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Sample records for 8-89 efg 07-90

  1. Echo 8-9 Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    8-9 Wind Farm Jump to: navigation, search Name Echo 8-9 Wind Farm Facility Echo 8-9 Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Owner John...

  2. ERSUG Meeting: January 8-9, 1996 (Berkeley, CA)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ERSUG Meeting: January 8-9, 1996 (Berkeley, CA) Dates January 8-9, 1996 Location Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 1 Cyclotron Road Berkeley, CA 94720 Attendee List Minutes ERSUG Meeting Minutes - January 8,9, 1996 Lawrence Berkeley LaboratoryJanuary 8-9, 1996Kirby Fong (NERSC, LLNL), Dave Stevens (LBL), Ricky A. Kendall (PNNL,ExERSUG Vice-Chair) Opening Remarks From the Berkeley Laboratory This ERSUG meeting, originally planned for Princeton, New Jersey, was rescheduled at the Lawrence

  3. EFG IO?-90)

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    .?GE = 1325 d +3-891 EFG IO?-90) ' United States Government *memorandum DATE: FEB 6 1991 . . I ;' 1 , q' *_* Departrnkt of Energy --. -* r- i .,. 1 .' ;I "--' I ,_ % I : [ -- ,: -.. ! j i 1: \ REPLY TO ATTN OF: EM-421 SUBJECT: Authority Determination-- Former Beryllium Production Facility in Luckey, ' Ohio TO: The File The attached review documents the basis for determining whether DOE has authority for taking remedial action at the former beryllium production facility in Luckey, Ohio,

  4. The Weatherization Assistant User's Manual (Version 8.9)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gettings, Michael B.; Malhotra, Mini; Ternes, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    The Weatherization Assistant is a Windows-based energy audit software tool that was developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to help states and their local weatherization agencies implement the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Weatherization Assistance Program. The Weatherization Assistant is an umbrella program for two individual energy audits or measure selection programs: the National Energy Audit Tool (NEAT) for site-built single-family homes and the Manufactured Home Energy Audit (MHEA) for mobile homes. The Weatherization Assistant User's Manual documents the operation of the user interface for Version 8.9 of the software. This includes how to install and setup the software, navigate through the program, and initiate an energy audit. All of the user interface forms associated with the software and the data fields on these forms are described in detail. The manual is intended to be a training manual for new users of the Weatherization Assistant and as a reference manual for experienced users.

  5. HEPAP December 8-9, 2014 | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    December 8-9, 2014 High Energy Physics Advisory Panel (HEPAP) HEPAP Home Meetings Previous ... Meetings High Energy Physics Advisory Panel December 8-9, 2014 Print Text Size: A A A ...

  6. EM Contractor’s System Yields $8.9 Million in Savings at Savannah River Site

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    AIKEN, S.C. – EM’s management and operations contractor at the Savannah River Site (SRS) recently marked its first year under a new business system that has led to taxpayer savings of $8.9 million.

  7. OpenEI maintenance March 8-9, 2013 | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    OpenEI maintenance March 8-9, 2013 Home > Groups > Utility Rate Rmckeel's picture Submitted by Rmckeel(297) Contributor 8 March, 2013 - 14:23 developer Maintenance OpenEI We would...

  8. 2012 National Electricity Forum: February 8-9, 2012 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 National Electricity Forum: February 8-9, 2012 2012 National Electricity Forum: February 8-9, 2012 January 4, 2012 - 11:28am Addthis The 2012 National Electricity Forum will be held on February 8 and 9, 2012, and is sponsored by the DOE Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability and the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC). Online registratin is now closed; participants are welcome to register onsite. A Leading Role The DOE is taking a leading role in

  9. Hanford Site Small Businesses Secure $8.9 Billion in Subcontracts |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Small Businesses Secure $8.9 Billion in Subcontracts Hanford Site Small Businesses Secure $8.9 Billion in Subcontracts June 30, 2014 - 12:00pm Addthis Washington Closure Hanford, the contractor managing the River Corridor Closure Project for the Richland Operations Office, leveraged subcontractor expertise and equipment to remove a 1,082-ton nuclear test reactor and dispose of it in an approved landfill. The reactor was the largest of Hanford’s experimental reactors

  10. Joint Meeting on Hydrogen Delivery Modeling and Analysis, May 8-9, 2007, Discussion Session Highlights, Comments, and Action Items

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This summary highlights the disussion session, comments, and action items from the Joint Meeting on Hydrogen Delivery Modeling and Analysis, May 8-9, 2007.

  11. OSCAR experiment high-density network data report: Event 1 - April 8-9, 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dana, M.T.; Easter, R.C.; Thorp, J.M.

    1984-12-01

    The OSCAR (Oxidation and Scavenging Characteristics of April Rains) experiment, conducted during April 1981, was a cooperative field investigation of wet removal in cyclonic storm systems. The high-densiy component of OSCAR was located in northeast Indiana and included sequential precipitation chemistry measurements on a 100 by 100 km network, as well as airborne air chemistry and cloud chemistry measurements, surface air chemistry measurements, and supporting meteorological measurements. Four separate storm events were studied during the experiment. This report summarizes data taken by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) during the first storm event, April 8-9. The report contains the high-density network precipitation chemistry data, air chemistry data from the PNL aircraft, and meteorological data for the event, including standard National Weather Service products and radar data from the network. 4 references, 72 figures, 5 tables.

  12. Efg Crystal Growth Apparatus And Method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mackintosh, Brian H.; Ouellette, Marc

    2003-05-13

    An improved mechanical arrangement controls the introduction of silicon particles into an EFG (Edge-defined Film-fed Growth) crucible/die unit for melt replenishment during a crystal growth run. A feeder unit injects silicon particles upwardly through a center hub of the crucible/die unit and the mechanical arrangement intercepts the injected particles and directs them so that they drop into the melt in a selected region of the crucible and at velocity which reduces splashing, whereby to reduce the likelihood of interruption of the growth process due to formation of a solid mass of silicon on the center hub and adjoining components. The invention also comprises use of a Faraday ring to alter the ratio of the electrical currents flowing through primary and secondary induction heating coils that heat the crucible die unit and the mechanical arrangement.

  13. Susceptor for EFG crystal growth apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Menna, Andrew A.

    1996-09-03

    An improved susceptor for a crucible/die assembly for growing tubular crystalline structures by the EFG process is provided. The crucible/die assembly comprises a die having a substantially polygonally-shaped top end surface for supporting a film of silicon feed material that is replenished from a melt in the crucible through capillary action. A hollow crystalline body is grown from the film of silicon material on the top end surface of the die. The heat susceptor is made of graphite or similar material, and has a peripheral configuration similar to that of the die. Further, the upper surface of the heat susceptor has a central land and a plurality of circumferentially-spaced upwardly extending projections. The central land thermally contacts a central portion of the lower surface of the crucible/die, and the projections thermally contact the lower surface of the crucible/die at its corners, whereby a temperature distribution is provided that permits growth of hollow bodies having more nearly constant thickness walls.

  14. United States Government Department of Energy Memorandum DATE: November 20, 2003 Audit Report Number: OAS-L-04-05

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    DOb F 1325.8 (8-89) EFG (07-90) United States Government Department of Energy Memorandum DATE: November 20, 2003 Audit Report Number: OAS-L-04-05 REPLY TO: IG-30 (A03AL036) SUBJECT: Audit of Controls Over Expenditures Within the Office of Secure Transportation TO: Michael Kane, Associate Administrator for Management and Administration INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE The National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) Office of Secure Transportation (OST) supports the Department of Energy's

  15. Audit Report: ER-FS-99-04

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    (8-89) EFG (07-90) United States Government Department of Energy Memorandum INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE The Government Management Reform Act of 1994 requires that audited financial statements covering all accounts and associated activities of the Department be submitted annually to the Office of Management and Budget. A Departmentwide audit of the consolidated Fiscal Year 1998 financial statements was conducted by examining internal controls, assessing compliance with laws and regulations,

  16. Market-driven EFG modules. Annual subcontract report, 14 December 1995--13 December 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kardauskas, M.; Kalejs, J.

    1997-08-01

    This report summarizes the progress made at ASE Americas Inc. during the first year (Phase I) of the planned 3 year program in Phase 4A2 on the development of technology to address its photovoltaic module manufacturing flexibility and cost reduction for its products. This program focusses on advancing manufacturing technology to reduce the thickness of EFG wafers from 300 to 250 microns, to raise EFG solar cell efficiency to be able to produce cells with average efficiency of 15.5% on 10 cm x 10 cm area wafers, and to simplify processes and reduce costs in interconnect and module manufacturing. This work includes the development of a novel and new environmentally safe and reduced cost diffusion glass removal process for the solar cell manufacturing line. The overall goal of the program is to reduce EFG module manufacturing costs by 25%. Module cost reductions of approximately 7% can be identified as a result of successes on the program in the first year. The work in Phase I has been subdivided into efforts in three areas: Task 1: Wafers, Task 2: Cells, and Task 3: Modules.

  17. A.12a (Pre-SAS 115) Letter to communicate significant deficiencies and/or material weaknesses in internal control over financial reporting noted in an audit of financial statements of a nonpublic entity, excluding FDICIA engagements (Rev. 1/08)

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    I325 8 (8-89) EFG (07-90) United States Government Department of Energy Memorandum DATE: December 22,2009 REPLY TO A I T N OF: IG-322 (A09FN006) SUBJECT: Management Letter on the Audit of the Department of Energy's Consolidated Financial Statements for Fiscal Year 2009 TO: Chief Financial Officer, CF- 1 Attached is the subject letter prepared by KPMG LLP, our contract auditors. The letter contains 21 new findings (see letter, Exhibit A) and 5 repeat findings (see letter, Exhibit B) that were

  18. United States Government Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    DO F 1325.8 (8-89) EFG (07-90) United States Government Department of Energy memorandum DATE: December 18, 2006 Report Number: OAS-L-07-04 REPLY TO ATTN OF: IG-32 (A07LL039) SUBJECT: Report on "Inquiry to the Hotline Complaint on Possible Design Mistakes and Cost Overruns of the Linac Coherent Light Source Project at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center" TO: Manager, Stanford Site Office INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE The purpose of the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) Linac

  19. L

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    aOr; < 1325.8 L ' (8.89) EFG (07-90) e I United St&es Government memorandum MAY 29 1%1 DATE: REPLY TO AlTN OF: EM-421 SUBJECT: Elimination of the C. G . Sargents and Sons Company Site TO: The File I have reviewed the attached site summary and elimination recommendation for the C. G . Sargents and Sons Company Site Site in Graniteville, Massachusetts. I have determined that there is little likelihood of radioactive contamination at this site. Based on the above, the C. G . Sargents and

  20. NERSC Users Group Meeting April 8-9, 1998 Presentations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    generated from scientific and engineering applications. It contains a very developed matrix-vector multiplication routine for general sparse matrices. It is suitable to solve...

  1. NERSC Users Group Meeting April 8-9, 1998 Presentations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Shmem and Synchronization Primitives on the Cray T3E April 8, 1998 | Author(s): Adrian Wong | The task asynchronous programming model and one-sided communication protocols will be...

  2. CAPITAL REGION

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    t 092007 15:28 FAX 301 903 4656 CAPITAL REGION 0 j002 SDOE F 1325.8 (8-89) EFG (0790) ... 092007 15:29 FAX 301 903 4656 CAPITAL REGION 003 * Implemented a more robust ...

  3. Agenda for Multi Topic workshop Oct 8-9 2014.docx

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Processes (R2R) 12:00 pm Lunch 1:00 Resume sessions 4:00 Break 4:30 Comments from ... Fiber and Textiles 12:00 pm Lunch 1:00 Resume sessions 2:00 Comments from Sessions 2:00 ...

  4. I EFG Kww United States Government

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Drop Forge & Tool Co., Utica, NY Titanium Metals Corp. of America, Henderson, NV In each case, the potential for radiological contamination above applicable guidelines is small. ...

  5. L)HM+H)/&D)$&'()$#&*+,%-./%&

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    "$%&'()$#&*+,%-./%&!&0(1,.2,&+#&!%$3.-+4& 5676&8)".,9&8:;89&:"<",#&=9&>?@@& * &A+/#+-.B./<&C%,"-#,&D$)3&'()$#&*+,%-./%&!&EFG%$.3%/#,& * &A(%)$%H2+-&I/#%$G$%#+H)/,&)D&EF.,H/<&J+#+& * &!"#"$%&0$)G),%K&EFG%$.3%/#,&+#&!%$3.-+4& !"#$%&'()*+,-*)$ ..$/-)0*102-)$ 3,45)$,+&$2-$6&7$ 8,'&9$$

  6. ANNUAL TRILATERAL U.S. – EU – JAPAN CONFERENCE ON CRITICAL MATERIALS FOR A CLEAN ENERGY FUTURE, SEPTEMBER 8-9, 2014

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Agenda from the fourth meeting of the Annual Trilateral U.S. – EU – Japan Conference on Critical Materials for a Clean Energy Future

  7. EfG KMOJ- United States Government I@,&

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Inductdon Heating Division, Cleveland, OH Utica Drop Forge & Tool Co., Utica, NY Titanium Metals Corp. of America, Henderson, NV In each case, the potential for radiological ...

  8. United States Government Department of Energy Memorandum DATE:

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    *- - ~Lull-- " --- .lUI -4 ru a rlyA IgjUU Z JEf 1325.8 (6-89) EFG (07.90) United States Government Department of Energy Memorandum DATE: SEP 2 2 2003 REPLY TO: IG-34 (A03TG049) Audit Report No.: OAS-L-03-21 sueJEcT: Evaluation of "The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's Cyber Security Program-2003" TO: Chairman, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission The purpose of this report is to inform you of the results of our evaluation of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's

  9. United States Government

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    DOE F t325.8 (s8s) Dl? l 36-z EFG (07-90) United States Government m e m o randum Department of Energy DATE: LUG 2 ' 3 1394 ",cl,'," EM-421 (W. A. W illiams, 427-1719) SUBJECT: Elimination of the Sites from the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program To' The File In 1990, with the assistance of M r. Doug Tonkay and Ms. M ichelle Landis, I reviewed a number of sites that had formerly provided goods and/or services to the Fernald facility as subcontractors. For 24 of these sites,

  10. United States Government

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    73258 18.89, /J" c. j _- /;I_ EFG (07.90) United States Government Department of Energy I memorandum W Y fir ,"1 ti2,ej ? r-l DATE: CE' .' 2 :12; REPLY TO AlTN OF: EM-421 (W. A. W illiams, 903-8149) b/fad; 0' \/A a5 SUBJECT: Elimination of the Sites from the Formerly Utilized Sites ReGbbial Action Program TO: The F ile I have reviewed the attached site summar recommendations for the following sites: ies and elimination '4B : M itts & Merrel Co., Saginaw, M ichigan North Carolina

  11. DATE: REPLY TO Al-l' N OF: SUBJECT: TO:

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    oy&$= IL4 2%?5- EFG (07.90) ' Uni,ted bates Government memorandum Department of Energy /Em 7:3/ (5 2L-e DATE: REPLY TO Al-l' N OF: SUBJECT: TO: - MAR 1 1 1991 EM-421 Authority Determination-- Granite City Steel Site, Granite City, Illinois The File The attached review documents the basis for determining whether DOE has authority for taking remedial action at the Granite City Steel Site in Granite City, Illinois, under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). The Betatron

  12. - United States Government

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    8 my EFG (07.90) . - United States Government . * Department of. Energy * inemorandum DATE: DEC :! ;j 1993 REPLY TO ATTN OF: EM-421 (W.'A. W illiams, 903-8149) : NY 41 I .' 41 G I? SUBJECT: Elimination of the T itanium Alloy Manufacturing Co., Niagara Falls, New York TO: The F ile I have reviewed the attached site. summary and elimination recommendation for the T itanium Alloy Manufacturing Company. I have determined that the potential for radiological contamination is low because of the lim

  13. . UrZed States Government DePartment of Enerq DATE: REPLY TO

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    YVE r 1Lcla (8.8gJ EFG (07.90) (3f1 , q q - z . UrZed States Government DePartment of Enerq DATE: REPLY TO A?TN OF: SUBJECT: TO: =.--. AUG12 1991 EM-421 (J. Wagoner, 3-8147) Elimination of the Processes Research, Inc. Site The File I have reviewed the attached site summary and elimination recommendation for the Processes Research, Inc. Site in Cincinnati, Ohio. I have determined that there is little likelihood of radioactive contamination at this site. Based on the above, the Processes Research,

  14. United States Government Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    325.8 reaa) EFG (07-90) United States Government Department of Energy memorandum OATE July 15,2008 REPLY ATTN OF. EhI- 13 SUBJECT. Operating Ground Rules for the Hanford Advisory Board TO: Steve Wegrnan and Doug Shoop, Co-Deputy Designated Federal 0 fticers The Operating Ground Rules for the Hanford Advisory Board have been reviewed by the Office of Public & Intergovernmental Accountability (EM- 13) and the Ofice of Gencral Counsel (GC-77) to assure compliance with the Federal Advisory

  15. United States Government Department of Energy Memorandum

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    3/03 THU 13:41 FAX 865 576 3213 OAK RIDGE AUDIT A4- AIGA 0002 (8.89) EFG (07-0) United States Government Department of Energy Memorandum DATE: November 4, 2003 REPLY TO IG-36 (A03RL018) Audit Report No.: OAS-L-04-03 ATTN OF: SUBJECT: Audit of Accelerated Remediation of Tank Waste at Hanford TO: Roy J. Schepens, Manager, Office of River Protection INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE Millions of gallons of radioactive waste, the result of decades of plutonium production, are stored in underground tanks at

  16. Data:225b952f-75c8-44c8-9e4b-2e63f6a9a928 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information...

  17. Joint Meeting on Hydrogen Delivery Modeling and Analysis, May...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Analysis, May 8-9, 2007, Discussion Session Highlights, Comments, and Action Items Joint Meeting on Hydrogen Delivery Modeling and Analysis, May 8-9, 2007, Discussion...

  18. HANFORD ADVISORY BOARD

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8-9, 2010 FINAL MEETING SUMMARY HANFORD ADVISORY BOARD April 8-9, 2010 Portland, OR Topics in This Meeting Summary Executive Summary ........................................................................................................................................ 1 Welcome, introductions and announcements ................................................................................................. 2 Confirm February meeting summary adoption

  19. HANFORD ADVISORY BOARD

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8-9, 2011 FINAL MEETING SUMMARY HANFORD ADVISORY BOARD September 8-9, 2011 Seattle, WA Topics in This Meeting Summary Executive Summary .......................................................................................................................... 1 Welcome, introductions, and announcements .................................................................................. 2 Tri-Party Agreement Agencies - Annual Updates

  20. Hanford Advisory Board Page 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    April 8-9, 2015 FINAL MEETING SUMMARY HANFORD ADVISORY BOARD April 8-9, 2015 Richland, WA Topics in this Meeting Summary Executive Summary ...................................................................................................................................... 1 Welcome, Introductions, and Announcements ............................................................................................. 3 Panel of Hanford Contractors

  1. Microsoft Word - Fe-S_Clusters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Coloring scheme: rust, iron; orange, sulfur; gray, carbon; red, oxygen; blue, nitrogen. ... The overall structure of HydA EFG reveals the formation of a positively charged channel ...

  2. 0%12*#$3

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ")*+ ,)+-'.%*0%12*3" ""%&'"()*%(&+',-&.0,,123 )456%"&,&,(**6%,&(%)5"(&65&7("&-"6()'"-"%( ""%&'()'*+,+-'.'01234-'5637 ,'"8',9'' 8)%*"...

  3. Summary of On-Board Storage Models and Analyses

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by R.K. Ahluwalia at the Joint Meeting on Hydrogen Delivery Modeling and Analysis, May 8-9, 2007

  4. Hydrogen Scenarios

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by Frances Wood of OnLocation Inc. at the Joint Meeting on Hydrogen Delivery Modeling and Analysis, May 8-9, 2007

  5. Anion Exchange Membranes - Transport/Conductivity | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    - TransportConductivity Anion Exchange Membranes - TransportConductivity Presentation at the AMFC Workshop, May 8-9, 2011, Arlington, VA PDF icon amfc110811aemstransport.pdf ...

  6. Potential Carriers and Approaches for Hydrogen Delivery

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by Matthew Hooks of TIAX at the Joint Meeting on Hydrogen Delivery Modeling and Analysis, May 8-9, 2007

  7. Readiness Review Training- Development of Criteria And Review Approach Documents

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Slides used for November 8-9, 2010 Readiness Review Training - Development of Criteria And Review Approach Documents at the Idaho National Laboratory.

  8. HyPro: Modeling the Hydrogen Transition

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by Brian James of Directed Technologies at the Joint Meeting on Hydrogen Delivery Modeling and Analysis, May 8-9, 2007

  9. System Break-Out Session | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Presentation at the AMFC Workshop, May 8-9, 2011, Arliington, VA PDF icon amfc050811systemissues.pdf More Documents & Publications 2011 Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop ...

  10. H2A Delivery: GH2 and LH2 Forecourt Land Areas

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by Matthew Hooks of TIAX at the Joint Meeting on Hydrogen Delivery Modeling and Analysis, May 8-9, 2007

  11. H2A Delivery: Forecourt Compression & Storage Optimization (Part II)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by Matthew Hooks of TIAX at the Joint Meeting on Hydrogen Delivery Modeling and Analysis, May 8-9, 2007

  12. Meeting Agenda

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Agenda for the DOE Hydrogen Delivery High-Pressure Tanks and Analysis Project Review Meeting held February 8-9, 2005 at Argonne National Laboratory

  13. DOE Hydrogen Delivery Analysis and High Pressure Tanks R&D Project Review Meeting Agenda

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE Hydrogen Delivery Analysis and High Pressure Tanks R&D Project Review Meeting Agenda, held February 8-9, 2005 by Argonne National Laboratory

  14. Combined Heat and Power: A Vision for the Future of CHP in the United States in 2020, June 1999

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report is a summary document based on discussions at the CHP Vision Workshop held in Washington, DC, June 8-9, 1999

  15. Improvements to Hydrogen Delivery Scenario Analysis Model (HDSAM) and Results

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation by Amgad Elgowainy of Argonne National Laboratory was given at the Joint Meeting on Hydrogen Delivery Modeling and Analysis, May 8-9, 2007.

  16. Large-Scale Liquid Hydrogen Handling Equipment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by Jerry Gillette of Argonne National Laboratory at the Joint Meeting on Hydrogen Delivery Modeling and Analysis, May 8-9, 2007

  17. Sanket_A_Deshmukh.pptx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2017 October 8-9, 2013 Gaithersburg, MD Present and Future Computing Requirements for: Molecular Dynamics of PNIPAM Agglomerates and Composite Architectures 2 Senior PI's: 1....

  18. Liquefaction and Pipeline Costs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by Bruce Kelly of Nexant at the Joint Meeting on Hydrogen Delivery Modeling and Analysis, May 8-9, 2007

  19. Integrated Market Modeling of Hydrogen Transition Scenarios with HyTrans

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by Paul Leiby of Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the Joint Meeting on Hydrogen Delivery Modeling and Analysis, May 8-9, 2007

  20. H2A Delivery: Miscellaneous Cost and H2 Losses

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by Matt Ringer of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory at the Joint Meeting on Hydrogen Delivery Modeling and Analysis, May 8-9, 2007

  1. Element free Galerkin formulation of composite beam with longitudinal slip

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmad, Dzulkarnain; Mokhtaram, Mokhtazul Haizad; Badli, Mohd Iqbal; Yassin, Airil Y. Mohd

    2015-05-15

    Behaviour between two materials in composite beam is assumed partially interact when longitudinal slip at its interfacial surfaces is considered. Commonly analysed by the mesh-based formulation, this study used meshless formulation known as Element Free Galerkin (EFG) method in the beam partial interaction analysis, numerically. As meshless formulation implies that the problem domain is discretised only by nodes, the EFG method is based on Moving Least Square (MLS) approach for shape functions formulation with its weak form is developed using variational method. The essential boundary conditions are enforced by Langrange multipliers. The proposed EFG formulation gives comparable results, after been verified by analytical solution, thus signify its application in partial interaction problems. Based on numerical test results, the Cubic Spline and Quartic Spline weight functions yield better accuracy for the EFG formulation, compares to other proposed weight functions.

  2. Agenda3807 | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    March 8-9, 2007 Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) NSAC Home Meetings NSAC Members Charges/Reports Charter .pdf file (78KB) NP Committees of Visitors Federal Advisory Committees NP Home Meetings March 8-9, 2007 Print Text Size: A A A FeedbackShare Page DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee Meeting March 8-9, 2007 Where: Sheraton Crystal City Hotel, 1800 Jefferson Davis Highway, Arlington, VA (Metro Blue or Yellow Line to Crystal City Metro Stop) Telephone Number: 703-486-1111 Fax

  3. Control Systems Security Standards: Accomplishments & Impacts

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ... 14-15, 2007 Houston, TX Hill, Shamsuddin PCSF 2007 Annual Meeting March 6-8, 2007 Atlanta, GA Halbgewachs IEC TC 65WG 10 - Standard 62443 March 5 & 8-9, 2007 Atlanta, GA ...

  4. H2A Delivery Scenario Model and Analyses

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation on H2A Delivery Scenario Model and Analysis for the DOE Hydrogen Delivery High-Pressure Tanks and Analysis Project Review Meeting held February 8-9, 2005 at Argonne National Laboratory

  5. Anion Exchange Membranes for Fuel Cells | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Fuel Cells Anion Exchange Membranes for Fuel Cells Presentation at the AMFC Workshop, May 8-9, 2011, Arlington, VA PDF icon amfc110811herring.pdf More Documents & ...

  6. MEA BREAKOUT GROUP | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Presentation at the AMFC Workshop, May 8-9, 2011, Arlington, VA PDF icon amfc110811meaissues.pdf More Documents & Publications 2011 Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Final ...

  7. U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation on DOE Hydrogen Program for the DOE Hydrogen Delivery High-Pressure Tanks and Analysis Project Review Meeting held February 8-9, 2005 at Argonne National Laboratory

  8. Overview of FreedomCAR & Fuels Partnership/DOE Delivery Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation on FreedomCAR & Fuells Partnership for the DOE Hydrogen Delivery High-Pressure Tanks and Analysis Project Review Meeting held February 8-9, 2005 at Argonne National Laboratory

  9. H2A Delivery Components Model and Analysis

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation on H2A Delivery Components Model and Analysis for the DOE Hydrogen Delivery High-Pressure Tanks and Analysis Project Review Meeting held February 8-9, 2005 at Argonne National Laboratory

  10. http://www.hss.doe.gov/csa/analysis/cairs/cairs/summary/oipds09

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Data for: Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Table 8.9 - Data for: Office of Science Table 8.10 - Data for: Other Headquarters Organizations InjuryIllness Selected ...

  11. DEC SW 40th Street

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project outcomes: Construction of GSHP District Energy Plant. Energy/Cost Savings of HW, CHW, and DHW service (~8-9%). Data Collection to Establish Model for Geothermal District System.

  12. Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A workshop on alkaline membrane fuel cells (AMFC) was held May 8-9, 2011, before the 2011 Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Annual Merit Review, at Crystal Gateway Marriott in Arlington, ...

  13. Energy Systems Integration | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    live OpenEI maintenance March 8-9, 2013 Research topics related to ESI Prospects for Nuclear Power(Davis 2012) A Framework for the Optimization of Integrated Energy Systems(Jain...

  14. iiESI.org is live! | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    live OpenEI maintenance March 8-9, 2013 Research topics related to ESI Prospects for Nuclear Power(Davis 2012) A Framework for the Optimization of Integrated Energy Systems(Jain...

  15. MiniBooNE E. D. Zimmerman

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    * No flux tuning based on MB data * Most important production measurements from HARP(at CERN) at 8.9 GeVc beam momentum (as MB), 5% int. length Be target (Eur.Phys.J.C52...

  16. A=8B (1988AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8AJ01) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 8B) GENERAL: See also (1984AJ01) and Table 8.9 Table of Energy Levels (in PDF or PS) here. Model calculations: (1983SH38). Special states:...

  17. Energy Systems Integration | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    login in order to post into this group. Recent content iiESI.org is live OpenEI maintenance March 8-9, 2013 Research topics related to ESI Prospects for Nuclear Power(Davis...

  18. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    is now much faster Rmckeel 1 21 Mar 2013 - 09:11 Blog entry developer OpenEI maintenance March 8-9, 2013 Rmckeel 8 Mar 2013 - 14:23 Blog entry developer Semantic Mediawiki...

  19. Maintenance | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Maintenance Home Rmckeel's picture Submitted by Rmckeel(297) Contributor 8 March, 2013 - 14:23 OpenEI maintenance March 8-9, 2013 developer Maintenance OpenEI We would like to...

  20. OpenEI Community - Maintenance

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    maintenance March 8-9, 2013 http:en.openei.orgcommunityblogopenei-maintenance-march-8-9-2013

    We would like to inform the OpenEI community that OpenEI will be...

  1. Developer | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    New Result Formats on OpenEI Jweers 25 Mar 2013 - 12:22 Blog entry developer OpenEI maintenance March 8-9, 2013 Rmckeel 8 Mar 2013 - 14:23 Blog entry developer Semantic Mediawiki...

  2. Energy Systems Integration | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post sort icon Blog entry developer OpenEI maintenance March 8-9, 2013 Rmckeel 8 Mar 2013 - 14:23 Groups Menu You must login in order to...

  3. OpenEI Community Central | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    New Result Formats on OpenEI Jweers 25 Mar 2013 - 12:22 Blog entry developer OpenEI maintenance March 8-9, 2013 Rmckeel 8 Mar 2013 - 14:23 Blog entry developer Current and...

  4. AAC R18-9 Water Pollution Control | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    8-9 Water Pollution Control Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation: AAC R18-9 Water Pollution ControlLegal Abstract...

  5. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6, 2014 Residential heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil rose 1.6 cents from a week ago to 4.24 per gallon. That's up 8.9 cents from a year ...

  6. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The 22-acre (8.9 ha) Loblolly Pine Stand Set-Aside is one of the original ten SREL habitat reserve areas which were selected to complement the old-field habitatplant succession ...

  7. Energy Systems Integration | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    is live OpenEI maintenance March 8-9, 2013 Research topics related to ESI Prospects for Nuclear Power(Davis 2012) A Framework for the Optimization of Integrated Energy...

  8. ANNUAL TRILATERAL U.S. - EU - JAPAN CONFERENCE ON CRITICAL MATERIALS...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ANNUAL TRILATERAL U.S. - EU - JAPAN CONFERENCE ON CRITICAL MATERIALS FOR A CLEAN ENERGY FUTURE, SEPTEMBER 8-9, 2014 ANNUAL TRILATERAL U.S. - EU - JAPAN CONFERENCE ON CRITICAL ...

  9. High-Pressure Tube Trailers and Tanks

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation on High-Pressure Tube Trailers and Tanks for the DOE Hydrogen Delivery High-Pressure Tanks and Analysis Project Review Meeting held February 8-9, 2005 at Argonne National Laboratory

  10. Bioenergy Reports

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biological Barriers to Cellulosic Ethanol - A Joint Research Agenda, Jun 2006 (8.9 MB) Roadmap for Agricultural Biomass Feedstock Supply in the United States, Nov 2003 (3.5 MB)...

  11. The original of this document contains information which is subject...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    relieve the pain resulting from this condition, the Individual's physician prescribed Tramadol, a painkiller, to be used on an "as-needed" basis. Tr. at 54-55; Exhibit 8 at 8-9,...

  12. High-Pressure Hydrogen Tanks

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation on High-Pressure Hydrogen Tanks for the DOE Hydrogen Delivery High-Pressure Tanks and Analysis Project Review Meeting held February 8-9, 2005 at Argonne National Laboratory

  13. Hydrogen Delivery Infrastructure Analysis, Options and Trade-offs, Transition and Long-term

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation on Hydrogen Delivery Infrastructure Analysis, Options and Trade-offs, Transition and Long-term for the DOE Hydrogen Delivery High-Pressure Tanks and Analysis Project Review Meeting held February 8-9, 2005 at Argonne National Laboratory

  14. Minutes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Minutes Minutes ERSUG Meeting Minutes - January 8,9, 1996 Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory January 8-9, 1996 Kirby Fong (NERSC, LLNL), Dave Stevens (LBL), Ricky A. Kendall (PNNL,ExERSUG Vice-Chair) Opening Remarks From the Berkeley Laboratory This ERSUG meeting, originally planned for Princeton, New Jersey, was rescheduled at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to facilitate a user visit of the recently announced new home of the National Energy Research Supercomputer Center. Due to blizzard conditions

  15. Connected Lighting Systems Workshop | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Connected Lighting Systems Workshop Connected Lighting Systems Workshop Complex issues. Complex issues. Join DOE and industry thought leaders at the 2016 Connected Lighting Systems Workshop, June 8-9 in Santa Clara, CA. Industry thought leaders. Industry thought leaders. Join DOE and industry thought leaders at the 2016 Connected Lighting Systems Workshop, June 8-9 in Santa Clara, CA. Dynamic discussions. Dynamic discussions. Join DOE and industry thought leaders at the 2016 Connected Lighting

  16. Connected Lighting Systems Workshop | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Connected Lighting Systems Workshop Connected Lighting Systems Workshop Industry thought leaders. Industry thought leaders. Join DOE and industry thought leaders at the 2016 Connected Lighting Systems Workshop, June 8-9 in Santa Clara, CA. Complex issues. Complex issues. Join DOE and industry thought leaders at the 2016 Connected Lighting Systems Workshop, June 8-9 in Santa Clara, CA. Dynamic discussions. Dynamic discussions. Join DOE and industry thought leaders at the 2016 Connected Lighting

  17. X-ray Imaging Workshop

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Imaging and Spectro-microscopy: the Present and the Future Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory October 8-9, 2002 Organizers: John Miao & Keith Hodgson A workshop on "X-ray Imaging and Spectro-microscopy: the Present and the Future" was held on October 8-9, 2002. This workshop, organized by John Miao (SSRL) and Keith Hodgson (SSRL) provided a forum to discuss the scientific applications of a variety of imaging and spectro-microscopic techniques, including photoemission

  18. Agenda 20130308 | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee Meeting March 8-9, 2013 Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) NSAC Home Meetings NSAC Members Charges/Reports Charter .pdf file (78KB) NP Committees of Visitors Federal Advisory Committees NP Home Meetings DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee Meeting March 8-9, 2013 Print Text Size: A A A FeedbackShare Page DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee Meeting Gaithersburg Marriott Washingtonian Center Salons F-G 9751 Washington Boulevard,

  19. United States Government Department of Energy

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    -. (8-29) EFG (07-W) United States Government Department of Energy m e m o randum DATE: b; zl3 REPLY TO Al-I-N OF: EM-421 (W. A. W illiams, 903-8149) ion of the Southern Research...

  20. WQl

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    WQl . EFG@po) United States Government m e m o randum 1 WL-i)p-I j&J p-j: lhpartIn6;t 0 A--E new - 7; (.. DATE: OCT 0 8 19% REPLY TO ATTN OF: EM-421 (W. A. W illiams, 903-8149)...

  1. Table 22. Energy Intensity, Projected vs. Actual Projected

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Intensity, Projected vs. Actual Projected (quadrillion Btu / $Billion 2005 Chained GDP) 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 AEO 1994 10.9 10.7 10.6 10.5 10.3 10.2 10.1 9.9 9.8 9.7 9.6 9.5 9.4 9.3 9.2 9.1 9.0 8.9 AEO 1995 10.5 10.4 10.3 10.1 10.0 9.8 9.7 9.6 9.4 9.3 9.2 9.1 9.0 8.9 8.9 8.8 8.7 AEO 1996 10.4 10.3 10.1 10.0 9.8 9.7 9.5 9.4 9.3 9.2 9.1 9.0 8.9 8.9 8.8 8.7 8.7 8.6 8.5 AEO 1997 10.0 9.9 9.8 9.7 9.6 9.5 9.4

  2. Eur. Phys. J. C

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Eur. Phys. J. C manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) Exploring the Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay in the Inverted Neutrino Hierarchy with Bolometric Detectors D. R. Artusa 1,2 , F. T. Avignone III 1 , O. Azzolini 3 , M. Balata 2 , T. I. Banks 4,5,2 , G. Bari 6 , J. Beeman 7 , F. Bellini 8,9 , A. Bersani 10 , M. Biassoni 11,12 , C. Brofferio 11,12 , C. Bucci 2 , X. Z. Cai 13 , A. Camacho 3 , L. Canonica 2 , X. G. Cao 13 , S. Capelli 11,12 , L. Carbone 12 , L. Cardani 8,9 , M.

  3. Contoured inner after-heater shield for reducing stress in growing crystalline bodies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kalejs, Juris P.

    1996-09-24

    An apparatus for growing hollow crystalline bodies by the EFG process, comprising an EFG die having a top surface shaped for growing a hollow crystalline body having a cross-sectional configuration in the shape of a polygon having n faces, and a radiation shield adjacent to and surrounded by the top end surface of the die, characterized in that the shield has an inner edge defining a similar polygon with n sides, and the inner edge of the shield is notched so that the spacing between the n faces and the n sides is greatest between the central portions of the n faces and the n sides, whereby the greater spacing at the central portions helps to reduce lateral temperature gradients in the crystalline body that is grown by use of the die.

  4. Minnesota Natural Gas Delivered for the Account of Others

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Commercial Deliveries 6,069 6,224 9,668 7,429 10,508 10,835 1987-2014 % of All Comm. Deliveries for the Acct. of Others 6.3 6.9 10.2 8.9 9.9 9.8 1989-2014 Industrial Deliveries ...

  5. X:\\L6046\\Data_Publication\\Pma\\current\\ventura\\pma.vp

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1999 January ... 2.8 2.8 3.3 5.3 - 8.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.8 - 1.4 February ... 2.9 2.9 3.7 5.2 - 8.9 0.6 0.6 W 0.8 - 1.4 March...

  6. c10a.xls

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    (Square Feet) 1,001 to 5,000 ... 143 187 90 170 95 1,313 1,709 1,010 1,915 975 108.7 109.6 88.8 89.0 97.9 5,001 to 10,000 ......

  7. Colorado Natural Gas Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Pipeline and Distribution Use Price 1967-2005 Citygate Price 5.26 4.94 4.26 4.76 5.42 3.96 1984-2015 Residential Price 8.13 8.25 8.28 7.85 8.89 NA 1967-2015 Percentage of Total ...

  8. EWONAP Procurement Fundamentals

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    HUD's Eastern Woodlands Office of Native American Programs in collaboration with the Seminole Tribe of Florida Native Learning Center invites you to attend the Procurement Fundamentals training instructed by Vince Franco, Compliance & Resource Development Director of the Native Learning Center in Atlanta, Georgia on September 8-9, 2014.

  9. appl_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Q Q Q Q Q NF Video Cassette Recorders (VCRs) and DVD Players ...... 29.3 9.3 6.4 12.6 1.0 7.2 1 ...... 18.9 5.3 4.0 8.9 0.7 8.3 2 ...

  10. appl_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... 8.9 Q Q 1.1 14.3 Both ...... 1.7 1.5 Q Q Q 43.3 Video Cassette Recorders (VCRs) and DVD Players ...... 66.7 58.5 1.9 1.4 5.0 7.1 1 ...

  11. file://C:\\Documents%20and%20Settings\\VM3\\My%20Documents\\hc6-1a...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0.4 Q Q Q 0.2 Q | 33.7 | Adequacy of Insulation | Well Insulated...... 42.6 3.8 12.3 10.3 7.2 9.1 | 8.9 Adequately Insulated...... 43.1 3.6 ...

  12. Table 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    61.5 67.3 89.8 89.5 82.2 69.4 71.1 74.9 See footnotes at end of table. 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type 12 Energy Information Administration ...

  13. Characteristics RSE Column Factor: All Vehicle Types

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    or More ... 19.1 13.0 12.3 0.7 1.0 1.7 Q 2.7 Q 21.8 Below Poverty Line 100 Percent ... 12.4 9.5 8.9 0.5 Q Q Q 1.8 Q...

  14. c34.xls

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Large Amounts of Hot Water ... 8,391 0.09 71.2 8.9 0.09 1.06 Separate Computer Area ... 8,742 0.07 43.7 9.2 0.07 1.05 HVAC Conservation Features...

  15. c33.xls

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Large Amounts of Hot Water ... 8,391 0.09 71.2 8.9 0.09 1.06 Separate Computer Area ... 8,742 0.07 43.7 9.2 0.07 1.05 HVAC Conservation Features...

  16. Weekly Petroleum Status Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    East Coast (PADD 1) 1 ...... 55.9 54.7 1.3 38.3 45.9 32.6 71.7 New England (PADD 1A) 1 ...... 8.9 8.8 0.1 5.5 62.3 3.4 160.7 Central Atlantic (PADD ...

  17. Table 20. U.S. Refiner Residual Fuel Oil Volumes

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... 2.5 7.5 9.3 5.9 11.8 13.4 October ... 2.0 7.1 8.6 5.0 10.6 12.1 November ... 2.8 6.8 8.9 5.7 11.8 12.5...

  18. CHANGING TIMES

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    District Number of Sub-agreements District MWs Fort Worth 8 89 14,776,000 Kansas City 14 205 11,440,570 Little Rock 46 1,069 51,810,300 St. Louis 11 58 3,552,000 Tulsa...

  19. Appendix A: Reference case

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... 133.0 147.6 173.1 175.0 178.2 184.2 199.2 1.1% Distributed generation (natural gas) 7 ... 0.0 0.0 1.6 3.3 4.6 6.2 8.9 - -...

  20. Gettering in multicrystalline silicon: A design-of-experiments approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schubert, W.K.

    1994-07-01

    Design-of-experiment methods were used to study gettering due to phosphorus diffusion and aluminum alloying in four industrial multicrystalline silicon materials: Silicon-Film material from AstroPower, heat-exchanger method (HEM) material from Crystal Systems, edge-defined film-fed growth (EFG) material from Mobil Solar, and cast material from Solarex. Time and temperature for the diffusion and alloy processes were chosen for a four-factor quadratic interaction experiment. Simple diagnostic devices were used to evaluate the gettering. Only EFG and HEM materials exhibited statistically significant gettering effects within the ranges used for the various parameters. Diffusion and alloying temperature were significant for HEM material; also there was a second-order interaction between the diffusion time and temperature. There was no interaction between the diffusion and alloying processes in HEM material. EFG material showed a first-order dependence on diffusion temperature and a second-order interaction between the diffusion temperature and the alloying time. Gettering recommendations for the HEM material were used to produce the best-yet Sandia cells on this material, but correlation with the gettering experiment was not strong. Some of the discrepancy arises from necessary processing differences between the diagnostic devices and regular solar cells. This issue and other lessons learned concerning this type of experiment are discussed.

  1. NdBaFe{sub 2}O{sub 5+w} and steric effect of Nd on valence mixing and ordering of Fe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linden, J.; Karen, P.

    2010-11-15

    NdBaFe{sub 2}O{sub 5} above and below Verwey transition is studied by synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction and Moessbauer spectroscopy and compared with GdBaFe{sub 2}O{sub 5} that adopts a higher-symmetry charge-ordered structure typical of the Sm-Ho variants of the title phase. Differences are investigated by Moessbauer spectroscopy accounting for iron valence states at their local magnetic and ionic environments. In the charge-ordered state, the orientation of the electric-field gradient (EFG) versus the internal magnetic field (B) agrees with experiment only when contribution from charges of the ordered d{sub xz} orbitals of Fe{sup 2+} is included, proving thus the orbital ordering. The EFG magnitude indicates that only some 60% of the orbital order occurring in the Sm-Ho variants is achieved in NdBaFe{sub 2}O{sub 5}. The consequent diminishing of the orbit contribution (of opposite sign) to the field B at the Fe{sup 2+} nucleus explains why B is larger than for the Sm-Ho variants. The decreased orbital ordering in NdBaFe{sub 2}O{sub 5} causes a corresponding decrease in charge ordering, which is achieved by decreasing both the amount of the charge-ordered iron states in the sample and their fractional valence separation as seen by the Moessbauer isomer shift. The charge ordering in NdBaFe{sub 2}O{sub 5+w} is more easily suppressed by the oxygen nonstoichiometry (w) than in the Sm-Ho variants. Also the valence mixing into Fe{sup 2.5+} is destabilized by the large size of Nd. The orientation of the EFG around this valence-mixed iron can only be accounted for when the valence-mixing electron is included in the electrostatic ligand field. This proves that the valence mixing occurs between the two iron atoms facing each other across the structural plane of the rare-earth atoms. -- Graphical Abstract: Moessbauer spectrum detects ordering of d{sub xz} orbitals of Fe{sup II}O{sub 5} via the electric-field gradient (EFG) of the orbital, which makes the main component of the total EFG parallel with the magnetic moment B. Display Omitted

  2. C:\Forms\HQ F 3305.7.cdr

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    305.7 (07-90) U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Applicant Name: Thank you for applying for consideration for our Senior Executive Service vacancy of: Your application was received in our office postmarked on Although you were found to meet the basic qualifications required for this position, we regret to inform you that another candidate has been selected for this position. The competitive process for filing this position has been cancelled due to: Your application could not be forwarded for competitive

  3. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Washington profile Washington total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 1,097 3.6 9,241 8.9 Coal 1,340 4.4 8,527 8.2 Hydro and Pumped Storage 21,495 70.5 68,342 66.0 Natural Gas 3,828 12.6 10,359 10.0 Other 1 - - 354 0.3 Other Renewable1 2,703 8.9 6,617 6.4 Petroleum 15 * 32 * Total 30,478 100.0 103,473

  4. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Washington profile Washington total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 1,097 3.6 9,241 8.9 Coal 1,340 4.4 8,527 8.2 Hydro and Pumped Storage 21,495 70.5 68,342 66.0 Natural Gas 3,828 12.6 10,359 10.0 Other 1 - - 354 0.3 Other Renewable1 2,703 8.9 6,617 6.4 Petroleum 15 * 32 * Total 30,478 100.0 103,473

  5. Otay Mesa, CA Liquefied Natural Gas Exports to Mexico (Dollars...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2011 8.68 8.90 8.72 8.89 9.57 9.48 9.45 9.13 9.22 9.45 10.15 10.29 2012 10.29 10.29 9.55 7.37 7.14 8.00 8.00 8.19 7.89 8.30 ...

  6. TableHC9.1.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Census Region and Division Northeast............................................................... 20.6 1.9 9.8 8.9 N N New England...................................................... 5.5 1.3 4.1 Q N N Middle Atlantic.................................................... 15.1 Q 5.7 8.8 N N Midwest................................................................. 25.6 6.9 12.3 6.4 N N East North Central.............................................. 17.7 4.9 9.9 3.0 N N West North

  7. Word Pro - Untitled1

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption by Sector, 1949-2011 Residential and Commercial, by Major Source Industrial, by Major Source Transportation, by Major Source Electric Power, by Major Source 304 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 1 Emissions from energy consumption in the electric power sector are allocated to the end- use sectors in proportion to each sector's share of total electricity retail sales (see Tables 8.9 and 11.2e). 2 Metric tons of

  8. Examination of Terminal Land Requirements for Hydrogen Delivery |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Examination of Terminal Land Requirements for Hydrogen Delivery Examination of Terminal Land Requirements for Hydrogen Delivery Presentation by Jerry Gillette of Argonne National Laboratory at the Joint Meeting on Hydrogen Delivery Modeling and Analysis, May 8-9, 2007 PDF icon deliv_analysis_gillette_landreq.pdf More Documents & Publications Hydrogen Delivery Analysis Models H2A Delivery Models and Results Hydrogen Pathways: Cost, Well-to-Wheels Energy Use, and

  9. Forecourt and Gas Infrastructure Optimization | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Gas Infrastructure Optimization Forecourt and Gas Infrastructure Optimization Presentation by Bruce Kelly of Nexant at the Joint Meeting on Hydrogen Delivery Modeling and Analysis, May 8-9, 2007 PDF icon deliv_analysis_kelly.pdf More Documents & Publications H2A Hydrogen Delivery Infrastructure Analysis Models and Conventional Pathway Options Analysis Results - Interim Report H2A Delivery Components Model and Analysis Hydrogen Delivery Analysis Models

  10. asfea | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    asfea Stakeholder Workshop for Advanced Sensing In Fossil Energy Applications May 8-9, 2010 Table of Contents Disclaimer WORKSHOP SUMMARY PRESENTATIONS Introduction and Opening Remarks Robert Romanosky, National Energy Technology Laboratory Presentation U.S. DOE Office of Fossil Energy Overview Regis Conrad, Advanced Research Program Manager Presentation Roundtable Discussion The workshop was broken into three sessions to focus on getting participant feedback on several topics of interest. The

  11. bia-adcyclone | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Advanced Cyclone Combustor with Internal Sulfur, Nitrogen, and Ash Control - Project Brief [PDF-302KB] Coal Tech Corp., Williamsport, PA PROGRAM PUBLICATIONS Final Reports Demonstration of an Advanced Cyclone Coal Combustor with Internal Sulfur Nitrogen, and Ash Control for the Conversion of a 23-MMBtu/Hour Oil Fired Boiler to Pulverized Coal (Aug 1991) Volume 1: Final Technical Report [PDF-5.9MB] Appendixes I through VI [PDF-8.9MB] CCT Reports: Project Performance Summaries, Post-Project

  12. 2011 Municipal Consortium North Central Region Workshop Materials |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy Kansas City, MO, March 8-9, 2011. The following documents are available as Adobe Acrobat PDFs. Presentations Calculating Light Loss Factors for LED Street Lighting Systems Rick Kauffman, IES Roadway Committee/Kauffman Consulting LLC SSL Not as Simple as It Seems: Things to Know and Things to Consider David Baum, Philips Roadway Lighting Mark McClear, Cree Kansas City, Missouri: US DOE SSL GATEWAY Demonstration Project Mahmoud Hadjian, City of Kansas City, MO Adaptive

  13. WEATHERIZATION PROGRAM NOTICE 09-1

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    (8-89) United States Government Department of Energy Memorandum DATE: November 23, 2015 WAP Memorandum 014 REPLY TO ATTN OF: AnnaMaria Garcia, Director Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program Office SUBJECT: Multifamily and Rental Draft WPN Request for Comment TO: Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) Network This memo serves as an opportunity for WAP Grantees to review and provide comment on two draft Weatherization Program Notices (WPNs) developed by the Department of Energy (DOE). The

  14. LCLS Workshop October 2002

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Experimental Opportunities with LCLS Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory October 8-9, 2002 Organizers: John Galayda & Jerry Hastings A very successful one and one half day meeting was held to begin the process of creating experiment teams to propose instruments for the LCLS experimental program. More than thirty people gathered representing most of the scientific disciplines discussed in the LCLS First Experiments document. The first afternoon was devoted to presentations of the status

  15. DOE Hydrogen Delivery High-Pressure Tanks and Analysis Project Review

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Meeting | Department of Energy Delivery High-Pressure Tanks and Analysis Project Review Meeting DOE Hydrogen Delivery High-Pressure Tanks and Analysis Project Review Meeting On February 8-9, 2005, the Department of Energy held the DOE Hydrogen Delivery High-Pressure Tanks and Analysis Project Review Meeting at Argonne National Laboratory. The purpose of the meeting was to review the progress and plans of the R&D projects and to facilitate collaboration among researchers. The

  16. 2011 Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop 2011 Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop A workshop on alkaline membrane fuel cells (AMFCs) was held May 8-9, 2011, before the 2011 Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Annual Merit Review, at Crystal Gateway Marriott in Arlington, Virginia. The workshop brought together technical experts from industry, academia, and the national laboratories to assess the current state of AMFC technology and to identify limitations, performance potential, and key research needs for

  17. 2012 National Electricity Forum | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electricity Forum 2012 National Electricity Forum At the 2012 National Electricity Forum, held February 8-9, 2012 and jointly organized by DOE's Office of Electricity Delivery & Energy Reliability (OE) and the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC), the GTT presented its vision of the future grid. Return to GTT Activities PDF icon 2012 National Electricity Forum - GTT Vision of the Future Grid, Lauren Azar (DOE) More Documents & Publications GTT 2012

  18. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Indiana Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 15.1 14.0 7.1 7.1 4.2 3.7 5.2 1.0 5.5 8.3 6.6 10.2 2002 8.4 8.1 10.1 6.4 5.3 6.2 5.3 5.9 6.6 12.5 12.6 12.4 2003 14.2 12.9 8.9 7.2 7.0 5.9 6.2 5.7 9.3 6.2 11.3 9.3 2004 9.2 8.9 8.9 6.9 6.4 6.2 6.9 6.5 7.3 7.9 10.4 11.6 2005 9.8 7.7 9.6 5.8 6.3 5.5 5.5 6.7 8.2 8.2 10.6 8.9 2006 8.2 9.3 7.4 4.3 7.0 5.0 6.4 5.9 6.3 8.2 8.3 8.4 2007 9.3 9.4 5.8 7.6 6.1 5.5 6.0 5.0 6.9 6.8 9.5 9.1 2008 8.4 7.5 7.0 6.7 5.5 4.5 4.7 4.7 5.3

  19. RomanowiczFrenchRev.pptx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Calibration of Mantle Structure at Global and Regional Scales Using
 Full-Waveform Seismic Tomography" Scott French! sfrench@seismo.berkeley.edu! Romanowicz Group! Berkeley Seismological Laboratory! UC Berkeley! NERSC BES Requirements for 2017! October 8-9, 2013! Gaithersburg, MD! Present and Future Computing Requirements Seismological Laboratory Berkeley University of California Project Description! PI: Prof. Barbara Romanowicz Berkeley Seismological Laboratory, UC Berkeley;

  20. Name of Project Pi(s)/Institution(s)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rational Catalyst Design for Energy Production Andreas Heyden Department of Chemical Engineering University of South Carolina, Columbia NERSC BES Requirements for 2017 October 8-9, 2013 Gaithersburg, MD Project Description * Molecular understanding and design of heterogeneous catalysis at solid-liquid interfaces (Applications: Biomass-to-Fuels, Biomass-to-Chemicals) * Multi-scale, mixed-resolution modeling techniques * Planewave DFT coupled with * Continuum solvation models * Classical molecular

  1. Participants

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Participants Participants Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Basic Energy Sciences A DOE Technical Program Review October 8-9, 2013 Front row, from left: Yun Liu, Dave Goodwin, Eliane Lessner, Jack Deslippe, Nick Woodward, Carl Steefel, Ceren Susut, Katie Antypas, Richard Gerber. Back row, from left: Scott French, Jeff Neaton, Sudip Dosanjh, Harvey Wasserman, Jim Davenport, David Skinner, Andy Felmy, Jacqueline Chen, Sotiris Xantheas, Greg Newman, Mark Pederson. Organizers and

  2. Federal Technical Capability Panel Conference Call Minutes - January 20, 2016

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Federal Technical Capability Panel Conference Call Minutes January 20, 2016 Karen Boardman, Chair, not in attendance. Participating in DOE HQ Conference Call. Dave Chaney, Deputy Chair, opened the meeting and welcomed everyone. CY 2015 Workforce Analysis (WFA) - Due January 18, 2016 Dave C. reminded everyone of the CY 2015 WFA deliverable. Jeanette Yarrington reported that she has received 8-9 reports to date. ACTION: Workforce Analysis Due Date: January 18, 2016 NV Reaccreditation - S-2

  3. Catalysis Workshop

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Opportunities in Catalysis Research Using Synchrotron Radiation Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory October 8-9, 2002 Organizer: Anders Nilsson Chemical catalysis is one of the research areas of enormous importance for the industrial society. There are important challenges to be met in the near future where development of new processes and catalysts are a necessity. We need to find a way to make methanol from methane, split water into hydrogen using sunlight, find replacement of platinum

  4. transims-application-and-development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    TRANSIMS: Applications and Development Workshop : April 8-9, 2010 Organizers Dr. Hubert Ley Dr. Vadim Sokolov This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Brian Gardner Office of Planning Federal Highway Administration This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Agenda Announcement pdficon small Accompanying Materials Adobe Connect Recording Links Accompanying Materials Introduction to the TRANSIMS

  5. Manufacturing Innovation Topics Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) and the Office of the Secretary of Defense Manufacturing Technology Program (OSD ManTech) will host a workshop to discuss AMO's recent Request for Information (RFI) on Clean Energy Manufacturing Topic Areas as well as the recent areas of interest announced by OSD ManTech for a new Manufacturing Innovation Institute on October 8-9, 2014 in Fort Worth, TX.

  6. untitled

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2006 ... 28.9 29.8 7.3 143.7 37.4 188.4 2.9 2.9 0.5 9.3 - 9.7 2007 January ... 27.8 28.4 6.8 143.1 33.2 183.1 2.6 2.6 0.5 8.9 - 9.4...

  7. Process for producing peracids from aliphatic hydroxy carboxylic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chum, Helena L.; Ratcliff, Matthew A.; Palasz, Peter D.

    1986-01-01

    A process for producing peracids from lactic acid-containing solutions derived from biomass processing systems comprising: adjusting the pH of the solution to about 8-9 and removing alkaline residue fractions therefrom to form a solution comprised substantially of lower aliphatic hydroxy acids; oxidizing the solution to produce volatile lower aliphatic aldehydes; removing said aldehydes as they are generated; and converting said aldehydes to peracids.

  8. 2012 News | Awards and Honors | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 National Electricity Forum 2012 National Electricity Forum At the 2012 National Electricity Forum, held February 8-9, 2012 and jointly organized by DOE's Office of Electricity Delivery & Energy Reliability (OE) and the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC), the GTT presented its vision of the future grid. Return to GTT Activities PDF icon 2012 National Electricity Forum - GTT Vision of the Future Grid, Lauren Azar (DOE) More Documents & Publications GTT 2012

  9. Southwestern Power Administration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    09 Meeting 2008 Meeting 2007 Meeting 2006 Meeting 2010 Hydropower Meeting The 2010 Regional Hydropower Council and Meeting were hosted by the Little Rock District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in Branson, Missouri. Click the links below to view materials from the council and meeting. June 8-9, 2010, Council Skip Navigation Links 2010 Hydropower Council Agenda FY 2011 Proposed Project Packet FY 2012 Preliminary Project Packet June 9-10, 2010, Meeting Skip Navigation Links 2010 Hydropower

  10. What's New with CINT Discovery Platforms?. (Conference) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    What's New with CINT Discovery Platforms?. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: What's New with CINT Discovery Platforms?. Abstract not provided. Authors: Sullivan, John P Publication Date: 2011-12-01 OSTI Identifier: 1118379 Report Number(s): SAND2011-9207C 481426 DOE Contract Number: AC04-94AL85000 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: 2011 CINT Science Advisory Commitee Meeting held December 8-9, 2011 in Santa Fe, NM.; Related Information: Proposed for presentation at

  11. 2011 Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Final Report | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Final Report 2011 Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Final Report Report from the Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop held May 8-9, 2011, in Arlington, Virginia. The body of the report focuses on the discussion that occurred within breakout sessions. The Executive Summary presents a few select highlights from each session. PDF icon 2011 Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Final Report More Documents & Publications 2011 Alkaline Membrane

  12. A Brief Overview of Hydrogen Storage Issues and Needs | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy A Brief Overview of Hydrogen Storage Issues and Needs A Brief Overview of Hydrogen Storage Issues and Needs Presentation by George Thomas at the Joint Meeting on Hydrogen Delivery Modeling and Analysis, May 8-9, 2007 PDF icon deliv_analysis_thomas.pdf More Documents & Publications On-Board Storage Systems Analysis The U.S. National Hydrogen Storage Project Overview (presentation) DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record 9017: On-Board Hydrogen Storage Systems - Projected

  13. Analyses of Hydrogen Storage Materials and On-Board Systems | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Hydrogen Storage Materials and On-Board Systems Analyses of Hydrogen Storage Materials and On-Board Systems Presentation by Stephen Lasher of TIAX for Joint Meeting on Hydrogen Delivery Modeling and Analysis, May 8-9, 2007. PDF icon deliv_analysis_lasher.pdf More Documents & Publications Technical Assessment of Organic Liquid Carrier Hydrogen Storage Systems for Automotive Applications Cost Analysis of Hydrogen Storage Systems Technical Assessment of Cryo-Compressed Hydrogen

  14. ARM - Events Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    19, 2011 [Events] 2011 Far-Infrared Remote Sensing Workshop Bookmark and Share The 2011 Workshop on Far-Infrared Remote Sensing (FIRS) will be held in Madison, Wisconsin, on November 8-9, 2011. The two-day meeting will include invited speakers, a full poster session, time for discussions, and a workshop dinner. Topics to be discussed include: instrumentation, radiative transfer model development and validation, thermodynamic profiling, cloud property remote sensing, and climate studies.

  15. United States Government

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    12.'6/0.2 ...... 13:27 FAX 301 903 4656 CAPITAL REGION 1]003 OE F f325.8 EFG (07.-0) United States Government Deparment of Energy memorandum DATE: 05 2002 REPLY TO: IG-34 (A02AT015) Audit Report Numbser: OAS-L-03-04 SUBJECT: Follow-Up Audit on Internet Privacy TO: Chief Information Officer, IM-1 The purpose of this report is to inform you of the results of our follow-up review of the Department of Energy's Internet Privacy initiatives. This review was performed from June 2002 to October 2002 at

  16. United States Government

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    cr--ceut w.:3 i-Kun: TO:202 586 1660 P.002/006 DOE F 1325. EFG (07.PO) United States Government Department of Energy memorandum DATE: September 24, 2004 Audit Report Number: OAS-L-04-24 REPLY TO ATTN OF: IG-35 (A04AL004) SUBJECT: Audit Report on "The National Nuclear Security Administration's Secure Transportation Asset Program" TO: Deputy Administrator for Defense Programs, National Nuclear Security Administration INTRODUCTION AND OBIECTV E The Secure Transportation Asset (STA)

  17. Ufl

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    D*E(;;~8 \3s. 8 -\ . EFG (07.9:Q - lJ hit&d States Government - I_ memorandum Ufl Department of Energy ------ r ( \' * ;1;1.-' ,p "I (-pQ ( +;y, ---- [ 2 \ \ ! DATE: REPLY TO ATTN OF: AUG 12 1991 SUBJECT: EM-421 (J. Wagoner, 3-8147) Elimination of the Metcut Research Site TO: The File I have reviewed the attached site summary and elimination recommendation for the Metcut Research Site. I have determined that there is little likelihood of radioactive contamination at this site. Based on

  18. United States Government

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    COE F r31ffs (S-89) EFG (37-90) United States Government memorandum f;' "* 5 P ,A ~4&t&y Department o F7 q;' 3 j-1 - ("J 1 [--A Q ' f ' -\' ( --_-_ -- DATE: MAY 29 l%H R' ;J$ EM-421 SUBJECT: Elimination of the Radiation Applications Incorporated Site Tc: The File I have reviewed the attached site summary and elimination recommendation for the Radiation Applications Incorporated Site in New York City. I have determined that there is little likelihood of radioactive contamination

  19. W89,

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    W89, EFG ,cl,.oo) IL. 3a- vI., Uhiied States Government memorandum ~ DATE: AUG 1 2 1991. r+@- REPLY TO ** Al-m OF: EM-421 (J. Wagoner, 3-8147d*/ SUEJECT: Elimination of the Ordnance Plant Site - TO: The File I have reviewed the attached site summary and elimination recommendat for the Kankakee Ordnance Plant Site in Kankakee, Illinois. I have determined that there is little likelihood of radioactive contaminati this site. Based on the above, the Kankakee Ordnance Plant Site is hereby elimin from

  20. II United States Government DATE: REPLY TO Al-TN OF: SUBJECT:

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    r.@& * EFG (07-W,' . II United States Government DATE: REPLY TO Al-TN OF: SUBJECT: TO: EM-421 (W. A. W illiams, 903-8149) Authorization for Remedial Action at the Former Baker Brothers Inc. Site, Toledo, Ohio Manager, DOE Oak Ridge Field Office This is to notify you that the Former Baker Brothers, Inc. site in Toledo, Ohio, is designated for remedial action under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). This notification does not constitute a FUSRAP baseline change

  1. QA. J I-3 - Ukited States Government

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    lmEFl&25.a . EFG (QWO) * QA. J I-3 - Ukited States Government memorandum Department of Energy p&j ' ;A DATE: OCT 0 8 1992 REPLY TO AlT' N OF: EM-421 (W. A. Williams, 903-8149) r/7.1\ SUBJECT: Authorization for Remedial Action at the Former C. H. Schnoor & Company Site, Springdale, Pennsylvania TO: Manager, DOE Oak Ridge Field Office This is to notify you that the former C. H. Schnoor & Company facility in Springdale, Pennsylvania, is designated for remedial action under the

  2. Electromigration process for the purification of molten silicon during crystal growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lovelace, Alan M. Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space; Shlichta, Paul J.

    1982-01-01

    A process for the purification of molten materials during crystal growth by electromigration of impurities to localized dirty zones. The process has particular applications for silicon crystal growth according to Czochralski techniques and edge-defined film-fed growth (EFG) conditions. In the Czochralski crystal growing process, the impurities are electromigrated away from the crystallization interface by applying a direct electrical current to the molten silicon for electromigrating the charged impurities away from the crystal growth interface. In the EFG crystal growth process, a direct electrical current is applied between the two faces which are used in forming the molten silicon into a ribbon. The impurities are thereby migrated to one side only of the crystal ribbon. The impurities may be removed or left in place. If left in place, they will not adversely affect the ribbon when used in solar collectors. The migration of the impurity to one side only of the silicon ribbon is especially suitable for use with asymmetric dies which preferentially crystallize uncharged impurities along one side or face of the ribbon.

  3. Localization of vacancies and mobility of lithium ions in Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} as obtained by {sup 6,7}Li NMR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baklanova, Ya. V., E-mail: baklanovay@ihim.uran.ru [Institute of Solid State Chemistry, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 91 Pervomaiskaya str., 620990 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Arapova, I. Yu.; Buzlukov, A.L.; Gerashenko, A.P.; Verkhovskii, S.V.; Mikhalev, K.N. [Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 18 Kovalevskaya str., 620990 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Denisova, T.A.; Shein, I.R.; Maksimova, L.G. [Institute of Solid State Chemistry, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 91 Pervomaiskaya str., 620990 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2013-12-15

    The {sup 6,7}Li NMR spectra and the {sup 7}Li spinlattice relaxation rate were measured on polycrystalline samples of Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}, synthesized at 1050 K and 1300 K. The {sup 7}Li NMR lines were attributed to corresponding structural positions of lithium Li1 and Li2 by comparing the EFG components with those obtained in the first-principles calculations of the charge density in Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}. For both samples the line width of the central {sup 7}Li transition and the spinlattice relaxation time decrease abruptly at the temperature increasing above ?500 K, whereas the EFG parameters are averaged (??{sub Q}?=42 (5) kHz) owing to thermally activated diffusion of lithium ions. - Graphical abstract: Path of lithium ion hopping in lithium zirconate Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}. - Highlights: Polycrystalline samples Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} with monoclinic crystal structure synthesized at different temperatures were investigated by {sup 6,7}Li NMR spectroscopy. Two {sup 6,7}Li NMR lines were attributed to the specific structural positions Li1 and Li2. The distribution of vacancies was clarified for both lithium sites. The activation energy and pathways of lithium diffusion in Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} were defined.

  4. United States Government Department of Energy Memorandum

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    9/25/03 THU_13:54 FAX 423 241 3897 OIG *-- HQ @002 DOxR F 1325.8 E -' (07.90) ' United States Government Department of Energy Memorandum DATE: September 25, 2003 REPLY TO IG-36 (A03SR035) Audit Report No.: OAS-L-03-22 ATTN OF: SUBJECT: Audit of Relocation of Administrative Personnel from A-Area to B-Area at the Savannah River Site TO; Jeffrey M. Allison, Manager, Savannah River Operations Office INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE In an effort to reduce operating costs at the Savannah River Site, the

  5. Buildings Energy Data Book: 3.9 Educational Facilities

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    2 Number of Elementary and Secondary Schools in the United States, Enrollment, and Students per School, 2007-2008 Number of Average Schools Enrollment Students (thousands) (millions) per School Public Schools 98.9 49.2 498 Elementary 67.1 Secondary 24.6 Combined 5.9 Other (1) 1.3 Private Schools 33.7 6.0 177 Elementary 21.9 Secondary 2.9 Combined 8.9 Note(s): Source(s): 1) Includes special education, alternative, and other schools not classified by grade span. U.S. Department of

  6. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint - Sector: Machinery (NAICS 333), January 2014 (MECS 2010)

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Machinery (NAICS 333) Process Energy Electricity and Steam Generation Losses Process Losses 1 Nonprocess Losses 288 37 Steam Distribution Losses 1 27 Nonprocess Energy 77 Electricity Generation Steam Generation 288 0 Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy, Advanced Manufacturing Office by Energetics Incorporated 67 78 70 Generation and Transmission Losses Generation and Transmission Losses 0 141 144 139 8 147 211 1 7 0.0 12.2 12.3 1.8 8.9 6.9 16 4.2 16.4 2.0 Fuel Total Primary Energy, 2010

  7. Table 8.12a Electric Noncoincident Peak Load and Capacity Margin: Summer Peak Period, 1986-2011 (Megawatts, Except as Noted)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    a Electric Noncoincident Peak Load and Capacity Margin: Summer Peak Period, 1986-2011 (Megawatts, Except as Noted) Year Noncoincident Peak Load 1 by North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) 2 Regional Assessment Area Capacity Margin 21 (percent) Eastern Interconnection ERCOT 4 Western Inter- connection All Inter- connections FRCC 5 NPCC 6 Balance of Eastern Region 3 ECAR 7,8 MAAC 8,9 MAIN 8,10 MAPP 11 MISO 12 MRO 13 PJM 14 RFC 8,15 SERC 16 SPP 17 Subtotal TRE 18 WECC 19 Total 20

  8. Table 8.12b Electric Noncoincident Peak Load and Capacity Margin: Winter Peak Period, 1986-2011 (Megawatts, Except as Noted)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    b Electric Noncoincident Peak Load and Capacity Margin: Winter Peak Period, 1986-2011 (Megawatts, Except as Noted) Year Noncoincident Peak Load 1 by North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) 2 Regional Assessment Area Capacity Margin 21 (percent) Eastern Interconnection ERCOT 4 Western Inter- connection All Inter- connections FRCC 5 NPCC 6 Balance of Eastern Region 3 ECAR 7,8 MAAC 8,9 MAIN 8,10 MAPP 11 MISO 12 MRO 13 PJM 14 RFC 8,15 SERC 16 SPP 17 Subtotal TRE 18 WECC 19 Total 20

  9. Table HC9.11 Home Electronics Characteristics by Climate Zone, 2005

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    11 Home Electronics Characteristics by Climate Zone, 2005 Million U.S. Housing Units Total................................................................... 111.1 10.9 26.1 27.3 24.0 22.8 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer ............... 35.5 3.2 8.3 8.9 7.7 7.5 Use a Personal Computer............................. 75.6 7.8 17.8 18.4 16.3 15.3 Number of Desktop PCs 1.............................................................. 50.3 5.1 12.4 11.9 10.5 10.4

  10. This

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    i l, L _l i, ,, , i i i n , ,, To be presented at the Symposium on the Science of Advanced Batteries, Cleveland, Ohio, November 8-9, 1993 and published in Proceedings i i i i ill I H I I I II II THIN-FILM RECHARGEABLE LITHIUM BATTERIES J. B. Bates, G. R. Gruzalski, N. J. Dudney, C. F. Luck, Xiaohua Yu Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6030 "The submiue.al manuscript hu been au_ox_t by * contractor of the U.S. Government unde_ o_ntract No. DE-AC05-g4OR21400.

  11. Turbulence Model on NERSC's CRAY T3E Jean-Noel Leboeuf and Vickie Lynch

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Parallelization of a 3D Plasma Fluid Turbulence Model on NERSC's CRAY T3E Jean-Noel Leboeuf and Vickie Lynch Fusion Energy Division Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, TN 37831-8071 Users Helping Users (UHU) Workshop NERSC April 8-9, 1998 Outline * Motivation * Model and Numerics * Parallel Implementation on T3E * T3E Issues Motivation * Part of the Numerical Tokamak Turbulence Project (NTTP), a DoE Phase II Grand Challenge * Task is to develop fluid models of plasma transport across

  12. Women & the Department of Ecology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Program Agency Update Hanford Advisory Board John Price April 13, 2016 Near-term Engagement Opportunities with Alex Smith * May 2-5: State and Tribal Government Working Group, Spring Meeting (New York) - May 3-4: HAB Leadership Workshop - Alex will not attend * May 9: Oregon Hanford Cleanup Board, Pendleton * May 24-26: Forum for Shared Conversation, Leavenworth * June 8-9: Hanford Advisory Board 2 Sitewide Permit Update: Rev 8c * Current Permit Modifications for Rev. 8c - Solid Waste Operations

  13. bectcom-intdry | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 Integrated Dry NOx/SO2 Emissions Control System - Project Brief [PDF-267KB] Public Service Company of Colorado, Denver, CO PROGRAM PUBLICATIONS Final Reports Integrated Dry NOx/SO2 Emissions Control System Final Report, Vol. 1: Public Design [PDF-9.3MB] (Nov 1997) Final Report, Vol. 2: Project Performance and Economics [PDF-13.6MB] (Sept 1999) Vol. 2, Appendices A, B, C, and D [PDF-3.3MB] Vol. 2, Appendix E [PDF-11MB] Vol. 2, Appendix F [PDF-8.9MB] Vol. 2, Appendix G, H, and I [PDF-3.54MB] CCT

  14. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Maine Represented...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 7.1 9.5 8.2 5.5 7.6 14.7 17.1 12.4 4.5 8.9 4.5 3.6 2002 13.5 1.7 6.8 1.5 1.6 1.2 100.0 0.8 100.0 0.7 0.8 1.0 2003 10.9...

  15. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Iowa Represented...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 9.5 10.3 7.4 5.5 6.3 3.3 6.0 4.5 5.4 7.8 10.9 9.9 2002 8.5 5.3 8.3 6.1 4.9 5.4 5.4 5.2 5.6 10.4 12.8 10.2 2003 10.3 8.9...

  16. Power Supplies for Space Systems Quality Assurance by Sandia Laboratories

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Hannigan, R. L.; Harnar, R. R.

    1976-07-01

    The Sandia Laboratories` participation in Quality Assurance programs for Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generators which have been used in space systems over the past 10 years is summarized. Basic elements of this QA program are briefly described and recognition of assistance from other Sandia organizations is included. Descriptions of the various systems for which Sandia has had the QA responsibility are presented, including SNAP 19 (Nimbus, Pioneer, Viking), SNAP 27 (Apollo), Transit, Multi Hundred Watt (LES 8/9 and MJS), and a new program, High Performance Generator Mod 3. The outlook for Sandia participation in RTG programs for the next several years is noted.

  17. BooNE: Booster Neutrino Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Beamline Proton beam 8.89 GeV/c protons from the Fermilab Booster are incident on a beryllium target. The beam is modeled with measured mean position and angle with Gaussian smearing. MiniBooNE simulates the effects of varying the spread in the beam and different focus points of the beam. The typical proton beam contains 4 x 10¹² protons delivered in a spill approximately 1.6 µs in duration. The absolute number of protons on target (p.o.t) is measured by two toroids upstream of the target.

  18. BooNE: Booster Neutrino Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Flux The MiniBooNE neutrino flux calculations are described in detail in PRD 79, 072002 (2009) and arXiv:0806.1449 General neutrino fluxes vs true neutrino energy, for MiniBooNE: image:muon neutrino flux image:electron neutrino flux image:final muon and electron neutrino fluxes π+ production Data sets: M.G. Catanesi et al. [HARP Collaboration], ``Measurement of the production cross-section of positive pions in the collision of 8.9-GeV/c protons on beryllium,'', arXiv:hep-ex/0702024 E910

  19. Newman.ppt

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large---Scale Geophysical Imaging and Simula7on Gregory A N ewman Lawrence B erkeley N a0onal L aboratory Geophysics D epartment NERSC BES Requirements for 2017 October 8-9, 2013 Gaithersburg, MD Why HPC => Time to Solution * Why i s t his i mportant? - More S cience C an G et D one - More B reakthroughs - More P ublica0ons - More R ealis0c M odels - More U nderstanding - End M ember S imula0ons - Time S ensi0ve D ecisions GEOPHYSICIAL I MAGING * Seismic - 3D R everse T ime M igra0on * Large

  20. September 2012, Training Work Group Status Overview

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Training Work Group Status Overview Accomplishments: 1. May 7-8. Attended NIEHS Trainer's Exchange in Oak Ridge. 2. May 8-9. Joined HAMMER in visiting Oak Ridge entities to build support for the Radworker pilot. Entities visited included ORISE, Y-12, DOE TRU Project, and local labor entities. 3. June 19-20. Participated with Char Wells, Sandia National Laboratory Training Manager, (NTC, NIEHS and HAMMER in attendance) at a DOE M&O contractor led Learning/Training Workshop. - Obtained EFCOG

  1. FUNDING BY APPROPRIATION

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    APPROPRIATION FY 2014 FY 2014 FY 2015 FY 2016 Enacted Current Enacted Request $ % Department of Energy Budget by Appropriation Energy and Water Development, and Related Agencies Energy Programs Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy 1,900,641 1,824,876 1,914,195 2,722,987 +808,792 +42.3% Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability 147,242 144,205 146,975 270,100 +123,125 +83.8% Nuclear Energy 888,376 877,620 833,379 907,574 +74,195 +8.9% Fossil Energy Programs Clean Coal Technology 0 0 -6,600 0

  2. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Arkansas Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 92.3 91.5 90.7 91.8 95.1 96.0 95.0 94.2 90.8 89.3 2000's 89.9 87.0 80.8 81.9 80.3 74.1 71.7 70.4 64.5 59.4 2010's 55.6 51.5 40.2 43.7 45.5 42.5

  3. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Mississippi Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 95.6 95.9 96.4 96.6 96.6 97.0 97.4 94.8 94.8 96.0 2000's 95.6 95.7 96.7 95.9 95.7 95.7 94.9 88.8 90.4 91.0 2010's 90.6 89.8 89.0 89.1 87.5 NA

  4. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Tennessee Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 97.5 95.7 96.4 95.8 94.1 93.8 94.3 92.2 87.3 88.8 2000's 92.5 93.6 90.9 90.5 92.2 92.2 92.0 91.9 91.7 90.2 2010's 90.8 89.9 88.8 90.0 90.7 88.6

  5. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Texas Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 89.8 89.3 79.7 83.8 82.4 68.6 83.5 61.4 81.0 77.3 2000's 79.0 88.4 71.8 73.7 74.6 79.5 82.0 81.9 82.5 78.3 2010's 76.4 73.4 72.4 72.8 72.6 NA

  6. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Washington Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 93.6 92.2 87.3 93.9 95.4 91.8 85.9 84.1 86.8 89.3 2000's 92.7 94.0 89.8 88.0 88.5 88.8 88.9 89.2 89.0 88.7 2010's 87.8 88.4 87.4 86.8 86.0 85.2

  7. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Nebraska Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 27.0 12.7 14.2 2000's 15.4 18.0 15.7 16.5 16.5 16.3 11.6 9.7 10.2 8.9 2010's 8.2 7.6 6.8 7.8 7.4 7.1

  8. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Utah Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 8.9 8.6 9.5 2000's 10.0 10.4 13.6 13.6 19.8 19.5 20.1 14.1 12.7 12.2 2010's 12.1 12.7 11.0 11.1 10.5 8.6

  9. RyneRevised.ppt

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Robert D . R yne LBNL NERSC BES Requirements for 2017 October 8-9, 2013 Gaithersburg, MD Present and Future Computing Requirements for "Frontiers in Accelerator Design: Advanced Modeling for Next-Generation BES Accelerators" (repo m669) 1. P roject D escrip6on PI: R obert R yne ( LBNL) Senior p ersonnel: J i Q iang ( LBNL), C ho N g ( SLAC), B ruce C arlsten ( LANL) * repo m 669 s upports B ES a ccelerator d esign * concept e xplora6on; a ccelerator s ystem & a ccelerator component

  10. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vermont profile Vermont total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 620 55.0 4,782 72.2 Hydro and Pumped Storage 324 28.7 1,347 20.3 Natural Gas - - 4 0.1 Other Renewable1 84 7.5 482 7.3 Petroleum 100 8.9 5 0.1 Total 1,128 100.0 6,620 100.0 1Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the

  11. Million U.S. Housing Units Total............................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer......................... 35.5 3.2 8.3 8.9 7.7 7.5 Use a Personal Computer...................................... 75.6 7.8 17.8 18.4 16.3 15.3 Most-Used Personal Computer Type of PC Desk-top Model................................................. 58.6 6.2 14.3 14.2 12.1 11.9 Laptop Model.................................................... 16.9 1.6 3.5 4.3 4.2 3.4 Hours Turned on Per Week Less than 2 Hours.............................................

  12. United States Government Department of Energy DATE:

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    kE FJ325.8 d& * 9 -1 . (8-89) ZFG fO7440 1 United States Government Department of Energy DATE: DEC 2 3 :gg3 REPLY TO ATTN OF: EM-421 (W. A. Williams, 903-8149) SUBJECT: Elimination of the Sites from the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program TO: The File I have reviewed the attached site summaries and elimination recommendations for the following sites: e l Mitts & Merrel Co., Saginaw, Michigan l North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina l National Smelt &

  13. K9/9J)$&95LL"4-5&&

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    exotic proton-rich nuclei !"#"$%&'%()*+&,-./$$"&0%1/$%#&2%3/-%4/-5& ,62,7&89"-&:""1$.&;< 4= >;? 4= &:%5&@A;B& !"#$%#$&'()%#*%#$+%,-./0.--.123454%6*77&8*9&:*';% ,-./$$"&0%1/$%#&2%3/-%4/-5& 8$)("-9)45&/C&D*)$3E-.=& 8$)("-9)45&/C&:%-5#%$*&&

  14. Appendix A: Reference case projections

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Japan 21.2 20.8 21.7 22.0 21.8 21.6 20.8 0.0 South Korea 11.3 11.4 13.7 14.4 15.0 15.5 15.9 1.2 Australia and New Zealand 6.9 6.8 7.5 7.9 8.3 8.9 9.6 1.2 Total OECD 242.0 238.4 ...

  15. Agenda

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Agenda Agenda ERSUG Agenda Jan. 8-9, 1996 Berkeley Lab Monday, Jan. 8 8:00 Shuttle Buses arrive at Marriott 8:15 Buses Depart promptly for Berkeley Lab 8:45 Coffee 9:15 Report from the MICS Program Office -- Kitchens 9:45 NERSC / ESnet -- McCurdy, Leighton, McCoy, Jette, Welcome, - What stays the same - Shape and Scope of the NERSC at Berkeley Lab, including integration to ER programs increased partnering distributed computing 11:45 Break 12:00 Working Lunch -- Pier Oddone Vision for program

  16. Argonne Physics Division - ATLAS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    This is the second announcement of the ATLAS User Group Meeting that will take place on August 8-9, 2009. As stated in our original message (http://www.phy.anl.gov/atlas/workshop09/FirstAnnouncement.html), the workshop will be an opportunity to: (1) update everyone on the new capabilities of ATLAS and (2) refine the vision of the future of ATLAS. It is essential that this workshop be attended by as many users as possible as it will define the very future of the facility. In other words, if ATLAS

  17. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Vermont profile Vermont total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 620 55.0 4,782 72.2 Hydro and Pumped Storage 324 28.7 1,347 20.3 Natural Gas - - 4 0.1 Other Renewable1 84 7.5 482 7.3 Petroleum 100 8.9 5 0.1 Total 1,128 100.0 6,620 100.0 1Municipal Solid Waste net generation is allocated according to the

  18. DOE F

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    1325.8. (8-89) EFO IO?-90) United States Government Department of Energy memorandum _._ ._, \\--C' - ,, 0, DATE: AUG 3, 9 !gg4 \c. -7 REPLY TO AlTN OF: Eli-421 (U. A. Williillas, 427-1719) SUBJECT: Elimination of the Sites from the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Actieu Program To' The File In 1990, with the assistance of Mr. Doug Tonkay and Ms. Michelle Landis, I reviewed a number of sites that had formerly provided goods and/or services to the Fernald facility as subcontractors. For 24 of

  19. BigHorn Home Improvement Center Energy Performance: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deru, M.; Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2006-04-01

    This is one of the nation's first commercial building projects to integrate extensive high-performance design into a retail space. The extensive use of natural light, combined with energy-efficient electrical lighting design, provides good illumination and excellent energy savings. The reduced lighting loads, management of solar gains, and cool climate allow natural ventilation to meet the cooling loads. A hydronic radiant floor system, gas-fired radiant heaters, and a transpired solar collector deliver heat. An 8.9-kW roof-integrated photovoltaic (PV) system offsets a portion of the electricity.

  20. User_agenda_09_B

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    USERS WORKSHOP: AGENDA August 8-9, 2009 Bldg 203, Auditorium Saturday, August 8 (Bldg. 203 Auditorium) 8:45- 9:15 Registration & Coffee 9:15 - 9:30 Welcome & introduction to the meeting W. Loveland An updated Strategic Plan: Why? R. Janssens 9:30 - 10:00 Status of ATLAS (& Energy Upgrade) R. Pardo 10:00 - 10:30 Status of CARIBU R. Pardo/G. Savard 10:30 - 10:45 Coffee 10:45 - 12:45 Status report on existing equipment & planned upgrades* 10:45 - 11:00 HELIOS A. Wuosmaa 11:00 -

  1. " Million U.S. Housing Units"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    HC8.9 Home Appliances Characteristics by Urban/Rural Location, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"Urban/Rural Location (as Self-Reported)" ,"Housing Units (millions)" "Home Appliances Characteristics",,"City","Town","Suburbs","Rural" "Total U.S.",111.1,47.1,19,22.7,22.3 "Cooking Appliances" "Conventional Ovens" "Use an Oven",109.6,46.2,18.8,22.5,22.1

  2. Recovery Act Workers Complete Environmental Cleanup of Coal Ash Basin

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Site (SRS) recently cleaned up a 17- acre basin containing coal ash residues from Cold War operations. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act project was safely completed at a cost of $8.9 million, $2.9 million under budget. The manmade earthen basin received ash from the former R Area Pow- erhouse operations, which ended in 1964. The first of five reactors con- structed at SRS, the R Reactor produced nuclear materials for national defense. Recovery Act funding allowed SRS to accelerate

  3. Wisconsin Nuclear Profile - All Fuels

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010" "Primary energy source","Summer capacity (nw)","Share of State total (percent)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State total (percent)" "Nuclear","1,584",8.9,"13,281",20.7 "Coal","8,063",45.2,"40,169",62.5 "Hydro and Pumped Storage",492,2.8,"2,112",3.3

  4. Wyoming Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wyoming Primary Renewable Energy Capacity Source Wind Primary Renewable Energy Generation Source Wind Capacity (megawatts) Value Percent of State Total Total Net Summer Electricity Capacity 7,986 100.0 Total Net Summer Renewable Capacity 1,722 21.6 Geothermal - - Hydro Conventional 307 3.8 Solar - - Wind 1,415 17.7 Wood/Wood Waste - - MSW/Landfill Gas - - Other Biomass - - Generation (thousand megawatthours) Total Electricity Net Generation 48,119 100.0 Total Renewable Net Generation 4,271 8.9

  5. 2011 Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pivovar, B.

    2012-02-01

    A workshop addressing the current state-of-the-art in alkaline membrane fuel cells (AMFCs) was held May 8-9, 2011, at the Crystal Gateway Marriott in Arlington, Virginia. This workshop was the second of its kind, with the first being held December 11-13, 2006, in Phoenix, Arizona. The 2011 workshop and associated workshop report were created to assess the current state of AMFC technology (taking into account recent advances), investigate the performance potential of AMFC systems across all possible power ranges and applications, and identify the key research needs for commercial competitiveness in a variety of areas.

  6. BES2017-v2.10

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Basic Energy Sciences: Target 2017 Report of the NERSC Requirements Review Conducted October 8-9, 2013 Large S cale C omputing a nd S torage R equirements f or B asic E nergy S ciences: T arget 2 017 1 Large S cale C omputing a nd S torage R equirements f or B asic E nergy S ciences: T arget 2 017 2 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of a workshop sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy. Neither t he U nited S tates G overnment n or a ny a gency t hereof, n or a ny o f t heir e

  7. Mssbauer investigations of hyperfine interactions features of {sup 57}Fe nuclei in BiFeO{sub 3} ferrite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sobolev, Alexey, E-mail: salex12@rambler.ru; Presniakov, Igor, E-mail: salex12@rambler.ru; Rusakov, Vyacheslav, E-mail: salex12@rambler.ru; Matsnev, Mikhail; Gorchakov, Dmitry; Glazkova, Iana [Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991, Moscow (Russian Federation); Belik, Alexey [International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (MANA), National Institute for Material Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-0044 (Japan)

    2014-10-27

    New results of {sup 57}Fe Mssbauer studies on BiFeO{sub 3} powder sample performed at various temperatures above and below magnetic phase transitions point T{sub N} ? 640K are reported. We have performed self-consistent calculations of the lattice contributions to the EFG tensor, taking into account dipole moments of the O{sup 2?} and Bi{sup 3+} ions. Low-temperature {sup 57}Fe Mssbauer spectra recorded at T < T{sub N} were analyzed assuming an anharmonic cycloidal modulation of the Fe{sup 3+} magnetic moments. The cycloidal modulation of the iron spin was described with the elliptic Jacobi function sn[(4K(m)/?)x,m]. The good fit of the experimental spectra was obtained for the anharmonicity m = 0.44 0.04 (T = 4.9K) resulting from the easy-axis magnetic anisotropy.

  8. Buildings Energy Data Book: 3.9 Educational Facilities

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    4 Energy Benchmarks for Existing Large Hotels, by Selected City and End-Use (thousand Btu per square foot) IECC Post Pre Post Pre Post Pre Post Pre Miami 1A 1.4 0.1 155.0 142.0 30.1 29.4 8.9 11.2 Houston 2A 7.1 1.9 119.9 117.9 38.1 37.1 8.8 10.8 Phoenix 2B 4.5 1.1 113.2 111.5 33.5 32.7 9.1 11.4 Atlanta 3A 13.1 3.8 91.3 88.5 45.7 44.6 8.8 10.5 Los Angeles 3B 3.1 0.7 77.5 74.9 44.3 43.1 8.9 10.4 Las Vegas 3B 7.4 2.2 78.9 83.0 39.0 38.0 9.0 11.2 San Francisco 3C 8.0 2.6 48.8 49.6 50.8 49.5 8.7 10.0

  9. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Wisconsin Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 94.1 94.2 94.5 94.0 92.6 87.7 86.1 84.2 84.2 84.3 91.1 95.0 1990 91.6 91.5 91.9 91.9 90.3 86.5 83.1 82.4 82.6 87.5 90.1 93.3 1991 93.8 92.3 92.9 91.2 88.8 83.8 80.7 84.7 83.6 86.7 91.5 92.1 1992 92.7 92.1 91.6 90.0 85.8 82.3 83.3 84.1 85.2 90.7 93.4 95.1 1993 95.2 96.0 95.3 93.5 92.1 90.8 89.2 88.5 90.0 92.6 95.2 96.0 1994 97.1 97.6 97.4 96.6 91.8 89.9 83.5 87.1 87.8 90.8 94.4 84.4 1995 93.5 94.0 93.2 92.4 90.0

  10. Maine Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential Consumers (Dollars per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Thousand Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 6.71 6.77 6.72 7.01 7.21 7.96 8.06 8.47 8.59 7.79 7.59 7.08 1990 7.00 7.95 8.08 8.27 7.77 7.56 8.31 8.37 8.21 7.84 7.04 6.77 1991 6.59 6.60 6.69 6.87 7.01 6.95 7.39 7.76 7.36 6.91 6.95 7.01 1992 6.87 6.79 6.90 7.08 6.78 6.76 7.51 7.65 7.12 6.77 6.89 7.12 1993 6.76 6.90 7.12 7.52 8.12 8.30 8.89 9.06 8.56 7.53 7.89 7.80 1994 7.62 7.75 7.89 8.34 7.82 8.04 8.89 9.41 8.33 7.65 7.64 7.36 1995 7.28 7.23 7.43 7.70 6.60

  11. Average Residential Price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    11.39 11.03 10.65 10.32 10.97 10.38 1967-2015 Alabama 15.79 15.08 16.20 15.47 14.59 13.95 1967-2015 Alaska 8.89 8.77 8.47 8.85 9.11 9.68 1967-2015 Arizona 15.87 15.04 15.75 13.92 17.20 17.04 1967-2015 Arkansas 11.53 11.46 11.82 10.46 10.39 11.20 1967-2015 California 9.92 9.93 9.14 9.92 11.51 11.38 1967-2015 Colorado 8.13 8.25 8.28 7.85 8.89 NA 1967-2015 Connecticut 14.93 13.83 14.17 13.32 14.13 12.47 1967-2015 Delaware 15.12 15.38 15.24 13.65 13.21 NA 1967-2015 District of Columbia 13.53 13.06

  12. Kentucky Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Same Month Previous Year (Percent) Percent) Kentucky Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 36.3 23.0 19.6 25.2 19.8 15.5 10.9 5.6 1.2 -2.7 -5.1 -1.7 1992 5.7 8.9 7.7 -0.9 -5.4 -7.3 -8.9 -10.3 -9.2 2.6 8.5 8.4 1993 3.5 -8.1 -14.7 -13.7 -3.8 4.4 9.2 12.9 14.8 3.2 -1.2 -9.6 1994 -25.7 -31.2 -28.1 -20.1 -13.8 -10.6 -7.3 -4.7 -7.2 -4.8 1.4 4.5 1995 14.0 16.7 18.3 14.2 16.8 12.2

  13. MONOLITHIC FUEL FABRICATION PROCESS DEVELOPMENT AT THE IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glenn A. Moore; Francine J. Rice; Nicolas E. Woolstenhulme; W. David SwanK; DeLon C. Haggard; Jan-Fong Jue; Blair H. Park; Steven E. Steffler; N. Pat Hallinan; Michael D. Chapple; Douglas E. Burkes

    2008-10-01

    Within the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program directed by the US Department of Energy (DOE), UMo fuel-foils are being developed in an effort to realize high density monolithic fuel plates for use in high-flux research and test reactors. Namely, targeted are reactors that are not amenable to Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) fuel conversion via utilization of high density dispersion-based fuels, i.e. 8-9 gU/cc. LEU conversion of reactors having a need for >8-9 gU/cc fuel density will only be possible by way of monolithic fuel forms. The UMo fuel foils under development afford fuel meat density of ~16 gU/cc and thus have the potential to facilitate LEU conversions without any significant reactor-performance penalty. Two primary challenges have been established with respect to UMo monolithic fuel development; namely, fuel element fabrication and in-reactor fuel element performance. Both issues are being addressed concurrently at the Idaho National Laboratory. An overview is provided of the ongoing monolithic UMo fuel development effort at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL); including development of complex/graded fuel foils. Fabrication processes to be discussed include: UMo alloying and casting, foil fabrication via hot rolling, fuel-clad interlayer application via co-rolling and thermal spray processes, clad bonding via Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) and Friction Bonding (FB), and fuel plate finishing.

  14. Estimating present climate in a warming world: a model-based approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raeisaenen, J.; Ruokolainen, L. [University of Helsinki (Finland). Division of Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysics

    2008-09-30

    Weather services base their operational definitions of 'present' climate on past observations, using a 30-year normal period such as 1961-1990 or 1971-2000. In a world with ongoing global warming, however, past data give a biased estimate of the actual present-day climate. Here we propose to correct this bias with a 'delta change' method, in which model-simulated climate changes and observed global mean temperature changes are used to extrapolate past observations forward in time, to make them representative of present or future climate conditions. In a hindcast test for the years 1991-2002, the method works well for temperature, with a clear improvement in verification statistics compared to the case in which the hindcast is formed directly from the observations for 1961-1990. However, no improvement is found for precipitation, for which the signal-to-noise ratio between expected anthropogenic changes and interannual variability is much lower than for temperature. An application of the method to the present (around the year 2007) climate suggests that, as a geographical average over land areas excluding Antarctica, 8-9 months per year and 8-9 years per decade can be expected to be warmer than the median for 1971-2000. Along with the overall warming, a substantial increase in the frequency of warm extremes at the expense of cold extremes of monthly-to-annual temperature is expected.

  15. Defect behavior of polycrystalline solar cell silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schroder, D.K.; Park, S.H.; Hwang, I.G.; Mohr, J.B.; Hanly, M.P.

    1993-05-01

    The major objective of this study, conducted from October 1988 to September 1991, was to gain an understanding of the behavior of impurities in polycrystalline silicon and the influence of these impurities on solar cell efficiency. The authors studied edge-defined film-fed growth (EFG) and cast poly-Si materials and solar cells. With EFG Si they concentrated on chromium-doped materials and cells to determine the role of Cr on solar cell performance. Cast poly-Si samples were not deliberately contaminated. Samples were characterized by cell efficiency, current-voltage, deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS), surface photovoltage (SPV), open-circuit voltage decay, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurements. They find that Cr forms Cr-B pairs with boron at room temperature and these pairs dissociate into Cr{sub i}{sup +} and B{sup {minus}} during anneals at 210{degrees}C for 10 min. Following the anneal, Cr-B pairs reform at room temperature with a time constant of 230 h. Chromium forms CrSi{sub 2} precipitates in heavily contaminated regions and they find evidence of CrSi{sub 2} gettering, but a lack of chromium segregation or precipitation to grain boundaries and dislocations. Cr-B pairs have well defined DLTS peaks. However, DLTS spectra of other defects are not well defined, giving broad peaks indicative of defects with a range of energy levels in the band gap. In some high-stress, low-efficiency cast poly-Si they detect SiC precipitates, but not in low-stress, high-efficiency samples. SPV measurements result in nonlinear SPV curves in some materials that are likely due to varying optical absorption coefficients due to locally varying stress in the material.

  16. Buildings Energy Data Book: 3.4 Commercial Environmental Emissions

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    4 2025 Commercial Buildings Energy End-Use Carbon Dioxide Emissions Splits, by Fuel Type (Million Metric Tons) (1) Natural Petroleum Gas Distil. Resid. LPG Oth(2) Total Coal Electricity (3) Total Percent Lighting 171.2 171.2 16.1% Space Heating 89.4 7.7 6.3 0.4 14.3 5.5 25.7 135.0 12.7% Ventilation 94.4 94.4 8.9% Space Cooling 1.8 81.5 83.3 7.8% Electronics 63.8 63.8 6.0% Refrigeration 53.7 53.7 5.1% Computers 31.2 31.2 2.9% Water Heating 27.5 2.3 2.3 14.0 43.7 4.1% Cooking 11.0 3.5 14.5 1.4%

  17. Tennessee Natural Gas Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 View History Wellhead Price 4.35 1967-2010 Pipeline and Distribution Use Price 1967-2005 Citygate Price 5.78 5.23 4.35 4.73 5.37 4.06 1984-2015 Residential Price 10.46 10.21 9.95 9.44 10.13 9.69 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1989-2015 Commercial Price 9.39 9.04 8.36 8.41 9.30 8.46 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Commercial Deliveries included in Prices 90.8 89.9 88.8 90.0 90.7 88.6 1990-2015

  18. TableHC2.10.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coventional Oven Use an Oven......................................................... 109.6 71.3 7.4 7.7 16.4 6.8 More Than Once a Day..................................... 8.9 5.7 0.5 0.6 1.3 0.7 Once a Day....................................................... 19.2 13.3 1.3 1.4 2.1 1.0 Between Once a Day and Once a Week........... 32.0 22.7 2.1 1.8 4.0 1.5 Once a Week.................................................... 19.1 12.2 1.2 1.3 3.0 1.4 Less than Once a

  19. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    60 Vermont Vermont total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 620 55.0 4,782 72.2 Hydro and Pumped Storage 324 28.7 1,347 20.3 Natural Gas - - 4 0.1 Other Renewable 1 84 7.5 482 7.3 Petroleum 100 8.9 5 0.1 Total 1,128 100.0 6,620 100.0 - = No data reported. Source: Form EIA-860, "Annual Electric Generator Report," and Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report." Share of State total (percent) 1 Municipal Solid Waste net

  20. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    63 Wisconsin Wisconsin total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 1,584 8.9 13,281 20.7 Coal 8,063 45.2 40,169 62.5 Hydro and Pumped Storage 492 2.8 2,112 3.3 Natural Gas 6,110 34.3 5,497 8.5 Other 1 21 0.1 63 0.1 Other Renewable 1 775 4.3 2,474 3.8 Petroleum 790 4.4 718 1.1 Total 17,836 100.0 64,314 100.0 Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture

  1. FY 2012 Summary Table by Organization

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5 Department of Energy Budget by Organization (discretionary dollars in thousands) FY 2010 FY 2011 FY 2011 FY 2012 Current Cong. Annualized Cong. Approp. Request CR Request $ % National Security Weapons Activities* 6,386,371 7,008,835 7,008,835 7,629,716 +620,881 +8.9% Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation* 2,131,382 2,687,167 2,136,709 2,549,492 -137,675 -5.1% Naval Reactors* 945,133 1,070,486 945,133 1,153,662 +83,176 +7.8% Office of the Administrator* 410,754 448,267 410,754 450,060 +1,793 +0.4%

  2. Summary of the Second Workshop on Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber Research and Development in the United States

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Acciarri, R.; Adamowski, M.; Artrip, D.; Baller, B.; Bromberg, C.; Cavanna, F.; B. Carls; Chen, H.; Deptuch, G.; Epprecht, L.; et al

    2015-07-28

    The second workshop to discuss the development of liquid argon time projection chambers (LArTPCs) in the United States was held at Fermilab on July 8-9, 2014. The workshop was organized under the auspices of the Coordinating Panel for Advanced Detectors, a body that was initiated by the American Physical Society Division of Particles and Fields. All presentations at the workshop were made in six topical plenary sessions: i) Argon Purity and Cryogenics, ii) TPC and High Voltage, iii) Electronics, Data Acquisition and Triggering, iv) Scintillation Light Detection, v) Calibration and Test Beams, and vi) Software. This document summarizes the currentmore » efforts in each of these areas. It primarily focuses on the work in the US, but also highlights work done elsewhere in the world.« less

  3. BandaFinal.ppt

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    t he A dvanced L ight S ource ( ALS) Banda ALS Berkeley L ab NERSC BES Requirements for 2017 October 8-9, 2013 Gaithersburg, MD Project D escrip0on S enior I nves0gators: R oger F alcone, A LS D irector M ichael B anda, A LS O pera0ons D eputy Problem: "The g rowing c onsensus w ithin l ight s ource s cien0fic communi0es i s t hat s cien0fic i nsight a nd d iscovery a t B ES f acili0es are n ow b eing l imited b y c omputa0onal a nd c ompu0ng c apabili0es much m ore t han b y d etector o r

  4. Minutes of the fourth SALE program participants meeting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-10-01

    This report is a documentation of the presentations made to the Fourth Safeguards Analytical Laboratory Evaluation (S.A.L.E.) Program Participants Meeting at Argonne, Illinois, July 8-9, 1981. The meeting was sponsored by the US Department of Energy and was coordinated by the S.A.L.E. Program of the New Brunswick Laboratory. The objective of the meeting was to provide a forum through which administration of the Program and methods appropriate to the analysis of S.A.L.E. Program samples could be discussed. The Minutes of the Meeting is a collection of presentations by the speakers at the meeting and of the discussions following the presentations. The presentations are included as submitted by the speakers. The discussion sections were transcribed from tape recordings of the meeting and were edited to clarify and emphasize important comments. Seventeen papers have been abstracted and indexed.

  5. Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources and Shipments;

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coke and Shipments Net Residual Distillate Natural LPG and Coal Breeze of Energy Sources NAICS Total(b) Electricity(c) Fuel Oil Fuel Oil(d) Gas(e) NGL(f) (million (million Other(g) Produced Onsite(h) Code(a) Subsector and Industry (trillion Btu) (million kWh) (million bbl) (million bbl) (billion cu ft) (million bbl) short tons) short tons) (trillion Btu) (trillion Btu) Total United States RSE Column Factors: 0.9 1 1.2 1.8 1 1.6 0.8 0.9 1.2 0.4 311 Food 1,123 67,521 2 3 567 1 8 * 89 0 311221 Wet

  6. Structural phase transition of ternary dielectric SmGdO{sub 3}: Evidence from angle dispersive x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopic studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, Yogesh E-mail: satya504@gmail.com Sahoo, Satyaprakash E-mail: satya504@gmail.com Misra, Pankaj; Pavunny, Shojan P.; Katiyar, Ram S. E-mail: satya504@gmail.com; Mishra, A. K.; Dwivedi, Abhilash; Sharma, S. M.

    2015-03-07

    High-pressure synchrotron based angle dispersive x-ray diffraction (ADXRD) studies were carried out on SmGdO{sub 3} (SGO) up to 25.7 GPa at room temperature. ADXRD results indicated a reversible pressure-induced phase transition from ambient monoclinic to hexagonal phase at ∼8.9 GPa. The observed pressure-volume data were fitted with the third order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state yielding zero pressure bulk modulus B{sub 0} = 132(22) and 177(9) GPa for monoclinic (B-type) and hexagonal (A-type) phases, respectively. Pressure dependent micro-Raman spectroscopy further confirmed the monoclinic to hexagonal phase transition at about 5.24 GPa. The mode Grüneisen parameters and pressure coefficients for different Raman modes corresponding to each individual phases of SGO were calculated using pressure dependent Raman mode analysis.

  7. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    60 Vermont Vermont total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 620 55.0 4,782 72.2 Hydro and Pumped Storage 324 28.7 1,347 20.3 Natural Gas - - 4 0.1 Other Renewable 1 84 7.5 482 7.3 Petroleum 100 8.9 5 0.1 Total 1,128 100.0 6,620 100.0 - = No data reported. Source: Form EIA-860, "Annual Electric Generator Report," and Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report." Share of State total (percent) 1 Municipal Solid Waste net

  8. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    63 Wisconsin Wisconsin total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Nuclear 1,584 8.9 13,281 20.7 Coal 8,063 45.2 40,169 62.5 Hydro and Pumped Storage 492 2.8 2,112 3.3 Natural Gas 6,110 34.3 5,497 8.5 Other 1 21 0.1 63 0.1 Other Renewable 1 775 4.3 2,474 3.8 Petroleum 790 4.4 718 1.1 Total 17,836 100.0 64,314 100.0 Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood waste, biogenic municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture

  9. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wisconsin profile Wisconsin total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 1,584 8.9 13,281 20.7 Coal 8,063 45.2 40,169 62.5 Hydro and Pumped Storage 492 2.8 2,112 3.3 Natural Gas 6,110 34.3 5,497 8.5 Other 1 21 0.1 63 0.1 Other Renewable1 775 4.3 2,474 3.8 Petroleum 790 4.4 718 1.1 Total 17,836 100.0 64,314

  10. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in U.S. Total Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 93.1 90.8 89.1 1990's 86.6 85.1 83.2 83.9 79.3 76.7 77.6 70.8 67.0 66.1 2000's 63.9 66.0 77.4 78.2 78.0 82.1 80.8 80.4 79.7 77.8 2010's 77.5 67.3 65.2 65.8 65.8 65.9

  11. Word Pro - Untitled1

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1 Table 5.1b Petroleum Overview, Selected Years, 1949-2011 (Thousand Barrels per Day) Year Field Production 1 Renewable Fuels and Oxygenates 5 Processing Gain 6 Trade Stock Change 8,10 Adjust- ments 11 Petroleum Products Supplied 8 Crude Oil 2 Natural Gas Plant Liquids 4 Total Imports 7,8 Exports Net Imports 8,9 48 States 3 Alaska Total 1949 5,046 0 5,046 430 5,477 NA -2 645 327 318 -8 -38 5,763 1950 5,407 0 5,407 499 5,906 NA 2 850 305 545 -56 -51 6,458 1955 6,807 0 6,807 771 7,578 NA 34 1,248

  12. Alaska Natural Gas Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 View History Wellhead Price 3.17 1967-2010 Exports Price 12.19 12.88 15.71 -- 15.74 1989-2014 Pipeline and Distribution Use Price 1970-2005 Citygate Price 6.67 6.53 6.14 6.02 6.34 6.57 1988-2015 Residential Price 8.89 8.77 8.47 8.85 9.11 9.68 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1989-2015 Commercial Price 8.78 8.09 8.09 8.34 8.30 7.80 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Commercial Deliveries included

  13. Argonne Physics Division - ATLAS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Approved ATLAS Experiments Sorted by PAC meetings: November 6-7, 2015 March 8-9, 2015 September 19, 2014 November 22-23, 2013 December 14-15, 2012 January 13-14, 2012 April 22-23, 2011 April 2-3, 2010 June 26-27, 2009 June 27-28, 2008 November 2-3, 2007 September 15-16, 2006 January 20-21, 2006 May 20-21, 2005 June 4-5, 2004 September 19-20, 2003 February 7-8, 2003 May 3, 2002 October 5, 2001 March 2, 2001 Sep 11, 2000 March 3, 2000 October 11, 1999 May 21, 1999 November 9. 1998 May 8, 1998

  14. The energy transfer in the TEMP-4M pulsed ion beam accelerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Isakova, Y. I.; Pushkarev, A. I.; Khaylov, I. P.

    2013-07-15

    The results of a study of the energy transfer in the TEMP-4M pulsed ion beam accelerator are presented. The energy transfer efficiency in the Blumlein and a self-magnetically insulated ion diode was analyzed. Optimization of the design of the accelerator allows for 85% of energy transferred from Blumlein to the diode (including after-pulses), which indicates that the energy loss in Blumlein and spark gaps is insignificant and not exceeds 10%12%. Most losses occur in the diode. The efficiency of energy supplied to the diode to the energy of accelerated ions is 8%9% for a planar strip self-magnetic MID, 12%15% for focusing diode and 20% for a spiral self-magnetic MID.

  15. Search for New Phenomena in Dijet Angular Distributions in Proton-Proton Collisions at s = 8 TeV Measured with the ATLAS Detector

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; et al

    2015-06-04

    A search for new phenomena in LHC proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of √s=8 TeV was performed with the ATLAS detector using an integrated luminosity of 17.3 fb⁻¹. The angular distributions are studied in events with at least two jets; the highest dijet mass observed is 5.5 TeV. All angular distributions are consistent with the predictions of the standard model. In a benchmark model of quark contact interactions, a compositeness scale below 8.1 TeV in a destructive interference scenario and 12.0 TeV in a constructive interference scenario is excluded at 95% C.L.; median expected limits are 8.9 TeV formore » the destructive interference scenario and 14.1 TeV for the constructive interference scenario.« less

  16. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Wisconsin profile Wisconsin total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010 Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) Share of State total (percent) Nuclear 1,584 8.9 13,281 20.7 Coal 8,063 45.2 40,169 62.5 Hydro and Pumped Storage 492 2.8 2,112 3.3 Natural Gas 6,110 34.3 5,497 8.5 Other 1 21 0.1 63 0.1 Other Renewable1 775 4.3 2,474 3.8 Petroleum 790 4.4 718 1.1 Total 17,836 100.0 64,314

  17. International Energy Outlook 2013

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    5 U.S. Energy Information Administration | International Energy Outlook 2013 Reference case projections by end-use sector and country grouping Table F1. Total world delivered energy consumption by end-use sector and fuel, 2010-2040 (quadrillion Btu) Sector/fuel Projections Average annual percent change, 2010-2040 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 Residential Liquids 9.5 9.5 9.1 8.9 8.7 8.5 8.3 -0.4 Natural gas 19.9 20.8 22.6 24.8 27.1 29.0 30.8 1.5 Coal 4.6 4.4 4.5 4.5 4.4 4.4 4.3 -0.3

  18. Washington Nuclear Profile - All Fuels

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    total electric power industry, summer capacity and net generation, by energy source, 2010" "Primary Energy Source","Summer capacity (mw)","Share of State total (percent)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State total (percent)" "Nuclear","1,097",3.6,"9,241",8.9 "Coal","1,340",4.4,"8,527",8.2 "Hydro and Pumped Storage","21,495",70.5,"68,342",66.0

  19. Summary of the Second Workshop on Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber Research and Development in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Acciarri, R.; Adamowski, M.; Artrip, D.; Baller, B.; Bromberg, C.; Cavanna, F.; B. Carls; Chen, H.; Deptuch, G.; Epprecht, L.; Dharmapalan, R.; Foreman, W.; Hahn, A.; Johnson, M.; Jones, B. J.P.; Junk, T.; Lang, K.; Lockwitz, S.; Marchionni, A.; Mauger, C.; Montanari, C.; Mufson, S.; Nessi, M.; Back, H. Olling; Petrillo, G.; Pordes, S.; Raaf, J.; Rebel, B.; Sinins, G.; Soderberg, M.; Spooner, N.; Stancari, M.; Strauss, T.; Terao, K.; Thorn, C.; Tope, T.; Toups, M.; Urheim, J.; Water, R. Van de; Wang, H.; Wasserman, R.; Weber, M.; Whittington, D.; Yang, T.

    2015-07-28

    The second workshop to discuss the development of liquid argon time projection chambers (LArTPCs) in the United States was held at Fermilab on July 8-9, 2014. The workshop was organized under the auspices of the Coordinating Panel for Advanced Detectors, a body that was initiated by the American Physical Society Division of Particles and Fields. All presentations at the workshop were made in six topical plenary sessions: i) Argon Purity and Cryogenics, ii) TPC and High Voltage, iii) Electronics, Data Acquisition and Triggering, iv) Scintillation Light Detection, v) Calibration and Test Beams, and vi) Software. This document summarizes the current efforts in each of these areas. It primarily focuses on the work in the US, but also highlights work done elsewhere in the world.

  20. Summary of the Second Workshop on Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber Research and Development in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Acciarri, R.; et al.

    2015-04-21

    The second workshop to discuss the development of liquid argon time projection chambers (LArTPCs) in the United States was held at Fermilab on July 8-9, 2014. The workshop was organized under the auspices of the Coordinating Panel for Advanced Detectors, a body that was initiated by the American Physical Society Division of Particles and Fields. All presentations at the workshop were made in six topical plenary sessions: i) Argon Purity and Cryogenics, ii) TPC and High Voltage, iii) Electronics, Data Acquisition and Triggering, iv) Scintillation Light Detection, v) Calibration and Test Beams, and vi) Software. This document summarizes the current efforts in each of these areas. It primarily focuses on the work in the US, but also highlights work done elsewhere in the world.

  1. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Oklahoma Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 89.7 90.2 91.7 87.9 89.1 86.6 86.7 85.0 86.8 86.5 89.1 91.2 1990 94.8 93.2 92.0 93.2 92.6 90.6 89.1 89.5 88.5 87.8 89.9 90.6 1991 94.6 95.1 92.9 91.4 90.3 88.7 87.1 85.6 86.8 81.2 87.6 90.6 1992 91.6 92.3 87.7 90.9 85.4 84.1 80.2 85.7 84.3 85.3 86.9 88.1 1993 91.8 92.0 91.7 90.9 89.1 83.1 80.5 82.2 83.4 83.1 91.5 91.9 1994 90.7 93.8 93.1 89.6 88.0 81.3 74.6 73.8 76.1 78.1 85.0 91.2 1995 90.7 89.8 89.7 85.3 84.9 79.3

  2. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Virginia Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 98.3 98.4 98.1 97.1 96.4 96.4 93.9 94.1 95.4 93.3 96.4 97.9 1990 97.2 95.9 90.6 86.6 94.2 93.9 94.1 91.9 92.0 92.9 92.5 93.7 1991 95.9 96.9 95.2 93.6 91.8 90.8 91.3 89.5 90.2 92.6 90.9 93.5 1992 94.6 93.3 93.7 91.7 88.9 88.4 86.9 85.9 83.8 89.9 86.6 90.3 1993 90.2 91.8 89.8 87.6 90.1 87.6 85.4 77.2 85.9 79.8 88.8 93.2 1994 95.2 97.2 92.5 82.7 85.1 76.7 82.4 72.9 72.9 76.1 79.4 86.1 1995 90.8 90.0 88.7 77.6 76.2 74.7

  3. Illinois Natural Gas % of Total Residential - Sales (Percent)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2002 91.6 91.6 91.6 90.1 88.6 87.3 87.4 87.0 88.0 85.8 89.9 91.5 2003 90.1 90.6 90.0 88.4 85.6 89.0 89.6 89.9 87.9 88.7 89.0 89.9 2004 90.4 90.1 88.2 89.0 85.3 90.9 88.8 90.7 87.3 90.4 89.7 90.6 2005 90.3 89.5 89.5 88.0 86.3 84.5 90.3 88.8 84.8 88.0 88.9 89.9 2006 90.1 89.9 89.6 89.0 88.4 86.8 89.6 88.5 87.1 87.7 88.6 88.7 2007 89.0 89.3 89.6 88.8 88.9 86.8 87.9 87.6 87.1 87.5 87.1 88.3 2008 88.4 88.4 88.3 88.0 88.1 87.1 85.3 86.6 86.3 85.6

  4. Ribosome engineering to promote new crystal forms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Selmer, Maria; Gao, Yong-Gui; Weixlbaumer, Albert; Ramakrishnan, V.

    2012-05-01

    Truncation of ribosomal protein L9 in T. thermophilus allows the generation of new crystal forms and the crystallization of ribosomeGTPase complexes. Crystallographic studies of the ribosome have provided molecular details of protein synthesis. However, the crystallization of functional complexes of ribosomes with GTPase translation factors proved to be elusive for a decade after the first ribosome structures were determined. Analysis of the packing in different 70S ribosome crystal forms revealed that regardless of the species or space group, a contact between ribosomal protein L9 from the large subunit and 16S rRNA in the shoulder of a neighbouring small subunit in the crystal lattice competes with the binding of GTPase elongation factors to this region of 16S rRNA. To prevent the formation of this preferred crystal contact, a mutant strain of Thermus thermophilus, HB8-MRCMSAW1, in which the ribosomal protein L9 gene has been truncated was constructed by homologous recombination. Mutant 70S ribosomes were used to crystallize and solve the structure of the ribosome with EF-G, GDP and fusidic acid in a previously unobserved crystal form. Subsequent work has shown the usefulness of this strain for crystallization of the ribosome with other GTPase factors.

  5. Investigating CXOU J163802.6–471358: A new pulsar wind nebula in the norma region?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jakobsen, Simone J.; Watson, Darach; Tomsick, John A.; Gotthelf, Eric V.; Kaspi, Victoria M.

    2014-06-01

    We present the first analysis of the extended source CXOU J163802.6–471358, which was discovered serendipitously during the Chandra X-ray survey of the Norma region of the Galactic spiral arms. The X-ray source exhibits a cometary appearance with a point source and an extended tail region. The complete source spectrum is fitted well with an absorbed power law model and jointly fitting the Chandra spectrum of the full source with one obtained from an archived XMM-Newton observation results in best fit parameters N {sub H} =1.5{sub −0.5}{sup +0.7}×10{sup 23} cm{sup −2} and Γ=1.1{sub −0.6}{sup +0.7} (90% confidence uncertainties). The unabsorbed luminosity of the full source is then L{sub X}∼4.8×10{sup 33}d{sub 10}{sup 2} erg s{sup –1} with d {sub 10} = d/10 kpc, where a distance of 10 kpc is a lower bound inferred from the large column density. The radio counterpart found for the source using data from the Molonglo Galactic Plane Survey epoch-2 shows an elongated tail offset from the X-ray emission. No infrared counterpart was found. The results are consistent with the source being a previously unknown pulsar driving a bow shock through the ambient medium.

  6. Buildings Energy Data Book: 2.1 Residential Sector Energy Consumption

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    6 Natural Fuel Other Renw. Site Site Primary Gas Oil LPG Fuel(1) En.(2) Electric Total Percent Electric (3) Total Percent Space Heating (4) 3.40 0.48 0.26 0.03 0.44 0.42 5.03 44.2% | 1.27 5.88 27.9% Water Heating 1.31 0.07 0.05 0.02 0.48 1.92 16.9% | 1.44 2.88 13.7% Space Cooling 0.00 1.02 1.02 8.9% | 3.07 3.07 14.6% Lighting 0.53 0.53 4.6% | 1.60 1.60 7.6% Refrigeration (5) 0.45 0.45 4.0% | 1.37 1.37 6.5% Electronics (6) 0.33 0.33 2.9% | 0.99 0.99 4.7% Wet Cleaning (7) 0.06 0.33 0.39 3.4% |

  7. Buildings Energy Data Book: 2.3 Residential Sector Expenditures

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    8 2035 Residential Energy End-Use Expenditure Splits, by Fuel Type ($2010 Billion) (1) Natural Petroleum Gas Distil. LPG Kerosene Total Coal Electricity Total Percent Space Heating (2) 44.3 10.3 7.7 18.6 0.0 16.0 79.0 27.4% Space Cooling (3) 0.0 40.6 40.6 14.1% Water Heating 17.6 1.2 1.2 2.3 17.7 37.6 13.0% Lighting 15.5 15.5 5.4% Refrigeration (4) 17.0 17.0 5.9% Electronics (5) 14.2 14.2 4.9% Wet Cleaning (6) 0.9 10.4 11.3 3.9% Cooking 3.2 0.8 0.8 4.8 8.9 3.1% Computers 8.7 8.7 3.0% Other (7)

  8. Buildings Energy Data Book: 3.1 Commercial Sector Energy Consumption

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    5 2015 Commercial Energy End-Use Splits, by Fuel Type (Quadrillion Btu) Natural Fuel Other Renw. Site Site Primary Primary Gas Oil (1) LPG Fuel(2) En.(3) Electric Total Percent Electric (4) Total Percent Lighting 1.01 1.01 11.4% | 3.05 3.05 16.7% Space Heating 1.69 0.20 0.06 0.11 0.17 2.23 25.2% | 0.50 2.57 14.1% Space Cooling 0.04 0.51 0.54 6.1% | 1.52 1.56 8.6% Ventilation 0.54 0.54 6.1% | 1.62 1.62 8.9% Refrigeration 0.35 0.35 4.0% | 1.06 1.06 5.8% Electronics 0.32 0.32 3.6% | 0.95 0.95 5.2%

  9. Buildings Energy Data Book: 3.3 Commercial Sector Expenditures

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    4 2010 Commercial Energy End-Use Expenditure Splits, by Fuel Type ($2010 Billion) (1) Natural Petroleum Gas Distil. Resid. LPG Oth(2) Total Coal (3) Electricity Total Percent Lighting 35.4 35.4 19.7% Space Heating 15.0 2.9 0.9 0.1 3.9 0.1 8.5 27.5 15.3% Space Cooling 0.4 25.0 25.3 14.1% Ventilation 15.9 15.9 8.9% Refrigeration 11.6 11.6 6.5% Water Heating 4.0 0.6 0.6 2.7 7.3 4.1% Electronics 7.8 7.8 4.3% Computers 6.3 6.3 3.5% Cooking 1.6 0.7 2.3 1.3% Other (4) 2.7 0.3 3.3 1.2 4.8 20.4 28.0

  10. Buildings Energy Data Book: 3.6 Office Building Markets and Companies

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    0 Energy Benchmarks for Existing Medium Office Buildings, by Selected City and End-Use (thousand Btu per square foot) IECC Post Pre Post Pre Post Pre Post Pre Miami 1A 1.0 0.0 22.0 19.2 0.4 0.4 1.9 13.0 Houston 2A 4.6 1.8 15.5 14.7 0.5 0.5 1.5 12.8 Phoenix 2B 4.0 0.7 17.5 19.4 0.4 0.4 1.9 15.0 Atlanta 3A 7.8 4.3 10.1 10.4 0.6 0.5 1.4 13.9 Los Angeles 3B 4.1 0.3 8.0 3.5 0.5 0.5 1.4 10.9 Las Vegas 3B 5.6 1.4 13.2 14.6 0.5 0.5 1.8 14.5 San Francisco 3C 5.8 1.7 2.9 1.2 0.6 0.6 1.1 8.9 Baltimore 4A

  11. South Carolina Natural Gas Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4.01 3.56 3.20 3.48 3.28 3.13 1989-2016 Residential Price 24.15 16.51 NA NA 9.07 9.79 1989-2016 Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2002-2016 Commercial Price 8.28 7.97 8.35 10.06 7.72 8.05 1989-2016 Percentage of Total Commercial Deliveries included in Prices 88.8 89.7 91.3 90.1 94.8 93.4 1989-2016 Industrial Price 4.13 4.03 3.86 4.01 4.84 4.22 2001-2016 Percentage of Total Industrial Deliveries included in Prices 43.2 43.6 42.8 38.5

  12. Virginia Natural Gas % of Total Residential - Sales (Percent)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2002 88.0 91.4 90.8 89.2 91.0 91.3 88.4 91.6 88.4 88.0 89.0 89.1 2003 88.6 88.6 87.7 87.7 85.5 91.4 80.6 86.1 83.9 86.4 88.3 89.1 2004 88.5 88.5 88.0 87.2 84.7 86.1 87.7 85.7 87.7 88.3 88.4 89.3 2005 90.9 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 91.2 100.0 2006 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2007 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2008 100.0 100.0 100.0

  13. Virginia Natural Gas Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    78 4.75 4.07 4.36 3.40 3.31 1989-2016 Residential Price 19.45 15.81 11.72 12.09 9.45 8.76 1989-2016 Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices 88.8 89.3 90.7 89.5 91.3 90.3 2002-2016 Commercial Price 8.91 8.02 7.57 7.93 6.88 6.67 1989-2016 Percentage of Total Commercial Deliveries included in Prices 40.0 48.0 50.4 53.2 60.8 58.3 1989-2016 Industrial Price 4.86 4.22 3.95 4.49 4.53 4.23 2001-2016 Percentage of Total Industrial Deliveries included in Prices 9.0 10.0 7.5 10.5 NA

  14. Total...........................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    26.7 28.8 20.6 13.1 22.0 16.6 38.6 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500................................... 3.2 1.9 0.9 Q Q Q 1.3 2.3 500 to 999........................................... 23.8 10.5 7.3 3.3 1.4 1.2 6.6 12.9 1,000 to 1,499..................................... 20.8 5.8 7.0 3.8 2.2 2.0 3.9 8.9 1,500 to 1,999..................................... 15.4 3.1 4.2 3.4 2.0 2.7 1.9 5.0 2,000 to 2,499..................................... 12.2 1.7 2.7 2.9 1.8 3.2 1.1 2.8

  15. North Carolina Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential Consumers

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 6.17 6.30 6.29 6.80 6.99 8.02 8.71 8.97 8.68 7.44 6.61 5.99 1990 5.71 5.79 5.84 5.86 6.82 7.93 8.37 8.44 8.42 7.48 6.17 5.98 1991 5.77 5.58 5.64 6.05 7.08 8.24 8.79 9.13 8.89 7.02 6.06 6.57 1992 6.30 5.91 6.03 5.54 6.74 8.24 9.89 10.51 10.03 7.72 7.12 6.66 1993 6.74 6.56 6.07 6.32 7.69 9.55 10.47 10.88 10.52 8.54 7.09 7.13 1994 6.49 6.65 7.03 7.41 8.31 9.22 10.50 10.91 10.31 8.57 7.55 7.47 1995 6.69

  16. Ohio Natural Gas Industrial Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 5.90 8.25 7.72 7.61 5.24 8.45 5.74 4.87 7.00 5.47 4.87 5.13 2002 6.04 5.64 5.26 5.49 4.84 5.04 4.88 5.33 6.00 5.67 6.05 5.97 2003 6.58 7.29 8.30 8.43 8.50 9.48 9.65 8.61 8.91 8.65 8.75 8.86 2004 8.66 8.40 8.61 8.25 8.89 9.22 8.86 8.63 7.92 8.73 10.10 9.85 2005 9.97 9.19 9.68 11.09 11.12 11.00 11.11 11.27 12.26 14.68 14.05 13.84 2006 13.35 13.01 11.91 10.99 11.38 11.12 10.38 10.53 10.73 9.23 10.65 11.52 2007 10.21 10.54 10.73 10.56 10.89

  17. Pennsylvania Natural Gas Industrial Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 8.64 7.08 8.89 8.35 7.20 6.68 6.04 5.66 5.80 4.69 6.87 6.38 2002 6.92 6.72 6.85 6.45 5.71 5.44 5.58 5.55 5.40 5.67 6.73 6.58 2003 8.09 8.06 9.84 8.29 7.94 8.19 8.04 6.88 7.41 7.36 7.22 8.43 2004 9.26 9.22 8.76 8.49 8.07 8.36 8.51 8.26 7.88 8.92 9.99 10.10 2005 10.63 10.47 10.63 10.01 9.59 9.30 9.87 9.65 11.55 13.74 15.02 14.23 2006 15.16 13.81 13.29 12.50 11.85 11.00 10.64 10.74 10.08 9.58 11.38 12.37 2007 11.45 11.16 11.23 10.53 9.91

  18. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in California Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 94.6 95.1 93.0 88.3 94.8 92.8 89.4 87.8 91.0 88.5 90.1 92.2 1990 95.8 81.1 94.4 90.4 90.2 85.6 78.0 82.6 79.1 82.3 85.6 88.3 1991 90.5 88.4 90.2 71.0 82.2 71.0 68.0 85.8 68.0 64.7 69.8 80.3 1992 86.6 65.6 75.7 79.0 63.5 74.5 60.9 64.6 79.7 79.0 76.7 81.4 1993 79.9 82.3 77.6 80.7 76.8 71.4 76.4 70.3 70.6 73.8 75.7 78.8 1994 51.3 47.2 50.6 40.5 47.4 32.2 36.4 46.5 46.0 52.2 57.8 68.2 1995 61.3 58.6 64.7 56.8 50.3

  19. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Massachusetts Represented

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    by the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9 1990 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 99.8 99.8 99.8 99.7 99.7 1991 99.8 99.8 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.8 99.7 99.6 99.6 99.8 99.9 99.9 1992 99.9 99.9 99.8 99.8 99.7 99.8 99.7 99.6 99.6 99.6 99.7 99.8 1993 98.9 98.7 98.5 97.7 96.5 97.7 96.8 89.2 97.5 96.7 96.9 97.8 1994 75.2 78.4 72.5 69.8 69.8 61.2 67.0 86.0 79.7 90.6 81.2 87.1 1995 87.9 89.4 92.0

  20. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in South Dakota Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 92.8 93.1 92.8 92.1 92.5 91.6 90.2 89.4 90.0 89.6 91.1 92.0 1990 90.7 90.1 90.2 88.0 78.4 83.0 81.9 82.4 82.0 77.7 82.0 86.3 1991 84.8 83.0 80.5 83.4 79.5 74.9 74.3 74.3 74.5 76.7 83.4 85.2 1992 87.0 83.3 85.6 83.1 80.7 73.5 72.3 74.6 78.0 76.5 81.8 84.7 1993 86.5 83.9 84.4 81.2 76.4 73.3 74.9 72.9 75.8 78.7 90.0 91.2 1994 92.9 92.3 92.6 88.4 84.7 74.7 72.7 82.0 79.0 83.4 88.4 92.1 1995 92.1 90.8 89.7 87.2 82.8

  1. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Tennessee Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 99.1 98.9 98.9 97.5 96.8 95.9 96.7 95.8 96.9 97.1 97.4 99.1 1990 98.9 98.5 98.7 97.9 95.4 95.4 95.1 95.9 95.1 95.5 96.5 97.5 1991 97.9 94.6 93.6 96.0 94.8 94.3 93.8 93.8 94.0 95.3 97.1 97.8 1992 96.6 97.1 96.8 97.2 93.7 95.8 97.3 90.4 91.6 97.3 97.5 97.4 1993 96.6 96.9 96.6 96.5 97.7 91.3 91.6 91.1 91.4 92.3 94.7 98.9 1994 96.7 98.5 97.9 93.0 90.0 89.4 87.2 87.1 89.3 88.4 91.7 94.4 1995 95.5 95.8 93.4 90.8 89.6

  2. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Washington Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 95.5 94.8 96.9 93.2 93.0 89.7 87.0 92.6 87.3 93.0 93.6 96.5 1990 96.2 95.9 93.2 92.1 90.9 88.9 88.3 88.4 90.1 91.7 95.7 96.5 1991 97.8 94.9 94.3 93.2 91.2 90.5 88.3 87.2 85.6 85.2 88.7 92.1 1992 92.1 89.0 88.7 85.5 83.5 80.7 78.5 80.3 81.6 83.4 86.8 92.3 1993 93.8 93.2 93.9 93.6 90.8 89.8 90.5 90.4 90.6 94.8 97.4 98.0 1994 97.6 97.6 97.6 97.4 92.1 92.1 92.4 91.7 94.4 93.8 94.1 94.7 1995 94.3 94.0 94.2 92.6 91.8

  3. A study of w boson decay charge asymmetry using hadronic tau decays in proton - anti-proton collisions at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E.W Kuns

    2002-10-18

    This dissertation presents a measurement of the tau charge asymmetry in events where the taus are produced by W decays. This charge asymmetry appears as different rapidity distributions for positive and negative taus. Two competing effects generate tau charge asymmetry. The production mechanism for the W gauge boson generates a charge asymmetry which is a function of the ratio of parton distribution functions, d(x)=u(x), measured at x {approx} M{sub W}/{radical}s. This is the dominant effect for tau charge asymmetry at small rapidity. At higher rapidity, however, the competing charge asymmetry from parity violation in W decay to taus becomes dominant. This tau asymmetry measurement is consistent with the Standard Model with a x{sup 2} per degree of freedom equal to 2.5 for 4 degrees of freedom when the asymmetry measurement is folded about y = 0, taking advantage of the CP symmetry of the underlying physics, and 8.9 for 8 degrees of freedom when it is not. This measurement introduces some methods and variables of interest to future analyses using hadronic decay modes of taus. This work was done using the CDF detector in {bar p}p collisions at {radical} = 1.8 TeV at Fermilab's Tevatron accelerator.

  4. Percolation Explains How Earth's Iron Core Formed | Stanford Synchrotron

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 93.1 90.8 89.1 1990's 86.6 85.1 83.2 83.9 79.3 76.7 77.6 70.8 67.0 66.1 2000's 63.9 66.0 77.4 78.2 78.0 82.1 80.8 80.4 79.7 77.8 2010's 77.5 67.3 65.2 65.8 65.8 65.9 the Price (Percent)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1983 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1984 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1985 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1986 NA NA NA NA NA NA

  5. Arkansas Price of Natural Gas Sold to Commercial Consumers (Dollars per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0.50 0.49 0.49 1970's 0.53 0.55 0.57 0.62 0.76 0.89 1.02 1.61 1.62 1.36 1980's 2.28 2.82 3.63 4.17 4.18 4.13 4.39 4.26 4.34 4.38 1990's 4.46 4.35 4.38 4.42 4.58 4.09 4.68 5.23 5.16 5.38 2000's 5.41 7.80 7.05 7.67 8.86 10.20 10.72 10.07 11.32 10.72 2010's 8.89 8.90 7.99 7.68 7.88 8.08

  6. Colorado Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential Consumers (Dollars

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0.66 0.68 0.69 1970's 0.72 0.75 0.78 0.83 1.00 1.16 1.27 1.62 1.94 2.48 1980's 3.23 4.17 4.89 5.51 5.24 5.10 5.01 4.74 4.42 4.63 1990's 4.57 4.59 4.56 4.52 4.92 4.80 4.39 4.81 5.22 5.38 2000's 6.14 8.37 5.62 6.61 8.47 10.29 10.45 8.84 9.77 8.80 2010's 8.13 8.25 8.28 7.85 8.89 NA

  7. Indiana Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    102,095 104,142 105,406 103,836 97,724 92,441 1990-2016 Base Gas 77,198 77,198 77,198 77,198 77,171 77,164 1990-2016 Working Gas 24,897 26,944 28,208 26,638 20,553 15,277 1990-2016 Net Withdrawals -3,878 -2,047 -1,236 1,569 6,106 5,259 1990-2016 Injections 3,907 2,068 1,525 213 166 119 1990-2016 Withdrawals 29 21 289 1,783 6,272 5,378 1990-2016 Change in Working Gas from Same Period Previous Year Volume 2,031 1,518 3,001 3,981 3,736 3,953 1990-2016 Percent 8.9 6.0 11.9 17.6 22.2 34.9

  8. Kansas Price of Natural Gas Sold to Commercial Consumers (Dollars per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0.41 0.43 0.42 1970's 0.45 0.47 0.51 0.53 0.60 0.67 1.10 1.19 1.17 1.61 1980's 1.90 2.41 3.24 4.56 3.46 3.15 2.86 3.02 3.03 3.14 1990's 3.36 3.32 3.53 4.06 4.12 3.93 4.61 5.38 4.98 5.04 2000's 6.80 8.52 6.51 8.50 10.10 11.45 12.44 12.04 12.24 10.01 2010's 9.65 8.89 8.82 9.07 9.53 8.83

  9. Maryland Natural Gas Price Sold to Electric Power Consumers (Dollars per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Thousand Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2002 3.39 3.45 3.59 4.11 4.16 4.11 3.81 3.97 3.93 4.72 4.52 5.75 2003 5.77 7.47 6.88 5.45 W 5.98 5.74 5.41 W W W W 2004 W 5.13 W W 6.40 6.24 5.78 5.43 4.81 5.53 5.38 5.68 2005 5.84 7.22 7.91 8.32 7.23 8.31 8.50 9.82 14.33 14.85 12.48 14.62 2006 10.80 9.15 8.53 8.88 7.41 7.55 6.88 8.55 6.97 6.17 8.91 8.19 2007 8.21 9.47 8.79 8.66 8.89 8.78 7.64 7.44 6.94 7.70 8.03 8.44 2008 10.03 10.71 11.17 11.91 12.90 14.46 12.97

  10. Microsoft Word - table_24.doc

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table 24. Average price of natural gas delivered to consumers by state and sector, 2014 (dollars per thousand cubic feet) Alabama 14.59 100.0 11.92 78.4 5.49 23.3 4.74 Alaska 9.11 100.0 8.30 94.5 7.97 100.0 5.06 Arizona 17.20 100.0 10.34 84.4 7.52 12.8 5.30 Arkansas 10.39 100.0 7.88 45.5 6.99 1.8 W California 11.51 94.8 9.05 48.4 7.65 3.7 5.23 Colorado 8.89 100.0 8.15 94.5 6.84 7.7 5.49 Connecticut 14.13 95.9 10.24 67.2 8.07 39.4 6.82 Delaware 13.21 100.0 11.42 46.2 10.95 0.3 W District of

  11. Steam turbine: Alternative emergency drive for the secure removal of residual heat from the core of light water reactors in ultimate emergency situation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Souza Dos Santos, R.

    2012-07-01

    In 2011 the nuclear power generation has suffered an extreme probation. That could be the meaning of what happened in Fukushima Nuclear Power Plants. In those plants, an earthquake of 8.9 on the Richter scale was recorded. The quake intensity was above the trip point of shutting down the plants. Since heat still continued to be generated, the procedure to cooling the reactor was started. One hour after the earthquake, a tsunami rocked the Fukushima shore, degrading all cooling system of plants. Since the earthquake time, the plant had lost external electricity, impacting the pumping working, drive by electric engine. When operable, the BWR plants responded the management of steam. However, the lack of electricity had degraded the plant maneuvers. In this paper we have presented a scheme to use the steam as an alternative drive to maintain operable the cooling system of nuclear power plant. This scheme adds more reliability and robustness to the cooling systems. Additionally, we purposed a solution to the cooling in case of lacking water for the condenser system. In our approach, steam driven turbines substitute electric engines in the ultimate emergency cooling system. (authors)

  12. Long term observations of B2 1215+30 with veritas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aliu, E.; Errando, M.; Archambault, S.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Benbow, W.; Bird, R.; Bouvier, A.; Cesarini, A.; Connolly, M. P.; Ciupik, L.; Cui, W.; Feng, Q.; Finley, J. P.; Dumm, J.; Falcone, A.; Federici, S.; Collaboration: VERITAS collaboration; and others

    2013-12-20

    We report on VERITAS observations of the BL Lac object B2 1215+30 between 2008 and 2012. During this period, the source was detected at very high energies (VHEs; E > 100 GeV) by VERITAS with a significance of 8.9? and showed clear variability on timescales larger than months. In 2011, the source was found to be in a relatively bright state and a power-law fit to the differential photon spectrum yields a spectral index of 3.6 0.4{sub stat} 0.3{sub syst} with an integral flux above 200 GeV of (8.0 0.9{sub stat} 3.2{sub syst}) 10{sup 12} cm{sup 2} s{sup 1}. No short term variability could be detected during the bright state in 2011. Multi-wavelength data were obtained contemporaneously with the VERITAS observations in 2011 and cover optical (Super-LOTIS, MDM, Swift/UVOT), X-ray (Swift/XRT), and gamma-ray (Fermi-LAT) frequencies. These were used to construct the spectral energy distribution (SED) of B2 1215+30. A one-zone leptonic model is used to model the blazar emission and the results are compared to those of MAGIC from early 2011 and other VERITAS-detected blazars. The SED can be reproduced well with model parameters typical for VHE-detected BL Lac objects.

  13. Ga-doped ZnO grown by pulsed laser deposition in H2: the roles of Ga and H

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Look, David; Droubay, Timothy C.; McCloy, John S.; Zhu, Zihua; Chambers, Scott A.

    2011-01-11

    Highly conductive thin films of ZnO doped with Ga were grown by pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) with 10 mTorr of H2 in the growth chamber. Compared with a more conventional method of producing conductive films of ZnO, i.e., growth in O2 followed by annealing in forming gas (5% H2 in Ar), the H2 method requires no post-growth anneal and also produces higher carrier concentrations and lower resistivities with better depth uniformity. As an example, a 65-nm-thick sample had a room-temperature mobility of 32 cm2/V-s, a concentration of 6.8 x 1020 cm-3, and a resistivity of 2.9 x 10^-4 ohm-cm. From a scattering model, the donor and acceptor concentrations were calculated as 8.9 x 1020 and 2.1 x 10^20 cm-3, respectively, as compared to the Ga and H concentrations of 11 x 10^20 and 1 x 10^20 cm-3. Thus, H does not play a significant role as a donor in this type of ZnO

  14. Estimating the greenhouse gas benefits of forestry projects: A Costa Rican Case Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Busch, Christopher; Sathaye, Jayant; Sanchez Azofeifa, G. Arturo

    2000-09-01

    If the Clean Development Mechanism proposed under the Kyoto Protocol is to serve as an effective means for combating global climate change, it will depend upon reliable estimates of greenhouse gas benefits. This paper sketches the theoretical basis for estimating the greenhouse gas benefits of forestry projects and suggests lessons learned based on a case study of Costa Rica's Protected Areas Project, which is a 500,000 hectare effort to reduce deforestation and enhance reforestation. The Protected Areas Project in many senses advances the state of the art for Clean Development Mechanism-type forestry projects, as does the third-party verification work of SGS International Certification Services on the project. Nonetheless, sensitivity analysis shows that carbon benefit estimates for the project vary widely based on the imputed deforestation rate in the baseline scenario, e.g. the deforestation rate expected if the project were not implemented. This, along with a newly available national dataset that confirms other research showing a slower rate of deforestation in Costa Rica, suggests that the use of the 1979--1992 forest cover data originally as the basis for estimating carbon savings should be reconsidered. When the newly available data is substituted, carbon savings amount to 8.9 Mt (million tones) of carbon, down from the original estimate of 15.7 Mt. The primary general conclusion is that project developers should give more attention to the forecasting land use and land cover change scenarios underlying estimates of greenhouse gas benefits.

  15. Pervasive faint Fe XIX emission from a solar active region observed with EUNIS-13: Evidence for nanoflare heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brosius, Jeffrey W.; Daw, Adrian N.; Rabin, D. M.

    2014-08-01

    We present spatially resolved EUV spectroscopic measurements of pervasive, faint Fe XIX 592.2 Å line emission in an active region observed during the 2013 April 23 flight of the Extreme Ultraviolet Normal Incidence Spectrograph (EUNIS-13) sounding rocket instrument. With cooled detectors, high sensitivity, and high spectral resolution, EUNIS-13 resolves the lines of Fe XIX at 592.2 Å (formed at temperature T ≈ 8.9 MK) and Fe XII at 592.6 Å (T ≈ 1.6 MK). The Fe XIX line emission, observed over an area in excess of 4920 arcsec{sup 2} (2.58 × 10{sup 9} km{sup 2}, more than 60% of the active region), provides strong evidence for the nanoflare heating model of the solar corona. No GOES events occurred in the region less than 2 hr before the rocket flight, but a microflare was observed north and east of the region with RHESSI and EUNIS during the flight. The absence of significant upward velocities anywhere in the region, particularly the microflare, indicates that the pervasive Fe XIX emission is not propelled outward from the microflare site, but is most likely attributed to localized heating (not necessarily due to reconnection) consistent with the nanoflare heating model of the solar corona. Assuming ionization equilibrium we estimate Fe XIX/Fe XII emission measure ratios of ∼0.076 just outside the AR core and ∼0.59 in the core.

  16. Pacific Enewetak Atoll Crater Exploration (PEACE) program, Enewetak Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Part 1. Drilling operations and descriptions of boreholes in vicinity of KOA and OAK craters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henry, T.W.; Wardlaw, B.R.; Skipp, B.; Major, R.P.; Tracey, J.I.

    1986-01-01

    From mid-1984 through mid-1985, the United States Geological Survey engaged in an investigation of two craters formed from high-yield, near-surface nuclear bursts at Enewatak Atoll. The craters studied, KOA and OAK, resulted from 1.4- and 8.9-megaton, near-surface bursts detonated near the northern perimeter of the Enewetak lagoon on May 12 and June 28, 1958, respectively. At that time, Enewetak was a part of the Pacific Proving Grounds (PPG). OAK and KOA are among the only high-yield nuclear explosion craters available for studies of cratering processes and crater-related effects. The objects of this program were: (1) to identify major crater dimensions, morphology, and structures; (2) to provide a data base for material-properties, shock-metamorphic, and other types of related studies; and (3) to gain a better understanding of both the process that formed the excavational crater and that altered that initial feature to its present form. These data from the Enewetak craters are needed for verification of cratering prediction models (code validation), which is important to the analysis of survivability of various strategic defense systems.

  17. Search for the production of ZW and ZZ boson pairs decaying into charged leptons and jets in proton-antiproton collisions at sqrt[s]=1.96 TeV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aaltonen, Timo Antero; et al,

    2013-11-01

    We present a measurement of the production cross section for ZW and ZZ boson pairs in final states with a pair of charged leptons, from the decay of a Z boson, and at least two jets, from the decay of a W or Z boson, using the full sample of proton-antiproton collisions recorded with the CDF II detector at the Tevatron, corresponding to 8.9 fb^(-1) of integrated luminosity. We increase the sensitivity to vector boson decays into pairs of quarks using a neural network discriminant that exploits the differences between the spatial spread of energy depositions and charged-particle momenta contained within the jet of particles originating from quarks and gluons. Additionally, we employ new jet energy corrections to Monte Carlo simulations that account for differences in the observed energy scales for quark and gluon jets. The number of signal events is extracted through a simultaneous fit to the dijet mass spectrum in three classes of events: events likely to contain jets with a heavy-quark decay, events likely to contain jets originating from light quarks, and events that fail these identification criteria. We determine the production cross section to be 2.5 +2.0 -1.0 pb (< 6.1 pb at the 95% confidence level), consistent with the standard model prediction of 5.1 pb.

  18. Alabama Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential Consumers (Dollars

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    per Thousand Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 5.65 5.71 5.55 6.01 6.73 7.83 8.32 8.47 8.52 7.87 6.72 5.88 1990 5.62 6.01 6.22 6.48 7.22 8.27 8.62 8.71 8.71 8.45 6.85 6.43 1991 6.50 6.47 6.72 7.44 8.58 8.89 8.77 8.82 8.82 8.06 6.71 6.34 1992 6.19 6.01 6.67 6.24 6.98 8.00 8.93 9.06 8.94 8.36 7.36 6.42 1993 6.54 6.50 6.16 6.60 7.75 9.37 9.82 9.91 9.95 9.63 7.43 6.85 1994 6.40 6.38 7.16 7.46 8.90 9.74 9.95 9.91 9.82 9.67 8.58 7.40 1995 6.53 6.22 6.18 7.67

  19. Arkansas Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3.84 1967-2010 Pipeline and Distribution Use 1967-2005 Citygate 6.76 6.27 5.36 4.99 5.84 4.76 1984-2015 Residential 11.53 11.46 11.82 10.46 10.39 11.20 1967-2015 Commercial 8.89 8.90 7.99 7.68 7.88 8.08 1967-2015 Industrial 7.28 7.44 6.38 6.74 6.99 6.97 1997-2015 Vehicle Fuel -- -- 9.04 1994-2012 Electric Power 5.11 W 3.19 4.32 W W 1997-2015 Dry Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Proved Reserves as of 12/31 14,178 16,370 11,035 13,518 12,789 1977-2014 Adjustments -34 728 -743 -78 -3 1977-2014

  20. Average Commercial Price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9.47 8.91 8.10 8.08 8.90 7.89 1967-2015 Alabama 13.34 12.36 12.56 12.35 11.92 11.03 1967-2015 Alaska 8.78 8.09 8.09 8.34 8.30 7.80 1967-2015 Arizona 10.72 9.99 9.35 8.76 10.34 10.53 1967-2015 Arkansas 8.89 8.90 7.99 7.68 7.88 8.08 1967-2015 California 8.30 8.29 7.05 7.81 9.05 7.98 1967-2015 Colorado 7.58 7.84 7.58 7.26 8.15 NA 1967-2015 Connecticut 9.55 8.48 8.40 9.20 10.24 8.56 1967-2015 Delaware 13.26 13.58 13.31 11.78 11.42 10.70 1967-2015 District of Columbia 12.26 12.24 11.19 11.64 12.18

  1. Colorado Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3.96 1967-2010 Pipeline and Distribution Use 1967-2005 Citygate 5.26 4.94 4.26 4.76 5.42 3.96 1984-2015 Residential 8.13 8.25 8.28 7.85 8.89 NA 1967-2015 Commercial 7.58 7.84 7.58 7.26 8.15 NA 1967-2015 Industrial 5.84 6.42 5.79 5.90 6.84 NA 1997-2015 Vehicle Fuel 10.79 9.56 11.65 1990-2012 Electric Power 5.16 4.98 W 4.91 5.49 3.81 1997-2015 Dry Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Proved Reserves as of 12/31 24,119 24,821 20,666 22,381 20,851 1977-2014 Adjustments 449 801 -363 -272 627

  2. Connecticut Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential Consumers

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 7.69 7.80 7.78 8.27 8.76 9.94 10.01 10.48 10.09 9.06 8.22 7.90 1990 8.17 8.24 8.22 8.39 9.25 9.91 10.09 10.46 10.27 9.07 8.35 8.25 1991 8.27 8.23 8.34 8.78 9.42 10.05 11.03 10.62 10.64 8.97 8.66 8.54 1992 9.14 9.18 8.89 9.05 9.84 10.54 10.67 11.20 10.66 8.41 7.84 7.68 1993 9.00 8.80 9.04 9.60 10.36 10.90 11.38 11.14 11.43 9.87 9.20 9.34 1994 9.41 9.39 9.74 10.10 10.93 11.66 12.53 12.86 12.42 11.06

  3. FE LNG Exports-v1-aeo2014_8_29_14.xlsx

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    baseline 12 Bcf 16 Bcf 20 Bcf Alt 20 Bcf baseline 12 Bcf 16 Bcf 20 Bcf baseline 12 Bcf 16 Bcf 20 Bcf baseline 12 Bcf 16 Bcf 20 Bcf baseline 12 Bcf 16 Bcf 20 Bcf NATURAL GAS VOLUMES (Tcf) Net Exports 3.6 5.1 6.1 7.0 6.3 4.9 4.9 5.9 6.8 1.8 4.1 5.0 5.8 3.3 5.0 6.0 7.0 3.2 5.0 6.0 7.0 gross imports 2.2 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.4 2.3 2.6 3.0 3.0 3.1 2.3 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.3 2.4 2.4 2.4 gross exports 5.8 7.5 8.5 9.3 8.6 7.3 7.4 8.3 9.2 4.4 7.0 8.0 8.9 5.6 7.4 8.4 9.3 5.5 7.4 8.4 9.3 Dry Production 32.5

  4. Iowa Natural Gas Price Sold to Electric Power Consumers (Dollars per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Thousand Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2002 3.44 2.91 3.18 4.34 4.20 3.89 3.73 3.28 3.78 4.52 5.15 4.89 2003 5.79 6.22 6.25 5.97 W 6.79 6.18 5.80 6.24 4.40 5.77 6.30 2004 7.52 8.03 6.76 6.95 7.79 7.51 7.03 6.59 6.21 6.95 5.44 7.75 2005 7.42 10.29 7.31 7.67 8.12 7.80 8.16 9.14 10.75 4.53 12.65 13.39 2006 10.92 8.31 8.02 8.44 7.03 7.19 7.21 8.56 5.93 6.07 8.32 8.75 2007 7.52 8.89 8.13 8.06 8.09 7.98 7.15 6.77 6.31 7.37 8.13 8.16 2008 W W W W W W W W W W W W

  5. Kansas Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    23 1967-2010 Pipeline and Distribution Use 1967-2005 Citygate 6.08 5.53 4.74 4.98 6.10 NA 1984-2015 Residential 10.61 9.93 10.12 10.19 10.59 NA 1967-2015 Commercial 9.65 8.89 8.82 9.07 9.53 8.83 1967-2015 Industrial 5.49 5.28 3.87 4.86 5.70 4.37 1997-2015 Vehicle Fuel -- 9.87 9.00 1994-2012 Electric Power 5.05 4.79 3.28 4.57 5.65 3.95 1997-2015 Dry Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Proved Reserves as of 12/31 3,673 3,486 3,308 3,592 4,359 1977-2014 Adjustments 140 125 -236 -20 94 1977-2014

  6. Oklahoma Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential Consumers (Dollars

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0.78 0.77 0.82 1970's 0.84 0.87 0.90 0.92 1.05 1.22 1.50 1.78 1.93 2.20 1980's 2.46 2.94 3.53 4.33 4.56 4.58 5.01 4.63 4.52 4.50 1990's 4.80 4.72 4.96 4.94 5.50 5.56 5.64 6.23 5.93 5.97 2000's 7.37 9.59 7.78 8.89 10.22 11.67 13.40 12.06 12.32 11.39 2010's 11.12 10.32 11.10 9.71 10.10 10.26

  7. oil1981.xls

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4.6 11.0 28.9 116 44 87.9 32 1,032 0.39 781 283 Census Region and Division Northeast 8.9 5.9 18.0 158 51 103.5 36 1,405 0.46 923 323 New England 2.4 1.7 5.1 148 50 105.3 36 1,332 0.45 946 327 Middle Atlantic 6.5 4.1 12.8 161 52 102.9 36 1,435 0.46 915 322 Midwest 2.3 2.2 5.1 86 37 79.5 29 751 0.32 693 254 East North Central 1.7 1.7 3.8 79 35 76.8 28 688 0.31 672 243 West North Central 0.6 0.4 1.3 115 40 87.7 33 993 0.35 759 286 South 2.8 2.5 4.7 56 30 50.2 20 497 0.27 448 180 South Atlantic 2.5

  8. oil1990.xls

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    6.3 13.5 33.2 77 31 63.9 23 609 0.25 506 181 Census Region and Division Northeast 8.9 6.4 19.3 121 40 87.7 32 950 0.32 690 253 New England 2.5 2.1 5.9 121 43 99.0 39 956 0.34 784 307 Middle Atlantic 6.3 4.4 13.4 121 39 83.2 30 947 0.31 652 234 Midwest 2.8 2.7 6.4 49 21 46.3 16 383 0.16 361 122 East North Central 2.3 2.2 5.2 47 20 44.6 15 368 0.16 352 116 West North Central 0.5 0.5 1.2 60 24 53.4 20 452 0.18 399 150 South 4.0 3.8 6.1 30 19 28.4 10 250 0.16 239 84 South Atlantic 3.1 3.0 4.8 33 20

  9. Lead in human blood from children living in Campania, Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amodio-Cocchieri, R.; Arnese, A.; Prospero, E.; Roncioni, A.

    1996-03-01

    Blood lead (PbB) levels were determined in children living Campania (in Naples and in a rural zone in the district of Caserta). Atmospheric lead (PbA) concentration in these considered areas was monitored for 1 yr (1993-1994). The children tested were questioned about common sources of lead, other than atmospheric relating to their living and dietary habits. The PbB levels in children living in Naples were at the 50th percentile, 18.8 {mu}g/dl in males and 13.7 {mu}g/dl in females; in children living in the rural area the median PbB levels were 8.9{mu}g/dl in males, and 9.9 {mu}g/dl in females. The annual mean values of atmospheres lead were 1.15 {plus_minus} 0.24 {mu}g/dl in Naples and 0.23 {plus_minus} 0.07 {mu}g/dl in the rural area. Significant and congruent mean differences between urban and rural sites were found in children`s blood and concurrent air lead. Considering the PbB level of 10 {mu}g/dl as the maximum level that is not associated any known adverse effect in children, the Neapolitan group can be considered at risk of chronic intoxication by lead. 18 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Joint strength in high speed friction stir spot welded DP 980 steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saunders, Nathan; Miles, Michael; Hartman, Trent; Hovanski, Yuri; Hong, Sung Tae; Steel, Russell

    2014-05-01

    High speed friction stir spot welding was applied to 1.2 mm thick DP 980 steel sheets under different welding conditions, using PCBN tools. The range of vertical feed rates used during welding was 2.5 mm 102 mm per minute, while the range of spindle speeds was 2500 6000 rpm. Extended testing was carried out for five different sets of welding conditions, until tool failure. These welding conditions resulted in vertical welding loads of 3.6 8.2 kN and lap shear tension failure loads of 8.9 11.1 kN. PCBN tools were shown, in the best case, to provide lap shear tension fracture loads at or above 9 kN for 900 spot welds, after which tool failure caused a rapid drop in joint strength. Joint strength was shown to be strongly correlated to bond area, which was measured from weld cross sections. Failure modes of the tested joints were a function of bond area and softening that occurred in the heat-affected zone.

  11. Maryland Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Same Month Previous Year (Percent) Percent) Maryland Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 103.9 379.8 71.8 60.5 13.1 20.1 7.2 1.8 -0.9 -4.6 13.4 22.0 1992 10.3 -13.6 -46.2 -75.4 -28.4 -9.4 -3.5 -1.5 -1.6 2.5 4.0 -9.9 1993 1.6 15.7 71.7 160.6 17.3 -10.3 -16.3 -18.7 -12.6 -1.8 -2.5 -8.9 1994 -45.2 -46.8 -3.2 53.1 28.2 27.5 36.9 27.2 13.4 4.6 -3.5 10.5 1995 103.8 130.7 91.8

  12. Michigan Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Same Month Previous Year (Percent) Percent) Michigan Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 12.0 12.8 14.6 30.2 17.0 11.7 5.0 -0.7 -6.8 -2.6 -11.4 -14.2 1992 -8.1 -14.1 -31.6 -37.7 -28.9 -21.6 -14.9 -8.9 1.2 -1.2 1.1 -2.0 1993 -7.5 -20.7 -25.8 -17.2 -1.0 3.7 5.2 7.6 6.1 6.7 6.2 7.4 1994 -4.8 -0.4 22.1 37.4 24.6 15.8 10.2 7.2 6.2 5.4 12.3 21.2 1995 45.7 54.3 51.8 20.6 8.0 3.8

  13. Romania program targets methanol and Fischer-Tropsch research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-03-01

    Currently, the chemical organic industry, the petrochemical and engine fuels industry in Romania are entirely based on hydrocarbons from oil. To reduce the oil dependence of this sector and to ensure the stipulated growth rate of 8-9%, research and development programs have been set up with a view to the diversification of raw materials. In research on hydrocarbons from alcohol conversion, three process variants are known, i.e. olefins from methanol, gasolines from methanol and a combined gasolines and aromatic hydrocarbons from methanol. The Romanian process of methanol conversion to hydrocarbons is very flexible, with all the variants mentioned being carried out in the same plant by modifying the catalysts. In research on hydrocarbons from synthesis gas a modern process is being developed for gasification of brown coal in a fluidized bed, under pressure, in the presence of oxygen and water vapors. In the field of carbon oxide hydrogenation, studies have been carried out on selective Fischer-Tropsch processes in which the reaction products are high value hydrocarbon fractions.

  14. Electron channeling X-ray microanalysis for cation configuration in irradiate magnesium aluminate spinel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsumura, S.; Soeda, T.; Zaluzec, N. J.; Kinoshita, C.

    1999-12-22

    High angular resolution electron channeling X-ray spectroscopy (HARECXS) was examined as a practical tool to locate lattice-ions in spinel crystals. The orientation dependent intensity distribution of emitted X-rays obtained by HARECXS is so sensitive to lattice-ion configuration in the illuminated areas that the occupation probabilities on specific positions in the crystal lattice can be determined accurately through comparison with the theoretical rocking curves. HARECXS measurements have revealed partially disordered cation arrangement in MgO{center_dot}nAl{sub 2}O{sub 3} with n = 1.0 and 2.4. Most Al{sup 3+} lattice-ions occupy the octahedral (VIII) sites, while Mg{sup 2} lattice-ions reside on both the tetrahedral (IV) and the octahedral (VIII) sites. The structural vacancies are enriched in the IV-sites. Further evacuation of cations from the IV-sites to the VIII-sites is recognized in a disordering process induced by irradiation with 1 MeV Ne{sup +} ions up to 8.9 dpa at 870 K.

  15. Working Group Industrial Presentation-2014

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    13.7 10.2 14.9 17.1 22.0 51.8 1973-2016 Alaska 3.0 3.7 0.8 -2.7 -2.1 0.7 2013-2016 Lower 48 States 13.8 10.2 15.0 17.2 22.2 52.6 2011-2016 Alabama 44.1 21.9 30.5 23.0 30.1 199.5 1996-2016 Arkansas -0.4 -18.2 -13.2 -20.3 -25.3 -16.8 1991-2016 California 15.5 11.3 10.5 0.8 0.4 -3.6 1991-2016 Colorado 4.6 4.6 7.4 9.0 -1.3 10.3 1991-2016 Illinois -1.9 -2.7 2.2 5.5 3.5 16.4 1991-2016 Indiana 8.9 6.0 11.9 17.6 22.2 34.9 1991-2016 Iowa -2.6 1.1 9.0 9.3 0.2 1.9 1991-2016 Kansas 14.3 9.9 15.3 13.6 5.1

  16. Alaska Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 1.74 1.80 1.59 2000's 1.77 2.36 2.27 2.29 2.79 3.42 3.65 3.58 W W 2010's W 5.04 4.32 4.73 5.06 5.40

    2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 View History Wellhead Price 3.17 1967-2010 Exports Price 12.19 12.88 15.71 -- 15.74 1989-2014 Pipeline and Distribution Use Price 1970-2005 Citygate Price 6.67 6.53 6.14 6.02 6.34 6.57 1988-2015 Residential Price 8.89 8.77 8.47 8.85 9.11 9.68 1967-2015

  17. Alaska Share of Total U.S. Natural Gas Delivered to Consumers

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 1.51 1.52 1.52 1970's 1.52 1.53 1.55 1.57 1.58 1.63 1.65 1.71 1.76 1.71 1980's 1.73 1.95 1.79 2.33 2.49 2.81 3.25 3.21 3.46 3.63 1990's 3.79 4.18 3.79 3.96 3.60 3.63 3.42 3.77 3.67 3.64 2000's 3.58 4.23 4.41 4.39 4.88 5.73 6.84 8.68 8.72 10.23 2010's 8.89 8.77 8.47 8.85 9.11 9.68 Thousand Cubic Feet)

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9

  18. Colorado Share of Total U.S. Natural Gas Delivered to Consumers

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0.66 0.68 0.69 1970's 0.72 0.75 0.78 0.83 1.00 1.16 1.27 1.62 1.94 2.48 1980's 3.23 4.17 4.89 5.51 5.24 5.10 5.01 4.74 4.42 4.63 1990's 4.57 4.59 4.56 4.52 4.92 4.80 4.39 4.81 5.22 5.38 2000's 6.14 8.37 5.62 6.61 8.47 10.29 10.45 8.84 9.77 8.80 2010's 8.13 8.25 8.28 7.85 8.89 NA Thousand Cubic Feet)

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9

  19. Oklahoma Share of Total U.S. Natural Gas Delivered to Consumers

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0.78 0.77 0.82 1970's 0.84 0.87 0.90 0.92 1.05 1.22 1.50 1.78 1.93 2.20 1980's 2.46 2.94 3.53 4.33 4.56 4.58 5.01 4.63 4.52 4.50 1990's 4.80 4.72 4.96 4.94 5.50 5.56 5.64 6.23 5.93 5.97 2000's 7.37 9.59 7.78 8.89 10.22 11.67 13.40 12.06 12.32 11.39 2010's 11.12 10.32 11.10 9.71 10.10 10.26 Thousand Cubic Feet)

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7

  20. Graphene based tunable fractal Hilbert curve array broadband radar absorbing screen for radar cross section reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Xianjun; Hu, Zhirun; Liu, Peiguo

    2014-11-15

    This paper proposes a new type of graphene based tunable radar absorbing screen. The absorbing screen consists of Hilbert curve metal strip array and chemical vapour deposition (CVD) graphene sheet. The graphene based screen is not only tunable when the chemical potential of the graphene changes, but also has broadband effective absorption. The absorption bandwidth is from 8.9GHz to 18.1GHz, ie., relative bandwidth of more than 68%, at chemical potential of 0eV, which is significantly wider than that if the graphene sheet had not been employed. As the chemical potential varies from 0 to 0.4eV, the central frequency of the screen can be tuned from 13.5GHz to 19.0GHz. In the proposed structure, Hilbert curve metal strip array was designed to provide multiple narrow band resonances, whereas the graphene sheet directly underneath the metal strip array provides tunability and averagely required surface resistance so to significantly extend the screen operation bandwidth by providing broadband impedance matching and absorption. In addition, the thickness of the screen has been optimized to achieve nearly the minimum thickness limitation for a nonmagnetic absorber. The working principle of this absorbing screen is studied in details, and performance under various incident angles is presented. This work extends applications of graphene into tunable microwave radar cross section (RCS) reduction applications.

  1. Alaska Natural Gas Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15 Jan-16 Feb-16 View History Citygate Price 5.90 6.11 6.56 6.53 6.74 6.65 1989-2016 Residential Price 9.86 9.44 8.89 8.79 8.91 9.03 1989-2016 Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2002-2016 Commercial Price 7.03 7.67 7.43 7.39 7.18 7.24 1989-2016 Percentage of Total Commercial Deliveries included in Prices 98.3 98.7 99.9 99.7 99.7 99.7 1989-2016 Industrial Price 7.17 7.17 7.17 7.24 7.46 7.46 2001-2016

  2. Alaska Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential Consumers (Dollars per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 1.51 1.52 1.52 1970's 1.52 1.53 1.55 1.57 1.58 1.63 1.65 1.71 1.76 1.71 1980's 1.73 1.95 1.79 2.33 2.49 2.81 3.25 3.21 3.46 3.63 1990's 3.79 4.18 3.79 3.96 3.60 3.63 3.42 3.77 3.67 3.64 2000's 3.58 4.23 4.41 4.39 4.88 5.73 6.84 8.68 8.72 10.23 2010's 8.89 8.77 8.47 8.85 9.11 9.68

  3. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA-86-053-1933, Gray Pprinting Company, Fostoria, Ohio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crandall, M.S.; Boiano, J.M.; Fidler, A.T.; Cantor, F.

    1988-10-01

    The Gray Printing Company, located in Fostoria, Ohio was studied for potential employee exposures to solvents used in the offset-printing process at that site. The company produced 30 monthly magazines plus various commercial catalogs and brochures. The employment at the site was 185 persons. Equipment used in the production of printed material included photographic-typesetting and sheet-fed and roll fed offset lithographic printing processes. Over two workdays the sheet fed press operator's isopropanol exposures ranged from 247 to 501 mg/m/sup 3/ with personal breathing zone naphtha concentrations of 0.03 to 8.9 mg/m/sup 3/. The web press operator's naphtha exposures ranged from 0.03 to 7.7 mg/m/sup 3/. These workers were also exposed to low concentrations of isopropanol. The highest short term isopropanol exposure was 726 mg/m/sup 3/. Short term exposures to blanket and roller cleaning solvent were low, less than 10 mg/m/sup 3/. A higher than expected reporting of symptoms related to central nervous system depression, difficulty in concentrating, dizziness, cough, chest pain, and dry skin were noted among workers. The authors conclude that there was an increased prevalence of neurotoxic, respiratory, and skin problems among workers using organic solvents. Due to the prevalence of these symptoms, the authors recommend measures for reducing employee exposure to solvents.

  4. SU-E-T-335: Transit Dosimetry for Verification of Dose Delivery Using Electronic Portal Imaging Device (EPID)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baek, T; Chung, E; Lee, S; Yoon, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of transit dose, measured with an electronic portal imaging device (EPID), in verifying actual dose delivery to patients. Methods: Plans of 5 patients with lung cancer, who received IMRT treatment, were examined using homogeneous solid water phantom and inhomogeneous anthropomorphic phantom. To simulate error in patient positioning, the anthropomorphic phantom was displaced from 5 mm to 10 mm in the inferior to superior (IS), superior to inferior (SI), left to right (LR), and right to left (RL) directions. The transit dose distribution was measured with EPID and was compared to the planed dose using gamma index. Results: Although the average passing rate based on gamma index (GI) with a 3% dose and a 3 mm distance-to-dose agreement tolerance limit was 94.34 % for the transit dose with homogeneous phantom, it was reduced to 84.63 % for the transit dose with inhomogeneous anthropomorphic phantom. The Result also shows that the setup error of 5mm (10mm) in IS, SI, LR and SI direction can Result in the decrease in values of GI passing rates by 1.3% (3.0%), 2.2% (4.3%), 5.9% (10.9%), and 8.9% (16.3%), respectively. Conclusion: Our feasibility study suggests that the transit dose-based quality assurance may provide information regarding accuracy of dose delivery as well as patient positioning.

  5. The main injector chromaticity correction sextupole magnets: Measurements and operating schemes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhat, C.M.; Bogacz, A.; Brown, B.C.; Harding, D.J.; Fang, S.J.; Martin, P.S.; Glass, H.D.; Sim, J.

    1995-05-01

    The Fermilab Main Injector (FMI) is a high intensity proton synchrotron which will be used to accelerate protons and antiprotons from 8.9 GeV/c to 150 GeV/c. The natural chromaticities of the machine for the horizontal and the vertical Planes are {minus}33.6 and {minus}33.9 respectively. The {Delta}p/p of the beam at injection is about 0.002. The chromaticity requirements of the FMI, are primarily decided by the {Delta}p/p = 0.002 of the beam at injection. This limits the final chromaticity of the FMI to be {plus_minus}5 units. To correct the chromaticity in the FMI two families of sextupole magnets will be installed in the lattice, one for each plane. A sextupole magnet suitable for the FMI needs has been designed and a number of them are being built. New chromaticity compensation schemes have been worked out in the light of recently proposed faster acceleration ramps. On an R/D sextupole magnet the low current measurements have been carried out to determine the electrical properties. Also, using a Morgan coil, measurements have been performed to determine the higher ordered multipole components up to 18-poles. An overview of these result are presented here.

  6. GPHS-RTGs in support of the Cassini RTG Program. Final technical report, January 11, 1991--April 30, 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-08-01

    As noted in the historical summary, this program encountered a number of changes in direction, schedule, and scope over the period 11 January 1991 to 31 December 1998. The report provides a comprehensive summary of all the varied aspects of the program over its seven and a quarter years, and highlights those aspects that provide information beneficial to future radioisotope programs. In addition to summarizing the scope of the Cassini GPHS-RTG Program provided as background, the introduction includes a discussion of the scope of the final report and offers reference sources for information on those topics not covered. Much of the design heritage of the GPHS-RTG comes from the Multi-Hundred Watt (MHW) RTGs used on the Lincoln Experimental Satellites (LES) 8/9 and Voyager spacecraft. The design utilized for the Cassini program was developed, in large part, under the GPHS-RTG program which produced the Galileo and Ulysses RTGs. Reports from those programs included detailed documentation of the design, development, and testing of converter components and full converters that were identical to, or similar to, components used in the Cassini program. Where such information is available in previous reports, it is not repeated here.

  7. LPG in Argentina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calcagno, O.

    1986-01-01

    The GNP for Argentina in 1985 was of about 70 billion dollars ( a little over 2200 dollars/capita), the same as 1970 in real terms; foreign debt being over 40 billion. After several years of negative GNP growth, it will probably show a moderate increase in 1986. Industry represents 21 percent of the GNP, agriculture 16 percent. Total exports 12-14 percent. Imports are 8-9 percent. Historical investment of the energy sector was about 3.4 percent. The State, the Public Sector, plays an important role in every aspect, concentrating about 50 percent of the economy. For example, the Central Government sets official prices for most of the forms of energy. Normally, these prices do not relate to international price levels. The country has to catch up with the developed world and it is striving to increase productivity. There is a need to get its products to the external market as well as to attract foreign investment. The government has apparently become fully aware of that, being now a matter of how those goals are accomplished. It may take some time and reeducation of people at all levels to do so.

  8. Microstructure evolution and magnetic properties of FeB/Pt multilayers and FeBPt composite films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su, Hao; Schwarm, Samuel C.; Gupta, Subhadra; Martens, Richard L.

    2014-05-07

    Comparisons of microstructural evolution and magnetic properties were made of a FeB12/Pt10/[FeB1.2/Pt1]{sub 15}/Ta5 nm multilayered structure with a FeB12/Pt10/FeBPt33/Ta5 nm co-deposited structure. The Ta capping layer was used to protect the films from oxidation. Both these samples were sputtered in the same planetary deposition system onto thermally oxidized silicon substrates. They both represent layer-by-layer deposition, with the second type of deposition having atomically fine layers, more than an order of magnitude finer than the first type. The samples were annealed at a range of times, temperatures, and vacuum conditions. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy, and alternating gradient magnetometry were employed to characterize the structural and magnetic properties, respectively. Significant differences were observed between the two types of structures. A maximum coercivity of 8.9 kOe was seen for the atomically fine multilayer, about 10% more than that for the coarse multilayer. XRD analysis confirmed that both the coarse and fine multilayers were in the L1{sub 0} phase after annealing. Our results indicate that the co-deposited film, which is really composed of atomically fine multilayers, is superior to the coarse multilayered FeB/Pt for the formation of L1{sub 0}-phase FePt.

  9. Integrated Disposal Facility FY2011 Glass Testing Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierce, Eric M.; Bacon, Diana H.; Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Windisch, Charles F.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Burton, Sarah D.; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2011-09-29

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was contracted by Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC to provide the technical basis for estimating radionuclide release from the engineered portion of the disposal facility (e.g., source term). Vitrifying the low-activity waste at Hanford is expected to generate over 1.6 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3} of glass (Certa and Wells 2010). The volume of immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) at Hanford is the largest in the DOE complex and is one of the largest inventories (approximately 8.9 x 10{sup 14} Bq total activity) of long-lived radionuclides, principally {sup 99}Tc (t{sub 1/2} = 2.1 x 10{sup 5}), planned for disposal in a low-level waste (LLW) facility. Before the ILAW can be disposed, DOE must conduct a performance assessment (PA) for the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) that describes the long-term impacts of the disposal facility on public health and environmental resources. As part of the ILAW glass testing program PNNL is implementing a strategy, consisting of experimentation and modeling, in order to provide the technical basis for estimating radionuclide release from the glass waste form in support of future IDF PAs. The purpose of this report is to summarize the progress made in fiscal year (FY) 2011 toward implementing the strategy with the goal of developing an understanding of the long-term corrosion behavior of low-activity waste glasses.

  10. International Energy Outlook 2013

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4 Appendix F Table F10. Total Non-OECD delivered energy consumption by end-use sector and fuel, 2010-2040 (quadrillion Btu) Sector/fuel Projections Average annual percent change, 2010-2040 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 Residential Liquids 5.1 5.4 5.2 5.1 5.1 5.0 4.9 -0.2 Natural gas 7.9 8.9 10.4 12.3 14.3 16.2 17.9 2.8 Coal 3.8 3.7 3.7 3.8 3.8 3.8 3.7 -0.1 Electricity 7.0 9.0 11.4 14.0 16.9 20.0 23.3 4.1 Total 23.9 27.0 30.8 35.1 40.0 45.0 49.8 2.5 Commercial Liquids 1.9 1.8 1.8 1.9 1.9 1.8

  11. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Table 7-2. World industrial sector delivered energy consumption by region and energy source, 2012-40 quadrillion Btu Energy source by region 2012 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 Average annual percent change, 2012-40 OECD 73.3 77.6 80 81.7 83 84.6 0.5 Liquid fuels 27.2 28.9 29.8 30.3 30.4 30.6 0.4 Natural gas 21 22.7 23.4 24.2 24.9 25.7 0.7 Coal 8.5 8.7 8.8 8.9 9 9 0.2 Electricity 10.9 11.6 12.1 12.5 12.8 13.2 0.7 Renewables 5.7 5.7 5.8 5.9 5.9 6.1 0.3 Non-OECD 149 168.3 182.6 196.3 211 224.5 1.5

  12. Iron and aluminum interaction with amyloid-beta peptides associated with Alzheimer’s disease

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drochioiu, Gabi; Ion, Laura; Murariu, Manuela; Habasescu, Laura

    2014-10-06

    An elevation in the concentration of heavy metal ions in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) brain has been demonstrated in many studies. Aβ precipitation and toxicity in AD brains seem to be caused by abnormal interactions with neocortical metal ions, especially iron, copper, zinc, and aluminum [1–3]. There is increasing evidence that iron and aluminum ions are involved in the mechanisms that underlie the neurodegenerative diseases [4,5]. However, evidence was brought to demonstrate that some Aβ fragments, at physiological pH, are not able to form binary complexes with Fe(III) ions of sufficient stability to compete with metal hydroxide precipitation [6]. On the contrary, multiple metal ions are known to interact with Aβ peptides [7]. Consequently, we investigated here the interaction of Fe(II/III) and Al(III) ions with some amyloid-β peptides and fragments that results in peptide aggregation and fibrillation [8,9]. Infrared spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, electrophoresis and mass spectrometry demonstrated conformational changes of peptides in the presence of such metals.

  13. First principles screening of destabilized metal hydrides for high capacity H2 storage using scandium (presentation had varying title: Accelerating Development of Destabilized Metal Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage Using First Principles Calculations)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alapati, S.; Johnson, J.K.; Sholl, D.S.; Dai, B. --last author not shown on publication, only presentation

    2007-10-31

    Favorable thermodynamics are a prerequisite for practical H2 storage materials for vehicular applications. Destabilization of metal hydrides is a versatile route to finding materials that reversibly store large quantities of H2. First principles calculations have proven to be a useful tool for screening large numbers of potential destabilization reactions when tabulated thermodynamic data are unavailable. We have used first principles calculations to screen potential destabilization schemes that involve Sc-containing compounds. Our calculations use a two-stage strategy in which reactions are initially assessed based on their reaction enthalpy alone, followed by more detailed free energy calculations for promising reactions. Our calculations indicate that mixtures of ScH2 + 2LiBH4, which will release 8.9 wt.% H2 at completion and will have an equilibrium pressure of 1 bar at around 330 K, making this compound a promising target for experimental study. Along with thermodynamics, favorable kinetics are also of enormous importance for practical usage of these materials. Experiments would help identify possible kinetic barriers and modify them by developing suitable catalysts.

  14. B J

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    16.37 12.59 10.06 9.29 8.30 8.39 1973-2016 Alabama 20.38 19.12 17.67 14.30 12.00 11.12 1989-2016 Alaska 9.86 9.44 8.89 8.79 8.91 9.03 1989-2016 Arizona 23.01 20.77 14.57 12.75 11.99 13.82 1989-2016 Arkansas 18.15 17.40 13.80 10.34 9.54 9.06 1989-2016 California 11.91 11.53 10.31 11.37 11.45 11.52 1989-2016 Colorado 13.03 9.26 6.88 6.45 6.06 6.44 1989-2016 Connecticut 21.49 15.30 12.50 11.82 10.32 10.65 1989-2016 Delaware 23.22 NA 14.03 11.09 10.09 9.71 1989-2016 District of Columbia 18.17 16.21

  15. High-resolution photoelectron spectra of the pyrimidine-type nucleobases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fulfer, K. D.; Hardy, D.; Poliakoff, E. D.; Aguilar, A. A.

    2015-06-14

    High-resolution photoelectron spectra of the gas phase pyrimidine-type nucleobases, thymine, uracil, and cytosine, were collected using synchrotron radiation over the photon energy range 17 ≤ hν ≤ 150 eV. These data provide the highest resolution photoelectron spectra of thymine, uracil, and cytosine published to date. By comparing integrated regions of the energy dependent photoelectron spectra of thymine, the ionization potentials of the first four ionic states of thymine were estimated to be 8.8, 9.8, 10.3, and 10.8 eV. The thymine data also show evidence for low energy shape resonances in three of the outermost valence electronic states. Comparing the uracil spectrum with the thymine spectrum, the four outermost valence electronic states of uracil likely begin at binding energies 9.3, 9.9, 10.5, and 11.0 eV. High-resolution spectra indicate only one tautomeric form of cytosine contributes significantly to the spectrum with the four outermost valence electronic states beginning at binding energies 8.9, 9.9, 10.4, and 10.85 eV.

  16. Alaska Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5.90 6.11 6.56 6.53 6.74 6.65 1989-2016 Residential 9.86 9.44 8.89 8.79 8.91 9.03 1989-2016 Commercial 7.03 7.67 7.43 7.39 7.18 7.24 1989-2016 Industrial 7.17 7.17 7.17 7.24 7.46 7.46 2001-2016 Electric Power 5.48 5.45 5.48 5.44 6.47 6.43 2002-2016 Production (Million Cubic Feet) Gross Withdrawals 261,150 279,434 289,770 304,048 298,809 273,296 1991-2016 From Gas Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 From Oil Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 From Coalbed Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 2002-2016

  17. Average Residential Price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    16.37 12.59 10.06 9.29 8.30 8.39 1973-2016 Alabama 20.38 19.12 17.67 14.30 12.00 11.12 1989-2016 Alaska 9.86 9.44 8.89 8.79 8.91 9.03 1989-2016 Arizona 23.01 20.77 14.57 12.75 11.99 13.82 1989-2016 Arkansas 18.15 17.40 13.80 10.34 9.54 9.06 1989-2016 California 11.91 11.53 10.31 11.37 11.45 11.52 1989-2016 Colorado 13.03 9.26 6.88 6.45 6.06 6.44 1989-2016 Connecticut 21.49 15.30 12.50 11.82 10.32 10.65 1989-2016 Delaware 23.22 NA 14.03 11.09 10.09 9.71 1989-2016 District of Columbia 18.17 16.21

  18. Virginia Natural Gas Price Sold to Electric Power Consumers (Dollars per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Thousand Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2002 W W W W W W 3.74 3.77 4.26 W W W 2003 W W W W W 8.65 6.34 5.94 6.41 6.40 5.85 W 2004 W W W 6.90 7.38 7.48 6.91 6.47 5.90 6.46 W W 2005 W W 7.15 8.26 7.79 8.08 8.55 10.47 12.89 W 12.21 W 2006 10.34 8.90 8.40 9.84 7.84 6.79 7.00 8.38 6.95 5.79 8.45 8.89 2007 8.15 11.00 9.85 10.14 11.16 8.90 7.94 7.54 6.76 7.67 8.86 8.75 2008 10.71 10.40 11.28 12.24 13.91 14.55 12.92 9.41 7.77 8.23 W W 2009 W 5.53 5.35 4.71 4.73 4.45

  19. Working Gas % Change from Year Ago

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    13.7 10.2 14.9 17.1 22.0 51.8 1973-2016 Alaska 3.0 3.7 0.8 -2.7 -2.1 0.7 2013-2016 Lower 48 States 13.8 10.2 15.0 17.2 22.2 52.6 2011-2016 Alabama 44.1 21.9 30.5 23.0 30.1 199.5 1996-2016 Arkansas -0.4 -18.2 -13.2 -20.3 -25.3 -16.8 1991-2016 California 15.5 11.3 10.5 0.8 0.4 -3.6 1991-2016 Colorado 4.6 4.6 7.4 9.0 -1.3 10.3 1991-2016 Illinois -1.9 -2.7 2.2 5.5 3.5 16.4 1991-2016 Indiana 8.9 6.0 11.9 17.6 22.2 34.9 1991-2016 Iowa -2.6 1.1 9.0 9.3 0.2 1.9 1991-2016 Kansas 14.3 9.9 15.3 13.6 5.1

  20. Substantial Contribution of Anthropogenic Air Pollution to Catastrophic Floods in Southwest China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fan, Jiwen; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Yang, Yan; Zhao, Chun; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Li, Zhanqing

    2015-07-20

    Extreme events such as heat waves, floods, and droughts, have become more frequent since the 1950s1-2. This is likely caused through changes in greenhouse gases and aerosols that perturb the radiative balance and alter cloud processes3-8. On 8-9 July, 2013 a catastrophic flood devastated several metropolitan areas at the foothills of the Sichuan Basin. Using a high-resolution coupled atmosphere-chemistry model, we show that this disaster was not entirely natural. Ensemble simulations robustly show that the severe anthropogenic pollution in the Sichuan Basin significantly enhanced rainfall intensity over the mountainous area northwest of the basin. The heavy air pollution (mainly black carbon) absorbs solar radiation in the lower atmosphere at the expense of surface cooling, which stabilizes the atmosphere and suppresses convection and precipitation over the basin. The enhanced moisture and moist static energy over the basin are then transported by the prevailing winds towards the mountains during daytime. As the excessive moist air that reaches the foothills at night is orographically lifted, very strong convection develops and produces extremely heavy precipitation. Reducing black carbon (BC) emissions in the basin can effectively mitigate the extreme precipitation in the mountains. Unfortunately, BC emissions have been increasing in many developing countries including China9, making them more vulnerable to enhanced disasters as reported here.

  1. A medium-energy photoemission and ab-initio investigation of cubic yttria-stabilised zirconia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cousland, G. P.; Cui, X. Y.; Smith, A. E.; Stampfl, C. M.; Wong, L.; Tayebjee, M.; Yu, D.; Triani, G.; Evans, P. J.; Ruppender, H.-J.; Jang, L.-Y.; Stampfl, A. P. J.

    2014-04-14

    Experimental and theoretical investigations into the electronic properties and structure of cubic yttria-stabilized zirconia are presented. Medium-energy x-ray photoemission spectroscopy measurements have been carried out for material with a concentration of 8-9?mol.?% yttria. Resonant photoemission spectra are obtained for a range of photon energies that traverse the L2 absorption edge for both zirconium and yttrium. Through correlation with results from density-functional theory (DFT) calculations, based on structural models proposed in the literature, we assign photoemission peaks appearing in the spectra to core lines and Auger transitions. An analysis of the core level features enables the identification of shifts in the core level energies due to different local chemical environments of the constituent atoms. In general, each core line feature can be decomposed into three contributions, with associated energy shifts. Their identification with results of DFT calculations carried out for proposed atomic structures, lends support to these structural models. The experimental results indicate a multi-atom resonant photoemission effect between nearest-neighbour oxygen and yttrium atoms. Near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectra for zirconium and yttrium are also presented, which correlate well with calculated Zr- and Y-4d electron partial density-of-states and with Auger electron peak area versus photon energy curve.

  2. Multi-stacked InAs/GaAs quantum dots grown with different growth modes for quantum dot solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Yeongho; Ban, Keun-Yong Honsberg, Christiana B.

    2015-06-01

    We have studied the material properties and device performance of InAs/GaAs quantum dot solar cells (QDSCs) made using three different QD growth modes: Stranski-Krastanov (S-K), quasi-monolayer (QML), and sub-monolayer (SML) growth modes. All QDSCs show an extended external quantum efficiency (EQE) at near infrared wavelengths of 9501070?nm from the QD absorption. Compared to the S-K and SML QDSCs, the QML QDSC with a higher strain exhibits a poor EQE response in the wavelength region of 300880?nm due to increased non-radiative recombination. The conversion efficiency of the S-K and SML QDSCs exceeds that of the reference cell (13.4%) without QDs due to an enhanced photocurrent (>16% increase) produced by the silicon doped QD stacks. However, as expected from the EQE of the QML QDSC, the increase of strain-induced crystalline defects greatly degrades the photocurrent and open-circuit voltage, leading to the lowest conversion efficiency (8.9%)

  3. Relativistic-Klystron two-beam accelerator as a power source for future linear colliders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lidia, S. M.; Anderson, D. E.; Eylon, S.; Henestroza, E.; Vanecek, D. L.; Yu, S. S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Houck, T. L.; Westenskow, G. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    1999-05-07

    The technical challenge for making two-beam accelerators into realizable power sources for high-energy colliders lies in the creation of the drive beam and in its propagation over long distances through multiple extraction sections. This year we have been constructing a 1.2-kA, 1-MeV, induction gun for a prototype relativistic klystron two-beam accelerator (RK-TBA). The electron source will be a 8.9 cm diameter, thermionic, flat-surface cathode with a maximum shroud field stress of approximately 165 kV/cm. Additional design parameters for the injector include a pulse length of over 150-ns flat top (1% energy variation), and a normalized edge emittance of less than 300 pi-mm-mr. The prototype accelerator will be used to study, physics, engineering, and costing issues involved in the application of the RK-TBA concept to linear colliders. We have also been studying optimization parameters, such as frequency, for the application of the RK-TBA concept to multi-TeV linear colliders. As an rf power source the RK-TBA scales favorably up to frequencies around 35 GHz. An overview of this work with details of the design and performance of the prototype injector, beam line, and diagnostics will be presented.

  4. Relativistic-Klystron two-beam accelerator as a power source for future linear colliders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lidia, S.M.; Anderson, D.E.; Eylon, S.; Henestroza, E.; Vanecek, D.L.; Yu, S.S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Westenskow, G.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    1999-05-01

    The technical challenge for making two-beam accelerators into realizable power sources for high-energy colliders lies in the creation of the drive beam and in its propagation over long distances through multiple extraction sections. This year we have been constructing a 1.2-kA, 1-MeV, induction gun for a prototype relativistic klystron two-beam accelerator (RK-TBA). The electron source will be a 8.9 cm diameter, thermionic, flat-surface cathode with a maximum shroud field stress of approximately 165 kV/cm. Additional design parameters for the injector include a pulse length of over 150-ns flat top (1{percent} energy variation), and a normalized edge emittance of less than 300 pi-mm-mr. The prototype accelerator will be used to study, physics, engineering, and costing issues involved in the application of the RK-TBA concept to linear colliders. We have also been studying optimization parameters, such as frequency, for the application of the RK-TBA concept to multi-TeV linear colliders. As an rf power source the RK-TBA scales favorably up to frequencies around 35 GHz. An overview of this work with details of the design and performance of the prototype injector, beam line, and diagnostics will be presented. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  5. Relativistic-klystron two-beam accelerator as a power source for future linear colliders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, D E; Eylon, S; Henestroza, E; Houck, T L; Lidia, M; Vanecek, D L; Westenskow, G A; Yu, S S

    1998-10-05

    The technical challenge for making two-beam accelerators into realizable power sources for high-energy colliders lies in the creation of the drive beam and in its propagation over long distances through multiple extraction sections. This year we have been constructing a 1.2&A, l-MeV, induction gun for a prototype relativistic klystron two-beam accelerator (RK-TBA). The electron source will be a 8.9 cm diameter, thermionic, flat-surface cathode with a maximum shroud field stress of approximately 165 kV/cm. Additional design parameters for the injector include a pulse length of over 150-ns flat top (1% energy variation), and a normalized edge emittance of less than 300 pi-mm-n-n. The prototype accelerator will be used to study physics, engineering, and costing issues involved in the application of the RK-TBA concept to linear colliders. We have also been studying optimization parameters, such as frequency, for the application of the RK-TBA concept to multi-TeV linear colliders. As an rf power source the RK-TBA scales favorably up to frequencies around 35 GHz. An overview of this work with details of the design and performance of the prototype injector, beam line, and diagnostics will be presented.

  6. Gasification Studies Task 4 Topical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitty, Kevin; Fletcher, Thomas; Pugmire, Ronald; Smith, Philip; Sutherland, James; Thornock, Jeremy; Boshayeshi, Babak; Hunsacker, Isaac; Lewis, Aaron; Waind, Travis; Kelly, Kerry

    2014-02-01

    A key objective of the Task 4 activities has been to develop simulation tools to support development, troubleshooting and optimization of pressurized entrained-flow coal gasifiers. The overall gasifier models (Subtask 4.1) combine submodels for fluid flow (Subtask 4.2) and heat transfer (Subtask 4.3) with fundamental understanding of the chemical processes (Subtask 4.4) processes that take place as coal particles are converted to synthesis gas and slag. However, it is important to be able to compare predictions from the models against data obtained from actual operating coal gasifiers, and Subtask 4.6 aims to provide an accessible, non-proprietary system, which can be operated over a wide range of conditions to provide well-characterized data for model validation. Highlights of this work include: • Verification and validation activities performed with the Arches coal gasification simulation tool on experimental data from the CANMET gasifier (Subtask 4.1). • The simulation of multiphase reacting flows with coal particles including detailed gas-phase chemistry calculations using an extension of the one-dimensional turbulence model’s capability (Subtask 4.2). • The demonstration and implementation of the Reverse Monte Carlo ray tracing (RMCRT) radiation algorithm in the ARCHES code (Subtask 4.3). • Determination of steam and CO{sub 2} gasification kinetics of bituminous coal chars at high temperature and elevated pressure under entrained-flow conditions (Subtask 4.4). In addition, attempts were made to gain insight into the chemical structure differences between young and mature coal soot, but both NMR and TEM characterization efforts were hampered by the highly reacted nature of the soot. • The development, operation, and demonstration of in-situ gas phase measurements from the University of Utah’s pilot-scale entrained-flow coal gasifier (EFG) (Subtask 4.6). This subtask aimed at acquiring predictable, consistent performance and characterizing the environment within the gasifier.

  7. Fabrication and analysis of high efficiency multicrystalline silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohatgi, A.; Sana, P.; Cai, L.; Doolittle, W.A.; Kamra, S.; Doshi, P.; Krygowski, T.; Crotty, G.

    1996-01-01

    A detailed investigation of quality enhancement techniques, such as plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) of SiO{sub 2}/SiN coating, forming gas anneal (FGA) and Al gettering was conducted to improve the performance of cells fabricated on several promising multicrystalline silicon (mcs) materials. A large amount of hydrogen and positive charge in the PECVD SiN antireflection (AR) coating play an important role in passivating surface and bulk defects in silicon. Appropriate post-PECVD deposition anneal was found to be important in maximizing the benefit from PECVD AR coating. Low temperature anneal at 350{degree}C/20 min improves the short wavelength response due to surface passivation along with some increase in the long wavelength response due to bulk defect passivation in certain mcs materials. Post-PECVD rapid thermal anneals (RTA) in the range of 350 to 750{degree}C significantly improve the long wavelength response of certain materials such as EFG silicon. However, this comes at the expense of short wavelength response due to increased absorption in the SiN film. Electron beam induced current (EBIC) measurements revealed significant increase in the intragrain response of these cells after post-PECVD anneal. Al gettering of mcs showed a significant improvement in bulk lifetime and cell efficiency. Forming gas anneal, after phosphorus and Al diffusions, resulted in additional improvements in bulk lifetime in certain materials due to hydrogen passivation. Cells fabricated on cast mcs from Osaka Titanium Corporation (OTC) and Crystal Systems gave cell efficiencies in the range of 17 to 18{percent}. Without the appropriate gettering and passivation techniques these materials give cell efficiencies in the range of 14.5 to 15.5{percent}. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  8. PREPARATION AND TESTING OF CORROSIONAND SPALLATION-RESISTANT COATINGS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hurley, John

    2014-11-01

    This Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) project is designed to determine if plating APMT®, a specific highly oxidation-resistant oxide dispersion-strengthened FeCrAl alloy made by Kanthal, onto nickel-based superalloy turbine parts is a viable method for substantially improving the lifetimes and maximum use temperatures of the parts. The method for joining the APMT plate to the superalloys is called evaporative metal bonding and involves placing a thin foil of zinc (Zn) between the plate and the superalloy, clamping them together, and heating in an atmosphere-controlled furnace. Upon heating, the Zn melts and dissolves the oxide skins of the alloys at the bond line, allowing the two alloys to diffuse into each other. The Zn then diffuses through the alloys and evaporates from their surfaces. Laboratory testing to determine the diffusion rate of Zn through the alloys has been completed. However, an analytical solution does not exist to model the diffusion of zinc through the alloys. For this reason, a finite difference algorithm using MATLAB was developed. It makes use of the hopscotch algorithm. The model allows the user to specify the dimensions of the metal parts, the Zn concentration at the bondline, the mesh size, time step, and Zn diffusivity. The experimentally measured values of diffusivity for Zn in APMT and Rene 80/CM 247LC are approximately 2.7 × 10-12 and 4 × 10-14 m2/s, respectively. While the qualitative behavior of the model appears correct, a comparison of the diffusion predictions with the experimental results from earlier in the project indicates that the expected Zn concentration is significantly higher than that measured experimentally. The difference depends on the assumed initial concentration, which is difficult to quantify exactly under experimental conditions for t = 0. In addition to the diffusion work, the coefficients of thermal expansions were determined for each of the alloys as a function of temperature. This information has been entered into a finite element model using ANSYS so that appropriate force-applying structures can be designed for use in joining structures composed of APMT and the nickel alloys. Finite element modeling has been performed to finalize the fabrication geometry for the corrosion-testing phase. The addition of another bolt increases stress uniformity away from the region where the clamping is applied. It appears that a bolt spacing of approximately 25 mm in each jig is appropriate. This will allow the fabrication of 50-mm-wide sections of joints for the corrosion-testing task. Gasifier sampling activities continue to determine what types of trace contaminants may occur in cleaned syngas that could lead to corrosion or deposition in turbines firing coal syngas. The EERC has several pilot-scale gasifiers that are continually used in a variety of test configurations as determined by the needs of the projects that are funding the tests. We are sampling both noncombusted and combusted syngas produced during some of the pilot-scale gasifier tests. This year sampling was performed of both syngas and combusted syngas while the entrained-flow gasifier (EFG) was firing subbituminous coal from the Antelope Mine in Wyoming. Results of scanning electron microscope analyses of the syngas before combustion showed no submicron particles, only flakes of iron oxide that had likely formed on steel surfaces inside the combustor. As shown in the 2013 annual report, soot was also collected from the syngas when the much-lower-temperature fluid-bed gasifier (FBG) was fired, indicating that the much higher temperature of the EFG prevented soot formation. However, particles collected from the combusted syngas consist almost entirely of submicron soot, and little to no vaporized metals made it past the warm-gas filters and scrubbers in the high-temperature EFG system which could then deposit in a turbine system burning a higher hydrogen syngas. These results are consistent with the analyses of the particulates collected from combusted syngas when the lowertemperature FBG system is used.

  9. The WEI6K, a 6-kW 7-m Small Wind Turbine: Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wetzel, Kyle K.; McCleer, Patrick J.; Hahlbeck, Edwin C.; DOE Project Office - Keith Bennett

    2006-07-21

    This project was selected by the U.S. Department of Energy under a DOE solicitation “Low Wind Speed Technology for Small Turbine Development.” The objective of this project has been to design a new small wind turbine with improved cost, reliability and performance in grid-connected residential and small business applications, in order to achieve the overall DOE goal of cost effectiveness in Class 3 wind resources that can now be achieved in Class 5 resources. The scope of work for this project has been to complete the preliminary design of an improved small wind turbine, including preliminary loads and strength analyses; analysis and design of all major components; systems integration and structural dynamic analysis; estimation of life-cycle cost of energy; and design documentation and review. The project did not entail hardware fabrication or testing. The WEI6K Turbine resulting from this project is an upwind horizontal-axis wind turbine rated at 6 kW. It features a 3-blade 7-m diameter rotor. The generator is a direct-drive permanent magnet synchronous machine generating 3-phase power at 240 VAC. The turbine is maintained oriented in to the wind via active yaw control using electromechanical servos. Power is regulated with active blade pitch control. The turbine is presently designed to be placed on a 100-foot (30m) tower. The turbine is predicted to generate electricity at a levelized cost of energy (COE) between 7.3 and 8.9 ¢/kWh at an IEC Class II site, with an average wind speed of 8.5 m/s at hub height, depending upon whether the customer uses a guyed truss tower (the lower figure) or a monopole tower. For the NREL Reference Site, with a mean wind speed of 5.35 m/s at 10 m height, the turbine would generate at a levelized cost of energy of between 9.7 and 11.9 ¢/kWh. The lowest of these numbers is presently competitive with retail electricity rates in most of the country. The 8.9 ¢/kWh is still competitive with retail rates in many regions of the country with high electricity costs. The study further concludes that several design changes could shave 10-14% from the cost of energy determined in the preliminary design. These changes include a new tower design that offers tilt-up capability without guy wires and takes better advantage of the lowered loads produced by pitch control; design a family of airfoils more appropriate for pitch regulation on a turbine of this size; tune the pitch controller properly to minimize shedding of power during turbulent operation in the transition from Region 2 to 3; value engineer the pitch system to shave costs, including consideration of a collective pitch system; and refine the design of the hub and main frame castings to minimize weight and cost. We are generally encouraged by the results. These preliminary numbers show that we can produce a turbine that is competitive with retail electric rates at relatively windy IEC Class II sites. With further improvements in the design, we believe the turbine could be competitive at sites with lesser wind resource.

  10. TU-C-17A-05: Dose Domain Optimization of MLC Leaf Patterns for Highly Complicated 4Ï€ IMRT Plans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, D; Yu, V; Ruan, D; Semwal, H; Cao, M; Low, D; Sheng, K; O’Connor, D

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Highly conformal non-coplanar 4π radiotherapy plans typically require more than 20 intensity-modulated fields to deliver. A novel method to calculate multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf patterns is introduced to maximize delivery efficiency, accuracy and plan quality. Methods: 4 GBM patients, with a prescription dose of 59.4 Gy or 60 Gy, were evaluated using the 4π algorithm using 20 beams. The MLC calculation utilized a least square minimization of the dose distribution, with an anisotropic total variation regularization term to encourage piecewise continuity in the fluence maps. Transforming the fluence to the dose domain required multiplying the fluence with a sparse matrix. Exploiting this property made it feasible to solve the problem using CVX, a MATLAB-based convex modeling framework. The fluence was stratified into even step sizes, and the MLC segments, limited to 300, were calculated. The patients studied were replanned using Eclipse with the same beam angles. Results: Compared to the original 4π plan, the stratified 4π plan increased the maximum/mean dose for, in Gy, by 1.0/0.0 (brainstem), 0.5/0.2 (chiasm), 0.0/0.0 (spinal cord), 1.9/0.3 (L eye), 0.7/0.2 (R eye), 0.4/0.4 (L lens), 0.3/0.3 (R lens), 1.0/0.8 (L Optical Nerve), 0.5/0.3 (R Optical Nerve), 0.3/0.2 (L Cochlea), 0.1/0.1 (R Cochlea), 4.6/0.2 (brain), 2.4/0.1 (brain-PTV), 5.1/0.9 (PTV). Compared to Eclipse, which generated an average of 607 segments, the stratified plan reduced (−) or increased (+) the maximum/mean dose, in Gy, by −10.2/−4.1 (brainstem), −10.5/−8.9 (chiasm), +0.0/−0.1 (spinal cord), −4.9/−3.4 (L eye), −4.1/−2.5 (R eye), −2.8/−2.7 (L lens), −2.1/−1.9 (R lens), −7.6/−6.5 (L Optical Nerve), −8.9/−6.1 (R Optical Nerve), −1.3/−1.9 (L Cochlea), −1.8/−1.8 (R Cochlea), +1.7/−2.1 (brain), +3.2/−2.6 (brain-PTV), +1.8/+0.3 Gy (PTV. The stratified plan was also more homogeneous in the PTV. Conclusion: This novel solver can transform complicated fluence maps into significantly fewer deliverable MLC segments than the commercial system while achieving superior dosimetry. Funding support partially contributed by Varian.

  11. Signal-to-noise assessment for diffusion tensor imaging with single data set and validation using a difference image method with data from a multicenter study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Zhiyue J.; Chia, Jonathan M.; Ahmed, Shaheen; Rollins, Nancy K.

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: To describe a quantitative method for determination of SNR that extracts the local noise level using a single diffusion data set. Methods: Brain data sets came from a multicenter study (eight sites; three MR vendors). Data acquisition protocol required b = 0, 700 s/mm{sup 2}, fov = 256 × 256 mm{sup 2}, acquisition matrix size 128 × 128, reconstruction matrix size 256 × 256; 30 gradient encoding directions and voxel size 2 × 2 × 2 mm{sup 3}. Regions-of-interest (ROI) were placed manually on the b = 0 image volume on transverse slices, and signal was recorded as the mean value of the ROI. The noise level from the ROI was evaluated using Fourier Transform based Butterworth high-pass filtering. Patients were divided into two groups, one for filter parameter optimization (N = 17) and one for validation (N = 10). Six white matter areas (the genu and splenium of corpus callosum, right and left centrum semiovale, right and left anterior corona radiata) were analyzed. The Bland–Altman method was used to compare the resulting SNR with that from the difference image method. The filter parameters were optimized for each brain area, and a set of “global” parameters was also obtained, which represent an average of all regions. Results: The Bland–Altman analysis on the validation group using “global” filter parameters revealed that the 95% limits of agreement of percent bias between the SNR obtained with the new and the reference methods were −15.5% (median of the lower limit, range [−24.1%, −8.9%]) and 14.5% (median of the higher limits, range [12.7%, 18.0%]) for the 6 brain areas. Conclusions: An FT-based high-pass filtering method can be used for local area SNR assessment using only one DTI data set. This method could be used to evaluate SNR for patient studies in a multicenter setting.

  12. White Matter Fractional Anisotropy Correlates With Speed of Processing and Motor Speed in Young Childhood Cancer Survivors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aukema, Eline J.; Oudhuis, Nienke; Vos, Frans M.; Reneman, Liesbeth; Last, Bob F.; Grootenhuis, Martha A.

    2009-07-01

    Purpose: To determine whether childhood medulloblastoma and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) survivors have decreased white matter fractional anisotropy (WMFA) and whether WMFA is related to the speed of processing and motor speed. Methods and Materials: For this study, 17 patients (6 medulloblastoma, 5 ALL treated with high-dose methotrexate (MTX) (4 x 5 g/m{sup 2}) and 6 with low-dose MTX (3 x 2 g/m{sup 2})) and 17 age-matched controls participated. On a 3.0-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed, and WMFA values were calculated, including specific regions of interest (ROIs), and correlated with the speed of processing and motor speed. Results: Mean WMFA in the patient group, mean age 14 years (range 8.9 - 16.9), was decreased compared with the control group (p = 0.01), as well as WMFA in the right inferior fronto-occipital fasciliculus (IFO) (p = 0.03) and in the genu of the corpus callosum (gCC) (p = 0.01). Based on neurocognitive results, significant positive correlations were present between processing speed and WMFA in the splenium (sCC) (r = 0.53, p = 0.03) and the body of the corpus callosum (bCC) (r = 0.52, p = 0.03), whereas the right IFO WMFA was related to motor speed (r = 0.49, p < 0.05). Conclusions: White matter tracts, using a 3.0-T MRI scanner, show impairment in childhood cancer survivors, medulloblastoma survivors, and also those treated with high doses of MTX. In particular, white matter tracts in the sCC, bCC and right IFO are positively correlated with speed of processing and motor speed.

  13. Study of eclipsing binary and multiple systems in ob associations. II. The cygnus ob region: V443 Cyg, V456 Cyg, and V2107 Cyg

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bak??, V.; Bak??, H.; Hensberge, H.; Bilir, S.; Y?lmaz, F.; K?ran, E.; Demircan, O.; Zejda, M.; Mikulek, Z.

    2014-06-01

    Three presumably young eclipsing binary systems in the direction of the Cygnus OB1, OB3, and OB9 associations are studied. Component spectra are reconstructed and their orbits are determined using light curves and spectra disentangling techniques. V443 Cyg and V456 Cyg have circular orbits while the light curve of V2107 Cyg imposes a slightly eccentric orbit (e = 0.045 0.03). V443 Cyg harbors F-type stars, not young early-A stars as previously suggested in the literature based solely on photometry. It appears to be situated in the foreground (distance 0.6 0.2 kpc) of the young stellar populations in Cygnus. V456 Cyg, at a distance of 0.50 0.03 kpc, consists of a slightly metal-weak A-type star and an early-F star. The age of both systems, on or very near to the main sequence, remains uncertain by an order of magnitude. V2107 Cyg is a more massive system (8.9 2 and 4.5 1.2 M {sub ?}) at 1.5 0.5 kpc and, also kinematically, a strong candidate-member of Cyg OB1. The more massive component is slightly evolved and appears to undergo non-radial ?Cep-type pulsations. The Doppler signal of the secondary is barely detectable. A more extensive, asteroseismological study is necessary to fix masses more precisely. Nevertheless, the position of the primary in the H-R diagram confines the age reasonably well to 20 5 Myr, indicating that for Cyg OB1 has a similar extent of star formation history as that established for Cyg OB2.

  14. MULTIWAVELENGTH PHOTOMETRY AND HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE SPECTROSCOPY OF THE OLD NOVA V842 CENTAURUS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sion, Edward M. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Villanova University, 800 Lancaster Avenue, Villanova, PA 19085 (United States); Szkody, Paula; Mukadam, Anjum [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Warner, Brian; Woudt, Patrick [Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Centre, Department of Astronomy, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Walter, Frederic [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Henden, Arne [AAVSO 49 Bay State Road, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Godon, Patrick, E-mail: edward.sion@villanova.edu, E-mail: szkody@astro.washington.edu, E-mail: anjum@astro.washington.edu, E-mail: brian.warner@uct.ac.za, E-mail: pwoudt@ast.uct.ac.za, E-mail: frederick.walter@stonybrook.edu, E-mail: arne@aavso.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Villanova University, Villanova, PA 19085 (United States)

    2013-08-01

    We present ground-based optical and near infrared photometric observations and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) COS spectroscopic observations of the old nova V842 Cen (Nova Cen 1986). Analysis of the optical light curves reveals a peak at 56.5 {+-} 0.3 s with an amplitude of 8.9 {+-} 4.2 mma, which is consistent with the rotation of a magnetic white dwarf primary in V842 Cen that was detected earlier by Woudt et al., and led to its classification as an intermediate polar. However, our UV lightcurve created from the COS time-tag spectra does not show this periodicity. Our synthetic spectral analysis of an HST COS spectrum rules out a hot white dwarf photosphere as the source of the FUV flux. The best-fitting model to the COS spectrum is a full optically thick accretion disk with no magnetic truncation, a low disk inclination angle, low accretion rate and a distance less than half the published distance that was determined on the basis of interstellar sodium D line strengths. Truncated accretion disks with truncation radii of 3 R{sub wd} and 5 R{sub wd} yielded unsatisfactory agreement with the COS data. The accretion rate is unexpectedly low for a classical nova only 24 yr after the explosion when the accretion rate is expected to be high and the white dwarf should still be very hot, especially if irradiation of the donor star took place. Our low accretion rate is consistent with those derived from X-ray and ground-based optical data.

  15. Dynamics of the reaction of C{sub 2} with C{sub 6}H{sub 2}: An implication for the formation of interstellar C{sub 8}H

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Yi-Lun; Huang, Wen-Jian; Chin, Chih-Hao; Lee, Shih-Huang

    2014-11-21

    The reaction C{sub 2} + C{sub 6}H{sub 2} → C{sub 8}H + H was investigated for the first time. Reactant C{sub 2} (C{sub 6}H{sub 2}) was synthesized from 1% C{sub 3}F{sub 6}/He (5% C{sub 2}H{sub 2}/He) by pulsed high-voltage discharge. We measured the translational-energy distribution, the angular distribution, and the photoionization spectrum of product C{sub 8}H in a crossed molecular-beam apparatus using synchrotron vacuum-ultraviolet ionization. This reaction released average translational energy of 8.5 kcal mol{sup −1} corresponding to a fraction of 0.37 in translation. C{sub 8}H was identified as octatetranyl based on the maximal translational-energy release 23 ± 2 kcal mol{sup −1} and the ionization threshold 8.9 ± 0.2 eV. Kinematic constraints can qualitatively account for the nearly isotropic angular distribution. The quantum-chemical calculations indicate that the exothermic reactions C{sub 2} (X {sup 1}Σ{sub g}{sup +}/a {sup 3}Π{sub u}) + HC{sub 6}H → C{sub 8}H + H can proceed without entrance and exit barriers, implying the importance in the cold interstellar medium. This work verifies that interstellar C{sub 8}H can be formed through the C{sub 2} + C{sub 6}H{sub 2} reaction.

  16. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Indiana Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 94.1 93.9 94.3 92.6 92.6 97.2 96.7 96.8 89.1 91.9 97.7 98.9 1990 99.2 98.5 93.4 90.1 92.1 90.6 92.2 89.7 88.4 91.8 98.4 98.6 1991 94.2 93.3 93.2 93.2 92.6 89.2 89.9 89.6 92.6 98.5 97.9 95.4 1992 93.6 92.4 98.6 99.1 99.7 99.9 92.8 99.6 91.9 99.8 99.9 98.0 1993 94.5 94.1 99.6 99.5 100.0 91.9 90.4 91.1 92.9 90.7 92.2 96.1 1994 94.1 97.5 93.7 91.5 88.4 85.6 84.6 85.9 84.3 86.7 91.3 91.4 1995 89.7 89.9 89.5 87.0 83.4 76.1

  17. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Nevada Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 98.0 98.1 96.9 95.0 94.2 94.3 92.7 91.7 91.2 96.2 97.2 98.8 1990 99.1 99.4 97.7 97.0 96.4 96.7 95.7 95.0 95.1 96.8 98.4 99.1 1991 99.4 99.4 94.3 92.2 90.6 87.2 84.0 85.2 79.5 84.3 82.2 89.0 1992 90.6 89.5 88.3 87.2 83.7 84.0 84.8 81.4 82.7 88.9 88.5 95.4 1993 97.0 96.0 94.3 91.0 92.5 90.6 89.7 86.7 89.6 89.7 90.9 93.5 1994 93.8 89.3 86.1 81.3 80.1 79.6 76.4 74.5 76.4 73.9 76.7 81.4 1995 81.5 83.2 77.4 78.9 77.1 76.5

  18. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Ohio Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 87.4 88.1 87.1 86.0 81.2 74.4 75.5 75.0 78.9 85.1 87.8 90.3 1990 89.9 89.2 89.9 86.4 82.4 78.5 77.0 75.6 77.7 83.0 87.9 91.4 1991 91.6 90.0 87.2 83.6 78.6 74.7 75.5 73.7 75.6 82.6 87.8 89.8 1992 89.1 88.0 88.4 85.7 78.9 73.9 72.0 73.5 73.1 84.2 85.7 88.5 1993 89.4 87.0 86.9 83.8 76.1 73.9 74.6 69.4 72.6 82.8 84.5 86.3 1994 87.4 86.5 84.9 78.4 75.9 70.5 66.7 67.5 66.5 75.1 78.7 81.5 1995 81.0 80.0 78.6 76.8 67.8 61.4

  19. Dosimetric comparison of volumetric modulated Arc therapy, step-and-shoot, and sliding window IMRT for prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schnell, Erich; De La Fuente Herman, Tania; Young, Julie; Hildebrand, Kim; Algan, Ozer; Syzek, Elizabeth; Herman, Terence; Ahmad, Salahuddin

    2012-10-23

    This study aims to evaluate treatment plans generated by Step-and-Shoot (SS), Sliding Window (SW) and Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) in order to assess the differences in dose volume histograms of planning target volume (PTV) and organs at risk (OAR), conformity indices, radiobiological evaluations, and plan quality for prostate cancer cases. Six prostate cancer patients treated in our center were selected for this retrospective study. Treatment plans were generated with Eclipse version 8.9 using 10 MV photon beams. For VMAT, Varian Rapid Arc with 1 or 2 arcs, and for SS and SW IMRT, 7-9 fields were used. Each plan had three PTVs with prescription doses of 81, 59.4, and 45 Gy to prostate, to prostate and lymph nodes, and to pelvis, respectively. Doses to PTV and OAR and the conformal indices (COIN) were compared among three techniques. The equivalent uniform dose (EUD), tumor control probability (TCP) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) were calculated and compared. The mean doses to the PTV prostate on average were 83 Gy and the percent differences of mean dose among all techniques were below 0.28. For bladder and rectum, the percent differences of mean dose among all techniques were below 2.2. The COIN did not favour any particular delivery method over the other. The TCP was higher with SS and SW for four patients and higher with VMAT for two patients. The NTCP for the rectum was the lowest with VMAT in five out of the six patients. The results show similar target coverage in general.

  20. SU-E-J-33: Cardiac Movement in Deep Inspiration Breath-Hold for Left-Breast Cancer Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, M; Lee, S; Suh, T

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The present study was designed to investigate the displacement of heart using Deep Inspiration Breath Hold (DIBH) CT data compared to free-breathing (FB) CT data and radiation exposure to heart. Methods: Treatment planning was performed on the computed tomography (CT) datasets of 20 patients who had received lumpectomy treatments. Heart, lung and both breasts were outlined. The prescribed dose was 50 Gy divided into 28 fractions. The dose distributions in all the plans were required to fulfill the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurement specifications that include 100% coverage of the CTV with ? 95% of the prescribed dose and that the volume inside the CTV receiving > 107% of the prescribed dose should be minimized. Displacement of heart was measured by calculating the distance between center of heart and left breast. For the evaluation of radiation dose to heart, minimum, maximum and mean dose to heart were calculated. Results: The maximum and minimum left-right (LR) displacements of heart were 8.9 mm and 3 mm, respectively. The heart moved > 4 mm in the LR direction in 17 of the 20 patients. The distances between the heart and left breast ranged from 8.0217.68 mm (mean, 12.23 mm) and 7.8512.98 mm (mean, 8.97 mm) with DIBH CT and FB CT, respectively. The maximum doses to the heart were 3115 cGy and 4652 cGy for the DIBH and FB CT dataset, respectively. Conclusion: The present study has demonstrated that the DIBH technique could help to reduce the risk of radiation dose-induced cardiac toxicity by using movement of cardiac; away from radiation field. The DIBH technique could be used in an actual treatment room for a few minutes and could effectively reduce the cardiac dose when used with a sub-device or image acquisition standard to maintain consistent respiratory motion.

  1. Outcomes of Node-Negative Breast Cancer 5 Centimeters and Larger Treated With and Without Postmastectomy Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goulart, Jennifer; Truong, Pauline; Woods, Ryan; Speers, Caroline H.; Kennecke, Hagen; Nichol, Alan

    2011-07-01

    Purpose: The role of adjuvant postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) remains controversial for the rare presentation of pT3pN0cM0 breast cancer. The present analysis examined locoregional recurrence (LRR) and breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) in pT2 = 5.0-cm and pT3 >5.0-cm tumors treated with mastectomy, stratified by PMRT use. Materials and Methods: Between January 1, 1989 and December 31, 2000, the British Columbia provincial database yielded 100 node-negative patients with tumors {>=}5 cm of 19,846 nonmetastatic breast cancer patients (0.5%). Of these 100 patients, 44 (44%) had received adjuvant PMRT. Results: The PMRT group contained significantly more pT3 >5-cm cases (p = 0.001) and margin-positive cases (p = .03). With a median follow-up of 10 years, the cumulative 10-year LRR rate was 2.3% (95% confidence interval, 0.2-10.5) in the PMRT group vs. 8.9% (95% confidence interval, 3.2-18.2) in the no-PMRT group (p = .2). Regarding LRR in the no-PMRT group, all patients had Grade 3 histologic features (LRR 17%, 5 of 29) and had not received hormonal therapy (LRR 15%, 5 of 34). The 10-year breast cancer-specific survival rate was 85.8% (95% confidence interval 71.0-93.4) in the PMRT group vs. 74.6% (95% confidence interval 59.9-84.5) in the no-PMRT group (p = .2). On multivariate analysis, adjusted for the prognostic and predictive variables, PMRT did not significantly improve the LRR or breast cancer-specific survival rates. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated a low LRR rate for node-negative breast cancer {>=}5 cm. Our results indicate that PMRT should be considered for Grade 3 histologic features and patients not undergoing hormonal therapy.

  2. Magnetic hardening of Ce1+xFe11–yCoyTi with ThMn12 structure by melt spinning

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhou, Chen; Sun, Kewei; Pinkerton, Frederick E.; Kramer, M. J.

    2015-04-15

    A recent study on the intrinsic magnetic properties of CeFe11–yCoyTi has revealed that substituting one Co for Fe retains the favorable magnetocrystalline anisotropy Ha found in the ternary Fe end member, while enhancing the Curie temperature Tc and saturation magnetization 4πMs. These findings warrant further optimization around Co substitution y = 1 to try to exploit the hard magnetic properties of these Ce-based magnets. Both Ce and Co concentrations in Ce1+xFe11–yCoyTi have been optimized in the range of x = 0 – 0.2 and y = 0 –1.5. It was found that Co substitution effectively enhances all hard magnetic properties,more » although the values are still lower than those predicted from the intrinsic magnetic properties. Specifically, Tc increases from 210 °C to 285 – 350 °C; 4πM19 (magnetization at 19 kOe) from 8.9 kG to 10.5 – 11.5 kG, remanence Br from 3.1 kG to 4.1 – 4.5 kG, and most importantly, Hci from 1.1 kOe to 1.5 kOe. As a result, the room temperature energy product (BH)max has been increased by over 100% from 0.7 MGOe in Ce1.1Fe11Ti to 1.5 MGOe in Ce1.05Fe9.75Co1.25Ti. Microscopy analysis indicates that the addition of Co refines the grain size and promotes chemical homogeneity at the microscopic scale. As a result, the beneficial effect of Co on the microstructure contributes to the improved hard magnetic properties.« less

  3. An evaluation of health risk to the public as a consequence of in situ uranium mining in Wyoming, USA

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ruedig, Elizabeth; Johnson, Thomas E.

    2015-08-30

    In the United States there is considerable public concern regarding the health effects of in situ recovery uranium mining. These concerns focus principally on exposure to contaminants mobilized in groundwater by the mining process. However, the risk arising as a result of mining must be viewed in light of the presence of naturally occurring uranium ore and other constituents which comprise a latent hazard. The United States Environmental Protection Agency recently proposed new guidelines for successful restoration of an in situ uranium mine by limiting concentrations of thirteen groundwater constituents: arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, selenium, silver, nitrate (asmore » nitrogen), molybdenum, radium, total uranium, and gross α activity. We investigated the changes occurring to these constituents at an ISR uranium mine in Wyoming, USA by comparing groundwater quality at baseline measurement to that at stability (post-restoration) testing. Of the groundwater constituents considered, only uranium and radium-226 showed significant (p < 0.05) deviation from site-wide baseline conditions in matched-wells. Uranium concentrations increased by a factor of 5.6 (95% CI 3.6–8.9 times greater) while radium-226 decreased by a factor of about one half (95% CI 0.42–0.75 times less). Change in risk was calculated using the RESRAD (onsite) code for an individual exposed as a resident-farmer; total radiation dose to a resident farmer decreased from pre-to post-mining by about 5.2 mSv y–1. As a result, higher concentrations of uranium correspond to increased biomarkers of nephrotoxicity, however the clinical significance of this increase is unclear.« less

  4. Designing the Microbial Research Commons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uhlir, Paul F

    2011-10-01

    Recent decades have witnessed an ever-increasing range and volume of digital data. All elements of the pillars of science--whether observation, experiment, or theory and modeling--are being transformed by the continuous cycle of generation, dissemination, and use of factual information. This is even more so in terms of the re-using and re-purposing of digital scientific data beyond the original intent of the data collectors, often with dramatic results. We all know about the potential benefits and impacts of digital data, but we are also aware of the barriers, the challenges in maximizing the access, and use of such data. There is thus a need to think about how a data infrastructure can enhance capabilities for finding, using, and integrating information to accelerate discovery and innovation. How can we best implement an accessible, interoperable digital environment so that the data can be repeatedly used by a wide variety of users in different settings and with different applications? With this objective: to use the microbial communities and microbial data, literature, and the research materials themselves as a test case, the Board on Research Data and Information held an International Symposium on Designing the Microbial Research Commons at the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, DC on 8-9 October 2009. The symposium addressed topics such as models to lower the transaction costs and support access to and use of microbiological materials and digital resources from the perspective of publicly funded research, public-private interactions, and developing country concerns. The overall goal of the symposium was to stimulate more research and implementation of improved legal and institutional models for publicly funded research in microbiology.

  5. THE HERSCHEL EXPLOITATION OF LOCAL GALAXY ANDROMEDA (HELGA). VI. THE DISTRIBUTION AND PROPERTIES OF MOLECULAR CLOUD ASSOCIATIONS IN M31

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirk, J. M. [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute, University of Central Lancashire, Preston PR1 2HE (United Kingdom); Gear, W. K.; Smith, M. W. L.; Ford, G.; Eales, S. A.; Gomez, H. L. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Queens Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff, Wales CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Fritz, J.; Baes, M.; De Looze, I.; Gentile, G.; Gordon, K.; Verstappen, J.; Viaene, S. [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281 S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Bendo, G. J. [UK ALMA Regional Centre Node, Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); O'Halloran, B. [Astrophysics Group, Imperial College, Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Madden, S. C.; Lebouteiller, V. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universit Paris Diderot, Irfu/Service, Paris, F-91190 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Roman-Duval, J. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Boselli, A. [Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, UMR 7326 CNRS, 38 rue F. Joliot-Curie, F-13388 Marseille (France); Cooray, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); and others

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a catalog of giant molecular clouds (GMCs) in the Andromeda (M31) galaxy extracted from the Herschel Exploitation of Local Galaxy Andromeda (HELGA) data set. GMCs are identified from the Herschel maps using a hierarchical source extraction algorithm. We present the results of this new catalog and characterize the spatial distribution and spectral energy properties of its clouds based on the radial dust/gas properties found by Smith etal. A total of 326 GMCs in the mass range 10{sup 4}-10{sup 7} M {sub ?} are identified; their cumulative mass distribution is found to be proportional to M {sup 2.34}, in agreement with earlier studies. The GMCs appear to follow the same correlation of cloud mass to L {sub CO} observed in the Milky Way. However, comparison between this catalog and interferometry studies also shows that the GMCs are substructured below the Herschel resolution limit, suggesting that we are observing associations of GMCs. Following Gordon etal., we study the spatial structure of M31 by splitting the observed structure into a set of spiral arms and offset rings. We fit radii of 10.3 and 15.5 kpc to the two most prominent rings. We then fit a logarithmic spiral with a pitch angle of 8.9 to the GMCs not associated with either ring. Last, we comment on the effects of deprojection on our results and investigate the effect different models for M31's inclination will have on the projection of an unperturbed spiral arm system.

  6. Optical observations of the type Ic supernova 2007gr in NGC 1058

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Juncheng; Wang, Xiaofeng; Li, Junzheng [Physics Department and Tsinghua Center for Astrophysics (THCA), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Ganeshalingam, Mohan; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Li, Weidong; Chornock, Ryan; Steele, Thea, E-mail: cjc09@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn, E-mail: wang_xf@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    We present extensive optical observations of the normal Type Ic supernova (SN) 2007gr, spanning from about one week before maximum light to more than one year thereafter. The optical light and color curves of SN 2007gr are very similar to those of the broad-lined Type Ic SN 2002ap, but the spectra show remarkable differences. The optical spectra of SN 2007gr are characterized by unusually narrow lines, prominent carbon lines, and slow evolution of the line velocity after maximum light. The earliest spectrum (taken at t = 8 days) shows a possible signature of helium (He I ?5876 at a velocity of ?19,000 km s{sup 1}). Moreover, the larger intensity ratio of the [O I] ?6300 and ?6364 lines inferred from the early nebular spectra implies a lower opacity of the ejecta shortly after the explosion. These results indicate that SN 2007gr perhaps underwent a less energetic explosion of a smaller-mass Wolf-Rayet star (?8-9 M{sub ?}) in a binary system, as favored by an analysis of the progenitor environment through pre-explosion and post-explosion Hubble Space Telescope images. In the nebular spectra, asymmetric double-peaked profiles can be seen in the [O I] ?6300 and Mg I] ?4571 lines. We suggest that the two peaks are contributed by the blueshifted and rest-frame components. The similarity in velocity structure and the different evolution of the strength of the two components favor an aspherical explosion with the ejecta distributed in a torus or disk-like geometry, but inside the ejecta the O and Mg have different distributions.

  7. TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite with reduced graphene oxide through facile blending and its photocatalytic behavior for hydrogen evolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pei, Fuyun; Liu, Yingliang; Zhang, Li; Wang, Shengping; Xu, Shengang Cao, Shaokui

    2013-08-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: TRG-COOH nanocomposite as a photocatalyst for hydrogen evolution is prepared. The reduction of graphene oxide reconstructs a part of conjugated structure. The band gap is red-shifted due to the reconstruction of conjugated structure. RG-COOH covered and anchored by P25 blocks the aggregation and the stacking. The photocatalytic efficiency of TRG-COOH was increased under 500 W Xenon lamp. - Abstract: TRG-COOH nanocomposite is prepared as a photocatalyst for hydrogen evolution by blending TiO{sub 2} with reduced graphene oxide (RG-COOH). TRG-COOH is characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscope (AFM), and photoluminescent spectra. XPS result shows the reduction of monolayer graphene oxide (GO). The band gap is red-shifted from 3.25 eV for P25, which consists of 20% rutile and 80% anatase, to 2.95 eV for TGO and then to 2.80 eV for TRG-COOH due to the introduction of GO and the reconstruction of conjugated structure. TEM image illustrates that RG-COOH in TRG-COOH is covered and anchored by P25, which blocks the aggregation of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles and the stacking of monolayer graphene. This allows RG-COOH to take a good role of electron-sink and electron-transporting bridge. The photocatalytic efficiency of TRG-COOH is respectively increased under Xenon lamp about 8.9 and 2.7 times compared to P25 and TGO.

  8. Evaluation of plastic materials for range shifting, range compensation, and solid-phantom dosimetry in carbon-ion radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kanematsu, Nobuyuki; Koba, Yusuke; Ogata, Risa

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: Beam range control is the essence of radiotherapy with heavy charged particles. In conventional broad-beam delivery, fine range adjustment is achieved by insertion of range shifting and compensating materials. In dosimetry, solid phantoms are often used for convenience. These materials should ideally be equivalent to water. In this study, the authors evaluated dosimetric water equivalence of four common plastics, high-density polyethylene (HDPE), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), and polyoxymethylene (POM). Methods: Using the Bethe formula for energy loss, the Gottschalk formula for multiple scattering, and the Sihver formula for nuclear interactions, the authors calculated the effective densities of the plastics for these interactions. The authors experimentally measured variation of the Bragg peak of carbon-ion beams by insertion of HDPE, PMMA, and POM, which were compared with analytical model calculations. Results: The theoretical calculation resulted in slightly reduced multiple scattering and severely increased nuclear interactions for HDPE, compared to water and the other plastics. The increase in attenuation of carbon ions for 20-cm range shift was experimentally measured to be 8.9% for HDPE, 2.5% for PMMA, and 0.0% for POM while PET was theoretically estimated to be in between PMMA and POM. The agreement between the measurements and the calculations was about 1% or better. Conclusions: For carbon-ion beams, POM was dosimetrically indistinguishable from water and the best of the plastics examined in this study. The poorest was HDPE, which would reduce the Bragg peak by 0.45% per cm range shift, although with marginal superiority for reduced multiple scattering. Between the two clear plastics, PET would be superior to PMMA in dosimetric water equivalence.

  9. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Delaware Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 10.8 29.0 19.8 13.0 14.8 20.4 15.1 11.6 14.2 11.7 14.9 16.3 2002 18.4 19.6 20.4 17.5 21.7 15.6 11.9 9.9 8.0 8.6 10.6 10.3 2003 11.8 16.2 16.3 23.7 21.2 13.2 16.1 11.2 12.5 21.3 14.0 15.5 2004 10.7 11.4 12.2 12.8 9.4 14.4 11.1 12.1 11.5 12.2 10.9 12.8 2005 9.4 13.1 14.7 14.0 10.2 13.3 12.8 10.9 13.5 11.5 12.4 12.5 2006 10.7 9.8 9.6 11.0 8.9 6.2 7.6 7.5 8.5 9.3 8.3 10.7 2007 9.7 14.7 14.4 12.2 8.5 9.2 8.1 8.2 9.2 7.1 8.8

  10. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Illinois Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 14.3 14.6 11.7 8.9 7.1 6.7 5.8 6.1 7.5 8.7 10.3 12.1 2002 11.2 11.2 11.1 10.3 7.6 7.2 3.9 5.4 6.6 9.4 10.7 12.6 2003 13.4 13.4 12.9 9.2 7.9 6.9 5.7 7.6 5.3 9.1 10.5 10.6 2004 13.5 12.0 9.7 8.1 5.8 6.1 6.4 5.7 5.0 8.3 10.4 11.5 2005 12.9 11.8 10.7 8.2 6.0 4.7 6.3 6.0 6.8 10.6 11.6 12.5 2006 12.3 11.9 11.1 8.8 7.4 4.9 5.3 6.4 6.6 8.5 7.7 9.6 2007 11.5 12.7 12.8 10.6 10.3 7.8 6.0 5.4 6.4 7.5 7.7 10.4 2008 11.7 12.9 12.9

  11. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Maryland Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 15.4 11.4 9.7 7.2 6.7 4.5 9.7 6.3 6.3 7.0 6.6 10.3 2002 10.3 11.3 13.0 5.3 5.8 6.0 4.5 5.8 4.3 6.9 7.1 11.9 2003 10.5 13.2 11.4 9.1 7.8 6.6 6.3 6.2 7.1 12.1 11.9 12.9 2004 11.2 10.7 8.8 9.1 6.4 4.7 5.0 5.6 7.2 7.2 9.4 10.9 2005 11.3 11.5 11.3 9.8 5.5 5.1 4.9 5.3 5.2 6.2 9.4 10.7 2006 8.7 10.4 8.9 6.1 4.5 4.4 3.7 3.9 6.5 5.8 7.7 9.2 2007 13.1 13.7 11.0 9.9 6.1 3.7 4.5 3.8 6.9 3.5 8.4 10.4 2008 9.5 10.4 7.5 6.6 4.7 3.1

  12. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Nebraska Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 25.7 29.6 30.3 21.0 19.7 16.7 8.3 12.9 13.3 18.6 12.0 18.7 2002 22.6 19.5 29.3 17.6 15.0 24.0 7.4 8.4 8.8 16.4 18.9 19.6 2003 20.3 22.7 24.9 19.3 17.1 24.1 8.7 9.7 10.9 15.7 17.7 19.4 2004 19.7 21.4 24.7 19.0 18.3 14.2 9.2 10.6 16.5 18.8 16.0 16.6 2005 24.4 20.0 24.6 18.5 19.0 18.2 10.0 8.6 12.9 15.1 14.2 18.3 2006 13.8 15.1 17.1 13.3 13.0 9.8 8.3 7.7 10.5 11.5 10.2 12.4 2007 12.1 13.0 14.5 11.6 9.7 8.9 7.1 6.4 6.9 9.8

  13. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Oregon Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 27.2 17.0 18.7 20.3 20.5 20.7 23.5 26.8 24.2 21.1 20.6 21.4 2002 18.9 20.8 20.3 19.3 12.6 11.1 10.1 8.9 10.8 11.5 12.6 12.8 2003 13.8 14.3 13.8 12.7 16.1 16.2 15.5 15.6 19.2 21.1 24.5 25.4 2004 25.1 24.3 24.2 23.3 21.8 22.9 22.6 22.1 23.8 23.5 31.1 33.4 2005 34.3 34.3 32.7 31.0 30.2 30.1 31.4 32.1 33.6 35.0 34.8 38.2 2006 36.0 36.3 35.1 26.5 25.4 24.3 23.2 21.2 21.6 20.5 21.5 24.0 2007 23.6 24.3 22.9 21.8 20.8 21.8

  14. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Virginia Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 27.4 24.1 20.8 18.6 13.3 23.5 10.9 12.9 15.0 24.1 11.2 15.4 2002 16.8 19.7 18.3 14.0 14.1 10.8 10.7 11.0 13.2 16.0 19.3 22.9 2003 25.6 22.5 16.5 23.9 12.9 9.1 13.4 19.6 12.6 17.7 17.9 17.0 2004 21.5 18.8 18.7 16.8 14.9 11.2 15.6 14.5 8.9 15.1 16.1 21.1 2005 18.3 21.6 18.1 19.3 15.7 16.6 9.5 11.6 16.0 18.7 21.5 20.0 2006 21.6 17.0 16.0 13.2 13.8 10.4 9.5 8.0 12.7 14.5 16.0 15.7 2007 17.0 20.0 17.1 17.2 15.4 9.5 10.3

  15. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in West Virginia Represented

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    by the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 11.2 6.1 6.1 8.6 8.2 7.3 7.7 8.9 5.9 60.8 7.0 62.1 2002 12.1 12.6 11.7 15.0 12.6 12.1 14.7 13.0 16.1 10.7 13.1 10.4 2003 14.3 12.6 20.3 13.9 14.0 14.7 13.6 13.5 14.6 12.9 14.1 10.9 2004 10.7 10.5 11.4 11.5 19.8 15.0 15.7 15.3 14.3 14.8 14.7 12.8 2005 11.4 12.8 12.5 13.7 17.4 21.1 23.5 20.4 22.1 23.0 20.7 18.5 2006 16.3 14.8 17.3 18.6 16.9 20.3 15.7 16.4 19.0 16.7 16.4 16.7 2007 15.2 13.4 15.9 16.3 17.8 18.5 18.5

  16. Land application uses of dry FGD by-products. [Quarterly] report, July 1, 1993--September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dick, W.A.; Beeghly, J.H.

    1993-12-31

    Reclamation of mine-sites with acid overburden requires the use of alkaline amendments and represents a potential high-volume use of alkaline dry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by products. In a greenhouse study, 25-cm columns of acid mine spoil were amended with two FGD by-products; lime injection multistage burners (LIMB) fly ash or pressurized fluidized bed (PFBC) fly ash at rates of 0, 4, 8, 16, and 32% by weight (0, 40, 80, 160, and 320 tons/acre). Amended spoil was covered with 20 cm of acid topsoil amended with the corresponding FGD by-product to pH 7. Column leachate pH increased with FGD amendment rate while leachate Fe, Mn, and Zn decreased, Leachate Ca, S, and Mg decreased with LIMB amendment rate and increased with PFBC amendment. Leachate concentrations of regulated metals were decreased or unaffected by FGD amendment except for Se which was increased by PFBC. Spoil pH was increased up to 8.9 by PFBC, and up to 9.2 by LIMB amendment. Spoil pH also increased with depth with FGD amendments of 16 and 32%, Yield of fescue was increased by FGD amendment of 4 to 8%. Plant tissue content of most elements was unaffected by FGD amendment rate, and no toxicity symptoms were observed. Plant Ca and Mg were increased by LIMB and PFBC respectively, while plant S, Mn and Sr were decreased. Plant Ca and B was increased by LIMB, and plant Mg and S by PFBC amendment. These results indicate dry FGD by-products are effective in ameliorating acid, spoils and have a low potential for creating adverse environmental impacts.

  17. DC 12m telescope. Preliminary calculations. Investigation of elevation axis position.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guarino, V. J.; High Energy Physics

    2009-12-18

    This paper examines some simple calculations of a 2D model of a telescope in order to understand how different design parameters affect the design. For the design of a telescope it is assumed that they need a design that minimizes deflections of the dish and also minimizes the size of the motors and torques needed to rotate in elevation. A common belief is that a lighter dish and minimum counterweight is desirable. However, these calculations show this is not necessarily true. The torque needed for rotation depends on the moment of inertia and if the telescope is balanced about the elevation axis. A light dish with no CW requires that the elevation axis be several meters in front of the dish (8-9m) in order to be balanced. This is not practical from a structural point of view. If the elevation axis is only 2m in front of the dish and there is no counterweight then the telescope will be unbalanced and the toruqes required will be very high - much higher than the torques needed only to overcome inertia. A heavy dish though can act as its own counterweight and the elevation axis only has to be 2-3m in front of the dish in order to achieve a balanced telescope. Also the struts that support the camera from the dish place a load on the dish which will put a bending moment on the dish. This bending moment will deform the dish and require it to be stiffer. A counterweight structure performs two functions. First, it allows the telescope to be balanced about the elevation axis. Second, it applies a force on the dish that opposes the forces from the camera struts, thereby reducing the bending moment and deformations of the dish.

  18. Nebraska Natural Gas % of Total Residential - Sales (Percent)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2002 71.4 90.5 87.4 84.8 95.4 86.8 82.7 90.4 81.3 75.5 79.7 78.6 2003 80.3 93.4 87.6 91.1 95.3 94.9 87.9 80.0 95.4 69.4 78.6 80.7 2004 81.5 91.9 86.8 94.5 88.7 84.8 89.1 89.1 88.2 83.7 83.7 88.7 2005 86.1 87.2 86.3 83.0 84.5 86.5 85.0 84.4 85.5 83.9 84.3 84.1 2006 87.1 85.9 86.7 85.8 85.0 86.2 87.0 86.2 85.9 83.3 84.2 85.1 2007 84.9 87.4 89.4 86.1 87.5 86.9 88.7 85.5 83.3 77.5 76.6 83.9 2008 86.6 89.0 90.3 89.6 90.1 89.0 87.7 87.3 85.6 75.2

  19. Microstructural Characterization of Nodular Ductile Iron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Springer, H K

    2012-01-03

    The objective of this study is to quantify the graphite particle phase in nodular ductile iron (NDI). This study provides the basis for initializing microstructure in direct numerical simulations, as part of developing microstructure-fracture response models. The work presented here is a subset of a PhD dissertation on spall fracture in NDI. NDI is an ideal material for studying the influence of microstructure on ductile fracture because it contains a readily identifiable second-phase particle population, embedded in a ductile metallic matrix, which serves as primary void nucleation sites. Nucleated voids grow and coalesce under continued tensile loading, as part of the micromechanisms of ductile fracture, and lead to macroscopic failure. For this study, we used 2D optical microscopy and quantitative metallography relationships to characterize the volume fraction, size distribution, nearest-neighbor distance, and other higher-order metrics of the graphite particle phase. We found that the volume fraction was {Phi} = 0.115, the average particle diameter was d{sub avg} = 25.9 {mu}m, the Weibull shape and scaling parameters were {beta} = 1.8 and {eta} = 29.1 {mu}m, respectively, the (first) nearest neighbor distance was L{sub nn} = 32.4 {mu}m, the exponential coefficients for volume fraction fluctuations was A{sub {Phi}} = 1.89 and B{sub {Phi}} = -0.59, respectively. Based on reaching a coefficient-of-variation (COV) of 0.01, the representative volume element (RVE) size was determined to be 8.9L{sub nn} (288 {mu}m).

  20. China`s macro economic trends and power industry structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Binsheng Li; Johnson, C.J.; Hagen, R.

    1994-09-01

    Since China adopted an open door policy in 1978, its economy has grown rapidly. Between 1980 and 1993, China`s real GNP growth averaged 9.4 percent per year. Economists at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences forecast that GNP will increase by 11.5 percent in 1994. During the rest of the decade, the Chinese government plans to reduce its annual GNP growth rate to 8-9 percent. During the 2001-2010 period, the economic growth rate is projected to decline to 6.5 percent per year. Table 1 compares China`s economic growth to other Asia-Pacific Economies, and includes projections to 2010. During the 1980s, China`s GDP growth rate was only second to that of South Korea. In the 1990`s, China is projected to have the highest economic growth in the Asia-Pacific region. China`s rapid economic growth is due to dramatic increases in the effective labor supply and effective capital stock. For the remainder of the 1990s, the effective labor supply should continue to increase rapidly because: (1) Chinese state enterprises are over-staffed and labor system reforms will move millions of these workers into more productive activities; (2) reforms in the wage system will provide increased incentives to work harder; (3) relaxation of migration controls from rural to urban areas will cause nominal labor in the industrial sector to accelerate; (4) differentials in personal income will increase and develop peer pressure on workers to work harder and earn more money; and (5) at China`s low personal income level, Chinese people are willing to trade leisure for more income as wages increase.

  1. On Perturbation Components Correspondence between Diffusion and Transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Palmiotti

    2012-11-01

    We have established a correspondence between perturbation components in diffusion and transport theory. In particular we have established the correspondence between the leakage perturbation component of the diffusion theory to that of the group self scattering in transport theory. This has been confirmed by practical applications on sodium void reactivity calculations of fast reactors. Why this is important for current investigations? Recently, there has been a renewed interest in designing fast reactors where the sodium void reactivity coefficient is minimized. In particular the ASTRID8,9 reactor concept has been optimized with this goal in mind. The correspondence on the leakage term that has been established here has a twofold implication for the design of this kind of reactors. First, this type of reactor has a radial reflector; therefore, as shown before, the sodium void reactivity coefficient calculation requires the use of transport theory. The minimization of the sodium reactivity coefficient is normally done by increasing the leakage component that has a negative sign. The correspondence established in this paper allows to directly look at this component in transport theory. The second implication is related to the uncertainty evaluation on sodium void reactivity. As it has shown before, the total sodium void reactivity effect is the result of a large compensation (opposite sign) between the scattering (called often spectral) component and the leakage one. Consequently, one has to evaluate separately the uncertainty on each separate component and then combine them statistically. If one wants to compute the cross section sensitivity coefficients of the two different components, the formulation established in this paper allows to achieve this goal by playing on the contribution to the sodium void reactivity coming from the group self scattering of the sodium cross section.

  2. Removal of introduced inorganic content from chipped forest residues via air classification

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lacey, Jeffrey A.; Aston, John E.; Westover, Tyler L.; Cherry, Robert S.; Thompson, David N.

    2015-08-04

    Inorganic content in biomass decreases the efficiency of conversion processes, especially thermochemical conversions. The combined concentrations of specific ash forming elements are the primary attributes that cause pine residues to be considered a degraded energy conversion feedstock, as compared to clean pine. Air classification is a potentially effective and economical tool to isolate high inorganic content biomass fractions away from primary feedstock sources to reduce their ash content. In this work, loblolly pine forest residues were air classified into 10 fractions whose ash content and composition were measured. Ash concentrations were highest in the lightest fractions (5.8–8.5 wt%), and inmore » a heavy fraction of the fines (8.9–15.1 wt%). The removal of fractions with high inorganic content resulted in a substantial reduction in the ash content of the remaining biomass in forest thinnings (1.69–1.07 wt%) and logging residues (1.09–0.68 wt%). These high inorganic content fractions from both forest residue types represented less than 7.0 wt% of the total biomass, yet they contained greater than 40% of the ash content by mass. Elemental analysis of the air classified fractions revealed the lightest fractions were comprised of high concentrations of soil elements (silicon, aluminum, iron, sodium, and titanium). However, the elements of biological origin including calcium, potassium, magnesium, sulfur, manganese, and phosphorous were evenly distributed throughout all air classified fractions, making them more difficult to isolate into fractions with high mineral concentrations. Under the conditions reported in this study, an economic analysis revealed air classification could be used for ash removal for as little as $2.23 per ton of product biomass. As a result, this study suggests air classification is a potentially attractive technology for the removal of introduced soil minerals from pine forest residues.« less

  3. Magnetic hardening of Ce1+xFe11–yCoyTi with ThMn12 structure by melt spinning

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhou, Chen; Sun, Kewei; Pinkerton, Frederick E.; Kramer, M. J.

    2015-04-15

    A recent study on the intrinsic magnetic properties of CeFe11–yCoyTi has revealed that substituting one Co for Fe retains the favorable magnetocrystalline anisotropy Ha found in the ternary Fe end member, while enhancing the Curie temperature Tc and saturation magnetization 4πMs. These findings warrant further optimization around Co substitution y = 1 to try to exploit the hard magnetic properties of these Ce-based magnets. Both Ce and Co concentrations in Ce1+xFe11–yCoyTi have been optimized in the range of x = 0 – 0.2 and y = 0 –1.5. It was found that Co substitution effectively enhances all hard magnetic properties,more »although the values are still lower than those predicted from the intrinsic magnetic properties. Specifically, Tc increases from 210 °C to 285 – 350 °C; 4πM19 (magnetization at 19 kOe) from 8.9 kG to 10.5 – 11.5 kG, remanence Br from 3.1 kG to 4.1 – 4.5 kG, and most importantly, Hci from 1.1 kOe to 1.5 kOe. As a result, the room temperature energy product (BH)max has been increased by over 100% from 0.7 MGOe in Ce1.1Fe11Ti to 1.5 MGOe in Ce1.05Fe9.75Co1.25Ti. Microscopy analysis indicates that the addition of Co refines the grain size and promotes chemical homogeneity at the microscopic scale. As a result, the beneficial effect of Co on the microstructure contributes to the improved hard magnetic properties.« less

  4. Association between health status and the performance of excessively variable spirometry tests in a population-based study in six U. S. cities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eisen, E.A.; Dockery, D.W.; Speizer, F.E.; Fay, M.E.; Ferris, B.G. Jr.

    1987-12-01

    The relationship between 6 chronic respiratory symptoms and the performance of an excessively variable FEV1 (test failure) was examined among 8,522 white adults in 6 U.S. cities. A total of 747 (8.9%) performed an excessively variable FEV1 according to the American Thoracic Society criterion. After adjusting for smoking, age, and city of residence in 6 separate logistic regression models, the odds ratios for FEV1 failure among men were 2.32, 1.39, 1.40, 1.82, 2.61, 1.92 for moderate breathlessness, chronic cough, phlegm, wheeze, asthma, and recurrent chest illness, respectively. Among women, FEV1 failure was significantly associated with moderate breathlessness, chronic phlegm, wheeze, and asthma with odds ratios of 1.55, 1.45, 1.62, and 1.95, respectively. When all symptoms were evaluated simultaneously in a single logistic regression model, only breathlessness and asthma remained associated with FEV1 failure; odds ratio = 1.97 for asthma and 2.03 for breathlessness among men and 1.53 for both asthma and breathlessness among women. The 11-yr mortality experience of subjects with test failure, as defined by 2 different criteria, was compared to that of the quartile of the cohort with the highest cross-sectional test results. After adjusting for age, gender, and smoking, the relative risks of mortality were 1.62 and 1.98 for subjects with an FEV1 failure as defined by the ATS and 6-Cities criteria, respectively, and 1.99 and 1.90 for the groups with FVC failure as defined by the 2 criteria. Thus, test failure is almost as strong a predictor of mortality as poor FEV1.

  5. Estimating the variable cost for high-volume and long-haul transportation of densified biomass and biofuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Erin Searcy; Md. S. Roni; Sandra D. Eksioglu

    2014-06-01

    This article analyzes rail transportation costs of products that have similar physical properties as densified biomass and biofuel. The results of this cost analysis are useful to understand the relationship and quantify the impact of a number of factors on rail transportation costs of denisfied biomass and biofuel. These results will be beneficial and help evaluate the economic feasibility of high-volume and long-haul transportation of biomass and biofuel. High-volume and long-haul rail transportation of biomass is a viable transportation option for biofuel plants, and for coal plants which consider biomass co-firing. Using rail optimizes costs, and optimizes greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions due to transportation. Increasing bioenergy production would consequently result in lower GHG emissions due to displacing fossil fuels. To estimate rail transportation costs we use the carload waybill data, provided by Department of Transportation’s Surface Transportation Board for products such as grain and liquid type commodities for 2009 and 2011. We used regression analysis to quantify the relationship between variable transportation unit cost ($/ton) and car type, shipment size, rail movement type, commodity type, etc. The results indicate that: (a) transportation costs for liquid is $2.26/ton–$5.45/ton higher than grain type commodity; (b) transportation costs in 2011 were $1.68/ton–$5.59/ton higher than 2009; (c) transportation costs for single car shipments are $3.6/ton–$6.68/ton higher than transportation costs for multiple car shipments of grains; (d) transportation costs for multiple car shipments are $8.9/ton and $17.15/ton higher than transportation costs for unit train shipments of grains.

  6. SU-F-18C-01: Minimum Detectability Analysis for Comprehensive Sized Based Optimization of Image Quality and Radiation Dose Across CT Protocols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smitherman, C; Chen, B; Samei, E

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: This work involved a comprehensive modeling of task-based performance of CT across a wide range of protocols. The approach was used for optimization and consistency of dose and image quality within a large multi-vendor clinical facility. Methods: 150 adult protocols from the Duke University Medical Center were grouped into sub-protocols with similar acquisition characteristics. A size based image quality phantom (Duke Mercury Phantom) was imaged using these sub-protocols for a range of clinically relevant doses on two CT manufacturer platforms (Siemens, GE). The images were analyzed to extract task-based image quality metrics such as the Task Transfer Function (TTF), Noise Power Spectrum, and Az based on designer nodule task functions. The data were analyzed in terms of the detectability of a lesion size/contrast as a function of dose, patient size, and protocol. A graphical user interface (GUI) was developed to predict image quality and dose to achieve a minimum level of detectability. Results: Image quality trends with variations in dose, patient size, and lesion contrast/size were evaluated and calculated data behaved as predicted. The GUI proved effective to predict the Az values representing radiologist confidence for a targeted lesion, patient size, and dose. As an example, an abdomen pelvis exam for the GE scanner, with a task size/contrast of 5-mm/50-HU, and an Az of 0.9 requires a dose of 4.0, 8.9, and 16.9 mGy for patient diameters of 25, 30, and 35 cm, respectively. For a constant patient diameter of 30 cm, the minimum detected lesion size at those dose levels would be 8.4, 5, and 3.9 mm, respectively. Conclusion: The designed CT protocol optimization platform can be used to evaluate minimum detectability across dose levels and patient diameters. The method can be used to improve individual protocols as well as to improve protocol consistency across CT scanners.

  7. Removal of introduced inorganic content from chipped forest residues via air classification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lacey, Jeffrey A.; Aston, John E.; Westover, Tyler L.; Cherry, Robert S.; Thompson, David N.

    2015-08-04

    Inorganic content in biomass decreases the efficiency of conversion processes, especially thermochemical conversions. The combined concentrations of specific ash forming elements are the primary attributes that cause pine residues to be considered a degraded energy conversion feedstock, as compared to clean pine. Air classification is a potentially effective and economical tool to isolate high inorganic content biomass fractions away from primary feedstock sources to reduce their ash content. In this work, loblolly pine forest residues were air classified into 10 fractions whose ash content and composition were measured. Ash concentrations were highest in the lightest fractions (5.8–8.5 wt%), and in a heavy fraction of the fines (8.9–15.1 wt%). The removal of fractions with high inorganic content resulted in a substantial reduction in the ash content of the remaining biomass in forest thinnings (1.69–1.07 wt%) and logging residues (1.09–0.68 wt%). These high inorganic content fractions from both forest residue types represented less than 7.0 wt% of the total biomass, yet they contained greater than 40% of the ash content by mass. Elemental analysis of the air classified fractions revealed the lightest fractions were comprised of high concentrations of soil elements (silicon, aluminum, iron, sodium, and titanium). However, the elements of biological origin including calcium, potassium, magnesium, sulfur, manganese, and phosphorous were evenly distributed throughout all air classified fractions, making them more difficult to isolate into fractions with high mineral concentrations. Under the conditions reported in this study, an economic analysis revealed air classification could be used for ash removal for as little as $2.23 per ton of product biomass. As a result, this study suggests air classification is a potentially attractive technology for the removal of introduced soil minerals from pine forest residues.

  8. Commercial Development of an Advanced, High-Temperature, Linear-Fresnel Based Concentrating Solar Power Concept

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Viljoen, Nolan; Schuknecht, Nathan

    2012-05-28

    Included herein is SkyFuel’s detailed assessment of the potential for a direct molten salt linear Fresnel collector. Linear Fresnel architecture is of interest because it has features that are well suited for use with molten salt as a heat transfer fluid: the receiver is fixed (only the mirrors track), the receiver diameter is large (reducing risk of freeze events), and the total linear feet of receiver can be reduced due to the large aperture area. Using molten salt as a heat transfer fluid increases the allowable operating temperature of a collector field, and the cost of thermal storage is reduced in proportion to that increase in temperature. At the conclusion of this project, SkyFuel determined that the cost goals set forth in the contract could not be reasonably met. The performance of a Linear Fresnel collector is significantly less than that of a parabolic trough, in particular due to linear Fresnel’s large optical cosine losses. On an annual basis, the performance is 20 to 30% below that of a parabolic trough per unit area. The linear Fresnel collector and balance of system costs resulted in an LCOE of approximately 9.9¢/kWhre. Recent work by SkyFuel has resulted in a large aperture trough design (DSP Trough) with an LCOE value of 8.9 ¢/kWhre calculated with comparative financial terms and balance of plant costs (White 2011). Thus, even though the optimized linear Fresnel collector of our design has a lower unit cost than our optimized trough, it cannot overcome the reduction in annual performance.

  9. An evaluation of health risk to the public as a consequence of in situ uranium mining in Wyoming, USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruedig, Elizabeth; Johnson, Thomas E.

    2015-08-30

    In the United States there is considerable public concern regarding the health effects of in situ recovery uranium mining. These concerns focus principally on exposure to contaminants mobilized in groundwater by the mining process. However, the risk arising as a result of mining must be viewed in light of the presence of naturally occurring uranium ore and other constituents which comprise a latent hazard. The United States Environmental Protection Agency recently proposed new guidelines for successful restoration of an in situ uranium mine by limiting concentrations of thirteen groundwater constituents: arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, selenium, silver, nitrate (as nitrogen), molybdenum, radium, total uranium, and gross α activity. We investigated the changes occurring to these constituents at an ISR uranium mine in Wyoming, USA by comparing groundwater quality at baseline measurement to that at stability (post-restoration) testing. Of the groundwater constituents considered, only uranium and radium-226 showed significant (p < 0.05) deviation from site-wide baseline conditions in matched-wells. Uranium concentrations increased by a factor of 5.6 (95% CI 3.6–8.9 times greater) while radium-226 decreased by a factor of about one half (95% CI 0.42–0.75 times less). Change in risk was calculated using the RESRAD (onsite) code for an individual exposed as a resident-farmer; total radiation dose to a resident farmer decreased from pre-to post-mining by about 5.2 mSv y–1. As a result, higher concentrations of uranium correspond to increased biomarkers of nephrotoxicity, however the clinical significance of this increase is unclear.

  10. Little Knife field - US Williston basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wittstrom, M.D.; Lindsay, R.F. )

    1991-03-01

    Little Knife field is a combination structural and stratigraphic trap located near the structural center of the Williston basin, North Dakota. The field is approximately 12 mi (19.3 km) long and 2.5 to 5.5 mi (4 to 8.9 km) wide. Little Knife was discovered by Gulf Oil in 1976 as part of a regional exploration play involving a transition from impermeable to porous carbonate rocks. In 1987, ultimate recovery from the Mission Canyon (Mississippian) reservoir was estimated to be 97.5 MMBO. This included 57.5 MMBO primary, 27 MMBO secondary, and 13 MMBO tertiary (CO{sub 2}) oil. At present the field is still under primary recovery, since utilization efforts have not been successful. Approximately one-third of Little Knife's 130 ft (39.6 m) oil column is trapped by structural closure beneath a regional anhydrite seal in a north-south-trending anticline. The remaining two-thirds of the oil column is trapped where the reservoir beds change facies from porous dolostones and dolomitic limestones to nonporous limestones. Structural entrapment accounts for approximately 50% (127 MMBO) of the OOIP, but covers only 30% of the producing area. Production is from the upper portions of the Mission Canyon Formation, a regressive, shoaling-upward carbonate-anhydrite sequence deposited in a slowly shrinking epeiric sea. The Mission Canyon in the Little Knife area is divided into six zones that record predominantly cyclic, subtidal deposition. These are overlain by prograding lagoonal, tidal flat, and sabkha beds. The source of Mission Canyon oil is thought to be the Bakken Formation, an organic-rich shale at the base of the Mississippian.

  11. A Fully Automated Method for CT-on-Rails-Guided Online Adaptive Planning for Prostate Cancer Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Xiaoqiang; Quan, Enzhuo M.; Li, Yupeng; Pan, Xiaoning; Zhou, Yin; Wang, Xiaochun; Du, Weiliang; Kudchadker, Rajat J.; Johnson, Jennifer L.; Kuban, Deborah A.; Lee, Andrew K.; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to validate a fully automated adaptive planning (AAP) method which integrates automated recontouring and automated replanning to account for interfractional anatomical changes in prostate cancer patients receiving adaptive intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) based on daily repeated computed tomography (CT)-on-rails images. Methods and Materials: Nine prostate cancer patients treated at our institution were randomly selected. For the AAP method, contours on each repeat CT image were automatically generated by mapping the contours from the simulation CT image using deformable image registration. An in-house automated planning tool incorporated into the Pinnacle treatment planning system was used to generate the original and the adapted IMRT plans. The cumulative dosevolume histograms (DVHs) of the target and critical structures were calculated based on the manual contours for all plans and compared with those of plans generated by the conventional method, that is, shifting the isocenters by aligning the images based on the center of the volume (COV) of prostate (prostate COV-aligned). Results: The target coverage from our AAP method for every patient was acceptable, while 1 of the 9 patients showed target underdosing from prostate COV-aligned plans. The normalized volume receiving at least 70 Gy (V{sub 70}), and the mean dose of the rectum and bladder were reduced by 8.9%, 6.4 Gy and 4.3%, 5.3 Gy, respectively, for the AAP method compared with the values obtained from prostate COV-aligned plans. Conclusions: The AAP method, which is fully automated, is effective for online replanning to compensate for target dose deficits and critical organ overdosing caused by interfractional anatomical changes in prostate cancer.

  12. Product Characterization for Entrained Flow Coal/Biomass Co-Gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maghzi, Shawn; Subramanian, Ramanathan; Rizeq, George; Singh, Surinder; McDermott, John; Eiteneer, Boris; Ladd, David; Vazquez, Arturo; Anderson, Denise; Bates, Noel

    2011-09-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy‘s National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) is exploring affordable technologies and processes to convert domestic coal and biomass resources to high-quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels. This interest is primarily motivated by the need to increase energy security and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the United States. Gasification technologies represent clean, flexible and efficient conversion pathways to utilize coal and biomass resources. Substantial experience and knowledge had been developed worldwide on gasification of either coal or biomass. However, reliable data on effects of blending various biomass fuels with coal during gasification process and resulting syngas composition are lacking. In this project, GE Global Research performed a complete characterization of the gas, liquid and solid products that result from the co-gasification of coal/biomass mixtures. This work was performed using a bench-scale gasifier (BSG) and a pilot-scale entrained flow gasifier (EFG). This project focused on comprehensive characterization of the products from gasifying coal/biomass mixtures in a high-temperature, high-pressure entrained flow gasifier. Results from this project provide guidance on appropriate gas clean-up systems and optimization of operating parameters needed to develop and commercialize gasification technologies. GE‘s bench-scale test facility provided the bulk of high-fidelity quantitative data under temperature, heating rate, and residence time conditions closely matching those of commercial oxygen-blown entrained flow gasifiers. Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) pilot-scale test facility provided focused high temperature and pressure tests at entrained flow gasifier conditions. Accurate matching of syngas time-temperature history during cooling ensured that complex species interactions including homogeneous and heterogeneous processes such as particle nucleation, coagulation, surface condensation, and gas-phase reactions were properly reproduced and lead to representative syngas composition at the syngas cooler outlet. The experimental work leveraged other ongoing GE R&D efforts such as biomass gasification and dry feeding systems projects. Experimental data obtained under this project were used to provide guidance on the appropriate clean-up system(s) and operating parameters to coal and biomass combinations beyond those evaluated under this project.

  13. Product Characterization for Entrained Flow Coal/Biomass Co-Gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maghzi, Shawn; Subramanian, Ramanathan; Rizeq, George; Singh, Surinder; McDermott, John; Eiteneer, Boris; Ladd, David; Vazquez, Arturo; Anderson, Denise; Bates, Noel

    2011-12-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) is exploring affordable technologies and processes to convert domestic coal and biomass resources to high-quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels. This interest is primarily motivated by the need to increase energy security and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the United States. Gasification technologies represent clean, flexible and efficient conversion pathways to utilize coal and biomass resources. Substantial experience and knowledge had been developed worldwide on gasification of either coal or biomass. However, reliable data on effects of blending various biomass fuels with coal during gasification process and resulting syngas composition are lacking. In this project, GE Global Research performed a complete characterization of the gas, liquid and solid products that result from the co-gasification of coal/biomass mixtures. This work was performed using a bench-scale gasifier (BSG) and a pilot-scale entrained flow gasifier (EFG). This project focused on comprehensive characterization of the products from gasifying coal/biomass mixtures in a high-temperature, high-pressure entrained flow gasifier. Results from this project provide guidance on appropriate gas clean-up systems and optimization of operating parameters needed to develop and commercialize gasification technologies. GE's bench-scale test facility provided the bulk of high-fidelity quantitative data under temperature, heating rate, and residence time conditions closely matching those of commercial oxygen-blown entrained flow gasifiers. Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) pilot-scale test facility provided focused high temperature and pressure tests at entrained flow gasifier conditions. Accurate matching of syngas time-temperature history during cooling ensured that complex species interactions including homogeneous and heterogeneous processes such as particle nucleation, coagulation, surface condensation, and gas-phase reactions were properly reproduced and lead to representative syngas composition at the syngas cooler outlet. The experimental work leveraged other ongoing GE R&D efforts such as biomass gasification and dry feeding systems projects. Experimental data obtained under this project were used to provide guidance on the appropriate clean-up system(s) and operating parameters to coal and biomass combinations beyond those evaluated under this project.

  14. Phase II Trial of Radiosurgery to Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy-Defined High-Risk Tumor Volumes in Patients With Glioblastoma Multiforme

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Einstein, Douglas B.; Wessels, Barry; Bangert, Barbara; Fu, Pingfu; Nelson, A. Dennis; Cohen, Mark; Sagar, Stephen; Lewin, Jonathan; Sloan, Andrew; Zheng Yiran; Williams, Jordonna; Colussi, Valdir; Vinkler, Robert; Maciunas, Robert

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To determine the efficacy of a Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) boost to areas of high risk determined by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) functional imaging in addition to standard radiotherapy for patients with glioblastoma (GBM). Methods and Materials: Thirty-five patients in this prospective Phase II trial underwent surgical resection or biopsy for a GBM followed by SRS directed toward areas of MRS-determined high biological activity within 2 cm of the postoperative enhancing surgical bed. The MRS regions were determined by identifying those voxels within the postoperative T2 magnetic resonance imaging volume that contained an elevated choline/N-acetylaspartate ratio in excess of 2:1. These voxels were marked, digitally fused with the SRS planning magnetic resonance image, targeted with an 8-mm isocenter per voxel, and treated using Radiation Therapy Oncology Group SRS dose guidelines. All patients then received conformal radiotherapy to a total dose of 60 Gy in 2-Gy daily fractions. The primary endpoint was overall survival. Results: The median survival for the entire cohort was 15.8 months. With 75% of recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) Class 3 patients still alive 18 months after treatment, the median survival for RPA Class 3 has not yet been reached. The median survivals for RPA Class 4, 5, and 6 patients were 18.7, 12.5, and 3.9 months, respectively, compared with Radiation Therapy Oncology Group radiotherapy-alone historical control survivals of 11.1, 8.9, and 4.6 months. For the 16 of 35 patients who received concurrent temozolomide in addition to protocol radiotherapeutic treatment, the median survival was 20.8 months, compared with European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer historical controls of 14.6 months using radiotherapy and temozolomide. Grade 3/4 toxicities possibly attributable to treatment were 11%. Conclusions: This represents the first prospective trial using selective MRS-targeted functional SRS combined with radiotherapy for patients with GBM. This treatment is feasible, with acceptable toxicity and patient survivals higher than in historical controls. This study can form the basis for a multicenter, randomized trial.

  15. Search for liquids electrospraying the smallest possible nanodrops in vacuo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alonso-Matilla, R.; Fernndez-Garca, J.; Congdon, H.; Fernndez de la Mora, J.

    2014-12-14

    Prior work with electrosprays in vacuum of mixtures of ionic liquids (ILs) and the moderately high boiling point (T{sub b}) solvents formamide (FM) and propylene carbonate (PC) (T{sub b} of 210 and 241?C) has shown that the charged drops produced have reasonably narrow charge/mass distributions, controllable over a wide mass/charge range. This enables their use as propellants in electrical propulsion with specific impulse I{sub sp} varying from a few hundred to a few thousand seconds (10?kV beam energy) and with excellent propulsion efficiency. However, some limitations are imposed by the finite room temperature volatility of FM and PC. Here, we seek improved performance from propellants based on the polar but viscous solvent Sulfolane (SF; ??=?43.2, ??=?10.3 cP) and the low viscosity but less polar solvent tributyl phosphate (TBP; ??=?8.9, ??=?3.4 cP), both with T{sub b}?>?280?C. Neither TBP nor its low viscosity mixtures with SF achieve the electrical conductivities needed to yield high I{sub sp}. Most ILs used in SF/IL mixtures tested were based on the 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium (EMI) or 1,3-dimethylimidazolium (DMI) cations, including EMI-BF{sub 4}, EMI-N(CN){sub 2}, and DMI-N(CN){sub 2}. These combinations reach high conductivities, some approaching 3?S/m, but have limited propulsive performance because evaporation of ions directly from the electrified meniscus produces undesirable mixed beams of drops and ions. Exceptional characteristics are found in mixtures of SF with ethylammonium nitrate (EAN), where the small EA{sup +} cation is strongly bound to the solvent, greatly delaying ion evaporation from the meniscus. Evidence on the formation of nano-jets with diameters as small as 1?nm is seen. Although unprecedented, this finding agrees with what would be expected if ion evaporation were suppressed. SF/EAN mixtures thus provide the best available sources to produce the smallest possible nanodrops, minimally polluted by ions.

  16. Development and Application of an Oversize Reusable DOT 7A Type A Overpack Container at the Y-12 National Security Complex - 13150

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tharp, Tim; Martin, David; Franco, Paul

    2013-07-01

    Waste Management personnel at the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) are concluding a multi-year effort to dispose of a large backlog of low-level waste. Six containers presented a particularly difficult technical challenge in that they each contained large robust equipment (mostly salt baths) with elevated levels of highly enriched uranium (exceeding U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) fissile-excepted quantities). The equipment was larger than the standard 1.2 m x 1.2 m x 1.8 m (4 ft x 4 ft x 6 ft) DOT Specification 7A Type A box and would have been very difficult to size-reduce because of several inches of steel plate (along with insulating block and concrete) in the equipment design. A critical breakthrough for the success of the project involved procuring and developing two oversize reusable DOT Specification 7A Type A (fissile tested) containers (referred to as the CTI Model 7AF-690-SC) that could be used as overpacks for the original boxes of equipment. The 7A Type A overpack containers are approximately 3.5 m long x 2.7 m wide x 2.8 m high (11.7 ft x 8.9 ft x 9.2 ft) with a maximum gross weight of 10,660 kg (23,500 lb) and a payload capacity of 6,804 kg (15,000 lbs). The boxes were designed and fabricated using a split cavity design that allowed the gasketed and bolted closure to lie along the horizontal centerline of the box. The central closure location in this design allows for strengthening of box corners that tend to be points of weakness or failure in 49CFR173.465 drop tests. By combining the split cavity design with large diameter tubing and diagonal cross bracing, drop test requirements of 49CFR173.465(1) and (2) were met and demonstrated through finite element analysis modeling. The development and use of this new container dramatically reduced the need for down-sizing the equipment and allowed the project to meet objectives within cost and schedule targets. (authors)

  17. SS 383: A NEW S-TYPE YELLOW SYMBIOTIC STAR?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baella, N. O.; Pereira, C. B.; Miranda, L. F.

    2013-11-01

    Symbiotic stars are key objects in understanding the formation and evolution of interacting binary systems, and are probably the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae. However, the number of known symbiotic stars is much lower than predicted. We aim to search for new symbiotic stars, with particular emphasis on the S-type yellow symbiotic stars, in order to determine their total population, evolutionary timescales, and physical properties. The Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) (J H) versus (H K {sub s}) color-color diagram has been previously used to identify new symbiotic star candidates and show that yellow symbiotics are located in a particular region of that diagram. Candidate symbiotic stars are selected on the basis of their locus in the 2MASS (J H) versus (H K {sub s}) diagram and the presence of H? line emission in the Stephenson and Sanduleak H? survey. This diagram separates S-type yellow symbiotic stars from the rest of the S-type symbiotic stars, allowing us to select candidate yellow symbiotics. To establish the true nature of the candidates, intermediate-resolution spectroscopy is obtained. We have identified the H? emission line source SS 383 as an S-type yellow symbiotic candidate by its position in the 2MASS color-color diagram. The optical spectrum of SS 383 shows Balmer, He I, He II, and [O III] emission lines, in combination with TiO absorption bands that confirm its symbiotic nature. The derived electron density (?10{sup 8-9} cm{sup 3}), He I emission line intensity ratios, and position in the [O III] ?5007/H? versus [O III] ?4363/H? diagram indicate that SS 383 is an S-type symbiotic star, with a probable spectral type of K7-M0 deduced for its cool component based on TiO indices. The spectral type and the position of SS 383 (corrected for reddening) in the 2MASS color-color diagram strongly suggest that SS 383 is an S-type yellow symbiotic. Our result points out that the 2MASS color-color diagram is a powerful tool in identifying new S-type yellow symbiotics.

  18. Pulmonary Function After Treatment for Embryonal Brain Tumors on SJMB03 That Included Craniospinal Irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, Daniel M.; Merchant, Thomas E.; Billups, Catherine A.; Stokes, Dennis C.; Broniscer, Alberto; Bartels, Ute; Chintagumpala, Murali; Hassall, Timothy E.; Gururangan, Sridharan; McCowage, Geoffrey B.; Heath, John A.; Cohn, Richard J.; Fisher, Michael J.; Srinivasan, Ashok; Robinson, Giles W.; Gajjar, Amar

    2015-09-01

    Purpose: The treatment of children with embryonal brain tumors (EBT) includes craniospinal irradiation (CSI). There are limited data regarding the effect of CSI on pulmonary function. Methods: Protocol SJMB03 enrolled patients 3 to 21 years of age with EBT. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV{sub 1}] and forced vital capacity [FVC] by spirometry, total lung capacity [TLC] by nitrogen washout or plethysmography, and diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide corrected for hemoglobin [DLCO{sub corr}]) were obtained. Differences between PFTs obtained immediately after the completion of CSI and 24 or 60 months after the completion of treatment (ACT) were compared using exact Wilcoxon signed-rank tests and repeated-measures models. Results: Between June 24, 2003, and March 1, 2010, 303 eligible patients (spine dose: ≤2345 cGy, 201; >2345 cGy, 102; proton beam, 20) were enrolled, 260 of whom had at least 1 PFT. The median age at diagnosis was 8.9 years (range, 3.1-20.4 years). The median thoracic spinal radiation dose was 23.4 Gy (interquartile range [IQR], 23.4-36.0 Gy). The median cyclophosphamide dose was 16.0 g/m{sup 2} (IQR, 15.7-16.0 g/m{sup 2}). At 24 and 60 months ACT, DLCO{sub corr} was <75% predicted in 23% (27/118) and 25% (21/84) of patients, FEV{sub 1} was <80% predicted in 20% (34/170) and 29% (32/109) of patients, FVC was <80% predicted in 27% (46/172) and 28% (30/108) of patients, and TLC was <75% predicted in 9% (13/138) and 11% (10/92) of patients. DLCO{sub corr} was significantly decreased 24 months ACT (median difference [MD] in % predicted, 3.00%; P=.028) and 60 months ACT (MD in % predicted, 6.00%; P=.033) compared with the end of radiation therapy. These significant decreases in DLCO{sub corr} were also observed in repeated-measures models (P=.011 and P=.032 at 24 and 60 months ACT, respectively). Conclusions: A significant minority of EBT survivors experience PFT deficits after CSI. Continued monitoring of this cohort is planned.

  19. Combustion and inorganic emissions of ground waste tires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levendis, Y.A.; Atal, A.; Steciak, J.

    1995-12-31

    An experimental study was undertaken to assess the combustion characteristics and emissions of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and CO{sub 2} gases from ground waste tires. Results were contrasted with those obtained from burning pulverized coal. Laboratory bench-scale experiments were conducted in a drop-tube, laminar-flow furnace, in air at fuel-lean conditions, at gas temperatures ranging from 1300 K to 1600 K. Two particle size cuts were burned from both materials, 75-90 {mu}m and 180-212 {mu}m. Blends of coal and tire particles, at equal weight ratios, were also burned. Pyrometric and cinematographic observations revealed that the coal particles exhibited distinct volatile and char combustion phases, while tire particles exhibited a distinct primary volatile phase followed by a char combustion phase, which was accompanied by burning of secondary pyrolysis products. SO{sub 2} emissions of burning ground tires increased from 160 to 500 ppm as the temperature increased from 1300 K to 1600 K. Combustion of coal produced SO{sub 2} emissions in the neighborhood of 200-300 ppm (corresponding to 40 to 60 wt% of its sulfur content) independent of the gas temperature. The blend of coal and tire particles (equal mass ratios) exhibited SO{sub 2} values which fell in between the above. NO{sub x} emissions were constant at approximately 175 ppm for tire crumb (corresponding to approximately 45 wt% of its fuel nitrogen content) and 625 ppm for coal (corresponding to 55 wt% of its fuel nitrogen content) in the temperature range studied. CO{sub 2} emissions from tire were 8-9 molar %, while for coal particles they were 5-7 molar %; the upper limits corresponded to approximately 100% combustion efficiency. As a means to reduce the SO{sub 2} emissions, pulverized coal and tire crumb were fluidized together with particles of a calcium bearing sorbent - calcium magnesium acetate (CMA). CMA has been identified as an effective SO{sub 2} scrubbing agent in previous studies.

  20. Small Specimen Data from a High Temperature HFIR Irradiation Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burchell, Timothy D; McDuffee, Joel Lee; Thoms, Kenneth R

    2014-01-01

    The HTV capsule is a High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) target-rod capsule designed to operate at very high temperatures. The graphite containing section of the capsule (in core) is approximately 18 inches (457.2 mm) long and is separated into eight temperature zones. The specimen diameters within each zone are set to achieve the desired gas gap and hence design temperature (900 C, 1200 C or 1500 C). The capsule has five zones containing 0.400 inch (10.16 mm) diameter specimens, two zones containing 0.350 inch (8.89 mm) diameter specimens and one zone containing 0.300 inch (7.62 mm) diameter specimens. The zones have been distributed within the experiment to optimize the gamma heating from the HFIR core as well as minimize the axial heat flow in the capsule. Consequently, there are two 900 C zones, three 1200 C zones, and three 1500 C zones within the HTV capsule. Each zone contains nine specimens 0.210 0.002 inches (5.334 mm) in length. The capsule will be irradiated to a peak dose of 3.17 displacements per atom. The HTV specimens include samples of the following graphite grades: SGL Carbon s NBG-17 and NBG-18, GrafTech s PCEA, Toyo Tanso s IG-110, Mersen s 2114 and the reference grade H-451 (SGL Carbon). As part of the pre-irradiation program the specimens were characterized using ASTM Standards C559 for bulk density, and ASTM C769 for approximate Young s modulus from the sonic velocity. The probe frequency used for the determination of time of flight of the ultrasonic signal was 2.25 MHz. Marked volume (specimen diameter) effects were noted for both bulk density (increased with increasing specimen volume or diameter) and Dynamic Young s modulus (decreased with increasing specimen volume or diameter). These trends are extended by adding the property vs. diameter data for unirradiated AGC-1 creep specimens (nominally 12.5 mm-diameter x 25.4 mm-length). The relatively large reduction in Dynamic Young s Modulus was surprising given the trend for increasing density with increasing volume. The graphite-filler particle size was noted to be influential in the volume dependency data, with finer grained graphites showing the least specimen volume/diameter effect. Here the volume dependency trends are discussed in terms of the graphite s filler-particle size and texture.

  1. Magnetic hardening of Ce1+xFe11yCoyTi with ThMn12 structure by melt spinning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Chen; Sun, Kewei; Pinkerton, Frederick E.; Kramer, M. J.

    2015-04-15

    A recent study on the intrinsic magnetic properties of CeFe11yCoyTi has revealed that substituting one Co for Fe retains the favorable magnetocrystalline anisotropy Ha found in the ternary Fe end member, while enhancing the Curie temperature Tc and saturation magnetization 4?Ms. These findings warrant further optimization around Co substitution y = 1 to try to exploit the hard magnetic properties of these Ce-based magnets. Both Ce and Co concentrations in Ce1+xFe11yCoyTi have been optimized in the range of x = 0 0.2 and y = 0 1.5. It was found that Co substitution effectively enhances all hard magnetic properties, although the values are still lower than those predicted from the intrinsic magnetic properties. Specifically, Tc increases from 210 C to 285 350 C; 4?M19 (magnetization at 19 kOe) from 8.9 kG to 10.5 11.5 kG, remanence Br from 3.1 kG to 4.1 4.5 kG, and most importantly, Hci from 1.1 kOe to 1.5 kOe. As a result, the room temperature energy product (BH)max has been increased by over 100% from 0.7 MGOe in Ce1.1Fe11Ti to 1.5 MGOe in Ce1.05Fe9.75Co1.25Ti. Microscopy analysis indicates that the addition of Co refines the grain size and promotes chemical homogeneity at the microscopic scale. As a result, the beneficial effect of Co on the microstructure contributes to the improved hard magnetic properties.

  2. Enhanced Oil Recovery with Downhole Vibrations Stimulation in Osage County, Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Ford Brett; Robert V. Westermark

    2001-09-30

    This Technical Quarterly Report is for the reporting period July 1, 2001 to September 30, 2001. The report provides details of the work done on the project entitled ''Enhanced Oil Recovery with Downhole Vibration Stimulation in Osage County Oklahoma''. The project is divided into nine separate tasks. Several of the tasks are being worked on simultaneously, while other tasks are dependent on earlier tasks being completed. The vibration stimulation well is permitted as Well 111-W-27, section 8 T26N R6E Osage County Oklahoma. It was spud July 28, 2001 with Goober Drilling Rig No. 3. The well was drilled to 3090-feet cored, logged, cased and cemented. The Rig No.3 moved off August 6, 2001. Phillips Petroleum Co. has begun analyzing the cores recovered from the test well. Standard porosity, permeability and saturation measurements will be conducted. They will then begin the sonic stimulation core tests Calumet Oil Company, the operator of the NBU, has begun to collect both production and injection wells information to establish a baseline for the project in the pilot field test area. Green Country Submersible Pump Company, a subsidiary of Calumet Oil Company, will provide both the surface equipment and downhole tools to allow the Downhole Vibration Tool to be operated by a surface rod rotating system. The 7-inch Downhole Vibration Tool (DHVT) has been built and is ready for initial shallow testing. The shallow testing will be done in a temporarily abandoned well operated by Calumet Oil Co. in the Wynona waterflood unit. The data acquisition doghouse and rod rotating equipment have been placed on location in anticipation of the shallow test in Well No.20-12 Wynona Waterflood Unit. A notice of invention disclosure was submitted to the DOE Chicago Operations Office. DOE Case No.S-98,124 has been assigned to follow the documentation following the invention disclosure. A paper covering the material presented to the Oklahoma Geologic Survey (OGS)/DOE Annual Workshop in Oklahoma City May 8,9 2001 has been submitted for publication to the OGS. A technical paper draft has been submitted for the ASME/ETCE conference (Feb 2002) Production Technology Symposium. A one-day SPE sponsored short course which is planned to cover seismic stimulation efforts around the world, will be offered at the SPE/DOE Thirteenth Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery in Tulsa, OK, April 13-17, 2002. Dan Maloney, Phillips and Bob Westermark, OGCI will be the instructors. In addition, a proposed technical paper has been submitted for this meeting.

  3. Analyses of soils at commercial radioactive-waste-disposal sites. [Barnwell, SC; Richland, WA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piciulo, P.L.; Shea, C.E.; Barletta, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory, in order to provide technical assistance to the NRC, has measured a number of physical and chemical characteristics of soils from two currently operating commercial radioactive waste disposal sites; one at Barnwell, SC, and the other near Richland, WA. Soil samples believed to be representative of the soil that will contact the buried waste were collected and analyzed. Earth resistivities (field measurements), from both sites, supply information to identify variations in subsurface material. Barnwell soil resistivities (laboratory measurements) range from 3.6 x 10/sup 5/ ohm-cm to 8.9 x 10/sup 4/ ohm-cm. Soil resistivities of the Hanford sample vary from 3.0 x 10/sup 5/ ohm-cm to 6.6 x 10/sup 3/ ohm-cm. The Barnwell and Hanford soil pH ranges from 4.8 to 5.4 and from 4.0 to 7.2 respectively. The pH of a 1:2 mixture of soil to 0.01 M CaCl/sub 2/ resulted in a pH for the Barnwell samples of 3.9 +- 0.1 and for the Hanford samples of 7.4 +- 0.2. These values are comparable to the pH measurements of the water extract of the soils used for the analyses of soluble ion content of the soils. The exchange acidity of the soils was found to be approximately 7 mg-eq per 100 g of dry soil for clay material from Barnwell, whereas the Hanford soils showed an alkaline reaction. Aqueous extracts of saturated pastes were used to determine the concentrations of the following ions: Ca/sup 2 +/, Mg/sup 2 +/, K/sup +/, Na/sup +/, HCO/sub 3//sup -/, SO/sub 4//sup =/, and Cl/sup -/. The sulfide content of each of the soils was measured in a 1:2.5 mixture of soil to an antioxidant buffer solution. The concentrations of soluble ions found in the soils from both sites are consistent with the high resistivities.

  4. Dose-Effect Relationships for Femoral Fractures After Multimodality Limb-Sparing Therapy of Soft-Tissue Sarcomas of the Proximal Lower Extremity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pak, Daniel; Vineberg, Karen A.; Griffith, Kent A.; Sabolch, Aaron; Chugh, Rashmi; Biermann, Janet Sybil; Feng, Mary

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: We investigated the clinical and dosimetric predictors for radiation-associated femoral fractures in patients with proximal lower extremity soft tissue sarcomas (STS). Methods and Materials: We examined 131 patients with proximal lower extremity STS who received limb-sparing surgery and external-beam radiation therapy between 1985 and 2006. Five (4%) patients sustained pathologic femoral fractures. Dosimetric analysis was limited to 4 fracture patients with full three-dimensional dose information, who were compared with 59 nonfracture patients. The mean doses and volumes of bone (V{sub d}) receiving specified doses ({>=}30 Gy, 45 Gy, 60 Gy) at the femoral body, femoral neck, intertrochanteric region, and subtrochanteric region were compared. Clinical predictive factors were also evaluated. Results: Of 4 fracture patients in our dosimetric series, there were three femoral neck fractures with a mean dose of 57.6 {+-} 8.9 Gy, V30 of 14.5 {+-} 2.3 cc, V45 of 11.8 {+-} 1.1 cc, and V60 of 7.2 {+-} 2.2 cc at the femoral neck compared with 22.9 {+-} 20.8 Gy, 4.8 {+-} 5.6 cc, 2.5 {+-} 3.9 cc, and 0.8 {+-} 2.7 cc, respectively, for nonfracture patients (p < 0.03 for all). The femoral neck fracture rate was higher than at the subtrochanteric region despite lower mean doses at these subregions. All fracture sites received mean doses greater than 40 Gy. Also, with our policy of prophylactic femoral intramedullary nailing for high-risk patients, there was no significant difference in fracture rates between patients with and without periosteal excision. There were no significant differences in age, sex, tumor size, timing of radiation therapy, and use of chemotherapy between fracture and nonfracture patients. Conclusions: These dose-volume toxicity relationships provide RT optimization goals to guide future efforts for reducing pathologic fracture rates. Prophylactic femoral intramedullary nailing may also reduce fracture risk for susceptible patients.

  5. Whitings as a Potential Mechanism for Controlling Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Concentrations Final Project Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brady D. Lee; William A. Apel; Michelle R. Walton

    2006-03-01

    Species of cyanobacteria in the genera Synechococcus and Synechocystis are known to be the catalysts of a phenomenon called "whitings", which is the formation and precipitation of fine-grained CaCO3 particles. Whitings occur when the cyanobacteria fix atmospheric CO2 through the formation of CaCO3 on their cell surfaces which leads to precipitation to the ocean floor and subsequent entombment in mud. Whitings represent one potential mechanism for CO2 sequestration. Research was performed to determine the ability of various strains of Synechocystis and Synechococcus to calcify when grown in microcosms amended with 2.5 mM HCO3- and 3.4 mM Ca2+. Results indicated that while all strains tested have the ability to calcify, only two, Synechococcus species, strains PCC 8806 and PCC 8807, were able to calcify to the extent that CaCO3 was precipitated. Enumeration of the cyanobacterial cultures during testing indicated that cell density did not appear to have an effect on calcification. Factors that had the greatest effect on calcification were CO2 removal and subsequent generation of alkaline pH. As CO2 was removed, growth medium pH increased and soluble Ca2+ was removed from solution. The largest increases in growth medium pH occurred when CO2 levels dropped below 400 ppmv. Precipitation of CaCO3 catalyzed by the growth and physiology of cyanobacteria in the Genus Synechococcus represents a potential mechanism for sequestration of atmospheric CO2 produced during the burning of coal for power generation. Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 8806 and Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 8807 were tested in microcosm experiments for their ability to calcify when exposed to a fixed calcium concentration of 3.4 mM and dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations of 0.5, 1.25 and 2.5 mM. Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 8806 removed calcium continuously over the duration of the experiment producing approximately 18.6 mg of solid-phase calcium. Calcium removal occurred over a two-day time period when Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 8807 was tested and only 8.9 mg of solid phase calcium was produced. The ability of the cyanobacteria to create an alkaline growth environment appeared to be the primary factor responsible for CaCO3 precipitation in these experiments. These research results demonstrate the potential of using cyanobacterial catalyzed whitings as a method to sequester CO2 from the atmosphere.

  6. Daily Sodium Butyrate Enema for the Prevention of Radiation Proctitis in Prostate Cancer Patients Undergoing Radical Radiation Therapy: Results of a Multicenter Randomized Placebo-Controlled Dose-Finding Phase 2 Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maggio, Angelo; Magli, Alessandro; Rancati, Tiziana; Fiorino, Claudio; Valvo, Francesca; Fellin, Giovanni; Ricardi, Umberto; Munoz, Fernando; Cosentino, Dorian; Cazzaniga, Luigi Franco; Valdagni, Riccardo; Vavassori, Vittorio

    2014-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of sodium butyrate enemas (NABUREN) in prostate cancer radiation therapy (RT) in reducing the incidence, severity, and duration of acute RT-induced proctitis. Methods and Materials: 166 patients, randomly allocated to 1 of 4 groups (rectal sodium butyrate 1 g, 2 g, or 4 g daily or placebo), were treated with NABUREN during and 2 weeks after RT. The grade of proctitis was registered in a daily diary. The correlation between NABUREN and proctitis was investigated through χ{sup 2} statistics. The toxicity endpoints considered were as follows: total number of days with grade ≥1 proctitis (≥G1); total number of days with grade ≥2 proctitis (≥G2); ≥G1 and ≥G2 proctitis lasting at least 3 and 5 consecutive days starting from week 4 (≥G1+3d, ≥G2+3d); damaging effects of RT on rectal mucosa as measured by endoscopy. The relationship between endpoints and pretreatment morbidities, hormonal therapy, presence of diabetes or hypertension, abdominal surgery, or hemorrhoids was investigated by univariate analysis. Results: The patients were randomly allocated to the 4 arms. No difference in the distribution of comorbidities among the arms was observed (P>.09). The mean ≥G1 and ≥G2 proctitis were 7.8 and 4.9 for placebo and 8.9 and 4.7 for the NABUREN group, respectively. No favorable trend in reduction of incidence, severity, and duration of ≥G1 and ≥G2 proctitis was observed with NABUREN use. In univariate analysis, ≥G1+3d toxicity was found to be related to hemorrhoids (P=.008), and a slight correlation was found between ≥G2 proctitis and hormonal therapy (P=.06). The RT effects on rectal mucosa as based on endoscopic assessment were mainly related to diabetes (P<.01). Endoscopy data at 6 week showed no significant difference between the placebo and butyrate arms. The other investigated endpoints were not correlated with any of the clinical risk factors analyzed. Conclusion: There was no evidence of efficacy of NABUREN in reducing the incidence, severity, and duration of acute radiation proctitis. There was a correlation between some endpoints and clinical risk factors.

  7. Energy dependence of fission product yields from 235U, 238U and 239Pu for incident neutron energies between 0.5 and 14.8 MeV

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gooden, M. E.; Arnold, C. W.; Becker, J. A.; Bhatia, C.; Bhike, M.; Bond, E. M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Fallin, B.; Fowler, M. M.; Howell, C. R.; et al

    2016-01-06

    In this study, Fission Product Yields (FPY) have historically been one of the most observable features of the fission process. They are known to have strong variations that are dependent on the fissioning species, the excitation energy, and the angular momentum of the compound system. However, consistent and systematic studies of the variation of these FPY with energy have proved challenging. This is caused primarily by the nature of the experiments that have traditionally relied on radiochemical procedures to isolate specific fission products. Although radiochemical procedures exist that can isolate all products, each element presents specific challenges and introduces varyingmore » degrees of systematic errors that can make inter-comparison of FPY uncertain. Although of high importance in fields such as nuclear forensics and Stockpile Stewardship, accurate information about the energy dependence of neutron induced FPY are sparse, due primarily to the lack of suitable monoenergetic neutron sources. There is a clear need for improved data, and to address this issue, a collaboration was formed between Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) to measure the energy dependence of FPY for 235U, 238U and 239Pu. The measurements have been performed at TUNL, using a 10 MV Tandem Van de Graaff accelerator to produce monoenergetic neutrons at energies between 0.6 MeV to 14.8 MeV through a variety of reactions. The measurements have utilized a dual-fission chamber, with thin (10-100 μg/cm2) reference foils of similar material to a thick (100-400 mg) activation target held in the center between the chambers. This method allows for the accurate determination of the number of fissions that occurred in the thick target without requiring knowledge of the fission cross section or neutron fluence on target. Following activation, the thick target was removed from the dual-fission chamber and gamma-ray counted using shielded HPGe detectors for a period of 1-2 months to determine the yield of various fission products. To the extent possible all irradiation and counting procedures were kept the same to minimize sources of systematic errors. FPY have been determined at incident neutron energies of 0.6, 1.4, 2.4, 3.5, 4.6, 5.5, 8.9 and 14.8 MeV.« less

  8. Impact of Postmastectomy Radiation on Locoregional Recurrence in Breast Cancer Patients With 1-3 Positive Lymph Nodes Treated With Modern Systemic Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tendulkar, Rahul D.; Rehman, Sana; Shukla, Monica E.; Reddy, Chandana A.; Moore, Halle; Budd, G. Thomas; Dietz, Jill; Crowe, Joseph P.; Macklis, Roger

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: Postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) remains controversial for patients with 1-3 positive lymph nodes (LN+). Methods and Materials: We conducted a retrospective review of all 369 breast cancer patients with 1-3 LN+ who underwent mastectomy without neoadjuvant systemic therapy between 2000 and 2007 at Cleveland Clinic. Results: We identified 271 patients with 1-3 LN+ who did not receive PMRT and 98 who did receive PMRT. The median follow-up time was 5.2 years, and the median number of LN dissected was 11. Of those not treated with PMRT, 79% received adjuvant chemotherapy (of whom 70% received a taxane), 79% received hormonal therapy, and 5% had no systemic therapy. Of the Her2/neu amplified tumors, 42% received trastuzumab. The 5-year rate of locoregional recurrence (LRR) was 8.9% without PMRT vs 0% with PMRT (P=.004). For patients who did not receive PMRT, univariate analysis showed 6 risk factors significantly (P<.05) correlated with LRR: estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor negative (hazard ratio [HR] 2.6), lymphovascular invasion (HR 2.4), 2-3 LN+ (HR 2.6), nodal ratio >25% (HR 2.7), extracapsular extension (ECE) (HR 3.7), and Bloom-Richardson grade III (HR 3.1). The 5-year LRR rate was 3.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.1%-6.8%] for patients with 0-1 risk factor vs 14.6% [95% CI, 8.4%-20.9%] for patients with {>=}2 risk factors (P=.0006), respectively. On multivariate analysis, ECE (HR 4.3, P=.0006) and grade III (HR 3.6, P=.004) remained significant risk factors for LRR. The 5-year LRR was 4.1% in patients with neither grade III nor ECE, 8.1% with either grade III or ECE, and 50.4% in patients with both grade III and ECE (P<.0001); the corresponding 5-year distant metastasis-free survival rates were 91.8%, 85.4%, and 59.1% (P=.0004), respectively. Conclusions: PMRT offers excellent control for patients with 1-3 LN+, with no locoregional failures to date. Patients with 1-3 LN+ who have grade III disease and/or ECE should be strongly considered for PMRT.

  9. Institutional, Retrospective Analysis of 777 Patients With Brain Metastases: Treatment Outcomes and Diagnosis-Specific Prognostic Factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Antoni, Delphine; Clavier, Jean-Baptiste; Pop, Marius; Schumacher, Catherine; Lefebvre, Franois; Nol, Georges

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the prognostic factors and survival of a series of 777 patients with brain metastases (BM) from a single institution. Methods and Materials: Patients were treated with surgery followed by whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) or with WBRT alone in 16.3% and 83.7% of the cases, respectively. The patients were RPA (recursive partitioning analysis) class I, II, and III in 11.2%, 69.6%, and 18.4% of the cases, respectively; RPA class II-a, II-b, and II-c in 8.3%, 24.8%, and 66.9% of the cases, respectively; and with GPA (graded prognostic assessment) scores of 0-1.0, 1.5-2.0, 2.5-3.0, and 3.5-4.0 in 35%, 27.5%, 18.2%, and 8.6% of the cases, respectively. Results: The median overall survival (OS) times according to RPA class I, II, and III were 20.1, 5.1, and 1.3 months, respectively (P<.0001); according to RPA class II-a, II-b, II-c: 9.1, 8.9, and 4.0 months, respectively (P<.0001); and according to GPA score 0-1.0, 1.5-2.0, 2.5-3.0, and 3.5-4.0: 2.5, 4.4, 9.0, and 19.1 months, respectively (P<.0001). By multivariate analysis, the favorable independent prognostic factors for survival were as follows: for gastrointestinal tumor, a high Karnofsky performance status (KPS) (P=.0003) and an absence of extracranial metastases (ECM) (P=.003); for kidney cancer, few BM (P=.002); for melanoma, few BM (P=.01), an absence of ECM (P=.002), and few ECM (P=.0002); for lung cancer, age (P=.007), a high KPS (P<.0001), an absence of ECM (P<.0001), few ECM and BM (P<.0001 and P=.0006, respectively), and control of the primary tumor (P=.004); and for breast cancer, age (P=.001), a high KPS (P=.007), control of the primary tumor (P=.05), and few ECM and BM (P=.01 and P=.0002, respectively). The triple-negative subtype was a significant unfavorable factor (P=.007). Conclusion: Prognostic factors varied by pathology. Our analysis confirms the strength of prognostic factors used to determine the GPA score, including the genetic subtype for breast cancer.

  10. Catalyzed Ceramic Burner Material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, Amy S., Dr.

    2012-06-29

    Catalyzed combustion offers the advantages of increased fuel efficiency, decreased emissions (both NOx and CO), and an expanded operating range. These performance improvements are related to the ability of the catalyst to stabilize a flame at or within the burner media and to combust fuel at much lower temperatures. This technology has a diverse set of applications in industrial and commercial heating, including boilers for the paper, food and chemical industries. However, wide spread adoption of catalyzed combustion has been limited by the high cost of precious metals needed for the catalyst materials. The primary objective of this project was the development of an innovative catalyzed burner media for commercial and small industrial boiler applications that drastically reduce the unit cost of the catalyzed media without sacrificing the benefits associated with catalyzed combustion. The scope of this program was to identify both the optimum substrate material as well as the best performing catalyst construction to meet or exceed industry standards for durability, cost, energy efficiency, and emissions. It was anticipated that commercial implementation of this technology would result in significant energy savings and reduced emissions. Based on demonstrated achievements, there is a potential to reduce NOx emissions by 40,000 TPY and natural gas consumption by 8.9 TBtu in industries that heavily utilize natural gas for process heating. These industries include food manufacturing, polymer processing, and pulp and paper manufacturing. Initial evaluation of commercial solutions and upcoming EPA regulations suggests that small to midsized boilers in industrial and commercial markets could possibly see the greatest benefit from this technology. While out of scope for the current program, an extension of this technology could also be applied to catalytic oxidation for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Considerable progress has been made over the course of the grant period in accomplishing these objectives. Our work in the area of Pd-based, methane oxidation catalysts has led to the development of highly active catalysts with relatively low loadings of Pd metal using proprietary coating methods. The thermal stability of these Pd-based catalysts were characterized using SEM and BET analyses, further demonstrating that certain catalyst supports offer enhanced stability toward both PdO decomposition and/or thermal sintering/growth of Pd particles. When applied to commercially available fiber mesh substrates (both metallic and ceramic) and tested in an open-air burner, these catalyst-support chemistries showed modest improvements in the NOx emissions and radiant output compared to uncatalyzed substrates. More significant, though, was the performance of the catalyst-support chemistries on novel media substrates. These substrates were developed to overcome the limitations that are present with commercially available substrate designs and increase the gas-catalyst contact time. When catalyzed, these substrates demonstrated a 65-75% reduction in NOx emissions across the firing range when tested in an open air burner. In testing in a residential boiler, this translated into NOx emissions of <15 ppm over the 15-150 kBtu/hr firing range.

  11. A Preliminary Cost Study of the Dual Mode Inverter Controller

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKeever, J.W.

    2005-01-28

    In 1998, the Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Research Center (PEEMRC) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) started a program to investigate alternate field weakening schemes for permanent magnet (PM) motors. The adjective ''alternate'' was used because at that time, outside research emphasis was on motors with interior-mounted PMs (IPMs). The PEEMRC emphasis was placed on motors with surface-mounted PMs (SPMs) because of the relative ease of manufacturing SPM motors compared with the IPM motors. Today the PEEMRC is continuing research on SPMs while examining the IPMs that have been developed by industry. Out of this task--the goal of which was to find ways to drive PM motors that inherently have low inductance at high speeds where their back-emf exceeds the supply voltage--ORNL developed and demonstrated the dual mode inverter control (DMIC) [1,2] method of field weakening for SPM motors. The predecessor of DMIC is conventional phase advance (CPA), which was developed by UQM Technologies, Inc. [3]. Fig. 1 shows the three sets of anti-parallel thyristors in the dashed box that comprise the DMIC. If one removes the dashed box by shorting each set of anti-parallel thyristors, the configuration becomes a conventional full bridge inverter on the left driving a three phase motor on the right. CPA may be used to drive this configuration ORNL's initial analyses of CPA and DMIC were based on driving motors with trapezoidal back-emfs [4-6], obtained using double layer lapped stator windings with one slot per pole per phase. A PM motor with a sinusoidal back-emf obtained with two poles per slot per phase has been analyzed under DMIC operation as a University of Tennessee-Knoxville (UTK) doctoral dissertation [7]. In the process of this research, ORNL has completed an analysis that explains and quantifies the role of inductance in these methods of control. The Appendix includes information on the equations for the three components of phase inductance, L{sub gap}, L{sub slot}, and L{sub endturns}. PM motors inherently have a lower inductance because of the increase in effective air gap caused by the magnet, which is in the denominator of the equation for L{sub gap}. L{sub gap} accounts for about half of the phase inductance. Because of the low inductance, there is a propensity for currents to exceed the motor's rated value. DMIC solves this problem for low-inductance PM motors and, in addition, provides a number of safety features that protect against uncontrolled generator mode operation [8,9]; however, the DMIC topology adds a pair of anti-parallel thyristors in each of the three phases, thereby introducing additional silicon costs as well as additional voltage drops during operation. It poses the tradeoff question; under what conditions can the beneficial features of DMIC offset its additional silicon cost and voltage drop losses? The purpose of this report is to address the tradeoff question. Sections of the report will: (1) review the role of self-inductance in performance and control of PM motors, (2) discuss the bounding inductances for motors with trapezoidal back-emfs under CPA control, (3) discuss the bounding inductances for trapezoidal back-emfs under DMIC, (4) discuss the bounding inductances for the PM synchronous motor (PMSM), (5) present the analysis showing how DMIC minimizes current in PMSMs, (6) present the results of a cost study conducted for two motors driven using a CPA inverter and for two motors driven using DMIC, (7) discuss estimating life cycle cost benefits, and (8) present conclusions.

  12. Materials for Advanced Ultrasupercritical Steam Turbines Task 3: Materials for Non-Welded Rotors, Buckets, and BoltingMaterials for Advanced Ultrasupercritical Steam Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saha, Deepak

    2015-09-15

    The primary objective of the task was to characterize the materials suitable for mechanically coupled rotor, buckets and bolting operating with an inlet temperature of 760°C (1400°F). A previous study DOE-FC26-05NT42442, identified alloys such as Haynes®282®, Nimonic 105, Inconel 740, Waspaloy, Nimonic 263, and Inconel 617 as potential alloys that met the requirements for the necessary operating conditions. Of all the identified materials, Waspaloy has been widely utilized in the aviation industry in the form of disk and other smaller forgings, and sufficient material properties and vendor experience exist, for the design and manufacture of large components. The European program characterizing materials for A-USC conditions are evaluating Nimonic 263 and Inconel 617 for large components. Inconel 740 has been studied extensively as a part of the boiler consortium and is code approved. Therefore, the consortium focused efforts in the development of material properties for Haynes®282® and Nimonic 105 to avoid replicative efforts and provide material choices/trade off during the detailed design of large components. Commercially available Nimonic 105 and Haynes®282® were evaluated for microstructural stability by long term thermal exposure studies. Material properties requisite for design such as tensile, creep / rupture, low cycle fatigue, high cycle fatigue, fatigue crack growth rate, hold-time fatigue, fracture toughness, and stress relaxation are documented in this report. A key requisite for the success of the program was a need demonstrate the successful scale up of the down-selected alloys, to large components. All property evaluations in the past were performed on commercially available bar/billet forms. Components in power plant equipment such as rotors and castings are several orders in magnitude larger and there is a real need to resolve the scalability issue. Nimonic 105 contains high volume fraction y’ [>50%], and hence the alloy is best suited for smaller forging and valve internals, bolts, smaller blades. Larger Nimonic 105 forgings, would precipitate y’ during the surface cooling during forging, leading to surface cracks. The associate costs in forging Nimonic 105 to larger sizes [hotter dies, press requirements], were beyond the scope of this task and not investigated further. Haynes®282® has 20 - 25% volume fraction y’ was a choice for large components, albeit untested. A larger ingot diameter is pre-requisite for a larger diameter forging and achieves the “typically” accepted working ratio of 2.5-3:1. However, Haynes®282® is manufactured via a double melt process [VIM-ESR] limited by size [<18-16” diameter], which limited the maximum size of the final forging. The report documents the development of a 24” diameter triple melt ingot, surpassing the current available technology. A second triple melt ingot was manufactured and successfully forged into a 44” diameter disk. The successful developments in triple melting process and the large diameter forging of Haynes®282® resolved the scalability issues and involved the first of its kind attempt in the world for this alloy. The complete characterization of Haynes®282® forging was performed and documented in this report. The dataset from the commercially available Haynes®282® [grain size ASTM 3-4] and the finer grain size disk forging [ASTM 8-9] offer an additional design tradeoff to balance creep and fatigue during the future design process.

  13. Global carbon budget 2014

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Peters, G. P.; Ciais, P.; Friedlingstein, P.; Jones, S. D.; Sitch, S.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; et al

    2015-05-08

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates, consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissionsmore » from fossil fuel combustion and cement production (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover-change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2, and land-cover-change (some including nitrogen–carbon interactions). We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ;, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global carbon budget. For the last decade available (2004–2013), EFF was 8.9 ± 0.4 GtC yr⁻¹,ELUC 0.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr⁻¹, GATM 4.3 ± 0.1 GtC yr⁻¹, SOCEAN 2.6 ± 0.5 GtC yr⁻¹, and SLAND 2.9 ± 0.8 GtC yr⁻¹. For year 2013 alone, EFF grew to 9.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr⁻¹, 2.3% above 2012, continuing the growth trend in these emissions, ELUC was 0.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr⁻¹, GATM was 5.4 ± 0.2 GtC yr⁻¹, SOCEAN was 2.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr⁻¹, and SLAND was 2.5 ± 0.9 GtC yr⁻¹. GATM was high in 2013, reflecting a steady increase in EFF and smaller and opposite changes between SOCEAN and SLAND compared to the past decade (2004–2013). The global atmospheric CO2 concentration reached 395.31 ± 0.10 ppm averaged over 2013. We estimate that EFF will increase by 2.5% (1.3–3.5%) to 10.1 ± 0.6 GtC in 2014 (37.0 ± 2.2 GtCO2 yr⁻¹), 65% above emissions in 1990, based on projections of world gross domestic product and recent changes in the carbon intensity of the global economy. From this projection of EFF and assumed constant ELUC for 2014, cumulative emissions of CO2 will reach about 545 ± 55 GtC (2000 ± 200 GtCO2) for 1870–2014, about 75% from EFF and 25% from ELUC. This paper documents changes in the methods and data sets used in this new carbon budget compared with previous publications of this living data set (Le Quéré et al., 2013, 2014). All observations presented here can be downloaded from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (doi:10.3334/CDIAC/GCP_2014).« less

  14. Hi-Q Rotor - Low Wind Speed Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Todd E. Mills; Judy Tatum

    2010-01-11

    The project objective was to optimize the performance of the Hi-Q Rotor. Early research funded by the California Energy Commission indicated the design might be advantageous over state-of-the-art turbines for collecting wind energy in low wind conditions. The Hi-Q Rotor is a new kind of rotor targeted for harvesting wind in Class 2, 3, and 4 sites, and has application in areas that are closer to cities, or 'load centers.' An advantage of the Hi-Q Rotor is that the rotor has non-conventional blade tips, producing less turbulence, and is quieter than standard wind turbine blades which is critical to the low-wind populated urban sites. Unlike state-of-the-art propeller type blades, the Hi-Q Rotor has six blades connected by end caps. In this phase of the research funded by DOE's Inventions and Innovation Program, the goal was to improve the current design by building a series of theoretical and numeric models, and composite prototypes to determine a best of class device. Development of the rotor was performed by aeronautical engineering and design firm, DARcorporation. From this investigation, an optimized design was determined and an 8-foot diameter, full-scale rotor was built and mounted using a Bergey LX-1 generator and furling system which were adapted to support the rotor. The Hi-Q Rotor was then tested side-by-side against the state-of-the-art Bergey XL-1 at the Alternative Energy Institute's Wind Test Center at West Texas State University for six weeks, and real time measurements of power generated were collected and compared. Early wind tunnel testing showed that the cut-in-speed of the Hi-Q rotor is much lower than a conventional tested HAWT enabling the Hi-Q Wind Turbine to begin collecting energy before a conventional HAWT has started spinning. Also, torque at low wind speeds for the Hi-Q Wind Turbine is higher than the tested conventional HAWT and enabled the wind turbine to generate power at lower wind speeds. Based on the data collected, the results of our first full-scale prototype wind turbine proved that higher energy can be captured at lower wind speeds with the new Hi-Q Rotor. The Hi-Q Rotor is almost 15% more productive than the Bergey from 6 m/s to 8 m/s, making it ideal in Class 3, 4, and 5 wind sites and has application in the critical and heretofore untapped areas that are closer to cities, 'load centers,' and may even be used directly in urban areas. The additional advantage of the Hi-Q Rotor's non-conventional blade tips, which eliminates most air turbulence, is noise reduction which makes it doubly ideal for populated urban areas. Hi-Q Products recommends one final stage of development to take the Hi-Q Rotor through Technology Readiness Levels 8-9. During this stage of development, the rotor will be redesigned to further increase efficiency, match the rotor to a more suitable generator, and lower the cost of manufacturing by redesigning the structure to allow for production in larger quantities at lower cost. Before taking the rotor to market and commercialization, it is necessary to further optimize the performance by finding a better generator and autofurling system, ones more suitable for lower wind speeds and rpms should be used in all future testing. The potential impact of this fully developed technology will be the expansion and proliferation of energy renewal into the heretofore untapped Class 2, 3, 4, and 5 Wind Sites, or the large underutilized sites where the wind speed is broken by physical features such as mountains, buildings, and trees. Market estimates by 2011, if low wind speed technology can be developed are well above: 13 million homes, 675,000 commercial buildings, 250,000 public facilities. Estimated commercial exploitation of the Hi-Q Rotor show potential increase in U.S. energy gained through the clean, renewable wind energy found in low and very low wind speed sites. This new energy source would greatly impact greenhouse emissions as well as the public sector's growing energy demands.

  15. Save Energy Now Assessments Results 2008 Detailed Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, Anthony L; Martin, Michaela A; Nimbalkar, Sachin U; Quinn, James; Glatt, Ms. Sandy; Orthwein, Mr. Bill

    2010-09-01

    In October 2005, U.S. Department of Energy Secretary Bodman launched his Easy Ways to Save Energy campaign with a promise to provide energy assessments to 200 of the largest U.S. manufacturing plants. DOE's Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) responded to the Secretary's campaign with its Save Energy Now initiative, featuring a new and highly cost-effective form of energy savings assessment. The approach for these assessments drew heavily on the existing resources of ITP's technology delivery component. Over the years, ITP Technology Delivery has worked with industry partners to assemble a suite of respected software tools, proven assessment protocols, training curricula, certified energy experts, and strong partnerships for deployment. The Save Energy Now assessments conducted in calendar year 2006 focused on natural gas savings and targeted many of the nation's largest manufacturing plants - those that consume at least 1 TBtu of energy annually. The 2006 Save Energy Now assessments focused primarily on assessments of steam and process heating systems, which account for an estimated 74% of all natural gas use by U.S. manufacturing plants. Because of the success of the Save Energy Now assessments conducted in 2006 and 2007, the program was expanded and enhanced in two major ways in 2008: (1) a new goal was set to perform at least 260 assessments; and (2) the assessment focus was expanded to include pumping, compressed air, and fan systems in addition to steam and process heating. DOE ITP also has developed software tools to assess energy efficiency improvement opportunities in pumping, compressed air, and fan systems. The Save Energy Now assessments integrate a strong training component designed to teach industrial plant personnel how to use DOE's opportunity assessment software tools. This approach has the advantages of promoting strong buy-in of plant personnel for the assessment and its outcomes and preparing them better to independently replicate the assessment process at the company's other facilities. Another important element of the Save Energy Now assessment process is the follow-up process used to identify how many of the recommended savings opportunities from individual assessments have been implemented in the industrial plants. Plant personnel involved with the Save Energy Now assessments are contacted 6 months, 12 months, and 24 months after individual assessments are completed to determine implementation results. A total of 260 Save Energy Now assessments were successfully completed in calendar year 2008. This means that a total of 718 assessments were completed in 2006, 2007, and 2008. As of July 2009, we have received a total of 239 summary reports from the ESAs that were conducted in year 2008. Hence, at the time that this report was prepared, 680 final assessment reports were completed (200 from year 2006, 241 from year 2007, and 239 from year 2008). The total identified potential cost savings from these 680 assessments is $1.1 billion per year, including natural gas savings of about 98 TBtu per year. These results, if fully implemented, could reduce CO{sub 2} emissions by about 8.9 million metric tons annually. When this report was prepared, data on implementation of recommended energy and cost savings measures from 488 Save Energy Now assessments were available. For these 488 plants, measures saving a total of $147 million per year have been implemented, measures that will save $169 million per year are in the process of being implemented, and plants are planning implementation of measures that will save another $239 million per year. The implemented recommendations are already achieving total CO{sub 2} reductions of about 1.8 million metric tons per year. This report provides a summary of the key results for the Save Energy Now assessments completed in 2008; details of the 6-month, 12-month, and 24-month implementation results obtained to date; and an evaluation of these implementation results. This report also summarizes key accomplishments, findings, and lessons learned from all the Save Energy Now assessments completed to date. A separate report (Wright et al. 2010) provides more detailed information on key results for all of the 2008 assessments of steam, process heating, pumping, compressed air, and fan systems. Two prior reports (Wright et al. 2007 and Wright et al. 2009) detail the results from the 2006 and 2007 assessments and discuss the major components of the assessment process and improvements in the process made in 2007.

  16. Global carbon budget 2014

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Peters, G. P.; Ciais, P.; Friedlingstein, P.; Jones, S. D.; Sitch, S.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Boden, T. A.; Bopp, L.; Bozec, Y.; Canadell, J. G.; Chini, L. P.; Chevallier, F.; Cosca, C. E.; Harris, I.; Hoppema, M.; Houghton, R. A.; House, J. I.; Jain, A. K.; Johannessen, T.; Kato, E.; Keeling, R. F.; Kitidis, V.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Koven, C.; Landa, C. S.; Landschützer, P.; Lenton, A.; Lima, I. D.; Marland, G.; Mathis, J. T.; Metzl, N.; Nojiri, Y.; Olsen, A.; Ono, T.; Peng, S.; Peters, W.; Pfeil, B.; Poulter, B.; Raupach, M. R.; Regnier, P.; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Salisbury, J. E.; Schuster, U.; Schwinger, J.; Séférian, R.; Segschneider, J.; Steinhoff, T.; Stocker, B. D.; Sutton, A. J.; Takahashi, T.; Tilbrook, B.; van der Werf, G. R.; Viovy, N.; Wang, Y.-P.; Wanninkhof, R.; Wiltshire, A.; Zeng, N.

    2015-05-08

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates, consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover-change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2, and land-cover-change (some including nitrogen–carbon interactions). We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ;, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global carbon budget. For the last decade available (2004–2013), EFF was 8.9 ± 0.4 GtC yr⁻¹,ELUC 0.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr⁻¹, GATM 4.3 ± 0.1 GtC yr⁻¹, SOCEAN 2.6 ± 0.5 GtC yr⁻¹, and SLAND 2.9 ± 0.8 GtC yr⁻¹. For year 2013 alone, EFF grew to 9.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr⁻¹, 2.3% above 2012, continuing the growth trend in these emissions, ELUC was 0.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr⁻¹, GATM was 5.4 ± 0.2 GtC yr⁻¹, SOCEAN was 2.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr⁻¹, and SLAND was 2.5 ± 0.9 GtC yr⁻¹. GATM was high in 2013, reflecting a steady increase in EFF and smaller and opposite changes between SOCEAN and SLAND compared to the past decade (2004–2013). The global atmospheric CO2 concentration reached 395.31 ± 0.10 ppm averaged over 2013. We estimate that EFF will increase by 2.5% (1.3–3.5%) to 10.1 ± 0.6 GtC in 2014 (37.0 ± 2.2 GtCO2 yr⁻¹), 65% above emissions in 1990, based on projections of world gross domestic product and recent changes in the carbon intensity of the global economy. From this projection of EFF and assumed constant ELUC for 2014, cumulative emissions of CO2 will reach about 545 ± 55 GtC (2000 ± 200 GtCO2) for 1870–2014, about 75% from EFF and 25% from ELUC. This paper documents changes in the methods and data sets used in this new carbon budget compared with previous publications of this living data set (Le Quéré et al., 2013, 2014). All observations presented here can be downloaded from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (doi:10.3334/CDIAC/GCP_2014).

  17. Applied & Computational MathematicsChallenges for the Design and Control of Dynamic Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, D L; Burns, J A; Collis, S; Grosh, J; Jacobson, C A; Johansen, H; Mezic, I; Narayanan, S; Wetter, M

    2011-03-10

    The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) was passed with the goal 'to move the United States toward greater energy independence and security.' Energy security and independence cannot be achieved unless the United States addresses the issue of energy consumption in the building sector and significantly reduces energy consumption in buildings. Commercial and residential buildings account for approximately 40% of the U.S. energy consumption and emit 50% of CO{sub 2} emissions in the U.S. which is more than twice the total energy consumption of the entire U.S. automobile and light truck fleet. A 50%-80% improvement in building energy efficiency in both new construction and in retrofitting existing buildings could significantly reduce U.S. energy consumption and mitigate climate change. Reaching these aggressive building efficiency goals will not happen without significant Federal investments in areas of computational and mathematical sciences. Applied and computational mathematics are required to enable the development of algorithms and tools to design, control and optimize energy efficient buildings. The challenge has been issued by the U.S. Secretary of Energy, Dr. Steven Chu (emphasis added): 'We need to do more transformational research at DOE including computer design tools for commercial and residential buildings that enable reductions in energy consumption of up to 80 percent with investments that will pay for themselves in less than 10 years.' On July 8-9, 2010 a team of technical experts from industry, government and academia were assembled in Arlington, Virginia to identify the challenges associated with developing and deploying newcomputational methodologies and tools thatwill address building energy efficiency. These experts concluded that investments in fundamental applied and computational mathematics will be required to build enabling technology that can be used to realize the target of 80% reductions in energy consumption. In addition the finding was that there are tools and technologies that can be assembled and deployed in the short term - the next 3-5 years - that can be used to significantly reduce the cost and time effective delivery of moderate energy savings in the U.S. building stock. Simulation tools, which are a core strength of current DOE computational research programs, provide only a part of the answer by providing a basis for simulation enabled design. New investments will be required within a broad dynamics and control research agenda which must focus on dynamics, control, optimization and simulation of multi-scale energy systems during design and operation. U.S. investments in high performance and high productivity computing (HP2C) should be leveraged and coupled with advances in dynamics and control to impact both the existing building stock through retrofits and also new construction. The essential R&D areas requiring investment are: (1) Characterizing the Dynamics of Multi-scale Energy Systems; (2) Control and Optimization Methodologies of Multi-scale Energy Systems Under Uncertainty; and (3) Multiscale Modeling and Simulation Enabled Design and Operation. The concept of using design and control specific computational tools is a new idea for the building industry. The potential payoffs in terms of accelerated design cycle times, performance optimization and optimal supervisory control to obtain and maintain energy savings are huge. Recent advances in computational power, computer science, and mathematical algorithms offer the foundations to address the control problems presented by the complex dynamics of whole building systems. The key areas for focus and associated metrics with targets for establishing competitiveness in energy efficient building design and operation are: (1) Scalability - Current methodology and tools can provide design guidance for very low energy buildings in weeks to months; what is needed is hours to days. A 50X improvement is needed. (2) Installation and commissioning - Current methodology and tools can target a three month window for commissioning of building subsystems; what is needed is one week. A 10X improvement is needed. (3) Quality - Current design tools can achieve 30% accuracy; what is needed to make design decisions is 5% with quantification of uncertainty. A 5X improvement is needed. These challenges cannot be overcome by raw computational power alone and require the development of new algorithms. Here algorithms mean much more than simulating the building physics but need to be inclusive of a much better understanding of the building and the control systems associated with the building and to capture the entire set of dynamics. The algorithmsmust represent computationally new mathematical approaches to modeling, simulation, optimization and control of large multi-scale dynamic systems and bringing these elements to bear on industry in simulation enabled design approaches.

  18. Acoustic Imaging Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Behavior in the Immediate Forebay of the Water Temperature Control Tower at Cougar Dam, 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, Fenton; Johnson, Gary E.; Royer, Ida M.; Phillips, Nathan RJ; Hughes, James S.; Fischer, Eric S.; Ploskey, Gene R.

    2011-10-01

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of juvenile Chinook salmonid (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) behavior in the immediate forebay of the Water Temperature Control (WTC) tower at Cougar Dam in 2010. The study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The overall goal of the study was to characterize juvenile salmonid behavior and movement patterns in the immediate forebay of the WTC tower for fisheries resource managers to use to make decisions on bioengineering designs for long-term structures and/or operations to facilitate safe downstream passage for juvenile salmonids. We collected acoustic imaging (Dual-Frequency Identification Sonar; DIDSON) data from February 1, 2010 through January 31, 2011 to evaluate juvenile salmonid behavior year-round in the immediate forebay surface layer of the WTC tower (within 20 m, depth 0-5 m). From October 28, 2010 through January 31, 2011 a BlueView acoustic camera was also deployed in an attempt to determine its usefulness for future studies as well as augment the DIDSON data. For the DIDSON data, we processed a total of 35 separate 24-h periods systematically covering every other week in the 12-month study. Two different 24-hour periods were processed for the BlueView data for the feasibility study. Juvenile salmonids were present in the immediate forebay of the WTC tower throughout 2010. The juvenile salmonid abundance index was low in the spring (<200 fish per sample-day), began increasing in late April and peaked in mid-May. Fish abundance index began decreasing in early June and remained low in the summer months. Fish abundance increased again in the fall, starting in October, and peaked on November 8-9. A second peak occurred on December 22. Afterwards, abundance was low for the rest of the study (through January 2011). Average fish length for juvenile salmonids during early spring 2010 was 214 {+-} 86 mm (standard deviation). From May through early November, average fish length remained relatively consistent (132 {+-} 39 mm), after which average lengths increased to 294 {+-} 145 mm for mid-November though early December. Fish behavior analysis indicates milling in front of the intake tower was the most common behavior observed throughout the study period (>50% of total fish events). The next most common movement patterns were fish traversing along the front of the tower, east-to-west and west-to-east. The proportion of fish events seen moving into (forebay to tower) or out of (tower to forebay) the tower was generally low throughout the spring, summer, and early fall for both directions combined. From mid-December 2010 through the end of the study, the combined proportions of fish moving into and out of the tower were higher than previous months of this study. Schooling behavior was most distinct in the spring from late April through mid-June. Schooling events were present in 30 - 96% of the fish events during that period, with a peak in mid-May. Schooling events were also present in the summer, but at lower numbers. Diel distributions for schooling fish during spring, fall, and winter months indicate schooling was concentrated during daylight hours. No schooling was observed at night. Predator activity was observed during late spring, when fish abundance and schooling were highest for the year, and again in the fall months when fish events increased from a summer low. No predator activity was observed in the summer, and little activity occurred during the winter months. For the two days of BlueView data analyzed for vertical distribution in the forebay, a majority of fish (>50%) were present in the middle of the water column (10 - 20 m deep). Between 20 and 41 % of total fish abundance were found in the bottom of the water column (20 - 30 m deep). Few fish were observed in the top 10 m of the water column.