National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for 800 700 600

  1. Gadolinium-148 production cross section measurements for 600-and 800-MEV protons.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelley, K. C.; Devlin, M. J.; Pitcher, E. J.; Mashnik, S. G.; Hertel, N. E.

    2004-01-01

    In a series of experiments at LANSCE's WNR facility, {sup 148}Gd production was measured for 600- and 800-MeV protons on tungsten, tantalum, and gold. These experiments used 3 {mu}m thin W, Ta, and Au foils and 10 {mu}m thin Al activation foils. Gadolinium spallation yields were determined from these foils using alpha spectroscopy and compared with the LANL codes CEM2k+GEM2 and MCNPX. When heavy metal targets, such as tungsten, are bombarded with protons greater than a few hundred MeV many different nuclides are produced. These nuclides are both stable and radioactive and are created by spallation, proton activation, or secondary reactions with neutrons and other nuclear particles made in the target. These products are distributed somewhat heterogeneously throughout a thick target because of the energy dependence of the cross sections and energy loss of the proton beam within the target. From this standpoint, it is difficult to measure nuclide production cross sections for a given energy proton in a thick target. At the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) accelerator complex, protons are accelerated to 800 MeV and directed to two tungsten targets, Target 4 at the Weapons Neutron Research (WNR) facility and 1L target at the Manuel Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center. DOE requires hazard classification analyses to be performed on these targets and places limits on radionuclide inventories in the target as a means of determining the 'nuclear facility' category level. Presently, WNR's Target 4 is a non-nuclear facility while the Lujan 1L target is classified as a Category 3 nuclear facility. Gadolinium-148 is a radionuclide created from the spallation of tungsten and other heavy elements. Allowable isotopic inventories are particularly low for this isotope because it is an alpha-particle emitter with a 75-year half-life. The activity level of {sup 148}Gd is generally low, but it encompasses almost two-thirds of the total inhalation dose burden in an accident

  2. Stress corrosion cracking of alloys 690, 800, and 600 in acid environments containing copper oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierson, E.; Stubbe, J.; Deny, G.

    1996-10-01

    Secondary side stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of steam generator (SG) tubes may be due to the formation of an acid environment in crevices, as demonstrated for several Belgian PWR plants. The susceptibility of alloys 600 and 800 in this type of environment, which had been partially evidenced by several laboratory works, has been confirmed by capsule tests performed at Laborelec, whereas the SCC resistance of alloy 690 always appeared excellent. Capsule tests have been recently conducted at 320 C with the same heats of tubings in the same acid solutions (cationic resins + magnetite + sodium silicate, with or without lead, and sodium sulfate + iron sulfate, with or without lead oxide) containing CuO and Cu{sub 2}O. It appeared that the SCC resistance of the three alloys was generally reduced by the addition of copper oxides, at least when the cover gas did not contain hydrogen. The situation was particularly dramatic for the capsules made of alloy 690 tubing: most of them developed deep cracks, sometimes throughwall (the shortest time to failure being less than 50 h) whereas the same solutions without copper oxides had produced no cracking at all in alloy 690 capsules exposed during more than 2,000 h. Although the corrosion is reduced in presence of hydrazine or at lower concentration, copper oxides probably contribute significantly to the degradation of the tubes in alloy 600, at least in SG`s forming acid sulfate crevice environments. This is also an issue for the new SG`s, especially for those equipped with tubes in alloy 690 TT, particularly for the top of the tubesheet which is a critical deposit area since the high stresses and strains resulting from the expansion of the tube in the tubesheet lead to a risk of circumferential cracking at the transition.

  3. Effectiveness of 700{degrees}C thermal treatment on primary water stress corrosion sensitivity of Alloy 600 steam generator tubes: Laboratory tests and in field experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cattant, F.; Keroulas, F. de; Garriga-Majo, D.; Todeschini, P.; Van Duysen, J.C.

    1992-12-31

    In France, the steam generators of some 900 MWe reactors, and of all the 1 300 MWe reactors in service are equipped with heat treated Alloy 600 tubes. The purpose of the heat treatment, performed at 700{degrees}C, is to relieve the residual stresses. Generally, it also increases the SCC resistance of the alloy. A laboratory study has been carried out in order to gain a better understanding of the metallurgical factors influencing the PWSCC resistance of Alloy 600 after heat treatment. It has been shown that there are two kinds of tubes for which the heat treatment does not produce a microstructure having a potentially high resistance to SCC: tubes with a high carbon content (over 0.032%) or tubes mill-annealed at high temperatures and heavily cold-worked by the straightening. The analysis of the behaviour of french steam generators reveals that the heat treatment generally had the expected beneficial effect. However, the early cracking in service of some treated tubes led EDF (national power company) to proceed with removals. The majority of the cracked pulled-out tubes exhibit microstructures having a potentially high PWSCC sensibility in laboratory tests. It has been shown that these microstructures can be correlated to a high carbon content.

  4. 700 Area - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    300 Area 324 Building 325 Building 400 AreaFast Flux Test Facility 618-10 and 618-11 Burial Grounds 700 Area B Plant B Reactor C Reactor Canister Storage Building and Interim ...

  5. Trace 700 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Trace 700 AgencyCompany Organization: Trane Sector: Energy Focus Area: Buildings, Energy Efficiency Topics: Technology characterizations...

  6. Biaxial Thermal Creep of Two Heats of V4Cr4Ti at 700 and 800...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ORNL National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Japan University of Fukui, Fukui, Japan Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan Tohoku University, ...

  7. 100 LPW 800 Lm Warm White LED

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Decai

    2010-10-31

    An illumination grade warm white (WW) LED, having correlated color temperature (CCT) between 2800 K and 3500K and capable of producing 800 lm output at 100 lm/W, has been developed in this program. The high power WW LED is an ideal source for use as replacement for incandescent, and Halogen reflector and general purpose lamps of similar lumen value. Over the two year period, we have made following accomplishments: developed a high power warm white LED product and made over 50% improvements in light output and efficacy. The new high power WW LED product is a die on ceramic surface mountable LED package. It has four 1x1 mm{sup 2} InGaN pump dice flip chip attached to a ceramic submount in 2x2 array, covered by warm white phosphor ceramic platelets called Lumiramica and an overmolded silicone lens encapsulating the LED array. The performance goal was achieved through breakthroughs in following key areas: (1) High efficiency pump LED development through pump LED active region design and epi growth quality improvement (funded by internal programs). (2) Increase in injection efficiency (IE) represented by reduction in forward voltage (V{sub f}) through the improvement of the silver-based p-contact and a reduction in spreading resistance. The injection efficiency was increased from 80% at the start of the program to 96% at the end of the program at 700 mA/mm{sup 2}. (3) Improvement in thermal design as represented by reduction in thermal resistance from junction to case, through improvement of the die to submount connection in the thin film flip chip (TFFC) LED and choosing the submount material of high thermal conductivity. A thermal resistance of 1.72 K/W was demonstrated for the high power LED package. (4) Improvement in extraction efficiency from the LED package through improvement of InGaN die level and package level optical extraction efficiency improvement. (5) Improvement in phosphor system efficiency by improving the lumen equivalent (LE) and phosphor package

  8. 36CFRPart800_as_amended2004_web.doc

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    36 CFR PART 800 -- PROTECTION OF HISTORIC PROPERTIES (incorporating amendments effective August 5, 2004) Subpart A -- Purposes and Participants Sec. 800.1 Purposes. 800.2 ...

  9. Webinar January 26: Update to the 700 bar Compressed Hydrogen...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    January 26: Update to the 700 bar Compressed Hydrogen Storage System Cost Projection Webinar January 26: Update to the 700 bar Compressed Hydrogen Storage System Cost Projection ...

  10. POSTPONED: Webinar January 26: Update to the 700 bar Compressed...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    POSTPONED: Webinar January 26: Update to the 700 bar Compressed Hydrogen Storage System Cost Projection POSTPONED: Webinar January 26: Update to the 700 bar Compressed Hydrogen ...

  11. The Department of Energy's $700 Million Smart Grid Demonstration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    700 Million Smart Grid Demonstration Program Funded through the American Recovery and ... of Energy's 700 Million Smart Grid Demonstration Program Funded through the American ...

  12. 800,000 Jobs by 2012

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    President Barack Obama visited ZBB Energy Corporation in Wisconsin and declared that our commitment to clean energy is expected to lead to more than 800,000 jobs by 2012.

  13. ADVANCED RESEARCH PROJECTS AGENCY - ENERGY ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Does not include Power Marketing Administrations Environmental Impact Statements . 100 800 800 600 200 200 700 1100 502 Legend Record of Decision (ROD) Final EIS (FEIS) ...

  14. File:600.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    600.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage File:600.pdf Size of this preview: 463 599 pixels. Other resolution: 464 600 pixels. Go to page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7...

  15. Alkaline intergranular corrosion and stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagano, N.

    1996-12-31

    Intergranular corrosion (IGC), often termed IGA, and intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) have continued to occur on mill-annealed (MA) Alloy 600 tubing in the secondary side of steam generators, which are still serious corrosion instances in operating pressurized water reactors. The IGC and IGSCC phenomena have occurred on MA Alloy 600 at the crevice between the tube and tube support plate, in which a high concentration of caustic solution is formed under dry and wet conditions at high temperature. A review of technical articles has been performed concerning environmental and metallurgical factors affecting the IGC and IGSCC, and their mechanistic aspects. A combination of IGC and IGSCC, one of the most common modes of corrosion on the secondary side of steam generators, occurs in a specific potential region, at the active-passive transition potential, in a concentrated caustic solution at elevated temperature. The anodic dissolution of Alloy 600 increases as the temperature of caustic solutions is increased. The corrosion rate for each constituent of Alloy 600 such as nickel, chromium, iron or chromium carbide is influenced differently by temperature, resulting in various effects on the characteristics of corrosion protective surface films. Increase in chromium content and thermal treatment at 700 C are beneficial for IGC and IGSCC resistance. IGC is intergranular corrosion, and IGSCC is initiated above a critical applied stress. Grain boundary chromium carbides such as Cr{sub 7}C{sub 3} and Cr{sub 23}C{sub 6} have been formed to increase resistance to IGC and IGSCC. Several theories have been proposed concerning the roles of chromium carbides at grain boundaries. Some specific theories are focused on in this paper with supporting data.

  16. 36 CFR PART 800 - Protection of Historic Preservation | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 36 CFR PART 800 - Protection of Historic Preservation 36 CFR PART 800 - Protection of Historic Preservation 36 CFR PART 800 - Protection of Historic Preservation (145.15 KB) More Documents & Publications WPN 10-12: Historic Preservation Implementation Meeting the "Reasonable and Good Faith" Identification Standard in Section 106 Review (ACHP, 2011) Guidance for Indian Tribes and Native Hawaiian Organizations: What to Ask the Federal Agency in the Section 106 Process

  17. Charitable Giving by EM Employees, Contractors Tops $800,000...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    donated more than 800,000 and other gifts to people in need in recent months. ... Grace Clinic, which provides free medical treatment to people without medical insurance. ...

  18. Secretary Chu Announces Nearly $800 Million from Recovery Act...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Recovery Act to Accelerate Biofuels Research and Commercialization Secretary Chu Announces Nearly 800 Million from Recovery Act to Accelerate Biofuels Research and ...

  19. MHK Projects/Oyster 800 Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    4 Project Details Operational testing of Oyster 800 commenced in June 2012 when the machine produced first electrical power to the grid. Project Installed Capacity (MW) 1...

  20. Obama Administration Announces Additional $37,157,700 for Local...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Funding for state, city, and county governments in the state includes: WI WisconsinTotal Sum City, County, and SEO Allocations All 37,157,700 WI Wisconsin State Energy Office ...

  1. Webinar: Update to the 700 bar Compressed Hydrogen Storage System...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    will present a live webinar titled "Update to the 700 bar Compressed Hydrogen Storage System Cost Projection" on Tuesday, January 26, from 12 to 1 p.m. Eastern Standard Time. ...

  2. Obama Administration Announces Additional $14,003,800 for Local...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Funding for state, city, and county governments in the state includes: WV West VirginiaTotal Sum City , County, and SEO Allocations All 14,003,800 WV West Virginia State Energy ...

  3. Title 36 CFR 800 Protection of Historic Properties | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    PropertiesLegal Abstract Part 800, Protection of Historic Properties under Title 36: Parks, Forests, and Public Property of the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, current as of...

  4. Stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600. [PWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serra, E.

    1981-11-01

    The stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 tubing has affected the performance of several pressurized water reactor steam generators. The purpose of this report is to summarize the research which has followed that reviewed by D. van Rooyen in 1975. Although several papers and reports have been published there still is not a general model that can explain the stress corrosion cracking behavior of Alloy 600 in deaerated or aerated high-temperature pure water or in the environments that might exist in the primary and secondary coolant of a steam generator. Such a model, if it exists, must cover the complex interaction of the environmental, metallurgical, and mechanical variables which control the susceptibility of Alloy 600 to stress corrosion cracking. Each of these classes of variables is discussed in the text.

  5. Replacement of alloy 800H superheated steam line

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbier, R.A.; Bullock, J.W. [Sterling Chemicals, Texas City, TX (United States)

    1996-07-01

    Sterling Chemicals utilizes alloy 800HT (UNS N08811) piping for superheated steam service in its styrene dehydrogenation unit. An engineering project to replace these lines was recently completed. Material acquisition, shop fabrication, inspection requirements, and field erection will be highlighted in this paper.

  6. Long-term oxidation of candidate cast iron and stainless steel exhaust system alloys from 650 to 800 °C in air with water vapor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brady, Michael P.; Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Leonard, Donovan .; Haynes, James A.; Weldon, R. G.; England, R. D.

    2014-08-29

    Here, the oxidation behavior of SiMo cast iron, Ni-resist D5S cast iron, cast chromia-forming austenitic stainless steels of varying Cr/Ni content based on CF8C plus, HK, and HP, and a developmental cast alumina-forming austenitic (AFA) stainless steel of interest for diesel exhaust system components were studied for up to 5000 h at 650-800 °C in air with 10% H2O. At 650 °C, the Ni-resist D5S exhibited moderately better oxidation resistance than did the SiMo cast iron. However, the D5S suffered from oxide scale spallation issues at 700 °C and higher, whereas the oxide scales formed on SiMo cast iron remained adherent from 700-800 °C despite oxide scales hundreds of microns thick. The oxidation of the SiMo cast iron exhibited unusual temperature dependence, with periods of slower oxidation kinetics at 750-800 °C compared to 650-700 °C due to continuous silica-rich scale formation at the higher temperatures. The oxidation of the cast chromia-forming austenitics trended with the level of Cr and Ni additions, with small mass losses consistent with Cr oxy-hydroxide volatilization processes for the higher 25Cr/25-35Ni HK and HP type alloys, and transition to rapid Fe-base oxide formation and scale spallation in the lower 19Cr/12Ni CF8C plus type alloy. In contrast, small positive mass changes consistent with protective alumina scale formation were observed for the cast AFA alloy under all conditions studied. Implications of these findings for diesel exhaust system components are discussed.

  7. Long-term oxidation of candidate cast iron and stainless steel exhaust system alloys from 650 to 800 °C in air with water vapor

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Brady, Michael P.; Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Leonard, Donovan .; Haynes, James A.; Weldon, R. G.; England, R. D.

    2014-08-29

    Here, the oxidation behavior of SiMo cast iron, Ni-resist D5S cast iron, cast chromia-forming austenitic stainless steels of varying Cr/Ni content based on CF8C plus, HK, and HP, and a developmental cast alumina-forming austenitic (AFA) stainless steel of interest for diesel exhaust system components were studied for up to 5000 h at 650-800 °C in air with 10% H2O. At 650 °C, the Ni-resist D5S exhibited moderately better oxidation resistance than did the SiMo cast iron. However, the D5S suffered from oxide scale spallation issues at 700 °C and higher, whereas the oxide scales formed on SiMo cast iron remainedmore » adherent from 700-800 °C despite oxide scales hundreds of microns thick. The oxidation of the SiMo cast iron exhibited unusual temperature dependence, with periods of slower oxidation kinetics at 750-800 °C compared to 650-700 °C due to continuous silica-rich scale formation at the higher temperatures. The oxidation of the cast chromia-forming austenitics trended with the level of Cr and Ni additions, with small mass losses consistent with Cr oxy-hydroxide volatilization processes for the higher 25Cr/25-35Ni HK and HP type alloys, and transition to rapid Fe-base oxide formation and scale spallation in the lower 19Cr/12Ni CF8C plus type alloy. In contrast, small positive mass changes consistent with protective alumina scale formation were observed for the cast AFA alloy under all conditions studied. Implications of these findings for diesel exhaust system components are discussed.« less

  8. Long-Term Oxidation of Candidate Cast Iron and Advanced Austenitic Stainless Steel Exhaust System Alloys from 650-800 C in Air with Water Vapor

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Brady, Michael P; Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Leonard, Donovan N; Haynes, James A

    2014-01-01

    The oxidation behavior of SiMo cast iron, Ni-resist D5S cast iron, cast chromia-forming austenitic stainless steels of varying Cr/Ni content based on CF8C plus, HK, and HP, and a developmental cast alumina-forming austenitic (AFA) stainless steel of interest for diesel exhaust system components were studied for up to 5000 h at 650-800 C in air with 10% H2O. At 650 C, the Ni-resist D5S exhibited moderately better oxidation resistance than did the SiMo cast iron. However, the D5S suffered from oxide scale spallation issues at 700 C and higher, whereas the oxide scales formed on SiMo cast iron remained adherentmore » from 700-800 C despite oxide scales hundreds of microns thick. The oxidation of the SiMo cast iron exhibited unusual temperature dependence, with periods of slower oxidation kinetics at 750-800 C compared to 650-700 C due to continuous silica-rich scale formation at the higher temperatures. The oxidation of the cast chromia-forming austenitics trended with the level of Cr and Ni additions, with small mass losses consistent with Cr oxy-hydroxide volatilization processes for the higher 25Cr/25-35Ni HK and HP type alloys, and transition to rapid Fe-base oxide formation and scale spallation in the lower 19Cr/12Ni CF8C plus type alloy. In contrast, small positive mass changes consistent with protective alumina scale formation were observed for the cast AFA alloy under all conditions studied. Implications of these findings for diesel exhaust system components are discussed.« less

  9. AP600 containment purge radiological analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O`Connor, M.; Schulz, J.; Tan, C.

    1995-02-01

    The AP600 Project is a passive pressurized water reactor power plant which is part of the Design Certification and First-of-a-Kind Engineering effort under the Advanced Light Water Reactor program. Included in this process is the design of the containment air filtration system which will be the subject of this paper. We will compare the practice used by previous plants with the AP600 approach to meet the goals of industry standards in sizing the containment air filtration system. The radiological aspects of design are of primary significance and will be the focus of this paper. The AP600 Project optimized the design to combine the functions of the high volumetric flow rate, low volumetric flow rate, and containment cleanup and other filtration systems into one multi-functional system. This achieves a more simplified, standardized, and lower cost design. Studies were performed to determine the possible concentrations of radioactive material in the containment atmosphere and the effectiveness of the purge system to keep concentrations within 10CFR20 limits and within offsite dose objectives. The concentrations were determined for various reactor coolant system leakage rates and containment purge modes of operation. The resultant concentrations were used to determine the containment accessibility during various stages of normal plant operation including refueling. The results of the parametric studies indicate that a dual train purge system with a capacity of 4,000 cfm per train is more than adequate to control the airborne radioactivity levels inside containment during normal plant operation and refueling, and satisfies the goals of ANSI/ANS-56.6-1986 and limits the amount of radioactive material released to the environment per ANSI/ANS 59.2-1985 to provide a safe environment for plant personnel and offsite residents.

  10. New Creep-Resistant Cast Alloys with Improved Oxidation Resistance in Water Vapor at 650–800°C

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dryepondt, Sebastien; Pint, Bruce A.; Maziasz, Philip J.

    2015-08-13

    Cast stainless steel CF8C-Plus (19wt%Cr/12%Ni) has excellent creep properties, but limited oxidation resistance above 700 C in environments containing H2O. One strategy to improve the alloy oxidation performance is to increase the Cr and Ni concentration. Two new alloys, with, respectively, 21wt%Cr 15wt%Ni and 22wt%Cr 17.5wt%Ni were therefore developed and their long-term oxidation behaviors in humid air were compared with the oxidation behavior of five other cast alloys. Also, at 650 C and 700 C, all the alloys formed internal Cr-rich nodules, and outer nodules or layers rich in Fe and Ni, but they grew a protective Cr-rich inner layermore » over time. At 750 C, the lower alloyed steels such as CF8C-Plus showed large metal losses, but the two new alloys still exhibited a protective oxidation behavior. The 21Cr 15Ni alloy was severely oxidized in locations at 800 C, but that was not the case for the 22Cr 17.5Ni alloy. Thus, the two new modified alloys represent a potential operating temperature gain of, respectively, 50 C and 100 C in aggressive environments compared with the CF8C-Plus alloy.« less

  11. Intergranular attack of Alloy 600: simulation tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daret, J.

    1985-06-01

    In some steam generators, intergranular attack (IGA) has been detected on Alloy 600 tubes within or near the tubesheet crevice region. In order to reproduce IGA in an experimental device, refreshed autoclave simulation tests were performed with caustic pollution or river water in-leakage. During three runs of three tests each, chemical parameter and test procedures were adjusted to finally obtain a representative corrosion attack of tubing within the tubesheet crevice for the case of a caustic pollution. IGA was not detected for the river water in-leakage case.

  12. 120 MW, 800 MHz Magnicon for a Future Muon Collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2005-12-15

    Development of a pulsed magnicon at 800 MHz was carried out for the muon collider application, based on experience with similar amplifiers in the frequency range between 915 MHz and 34.3 GHz. Numerical simulations using proven computer codes were employed for the conceptual design, while established design technologies were incorporated into the engineering design. A cohesive design for the 800 MHz magnicon amplifier was carried out, including design of a 200 MW diode electron gun, design of the magnet system, optimization of beam dynamics including space charge effects in the transient and steady-state regimes, design of the drive, gain, and output cavities including an rf choke in the beam exit aperture, analysis of parasitic oscillations and design means to eliminate them, and design of the beam collector capable of 20 kW average power operation.

  13. Tritium Permeability of Incoloy 800H and Inconel 617

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Philip Winston; Pattrick Calderoni; Paul Humrickhouse

    2011-09-01

    Design of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) reactor and its high-temperature components requires information regarding the permeation of fission generated tritium and hydrogen product through candidate heat exchanger alloys. Release of fission-generated tritium to the environment and the potential contamination of the helium coolant by permeation of product hydrogen into the coolant system represent safety basis and product contamination issues. Of the three potential candidates for high-temperature components of the NGNP reactor design, only permeability for Incoloy 800H has been well documented. Hydrogen permeability data have been published for Inconel 617, but only in two literature reports and for partial pressures of hydrogen greater than one atmosphere, far higher than anticipated in the NGNP reactor. To support engineering design of the NGNP reactor components, the tritium permeability of Inconel 617 and Incoloy 800H was determined using a measurement system designed and fabricated at Idaho National Laboratory. The tritium permeability of Incoloy 800H and Inconel 617, was measured in the temperature range 650 to 950 C and at primary concentrations of 1.5 to 6 parts per million volume tritium in helium. (partial pressures of 10-6 atm) - three orders of magnitude lower partial pressures than used in the hydrogen permeation testing. The measured tritium permeability of Incoloy 800H and Inconel 617 deviated substantially from the values measured for hydrogen. This may be due to instrument offset, system absorption, presence of competing quantities of hydrogen, surface oxides, or other phenomena. Due to the challenge of determining the chemical composition of a mixture with such a low hydrogen isotope concentration, no categorical explanation of this offset has been developed.

  14. Tritium Permeability of Incoloy 800H and Inconel 617

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Philip Winston; Pattrick Calderoni; Paul Humrickhouse

    2012-07-01

    Design of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) reactor and its high-temperature components requires information regarding the permeation of fission generated tritium and hydrogen product through candidate heat exchanger alloys. Release of fission-generated tritium to the environment and the potential contamination of the helium coolant by permeation of product hydrogen into the coolant system represent safety basis and product contamination issues. Of the three potential candidates for high-temperature components of the NGNP reactor design, only permeability for Incoloy 800H has been well documented. Hydrogen permeability data have been published for Inconel 617, but only in two literature reports and for partial pressures of hydrogen greater than one atmosphere, far higher than anticipated in the NGNP reactor. To support engineering design of the NGNP reactor components, the tritium permeability of Inconel 617 and Incoloy 800H was determined using a measurement system designed and fabricated at Idaho National Laboratory. The tritium permeability of Incoloy 800H and Inconel 617, was measured in the temperature range 650 to 950C and at primary concentrations of 1.5 to 6 parts per million volume tritium in helium. (partial pressures of 10-6 atm)three orders of magnitude lower partial pressures than used in the hydrogen permeation testing. The measured tritium permeability of Incoloy 800H and Inconel 617 deviated substantially from the values measured for hydrogen. This may be due to instrument offset, system absorption, presence of competing quantities of hydrogen, surface oxides, or other phenomena. Due to the challenge of determining the chemical composition of a mixture with such a low hydrogen isotope concentration, no categorical explanation of this offset has been developed.

  15. Intergranular attack of alloy 600: laboratory investigations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pinard-Legry, G.; Plante, G.

    1985-08-01

    In order to define some of the parameters of the IGA phenomenon, chemical and electrochemical corrosion tests were performed on alloy 600 C-ring samples in caustic media at high temperature. Metallographic examinations showed that temperature and the composition of the solution has a marked effect on the occurrence of IGA. In 36% caustic solution, silicate did not inhibit corrosion as was the case in more dilute solution. The presence of magnetite had an adverse effect probably because it changed the local chemistry. The electrochemical potential effect was not significant on IGA morphology in the range E/sub corr/ +- 20 mV. Tensile stress increased the rate of IGA but was not necessary in order to produce IGA in an already aggressive environment. The presence of oxides did not change the alloy 600 corrosion potential significantly, except for Cr/sub 2/O/sub 3/. Borate ions had an inhibiting effect on IGA in 10 % caustic. The addition of boric acid to 10 % caustic produced changes in pH at high temperatures which were measured as part of this report. 6 refs., 30 figs., 12 tabs.

  16. Hydrological conditions at the 800 Area at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patton, T.L.; Pearl, R.H.; Tsai, S.Y.

    1990-08-01

    This study examined the hydrological conditions of the glacial till underlying the 800 Area sanitary landfill at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) near Lemont, Illinois. The study's purpose was to review and summarize hydrological data collected by ANL's Environment, Safety, and Health Department and to characterize, on the basis of these data, the groundwater movement and migration of potential contaminants in the area. Recommendations for further study have been made based on the findings of this review. The 800 Area landfill is located on the western edge of ANL, just south of Westgate Road. It has been in operation since 1966 and has been used for the disposal of sanitary, general refuse. From 1969 through 1978, however, substantial quantities of liquid organic and inorganic wastes were disposed of in a French drain'' at the northeast corner of the landfill. The 800 Area landfill is underlain by a silty clay glacial till. Dolomite bedrock underlies the till at an average depth of about 45.6 m. Trace levels of organic contaminants and radionuclides have been detected in groundwater samples from wells completed in the till. Fractures in the clay as well as sand and gravel lenses present in the till could permit these contaminants to migrate downward to the dolomite aquifer. When this report was prepared, no chemical quality analysis have been made on groundwater samples from the dolomite. The study found that existing information about subsurface characteristics at the site is inadequate to identify potential pathways for contaminant migration. Recommended actions include installation of five new well clusters and one background well, thorough record-keeping, sample collection and analysis during borehole drilling, slug testing to measure hydraulic conductivity, topographic mapping, continued monitoring of groundwater levels and quality, and monitoring of the unsaturated zone. 17 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Hospital to save $71,800/year burning trash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hume, M.

    1984-01-01

    A waste-to-steam dual-fuel boiler system will save the Geisinger Medical Center in Pennsylvania $71,800 a year in avoided natural gas, trash-hauling, and incinerating costs. In operation less than a year, the system currently generates 6.3% of hospital steam for an anticipated three-year payback. A waste-heat-recovery system, with a net cost of $360,000, will pay for itself in an estimated five years. The case-history report describes how the system fits into hospital operations. (DCK)

  18. AP600 design certification thermal hydraulics testing and analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hochreiter, L.E.; Piplica, E.J.

    1995-09-01

    Westinghouse Electric Corporation, in conjunction with the Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute, have been developing an advanced light water reactor design; the AP600. The AP600 is a 1940 Mwt, 600Mwe unit which is similar to a Westinghouse two-loop Pressurized Water Reactor. The accumulated knowledge on reactor design to reduce the capital costs, construction time, and the operational and maintenance cost of the unit once it begins to generate electrical power. The AP600 design goal is to maintain an overall cost advantage over fossil generated electrical power.

  19. Secretaries Chu and Vilsack Announce More Than $600 Million Investment...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... Collectively, these projects will be matched with more than 700 million in private and non-Federal cost-share funds, for total project investments of almost 1.3 billion. The ...

  20. Energy Department Expands Gas Gouging Reporting System to Include 1-800

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Number: 1-800-244-3301 | Department of Energy Expands Gas Gouging Reporting System to Include 1-800 Number: 1-800-244-3301 Energy Department Expands Gas Gouging Reporting System to Include 1-800 Number: 1-800-244-3301 September 6, 2005 - 9:50am Addthis Washington, DC - Energy Secretary Samuel W. Bodman announced today that the Department of Energy has expanded its gas gouging reporting system to include a toll-free telephone hotline. The hotline is available to American consumers starting

  1. Stress corrosion cracking of welded Alloy 600 penetration mockups

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarver, J.M.; Pathania, R.S.; Stuckey, K.; Fyfitch, S.; Gelpi, A.; Foucault, M.; Hunt, E.S.

    1995-12-31

    The primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) of Alloy 600 in components other than steam generators is a problem of increasing concern for nuclear power plants. Of greatest concern at the present time is the PWSCC of Alloy 600 vessel head penetrations. The common elements of these components are threefold: (1) the Alloy 600 material has a susceptible microstructure, (2) the Alloy 600 material is either a thick-walled tube or a bar which has been machined into a thick-walled tube, and (3) the Alloy 600 material has been welded into a structure such that high residual welding stresses exist in the postwelded Alloy 600 material. The objectives of the present program were to evaluate the PWSCC behavior of various configurations of welded Alloy 600 penetrations, and possible remedial measures which would prevent or retard PWSCC in these components. Mockups were instrumented to permit instantaneous remote sensing of through-wall cracking and were autoclave tested along with control C-rings in a doped steam environment. Following the test exposures, the mockups were split and examined to characterize the cracking morphology and the material microstructure. A Weibull distribution was used to analyze the time-to-failure results, and the observed cracking locations were compared to residual stress levels predicted by an elastic-plastic finite element analysis of the mockups.

  2. ARRA Program Celebrates Milestone 600,000 Smart Meter Installations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On April 11, 2012, DOE Recovery Act funding recipient Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) celebrated a major milestone in the development of a regional smart grid in California: the installation of over 600,000 smart meters.

  3. Primary water stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600: Effects of processing parameters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seman, D.J.; Webb, G.L.; Parrington, R.J.

    1993-10-22

    Correlations of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) data in deaerated water with temperature, stress, metallography, and processing for laboratory test specimens are presented. Initiation time data show that a low temperature anneal and resulting absence of grain boundary carbides result in a material having increased susceptibility to SCC. Data also show that hot worked and annealed Alloy 600 is more resistant than cold worked and annealed material, both having carbide decorated grain boundaries. In absence of grain boundary carbides, both materials are equally susceptible. Low temperature thermal treatment (1100F) reduces SCC susceptibility with or without grain boundary decoration. Weld metal data and data correlations developed from 700 double U-bends are presented. Data demonstrate the effect of increased carbon content to improve SCC resistance. The data shows that the general relation of time, temperature and strain for wrought material is followed for the weld metal. The weld process used did not affect the SCC susceptibility of EN-82 which showed a greater resistance to SCC than EN-62. Stress relief of weld deposits showed an improvement for wrought material. Heat affected zone resistance was improved if the starting material received a high temperature anneal (1850 to 2000F). Range of SCC initiation times for weld metal is comparable to the range of initiation times for wrought material.

  4. Motor System Upgrades Smooth the Way to Savings of $700,000 at Chevron

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Refinery | Department of Energy System Upgrades Smooth the Way to Savings of $700,000 at Chevron Refinery Motor System Upgrades Smooth the Way to Savings of $700,000 at Chevron Refinery Chevron, the largest U.S. refiner operating six gasoline-producing refineries, completed a motor system efficiency improvement project in 1997 at its Richmond, California, refinery that resulted in savings of $700,000 annually. This two-page fact sheet describes how they achieved the savings. Motor Systems

  5. Energy Department Invests $600,000 in University-Industry Partnerships...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    600,000 in University-Industry Partnerships to Enhance Building Efficiency Energy Department Invests 600,000 in University-Industry Partnerships to Enhance Building Efficiency ...

  6. Webinar: Update to the 700 bar Compressed Hydrogen Storage System Cost Projection

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Energy Department will present a live webinar titled "Update to the 700 bar Compressed Hydrogen Storage System Cost Projection" on Thursday, February 25, from 12 to 1 p.m. Eastern Standard Time.

  7. Building Technologies Program: Tax Deduction Qualified Software- TRACE 700 version 6.1.1.0

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Provides required documentation that TRACE 700 version 6.1.1.0 meets Internal Revenue Code 179D, Notice 2006-52, dated June 2, 2006, for calculating commercial building energy and power cost savings.

  8. Building Technologies Program: Tax Deduction Qualified Software- TRACE 700 version 6.1.0.0

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Provides required documentation that TRACE 700 version 6.1.0.0 meets Internal Revenue Code 179D, Notice 2006-52, dated June 2, 2006, for calculating commercial building energy and power cost savings.

  9. Building Technologies Program: Tax Deduction Qualified Software- TRACE 700 version 6.2.4

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Provides required documentation that TRACE 700 version 6.2.4 meets Internal Revenue Code §179D, Notice 2006-52, dated June 2, 2006, for calculating commercial building energy and power cost savings.

  10. Building Technologies Program: Tax Deduction Qualified Software- TRACE 700 version 6.2.5

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Provides required documentation that TRACE 700 version 6.2.5 meets Internal Revenue Code §179D, Notice 2006-52, dated June 2, 2006, for calculating commercial building energy and power cost savings.

  11. Building Technologies Program: Tax Deduction Qualified Software- TRACE 700 version 6.2.9

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Provides required documentation that TRACE 700 version 6.2.9 meets Internal Revenue Code §179D, Notice 2006-52, dated June 2, 2006, for calculating commercial building energy and power cost savings.

  12. Building Technologies Program: Tax Deduction Qualified Software- TRACE 700 version 6.2.7

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Provides required documentation that TRACE 700 version 6.2.7 meets Internal Revenue Code §179D, Notice 2006-52, dated June 2, 2006, for calculating commercial building energy and power cost savings.

  13. Building Technologies Program: Tax Deduction Qualified Software- TRACE 700 version 6.2.6

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Provides required documentation that TRACE 700 version 6.2.6 meets Internal Revenue Code §179D, Notice 2006-52, dated June 2, 2006, for calculating commercial building energy and power cost savings.

  14. Building Technologies Program: Tax Deduction Qualified Software- TRACE 700 version 6.2.8

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Provides required documentation that TRACE 700 version 6.2.8 meets Internal Revenue Code §179D, Notice 2006-52, dated June 2, 2006, for calculating commercial building energy and power cost savings.

  15. Building Technologies Program: Tax Deduction Qualified Software- TRACE 700 version 6.1.2

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Provides required documentation that TRACE 700 version 6.1.2 meets Internal Revenue Code §179D, Notice 2006-52, dated June 2, 2006, for calculating commercial building energy and power cost savings.

  16. Kahuku Wind to Power 7,700 Oahu Homes | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Kahuku Wind to Power 7,700 Oahu Homes Kahuku Wind to Power 7,700 Oahu Homes July 27, 2010 - 4:52pm Addthis Turbine blades being delivered to Kahuku. | Courtesy of First Wind Turbine blades being delivered to Kahuku. | Courtesy of First Wind Elizabeth Meckes Elizabeth Meckes Director of User Experience & Digital Technologies, Office of Public Affairs Today, the Department of Energy's Loan Programs Office announced a $117 million loan guarantee through the Recovery Act for the Kahuku Wind

  17. Obama Administration Announces Additional $13,969,700 for Local Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficiency Improvements in Alaska | Department of Energy 3,969,700 for Local Energy Efficiency Improvements in Alaska Obama Administration Announces Additional $13,969,700 for Local Energy Efficiency Improvements in Alaska March 26, 2009 - 12:00am Addthis WASHINGTON DC - Vice President Joe Biden and Energy Secretary Steven Chu today announced plans to invest $3.2 billion in energy efficiency and conservation projects in U.S. cities, counties, states, territories, and Native American tribes.

  18. Obama Administration Announces Additional $16,956,700 for Local Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficiency Improvements in Idaho | Department of Energy 6,956,700 for Local Energy Efficiency Improvements in Idaho Obama Administration Announces Additional $16,956,700 for Local Energy Efficiency Improvements in Idaho March 26, 2009 - 12:00am Addthis WASHINGTON DC - Vice President Joe Biden and Energy Secretary Steven Chu today announced plans to invest $3.2 billion in energy efficiency and conservation projects in U.S. cities, counties, states, territories, and Native American tribes.

  19. Cryogenic Pressure Vessels for H2 Vehicles Rapidly Refueled by LH2 pump to 700 bar

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vessels for H 2 Vehicles Rapidly Refueled by LH 2 pump to 700 bar Salvador Aceves, Gene Berry, Guillaume Petitpas, Vernon Switzer Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory CAMX meeting October 29 th , 2015 LLNL-PRES-678629 * Cryogenic H 2 Onboard Storage * Temperature as a Degree of Freedom in H 2 storage * LLNL Cryocompressed Project History * 350 Bar Test Vehicle Park & Drive Results * Current Project * 700 bar prototype (cryogenic) vessels * Refueling with LH 2 Pump * Test Vessel Cycling

  20. Catalytic steam gasification reactivity of HyperCoals produced from different rank of coals at 600-775{degree}C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atul Sharma; Ikuo Saito; Toshimasa Takanohashi

    2008-11-15

    HyperCoal is a clean coal with ash content <0.05 wt %. HyperCoals were prepared from a brown coal, a sub-bituminous coal, and a bituminous raw coal by solvent extraction method. Catalytic steam gasification of these HyperCoals was carried out with K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} at 775, 700, 650, and 600 {degree}C, and their rates were compared. HyperCoals produced from low-rank coals were more reactive than those produced from the high-rank coals. XRD measurements were carried out to understand the difference in gasification reactivity of HyperCoals. Arrhenius plot of ln (k) vs 1/T in the temperature range 600-825{degree}C was a curve rather than a straight line. The point of change was observed at 700{degree}C for HyperCoals from low-rank coals and at 775{degree}C for HyperCoals from high-rank coals. Using HyperCoal produced from low-rank coals as feedstock, steam gasification of coal may be possible at temperatures less than 650{degree}C. 22 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Geothermal Regulatory Roadmap

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... Workshop FY12 Project Schedule 7 | US DOE Geothermal Office eere.energy.gov OpenEI (Open Energy Information) 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 Aug-12 Sep-12 Oct-12 Nov-12 ...

  2. Secretary Chu Highlights More Than 1,800 Electric Vehicle Chargers

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Installed Under the Recovery Act | Department of Energy More Than 1,800 Electric Vehicle Chargers Installed Under the Recovery Act Secretary Chu Highlights More Than 1,800 Electric Vehicle Chargers Installed Under the Recovery Act May 13, 2011 - 12:00am Addthis LOS ANGELES - As part of the Obama Administration's comprehensive plan to address rising gas prices and reduce oil imports one-third by 2025, U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu today announced that to date, more than 1,800 electric

  3. 800 to 1000 New Jobs Coming to Piketon | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    800 to 1000 New Jobs Coming to Piketon 800 to 1000 New Jobs Coming to Piketon July 28, 2009 - 12:00am Addthis (Washington, D.C.) The Department of Energy announced today that it will further expand and accelerate cleanup efforts of cold-war era contamination at the Portsmouth site in Piketon, Ohio - an investment worth about $150 to $200 million per year for the next four years that is expected to create 800 to 1000 new jobs. At the same time, the Department has encouraged USEC to withdraw its

  4. Comparative evaluations of the weldability of modified 800H and other advanced austenitic stainless steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lundin, C.D.; Qiao, C.Y.P.

    1993-07-01

    The weldability of modified 800H was evaluated in terms of HAZ hot cracking susceptibility and HAZ softening tendency. Four other types of austenitic alloys, modified 316, 310Ta, HR3C and NF709, were employed to carry out a comparative study. It was found that modified 800H exhibits good weldability in terms of operability as contrasted to NF709. However, a higher HAZ hot cracking susceptibility for the modified 800H tubing heats was revealed as compared to the commercial tubing heats of HR3C and NF709. The hot cracking test results for the small laboratory prepared modified 800H heats showed an equivalent or better HAZ hot cracking resistance as compared to HR3C and NF709. Thus, it is anticipated that modified 800H tubing can show a hot cracking resistance equivalent to NF709 and HR3C if the base metal grain size is properly controlled and an optimum thermal mechanical treatment has been performed. The preliminary assessment on HAZ softening behavior for modified 800H, modified 316, 310Ta, HR3C and NF709 alloys is discussed.

  5. Predicting susceptibility of alloy 600 to intergranular stress corrosion cracking using a modified electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahn, M.K.; Kwon, H.S.; Lee, J.H.

    1995-06-01

    Modified double-loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation (DL-EPR) tests were applied to evaluate the degree of sensitization (DOS) for alloy 600 aged at 700 C. Results of the modified DL-EPR test were compared to intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) susceptibilities determined in deaerated 0.01 M sodium tetrathionate under deformation at a constant strain rate of 0.93 {times} 10{sup {minus}6}/s. By analyzing the effects of solution concentration, temperature, and scan rate on the electrochemical response in the EPR tests and the morphologies, the optimal modified DL-EPR test condition for alloy 600 was obtained in 0.01 M sulfuric acid + 10 ppm potassium thiocyanate at 25 C and at a scan rate of 0.5 mV/s. The standard DL-EPR test, performed under conditions of 0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + 0.01 M KCNS at 30 C and a scan rate of 1.67 mV/s, provided very poor discriminating power for various DOS of alloy 600 because general and pitting corrosion occurred, in addition to intergranular corrosion. The modified test, however, was highly discriminating because of its highly selective corrosion attack at grain boundaries. IGSCC occurred in samples of alloy 600 aged for < 20 h, and susceptibility to IGSCC{sub s} increased with decreasing aging times up to 1 h, showing maximum IGSCC{sub s} in the sample aged for 1 h. IGSCC{sub s} for the alloy was found to be associated closely with the chromium-depleted profile across grain boundaries. The deeper and narrower chromium-depleted zone produced greater IGSCC{sub s}. It was demonstrated that DOS measured by the modified DL-EPR test was correlated more closely with IGSCC{sub s} than was DOS measured by the standard EPR test. This correlation resulted from the fact that the modified EPR test selectively attacked the more deeply chromium-depleted regions in comparison to the standard EPR test.

  6. Analysis of Alloy 600 and X-750 stress corrosion cracks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, C.D.; Lewis, N.; Krasodomski, H.

    1993-06-01

    A few months ago, KAPL evidence supported the view that Primary or Pure Water Stress Corrosion Cracking (PWSCC) of Alloy 600 results from a hydrogen mechanism. Figure 1 shows an Analytical Electron Microscope (AEM) analysis of a stress corrosion crack (SCC) crack in an A600 split tube U-bend specimen exposed to primary water at 338{degree}C (640{degrees}F) for 462 days. The features which appear to confirm a hydrogen mechanism are: (1) A very narrow (< 200 {angstrom}) crack with a sharp tip, nearly free of deposits. (2) No evidence of severe plastic deformation in the region immediately ahead of the crack tip. (3) A line of small voids preceding the main crack tip, of which the largest is about 5 x 10{sup {minus}6} cm in length. Shen and Shewmon proposed that PWSCC of Alloy 600 occurs due to small microvoids ahead of a main crack tip. The hypothesis is that such voids result from pockets of methane gas formed by the reaction of atomic hydrogen with carbon in the base metal. The voids are about 10 x 10{sup {minus}6} cm diameter, approximately a factor of 2 larger than the largest voids.

  7. POSTPONED: Webinar January 26: Update to the 700 bar Compressed Hydrogen Storage System Cost Projection

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This webinar has been postponed until further notice. The Energy Department will present a live webinar titled "Update to the 700 bar Compressed Hydrogen Storage System Cost Projection" on Tuesday, January 26, from 12 to 1 p.m. Eastern Standard Time.

  8. Webinar February 25: Update to the 700 bar Compressed Hydrogen Storage System Cost Projection

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Energy Department will present a live webinar titled "Update to the 700 bar Compressed Hydrogen Storage System Cost Projection" on Thursday, February 25, from 12 to 1 p.m. Eastern Standard Time (EST). Strategic Analysis will present results of its cost analysis of onboard compressed hydrogen storage systems.

  9. Webinar January 26: Update to the 700 bar Compressed Hydrogen Storage System Cost Projection

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Energy Department will present a live webinar titled "Update to the 700 bar Compressed Hydrogen Storage System Cost Projection" on Tuesday, January 26, from 12 to 1 p.m. EST. Strategic Analysis will present results of its cost analysis of onboard compressed hydrogen storage systems.

  10. Tax Deduction Qualified Software: TRACE 700 version 6.3.3

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    On this page you'll find information about the TRACE 700 version 6.3.3 Qualified Software for Calculating Commercial Building Tax Deductions | Department of Energy, which calculates energy and power cost savings that meet federal tax incentive requirements for commercial buildings.

  11. West Valley Demonstration Project Food Drive Delivers Food for 700 Families

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    WEST VALLEY, N.Y. – EM employees at West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) helped collect and deliver 114,843 pounds of food, including 360 turkeys, to nine food pantries in the West Valley area, just in time to benefit about 700 families in need during the holidays.

  12. EIA-800

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Email: Floor, Suite): Fax: (202) 586-1076 City: State: Zip: - Secure File Transfer: Electronic Transmission: City: State: Zip: - Contact Name: Phone No.: Ext: Fax No.: Questions? ...

  13. EIA-800

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Residual Fuel Oil 511 Asphalt and Road Oil 931 * Includes propane, propylene, ethane, ethylene, normal butane, butylene, isobutane, isobutylene, and pentanes plus. Quantities ...

  14. EIA-800

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Greater than 15 ppm to 500 ppm sulfur (incl.) 466 Greater than 500 ppm sulfur 467 Total 999 * Includes propane, propylene, ethane, ethylene, normal butane, butylene, isobutane, ...

  15. EIA-800

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Other Oxygenates 445 Natural Gas Plant Liquids (NGPL) and Liquefied Refinery Gases (LRG): EthaneEthylene, TOTAL 108 Ethane - LRG 641 Ethylene 631 PropanePropylene, TOTAL 246 ...

  16. EIA-800

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Liquids (NGPL) and Liquefied Refinery Gases (LRG):" "EthaneEthylene, TOTAL",108,,,... "Ethane - LRG",641 "Ethylene",631 "PropanePropylene, TOTAL",246,,,... "Propane - ...

  17. EIA-800

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...Parts1-2'O29","AND(LEN(zip)5,ISNUMBER(VALUE(zip)))","Enter a valid 5 digit zip code." ... methods:",,,..."KY","Kentucky " "Doing Business As:",,,..."LA","Loui...

  18. EIA-800

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...arts1-2'R29","AND(LEN(zip4)4,ISNUMBER(VALUE(zip4)))","Enter a valid zip code ... methods:",,,..."KY","Kentucky " "Doing Business As:",,,..."LA","Loui...

  19. EIA-800

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...arts1-3'R27","AND(LEN(zip4)4,ISNUMBER(VALUE(zip4)))","Enter a valid zip code ... methods:",,,..."KY","Kentucky " "Doing Business As:",,,..."LA","Loui...

  20. EIA-800

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    This report is mandatory under the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275). Failure to comply may result in criminal fines, civil penalties and other ...

  1. EIA-800

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    down" "PSTRE","'Parts1-2'F25","-","-" ... "PZIP4","'Parts1-2'R26","AND(LEN(PZIP4)4,ISNUMB... 1 - 31." "DBA","'Parts1-2'H21","-","-" ...

  2. Title 50 CFR 600 Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    50 CFR 600 Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation: Title 50 CFR 600...

  3. Y-12 helps more than 600 kids for the holidays | National Nuclear...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Photo Gallery Jobs Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home NNSA Blog Y-12 helps more than 600 kids for ... Y-12 helps more than 600 kids for the holidays WATE...

  4. Coming: 12,600 megawatts at Itaipu Island

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    de Moraes, J.

    1983-08-01

    This paper describes the hydroelectric plant being constructed jointly by Brazil and Paraguay on Itaipu Island in the Parana River. The planned generating capacity of 12,600 MW will make the Itaipu plant the world's largest. It will employ the most powerful hydrogenerators and turbines yet built, the world's largest concentration of 500-kilovolt gas-insulated switchgear, the highest dc transmission voltages and power--600 kV and 6300 MW--ever used, about 1000 kilometers of 765-kV ac transmission, and an extensive computer-based digital supervisory system in which continuous diagnostic evaluation of equipment is emphasized. To maintain national standards, nine generators will operate at 60 hertz for Brazil and nine at 50 hertz for Paraguay. Initially, any excess electricity available from the Paraguay generators will be routed to Brazil, but Paraguay is ultimately expected to share in half the Itaipu generation. The paper discusses the plant from its original feasibility studies to the newly created technologies which its size necessitated. The environmental impact on forests, farmlands and wildlife resulting from the construction of the Itaipu dam and the loss of the 1400 square kilometers which it flooded--including the popular Seven Waterfalls--is addressed. References to other papers as well as a symposium on the Itaipu project are cited.

  5. Weldability and mechanical property characterization of weld clad alloy 800H tubesheet forging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, J.F.; McCoy, H.E.

    1984-09-01

    The weldability of an alloy 800H forging that simulates a steam generator tubesheet is studied. Weldability was of concern because a wide range of microstructures was present in this forging. The top and portions of the bottom were weld clad with ERNiC-3 weld metal to a thickness of 19 mm similar to that anticipated for HTGR steam generators. Examinations of the clad fusion line in various regions revealed no weldability problems except possibly on the bottom portion, which contained large grains and some as-cast structure. A few microfissures were evident in this region, but no excessive hot cracking tendency was observed. The tensile properties in all areas of the clad forging were reasonable and not influenced greatly by the microstructure. The elevated-temperature tests showed strong tendency for fracture in the heat-affected zone of the alloy 800H. Creep failure at 649/sup 0/C consistently occurred in the heat-affected zone of the alloy 800H, but the creep strength exceeded the expected values for alloy 800H.

  6. 36 CFR Part 800: Protection of Historic Properties (2000, amended 2004)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act requires federal agencies to take into account the effects of their undertakings on historic properties and afford the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation (ACHP) a reasonable opportunity to comment on these undertakings. The ACHP's regulations at 36 CFR Part 800 establish the process that federal agencies must follow to comply with Section 106.

  7. MCNP5 CALCULATIONS REPLICATING ARH-600 NITRATE DATA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FINFROCK SH

    2011-10-25

    This report serves to extend the previous document: 'MCNP Calculations Replicating ARH-600 Data' by replicating the nitrate curves found in ARH-600. This report includes the MCNP models used, the calculated critical dimension for each analyzed parameter set, and the resulting data libraries for use with the CritView code. As with the ARH-600 data, this report is not meant to replace the analysis of the fissile systems by qualified criticality personnel. The M CNP data is presented without accounting for the statistical uncertainty (although this is typically less than 0.001) or bias and, as such, the application of a reasonable safety margin is required. The data that follows pertains to the uranyl nitrate and plutonium nitrate spheres, infinite cylinders, and infinite slabs of varying isotopic composition, reflector thickness, and molarity. Each of the cases was modeled in MCNP (version 5.1.40), using the ENDF/B-VI cross section set. Given a molarity, isotopic composition, and reflector thickness, the fissile concentration and diameter (or thicknesses in the case of the slab geometries) were varied. The diameter for which k-effective equals 1.00 for a given concentration could then be calculated and graphed. These graphs are included in this report. The pages that follow describe the regions modeled, formulas for calculating the various parameters, a list of cross-sections used in the calculations, a description of the automation routine and data, and finally the data output. The data of most interest are the critical dimensions of the various systems analyzed. This is presented graphically, and in table format, in Appendix B. Appendix C provides a text listing of the same data in a format that is compatible with the CritView code. Appendices D and E provide listing of example Template files and MCNP input files (these are discussed further in Section 4). Appendix F is a complete listing of all of the output data (i.e., all of the analyzed dimensions and the

  8. Intergranular attack of alloy 600 tubing: Simulation tests: Interim report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daret, J.

    1987-08-01

    In some steam generators, intergranular attack (IGA) has been detected on alloy 600 tubes within or near the tube sheet crevice region. Refreshed autoclave tests were performed to simulate caustic or river water in-leakage. The objective of the caustic tests was to perfect the test methodology, in order to closely simulate IGA that occurs in an actual steam generator, to identify causes and to test countermeasures in future tests. Tests with caustic pollution succeeded in producing representative IGA, and the test method is now believed applicable for studying countermeasures. The continuation of a river water fault test already tested for 4500 hours was aimed at checking if IGA was producible with only fresh water in-leakage, or if other deleterious species were involved in the cause of phenomenon. IGA was not detected for this case, which tends to indicate that another (not yet identified) specie acts as either a depassivating agent or a corrosion initiator in actual steam generators.

  9. Secretary Chu Announces Nearly $800 Million from Recovery Act to Accelerate

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biofuels Research and Commercialization | Department of Energy 0 Million from Recovery Act to Accelerate Biofuels Research and Commercialization Secretary Chu Announces Nearly $800 Million from Recovery Act to Accelerate Biofuels Research and Commercialization May 5, 2009 - 12:00am Addthis WASHINGTON, D.C. - As part of the ongoing effort to increase the use of domestic renewable fuels, U.S. Secretary of Energy Steven Chu today announced plans to provide $786.5 million from the American

  10. Relative fluorescent efficiency of sodium salicylate between 90 and 800 eV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Angel, G.C.; Samson, J.A.R.; Williams, G.

    1986-01-01

    The relative fluorescent quantum efficiency of sodium salicylate was measured between 90 and 800 eV (138 -15 A) by the use of synchrotron radiation. A general increase in efficiency was observed in this spectral range except for abrupt decreases in efficiency at the carbon and oxygen K-edges. Beyond the oxygen K-edge (532 eV) the efficiency increased linearly with the incident photon energy to the limit of the present observations.

  11. Microstructural characterization of dissimilar welds between alloy 800 and HP heat-resistant steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dehmolaei, R.; Shamanian, M. Kermanpur, A.

    2008-10-15

    In this study, dissimilar welds between HP heat-resistant steel and Incoloy 800 were made with four different filler materials including: 309 stainless steel and nickel-based Inconel 82, 182 and 617. The microstructure of the base metals, weld metals and their interfaces were characterized by utilizing optical and scanning electron microscopy. Grain boundaries migration in the weld metals was studied. It was found that the migration of grain boundaries in the Inconel 82 weld metal was very extensive. Precipitates of TiC and M{sub 23}C{sub 6} (M = Cr and Mo) in the Inconel 617 weld metal are identified. The necessary conditions for the formation of cracks close to the fusion line of the 309-HP joints are described. Furthermore unmixed zone near the fusion line between HP steel base metal and Inconel 82 weld metal is discussed. An epitaxial growth is characterized at the fusion line of the 309-Alloy 800 and Inconel 617-Alloy 800 joints.

  12. Microstructural characterization of dissimilar welds between Incoloy 800H and 321 Austenitic Stainless Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sayiram, G. Arivazhagan, N.

    2015-04-15

    In this work, the microstructural character of dissimilar welds between Incoloy 800H and 321 Stainless Steel has been discussed. The microscopic examination of the base metals, fusion zones and interfaces was characterized using an optical microscope and scanning electron microscopy. The results revealed precipitates of Ti (C, N) in the austenitic matrix along the grain boundaries of the base metals. Migration of grain boundaries in the Inconel 82 weld metal was very extensive when compared to Inconel 617 weldment. Epitaxial growth was observed in the 617 weldment which increases the strength and ductility of the weld metal. Unmixed zone near the fusion line between 321 Stainless Steel and Inconel 82 weld metal was identified. From the results, it has been concluded that Inconel 617 filler metal is a preferable choice for the joint between Incoloy 800H and 321 Stainless Steel. - Highlights: • Failure mechanisms produced by dissimilar welding of Incoloy 800H to AISI 321SS • Influence of filler wire on microstructure properties • Contemplative comparisons of metallurgical aspects of these weldments • Microstructure and chemical studies including metallography, SEM–EDS • EDS-line scan study at interface.

  13. Florida Power & Light Company, 700 Universe Blvd. Juno Beach 33408

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Florida Power & Light Company, 700 Universe Blvd. Juno Beach 33408 Telephone: (561)691-2790, Fax: (561)691-7577 Page 1 of 19 November 1, 2010 U.S. Department of Energy Office of Electricity Delivery & Energy Reliability 1000 Independence Ave., S.W. Room 8H033 Washington, DC 20585 Via E-mail: smartgridpolicy@hq.doe.gov Re: Smart Grid Request For Information (RFI): Addressing Policy & Logistical Challenges Florida Power & Light Company ("FPL") appreciates the opportunity

  14. DOE/NV/11718-036 UC-700 FEDERAL RADIOLOGICAL RESPONSE IN THE UNITED STATES

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    11718-036 UC-700 FEDERAL RADIOLOGICAL RESPONSE IN THE UNITED STATES by Daryl J. Thomé Bechtel Nevada Remote Sensing Laboratory P.O. Box 98521 Las Vegas, Nevada, USA 89193-8521 Bruce W. Hurley, Ph.D. U.S. Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office P.O. Box 98518 Las Vegas, Nevada, USA 89193 ABSTRACT The Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) is authorized by the Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan (FRERP) to coordinate all off-site radiological response

  15. Melter Feed Reactions at T ≤ 700°C for Nuclear Waste Vitrification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Kai; Hrma, Pavel R.; Rice, Jarrett A.; Riley, Brian J.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Crum, Jarrod V.

    2015-07-23

    Batch reactions and phase transitions in a nuclear waste feed heated at 5 K min-1 up to 600°C were investigated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer, and X-ray diffraction. Quenched samples were leached in deionized water at room temperature and 80°C to extract soluble salts and early glass-forming melt, respectively. To determine the content and composition of leachable phases, the leachates were analyzed by the inductively-coupled plasma spectroscopy. By ~400°C, gibbsite and borax lost water and converted to amorphous and intermediate crystalline phases. Between 400°C and 600°C, the sodium borate early glass-forming melt reacted with amorphous aluminum oxide and calcium oxide to form intermediate products containing Al and Ca. At ~600°C, half Na and B converted to the early glass-forming melt, and quartz began to dissolve in the melt.

  16. Stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 in high temperature water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Congleton, J.; Parkins, R.N.; Hemsworth, B.

    1987-01-01

    Slow strain rate stress corrosion tests have been performed on specimens cut from four separate heats of alloy 600 steam generator tubing. Material was tested in the mill annealed and thermally stabilized conditions and after various low temperature aging treatments. Only limited cracking was observed, even for tests at 340/sup 0/C, but the initiation of intergranular cracking was easier on the inner than on the outer surfaces of the tubing. Polarization data has been obtained in high temperature water and in saturated boric acid and saturated lithium hydroxide at the atmospheric boiling points, and slow strain tests were performed at controlled potentials in these environments. Again, only very short cracks formed during the slow strain rate tests which were performed at a strain rate of about 10/sup -6/ s/sup -1/. The data is discussed in terms of the probable crack tip strain rates that would exist in these tests and at other strain rates. It is argued that if cracking occurs, the main role of very low strain rate tests is to provide time for initiation and crack growth, so that cyclic loading or intermittent loading long tests are likely to be more successful in sustaining crack growth in this alloy.

  17. Development of ARH-600, a criticality safety handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carter, R.D.; Blyckert, W.A.

    1997-12-01

    During 1965 or 1966, the last years of General Electric Company`s presence at Hanford, the criticality safety staff of the 200 area decided that there was a need to develop a compilation of data for use in criticality safety analysis. The official reason was that there was a need for a reference for the design engineers so that they would not have to contact us so much during preliminary design preparation. The real reason, or at least 75% of it, was so the staff could have a single point of reference rather than having to look among a rather large number of documents and other references, any one of which could disappear without notice. This was not the only criticality handbook available; Jack Chalmers in England had prepared the AHSB(S) Handbook 1, and there were others that slightly preceded our data compilation. However, these data compilations were too limited for our purposes. The tried and true documents TID-7016 and TID-7028 were also available but did not meet all our needs. Our handbook was finally issued in its original form in 1968 after the Atlantic Richfield Hanford Company had become the general contractor at Hanford, hence the document number, ARH-600.

  18. Preliminary Results Of A 600 Joules Small Plasma Focus Device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S. H.; Yap, S. L.; Wong, C. S.

    2009-07-07

    Preliminary results of a 600 J (3.7 muF, 18 kV) Mather type plasma focus device operated at low pressure will be presented. The discharge is formed between a solid anode with length of 6 cm and six symmetrically and coaxially arranged cathode rods of same lengths. The cathode base is profiled in a knife-edge design and a set of coaxial plasma gun are attached to it in order to initiate the breakdown and enhance the current sheath formation. The experiments have been performed in argon gas under a low pressure condition of several microbars. The discharge current and the voltage across the electrodes during the discharge are measured with high voltage probe and current coil. The current and voltage characteristics are used to determine the possible range of operating pressure that gives good focusing action. At a narrow pressure regime of 9.0+-0.5 mubar, focusing action is observed with good reproducibility. Preliminary result of ion beam energy is presented. More work will be carried out to investigate the radiation output.

  19. Department of Energy Awards $600,000 to Tri-City Industrial Developmen...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Industrial Development Council Community Reuse Organization Department of Energy Awards 600,000 to Tri-City Industrial Development Council Community Reuse Organization Department ...

  20. DOE/NV--471 UC-700 U.S. Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    471 UC-700 U.S. Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office on on on on : ed : 2 Approved for public release; further distribution is authorized. E nv i r onm ent a l R es t or a t i D i v i s i N ev ada E nv i r onm ent al R es t or at i P r oj ect C or r ect i v e A ct i on D eci s i D ocu m ent , S econd Ga s S t a t i on, Tonopa h Tes t R a nge, N ev a da ( C or r ect i v e A ct i on U ni t N o. 403) C ont r ol l ed C opy N o.U ncont r ol l R ev i s i on N o. N ov em ber 1997 This report

  1. Effect of lithium hydroxide on primary water stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 tubing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacko, R. )

    1991-09-01

    Primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) studies were performed on Alloy 600 in simulated PWR high lithium primary water. Tests were conducted at 330{degree}C with Li concentrations ranging from 0.7 to 3.5 ppM in solutions containing boric acid and dissolved hydrogen. Highly stressed, Alloy 600 reverse U-bend specimens (RUBs) were predominantly used for tests. Both mill-annealed (MA) and thermally treated (TT) Alloy 600 were tested. The large number of specimens tested allowed the use of rigorous statistical techniques to interpret the variability of PWSCC performance. Results of tests of MA 600 RUBs at 2 stress levels show no effect of chemistry on the time to initiate PWSCC cracks over the range from 0.7 to 3.5 ppM Li. However, results for TT 600 RUBs and in MA 600 RUBs at a third stress level show the tendency for a shorter time to initiate PWSCC cracks at a Li concentration of 3.5 ppM. Analysis suggests that certain Alloy 600 components may experience an increase in PWSCC by using the higher LI content primary water due to a subtle influence of chemistry on PWSCC. 5 refs. 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. DOE Physical-Based Hydrogen Storage Workshop: Identifying Potential Pathways for Lower Cost 700 bar Storage Vessels

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Office hosted the workshop "Identifying Potential Pathways for Lower Cost 700 bar Storage Vessels" in Southfield, Michigan, on August 24, 2016, at the United States Council for Automotive Research. The objective of the workshop was to identify and prioritize specific and tangible research and development strategies that have high potential to lower the costs of composite overwrapped pressure vessels for 700 bar hydrogen storage to enable wide-spread commercialization of fuel cell electric vehicles.

  3. Energy Department Announces Major Recovery Act Milestone: 600,000 Homes

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Weatherized Three Months Ahead of Schedule | Department of Energy Major Recovery Act Milestone: 600,000 Homes Weatherized Three Months Ahead of Schedule Energy Department Announces Major Recovery Act Milestone: 600,000 Homes Weatherized Three Months Ahead of Schedule December 15, 2011 - 1:07pm Addthis Washington, D.C. -- U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu today announced that states and territories across the nation have reached the goal of weatherizing more than 600,000 low-income homes-

  4. Description of the OSU APEX test facility to assess AP600 passive safety

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hochreiter, L.E.; Lau, L.K.; Reyes, J.N. Jr.; Groome, J.T.

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this paper is to describe the Advanced Plant Experiment (APEX) test facility, which is a new integral system test facility located at Oregon State University (OSU) specifically scaled, designed, and built to simulate all of the important geometrical details of the Westinghouse AP600. The APEX facility has been designed and constructed to develop a database that can be used to validate the thermal hydraulic safety analysis codes that will be used in the AP600 design certification process. The test facility has been specifically designed and scaled to model small break loss-of-coolant and long-term cooling transients, which utilize the AP600 passive safety systems.

  5. A Comparison of New TATBs, FK-800 binder and LX-17-like PBXs to Legacy Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willey, T M; DePiero, S C; Hoffman, D M

    2009-05-01

    Two newly synthesized versions of the insensitive high explosive (IHE) 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzenes (TATBs) were compared to two legacy explosives currently used by the Department of Energy. Except for thermal analysis, small scale safety tests could not distinguish between the different synthetic routes. Morphologies of new TATBs were less faceted and more spherical. The particle size distribution of one new material was similar to legacy TATBs, but the other was very fine. Densities and submicron structure of the new TATBs were also significantly different from the legacy explosives. Pressed pellets of the new explosives were less dense. New FK-800 binder was used to prepare LX-17-like plastic bonded explosives (PBXs) from new and wet aminated TATB. Some mechanical, thermal and performance characterization of the new binder and LX-17-like PBXs was done. Significant differences were found. The reason for a number of these differences is not well understood.

  6. Processing results of 1,800 gallons of mercury and radioactively contaminated mixed waste rinse solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thiesen, B.P.

    1993-01-01

    The mercury-contaminated rinse solution (INEL waste ID{number_sign} 123; File 8 waste) was successfully treated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). This waste was generated during the decontamination of the Heat Transfer Reactor Experiment 3 (HTRE-3) reactor shield tank. Approximately 1,800 gal of waste was generated and was placed into 33 drums. Each drum contained precipitated sludge material ranging from 1--10 in. in depth, with the average depth of about 2.5 in. The pH of each drum varied from 3--11. The bulk liquid waste had a mercury level of 7.0 mg/l, which exceeded the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) limit of 0.2 mg/l. The average liquid bulk radioactivity was about 2.1 pCi/ml, while the average sludge contamination was about 13,800 pci/g. Treatment of the waste required separation of the liquid from the sludge, filtration, pH adjustment, and ion exchange. Because of difficulties in processing, three trials were required to reduce the mercury levels to below the RCRA limit. In the first trial, insufficient filtration of the waste allowed solid particulate produced during pH adjustment to enter into the ion exchange columns and ultimately the waste storage tank. In the second trial, the waste was filtered down to 0.1 {mu} to remove all solid mercury compounds. However, before filtration could take place, a solid mercury complex dissolved and mercury levels exceeded the RCRA limit after filtration. In the third trial, the waste was filtered through 0.3-A filters and then passed through the S-920 resin to remove the dissolved mercury. The resulting solution had mercury levels at 0.0186 mg/l and radioactivity of 0.282 pCi/ml. This solution was disposed of at the TAN warm waste pond, TAN782, TSF-10.

  7. SNR Denton US LLP 1301 K Street, NW Suite 600, East Tower Washington...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    SNR Denton US LLP 1301 K Street, NW Suite 600, East Tower Washington, DC 20005-3364 USA Thomas C. Jensen Partner thomas.jensen@snrdenton.com D +1 202 408 3956 M 703 304 5211 T +1 ...

  8. Stress corrosion cracking of Alloys 600 and 182 in BWR environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ljungberg, L.G.; Hofling, C.G.; Sahlberg, A.; Moeller, J. )

    1992-05-01

    Wrought Alloy 600 and weldments of Alloy 182 are being tested for initiation and propagation of intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC). Crack initiation is tested on compact tension (CT) specimens with U-notches of various radii under enhanced crevice conditions, in a test loop in a Swedish BWR. After one year exposure there was initiation of IGSCC in a large portion of the Alloy 182 specimens, but nearly no initiation in Alloy 600. Crack propagation was measured in a laboratory loop on CT specimens under constant or cyclic load. Low carbon Alloy 600, or Alloy 182 high in titanium and niobium versus carbon, cracked at lower rates than material with high carbon activity. Materials with low concentrations of phosphorus and sulfur cracked slower than those high in these elements in clean environment, but no such effect was found in environment with sulfate. Alloy 182 weld metal generally cracked at higher rates than Alloy 600.

  9. Stress corrosion cracking of Alloys 600 and 182 in BWR environments. Interim report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ljungberg, L.G.; Hofling, C.G.; Sahlberg, A.; Moeller, J.

    1992-05-01

    Wrought Alloy 600 and weldments of Alloy 182 are being tested for initiation and propagation of intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC). Crack initiation is tested on compact tension (CT) specimens with U-notches of various radii under enhanced crevice conditions, in a test loop in a Swedish BWR. After one year exposure there was initiation of IGSCC in a large portion of the Alloy 182 specimens, but nearly no initiation in Alloy 600. Crack propagation was measured in a laboratory loop on CT specimens under constant or cyclic load. Low carbon Alloy 600, or Alloy 182 high in titanium and niobium versus carbon, cracked at lower rates than material with high carbon activity. Materials with low concentrations of phosphorus and sulfur cracked slower than those high in these elements in clean environment, but no such effect was found in environment with sulfate. Alloy 182 weld metal generally cracked at higher rates than Alloy 600.

  10. Energy Department Invests $600,000 in University-Industry Partnerships to Enhance Building Efficiency

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Department today announced $600,000 in funding to help American universities to establish stronger partnerships with industry and business in the area of building efficiency, supporting...

  11. Dose dependence of helium bubble formation in nano-engineered SiC at 700 °C

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chen, Chien -Hung; Zhang, Yanwen; Wang, Yongqiang; Crespillo, Miguel L.; Fontana, Cristiano L.; Graham, Joseph T.; Duscher, Gerd; Shannon, Steven C.; Weber, William J.

    2016-02-03

    Knowledge of radiation-induced helium bubble nucleation and growth in SiC is essential for applications in fusion and fission environments. Here we report the evolution of microstructure in nano-engineered (NE) 3C SiC, pre-implanted with helium, under heavy ion irradiation at 700 °C up to doses of 30 displacements per atom (dpa). Elastic recoil detection analysis confirms that the as-implanted helium depth profile does not change under irradiation to 30 dpa at 700 °C. While the helium bubble size distribution becomes narrower with increasing dose, the average size of bubbles remains unchanged and the density of bubbles increases somewhat with dose. Thesemore » results are consistent with a long helium bubble incubation process under continued irradiation at 700 °C up to 30 dpa, similar to that reported under dual and triple beam irradiation at much higher temperatures. The formation of bubbles at this low temperature is enhanced by the nano-layered stacking fault structure in the NE SiC, which enhances point defect mobility parallel to the stacking faults. Here, this stacking fault structure is stable at 700 °C up to 30 dpa and suppresses the formation of dislocation loops normally observed under these irradiation conditions.« less

  12. Stress relief to prevent stress corrosion in the transition region of expanded Alloy 600 steam-generator tubing. Final report. [PWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodward, J.; van Rooyen, D.

    1983-05-01

    The feasibility of preventing primary side roll transition cracking has been investigated, using induction heating to attain stress relief of expanded Ni-Cr-Fe Alloy 600 steam generator tubing. Work on rolled tubing and U-bends has shown that temperatures with which stress relief can be obtained range from 700 to 850/sup 0/C, with lower temperatures in this range requiring longer times at temperature to provide the requisite reduction in residual stresses. No work has yet been done outside this range. Preliminary tests, using induction heating, have been carried out on a mock tube sheet assembly, designed to the dimensions of a typical steam generator, and have identified the type of heating/cooling cycle that would occur in the tube sheet during a stress relief operation. Preliminary results show that the times to reach the higher temperatures in the range observed to give stress relief, of the order of 850/sup 0/C, can be as short as 8 seconds, and less with optimum coil design and power control.

  13. A Combustion Model for the TWA 800 Center-Wing Fuel Tank Explosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baer, M.R.; Gross, R.J.

    1998-10-02

    In support of the National Transportation Safety Board investigation of the TWA Flight 800 accident, a combined experimental/computational effort was conducted that focused on quarter-scale testing and simulation of the fuel-air explosion in the Boeing 747 center wing fuel tank. This report summarizes the modeling approach used at Sandia National Laboratories. In this approach approximations are introduced that capture the essential physics associated with turbulent flame propagation in multiple compartment fuel tanks. This model efficiently defines the pressure loading conditions during a jet-fuel air explosion in a fuel tank confinement. Modeling calculations compare favorably with a variety of experimental quarter-scale tests conducted in rigid confinement. The modeling describes well the overpressure history in several geometry configurations. Upon demonstrating a reasonable comparison to experimental observations, a parametric study of eight possible ignition sources is then discussed. Model calculations demonstrate that different loading conditions arise as the location of the ignition event is varied. By comparing the inferred damage and calculated impulses to that seen in the recovered tank, it maybe possible to reduce the number of likely sources. A possible extension of this work to better define tank damage includes coupling the combustion model as a pressure loading routine for structural failure analysis.

  14. Surface and grain boundary segregation, stress corrosion cracking, and corrosion fatigue of Inconel 600

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smialowska, S.; Cragnolino, G.; Macdonald, D.D.

    1985-03-01

    The stress corrosion cracking of Inconel 600 in environments related to nuclear power systems was studied in relation to the role of segregation in the alloy. Auger electron spectroscopy was used to evaluate the surface segregation of different impurities in Inconel 600 as a function of heat-to-heat variation and heat treatment. The degree of segregation of various elements (S, P, N, Ti, Si, and C) on the fracture surface of nickel was also evaluated as a function of the heat treatment employed, temperature, and cooling rate. The effects of alloying elements, added to nickel with the aim of reducing sulfur segregation to grain boundaries, was also studied. The susceptibility of nickel to intergranular corrosion in acidic and alkaline solutions at different potentials was measured as a function of sulfur segregation to the grain boundaries. The effect of heat treatment and applied potential on the caustic stress corrosion cracking susceptibiliy of Inconel 600 was studied in concentrated NaOH solutions at 140/sup 0/C using the slow strain rate technique. The corrosion fatigue resistance of Inconel Alloy 600 in concentrated NaOH solutions at 140/sup 0/C was evaluated as a function of heat treatment conditions using smooth bar specimens. The results have shown that the stress corrosion behavior of Inconel 600 in caustic solutions differs greatly from that in acidic and nearly neutral environments. Furthermore, sensitization by heat treatment was found to be beneficial under caustic corrosion conditions but detrimental in acidic environments.

  15. Primary water stress corrosion crack growth rates in Alloy 600 steam generator tubing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lott, R.G.; Jacko, R.J.; Gold, R.E.

    1992-12-31

    Direct measurements of SCC crack growth rates have been used to determine the effects of changes in PWR primary water chemistry on the stress corrosion cracking behavior of Alloy 600 steam generator tubing. Reversing current DC potential measurement techniques have been adapted for use on thin walled tubing containing through-wall circumferential cracks. These techniques have been used to monitor crack rates in Alloy 600 tubing exposed to typical PWR primary water chemistries at 330{degrees}C. Crack growth rate studies, conducted under well defined stress intensity conditions, provide a sensitivity in the assessment of stress corrosion cracking susceptibility that is not possible using more traditional techniques. Preliminary studies have been conducted to determine the effects of B and Li concentrations on the stress corrosion crack growth rate of Alloy 600 tubing.

  16. Primary water stress corrosion cracking inspection ranking scheme for Alloy 600 components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoang, P.H.; Gangadharan, A.; Ramalingam, S.C.

    1996-12-31

    Palisades Nuclear Plant has developed a comprehensive inspection program to support safe, reliable, and cost-effective operation of all Alloy 600 nozzles and safe ends in the primary coolant system (PCS). As a part of the Palisades Alloy 600 Project, an inspection prioritization scheme was developed to help the plant focus its resources on high risk components and plan appropriate inspection activities for the other components. The inspection prioritization scheme is based on the susceptibility of the components to Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking (PWSCC), component failure consequences, component leak detectability and component radiation exposure. The scheme provides a simple, systematic and technical base for selecting Alloy 600 components for inspection. The scheme, however, could be used to develop an inspection schedule or to select the highest priority components for mitigation or replacement.

  17. Results from the NRC AP600 testing program at the Oregon State University APEX facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reyes, J.N. Jr.; Bessette, D.E.; DiMarzo, M.

    1996-03-01

    The Department of Nuclear Engineering at Oregon State University (OSU) is performing a series of confirmatory tests for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. These tests are being conducted in the Advanced Plant Experiment (APEX) facility which is a 1/4 length scale and 1/192 volume scale integral system simulation of the Westinghouse Advanced Passive 600 MWe (AP600) plant. The purpose of the testing program is to examine AP600 passive safety system performance, particularly during long term cooling. Thus far, OSU has successfully performed ten integral system tests for the NRC. This paper presents a description of the APEX facility and summarizes the important results of the NRC test program at OSU.

  18. Comparative Study of Station Blackout Counterpart Tests in APEX and ROSA/AP600

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lafi, Abd Y.; Reyes, Jose N. Jr.

    2000-05-15

    A comparison is presented between station blackout tests conducted in both the Advanced Plant Experiment (APEX) facility and in the modified Rig of Safety Assessment (ROSA/AP600) Large-Scale Test Facility. The comparison includes the depressurization and liquid-level behavior during secondary-side blowdown, natural circulation, automatic depressurization system operation, and in-containment refueling water storage tank injection. Reasonable agreement between the test results from APEX NRC-2 and ROSA/AP600 AP-BO-01 has been observed with respect to the timing of depressurization and liquid draining rates. This indicates that the reduced height and pressure scaling of APEX preserves the sequence of events relative to the full-height and pressure ROSA/AP600.

  19. Comparison of SPES-2 and APEX tests to examine AP600 integral system performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hochreiter, L.E.; Reyes, J.N. Jr.

    1995-12-31

    The Westinghouse Electric Corporation has performed a series of tests in the SPES-2 facility (Simulatore Per Esperienze di Sicurezza--Simulator for Safety Experimental Analysis) in Piacenza, Italy and in the APEX (Advanced Plant Experiment) facility, at Oregon State University. These testing programs are designed to evaluate the thermal hydraulic performance of the passive safety systems (gravity driven injection, natural convection, and passive cooling) of the Westinghouse Advanced Passive 600 MWe pressurized water reactor (AP600). They are also designed to obtain data that can be used to assess and validate the safety analysis techniques and computer codes being used to predict the transient system behavior of the AP600. This paper presents a comparison of the two test facility designs and the results of counterpart tests.

  20. Contractors Donate Nearly $600,000 to Charity | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Contractors Donate Nearly $600,000 to Charity Contractors Donate Nearly $600,000 to Charity February 11, 2016 - 12:15pm Addthis Bechtel employees celebrate a $100,000 gift to Friends of Badger Mountain at Trailhead Park in Richland. Bechtel employees celebrate a $100,000 gift to Friends of Badger Mountain at Trailhead Park in Richland. Toys from WTP’s 2015 U.S. Marine Corps Reserve's Toys for Tots campaign are loaded into a trailer to prepare them for delivery to needy families in the

  1. Verification of Allowable Stresses In ASME Section III Subsection NH For Grade 91 Steel & Alloy 800H

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. W. Swindeman; M. J. Swindeman; B. W. Roberts; B. E. Thurgood; D. L. Marriott

    2007-11-30

    The database for the creep-rupture of 9Cr-1Mo-V (Grade 91) steel was collected and reviewed to determine if it met the needs for recommending time-dependent strength values, S{sub t}, for coverage in ASME Section III Subsection NH (ASME III-NH) to 650 C (1200 F) and 600,000 hours. The accumulated database included over 300 tests for 1% total strain, nearly 400 tests for tertiary creep, and nearly 1700 tests to rupture. Procedures for analyzing creep and rupture data for ASME III-NH were reviewed and compared to the procedures used to develop the current allowable stress values for Gr 91 for ASME II-D. The criteria in ASME III-NH for estimating S{sub t} included the average strength for 1% total strain for times to 600,000 hours, 80% of the minimum strength for tertiary creep for times to 600,000 hours, and 67% of the minimum rupture strength values for times to 600,000 hours. Time-temperature-stress parametric formulations were selected to correlate the data and make predictions of the long-time strength. It was found that the stress corresponding to 1% total strain and the initiation of tertiary creep were not the controlling criteria over the temperature-time range of concern. It was found that small adjustments to the current values in III-NH could be introduced but that the existing values were conservative and could be retained. The existing database was found to be adequate to extend the coverage to 600,000 hours for temperatures below 650 C (1200 F).

  2. Stress-corrosion cracking of Inconel alloy 600 in high-temperature water: an update. [PWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bandy, R.; van Rooyen, D.

    1983-01-01

    Inconel 600 has been tested in high-temperature aqueous media (without oxygen) in several tests. Data are presented to relate failure times to periods of crack initiation and propagation. Quantitative relationships have been developed from tests in which variations were made in temperature, applied load, strain rate, water chemistry, and the condition of the test alloy.

  3. A study of the mechanism of primary water stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gourgues, A.F.; Andrieu, E.; Scott, P.M.

    1995-12-31

    Two aspects of the mechanism of stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 in pressurized water reactors (PWR) primary water have been studied in detail. Results are presented showing that grain boundaries of Alloy 600 are embrittled to a depth of several microns by exposure to primary water in an unstressed condition. It has been established that this embrittlement is not reversible by high temperature degassing and cannot be directly due to hydrogen. The results seem to support the hypothesis that oxygen atom penetration of grain boundaries is possible. However, no evidence of formation of grain boundary gas bubbles or oxides has been found. It is envisaged that this embrittlement process could sequentially act at the tip of a growing stress corrosion crack. The second phenomenon under study has been the plastic deformation behavior of Alloy 600 since it is known that cold work and stress have an important effect on stress corrosion cracking sensitivity. Results of plastic deformation during cyclic straining at various controlled strain rates are presented showing that Alloy 600 is not very sensitive to loading history and that cold work is of an essentially kinematic nature.

  4. Laser Peening of Alloy 600 to Improve Intergranular Stress Corrosion Cracking Resistance in Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, H; Rankin, J; Hackel, L; Frederick, G; Hickling, J; Findlan, S

    2004-04-20

    Laser peening is an emerging modern process that impresses a compressive stress into the surface of metals or alloys. This treatment can reduce the rate of intergranular stress corrosion cracking and fatigue cracking in structural metals or Alloy 600 needed for nuclear power plants.

  5. Lead-induced stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 and 690 in high temperature water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sakai, T.; Senjuh, T.; Aoki, K.; Shigemitsu, T.; Kishi, Y.

    1992-12-31

    Lead is one of the potential contributing impurities to the degradation of PWR steam generator tubing. Recent laboratory testing has shown that lead is a corrosive material for Alloy 600 steam generator tubing. However, it is still unknown how lead influences the corrosion of steam generator tubing, including the effect of lead concentration, solution pH, stress level and material characteristics. In this study, two kinds of experiments were performed. One was to investigate the thin film characteristic and selectively dissolved base metal elements of Alloy 600MA in high temperature solutions of different lead concentrations and pH. The other investigated the dependency of degradation of Alloy 600MA and Alloy 690TT on lead concentration and stress level in mild acidic environment, at 340{degrees}C for 2500 hrs. It was firstly demonstrated that lead-enhanced selective dissolution of nickel from alloy base metal, as a result of electrochemical reaction between lead and nickel, might cause the initiation and propagation of corrosion. Secondly, we showed that Alloy 690TT, generally very corrosion resistant material, also suffered from Pb-induced corrosion. The difference of the lead-induced stress corrosion morphology of Alloy 600MA and Alloy 690TT was also clarified.

  6. Influence of product type on stress corrosion cracking of alloy 600

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gomez-Briceno, D.; Blazquez, F.; Hernandez, F.

    1999-03-01

    Grain-boundary carbide coverage obtained from metallographic replications has been considered as an estimation of SCC susceptibility of alloy 600 components in pressurized-water reactor (PWR) primary water. Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) initiation tests were carried out on alloy 600 (UNS N06600) in primary water at 325 C and 360 C and in steam with hydrogen at 400 C to gain some insight into the SCC behavior of different alloy 600 products. Forged bars, thick-walled tubes (cold-worked and hot-worked), and steam generator (SG) tubing with different thermomechanical histories were tested. As expected, materials with a high density of intergranular carbide were more resistant to cracking in high-temperature water than materials with few carbides in the grain boundary. However, materials with similar microstructures but different thermomechanical histories presented different SCC susceptibilities. In general, forged bars were more resistant than thick-walled materials with similar grain-boundary carbide coverage. Cold-worked materials (thick-walled tubes and SG tubing) presented similar behaviors. However, appearance of intergranular fractures at high magnification seemed to be related to the SCC behavior of alloy 600 in steam and in primary water. More resistant materials exhibited pseudointergranular fractures.

  7. Predicting Fracture Toughness of TRIP 800 using Phase Properties Characterized by In-Situ High Energy X-Ray Diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soulami, Ayoub; Choi, Kyoo Sil; Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Ren, Yang; Wang, Yan-Dong

    2010-05-01

    TRansformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steel is a typical representative of 1st generation advanced high strength steel (AHSS) which exhibits a combination of high strength and excellent ductility due to its multiphase microstructure. In this paper, we study the crack propagation behavior and fracture resistance of a TRIP 800 steel using a microstructure-based finite element method with the various phase properties characterized by in-situ high energy Xray diffraction (HEXRD) technique. Uniaxial tensile tests on the notched TRIP 800 sheet specimens were also conducted, and the experimentally measured tensile properties and R-curves (Resistance curves) were used to calibrate the modeling parameters and to validate the overall modeling results. The comparison between the simulated and experimentally measured results suggests that the micromechanics based modeling procedure can well capture the overall complex crack propagation behaviors and the fracture resistance of TRIP steels. The methodology adopted here may be used to estimate the fracture resistance of various multiphase materials.

  8. Performance of Diffusion Aluminide Coatings Applied on Alloy CF8C-Plus at 800oC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Deepak; Dryepondt, Sebastien N; Zhang, Ying; Haynes, James A; Pint, Bruce A; Armstrong, Beth L; Shyam, Amit; Lara-Curzio, Edgar

    2012-01-01

    High performance cast stainless steel, CF8C-Plus, is a low cost alloy with prospective applications ranging from covers and casings of small and medium size gas turbines to turbocharger housing and manifolds in internal combustion engines. Diffusion aluminide coatings were applied on this alloy as a potential strategy for improved oxidation resistance, particularly in wet air and steam. In this paper the performance of the aluminide coatings evaluated by cyclic oxidation experiments in air containing 10 vol.% H2O at 800 C and conventional tension-compression low-cycle-fatigue tests in air at 800 C with a strain range of 0.5% is presented. The results show that specimens coated by a chemical vapor deposition process provide better oxidation resistance than those coated by an Al-slurry coating process. The application of a coating by pack cementation reduced the fatigue life by 15%.

  9. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project Technology Development Roadmaps: The Technical Path Forward for 750800C Reactor Outlet Temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Collins

    2009-08-01

    This document presents the NGNP Critical PASSCs and defines their technical maturation path through Technology Development Roadmaps (TDRMs) and their associated Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs). As the critical PASSCs advance through increasing levels of technical maturity, project risk is reduced and the likelihood of within-budget and on-schedule completion is enhanced. The current supplier-generated TRLs and TDRMs for a 750800C reactor outlet temperature (ROT) specific to each supplier are collected in Appendix A.

  10. Evaluation of anticipatory signal to steam generator pressure control program for 700 MWe Indian pressurized heavy water reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pahari, S.; Hajela, S.; Rammohan, H. P.; Malhotra, P. K.; Ghadge, S. G.

    2012-07-01

    700 MWe Indian Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (IPHWR) is horizontal channel type reactor with partial boiling at channel outlet. Due to boiling, it has a large volume of vapor present in the primary loops. It has two primary loops connected with the help of pressurizer surge line. The pressurizer has a large capacity and is partly filled by liquid and partly by vapor. Large vapor volume improves compressibility of the system. During turbine trip or load rejection, pressure builds up in Steam Generator (SG). This leads to pressurization of Primary Heat Transport System (PHTS). To control pressurization of SG and PHTS, around 70% of the steam generated in SG is dumped into the condenser by opening Condenser Steam Dump Valves (CSDVs) and rest of the steam is released to the atmosphere by opening Atmospheric Steam Discharge Valves (ASDVs) immediately after sensing the event. This is accomplished by adding anticipatory signal to the output of SG pressure controller. Anticipatory signal is proportional to the thermal power of reactor and the proportionality constant is set so that SG pressure controller's output jacks up to ASDV opening range when operating at 100% FP. To simulate this behavior for 700 MWe IPHWR, Primary and secondary heat transport system is modeled. SG pressure control and other process control program have also been modeled to capture overall plant dynamics. Analysis has been carried out with 3-D neutron kinetics coupled thermal hydraulic computer code ATMIKA.T to evaluate the effect of the anticipatory signal on PHT pressure and over all plant dynamics during turbine trip in 700 MWe IPHWR. This paper brings out the results of the analysis with and without considering anticipatory signal in SG pressure control program during turbine trip. (authors)

  11. Midtemperature Solar Systems Test Facility predictions for thermal performance of the Solar Kinetics T-700 solar collector with FEK 244 reflector surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, T.D.

    1980-11-01

    Thermal performance predictions are presented for the Solar Kinetics T-700 solar collector, with FEK 244 reflector surface, for three output temperatures at five cities in the United States.

  12. Stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 and Alloy 690 in all volatile treated water at elevated temperatures. Final report. [PWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Theus, G.J.; Emanuelson, R.H.

    1983-05-01

    This report describes a continuing study of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of Inconel alloys 600 and 690 in all-volatile treated (AVT) water. Specimens of alloys 600 and 690 are being exposed to AVT water at 288/sup 0/, 332/sup 0/, 343/sup 0/, and 360/sup 0/C. Alloy 600 generally resists SCC in high-purity water under normal service conditions but is susceptible under other specific conditions. In general, mill-annealed alloy 600 is more susceptible than stress-relieved material. Susceptibility to SCC increases rapidly with increasing exposure temperature. Very high stresses (near or above yield) are required to induce cracking in AVT or other high-purity waters. Most of the data presented in this report are for alloy 600; alloy 690 has not yet cracked. However, the program is being continued and will subsequently characterize the high-purity water cracking behavior, if any, of alloy 690.

  13. Stress-corrosion cracking of Inconel alloy 600 in high-temperature water - an update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bandy, R.; Van Rooyen, D.

    1984-08-01

    An experimental program on stress corrosion cracking (SCC) aimed at the development of a quantitative model for predicting the behavior of Inconel 600 tubing in high temperature water is described. Empirical data are gathered to relate factors that influence SCC. Work involves U-bends, constant extension rate tests (CERT), and constant load. Plots are made of failure time and crack velocity vs temperature, and also of SCC time vs stress, using a variety of environments related to the ingredients of primary or secondary water. Cold work of Alloy 600 is also included. The effect of temperature is found to yield-semi-log (Arrhenius) curves, and log-log plots of failure time vs stress are presented. Curves of this type are being evaluated for use in extrapolating accelerated test data to operating conditions for predictive purposes. 5 references, 8 figures, 3 tables.

  14. Stress corrosion crack detection in alloy 600 in high temperature caustic. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brisson, B.W.

    1996-06-01

    Alloy 600, the material used for pressurized water reactor steam generator tubing, is susceptible to environmentally assisted stress corrosion cracking. Intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) attacks the tubes in areas of high residual stress, and in crevice regions. No method has been successfully developed to monitor steam generator tubing in-situ for crack initiation and growth. Essentially all available published IGSCC crack growth data for alloy 600 is based on non-tubing material. Although it is very likely that the current data base is applicable to tubing processing, differences between tube and other geometries make a comparison between tubing and other data important for verification purposes. However, obtaining crack initiation and growth data from tubing is difficult due to the geometry and the thin wall thickness.

  15. About the mechanism of stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 in high temperature water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rebak, R.B.; Szklarska-Smialowska, Z.

    1995-12-31

    Alloy 600 is a material commonly used to construct the tubing in the steam generators (SG) of pressurized light water reactors (PWR) and of CANDU heavy water reactors. It is well established which variables and to which extent they influence the crack growth rate (CGR) in Alloy 600 exposed to high temperature (deaerated) water (HTW), especially in very aggressive conditions. There is evidence that the same variables that influence CGR also control the crack induction time. However, there are only a few data on crack induction time and no detailed explanation of the events that lead to the nucleation of a crack on an apparent smooth tube surface. In this paper, a critical review of the mechanisms of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is given and, an interpretation of the events occurring during the long ({approx} 15 y) induction times observed in plant is postulated.

  16. Observations and insights into Pb-assisted stress corrosion cracking of alloy 600 steam generator tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, L.; Bruemmer, Stephen M.

    2005-08-15

    Pb-assisted stress-corrosion cracking (PbSCC) of Alloy 600 steam-generator tubing in high-temperature-water service and laboratory tests were studied by analytical transmission electron microscopy of cross-sectioned samples. Examinations of pulled tubes from many pressurized water reactors revealed lead in cracks from 11 of 17 samples. Comparisons of the degraded intergranular structures with ones produced in simple laboratory tests with PbO in near-neutral AVT water showed that the PbSCC characteristics in service tubing could be reproduced without complex chemistries and heat-flow conditions that can occur during plant operation. Observations of intergranular and transgranular cracks promoted by Pb in the test samples also provided new insights into the mechanisms of PbSCC in mill-annealed and thermally treated Alloy 600.

  17. Critical analysis of alloy 600 stress corrosion cracking mechanisms in primary water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rios, R. |; Noel, D.; Bouvier, O. de; Magnin, T.

    1995-04-01

    In order to study the mechanisms involved in the stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) of Alloy 600 in primary water, the influence of the relevance of physicochemical and metallurgical parameters was assessed: hydrogen and oxygen overpressures, microstructure, and local chemical composition. The obtained results show that, even if the dissolution/oxidation seems to be the first and necessary step responsible for crack initiation and if hydrogen effects can also be involved in cracking, neither a dissolution/oxidation model nor a hydrogen model appears sufficient to account for cracking. Moreover, fractographic examinations performed on specimens` fracture surfaces lead to the fact that attention should be paid to a cleavage like microcracking mechanism involving interactions between corrosion and plasticity at the vicinity of grain boundaries. A corrosion-enhanced plasticity model is proposed to describe the intergranular and transgranular cracking in Alloy 600.

  18. Effect of silicon compounds on stress corrosion cracking of alloy 600 in caustic solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Navas, M.; Gomez-Briceno, D.; Garcia-Mazario, M.; McIlree, A.R.

    1999-07-01

    Silicon compounds are abundant in both steam generator tube deposits removed from operating plants and in the hideout return analyses performed during plant operation. Despite their abundance, the effect of these compounds on the susceptibility to intergranular attack (IGA) and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of alloy 600 (UNS N06600) has not been established clearly in laboratory tests or under operating conditions. The present work studied the effect of different compounds of silicon, such as silica (SiO{sub 2}) and sodium metasilicate (Na{sub 2}SiO{sub 3}), on the susceptibility to IGA/SCC of alloy 600 in caustic solutions, with and without impurities. Experimental work included measurement of potentiodynamic polarization curves and development of stress corrosion tests with potentiostatic control at 315 C. Results of both tests indicated an inhibiting effect of silicon compounds on stress corrosion of mill-annealed (MA) alloy 600. Polarization curves in solutions with silicon compounds showed a wider range of passivation and a reduction in passive current density and anodic dissolution compared to the curves obtained in sodium hydroxide (NaOH). In corrosion tests performed in solutions containing silicon compounds, cracking appeared at only some of the potentials tested and with much reduced depth. Judging by the results obtained from analyses of the surface deposits, the inhibiting effect appeared to be related to the incorporation of silicon in the oxide layer. Regarding the effect of impurities, these have been observed not to be harmful for the response o alloy 600MA to IGA/SCC, and would appear even to improve this response in solutions containing silicon compounds, probably caused by the formation of insoluble silicates.

  19. Stress corrosion cracking of alloy 600 using the constant strain rate test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bulischeck, T. S.; van Rooyen, D.

    1980-01-01

    The most recent corrosion problems experienced in nuclear steam generators tubed with Inconel alloy 600 is a phenomenon labeled ''denting''. Denting has been found in various degrees of severity in many operating pressurized water reactors. Laboratory investigations have shown that Inconel 600 exhibits intergranular SCC when subjected to high stresses and exposed to deoxygenated water at elevated temperatures. A research project was initiated at Brookhaven National Laboratory in an attempt to improve the qualitative and quantitative understanding of factors influencing SCC in high temperature service-related environments. An effort is also being made to develop an accelerated test method which could be used to predict the service life of tubes which have been deformed or are actively denting. Several heats of commercial Inconel 600 tubing were procured for testing in deaerated pure and primary water at temperatures from 290 to 365/sup 0/C. U-bend type specimens were used to determine crack initiation times which may be expected for tubes where denting has occurred but is arrested and provide baseline data for judging the accelerating effects of the slow strain rate method. Constant extension rate tests were employed to determine the crack velocities experienced in the crack propagation stage and predict failure times of tubes which are actively denting. 8 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Sensitization and SCC (stress corrosion cracking) study on thermally treated inconel 600

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kai, J-J.; Huang, T.A.; Tsai, C.H.

    1988-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) was recently discovered to be the major cause of failure in Inconel 600 used in steam generator (SG) tubes of pressurized water reactors (PWRs). The failure of the Three Mile Island SG tubes has been attributed to low-temperature SCC in the sulfur-contaminated environment under cold shutdown conditions. Bandy et al. found that even in the 10{sup {minus}6} M Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3} (or N{sub 2}S{sub 4}O{sub 6}) environment, the SCC would still be observable. This study investigates the effect of thermal treatment on the sensitization of Inconel 600 and studies the SCC behavior of this alloy in a sulfur-contaminated environment (S{sub 2}O{sub 3}{sup {minus}2}) using constant load test. The results of this study can be used to correlate the SCC susceptibility to the degree of sensitization of Inconel 600 by defining a critical chromium concentration under the test conditions.

  1. Analysis of an AP600 intermediate-size loss-of-coolant accident

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyack, B.E.; Lime, J.F.

    1995-09-01

    A postulated double-ended guillotine break of an AP600 direct-vessel-injection line has been analyzed. This event is characterized as an intermediate-break loss-of-coolant accident. Most of the insights regarding the response of the AP600 safety systems to the postulated accident are derived from calculations preformed with the TRAC-PF1/MOD2 code. However, complementary insights derived from a scaled experiment conducted in the ROSA facility, as well as insights based upon calculations by other codes, are also presented. Based upon the calculated and experimental results, the AP600 will not experience a core heat up and will reach a safe shutdown state using only safety-class equipment. Only the early part of the long-term cooling period initiated by In-containment Refueling Water Storage Tank injection was evaluated. Thus, the observation that the core is continuously cooled should be verified for the later phase of the long-term cooling period when sump injection and containment cooling processes are important.

  2. Conceptual design features of the Kalimer-600 sodium cooled fast reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hahn, Dohee; Kim, Yeong-Il; Kim, Seong-O; Lee, Jae-Han; Lee, Yong-Bum; Jeong, Hae-Yong

    2007-07-01

    An advanced sodium cooled fast reactor concept, KALIMER-600, has been developed by the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute to satisfy the Gen-IV technology goals of sustainability, safety and reliability, economics and proliferation resistance. The concept enables an efficient utilization of uranium resources and a reduction of the radioactive waste. The core design has been developed with a strong emphasis on a proliferation resistance by adopting a single enrichment fuel without blanket assemblies. In addition, a passive residual heat removal system, shortened intermediate heat-transport system piping and seismic isolation have been realized in the reactor system design as enhancements to its safety and economics. The inherent safety characteristics of the KALIMER-600 design were verified through a safety analysis of its bounding events. The results for various unprotected events imply that the KALIMER-600 design can accommodate all the analyzed ATWS events. This self-regulation capability of the power without a scram is mainly attributed to the inherent reactivity feedback mechanisms implemented in the metal fuel core design and completely passive decay heat removal system. (authors)

  3. Events | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    - National Training Program 8:00AM to 6:00PM EDT Multi-Agency Veterans Hiring Event 1:00PM to 5:00PM EDT 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 2015 Women's Policy STEM Fair 5:00PM to 7:00PM EDT...

  4. Slide 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - diffusion capacitance C T (V) - transition capacitance V ac - arcing AC voltage - signal frequency -8.00E+03 -7.00E+03 -6.00E+03 -5.00E+03 -4.00E+03 -3.00E+03 -2.00E+03...

  5. High temperature tensile properties of V-4Cr-4Ti

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zinkle, S.J.; Rowcliffe, A.F.; Stevens, C.O.

    1998-09-01

    Tensile tests have been performed on V-4Cr-4Ti at 750 and 800 C in order to extend the data base beyond the current limit of 700 C. From comparison with previous measurements, the yield strength is nearly constant and tensile elongations decrease slightly with increasing temperature between 300 and 800 C. The ultimate strength exhibits an apparent maximum near 600 C (attributable to dynamic strain aging) but adequate strength is maintained up to 800 C. The reduction in area measured on tensile specimens remained high ({approximately}80%) for test temperatures up to 800 C, in contrast to previous reported results.

  6. Stress corrosion cracking of alloys 600 and 690 in all-volatile-treated water at elevated temperatures: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miglin, B.P.; Theus, G.J.

    1988-05-01

    This report describes stress corrosion (SCC) tests of Inconnel alloys 600 and 690 in all-volatile treated (AVT) water. Specimens of alloys 600 and 690 were exposed to AVT water at 288/degree/, 332/degree/, 343/degree/, and 360/degree/C. Alloy 660 generally resists SCC in high-purity water at normal sevice temperatures, but is susceptible to SCC at higher temperatures. In general, mill-annealed alloy 600 is more susceptible than high-treated material with fine lacy grain boundary carbides. Very high stresses (near or above yield) are required to induce cracking of alloy 600 in AVT or other high-purity waters. For alloy 600, 78 of 520 alloy 600 specimens eventually cracked. Although exposed for less total time than alloy 600 specimens, no alloy 690 specimens cracked. Three alloy 600 specimens cracked in the same autoclave tests in less time than those accumulated by the alloy 690 specimens. Longitudinally-oriented ID cracks became evident on alloy 690 split-tube U-bend specimens after autoclave exposures. These cracks on the 690 specimens were from three to ten times longer after exposure than similar defects found on unexposed alloy 690 specimens. The longitudinal crack lengthening on the alloy 690 split-tube U-bend specimens may have been a stress relaxation process or possibly a crack opening process of pre-existing, partially closed, longitudinal defects. Similar cracks were present in alloy 600 specimens, but in at least one case SCC did initiate from these shallow, blunt cracks.

  7. Characterization of the Fracture Toughness of TRIP 800 Sheet Steels Using Microstructure-Based Finite Element Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soulami, Ayoub; Choi, Kyoo Sil; Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2009-04-01

    Recently, several studies conducted by automotive industry revealed the tremendous advantages of Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS). TRansformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steel is one of the typical representative of AHSS. This kind of materials exhibits high strength as well as high formability. Analyzing the crack behaviour in TRIP steels is a challenging task due to the microstructure level inhomogeneities between the different phases (Ferrite, Bainite, Austenite, Martensite) that constitute these materials. This paper aims at investigating the fracture resistance of TRIP steels. For this purpose, a micromechanical finite element model is developed based on the actual microstructure of a TRIP 800 steel. Uniaxial tensile tests on TRIP 800 sheet notched specimens were also conducted and tensile properties and R-curves (Resistance curves) were determined. The comparison between simulation and experimental results leads us to the conclusion that the method using microstructure-based representative volume element (RVE) captures well enough the complex behavior of TRIP steels. The effect of phase transformation, which occurs during the deformation process, on the toughness is observed and discussed.

  8. Fully automated dual-frequency three-pulse-echo 2DIR spectrometer accessing spectral range from 800 to 4000 wavenumbers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leger, Joel D.; Nyby, Clara M.; Varner, Clyde; Tang, Jianan; Rubtsova, Natalia I.; Yue, Yuankai; Kireev, Victor V.; Burtsev, Viacheslav D.; Qasim, Layla N.; Rubtsov, Igor V.; Rubtsov, Grigory I.

    2014-08-15

    A novel dual-frequency two-dimensional infrared instrument is designed and built that permits three-pulse heterodyned echo measurements of any cross-peak within a spectral range from 800 to 4000 cm{sup −1} to be performed in a fully automated fashion. The superior sensitivity of the instrument is achieved by a combination of spectral interferometry, phase cycling, and closed-loop phase stabilization accurate to ∼70 as. The anharmonicity of smaller than 10{sup −4} cm{sup −1} was recorded for strong carbonyl stretching modes using 800 laser shot accumulations. The novel design of the phase stabilization scheme permits tuning polarizations of the mid-infrared (m-IR) pulses, thus supporting measurements of the angles between vibrational transition dipoles. The automatic frequency tuning is achieved by implementing beam direction stabilization schemes for each m-IR beam, providing better than 50 μrad beam stability, and novel scheme for setting the phase-matching geometry for the m-IR beams at the sample. The errors in the cross-peak amplitudes associated with imperfect phase matching conditions and alignment are found to be at the level of 20%. The instrument can be used by non-specialists in ultrafast spectroscopy.

  9. Energy Provisions of the ICC-700, LEED for Homes, and ENERGY STAR Mapped to the 2009 IECC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Britt, Michelle L.; Sullivan, Robin S.; Kora, Angela R.; Makela, Eric J.; Makela, Erin

    2011-05-06

    This document provides the results of a comparison of building energy efficient elements of the ICC-700 National Green Building Standard, LEED for Homes, and ENERGY STAR versions 2, 2.5, and 3.0 to the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code (2009 IECC). This comparison will provide a tool for states and local municipalities as they consider adoption of these programs. The comparison is presented in a series of appendices. The first appendix provides a summary chart that visually represents the comprehensive comparison of the programs to the 2009 IECC topic areas. Next there are a series of individual tables (one appendix for each program) that include the specific program mapping to the 2009 IECC elements with comments that briefly discuss how well the elements mapped. Finally, a comprehensive table is included that shows all five of the programs mapped to the 2009 IECC elements to allow a detailed comparison.

  10. Preliminary safety analysis of Pb-Bi cooled 800 MWt modified CANDLE burn-up scheme based fast reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su'ud, Zaki; Sekimoto, H.

    2014-09-30

    Pb-Bi Cooled fast reactors with modified CANDLE burn-up scheme with 10 regions and 10 years cycle length has been investigated from neutronic aspects. In this study the safety aspect of such reactors have been investigated and discussed. Several condition of unprotected loss of flow (ULOF) and unprotected rod run-out transient over power (UTOP) have been simulated and the results show that the reactors excellent safety performance. At 80 seconds after unprotected loss of flow condition, the core flow rate drop to about 25% of its initial flow and slowly move toward its natural circulation level. The maximum fuel temperature can be managed below 1000°C and the maximum cladding temperature can be managed below 700°C. The dominant reactivity feedback is radial core expansion and Doppler effect, followed by coolant density effect and fuel axial expansion effect.

  11. Stress relief treatment of Alloy 600 steam generator tubing. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    van Rooyen, D.; Cragnolino, C.

    1994-01-01

    The intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of Alloy 600 tubing in the primary side of operating steam generators is the subject of this investigation. The objective of the program was to examine the feasibility of heat treatment to alleviate the IGSCC problem. In addition to this, tests were also performed to examine the IGSCC susceptibility of nuclear grade Alloy 600 tubing obtained from various sources. Examination of temperature-time combinations that may hold potential for improved IGSCC resistance of the transition regions of tubes expanded into tube sheet holes was done. The combinations fall in two categories. One is of short duration and relatively high temperature, where induction is the best method of heating because the treatment only lasts from some tens of seconds to a few minutes. The other is carried out in a lower temperature range and lasts for several hours. This latter combination of temperatures and times is considered for the so-called global heat treatment of entire tube sheet. To assess the effect of these treatments, reverse U-bend testing in high purity deaerated water containing an overpressure of hydrogen was employed and several heats of Alloy 600 were compared in tests at 365{degrees}C, which is well above actual operating temperatures of steam generators, but provides an accelerated test procedure. Results of furnace heating in the range of 550-610{degrees}C indicated improvement in IGSCC resistance, with best performance after a heat treatment at 610{degrees}C for nine hours. In addition to stress relief, carbide precipitation can also occur, and their relative contributions to the improvement is discussed.

  12. Results of Remediation and Verification Sampling for the 600-270 Horseshoe Landfill

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W. S. Thompson

    2005-12-14

    This report presents the results of the 2005 remedial action and verification soil sampling conducted at the 600-270 waste site after removal of soil containing residual concentrations of dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane and its breakdown products dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethane. The remediation was performed in response to post-closure surface soil sampling performed between 1998 and 2003 that indicated the presence of residual DDT contamination exceeding the Record of Decision for the 1100 Area National Priorities List site cleanup criteria of 1 mg/kg that was established for the original 1994 cleanup activities.

  13. Un~ted States Environmental Monltorlng EPA/600/4-86/022 Env~ronmental Protection

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Environmental Monltorlng EPA/600/4-86/022 Env~ronmental Protection Systems Laboratory DOE/DP/00539/056 Agency P.0 Box 15027 A p r ~ l 1986 Las Vegas NV 891 14-5027 3 Research and Development Off -Site Environmental Monitoring Report: Radiation Monitoring Around United States Nuclear Test Areas, Calendar Year prepared for the United States Department of Energy under Interagency Agreement Number DE-AI08-76DP00539 This page intentionally left blank EPA-60014-86-022 DOE/DP/00539-056 April 1986

  14. In-situ stress relief of expanded Alloy 600 steam generator tubing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodward, J.; van Rooyen, D.; McIlree, A.R.

    1984-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking is the most common cause of defects in steam generator tubing. Methods of averting tubing damage are constantly under review. This paper concentrates on the problem of intergranular stress corrosion cracking, initiated on the primary side, in the expansion transition region of roller expanded Alloy 600 tubing. In general it is believed that residual stresses, arising from the expansion process, are the cause of the problem. The work reported here discusses the identification and implementation of an optimal, in-situ stress relief treatment.

  15. Stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 using the constant strain rate test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bulischeck, T.S.; Van Rooyen, D.

    1981-10-01

    Nuclear grade production tubing of Alloy 600 was evaluated for stress corrosion cracking (SCC) susceptibility in high purity water at 365, 345, 325, and 290 C. Reverse tube U-bend specimens provided crack initiation data and constant extension rate tests were employed to determine the crack velocities experienced in th crack propagation stage. Initial results indicate that a linear extrapolation of data received from high temperature tests can be used to predict the service life of steam generator tubing that has been plastically deformed or is continually deforming by ''denting.''

  16. Characteristics of acoustic emission during stress corrosion cracking of Inconel 600 alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sung, K.Y.; Kim, I.S.; Yoon, Y.K.

    1997-10-15

    It is possible to detect by use of the acoustic emission (AE) technique the dynamic processes in stressed materials. In this study, the AE technique is applied to SCC of Inconel 600 due to depletion of chromium at grain boundaries to investigate the AE capability of detecting crack growth and to obtain the relation between AE characteristics and crack mechanisms such as fracture mode and crack growth rate during SCC. In addition, the generation of initial cracks was detected, and minimum crack size detectable with AE was determined to assess the potential of AE as a non-destructive method.

  17. Fact #600: December 7, 2009 China Produced More Vehicles than the U.S. in

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2008 | Department of Energy 0: December 7, 2009 China Produced More Vehicles than the U.S. in 2008 Fact #600: December 7, 2009 China Produced More Vehicles than the U.S. in 2008 In 1980, the U.S. produced 56 times more vehicles than China. China's vehicle production has been growing since then, while U.S. vehicle production was hit hard in the recent economic downturn. In the year 2008, China produced 9.5 million vehicles, while the U.S. produced 8.7 million vehicles. Vehicles Produced in

  18. The Stress Corrosion Crack Growth Rate of Alloy 600 Heat Affected Zones Exposed to High Purity Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George A. Young; Nathan Lewis

    2003-04-05

    Grain boundary chromium carbides improve the resistance of nickel based alloys to primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC). However, in weld heat affected zones (HAZ's), thermal cycles from fusion welding can solutionize beneficial grain boundary carbides, produce locally high residual stresses and strains, and promote PWSCC. The present research investigates the crack growth rate of an A600 HAZ as a function of test temperature. The A600 HAZ was fabricated by building up a gas-tungsten-arc-weld deposit of EN82H filler metal onto a mill-annealed A600 plate. Fracture mechanics based, stress corrosion crack growth rate testing was performed in high purity water between 600 F and 680 F at an initial stress intensity factor of 40 ksi {radical}in and at a constant electrochemical potential. The HAZ samples exhibited significant SCC, entirely within the HAZ at all temperatures tested. While the HAZ samples showed the same temperature dependence for SCC as the base material (HAZ: 29.8 {+-} 11.2{sub 95%} kcal/mol vs A600 Base: 35.3 {+-} 2.58{sub 95%} kcal/mol), the crack growth rates were {approx} 30X faster than the A600 base material tested at the same conditions. The increased crack growth rates of the HAZ is attributed to fewer intergranular chromium rich carbides and to increased plastic strain in the HAZ as compared to the unaffected base material.

  19. Qualitative comparison of bremsstrahlung X-rays and 800 MeV protons for tomography of urania fuel pellets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, C. L.; Bourke, M.; Byler, D. D.; Chen, C. F.; Hogan, G.; Hunter, J. F.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Mariam, F. G.; McClellan, K. J.; Merrill, F.; Morley, D. J.; Saunders, A.

    2013-02-15

    We present an assessment of x-rays and proton tomography as tools for studying the time dependence of the development of damage in fuel rods. We also show data taken with existing facilities at Los Alamos National Laboratory that support this assessment. Data on surrogate fuel rods have been taken using the 800 MeV proton radiography (pRad) facility at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE), and with a 450 keV bremsstrahlung X-ray tomography facility. The proton radiography pRad facility at LANSCE can provide good position resolution (<70 {mu}m has been demonstrate, 20 {mu}m seems feasible with minor changes) for tomography on activated fuel rods. Bremsstrahlung x-rays may be able to provide better than 100 {mu}m resolution but further development of sources, collimation, and detectors is necessary for x-rays to deal with the background radiation for tomography of activated fuel rods.

  20. Qualitative comparison of bremsstrahlung X-rays and 800 MeV protons for tomography of urania fuel pellets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, Christopher L.; Bourke, Mark A.; Byler, Darrin D.; Chen, Ching-Fong; Hogan, Gary E.; Hunter, James F.; Kwiatkowski, Kris K.; Mariam, Fesseha G.; McClellan, Kenneth J.; Merrill, Frank E.; Morley, Deborah J.; Saunders, Alexander

    2013-02-11

    We present an assessment of x-rays and proton tomography as tools for studying the time dependence of the development of damage in fuel rods. Also, we show data taken with existing facilities at Los Alamos National Laboratory that support this assessment. Data on surrogate fuel rods has been taken using the 800 MeV proton radiography (pRad) facility at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE), and with a 450 keV bremsstrahlung X-ray tomography facility. The proton radiography pRad facility at LANSCE can provide good position resolution (<70 μm has been demonstrate, 20 μm seems feasible with minor changes) for tomography on activated fuel rods. Bremsstrahlung x-rays may be able to provide better than 100 μm resolution but further development of sources, collimation and detectors is necessary for x-rays to deal with the background radiation for tomography of activated fuel rods.

  1. High order magnetic optics for high dynamic range proton radiography at a kinetic energy 800 MeV

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sjue, Sky K. L.; Morris, Christopher L.; Merrill, Frank Edward; Mariam, Fesseha Gebre; Saunders, Alexander

    2016-01-14

    Flash radiography with 800 MeV kinetic energy protons at Los Alamos National Laboratory is an important experimental tool for investigations of dynamic material behavior driven by high explosives or pulsed power. The extraction of quantitative information about density fields in a dynamic experiment from proton generated images requires a high fidelity model of the protonimaging process. It is shown that accurate calculations of the transmission through the magnetic lens system require terms beyond second order for protons far from the tune energy. The approach used integrates the correlated multiple Coulomb scattering distribution simultaneously over the collimator and the image plane.more » Furthermore, comparison with a series of static calibrationimages demonstrates the model’s accurate reproduction of both the transmission and blur over a wide range of tune energies in an inverse identity lens that consists of four quadrupole electromagnets.« less

  2. Results from Alloy 600 And Alloy 690 Caustic SCC Model Boiler Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Frederick D.; Thomas, Larry E.

    2009-08-03

    A versatile model boiler test methodology was developed and used to compare caustic stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of mill annealed Alloy 600 and thermally treated Alloy 690. The model boiler included simulated crevice devices that efficiently and consistently concentrated Na2CO3, resulting in volatilization of CO2 with the steam and concentration of NaOH at the tube surfaces. The test methodology also included variation in tube stress, either produced by the primary to secondary side pressure differential, or by a novel method that reproducibly yields a higher stress condition on the tube. The significant effect of residual stress on tube SCC was also considered. SCC of both Alloy 600 and Alloy 690 were evaluated as a function of temperature and stress. Analytical transmission electron microscopy (ATEM) evaluations of the cracks and the grain boundaries ahead of the cracks were performed, providing insight into the SCC mechanism. This model boiler test methodology may be applicable to a range of bulkwater secondary chemistries that concentrate to produce aggressive crevice environments.

  3. The relationship between observed stress corrosion cracking fracture morphology and microstructure in Alloy 600

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Symons, D.M.; Burke, M.G.; Foster, J.P.

    1997-12-31

    Microstructure is known to influence the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of Alloy 600 in both hydrogenated water and steam environments. This study evaluated the relative SCC response of a single heat of Alloy 600 as a function of microstructure in a hydrogenated doped-steam environment. The 400 C doped-steam environment was selected for the SCC tests to accelerate cracking. The material was evaluated in three conditions: (1) as-received (2) as-annealed, and (3) as-annealed + 26% deformation. Microstructural characterization was performed using analytical electron microscopy (AEM) techniques for the evaluation of carbide type and morphology, and general structure. Constant displacement (bolt-loaded) compact tension specimens were used to induce SCC. The as-annealed and as-annealed plus cold worked samples had two fracture morphologies: a rough intergranular SCC fracture morphology and a smooth intergranular fracture morphology. The SCC fracture in the as-received specimens was characterized by a classic intergranular morphology at low magnification, consistent with the microstructural evaluation of cross-sectional metallographic samples. More detailed examination revealed a pseudo-intergranular fracture morphology. This pseudo-intergranular morphology appears to be comprised of very fine cleavage-like microfacets. These observations may assist in understanding the difference in SCC fracture morphologies as reported in the open literature.

  4. Stress corrosion cracking of alloy 600 in high temperature aqueous solutions: Influencing factors, mechanisms and models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szklarska-Smialowska, Z.; Rebak, R.B.

    1996-12-31

    A detailed critical review of the multiple variables affecting stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of in high temperature (deaerated) aqueous solutions is given. Most of the data in the literature deals with the cracking susceptibility in the primary side; however, it is clear that similar factors and to a similar extent influence the SCC susceptibility in both primary and secondary sides. Some factors such as alkalinity of the solution or presence of lead (Pb) may be more in the secondary side and others such as partial pressure of hydrogen (H{sub 2}) in the primary side. Even though the effect of the variables on SCC susceptibility is more or less established, in models, in most of the cases there is a lack of fundamental understanding of the mechanisms involved. The different mechanisms and models proposed to explain the SCC of alloy 600 are briefly reviewed and their validity to explain the influence of the variables and to predict the crack growth rate (CGR), is assessed. It is concluded that several of the proposed models seem to give a fair estimate of the CGR values under certain conditions; however, it appears that a single mechanism cannot explain in detail the complex case of alloy 600 SCC. 113 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Effect of heat treatment on caustic stress corrosion cracking behavior of alloy 600

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sung, J.K.

    1999-12-01

    Constant elongation rate tests (CERT) were conducted to evaluate the effect of heat treatment on intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) susceptibility of alloy 600 (UNS NO6600) in 140 C and 50% caustic solution at {minus}900 mV vs saturated calomel electrode (SCE). Results showed: (1) Heat treatment at low temperature for a long time (600 C for 260 h) led to a material that was not susceptible to caustic intergranular (IG) cracking. Increase in heat treatment temperature enhanced IG cracking susceptibility. Caustic IGSCC susceptibility was at maximum near the carbon solubility limit. However, when the heat treatment temperature was higher than the carbon solubility limit, a significant decrease in crack growth rate was observed. (2) Grain boundaries acted as a preferential crack path when grain boundary carbon segregation was likely. Thermodynamic considerations suggested that severe caustic IGSCC susceptibility near the carbon solubility limit could be explained in terms of carbon segregation at the grain boundaries. (3) IGSCC in caustic solution did not seem to be caused by chromium depletion. (4) Although formation of semi-continuous IG carbides and IGSCC resistance seemed to exhibit a similar chronological response with heat treatment, it was unlikely that grain boundary IG carbides played a role in caustic IGSCC susceptibility.

  6. Assessment of an improved multiaxial strength theory based on creep-rupture data for Inconel 600

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huddleston, R.L.

    1993-06-01

    A new multiaxial strength theory incorporating three independent stress parameters was developed and reported by the author in 1984. It was formally incorporated into ASME Code Case N47-29 in 1990. The new theory provided significantly more accurate stress-rupture life predictions than obtained using the classical theories of von Mises, Tresca, and Rankins (maximum principal stress), for Types 304 and 316 stainless steel tested at 593 and 600{degrees}C respectively under different biaxial stress states. Additional results for Inconel 600 specimens tested at 816{degrees}C under tension-tension and tension-compression stress states are presented in this paper and show a factor of approximately 2.4 reduction in the scatter of predicted versus observed lives as compared to the classical theories of von Mises and Tresca and a factor of about 5 as compared to the Rankins theory. A key feature of the theory, which incorporates the maximum deviatoric stress, the first invariant of the stress tensor, and the second invariant of the deviatoric stress tensor, is its ability to distinguish between life under tensile versus compressive stress states.

  7. INTERPRETATION OF AIRBORNE ELECTROMAGNETIC AND MAGNETIC DATA IN THE 600 AREA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CUMMINS GD

    2010-11-11

    As part of the 200-PO-1 Phase I geophysical surveys, Fugro Airborne Surveys was contracted to collect airborne electromagnetic (EM) and magnetic surveys of the Hanford Site 600 Area. Two helicopter survey systems were used with the HeliGEOTEM{reg_sign} time domain portion flown between June 19th and June 20th, 2008, and the RESOLVE{reg_sign} frequency domain portion was flown from June 29th to July 1st, 2008. Magnetic data were acquired contemporaneously with the electromagnetic surveys using a total-field cesium vapor magnetometer. Approximately 925 line kilometers (km) were flown using the HeliGEOTEM{reg_sign} II system and 412 line kilometers were flown using the RESOLVE{reg_sign} system. The HeliGEOTEM system has an effective penetration of roughly 250 meters into the ground and the RESOLVE system has an effective penetration of roughly 60 meters. Acquisition parameters and preliminary results are provided in SGW-39674, Airborne Electromagnetic Survey Report, 200-PO-1 Groundwater Operable Unit, 600 Area, Hanford Site. Airborne data are interpreted in this report in an attempt to identify areas of likely preferential groundwater flow within the aquifer system based on the presence of paleochannels or fault zones. The premise for the interpretation is that coarser-grained intervals have filled in scour channels created by episodic catastrophic flood events during the late Pleistocene. The interpretation strategy used the magnetic field anomaly data and existing bedrock maps to identify likely fault or lineament zones. Combined analysis of the magnetic, 60-Hz noise monitor, and flight-altitude (radar) data were used to identify zones where EM response is more likely due to cultural interference and or bedrock structures. Cross-sectional and map view presentations of the EM data were used to identify more electrically resistive zones that likely correlate with coarser-grained intervals. The resulting interpretation identifies one major northwest-southeast trending

  8. UC-700 Envi

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transport Modeling sk Assessment of the Underground Test Area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada October 1997 Environmental Restoration Approved for publ c re ease; further dissem ted. ...

  9. SRC burn test in 700-hp oil-designed boiler. Volume 1. Integrated report. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-09-01

    This burn test program was conducted during the period of August 1982 to February 1983 to demonstrate that Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) products can displace petroleum as a boiler fuel in oil- and gas-designed boilers. The test program was performed at the U.S. Department of Energy's Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC). Three forms of SRC (pulverized SRC, a solution of SRC dissolved in process-derived distillates, and a slurry of SRC and water) and No. 6 Fuel Oil were evaluated in the 700-hp (30 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/hour) watertube, oil-designed boiler facility at PETC. The test program was managed by the International Coal Refining Company (ICRC) and sponsored by the Department of Energy. Other organizations were involved as necessary to provide the expertise required to execute the test program. This final report represents an integrated overview of the test program conducted at PETC. More detailed information with preliminary data can be obtained from separate reports prepared by PETC, Southern Research Institute, Wheelabrator-Frye, Babcock and Wilcox, and Combustion Engineering. These are presented as Annex Volumes A-F. 25 references, 41 figures, 15 tables.

  10. Third Carbon Sequestration Atlas Estimates Up to 5,700 Years of CO2 Storage Potential in U.S. and Portions of Canada

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    There could be as much as 5,700 years of carbon dioxide storage potential available in geologic formations in the United States and portions of Canada, according to the latest edition of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Carbon Sequestration Atlas (Atlas III).

  11. Residual and applied stress analysis of an alloy 600 row 1 U-bend: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruud, C.O.

    1987-09-01

    Residual stresses in Inconel alloy 600, row 1, U-bend tubes, used in heat exchanges in nuclear reactors, were studied using an advanced x-ray diffraction instrument. Both axial and circumferential (hoop) stresses on the extrados, intrados, and flanks on the O.D. surface of several U-bends were mapped. The I.D. surface residual stresses at the extrados of the U-bend were mapped on one tube and subsurface stress measurements were made on the I.D. and O.D. surfaces of that tube. Service loads were simulated on one tube to ascertain combined effect of residual and applied stresses. Data from wall thickness and profilometry measurements were also correlated with residual stress measurements. 21 refs., 42 figs.

  12. A model of caustic stress corrosion crack initiation and growth in Alloy 600. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eason, E.D.; Nelson, E.E.

    1994-06-01

    In this project, data previously generated by Westinghouse on the stress corrosion of Alloy 600 in caustic environments were analyzed to produce a model of the initiation time and crack growth rate. The model is valid over the range of the data, which included one (1), ten (10) and fifty (50) percent caustic solutions, at temperatures ranging from 550 to 650{degrees}F (288 - 343{degrees}C). The specimens were {open_quotes}C{close_quotes} ring specimens, with an initial strain that ranged from slightly below yield to approximately 3%. The model has two parts, a probabilistic model of time to initiation, and a deterministic model of crack growth rate given that initiation has occurred. Both parts of the model depend on heat treatment, caustic concentration, temperature, and strain. The model provides a reasonable representation of the material behavior over the range of data that were available for calibration.

  13. Rapid identification of conditions causing intergranular corrosion or intergranular stress corrosion cracking in sensitized alloy 600

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodward, J.

    1984-12-01

    In 1973, Seys and van Haute introduced a technique for measuring pitting potentials. They called this technique the Static Potential Band Method. A metal wire was mounted in a corrosion cell with counter and reference electrodes, and an electrical connection made to one end. A potential was applied with a potentiostat. At the same time, a constant current was passed through the wire to create a potential gradient in the metal phase; the result was the creation of a gradient in the electrode potential along the wire. This technique has many applications in corrosion studies. In this work, it has been applied to the intergranular corrosion (IGC) and intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of sensitized Alloy 600 in a sulfur-containing environment.

  14. Search for the Pygmy Dipole Resonance in {sup 68}Ni at 600 MeV/nucleon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wieland, O.; Benzoni, G.; Blasi, N.; Brambilla, S.; Million, B.; Bracco, A.; Camera, F.; Crespi, F. C. L.; Leoni, S.; Nicolini, R.; Maj, A.; Bednarczyk, P.; Grebosz, J.; Kmiecik, M.; Meczynski, W.; Styczen, J.; Wollersheim, H. J.; Aumann, T.; Banu, A.; Beck, T.

    2009-03-06

    The {gamma} decay from Coulomb excitation of {sup 68}Ni at 600 MeV/nucleon on a Au target was measured using the RISING setup at the fragment separator of GSI. The {sup 68}Ni beam was produced by a fragmentation reaction of {sup 86}Kr at 900 MeV/nucleon on a {sup 9}Be target and selected by the fragment separator. The {gamma} rays produced at the Au target were measured with HPGe detectors at forward angles and with BaF{sub 2} scintillators at backward angles. The measured spectra show a peak centered at approximately 11 MeV, whose intensity can be explained in terms of an enhanced strength of the dipole response function (pygmy resonance). Such pygmy structure has been predicted in this unstable neutron-rich nucleus by theory.

  15. Evaluation of the 2008 Lexus LS 600H Hybrid Synergy Drive System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burress, T.A.; Coomer, C.L.; Campbell, S.L.; Wereszczak, A.A.; Cunningham, J.P.; Marlino, L.D.; Seiber, L.E.; Lin, H.T.

    2009-01-15

    Subsystems of the 2008 Lexus 600h hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) were studied and tested as part of an intensive benchmarking effort carried out to produce detailed information concerning the current state of nondomestic alternative vehicle technologies. Feedback provided by benchmarking efforts is particularly useful to partners of the Vehicle Technologies collaborative research program as it is essential in establishing reasonable yet challenging programmatic goals which facilitate development of competitive technologies. The competitive nature set forth by the Vehicle Technologies program not only promotes energy independence and economic stability, it also advocates the advancement of alternative vehicle technologies in an overall global perspective. These technologies greatly facilitate the potential to reduce dependency on depleting natural resources and mitigate harmful impacts of transportation upon the environment.

  16. Stress corrosion cracking behavior of Alloy 600 in high temperature water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webb, G.L.; Burke, M.G.

    1995-07-01

    SCC susceptibility of Alloy 600 in deaerated water at 360 C (statically loaded U-bend specimens) is dependent on microstructure and whether the material was cold-worked and annealed (CWA) or hot-worked and annealed (HWA). All cracking was intergranular, and materials lacking grain boundary carbides were most susceptible to SCC initiation. CWA tubing materials are more susceptible to SCC initiation than HWA ring-rolled forging materials with similar microstructures (optical metallography). In CWA tubing materials, one crack dominated and grew to a visible size. HWA materials with a low hot-working finishing temperature (<925 C) and final anneals at 1010-1065 C developed both large cracks (similar to those in CWA materials) and small intergranular microcracks detectable only by destructive metallography. HWA materials with a high hot-working finishing temperature (>980 C) and a high-temperature final anneal (>1040 C), with grain boundaries that are fully decorated, developed only microcracks in all specimens. These materials did not develop large, visually detectable cracks, even after more than 300 weeks exposure. A low-temperature thermal treatment (610 C for 7h), which reduces or eliminates SCC in Alloy 600, did not eliminate microcrack formation in high temperature processed HWA materials. Conventional metallographic and analytical electron microscopy (AEM) were done on selected materials to identify the factors responsible for the observed differences in cracking behavior. Major difference between high-temperature HWA and low-temperature HWA and CWA materials was that the high temperature processing and final annealing produced predominantly ``semi-continuous`` dendritic M{sub 7}C{sub 3} carbides along grain boundaries with a minimal amount of intragranular carbides. Lower temperature processing produced intragranular M7C3 carbides, with less intergranular carbides.

  17. Analysis of large scale tests for AP-600 passive containment cooling system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sha, W.T.; Chien, T.H.; Sun, J.G.; Chao, B.T.

    1997-07-01

    One unique feature of the AP-600 is its passive containment cooling system (PCCS), which is designed to maintain containment pressure below the design limit for 72 hours without action by the reactor operator. During a design-basis accident, i.e., either a loss-of-coolant or a main steam-line break accident, steam escapes and comes in contact with the much cooler containment vessel wall. Heat is transferred to the inside surface of the steel containment wall by convection and condensation of steam and through the containment steel wall by conduction. Heat is then transferred from the outside of the containment surface by heating and evaporation of a thin liquid film that is formed by applying water at the top of the containment vessel dome. Air in the annual space is heated by both convection and injection of steam from the evaporating liquid film. The heated air and vapor rise as a result of natural circulation and exit the shield building through the outlets above the containment shell. All of the analytical models that are developed for and used in the COMMIX-ID code for predicting performance of the PCCS will be described. These models cover governing conservation equations for multicomponents single phase flow, transport equations for the {kappa}-{epsilon} two-equation turbulence model, auxiliary equations, liquid-film tracking model for both inside (condensate) and outside (evaporating liquid film) surfaces of the containment vessel wall, thermal coupling between flow domains inside and outside the containment vessel, and heat and mass transfer models. Various key parameters of the COMMIX-ID results and corresponding AP-600 PCCS experimental data are compared and the agreement is good. Significant findings from this study are summarized.

  18. Mechanisms of stress corrosion cracking and intergranular attack in Alloy 600 in high temperature caustic and pure water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bandy, R.; van Rooyen, D.

    1984-01-01

    In recent years, several studies have been conducted on the intergranular stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and intergranular attack (IGA) of Alloy 600. A combination of SCC and IGA has been observed in Alloy 600 tubing on the hot leg of some operating steam generators in pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plants, and sodium hydroxide along with several other chemical species have been implicated in the tube degradations. SCC has been observed above and within the tube sheet, whereas IGA is generally localized within the tube sheet. Alloy 600 is also susceptible to SCC in pure and primary water. Various factors that influence SCC and IGA include metallurgical conditions of the alloy, concentrations of alkaline species, impurity content of the environment, temperature and stress. The mechanisms of these intergranular failures, however, are not well understood. Some of the possible mechanisms of the SCC and IGA in high temperature water and caustic are described in this paper.

  19. Experimental Data of Neutron Yields from Thick Targets Bombarded by 100 to 800 MeV / Nucleon Heavy Ions.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2001-05-15

    Version 02 The recent experimental data by the authors listed above are summarized in this paper on differential neutron yields in energy and angle produced by 100, 155 and 180 MeV/nucleon He, 100, 155, 180 and 400 MeV/nucleon C, 100, 180, 400 MeV/nucleon Ne, 400MeV/nucleon Ar, Xe and Fe, 272 and 435MeV/nucleon Nb and 800 MeV/nucleon Si ions stopping in thick targets of C, Al, Cu, Pb and Nb. The paper referenced above is availablemore » on the RSICC web site. The numerical values of the data, which were used to plot figures in References 3, 4, 5, 6 and 8 of this paper, are available for download at no charge. To get access to the data, complete a RSICC registration form and order form. Both are available by clicking on "Ordering" from the RSICC web pages. You will be contacted with details about how to proceed.« less

  20. Qualitative comparison of bremsstrahlung X-rays and 800 MeV protons for tomography of urania fuel pellets

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Morris, Christopher L.; Bourke, Mark A.; Byler, Darrin D.; Chen, Ching-Fong; Hogan, Gary E.; Hunter, James F.; Kwiatkowski, Kris K.; Mariam, Fesseha G.; McClellan, Kenneth J.; Merrill, Frank E.; et al

    2013-01-01

    We present an assessment of x-rays and proton tomography as tools for studying the time dependence of the development of damage in fuel rods. Also, we show data taken with existing facilities at Los Alamos National Laboratory that support this assessment. Data on surrogate fuel rods has been taken using the 800 MeV proton radiography (pRad) facility at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE), and with a 450 keV bremsstrahlung X-ray tomography facility. The proton radiography pRad facility at LANSCE can provide good position resolution (<70 μm has been demonstrate, 20 μm seems feasible with minor changes) for tomographymore » on activated fuel rods. Bremsstrahlung x-rays may be able to provide better than 100 μm resolution but further development of sources, collimation and detectors is necessary for x-rays to deal with the background radiation for tomography of activated fuel rods.« less

  1. Effect of spray parameter on containment depressurization during LOCA in KAPP 3 and 4, 700 MWE IPHWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, S. K.; Bhartia, D. K.; Mohan, N.; Malhotra, P. K.; Ghadge, S. G.

    2012-07-01

    KAPP 3 and 4 is an Indian Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (IPHWR) of 700 MWe capacities. It is a pressure tube type reactor with heavy water as moderator and coolant and natural Uranium Dioxide as fuel. It consists of 392 horizontal fuel channel assemblies and surrounded by three separate water systems i.e. primary coolant, moderator and calandria vault water system. Containment of Indian PHWR is an ultimate barrier, which is designed to envelope whole reactor systems, to prevent the spread of active air-borne fission products in accident condition. Containment Spray System has been provided for energy as well as activity removal from the Containment system. This paper discusses about the studies done to assess the effect of spray parameters such as spray flow rate, droplets diameter and height of fall on containment peak pressure and temperature, long term containment depressurization and energy removal from the containment during Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA). The spray flow rate and droplets diameter play an important role in removing residual energy from containment atmosphere, which influences depressurization of containment. It is obvious that faster depressurization of containment during postulated LOCA helps in limiting radiological consequences. From radiological considerations, droplets diameter is required to be kept to the lowest practically possible value and flow rate of spray should be high. Spray water droplets fall height governs the exposure time of droplets, which is the direct indication of energy removal rate. However, it is observed from the sensitivity studies that for a height of spray droplet fall more than 16.5 m, for the range of spray water flow rate and droplets sizes considered in the analyses, there is no significant change in heat removal. (authors)

  2. Effects of carbides on susceptibility of alloy 600 to stress corrosion cracking in high-temperature water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rebak, R.B.; Xia, Z.; Szklarska-Smialowska, Z. . Fontana Corrosion Center)

    1993-11-01

    The electrochemical behavior of sensitized, carburized, and mill-annealed alloy 600 (UNS N06600) was studied in hydrogenated, aerated, and high-temperature (250 to 350 C) dilute aqueous solutions. In high-temperature water at high anodic potentials, the current density (DC) from carbide dissolution was higher than DC from matrix dissolution. In oxidizing environments, intergranular stress corrosion cracking propagated in alloy 600 by dissolution of continuous or semicontinuous carbides at the grain boundary, in sensitized and non-sensitized materials. These studies have been conducted in environments similar to those in the steam generators of pressurized water reactors (PWR) in nuclear power plants.

  3. Texture, residual strain, and plastic deformation around scratches in alloy 600 using synchrotron x-ray Laue micro-diffraction.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suominen Fuller, M. L.; Klassen, R. J.; McIntyre, N. S.; Gerson, A. R.; Ramamurthy, S.; King, P. J.; Liu, W.; Univ. of Western Ontario; Univ. of South Australia; Babcock & Wilcox Canada

    2008-01-01

    Deformation around two scratches in Alloy 600 (A600) was studied nondestructively using synchrotron Laue differential aperture X-ray microscopy. The orientation of grains and elastic strain distribution around the scratches were measured. A complex residual deviatoric elastic strain state was found to exist around the scratches. Heavy plastic deformation was observed up to a distance of 20 {micro}m from the scratches. In the region 20-30 {micro}m from the scratches the diffraction spots were heavily streaked and split indicating misoriented dislocation cell structures.

  4. Three-dimensional analysis of AP600 standard plant shield building roof

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greimann, L.; Fanous, F.; Safar, S.; Khalil, A.; Bluhm, D.

    1999-06-01

    The AP600 passive containment vessel is surrounded by a concrete cylindrical shell covered with a truncated conical roof. This roof supports the passive containment cooling system (PCS) annular tank, shield plate and other nonstructural attachments. When the shield building is subjected to different loading combinations as defined in the Standard Review Plan (SRP), some of the sections in the shield building could experience forces in excess of their design values. This report summarized the three-dimensional finite element analysis that was conducted to review the adequacy of the proposed Westinghouse shield building design. The ANSYS finite element software was utilized to analyze the Shield Building Roof (SBR) under dead, snow, wind, thermal and seismic loadings. A three-dimensional model that included a portion of the shield building cylindrical shell, the conical roof and its attachments, the eccentricities at the cone-cylinder connection and at the compression ring and the PCS tank was developed. Mesh sensitivity studies were conducted to select appropriate element size in the cylinder, cone, near air intakes and in the vicinity of the eccentricities. Also, a study was carried out to correctly idealize the water-structure interaction in the PCS tank. Response spectrum analysis was used to calculate the internal forces at different sections in the SBR under Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE). Forty-nine structural modes and twenty sloshing modes were used. Two horizontal components of the SSE together with a vertical component were used. Modal stress resultants were combined taking into account the effects of closely spaced modes. The three earthquake directions were combined by the Square Root of the Sum Squares method. Two load combinations were studied. The load combination that included dead, snow, fluid, thermal and seismic loads was selected to be the most critical. Interaction diagrams for critical sections were developed and used to check the design

  5. Effect of cold work and processing orientation on stress corrosion cracking behavior of alloy 600

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moshier, W.C.; Brown, C.M.

    2000-03-01

    Cold work accelerates stress corrosion cracking (SCC) growth rates in Alloy 600 (UNS N06600). However, the variation in crack growth rates generated from cold-worked material has been significant, and the effect has been difficult to quantify. A study was performed in hydrogenated water adjusted to pH 10.2 to evaluate systematically the effect of cold work on Alloy 600 as a function of temperature, amount of cold work, stress intensity factor, and processing orientation. Cold work was introduced into the material by tensile prestraining or cold-rolling plate product. Crack growth rates were determined between 252 C and 360 C, stress intensity factors between 21 MPa{radical}m and 55 MPa{radical}m, and yield strengths between 201 MPa and 827 MPa. The material with the highest yield strength was cold-rolled and tested in the longitudinal-transverse (LT) and short-transverse (ST) orientations. Crack growth rates increased with increasing temperature, stress intensity factor, and yield strength. Furthermore, crack growth rates were a strong function of the processing orientation in the cold-rolled plate, with growth rates approximately an order of magnitude greater in the ST orientation compared to the LT orientation. Crack growth rates in the LT orientation were measured between 0.003 x 10{sup {minus}9} m/s and 1.95 x 10{sup {minus}9} m/s and between 0.066 x 10{sup {minus}9} m/s and 6.3 x 10{sup {minus}9} m/s in the ST orientation. Activation energies were slightly greater in the ST orientation, ranging from 154 kcal/mol to 191 kcal/mol, compared to activation energies between 126 kJ/mol and 157 kJ/mol in the LT orientation. Results of this study demonstrated that, although cold work can be used to accelerate SCC, the orientation of crack growth significantly can affect the results and must be taken into account when analyzing data from cold-worked material.

  6. Corrosion Test Results for Inconel 600 vs Inconel-Stainless UG Bellows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osborne, P.E.

    2002-09-11

    The Conversion Project (CP) of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) involves converting slightly less than 40 kg of {sup 233}U to a stable form for safe storage. The operation is performed within a few vessels interconnected by valves and 1/2-in. metal tubing. During this conversion, a particularly toxic and corrosive by-product is formed, namely aqueous hydrofluoric acid (HF). The production of HF is a result of the hydrolysis of UF{sub 6} and subsequent steam treatments of UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}. For each mole of UF{sub 6} converted, 6 mol of HF are produced. The HF that forms during conversion combines with water to produce approximately 1.5 L of 33 wt % HF. As this mixture is transferred within the process system, the tubing and valves are exposed to high concentrations of HF in liquid and vapor form. Of particular concern in the system are the almost 30 valves that have the potential for exposure to HF. For these valves, a vendor-supplied UG valve was installed. UG valves consist of an Alloy 400 (Monel) body and stem tip and Alloy 600 (Inconel) bellows. These valves have been used under experimental conditions that simulate the CP. It has been established that they have a finite life when exposed to a HF and air environment. Most failures were seen around the flange at the bottom of the bellows, and it was suspected that this flange and the weld material were not Inconel. In December 2001, the vendor confirmed that this flange was not Inconel but instead was stainless steel 316. After discussions between the vendor and ORNL staff involved with the CP effort, it was decided that the entire wetted area of the bellows would be fabricated from Alloy 600. In March 2002, four newly fabricated bellows assemblies were received from the vendor for the purposes of corrosion testing in HF. This report presents results from the corrosion tests conducted to determine if the new design of the bellows would enhance their corrosion resistance.

  7. Modeling of stress distributions on the microstructural level in Alloy 600

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozaczek, K.J.; Petrovic, B.G.; Ruud, C.O.; Mcllree, A.R.

    1995-04-01

    Stress distribution in a random polycrystalline material (Alloy 600) was studied using a topologically correct microstructural model. Distributions of von Mises and hydrostatic stresses at the grain vertices, which could be important in intergranular stress corrosion cracking, were analyzed as functions of microstructure, grain orientations and loading conditions. Grain size, shape, and orientation had a more pronounced effect on stress distribution than loading conditions. At grain vertices the stress concentration factor was higher for hydrostatic stress (1.7) than for von Mises stress (1.5). The stress/strain distribution in the volume (grain interiors) is a normal distribution and does not depend on the location of the studied material volume i.e., surface vs/bulk. The analysis of stress distribution in the volume showed the von Mises stress concentration of 1.75 and stress concentration of 2.2 for the hydrostatic pressure. The observed stress concentration is high enough to cause localized plastic microdeformation, even when the polycrystalline aggregate is in the macroscopic elastic regime. Modeling of stresses and strains in polycrystalline materials can identify the microstructures (grain size distributions, texture) intrinsically susceptible to stress/strain concentrations and justify the correctness of applied stress state during the stress corrosion cracking tests. Also, it supplies the information necessary to formulate the local failure criteria and interpret of nondestructive stress measurements.

  8. Condensation in the presence of noncondensible gases: AP600 containment simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, M.H.; Corradini, M.L.

    1995-09-01

    The Westinghouse Electric Corporation has designed an advanced pressurized light water reactor, AP600. This reactor is designed with a passive cooling system to remove sensible and decay heat from the containment. The heat removal path involves condensation heat transfer, aided by natural convective forces generated by buoyancy effects. A one-twelfth scale rectangular slice of the proposed reactor containment was constructed at the University of Wisconsin to simulate conditions anticipated from transients and accidents that may occur in a full scale containment vessel under a variety of conditions. Similitude of the test facility was obtained by considering the appropriate dimensionless group for the natural convective process (modified Froude number) and the aspect ratio (H/R) of the containment vessel. An experimental investigation to determine the heat transfer coefficients associated with condensation on a vertical and horizontal cooled wall (located in the scaled test section) at several different inlet steam flow rates and test section temperatures was conducted. In this series of experiments, the non-condensible mass fraction varied between (0.9-0.4) with corresponding mixture temperatures between 60-90{degrees}C. The heat transfer coefficients of the top horizontal surface varied from (82-296)W/m{sup 2}K and the vertical side heat transfer coefficients varied form (70-269)m{sup 2}K. The results were then compared to boundary layer heat and mass transfer theory by the use of the McAdams correlation for free convection.

  9. Optical emission from a small scale model electric arc furnace in 250-600 nm region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maekinen, A.; Tikkala, H.; Aksela, H.; Niskanen, J.

    2013-04-15

    Optical emission spectroscopy has been for long proposed for monitoring and studying industrial steel making processes. Whereas the radiative decay of thermal excitations is always taking place in high temperatures needed in steel production, one of the most promising environment for such studies are electric arc furnaces, creating plasma in excited electronic states that relax with intense characteristic emission in the optical regime. Unfortunately, large industrial scale electric arc furnaces also present a challenging environment for optical emission studies and application of the method is not straightforward. To study the usability of optical emission spectroscopy in real electric arc furnaces, we have developed a laboratory scale DC electric arc furnace presented in this paper. With the setup, optical emission spectra of Fe, Cr, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Ni, SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CaO, and MgO were recorded in the wavelength range 250-600 nm and the results were analyzed with the help of reference data. The work demonstrates that using characteristic optical emission, obtaining in situ chemical information from oscillating plasma of electric arc furnaces is indeed possible. In spite of complications, the method could possibly be applied to industrial scale steel making process in order to improve its efficiency.

  10. Materials corrosion of high temperature alloys immersed in 600C binary nitrate salt.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruizenga, Alan Michael; Gill, David Dennis; LaFord, Marianne Elizabeth

    2013-03-01

    Thirteen high temperature alloys were immersion tested in a 60/40 binary nitrate salt. Samples were interval tested up to 3000 hours at 600%C2%B0C with air as the ullage gas. Chemical analysis of the molten salt indicated lower nitrite concentrations present in the salt, as predicted by the equilibrium equation. Corrosion rates were generally low for all alloys. Corrosion products were identified using x-ray diffraction and electron microprobe analysis. Fe-Cr based alloys tended to form mixtures of sodium and iron oxides, while Fe-Ni/Cr alloys had similar corrosion products plus oxides of nickel and chromium. Nickel based alloys primarily formed NiO, with chromium oxides near the oxide/base alloy interface. In625 exhibited similar corrosion performance in relation to previous tests, lending confidence in comparisons between past and present experiments. HA230 exhibited internal oxidation that consisted of a nickel/chromium oxide. Alloys with significant aluminum alloying tended to exhibit superior performance, due formation of a thin alumina layer. Soluble corrosion products of chromium, molybdenum, and tungsten were also formed and are thought to be a significant factor in alloy performance.

  11. Intergranular attack and stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 in high-temperature caustic solutions containing contaminants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bandy, R.; Roberge, R.; van Rooyen, D.

    1985-06-01

    Concentrated caustic is a primary cause of stress corrosion cracking and intergranular attack of Alloy 600 tubing in PWRs. However, temperature, electrochemical potential, stress, and metallurgical state all play a role. This study provides the quantitative evidence needed to develop models of crack growth and to devise effective countermeasures.

  12. PowerPoint Presentation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ΔpH Wavelength, nm 400 600 800 1000 Wavelength, nm 550 600 650 700 750 Wavelength, nm 600 620 640 660 Blcok copolymer-based nanocomposites for artificial photosynthesis SnTPP ZnPPIX Zn Sn Significance and Impact Scientific Achievement Research Details A B 2 Black: pH 6 Red: pH 12 Blue: pH 2 Responsive quenching in CNT-porphyrin polymer composites * Hydrophobic (SnTTP) NT-wrapped porphyrin polymer micelles exhibit pH responsive flourescence quenching relative to pH. At low pH the pAA-b-pS block

  13. Intergranular attack of alloy 600: Simulation and remedial action tests: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daret, J.; Feron, D.

    1989-02-01

    The intergranular attack (IGA) that affects alloy 600 tubes in the tube sheet crevices of PWR steam generators is hard to simulate in laboratory studies. For this study, a special apparatus was designed with a range of representative materials, mechanical conditions and geometry. The design also took account of sludge piles, thermal fluxes and water chemistry. During a first series of seven model boiler tests, chemical parameters and test procedures were adjusted to finally obtain a field prototypical degradation of tubing over a significant length within the tube sheet crevice for the case of caustic pollution. IGA was not produced for the river water in-leakage case. A second series of model boiler tests also showed the possibility of producing a representative IGA by initially filling the tube sheet crevices with concentrated caustic solutions. A third series of five model boiler tests aimed at studying in the effectiveness of remedial actions on either virgin of IGA affected tubing. Tube sheet crevice flushing operations using the natural circulation procedure showed a poor efficiency for moving concentrated contaminants, but they succeeded in forcing chemicals additives (acetic acid or boric acid) within the non-occluded portions of crevices. This off-line treatment resulted in a reduction in the progression rate of the pre-existing IGA by a factor of 2 to 3. Simulation of this treatment on virgin material showed that this result was obtained because acetate or borate shifted the cation-to-anion equivalent ratio to well under one. However this off-line treatment could not prevent the occurrence of intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) near the top of crevices, since caustic continued to hideout under full power operation. The best remedial action consisted of a combination of off-line and on-line boric acid treatment. IGSCC was prevented both on virgin and IGA affected tubes. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Model boiler testing to evaluate inhibitors for caustic induced stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daret, J.; Paine, J.P.N.; Partridge, M.J.

    1995-12-31

    A series of model boiler tests, using a mixture of precracked and non-precracked (virgin) tube-to-tube support plate intersections was performed. The testing supported the qualification of inhibitors for mitigating the secondary side corrosion of alloy 600 steam generator tubes. Many utilities suspect that the caustic impurities come from the feedwater. Candidate inhibitors included boric acid (as a reference), cerous acetate, and two forms of titanium dioxide: a laboratory produced titania-silica sol-gel, and manometer sized anatase The latter was combined with a 150 C pre-soaking with a titanium lactate, and was tested with and without a zeta potential treatment by sodium aluminate. Effectiveness of boric acid to prevent and retard caustic induced intergranular corrosion was confirmed in all crevice configurations (open and packed). The cerous acetate treatment multiplied by two to four the time necessary to detect a primary-to-secondary leak on virgin tubes, and reduced the propagation rate on precracked tubes. Cerium was found intimately mixed, as cerianite, with the free span and crevice deposits, when the crevices were sufficiently accessible. Due to its very low solubility and large particle size, the titania-silica sol-gel was unable to penetrate the crevices and had no effect on the degradation process. The nanometric particle size titania treatment and/or the preceding soaking with soluble titanium lactate drastically increased the titanium concentration in free span and open crevice deposit (with no added sodium aluminate, titania reacted with magnetite to form ilmenite) and showed undeniable capacity to prevent tubing degradation. Its effectiveness, in the case of packed crevices and for arresting cracks, was not so conclusive.

  15. Stress Corrosion Cracking and Non-Destructive Examination of Dissimilar Metal Welds and Alloy 600

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, Deborah A.

    2002-07-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) has conducted research since 1977 in the areas of environmentally assisted cracking and assessment and reliability of non-destructive examination (NDE). Recent occurrences of cracking in Alloy 82/182 welds and Alloy 600 base metal at several domestic and overseas plants have raised several issues relating to both of these areas of NRC research. The occurrences of cracking were identified by the discovery of boric acid deposits resulting from through-wall cracking in the primary system pressure boundary. Analyses indicate that the cracking has occurred due to primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) in Alloy 82/182 welds. This cracking has occurred in two different locations: in hot leg nozzle-to-safe end welds and in control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) nozzle welds. The cracking associated with safe-end welds is important due to the potential for a large loss of reactor coolant inventory, and the cracking of CRDM nozzle base metal and welds, particularly circumferential cracking of CRDM nozzle base metal, is important due to the potential for a control rod to eject resulting in a loss of coolant accident. The industry response in the U.S. to this cracking is being coordinated through the Electric Power Research Institute's Materials Reliability Project (EPRI-MRP) in a comprehensive, multifaceted effort. Although the industry program is addressing many of the issues raised by these cracking occurrences, confirmatory research is necessary for the staff to evaluate the work conducted by industry groups. Several issues requiring additional consideration regarding the generic implications of these isolated events have been identified. This paper will discuss the recent events of significant cracking in domestic and foreign plants, discuss the limitations of NDE in detecting SCC, identify deficiencies in information available in this area, discuss the USNRC approach to address these issues, and discuss the

  16. Experimental Determination of Phase Equilibria in the System H{sub 2}O-CO{sub 2}-NaCl at 0.5 Kb from 500 to 800C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anovitz, L.M.

    2001-01-09

    An understanding of activity-composition (a/X) relations and phase equilibria for halite-bearing, mixed-species supercritical fluids is critically important to many geological and industrial applications. The authors have performed experiments on the phase equilibria of H{sub 2}O-CO{sub 2}-NaCl fluids from 500 C to 800 C at 500 bars, conditions of significant importance in studies of magma-hydrothermal systems, geothermal reservoirs and some ore deposits, to obtain highly accurate and precise data for this ternary system. These experiments are conducted using a double capsule technique. An excess of NaCl is placed in an inner Pt capsule, which is crimped shut and placed in an outer capsule containing H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2}. During the experiment NaCl dissolves out of the inner capsule, and is deposited in the outer capsule during the quench. After the experiment the capsule is opened, and the amount of NaCl remaining in the inner capsule determined by dissolution. The difference between the initial and final amounts of NaCl in the inner capsule yields the solubility of NaCl at the P-T conditions of the experiment. At 500 C data from these experiments suggest that the vapor comer of the three-phase field lies near X(H{sub 2}O) = 0.760, X(NaCl) = 0.065, which is a significantly more water-rich composition than suggested by previous models. As expected, increasing temperature increases the solubility of NaCl in the NaCl-vapor field. For example, at intermediate H{sub 2}O/CO{sub 2} ratios the vapor field extends from approximately near X(H{sub 2}O) = 0.66, X(NaCl) = 0.06 at 500 C to near X(H{sub 2}O) = 0.65, X(NaCl) = 0.08 at 600 C.

  17. A Multigroup Library of Neutron and Gamma Cross Sections and Response Functions in the Energy Range up to 800 MeV.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1987-05-20

    Version 00 The energy range of the library, from thermal to 800 MeV is relevant to the solution of shielding, nuclear heating, and other radiation protection problems connected with the accelerator neutron sources e.g. spallation target. The data contains 10 elements of shielding and biological importance. They can be easily implemented to the neutron transport codes like ANISN and DOT by using the activity option.

  18. Microstructural effects on microdeformation and primary-side stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 tubing: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruemmer, S.M.; Charlot, L.A.; Henager, C.H. Jr.

    1987-05-01

    Microdeformation characteristics in Alloy 600 tubing have been examined after various tensile deformations. Microstructure developed during processing was found to control subsequent microdeformation behavior. Grain boundary carbides were the most effective source of dislocations, activating at lower macro-strains and continuing to operate at higher macro-strains than other sources. Ledges within grain boundaries, twin boundaries and matrix carbides also acted as dislocation sources. Most dislocation activity at low strains was confined to planar arrays. A conceptual model is presented to account for the effects of interfacial and matrix microstructure on microdeformation and primary-side SCC of Alloy 600 tubing. Microstructure is linked to IGSCC resistance through its influence on microdeformation behavior and the resultant crack-tip stress state. Dislocation source activity at grain interfaces is proposed to be a critical aspect controlling IGSCC susceptibility. Effective sources such as grain boundary carbides promote crack blunting, decrease the crack-tip stress state and increase resistance to cracking.

  19. The influence of dissolved hydrogen on primary water stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 at PWR steam generator operating temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacko, R.J.; Economy, G.; Pement, F.W.

    1992-12-31

    PWR primary coolant chemistry uses an intentional dissolved hydrogen concentration of 20 to 50 ml (STP)/kg of water to effect a net suppression of oxygen-producing radiolysis, to minimize corrosion in primary loop materials and to maintain a low redox potential. Speculation has attended a possible influence of dissolved hydrogen on the kinetics of initiation of Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking (PWSCC) behavior of Alloy 600 steam generator tubing. Three series of experiments are presented for conditions in which the level of dissolved hydrogen was intentionally varied over the hydrogen and temperature ranges of interest for steam generator operation. No significant effect of dissolved hydrogen was found on PWSCC of Alloy 600.

  20. Initiation and propagation of stress-corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 in high-temperature water. [PWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bandy, R.; van Rooyen, D.

    1983-01-01

    Results of stress-corrosion cracking data are presented for Inconel 600 steam-generator tubing. U-bend, constant-load, and slow extension-rate tests are included. Arrhenius plots are presented for failure times vs inverse temperature for crack initiation and propagation. Effect of applied load is expressed in terms of log-log curves for failure times vs stress, and variations in environment and cold work are included. Microstructure and composition of oxide films on Inconel 600 surfaces were examined after exposure to pure water at 365/sup 0/C, and stripping with the bromine-methanol method. Results are discussed in terms of transient creep, film rupture and a mass-transport-limited anodic process.

  1. Effects of shot peening on corrosion and stress corrosion cracking behaviors of sensitized Alloy 600 in thiosulfate solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsai, W.T.; Chang, C.S.; Lee, J.T. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1994-02-01

    Effects of shot peening on the corrosion and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behaviors of sensitized alloy 600 (UNSN06600) were studied. Electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation (EPR) tests in 0.01 M sulfuric acid (H[sub 2]SO[sub 4]) + 0.001 M potassium thiocyanate (KSCN) solution and immersion tests in boiling 25% nitric acid (HNO[sub 3]) solution were used to evaluate the effect of heat treatment on the degree of sensitization of alloy 600. Potentiodynamic polarization tests in 0.01 M sodium thiosulfate (Na[sub 2]S[sub 2]O[sub 3]) solution at 95 C revealed shot peening increased the anodic current density (CD) of the alloy. However, SCC tests using U-bend specimens indicated shot peening substantially increased the crack initiation time in the same environment. The delayed crack initiation of SCC for shot-peened alloy 600, which is potentially dependent, was attributed to the presence of compressive residual stresses and the severely deformed surface microstructure.

  2. The mobility of Nb in rutile-saturated NaCl- and NaF-bearing aqueous fluids from 1–6.5 GPa and 300–800 °C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanis, Elizabeth A.; Simon, Adam; Tschauner, Oliver; Chow, Paul; Xiao, Yuming; Burnley, Pamela; Cline II, Christopher J.; Hanchar, John M.; Pettke, Thomas; Shen, Guoyin; Zhao, Yusheng

    2015-08-26

    Rutile (TiO₂) is an important host phase for high field strength elements (HFSE) such as Nb in metamorphic and subduction zone environments. The observed depletion of Nb in arc rocks is often explained by the hypothesis that rutile sequesters HFSE in the subducted slab and overlying sediment, and is chemically inert with respect to aqueous fluids evolved during prograde metamorphism in the forearc to subarc environment. However, field observations of exhumed terranes, and experimental studies, indicate that HFSE may be soluble in complex aqueous fluids at high pressure (i.e., >0.5 GPa) and moderate to high temperature (i.e., >300 °C). In this study, we investigated experimentally the mobility of Nb in NaCl- and NaF-bearing aqueous fluids in equilibrium with Nb-bearing rutile at pressure-temperature conditions applicable to fluid evolution in arc environments. Niobium concentrations in aqueous fluid at rutile saturation were measured directly by using a hydrothermal diamond-anvil cell (HDAC) and synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) at 2.1 to 6.5 GPa and 300–500 °C, and indirectly by performing mass loss experiments in a piston-cylinder (PC) apparatus at ~1 GPa and 700800 °C. The concentration of Nb in a 10 wt% NaCl aqueous fluid increases from 6 to 11 μg/g as temperature increases from 300 to 500 °C, over a pressure range from 2.1 to 2.8 GPa, consistent with a positive temperature dependence. The concentration of Nb in a 20 wt% NaCl aqueous fluid varies from 55 to 150 μg/g at 300 to 500 °C, over a pressure range from 1.8 to 6.4 GPa; however, there is no discernible temperature or pressure dependence. The Nb concentration in a 4 wt% NaF-bearing aqueous fluid increases from 180 to 910 μg/g as temperature increases from 300 to 500 °C over the pressure range 2.1 to 6.5 GPa. The data for the F-bearing fluid indicate that the Nb content of the fluid exhibits a dependence on temperature between 300 and 500 °C at ≥2 GPa, but there is no observed

  3. United States Environmental Monitoring EPA-600/4-81-047 Environmental Protection Systems Laboratory DOE/DP/00539-043

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    EPA-600/4-81-047 Environmental Protection Systems Laboratory DOE/DP/00539-043 Agency P.O. Box 15027 June 1981 Las Vegas NV 891 14 Research and Development Offsite Environmental Monitoring Report Radiation Monitoring Around United States Nuclear Test Areas, Calendar Year 1980 prepared for the Nevada Operations Office U.S. Department of Energy This page intentionally left blank EPA-60014-81-047 DOE/DP/00539-043 June 1981 OFFSITE ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING REPORT Radiation moni t o r i ng around U n

  4. Stress corrosion of alloys 600 and 690 in acidic sulfate solutions at elevated temperatures. Final report. [PWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newman, J.F.

    1983-10-01

    EPRI project RP 1171-1 demonstrated that alloy 600 was susceptible to stress corrosion cracking in sulfate environments during constant extension rate testing. The current project has extended that investigation to determine the influence of alloy grain size, sensitization, solution pH and temperature. Stress corrosion in very dilute sulfate solutions and the susceptibility of alloy 690 have also been studied. Data have been obtained chiefly by constant extension rate testing using tensile specimens, and by the constant displacement testing of C-rings.

  5. Search for neutrino oscillations by detecting UNK-1 600-GeV neutrino beams at Gran Sasso (Italy)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasil`ev, P.S.; Kuznetsov, A.E.; Kuznetsov, E.P.

    1995-12-01

    The possibility of formation of neutrino beams from the 600-GeV UNK-1 accelerator toward Gran Sasso (Italy) and of study neutrino oscillations with the ICARUS detector is demonstrated. The proposed experiment is sensitive to {Delta}m{sup 2} values down to 10{sup -3} eV{sup 2} at maximum neutrino mixing and to sin{sup 2}2{theta} values down to 6 x 10{sup -3} at {Delta}m{sup 2} {approximately} 2 x 10{sup -2} eV{sup 2}. 21 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Niche Application Opportunities

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Niche Application Opportunities Bart A. van Hassel United Technologies Research Center (UTRC), East Hartford, Connecticut, USA DOE Materials-Based Hydrogen Storage Summit Defining pathways for onboard automotive applications Golden, CO, USA January 27-28, 2015 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information 1 10 100 1000 10000 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 Useful Specific Power [W/kg] Useful Specific Energy [Wh/kg] Automotive 80

  7. Manhattan Project buildings and facilities at the Hanford Site: A construction history

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerber, M.S.

    1993-09-01

    This document thoroughly examines the role that the Hanford Engineer Works played in the Manhattan project. The historical aspects of the buildings and facilities are characterized. An in depth look at the facilities, including their functions, methods of fabrication and appearance is given for the 100 AREAS, 200 AREAS, 300 AREAS, 500, 800 and 900 AREAS, 600 AREA, 700 AREA, 1100 AREA and temporary construction structures.

  8. Appendix 6 of 6

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6 of 6 Federal Fiscal year 2002 budget related documentation 1. ORP budget requirements 2. President's approved FY2002 budget - Conference Committee Report 3. November 27, 2001 letter from Assistant Secretary Roberson (FY2002 budget allocation) OFFICE OF RIVER PROTECTION FUNDING REQUIREMENTS AS OF FEBRUARY, 2002 Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) Requirements per approved BNI Baseline (Dollars in Millions) 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 Beg. Balance Carryover 0 175 281 60 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

  9. The effects of chemical factors on stress corrosion of Alloy 600 exposed to the cooling medium in pressurized water reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berge, Ph.; Keroulas, F. de; Menet, O.; Rocher, A.; Pitner, P.; Gelpi, A.; Pinard-Legry, G.

    1992-12-31

    The effects of chemical factors in reducing stress corrosion of Alloy 600 in a primary coolant medium were investigated in France as part of a test program undertaken by three laboratories (EDF, FRAMATOME and CEA) on tubes with differing sensitivity to corrosion. Studied parameters were type of Alloy 600 material, temperature, lithium concentration and pH. The effect of each parameter was first estimated separately by qualitative analysis and the parameter groups which best describe the corrosion phenomenon were then defined. The preponderant effect of increasing the temperature (by 40{degrees}C) and the type of material were confirmed, as was that of the boron and lithium concentrations. The risk of cracking increases with lithium content but the phenomenon reverses at high concentrations. The effect of pH variations is mainly reflected in variations in the lithium content. A quantitative study was then carried out to assess the effect of each parameter in terms of risk and time to cracking in a given reference medium. A model of the chemical effects is proposed, based on the mechanism involving dissolution-repassivation of the metal after failure of the passive film during the phase when cracks propagate slowly. This allows a quantitative approach to the effects of hydrogen and the other chemical parameters involved and the results are compared with those of the statistical model.

  10. Mechanisms of hydrogen-induced intergranular stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 in high-temperature water/steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, C.H.

    1989-01-01

    Intergranular stress-corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of Alloy 600 in high-temperature deaerated water or steam has been termed Hydrogen Induced IGSCC. It is suggested here that these cracks are initiated by the nucleation of a high density of bubbles on the grain boundary under the combined action of the applied stress and high-pressure methane formed from carbon in solution reacting with hydrogen injected by corrosion. The bubbles then grow together by grain-boundary diffusion to give local failure. This agrees with the observations made using the electron microscope and two-stage replicas, namely the subsurface formation of closely spaced (0.2 {mu}m) bubbles along boundaries, and the growth of these into fine cracks before they open up to communicate with the corroding atmosphere. The kinetics of this process are examined and shown to be in quantitative agreement with several experimental observations. This mechanism involves no dissolution of the metal, the only role of corrosion being the injection of hydrogen at a high fugacity. It also predicts an activation energy essentially equal to that for grain-boundary diffusion of nickel in the Alloy 600 grain boundary. The activation energy for grain-boundary self-diffusion in nickel is 115 kJ/mol.

  11. Tests with Inconel 600 to obtain quantitative stress-corrosion cracking data for evaluating service performance. [PWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bandy, R.; van Rooyen, D.

    1982-09-01

    Inconel 600 tubes in pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generators form a pressure boundary between radioactive primary water and secondary water which is converted to steam and used for generating electricity. Under operating conditions the performance of alloy 600 has been good, but with some occasional small leaks resulting from stress corrosion cracking (SCC), related to the presence of unusually high residual or operating stresses. The suspected high stresses can result from either the deformation of tubes during manufacture, or distortion during abnormal conditions such as denting. The present experimental program addresses two specific conditions, i.e., (1) where deformation occurs but is no longer active, such as when denting is stopped and (2) where plastic deformation of the metal continues, as would occur during denting. Laboratory media consist of pure water as well as solutions to simulate environments that would apply in service; tubing from actual production is used in carrying out these tests. The environments include both normal and off chemistries for primary and secondary water. The results reported here were obtained in several different tests. The main ones are (1) split tube reverse U-bends, (2) constant extension rate tests (CERT), and (3) constant load. The temperature range covered is 290 to 365/sup 0/C.

  12. Stress corrosion cracking resistance of alloys 600 and 690 and compatible weld metals in BWRs: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Page, R. A.; McMinn, A.

    1988-07-01

    The relative susceptibilities of alloy 600 and 690 base metals and I-82, I-182, R-127 and R-135 weld metals to intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) in either pure water or a simulated resin intrusion environment at 288/degree/C were evaluated. Alloy 600, I-182, and I-82 weld metals were susceptible to various degrees of IGSCC in oxygen containing pure water when creviced, and immune to IGSCC when uncreviced. Alloy 690 was immune to IGSCC under all pure water conditions. Alloy 500, alloy 690, I-182, and I-82 were all susceptible to cracking in the simulated resin intrusion environment, although alloy 690 exhibited the greatest resistance to SCC. The high chromium experimental weld alloy were immune to cracking under all conditions examined. The IGSCC susceptibility of seven different weld metals used to weld alloy 600 and A508 were also evaluated in the resin intrusion environment at 288/degree/C. Weldments made with I-625, I-182, and I-82 (GTAW) were the most susceptible, whereas welds made with I-132 were the least susceptible. Most of the weldments failed at the fusion line between the weld metal and the A508 steel, and the SCC susceptibility increased with increasing hardness measured at the fusion line. There was no effect of crevice condition or heat treatment on SCC susceptibility. The SCC susceptibility of Type 316 NG stainless steel welded with R-127, R-135, I-72 and Type 308L weld metals was evaluated in pure water and resin intrusion environments at 288/degree/C. All of the materials were immune to SCC in the pure water environment. In the resin intrusion environment, both the I-72 and R-135 weld metals were immune to SACC, but the R-127 and Type 308L weld metals exhibited SCC. The Type 316 NG stainless steel was susceptible to transgranular SCC in the resin intrusion environment, except when welded with I-72, in which case it was immune. 36 refs., 4 tabs.

  13. Intergranular stress corrosion cracking initiation and growth in mill-annealed Alloy 600 tubing in high-temperature caustic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brisson, B.W.; Ballinger, R.G.; McIlree, A.R.

    1998-07-01

    Historically, pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generator (SG) reliability has been dominated by degradation of alloy 600 (UNS N06600) tubing material. Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) crack initiation and crack growth rates (CGR) were measured in mill-annealed alloy 600 (UNS N06600) tubing as a function of the stress intensity factor (K) in 10% caustic at 315 C. Tests were conducted using internally pressurized smooth and precracked tubing. Samples were polarized to 150 mV (precracked tube test) or 225 mV (initiation test) with respect to a nickel electrode. Crack initiation and growth from the external tube surface were monitored using a multifrequency alternating current (AC) potential drop system. The AC potential drop system allowed detection of initiation from a smooth surface as well as the monitoring of crack extension in real time. In the case of precracked sample tests, the sample was precracked in fatigue from a sharp v-notch. CGR were obtained over the K range between 4 MPa{radical}m and 18 MPa{radical}m. Values for K were estimated based upon fractographic analysis of samples after testing and an estimate of the K-solution for a thin-walled tube. Average CGR ranged from 2 mm/y to 14 mm/y. CGR determined in this investigation represent the first SCC CGR data obtained in high-temperature caustic using actual steam generator tubing. Growth rates obtained fell within the overall range of the existing database for CGR (da/dt) in alloy 600. The data and analysis suggested a threshold value of K for K-driven crack growth of {approx} 4 MPa{radical}m. However, since the scatter in existing data is very large and the conditions for most of the data are poorly known or not known at all, this was surprising. More importantly, from the standpoint of life prediction, it was observed that da/dt responded to and was a function of K for cracks as small as 0.2 mm in depth, and probably smaller.

  14. Irradiation Creep and Swelling from 400 C to 600 C of the Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Ferritic Alloy MA957

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toloczko, Mychailo B.; Gelles, David S.; Garner, Francis A.; Kurtz, Richard J.; Abe, Katsunori

    2004-04-24

    Recently, there has been a growing interest in the use of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steels for fusion reactor applications. As part of an extensive study performed at PNNL on the ODS steel MA957 [1], irradiation creep tests were performed on pressurized tubes made from MA957 by two different methods. The tubes were made either by gun drilling alone or by a combination of rod drawing and gun drilling. The different fabrication methods were explored because ODS steels have been difficult to form. The pressurized tubes were irradiated in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) to doses ranging from 40 dpa to 110 dpa at temperatures ranging from 400 C to 600 C. The effective stresses resulting from the pressurization of the tubes ranged from 0 MPa to 175 MPa.

  15. Evaluation and Repair of Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking in Alloy 600/182 Control Rod Drive Mechanism Nozzles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frye, Charles R.; Arey, Melvin L. Jr.; Robinson, Michael R.; Whitaker, David E.

    2002-07-01

    In February 2001, a routine visual inspection of the reactor vessel head of Oconee Nuclear Station Unit 3 identified boric acid crystals at nine of sixty-nine locations where control rod drive mechanism housings (CRDM nozzles) penetrate the head. The boric acid deposits resulted from primary coolant leaking from cracks in the nozzle attachment weld and from through-thickness cracks in the nozzle wall. A general overview of the inspection and repair process is presented and results of the metallurgical analysis are discussed in more detail. The analysis confirmed that primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) is the mechanism of failure of both the Alloy 182 weld filler material and the alloy 600 wrought base material. (authors)

  16. Examinations of Oxidation and Sulfidation of Grain Boundaries in Alloy 600 Exposed to Simulated Pressurized Water Reactor Primary Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schreiber, Daniel K.; Olszta, Matthew J.; Saxey, David W.; Kruska, Karen; Moore, K. L.; Lozano-Perez, Sergio; Bruemmer, Stephen M.

    2013-06-01

    High-resolution characterizations of intergranular attack in alloy 600 (Ni-17Cr-9Fe) exposed to 325 C simulated pressurized water reactor (PWR) primary water have been conducted using a combination of scanning electron microscopy, NanoSIMS, analytical transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography. The intergranular attack exhibited a two-stage microstructure that consisted of continuous corrosion/oxidation to a depth of ~200 nm from the surface followed by discrete Cr-rich sulfides to a further depth of ~500 nm. The continuous oxidation region contained primarily nanocrystalline MO-structure oxide particles and ended at Ni-rich, Cr-depleted grain boundaries with spaced CrS precipitates. Three-dimensional characterization of the sulfidized region using site-specific atom probe tomography revealed extraordinary grain boundary composition changes, including total depletion of Cr across a several nm wide dealloyed zone as a result of grain boundary migration.

  17. Radioactive occurrences in veins and igneous and metamorphic rocks of New Mexico with annotated bibliography. [Over 600 citations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McLemore, V. T.

    1982-01-01

    From an extensive literature search and field examination of 96 nonsandstone radioactive occurrences, the author compiled an annotated bibliography of over 600 citations and a list of 327 radioactive occurrences in veins and igneous and metamorphic rocks of New Mexico. The citations are indexed by individual radioactive occurrence, geographic area, county, fluorspar deposits and occurrences, geochemical analyses, and geologic maps. In addition, the geology, mineralization, and uranium and thorium potential of 41 geographic areas in New Mexico containing known radioactive occurrences in veins and igneous and metamorphic rocks or that contain host rocks considered favorable for uranium or thorium mineralization are summarized. A list of aerial-radiometric, magnetic, hydrogeochemical, and stream-sediment survey reports is included.

  18. RangeTables.xlsx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    30 35 40 45 eVcm²/mg) LET vs. Range in Si for 40 MeV SEE Beams 14 N 20 Ne 40 Ar 0 3 6 9 0 400 800 1200 1600 2000 2400 1 H 0 0.1 0.2 40 Ar 78 Kr 0 5 10 15 20 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 LET (Me Range in Silicon (µm) After aramica window and 30 mm of air 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000

  19. New Mexico Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 94,600 94,600 1990's 94,600 94,600 94,600 94,600 94,600 94,600 96,600 96,600 96,600 96,600 2000's 96,600 97,000 89,800 83,800 83,800 83,124 82,652 78,424 80,000 80,000 2010's 84,300 84,3

  20. Mechanisms of intergranular attack and stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 by high-temperature caustic solutions containing impurities: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Rooyen, D.; Bandy, R.

    1987-07-01

    The mechanisms of intergranular attack (IGA) and intergranular stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of Alloy 600 are investigated in high temperature sodium hydroxide environments contaminated with impurities such as carbonate, sulfate, silicate, magnetite, and chromic oxide. Results show that caustic alone can cause both IGA and SCC. The effects of electrochemical potential, stress, time, temperature and the metallurgical state of Alloy 600 on the IGA and SCC are discussed. It appears that both IGA and SCC are manifestations of a general intergranular failure process. In the presence of adverse potential, stress, strain rate and temperature, the slower IGA process is generally replaced by the faster SCC process.

  1. Cultural Resources Review for Closure of the nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill and Solid Waste Landfill in the 600 Area, Hanford Site, Benton County, Washington, HCRC# 2010-600-018R

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gutzeit, Jennifer L.; Kennedy, Ellen P.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Sackschewsky, Michael R.; Sharpe, James J.; DeMaris, Ranae; Venno, M.; Christensen, James R.

    2011-02-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy Richland Operations Office is proposing to close the Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill (NRDWL) and Solid Waste Landfill (SWL) located in the 600 Area of the Hanford Site. The closure of the NRDWL/SWL entails the construction of an evapotranspiration cover over the landfill. This cover would consist of a 3-foot (1-meter) engineered layer of fine-grained soil, modified with 15 percent by weight pea gravel to form an erosion-resistant topsoil that will sustain native vegetation. The area targeted for silt-loam borrow soil sits in Area C, located in the northern central portion of the Fitzner/Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology (ALE) Reserve Unit. The pea gravel used for the mixture will be obtained from both off-site commercial sources and an active gravel pit (Pit #6) located just west of the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. Materials for the cover will be transported along Army Loop Road, which runs from Beloit Avenue (near the Rattlesnake Barricade) east-northeast to the NRDWL/SWL, ending at State Route 4. Upgrades to Army Loop Road are necessary to facilitate safe bidirectional hauling traffic. This report documents a cultural resources review of the proposed activity, conducted according to Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966.

  2. Qualification of the Lasentec M600P Particle Size Analyzer and the Red Valve Model 1151 Pressure Sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JR Bontha; NG Colton; EA Daymo; TD Hylton; CK Bayne; TH May

    2000-01-28

    The Lasentec M600 in-line particle size analyzer was installed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in August 1998 to support retrieval of the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT). Before installation at ORNL, the sensor underwent validation testing at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Instrument Validation facility. Mechanically, the instrument worked well during validation testing and met all expectations. Operationally, much was learned about optimum ways to display and interpret the data. Slurry samples taken during the in-line tests at PNNL were shipped to the vendor for analysis with a benchtop Lasentec sensor. These experiments were performed to determine if off-line analyses yield particle size distributions similar to those generated by the in-line sensor. It was determined that the Lasentec sensor measures repeatable chord lengths as long as particles are ''presenter'' to the sensor window the same way. After the initial non-radioactive simulant testing at PNNL, the instrument was shipped for radioactive validation and acceptance testing in the Slurry Monitoring Test System (SMTS) connected to the Tank W-9 of the GAATs at ORNL. For all acceptance tests conducted at ORNL, the variation in the chord length distribution and the total particle count corresponded very well with the slurry density data as determined using an in-line Promass 63M Coriolis meter. Based on the performance results obtained, the Lasentec M600P FBRM is expected to meet the requirements for measuring the particle size distribution during the slurry transfer operations at Hanford and the Oak Ridge GAAT remediation project. The Red Valve pressure sensor was endorsed at the Hanford Site following instrument validation tests at PNNL and is currently in operation in the Tank 241-C-106 pump pit. While this instrument measures pressure within a transfer line, this type of pressure sensor could be configured to measure pressure drop over time. In turn, the status of a slurry

  3. Analysis of gamma-ray spectra from foils activated in a range-thick lead target by 800-MeV protons. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laird, C.E.; Mullins, D.H.

    1995-06-12

    Approximately 400 gamma-ray spectra have been analyzed to obtain the types and quantities of radioisotopes produced when 800-MeV protons interact with a range-thick lead target. These spectra were obtained from the radioactive decay of product isotopes in lead disks placed at various depths and radial positions within the target. These spectra were analyzed with the computer code HYPERMET and the photopeak areas were reduced to nuclei produced per incident proton per cubic centimeter of material. Product nuclei ranged from atomic mass 160 to mass 206 and over a range of half lives from a few minutes to several weeks. The results of this analysis have been outlined in this report and transmitted on computer disk to Los Alamos National Laboratory. The consistency of these analyses have been confirmed by a comparison of photopeak areas obtained at LANL with the computer code GAMANAL with those from HYPERMET for two gamma-ray spectra. Also, the nuclear production per proton per cm{sub 3} obtained from these two spectra analyzed both at LANL and at EKU have been found to agree to within the statistical accuracy of the peak-fitting programs. This analysis of these 400 gamma-ray spectra has determined the nuclear production per incident proton per cm{sub 3} at five regularly-spaced radial positions and depths up to 40 cm into a range-thick lead target.

  4. Electrochemical and metallurgical aspects of stress corrosion cracking of sensitized Alloy 600 in simulated primary water containing sulfur contamination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bandy, R.; Kelly, K.

    1985-01-01

    The stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of sensitized Alloy 600 was investigated in aerated solutions of sodium thiosulfate containing 1.3% boric acid. Results indicate that in the borated thiosulfate solution containing 7 ppM sulfur, 5 ppM lithium as lithium hydroxide is sufficient to inhibit SCC in U-bends. The occurrence of inhibition seems to correlate to the rapid increase of pH and conductivity of the solution as a result of the lithium hydroxide addition. In the slow strain rate tests in the borated solution containing 0.7 ppM lithium as lithium hydroxide, significant SCC is observed at a sulfur level of 30 ppB, i.e., a lithium to sulfur ratio of 23. In a parallel test in 30 ppB sulfur level but without any lithium hydroxide, the SCC is more severe than that in the lithiated environment. In the constant load test on a specimen held initially at a nominal stress near the yield strength of the material, cracks continue to grow until fracture during controlled, progressive dilution of the bulk solution, leading to final lithium concentration of 1.5 ppM and sulfur concentration (as thiosulfate) of 9.6 ppB i.e., a lithium to sulfur ratio of about 156, although lithium hydroxide retards the rate of crack propagation to some extent. The crack growth rate is strongly influenced by the electrochemical potential which is primarily governed by the local crack tip chemistry.

  5. Analysis of the cracking behavior of Alloy 600 RVH penetrations. Part 1: Stress analysis and K computation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhandari, S.; Vagner, J.; Garriga-Majo, D.; Amzallag, C.; Faidy, C.

    1996-12-01

    The study presented here concerns the analysis of crack propagation behavior in the Alloy 600 RVH penetrations used in the French 900 and 1300 MWe PWR series. The damage mechanism identified is clearly the SCC in primary water environment. Consequently the analysis presented here is based on: (1) the stress analysis carried out on the RVH penetrations, (2) the SCC model developed in primary water environment and at the operating temperatures, and (3) the fracture mechanics concepts. The different steps involved in the study are: (1) Evaluation of the stress state for the case of the peripheral configuration of RVH penetrations; the case retained here is that of a conic tube with stress analysis conducted using multi-pass welding. (2) Computation of the influence functions (IF) for a polynomial stress distribution in case of a tube of Ri/t ratio (internal diameter/thickness) corresponding to that of an RVH penetration. (3) Establishment of a propagation law based on study and review of data available in the literature. (4) Conduction of a parametric study of crack propagation using several initial defects. (5) Analysis of crack propagation of defects observed in various reactors and comparison with measured propagation rates. This paper (Part 1) deals with the first two steps namely Stress Analysis and K Computation.

  6. Intergranular attack and stress corrosion cracking propagation behavior of alloy 600 in high-temperature caustic solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kawamura, H.; Hirano, H. . Komae Research Lab.)

    1999-06-01

    The effect of stress intensity factors (K) at the intergranular attack and stress corrosion crack (IGA/SCC) tips on the IGA/SCC propagation behavior of steam generator (SG) tubing was studied under accelerated test conditions. Values of K at the IGA/SCC crack tips were calculated using the statically indeterminate model. Based upon analysis of those factors, the double-cantilever beam (DCB) and SG model boiler tests were carried out to evaluate the effect of stress intensity on IGA/SCC crack propagation. K at the crack tips increased with increasing crack length. For a long crack, K decreased with an increasing number of cracks. However, for a short crack, K decreased slightly with an increasing number of cracks. DCB test results showed the IGA/SCC crack velocity of alloy 600 (UNS N06600) increased gradually with increasing K in the range from 15 MPa[radical]m to [approximately]60 MPa[radical]m. This is the range relevant to IGA/SCC crack tips of typical SG tubes under operating conditions of Pressurized-water reactors. Metallographic examination of tubes removed from the SG model boiler, fouled with 10 ppm sodium hydroxide (NaOH), showed IGA/SCC propagation rates were almost constant in the tested range of K.

  7. Residual stress analysis of alloy 600 U-bends, reverse U-bends, and C-rings: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, C.O.

    1994-11-01

    Over the last several years, one of the leading causes of alloy 600 steam generator tubing leaks has been the primary-side-initiated, intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) in heavily cold-worked regions of the U-bends or tubesheet expansion transitions. Field and laboratory experiences have demonstrated that high residual stresses contribute significantly to the initiation of primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC). EPRI initiated this project to measure and quantify the magnitude of these residual stresses in steam generator tubes as well as in various laboratory tests specimens. the objectives were: To measure the residual stresses in steam generator tube U-bends; To measure residual stresses in reverse U-bend (RUB) specimens as well as residual stresses and X-ray diffraction peak broadening in C-ring specimens used in laboratory tests; and To determine whether residual stress occurs as a result of exposure to steam generator operating temperature. Using an advanced X-ray instrument, investigators measured residual stresses on both the outside diameter (OD) and inside diameter (ID) surfaces and subsurfaces of steam generator U-bends and on the test surfaces of laboratory RUB and C-ring specimens. They measured these residual stresses in the hoop and axial directions and also calculated equivalent stresses. Results are discussed. 25 refs., 92 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Low temperature (550-700 K) oxidation pathways of cyclic ketones: Dominance of HO2-elimination channels yielding conjugated cyclic coproducts

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Scheer, Adam M.; Welz, Oliver; Vasu, Subith S.; Osborn, David L.; Taatjes, Craig A.

    2015-04-13

    The low-temperature oxidation of three cyclic ketones, cyclopentanone (CPO; C5H8O), cyclohexanone (CHO; C6H10 O), and 2-methyl-cyclopentanone (2-Me-CPO; CH3–C5H7 O), is studied between 550 and 700 K and at 4 or 8 Torr total pressure. Initial fuel radicals R are formedvia fast H-abstraction from the ketones by laser-photolytically generated chlorine atoms. Intermediates and products from the subsequent reactions of these radicals in the presence of excess O2 are probed with time and isomeric resolution using multiplexed photoionization mass spectrometry with tunable synchrotron ionizing radiation. For CPO and CHO the dominant product channel in the R + O2 reactions is chain-terminating HO2-eliminationmore » yielding the conjugated cyclic coproducts 2-cyclopentenone and 2-cyclohexenone, respectively. Results on oxidation of 2-Me-CPO also show a dominant contribution from HO2-elimination. Moreover, the photoionization spectrum of the co-product suggests formation of 2-methyl-2-cyclopentenone and/or 2-cyclohexenone, resulting from a rapid Dowd–Beckwith rearrangement, preceding addition to O2, of the initial (2-oxocyclopentyl)methyl radical to 3-oxocyclohexyl. Cyclic ethers, markers for hydroperoxyalkyl radicals (QOOH), key intermediates in chain-propagating and chain-branching low-temperature combustion pathways, are only minor products. The interpretation of the experimental results is supported by stationary point calculations on the potential energy surfaces of the associated R + O2 reactions at the CBS-QB3 level. Furthermore, the calculations indicate that HO2-elimination channels are energetically favored and product formation via QOOH is disfavored. Lastly, the prominence of chain-terminating pathways linked with HO2 formation in low-temperature oxidation of cyclic ketones suggests little low-temperature reactivity of these species as fuels in internal combustion engines.« less

  9. Fracture toughness, tensile and stress corrosion cracking properties of Alloy 600, Alloy 690 and their welds in water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, C.M.; Mills, W.J.

    1996-10-01

    The fracture toughness and tensile properties of Alloy 600, Alloy 690 and their welds, EN82H and EN52, were characterized in 54 and 338 C water with an elevated hydrogen content. Results were compared with air data to evaluate the effect of low and high temperature water on mechanical properties. In addition, the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of EN82H and EN52 welds was evaluated in 360 C water with high hydrogen. Elastic-plastic J{sub c} fracture toughness testing revealed that the fracture resistance of all test materials was exceptionally high in 54 and 338 C air and 338 C water, demonstrating that fracture properties were essentially unaffected by the high temperature water environment. In 54 C water, however, J{sub c} values for EN82H and EN52 welds were reduced by an order of magnitude, and Alloy 690 showed a five-fold decrease in J{sub c}. Tensile properties for all test materials were essentially unaffected by the water environment, except for the total elongation for EN82H welds which was significantly reduced in 54 C water. At a strain rate of 5 x 10{sup 6} sec{sup {minus}1} in low temperature water, there appears to be sufficient time for environmental interactions to restrict ductility in EN82H welds. Constant-load testing of precracked weld specimens in 360 C water resulted in extensive intergranular SCC in EN82H welds loaded to K{sub I} levels between 35 and 55 MPa {radical}m, whereas no SCC occurred in EN52 welds under comparable test conditions.

  10. Inhibitory effect of boric acid on intergranular attack and stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 in high temperature water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kawamura, H.; Hirano, H.; Koike, M.; Suda, M.

    1995-09-01

    The inhibitory effect of boric acid on the Intergranular Attack and Stress Corrosion Cracking (IGA/SCC) propagation behavior of steam generator (SG) tubing was studied under accelerated test conditions. Based on the analysis results of stress intensity factors at IGA/SCC crack tips, the notched C-ring tests were carried out to evaluate the effect of stress intensity and boric acid on the IGA/SCC crack propagation. The A.C. impedance measurement and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) were also conducted to clarify the inhibitory effect of boric acid. Notched C-ring test results indicated that IGA/SCC crack velocity of alloy 600 increased gradually with increasing stress intensity factor in the range 4 to about 26 MPa{center_dot}m{sup 1/2}, which might be loaded on the IGA/SCC crack tips of actual SG tubes under PWR secondary conditions. Adding boric acid slightly retarded the crack velocity in both all volatile treatment (AVT) water and caustic solutions. IGA/SCC crack velocities were lower in nearly neutral solutions than in alkali or acidic solutions. Furthermore, A.C. impedance studies showed that the polarization resistances of oxide films formed in boric acid solutions were higher than those of films formed in acidic and alkali solutions. AES analysis revealed that boron content in the oxide films formed in acidic solution containing boric acid was lowest. Good agreement was obtained between the IGA/SCC inhibitory effect of boric acid and the formation of the stable oxide films containing boron.

  11. High-Resolution Characterization of Intergranular Attack and Stress Corrosion Cracking of Alloy 600 in High-Temperature Primary Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, Larry E.; Bruemmer, Stephen M.

    2000-06-01

    Intergranular (IG) attack regions and stress-corrosion cracks in alloy 600 U-bend samples tested in 330C, pressurized-water-reactor water have been characterized by analytical transmission electron microscopy (ATEM). Observations of cross-sectional samples revealed short oxidized zones preceding crack tips and narrow (10-nm wide), deeply penetrated, oxidized zones along grain boundaries exposed along open cracks. High-resolution TEM imaging and fine-probe analysis were used to determine the local chemistries and structures in these corrosion-affected zones. Matrix areas surrounding the crack tips appeared highly strained, whereas the IG penetrations generally did not. The predominant oxide structure found along crack walls and just ahead of crack tips was NiO with metal-atom ratios similar to the alloy. The attacked grain boundaries off open cracks contained similar fine-grained NiO-structure oxide together with local areas of Cr-rich oxide and Ni-rich metal. In contrast, Cr-rich oxide identified as Cr2O3 predominated at the leading edges of the IG attack. Stereoscopic imaging of these tip structures revealed nm-scale porosity and tunnels within the oxide and pores along the grain-boundary plane ahead of the oxide. The general interpretation of these results is that IG attack and cracking follows local dissolution or oxidation and the formation of pores at grain boundaries. This degradation occurs at the nanometer scale and therefore requires high-resolution ATEM methods to reveal detailed characteristics. Experimental support for several possible IG degradation mechanisms is considered.

  12. Spectra of atomic sulfur {sup 1}D in transitions to autoionizing Rydberg states in the region of 75 800-89 500 cm{sup -1}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, W.-C.; Chen, I-C.; Huang, T.-P.; Yuh, J.-Y.; Lee, Y.-Y.

    2008-10-07

    We recorded photoionization spectra of sulfur atoms in transitions from state {sup 1}D in the range of 75 800-89 500 cm{sup -1}. Dissociation of CS{sub 2} after photolysis at 193 nm produced these sulfur atoms in a singlet excited state; they were then ionized with synchrotron radiation (NSRRC, beamline U9CGM) at resolution of up to 3 cm{sup -1} and detected with a quadruple mass filter. Rydberg series 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 3}({sup 2}D{sub 3/2}{sup 0})nd[3/2] and 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 3}({sup 2}D{sub 5/2}{sup 0})ns[5/2] with n extending to 16 and 32, respectively, to limit {sup 2}D{sup 0} are assigned. New Rydberg series 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 3}({sup 2}D{sub 3/2}{sup 0})nd[1/2]{sub 1}, ({sup 2}D{sub 5/2}{sup 0})nd[5/2], and ({sup 2}D{sub 3/2}{sup 0})nd[5/2] with n from 5-9 for the former two series and 7-13 for the latter are assigned. A new Rydberg line at 85 335 cm{sup -1} is assigned to 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 3}({sup 2}D{sub 3/2}{sup 0})6d {sup 1}P.

  13. Low temperature (550-700 K) oxidation pathways of cyclic ketones: Dominance of HO2-elimination channels yielding conjugated cyclic coproducts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheer, Adam M.; Welz, Oliver; Vasu, Subith S.; Osborn, David L.; Taatjes, Craig A.

    2015-04-13

    The low-temperature oxidation of three cyclic ketones, cyclopentanone (CPO; C5H8O), cyclohexanone (CHO; C6H10 O), and 2-methyl-cyclopentanone (2-Me-CPO; CH3–C5H7 O), is studied between 550 and 700 K and at 4 or 8 Torr total pressure. Initial fuel radicals R are formedvia fast H-abstraction from the ketones by laser-photolytically generated chlorine atoms. Intermediates and products from the subsequent reactions of these radicals in the presence of excess O2 are probed with time and isomeric resolution using multiplexed photoionization mass spectrometry with tunable synchrotron ionizing radiation. For CPO and CHO the dominant product channel in the R + O2 reactions is chain-terminating HO2-elimination yielding the conjugated cyclic coproducts 2-cyclopentenone and 2-cyclohexenone, respectively. Results on oxidation of 2-Me-CPO also show a dominant contribution from HO2-elimination. Moreover, the photoionization spectrum of the co-product suggests formation of 2-methyl-2-cyclopentenone and/or 2-cyclohexenone, resulting from a rapid Dowd–Beckwith rearrangement, preceding addition to O2, of the initial (2-oxocyclopentyl)methyl radical to 3-oxocyclohexyl. Cyclic ethers, markers for hydroperoxyalkyl radicals (QOOH), key intermediates in chain-propagating and chain-branching low-temperature combustion pathways, are only minor products. The interpretation of the experimental results is supported by stationary point calculations on the potential energy surfaces of the associated R + O2 reactions at the CBS-QB3 level. Furthermore, the calculations indicate that HO2-elimination channels are energetically favored and product formation via QOOH is disfavored. Lastly, the prominence of chain-terminating pathways linked with HO2 formation in low-temperature oxidation of cyclic ketones suggests little low

  14. Stress-corrosion cracking of Alloys 600 and 690 and weld metals No. 82 and No. 182 in high-temperature water. Interim report. [BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Page, R.A.

    1982-09-01

    The relative susceptibilities of Alloys 600 and 690 base metals and I-82 and 182 weld metals to intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) in pure water at 288/sup 0/C were evaluated. A combination of creviced and non-creviced slow-strain-rate, smooth sustained-load, and precracked fracture mechanics tests were employed in the evaluation. Susceptibility was determined as a function of dissolved oxygen content, degree of sensitization, and crevice condition. The results indicated that Alloy 600, and I-182 and I-82 weld metals were susceptible to various degrees of IGSCC in oxygen containing pure water when creviced, and immune to IGSCC when uncreviced. Alloy 690 was immune to IGSCC under all conditions examined. No correlation was found between the location of IGSCC and the location of maximum grain boundary corrosion in a boiling 25% nitric acid test.

  15. Midtemperature solar systems test facility predictions for thermal performance based on test data: solar kinetics T-600 solar collector with FEK 244 reflector surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, T.D.

    1981-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque (SNLA), is currently conducting a program to predict the performance and measure the characteristics of commercially available solar collectors that have the potential for use in industrial process heat and enhanced oil recovery applications. The thermal performance predictions for the Solar Kinetics T-600 solar line-focusing parabolic trough collector are presented for three output temperatures at five cities in the US. (WHK)

  16. SPES-2, AP600 intergral system test S01007 2 inch CL to core make-up tank pressure balance line break

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bacchiani, M.; Medich, C.; Rigamonti, M.

    1995-09-01

    The SPES-2 is a full height, full pressure experimental test facility reproducing the Westinghouse AP600 reactor with a scaling factor of 1/395. The experimental plant, designed and operated by SIET in Piacenza, consists of a full simulation of the AP600 primary core cooling system including all the passive and active safety systems. In 1992, Westinghouse, in cooperation with ENEL (Ente Nazionale per l` Energia Elettrica), ENEA (Enter per le numove Technlogie, l` Energia e l` Ambient), Siet (Societa Informazioni Esperienze Termoidraulich) and ANSALDO developed an experimental program to test the integrated behaviour of the AP600 passive safety systems. The SPES-2 test matrix, concluded in November 1994, has examined the AP600 passive safety system response for a range of small break LOCAs at different locations on the primary system and on the passive system lines; single steam generator tube ruptures with passive and active safety systems and a main steam line break transient to demonstrate the boration capability of passive safety systems for rapid cooldown. Each of the tests has provided detailed experimental results for verification of the capability of the analysis methods to predict the integrated passive safety system behaviour. Cold and hot shakedown tests have been performed on the facility to check the characteristics of the plant before starting the experimental campaign. The paper first presents a description of the SPES-2 test facility then the main results of S01007 test {open_quotes}2{close_quotes} Cold Leg (CL) to Core Make-up Tank (CMT) pressure balance line break{close_quotes} are reported and compared with predictions performed using RELAP5/mod3/80 obtained by ANSALDO through agreement with U.S.N.R.C. (U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission). The SPES-2 nodalization and all the calculations here presented were performed by ANSALDO and sponsored by ENEL as a part of pre-test predictions for SPES-2.

  17. Influence of stress intensity and loading mode on intergranular stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 in primary waters of pressurized water reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rebak, R.B.; Szklarska-Smialowska, Z. . Fontana Corrosion Center)

    1994-05-01

    The steam generator in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) of a nuclear power plant consists mainly of a shell made of carbon (C) steel and tubes made of alloy 600 (UNS N06600). However, alloy 600 suffers environmentally induced cracking with exposure to high-temperature primary water. The susceptibility of alloy 600 to integranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) was investigated as a function of the level of applied stresses and mode of loading. Constant load tests were conducted with specimens prepared from thin wall tubes, and constant deformation tests were conducted using specimens prepared from plates. With tubes exposed to primary water at 330 C, the crack propagation rate (CPR) was found to increase from 1 [times] 10[sup [minus]11] m/s at a stress intensity (K[sub i]) of 10 MPa[radical]m to 1 [times] 10[sup [minus]9] at K[sub i] = 60 MPa[radical]m. CPR obtained using compact specimens prepared from plates were 1 order of magnitude lower than values measured in tubes at the same temperature and in the same solution at each stress intensity. The corollary was that values of crack propagation and threshold stress intensities obtained using compact specimens could not be extrapolated to the behavior of thin wall tubes.

  18. The role of Hydrogen and Creep in Intergranular Stress Corrosion Cracking of Alloy 600 and Alloy 690 in PWR Primary Water Environments ? a Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rebak, R B; Hua, F H

    2004-07-12

    Intergranular attack (IGA) and intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of Alloy 600 in PWR steam generator environment has been extensively studied for over 30 years without rendering a clear understanding of the essential mechanisms. The lack of understanding of the IGSCC mechanism is due to a complex interaction of numerous variables such as microstructure, thermomechanical processing, strain rate, water chemistry and electrochemical potential. Hydrogen plays an important role in all these variables. The complexity, however, significantly hinders a clearer and more fundamental understanding of the mechanism of hydrogen in enhancing intergranular cracking via whatever mechanism. In this work, an attempt is made to review the role of hydrogen based on the current understanding of grain boundary structure and chemistry and intergranular fracture of nickel alloys, effect of hydrogen on electrochemical behavior of Alloy 600 and Alloy 690 (e.g. the passive film stability, polarization behavior and open-circuit potential) and effect of hydrogen on PWSCC behavior of Alloy 600 and Alloy 690. Mechanistic studies on the PWSCC are briefly reviewed. It is concluded that further studies on the role of hydrogen on intergranular cracking in both inert and primary side environments are needed. These studies should focus on the correlation of the results obtained at different laboratories by different methods on materials with different metallurgical and chemical parameters.

  19. Microsoft Word - Document2

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    min, average, and max average CO 2 emissions by month for AZNM subregion (lbs CO 2 MWh load) 800 1,100 1,400 1,700 January 800 1,100 1,400 1,700 February 800 1,100 1,400 1,700...

  20. Role of carbides in stress corrosion cracking resistance of alloy 600 and controlled-purity Ni-16% Cr-9% Fe in primary water at 360 C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Was, G.S.; Lian, K.

    1998-09-01

    Intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of two commercial alloy 600 (UNS N06600) conditions (heat-treated at low temperature [600LT] and at high temperature [600HT]) and two controlled-purity Ni-16% Cr-9% Fe alloys (carbon-doped mill-annealed [CDMA] and carbon-doped thermally treated [CTRR]) were investigated using constant extension rate tensile (CERT) tests in primary water (0.001 M lithium hydroxide [LiOH] + 0.01 M boric acid [H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}]) with 1 bar (100 kPa) hydrogen overpressure at 360 C and 320 C. Heat treatments produced two types of microstructures in the commercial and controlled-purity alloys: one dominated by grain-boundary carbides (600HT and CDTT) and one dominated by intragranular carbides (600LT and CDMA). CERT tests were conducted over a range of strain rates and at two temperatures with interruptions at specific strains to determine the crack depth distributions. Results showed IGSCC was the dominant failure mode in all samples. For the commercial alloy and controlled-purity alloys, the microstructure with grain-boundary carbides showed delayed crack initiation and shallower crack depths than did the intragranular carbide microstructure under all experimental conditions. Data indicated a grain-boundary carbide microstructure is more resistant to IGSCC than an intragranular carbide microstructure. Observations supported the film rupture/slip dissolution mechanism and enhanced localized plasticity. The advantage of these results over previous studies was that the different carbide distributions were obtained in the same commercial alloy using different heat treatments and, in the other case, in nearly identical controlled-purity alloys. Observations of the effects of carbide distribution on IGSCC could be attributed more confidently to the carbide distribution alone rather than other potentially significant differences in microstructure or composition. Crack growth rates (CGR) increased with increasing strain rate according to a power

  1. Expansion of Michigan EOR Operations Using Advanced Amine Technology at a 600 MW Project Wolverine Carbon Capture and Storage Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H Hoffman; Y kishinevsky; S. Wu; R. Pardini; E. Tripp; D. Barnes

    2010-06-16

    Wolverine Power Supply Cooperative Inc, a member owned cooperative utility based in Cadillac Michigan, proposes to demonstrate the capture, beneficial utilization and storage of CO{sub 2} in the expansion of existing Enhanced Oil Recovery operations. This project is being proposed in response to the US Department of Energy Solicitation DE-FOA-0000015 Section III D, 'Large Scale Industrial CCS projects from Industrial Sources' Technology Area 1. The project will remove 1,000 metric tons per day of CO{sub 2} from the Wolverine Clean Energy Venture 600 MW CFB power plant owned and operated by WPC. CO{sub 2} from the flue gas will be captured using Hitachi's CO{sub 2} capture system and advanced amine technology. The capture system with the advanced amine-based solvent supplied by Hitachi is expected to significantly reduce the cost and energy requirements of CO{sub 2} capture compared to current technologies. The captured CO{sub 2} will be compressed and transported for Enhanced Oil Recovery and CO{sub 2} storage purposes. Enhanced Oil Recovery is a proven concept, widely used to recover otherwise inaccessible petroleum reserves. While post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture technologies have been tested at the pilot scale on coal power plant flue gas, they have not yet been demonstrated at a commercial scale and integrated with EOR and storage operations. Amine-based CO{sub 2} capture is the leading technology expected to be available commercially within this decade to enable CCS for utility and industrial facilities firing coal and waste fuels such as petroleum coke. However, traditional CO{sub 2} capture process utilizing commercial amine solvents is very energy intensive for regeneration and is also susceptible to solvent degradation by oxygen as well as SOx and NO{sub 2} in the flue gas, resulting in large operating costs. The large volume of combustion flue gas with its low CO{sub 2} concentration requires large equipment sizes, which together with the highly

  2. Comparison of the National Green Building Standard (ICC 700-2008) and LEED for Homes to the Residential Provisions of the 2009 IECC for the Delaware Green for Green Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Britt, Michelle L.; Makela, Eric J.

    2011-01-30

    Adhering to Delaware’s Green for Green program specifications results in homes being built to more energy-efficient levels than the 2009 IECC levels. Specifically: • Certifying at the Silver Performance Level for the ICC 700 standard using either the Prescriptive or Performance Paths will result in a residential building that is more efficient than if the building only complied with the 2009 IECC. • Certifying at the Silver level under LEED for Homes standard, including mandatory compliance with ENERGY STAR 2006 and earning two additional energy points will result in a residential building that is more efficient than if the building only complied with the 2009 IECC.

  3. Analytical TEM Comparisons of Stress-Corrosion-Crack Microstructure in Alloy 600 under Steam-Generator Service and Laboratory Test Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, Larry E.; Bruemmer, Stephen M.; Scott, Peter M.

    2002-05-31

    High-resolution analytical transmission electron microscopy (ATEM) been used to characterize stress-corrosion cracks in Alloy 600 steam-generator tubing from tests with caustic and acid-sulfate solutions. The aim of this work was to identify the microstructural and microchemical signatures of intergranular attack and cracking produced under well-controlled test conditions in order to determine the local environments promoting degradation in service. The examinations are part of an experimental program devoted to a study of IGA/IGSCC in steam generator tube alloys supported by the Framatome Owners Group via its Steam Generator Technical Committee.

  4. Un~ted States Env~ronmental Monltor~ng EPA.600 '4-88, 021 Envtronmental Protect~on Systems Laboratory DOE/OP/00539/060

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Env~ronmental Monltor~ng EPA.600 '4-88, 021 Envtronmental Protect~on Systems Laboratory DOE/OP/00539/060 Agency P 0. Box 93478 June 1988 Las Vegas NV 89193-5478 Research and Development Off-Site Environmental Monitoring Report Radiation Monitoring Around United States 1 ' 7 L 8 f Nuclear Test Areas This page intentionally left blank EPA-60014-88-021 DOE/DPI0053?-060 May 1988 OFF-SITE ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING REPORT R a d i a t i o n M o n i t o r i n g Around U n i t e d States Nuclear Test

  5. Field Testing of LIDAR-Assisted Feedforward Control Algorithms for Improved Speed Control and Fatigue Load Reduction on a 600-kW Wind Turbine: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Avishek A.; Bossanyi, Ervin A.; Scholbrock, Andrew K.; Fleming, Paul; Boquet, Mathieu; Krishnamurthy, Raghu

    2015-12-14

    A severe challenge in controlling wind turbines is ensuring controller performance in the presence of a stochastic and unknown wind field, relying on the response of the turbine to generate control actions. Recent technologies such as LIDAR, allow sensing of the wind field before it reaches the rotor. In this work a field-testing campaign to test LIDAR Assisted Control (LAC) has been undertaken on a 600-kW turbine using a fixed, five-beam LIDAR system. The campaign compared the performance of a baseline controller to four LACs with progressively lower levels of feedback using 35 hours of collected data.

  6. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 600-243 Petroleum-Contaminated Soil Bioremediation Pad, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2007-033

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. M. Capron

    2008-11-07

    The 600-243 waste site consisted of a bioremediation pad for petroleum-contaminated soils resulting from the 1100 Area Underground Storage Tank (UST) upgrades in 1994. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  7. f{sub 0}(600) and f{sub 0}(980) pole positions from a dispersive {pi}{pi} scattering data analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruiz e Elvira, J.; Martin, R. Garcia; Pelaez, J. R.; Kaminski, R.

    2011-05-23

    We show how the new precise data on kaon decays together with forward dispersion relations, sum rules and once- and twice-subtracted Roy equations allow for a precise analysis of {pi}{pi} scattering. The once subtracted Roy equations provide a more stringent consistency check for the parametrizations of the S0-wave data in the region from 450 to 1100 MeV that allows us to present a preliminary determination of the f{sub 0}(600) and f{sub 0}(980) poles from the constrained dispersive data analysis.

  8. RangeTables.xls

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (MeVcm²/mg) LET vs. Range in Si for 25 MeV SEE Beams (low LET) 4 He 14 N 0 0.5 1 1.5 0 600 1200 1800 2400 3000 3600 4 He 14 N 22 Ne 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 LET (MeVcm²/mg) Range in Silicon (µm) LET vs. Range in Si for 25 MeV SEE Beams (low LET) After aramica window and 30 mm of air 4 He 14 N 0 0.5 1 1.5 0 600 1200 1800 2400 3000 3600 Range in Silicon (µm) 129 Xe 30 40 50 60 (MeVcm²/mg) LET vs. Range in Si for 25 MeV SEE Beams After aramica

  9. {ital p}{sub {ital t}} and {ital x}{sub {ital F}} dependence of the polarization of {Sigma}{sup +} hyperons produced by 800 GeV/{ital c} protons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morelos, A.; Albuquerque, I.F.; Bondar, N.F.; Carrigan, R. Jr.; Chen, D.; Cooper, P.S.; Lisheng, D.; Denisov, A.S.; Dobrovolsky, A.V.; Dubbs, T.; Endler, A.M.F.; Escobar, C.O.; Foucher, M.; Golovtsov, V.L.; Gottschalk, H.; Gouffon, P.; Grachev, V.T.; Khanzadeev, A.V.; Kubantsev, M.A.; Kuropatkin, N.P.; Lach, J.; Lang Pengfei; Lebedenko, V.N.; Li Chengze; Li Yunshan; Luksys, M.; Mahon, J.R.P.; McCliment, E.; Newsom, C.; Pommot Maia, M.C.; Samsonov, V.M.; Schegelsky, V.A.; Shi Huanzhang; Smith, V.J.; Fukun, T.; Terentyev, N.K.; Timm, S.; Tkatch, I.I.; Uvarov, L.N.; Vorobyov, A.A.; Yan Jie; Wenheng, Z.; Zheng Shuchen; Zhong Yuanyuan

    1995-10-01

    We utilize the angle and momentum resolution of our apparatus to study the polarization of 375 GeV/{ital c} {Sigma}{sup +} hyperons produced by 800 GeV/{ital c} protons incident on a Cu target. By examining in detail two of our high statistics data samples, we find evidence for structure in the {ital p}{sub {ital t}} dependence of {Sigma}{sup +} polarization and are able to extract the {ital x}{sub {ital F}} dependence of the {Sigma}{sup +} polarization and compare it with {ital x}{sub {ital F}} behavior in the {Lambda}{sup 0} and {Xi}{sup {minus}} systems.

  10. Evidence of incomplete annealing at 800 °C and the effects of 120 °C baking on the crystal orientation and the surface superconducting properties of cold-worked and chemically polished Nb

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sung, Z. -H.; Dzyuba, A.; Lee, P. J.; Larbalestier, D C; Cooley, L. D.

    2015-07-01

    High-purity niobium rods were cold-worked by wire-drawing, followed by various combinations of chemical polishing and high-vacuum baking at 120 °C or annealing at 800 °C in order to better understand changes to the surface superconducting properties resulting from typical superconducting radio-frequency cavity processing. AC susceptibility measurements revealed an enhanced upper transition Tc at ~ 9.3–9.4 K in all samples that was stable through all annealing steps, a value significantly above the accepted Tc of 9.23 K for pure annealed niobium. Corresponding elevations were seen in the critical fields, the ratio of the surface critical field Hc3 to the bulk uppermore » critical field Hc2 rising to 2.3, well above the Ginzburg–Landau value of 1.695. Orientation imaging revealed an extensive dislocation rich sub-grain structure in the as-drawn rods, a small reduction of the surface strain after baking at 120 °C, and a substantial but incomplete recrystallization near the surface after annealing at 800 °C. We interpret these changes in surface superconducting and structural properties to extensive changes in the near-surface interstitial contamination produced by baking and annealing and to synergistic interactions between H and surface O introduced during electropolishing and buffered chemical polishing.« less