroxide and trapping uncharged regions of nickel hydroxide within the film. The nickel oxy-hydroxide overlayer surface facilitates the oxygen evolution side reaction. Scanning tunneling microscopy of the electrode in its charged state revealed evidence of 80 {endash} 100 Angstrom nickel oxy-hydroxide nodules in the nickel hydroxide film. In situ spectroscopic ellipsometer measurements of films held at various constant potentials agree quantitatively with optical models appropriate to the nodular growth and subsequent overgrowth of the nickel oxy-hydroxide phase. A two-dimensional, numerical finite difference model was developed to simulate the current distribution along the phase boundary between the charged and uncharged material. The model was used to explore the effects of the physical parameters that govern the electrode behavior. The ratio of the conductivities of the nickel hydroxide and oxy-hydroxide phases was found to be the dominant parameter in the system.

  8. Buying market transformation -- A cautionary tale from the Northwest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baylon, D.; Davis, B.; Hewes, T.

    1998-07-01

    Beginning in April 1992, Pacific Northwest utilities, the Bonneville Power Administration, and eighteen manufactured home (HUD-code) builders undertook a large-scale experiment. Manufacturers were paid acquisition payments (initially $2,500/home) to install better insulation and windows in new electrically-heated homes. This resulted in homes 60% more efficient than HUD regulations dictated. Initial production projections of 10,000 homes per year were easily exceeded, with 94% of the manufactured homes (55,000) built to these standards during the 3.5 year program. During the Manufactured Housing Acquisition Program (MAP), production and on-site installation standards improved significantly. Manufactured homes made inroads into new construction markets, accounting for about 30% of regional production of new housing and competing with low- to mid-priced site-built homes in some areas. The market was transformed. Or was it? Two years have passed since the incentives stopped and the participating manufacturers were left to fend for themselves. Since MAP ended, production of homes built to the higher BPA Super Good Cents (SGC) energy efficiency standards has dropped throughout the region. The state energy offices (SEOs) have maintained an SGC inspection and certification program for which manufacturers pay $30/home, which has helped energy-efficient manufactured homes retain market share in some localities. However, where local codes do not require strict levels of energy efficiency for new homes, saturation of energy-efficient manufactured homes has declined dramatically. This paper examines factors affecting market transformation since the cessation of direct incentives, including fuel choice issues and the effects of state codes on production, infrastructure and sitting levels.

  9. ARPA-E Announces $43 Million for Transformational Energy Storage Projects

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to Advance Electric Vehicle and Grid Technologies | Department of Energy $43 Million for Transformational Energy Storage Projects to Advance Electric Vehicle and Grid Technologies ARPA-E Announces $43 Million for Transformational Energy Storage Projects to Advance Electric Vehicle and Grid Technologies August 2, 2012 - 10:34am Addthis News Media Contact (202) 586-4940 WASHINGTON - The Department of Energy today announced that 19 transformative new projects will receive a total of $43 million

  10. Large Power Transformers and the U.S. Electric Grid Report Update (April

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2014) | Department of Energy Large Power Transformers and the U.S. Electric Grid Report Update (April 2014) Large Power Transformers and the U.S. Electric Grid Report Update (April 2014) The Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability has released an update to its 2012 Large Power Transformers and the U.S. Electric Grid report. The new report includes updated information about global electrical steel supply conditions and discusses the increased domestic production of large power

  11. Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: Transformations, Inc.

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Net Zero Energy Communities (Fact Sheet) | Department of Energy Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: Transformations, Inc. Net Zero Energy Communities (Fact Sheet) Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: Transformations, Inc. Net Zero Energy Communities (Fact Sheet) In 2009, Transformations, Inc. partnered with the Building Science Corporation team to build new net zero energy houses in three developments in Massachusetts that achieve a 45% reduction in energy

  12. Transformative Reduction of Transportation Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Opportunities for Change in Technologies and Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Department of Energy Transform, Protect and Advance - DOE's IT Modernization Strategy Transform, Protect and Advance - DOE's IT Modernization Strategy September 5, 2012 - 12:57pm Addthis The Obama Administration's Digital Government Strategy provides a vision for a 21st century government that lays a strong foundation for modernizing technology services across the Federal Government. At Energy, we're implementing a three-pillar approach -- Transform, Protect and Advance - as part of this

  13. An In Situ Study of the Martensitic Transformation in Shape Memory Alloys Using Photoemission Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, Mingdong; Langford, Stephen C.; Dickinson, J. T.; Xiong, Gang; Droubay, Timothy C.; Joly, Alan G.; Beck, Kenneth M.; Hess, Wayne P.

    2007-04-15

    Thermally-induced martensitic phase transformations in polycrystalline CuZnAl and thin-film NiTiCu shape memory alloys were probed using photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM). Ultra-violet photoelectron spectroscopy shows a reversible change in the apparent work function during transformation, presumably due to the contrasting surface electronic structures of the martensite and austenite phases. In situ PEEM images provide information on the spatial distribution of these phases and the evolution of the surface microstructure during transformation. PEEM offers considerable potential for improving our understanding of martensitic transformations in shape memory alloys in real time.

  14. Parallel 3D Fast Fourier Transform Functions () | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Software: Parallel 3D Fast Fourier Transform Functions Citation Details Software Request Title: Parallel 3D Fast Fourier Transform Functions BigFFT is a scalable implementation of a three dimensional Fast Fourier Transform operation. Functions are included for forward and backward real-to-complex 3D transforms. Authors: Draeger, E. W. Publication Date: 2008-12-19 OSTI Identifier: 1253287 Report Number(s): BIGFFT; 002516WKSTN00 LLNL-CODE-432558 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC52-07NA27344 Software

  15. Update to Large Power Transformers and the U.S. Electric Grid...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Delivery and Energy Reliability has released an update to its 2012 Large Power Transformers and the U.S. Electric Grid report. The new report includes updated information...

  16. OE Requests Comments on Potential Creation of a Reserve of Large Power Transformers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    OE issued a Request for Information (RFI), asking for comments on the possible establishment of a reserve of large power transformers that would support the nation’s bulk power system. Large power transformers (LPTs), which are a critical component of the power grid, are a concern because transformer failures can interrupt electricity service to a large number of customers and replacing one quickly could be difficult. Today’s RFI responds to the recommendation in the Energy Department’s Quadrennial Energy Review to evaluate a national initiative to mitigate the risks associated with the loss of transformers.

  17. The feasibility of replacing or upgrading utility distribution transformers during routine maintenance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, P.R.; Van Dyke, J.W.; McConnell, B.W.; Cohn, S.M.; Purucker, S.L.

    1995-04-01

    It is estimated that electric utilities use about 40 million distribution transformers in supplying electricity to customers in the United States. Although utility distribution transformers collectively have a high average efficiency, they account for approximately 61 billion kWh of the 229 billion kWh of energy lost annually in the delivery of electricity. Distribution transformers are being replaced over time by new, more efficient, lower-loss units during routine utility maintenance of power distribution systems. Maintenance is typically not performed on units in service. However, units removed from service with appreciable remaining life are often refurbished and returned to stock. Distribution transformers may be removed from service for many reasons, including failure, over- or underloading, or line upgrades such as voltage changes or rerouting. When distribution transformers are removed from service, a decision must be made whether to dispose of the transformer and purchase a lower-loss replacement or to refurbish the transformer and return it to stock for future use. This report contains findings and recommendations on replacing utility distribution transformers during routine maintenance, which is required by section 124(c) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. The objectives of the study are to evaluate the practicability, cost-effectiveness, and potential energy savings of replacing or upgrading existing transformers during routine utility maintenance and to develop recommendations on was to achieve the potential energy savings.

  18. Shape-memory transformations of NiTi: Minimum-energy pathways...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Accepted Manuscript: Shape-memory transformations of NiTi: Minimum-energy pathways between austenite, martensites, and kinetically limited intermediate states Title: Shape-memory ...

  19. Introduction to Control Theory. Part 2. Laplace Transforms and Linear Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheinker, Alexander

    2015-09-11

    Presentation for summer students. Start by considering linear differential equations, and how to solve them. The Laplace Transform is a great tool for solving linear differential equations.

  20. Update to Large Power Transformers and the U.S. Electric Grid Report Now Available

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability has released an update to its 2012 Large Power Transformers and the U.S. Electric Grid report.

  1. Phase-field modeling of the beta to omega phase transformation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The microstructure evolution during athermal transformation as well as under different ... on the microstructure evolution as well as on the mechanical properties are studied. ...

  2. Y-12 National Security Complex's Sustainable Recovery and Transformation - 12420

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, Jan; Widman, Jeannette

    2012-07-01

    American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds were used at the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) to remove legacy materials from large contaminated excess facilities in order to prepare the facilities for demolition, demolish five excess buildings, and clean up sources of environmental contamination. The legacy materials and buildings presented many challenges and the potential hazards included depleted uranium and other radiological contaminants, lead, polychlorinated biphenyls, Freon, mold, mildew, asbestos, beryllium and mercury. Y-12 project teams have integrated sustainable waste management practices into each of the seven ARRA projects. The ARRA clean up efforts have resulted in the reduction of potential environmental, health, and safety risks posed by the excess facilities and sources of environmental contamination. Y-12's ARRA project teams focused on completing the activities in a sustainable, timely and safe manner. The site utilized a systematic material disposition evaluation process to ensure that materials were not automatically dis-positioned as waste. ARRA projects have recycled or reused over 1.3 million pounds of materials while preventing over 3 million vehicle miles traveled for waste disposal. Y-12 ARRA projects have worked over 2 million safe work hours without a lost time injury. The site has already begun to beneficially reuse land cleared by ARRA project activities to support sustainable transformation efforts. The Y-12 ARRA project activities have demonstrated that large complex projects can be completed sustainably and safely while maintaining an aggressive schedule. Through careful planning and execution, ARRA projects at the site have sustainably reduced the potential environmental, health, and safety risks posed to site employees and the community by the excess facilities and sources of environmental contamination. Y-12's systematic material disposition process ensured that materials were not automatically assumed to be wastes and facilitated the evaluation of all unneeded materials for reuse or recycling. The site's pervasive pollution prevention culture is reflected in the recycling or reuse of over 1.3 million pounds of materials by the ARRA project teams. While the disposal of a large volume of ARRA wastes could not be avoided, the projects were able to reduce the local and national impacts of waste transportation and disposal through careful planning and efficient execution. The site has conserved natural resources through the preservation and beneficial reuse of materials and land cleared by ARRA activities. Y-12 has taken steps to preserve its history as the site undergoes a sustainable and safe transformation for the future. (authors)

  3. Hexagonal phase transformation in the engineered scavenger compound lithium titanate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collins, W.K.; Riley, W.D.; Jong, B.W.

    1993-01-01

    Engineered scavenger compounds (ESC's) developed by the US Bureau of Mines are a novel class of compounds that selectively can recover a desired element from a solid or molten alloy. Lithium titanate (Li[sub 2]Ti[sub 3]O[sub 7] or Li[sub 2]O [center dot] 3TiO[sub 2]) is used as an ESC to recover lithium (Li) from aluminum-lithium (Al-Li) alloys. X-ray diffraction measurements have shown that Li[sub 2]Ti[sub 3]O[sub 7] undergoes a phase change during scavenging from an orthorhombic structure to a hexagonal structure. This change is due to the incorporation of lithium in the matrix of the material and the effect of temperature. Although both phases are metastable, the hexagonal phase that forms during the scavenging of lithium from Al-Li alloys appears to be the more stable phase. Recovering lithium from the ESC by electrodeposition does not cause the structure to revert to the orthorhombic phase. The orthorhombic and the hexagonal structures of Li[sub 2]Ti[sub 3]O[sub 7] have similar scavenging capacities for lithium. This report proposes a new mechanism for the phase transformation.

  4. Single beam Fourier transform digital holographic quantitative phase microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anand, A. Chhaniwal, V. K.; Mahajan, S.; Trivedi, V.; Faridian, A.; Pedrini, G.; Osten, W.; Dubey, S. K.; Javidi, B.

    2014-03-10

    Quantitative phase contrast microscopy reveals thickness or height information of a biological or technical micro-object under investigation. The information obtained from this process provides a means to study their dynamics. Digital holographic (DH) microscopy is one of the most used, state of the art single-shot quantitative techniques for three dimensional imaging of living cells. Conventional off axis DH microscopy directly provides phase contrast images of the objects. However, this process requires two separate beams and their ratio adjustment for high contrast interference fringes. Also the use of two separate beams may make the system more vulnerable to vibrations. Single beam techniques can overcome these hurdles while remaining compact as well. Here, we describe the development of a single beam DH microscope providing whole field imaging of micro-objects. A hologram of the magnified object projected on to a diffuser co-located with a pinhole is recorded with the use of a commercially available diode laser and an arrayed sensor. A Fourier transform of the recorded hologram directly yields the complex amplitude at the image plane. The method proposed was investigated using various phase objects. It was also used to image the dynamics of human red blood cells in which sub-micrometer level thickness variation were measurable.

  5. Liquid chromatography/Fourier transform IR spectrometry interface flow cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, C.C.; Taylor, L.T.

    1985-01-04

    A zero dead volume (ZDV) microbore high performance liquid chromatography (..mu.. HPLC)/Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) interface flow cell includes an IR transparent crystal having a small diameter bore therein through which a sample liquid is passed. The interface flow cell further includes a metal holder in combination with a pair of inner, compressible seals for directly coupling the thus configured spectrometric flow cell to the outlet of a ..mu.. HPLC column end fitting to minimize the transfer volume of the effluents exiting the ..mu.. HPLC column which exhibit excellent flow characteristics due to the essentially unencumbered, open-flow design. The IR beam passes transverse to the sample flow through the circular bore within the IR transparent crystal, which is preferably comprised of potassium bromide (KBr) or calcium fluoride (CaF/sub 2/), so as to minimize interference patterns and vignetting encountered in conventional parallel-plate IR cells. The long IR beam pathlength and lensing effect of the circular cross-section of the sample volume in combination with the refractive index differences between the solvent and the transparent crystal serve to focus the IR beam in enhancing sample detection sensitivity by an order of magnitude.

  6. Liquid chromatography/Fourier transform IR spectrometry interface flow cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Charles C.; Taylor, Larry T.

    1986-01-01

    A zero dead volume (ZDV) microbore high performance liquid chromatography (.mu.HPLC)/Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) interface flow cell includes an IR transparent crystal having a small diameter bore therein through which a sample liquid is passed. The interface flow cell further includes a metal holder in combination with a pair of inner, compressible seals for directly coupling the thus configured spectrometric flow cell to the outlet of a .mu.HPLC column end fitting to minimize the transfer volume of the effluents exiting the .mu.HPLC column which exhibit excellent flow characteristics due to the essentially unencumbered, open-flow design. The IR beam passes transverse to the sample flow through the circular bore within the IR transparent crystal, which is preferably comprised of potassium bromide (KBr) or calcium fluoride (CaF.sub.2), so as to minimize interference patterns and vignetting encountered in conventional parallel-plate IR cells. The long IR beam pathlength and lensing effect of the circular cross-section of the sample volume in combination with the refractive index differences between the solvent and the transparent crystal serve to focus the IR beam in enhancing sample detection sensitivity by an order of magnitude.

  7. Diagnostic and Prognostic Models for Generator Step-Up Transformers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vivek Agarwal; Nancy J. Lybeck; Binh T. Pham

    2014-09-01

    In 2014, the online monitoring (OLM) of active components project under the Light Water Reactor Sustainability program at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) focused on diagnostic and prognostic capabilities for generator step-up transformers. INL worked with subject matter experts from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to augment and revise the GSU fault signatures previously implemented in the Electric Power Research Institute’s (EPRI’s) Fleet-Wide Prognostic and Health Management (FW-PHM) Suite software. Two prognostic models were identified and implemented for GSUs in the FW-PHM Suite software. INL and EPRI demonstrated the use of prognostic capabilities for GSUs. The complete set of fault signatures developed for GSUs in the Asset Fault Signature Database of the FW-PHM Suite for GSUs is presented in this report. Two prognostic models are described for paper insulation: the Chendong model for degree of polymerization, and an IEEE model that uses a loading profile to calculates life consumption based on hot spot winding temperatures. Both models are life consumption models, which are examples of type II prognostic models. Use of the models in the FW-PHM Suite was successfully demonstrated at the 2014 August Utility Working Group Meeting, Idaho Falls, Idaho, to representatives from different utilities, EPRI, and the Halden Research Project.

  8. A transmission-loss monitor using current transformers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Power, J.F.; Gilpatrick, J.D.; Jason, A.J.

    1993-12-01

    A system for measuring the amount of beam-charge loss in a linear-accelerator structure has been developed that uses a pair of beam-current transformers, otherwise used to monitor the linac beam current. This system is necessary to enable the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA) fast-protect system to shut off the accelerated beam in the event of a beam loss that would deposit sufficient energy to damage the accelerator structure. The present GTA accelerator consists of a 2.5-MeV, H{sup {minus}} RFQ, an intermediate matching section (IMS) and a single DTL cavity with an output energy of 3.2-MeV and transmitted current of 35 mA. Based on the RFQ output beam, melting of the copper structures will occur when about 40 nC of beam is deposited in a point loss. For a grazing angle of 30 mrad, up to 640 nC may be tolerated. The beam-current-transmission-loss monitor (BCTLM) system in conjunction with the fast-protect system measures the amount of beam loss between two toroidal beam-current monitors and automatically terminates the macropulse when the integrated loss reaches a predetermined set point. The design and operation of the BCTLM system used in the IMS and DTL section of the accelerator is described.

  9. Integration of planar transformer and/or planar inductor with power switches in power converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Kanghua; Ahmed, Sayeed; Zhu, Lizhi

    2007-10-30

    A power converter integrates at least one planar transformer comprising a multi-layer transformer substrate and/or at least one planar inductor comprising a multi-layer inductor substrate with a number of power semiconductor switches physically and thermally coupled to a heat sink via one or more multi-layer switch substrates.

  10. EIS-0236-S4: Final Complex Transformation Supplemental Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Complex Transformation Supplemental Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (SPEIS) analyzes the potential environmental impacts of reasonable alternatives to continue transformation of the nuclear weapons complex to be smaller, and more responsive, efficient, and secure in order to meet national security requirements.

  11. Microstructure of warm rolling and pearlitic transformation of ultrafine-grained GCr15 steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Jun-Jie; Lian, Fu-Liang; Liu, Hong-Ji; Jiang, Tao; Guo, Sheng-Wu; Du, Lin-Xiu; Liu, Yong-Ning

    2014-09-15

    Pearlitic transformation mechanisms have been investigated in ultra-fine grained GCr15 steel. The ultrafine-grained steel, whose grain size was less than 1 ?m, was prepared by thermo-mechanical treatment at 873 K and then annealing at 923 K for 2 h. Pearlitic transformation was conducted by reheating the ultra-fine grained samples at 1073 K and 1123 K for different periods of time and then cooling in air. Scanning electron microscope observation shows that normal lamellar pearlite, instead of granular cementite and ferrite, cannot be formed when the grain size is approximately less than 4( 0.6) ?m, which yields a critical grain size for normal lamellar pearlitic transformations in this chromium alloyed steel. The result confirms that grain size has a great influence on pearlitic transformation by increasing the diffusion rate of carbon atoms in the ultra-fine grained steel, and the addition of chromium element doesn't change this pearlitic phase transformation rule. Meanwhile, the grain growth rate is reduced by chromium alloying, which is beneficial to form fine grains during austenitizing, thus it facilitating pearlitic transformation by divorced eutectoid transformation. Moreover, chromium element can form a relatively high gradient in the frontier of the undissolved carbide, which promotes carbide formation in the frontier of the undissolved carbide, i.e., chromium promotes divorced eutectoid transformation. - Highlights: Ultrafine-grained GCr15 steel was obtained by warm rolling and annealing technology. Reduction of grain size makes pearlite morphology from lamellar to granular. Adding Cr does not change normal pearlitic phase transformation rule in UFG steel. Cr carbide resists grain growth and facilitates pearlitic transformation by DET.

  12. Building Structural Complexity in Semiconductor Nanocrystals through Chemical Transformations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sadtler, Bryce F

    2009-05-20

    Methods are presented for synthesizing nanocrystal heterostructures comprised of two semiconductor materials epitaxially attached within individual nanostructures. The chemical transformation of cation exchange, where the cations within the lattice of an ionic nanocrystal are replaced with a different metal ion species, is used to alter the chemical composition at specific regions ofa nanocrystal. Partial cation exchange was performed in cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanorods of well-defined size and shape to examine the spatial organization of materials within the resulting nanocrystal heterostructures. The selectivity for cation exchange to take place at different facets of the nanocrystal plays an important role in determining the resulting morphology of the binary heterostructure. The exchange of copper (I) (Cu+) cations in CdS nanorods occurs preferentially at the ends of the nanorods. Theoretical modeling of epitaxial attachments between different facets of CdS and Cu2S indicate that the selectivity for cation exchange at the ends of the nanorods is a result of the low formation energy of the interfaces produced. During silver (I) (Ag+) cation exchange in CdS nanorods, non-selective nucleation of silver sulfide (Ag2S), followed by partial phase segregation leads to significant changes in the spatial arrangement of CdS and Ag2S regions at the exchange reaction proceeds through the nanocrystal. A well-ordered striped pattern of alternating CdS and Ag2S segments is found at intermediate fractions of exchange. The forces mediating this spontaneous process are a combination of Ostwald ripening to reduce the interfacial area along with a strain-induced repulsive interaction between Ag2S segments. To elucidate why Cu+ and Ag+ cation exchange with CdS nanorods produce different morphologies, models for epitaxial attachments between various facets of CdS with Cu2S or Ag2S lattices were used to calculate interface formation energies. The formation energies indicate the favorability for interface nucleation at different facets of the nanorod and the stability of the interfaces during growth of the secondary material (Cu2S or Ag2S) within the CdS nanocrystal. The physical properties of the CdS-Ag2S and CdS-Cu2S binary nanorods are discussed in terms of the electronic structure of their components and the heterostructure morphology.

  13. Transmission level instrument transformers and transient event recorders characterization for harmonic measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meliopoulos, A.P.S.; Zhang, Fan ); Cokkinides, G.J. ); Coffeen, L.; Burnett, R.; McBride, J. ); Zelingher, S.; Stillman, G.

    1993-07-01

    This paper presents a technique for laboratory characterization of instrument transformers designed for transmission level voltage and current measurements. The technique is also extended to Transient Event Recorders (TERs). The objective of the method is to determine the suitability of existing substation instrument transformers for harmonic measurements, particularly in the frequency range of 60 to 1500 Hz covering the first 25 harmonics. Specifically, the following characteristics are of interest in the frequency range of 60 to 1500 Hz: transfer function magnitude and phase, linearity, and sensitivity of the frequency response to burdens. The measurement technique is based on exciting the instrument transformer primary with an impulsive waveform. Both input and output waveforms are recorded using laboratory grade probes and digitizers. Subsequently, digital signal processing techniques are used to compute the instrument transformer frequency response. Several voltage transformers (both PTs and CCVTs) and current transformers in the 230kV-765kV voltage range were tested. The results of these tests are described in the paper. Conclusions are presented regarding the suitability of the instrument transformers and transient event recorders for harmonic measurement and the requirements for such a system. A quantitative analysis of the measurement accuracy and software based methods to enhance the measurement accuracy is also presented.

  14. Methods for transforming and expression screening of filamentous fungal cells with a DNA library

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Teter, Sarah; Lamsa, Michael; Cherry, Joel; Ward, Connie

    2015-06-02

    The present invention relates to methods for expression screening of filamentous fungal transformants, comprising: (a) isolating single colony transformants of a DNA library introduced into E. coli; (b) preparing DNA from each of the single colony E. coli transformants; (c) introducing a sample of each of the DNA preparations of step (b) into separate suspensions of protoplasts of a filamentous fungus to obtain transformants thereof, wherein each transformant contains one or more copies of an individual polynucleotide from the DNA library; (d) growing the individual filamentous fungal transformants of step (c) on selective growth medium, thereby permitting growth of the filamentous fungal transformants, while suppressing growth of untransformed filamentous fungi; and (e) measuring activity or a property of each polypeptide encoded by the individual polynucleotides. The present invention also relates to isolated polynucleotides encoding polypeptides of interest obtained by such methods, to nucleic acid constructs, expression vectors, and recombinant host cells comprising the isolated polynucleotides, and to methods of producing the polypeptides encoded by the isolated polynucleotides.

  15. A scoping study on energy-efficiency market transformation by California Utility DSM Programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eto, J.; Prahl, R.; Schlegel, J.

    1996-07-01

    Market transformation has emerged as a central policy objective for future publicly-funded energy-efficiency programs in California. California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) Decision 95-12-063 calls for public funding to shift to activities designed to transform the energy-efficiency market. The CPUC envisions that funding {open_quotes}would only be needed for specific and limited periods of time to cause the market to be transformed{close_quotes}. At the same time, the CPUC also acknowledges that {open_quotes}there are many definitions of market transformation{close_quotes} ... and does {open_quotes}not attempt to refine those definitions today{close_quotes}. We argue that a definition of market transformation is essential. The literature is now replete with definitions, and an operational definition is needed for the CPUC to decide on which programs should be supported with public funds. The CPUC decision initially indicated a preference for programs that do not provide financial assistance 4-efficiency programs that rely on financial assistance to customers. However, energy customers have traditionally accounted for a substantial portion of California utility`s DSM programs, so the CPUC`s direction to use ratepayer funds to support programs that will transform the market raises critical questions about how to analyze what has happened in order to plan effectively for the future: Which utility energy-efficiency programs, including those that provide financial assistance to customers, have had market transforming effects? To what extent do current regulatory rules and practices encourage or discourage utilities from running programs that are designed to transform the market? Should the rules and programs be modified, and, if so, how, to promote market transformation?

  16. Phase-field modeling of the beta to omega phase transformation in Zr-Nb

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    alloys (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Phase-field modeling of the beta to omega phase transformation in Zr-Nb alloys Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Phase-field modeling of the beta to omega phase transformation in Zr-Nb alloys A three-dimensional elastoplastic phase-field model is developed, using the finite element method (FEM), for modeling the athermal beta to omega phase transformation in Zr-Nb alloys by including plastic deformation and strain hardening of the material.

  17. Phase-field modeling of the beta to omega phase transformation in Zr-Nb

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    alloys (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Phase-field modeling of the beta to omega phase transformation in Zr-Nb alloys Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Phase-field modeling of the beta to omega phase transformation in Zr-Nb alloys A three-dimensional elastoplastic phase-field model is developed, using the Finite Element Method (FEM), for modeling the athermal beta to omega phase transformation in Zr-Nb alloys by including plastic deformation and strain hardening of the material.

  18. Magnetostructural phase transformations in Tb 1-x Mn 2 (Journal Article) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Magnetostructural phase transformations in Tb 1-x Mn 2 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Magnetostructural phase transformations in Tb 1-x Mn 2 Magnetism and phase transformations in non-stoichiometric Tb1-xMn2 (x = 0.056, 0.039) have been studied as functions of temperature and magnetic field using magnetization, heat capacity, and X-ray powder diffraction measurements. Lowering the temperature, the compounds

  19. Sign reversal of transformation entropy change in Co{sub 2}Cr(Ga,Si) shape

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    memory alloys (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Sign reversal of transformation entropy change in Co{sub 2}Cr(Ga,Si) shape memory alloys Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Sign reversal of transformation entropy change in Co{sub 2}Cr(Ga,Si) shape memory alloys In situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements and compression tests were performed on Co{sub 2}Cr(Ga,Si) shape memory alloys. The reentrant martensitic transformation behavior was directly observed during the in situ XRD

  20. Phase transformations of nano-sized cubic boron nitride to white graphene and white graphite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dang, Hongli; Liu, Yingdi; Xue, Wenhua; Anderson, Ryan S.; Sewell, Cody R.; Xue, Sha; Crunkleton, Daniel W.; Shen, Yaogen; Wang, Sanwu

    2014-03-03

    We report quantum-mechanical investigations that predict the formation of white graphene and nano-sized white graphite from the first-order phase transformations of nano-sized boron nitride thin-films. The phase transformations from the nano-sized diamond-like structure, when the thickness d > 1.4 nm, to the energetically more stable nano-sized white graphite involve low activation energies of less than 1.0 eV. On the other hand, the diamond-like structure transforms spontaneously to white graphite when d ≤ 1.4 nm. In particular, the two-dimensional structure with single-layer boron nitride, the so-called white graphene, could be formed as a result of such transformation.

  1. Shape-memory transformations of NiTi: Minimum-energy pathways...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Using a generalized solid-state nudge elastic band (GSSNEB) method implemented via density-functional theory, we detail the structural transformations in NiTi relevant to shape ...

  2. TIME Magazine Profiles Transformative Work by DOE and the Recovery Act

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In case you missed it, TIME magazine published a feature story last week about the incredible, transformative work being done by the Department of Energy through the Recovery Act.

  3. Transformations in Lighting: The Eighth Annual Solid-State Lighting R&D Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    More than 350 researchers, manufacturers, and other industry insiders and observers gathered in San Diego February 1–3, 2011, to participate in DOE's "Transformations in Lighting" Solid-State Lighting (SSL) R&D Workshop.

  4. Novel enabling technologies of gene isolation and plant transformation for improved crop protection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torok, Tamas

    2013-02-04

    Meeting the needs of agricultural producers requires the continued development of improved transgenic crop protection products. The completed project focused on developing novel enabling technologies of gene discovery and plant transformation to facilitate the generation of such products.

  5. Linking Transformational Materials and Processing for an Energy-Efficient and Low-Carbon Economy, 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, Warren H.; Brindle, Ross; James, Mallory; Justiniano, Mauricio; Sabouni, Ridah; Seader, Melanie; Ruch, Jennifer; Andres, Howard; Zafar, Muhammad

    2010-06-01

    The Energy Materials Blue Ribbon Panel, representing experts from industry, academia, and government, identifies new materials and processing breakthroughs that could lead to transformational advances in energy efficiency, energy security, and carbon reduction.

  6. Method for distinguishing normal and transformed cells using G1 kinase inhibitors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crissman, H.A.; Gadbois, D.M.; Tobey, R.A.; Bradbury, E.M.

    1993-02-09

    A G[sub 1] phase kinase inhibitor is applied in a low concentration to a population of normal and transformed mammalian cells. The concentration of G[sub 1] phase kinase inhibitor is selected to reversibly arrest normal mammalian cells in the G[sub 1] cell cycle without arresting growth of transformed cells. The transformed cells may then be selectively identified and/or cloned for research or diagnostic purposes. The transformed cells may also be selectively killed by therapeutic agents that do not affect normal cells in the G[sub 1] phase, suggesting that such G[sub 1] phase kinase inhibitors may form an effective adjuvant for use with chemotherapeutic agents in cancer therapy for optimizing the killing dose of chemotherapeutic agents while minimizing undesirable side effects on normal cells.

  7. Project Profile: Transformational Approach to Reducing the Total System Costs of Building-Integrated Photovoltaics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Dow Chemical Company, under the BOS-X funding opportunity, has launched a transformational product in the building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) industry: the Dow POWERHOUSE Solar Shingle.

  8. Transformations in Lighting: The Ninth Annual Solid-State Lighting R&D Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Nearly 300 researchers, manufacturers, and other industry insiders and observers gathered in Atlanta January 31–February 2, 2012, to participate in DOE's "Transformations in Lighting" Solid-State Lighting (SSL) R&D Workshop.

  9. Method for distinguishing normal and transformed cells using G1 kinase inhibitors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crissman, Harry A.; Gadbois, Donna M.; Tobey, Robert A.; Bradbury, E. Morton

    1993-01-01

    A G.sub.1 phase kinase inhibitor is applied in a low concentration to a population of normal and transformed mammalian cells. The concentration of G.sub.1 phase kinase inhibitor is selected to reversibly arrest normal mammalian cells in the G.sub.1 cell cycle without arresting growth of transformed cells. The transformed cells may then be selectively identified and/or cloned for research or diagnostic purposes. The transformed cells may also be selectively killed by therapeutic agents that do not affect normal cells in the G.sub.1 phase, suggesting that such G.sub.1 phase kinase inhibitors may form an effective adjuvant for use with chemotherapeutic agents in cancer therapy for optimizing the killing dose of chemotherapeutic agents while minimizing undesirable side effects on normal cells.

  10. Clean Energy Policies Analysis: The Role of Policy in Clean Energy Market Transformation (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doris, E.

    2010-11-01

    This presentation was written and presented by Elizabeth Doris (NREL) at the November 17 TAP Webinar to provide background detail about how state policies are transforming the clean energy market in different regions of the country.

  11. Extraction and transformation of proton beam at RHIC using bent crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nurushev, S.B.; Krivosheev, O.E.; Pivovarov, Y.L.; Potylitsin, A.P.

    1995-09-01

    The effect of transformation of polarization of relativistic protons using extraction and deflection by bent crystal is investigated by means of computer simulation. The 250 {ital GeV}/{ital c} proton beam from RHIC can be deflected to an angle, {theta}{sub {ital p}}=3 mrad with simultaneous transformation of initial longitudinal polarization to transverse polarization. {copyright} {ital 1995 American Institute of Physics.}

  12. X-ray diffraction study of the phase transformations in NiTi shape memory alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uchil, J.; Fernandes, F.M. Braz . E-mail: kkmahesh@rediffmail.com

    2007-03-15

    The phase transformations occurring in heat-treated NiTi shape memory alloys have been studied through the analysis of variation in integrated peak area (integrated intensity) with temperature, under the XRD peak profiles in the transformation temperature range. For this purpose, integrated peak area under the prominent peak corresponding to (110) plane of the austenitic phase has been chosen. The results so obtained are compared with those got from the DSC method. The XRD method is found to be more sensitive.

  13. Holistic data analysis and modeling poised to transform protein X-ray

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    crystallography Protein X-ray crystallography Holistic data analysis and modeling poised to transform protein X-ray crystallography A new 3-D modeling and data-extraction technique is about to transform the field of X-ray crystallography. March 29, 2016 Conventional protein X-ray diffraction images are processed to remove the sharp Bragg reflections, producing noisy images of diffuse intensity (left). Images from multiple crystal orientations are integrated into a 3-D dataset in which the

  14. Role of grain size on the martensitic transformation and ultra-fast

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    superelasticity in shape memory alloys (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES Role of grain size on the martensitic transformation and ultra-fast superelasticity in shape memory alloys This content will become publicly available on May 30, 2017 « Prev Next » Title: Role of grain size on the martensitic transformation and ultra-fast superelasticity in shape memory alloys Authors: Morrison, Keith R. ; Cherukara, Mathew J. ; Kim, Hojin ; Strachan, Alejandro Publication Date: 2015-08-01 OSTI

  15. Comments of the Institute for Market Transformation on the Dept. of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy's Energy Efficiency and Sustainable Design Standards for New Federal Buildings: Notice of Proposed Rulemaking | Department of Energy Institute for Market Transformation on the Dept. of Energy's Energy Efficiency and Sustainable Design Standards for New Federal Buildings: Notice of Proposed Rulemaking Comments of the Institute for Market Transformation on the Dept. of Energy's Energy Efficiency and Sustainable Design Standards for New Federal Buildings: Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

  16. Symmetry transformation in the problem of the conductivity of anisotropic composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balagurov, B. Ya.

    2013-11-15

    A transformation of the coordinates, current density, and electric field strength has been proposed such that holds the direct-current equations. One of the components of a composite can be made isotropic by choosing the coefficients of the transformation. This allows the generalization of the standard theory of the effective medium to the case of an anisotropic composite with inclusions of an arbitrary shape.

  17. Shape-memory transformations of NiTi: Minimum-energy pathways between

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    austenite, martensites, and kinetically limited intermediate states (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES Shape-memory transformations of NiTi: Minimum-energy pathways between austenite, martensites, and kinetically limited intermediate states Title: Shape-memory transformations of NiTi: Minimum-energy pathways between austenite, martensites, and kinetically limited intermediate states NiTi is the most used shape-memory alloy, nonetheless, a lack of understanding remains regarding the associated

  18. The Fuel Cell Mobile Light Project - A DOE Market Transformation Activity |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy The Fuel Cell Mobile Light Project - A DOE Market Transformation Activity The Fuel Cell Mobile Light Project - A DOE Market Transformation Activity Download the presentation slides from the Fuel Cell Technologies Program webinar, "Fuel Cell Mobile Lighting," held on November 13, 2012. PDF icon Fuel Cell Mobile Lighting Webinar Slides More Documents & Publications DOE/Boeing Sponsored Projects in Aviation Fuel Cell Technology at Sandia Fuel Cell Product

  19. Louisiana Company Makes Switch to CNG, Helps Transform Local Fuel Supplies

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Louisiana Company Makes Switch to CNG, Helps Transform Local Fuel Supplies Louisiana Company Makes Switch to CNG, Helps Transform Local Fuel Supplies April 23, 2014 - 1:43pm Addthis Shreveport, Louisiana's first public heavy duty CNG fueling station officially opened on Earth Day. | Photo courtesy of Ivan Smith Furniture Shreveport, Louisiana's first public heavy duty CNG fueling station officially opened on Earth Day. | Photo courtesy of Ivan Smith Furniture Cedric

  20. Temperature-driven phase transformation in Y3Co: Neutron scattering and

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    first-principles studies (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Temperature-driven phase transformation in Y3Co: Neutron scattering and first-principles studies Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Temperature-driven phase transformation in Y3Co: Neutron scattering and first-principles studies Authors: Podlesnyak, A. ; Ehlers, G. ; Cao, H. ; Matsuda, M. ; Frontzek, M. ; Zaharko, O. ; Kazantsev, V. A. ; Gubkin, A. F. ; Baranov, N. V. Publication Date: 2013-07-26 OSTI Identifier: 1104316

  1. The kinetics of the [omega] to [alpha] phase transformation in Zr, Ti:

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Analysis of data from shock-recovered samples and atomistic simulations (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect The kinetics of the [omega] to [alpha] phase transformation in Zr, Ti: Analysis of data from shock-recovered samples and atomistic simulations Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The kinetics of the [omega] to [alpha] phase transformation in Zr, Ti: Analysis of data from shock-recovered samples and atomistic simulations Authors: Zong, Hongxiang ; Lookman, Turab ; Ding, Xiangdong

  2. Thin-film lithiation structural transformations imaged in situ by liquid

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    cell transmission electron microscopy. (Conference) | SciTech Connect Thin-film lithiation structural transformations imaged in situ by liquid cell transmission electron microscopy. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Thin-film lithiation structural transformations imaged in situ by liquid cell transmission electron microscopy. Abstract not provided. Authors: Leenheer, Andrew Jay ; Jungjohann, Katherine Leigh ; Zavadil, Kevin Robert ; Sullivan, John P ; Harris, Charles Thomas

  3. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulation of pressure-induced phase transformation of BeO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, H. Y.; Duan, G.; Zu, X. T.; Weber, W. J.

    2011-05-05

    Ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) method has been used to study high pressure-induced phase transformation in BeO based on the local density approximation (LDA) and the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). Both methods show that the wurtzite (WZ) and zinc blende (ZB) BeO transforms to the rocksalt (RS) structure smoothly at high pressure. The transition pressures obtained from the LDA method are about 40 GPa larger than the GGA result for both WZ ? RS and ZB ? RS phase transformations, and the phase transformation mechanisms revealed by the LDA and GGA methods are different. For WZ ? RS phase transformations both mechanisms obtained from the LDA and GGA methods are not comparable to the previous ab initio MD simulations of WZ BeO at 700 GPa based on the GGA method. It is suggested that the phase transformation mechanisms of BeO revealed by the ab initio MD simulations are affected remarkably by the exchangecorrelation functional employed and the way of applying pressure.

  4. Effects of finite sampling and additive noise on image reconstruction from Radon transform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsujimoto, E.M. (California Univ., Davis, CA (USA))

    1988-12-01

    The Radon transform arises naturally in the problem of reconstructing an image or cross section from line integral measurements through a specified object. Each line integral or ray is a sample of the Radon transform of the object and the set of all samples at a particular angle is called a projection or view. Consequently, the set of all possible samples at all possible projections in a particular plane constitutes the two-dimensional Radon transform. Of course, it is impossible to acquire an infinite number of data points for the purpose of image reconstruction. However, with a sufficient set of Radon transform samples, an images can be determined through various Radon transform inversion techniques. From this statement, however, arises the question of just what constitutes a sufficient set of Radon transform samples. Acquiring an insufficient number of samples results in various artifacts in the reconstructed image. On the other hand, taking too many samples utilizes the data inefficiently. Thus, the problem of interest is to determine the optimum number of projections and the optimum number of samples per projection required to adequately represent the Radon transform such that the image can be accurately reconstructed. The problem of image reconstruction is further complicated if noise is introduced in the projection domain. Noise may be caused by round-off error in the sampled projection data or by various other factors inherent in data acquisition processes. However, several filtering techniques can be implemented to suppress the effects of noise. Therefore, a second problem of interest is to study the effectiveness of different filtering techniques in noise suppression.

  5. Non-parametric transformation for data correlation and integration: From theory to practice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Datta-Gupta, A.; Xue, Guoping; Lee, Sang Heon

    1997-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is two-fold. First, we introduce the use of non-parametric transformations for correlating petrophysical data during reservoir characterization. Such transformations are completely data driven and do not require a priori functional relationship between response and predictor variables which is the case with traditional multiple regression. The transformations are very general, computationally efficient and can easily handle mixed data types for example, continuous variables such as porosity, permeability and categorical variables such as rock type, lithofacies. The power of the non-parametric transformation techniques for data correlation has been illustrated through synthetic and field examples. Second, we utilize these transformations to propose a two-stage approach for data integration during heterogeneity characterization. The principal advantages of our approach over traditional cokriging or cosimulation methods are: (1) it does not require a linear relationship between primary and secondary data, (2) it exploits the secondary information to its fullest potential by maximizing the correlation between the primary and secondary data, (3) it can be easily applied to cases where several types of secondary or soft data are involved, and (4) it significantly reduces variance function calculations and thus, greatly facilitates non-Gaussian cosimulation. We demonstrate the data integration procedure using synthetic and field examples. The field example involves estimation of pore-footage distribution using well data and multiple seismic attributes.

  6. A complex guided spectral transform Lanczos method for studying quantum resonance states

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Hua-Gen

    2014-12-28

    A complex guided spectral transform Lanczos (cGSTL) algorithm is proposed to compute both bound and resonance states including energies, widths and wavefunctions. The algorithm comprises of two layers of complex-symmetric Lanczos iterations. A short inner layer iteration produces a set of complex formally orthogonal Lanczos (cFOL) polynomials. They are used to span the guided spectral transform function determined by a retarded Green operator. An outer layer iteration is then carried out with the transform function to compute the eigen-pairs of the system. The guided spectral transform function is designed to have the same wavefunctions as the eigenstates of the original Hamiltonian in the spectral range of interest. Therefore the energies and/or widths of bound or resonance states can be easily computed with their wavefunctions or by using a root-searching method from the guided spectral transform surface. The new cGSTL algorithm is applied to bound and resonance states of HO?, and compared to previous calculations.

  7. High-temperature phase transformation in Cr added TiAl base alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abe, E.; Niinobe, K.; Nobuki, M.; Nakamura, M.; Tsujimoto, T.

    1999-07-01

    The authors have investigated a microstructure evolution of a Ti-48Al-3.5Cr (in at.%) alloy at high-temperatures ({gt} 1,473K). In the alloy annealed at 1673K for 1.8ks, followed by air-cooling, a characteristic microstructure with a feathery fashion was uniformly formed. From a cooling-rate-controlling study, it was found that formation of the feathery structure is accomplished during continuous cooling from 1673K to 1573K, within the {alpha} + {gamma} two-phase region. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the feathery structure is composed of lamellar colonies (5--10{micro}m) which are crystallographically tilted slightly (a few degree) with their neighbors. A surprising fact is that lamellae in each colony are mostly the {gamma} phase with few {alpha}{sub 2} phase less than 5% in volume. This suggests that the feathery structure is a metastable product and has not resulted from the {alpha} {r{underscore}arrow} {alpha} + {gamma} transformation above 1,573 K. Instead, the feathery structure formation should be attributed to the non-equilibrium {alpha} {r{underscore}arrow} {gamma} transformation which occurs at high-temperatures with a small degree of supercooling. The authors discuss this interesting phase transformation in terms of the {alpha} {r{underscore}arrow} {gamma} massive transformation, based on the continuous-cooling-transformation (CCT) diagram constructed for the present alloy.

  8. A complex guided spectral transform Lanczos method for studying quantum resonance states

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yu, Hua-Gen

    2014-12-28

    A complex guided spectral transform Lanczos (cGSTL) algorithm is proposed to compute both bound and resonance states including energies, widths and wavefunctions. The algorithm comprises of two layers of complex-symmetric Lanczos iterations. A short inner layer iteration produces a set of complex formally orthogonal Lanczos (cFOL) polynomials. They are used to span the guided spectral transform function determined by a retarded Green operator. An outer layer iteration is then carried out with the transform function to compute the eigen-pairs of the system. The guided spectral transform function is designed to have the same wavefunctions as the eigenstates of the originalmore » Hamiltonian in the spectral range of interest. Therefore the energies and/or widths of bound or resonance states can be easily computed with their wavefunctions or by using a root-searching method from the guided spectral transform surface. The new cGSTL algorithm is applied to bound and resonance states of HO₂, and compared to previous calculations.« less

  9. Transformation toughening of ceramics. Final report, 1 September 1985-31 August 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marshall, D.B.

    1988-12-01

    The results of a three-year study, aimed at understanding factors that dictate microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of transformation toughened ceramics, are summarized. Large crack-growth resistance curves (rather than single-valued toughness) were discovered in toughened zirconia, and these were shown to be responsible for strength-toughness relations, damage tolerance, and other mechanical properties. New insight was gained into mechanisms of controlling grain growth during processing, and a method for forming high strength, fine-grained ZrO/sub 2/ fibers was discovered. In the final year's work, reported in detail here, a new tetragonal-to-orthorhomic phase transformation at low temperatures was discovered and shown to have a dramatic effect on mechanical properties. New methods were applied to measure the amount and location of phase transformation within crack tip zones and to quantify crack tip shielding, evaluate stability and reversibility of the martensitic transformation, and to determine the net transformation strain that gives to toughening. Finally, crack growth under cyclic loading was demonstrated to be important in zirconia materials.

  10. Transformation and Crystallization Energetics of Synthetic and Biogenic Amorphous Calcium Carbonate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radha, A. V.; Forbes, Tori Z.; Killian, Christopher E.; Gilbert, P.U.P.A; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    Amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) is a metastable phase often observed during low temperature inorganic synthesis and biomineralization. ACC transforms with aging or heating into a less hydrated form, and with time crystallizes to calcite or aragonite. The energetics of transformation and crystallization of synthetic and biogenic (extracted from California purple sea urchin larval spicules, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) ACC were studied using isothermal acid solution calorimetry and differential scanning calorimetry. Transformation and crystallization of ACC can follow an energetically downhill sequence: more metastable hydrated ACC ? less metastable hydrated ACC?anhydrous ACC ~ biogenic anhydrous ACC?vaterite ? aragonite ? calcite. In a given reaction sequence, not all these phases need to occur. The transformations involve a series of ordering, dehydration, and crystallization processes, each lowering the enthalpy (and free energy) of the system, with crystallization of the dehydrated amorphous material lowering the enthalpy the most. ACC is much more metastable with respect to calcite than the crystalline polymorphs vaterite or aragonite. The anhydrous ACC is less metastable than the hydrated, implying that the structural reorganization during dehydration is exothermic and irreversible. Dehydrated synthetic and anhydrous biogenic ACC are similar in enthalpy. The transformation sequence observed in biomineralization could be mainly energetically driven; the first phase deposited is hydrated ACC, which then converts to anhydrous ACC, and finally crystallizes to calcite. The initial formation of ACC may be a first step in the precipitation of calcite under a wide variety of conditions, including geological CO? sequestration.

  11. In-Situ Observations of Phase Transformations in the HAZ of 2205 Duplex Stainless Steel Weldments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palmer, T A; Elmer, J W; Wong, J

    2001-08-15

    Ferrite ({delta})/austenite ({gamma}) transformations in the heat affected zone (HAZ) of a gas tungsten arc (GTA) weld in 2205 duplex stainless steel are observed in real-time using spatially resolved X-ray diffraction (SRXRD) with high intensity synchrotron radiation. A map showing the locations of the {delta} and {gamma} phases with respect to the calculated weld pool dimensions has been constructed from a series of SRXRD scans. Regions of liquid, completely transformed {gamma}, a combination of partially transformed {gamma} with untransformed {delta}, and untransformed {delta}+{gamma} are identified. Analysis of each SRXRD pattern provides a semi-quantitative definition of both the {delta}/{gamma} phase balance and the extent of annealing which are mapped for the first time with respect to the calculated weld pool size and shape. A combination of these analyses provides a unique real-time description of the progression of phase transformations in the HAZ. Using these real-time observations, important kinetic information about the transformations occurring in duplex stainless steels during heating and cooling cycles typical of welding can be determined.

  12. Role of reactive oxygen species in arsenic-induced transformation of human lung bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Zhuo; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Budhraja, Amit; Son, Young-Ok; Kim, Donghern; Shi, Xianglin

    2015-01-09

    Highlights: • Short term exposure of cells to arsenic causes ROS generation. • Chronical exposure of cells to arsenic causes malignant cell transformation. • Inhibition of ROS generation reduces cell transformation by arsenic. • Arsenic-transformed cells exhibit reduced capacity of generating ROS. • Arsenic-transformed cells exhibit increased levels of antioxidants. - Abstract: Arsenic is an environmental carcinogen, its mechanisms of carcinogenesis remain to be investigated. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are considered to be important. A previous study (Carpenter et al., 2011) has measured ROS level in human lung bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells and arsenic-transformed BEAS-2B cells and found that ROS levels were higher in transformed cells than that in parent normal cells. Based on these observations, the authors concluded that cell transformation induced by arsenic is mediated by increased cellular levels of ROS. This conclusion is problematic because this study only measured the basal ROS levels in transformed and parent cells and did not investigate the role of ROS in the process of arsenic-induced cell transformation. The levels of ROS in arsenic-transformed cells represent the result and not the cause of cell transformation. Thus question concerning whether ROS are important in arsenic-induced cell transformation remains to be answered. In the present study, we used expressions of catalase (antioxidant against H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2, antioxidant against O{sub 2}{sup ·−}) to decrease ROS level and investigated their role in the process of arsenic-induced cell transformation. Our results show that inhibition of ROS by antioxidant enzymes decreased arsenic-induced cell transformation, demonstrating that ROS are important in this process. We have also shown that in arsenic-transformed cells, ROS generation was lower and levels of antioxidants are higher than those in parent cells, in a disagreement with the previous report. The present study has also shown that the arsenic-transformed cells acquired apoptosis resistance. The inhibition of catalase to increase ROS level restored apoptosis capability of arsenic-transformed BEAS-2B cells, further showing that ROS levels are low in these cells. The apoptosis resistance due to the low ROS levels may increase cells proliferation, providing a favorable environment for tumorigenesis of arsenic-transformed cells.

  13. Application of Distribution Transformer Thermal Life Models to Electrified Vehicle Charging Loads Using Monte-Carlo Method: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuss, M.; Markel, T.; Kramer, W.

    2011-01-01

    Concentrated purchasing patterns of plug-in vehicles may result in localized distribution transformer overload scenarios. Prolonged periods of transformer overloading causes service life decrements, and in worst-case scenarios, results in tripped thermal relays and residential service outages. This analysis will review distribution transformer load models developed in the IEC 60076 standard, and apply the model to a neighborhood with plug-in hybrids. Residential distribution transformers are sized such that night-time cooling provides thermal recovery from heavy load conditions during the daytime utility peak. It is expected that PHEVs will primarily be charged at night in a residential setting. If not managed properly, some distribution transformers could become overloaded, leading to a reduction in transformer life expectancy, thus increasing costs to utilities and consumers. A Monte-Carlo scheme simulated each day of the year, evaluating 100 load scenarios as it swept through the following variables: number of vehicle per transformer, transformer size, and charging rate. A general method for determining expected transformer aging rate will be developed, based on the energy needs of plug-in vehicles loading a residential transformer.

  14. The backward phase flow and FBI-transform-based Eulerian Gaussian beams for the Schroedinger equation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leung Shingyu; Qian Jianliang

    2010-11-20

    We propose the backward phase flow method to implement the Fourier-Bros-Iagolnitzer (FBI)-transform-based Eulerian Gaussian beam method for solving the Schroedinger equation in the semi-classical regime. The idea of Eulerian Gaussian beams has been first proposed in . In this paper we aim at two crucial computational issues of the Eulerian Gaussian beam method: how to carry out long-time beam propagation and how to compute beam ingredients rapidly in phase space. By virtue of the FBI transform, we address the first issue by introducing the reinitialization strategy into the Eulerian Gaussian beam framework. Essentially we reinitialize beam propagation by applying the FBI transform to wavefields at intermediate time steps when the beams become too wide. To address the second issue, inspired by the original phase flow method, we propose the backward phase flow method which allows us to compute beam ingredients rapidly. Numerical examples demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed algorithms.

  15. Interoperability format translation and transformation between IFC architectural design file and simulation file formats

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chao, Tian-Jy; Kim, Younghun

    2015-01-06

    Automatically translating a building architecture file format (Industry Foundation Class) to a simulation file, in one aspect, may extract data and metadata used by a target simulation tool from a building architecture file. Interoperability data objects may be created and the extracted data is stored in the interoperability data objects. A model translation procedure may be prepared to identify a mapping from a Model View Definition to a translation and transformation function. The extracted data may be transformed using the data stored in the interoperability data objects, an input Model View Definition template, and the translation and transformation function to convert the extracted data to correct geometric values needed for a target simulation file format used by the target simulation tool. The simulation file in the target simulation file format may be generated.

  16. Interoperability format translation and transformation between IFC architectural design file and simulation file formats

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chao, Tian-Jy; Kim, Younghun

    2015-02-03

    Automatically translating a building architecture file format (Industry Foundation Class) to a simulation file, in one aspect, may extract data and metadata used by a target simulation tool from a building architecture file. Interoperability data objects may be created and the extracted data is stored in the interoperability data objects. A model translation procedure may be prepared to identify a mapping from a Model View Definition to a translation and transformation function. The extracted data may be transformed using the data stored in the interoperability data objects, an input Model View Definition template, and the translation and transformation function to convert the extracted data to correct geometric values needed for a target simulation file format used by the target simulation tool. The simulation file in the target simulation file format may be generated.

  17. Pressure and Temperature effects on the High Pressure Phase Transformation in Zirconium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Escobedo-Diaz, Juan P.; Cerreta, Ellen K.; Brown, Donald W.; Trujillo, Carl P.; Rigg, Paulo A.; Bronkhorst, Curt A.; Addessio, Francis L.; Lookman, Turab

    2012-06-20

    At high pressure zirconium is known to undergo a phase transformation from the hexagonal close packed (HCP) alpha phase ({alpha}) to the simple hexagonal omega phase ({omega}). Under conditions of shock loading, the high-pressure omega phase is retained upon release. However, the hysteresis in this transformation is not well represented by equilibrium phase diagrams. For this reason, the influence of peak shock pressure and temperature on the retention of omega phase in Zr is explored in this study. In situ VISAR measurements along with post-mortem metallographic and neutron diffraction characterization of soft recovered specimens have been utilized to quantify the volume fraction of retained omega phase, morphology of the shocked alpha and omega phases, and qualitatively understand the kinetics of this transformation. This understanding of the role of peak shock stress will be utilized to address physics to be encoded in our present macro-scale models.

  18. ARPA-E FY2010 Annual Report Highlights Transformational Projects Since

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Agency's Establishment | Department of Energy FY2010 Annual Report Highlights Transformational Projects Since Agency's Establishment ARPA-E FY2010 Annual Report Highlights Transformational Projects Since Agency's Establishment June 22, 2011 - 10:30am Addthis Liisa O'Neill Liisa O'Neill Former New Media Specialist, Office of Public Affairs What does this mean for me? ARPA-E has funded 121 projects -- in amounts ranging from roughly $400,000 to $9 million, with an average award value of $3

  19. ARPA-E Q&A: Transforming How We Get Our Fuel | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Q&A: Transforming How We Get Our Fuel ARPA-E Q&A: Transforming How We Get Our Fuel October 23, 2013 - 12:13pm Addthis ARPA-E Program Director Dr. Ramon Gonzalez focuses on using microorganisms to convert natural gas into liquid fuel. | Photo courtesy of Jeff Fitlow, Rice University. ARPA-E Program Director Dr. Ramon Gonzalez focuses on using microorganisms to convert natural gas into liquid fuel. | Photo courtesy of Jeff Fitlow, Rice University. Mark D. Mitchell Communications Support

  20. Phase-field Modeling of Nucleation in Solid-State Phase Transformations

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Phase-field Modeling of Nucleation in Solid-State Phase Transformations Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Phase-field Modeling of Nucleation in Solid-State Phase Transformations Authors: Heo, T W ; Chen, L Q Publication Date: 2014-02-19 OSTI Identifier: 1212137 Report Number(s): LLNL-JRNL-650216 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC52-07NA27344 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: JOM, vol. 66, no. 8, June 25, 2014, pp. 1520

  1. Generalized Bogoliubov transformation for confined fields: Applications for the Casimir effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silva, J.C. da; Khanna, F.C.; Matos Neto, A.; Santana, A.E.

    2002-11-01

    The Bogoliubov transformation in thermofield dynamics, an operator formalism for the finite-temperature quantum field theory, is generalized to describe a field in arbitrary confined regions of space and time. Starting with the scalar field, the approach is extended to the electromagnetic field and the energy-momentum tensor is written via the Bogoliubov transformation. In this context, the Casimir effect is calculated for zero and nonzero temperature, and therefore it can be considered as a vacuum condensation effect of the electromagnetic field. This aspect opens an interesting perspective for using this procedure as an effective scheme for calculations in the studies of confined fields, including interacting fields.

  2. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Transformations Inc., Custom House,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Devens, MA | Department of Energy Transformations Inc., Custom House, Devens, MA DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Transformations Inc., Custom House, Devens, MA Case study of a DOE Zero Energy Ready Home in Devens, MA, that scored HERS 34 without PV or HERS -21 with PV. This 3,168-square-foot custom home has R-46 double-stud walls, a vented attic with R-67 blown cellulose, plus R-10 rigid XPS under the slab, R-20 closed-cell spray foam on basement walls, triple-pane windows, and

  3. Maskelynite formation via solid-state transformation: Evidence of infrared and x-ray anisotropy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaret, Steven J.; Ehm, Lars; Woerner, William R.; Phillips, Brian L.; Nekvasil, Hanna; Wright, Shawn P.; Glotch, Timothy D.

    2015-03-24

    We present optical microscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, high-energy X-ray total scattering experiments, and micro-Fourier transform infrared (micro-FTIR) spectroscopy on shocked labradorite from the Lonar Crater, India. We show that maskelynite of shock class 2 is structurally more similar to fused glass than to crystalline plagioclase. However, there are slight but significant differences preservation of original pre-impact igneous zoning, anisotropy at Infrared wavelengths, X-ray anisotropy, and preservation of some intermediate range order which are all consistent with a solid-state transformation formation of maskelynite.

  4. Swift heavy ion irradiation of Pt nanocrystals: I. shape transformation and dissolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giulian, R.; Araujo, L.L.; Kluth, P.; Sprouster, D.J.; Schnohr, C.S.; Byrne, A.P.; Ridgway, M.C. (ANU)

    2014-09-24

    We report on the effects of swift heavy ion irradiation of embedded Pt nanocrystals (NCs), which change from spheres to prolate spheroids to rods upon irradiation. Using a broad range of ion irradiation energies and NC mean sizes we demonstrate that the elongation and dissolution processes are energy and size dependent, attaining comparable levels of shape transformation and dissolution upon a given energy density deposited in the matrix. The NC shape transformation remains operative despite discontinuous ion tracks in the matrix and exhibits a constant threshold size for elongation. In contrast, for ion irradiations in which the ion tracks are continuous, the threshold size for elongation is clearly energy dependent.

  5. Titanium α-ω phase transformation pathway and a predicted metastable structure

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zarkevich, Nickolai A.; Johnson, Duane D.

    2016-01-15

    A titanium is a highly utilized metal for structural lightweighting and its phases, transformation pathways (transition states), and structures have scientific and industrial importance. Using a proper solid-state nudged elastic band method employing two climbing images combined with density functional theory DFT + U methods for accurate energetics, we detail the pressure-induced α (ductile) to ω (brittle) transformation at the coexistence pressure. We also find two transition states along the minimal-enthalpy path and discover a metastable body-centered orthorhombic structure, with stable phonons, a lower density than the end-point phases, and decreasing stability with increasing pressure.

  6. Co-Optimized Fuel-Engine Systems to Transform Our Nation's Vehicles |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Co-Optimized Fuel-Engine Systems to Transform Our Nation's Vehicles Co-Optimized Fuel-Engine Systems to Transform Our Nation's Vehicles May 4, 2016 - 10:57am Addthis As part of the Co-Optimization of Fuels & Engines initiative, researchers are exploring synergies among new bio-based fuels, engines, powertrains, and fueling infrastructure. Image by Loren Stacks, Sandia National Laboratories As part of the Co-Optimization of Fuels & Engines initiative, researchers

  7. From Rice Paddies to the Road: Transforming Rice Husks into Lithium-ion

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Anodes for Plug-in Electric Vehicles | Department of Energy From Rice Paddies to the Road: Transforming Rice Husks into Lithium-ion Anodes for Plug-in Electric Vehicles From Rice Paddies to the Road: Transforming Rice Husks into Lithium-ion Anodes for Plug-in Electric Vehicles April 27, 2016 - 10:15am Addthis Rice hulls and other samples used for demonstrating the capabilities of the Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Rapid Biomass Analysis System. Researchers

  8. Fair Oaks Farms and AMP Americas Transform Waste into Fuel | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Fair Oaks Farms and AMP Americas Transform Waste into Fuel Fair Oaks Farms and AMP Americas Transform Waste into Fuel March 7, 2013 - 9:00am Addthis Learn how an Indiana dairy fuels milk delivery trucks with compressed natural gas. Shannon Brescher Shea Communications Manager, Clean Cities Program What are the key facts? An anaerobic digester is helping Fair Oaks Farms and AMP Americas turn agriculture waste into renewable natural gas. The natural gas will be used to fuel the fleet of

  9. Maskelynite formation via solid-state transformation: Evidence of infrared and x-ray anisotropy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jaret, Steven J.; Ehm, Lars; Woerner, William R.; Phillips, Brian L.; Nekvasil, Hanna; Wright, Shawn P.; Glotch, Timothy D.

    2015-03-24

    We present optical microscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, high-energy X-ray total scattering experiments, and micro-Fourier transform infrared (micro-FTIR) spectroscopy on shocked labradorite from the Lonar Crater, India. We show that maskelynite of shock class 2 is structurally more similar to fused glass than to crystalline plagioclase. However, there are slight but significant differences – preservation of original pre-impact igneous zoning, anisotropy at Infrared wavelengths, X-ray anisotropy, and preservation of some intermediate range order – which are all consistent with a solid-state transformation formation of maskelynite.

  10. 5 Super-Sized Solar Projects Transforming the Clean Energy Landscape |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Super-Sized Solar Projects Transforming the Clean Energy Landscape 5 Super-Sized Solar Projects Transforming the Clean Energy Landscape April 8, 2013 - 4:00pm Addthis The California Valley Solar Ranch has a capacity of 250 MW -- enough energy to power the equivalent of every home in San Luis Obispo County. | Photo courtesy of SunPower. The California Valley Solar Ranch has a capacity of 250 MW -- enough energy to power the equivalent of every home in San Luis Obispo

  11. Time-resolved x-ray diffraction across water-ices VI/VII transformations

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    using dynamic-DAC (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Time-resolved x-ray diffraction across water-ices VI/VII transformations using dynamic-DAC Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Time-resolved x-ray diffraction across water-ices VI/VII transformations using dynamic-DAC Authors: Chen, J Y ; Kim, M ; Yoo, C ; Evans, W J Publication Date: 2013-10-15 OSTI Identifier: 1104527 Report Number(s): LLNL-PROC-645202 DOE Contract Number: W-7405-ENG-48 Resource Type: Conference Resource

  12. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Phase Transformation Kinetics and Alloy Microsegregation in High Pressure Die Cast Magnesium Alloys

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by University of Michigan at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about phase transformation...

  13. "Large Power Transformers and the U.S. Electric Grid" Report (June 2012) |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy "Large Power Transformers and the U.S. Electric Grid" Report (June 2012) "Large Power Transformers and the U.S. Electric Grid" Report (June 2012) The Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability has released the "Large Power Transformers and the U.S. Electric Grid" report, an assessment of the procurement and supply environment of large power transformers (LPTs). The report examines the characteristics and procurement of LPTs,

  14. INSIGHT On Transforming Our Global Energy Economy, 2015 Annual Report (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2015-03-01

    From its inception, JISEA has provided critical clarity and insights to inform decision making through leading-edge interdisciplinary research and objective, credible, cross-functional analysis. JISEA, drawing on the unique capabilities of its founding institutions and research affiliates around the world, continues to inform the landscape of transformation.

  15. p53 regulates the proliferation, differentiation and spontaneous transformation of mesenchymal stem cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armesilla-Diaz, Alejandro; Elvira, Gema; Silva, Augusto

    2009-12-10

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been extensively studied and gained wide popularity due to their therapeutic potential. Spontaneous transformation of MSC, from both human and murine origin, has been reported in many studies. MSC transformation depends on the culture conditions, the origin of the cells and the time on culture; however, the precise biological characteristics involved in this process have not been fully defined yet. In this study, we investigated the role of p53 in the biology and transformation of murine bone marrow (BM)-derived MSC. We demonstrate that the MSC derived from p53KO mice showed an augmented proliferation rate, a shorter doubling time and also morphologic and phenotypic changes, as compared to MSC derived from wild-type animals. Furthermore, the MSC devoid of p53 had an increased number of cells able to generate colonies. In addition, not only proliferation but also MSC differentiation is controlled by p53 since its absence modifies the speed of the process. Moreover, genomic instability, changes in the expression of c-myc and anchorage independent growth were also observed in p53KO MSC. In addition, the absence of p53 implicates the spontaneous transformation of MSC in long-term cultures. Our results reveal that p53 plays a central role in the biology of MSC.

  16. Transformational, Large Area Fabrication of Nanostructured Materials Using Plasma Arc Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-03-01

    This factsheet describes a study that will address critical additional steps over large areas of as-synthesized nanostructured materials, such as annealing, phase transformation, or activation of dopants, dramatically reducing the processing costs of the solid-state lighting and photovoltaic materials.

  17. A transform of complementary aspects with applications to entropic uncertainty relations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mandayam, Prabha; Wehner, Stephanie; Balachandran, Niranjan

    2010-08-15

    Even though mutually unbiased bases and entropic uncertainty relations play an important role in quantum cryptographic protocols, they remain ill understood. Here, we construct special sets of up to 2n+1 mutually unbiased bases (MUBs) in dimension d=2{sup n}, which have particularly beautiful symmetry properties derived from the Clifford algebra. More precisely, we show that there exists a unitary transformation that cyclically permutes such bases. This unitary can be understood as a generalization of the Fourier transform, which exchanges two MUBs, to multiple complementary aspects. We proceed to prove a lower bound for min-entropic entropic uncertainty relations for any set of MUBs and show that symmetry plays a central role in obtaining tight bounds. For example, we obtain for the first time a tight bound for four MUBs in dimension d=4, which is attained by an eigenstate of our complementarity transform. Finally, we discuss the relation to other symmetries obtained by transformations in discrete phase space and note that the extrema of discrete Wigner functions are directly related to min-entropic uncertainty relations for MUBs.

  18. Operation of the DC current transformer intensity monitors at FNAL during run II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crisp, J.; Fellenz, B.; Heikkinen, D.; Ibrahim, M.A.; Meyer, T.; Vogel, G.; /Fermilab

    2012-01-01

    Circulating beam intensity measurements at FNAL are provided by five DC current transformers (DCCT), one per machine. With the exception of the DCCT in the Recycler, all DCCT systems were designed and built at FNAL. This paper presents an overview of both DCCT systems, including the sensor, the electronics, and the front-end instrumentation software, as well as their performance during Run II.

  19. User's Guide to MBC3: Multi-Blade Coordinate Transformation Code for 3-Bladed Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bir, G. S.

    2010-09-01

    This guide explains how to use MBC3, a MATLAB-based script NREL developed to perform multi-blade coordinate transformation of system matrices for three-bladed wind turbines. In its current form, MBC3 can be applied to system matrices generated by FAST.2.

  20. Apparatus and method for controlling the temperature of the core of a super-conducting transformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Golner, Thomas; Pleva, Edward; Mehta, Shirish

    2006-10-10

    An apparatus for controlling the temperature of a core of a transformer is provided that includes a core, a shield surrounding the core, a cast formed between the core and the shield, and tubing positioned on the shield. The cast directs heat from the core to the shield and cooling fluid is directed through the tubing to cool the shield.

  1. Terahertz spectroscopy with a holographic Fourier transform spectrometer plus array detector using coherent synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nikolay I. Agladz, John Klopf, Gwyn Williams, Albert J. Sievers

    2010-06-01

    By use of coherent terahertz synchrotron radiation, we experimentally tested a holographic Fourier transform spectrometer coupled to an array detector to determine its viability as a spectral device. Somewhat surprisingly, the overall performance strongly depends on the absorptivity of the birefringent lithium tantalate pixels in the array detector.

  2. Kinetics of Fe(II)-catalyzed transformation of 6-line ferrihydrite under anaerobic flow conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, L.; Steefel, C.I.; Marcus, M.A.; Bargar, J.R.

    2010-04-01

    The readsorption of ferrous ions produced by the abiotic and microbially-mediated reductive dissolution of iron oxy-hydroxides drives a series of transformations of the host minerals. To further understand the mechanisms by which these transformations occur and their kinetics within a microporous flow environment, flow-through experiments were conducted in which capillary tubes packed with ferrihydrite-coated glass spheres were injected with inorganic Fe(II) solutions under circumneutral pH conditions at 25 C. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction was used to identify the secondary phase(s) formed and to provide data for quantitative kinetic analysis. At concentrations at and above 1.8 mM Fe(II) in the injection solution, magnetite was the only secondary phase formed (no intermediates were detected), with complete transformation following a nonlinear rate law requiring 28 hours and 150 hours of reaction at 18 and 1.8 mM Fe(II), respectively. However, when the injection solution consisted of 0.36 mM Fe(II), goethite was the predominant reaction product and formed much more slowly according to a linear rate law, while only minor magnetite was formed. When the rates are normalized based on the time to react half of the ferrihydrite on a reduced time plot, it is apparent that the 1.8 mM and 18 mM input Fe(II) experiments can be described by the same reaction mechanism, while the 0.36 input Fe(II) experiment is distinct. The analysis of the transformation kinetics suggest that the transformations involved an electron transfer reaction between the aqueous as well as sorbed Fe(II) and ferrihydrite acting as a semiconductor, rather than a simple dissolution and recrystallization mechanism. A transformation mechanism involving sorbed inner sphere Fe(II) alone is not supported, since the essentially equal coverage of sorption sites in the 18 mM and 1.8 mM Fe(II) injections cannot explain the difference in the transformation rates observed.

  3. MOLECULAR MECHANISM OF SUPPRESSION OF NEOPLASTIC TRANSFORMATION BY LOW DOSES OF LOW LET RADIATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.LESIE REDPATH, PH.D.

    2011-03-29

    We are currently funded (9/01-8/04) by the DOE Low Dose Radiation Research Program to examine mechanisms underlying the suppression of neoplastic transformation in vitro by low doses of low LET radiation. For the new studies proposed under Notice 04-21, we intend to follow up on our observation that upregulation of DNA repair may be an important factor and that its importance is dose-dependent. The experimental system will be the human hybrid cell neoplastic transformation assay that we are currently using. We propose to test the following hypothesis: Down-regulation of DNA dsb repair will abrogate the low dose suppression of neoplastic transformation. Using the technique of RNA silencing, it is proposed to test the effect of down-regulation of the two major DNA dsb repair pathways, homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ), on the dose response relationship for neoplastic transformation. Based on prior studies, we predict that this will result in abrogation of the suppressive effect at doses in the range 1 to 10 cGy, but not at lower doses. The proposed experiments will also help address the question as to which of the two DNA repair pathways may be the most important in causing suppression of transformation. HR is a pathway that is predominant in S and G2 phase cells and is known to be less error-prone than the NHEJ pathway that is predominant in G1 phase. We hypothesize that down-regulation of HR will result in the most effective abrogation of suppression. An important component of this study will be the determination of the how abrogation of DNA dsb repair impacts the spontaneous transformation frequency, presumably a consequence of endogeneous DNA damage. Experiments will be carried out using partially synchronized populations of cells enriched for G1 and S/G2 respectively. In addition to the endpoint of neoplastic transformation the impact of down-regulation of HR and NHEJ on the formation and disappearance of the DNA dsb marker, gamma-H2AX, will be studied.

  4. Effect of Cu addition on the martensitic transformation of powder metallurgy processed Ti–Ni alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Yeon-wook; Choi, Eunsoo

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • M{sub s} of Ti{sub 50}Ni{sub 50} powders is 22 °C, while M{sub s} of SPS-sintered porous bulk increases up to 50 °C. • M{sub s} of Ti{sub 50}Ni{sub 40}Cu{sub 20} porous bulk is only 2 °C higher than that of the powders. • Recovered stain of porous TiNi and TiNiCu alloy is more than 1.5%. - Abstract: Ti{sub 50}Ni{sub 50} and Ti{sub 50}Ni{sub 30}Cu{sub 20} powders were prepared by gas atomization and their transformation behaviors were examined by means of differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. One-step B2–B19’ transformation occurred in Ti{sub 50}Ni{sub 50} powders, while Ti{sub 50}Ni{sub 30}Cu{sub 20} powders showed B2–B19 transformation behavior. Porous bulks with 24% porosity were fabricated by spark plasma sintering. The martensitic transformation start temperature (50 °C) of Ti{sub 50}Ni{sub 50} porous bulk is much higher than that (22 °C) of the as-solidified powders. However, the martensitic transformation start temperature (35 °C) of Ti{sub 50}Ni{sub 30}Cu{sub 20} porous bulk is almost the same as that (33 °C) of the powders. When the specimens were compressed to the strain of 8% and then unloaded, the residual strains of Ti{sub 50}Ni{sub 50} and Ti{sub 50}Ni{sub 30}Cu{sub 20} alloy bulks were 3.95 and 3.7%, respectively. However, these residual strains were recovered up to 1.7% after heating by the shape memory phenomenon.

  5. Communicating Transformation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    th Lomonosov Conference, 19 Aug 2011 Warren Huelsnitz, LANL whuelsn@fnal.gov 1 2 Electron Neutrino and Antineutrino Appearance Review of previous results Updated...

  6. Substantial Transformation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    create a material that has different properties than the properties of the individual raw materials." See 2 C.F.R. 176.140(a)(1). The OMB guidelines further define a "domestic...

  7. Market Transformation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering ...

  8. Communicating Transformation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Review of previous results Updated antineutrino appearance results Muon Neutrino and Antineutrino Disappearance Review of previous results New...

  9. Magnetic-field-induced transformation in FeMnGa alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, W.; Liu, E. K.; Feng, L.; Tang, X. D.; Chen, J. L.; Wu, G. H.; Liu, H. Y.; Meng, F. B.; Luo, H. Z.

    2009-11-30

    A kind of ferromagnetic shape memory alloy with off-stoichiometric composition of Heusler alloy Fe{sub 2}MnGa has been synthesized. By optimizing composition, the martensitic transformation has been modified to occur at about 163 K accompanying spontaneous magnetization, which enables a magnetic field-induced structural transition from a paramagnetic parent phase to a ferromagnetic martensite with high magnetization of 93.8 emu/g. The material performs a quite large lattice distortion through the transformation, (c-a)/c=33.5%, causing a shape memory strain upto 3.6%. Such large lattice distortions strongly influence the electron structures, and thus some special physical behavior related to the transport and conductive properties is investigated.

  10. Selective transformations between nanoparticle superlattices via the reprogramming of DNA-mediated interactions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Yugang; Pal, Suchetan; Srinivasan, Babji; Vo, Thi; Kumar, Sanat; Gang, Oleg

    2015-05-25

    The rapid development of self-assembly approaches has enabled the creation of materials with desired organization of nanoscale components. However, achieving dynamic control, wherein the system can be transformed on demand into multiple entirely different states, is typically absent in atomic and molecular systems and has remained elusive in designed nanoparticle systems. Here, we demonstrate with in situ small-angle x-ray scattering that, by using DNA strands as inputs, the structure of a three-dimensional lattice of DNA-coated nanoparticles can be switched from an initial 'mother' phase into one of multiple 'daughter' phases. The introduction of different types of re-programming DNA strands modifiesmore » the DNA shells of the nanoparticles within the superlattice, thereby shifting interparticle interactions to drive the transformation into a particular daughter phase. We mapped quantitatively with free-energy calculations the selective re-programming of interactions onto the observed daughter phases.« less

  11. Video compression of coronary angiograms based on discrete wavelet transform with block classification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ho, B.K.T.; Tsai, M.J.; Wei, J.; Ma, M.; Saipetch, P.

    1996-12-01

    A new method of video compression for angiographic images has been developed to achieve high compression ratio ({approximately}20:1) while eliminating block artifacts which leads to loss of diagnostic accuracy. This method adopts motion picture experts group`s (MPEG`s) motion compensated prediction to take advantage of frame to frame correlation. However, in contrast to MPEG, the error images arising from mismatches in the motion estimation are encoded by discrete wavelet transform (DWT) rather than block discrete cosine transform (DCT). Furthermore, the authors developed a classification scheme which label each block in an image as intra, error, or background type and encode it accordingly. This hybrid coding can significantly improve the compression efficiency in certain cases. This method can be generalized for any dynamic image sequences applications sensitive to block artifacts.

  12. Rolled-up transformer structure for a radiofrequency integrated circuit (RFIC)

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Xiuling; Huang, Wen

    2016-05-03

    A rolled-up transformer structure comprises a multilayer sheet having a rolled configuration comprising multiple turns about a longitudinal axis. The multilayer sheet comprises more than one conductive pattern layer on a strain-relieved layer, including a first conductive film and a second conductive film separated from the first conductive film in a thickness direction. The first conductive film comprises an even number of primary conductive strips, where each primary conductive strip has a length extending in the rolling direction, and the second conductive film comprises an even number of secondary conductive strips, where each secondary conductive strip has a length extending in the rolling direction. In the rolled configuration, turns of the primary conductive strips and turns of the secondary conductive strips wrap around the longitudinal axis. The primary conductive strips serve as a primary winding and the secondary conductive strips serve as a secondary winding of the rolled-up transformer structure.

  13. Selective transformations between nanoparticle superlattices via the reprogramming of DNA-mediated interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Yugang; Pal, Suchetan; Srinivasan, Babji; Vo, Thi; Kumar, Sanat; Gang, Oleg

    2015-05-25

    The rapid development of self-assembly approaches has enabled the creation of materials with desired organization of nanoscale components. However, achieving dynamic control, wherein the system can be transformed on demand into multiple entirely different states, is typically absent in atomic and molecular systems and has remained elusive in designed nanoparticle systems. Here, we demonstrate with in situ small-angle x-ray scattering that, by using DNA strands as inputs, the structure of a three-dimensional lattice of DNA-coated nanoparticles can be switched from an initial 'mother' phase into one of multiple 'daughter' phases. The introduction of different types of re-programming DNA strands modifies the DNA shells of the nanoparticles within the superlattice, thereby shifting interparticle interactions to drive the transformation into a particular daughter phase. We mapped quantitatively with free-energy calculations the selective re-programming of interactions onto the observed daughter phases.

  14. Rolled-up transformer structure for a radiofrequency integrated circuit (RFIC)

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Xiuling; Huang, Wen

    2015-01-27

    A rolled-up transformer structure comprises a multilayer sheet having a rolled configuration comprising multiple turns about a longitudinal axis. The multilayer sheet comprises more than one conductive pattern layer on a strain-relieved layer, including a first conductive film and a second conductive film separated from the first conductive film in a thickness direction. The first conductive film comprises an even number of primary conductive strips, where each primary conductive strip has a length extending in the rolling direction, and the second conductive film comprises an even number of secondary conductive strips, where each secondary conductive strip has a length extending in the rolling direction. In the rolled configuration, turns of the primary conductive strips and turns of the secondary conductive strips wrap around the longitudinal axis. The primary conductive strips serve as a primary winding and the secondary conductive strips serve as a secondary winding of the rolled-up transformer structure.

  15. Vertically-tapered optical waveguide and optical spot transformer formed therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bakke, Thor; Sullivan, Charles T.

    2004-07-27

    An optical waveguide is disclosed in which a section of the waveguide core is vertically tapered during formation by spin coating by controlling the width of an underlying mesa structure. The optical waveguide can be formed from spin-coatable materials such as polymers, sol-gels and spin-on glasses. The vertically-tapered waveguide section can be used to provide a vertical expansion of an optical mode of light within the optical waveguide. A laterally-tapered section can be added adjacent to the vertically-tapered section to provide for a lateral expansion of the optical mode, thereby forming an optical spot-size transformer for efficient coupling of light between the optical waveguide and a single-mode optical fiber. Such a spot-size transformer can also be added to a III-V semiconductor device by post processing.

  16. Effect of time and temperature on transformation-toughened zirconias. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schioler, L.J.

    1987-06-01

    The effects of exposure to elevated temperatures (900 to 1300 C) for times ranging from 50 to 500 hours on toughened oxide ceramics intended for use in heat engines were examined. The materials were magnesia-stabilized transformation-toughened zirconia, yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal, and zirconia-toughened alumina, as well as untoughened zirconias for comparison. The materials were heat treated, and physical and mechanical properties were then measured at room temperature. High-temperature mechanical tests performed were stress rupture and stepped temperature stress rupture. The results of the tests indicate that the mechanical properties of magnesia-stabilized transformation-toughened zirconia degrade substantially after relatively short times at the moderate temperatures expected in low-heat-rejection diesel engines. The yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal and the untoughened partially stabilized zirconia materials appear to be more stable against the effects of time and temperature.

  17. Energy-transformation properties and mechanisms in transverse-flow-discharged CO2 lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhongxiang, W.

    1991-12-10

    We simulated, calculated, and analyzed the effects on the various energy state transformation properties of dielectric media of such factors as dielectric media gas pressures, flow speeds, light cavity position, strength of radiation in the cavity, degree of output coupling, and other similar factors in transverse flow discharged CO2 laser devices. This article did concrete calculations of the corresponding energy transformation properties for the apparatus and the conditions in reference (transverse flow, discharge, CO2 laser device, dielectric medium constituent ratio of CO2:N2:H = 5:17:78, an initial temperature of 293K, a discharge current of 2A, E/N: 2.15X10-16 V/cm2, light cavity 160 cm2 long, height 1.8cm, as well as other parameters).

  18. Transformation process for production of ultrahigh carbon steels and new alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Strum, M.J.; Goldberg, A.; Sherby, O.D.; Landingham, R.L.

    1995-08-29

    Ultrahigh carbon steels with superplastic properties are produced by heating a steel containing ferrite and carbide phases to a soaking temperature approximately 50 C above the A{sub 1} transformation temperature, soaking the steel above the A{sub 1} temperature for a sufficient time that the major portion of the carbides dissolve into the austenite matrix, and then cooling the steel in a controlled manner within predetermined limits of cooling rate or transformation temperature, to obtain a steel having substantially spheroidal carbides. New alloy compositions contain aluminum and solute additions which promote the formation of a fine grain size and improve the resistance of the carbides to coarsening at the forming temperature. 9 figs.

  19. Transformation process for production of ultrahigh carbon steels and new alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Strum, Michael J.; Goldberg, Alfred; Sherby, Oleg D.; Landingham, Richard L.

    1995-01-01

    Ultrahigh carbon steels with superplastic properties are produced by heating a steel containing ferrite and carbide phases to a soaking temperature approximately 50.degree. C. above the A.sub.1 transformation temperature, soaking the steel above the A.sub.1 temperature for a sufficient time that the major portion of the carbides dissolve into the austenite matrix, and then cooling the steel in a controlled manner within predetermined limits of cooling rate or transformation temperature, to obtain a steel having substantially spheroidal carbides. New alloy compositions contain aluminum and solute additions which promote the formation of a fine grain size and improve the resistance of the carbides to coarsening at the forming temperature.

  20. The enigma of post-perovskite anisotropy: deformation versus transformation textures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miyagi, Lowell; Kanitpanyacharoen, Waruntorn; Stackhouse, Stephen; Militzer, Burkhard; Wenk, Hans-Rudolf

    2012-01-20

    The D'' region that lies just above the core mantle boundary exhibits complex anisotropy that this is likely due to preferred orientation (texturing) of the constituent minerals. (Mg,Fe)SiO{sub 3} post-perovskite is widely thought to be the major mineral phase of the D''. Texture development has been studied in various post-perovskite phases (MgSiO{sub 3}, MgGeO{sub 3}, and CaIrO{sub 3}), and different results were obtained. To clarify this controversy, we report on transformation and deformation textures in MgGeO{sub 3} post-perovskite synthesized and deformed at room temperature in the diamond anvil cell. Transformed from the enstatite phase, MgGeO{sub 3} post-perovskite exhibits a transformation texture characterized by (100) planes at high angles to the direction of compression. Upon subsequent deformation, this texture changes and (001) lattice planes become oriented nearly perpendicular to compression, consistent with dominant (001)[100] slip. When MgGeO{sub 3} post-perovskite is synthesized from the perovskite phase, a different transformation texture is observed. This texture has (001) planes at high angle to compression and becomes slightly stronger upon compression. We also find that the yield strength of MgGeO{sub 3} post-perovskite is dependent on grain size and texture. Finer-grained samples exhibit higher yield strength and are harder to induce plastic deformation. Strong textures also affect the yield strength and can result in higher differential stresses. The inferred dominant (001) slip for pPv is significant for geophysics, because, when applied to geodynamic convection models, it predicts the observed anisotropies of S-waves as well as an anti-correlation between P- and S-waves.

  1. Executive Summary - Natural Gas and the Transformation of the U.S. Energy Sector: Electricity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Logan, J.; Heath, G.; Macknick, J.; Paranhos, E.; Boyd, W.; Carlson, K.

    2013-01-01

    In November 2012, the Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis (JISEA) released a new report, 'Natural Gas and the Transformation of the U.S. Energy Sector: Electricity.' The study provides a new methodological approach to estimate natural gas related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, tracks trends in regulatory and voluntary industry practices, and explores various electricity futures. The Executive Summary provides key findings, insights, data, and figures from this major study.

  2. A collaboration of labs: The Institute for Atom-Efficient Chemical Transformations (IACT)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Lobo, Rodrigo; Marshall, Chris; Cheng, Lei; Stair, Peter; Wu, Tianpan; Ray, Natalie; O'Neil, Brandon; Dietrich, Paul

    2013-04-19

    The Institute for Atom-Efficient Chemical Transformations (IACT) is an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. IACT focuses on advancing the science of catalysis to improve the efficiency of producing fuels from biomass and coal. IACT is a collaborative effort that brings together a diverse team of scientists from Argonne National Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Northwestern University, Purdue University and the University of Wisconsin. For more information, visit www.iact.anl.gov

  3. Changes in mobility of plastic crystal ethanol during its transformation into the monoclinic crystal state

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanz, Alejandro Nogales, Aurora; Ezquerra, Tiberio A.; Puente-Orench, Inés; Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón, ICMA-CSIC, Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009 Zaragoza ; Jiménez-Ruiz, Mónica

    2014-02-07

    Transformation of deuterated ethanol from the plastic crystal phase into the monoclinic one is investigated by means of a singular setup combining simultaneously dielectric spectroscopy with neutron diffraction. We postulate that a dynamic transition from plastic crystal to supercooled liquid-like configuration through a deep reorganization of the hydrogen-bonding network must take place as a previous step of the crystallization process. Once these precursor regions are formed, subsequent crystalline nucleation and growth develop with time.

  4. High frequency transformers and high Q factor inductors formed using epoxy-based magnetic polymer materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sanchez, Robert O.; Gunewardena, Shelton; Masi, James V.

    2007-11-27

    An electrical component in the form of an inductor or transformer is disclosed which includes one or more coils and a magnetic polymer material located near the coils or supporting the coils to provide an electromagnetic interaction therewith. The magnetic polymer material is preferably a cured magnetic epoxy which includes a mercaptan derivative having a ferromagnetic atom chemically bonded therein. The ferromagnetic atom can be either a transition metal or rare-earth atom.

  5. High frequency transformers and high Q factor inductors formed using epoxy-based magnetic polymer materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sanchez, Robert O.; Gunewardena, Shelton; Masi, James V.

    2005-03-29

    An electrical component in the form of an inductor or transformer is disclosed which includes one or more coils and a magnetic polymer material located near the coils or supporting the coils to provide an electromagnetic interaction therewith. The magnetic polymer material is preferably a cured magnetic epoxy which includes a mercaptan derivative having a ferromagnetic atom chemically bonded therein. The ferromagnetic atom can be either a transition metal or rare-earth atom.

  6. JCESR: Leading the way to transformative change in energy storage | Argonne

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Laboratory JCESR: Leading the way to transformative change in energy storage The Joint Center for Energy Storage Research (JCESR) is a public/private partnership of national laboratories, universities, and industry that brings together world-leading scientists, engineers, and manufacturers to develop clean energy storage technologies for transportation and the electricity grid. With up to $120 million in funding for an initial five-year period, the Center was established by the U.S.

  7. Transformations in Lighting: The Seventh Annual Solid-State Lighting R&D Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    More than 350 researchers, manufacturers, and other industry insiders and observers gathered in Raleigh, N.C., February 2–4, 2010, to participate in the "Transformations in Lighting" Solid-State Lighting R&D Workshop, hosted by DOE. The workshop was the seventh annual DOE meeting to accelerate SSL technology advances and guide market introduction of quality SSL products, and it brought together a diverse gathering of participants to share insights, ideas, and updates.

  8. Thin-film lithiation structural transformations imaged in situ by liquid cell TEM

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Thin-film lithiation structural transformations imaged in situ by liquid cell TEM Andrew J. Leenheer, Katherine L. Jungjohann, Kevin R. Zavadil, John P. Sullivan, and C. Thomas Harris Nucleation and propagation of Li alloy phases in Si, Al, and Au clearly observed in a transmission electron microscope. This work was performed at the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Basic Energy Sciences user facility. Sandia National Laboratories is a

  9. Probing the size and environment induced phase transformation in CdSe quantum dots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karakoti, Ajay S.; Sanghavi, Shail P.; Nachimuthu, Ponnusamy; Yang, Ping; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai

    2011-11-17

    The structural and electronic properties of CdSe quantum dots in toluene and drop-casted on Si wafer were investigated by in-situ micro X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and UV-Vis absorption and emission spectroscopy. The in-situ micro diffraction data show that the CdSe quantum dots capped with TOPO or hexadecylamine (HDA) in toluene exhibit predominantly wurtzite crystal structure, which undergoes a phase transformation to zinc blende crystal structure following drop casting on Si and this phase transition increases with decreasing the size of the CdSe quantum dots. Decreasing the size of quantum dots also increases the Se vacancies that facilitate the phase transformation. The X-ray photoelectron spectra show a systematic increase in the core level binding energies of Cd 3d and Se 3d, the band gap and the Cd/Se ratio as the size of the quantum dots decreases from 6.6nm to 2.1nm. This is attributed to the quantum confinement of CdSe crystallites by the capping ligands in toluene which increases with decreasing the size of the quantum dots. However, drop-casting quantum dots on Si alter the density and arrangement of capping ligands and solvent molecules on the quantum dots which causes significant phase transformation.

  10. An 8-GW long-pulse generator based on Tesla transformer and pulse forming network

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su, Jiancang; Zhang, Xibo; Li, Rui; Zhao, Liang Sun, Xu; Wang, Limin; Zeng, Bo; Cheng, Jie; Wang, Ying; Peng, Jianchang; Song, Xiaoxin

    2014-06-15

    A long-pulse generator TPG700L based on a Tesla transformer and a series pulse forming network (PFN) is constructed to generate intense electron beams for the purpose of high power microwave (HPM) generation. The TPG700L mainly consists of a 12-stage PFN, a built-in Tesla transformer in a pulse forming line, a three-electrode gas switch, a transmission line with a trigger, and a load. The Tesla transformer and the compact PFN are the key technologies for the development of the TPG700L. This generator can output electrical pulses with a width as long as 200 ns at a level of 8 GW and a repetition rate of 50 Hz. When used to drive a relative backward wave oscillator for HPM generation, the electrical pulse width is about 100 ns on a voltage level of 520 kV. Factors affecting the pulse waveform of the TPG700L are also discussed. At present, the TPG700L performs well for long-pulse HPM generation in our laboratory.

  11. Phase transformation as the single-mode mechanical deformation of silicon

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wong, Sherman; Haberl, Bianca; Williams, James S.; Bradby, Jodie E.

    2015-06-25

    The mixture of the metastable body-centered cubic (bc8) and rhombohedral (r8) phases of silicon that is formed via nanoindentation of diamond cubic (dc) silicon exhibits properties that are of scientifc and technological interest. This letter demonstrates that large regions of this mixed phase can be formed in crystalline Si via nanoindentation without signifcant damage to the surrounding crystal. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy is used to show that volumes 6 μm wide and up to 650 nm deep can be generated in this way using a spherical tip of ~21.5 μm diameter. The phase transformed region is characterised using both Ramanmore » microspectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. It is found that uniform loading using large spherical indenters can favor phase transformation as the sole deformation mechanism as long as the maximum load is below a critical level. We suggest that the sluggish nature of the transformation from the dc-Si phase to the metallic (b-Sn) phase normally results in competing deformation mechanisms such as slip and cracking but these can be suppressed by controlled loading conditions.« less

  12. Phase-field modeling of the beta to omega phase transformation in Zr–Nb alloys

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yeddu, Hemantha Kumar; Lookman, Turab

    2015-05-01

    A three-dimensional elastoplastic phase-field model is developed, using the Finite Element Method (FEM), for modeling the athermal beta to omega phase transformation in Zr–Nb alloys by including plastic deformation and strain hardening of the material. The microstructure evolution during athermal transformation as well as under different stress states, e.g. uni-axial tensile and compressive, bi-axial tensile and compressive, shear and tri-axial loadings, is studied. The effects of plasticity, stress states and the stress loading direction on the microstructure evolution as well as on the mechanical properties are studied. The input data corresponding to a Zr – 8 at.% Nb alloy aremore » acquired from experimental studies as well as by using the CALPHAD method. Our simulations show that the four different omega variants grow as ellipsoidal shaped particles. Our results show that due to stress relaxation, the athermal phase transformation occurs slightly more readily in the presence of plasticity compared to that in its absence. The evolution of omega phase is different under different stress states, which leads to the differences in the mechanical properties of the material. The variant selection mechanism, i.e. formation of different variants under different stress loading directions, is also nicely captured by our model.« less

  13. Atmospheric pressure plasma jet with high-voltage power supply based on piezoelectric transformer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babij, Micha?; Kowalski, Zbigniew W. Nitsch, Karol; Gotszalk, Teodor; Silberring, Jerzy

    2014-05-15

    The dielectric barrier discharge plasma jet, an example of the nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ), generates low-temperature plasmas that are suitable for the atomization of volatile species and can also be served as an ionization source for ambient mass and ion mobility spectrometry. A new design of APPJ for mass spectrometry has been built in our group. In these plasma sources magnetic transformers (MTs) and inductors are typically used in power supplies but they present several drawbacks that are even more evident when dealing with high-voltage normally used in APPJs. To overcome these disadvantages, high frequency generators with the absence of MT are proposed in the literature. However, in the case of miniaturized APPJs these conventional power converters, built of ferromagnetic cores and inductors or by means of LC resonant tank circuits, are not so useful as piezoelectric transformer (PT) based power converters due to bulky components and small efficiency. We made and examined a novel atmospheric pressure plasma jet with PT supplier served as ionization source for ambient mass spectrometry, and especially mobile spectrometry where miniaturization, integration of components, and clean plasma are required. The objective of this paper is to describe the concept, design, and implementation of this miniaturized piezoelectric transformer-based atmospheric pressure plasma jet.

  14. Mineral transformation and biomass accumulation associated with uranium bioremediation at Rifle, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, L.; Steefel, C.I.; Williams, K.H.; Wilkins, M.J.; Hubbard, S.S.

    2009-04-20

    Injection of organic carbon into the subsurface as an electron donor for bioremediation of redox-sensitive contaminants like uranium often leads to mineral transformation and biomass accumulation, both of which can alter the flow field and potentially bioremediation efficacy. This work combines reactive transport modeling with a column experiment and field measurements to understand the biogeochemical processes and to quantify the biomass and mineral transformation/accumulation during a bioremediation experiment at a uranium contaminated site near Rifle, Colorado. We use the reactive transport model CrunchFlow to explicitly simulate microbial community dynamics of iron and sulfate reducers, and their impacts on reaction rates. The column experiment shows clear evidence of mineral precipitation, primarily in the form of calcite and iron monosulfide. At the field scale, reactive transport simulations suggest that the biogeochemical reactions occur mostly close to the injection wells where acetate concentrations are highest, with mineral precipitate and biomass accumulation reaching as high as 1.5% of the pore space. This work shows that reactive transport modeling coupled with field data can be an effective tool for quantitative estimation of mineral transformation and biomass accumulation, thus improving the design of bioremediation strategies.

  15. Down-regulation of Rab5 decreases characteristics associated with maintenance of cell transformation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silva, Patricio; Soto, Nicolás; Díaz, Jorge; Mendoza, Pablo; Díaz, Natalia; Quest, Andrew F.G.; Torres, Vicente A.

    2015-08-21

    The early endosomal protein Rab5 is highly expressed in tumor samples, although a causal relationship between Rab5 expression and cell transformation has not been established. Here, we report the functional effects of targeting endogenous Rab5 with specific shRNA sequences in different tumor cell lines. Rab5 down-regulation in B16-F10 cells decreased tumor formation by subcutaneous injection into C57/BL6 mice. Accordingly, Rab5 targeting in B16-F10 and A549, but not MDA-MB-231 cells was followed by decreased cell proliferation, increased apoptosis and decreased anchorage-independent growth. These findings suggest that Rab5 expression is required to maintain characteristics associated with cell transformation. - Highlights: • Rab5 is important to the maintenance of cell transformation characteristics. • Down-regulation of Rab5 decreases cell proliferation and increases apoptosis in different cancer cells. • Rab5 is required for anchorage-independent growth and tumorigenicity in-vivo.

  16. Understanding strain-induced phase transformations in BiFeO3 thin films

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dixit, Hemant; Beekman, Christianne; Schlepütz, Christian M.; Siemons, Wolter; Yang, Yongsoo; Senabulya, Nancy; Clarke, Roy; Chi, Miaofang; Christen, Hans M.; Cooper, Valentino R.

    2015-05-01

    Experiments demonstrate that under large epitaxial strain a coexisting striped phase emerges in BiFeO₃ thin films, which comprises a tetragonal-like (T´) and an intermediate S´ polymorph. It exhibits a relatively large piezoelectric response when switching between the coexisting phase and a uniform T´ phase. This strain-induced phase transformation is investigated through a synergistic combination of first-principles theory and experiments. The results show that the S´ phase is energetically very close to the T´ phase, but is structurally similar to the bulk rhombohedral (R) phase. By fully characterizing the intermediate S´ polymorph, it is demonstrated that the flat energy landscape resultingmore » in the absence of an energy barrier between the T´ and S´ phases fosters the above-mentioned reversible phase transformation. This ability to readily transform between the S´ and T´ polymorphs, which have very different octahedral rotation patterns and c/a ratios, is crucial to the enhanced piezoelectricity in strained BiFeO3 films. Additionally, a blueshift in the band gap when moving from R to S´ to T´ is observed. These results emphasize the importance of strain engineering for tuning electromechanical responses or, creating unique energy harvesting photonic structures, in oxide thin film architectures.« less

  17. Understanding strain-induced phase transformations in BiFeO3 thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dixit, Hemant; Beekman, Christianne; Schlepütz, Christian M.; Siemons, Wolter; Yang, Yongsoo; Senabulya, Nancy; Clarke, Roy; Chi, Miaofang; Christen, Hans M.; Cooper, Valentino R.

    2015-05-01

    Experiments demonstrate that under large epitaxial strain a coexisting striped phase emerges in BiFeO₃ thin films, which comprises a tetragonal-like (T´) and an intermediate S´ polymorph. It exhibits a relatively large piezoelectric response when switching between the coexisting phase and a uniform T´ phase. This strain-induced phase transformation is investigated through a synergistic combination of first-principles theory and experiments. The results show that the S´ phase is energetically very close to the T´ phase, but is structurally similar to the bulk rhombohedral (R) phase. By fully characterizing the intermediate S´ polymorph, it is demonstrated that the flat energy landscape resulting in the absence of an energy barrier between the T´ and S´ phases fosters the above-mentioned reversible phase transformation. This ability to readily transform between the S´ and T´ polymorphs, which have very different octahedral rotation patterns and c/a ratios, is crucial to the enhanced piezoelectricity in strained BiFeO3 films. Additionally, a blueshift in the band gap when moving from R to S´ to T´ is observed. These results emphasize the importance of strain engineering for tuning electromechanical responses or, creating unique energy harvesting photonic structures, in oxide thin film architectures.

  18. Modeling and simulation, and their validation of three-phase transformers with three legs under DC bias

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuchs, E.F.; You, Y.; Roesler, D.J.

    1999-04-01

    This paper proposes a new model for three-phase transformers with three legs with and without tank under DC bias based on electric and magnetic circuit theory. For the calculation of the nonsinusoidal no-load currents, a combination of time and frequency domains is used. The analysis shows that (1) asymmetric three-phase transformers with three legs generate magnetizing currents with triplen harmonics not being of the zero-sequence type. (2) The wave shapes of the three magnetizing currents of (asymmetric) transformers are dependent on the phase sequence. (3) The magnetic history of transformer magnetization -- due to residual magnetization and hysteresis of the tank -- cannot be ignored if a DC bias is present and the magnetic influence of the tank is relatively strong, e.g., for oil-cooled transformers. (4) Symmetric three-phase transformers with three legs generate no-load currents without triplen harmonics. (5) The effects of DC bias currents (e.g., reactive power demand, harmonic distortion) can be suppressed employing symmetric three-phase transformers with three legs including tank. Measurements corroborate computational results; thus this nonlinear model is valid and accurate.

  19. Method of forming high density oxide pellets by hot pressing at 50$sup 0$ to 100$sup 0$C above the cubic to monoclinic phase transformation temperature

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pasto, A.E.

    1975-08-01

    A process for low temperature sintering of rare earth and actinide oxides which have a cubic to monoclinic transformation is described. The process involves hot pressing a powder compact at a temperature just above the transformation temperature. (auth)

  20. In Situ Photoelectron Emission Microscopy of a Thermally Induced Martensitic Transformation in a CuZnAI Shape Memory Alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiong, Gang; Joly, Alan G.; Beck, Kenneth M.; Hess, Wayne P.; Cai, Mingdong; Langford, Stephen C.; Dickinson, J T.

    2006-02-27

    Photoemission electron microscopy, in conjunction with photoemission spectroscopy, reflectivity, and surface roughness measurements, is used to study the thermally-induced martensitic transformation in a CuZnAI shape memory alloy. Real-time phase transformation is observed as a nearly instantaneous change of photoelectron intensity, accompanied by microstructural deformation and displacement due to the shape memory effect. The difference in the photoelectron intensity before and after the phase transformation is attributed to the concomitant change of work function as measured by photoelectron spectroscopy. Photoemission electron microscopy is shown to be a valuable new technique facilitating the study of phase transformations in shape memory alloys, and provides real-time information on microstructural changes and phase-dependent electronic properties.

  1. Measurement of nitrogen content in a gas mixture by transforming the nitrogen into a substance detectable with nondispersive infrared detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Owen, Thomas E.; Miller, Michael A.

    2007-03-13

    A method of determining the amount of nitrogen in a gas mixture. The constituent gases of the mixture are dissociated and transformed to create a substance that may measured using nondispersive infrared adsorption techniques.

  2. Measurement of nitrogen content in a gas mixture by transforming the nitrogen into a substance detectable with nondispersive infrared detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Owen, Thomas E.; Miller, Michael A.

    2010-08-24

    A method of determining the amount of nitrogen in a gas mixture. The constituent gases of the mixture are dissociated and transformed to create a substance that may measured using nondispersive infrared adsorption techniques.

  3. In-Situ Phase Mapping and Direct Observations of Phase Transformations During Arc Welding of 1045 Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elmer, J; Palmer, T

    2005-09-13

    In-situ Spatially Resolved X-Ray Diffraction (SRXRD) experiments were performed during gas tungsten arc (GTA) welding of AISI 1045 C-Mn steel. Ferrite ({alpha}) and austenite ({gamma}) phases were identified and quantified in the weld heat-affected zone (HAZ) from the real time x-ray diffraction data. The results were compiled along with weld temperatures calculated using a coupled thermal fluids weld model to create a phase map of the HAZ. This map shows the {alpha} {yields} {gamma} transformation taking place during weld heating and the reverse {gamma} {yields} {alpha} transformation taking place during weld cooling. Superheating is required to complete the {alpha} {yields} {gamma} phase transformation, and the amount of superheat above the A3 temperature was shown to vary with distance from the centerline of the weld. Superheat values as high as 250 C above the A3 temperature were observed at heating rates of 80 C/s. The SRXRD experiments also revealed details about the {gamma} phase not observable by conventional techniques, showing that {gamma} is present with two distinct lattice parameters as a result of inhomogeneous distribution of carbon and manganese in the starting pearlitic/ferritic microstructure. During cooling, the reverse {gamma} {yields} {alpha} phase transformation was shown to depend on the HAZ location. In the fine grained region of the HAZ, at distances greater than 2 mm from the fusion line, the {gamma} {yields} {alpha} transformation begins near the A3 temperature and ends near the A1 temperature. In this region of the HAZ where the cooling rates are below 40 C/s, the transformation occurs by nucleation and growth of pearlite. For HAZ locations closer to the fusion line, undercoolings of 200 C or more below the A1 temperature are required to complete the {gamma} {yields} {alpha} transformation. In this region of the HAZ, grain growth coupled with cooling rates in excess of 50 C/s causes the transformation to occur by a bainitic mechanism.

  4. Optimization of Drive-Bunch Current Profile for Enhanced Transformer Ratio in Beam-Driven Acceleration Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lemery, F.; Mihalcea, D.; Prokop, C.R.; Piot, P.; /Northern Illinois U. /Fermilab

    2012-07-08

    In recent years, wakefield acceleration has gained attention due to its high acceleration gradients and cost effectiveness. In beam-driven wakefield acceleration, a critical parameter to optimize is the transformer ratio. It has been shown that current shaping of electron beams allows for enhanced (> 2) transformer ratios. In this paper we present the optimization of the pulse shape of the drive bunch for dielectric-wakefield acceleration.

  5. Fuel Synthesis Catalysis Laboratory: Catalytic Testing for Thermochemical Transformations of Molecules (Fact Sheet), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Synthesis Catalysis Laboratory Catalytic testing for thermochemical transformations of molecules NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. NREL's Fuel Synthesis Catalysis Laboratory (FSCL) provides a wide range of capabilities in heterogeneous catalyst testing. Current research areas of emphasis include the transformation of biomass pyrolysis and gasification products to

  6. Phase transformation during mechano-synthesis of nanocrystalline/amorphous Fe32Mn6Si alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amini, Rasool; Shamsipoor, Ali; Ghaffari, Mohammad; Alizadeh, Morteza; Okyay, Ali Kemal

    2013-10-15

    Mechano-synthesis of Fe32Mn6Si alloy by mechanical alloying of the elemental powder mixtures was evaluated by running the ball milling process under an inert argon gas atmosphere. In order to characterize the as-milled powders, powder sampling was performed at predetermined intervals from 0.5 to 192 h. X-ray florescence analyzer, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, and high resolution transmission electron microscope were utilized to investigate the chemical composition, structural evolution, morphological changes, and microstructure of the as-milled powders, respectively. According to the results, the nanocrystalline FeMnSi alloys were completely synthesized after 48 h of milling. Moreover, the formation of a considerable amount of amorphous phase during the milling process was indicated by quantitative X-ray diffraction analysis as well as high resolution transmission electron microscopy image and its selected area diffraction pattern. It was found that the ?-to-? and subsequently the amorphous-to-crystalline (especially martensite) phase transformation occurred by milling development. - Graphical abstract: Mechano-synthesis of nanocrystalline/amorphous Fe32Mn6Si shape memory alloys in the powder form: amorphous phase formation, ?-to-? phase transformation, mechano-crystallization of the amorphous, and martensite phase formation during the process. Highlights: During MA, the ?-to-? phase transformation and amorphization occurred. Mechano-crystallization of the amorphous phase occurred at sufficient milling time. The formation of high amount of ?-martensite was evidenced at high milling times. The platelet, spherical, and then irregular particle shapes was extended by MA. By MA, the particles size was increased, then reduced, and afterward re-increased.

  7. Martensitic transformation behaviors of rapidly solidified TiNiMo powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Yeon-wook

    2012-10-15

    For the fabrication of bulk near-net-shape shape memory alloys and porous metallic biomaterials, consolidation of TiNiMo alloy powders is more useful than that of elemental powders of Ti, Ni and Mo. Ti{sub 50}Ni{sub 49.9}Mo{sub 0.1} shape memory alloy powders were prepared by gas atomization, and transformation temperatures and microstructures of those powders were investigated as a function of powder size. XRD analysis showed that the B2RB19 martensitic transformation occurred in powders smaller than 150 ?m. According to DSC analysis of the as-atomized powders, the B2R transformation temperature (T{sub R}) of the 2550 ?m powders was 18.4 C. The T{sub R} decreased with increasing powder size, however, the difference in T{sub R} between 2550 ?m powders and 100150 ?m powders is only 1 C. Evaluation of powder microstructures was based on SEM examination of the surface and the polished and etched powder cross sections and the typical images of the rapidly solidified powders showed cellular morphology. Porous cylindrical foams of 10 mm diameter and 1.5 mm length were fabricated by spark plasma sintering (SPS) at 800 C and 5 MPa. Finally these porous TiNi alloy samples are heat-treated for 1 h at 850 C, and then quenched in ice water. The bulk samples have 23% porosity and 4.6 g/cm{sup 3} density and their T{sub R} is 17.8 C.

  8. Oxidative Remobilization of Technetium Sequestered by Sulfide-Transformed Nano Zerovalent Iron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fan, Dimin; Anitori, Roberto; Tebo, Bradley M.; Tratnyek, P. G.; Lezama Pacheco, Juan S.; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Kovarik, Libor; Engelhard, Mark H.; Bowden, Mark E.

    2014-06-02

    The dissolution of Tc(IV) sulfide and concurrent transformation of sulfidated ZVI during 2 oxidation were examined. Kinetic data obtained with 10 mL batch reactors showed that Tc(VII) 3 reduced by sulfidated nZVI has significantly slower reoxidation rates than Tc(VII) reduced by 4 nZVI only. In a 50 mL batch reactor, initial inhibition of Tc(IV) dissolution was apparent and 5 lasted until 120 hours at S/Fe = 0.112, presumably due to the redox buffer capacity of FeS. This 6 is evidenced by the parallel trends in oxidation-reduction potentials (ORP) and Tc dissolution 7 kinetics. M?ssbauer spectra and micro X-ray diffraction of S/Fe = 0.112 suggested the 8 persistence of FeS after 24-h oxidation although X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated 9 substantial surface oxidation. After 120-h oxidation, all characterizations showed complete 10 oxidation of FeS, which further indicates that FeS inhibits Tc oxidation. X-ray absorption 11 spectroscopy for S/Fe = 0.011 showed significantly increasing percentage of TcS2 in the solid 12 phase after 24-h oxidation, indicating TcS2 is more resistant to oxidation than TcO2. At S/Fe = 13 0.112, the XAS results revealed significant transformation of Tc speciation from TcS2 to TcO2 14 after 120-h oxidation at S/Fe = 0.112. Given that no apparent Tc dissolution occurred during this 15 period, the speciation transformation might play a secondary role in hindering Tc oxidation, 16 especially as redox buffer capacity approached depletion.

  9. Inverse scattering transform for the focusing nonlinear Schrdinger equation with nonzero boundary conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biondini, Gino; Kova?i?, Gregor

    2014-03-15

    The inverse scattering transform for the focusing nonlinear Schrdinger equation with non-zero boundary conditions at infinity is presented, including the determination of the analyticity of the scattering eigenfunctions, the introduction of the appropriate Riemann surface and uniformization variable, the symmetries, discrete spectrum, asymptotics, trace formulae and the so-called theta condition, and the formulation of the inverse problem in terms of a Riemann-Hilbert problem. In addition, the general behavior of the soliton solutions is discussed, as well as the reductions to all special cases previously discussed in the literature.

  10. Laboratory Investigation of Contact Freezing and the Aerosol to Ice Crystal Transformation Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaw, Raymond A.

    2014-10-28

    This project has been focused on the following objectives: 1. Investigations of the physical processes governing immersion versus contact nucleation, specifically surface-induced crystallization; 2. Development of a quadrupole particle trap with full thermodynamic control over the temperature range 0 to –40 °C and precisely controlled water vapor saturation ratios for continuous, single-particle measurement of the aerosol to ice crystal transformation process for realistic ice nuclei; 3. Understanding the role of ice nucleation in determining the microphysical properties of mixed-phase clouds, within a framework that allows bridging between laboratory and field measurements.

  11. Fortran Transformational Tools in Support of Scientific Application Development for Petascale Computer Architectures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sottille, Matthew

    2013-09-12

    This document is the final report for a multi-year effort building infrastructure to support tool development for Fortran programs. We also investigated static analysis and code transformation methods relevant to scientific programmers who are writing Fortran programs for petascale-class high performance computing systems. This report details our accomplishments, technical approaches, and provides information on where the research results and code may be obtained from an open source software repository. The report for the first year of the project that was performed at the University of Oregon prior to the PI moving to Galois, Inc. is included as an appendix.

  12. Transformations in Lighting: The Sixth Annual Solid-State Lighting R&D Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    More than 400 SSL technology leaders from industry, research organizations, universities, national laboratories, manufacturing, energy efficiency organizations, utilities and municipalities gathered in San Francisco, CA to participate in the "Transformations in Lighting" Solid-State Lighting Workshop on February 3-5, 2009. The workshop, hosted by DOE, with sponsors BetaLED, Echelon, Pacific Gas & Electric, and Southern California Edison, was the sixth annual DOE meeting to accelerate SSL technology advances and guide market introduction of quality SSL products. The workshop brought together a diverse gathering of participants - from the R&D community to lighting designers and architects - to share insights, ideas, and updates on the rapidly evolving SSL market.

  13. Detection and measurement of electroreflectance on quantum cascade laser device using Fourier transform infrared microscope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Enobio, Eli Christopher I.; Ohtani, Keita; Ohno, Yuzo; Ohno, Hideo

    2013-12-02

    We demonstrate the use of a Fourier Transform Infrared microscope system to detect and measure electroreflectance (ER) from mid-infrared quantum cascade laser (QCL) device. To characterize intersubband transition (ISBT) energies in a functioning QCL device, a microscope is used to focus the probe on the QCL cleaved mirror. The measured ER spectra exhibit resonance features associated to ISBTs under applied electric field in agreement with the numerical calculations and comparable to observed photocurrent, and emission peaks. The method demonstrates the potential as a characterization tool for QCL devices.

  14. Integrated Deployment Model: A Comprehensive Approach to Transforming the Energy Economy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Integrated Deployment Model: A Comprehensive Approach to Transforming the Energy Economy Mary Werner Technical Report NREL/TP-7A20-49230 November 2010 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard Golden, Colorado 80401 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 Integrated Deployment Model: A

  15. Method and apparatus for connecting high voltage leads to a high temperature super-conducting transformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Golner, Thomas M.; Mehta, Shirish P.

    2005-07-26

    A method and apparatus for connecting high voltage leads to a super-conducting transformer is provided that includes a first super-conducting coil set, a second super-conducting coil set, and a third super-conducting coil set. The first, second and third super-conducting coil sets are connected via an insulated interconnect system that includes insulated conductors and insulated connectors that are utilized to connect the first, second, and third super-conducting coil sets to the high voltage leads.

  16. Terrace-like morphology of the boundary created through basal-prismatic transformation in magnesium

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Bo -Yu; Wan, Liang; Wang, Jian; Ma, Evan; Shan, Zhi -Wei

    2015-01-24

    Here, the boundaries created through basal-prismatic transformation in submicron-sized single crystal magnesium have been investigated systematically using in situ transmission electron microscopy. We found that these boundaries not only deviated significantly from the twin plane associated with {101¯2} twin, but also possessed a non-planar morphology. After the sample was thinned to be less than 90 nm, aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy observation found that the basic components of these boundaries are actually terrace-like basal-prismatic interfaces.

  17. Evidence for the temperature dependence of phase transformation behavior of silicon at nanoscale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mangalampalli S. R. N., Kiran; Tran, Tuan; Smillie, Lachlan; Haberl, Bianca; Subianto, D.; Williams, James S.; Bradby, Jodie E.

    2015-01-01

    This study uses the in-situ high-temperature nanoindentation coupled with electrical measurements to investigate the temperature dependence (25 to 200 C) of the phase transformation behavior of crystalline silicon (dc-Si) at the nanoscale. Along with in-situ indentation and electrical data, ex-situ characterizations such as Raman and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) have been used to reveal the dominant mode of deformation under the indenter. In contrast to the previous studies, the dominant mode of deformation under the nanoindenter at elevated temperatures is not the dc-Si to metallic phase ( -Sn) transformation. Instead, XTEM images from 150 C indents reveal that the dominant mode of deformation is twinning along {111} planes. While the in-situ high-temperature electrical measurements show an increase in the current due to metallic phase formation up to 125 C, it is absent 150 C, revealing that the formation of the metallic phase is negligible in this regime. Thus, this work provides clear insight into the temperature dependent deformation mechanisms in dc-Si at the nanoscale.

  18. Influence of Ni on Martensitic Phase Transformations in NiTi Shape Memory Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frenzel, J.; George, Easo P; Dlouhy, A.; Somsen, Ch.; Wagner, M. F.-X; Eggeler, G.

    2010-01-01

    High-precision data on phase transformation temperatures in NiTi, including numerical expressions for the effect of Ni on M{sub S}, M{sub F}, A{sub S}, A{sub F} and T{sub 0}, are obtained, and the reasons for the large experimental scatter observed in previous studies are discussed. Clear experimental evidence is provided confirming the predictions of Tang et al. 1999 regarding deviations from a linear relation between the thermodynamic equilibrium temperature and Ni concentration. In addition to affecting the phase transition temperatures, increasing Ni contents are found to decrease the width of thermal hysteresis and the heat of transformation. These findings are rationalized on the basis of the crystallographic data of Prokoshkin et al. 2004 and the theory of Ball and James. The results show that it is important to document carefully the details of the arc-melting procedure used to make shape memory alloys and that, if the effects of processing are properly accounted for, precise values for the Ni concentration of the NiTi matrix can be obtained.

  19. Ferromagnetic interactions and martensitic transformation in Fe doped Ni-Mn-In shape memory alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lobo, D. N.; Priolkar, K. R.; Emura, S.; Nigam, A. K.

    2014-11-14

    The structure, magnetic, and martensitic properties of Fe doped Ni-Mn-In magnetic shape memory alloys have been studied by differential scanning calorimetry, magnetization, resistivity, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and EXAFS. While Ni{sub 2}MnIn{sub 1?x}Fe{sub x} (0???x???0.6) alloys are ferromagnetic and non martensitic, the martensitic transformation temperature in Ni{sub 2}Mn{sub 1.5}In{sub 1?y}Fe{sub y} and Ni{sub 2}Mn{sub 1.6}In{sub 1?y}Fe{sub y} increases for lower Fe concentrations (y???0.05) before decreasing sharply for higher Fe concentrations. XRD analysis reveals presence of cubic and tetragonal structural phases in Ni{sub 2}MnIn{sub 1?x}Fe{sub x} at room temperature with tetragonal phase content increasing with Fe doping. Even though the local structure around Mn and Ni in these Fe doped alloys is similar to martensitic Mn rich Ni-Mn-In alloys, presence of ferromagnetic interactions and structural disorder induced by Fe affect Mn-Ni-Mn antiferromagnetic interactions resulting in suppression of martensitic transformation in these Fe doped alloys.

  20. Anaerobic cometabolic transformation of polycyclic and heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: evidence from laboratory and field studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Safinowski; Christian Griebler; Rainer U. Meckenstock

    2006-07-01

    The sulfate-reducing enrichment culture N47 can grow on naphthalene or 2-methylnaphthalene as the sole carbon and energy source. The study reported shows that the culture can furthermore cometabolically transform a variety of polycyclic and heteroaromatic compounds with naphthalene or methylnaphthalene as the auxiliary substrate. Most of the cosubstrates were converted to the corresponding carboxylic acids, frequently to several isomers. The mass spectra of specific metabolites that were extracted from supernatants of cultures containing the cosubstrates benzothiophene, benzofuran, and 1-methylnaphthalene resembled known intermediates of the anaerobic naphthalene and 2-methylnaphthalene degradation pathways. This indicates that some of the tested compounds were first methylated and then transformed to the corresponding methylsuccinic acids by a fumarate addition to the methyl group. For some of the cosubstrates, a partial or total inhibition of growth on the auxiliary substrate was observed. This was caused by a specific combination of auxiliary substrate and cosubstrate. None of the cosubstrates tested could be utilized as the sole carbon source and electron donor by the enrichment culture N47. Field investigations at the tar-oil-contaminated aquifer (at a former gasworks in southwest Germany), where strain N47 originated, revealed the presence of metabolites similar to the ones identified in batch culture supernatants. The findings suggest that aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic compounds can be converted by aquifer organisms and produce a variety of polar compounds that become mobile in groundwater. 51 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Quantization maps, algebra representation, and non-commutative Fourier transform for Lie groups

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guedes, Carlos; Oriti, Daniele; Raasakka, Matti; LIPN, Institut Galile, Universit Paris-Nord, 99, av. Clement, 93430 Villetaneuse

    2013-08-15

    The phase space given by the cotangent bundle of a Lie group appears in the context of several models for physical systems. A representation for the quantum system in terms of non-commutative functions on the (dual) Lie algebra, and a generalized notion of (non-commutative) Fourier transform, different from standard harmonic analysis, has been recently developed, and found several applications, especially in the quantum gravity literature. We show that this algebra representation can be defined on the sole basis of a quantization map of the classical Poisson algebra, and identify the conditions for its existence. In particular, the corresponding non-commutative star-product carried by this representation is obtained directly from the quantization map via deformation quantization. We then clarify under which conditions a unitary intertwiner between such algebra representation and the usual group representation can be constructed giving rise to the non-commutative plane waves and consequently, the non-commutative Fourier transform. The compact groups U(1) and SU(2) are considered for different choices of quantization maps, such as the symmetric and the Duflo map, and we exhibit the corresponding star-products, algebra representations, and non-commutative plane waves.

  2. C60 -induced Devil's Staircase transformation on a Pb/Si(111) wetting layer

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Lin -Lin; Johnson, Duane D.; Tringides, Michael C.

    2015-12-03

    Density functional theory is used to study structural energetics of Pb vacancy cluster formation on C60/Pb/Si(111) to explain the unusually fast and error-free transformations between the “Devil's Staircase” (DS) phases on the Pb/Si(111) wetting layer at low temperature (~110K). The formation energies of vacancy clusters are calculated in C60/Pb/Si(111) as Pb atoms are progressively ejected from the initial dense Pb wetting layer. Vacancy clusters larger than five Pb atoms are found to be stable with seven being the most stable, while vacancy clusters smaller than five are highly unstable, which agrees well with the observed ejection rate of ~5 Pbmore » atoms per C60. Furthermore, the high energy cost (~0.8 eV) for the small vacancy clusters to form indicates convincingly that the unusually fast transformation observed experimentally between the DS phases, upon C60 adsorption at low temperature, cannot be the result of single-atom random walk diffusion but of correlated multi-atom processes.« less

  3. Bainitic transformation in austempered ductile iron with reference to untransformed austenite volume phenomenon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmadabadai, M.N.

    1997-10-01

    Much interest has been focused on austempered ductile iron (ADI) because of its superior mechanical properties, which might be improved by further control of microstructure. It has so far been assumed that segregation of alloying elements in the intercellular region just delays bainitic reaction in these regions. However, the existence of bainite-free regions (UAV) even after 10,000 minutes at test temperature, e.g., 375 C, indicates something intrinsic to the mechanism of bainitic transformation. The bainitic transformation start (B{sub s}) temperature is a function of alloying elements; segregation of alloying elements can also alter the B{sub s} temperature. In other words, B{sub s} temperature in the region near graphite should be different from the intercellular region. Therefore, the intercellular region with higher concentration of alloying elements such as Mn should have a lower B{sub s} temperature, which leads to formation of UAV even after a long high-temperature austempering time (hereafter, this stable UAV will be named as the minimum UAV value). To examine this concept, theoretical and experimental procedures were employed.

  4. Online Monitoring Technical Basis and Analysis Framework for Large Power Transformers; Interim Report for FY 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nancy J. Lybeck; Vivek Agarwal; Binh T. Pham; Heather D. Medema; Kirk Fitzgerald

    2012-09-01

    The Light Water Reactor Sustainability program at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is actively conducting research to develop and demonstrate online monitoring (OLM) capabilities for active components in existing Nuclear Power Plants. A pilot project is currently underway to apply OLM to Generator Step-Up Transformers (GSUs) and Emergency Diesel Generators (EDGs). INL and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) are working jointly to implement the pilot project. The EPRI Fleet-Wide Prognostic and Health Management (FW-PHM) Software Suite will be used to implement monitoring in conjunction with utility partners: the Shearon Harris Nuclear Generating Station (owned by Duke Energy for GSUs, and Braidwood Generating Station (owned by Exelon Corporation) for EDGs. This report presents monitoring techniques, fault signatures, and diagnostic and prognostic models for GSUs. GSUs are main transformers that are directly connected to generators, stepping up the voltage from the generator output voltage to the highest transmission voltages for supplying electricity to the transmission grid. Technical experts from Shearon Harris are assisting INL and EPRI in identifying critical faults and defining fault signatures associated with each fault. The resulting diagnostic models will be implemented in the FW-PHM Software Suite and tested using data from Shearon-Harris. Parallel research on EDGs is being conducted, and will be reported in an interim report during the first quarter of fiscal year 2013.

  5. Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Reaction and Transformation of Hg and Trace Metals in Combustion Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Helble; Clara Smith; David Miller

    2009-08-31

    The overall goal of this project was to produce a working dynamic model to predict the transformation and partitioning of trace metals resulting from combustion of a broad range of fuels. The information provided from this model will be instrumental in efforts to identify fuels and conditions that can be varied to reduce metal emissions. Through the course of this project, it was determined that mercury (Hg) and arsenic (As) would be the focus of the experimental investigation. Experiments were therefore conducted to examine homogeneous and heterogeneous mercury oxidation pathways, and to assess potential interactions between arsenic and calcium. As described in this report, results indicated that the role of SO{sub 2} on Hg oxidation was complex and depended upon overall gas phase chemistry, that iron oxide (hematite) particles contributed directly to heterogeneous Hg oxidation, and that As-Ca interactions occurred through both gas-solid and within-char reaction pathways. Modeling based on this study indicated that, depending upon coal type and fly ash particle size, vaporization-condensation, vaporization-surface reaction, and As-CaO in-char reaction all play a role in arsenic transformations under combustion conditions.

  6. Automatic Transformation of MPI Programs to Asynchronous, Graph-Driven Form

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baden, Scott B; Weare, John H; Bylaska, Eric J

    2013-04-30

    The goals of this project are to develop new, scalable, high-fidelity algorithms for atomic-level simulations and program transformations that automatically restructure existing applications, enabling them to scale forward to Petascale systems and beyond. The techniques enable legacy MPI application code to exploit greater parallelism though increased latency hiding and improved workload assignment. The techniques were successfully demonstrated on high-end scalable systems located at DOE laboratories. Besides the automatic MPI program transformations efforts, the project also developed several new scalable algorithms for ab-initio molecular dynamics, including new massively parallel algorithms for hybrid DFT and new parallel in time algorithms for molecular dynamics and ab-initio molecular dynamics. These algorithms were shown to scale to very large number of cores, and they were designed to work in the latency hiding framework developed in this project. The effectiveness of the developments was enhanced by the direct application to real grand challenge simulation problems covering a wide range of technologically important applications, time scales and accuracies. These included the simulation of the electronic structure of mineral/fluid interfaces, the very accurate simulation of chemical reactions in microsolvated environments, and the simulation of chemical behavior in very large enzyme reactions.

  7. Structure-toxicity assessment of metabolites of the aerobic bacterial transformation of substituted naphthalenes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LeBlond, J.D.; Applegate, B.M.; Menn, F.M.; Schultz, T.W.; Sayler, G.S.

    2000-05-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens 5R, a naphthalene-degrading bacterium isolated from manufactured gas plant soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, was examined for its degradative capacity of a number of substituted naphthalenes. In general, those compounds substituted on only one ring with an electrically neutral substituent were found to be transformed primarily to substituted salicylic acids according to the classical (NAH7) naphthalene dioxygenase-initiated upper pathway reactions of the naphthalene degradative pathway (i.e., the NAH system). Dimethylnaphthalenes with a substituent on each ring, and certain halogenated naphthalenes, were transformed via a monohydroxylation reaction to form hydroxylated dead-end products. Of the substituted salicylic acids examined, only 3- and 4-methylsalicylic acid, the respective products of the degradation of 1- and 2-methylnaphthalene, were further degraded by salicylate hydroxylase and catechol 2,3-dioxygenase, the first two enzymes of the NAH lower pathway. Using the Tetrahymena pyriformis acute toxicity assay, many of the monohydroxylated products of incomplete biodegradation were found to be polar narcotics. Substituted salicylic acids that are not further degraded by the NAH lower pathway were found to be toxic via carboxylic acid narcosis.

  8. Mos1 transposon-based transformation of fish cell lines using baculoviral vectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yokoo, Masako; Fujita, Ryosuke; Innate Immunity Laboratory, Graduate School of Life Science and Creative Research Institution, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 001-0021 ; Nakajima, Yumiko; Yoshimizu, Mamoru; Kasai, Hisae; Asano, Shin-ichiro; Bando, Hisanori

    2013-09-13

    Highlights: •The baculovirus vector infiltrates the cells of economic important fishes. •Drosophila Mos1 transposase expressed in fish cells maintains its ability to localize to the nucleus. •The baculoviral vector carrying Mos1 is a useful tool to stably transform fish cells. -- Abstract: Drosophila Mos1 belongs to the mariner family of transposons, which are one of the most ubiquitous transposons among eukaryotes. We first determined nuclear transportation of the Drosophila Mos1-EGFP fusion protein in fish cell lines because it is required for a function of transposons. We next constructed recombinant baculoviral vectors harboring the Drosophila Mos1 transposon or marker genes located between Mos1 inverted repeats. The infectivity of the recombinant virus to fish cells was assessed by monitoring the expression of a fluorescent protein encoded in the viral genome. We detected transgene expression in CHSE-214, HINAE, and EPC cells, but not in GF or RTG-2 cells. In the co-infection assay of the Mos1-expressing virus and reporter gene-expressing virus, we successfully transformed CHSE-214 and HINAE cells. These results suggest that the combination of a baculovirus and Mos1 transposable element may be a tool for transgenesis in fish cells.

  9. Evidence for the temperature dependence of phase transformation behavior of silicon at nanoscale

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mangalampalli S. R. N., Kiran; Tran, Tuan; Smillie, Lachlan; Haberl, Bianca; Subianto, D.; Williams, James S.; Bradby, Jodie E.

    2015-01-01

    This study uses the in-situ high-temperature nanoindentation coupled with electrical measurements to investigate the temperature dependence (25 to 200 C) of the phase transformation behavior of crystalline silicon (dc-Si) at the nanoscale. Along with in-situ indentation and electrical data, ex-situ characterizations such as Raman and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) have been used to reveal the dominant mode of deformation under the indenter. In contrast to the previous studies, the dominant mode of deformation under the nanoindenter at elevated temperatures is not the dc-Si to metallic phase ( -Sn) transformation. Instead, XTEM images from 150 C indents reveal that themore » dominant mode of deformation is twinning along {111} planes. While the in-situ high-temperature electrical measurements show an increase in the current due to metallic phase formation up to 125 C, it is absent 150 C, revealing that the formation of the metallic phase is negligible in this regime. Thus, this work provides clear insight into the temperature dependent deformation mechanisms in dc-Si at the nanoscale.« less

  10. Spectral induced polarization and electrodic potential monitoring of microbially mediated iron sulfide transformations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hubbard, Susan; Personna, Y.R.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Slater, L.; Yee, N.; O'Brien, M.; Hubbard, S.

    2008-02-15

    Stimulated sulfate-reduction is a bioremediation technique utilized for the sequestration of heavy metals in the subsurface.We performed laboratory column experiments to investigate the geoelectrical response of iron sulfide transformations by Desulfo vibriovulgaris. Two geoelectrical methods, (1) spectral induced polarization (SIP), and (2) electrodic potential measurements, were investigated. Aqueous geochemistry (sulfate, lactate, sulfide, and acetate), observations of precipitates (identified from electron microscopy as iron sulfide), and electrodic potentials on bisulfide ion (HS) sensitive silver-silver chloride (Ag-AgCl) electrodes (630 mV) were diagnostic of induced transitions between an aerobic iron sulfide forming conditions and aerobic conditions promoting iron sulfide dissolution. The SIP data showed 10m rad anomalies during iron sulfide mineralization accompanying microbial activity under an anaerobic transition. These anomalies disappeared during iron sulfide dissolution under the subsequent aerobic transition. SIP model parameters based on a Cole-Cole relaxation model of the polarization at the mineral-fluid interface were converted to (1) estimated biomineral surface area to pore volume (Sp), and (2) an equivalent polarizable sphere diameter (d) controlling the relaxation time. The temporal variation in these model parameters is consistent with filling and emptying of pores by iron sulfide biofilms, as the system transitions between anaerobic (pore filling) and aerobic (pore emptying) conditions. The results suggest that combined SIP and electrodic potential measurements might be used to monitor spatiotemporal variability in microbial iron sulfide transformations in the field.

  11. Hidden disorder in the α'→δ transformation of Pu-1.9 at.% Ga

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jeffries, J. R.; Manley, M. E.; Wall, M. A.; Blobaum, K. J. M.; Schwartz, A. J.

    2012-06-06

    Enthalpy and entropy are thermodynamic quantities critical to determining how and at what temperature a phase transition occurs. At a phase transition, the enthalpy and temperature-weighted entropy differences between two phases are equal (ΔH=TΔS), but there are materials where this balance has not been experimentally or theoretically realized, leading to the idea of hidden order and disorder. In a Pu-1.9 at. % Ga alloy, the δ phase is retained as a metastable state at room temperature, but at low temperatures, the δ phase yields to a mixed-phase microstructure of δ- and α'-Pu. The previously measured sources of entropy associated withmore » the α'→δ transformation fail to sum to the entropy predicted theoretically. We report an experimental measurement of the entropy of the α'→δ transformation that corroborates the theoretical prediction, and implies that only about 65% of the entropy stabilizing the δ phase is accounted for, leaving a missing entropy of about 0.5 kB/atom. Some previously proposed mechanisms for generating entropy are discussed, but none seem capable of providing the necessary disorder to stabilize the δ phase. This hidden disorder represents multiple accessible states per atom within the δ phase of Pu that may not be included in our current understanding of the properties and phase stability of δ-Pu.« less

  12. FUNDAMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF FUEL TRANSFORMATIONS IN PULVERIZED COAL COMBUSTION AND GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Hurt; Joseph Calo; Thomas H. Fletcher; Alan Sayre

    2005-04-29

    The goal of this project was to carry out the necessary experiments and analyses to extend current capabilities for modeling fuel transformations to the new conditions anticipated in next-generation coal-based, fuel-flexible combustion and gasification processes. This multi-organization, multi-investigator project has produced data, correlations, and submodels that extend present capabilities in pressure, temperature, and fuel type. The combined experimental and theoretical/computational results are documented in detail in Chapters 1-8 of this report, with Chapter 9 serving as a brief summary of the main conclusions. Chapters 1-3 deal with the effect of elevated pressure on devolatilization, char formation, and char properties. Chapters 4 and 5 deal with advanced combustion kinetic models needed to cover the extended ranges of pressure and temperature expected in next-generation furnaces. Chapter 6 deals with the extension of kinetic data to a variety of alternative solid fuels. Chapter 7 focuses on the kinetics of gasification (rather than combustion) at elevated pressure. Finally, Chapter 8 describes the integration, testing, and use of new fuel transformation submodels into a comprehensive CFD framework. Overall, the effects of elevated pressure, temperature, heating rate, and alternative fuel use are all complex and much more work could be further undertaken in this area. Nevertheless, the current project with its new data, correlations, and computer models provides a much improved basis for model-based design of next generation systems operating under these new conditions.

  13. Isothermal Solid-State Transformation Kinetics Applied to Pd/Cu Alloy Membrane Fabrication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pomerantz, Natalie L; Payzant, E Andrew; Ma, Yi Hua

    2010-01-01

    In this work, time-resolved, in situ high-temperature X-ray diffraction (HT-XRD) was used to study the solid-state transformation kinetics of the formation of the fcc Pd/Cu alloy from Pd/Cu bi-layers for the purpose of fabricating sulfur tolerant Pd/Cu membranes for H2 separation. Thin layers of Pd and Cu (total ~15 wt% Cu) were deposited on porous stainless steel (PSS) with the electroless deposition method and annealed in H2 at 500, 550 and 600 C. The kinetics of the annealing process were successfully described by the Avrami nucleation and growth model showing that the annealing process was diffusion controlled and one dimensional. The activation energy for the solid-state transformation was 175 kJ/mol, which was similar to the activation energy of Pd-Cu bulk interdiffusion. Furthermore, the Avrami model was able to successfully describe the changes in permeance and activation energy observed in Pd/Cu alloy membranes during characterization as they were annealed at high temperatures.

  14. From Nanowires to Biofilms: An Exploration of Novel Mechanisms of Uranium Transformation Mediated by Geobacter Bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    REGUERA, GEMMA

    2014-01-16

    One promising strategy for the in situ bioremediation of radioactive groundwater contaminants that has been identified by the SBR Program is to stimulate the activity of dissimilatory metal-reducing microorganisms to reductively precipitate uranium and other soluble toxic metals. The reduction of U(VI) and other soluble contaminants by Geobacteraceae is directly dependent on the reduction of Fe(III) oxides, their natural electron acceptor, a process that requires the expression of Geobacters conductive pili (pilus nanowires). Expression of conductive pili by Geobacter cells leads to biofilm development on surfaces and to the formation of suspended biogranules, which may be physiological closer to biofilms than to planktonic cells. Biofilm development is often assumed in the subsurface, particularly at the matrix-well screen interface, but evidence of biofilms in the bulk aquifer matrix is scarce. Our preliminary results suggest, however, that biofilms develop in the subsurface and contribute to uranium transformations via sorption and reductive mechanisms. In this project we elucidated the mechanism(s) for uranium immobilization mediated by Geobacter biofilms and identified molecular markers to investigate if biofilm development is happening in the contaminated subsurface. The results provided novel insights needed in order to understand the metabolic potential and physiology of microorganisms with a known role in contaminant transformation in situ, thus having a significant positive impact in the SBR Program and providing novel concept to monitor, model, and predict biological behavior during in situ treatments.

  15. Tribology of improved transformation-toughened ceramics-heat engine test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lilley, E.; Rossi, G.A.; Pelletier, P.J. . Advanced Ceramics Div.)

    1992-04-01

    A short term study has been carried out to evaluate the suitability as cam roller followers of three ceria zirconia toughened aluminas and two yttria stabilized tetragonal zirconias (YTZPs) previously enhanced in programs supported by ORNL. Norton Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} (NBD-100) was also included in this study as a reference material, because it was known from work at Northwestern University that Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} to experienced little or no wear in this application, and NBD-100 is currently a successful commercial bearing material. The tribological studies were subcontracted to the Torrington Company. They found that in cam roller follower simulated tests that there was essentially no wear after 1 hour and 5 hours of testing detectable by weighing and concluded that all of these ceramics are, therefore, candidate materials. Because of the minute amounts of wear it was not possible to identify the wear mechanism or to make any correlations with the other physical properties which were evaluated such as MOR, K{sub IC} hardness, density and grain size. Phase transformation during rolling has been of interest in the tribology of zirconia contain materials. The least stable of the ceria zirconia toughened aluminas resulted in as much as 33% monoclinic phase after testing whereas the yttria stabilized (TTZ) contained very little of this transformed phase. The results of this study show that oxide materials can now be considered as candidates for cam roller followers in heat engines.

  16. Coupled-cluster representation of Green function employing modified spectral resolutions of similarity transformed Hamiltonians

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kowalski, Karol; Bhaskaran-Nair, Kiran; Shelton, William A.

    2014-09-07

    In this paper we discuss a new formalism for producing an analytic coupled-cluster (CC) Greens function that renders a highly scalable computational accurate method for producing an analytic coupled-cluster Greens function for an N-electron system by shifting the poles of similarity transformed Hamiltonians represented in N?1 and N +1 electron Hilbert spaces. Simple criteria are derived for the states in N ?1 and N + 1 electron spaces that are then corrected in the spectral resolution of the cor- responding matrix representations of the similarity transformed Hamiltonian. The accurate description of excited state processes within a Greens function formalism would be of significant importance to a number of scientific communities ranging from physics and chemistry to engineering and the biological sciences. This is because the Greens function methodology provides a direct path for not only calculating prop- erties whose underlying origins come from coupled many-body interactions but it also provides a straightforward path for calculating electron transport, response and correlation functions that allows for a direct link with experiment. As a special case of this general formulation, we discuss the application of this technique for Greens function defined by the CCSD (CC with singles and doubles) representation of the ground-state wave function.

  17. Arsenite induces cell transformation by reactive oxygen species, AKT, ERK1/2, and p70S6K1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carpenter, Richard L.; Jiang, Yue; Jing, Yi; He, Jun; Rojanasakul, Yon; Liu, Ling-Zhi; Jiang, Bing-Hua

    2011-10-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chronic exposure to arsenite induces cell proliferation and transformation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Arsenite-induced transformation increases ROS production and downstream signalings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of ROS levels via catalase reduces arsenite-induced cell transformation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interruption of AKT, ERK, or p70S6K1 inhibits arsenite-induced cell transformation. -- Abstract: Arsenic is naturally occurring element that exists in both organic and inorganic formulations. The inorganic form arsenite has a positive association with development of multiple cancer types. There are significant populations throughout the world with high exposure to arsenite via drinking water. Thus, human exposure to arsenic has become a significant public health problem. Recent evidence suggests that reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediate multiple changes to cell behavior after acute arsenic exposure, including activation of proliferative signaling and angiogenesis. However, the role of ROS in mediating cell transformation by chronic arsenic exposure is unknown. We found that cells chronically exposed to sodium arsenite increased proliferation and gained anchorage-independent growth. This cell transformation phenotype required constitutive activation of AKT, ERK1/2, mTOR, and p70S6K1. We also observed these cells constitutively produce ROS, which was required for the constitutive activation of AKT, ERK1/2, mTOR, and p70S6K1. Suppression of ROS levels by forced expression of catalase also reduced cell proliferation and anchorage-independent growth. These results indicate cell transformation induced by chronic arsenic exposure is mediated by increased cellular levels of ROS, which mediates activation of AKT, ERK1/2, and p70S6K1.

  18. Exploring two-dimensional electron gases with two-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Paul, J.; Dey, P.; Tokumoto, T.; Reno, J. L.; Hilton, D. J.; Karaiskaj, D.

    2014-10-07

    The dephasing of excitons in a modulation doped single quantum well was carefully measured using time integrated four-wave mixing (FWM) and two-dimensional Fourier transform (2DFT) spectroscopy. These are the first 2DFT measurements performed on a modulation doped single quantum well. The inhomogeneous and homogeneous excitonic line widths were obtained from the diagonal and cross-diagonal profiles of the 2DFT spectra. The laser excitation density and temperature were varied and 2DFT spectra were collected. A very rapid increase of the dephasing decay, and as a result, an increase in the cross-diagonal 2DFT linewidths with temperature was observed. Furthermore, the lineshapes of themore » 2DFT spectra suggest the presence of excitation induced dephasing and excitation induced shift.« less

  19. Transformation of surface plasmon polaritons to radiation in graphene in terahertz regime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gong, Sen; Zhao, Tao; Hu, Min; Zhong, Renbin; Chen, Xiaoxing; Zhang, Ping; Liu, Shenggang; Sanderson, Matthew; Zhang, Chao

    2015-06-01

    We demonstrate a concept that allows direct excitation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) by a moving electron bunch above a single layer graphene sheet deposited on a dielectric substrate without any additional coupling requirements. We show that if the two-dimensional current in the graphene is dominated by the third order nonlinear effect when the surface electric field exceeds a moderate strength of ∼5 kV/cm, the SPP mode can cross the light line although the group velocity remains much smaller than the speed of light. This effect gives rise to direct transformation of SPPs into radiation. The underlying mechanism of the crossing of the SPP dispersion into the light line is the energy shift of charged particles in the nonlinear regime and the finite transport scattering time in graphene. Both the energy and lifetime of the SPPs increase with the field intensity. The radiation intensity and frequency can be tuned with an AC bias.

  20. Exploring two-dimensional electron gases with two-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul, J.; Dey, P.; Tokumoto, T.; Reno, J. L.; Hilton, D. J.; Karaiskaj, D.

    2014-10-07

    The dephasing of excitons in a modulation doped single quantum well was carefully measured using time integrated four-wave mixing (FWM) and two-dimensional Fourier transform (2DFT) spectroscopy. These are the first 2DFT measurements performed on a modulation doped single quantum well. The inhomogeneous and homogeneous excitonic line widths were obtained from the diagonal and cross-diagonal profiles of the 2DFT spectra. The laser excitation density and temperature were varied and 2DFT spectra were collected. A very rapid increase of the dephasing decay, and as a result, an increase in the cross-diagonal 2DFT linewidths with temperature was observed. Furthermore, the lineshapes of the 2DFT spectra suggest the presence of excitation induced dephasing and excitation induced shift.

  1. Transformations, Inc.. Partnering To Build Net-Zero Energy Houses in Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ueno, K.; Bergey, D.; Wytrykowska, H.

    2013-09-01

    Transformations, Inc. is a residential development and building company that has partnered with Building Science Corporation to build new construction net-zero energy houses in Massachusetts under the Building America program. There are three communities that will be constructed through this partnership: Devens Sustainable Housing ("Devens"), The Homes at Easthampton Meadow ("Easthampton") and Phase II of the Coppersmith Way Development ("Townsend"). This report intends to cover all of the single-family new construction homes that have been completed to date. The houses built in these developments are net zero energy homes built in a cold climate. They will contribute to finding answers to specific research questions for homes with high R double stud walls and high efficiency ductless air source heat pump systems ("mini-splits"); allow to explore topics related to the financing of photovoltaic systems and basements vs. slab-on-grade construction; and provide feedback related to the performance of ductless mini-split air source heat pumps.

  2. Low-e Storm Windows: Market Assessment and Pathways to Market Transformation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cort, Katherine A.

    2013-06-08

    Field studies sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have shown that the use of low-e storm windows can lead to significant heating and cooling energy savings in residential homes. This study examines the market for low-e storm windows based on market data, case studies, and recent experience with weatherization deployment programs. It uses information from interviews conducted with DOE researchers and industry partners involved in case studies and early deployment efforts related to low-e storm windows. In addition, this study examines potential barriers to market acceptance, assesses the market and energy savings potential, and identifies opportunities to transform the market for low-e storm windows and overcome market adoption barriers.

  3. Off-resonance frequency operation for power transfer in a loosely coupled air core transformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scudiere, Matthew B

    2012-11-13

    A power transmission system includes a loosely coupled air core transformer having a resonance frequency determined by a product of inductance and capacitance of a primary circuit including a primary coil. A secondary circuit is configured to have a substantially same product of inductance and capacitance. A back EMF generating device (e.g., a battery), which generates a back EMF with power transfer, is attached to the secondary circuit. Once the load power of the back EMF generating device exceeds a certain threshold level, which depends on the system parameters, the power transfer can be achieved at higher transfer efficiency if performed at an operating frequency less than the resonance frequency, which can be from 50% to 95% of the resonance frequency.

  4. Aging Management Guideline for commercial nuclear power plants: Power and distribution transformers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toman, G.; Gazdzinski, R.

    1994-05-01

    This Aging Management Guideline (AMG) provides recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in power and distribution transformers important to license renewal in commercial nuclear power plants. The intent of this AMG to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR Part 54. This AMG is presented in a manner which allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein.

  5. Detecting and Removing Data Artifacts in Hadamard Transform Ion Mobility-Mass Spectrometry Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prost, Spencer A.; Crowell, Kevin L.; Baker, Erin Shammel; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Clowers, Brian H.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Smith, Richard D.; Payne, Samuel H.

    2014-12-01

    Applying Hadamard transform multiplexing to ion mobility separations (IMS) can significantly improve the signal-to-noise ratio and throughput for IMS coupled mass spectrometry (MS) measurements by increasing the ion utilization efficiency. However, it has been determined that both fluctuations in ion intensity as well as spatial shifts in the multiplexed data lower the signal-to-noise ratios and appear as noise in downstream processing of the data. To address this problem, we have developed a novel algorithm that discovers and eliminates data artifacts. The algorithm uses knowledge of the true signal peaks derived from the encoded data and allows for both artifacts and noise to be removed with high confidence, decreasing the likelihood of false identifications in subsequent data processing. The result is that IMS-MS can be applied to increase measurement sensitivity while avoiding artifacts that have previously limited its utility.

  6. Microbial transformations of uranium in wastes and implication on its mobility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suzuki,Y.; Nankawa, T.; Ozaki, T.; Ohnuki, T.; Francis, A.J.; Enokida, Y.; Yamamoto, I.

    2008-09-14

    Uranium exists in several chemical forms in mining and mill tailings and in nuclear and weapons production wastes. Under appropriate conditions, microorganisms can affect the stability and mobility of U in wastes by altering the chemical speciation, solubility and sorption properties and thus could increase or decrease the concentrations of U in solution and the bioavailability. Dissolution or immobilization of U is brought about by direct enzymatic action or indirect nonenzymatic action of microorganisms. Although the physical, chemical, and geochemical processes affecting dissolution, precipitation, and mobilization of U have been extensively investigated, we have only limited information on the mechanisms of microbial transformations of various chemical forms of U in the presence of electron donors and acceptors.

  7. CLEAN CAST STEEL TECHNOLOGY: DETERMINATION OF TRANSFORMATION DIAGRAMS FOR DUPLEX STAINLESS STEEL.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chumbley. L., S.

    2005-09-18

    Duplex stainless steels (DSS) constitute both ferrite and austenite as a matrix. Such a microstructure confers a high corrosion resistance with favorable mechanical properties. However, intermetallic phases such as sigma (???????????????¯??????????????????????????????³) and chi (???????????????¯??????????????????????????????£) can also form during casting or high-temperature processing and can degrade the properties of the DSS. This research was initiated to develop time-temperature-transformation (TTT) and continuous-cooling- transformation (CCT) diagrams of two types of cast duplex stainless steels, CD3MN (Fe 22Cr-5Ni-Mo-N) and CD3MWCuN (Fe-25Cr-7Ni-Mo-W-Cu-N), in order to understand the time and temperature ranges for intermetallic phase formation. The alloys were heat treated isothermally or under controlled cooling conditions and then characterized using conventional metallographic methods that included tint etching, and also using electron microscopy (SEM, TEM) and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (WDS). The kinetics of intermetallic-phase (???????????????¯??????????????????????????????³ + ???????????????¯??????????????????????????????£) formation were analyzed using the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (JMA) equation in the case of isothermal transformations and a modified form of this equation in the case of continuous cooling transformations, The rate of intermetallic-phase formation was found to be much faster in CD3MWCuN than CD3MN due mainly to differences in the major alloying contents such as Cr, Ni and Mo. To examine in more detail the effects of these elements of the phase stabilities, a series of eight steel castings was designed with the Cr, Ni and Mo contents systematically varied with respect to the nominal composition of CD3MN. The effects of varying the contents of alloying additions on the formation of intermetallic phases were also studied computationally using the commercial thermodynamic software package, Thermo-Calc. In general, ???????????????¯??????????????????????????????³ was stabilized with increasing Cr addition and by increasing Mo addition. However, a delicate balance among Ni and other minor elements such as N and Si also exists. Phase equilibria in DSS can be affected by local composition fluctuations in the cast alloy. This may cause discrepancy between thermodynamic prediction and experimental observation.

  8. Shear-transformation-zone theory of yielding in athermal amorphous materials

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Langer, J. S.

    2015-01-01

    Yielding transitions in athermal amorphous materials undergoing steady-state shear flow resemble critical phenomena. Historically, they have been described by the Herschel-Bulkley rheological formula, which implies singular behaviors at yield points. In this paper, I examine this class of phenomena using an elementary version of the thermodynamic shear-transformation-zone (STZ) theory, focusing on the role of the effective disorder temperature, and paying special attention to scaling and dimensional arguments. I find a wide variety of Herschel-Bulkley-like rheologies but, for fundamental reasons not specific to the STZ theory, conclude that the yielding transition is not truly critical. Specifically, for realistic many-body models withmore » short-range interactions, there is a correlation length that grows rapidly but ultimately saturates near the yield point.« less

  9. Micro/nano-mechanical test system employing tensile test holder with push-to-pull transformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oh, Yunje; Cyrankowski, Edward; Shan, Zhiwei; Asif, Syed Amanula Syed

    2013-05-07

    A micromachined or microelectromechanical system (MEMS) based push-to-pull mechanical transformer for tensile testing of micro-to-nanometer scale material samples including a first structure and a second structure. The second structure is coupled to the first structure by at least one flexible element that enables the second structure to be moveable relative to the first structure, wherein the second structure is disposed relative to the first structure so as to form a pulling gap between the first and second structures such that when an external pushing force is applied to and pushes the second structure in a tensile extension direction a width of the pulling gap increases so as to apply a tensile force to a test sample mounted across the pulling gap between a first sample mounting area on the first structure and a second sample mounting area on the second structure.

  10. Micro/nano-mechanical test system employing tensile test holder with push-to-pull transformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oh, Yunje; Cyrankowski, Edward; Shan, Zhiwei; Syed Asif, Syed Amanula

    2014-07-29

    A micromachined or microelectromechanical system (MEMS) based push-to-pull mechanical transformer for tensile testing of micro-to-nanometer scale material samples including a first structure and a second structure. The second structure is coupled to the first structure by at least one flexible element that enables the second structure to be moveable relative to the first structure, wherein the second structure is disposed relative to the first structure so as to form a pulling gap between the first and second structures such that when an external pushing force is applied to and pushes the second structure in a tensile extension direction a width of the pulling gap increases so as to apply a tensile force to a test sample mounted across the pulling gap between a first sample mounting area on the first structure and a second sample mounting area on the second structure.

  11. Precise measurement of the resolution in light microscopy using Fourier transform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vainrub, Arnold

    2008-04-15

    The resolution power of light microscope has been accurately measured ({+-}5%) by Fourier transform of various object images and further evaluation of the highest spatial frequency in Fourier spectrum. Any unknown shape plane object with a shape feature's size smaller than the resolution to be measured was shown to provide a reliable resolution test. This simple method gives a direct measurement of the resolution power as defined by Abbe [Archiv. F. Mikroskopische Anat. 9, 413 (1873)]. The results have been justified by comparison to a standard resolution measurement by using calibrated periodic line patterns. Notably, the approach is applicable in super-resolution light microscopy (transmission, reflection, and fluorescence), where calibrated resolution targets do not occur. It was conveniently implemented by using a compact disk as a test object and free IMAGEJ imaging software.

  12. Collaborative Proposal: Transforming How Climate System Models are Used: A Global, Multi-Resolution Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Estep, Donald

    2013-04-15

    Despite the great interest in regional modeling for both weather and climate applications, regional modeling is not yet at the stage that it can be used routinely and effectively for climate modeling of the ocean. The overarching goal of this project is to transform how climate models are used by developing and implementing a robust, efficient, and accurate global approach to regional ocean modeling. To achieve this goal, we will use theoretical and computational means to resolve several basic modeling and algorithmic issues. The first task is to develop techniques for transitioning between parameterized and high-fidelity regional ocean models as the discretization grid transitions from coarse to fine regions. The second task is to develop estimates for the error in scientifically relevant quantities of interest that provide a systematic way to automatically determine where refinement is needed in order to obtain accurate simulations of dynamic and tracer transport in regional ocean models. The third task is to develop efficient, accurate, and robust time-stepping schemes for variable spatial resolution discretizations used in regional ocean models of dynamics and tracer transport. The fourth task is to develop frequency-dependent eddy viscosity finite element and discontinuous Galerkin methods and study their performance and effectiveness for simulation of dynamics and tracer transport in regional ocean models. These four projects share common difficulties and will be approach using a common computational and mathematical toolbox. This is a multidisciplinary project involving faculty and postdocs from Colorado State University, Florida State University, and Penn State University along with scientists from Los Alamos National Laboratory. The completion of the tasks listed within the discussion of the four sub-projects will go a long way towards meeting our goal of developing superior regional ocean models that will transform how climate system models are used.

  13. Biotic and Abiotic Transformation of a Volatile Organics Plume in a Semi-Arid Vadose Zone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Studer, J.E.; Singletary, M.A.; Miller, D.R.

    1999-04-08

    An evaluation of biotic and abiotic attenuation processes potentially important to chlorinated and non-chlorinated volatile organic compound (VOC) fate and transport in the 148 meter thick vadose zone beneath the Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL) was conducted. A unique feature of this evaluation is the comparison of two estimates of VOC mass present in the soil gas, pore-water, and solid phases (but not including mass as non-aqueous phase liquid [NAPL]) of the vadose zone in 1993. One estimate, 1,800 kg, was obtained from vadose zone transport modeling that incorporated molecular diffusion and volatilization to the atmosphere, but not biotic or chemical processes. The other estimate, 2,120 kg, was obtained from the sum of VOC mass physically removed during soil vapor extraction and an estimate of VOC mass remaining in the vadose zone in 1998, both adjusted to exclude NAPL mass. This comparison indicates that biogeochemical processes were at best slightly important to historical VOC plume development. Some evidence of aerobic degradation of non-chlorinated VOCs and abiotic transformation of 1,1,1-Trichloroethane was identified. Despite potentially amenable site conditions, no evidence was found of cometabolic and anaerobic transformation pathways. Relying principally on soil-gas analytical results, an upper-bound estimate of 21% mass reduction due to natural biogeochemical processes was developed. Although available information for the CWL indicates that natural attenuation processes other than volatilization to the atmosphere did not effective y enhance groundwater protection, these processes could be important in significantly reducing groundwater contamination and exposure risks at other sites. More laboratory and field research is required to improve our collective ability to characterize and exploit natural VOC attenuation processes, especially with respect to the combination of relatively thick and dry vadose zones and chlorinated VOCs.

  14. Real-time observation of morphological transformations in II-VI semiconducting nanobelts via environmental transmission electron microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Agarwal, Rahul; Zakharov, Dmitri N.; Krook, Nadia M.; Liu, Wenjing; Berger, Jacob; Stach, Eric A.; Agarwal, Ritesh

    2015-05-01

    It has been observed that wurtzite II–VI semiconducting nanobelts transform into single-crystal, periodically branched nanostructures upon heating. The mechanism of this novel transformation has been elucidated by heating II–VI nanobelts in an environmental transmission electron microscope (ETEM) in oxidizing, reducing and inert atmospheres while observing their structural changes with high spatial resolution. The interplay of surface reconstruction of high-energy surfaces of the wurtzite phase and environment-dependent anisotropic chemical etching of certain crystal surfaces in the branching mechanism of nanobelts has been observed. Understanding of structural and chemical transformations of materials via in situ microscopy techniques and their role in designingmore » new nanostructured materials is discussed.« less

  15. Real-time observation of morphological transformations in II-VI semiconducting nanobelts via environmental transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agarwal, Rahul; Zakharov, Dmitri N.; Krook, Nadia M.; Liu, Wenjing; Berger, Jacob; Stach, Eric A.; Agarwal, Ritesh

    2015-05-01

    It has been observed that wurtzite II–VI semiconducting nanobelts transform into single-crystal, periodically branched nanostructures upon heating. The mechanism of this novel transformation has been elucidated by heating II–VI nanobelts in an environmental transmission electron microscope (ETEM) in oxidizing, reducing and inert atmospheres while observing their structural changes with high spatial resolution. The interplay of surface reconstruction of high-energy surfaces of the wurtzite phase and environment-dependent anisotropic chemical etching of certain crystal surfaces in the branching mechanism of nanobelts has been observed. Understanding of structural and chemical transformations of materials via in situ microscopy techniques and their role in designing new nanostructured materials is discussed.

  16. Implementation of Remaining Useful Lifetime Transformer Models in the Fleet-Wide Prognostic and Health Management Suite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agarwal, Vivek; Lybeck, Nancy J.; Pham, Binh; Rusaw, Richard; Bickford, Randall

    2015-02-01

    Research and development efforts are required to address aging and reliability concerns of the existing fleet of nuclear power plants. As most plants continue to operate beyond the license life (i.e., towards 60 or 80 years), plant components are more likely to incur age-related degradation mechanisms. To assess and manage the health of aging plant assets across the nuclear industry, the Electric Power Research Institute has developed a web-based Fleet-Wide Prognostic and Health Management (FW-PHM) Suite for diagnosis and prognosis. FW-PHM is a set of web-based diagnostic and prognostic tools and databases, comprised of the Diagnostic Advisor, the Asset Fault Signature Database, the Remaining Useful Life Advisor, and the Remaining Useful Life Database, that serves as an integrated health monitoring architecture. The main focus of this paper is the implementation of prognostic models for generator step-up transformers in the FW-PHM Suite. One prognostic model discussed is based on the functional relationship between degree of polymerization, (the most commonly used metrics to assess the health of the winding insulation in a transformer) and furfural concentration in the insulating oil. The other model is based on thermal-induced degradation of the transformer insulation. By utilizing transformer loading information, established thermal models are used to estimate the hot spot temperature inside the transformer winding. Both models are implemented in the Remaining Useful Life Database of the FW-PHM Suite. The Remaining Useful Life Advisor utilizes the implemented prognostic models to estimate the remaining useful life of the paper winding insulation in the transformer based on actual oil testing and operational data.

  17. Two-stage sintering inhibits abnormal grain growth during beta to alpha transformation in SiC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kueck, Aaron M.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2007-09-17

    Free sintering of SiC with Al, B, and C additions in two successive stages, first under nitrogen and then under argon, produced a near full-density ceramic with equiaxed grain structure. The beta to alpha transformation proceeded to completion; however, the grain shape remained equiaxed due to the action of nitrogen present during the first stage of sintering. It is found that the beta to alpha transformation is necessary but not sufficient for producing the microstructure of interlocking plates found in high-toughness SiC.

  18. Transformations, Inc. Net Zero Energy Communities, Devens, Easthampton, Townsend, Massachusetts (Fact Sheet), Building America Case Study: Whole-House Solutions for New Homes, Building Technologies Office (BTO)

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Transformations, Inc. Net Zero Energy Communities Devens, Easthampton, Townsend, Massachusetts PROJECT INFORMATION Construction: New home Type: Single-family, market-rate and affordable Builder: Transformations, Inc. www.transformations-inc.com Size: 1,064 to 2,365 ft 2 Price Range: $125,000-$400,000 Date Completed: 2010-ongoing Climate Zone: Cold PERFORMANCE DATA HERS Index Range: -21 to 43 Projected annual energy cost: $88* Incremental cost of energy efficiency measures: $3/ft 2 * Incremental

  19. Effect of carbonate and phosphate ratios on the transformation of calcium orthophosphates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eliassi, Mohammad Daoud; Zhao, Wei; Tan, Wen Feng

    2014-07-01

    Graphical abstract: Complexes among phosphate, carbonate and calcium have been prepared via a facile hydrothermal route. The synthesized product at the low (0.15) and the high (1.8) molar ratio of PO{sub 4}{sup 3−}/CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} is calcium phosphate hydrate and hydroxylapatite (HAp), respectively. Molar ratios of PO{sub 4}{sup 3−}/CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} are effective on the reduction of carbonate activity during the crystallization of HAp. - Highlights: • Formation of different complexes from CO{sub 3}{sup 2−}, PO{sub 4}{sup 3−} and Ca{sup 2+} solutions at 60 °C. • Molar ratios of PO{sub 4}{sup 3−}/CO{sub 3}{sup 2} cause changes in phase and size of synthesized products. • Addition of PO{sub 4}{sup 3} inhibited the activity of CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} during bound with Ca{sup 2+}. • The phase transformation was completed, when CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} peaks disappeared in FTIR. • PO{sub 4}{sup 3−}, CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} and Ca{sup 2+} distributed heterogeneously on the surface of precipitation. - Abstract: Complexes among phosphate, carbonate and calcium have been synthesized by a designed hydrothermal method. Effects of carbonate and phosphate ratios on the transformation of calcium-orthophosphates were investigated. With X-ray diffraction measurement the synthesized product at the low (0.15) and the high (1.8) molar ratio of PO{sub 4}{sup 3−}/CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} is calcium phosphate hydrate at pH 9.0, and hydroxylapatite (HAp) at pH 8.0, respectively. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of product at the high ratio (1.8) of PO{sub 4}{sup 3−}/CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} shows that the CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} peaks disappear, and the strong peaks at 1412 and 1460 cm{sup −1} are assigned to the vibrations of PO{sub 4}{sup 3−} in HAp. {sup 31}P nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of products at the low (0.15–0.6) to the high (1.2–1.8) ratios of PO{sub 4}{sup 3−}/CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} are obtained at 2.9 and 2.7 ppm, respectively. Molar ratios of PO{sub 4}{sup 3−}/CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} are effective on the reduction of carbonate activity during the formation and infiltration events of calcium-phosphate surface precipitates, and are subsequently enclosed during HAp formation.

  20. Optical and magneto-optical studies of martensitic transformation in Ni-Mn-Ga magnetic shape memory alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beran, L.; Cejpek, P.; Kulda, M.; Antos, R.; Holy, V.; Veis, M.; Straka, L.; Heczko, O.

    2015-05-07

    Optical and magneto-optical properties of single crystal of Ni{sub 50.1}Mn{sub 28.4}Ga{sub 21.5} magnetic shape memory alloy during its transformation from martensite to austenite phase were systematically studied. Crystal orientation was approximately along (100) planes of parent cubic austenite. X-ray reciprocal mapping confirmed modulated 10?M martensite phase. Temperature depended measurements of saturation magnetization revealed the martensitic transformation at 335?K during heating. Magneto-optical spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry were measured in the sample temperature range from 297 to 373?K and photon energy range from 1.2 to 6.5?eV. Magneto-optical spectra of polar Kerr rotation as well as the spectra of ellipsometric parameter ? exhibited significant changes when crossing the transformation temperature. These changes were assigned to different optical properties of Ni-Mn-Ga in martensite and austenite phases due to modification of electronic structure near the Fermi energy during martensitic transformation.

  1. Gas/solvent-induced transformation and expansion of a nonporous solid to 1:1 host guest form

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thallapally, Praveen K.; McGrail, B. Peter; Dalgarno, Scott J.; Atwood, Jerry L.

    2008-07-01

    Herein we report the gas (CO2, N2O and propane) and solvent (CS2 and acetone) induced transformation and expansion of guest free thermodynamic form of a p-tert-butylcalix [4]arene to 1:1 host guest form.

  2. Hexagonal phase transformation in the engineered scavenger compound lithium titanate. Report of Investigations/1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collins, W.K.; Riley, W.D.; Jong, B.W.

    1993-01-01

    Engineered scavenger compounds (ESC's) developed by the US Bureau of Mines are a novel class of compounds that selectively can recover a desired element from a solid or molten alloy. Lithium titanate (Li2Ti3O7 or Li2O center dot 3TiO2) is used as an ESC to recover lithium (Li) from aluminum-lithium (Al-Li) alloys. X-ray diffraction measurements have shown that Li2Ti3O7 undergoes a phase change during scavenging from an orthorhombic structure to a hexagonal structure. This change is due to the incorporation of lithium in the matrix of the material and the effect of temperature. Although both phases are metastable, the hexagonal phase that forms during the scavenging of lithium from Al-Li alloys appears to be the more stable phase. Recovering lithium from the ESC by electrodeposition does not cause the structure to revert to the orthorhombic phase. The orthorhombic and the hexagonal structures of Li2Ti3O7 have similar scavenging capacities for lithium. The report proposes a new mechanism for the phase transformation.

  3. Technology Prioritization: Transforming the U.S. Building Stock to Embrace Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-07-01

    This paper discusses the efforts to accelerate the transformation in the U.S. building energy efficiency sector using a new technology prioritization framework. The underlying analysis examines building energy use micro segments using the Energy Information Administration Annual Energy Outlook and other publically available information. The U.S. Department of Energys Building Technologies Office (BTO) has developed a prioritization tool in an effort to inform programmatic decision making based on the long-term national impact of different energy efficiency measures. The prioritization tool can be used to investigate energy efficiency measures under a variety of scenarios and has a built-in energy accounting framework to prevent double counting of energy savings within any given portfolio. This tool is developed to inform decision making and estimate long term potential energy savings for different market adoption scenarios. It provides an objective comparison of new and existing measures and is being used to inform decision making with respect to BTOs portfolio of projects.

  4. Analysis of hyper-spectral data derived from an imaging Fourier transform: A statistical perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sengupta, S.K.; Clark, G.A.; Fields, D.J.

    1996-01-10

    Fourier transform spectrometers (FTS) using optical sensors are increasingly being used in various branches of science. Typically, a FTS generates a three-dimensional data cube with two spatial dimensions and one frequency/wavelength dimension. The number of frequency dimensions in such data cubes is generally very large, often in the hundreds, making data analytical procedures extremely complex. In the present report, the problem is viewed from a statistical perspective. A set of procedures based on the high degree of inter-channel correlation structure often present in such hyper-spectral data, has been identified and applied to an example data set of dimension 100 x 128 x 128 comprising 128 spectral bands. It is shown that in this case, the special eigen-structure of the correlation matrix has allowed the authors to extract just a few linear combinations of the channels (the significant principal vectors) that effectively contain almost all of the spectral information contained in the data set analyzed. This in turn, enables them to segment the objects in the given spatial frame using, in a parsimonious yet highly effective way, most of the information contained in the data set.

  5. Transformative research issues and opportunities in alternative energy generation and storage.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rockett, A.; Chung, Y. W.; Blaschek, H.; Butterfield, S.; Chance, R. R.; Ferekides, C.; Robinson, M.; Snyder, S. W; Thackeray, M.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a summary of research issues and opportunities in alternative energy source research identified by panels of experts assembled by the Engineering Directorate of the US National Science Foundation. The objective was to identify transformative research issues and opportunities to make alternative energy sources viable. The article presents motivations for energy research, grand challenges, and specific challenges in the research areas covered. The grand challenges identified for the United States include supplying 30% of US electricity from photovoltaics by 2030, supplying 25% of US electricity from wind by 2025, displacing 30% of US hydrocarbon use by 2030 with bio-based products, and providing a practical 250-300 W h/kg energy storage system by 2025. Similar challenges could be outlined along the same lines for the remainder of the world. Examples of specific areas of research focus identified as promising include high performance p-type transparent conductors, multijunction thin-film photovoltaic devices, defects in chalcogenide semiconductors, experimental study and numerical modeling of the fluid mechanics of airflow as applied to wind turbines, improved materials for wind turbines, methods for creating high energy density transportable biological feedstocks, biorefinery processes yielding infrastructure-compatible biofuels and biochemicals directly, and improved electrodes and electrolytes for Li ion batteries. Arguments for each of these as research priorities are given.

  6. Technology Prioritization: Transforming the U.S. Building Stock to Embrace Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdelaziz, Omar; Farese, Philip; Abramson, Alexis; Phelan, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Buildings sector is responsible for about 40% of the national energy expenditures. This is due in part to wasteful use of resources and limited considerations made for energy efficiency during the design and retrofit phases. Recent studies have indicated the potential for up to 30-50% energy savings in the U.S. buildings sector using currently available technologies. This paper discusses efforts to accelerate the transformation in the U.S. building energy efficiency sector using a new technology prioritization framework. The underlying analysis examines building energy use micro segments using the Energy Information Administration Annual Energy Outlook and other publically available information. The tool includes a stock-and-flow model to track stock vintage and efficiency levels with time. The tool can be used to investigate energy efficiency measures under a variety of scenarios and has a built-in energy accounting framework to prevent double counting of energy savings within any given portfolio. This tool is developed to inform decision making and estimate long term potential energy savings for different market adoption scenarios.

  7. Transformative Reduction of Transportation Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Opportunities for Change in Technologies and Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vimmerstedt, Laura; Brown, Austin; Newes, Emily; Markel, Tony; Schroeder, Alex; Zhang, Yimin; Chipman, Peter; Johnson, Shawn

    2015-04-30

    The transportation sector is changing, influenced by concurrent, ongoing, dynamic trends that could dramatically affect the future energy landscape, including effects on the potential for greenhouse gas emissions reductions. Battery cost reductions and improved performance coupled with a growing number of electric vehicle model offerings are enabling greater battery electric vehicle market penetration, and advances in fuel cell technology and decreases in hydrogen production costs are leading to initial fuel cell vehicle offerings. Radically more efficient vehicles based on both conventional and new drivetrain technologies reduce greenhouse gas emissions per vehicle-mile. Net impacts also depend on the energy sources used for propulsion, and these are changing with increased use of renewable energy and unconventional fossil fuel resources. Connected and automated vehicles are emerging for personal and freight transportation systems and could increase use of low- or non-emitting technologies and systems; however, the net effects of automation on greenhouse gas emissions are uncertain. The longstanding trend of an annual increase in transportation demand has reversed for personal vehicle miles traveled in recent years, demonstrating the possibility of lower-travel future scenarios. Finally, advanced biofuel pathways have continued to develop, highlighting low-carbon and in some cases carbon-negative fuel pathways. We discuss the potential for transformative reductions in petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions through these emerging transportation-sector technologies and trends and present a Clean Transportation Sector Initiative scenario for such reductions, which are summarized in Table ES-1.

  8. Microbial Transformation of TRU and Mixed Waste: Actinide Speciation and Waste Volume

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halada, Gary P

    2008-04-10

    In order to understand the susceptibility of transuranic and mixed waste to microbial degradation (as well as any mechanism which depends upon either complexation and/or redox of metal ions), it is essential to understand the association of metal ions with organic ligands present in mixed wastes. These ligands have been found in our previous EMSP study to limit electron transfer reactions and strongly affect transport and the eventual fate of radionuclides in the environment. As transuranic waste (and especially mixed waste) will be retained in burial sites and in legacy containment for (potentially) many years while awaiting treatment and removal (or remaining in place under stewardship agreements at government subsurface waste sites), it is also essential to understand the aging of mixed wastes and its implications for remediation and fate of radionuclides. Mixed waste containing actinides and organic materials are especially complex and require extensive study. The EMSP program described in this report is part of a joint program with the Environmental Sciences Department at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The Stony Brook University portion of this award has focused on the association of uranium (U(VI)) and transuranic analogs (Ce(III) and Eu(III)) with cellulosic materials and related compounds, with development of implications for microbial transformation of mixed wastes. The elucidation of the chemical nature of mixed waste is essential for the formulation of remediation and encapsulation technologies, for understanding the fate of contaminant exposed to the environment, and for development of meaningful models for contaminant storage and recovery.

  9. An accurate system for onsite calibration of electronic transformers with digital output

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhi Zhang; Li Hongbin

    2012-06-15

    Calibration systems with digital output are used to replace conventional calibration systems because of principle diversity and characteristics of digital output of electronic transformers. But precision and unpredictable stability limit their onsite application even development. So fully considering the factors influencing accuracy of calibration system and employing simple but reliable structure, an all-digital calibration system with digital output is proposed in this paper. In complicated calibration environments, precision and dynamic range are guaranteed by A/D converter with 24-bit resolution, synchronization error limit is nanosecond by using the novelty synchronization method. In addition, an error correction algorithm based on the differential method by using two-order Hanning convolution window has good inhibition of frequency fluctuation and inter-harmonics interference. To verify the effectiveness, error calibration was carried out in the State Grid Electric Power Research Institute of China and results show that the proposed system can reach the precision class up to 0.05. Actual onsite calibration shows that the system has high accuracy, and is easy to operate with satisfactory stability.

  10. High pressure phase-transformation induced texture evolution and strengthening in zirconium metal: Experiment and modeling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yu, Xiaohui; Zhang, Ruifeng; Weldon, David; Vogel, Sven C.; Zhang, Jianzhong; Brown, Donald W.; Wang, Yanbin; Reiche, Helmut M.; Wang, Shanmin; Du, Shiyu; et al

    2015-07-28

    We studied the phase-transition induced texture changes and strengthening mechanism for zirconium metal under quasi-hydrostatic compression and uni-axial deformation under confined high pressure using the deformation-DIA (D-DIA) apparatus. It is shown that the experimentally obtained texture for ω-phase Zr can be qualitatively described by combining a subset of orientation variants previously proposed in two different models. The determined flow stress for the high-pressure ω-phase is 0.5–1.2 GPa, more than three times higher than that of the α-phase. Using first-principles calculations, we investigated the mechanical and electronic properties of the two Zr polymorphs. We find that the observed strengthening can bemore » attributed to the relatively strong directional bonding in the ω phase, which significantly increases its shear plastic resistance over the α-phase Zr. The present findings provide an alternate route for Zr metal strengthening by high-pressure phase transformation.« less

  11. High pressure phase-transformation induced texture evolution and strengthening in zirconium metal: Experiment and modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Xiaohui; Zhang, Ruifeng; Weldon, David; Vogel, Sven C.; Zhang, Jianzhong; Brown, Donald W.; Wang, Yanbin; Reiche, Helmut M.; Wang, Shanmin; Du, Shiyu; Jin, Changqing; Zhao, Yusheng

    2015-07-28

    We studied the phase-transition induced texture changes and strengthening mechanism for zirconium metal under quasi-hydrostatic compression and uni-axial deformation under confined high pressure using the deformation-DIA (D-DIA) apparatus. It is shown that the experimentally obtained texture for ω-phase Zr can be qualitatively described by combining a subset of orientation variants previously proposed in two different models. The determined flow stress for the high-pressure ω-phase is 0.5–1.2 GPa, more than three times higher than that of the α-phase. Using first-principles calculations, we investigated the mechanical and electronic properties of the two Zr polymorphs. We find that the observed strengthening can be attributed to the relatively strong directional bonding in the ω phase, which significantly increases its shear plastic resistance over the α-phase Zr. The present findings provide an alternate route for Zr metal strengthening by high-pressure phase transformation.

  12. Ion beam-induced amorphous-to-tetragonal phase transformation and grain growth of nanocrystalline zirconia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lian, Jie; Zhang, Jiaming; Namavar, Fereydoon; Zhang, Yanwen; Lu, Fengyuan; Haider, Hani; Garvin, Kevin; Weber, William J.; Ewing, Rodney C.

    2009-05-26

    Nanocrystalline zirconia has recently attracted extensive research interest due to its unique mechanical, thermal and electrical properties as compared to bulk zirconia counterparts, and it is of particular importance to control the phase stability of different polymorphs (amorphous, cubic, tetragonal and monoclinic phases) at different size regimes. In this paper, we performed ion beam bombardments on bilayers (amorphous and cubic) of pure nano-zirconia using 1 MeV Kr2+ irradiation. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis reveals that amorphous zirconia transforms to a tetragonal structure under irradiation at room temperature, suggesting that the tetragonal phase is more energetically favorable under these conditions. The final grain size of the tetragonal zirconia can be controlled by irradiation conditions. The irradiation-induced nanograins of tetragonal ZrO2 are stable at ambient conditions and maintain their physical integrity over a long period of time after irradiation. These results demonstrated that ion-beam modification methods provide the means to control the phase stability and structure of zirconia polymorphs.

  13. A combined compensation method for the output voltage of an insulated core transformer power supply

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, L.; Yang, J. Liu, K. F.; Qin, B.; Chen, D. Z.

    2014-06-15

    An insulated core transformer (ICT) power supply is an ideal high-voltage generator for irradiation accelerators with energy lower than 3 MeV. However, there is a significant problem that the structure of the segmented cores leads to an increase in the leakage flux and voltage differences between rectifier disks. A high level of consistency in the output of the disks helps to achieve a compact structure by improving the utilization of both the rectifier components and the insulation distances, and consequently increase the output voltage of the power supply. The output voltages of the disks which are far away from the primary coils need to be improved to reduce their inhomogeneity. In this study, by investigating and comparing the existing compensation methods, a new combined compensation method is proposed, which increases the turns on the secondary coils and employs parallel capacitors to improve the consistency of the disks, while covering the entire operating range of the power supply. This method turns out to be both feasible and effective during the development of an ICT power supply. The non-uniformity of the output voltages of the disks is less than 3.5% from no-load to full-load, and the power supply reaches an output specification of 350 kV/60 mA.

  14. Density-Aware Clustering Based on Aggregated Heat Kernel and Its Transformation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Hao; Yoo, Shinjae; Yu, Dantong; Qin, Hong

    2015-06-01

    Current spectral clustering algorithms suffer from the sensitivity to existing noise, and parameter scaling, and may not be aware of different density distributions across clusters. If these problems are left untreated, the consequent clustering results cannot accurately represent true data patterns, in particular, for complex real world datasets with heterogeneous densities. This paper aims to solve these problems by proposing a diffusion-based Aggregated Heat Kernel (AHK) to improve the clustering stability, and a Local Density Affinity Transformation (LDAT) to correct the bias originating from different cluster densities. AHK statistically\\ models the heat diffusion traces along the entire time scale, so it ensures robustness during clustering process, while LDAT probabilistically reveals local density of each instance and suppresses the local density bias in the affinity matrix. Our proposed framework integrates these two techniques systematically. As a result, not only does it provide an advanced noise-resisting and density-aware spectral mapping to the original dataset, but also demonstrates the stability during the processing of tuning the scaling parameter (which usually controls the range of neighborhood). Furthermore, our framework works well with the majority of similarity kernels, which ensures its applicability to many types of data and problem domains. The systematic experiments on different applications show that our proposed algorithms outperform state-of-the-art clustering algorithms for the data with heterogeneous density distributions, and achieve robust clustering performance with respect to tuning the scaling parameter and handling various levels and types of noise.

  15. Development of high frequency spice models for ferrite core inductors and transformers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muyshondt, G.P.; Portnoy, W.M. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering)

    1989-01-01

    In this work high frequency SPICE models were developed to simulate the hysteresis and saturation effects of toroidal shaped ferrite core inductors and transformers. The models include the nonlinear, multi-valued B-H characteristic of the core material, leakage flux, stray capacitances, and core losses. The saturation effects were modeled using two diode clamping arrangements in conjunction with nonlinear dependent sources. Two possible controlling schemes were developed for the saturation switch. One of the arrangements used the current flowing through a series RC branch to control the switch, while the other used a NAND gate. The NAND gate implementation of the switch proved to be simpler and the parameters associated with it were easier to determine from the measurements and the B-H characteristics of the material. Lumped parameters were used to simulate the parasitic effects. Techniques for measuring these parasitic are described. The models were verified using manganese-zinc ferrite-type toroidal cores and they have general applicability to all circuit analysis codes equivalent function blocks such as multipliers, adders, and logic components. 7 refs., 22 figs.

  16. Density-Aware Clustering Based on Aggregated Heat Kernel and Its Transformation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Huang, Hao; Yoo, Shinjae; Yu, Dantong; Qin, Hong

    2015-06-01

    Current spectral clustering algorithms suffer from the sensitivity to existing noise, and parameter scaling, and may not be aware of different density distributions across clusters. If these problems are left untreated, the consequent clustering results cannot accurately represent true data patterns, in particular, for complex real world datasets with heterogeneous densities. This paper aims to solve these problems by proposing a diffusion-based Aggregated Heat Kernel (AHK) to improve the clustering stability, and a Local Density Affinity Transformation (LDAT) to correct the bias originating from different cluster densities. AHK statistically\\ models the heat diffusion traces along the entire time scale, somore » it ensures robustness during clustering process, while LDAT probabilistically reveals local density of each instance and suppresses the local density bias in the affinity matrix. Our proposed framework integrates these two techniques systematically. As a result, not only does it provide an advanced noise-resisting and density-aware spectral mapping to the original dataset, but also demonstrates the stability during the processing of tuning the scaling parameter (which usually controls the range of neighborhood). Furthermore, our framework works well with the majority of similarity kernels, which ensures its applicability to many types of data and problem domains. The systematic experiments on different applications show that our proposed algorithms outperform state-of-the-art clustering algorithms for the data with heterogeneous density distributions, and achieve robust clustering performance with respect to tuning the scaling parameter and handling various levels and types of noise.« less

  17. Acquired experience resulting from transforming a chemical installation into a nuclear one

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zamfirache, M.; Stefan, L.; Bornea, A.; Stefanescu, I.

    2015-03-15

    ICIT-Valcea has developed an experimental pilot-scale installation for tritium and deuterium separation. The main objective of this pilot was to demonstrate the water detritiation technology and to transfer this technology to the CANDU reactors of the Cernavoda nuclear power plant. The pilot-scale installation was initiated in 1992. The initial design and construction were performed similarly to chemical plants as the separation of isotopes was focused on only hydrogen and deuterium to assess feasibility. In a second phase we have begun to transform it into a nuclear facility with the aim of separating tritium. Moving to tritium separation has imposed a lot of changes. Changes consisted mainly of: -) re-design of the technological systems for nuclear material processing, applying specific codes and standards (ASME, Romanian nuclear specific pressure boundary prescriptions for code classification); -) design and implementation of new systems, classified as safety systems; -) re-design and implementation of command and control systems, complying with the requirements of reliability and maintenance required for the project promoted; -) revaluation of auxiliary systems (utilities, power supply); -) implementing radiation protection systems, including secondary barriers; -) implementing and maintaining environment operational program specific to the new nuclear plant; -) developing and conducting safety analyzes; and -) the production of specific documentation to obtain the necessary permits for construction, commissioning and operation of the plant.

  18. Phase transformation and mechanical behavior in annealed 2205 duplex stainless steel welds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Badji, Riad Bouabdallah, Mabrouk; Bacroix, Brigitte; Kahloun, Charlie; Belkessa, Brahim; Maza, Halim

    2008-04-15

    The phase transformations and mechanical behaviour during welding and subsequent annealing treatment of 2205 duplex stainless steel have been investigated. Detailed microstructural examination showed the presence of higher ferrite amounts in the heat affected zone (HAZ), while higher amounts of austenite were recorded in the centre region of the weld metal. Annealing treatments in the temperature range of 800-1000 deg. C resulted in a precipitation of {sigma} phase and M{sub 23}C{sub 6} chromium carbides at the {gamma}/{delta} interfaces that were found to be preferential precipitation sites. Above 1050 deg. C, the volume fraction of {delta} ferrite increases with annealing temperature. The increase of {delta} ferrite occurs at a faster rate in the HAZ than in the base metal and fusion zone. Optimal mechanical properties and an acceptable ferrite/austenite ratio throughout the weld regions corresponds to annealing at 1050 deg. C. Fractographic examinations showed that the mode of failure changed from quasi-cleavage fracture to dimple rupture with an increase in the annealing temperature from 850 to 1050 deg. C.

  19. Improved ductility of a transformation-induced-plasticity steel by nanoscale austenite lamellae

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Yongfeng; liu, Yandong; Sun, Xin; Wang, Y. D.; Zuo, Liang; Misra, R. D. K.

    2013-07-02

    TRIP (transformation-induced-plasticity) steel with a chemical composition of 0.19C0.30Si1.76Mn1.52Al (weight percentage, wt.%) have been treated by intercritical annealing and austempering process. The microstructures of the obtained samples consist of the ferrite, the bainite and the retained austenite phase. The volume fractions of the bainite and the retained austenite gradually increase with increasing the temperature of the intercritical annealing. Consequently, significantly different mechanical properties have been observed. The sample annealed at 820C (for 120s) and partitioned at 400C (for 300s) has the best combination of ultimate tensile strength (UTS, ~682 MPa) and elongation to failure (~70%) with about 26% of bainitic ferrite plates and 17% retained austenite in its microstructure. The retained austenite has a lamella morphology with 100300 nm in thickness and 25 ?m in length. On the contrary, the sample annealed at the same temperature without the partitioning process yields much lower UTS and elongation to failure.

  20. Applications of Micro-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) in the Geological Sciences—A Review

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chen, Yanyan; Zou, Caineng; Mastalerz, Maria; Hu, Suyun; Gasaway, Carley; Tao, Xiaowan

    2015-12-18

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) can provide crucial information on the molecular structure of organic and inorganic components and has been used extensively for chemical characterization of geological samples in the past few decades. In this paper, recent applications of FTIR in the geological sciences are reviewed. Particularly, its use in the characterization of geochemistry and thermal maturation of organic matter in coal and shale is addressed. These investigations demonstrate that the employment of high-resolution micro-FTIR imaging enables visualization and mapping of the distributions of organic matter and minerals on a micrometer scale in geological samples, and promotes an advancedmore » understanding of heterogeneity of organic rich coal and shale. Additionally, micro-FTIR is particularly suitable for in situ, non-destructive characterization of minute microfossils, small fluid and melt inclusions within crystals, and volatiles in glasses and minerals. This technique can also assist in the chemotaxonomic classification of macrofossils such as plant fossils. These features, barely accessible with other analytical techniques, may provide fundamental information on paleoclimate, depositional environment, and the evolution of geological (e.g., volcanic and magmatic) systems.« less