Sample records for 75-watt incandescent bulb

  1. How Energy-Efficient Light Bulbs Compare with Traditional Incandescent...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    used light fixtures or bulbs with models that have earned the ENERGY STAR, you can save 75 each year. Compared to traditional incandescents, energy-efficient lightbulbs...

  2. High efficiency incandescent lighting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bermel, Peter; Ilic, Ognjen; Chan, Walker R.; Musabeyoglu, Ahmet; Cukierman, Aviv Ruben; Harradon, Michael Robert; Celanovic, Ivan; Soljacic, Marin

    2014-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Incandescent lighting structure. The structure includes a thermal emitter that can, but does not have to, include a first photonic crystal on its surface to tailor thermal emission coupled to, in a high-view-factor geometry, a second photonic filter selected to reflect infrared radiation back to the emitter while passing visible light. This structure is highly efficient as compared to standard incandescent light bulbs.

  3. Ceramic Mugs & Dishes Incandescent Light Bulbs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yamamoto, Keith

    , MU East Rock Hall/19-B CELL PHONES - EYEGLASSES 654 Minnesota Street Room 208, copy room CVRI Helen. Zion Cancer Research Building N423 Parnassus Campus: eyeglasses "I" level, Optometry Store, MU West

  4. Operating temperatures for a convectively cooled recessed incandescent light fixture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yarbrough, D.W.; Toor, I.

    1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Test results are given for the operation of a recessed incandescent light fixture intended for residential use. The fixture is labeled for use in direct contact with attic thermal insulation. Temperature control of the powered fixture is provided by convective heat transfer from the ceiling side of the fixture. The fixture was operated at power levels up to two times the rated power of 75 watts and under thermal insulations up to R-40. In all operating configurations tested the fixture surface in contact with attic insulation was found to be less than 175/sup 0/C. The observed surface temperatures are judged to be safe for operation in contact with loose-fill or batt-type insulations. It was observed that the power leads inside one fixture configuration are exposed to temperatures as high as 168/sup 0/C. The electrical insulation could, therefore, have a limited life. The properties of the internal fixture wiring were not, however, studied in detail.

  5. Visible Spectrum Incandescent Selective Emitter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sonsight Inc.

    2004-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of the work performed was to demonstrate the feasibility of a novel bi-layer selective emitter. Selective emitters are incandescent radiant bodies with emissivities that are substantially larger in a selected part of the radiation spectrum, thereby significantly shifting their radiated spectral distribution from that of a blackbody radiating at the same temperature. The major research objectives involved answering the following questions: (1) What maximum VIS/NIR radiant power and emissivity ratios can be attained at 2650 K? (2) What is the observed emitter body life and how does its performance vary with time? (3) What are the design tradeoffs for a dual heating approach in which both an internally mounted heating coil and electrical resistance self-heating are used? (4) What are the quantitative improvements to be had from utilizing a bi-layer emitter body with a low emissivity inner layer and a partially transmissive outer layer? Two approaches to obtaining selective emissivity were investigated. The first was to utilize large optical scattering within an emitter material with a spectral optical absorption that is much greater within the visible spectrum than that within the NIR. With this approach, an optically thick emitter can radiate almost as if optically thin because essentially, scattering limits the distance below the surface from which significant amounts of internally generated radiation can emerge. The performance of thin emitters was also investigated (for optically thin emitters, spectral emissivity is proportional to spectral absorptivity). These emitters were fabricated from thin mono-layer emitter rods as well as from bi-layer rods with a thin emitter layer mounted on a substrate core. With an initially estimated energy efficiency of almost three times that of standard incandescent bulbs, a number of energy, economic and environmental benefits such as less energy use and cost, reduced CO{sub 2} emissions, and no mercury contamination was initially projected. The work performed provided answers to a number of important questions. The first is that, with the investigated approaches, the maximum sustained emitter efficiencies are about 1.5 times that of a standard incandescent bulb. This was seen to be the case for both thick and thin emitters, and for both mono-layer and bi-layer designs. While observed VIS/NIR ratios represent improvements over standard incandescent bulbs, it does not appear sufficient to overcome higher cost (i.e. up to five times that of the standard bulb) and ensure commercial success. Another result is that high temperatures (i.e. 2650 K) are routinely attainable without platinum electrodes. This is significant for reducing material costs. A novel dual heating arrangement and insulated electrodes were used to attain these temperatures. Another observed characteristic of the emitter was significant grain growth soon after attaining operating temperatures. This is an undesirable characteristic that results in substantially less optical scattering and spectral selectivity, and which significantly limits emitter efficiencies to the values reported. Further work is required to address this problem.

  6. Apparatus to facilitate lengthening the life of incandescent lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spissinger, F.H.

    1987-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    An energizing circuit is described for an incandescent bulb comprising a transformer having a primary winding connectable to an AC mains source and first and second secondary windings for producing first and second voltages. The first secondary winding is connected to an input of a first full-wave rectifier means and the second secondary winding is connected to an input of a second full-wave rectifier means, the full-wave rectifier means having outputs connected in parallel across the bulb. The first voltage is sufficient to fully illuminate the bulb and the second voltage is sufficient to maintain the bulb warm but with little or no light output, a first switch being connected between the first secondary winding and the first rectifier means whereby, when the first switch is open, the bulb is energized solely by the second voltage.

  7. Labeling energy cost on light bulbs lowers implicit discount rates Jihoon Min a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michalek, Jeremy J.

    Analysis Labeling energy cost on light bulbs lowers implicit discount rates Jihoon Min a , Inês L considerably. To quantify the influence of factors that drive consumer choices for light bulbs, we conducted incandescent bulbs. About half of the total lighting service (in terms of lumens) was provided by incandes

  8. How Energy-Efficient Light Bulbs Compare with Traditional Incandescents |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently20,000 RussianBy: Thomas P. D'Agostino,GlenLearningDepartmentDistributed

  9. Dual LED/incandescent security fixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gauna, Kevin Wayne

    2005-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A dual LED and incandescent security lighting system uses a hybrid approach to LED illumination. It combines an ambient LED illuminator with a standard incandescent lamp on a motion control sensor. The LED illuminator will activate with the onset of darkness (daylight control) and typically remain on during the course of the night ("always on"). The LED illumination, typically amber, is sufficient to provide low to moderate level lighting coverage to the wall and ground area adjacent to and under the fixture. The incandescent lamp is integrated with a motion control circuit and sensor. When movement in the field of view is detected (after darkness), the incandescent lamp is switched on, providing an increased level of illumination to the area. Instead of an "always on" LED illuminator, the LEDs may also be switched off when the incandescent lamp is switched on.

  10. Jacketed lamp bulb envelope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacLennan, Donald A. (Gaithersburg, MD); Turner, Brian P. (Damascus, MD); Gitsevich, Aleksandr (Gaithersburg, MD); Bass, Gary K. (Mt. Airy, MD); Dolan, James T. (Frederick, MD); Kipling, Kent (Gaithersburg, MD); Kirkpatrick, Douglas A. (Great Falls, VA); Leng, Yongzhang (Damascus, MD); Levin, Izrail (Silver Spring, MD); Roy, Robert J. (Frederick, MD); Shanks, Bruce (Gaithersburg, MD); Smith, Malcolm (Alexandria, VA); Trimble, William C. (Columbia, MD); Tsai, Peter (Olney, MD)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A jacketed lamp bulb envelope includes a ceramic cup having an open end and a partially closed end, the partially closed end defining an aperture, a lamp bulb positioned inside the ceramic cup abutting the aperture, and a reflective ceramic material at least partially covering a portion of the bulb not abutting the aperture. The reflective ceramic material may substantially fill an interior volume of the ceramic cup not occupied by the bulb. The ceramic cup may include a structural feature for aiding in alignment of the jacketed lamp bulb envelope in a lamp. The ceramic cup may include an external flange about a periphery thereof. One example of a jacketed lamp bulb envelope includes a ceramic cup having an open end and a closed end, a ceramic washer covering the open end of the ceramic cup, the washer defining an aperture therethrough, a lamp bulb positioned inside the ceramic cup abutting the aperture, and a reflective ceramic material filling an interior volume of the ceramic cup not occupied by the bulb. A method of packing a jacketed lamp bulb envelope of the type comprising a ceramic cup with a lamp bulb disposed therein includes the steps of filling the ceramic cup with a flowable slurry of reflective material, and applying centrifugal force to the cup to pack the reflective material therein.

  11. Wiring Switches to Light Bulbs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buckley, Stephen M

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Given n buttons and n bulbs so that the ith button toggles the ith bulb and at most two other bulbs, we compute the sharp lower bound on the number of bulbs that can be lit regardless of the action of the buttons.

  12. Solar light bulb

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, D.A.

    1983-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for generating light directly using solar energy is provided herein. It includes a concentrator and accumulator for the sun's rays to generate a concentrated beam of visible solar radiation. A distributor shaft is provided for distributing the beam of visible solar radiation. A fork is provided in the distributor shaft to define a plurality of branch lines, each provided with a mirror at the intersection to direct the beam down the respective branch line to permit parallel fractions of the beam to be reflected off the respective mirrors and to pass down the respective branch line. A solar bulb is provided including a double walled upper bulbous portion including the inlet from the branch line and a pair of heat outlet tubes, and a double walled lower bulbous portion, the upper portion thereof being divergently reflective, with the lower portion having walls which are either transparent or translucent to provide greater light diffusion, and the space between the two walls being maintained under vacuum to provide heat insulation values. A structure is provided within the solar bulb for the absorption and radiation of the concentrated beam of visible solar radiation. Preferably structure is provided connected to the solar bulb to draw in outside air in the summer to direct it past the solar bulb and to air vent hot air produced at the solar bulb to the outside, thereby providing light with minimal heat in the summer. The same structure is operated in the winter to draw in household air to direct it past the solar bulb and to recirculate such heated air produced at the solar bulb to the house, thereby providing light and heat in the winter.

  13. Bulb mounting of solar cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, M.E.

    1983-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    An energy converting assembly is provided for parasiting of light from a fluorescent light bulb utilizing a solar cell. The solar cell is mounted on a base member elongated in the dimension of elongation of the fluorescent bulb, and electrical interconnections to the cell are provided. A flexible sheet of opaque material having a flat white interior reflective surface surrounds the fluorescent bulb and reflects light emitted from the bulb back toward the bulb and the solar cell. The reflective sheet is tightly held in contact with the bottom of the bulb by adhesive, a tie strap, an external clip, or the like.

  14. Waste Toolkit A-Z Light bulbs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melham, Tom

    Waste Toolkit A-Z Light bulbs Can I recycle light bulbs? It depends what type of bulbs you have of in the normal University waste bins (landfill waste). Energy saving bulbs and fluorescent tubes are classified light bulbs? Standard filament bulbs Put in the waste bin (landfill waste) as these are not classified

  15. Cost effectiveness of long life incandescent lamps and energy buttons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verderber, R.; Morse, O.

    1980-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Long-life replacement lamps for the incandescent lamp have been evaluated with regard to their cost effectiveness. The replacements include the use of energy buttons that extend lamp life as well as an adaptive fluorescent circline lamp that will fit into existing incandescent lamp sockets. The initial, operating, and replacement costs for one million lumen hours are determined for each lamp system. It is found that the most important component lighting cost is the operating cost. Using lamps that are less efficient or devices that cause lamps to operate less efficiently are not cost-effective. The adaptive fluorescent circline lamp, even at an initial unit cost of $20.00, is the most cost-effective source of illumination compared to the incandescent lamp and lamp systems examined.

  16. Spatial assessment of net mercury emissions from the use of fluorescent bulbs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthew J. Eckelman; Paul T. Anastas; Julie B. Zimmerman [Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    While fluorescent lighting is an important technology for reducing electrical energy demand, mercury used in the bulbs is an ongoing concern. Using state and country level data, net emissions of mercury from the marginal use of fluorescent lightbulbs are examined for a base year of 2004 for each of the 50 United States and 130 countries. Combustion of coal for electric power generation is generally the largest source of atmospheric mercury pollution; reduction in electricity demand from the substitution of incandescent bulbs with fluorescents leads to reduced mercury emissions during the use of the bulb. This analysis considers the local mix of power sources, coal quality, thermal conversion efficiencies, distribution losses, and any mercury control technologies that might be in place. Emissions of mercury from production and end-of-life treatment of the bulbs are also considered, providing a life-cycle perspective. Net reductions in mercury over the entire life cycle range from -1.2 to 97 mg per bulb depending on the country. The consequences for atmospheric mercury emissions of several policy scenarios are also discussed. 46 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. DOE Requires Manufacturer and Labeler to Cease Sale of Incandescent...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Addthis Related Articles DOE Requires Westinghouse to Cease Sales of Two Light Bulb Models and Allows Sale of Another Westinghouse and Fuzhou Permitted to Restart...

  18. Lamp bulb with integral reflector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Levin, Izrail (Silver Spring, MD); Shanks, Bruce (Gaithersburg, MD); Sumner, Thomas L. (Wheaton, MD)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved electrodeless discharge lamp bulb includes an integral ceramic reflector as a portion of the bulb envelope. The bulb envelope further includes two pieces, a reflector portion or segment is cast quartz ceramic and a light transmissive portion is a clear fused silica. In one embodiment, the cast quartz ceramic segment includes heat sink fins or stubs providing an increased outside surface area to dissipate internal heat. In another embodiment, the quartz ceramic segment includes an outside surface fused to eliminate gas permeation by polishing.

  19. Dendritic processing within olfactory bulb circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Betz, William J.

    Dendritic processing within olfactory bulb circuits Nathan E. Schoppa1 and Nathan N. Urban2 1 of the olfactory bulb. How- ever, the mechanisms by which this map is transformed into an odor code by the bulb circuitry remain unclear. Recent physiological studies in bulb slices have ident- ified several synaptic

  20. How to upgrade your incandescent light bulbs Many people are choosing replacements for their standard incandescent light bulbs to save money or energy, because they've heard of new LED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bystroff, Chris

    or building a new home, work wi efficient light fixture, · use occupancy or vacancy sensors, or · if you are renovating your home

  1. Stochastic modeling of hourly dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kline, D.E.; Woeste, F.E.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A stochastic model of hourly dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperatures was developed. The periodic variations over the course of a year were estimated by least-square approximation. A multisite Markov model was used to simulate the stochastic nature of the data. These two models were combined to simulate years of hourly dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperatures.

  2. Fooling Mother Nature: Forcing Flower Bulbs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Fooling Mother Nature: Forcing Flower Bulbs for Indoor Bloom by George Graine,Virginia Cooperative Bulbs for Indoor Bloom George Graine,Virginia Cooperative Extension Master Gardener, Fairfax County, VA Introduction Have you ever wondered if it is possible to enjoy the beauty of bulbs in the middle of winter

  3. (bulb) , (1) Gas(1) Gas(1) Gas(1) Gas----saturation methodsaturation methodsaturation methodsaturation method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Deog Ki

    (bulb) , . . , . . 1. . (1) Gas(1Static MethodStatic Method Isoteniscope bulb U-tube . bulb U-tube bulb . bulb . U bulb . manometer . . Isoteniscope Boling Point Method . #12;2. (1) Boiling

  4. Type of Space Bulb Type #/House Fixture Style Greenhouse #

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    Type of Space Bulb Type #/House Fixture Style Greenhouse # 1 Lu 430/Lu 400 24 White box style 2 Lu No bulbs 0 N/A Seed harvest room F32 T8/TL 841 90 bulbs VIGS Room F032 /741/ECO 60 bulbs Chamber Model Bulb

  5. Consumer Light Bulb Changes: Briefing and Resources for Media...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Consumer Light Bulb Changes: Briefing and Resources for Media and Retailers Consumer Light Bulb Changes: Briefing and Resources for Media and Retailers This presentation provides...

  6. The New York City Bulb Garden [Transforming the American Garden: 12 New Landscape Designs-Exhibitor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Martha

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    point of intersection. The bulbs selected for this schemefall and late fall. The bulbs have been selected for theiris designed for flexibility. Bulbs can be replaced and new

  7. 100 Prisoners and A light Bulb Yisong Song

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morrow, James A.

    100 Prisoners and A light Bulb Yisong Song 1. Introduction The article represent three different protocols for solving the "100 Prisoners and a Light Bulb" riddle, including the explicit computations only a light bulb with a toggle switch. The prisoner will be able to observe the current state

  8. The Somatotopic Organization of the Olfactory Bulb in Elasmobranchs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kajiura, Stephen

    The Somatotopic Organization of the Olfactory Bulb in Elasmobranchs Tricia L. Meredith,1, University of Colorado Denver, Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado 80045 ABSTRACT The olfactory bulbs-olfac- tory bulbs.'' Somatotopy could provide a preadaptation which facilitated the evolution of olfactory

  9. Cellular/Molecular Detecting Activity in Olfactory Bulb Glomeruli with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Newman, Eric A.

    Cellular/Molecular Detecting Activity in Olfactory Bulb Glomeruli with Astrocyte Recording Didier, Oregon 97239 In the olfactory bulb, axons of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) expressing the same to examine functional compartmentalization within and between olfactory bulb glomeruli. Key words: olfactory

  10. BULB: Onion-Based Measuring of OSS Communities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    BULB: Onion-Based Measuring of OSS Communities Terhi Kilamo1 , Timo Aaltonen1 , and Teemu J. Heinim based on scarce information. In this paper a measuring model for open source commu- nities, BULB, is introduced. BULB provides a way of collecting relevant information and relates it to the well-known onion

  11. Encoding Pheromonal Signals in the Accessory Olfactory Bulb of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fee, Michale S.

    Encoding Pheromonal Signals in the Accessory Olfactory Bulb of Behaving Mice Minmin Luo,1 * Michale single neurons in the accessory olfactory bulb, a nucleusthatprocessespheromonalsignals with sources of pheromones (4, 5). Olfactory receptor neurons project to the main olfactory bulb (MOB), whose

  12. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) - Sector

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    incandescent bulbs. High-performance incandescent, compact fluorescent, and light-emitting diode (LED) lamps continue to replace low-efficacy incandescent lamps. In 2035,...

  13. Chemical Dependencies of Learning in the Rabbit Olfactory Bulb: Acquisition of the Transient Spatial Pattern Chance Depends on Norepinephrine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gray, Charles M; Freeman, Walter J III; Skinner, James E

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of neurons in the olfactory bulb following prolonged odorforcbrain (3): Olfactory bulb. anterior olfactory nucleus.39;thc rat olfactory bulb (2): Fluorescnce histochemical.

  14. Jacob P. Brenner Design Specifications for Wet-Bulb Aspirator Apparatus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    Jacob P. Brenner Thesis: Design Specifications for Wet-Bulb Aspirator Apparatus Project Description the concentration of water vapor in the air is the wet-bulb temperature. The wet-bulb temperature along with the dry-bulb for the testing of HVAC&R equipment. The focus of this research is on the accurate measurement of the wet-bulb

  15. Consumer Light Bulb Changes: Briefing and Resources for Media...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    flux") - CFL: Compact Fluorescent Lamp: The curly fluorescent bulbs - LED: Light Emitting Diode: more recently emerging technology, also called "solid state lighting" as it is...

  16. SuperBulbs Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit with formSoutheastern ILSunseeker Energy Holding AG JumpSunways AGSuperBulbs Inc

  17. Physiological properties and factors affecting migration of neural precursor cells in the adult olfactory bulb

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Darcy, Daniel Paul

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    neurons in the olfactory bulb." J Neurosci 26(41): 10508-in the olfactory bulb." The Journal of comparative neurologycells to the olfactory bulb." J Neurosci 21(21): 8505-13.

  18. Modeling the wet bulb globe temperature using standard meteorological measurements.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liljegren, J. C.; Carhart, R. A.; Lawday, P.; Tschopp, S.; Sharp, R.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Army has a need for continuous, accurate estimates of the wet bulb globe temperature to protect soldiers and civilian workers from heat-related injuries, including those involved in the storage and destruction of aging chemical munitions at depots across the United States. At these depots, workers must don protective clothing that increases their risk of heat-related injury. Because of the difficulty in making continuous, accurate measurements of wet bulb globe temperature outdoors, the authors have developed a model of the wet bulb globe temperature that relies only on standard meteorological data available at each storage depot for input. The model is composed of separate submodels of the natural wet bulb and globe temperatures that are based on fundamental principles of heat and mass transfer, has no site-dependent parameters, and achieves an accuracy of better than 1 C based on comparisons with wet bulb globe temperature measurements at all depots.

  19. Potential Environmental Impacts from the Metals in Incandescent, Compact Fluorescent Lamp (CFL), and Light-Emitting Diode (LED)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Short, Daniel

    the lighting products are to be categorized as hazardous waste under existing U.S. federal and California state in lighting products without compromising their performance and useful lifespan. INTRODUCTION The U.S. Energy to increase energy efficiency for general lighting. Therefore, consumers are replacing incandescent light

  20. A new maintenance friendly concept for bulb type generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheidl, W.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bulb type generators in the rating range up to 15 MW are in a severe competition with geared up machines which operate at much higher speed and are therefore smaller and cheaper. Up to now the conventional bulb type generator in the standard design as it is used on several rivers in Austria and many other countries was not so economic in the lower rating range. A new and maintenance friendly concept for the bulb type generator design especially for these lower rating range ended in a more economic solution and is now able to compete with the geared up machines.

  1. Radiation Dose-Volume Effects and the Penile Bulb

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roach, Mack, E-mail: mroach@radonc.ucsf.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Nam, Jiho [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Gagliardi, Giovanna [Department of Medical Physics, Karolinska University Hospital and Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); El Naqa, Issam; Deasy, Joseph O. [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO (United States); Marks, Lawrence B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The dose, volume, and clinical outcome data for penile bulb are reviewed for patients treated with external-beam radiotherapy. Most, but not all, studies find an association between impotence and dosimetric parameters (e.g., threshold doses) and clinical factors (e.g., age, comorbid diseases). According to the data available, it is prudent to keep the mean dose to 95% of the penile bulb volume to <50 Gy. It may also be prudent to limit the D70 and D90 to 70 Gy and 50 Gy, respectively, but coverage of the planning target volume should not be compromised. It is acknowledged that the penile bulb may not be the critical component of the erectile apparatus, but it seems to be a surrogate for yet to be determined structure(s) critical for erectile function for at least some techniques.

  2. Text-Alternative Version: L Prize™: The Race for Super Efficient Light Bulbs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Below is the text-alternative version of the L Prize™: The Race for Super Efficient Light Bulbs webcast.

  3. Modlisation des rythmes rapides bta et gamma du bulbe olfactif Nicolas Fourcaud-Trocm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Modélisation des rythmes rapides bêta et gamma du bulbe olfactif Nicolas Fourcaud-Trocmé Université mammifères, la première zone corticale traitant l'information olfactive est le bulbe olfactif (BO). Le codage anesthésié. MOTS-CLES bulbe olfactif, oscillations, bêta, gamma, modèle 1. Introduction En neurosciences, les

  4. Onion ipmPIPE -Diagnostic Pocket Series Bulb Growth Stages of Onion (Allium cepa L.)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pappu, Hanu R.

    Onion ipmPIPE - Diagnostic Pocket Series Bulb Growth Stages of Onion (Allium cepa L.) Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 Fig 6 Fig 7 Fig 8 Allium Type: Fresh Market and Storage Onion Both pre- and post-bulb planting (seeds, transplants, sets). Pre-Bulb Growth Stages 1 ­ radical and flag leaf emergence (10-30 days

  5. Amlioration des plantes Production de bulbes in vitro et de novo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Amélioration des plantes Production de bulbes in vitro et de novo à partir de tissus de tiges à bulbes, 29260 Ploudaniel; 2 Université Blaise Pascal, laboratoire de physiologie et génétique décembre 1992) Résumé — L'obtention de novo de bulbes in vitro est possible chez la tulipe dans un

  6. Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Olfactory Bulb Gamma Oscillations Are Enhanced with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kopell, Nancy

    Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Olfactory Bulb Gamma Oscillations Are Enhanced with Task Demands.However,thereisstillnodirectevidencethatsuchoscillationsareintrinsicallyalteredinintactsystems to aid in stimulus disambiguation. Here we show that gamma oscillatory power in the rat olfactory bulb; sensory acuity; beta oscillations; olfactory bulb; piriform (pyriform) Introduction The chemotopic

  7. Dendrodendritic Inhibition in the Olfactory Bulb Is Driven by NMDA Receptors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Betz, William J.

    Dendrodendritic Inhibition in the Olfactory Bulb Is Driven by NMDA Receptors Nathan E. Schoppa,1 J synapses between mitral and granule cells in the rat olfactory bulb. In whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in bulb slices, stimulation of mitral cells elicited slowly decaying, GABAA receptor-mediated reciprocal

  8. THE LIGHT BULB PROBLEM 1 Ramamohan Paturi2 Sanguthevar Rajasekaran3 John Reif3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajasekaran, Sanguthevar

    THE LIGHT BULB PROBLEM 1 Ramamohan Paturi2 Sanguthevar Rajasekaran3 John Reif3 Univ. of California Title: The Light Bulb Problem Corresponding Author: Ramamohan Paturi Department of Computer Science Mail correlational learning problem due to L. G. Valiant, 1985 and 1988: We have a sequence of n random light bulbs

  9. ACTION DE L'ABLATION DES BULBES OLFACTIFS SUR LES MCANISMES DE LA REPRODUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACTION DE L'ABLATION DES BULBES OLFACTIFS SUR LES MÉCANISMES DE LA REPRODUCTION CHEZ LA TRUIE J. P Recheyches zoolechniques, Jouy-en-Josas (Seine et Oise). SOMMAIRE L'ablation chirurgicale des bulbes involution utérine. L'ablation totale des bulbes olfactifs semble donc perturber la décharge des hormones

  10. STABLE FREQUENCY RESPONSE TO VARYING STIMULUS INTENSITY IN A MODEL OF THE RAT OLFACTORY BULB

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    STABLE FREQUENCY RESPONSE TO VARYING STIMULUS INTENSITY IN A MODEL OF THE RAT OLFACTORY BULB Thomas Neurosciences et Systèmes sensoriels, CNRS UMR 5020, Lyon, France ABSTRACT In the rat olfactory bulb (OB), fast. Introduction The rat olfactory bulb (OB) is a rich and complex sensory processing system that shows stimulus

  11. THE LIGHT BULB PROBLEM 1 Ramamohan Paturi2 Sanguthevar Rajasekaran3 John Reif3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajasekaran, Sanguthevar

    THE LIGHT BULB PROBLEM 1 Ramamohan Paturi2 Sanguthevar Rajasekaran3 John Reif3 Univ. of California, San Diego Univ. of Pennsylvania Duke University 1 #12;Running Title: The Light Bulb Problem, 1985 and 1988: We have a sequence of n random light bulbs each of which is either on or off with equal

  12. Editorial Focus Fish Smell. Focus on "Odorant Specificity of Single Olfactory Bulb Neurons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephens, Jacqueline

    Editorial Focus Fish Smell. Focus on "Odorant Specificity of Single Olfactory Bulb Neurons to Amino bulb, or antennal lobe. The precise nature of these odor features is yet to be determined for the most of this type in the fish, precise subclasses of olfactory bulb neurons for coding biologically significant

  13. Dendrodendritic Inhibition and Simulated Odor Responses in a Detailed Olfactory Bulb Network Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Jianfeng

    Dendrodendritic Inhibition and Simulated Odor Responses in a Detailed Olfactory Bulb Network Model responses in a detailed olfac- tory bulb network model. J Neurophysiol 90: 1921­1935, 2003. First published May 7, 2003; 10.1152/jn.00623.2002. In the olfactory bulb, both the spatial distribution

  14. Neuronal representation of odourants in the olfactory bulb of Xenopus laevis tadpoles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neuronal representation of odourants in the olfactory bulb of Xenopus laevis tadpoles Dirk Czesnik representation, olfactory bulb Abstract When an odourant enters the nose, olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) convey information about it to the olfactory bulb (OB), where this information is processed and where

  15. Rhythm sequence through the olfactory bulb layers during the time window of a respiratory cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roux, Stephane

    Rhythm sequence through the olfactory bulb layers during the time window of a respiratory cycle 07, France Keywords: LFP, olfactory bulb, oscillations, rat, synchronization Abstract The mammalian olfactory bulb is characterized by prominent oscillatory activity of its local ®eld potentials. Breathing

  16. Structure of lateral inhibition in an olfactory bulb Andrew Davison, Jianfeng Feng, and David Brown

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Jianfeng

    Structure of lateral inhibition in an olfactory bulb model Andrew Davison, Jianfeng Feng, and David Abstract. It has been shown that mutual lateral inhibition of the projection neurones in the olfactory bulb, mediated by interneurones, serves to tune the representation of odours in the bulb and reduce the overlap

  17. How Many CASTLE Bulbs Would You Need To Match the Brightness of the Sun?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collar, Juan I.

    How Many CASTLE Bulbs Would You Need To Match the Brightness of the Sun? = × ? Please do all million miles), so if we were to try to build the Sun out of light bulbs, we'd need a bunch! But, how many objects: the Sun, and a CASTLE light bulb. What do we mean by "brightness?" The electromagnetic (EM

  18. Frequently Asked Questions Information on Compact Fluorescent Light Bulbs (CFLs) and Mercury

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jia, Songtao

    Frequently Asked Questions Information on Compact Fluorescent Light Bulbs (CFLs) and Mercury February 2008 Why should people use CFLs? Switching from traditional light bulbs to CFLs is an effective light bulbs, last up to 10 times longer, cost little up front, and provide a quick return on investment

  19. THE EFFECT OF SNOWPACK WARMING ON THE STRESS BULB BELOW A SKIER Thomas Exner *

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jamieson, Bruce

    THE EFFECT OF SNOWPACK WARMING ON THE STRESS BULB BELOW A SKIER Thomas Exner * Dept. of Geoscience exist to quantify or validate the temperature effect on the stress bulb below a skier. In this study we periods. Increasing temperatures of the near-surface layers altered the shape of the stress bulb, but so

  20. Linear programming applied to the ower sector: a Gladiolus bulb production case study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dragoti-Çela, Eranda

    Linear programming applied to the ¯ower sector: a Gladiolus bulb production case study Jose representative Brazilian bulb growing and trading company's decision making process, during the Gladiolus production planning activity. The pertinent LP model was focused on client's bulb requests to be attended

  1. THE LIGHT BULB PROBLEM 1 Ramamohan Paturi 2 Sanguthevar Rajasekaran 3 John Reif 3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reif, John H.

    THE LIGHT BULB PROBLEM 1 Ramamohan Paturi 2 Sanguthevar Rajasekaran 3 John Reif 3 Univ. of California, San Diego Univ. of Pennsylvania Duke University 1 #12; Running Title: The Light Bulb Problem, 1985 and 1988: We have a sequence of n random light bulbs each of which is either on or o# with equal

  2. Photoperiod Mediated Changes in Olfactory Bulb Neurogenesis and Olfactory Behavior in Male White-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nelson, Randy J.

    Photoperiod Mediated Changes in Olfactory Bulb Neurogenesis and Olfactory Behavior in Male White to long day lengths (LD) and short day lengths (SD) for 10 to 15 weeks and then examined olfactory bulb cell proliferation and survival using the thymidine analog BrdU, olfactory bulb granule cell morphology

  3. fMRI visualisation of transient activations in the rat olfactory bulb using short odour stimulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    fMRI visualisation of transient activations in the rat olfactory bulb using short odour in the olfactory bulb OB displays both spatial and temporal organization. The difficulty when assessing spatio of the olfactory bulb (OB). Hence, in this structure, the identity of odorants is associated with a unique spatial

  4. Calcium Influx through NMDA Receptors Directly Evokes GABA Release in Olfactory Bulb Granule Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strowbridge, Ben

    Calcium Influx through NMDA Receptors Directly Evokes GABA Release in Olfactory Bulb Granule Cells, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106-4975 Recurrent inhibition in olfactory bulb on the activation of NMDA receptors. Using whole-cell recordings from rat olfactory bulb slices, we now show

  5. Free Energy Efficiency Kit includes CFL light bulbs,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rose, Annkatrin

    Free Energy Efficiency Kit Kit includes CFL light bulbs, spray foam, low-flow shower head, and more for discounted energy assessments. FREE HOME ENERGY EFFICIENCY SEMINAR N e w R i ver L i g ht & Pow e r a n d W! Building Science 101 Presentation BPI Certified Building Professionals will present home energy efficiency

  6. Student Directions Student Directions: Using your homework from "Building a Fancy Spectrograph" fill in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    Incandescent Bulb Incandescent Bulb Florescent Bulb #12;_________________________________________________________________________________ 7. How does the spectrum from the frosted bulb compare to that of the unfrosted bulb? 8. From number 7, what can you conclude about the material that makes the bulb "frosted?" 9. How is the florescent

  7. Influence du poids et de la densit de plantation des bulbes d'chalote sur les caractristiques de

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Influence du poids et de la densité de plantation des bulbes d'échalote sur les caractéristiques de la récolte et la prolificité des bulbes-fils Joseph COHAT Corentin TROMEUR LN.R.A., Station damélioration de la Pomme de terre et des Plantes à bulbes, F 29207 Landerneau RÉSUMÉ Des bulbes d'échalote de

  8. Influence d'un trempage des bulbes dans une solution d'acide 2-chloro thylphosphonique (thphon) sur la

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Influence d'un trempage des bulbes dans une solution d'acide 2-chloro éthylphosphonique (éthéphon la Pomme de terre et des Plantes à bulbes, F 29207 Landerneau RÉSUMÉ Le trempage des bulbes d augmentation du pourcentage de floraison. Ceci résulte d'une diminution du nombre de bulbes qui Ethéphon

  9. 2014-04-11 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standards for General Service Fluorescent Lamps and Incandescent Reflector Lamps; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register notice of proposed rulemaking regarding energy conservation standards for general service fluorescent lamps and incandescent reflectors lamps, as issued by the Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy on April 11, 2014.

  10. Estimating Wet Bulb Globe Temperature Using Standard Meteorological Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunter, C.H.

    1999-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The heat stress management program at the Department of Energy''s Savannah River Site (SRS) requires implementation of protective controls on outdoor work based on observed values of wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT). To ensure continued compliance with heat stress program requirements, a computer algorithm was developed which calculates an estimate of WBGT using standard meteorological measurements. In addition, scripts were developed to generate a calculation every 15 minutes and post the results to an Intranet web site.

  11. Development of Diagnostic Rules for a Dry Bulb Economizer Mixed Air Loop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Underwood, D.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    knowledge base for a two fan variable air volume (VAV) air handling unit. Rules for the mixed air loop with a dry bulb economizer are presented....

  12. DOE Requires Westinghouse to Cease Sales of Two Light Bulb Models...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    against Westinghouse Lighting Corporation, the company must cease sales of two light bulb models - medium based CFL basic model 15GLOBE652 (Westinghouse product code 3800400)...

  13. Full Spectrum Light Therapy Full spectrum light bulbs are said to not only improve mood, but also

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bates, Rebecca A.

    Full Spectrum Light Therapy Full spectrum light bulbs are said to not only improve mood, but also spectrum light bulbs produce light that is seen by the human eye in a bluish-white tint. Where is full

  14. Chapter 30: Quantum Physics 9. The tungsten filament in a standard light bulb can be considered a blackbody radiator.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kioussis, Nicholas

    . 1 Chapter 30: Quantum Physics 9. The tungsten filament in a standard light bulb can be considered frequency is that of infrared electromagnetic radiation, the light bulb radiates more energy in the infrared

  15. Olfactory deprivation increases dopamine D2 receptor density in the rat olfactory bulb

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guthrie, K.M.; Pullara, J.M.; Marshall, J.F.; Leon, M. (University of California, Irvine (USA))

    1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Unilateral olfactory deprivation during postnatal development results in significant anatomical and neurochemical changes in the deprived olfactory bulb. Perhaps the most dramatic neurochemical change is the loss of dopaminergic expression by neurons of the glomerular region. The authors describe here the effects of early olfactory deprivation on other elements of the bulb dopaminergic system, namely the dopamine receptors of the olfactory bulb. Rat pups had a single naris occluded on postnatal day 2 (PN2). On PN20 or PN60, animals were sacrificed and the bulbs were examined for catecholamine levels or D2 and D1 dopamine receptor binding. Receptor densities were quantified by in vitro autoradiography using the tritiated antagonists spiperone (D2) and SCH23390 (D1). Dopamine uptake sites were similarly examined using tritiated mazindol. No significant specific labeling of D1 or mazindol sites was observed in the olfactory bulbs of control or experimental animals at either age. Normal animals displayed prominent labeling of D2 sites in the glomerular and nerve layers. After 60 days of deprivation, deprived bulbs exhibited an average increase in D2 receptor density of 32%. As determined by Scatchard analysis, the mean values for Kd and Bmax were 0.134 nM and 293 fmol/mg protein in normal bulbs, and 0.136 nM and 403 fmol/mg protein in deprived bulbs. The results suggest that, as in the neostriatum, dopamine depletion in the olfactory bulb leads to an upregulation of D2 receptor sites. This change may represent an attempt by the system to adapt neurochemically to reduced dopaminergic activity and thereby maintain bulb function.

  16. Influence des conditions de conservation des bulbes d'chalote (Allium cepa L. var. aggregatum) sur leur

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Influence des conditions de conservation des bulbes d'échalote (Allium cepa L. var. aggregatum) sur leur levée Joseph COHAT LN.R.A., Station d'Amélioration de la Pomme de terre & des Plantes à bulbes, F 29207 Landerneau RÉSUMÉ Les bulbes d'échalote de Jersey (type demi-longue) sont dormants au moment de la

  17. A Bit About Bulbs Night temperatures are cool, the air is almost crisp. The vegetable harvest is tapering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Hampshire, University of

    A Bit About Bulbs Night temperatures are cool, the air is almost crisp. The vegetable harvest! There is always something to do, and right now is the time to plant spring-flowering bulbs. Whether your preference is for naturalized or formal bulb plantings, on a small or large scale, keep kinds and colors

  18. Impairment of Neurogensis in the Olfactory Bulb of Transgenic Mice Overexpressing Human Wildtype Alpha Synuclein Under the Thy-1 Promoter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allman, John M.

    Impairment of Neurogensis in the Olfactory Bulb of Transgenic Mice Overexpressing Human Wildtype, cortex and olfactory bulb (Rockenstein et al., 2002). These mice demonstrate early and progressive motor by olfactory ensheathing glia, and eventually reach the olfactory bulb (Gritti et al., 2002). Recent studies

  19. Dynamical Mechanisms of Odor Processing in Olfactory Bulb Mitral Cells Daniel B. Rubin and Thomas A. Cleland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cleland, Thomas A.

    Dynamical Mechanisms of Odor Processing in Olfactory Bulb Mitral Cells Daniel B. Rubin and Thomas A- nisms of odor processing in olfactory bulb mitral cells. J Neuro- physiol 96: 555­568, 2006. First, conductance-based compartmental model of olfactory bulb mitral cells that exhibits the complex dynamical

  20. Ordered progression of nematogenesis from stem cells through differentiation stages in the tentacle bulb of Clytia hemisphaerica (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gibson, Matt

    bulb of Clytia hemisphaerica (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria) Elsa Denker, Michaël Manuel, Lucas Leclère, Hervé Le of the tentacle bulb, a specialized swelling at the tentacle base. Analysis by a variety of light and electron-temporal characteristics are markedly more ordered. The tentacle bulb nematogenic ectoderm (TBE) was found to be polarized

  1. Stability of fast oscillations in mammalian olfactory bulb: experiment and modeling Nicolas Fourcaud-Trocmea,b,c,d,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Voegtlin, Thomas

    Stability of fast oscillations in mammalian olfactory bulb: experiment and modeling Nicolas Cortex, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy, F-54506, France Abstract In the rat olfactory bulb (OB), fast oscillations observed stability of the oscillatory regimes. Keywords: olfactory bulb, beta oscillations, gamma

  2. Odor vapor pressure and quality modulate local field potential oscillatory patterns in the olfactory bulb of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roux, Stephane

    in the olfactory bulb of the anesthetized rat Tristan Cenier,1 Corine Amat,1 Philippe Litaudon,1 Samuel Garcia,1 potentials, molecular features, olfactory bulb, oscillations, respiratory cycle Abstract A central question-temporal pattern of activation in the olfactory bulb (OB), in both glomerular and mitral cell layers. Mitral

  3. Design and Predictive Control of a Net Zero Energy Home

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morelli, F.; Abbarno, N.; Boese, E.; Bullock, J.; Carter, B.; Edwards, R.; Lapite, O.; Mann, D.; Mulvihill, C.; Purcell, E.; Stein, M. IV; Rasmussen, B. P.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the same amount of light as traditional incandescent bulbs with less energy. Incandescent bulbs are inherently inefficient as most of the energy they consume goes towards heat generation. Compact fluorescent (CFL) and light emitting diode (LED) bulbs... as heat [1]. Compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) and Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) were analyzed in comparison with incandescent lamps. To determine the most energy efficient bulb, energy consumption for each type of bulb is needed. To do this, the amount...

  4. Odor recognition and segmentation by coupled olfactory bulb and cortical networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Z; Li, Zhaoping; Hertz, John

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a model of a coupled system of the olfactory bulb and cortex. Odor inputs to the epithelium are transformed to oscillatory bulbar activities. The cortex recognizes the odor by resonating to the bulbar oscillating pattern when the amplitude and phase patterns from the bulb match an odor memory stored in the intracortical synapses. We assume a cortical structure which transforms the odor information in the oscillatory pattern to a slow DC feedback signal to the bulb. This feedback suppresses the bulbar response to the pre-existing odor, allowing subsequent odor objects to be segmented out for recognition.

  5. LACKEY, PAUL E. An Investigation of Bridge Deck Overhang Falsework Systems Installed onto Bulb Tee Girders. (Under the direction of Dr. Emmett Sumner.)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bulb Tee Girders. (Under the direction of Dr. Emmett Sumner.) Bulb Tee girders provide a practical moments of inertia to withstand the massive moments created in the spans. A bulb tee girder possesses the thin top flange of an exterior bulb tee girder in the bridge deck overhang falsework system to fail

  6. Exam Stochastic Processes 2WB08 January 29, 2007 A light bulb burns for an amount of time having distribution F(), with Laplace trans-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giardinà, Cristian

    Exam Stochastic Processes 2WB08 ­ January 29, 2007 Problem 1: A light bulb burns for an amount moment µ2. When the light bulb burns out, it is immediately replaced by another light bulb which has the same life time distribution F(·), etc. Let m(t) be the mean number of replacements of light bulbs upto

  7. Soot particle sizing during high-pressure Diesel spray combustion via time-resolved laser-induced incandescence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryser, R.; Gerber, T.; Dreier, T. [Reaction Analysis Group, Department of General Energy, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Single-pulse time-resolved laser-induced incandescence (TiRe-LII) signal transients from soot particulates were acquired during unsteady high pressure Diesel combustion in a constant volume cell for typical top dead center conditions during a Diesel engine cycle. Measurements were performed for initial gas pressures between 1 and 3 MPa, injection pressures between 50 and 130 MPa and laser probe timings between 5 and 16 ms after start of fuel injection. In separate experiments and for the same cell operating conditions gas temperatures were deduced from spectrally resolved soot pyrometry measurements. Implementing the LII model of Kock et al. [Combust. Flame 147 (2006) 79-92] ensemble mean soot particle diameters were evaluated from least-squares fitting of theoretical cooling curves to experimental TiRe-LII signal transients. Since in the experiments the environmental gas temperature and the width of an assumed particle size distribution were not known, the effects of the initial choice of these parameters on retrieved particle diameters were investigated. It is shown that evaluated mean particle diameters are only slightly biased by the choice of typical size distribution widths and gas temperatures. For a fixed combustion phase mean particle diameters are not much affected by gas pressure, however they become smaller at high fuel injection pressure. At a mean chamber pressure of 1.39 MPa evaluated mean particle diameters increased by a factor of two for probe delays between 5 and 16 ms after start of injection irrespective of the choices of first-guess fitting variables, indicating a certain robustness of data analysis procedure. (author)

  8. Soot particle sizing during high-pressure Diesel spray combustion via time-resolved laser-induced incandescence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryser, R.; Gerber, T.; Dreier, T. [Reaction Analysis Group, Department of General Energy, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland)

    2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Single-pulse time-resolved laser-induced incandescence (TiRe-LII) signal transients from soot particulates were acquired during unsteady high pressure Diesel combustion in a constant volume cell for typical top dead center conditions during a Diesel engine cycle. Measurements were performed for initial gas pressures between 1 and 3 MPa, injection pressures between 50 and 130 MPa and laser probe timings between 5 and 16 ms after start of fuel injection. In separate experiments and for the same cell operating conditions gas temperatures were deduced from spectrally resolved soot pyrometry measurements. Implementing the LII model of Kock et al. [Combust. Flame 147 (20006) 79-92] ensemble mean soot particle diameters were evaluated from least-squares fitting of theoretical cooling curves to experimental TiRe-LII signal transients. Since in the experiments the environmental gas temperature and the width of an assumed particle size distribution were not known, the effects of the initial choice of these parameters on retrieved particle diameters were investigated. It is shown that evaluated mean particle diameters are only slightly biased by the choice of typical size distribution widths and gas temperatures. For a fixed combustion phase mean particle diameters are not much affected by gas pressure, however they become smaller at high fuel injection pressure. At a mean chamber pressure of 1.39 MPa evaluated mean particle diameters increased by a factor of two for probe delays between 5 and 16 ms after start of injection irrespective of the choices of first-guess fitting variables, indicating a certain robustness of data analysis procedure. (author)

  9. 600 New Lights Bulbs to Improve Energy Efficiency at DOE | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    our Washington, D.C., Forrestal North Building canopy with state of the art Light Emitting Diode (LED) fixtures. Every new bulb now uses just 23 watts instead of 205 watts....

  10. A critical period for activity-dependent synaptic development during olfactory bulb adult neurogenesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelsch, Wolfgang

    New neurons integrate in large numbers into the mature olfactory bulb circuit throughout life. The factors controlling the synaptic development of adult-born neurons and their connectivity remain essentially unknown. We ...

  11. Westinghouse Pays $50,000 Civil Penalty to Resolve Light Bulb...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    here. Addthis Related Articles DOE Requires Westinghouse to Cease Sales of Two Light Bulb Models and Allows Sale of Another Air-Con Agrees to Pay Civil Penalty to Resolve...

  12. 2.44a0005 Physiology of the Main Olfactory Bulb Matthew Ennis1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayar, Abdallah

    -inhibition 27 2.44.6.4.2 Lateral inhibition 27 2.44.6.4.3 Role of Ca2þ influx through NMDA receptors and voltage.44.8 Neurophysiology of Primary Olfactory Cortical Inputs to Main Olfactory Bulb 29 2.44.9 Oscillations and Synchrony in Main Olfactory Bulb 29 2.44.9.1 Oscillations 29 2.44.9.1.1 Theta rhythm 30 2.44.9.1.2 Gamma rhythm 30 2

  13. Interrelationships between air velocity and natural wet-bulb thermometer response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Nathan Glenn

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    INTERRELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN AIR VFLOCITY ANO NATURAL WET-BULB THERMOMETER RESPONSE A Thesis by NATHAN GLENN JONES Submitted to the Graduate Colleqe of Texas ASM University i n partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE AUGUST 1983 Major Subject: Industrial Hygiene INTERRELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN AIR VELOCITY AND NATURAL WET-BULB THERMOMETER RESPONSE A Thesis by NATHAN GLENN JONES Approved as to style an content by: airman o ommittee er Member ~~' A~ Member...

  14. Estimate of federal relighting potential and demand for efficient lighting products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shankle, S.A.; Dirks, J.A.; Elliott, D.B.; Richman, E.E.; Grover, S.E.

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The increasing level of electric utility rebates for energy-efficient lighting retrofits has recently prompted concern over the adequacy of the market supply of energy-efficient lighting products (Energy User News 1991). In support of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Federal Energy Management Program, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has developed an estimate of the total potential for energy-efficient lighting retrofits in federally owned buildings. This estimate can be used to address the issue of the impact of federal relighting projects on the supply of energy-efficient lighting products. The estimate was developed in 1992, using 1991 data. Any investments in energy-efficient lighting products that occurred in 1992 will reduce the potential estimated here. This analysis proceeds by estimating the existing stock of lighting fixtures in federally owned buildings. The lighting technology screening matrix is then used to determine the minimum life-cycle cost retrofit for each type of existing lighting fixture. Estimates of the existing stock are developed for (1) four types of fluorescent lighting fixtures (2-, 3-, and 4-lamp, F40 4-foot fixtures, and 2-lamp, F96 8-foot fixtures, all with standard magnetic ballasts); (2) one type of incandescent fixture (a 75-watt single bulb fixture); and (3) one type of exit sign (containing two 20-watt incandescent bulbs). Estimates of the existing stock of lighting fixtures in federally owned buildings, estimates of the total potential demand for energy-efficient lighting products if all cost-effective retrofits were undertaken immediately, and total potential annual energy savings (in MWh and dollars), the total investment required to obtain the energy savings and the present value of the efficiency investment, are presented.

  15. System and method for monitoring wet bulb temperature in a flue gas stream

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glover, R.L.; Bland, V.V.

    1990-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes in a system for monitoring wet bulb temperature in a flue gas stream means for extracting a sample of the gas from the flue, means for heating the sample to maintain the sample at substantially the same temperature as the gas in the flue, a sensor for measuring the wet bulb temperature of the sample, a reservoir of liquid, a liquid absorbent wick surrounding the sensor and extending into the liquid in the reservoir, and means for maintaining the liquid in the reservoir at a substantially constant level.

  16. Tired of changing light bulbs AND want to save money? Still using 100 year-old technology?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glashausser, Charles

    ?) ·Fine print: You will also reduce Global Warming pollution. Over its lifetime, a "100W" Compact will prevent global warming pollution equal to 100 to 150 gallons of gasoline AND reduce poisons like mercury bulb but lasts THIRTEEN times longer! The Compact bulb will save you $90 just in electricity cost over

  17. Bulbs for Winter Bloom The trees have all dropped their leaves and our gardens are covered by a blanket of snow. It is too

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Hampshire, University of

    Bulbs for Winter Bloom The trees have all dropped their leaves and our gardens are covered into an inside garden. Paperwhite Narcissus and Amaryllis bulbs both produce beautiful flowers. They are easy bulbs to grow inside a house. Paperwhites come in two colors, white and yellow. They are extremely easy

  18. Instructions for Corning Model 220 pH Meter The electrode tip is a fragile glass bulb. Be careful or you will break it with a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cross, George

    Instructions for Corning Model 220 pH Meter The electrode tip is a fragile glass bulb. Be careful a polymer body electrode can create sufficient internal pressure to "explode" the glass bulb. When of cotton in the plastic electrode cover sleeve, add pH 7 buffer, and insert the electrode bulb

  19. UNH Cooperative Extension Info Line Question of the Week Q. What should I do with the Amaryllis bulb I just received?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Hampshire, University of

    bulb I just received? A. Few flowers give greater satisfaction than the spectacular amaryllis. Amaryllis are available from September to March as dormant bulbs ready for planting. They can be purchased as bulbs or as pre packaged units complete with pots and potting medium. Shortly after planting one or two

  20. Plant Disease Note 2004 | Iris Yellow Spot Virus in Onion Bulb and Seed Crops in Washington Overview Current Issue Past Issues Search PD Search APS Journals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pappu, Hanu R.

    Plant Disease Note 2004 | Iris Yellow Spot Virus in Onion Bulb and Seed Crops in Washington Yellow Spot Virus in Onion Bulb and Seed Crops in Washington. L. J. du Toit, Washington State University of the NP gene. In August 2003, symptoms of IYSV infection were observed in two onion bulb crops, each

  1. The Hazards of Use and Disposal of Compact Fluorescent Bulbs Compact fluorescent lights (aka. CFLs) work by exciting a phosphorous coating within the tube to emit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maroncelli, Mark

    The Hazards of Use and Disposal of Compact Fluorescent Bulbs Compact fluorescent lights (aka. CFLs the bulb to be an efficient light source. By comparison, older home thermometers contain 500 milligrams decade. HOW SHOULD I DISPOSE OF CFL'S? The presence of mercury requires that all CFL bulbs are properly

  2. Volunteer Potato Density Influences Critical Time of Weed Removal in Bulb Onion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sims, Gerald K.

    Volunteer Potato Density Influences Critical Time of Weed Removal in Bulb Onion Martin M. Williams II, Corey V. Ransom, and W. Mack Thompson* Volunteer potato is highly competitive with onion and few control tactics are effective for removing this weed from an onion crop. Both volunteer potato density

  3. Some cultural practices affecting bulb rot, plant and floral development, and seed yield of the White Grano onion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Enzie, Joseph Vincent

    1955-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    L IBRARY A&IW COLLEGE OF TEXAS SOME CULTURAL PRACTICES AFFECTING BULB ROT, PLANT AND FLORAL DEVELOPMENT, AND SEED YIELD OF THE WHITE GRANO ONION A Dissertation By JOSEPH V. ENZIE Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural... and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY May 1955 Major Subject: Horticulture SOME CULTURAL PRACTICES AFFECTING BULB ROT, PLANT AND FLORAL DEVELOPMENT, AND SEED YIELD OF THE WHITE GRANO...

  4. --No Title--

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    18 months at current operating cycles. Incandescent bulbs can be replaced with Light Emitting Diode lamps that use approximately 10 watts of electricity, have a five year...

  5. CX-000135: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    involve changing the Tribe's street lights from incandescent bulbs to LED (light-emitting diode) lighting fixtures. DOCUMENT(S) AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD CX-000135.pdf More...

  6. CX-006328: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    conditioning upgrades, building envelope upgrades, and technology upgrades; 3) light emitting diode traffic signal conversion to replace incandescent bulbs to light-emitting...

  7. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) - Sector

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    of incandescent bulbs with more efficient compact fluorescent lighting and light-emitting diode (LED) lamps. Among electric end-use services in the residential sector,...

  8. CX-004962: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    halide light fixtures in the City Hall and Community Center parking lots with light-emitting diode (LED) light fixtures; and 3) replace incandescent light bulbs on traffic...

  9. CX-003657: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    light bulb retrofits, and 5) incandescent traffic signal replacement with light-emitting diode technology. DOCUMENT(S) AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD CX-003657.pdf More Documents &...

  10. STATEMENT OF CONSIDERATIONS REQUEST BY OSRAM SYLVANIA FOR AN...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    similar to a frosted incandescent bulb. Use of the ceramic enables the size of the remote phosphor to be minimized while maintaining a sufficient thermal path for...

  11. ONION (Allium cepa, 47 cultivars) B.K. Schroeder, Washington State University (WSU), Pullman, Enterobacter bulb decay; Enterobacter cloacae WA 99164; T.D. Waters, WSU Franklin Co. Extension, Pasco WA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schroeder, Brenda K.

    , Enterobacter bulb decay; Enterobacter cloacae WA 99164; T.D. Waters, WSU Franklin Co. Extension, Pasco WA 99301 in storage in Washington State, 2008-2009. An onion bulb storage trial was completed to survey 47 storage to Enterobacter cloacae, causal agent of Enterobacter bulb decay. Seeds of each cultivar were planted near Pasco

  12. ONION (Allium cepa, 55 cultivars) B.K. Schroeder, Washington State University (WSU), Pullman, Enterobacter bulb decay; Enterobacter cloacae WA 99164; T. Waters, WSU Franklin Co. Extension, Pasco WA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schroeder, Brenda K.

    , Enterobacter bulb decay; Enterobacter cloacae WA 99164; T. Waters, WSU Franklin Co. Extension, Pasco WA 99301 for resistance to Enterobacter cloacae in storage, 2007-2008. An onion bulb storage trial was completed to survey for resistance to Enterobacter cloacae, causal agent of Enterobacter bulb decay. Seeds of each cultivar were

  13. Incandescent Lighting | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently20,000 RussianBy: Thomas P.Department ofMaking | Department ofGive Drivers

  14. Mercury Lamps Recycling Fluorescent light-tubes, compact fluorescent bulbs, mercury and sodium vapor lamps, ultraviolet and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, Chris I.

    Mercury Lamps Recycling Fluorescent light-tubes, compact fluorescent bulbs, mercury and sodium labeled for shipment to a recycling plant for mercury, glass and aluminum recovery. The beneficial re can be recycled infinitely without losing its purity or strength. While the primary end product

  15. Changes in neurotransmitter levels and proinflammatory cytokine mRNA expressions in the mice olfactory bulb following nanoparticle exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tin-Tin-Win-Shwe [National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan)], E-mail: tin.tin.win.shwe@nies.go.jp; Mitsushima, Dai [Department of Physiology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-9 Fukuura, Kanazawaku, Yokohama 236-0004 (Japan); Yamamoto, Shoji; Fukushima, Atsushi [National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Funabashi, Toshiya [Department of Physiology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-9 Fukuura, Kanazawaku, Yokohama 236-0004 (Japan); Kobayashi, Takahiro; Fujimaki, Hidekazu [National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan)

    2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently, there have been increasing reports that nano-sized component of particulate matter can reach the brain and may be associated with neurodegenerative diseases. Previously, our laboratory has studied the effect of intranasal instillation of nano-sized carbon black (CB) (14 nm and 95 nm) on brain cytokine and chemokine mRNA expressions and found that 14-nm CB increased IL-1{beta}, TNF-{alpha}, CCL2 and CCL3 mRNA expressions in the olfactory bulb, not in the hippocampus of mice. To investigate the effect of a single administration of nanoparticles on neurotransmitters and proinflammatory cytokines in a mouse olfactory bulb, we performed in vivo microdialysis and real-time PCR methods. Ten-week-old male BALB/c mice were implanted with guide cannula in the right olfactory bulb and, 1 week later, were instilled vehicle or CB (14 nm, 250 {mu}g) intranasally. Six hours after the nanoparticle instillation, the mice were intraperitoneally injected with normal saline or 50 {mu}g of bacteria cell wall component lipoteichoic acid (LTA), which may potentiate CB-induced neurologic effect. Extracellular glutamate and glycine levels were significantly increased in the olfactory bulb of CB-instilled mice when compared with vehicle-instilled control mice. Moreover, we found that LTA further increased glutamate and glycine levels. However, no alteration of taurine and GABA levels was observed in the olfactory bulb of the same mice. We also detected immunological changes in the olfactory bulb 11 h after vehicle or CB instillation and found that IL-1{beta} mRNA expression was significantly increased in CB- and LTA-treated mice when compared with control group. However, TNF-{alpha} mRNA expression was increased significantly in CB- and saline-treated mice when compared with control group. These findings suggest that nanoparticle CB may modulate the extracellular amino acid neurotransmitter levels and proinflammatory cytokine IL-1 {beta} mRNA expressions synergistically with LTA in the mice olfactory bulb.

  16. LED lamp or bulb with remote phosphor and diffuser configuration with enhanced scattering properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tong, Tao; Le Toquin, Ronan; Keller, Bernd; Tarsa, Eric; Youmans, Mark; Lowes, Theodore; Medendorp, Jr., Nicholas W; Van De Ven, Antony; Negley, Gerald

    2014-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    An LED lamp or bulb is disclosed that comprises a light source, a heat sink structure and an optical cavity. The optical cavity comprises a phosphor carrier having a conversions material and arranged over an opening to the cavity. The phosphor carrier comprises a thermally conductive transparent material and is thermally coupled to the heat sink structure. An LED based light source is mounted in the optical cavity remote to the phosphor carrier with light from the light source passing through the phosphor carrier. A diffuser dome is included that is mounted over the optical cavity, with light from the optical cavity passing through the diffuser dome. The properties of the diffuser, such as geometry, scattering properties of the scattering layer, surface roughness or smoothness, and spatial distribution of the scattering layer properties may be used to control various lamp properties such as color uniformity and light intensity distribution as a function of viewing angle.

  17. Visualization of nitric oxide production in the mouse main olfactory bulb by a cell-trappable copper(II) fluorescent probe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McQuade, Lindsey E.

    We report the visualization of NO production using fluorescence in tissue slices of the mouse main olfactory bulb. This discovery was possible through the use of a novel, cell-trappable probe for intracellular nitric oxide ...

  18. Ecological and molecular investigation of wheat bulb fly (Delia coarctata, Fallén, Diptera: Anthomyiidae) for the advancement of population monitoring and control methodologies 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, Craig David

    2012-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Wheat bulb fly (WBF) (Delia coarctata, Fallén, Diptera: Anthomyiidae) is a pest of commercial importance in cereal crops. Control is dependent on organophosphates some of which are restricted in the UK, while current ...

  19. Quasars Are Not Light-Bulbs: Testing Models of Quasar Lifetimes with the Observed Eddington Ratio Distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hopkins, Philip F

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We use the observed distribution of Eddington ratios as a function of supermassive black hole (BH) mass to constrain models of AGN lifetimes and lightcurves. Given the observed AGN luminosity function, a model for AGN lifetimes (time above a given luminosity) translates directly to a predicted Eddington ratio distribution. Models for self-regulated BH growth, in which feedback produces a 'blowout' decay phase after some peak luminosity (shutting down accretion) make specific predictions for the lifetimes distinct from those expected if AGN are simply gas starved (without feedback) and very different from simple phenomenological 'light bulb' models. Present observations of the Eddington ratio distribution, spanning 5 decades in Eddington ratio, 3 in BH mass, and redshifts z=0-1, agree with the predictions of self-regulated models, and rule out 'light-bulb', pure exponential, and gas starvation models at high significance. We compare the Eddington ratio distributions at fixed BH mass and fixed luminosity (both ...

  20. Predictive factors for erectile dysfunction in men with prostate cancer after brachytherapy: Is dose to the penile bulb important?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Macdonald, A. Graham [Department of Radiation Oncology, Vancouver Cancer Centre, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada)]. E-mail: gmacdonald@easynet.co.uk; Keyes, Mira [Department of Radiation Oncology, Vancouver Cancer Centre, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Kruk, Alexandra [Department of Radiation Therapy, Vancouver Cancer Centre, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Duncan, Graeme [Department of Radiation Oncology, Vancouver Cancer Centre, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Moravan, Veronika [Population and Preventive Oncology, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Morris, W. James [Department of Radiation Oncology, Vancouver Cancer Centre, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To determine predictive factors for postimplant erectile dysfunction (ED) in a cohort of patients, according to prospectively collected data; specifically, to assess the impact of penile bulb volume and D50 and D95 (dose covering 50% and 95% of the penile bulb volume, respectively) on ED. Methods and Materials: Three hundred forty-two patients were identified who were potent before implant and who had at least 2 years' follow-up. Patient, tumor, treatment, and dosimetric data were collected on all patients. Postimplant ED was defined according to both physician-documented and patient-documented outcome data. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to create multivariable models of predictors for ED at 1, 2, and 3 years after implant. Results: Physician-documented rates of ED were 57%, 48%, and 38% at 1, 2, and 3 years after implant, respectively. Patient-documented rates of ED were 70% and 66% at 1 and 2 years, respectively. Multivariable analyses revealed age and degree of preimplant erectile function to be consistently significant predictors of ED. Use of hormones was significant at the 1-year physician-documented ED endpoint but not thereafter, in keeping with the time course of testosterone recovery. Penile bulb volume, D50, and D95 were not found to be predictive for ED at any time point, in contrast to previous studies. In addition, planning ultrasound target volume, number of needles, and institutional case sequence number were significant predictors of ED at various time points, consistent with a traumatic etiology of ED. Conclusions: We found no evidence to support penile bulb dosimetry as an independent predictive factor for ED after implant, using physician-documented or patient-documented outcomes.

  1. Contouring Variability of the Penile Bulb on CT Images: Quantitative Assessment Using a Generalized Concordance Index

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carillo, Viviana [Department of Medical Physics, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano (Italy)] [Department of Medical Physics, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano (Italy); Cozzarini, Cesare [Department of Radiotherapy, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano (Italy)] [Department of Radiotherapy, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano (Italy); Perna, Lucia; Calandra, Mauro [Department of Medical Physics, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano (Italy)] [Department of Medical Physics, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano (Italy); Gianolini, Stefano [Medical Software Solutions GmbH, Hagendorn (Switzerland)] [Medical Software Solutions GmbH, Hagendorn (Switzerland); Rancati, Tiziana [Prostate Cancer Program, IRCCS National Institute of Cancer, Milano (Italy)] [Prostate Cancer Program, IRCCS National Institute of Cancer, Milano (Italy); Spinelli, Antonello Enrico [Department of Medical Physics, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano (Italy)] [Department of Medical Physics, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano (Italy); Vavassori, Vittorio [Department of Radiotherapy, Cliniche Gavazzeni Humanitas, Bergamo (Italy)] [Department of Radiotherapy, Cliniche Gavazzeni Humanitas, Bergamo (Italy); Villa, Sergio [Department of Radiotherapy 1, IRCCS National Institute of Cancer, Milano (Italy)] [Department of Radiotherapy 1, IRCCS National Institute of Cancer, Milano (Italy); Valdagni, Riccardo [Prostate Cancer Program, IRCCS National Institute of Cancer, Milano (Italy) [Prostate Cancer Program, IRCCS National Institute of Cancer, Milano (Italy); Department of Radiotherapy 1, IRCCS National Institute of Cancer, Milano (Italy); Fiorino, Claudio, E-mail: fiorino.claudio@hsr.it [Department of Medical Physics, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano (Italy)] [Department of Medical Physics, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano (Italy)

    2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Within a multicenter study (DUE-01) focused on the search of predictors of erectile dysfunction and urinary toxicity after radiotherapy for prostate cancer, a dummy run exercise on penile bulb (PB) contouring on computed tomography (CT) images was carried out. The aim of this study was to quantitatively assess interobserver contouring variability by the application of the generalized DICE index. Methods and Materials: Fifteen physicians from different Institutes drew the PB on CT images of 10 patients. The spread of DICE values was used to objectively select those observers who significantly disagreed with the others. The analyses were performed with a dedicated module in the VODCA software package. Results: DICE values were found to significantly change among observers and patients. The mean DICE value was 0.67, ranging between 0.43 and 0.80. The statistics of DICE coefficients identified 4 of 15 observers who systematically showed a value below the average (p value range, 0.013 - 0.059): Mean DICE values were 0.62 for the 4 'bad' observers compared to 0.69 of the 11 'good' observers. For all bad observers, the main cause of the disagreement was identified. Average DICE values were significantly worse from the average in 2 of 10 patients (0.60 vs. 0.70, p < 0.05) because of the limited visibility of the PB. Excluding the bad observers and the 'bad' patients,' the mean DICE value increased from 0.67 to 0.70; interobserver variability, expressed in terms of standard deviation of DICE spread, was also reduced. Conclusions: The obtained values of DICE around 0.7 shows an acceptable agreement, considered the small dimension of the PB. Additional strategies to improve this agreement are under consideration and include an additional tutorial of the so-called bad observers with a recontouring procedure, or the recontouring by a single observer of the PB for all patients included in the DUE-01 study.

  2. Quasars Are Not Light-Bulbs: Testing Models of Quasar Lifetimes with the Observed Eddington Ratio Distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Philip F. Hopkins; Lars Hernquist

    2009-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We use the observed distribution of Eddington ratios as a function of supermassive black hole (BH) mass to constrain models of AGN lifetimes and lightcurves. Given the observed AGN luminosity function, a model for AGN lifetimes (time above a given luminosity) translates directly to a predicted Eddington ratio distribution. Models for self-regulated BH growth, in which feedback produces a 'blowout' decay phase after some peak luminosity (shutting down accretion) make specific predictions for the lifetimes distinct from those expected if AGN are simply gas starved (without feedback) and very different from simple phenomenological 'light bulb' models. Present observations of the Eddington ratio distribution, spanning 5 decades in Eddington ratio, 3 in BH mass, and redshifts z=0-1, agree with the predictions of self-regulated models, and rule out 'light-bulb', pure exponential, and gas starvation models at high significance. We compare the Eddington ratio distributions at fixed BH mass and fixed luminosity (both are consistent, but the latter are much less constraining). We present empirical fits to the lifetime distribution and show how the Eddington ratio distributions place tight limits on AGN lifetimes at various luminosities. We use this to constrain the shape of the typical AGN lightcurve, and provide simple analytic fits. Given independent constraints on episodic lifetimes, most local BHs must have gained their mass in no more than a couple of bright episodes, in agreement with merger-driven fueling models.

  3. Table Set-up with equipment Target Audience: Parents of elementary school students (grades 3-6), Middle and High School Students

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Linhardt, Robert J.

    on significantly different technology (e.g. incandescent, CFL, LED) as an example of information on light bulbs simple reflector lamps (clamp on) for display of bulbs (desk lamp is good because of the length of the support). Table of lamp specifications for a variety of standard bulbs available from national chains (e

  4. Determination of the 1%, 2.5%, and 5% occurrences of extreme dew-point temperatures and mean coincident dry-bulb temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colliver, D.G.; Zhang, H.; Gates, R.; Priddy, T. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of ASHRAE Research Project RP-754 was to find the outdoor design occurrences of extreme dew-point temperature and the corresponding mean coincident dry-bulb temperature for a large number of locations in North America. Thirty years of data (1961--1990) were used for 239 US locations, and the last 30 years of hourly data available (typically 1960--1989) were used for 143 Canadian locations. Tables are given that present the 1%, 2.5%, and 5% extreme summertime occurrences of dew-point temperatures and corresponding values of humidity ratios and the mean coincident dry-bulb (MCDB) temperature for the period of record. A map that shows the general geographical trends for the spatial distribution of the design dew-point values is also presented. Comparisons are provided between interpolation techniques to fill missing data, different weather data sets, and methods of calculating different definitions of extreme design and mean coincident data. Results are also reported of a comparison to evaluate the difference in humidity ratios between that calculated from the extreme design dry-bulb temperature and mean coincident wet-bulb temperature, versus that calculated from the extreme design dew-point temperature and the MCDB. It was found that the method of extreme dew point with MCDB had a higher humidity ratio that was on the average (for the 1% case and the 239 US locations) 0.00564 lb/lb larger than the humidity ratio found with the other method.

  5. Breaking the symmetries of the bulb model in two-dimensional self-induced supernova neutrino flavor conversions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mirizzi, Alessandro

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Self-induced flavor conversions of supernova (SN) neutrinos have been characterized in the spherically symmetric "bulb model", reducing the neutrino evolution to a one dimensional problem along a radial direction. We lift this assumption, presenting a two-dimensional model where neutrinos are launched from a spherical neutrino-sphere with many zenithal angles and two azimuthal angles. We also assume that self-induced conversions are not suppressed by large matter effects. In this situation we find that self-interacting neutrinos spontaneously break axial and spherical symmetries. As a result the flavor content and the lepton number of the neutrino gas would acquire seizable direction-dependent variations, breaking the coherent behavior found in the spherically symmetric case. This finding would suggest that the previous results of the self-induced flavor evolution obtained in one-dimensional models should be critically re-examined.

  6. Instrument uncertainty effect on calculation of absolute humidity using dewpoint, wet-bulb, and relative humidity sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slayzak, S.J.; Ryan, J.P.

    1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the US Department of Energy`s Advanced Desiccant Technology Program, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is characterizing the state-of-the-art in desiccant dehumidifiers, the key component of desiccant cooling systems. The experimental data will provide industry and end users with independent performance evaluation and help researchers assess the energy savings potential of the technology. Accurate determination of humidity ratio is critical to this work and an understanding of the capabilities of the available instrumentation is central to its proper application. This paper compares the minimum theoretical random error in humidity ratio calculation for three common measurement methods to give a sense of the relative maximum accuracy possible for each method assuming systematic errors can be made negligible. A series of experiments conducted also illustrate the capabilities of relative humidity sensors as compared to dewpoint sensors in measuring the grain depression of desiccant dehumidifiers. These tests support the results of the uncertainty analysis. At generally available instrument accuracies, uncertainty in calculated humidity ratio for dewpoint sensors is determined to be constant at approximately 2%. Wet-bulb sensors range between 2% and 6% above 10 g/kg (4%--15% below), and relative humidity sensors vary between 4% above 90% rh and 15% at 20% rh. Below 20% rh, uncertainty for rh sensors increases dramatically. Highest currently attainable accuracies bring dewpoint instruments down to 1% uncertainty, wet bulb to a range of 1%--3% above 10 g/kg (1.5%--8% below), and rh sensors between 1% and 5%.

  7. University of Knoxville Environmental Health and Safety

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tennessee, University of

    of the day Turn off computers at the end of the day Wrapped water heaters with insulating jackets Lowered water heater temperatures Replaced incandescent bulbs with CFL Installed weather stripping along

  8. Efficiency and Sustainability Environmental Health and Safety embraces the principles of sustainability and efficiency. We

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tennessee, University of

    heaters with jacket f. Lower water heater temperatures g. Replaced incandescent bulbs with CFL h. Install. Turn off power strip at the end of the day d. Turn off computers at the end of the day e. Wrapped water

  9. Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    light bulb retrofits, and 5) incandescent traffic signal replacement with light-emitting diode technology Conditions: None Categorical Exclusion(s) Applied: A9, A11, B1.32,...

  10. Energy 101: Lighting Choices | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in your home to energy-saving incandescent, compact fluorescent lamp (CFL), or light emitting diode (LED) bulbs could save you about 50 per year. For more information on lighting...

  11. Small Wind Guidebook/First, How Can I Make My Home More Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    as 10% on heating and cooling. Installing exterior or interior storm windows can reduce heat loss through windows by 25% to 50%. Replacing 15 incandescent light bulbs with energy...

  12. Design and implementation of a solar power system in rural Haiti

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hussam, Shaheer M. (Shaheer Muqtasid), 1981-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a solar power system for a school and health center in Petit-Anse, Haiti. The end-use applications are lighting via a set of fluorescent and incandescent bulbs, and a ...

  13. Aero-Tech: Proposed Penalty (2010-CE-1012)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Aero-Tech Light Bulb Co. failed to certify a variety of incandescent reflector lamps as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  14. Aero-Tech: Order (2010-CE-1012)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE issued an Order and closed this case against Aero-Tech Light Bulb Co., without civil penalty, after DOE found that Aero-Tech manufactured and/or privately labeled incandescent reflector lamps, but did not violate DOE regulations.

  15. Energy-Saving Incandescents | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO2: Final EnvironmentalCounties,United States NuclearSessionEnergy Efficiency and

  16. Energy-Saving Incandescents | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO2: Final EnvironmentalCounties,United States NuclearSessionEnergy Efficiency andlightbulbs -

  17. Incandescent Lighting Basics | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed off Energy.gov.Energy02.pdf7 OPAM Flash2011-37EnergySubmitRoad |WaterEdition |

  18. There Is No Correlation Between Erectile Dysfunction and Dose to Penile Bulb and Neurovascular Bundles Following Real-Time Low-Dose-Rate Prostate Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solan, Amy N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States)], E-mail: amy.solan@mountsinai.org; Cesaretti, Jamie A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Stone, Nelson N. [Department of Urology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Stock, Richard G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States)

    2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: We evaluated the relationship between the onset of erectile dysfunction and dose to the penile bulb and neurovascular bundles (NVBs) after real-time ultrasound-guided prostate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: One hundred forty-seven patients who underwent prostate brachytherapy met the following eligibility criteria: (1) treatment with {sup 125}I brachytherapy to a prescribed dose of 160 Gy with or without hormones without supplemental external beam radiation therapy, (2) identification as potent before the time of implantation based on a score of 2 or higher on the physician-assigned Mount Sinai Erectile Function Score and a score of 16 or higher on the abbreviated International Index of Erectile Function patient assessment, and (3) minimum follow-up of 12 months. Median follow-up was 25.7 months (range, 12-47 months). Results: The 3-year actuarial rate of impotence was 23% (34 of 147 patients). An additional 43% of potent patients (49 of 113 patients) were using a potency aid at last follow-up. The penile bulb volume receiving 100% of the prescription dose (V{sub 100}) ranged from 0-0.05 cc (median, 0 cc), with a dose to the hottest 5% (D{sub 5}) range of 12.5-97.9 Gy (median, 40.8 Gy). There was no correlation between penile bulb D{sub 5} or V{sub 100} and postimplantation impotency on actuarial analysis. For the combined right and left NVB structures, V{sub 100} range was 0.3-5.1 cc (median, 1.8 cc), and V{sub 150} range was 0-1.5 cc (median, 0.31 cc). There was no association between NVB V{sub 100} or V{sub 150} and postimplantation impotency on actuarial analysis. Conclusion: Penile bulb doses are low after real-time ultrasound-guided prostate brachytherapy. We found no correlation between dose to either the penile bulb or NVBs and the development of postimplantation impotency.

  19. Energy Savings and Green Initiatives Project Grant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kathy MacLennan

    2011-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This project entails retrofitting all four foot, 2, 3 and 4 bulb 40 watt T12 fixtures to T8 28 watt and 150 watt incandescent to 26 watt compact fluorescent bulbs. In total, 2,086 fixtures will be retrofitted

  20. Comparing Light Bulbs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In this exercise, students will use a light to demonstrate the difference between being energy-efficient and energy-wasteful, and learn what energy efficiency means.

  1. Fish Passage Through a Simulated Horizontal Bulb Turbine Pressure Regime: A Supplement to"Laboratory Studies of the Effects of Pressure and Dissolved Gas Supersaturation on Turbine-Passed Fish"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abernethy, Cary S. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Amidan, Brett G. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Cada, G F. (ORNL)

    2003-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Migratory and resident fish in the Columbia River Basin are exposed to stresses associated with hydroelectric power production, including pressure changes during turbine passage. The responses of fall chinook salmon and bluegill sunfish to rapid pressure change was investigated at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Previous test series evaluated the effects of passage through a vertical Kaplan turbine under the"worst case" pressure conditions and under less severe conditions where pressure changes were minimized. For this series of tests, pressure changes were modified to simulate passage through a horizontal bulb turbine, commonly installed at low head dams. The results were compared to results from previous test series. Migratory and resident fish in the Columbia River Basin are exposed to stresses associated with hydroelectric power production, including pressure changes during turbine passage. The responses of fall chinook salmon and bluegill sunfish to rapid pressure change was investigated at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Previous test series evaluated the effects of passage through a vertical Kaplan turbine under the"worst case" pressure conditions and under less severe conditions where pressure changes were minimized. For this series of tests, pressure changes were modified to simulate passage through a horizontal bulb turbine, commonly installed at low head dams. The results were compared to results from previous test series. Both fish species were acclimated for 16-22 hours at either surface (101 kPa; 1 atm) or 30 ft (191 kPa; 1.9 atm) of pressure in a hyperbaric chamber before exposure to a pressure scenario simulating passage through a horizontal bulb turbine. The simulation was as follows: gradual pressure increase to about 2 atm of pressure, followed by a sudden (0.4 second) decrease in pressure to either 0.7 or 0.95 atm, followed by gradual return to 1 atm (surface water pressure). Following the exposure, fish were held at surface pressure for a 48-hour post exposure observation period. No fall chinook salmon died during or after exposure to the horizontal bulb turbine passage pressures, and no injuries were observed during the 48-hour post exposure observation period. As with the previous test series, it cannot be determined whether fall chinook salmon acclimated to the greater water pressure during the pretest holding period. For bluegill sunfish exposed to the horizontal bulb turbine turbine-passage pressures, only one fish died and injuries were less severe and less common than for bluegills subjected to either the"worst case" pressure or modified Kaplan turbine pressure conditions in previous tests. Injury rates for bluegills were higher at 0.7 atm nadir than for the 0.95 atm nadir. However, injuries were limited to minor internal hemorrhaging. Bluegills did not suffer swim bladder rupture in any tested scenarios. Tests indicated that for most of the cross-sectional area of a horizontal bulb turbine, pressure changes occurring during turbine passage are not harmful to fall chinook salmon and only minimally harmful to bluegill. However, some areas within a horizontal bulb turbine may have extreme pressure conditions that would be harmful to fish. These scenarios were not tested because they represent a small cross-sectional area of the turbine compared to the centerline pressures scenarios used in these tests.

  2. Underwater Lighting by Submerged Lasers and Incandescent Sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duntley, Seibert Q

    1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    books. For eX3.I11ple, equation (5.49.1) on page 107 of Glastone and Edlund's, "Elements of Nuclear Reactor

  3. Replacing Incandescent Lightbulbs and Ballasts | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO Overview OCHCO Overview OCHCODepartmentEnergyCouncilAffairs, toReno Roundtable

  4. DOE Requires Manufacturer and Labeler to Cease Sale of Incandescent

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: Theof"WaveInteractions and PolicyCybersecurity Threats

  5. Penile bulb dose and impotence after three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer on RTOG 9406: Findings from a prospective, multi-institutional, phase I/II dose-escalation study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roach, Mack [University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States)]. E-mail: roach@radonc17.ucsf.edu; Winter, Kathryn [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Michalski, Jeffrey M. [Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States); Cox, James D. [3D Quality Assurance Center at Washington University St. Louis, MO (United States); Purdy, James A. [University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Bosch, Walter [University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Lin Xiao [University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Shipley, William S. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston MA (United States)

    2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To assess the relationship between the dose to the bulb of the penis and the risk of impotence in men treated on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 9406. Methods and materials: Men enrolled on a Phase I/II dose-escalation study, RTOG 9406, who were reported to be potent at entry and evaluable (n = 158) were selected for inclusion. Follow-up evaluations were scheduled every 3, 4, and 6 months for the first, second, and the third through fifth years, then annually. At each follow-up visit an assessment of potency status was made. Penile structures were defined by a single observer blinded to the potency status, using Web-based, on-line software. The dosimetry for penile structures was calculated at the Quality Assurance Center at Washington University and provided to RTOG Statistical Headquarters to determine whether there was a relationship between dose and impotence. Results: Patients whose median penile dose was {>=}52.5 Gy had a greater risk of impotence compared with those receiving <52.5 Gy (p = 0.039). In a multivariate analysis neither age, the dose to the prostate, nor the use of hormonal therapy correlated with the risk of impotence. Conclusions: Dose to the bulb of the penis seems to be associated with the risk of radiation-induced impotence.

  6. Energy Efficiency ISSN 1570-646X

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Illinois at Chicago, University of

    ConEd Consolidated Edison CRT Cathode ray tube LCD Liquid crystal display LED Light emitting diode included combustion, incandescent and compact fluorescent (CFL) bulbs, and now light emitting diode (LED emitting diodes (LED), has been sug- gested as a way of reducing energy used for lighting. Such predictions

  7. Technical Report Documentation Page 1. Report No.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and solar panels. 17. Key Words Solar Energy, Light Emitting Diodes (LED), Intersections, Incandescent Bulbs No. 3. Recipient's Catalog No. 4. Title and Subtitle Feasibility of Solar Powered Traffic Signs. By retrofitting the signals to solar energy and switching to LED the city will see major energy and cost savings

  8. Energy-Efficient Lighting The typical American family spends more

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Energy-Efficient Lighting The typical American family spends more than $1,500 a year on household their energy efficiency is taken into account. CFLs last 8­10 times longer than standard incandescent bulbs energy bills--and many households spend considerably more. Costs could climb even higher in the future

  9. Lesson Summary In this activity, students build and decorate their own

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    Materials Each Student Needs: · 1- 7 inch Oatmeal container · 1- 3 x 5 Index card · 1 Exact-o knife · 1 Construction paper · Masking tape · 1 Incandescent light bulb · Thick black markers · Markers, aluminum foil or atmosphere. #12;Group Size 1 Expendable Cost per Group $4 Engineering Connection Spectrographs are used both

  10. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Developing a Sustainable Food Outlet for UBC Food Services in the New Beaty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    comparison of energy use and light output between 42 standard incandescent bulbs and ES-qualified CFLs 9. CNA design, energy usage, waste management and menu options, amongst other things. We also showcase Surveys 15 E. Promotional Education Tool 16 i) Promotional Tools 16 ii) Educational Tools 17 F. Waste

  11. 3Water on Planetary Surfaces Space is very cold!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    incandescent bulb consume if left on for 1 hour? Problem 2: A house consumes about 3,000 kilowatts in one hour a battery and absorbed all the energy that fell on it. Ice doesn't really work that way, but let's suppose = 360,000 Joules. Problem 2: A house consumes about 3,000 kilowatts in one hour. How many Joules is this

  12. Comprehensive Pyrometry of Incandescent Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene in the Visible and Near Infrared

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singer, Scott

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of 1990 (ITS-90). ,” Metrologia, vol. 27, p. 3, Mar. 1990. [Wavelength Pyrometry,” Metrologia, vol. 17, p. 103, 1981. [

  13. Aerosol Mass Spectrometry via Laser-Induced Incandescence Particle Vaporization Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timothy B. Onasch

    2011-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We have successfully developed and commercialized a soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS) instrument to measure mass, size, and chemical information of soot particles in ambient environments. The SP-AMS instrument has been calibrated and extensively tested in the laboratory and during initial field studies. The first instrument paper describing the SP-AMS has been submitted for publication in a peer reviewed journal and there are several related papers covering initial field studies and laboratory studies that are in preparation. We have currently sold 5 SP-AMS instruments (either as complete systems or as SP modules to existing AMS instrument operators).

  14. A calibration-independent laser-induced incandescence technique for soot measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gülder, �mer L.

    , and viral in- fections. The soot emitted from various combustion devices, such as engines, power generation range of applications, such as steady flames, flickering flames, and Diesel engine exhausts. We present. Introduction Recent studies have drawn attention to the role of combustion-generated particulate matter

  15. Comprehensive Pyrometry of Incandescent Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene in the Visible and Near Infrared

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singer, Scott

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    E. Pop, “Infrared Microscopy of Joule Heating in Graphenenear infrared is attainable through gating and heating of

  16. The effect of a synthetic cytokinin, 6-benzylaminopurine, and light quality on Ficus benjamina under low light intensities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meadows, Sylvia Elise

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    that 1, 100 ft-c of tungsten light would give a higher dry weight gain than 1, 000 ft-c fluorescent, 1, 100 ft-c fluorescent plus tungsten, or 1, 800 ft-c of fluorescent plus tungsten plus mercury. In beans Leiser et. al, found that tungsten gave a... higher dry weight gain than fluorescent plus tungsten plus mercury or fluorescent plus mercury, or fluor scent alone (23). Incandescent bulbs are high in infrared irradiation compared to fluorescent light sources, and it has been found that infrared 1r...

  17. World Record White OLED Performance Exceeds 100 lm/W

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Universal Display Corporation (UDC) has successfully demonstrated a record-breaking white organic light-emitting diode (WOLED) with a power efficacy of 102 lm/W at 1000 cd/m2 using its proprietary, high-efficiency phosphorescent OLED technology. This achievement represents a significant milestone for OLED technology, demonstrating performance that surpasses the power efficacy of incandescent bulbs with less than 15 lm/W and fluorescent lamps at 60-90 lm/W. Funded in part by DOE, UDC's achievement is a major step toward DOE's roadmap goal of a 150 lm/W commercial OLED light source by 2015.

  18. L Prize™: The Race for Super Efficient Light Bulbs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This September 23, 2008 webcast provided an overview of the Bright Tomorrow Lighting Prize (L Prize) technology competition. The L Prize calls for super-efficient SSL products to replace two of the...

  19. Why Did the LED Light Bulb Cross the Road?

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Could using humor as a marketing strategy make energy efficiency a bit more digestible? One Illinois grant recipient thinks it could be.

  20. A Second UV "Light Bulb" behind the SN 1006 Remnant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winkler, P F; Long, Knox S.

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A point X-ray source located 9 arcmin northeast of the center of SN~1006 has been spectroscopically identified as a background QSO, with a redshift of 0.335. The object is moderately bright, with magnitude V=18.3. If its ultraviolet spectrum is typical of low-z quasars, this object will be a second (after the Schweizer-Middleditch star) source to use for absorption spectroscopy of material within SN 1006. Absorption spectra provide a unique probe for unshocked ejecta within this supernova remnant, and can possibly solve the long-standing problem of "missing" iron in the remnants of Type Ia supernovae.

  1. A Second UV "Light Bulb" behind the SN 1006 Remnant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Frank Winkler; Knox S. Long

    1997-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A point X-ray source located 9 arcmin northeast of the center of SN~1006 has been spectroscopically identified as a background QSO, with a redshift of 0.335. The object is moderately bright, with magnitude V=18.3. If its ultraviolet spectrum is typical of low-z quasars, this object will be a second (after the Schweizer-Middleditch star) source to use for absorption spectroscopy of material within SN 1006. Absorption spectra provide a unique probe for unshocked ejecta within this supernova remnant, and can possibly solve the long-standing problem of "missing" iron in the remnants of Type Ia supernovae.

  2. Westinghouse and Fuzhou Permitted to Restart Distribution of Light Bulb

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA group currentBradley Nickell DirectorThe&Management Alert WesternProducts |

  3. The History of the Light Bulb | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed off Energy.gov. Are you sure you wantJoin us for|Idaho |EnergyTanklessThe CleanThe History ofThe

  4. The History of the Light Bulb | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreakingMayDepartmentTest for PumpingThe Facts on Gas Prices:TheTheHistory ofTheThe

  5. Energy Savings and NOx Emissions Reduction Potential from the 2012 Federal Legislation to Phase Out Incandescent Lamps in Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Zi; Baltazar, Juan Carlos; Haberl, Jeff; Soman, Rohit

    296042501.6 100% Page 9 Table 5: Annual NOX Emissions A r ea Co u n t y A meri ca n E lec t r ic P o w er - W es t ( E RCO T ) /P CA NO x Redu ctio n s ( lbs) A u stin E n er g y /P CA NO x Redu ctio n s ( lbs) Brow n sv ille P u b... ort h E a s t T e x a s A re a Page 10 Table 6: Ozone Production Period NOx Emissions A r ea Co u n t y A meri ca n E lec t r ic P o w er - W es t ( E RCO T ) /P CA NO x Redu ctio n s ( lbs) A u stin E n er g y /P CA NO x Redu...

  6. Demonstration Assessment of Light Emitting Diode (LED) Residential Downlights and Undercabinet Lights in the Lane County Tour of Homes, Eugene, Oregon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ton, My K.; Richman, Eric E.; Gilbride, Theresa L.

    2008-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    In August 2008 the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted a light emitting diode (LED) residential lighting demonstration project for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Building Technologies, as part of DOE’s Solid State Lighting (SSL) Technology Demonstration Gateway Program. Two lighting technologies, an LED replacement for downlight lamps (bulbs) and an LED undercabinet lighting fixture, were tested in the demonstration which was conducted in two homes built for the 2008 Tour of Homes in Eugene, Oregon. The homes were built by the Lane County Home Builders Association (HBA), and Future B Homes. The Energy Trust of Oregon (ETO) also participated in the demonstration project. The LED downlight product, the LR6, made by Cree LED Lighting Solutions acts as a screw-in replacement for incandescent and halogen bulbs in recessed can downlights. The second product tested is Phillips/Color Kinetics’ eW® Profile Powercore undercabinet fixture designed to mount under kitchen cabinets to illuminate the countertop and backsplash surfaces. Quantitative and qualitative measurements of light performance and electrical power usage were taken at each site before and after initially installed halogen and incandescent lamps were replaced with the LED products. Energy savings and simple paybacks were also calculated and builders who toured the homes were surveyed for their responses to the LED products. The LED downlight product drew 12 Watts of power, cutting energy use by 82% compared to the 65W incandescent lamp and by 84% compared to the 75W halogen lamp. The LED undercabinet fixture drew 10 watts, cutting energy use by 83% to 90% compared to the halogen product, which was tested at two power settings: a low power 60W setting and a high power 105W setting. The LED downlight consistently provided more light than the halogen and incandescent lamps in horizontal measurements at counter height and floor level. It also outperformed in vertical illuminance measurements taken on the walls, indicating better lateral dispersion of the light. The undercabinet fixture’s light output was midway between the low and high power halogen undercabinet fixture light outputs (35.8 foot candle versus 13.4 fc and 53.4 fc) but it produced a more uniform light (max/min ratio of 7.0 versus 10.8). The color correlated temperature (CCT, the blue or yellowness) of the LED light correlated well with the halogen and incandescent lights (2675 K vs 2700 K). The color rendering of the LED downlight also correlated well at 92 CRI compared to 100 CRI for the halogen and incandescent lamps. The LED undercabinet fixture had measures of 2880 K CCT and 71 CRI compared to the 2700 K and 100 CRI scores for the halogen undercabinet fixture. Builders who toured the homes were surveyed; they gave the LED downlight high marks for brightness, said the undercabinet improved shadows and glare and said both products improved overall visibility, home appearance, and home value. Paybacks on the LED downlight ranged from 7.6 years (assuming electricity cost of 11 c/kWh) to 13.5 years (at 5C/kWh). Paybacks on the LED undercabinet fixture in a new home ranged from 4.4 years (11c/kWh electricity) to 7.6 years (5c/kWh) based on product costs of $95 per LED downlight and $140 per LED undercabinet fixture at 3 hrs per day of usage for the downlight and 2 hrs per day for the undercabinet lighting.

  7. New Lighting Fixtures: Combining Creativity and Style with Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon, Kelly L.; Foster, Rebecca; McGowan, Terry

    2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article for a building trade magazine describes a national design competition for energy efficient lighting sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, the American Lighting Association, and the Consortium for Energy Efficiency, with winners announced at ALA's Annual Conference May 14, 2004, in Tucson. The Lighting for Tomorrow competition was the first national lighting fixture design competition focusing on energy-efficient residential lighting. The competition invited fixture manufacturers and designers to come up with beautiful, functional lighting fixtures that also happen to be energy efficient. Fixtures were required to use a ''dedicated'' energy-efficient light source, such as a pin-based fluorescent lamp that cannot be replaced with a screw-in incandescent bulb. Fixtures also had to meet a minimum energy efficiency level that eliminated use of incandescent and halogen lamps, leaving the door open only to fluorescent sources and LEDs. More than 150 paper designs were submitted in the first phase of the competition, in 2003. Of those, 24 finalists were invited to submit working prototypes in 2004, and the winners were announced in May. The Grand Prize of $10,000 went to American Fluorescent of Waukegan, Illinois, for its ''Salem'' chandelier. Some winning fixtures are already available through Lowe's Home Improvement Centers.

  8. Essays on Environmental and Resource Economics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toledo, Chantal Nathalie

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Light Bulb Offer (UC BerkeleyBetween Light Bulbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Reasons for the Light Bulb Choice, ILB (left) or LED (right)

  9. Analysis of the California Solar Resource--Volume 3: Appendices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    erdahl, P.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    twice yearly by Weather Data: Temperature (dry bulb) (,. ,.et bulb) Wind Speed (Ht. ~) Wind Direction Other evaporationData: Temperature (dry bulb) (wet bulb) Nind Speed (Ht, Wind

  10. Demography of the Invasive Geophyte Oxalis pes-caprae Across a Mediterranean Island

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Traveset, Anna

    -caprae reproductive components (i.e. bulb production, bulb bank, bulb predation, bulb mortality, bulb dormancy, bulb germination, plant establishment and survival). Key Results Oxalis pes-caprae has a transient bulb bank that remains dormant in the soil during summer. High levels of bulb predation after dispersal, followed by bulb

  11. ,,,"Incandescent","Standard Fluorescent","Compact Fluorescent","High-Intensity Discharge","Halogen"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventional Gasoline Sales toReformulated, Average0.9 Relative Standard Errors for Table98.

  12. ,,,"Incandescent","Standard Fluorescent","Compact Fluorescent","High-Intensity Discharge","Halogen"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventional Gasoline Sales toReformulated, Average0.9 Relative Standard Errors for Table98.B39.

  13. EA-1664: Final Environmental Assessment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    10 CFR Part 430 Energy Conservation Standards: Energy Conservation Standards for Fluorescent and Incandescent Lamps

  14. PROJECTS IMPLEMENTED The City focused on improving the efficiency of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    · Replacing incandescent exit signs with new light emitting diode signs · Replacing the existing chiller

  15. Initial Score: # of workers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yamamoto, Keith

    My lab has replaced incandescent lamps with Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFLs) or Light Emitting Diodes

  16. Neutron Repulsion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oliver K. Manuel

    2011-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Earth is connected gravitationally, magnetically and electrically to its heat source - a neutron star that is obscured from view by waste products in the photosphere. Neutron repulsion is like the hot filament in an incandescent light bulb. Excited neutrons are emitted from the solar core and decay into hydrogen that glows in the photosphere like a frosted light bulb. Neutron repulsion was recognized in nuclear rest mass data in 2000 as the overlooked source of energy, the keystone of an arch that locked together these puzzling space-age observations: 1.) Excess 136Xe accompanied primordial helium in the stellar debris that formed the solar system (Fig. 1); 2.) The Sun formed on the supernova core (Fig. 2); 3.) Waste products from the core pass through an iron-rich mantle, selectively carrying lighter elements and lighter isotopes of each element into the photosphere (Figs. 3-4); and 4.) Neutron repulsion powers the Sun and sustains life (Figs. 5-7). Together these findings offer a framework for understanding how: a.) The Sun generates and releases neutrinos, energy and solar-wind hydrogen and helium; b.) An inhabitable planet formed and life evolved around an ordinary-looking star; c.) Continuous climate change - induced by cyclic changes in gravitational interactions of the Sun's energetic core with planets - has favored survival by adaptation.

  17. Neutron Repulsion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manuel, Oliver K

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Earth is connected gravitationally, magnetically and electrically to its heat source - a neutron star that is obscured from view by waste products in the photosphere. Neutron repulsion is like the hot filament in an incandescent light bulb. Excited neutrons are emitted from the solar core and decay into hydrogen that glows in the photosphere like a frosted light bulb. Neutron repulsion was recognized in nuclear rest mass data in 2000 as the overlooked source of energy, the keystone of an arch that locked together these puzzling space-age observations: 1.) Excess 136Xe accompanied primordial helium in the stellar debris that formed the solar system (Fig. 1); 2.) The Sun formed on the supernova core (Fig. 2); 3.) Waste products from the core pass through an iron-rich mantle, selectively carrying lighter elements and lighter isotopes of each element into the photosphere (Figs. 3-4); and 4.) Neutron repulsion powers the Sun and sustains life (Figs. 5-7). Together these findings offer a framework for understanding...

  18. A wet- and dry-bulb temperature measuring system for micrometeorological application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Machetta, Joe Henry

    1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    positioned shelter under test and always in such a positi. on that the prevailing wind direction was perpendicular to a line between the Assman and the shelter, and care was taken to prevent any radiation or wind shading. Readings were obtained at all... the contract interval, All of the preceding resolution evaluations are appli- cable under any and all natural conditions of radiation and wind. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The research efforts reported herein have been jointly sponsored by tha Air Force Cambridge...

  19. Studying some mechanical properties of MgO with used neon bulb glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Issa, Tarik Talib [University of Baghdad, College of science physic department , Material Science group (Iraq); Khaleel, Saba Mahdi [Ministry of Industry and Minerals,Commission for Research And Industrial Development ,Chemical and Petrochemical Research Center, Baghdad (Iraq); Abdul Kareem, Noura Ammar [Ministry of Industry and Minerals, Commission for Research And Industrial Development ,Chemical and Petrochemical Research Center, Baghdad (Iraq)

    2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Ceramic compact of MgO +WT% of UNBG were sintered at different sintering temperature (700, 900, 1100, 1300)°c, under static air for 3 hours. X-ray diffraction and some mechanical properties were conducted. The maximum sintered density, compression; fracture strength and hardness were indicated for the compilation of MgO ?20 WT % UNBG, sintered at 1300 °c.

  20. Zinc released from olfactory bulb glomeruli by patterned electrical stimulation of the olfactory nerve

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blakemore, Laura J.

    Zinc is a trace element with a multitude of roles in biological systems including structural and cofactor functions for proteins. Although most zinc in the central nervous system (CNS) is protein bound, the CNS contains a ...

  1. Consumer Light Bulb Changes: Briefing and Resources for Media and Retailers

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T, Inc.'sEnergyTexas1.SpaceFluor Federal ServicesDepartment ofDepartment of|

  2. Westinghouse Pays $50,000 Civil Penalty to Resolve Light Bulb Efficiency

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA group currentBradley Nickell DirectorThe&Management Alert Western

  3. What Light Bulbs Do You Use in Your Home? | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA group currentBradley Nickell DirectorThe&Management AlertWhatOnOn

  4. Which Bulb Is Right for You? (High-Resolution EPS Billboard) | Department

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA group currentBradley Nickell DirectorThe&ManagementEfficiency |Aof Energy

  5. Which Bulb Is Right for You? (High-Resolution JPG Billboard) | Department

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA group currentBradley Nickell DirectorThe&ManagementEfficiency |Aof

  6. Which Bulb Is Right for You? (Low-Resolution JPG Billboard) | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA group currentBradley Nickell DirectorThe&ManagementEfficiency |AofEnergy

  7. GREEN LIVING Replace incandencent and halogen light bulbs with LED and CLFs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thaxton, Christopher S.

    GREEN LIVING GUIDE ENERGY TRAVEL FOOD sustain yosef WATER Replace incandencent and halogen light for your laundry RESIST THAT SWITCH! Use natural light during the day, and no lights when you are gone USE MORE THAN YOU CAN EAT, reduce your waste stream DRINK FAIR TRADE COFFEE - Check out Conrad

  8. Buying the Perfect Energy-Efficient Light Bulb in 5 Easy Steps | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube platformBuilding Removal Ongoing atGreenhouse GasesRespond to

  9. A Winning Light Bulb With the Potential to Save the Nation Billions |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed off Energy.gov. Are you sure you wantJoin us for|IdahotheWhatProposed - FINALAA Tale of

  10. DOE Requires Westinghouse to Cease Sales of Two Light Bulb Models and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: Theof"WaveInteractions and PolicyCybersecurity ThreatsViolatingAllows Sale of

  11. DOE Withdraws the Energy Star Label from 34 Compact Fluorescent Light Bulbs

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: Theof"WaveInteractionsMaterials | DepartmentEnergy Will Not| Department

  12. Math 3339 Fall 2012 Name: Please, write clearly and justify all your steps, to get proper credit for your work. No notes, books

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Labate, Demetrio

    light bulbs, 3 are defective. The bulbs are selected at random and tested, one at a time, until the third defective bulb is found. Compute the probability that the third defective bulb is: (i) the third bulb tested; (ii) the fifth bulb tested; (iii) the tenth bulb tested. #12;(3)[8 Pts] A survey

  13. Table D.2 List of equiement used in Griffin Experiment. Manufacturer, serial number, and comment/description are given in adjacent columns.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    600 Proven engineering Solar Panels Power generation Six, 75 Watt panels. Pairs of panels were battery bank. BP 275 BP solar Generator Power generation 1.2 kW generator converted to run on propane anemometer electronics, mass flow controller, battery, IRGA calibration solenoids, tube heating electronics

  14. Neutrino flavor transformation in core-collapse supernovae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cherry, John F.; Cherry, John F.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the corresponding Neutrino Bulb (1 %) safety criteria fromof the neutrino- bulb halo neutrino Hamiltonian, | H |+|H |, to the contribution from bulb the neutrinosphere | H

  15. Odor representations in olfactory cortex

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poo, Cindy

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    influence on olfactory bulb activity in the rabbit. Brainin the olfactory bulb accelerates odor discrimination inexcitation of olfactory bulb granule cells. J Neurosci 27,

  16. Engineering of Olfactory Receptor OlfCc1 for Directed Ligand Sensitivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berke, Allison Paige

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    representations in the olfactory bulb revealed using aof single olfactory bulb neurons to binary mixtures of aminoin the mouse olfactory bulb. Nature, 450(7169), 503–508.

  17. Studies on the Cave- Spider Family Leptonetidae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ledford, Joel M.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    105. Prolateral; 106. Bulb, prolateral; 107. Accessory81. Prolateral; 82. Bulb, retrolateral; 83. Accessory87. Prolateral; 88. Bulb, retrolateral; 89. Accessory

  18. Using Building Simulation and Optimization to Calculate Lookup Tables for Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coffey, Brian

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Merced 106 Monthly average wet bulb temperature and tanktemp versus minium wet bulb temp 98 Detailed slices ofmaximum overnight wet bulb temperatures). PhD Dissertation,

  19. Using Building Simulation and Optimization to Calculate Lookup Tables for Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coffey, Brian

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Merced 106 Monthly average wet bulb temperature and tanktemp versus minium wet bulb temp 98 Detailed slices ofand maximum overnight wet bulb temperatures). Figure 8:

  20. "Hot" for Warm Water Cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coles, Henry

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Format Locations sorted by Dry Bulb Temperature Locationssorted by Wet Bulb Temperature 11. APPENDIX C: DIRECT LIQUIDis constrained by outdoor wet bulb temperature) or dry

  1. Vortices in brain activity: Their mechanism and significance for perception

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Freeman, Walter J III

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the main olfactory bulb in adult rats. Neuroscience, 64,apex rabbit olfactory bulb rabbit visual cortex phaseoutline of the olfactory bulb, on which is superimposed a 4

  2. Analysis of Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards for Residential General Service Lighting in Chile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Letschert, Virginie E.; McNeil, Michael A.; Leiva Ibanez, Francisco Humberto; Ruiz, Ana Maria; Pavon, Mariana; Hall, Stephen

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards (MEPS) have been chosen as part of Chile's national energy efficiency action plan. As a first MEPS, the Ministry of Energy has decided to focus on a regulation for lighting that would ban the sale of inefficient bulbs, effectively phasing out the use of incandescent lamps. Following major economies such as the US (EISA, 2007) , the EU (Ecodesign, 2009) and Australia (AS/NZS, 2008) who planned a phase out based on minimum efficacy requirements, the Ministry of Energy has undertaken the impact analysis of a MEPS on the residential lighting sector. Fundacion Chile (FC) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) collaborated with the Ministry of Energy and the National Energy Efficiency Program (Programa Pais de Eficiencia Energetica, or PPEE) in order to produce a techno-economic analysis of this future policy measure. LBNL has developed for CLASP (CLASP, 2007) a spreadsheet tool called the Policy Analysis Modeling System (PAMS) that allows for evaluation of costs and benefits at the consumer level but also a wide range of impacts at the national level, such as energy savings, net present value of savings, greenhouse gas (CO2) emission reductions and avoided capacity generation due to a specific policy. Because historically Chile has followed European schemes in energy efficiency programs (test procedures, labelling program definitions), we take the Ecodesign commission regulation No 244/2009 as a starting point when defining our phase out program, which means a tiered phase out based on minimum efficacy per lumen category. The following data were collected in order to perform the techno-economic analysis: (1) Retail prices, efficiency and wattage category in the current market, (2) Usage data (hours of lamp use per day), and (3) Stock data, penetration of efficient lamps in the market. Using these data, PAMS calculates the costs and benefits of efficiency standards from two distinct but related perspectives: (1) The Life-Cycle Cost (LCC) calculation examines costs and benefits from the perspective of the individual household; and (2) The National Perspective projects the total national costs and benefits including both financial benefits, and energy savings and environmental benefits. The national perspective calculations are called the National Energy Savings (NES) and the Net Present Value (NPV) calculations. PAMS also calculate total emission mitigation and avoided generation capacity. This paper describes the data and methodology used in PAMS and presents the results of the proposed phase out of incandescent bulbs in Chile.

  3. High Efficiency Integrated Package

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ibbetson, James

    2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid-state lighting based on LEDs has emerged as a superior alternative to inefficient conventional lighting, particularly incandescent. LED lighting can lead to 80 percent energy savings; can last 50,000 hours – 2-50 times longer than most bulbs; and contains no toxic lead or mercury. However, to enable mass adoption, particularly at the consumer level, the cost of LED luminaires must be reduced by an order of magnitude while achieving superior efficiency, light quality and lifetime. To become viable, energy-efficient replacement solutions must deliver system efficacies of ? 100 lumens per watt (LPW) with excellent color rendering (CRI > 85) at a cost that enables payback cycles of two years or less for commercial applications. This development will enable significant site energy savings as it targets commercial and retail lighting applications that are most sensitive to the lifetime operating costs with their extended operating hours per day. If costs are reduced substantially, dramatic energy savings can be realized by replacing incandescent lighting in the residential market as well. In light of these challenges, Cree proposed to develop a multi-chip integrated LED package with an output of > 1000 lumens of warm white light operating at an efficacy of at least 128 LPW with a CRI > 85. This product will serve as the light engine for replacement lamps and luminaires. At the end of the proposed program, this integrated package was to be used in a proof-of-concept lamp prototype to demonstrate the component’s viability in a common form factor. During this project Cree SBTC developed an efficient, compact warm-white LED package with an integrated remote color down-converter. Via a combination of intensive optical, electrical, and thermal optimization, a package design was obtained that met nearly all project goals. This package emitted 1295 lm under instant-on, room-temperature testing conditions, with an efficacy of 128.4 lm/W at a color temperature of ~2873K and 83 CRI. As such, the package’s performance exceeds DOE’s warm-white phosphor LED efficacy target for 2013. At the end of the program, we assembled an A19 sized demonstration bulb housing the integrated package which met Energy Star intensity variation requirements. With further development to reduce overall component cost, we anticipate that an integrated remote converter package such as developed during this program will find application in compact, high-efficacy LED-based lamps, particularly those requiring omnidirectional emission.

  4. Cost Effective Measurement and Verification at Fairchild AFB

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Culp, C.; Hart, Q.; Turner, B.; Berry-Lewis, S.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ballasts. Incandescent lighting will be replaced with compact florescent. Incandescent exit signs will be upgraded to Light Emitting Diode (LED) exit signs. The Central Heating Plant (CHP) supplies steam for 79 buildings. This steam plant facility...

  5. Household Response To Dynamic Pricing Of Electricity: A Survey...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Allocation, Emissions Mitigation Scheme, Emissions Standards, Enabling Legislation, Energy Standards, Feebates, Feed-in Tariffs, Fuel Efficiency Standards, Incandescent...

  6. Business Case for Energy Efficiency in Support of Climate Change Mitigation, Economic and Societal Benefits in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McNeil, Michael A.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Commercial and Industrial End Uses Incandescent Lamps Refrigerators Residential AC (Including Heat Pumps) Washing Machines Fluorescent Ballasts Electric Water Heaters

  7. China Energy Efficiency Round Robin Testing Results for Room Air Conditioners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    C Dry bulb. air inlet. indoor side ºC Wet bulb. air inlet.indoor side ºC Dry bulb. air outlet.indoor side ºC Wet bulb. air outlet. indoor side ºC

  8. Comparisons of HVAC Simulations between EnergyPlus and DOE-2.2 for Data Centers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Tianzhen

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cooling capacity as a function of outside dry-bulb (ODB) andentering wet-bulb temperatures (EWB), the EIR(EWB,ODB):as a function of outside dry-bulb and entering wet-bulb

  9. 56903Federal Register / Vol. 75, No. 180 / Friday, September 17, 2010 / Rules and Regulations rule does not impose any enforceable

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the commodities Garlic, bulb and Shallot, bulb; revise the commodities Onion, bulb; Onion, green; and Vegetable.13 * * * * * Melon, subgroup 9A ...................... 0.10 * * * * * Okra ...................... 0.10 Onion, bulb

  10. STAT 472 F14 Chapter 4 Homework.pdf

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Owner

    2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Sep 30, 2014 ... The hotel has 10,000 light bulbs. The light bulbs are all new. If a replacement bulb burns out, it too will be replaced with a new bulb. You are ...

  11. Secreted factors from olfactory mucosa cells expanded as free-floating spheres increase neurogenesis in olfactory bulb neurosphere cultures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barraud, Perrine; He, Xiao-ling; Caldwell, Maeve; Franklin, Robin J M

    2008-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    ) containing Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM; Gibco) prior to mechanical disso- ciation to a cell suspension. Remaining cell aggregates were removed after filtration through a 40 µm cell strainer (BD Falcon) and cell numbers were estimated using...

  12. 2008 Joint Appendices JA2-1 Appendix JA2 Reference Weather/Climate Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    weather file contains data on a variety of ambient conditions such as: · Dry bulb temperature · Wet bulb

  13. EPI-FLUORESCENCE ATTACHMENT f o r I n v e r t e d M i c r o s c o p e D I A P H O T -T M D

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kleinfeld, David

    . In exchanging the lamp bulb, do not touch the glass part of the lamp bulb with bare hands. Dust, dirt or finger marks on the bulb surface should be wiped with alcohol. For attaching the mercury lamp bulb to the socket, take note of the polarity of the bulb. Before lighting the lamp, confirm that the lamp bulb

  14. MATH 56A SPRING 2008 STOCHASTIC PROCESSES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Igusa, Kiyoshi

    that it starts at the end of the previous process). I used the example of a light bulb. You put a light bulb replaced by a new bulb. Each bulb is independent of the previous one. Some numbers associated considered three kinds of light bulbs: (1) The guaranteed light bulb which will last exactly 1000 hours. (2

  15. MATH 56A SPRING 2008 STOCHASTIC PROCESSES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Igusa, Kiyoshi

    at the end of the previous process). I used the example of a light bulb. You put a light bulb into a socket by a new bulb. Each bulb is independent of the previous one. Some numbers associated to this process are kinds of light bulbs: (1) The guaranteed light bulb which will last exactly 1000 hours. (2) The Poisson

  16. University of Akron March 21, 2013 Physics 262: Physics for Life Sciences II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang

    electroscope bulb, causing the needle to deflect. What is the net charge on the bulb and on the needle? (A) Positive on the bulb, negative on the needle. (B) Negative on the bulb, positive on the needle. (C) Positive on both the bulb and the needle. (D) Negative on both the bulb and the needle. 3. A solid

  17. Pheromone transduction in the vomeronasal organ Emily R Liman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liman, Emily

    bulb (AOB), whereas the OE projects to the olfactory bulb (OB). (b) In a section taken at the position- to the accessory olfactory bulb and to the main olfactory bulb, respectively. The accessory olfactory bulb, unlike the main olfactory bulb or relay nuclei of other sensory organs, does not project to the cortex. Instead

  18. Metacapacitors for LED Lighting: Metacapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    ADEPT Project: The CUNY Energy Institute is developing less expensive, more efficient, smaller, and longer-lasting power converters for energy-efficient LED lights. LEDs produce light more efficiently than incandescent lights and last significantly longer than compact fluorescent bulbs, but they require more sophisticated power converter technology, which increases their cost. LEDs need more sophisticated converters because they require a different type of power (low voltage direct current, or DC) than what's generally supplied by power outlets. The CUNY Energy Institute is developing sophisticated power converters for LEDs that contain capacitors made from new, nanoscale materials. Capacitors are electrical components that are used to store energy. CUNY's unique capacitors are configured with advanced power circuits to more efficiently control and convert power to the LED lighting source. They also eliminate the need for large magnetic components, instead relying on networks of capacitors that can be easily printed on plastic substrate. CUNY's prototype LED power converter already meets DOE's 2020 projections for the energy efficiency of LED power converters.

  19. University of Akron March 29, 2012 Physics 262: Physics for Life Sciences II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang

    ) the bulb of an initially electri- cally neutral electroscope, so that the pointer of the electroscope rises (Step 1). Keeping the rod near the bulb, I then ground the elec- troscope by touching the bulb, which on the bulb and the pointer of the electroscope? (A) Both the bulb and pointer have net positive charge. (B

  20. Institute for Software Technology Wissensverarbeitung

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Motivation Example correct behavior battery(c)(ab(c)voltage(c))battery(c)(ab(c)voltage(c)) bulb for Software Technology Motivation Example cont. t t tsystem structure battery(B). bulb(L1). bulb(L2). bulb(L3 the fact that a bulb does not lit if it is broken · solution: model faulty behavior battery

  1. Instructions for use of the Cannon-Fenske Opaque Viscometer 1. In a separate container filter the test sample

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saskatchewan, University of

    . When the liquid begins to fill bulb B, stop the flow by plugging tube A. 4. Allow approximately 10 the efflux time for bulb C times the constant for the lower bulb using Equation 1. 7. Check the results by repeating step 6 for bulb D, using the upper bulb constant in Equation 2. LcCtv =1 (1) UDCtv =2 (2) Where: 1

  2. Development and Use of a Feedback Control System in Introducing Biotechnology Students to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, Gale

    departments at MSU Mankato. The air temperature near a small light bulb was controlled while the variables on the performance of the control loop. The air temperature near the bulb was monitored with a thermocouple producing conditioning amplifier Light bulb voltage driver Thermocouple and 12V automobile light bulb Light Bulb Driver

  3. ILD 12 Name: _____________________ Working out what a model implies: Images

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maryland at College Park, University of

    . If you know the rays all come from a single light bulb, where would you guess that the bulb is located of the bulb. Where would you guess the bulb is located? What could be behind the screen? Situation 3: You now have a converging lens. A light bulb is positioned a distance larger than the focal length to the left

  4. M. Bahrami ENSC 461 (S 11) Gas Vapor Mixtures and HVAC 1 Gas Vapor Mixtures and HVAC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    = ha + hg Dry Bulb Temperature Tdb: the temperature measured by a thermometer placed in a mixture wet bulb temperature and the other dry bulb temperature. Tdb and Twb are sufficient to fix the state where 22 2 2 622.0 g g PP P since %1002 . Note that T2 is the wet-bulb temperature Twb. Wet Bulb

  5. Polarity regulation during neuronal migration and differentiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Higginbotham, Holden Richard

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    neurons in the rat olfactory bulb. An immunohistochemicalof the rat main olfactory bulb. Neurosci Res. 23:73-88.a repellent for olfactory bulb axons. Cell. 96:807-18. Li,

  6. PERFORMANCE OF RESIDENTIAL AIR-TO-AIR HEAT EXCHANGERS: TEST METHODS AND RESULTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisk, William J.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    14. Thermometer, Precision, 0.1oc Subdivision, Dry Bulb 15.Thermocouple, 30 gauge, Copper-Constantan, Dry Bulb 16.O.l°C Subdivisions, Wet Bulb 17. Thermocouple, 30 gauge,

  7. Role of the broadly expressed olfactory receptor OlfCc1 in mediating amino acid detection in Zebrafish

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeMaria, Shannon Nicole

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the mouse olfactory bulb. Nature, 419(6904), 296-300.Axons in the Main Olfactory Bulb. J. Neurosci. , Conzelmann,in the accessory olfactory bulb. Neuron, Dynes, J.L. & Ngai,

  8. Understanding Perception Through Neural 'Codes'

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Freeman, Walter J III

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    stage, the olfactory bulb, and excite mitral (pyramidal)1.89 m/s in the olfactory bulb, 2-4 m/s in neocortex) thatextend over the whole bulb. I infer that the correlation

  9. A NEUROBIOLOGICAL MODEL OF PERCEPTION Considerations for Transference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pincus, David; Freeman, Walter J III; Modell, Arnold

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    outermost layer of the synaptic bulb. The world never “getsthe level of the olfactory bulb, and it is here that thelevel of the olfactory bulb, thus resulting in an unlimited

  10. Chaotic neocortical dynamics.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Freeman, Walter J III

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    glomeruli of olfactory bulb on paired shock stimulation.mal seizure spikes in olfactory bulb and cortex caused byneurons in the olfactory bulb (a KIe set, Freeman and Erwin,

  11. Growth hormone responsive neural precursor cells reside within the adult mammalian brain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the adult olfactory bulb. J Neurosci 27, 8286–8296 (neurons of the olfactory bulb: a crucial role in regulatingin a decline in olfactory bulb neurogenesis. These results

  12. Integer Programs for High Dose Rate Brachytherapy Needle and Dose Planning that Directly Optimize Clinical Objectives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siauw, Ko-Ay Timmy

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    radiation received by the bulb of the penis correlates withof radiation dose to the bulb of the penis in men with andavoided puncturing the penile bulb; the average number of

  13. Heterogeneity in Drosophila Signaling Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agarwal, Gautam

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    sensory input to the olfactory bulb glomerulus analyzed bymaps in the olfactory bulb (Lodovichi et al. , 2003; Yan etmaps in the mouse olfactory bulb. Neuron 38:265-276 Marin

  14. Is there a space–time continuum in olfaction?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leon, Michael; Johnson, Brett A.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the mammalian olfactory bulb. Physiol Rev 86:409–433 3.scaling of olfactory bulb glomerular activity patterns.the zebra?sh olfactory bulb visualized by optical imaging.

  15. Simulation of radiant cooling performance with evaporative cooling sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, Timothy

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    vs. variable air volume) Dry-bulb temperature Dew-pointvia motor electronics) Wet-bulb temperature Waterside freewarm and the peaking outdoor wet-bulb temperature limits the

  16. Cooling efficiency of a brushless direct current stand fan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Bin; Schiavon, Stefano; Sekhar, Chandra; Cheong, David; Tham, Kwok Wai; Nazaroff, William W

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    orientations for 24 °C dry-bulb temperature, fan speedchamber under four dry-bulb temperatures (24, 26, 28, and 30CFE index is influenced by dry-bulb temperature, fan speed

  17. Individual glomeruli mediate innate olfactory attraction and aversion in Drosophila

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Semmelhack, Julia L.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    projections to the olfactory bulb. Cell, 1994. 79(6): p.organization of rat olfactory bulb analysed by the 2-activity in the olfactory bulb by high-resolution 2-

  18. Inhibitory circuits in the olfactory cortex

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stokes, Caleb C. A.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the mammalian olfactory bulb: sensory information atin the rat olfactory bulb. J Neurosci 23, 4108-4116. Cardin,in the vertebrate olfactory bulb. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A

  19. Effects of ambient humidity on the energy use of air conditioning equipment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Justin George

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    temperatures for high ambient wet bulb period of 6AM Sep 01,10 Figure 3.1: Comparison of dry bulb and relative humiditytemperatures for low ambient wet bulb period of 6AM Jan 06,

  20. DOE Publishes Final Rule for the Request for Exclusion of 100...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Request for Exclusion of 100 Watt R20 Short Incandescent Reflector Lamps from Energy Conservation Standards DOE Publishes Final Rule for the Request for Exclusion of 100 Watt...

  1. 2014-12-30 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standard for General...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    2014-12-30 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standard for General Service Fluorescent Lamps and Incandescent Reflector Lamps; Final Rule 2014-12-30 Issuance: Energy Conservation...

  2. Understanding Drooping Light Emitting Diodes CEEM | U.S. DOE...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Impact Understanding "droop" may result in cheaper, more efficient LEDs; LEDs are more energy efficient, smaller, and longer-lived than incandescent lamps or fluorescent...

  3. Obama Administration Delivers More than $36 Million to Pennsylvania...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    of incandescent and mercury vapor street light fixtures with energy-efficient light emitting diode (LED) equipment. The retrofitted fixtures will be specially tagged as energy...

  4. U.S. Department of Energy NEPA Categorical Exclusion Determination...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    replacements); 3) replacement of incandescent pedestrian signal heads with light-emitting diode (LED) pedestrian signals and traffic signal retrofits to LED; and 4) connection...

  5. CX-002177: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    incandescent traffic signal heads and pedestrian displays to energy efficient light-emitting diode displays; and 3) improve traffic signal system operations and efficiency by...

  6. U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    incandescent traffic signal heads and pedestrian displays to energy efficient light-emitting diode displays; and 3) improve traffic signal system operations and efficiency by...

  7. CX-008898: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    replacements); 3) replacement of incandescent pedestrian signal heads with light-emitting diode (LED) pedestrian signals and traffic signal retrofits to LED; and 4) connection...

  8. Particle Formation from Pulsed Laser Irradiation of Soot Aggregates studied with scanning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    incandescence method with scanning mobility particle sizerAde, "Interferometer-controlled scanning transmission X-rayto hamiche@ca.sandia.gov A scanning mobility particle sizer

  9. Catalog of DC Appliances and Power Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garbesi, Karina

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    resistance heating and incandescent lighting, the technologyresistance heating or by DC-favoring heat pump technology (technology (electronic fluorescent and LED). Similarly, heating

  10. Power Capture (PowCap) Board for Non Intrusive Load Monitoring and Power Line Communication Exploration and Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balakrishnan, Vikram

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for the LED Lamp. . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.13 Predictionfor the LED Lamp. . . . . . . . . . . . . Prediction tableappliances, including a) LED lamp, b) incandescent lamp, c)

  11. Journal of Chemical Ecology, Vol.23, No. 4, 1997 CUTICULAR HYDROCARBONS OF TERMITES OF THE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yorke, James

    --Cuticularhydrocarbons, chemotaxonomy, Isoptera, tropical ter- mites, gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, Virgin Islands, Caribbean scintillation vials over a single 75-W, reflecting incandescent light.

  12. Westinghouse Lighting: Noncompliance Determination (2010-CE-09/1001)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE issued a Notice of Noncompliance Determination to Westinghouse Lighting Corporation finding that various models of incandescent reflector lamps do not comport with the energy conservation standards.

  13. Data:2b268aa5-115c-43cd-b90b-e5f52620aee0 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Information Utility name: City of Frankfort, Indiana (Utility Company) Effective date: 19971027 End date if known: Rate name: SL Public Street Lighting 295 watt Incandescent...

  14. Buying an Appliance this Holiday Season? ENERGY STAR Products...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Freezers Room air conditioners Televisions Clothes washers Dishwashers Battery chargers Water heaters Fluorescent lamp ballasts Incandescent reflector lamps If your appliance has...

  15. Inverted lVIicroscope DIAPHOT-TMD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kleinfeld, David

    lamp bulb to be used is 12V- 50W. Do not use 12V-l00W halogen lamp bulb. If the lamp bulb of over the lamp is being lighted. o Exchanging the lamp bulb and fuse Before replacing the lamp bulb or fuse, turn as of replacement, do not touch. the lamp bulb with bare hands, immediately after putting out the lamp. 2 Dirt

  16. FOREST SERVICE Forest andRangeU. S.DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE P. 0.BOX 245, BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA 94701 Experime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Standiford, Richard B.

    , Riverside, California Dry bulb temperature range Dry bulb temperature control tolerance Dry bulb temperature. to 120' F. 1loF. Min. 40° F./hr. -23' F. to +20° F. @ 25' F. dry bulb, and 39' F. to 90' F. @ 120° F. dry bulb with comparable limits between these dry bulb temperatures. rt l0F. Min. lo0F./hr. 3.5 to 100ft

  17. STATE OF CALIFORNIA EVAPORATIVELY COOLED CONDENSING UNITS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (Btu/hr) EERa = EER at 75o F wetbulb and 95o F dry bulb; EERb = EER at 65o F wetbulb and 82o F dry bulb The system complies with all eligibility criteria: YES NO 1 EER at 95o F dry bulb and 75o F wet bulb temperature is listed with ARI 2 EER at 82o F dry bulb and 65o F wet bulb temperature is submitted to ARI

  18. INSTALLATION CERTIFICATE CF-6R-MECH-06 Evaporatively Cooled Condensing Units (Page 1 of 2)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    at 75o F wetbulb and 95o F dry bulb; EERb = EER at 65o F wetbulb and 82o F dry bulb The system complies with all eligibility criteria: YES NO 1 EER at 95o F dry bulb and 75o F wet bulb temperature is listed with ARI 2 EER at 82o F dry bulb and 65o F wet bulb temperature is submitted to ARI and published

  19. Scaling Up: Kilolumen Solid-State Lighting Exceeding 100 LPW via Remote Phosphor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waqidi Falicoff

    2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This thirty-month project was successful in attaining its ambitious objectives of demonstrating a radically novel 'remote-phosphor' LED light source that can out-perform conventional conformal coated phosphor LED sources. Numerous technical challenges were met with innovative techniques and optical configurations. This product development program for a new generation of solid-state light sources has attained unprecedented luminosity (over 1 kilo-lumen) and efficacy (based on the criterion lumens per 100mw radiant blue). LPI has successfully demonstrated its proprietary technology for optical synthesis of large uniform sources out of the light output of an array of separated LEDs. Numerous multiple blue LEDs illuminate single a phosphor patch. By separating the LEDs from the phosphor, the phosphor and LEDs operate cooler and with higher efficiency over a wide range of operating conditions (from startup to steady state). Other benefits of the system include: better source uniformity, more types of phosphor can be used (chemical interaction and high temperatures are no longer an issue), and the phosphor can be made up from a pre-manufactured sheet (thereby lowering cost and complexity of phosphor deposition). Several laboratory prototypes were built and operated at the expected high performance level. The project fully explored two types of remote phosphor system: transmissive and reflective. The first was found to be well suited for a replacement for A19 type incandescent bulbs, as it was able to replicate the beam pattern of a traditional filament bulb. The second type has the advantages that it is pre-collimate source that has an adjustable color temperature. The project was divided in two phases: Phase I explored a transmissive design and Phase II of the project developed reflective architectures. Additionally, in Phase II the design of a spherical emitting transmissive remote phosphor bulb was developed that is suitable for replacement of A19 and similar light bulbs. In Phase II several new reflective remote phosphor systems were developed and patents applied for. This research included the development of reflective systems in which the short-pass filter operated at a nominal incidence angle of 15{sup o}, a major advancement of this technology. Another goal of the project was to show that it is possible to align multiple optics to multiple LEDs (spaced apart for better thermal management) to within an accuracy in the z-direction of 10 microns or less. This goal was achieved. A further goal was to show it is possible to combine and homogenize the output from multiple LEDs without any flux loss or significant increase in etendue. This goal also was achieved. The following color-coded computer drawing of the Phase 2 reflective remote phosphor prototype gives an idea of the accuracy challenges encountered in such an assembly. The actual setup has less functional clarity due to the numerous items of auxiliary equipment involved. Not only did 10 degrees of freedoms alignment have to be supplied to the LEDs and component prisms as well, but there were also micro-titrating glue dispensers and vacuum hoses. The project also utilized a recently introduced high-index glass, available in small customized prisms. This prototype also embodies a significant advance in thin-film design, by which an unprecedented 98% single-pass efficiency was attained over a 30 degree range of incidence angle (Patents Pending). Such high efficiency is especially important since it applies to the blue light going to the phosphor and then again to the phosphor's light, so that the 'system' efficiency associated with short-pass filter was 95.5%. Other losses have to be kept equally small, towards which a new type of ultra-clear injection-moldable acrylic was discovered and used to make ultra-transparent CPC optics. Several transmissive remote phosphor prototypes were manufactured that could replace screw-in type incandescent bulbs. The CRI of the white light from these prototypes varied from 55 to 93. The system efficiency achieved was between 27 to 29.5

  20. Energy Efficiency Through Lighting Upgrades

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kara Berst; Maria Howeth

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lighting upgrades including neon to LED, incandescent to CFL's and T-12 to T-8 and T-5's were completed through this grant. A total of 16 Chickasaw nation facilities decreased their carbon footprint because of these grant funds. Calculations used were based on comparing the energy usage from the previous year�¢����s average and the current energy usage. For facilities without a full year's set of energy bills, the month after installation was compared to the same month from the previous year. Overall, the effect the lighting change-outs had for the gaming centers and casinos far exceeded expectations. For the Madill Gaming Center; both an interior and exterior upgrade was performed which resulted in a 31% decrease in energy consumption. This same reduction was seen in every facility that participated in the grant. Just by simply changing out light bulbs to newer energy efficient equivalents, a decrease in energy usage can be achieved and this was validated by the return on investment seen at Chickasaw Nation facilities. Along with the technical project tasks were awareness sessions presented at Chickasaw Head Starts. The positive message of environmental stewardship was passed down to head start students and passed along to Chickasaw employees. Excitement was created in those that learned what they could do to help reduce their energy bills and many followed through and took the idea home. For a fairy low cost, the general public can also use this technique to lower their energy consumption both at home and at work. Although the idea behind the project was somewhat simple, true benefits have been gained through environmental awareness and reductions of energy costs.

  1. The antennal lobe (AL) of an insect is the functional analog of the olfactory bulb in mammals. The first-level synaptic interaction between large numbers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menzel, Randolf - Institut für Biologie

    glomeruli, the medial (m) group with seven glomeruli, the ventroposterior (vp) group with 70 glomeruli, and the posterior (p) group with seven glomeruli (Fig. 43.1A). Glomeruli are the anatomical and func- tional units Microcircuits different groups of glomeruli of the AL (Fig. 43.1), the dorsoanterior (da) group with 70

  2. Problem 7-3: The air enters with a dry-bulb temperature of 50 o F and, at 50% relative humidity, with a wet-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    cooling water leaves the condenser at To = 8 o F below the temperature of the condensing steam F. Therefore the air flow is less than we might have hoped for with a large cooling tower water, leaving the cooling tower and entering the condenser at TCWin = 70 o F, this amount of heat

  3. Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    approximately 277 conventional60-watt light bulbs in tribal homes with 13-watt Light Emitting Diode (LED) bulbs; * Replacement of approximately 18 40-watt conventional fluorescent...

  4. CX-004575: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    approximately 277 conventional 60-watt light bulbs in tribal homes with 13-watt Light Emitting Diode (LED) bulbs; ? Replacement of approximately 18 40-watt conventional fluorescent...

  5. &?leaped upon receipt but intended for use

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the relative humidity from readings of the &y-bulb -8 wogt-bulb thermometere: table8 for the Poesible duration

  6. -cA Science Service --Feature D r . Charles 4. Erooks,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    by an ordinary drY-bulb thermometer and one with a bulb thinly wrapped i n wet muslin. mometers are fanned

  7. STATE OF CALIFORNIA CERTIFICATE OF COMPLIANCE AND FIELD INSPECTION CHECKLIST

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -incandescent luminaires, indicate nominal lamp wattage and lamp type ( i.e.: fluorescent, incandescent, HID); ballast type required on plans for all submittals. OLTG-2C (Page 1 of 3) Lighting Wattage Allowances for General Hardscape, Sales Frontage, or Ornamental Lighting. Optional on plans. OLTG-2C (Page 2 of 3) Lighting Wattage

  8. Electrical modulation of emissivity S. Vassant,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , it is difficult to develop an efficient light emitting diode because the spontaneous emission rate is proportional emitting diodes. Yet, incandescent sources are often the only option in the infrared (IR). Indeed tens of Hz. Hence, for many applications, incandescent light sources can- not compete with light

  9. Author's personal copy Radiative heat transfer in enhanced hydrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pilon, Laurent

    the physical mechanisms responsible for experimental observations that led to the definition of ``photo tube and heated in a furnace or by an incandescent lamp. It was observed that hydrogen release from the glass sample was faster and stronger when heated by an incandescent lamp than within a furnace. Here

  10. Colin Fink was a pioneer in electrochemical processing of materials. Fink is best known for his ground-breaking developments in the electro-deposi:on of metals, and par:cularly for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    :le tungsten for incandescent lamp filaments, an insoluble anode used in the copper Engineering and his inven:on of the alkaline baJery led to the company now known! ! Invented process to produce ductile tungsten for incandescent lamp filaments! ! Taught S. Ruben, who

  11. Mary Garden Plant List for the St. Clare Garden Santa Clara University, Santa Clara, California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwarz, Thomas

    , Blessed by Mary Petroselinum crispum Parsley, Our Lady's Lace BULBS Galanthus elwesii Snowdrop, Candlemas

  12. Efficient defrosting of an inclined flat surface Subrata Roy *, Haribalan Kumar, Richard Anderson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roy, Subrata

    and compared results with thermography and hot bulb type of measurements [12]. However, a correlation

  13. Baker County Extension Master Gardener Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    Baker County Extension Master Gardener Program 2014 Daffodil Bulb Fundraiser DAFFODIL BULB ORDER FORM Customer Name: ____________________ Phone: ____________________ Mail to: Daffodils ­ Bulb Order: Daffodils ­ Bulb Order DO NOT SEND MONEY ­ YOU WILL PAY AT PICK-UP Additional order forms are available

  14. Olfactory Computation in Glomerular Microcircuits Thomas A. Cleland*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the vertebrate olfactory bulb consists of discrete spheroid clusters of neuropil known as glomeruli. Within of olfactory bulb principal neurons and multiple classes of local interneurons. The computations within in the olfactory bulb is transformed prior to subsequent computations in the deep olfactory bulb and other regions

  15. CALS Office of Student Services--Career Development Cornell University 140 Roberts Hall Ithaca, NY 14853 www.cals.cornell.edu P: 607/255CALS (2257) F: 607/2544613 calsstudentservices@cornell.edu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keinan, Alon

    2257-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Imagine you are in a room with 3 switches. In an adjacent room there are 3 bulbs (all are off at the moment), and each switch belongs to one bulb. It is impossible to see from one room to another. How can you find out which switch belongs to which bulb, if you may enter the room with the bulbs only once

  16. Computerized analysing system using the active contour in ultrasound measurement of carotid artery intima-media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the common carotid artery (CCA) and carotid bulb] along the far wall of the distal CCA and the carotid bulb to 0#01±0#03 and 0#03±0#07 mm, respectively. The variability was slightly higher in the carotid bulb for both IM boundaries, but lower in the carotid bulb region than in the CCA. ########### The new AI

  17. Structure and Emergence of Specific Olfactory Glomeruli in the Mouse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in the olfactory bulb. Connecting 1000 populations of OSNs to the 1800 glomeruli of the mouse bulb poses-expressing OSNs occupies a large surface area of the bulb and coalesces abruptly into a proto- glomerulus systematic examination of OR-specific glomeruli. Key words: olfaction; olfactory system; olfactory bulb; glo

  18. LETTER doi:10.1038/nature09868 Distinct representations of olfactory information in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Datta, Sandeep Robert

    activity in the nose is converted into a segregated map in the olfactory bulb1­3 . Here we investigate how bulb to the piriform cortex and the cortical amygdala. The spatial order in the bulb is discarded invariant glomeruli in the olfactory bulb1­3 . Thus

  19. DOI: 10.1002/adma.200800484 Colloid Surfactants for Emulsion Stabilization**

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    particles, consisting of a hydrophilic bulb and a hydrophobic bulb. We call these particles ``colloid can precisely tune the relative bulb size ratio of our dimer particles and effectively their Ppacking-swollen polymer particles, we can manipulate the relative bulb size ratio of the resulting dimer particles

  20. QUALITY CONTROLLED LOCAL CLIMATOLOGICAL DATA Effective January, 2005, flags will be available for most data elements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    bulb, dew point and wet bulb temperatures were originally reported to the nearest tenth of a degree POINT 7 AVERAGE WET BULB Degree Days: Base 65 F 8 HEATING (SEASON BEGINS WITH JULY) 9 COOLING (SEASON DEPARTURE FROM NORMAL (DEGREES F) 33 MONTHLY AVERAGE DEW POINT (DEGREES F) 34 MONTHLY AVERAGE WET BULB

  1. NO[sub x] reduction by sulfur tolerant coronal-catalytic apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mathur, V.K.; Breault, R.W.; McLarnon, C.R.; Medros, F.G.

    1992-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention presents an NO[sub x] environment effective reduction apparatus comprising a sulfur tolerant coronal-catalyst such as high dielectric coronal-catalysts like glass wool, ceramic-glass wool or zirconium glass wool and method of use. In one embodiment the invention comprises an NO[sub x] reduction apparatus of sulfur tolerant coronal-catalyst adapted and configured for hypercritical presentation to an NO[sub x] bearing gas stream at a minimum of at least about 75 watts/cubic meter. 7 figs.

  2. NOx reduction by sulfur tolerant coronal-catalytic apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mathur, V.K.; Breault, R.W.; McLarnon, C.R.; Medros, F.G.

    1993-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention presents an NO[sub x] environment effective reduction apparatus comprising a sulfur tolerant coronal-catalyst such as high dielectric coronal-catalysts like glass wool, ceramic-glass wool or zirconium glass wool and method of use. In one embodiment the invention comprises an NO[sub x] reduction apparatus of sulfur tolerant coronal-catalyst adapted and configured for hypercritical presentation to an NO[sub x] bearing gas stream at a minimum of at least about 75 watts/cubic meter.

  3. Sample Exam 2 Phys 121 Number 6 Spring 2013 1. Identical 2.0-C charges are located on the vertices of a square with sides that are 2.0 m in length. Determine the electric potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Janow, Rich

    conductor is A) B) R C) R D) 3R E) 9R 16. Light bulb A is rated at 60 W and light bulb B is rated at 100 W. Both are designed to operate at 110 V. Which statement is correct? A) The 60 W bulb has a greater resistance and greater current than the 100 W bulb. B) The 60 W bulb has a greater resistance and smaller

  4. Use Patterns of LED Flashlights in Kenya and a One-Year Cost Analysis of Flashlight Ownership

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tracy, Jennifer; Jacobson, Arne; Mills, Evan

    2010-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Flashlight usage is widespread across much of sub-Saharan Africa.1 In Kenya in particular, over half of all households report owning a flashlight (Kamfor, 2002). Aside from household use, flashlights are also widely used to perform income-earning jobs in Kenya. Lumina Research Note No.4, the first report in this series documenting flashlight use in Kenya, highlights flashlight use patterns of night watchmen and bicycle taxi drivers. Both of these are occupations that rely on the use of flashlights on a nightly basis (Tracy et al., 2009). Also highlighted by Research Note No.4, flashlight users in Kenya have reported being highly dissatisfied with the quality of the low-cost LED flashlights that are available, and they identify several reoccurring problems they have faced as flashlight end-users (Tracy et al., 2009). The fact that there exists a substantial dependency upon flashlights in Kenya and that users are disgruntled with the available products suggests reasons for concern about flashlight quality. This concern is present despite two recent technological transitions in the flashlight market. First, LED technology has quickly emerged as the dominant source of portable lighting in Kenya, outpacing incandescent flashlights (Johnstone et al., 2009). LED technology has the potential to provide efficiency and performance benefits relative to incandescent bulbs, and low-cost LEDs have achieved price levels that make them cost competitive with conventional lighting sources for a number of applications (Mills, 2005). Second, rechargeable sealed-lead acid (SLA) batteries are also becoming more prevalent alternatives to disposable dry cell batteries. Flashlights using rechargeable SLA batteries tend to have a lower total cost of ownership over a two-year period than a flashlight using dry cell batteries (Radecsky, 2009); however, as this current report highlights, this may vary depending on the intensity of use patterns. To avoid a potential market spoiling effect for off-grid lighting products based on LED technology (Mills and Jacobson, 2008; Lighting Africa, 2007) a better understanding of flashlight use-patterns is crucial (Tracy et al., 2009). In addition, the economic implications faced by rural flashlight end-users provide further incentive for a move toward higher quality low-cost flashlights. In this report, our team uses interviews with 46 end users of flashlights to collect information about their use patterns and costs associated with owning and operating flashlight products. While flashlights used in their portable mode typically do not represent a substitute for kerosene or other forms of fuel-based lighting, at times they are used in stationary applications in place of a fuel-based lamp. In either case, these products often represent end users first exposure to LED technology and rechargeable dry cell batteries, and thus stand to either provide a positive or negative impression of these technologies for a diversity of lighting applications.

  5. Microwave lamp with multi-purpose rotary motor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ury, Michael G. (Bethesda, MD); Turner, Brian (Myersville, MD); Wooten, Robert D. (Rockville, MD)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a microwave powered electrodeless lamp, a single rotary motor is used to a) rotate the bulb and b) provide rotary motion to a blower or pump means for providing cooling fluid to the magnetron and/or to a forced gas cooling for providing cooler gas to the bulb. The blower may consist of only of an impeller without the usual blower housing. The motor, bulb stem and bulb, or motor, bulb stem, bulb and blower may be formed as an integral unit so as to facilitate replacement.

  6. Microwave lamp with multi-purpose rotary motor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ury, M.G.; Turner, B.; Wooten, R.D.

    1999-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    In a microwave powered electrodeless lamp, a single rotary motor is used to (a) rotate the bulb and (b) provide rotary motion to a blower or pump means for providing cooling fluid to the magnetron and/or to a forced gas cooler for providing cooling gas to the bulb. The blower may consist of only of an impeller without the usual blower housing. The motor, bulb stem and bulb, or motor, bulb stem, bulb and blower may be formed as an integral unit so as to facilitate replacement. 8 figs.

  7. Weather data handbook for HVAC and cooling equipment design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Data included detailed tabulations of wet bulb temperature frequencies for the summer months, tabulations in multiple frequency for winter and summer conditions, various weather parameters useful in estimating performance for heat exchange equipment and other applications. Other data provided are: 12-month dry bulb temperatures and 12-month wet bulb temperatures vs relative humidity; combination of wet bulb temperatures, wind speed, and relative humidity; wind direction with high relative humidities; hourly observations for relative humidity 93% or greater; coincident high wet bulb and dry bulb temperature, seasonal cloud cover, and heat islands. (MHR)

  8. High Efficiency m-plane LEDs on Low Defect Density Bulk GaN Substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David, Aurelien

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid-state lighting is a key technology for reduction of energy consumption in the US and worldwide. In principle, by replacing standard incandescent bulbs and other light sources with sources based on light-emitting diodes (LEDs), ultimate energy efficiency can be achieved. The efficiency of LEDs has improved tremendously over the past two decades, however further progress is required for solid- state lighting to reach its full potential. The ability of an LED at converting electricity to light is quantified by its internal quantum efficiency (IQE). The material of choice for visible LEDs is Gallium Nitride (GaN), which is at the basis of blue-emitting LEDs. A key factor limiting the performance of GaN LEDs is the so-called efficiency droop, whereby the IQE of the LED decreases significantly at high current density. Despite decades of research, efficiency droop remains a major issue. Since high-current operation is necessary for practical lighting applications, reducing droop is a major challenge for the scientific community and the LED industry. Our approach to solving the droop issue is the use of newly available low-defect-density bulk GaN non-polar substrates. In contrast to the standard foreign substrates (sapphire, silicon carbide, silicon) used in the industry, we have employed native bulk GaN substrates with very low defect density, thus ensuring exquisite material quality and high IQE. Whereas all commercial LEDs are grown along the c-plane crystal direction of GaN, we have used m-plane non-polar substrates; these drastically modify the physical properties of the LED and enable a reduction of droop. With this approach, we have demonstrated very high IQE performance and low droop. Our results focused on violet and blue LEDs. For these, we have demonstrated very high peak IQEs and current droops of 6% and 10% respectively (up to a high current density of 200A.cm-2). All these results were obtained under electrical operation. These high IQE and low droop values are in line with the program’s milestones. They demonstrate that bulk non-polar GaN substrates represent a disruptive technology for LED performance. Application of this technology to real-world products is feasible, provided that the cost of GaN substrates is compatible with the market’s requirement.

  9. CX-011406: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Notice of Proposed Rulemaking for Energy Conservation Standards for General Service Fluorescent Lamps and Incandescent Reflector Lamps CX(s) Applied: B5.1 Date: 11/21/2013 Location(s): Nationwide Offices(s): Golden Field Office

  10. Lighting Market Sourcebook for the U.S.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vorsatz, D.; Shown, L.; Koomey, J.; Moezzi, M.; Denver, A.; Atkinson, B.

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2.1.4. Residential Lamp Types 2.1.5. Wattage, Hours of Use,all lamp types (mostly incandescent) in all other wattageWattage Category Energy Use (hours per day) lamp types)

  11. Quality characteristics of vacuum-packaged beef as affected by postmortem chill, storage temperature and storage interval

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beebe, Sammy Denzil

    1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    styrofoam tray and overwrapped with Goodyear "Choice Wrap" and displayed under retail conditions (1-3 C under 82 footcandles of incandescent light). The retail cuts were scored for four consecutive days for surface discoloration, peripheral discolora...

  12. INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING NANOTECHNOLOGY Nanotechnology 15 (2004) 16651670 PII: S0957-4484(04)85144-4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lorke, Axel

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    was measured in situ by time-resolved laser-induced incandescence (TR-LII) and ex situ by rapid thermophoretic distribution and particle morphology was also examined by rapid thermophoretic particle sampling

  13. Commercialization of gallium nitride nanorod arrays on silicon for solid-state lighting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wee, Qixun

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One important component in energy usage is lighting, which is currently dominated by incandescent and fluorescent lamps. However, due to potentially higher efficiencies and thus higher energy savings, solid-state lighting ...

  14. Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of LED Lighting Products

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This March 28, 2013 webcast reviewed DOE's recently completed three-part study of the life-cycle energy and environmental impacts of LED lighting products relative to incandescent and CFL...

  15. Energy Blog | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    the country. December 1, 2009 Save Money with LED Holiday Light Strings LED (or light emitting diode) light strings can use 90% less energy than regular incandescent light strings....

  16. U.S. Dept of Energy's EECBG-SEP Technical Assistance Program...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    how well a source renders color compared to a reference source. So if you think about daylight and incandescent light, which happen to be the standards that we use to compare...

  17. Lumiram Electric: Proposed Penalty (2010-CE-1014)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Lumiram Electric Corporation failed to certify a variety of incandescent reflector lamps as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  18. Lumiram Electric: Order (2010-CE-1014)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE issued an Order and entered into a Compromise Agreement with Lumiram Electric Corporation after finding Lumiram Electric had failed to certify that certain models of incandescent reflector lamps comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  19. Physics 240 Box Contents 11 May 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Gus

    ea. LED, ultra bright yellow 2 ea. LED, ultra bright orange 1 ea. 2N3904, npn small-signal transistor. 7414, inverter 1 ea. 7432, OR gates 2 ea. 7490, decade counter 1 ea. #47 incandescent lamp #12;

  20. Catalog of DC Appliances and Power Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garbesi, Karina

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    as do HID lamps, and an LED lamp includes electronic driverT8, and CFL lamps CFL lamps LED lamp CFL floodlight LightingIncandescent, fluorescent, and LED lamps Electric resistance

  1. Physics 240 Box Contents 11 December 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Gus

    . 1N4734, Zener diode, 5.6 V 2 ea. LED, ultra bright yellow 2 ea. LED, ultra bright orange 1 ea. 2N. #47 incandescent lamp #12;

  2. 38 CHAPTER 1. ASSEMBLY MANUAL BiDirectional Motor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    38 CHAPTER 1. ASSEMBLY MANUAL Bi­Directional Motor and Infrared Beacon Uni­Directional Motor, LED, Incandescent Lamp Sensor, Polarized Sensor, Non­polarized Figure 1.26: Standard Connector Plug Configurations

  3. Gas-source molecular beam epitaxial growth and characterization of the (Al,In,Ga)NP/GaP material system and Its applications to light-emitting diodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Odnoblyudov, Vladimir

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for indicator lamp application, but the LED structure can befor indicator lamp application, but the LED structure can beLEDs are the ultimate goal to replace incandescent and fluorescent lamps

  4. Sandia National Laboratories: Lighting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lighting Solid-State Lighting Science EFRC On November 11, 2010, in Welcome History of Incandescence History of LEDs Grand Challenges Our EFRC SSLS-EFRC Contacts News Publications...

  5. LED Replacement Lamps: Current Performance and the Latest on ENERGY STAR®

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This May 19, 2009 webcast summarized CALiPER's recent benchmark testing of common omnidirectional incandescent lamps (e.g., A-lamps), and provided an update on ENERGY STAR criteria for LED integral...

  6. DuraLamp USA: Order (2010-CE-0912)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered DuraLamp USA, Inc. to pay a $2,500 civil penalty after finding DuraLamp USA had failed to certify that model PAR 30, an incandescent reflector lamp, complies with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  7. Westinghouse Lighting: Order (2010-CE-09/1001)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered Westinghouse Lighting Corporation to pay a $50,000 civil penalty after finding Westinghouse Lighting had failed to certify that certain models of general service flourescent and incandescent reflector lamps comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  8. Westinghouse Lighting: Proposed Penalty (2010-CE-09/1001)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Westinghouse Lighting Corporation failed to certify various flourescent and incandescent reflector lamps as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  9. Lighting a building with a single bulb : toward a system for illumination in the 21st c.; or, A centralized illumination system for the efficient decoupling and recovery of lighting related heat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levens, Kurt Antony, 1961-

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Piping light represents the first tenable method for recovery and reutilization of lighting related heat. It can do this by preserving the energy generated at the lamp as radiative, departing from precedent and avoiding ...

  10. Saving Energy and Saving Money in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Nutter, Michael; Oliver, LeAnn; Gajewski, Katherine; Williams, Doug; Best, DeLain

    2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Philadelphia is using a portion of its EECBG grant, to change out over 50,000 traffic bulbs with energy-efficient LED bulbs and save $1 million per year in energy savings.

  11. DOE/LX/07-0326&D1 Secondary Document DMSA C-337-04 Solid Waste...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cans, light bulbs and starters, a light bulb end, and a tube of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) glue. Since the RCRA wastes were radiologically contaminated and were removed from PCB...

  12. Energy Blog | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    light bulbs can drive up electricity bills and drain homeowners' wallets. With that in mind, government officials in the east Texas city of Longview established a light bulb swap...

  13. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Using a light bulb with a known wattage, the students will illuminate the bulb using a PV cell. This way the students will know the approximate energy coming from the PV cell....

  14. Importance of Design Conditions for Sizing Air-Conditioning Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaban, N.; Maheshwari, G. P.; Suri, R. K.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Design conditions based on the meteorological data collected at two weather stations located less than 10 km away from each other within Kuwait City are presented for dry-bulb temperature (DBT) and web-bulb temperature (WBT) prioritization...

  15. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    will use a photovoltaic (PV) cell to measure the energy from the sun. Using a light bulb with a known wattage, the students will illuminate the bulb using a PV cell. This way...

  16. what goes here? Beverages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Lijser, Peter

    · Chemicals · Solvents (gas,antifreeze) · Fluorescent light tubes & bulbs · Lubricants & motor oil · Oil

  17. -A Science Service -----.P'tJtiCui-e Releaeed upon receipt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bureau consists of an air thermometer having a bulb at each end, ono bulb being; coated with lamp-black. There is a small column of mercury between the two enclosed masses of air. the air is exhausted. bulb warms and expands, and the mercury i s forced toward the other bulb u n t i l it Comes i n contact with a pair

  18. The average (mean) of a set of n numbers y1, y2, , yn is yave = y = y =

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feldman, Joel

    . Example 2 Example 3 If you plug, for example, a light bulb into a socket and turn it on, the light bulb at which the voltage is zero If the light bulb has resistance R ohms, this causes, by Ohm's law, a current of I(t) = 1 R V (t) (amps) to flow through the light bulb. The current I is the number of units

  19. Mentoring New Visions Students Design Lab Sustainability Team

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salama, Khaled

    This work is supported by the NSF under cooperative agreement EEC-0812056 and by New York State under NYSTAR replacement · Track and analyze energy consumption and savings data before and after bulb replacement. · Build & controls) · Track energy savings · Build demonstration prototypes LED Demo & Bulb Survey in DCC DCC Bulb

  20. Evaluation of fin staging methods for minimizing coil frost accumulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watters, Richard J.

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    was measured at 47?F (8.3?C) dry-bulb and 43?F (6.1?C) wet-bulb outdoor temperatures with an indoor dry-bulb temperature of 70?F (21.1?C). Frosting/defrosting performance was then tested at the standard outdoor condition of 35?F (1.7?C) and 82% RH...

  1. THE CHEMISTRY OF HO2NO2 AND THE PHOTOCHEMISTRY OF THE HOX-NOX-COX SYSTEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Littlejohn, David

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and at 4. tJm in a 1081 cm 3 bulb in mi an 10~ 3 ion of H2 owork in ic No. 1142 tungsten bulb with a the light source isis operated The tungsten bulb was Light from either source

  2. Can Emergency Physicians Perform Common Carotid Doppler Flow Measurements to Assess Volume Responsiveness?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stolz, Lori A.; Mosier, Jarrod M.; Gross, Austin M.; Douglas, Matthew J.; Blavais, Michael; Adhikari, Srikar

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    within 0.5cm of the carotid bulb and measured intima to0.5cm of the common carotid bulb in the long axis with a 12-within 0.5 cm of the carotid bulb and measured intima to

  3. HIGH INTENSITY DISCHARGE 400-WATT SODIUM BALLAST PHASE I FINAL REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Felper, G.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mean P =377W o Mean==0.7 8 o· Bulb number XBL809~1933 FIGUREIANA~~;;;T TASK II (I) I\\) BULB LUE TEST I LIGHT REGULATIONII. They were Regulation Over Bulb Life and Light Regulation

  4. -A Scidiicc-.Service Pc3tu-e 9closszd ~ ~ m i irccoipt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .rparod with those outdoors. If The S a m COiiCCi'll rccomzsnds cortain cocbinations of dr:r-bulb aiid 7xt-bulb t , a corib'inatixi of 80 dopacs dry-bulb and 65.2 dc;;i*ecs met-bul5 i s said t o be ideal iiiside, but i n i.re-m.md by tho dry-bulb thor::.o;nc ter. Owmer d,.;r it'rmy be aiLvis?31e t o lreop tho dry-bulb tcr

  5. High efficiency quasi-monochromatic infrared emitter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brucoli, Giovanni; Besbes, Mondher; Benisty, Henri, E-mail: henri.benisty@institutoptique.fr; Greffet, Jean-Jacques [Laboratoire Charles Fabry, UMR 8501, Institut d’Optique, CNRS, Université Paris-Sud 11, 2, Avenue Augustin Fresnel, 91127 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Bouchon, Patrick; Haïdar, Riad [Office National d’Études et de Recherches Aérospatiales, Chemin de la Hunière, 91761 Palaiseau (France)

    2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Incandescent radiation sources are widely used as mid-infrared emitters owing to the lack of alternative for compact and low cost sources. A drawback of miniature hot systems such as membranes is their low efficiency, e.g., for battery powered systems. For targeted narrow-band applications such as gas spectroscopy, the efficiency is even lower. In this paper, we introduce design rules valid for very generic membranes demonstrating that their energy efficiency for use as incandescent infrared sources can be increased by two orders of magnitude.

  6. Cost-effective Lighting Retrofits: Lessons Learned

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, M. D.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in cramped fixtures. Those who replace lamps are often more likely to replace failed integral units with cheap incandescents again, while with component-type units they tend to replace the failed fluorescent lamp only. - Where incandescent lamps are on a... fixtures, 9 and 13 watt quad tubes may not start in freezing weather. Twin 9be lamps of similar wattages may be a better ioice. Power factor can be quite low on some lagnetic ballasted products, while total ~rmonic distortion can be high on some...

  7. Analysis of the Chinese Market for Building Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Sha; Evans, Meredydd; Shi, Qing

    2014-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    China will account for about half of the new construction globally in the coming decade. Its floorspace doubled from 1996 to 2011, and Chinese rural buildings alone have as much floorspace as all of U.S. residential buildings. Building energy consumption has also grown, increasing by over 40% since 1990. To curb building energy demand, the Chinese government has launched a series of policies and programs. Combined, this growth in buildings and renovations, along with the policies to promote green buildings, are creating a large market for energy efficiency products and services. This report assesses the impact of China’s policies on building energy efficiency and on the market for energy efficiency in the future. The first chapter of this report introduces the trends in China, drawing on both historical analysis, and detailed modeling of the drivers behind changes in floorspace and building energy demand such as economic and population growth, urbanization, policy. The analysis describes the trends by region, building type and energy service. The second chapter discusses China’s policies to promote green buildings. China began developing building energy codes in the 1980s. Over time, the central government has increased the stringency of the code requirements and the extent of enforcement. The codes are mandatory in all new buildings and major renovations in China’s cities, and they have been a driving force behind the expansion of China’s markets for insulation, efficient windows, and other green building materials. China also has several other important policies to encourage efficient buildings, including the Three-Star Rating System (somewhat akin to LEED), financial incentives tied to efficiency, appliance standards, a phasing out of incandescent bulbs and promotion of efficient lighting, and several policies to encourage retrofits in existing buildings. In the third chapter, we take “deep dives” into the trends affecting key building components. This chapter examines insulation in walls and roofs; efficient windows and doors; heating, air conditioning and controls; and lighting. These markets have seen significant growth because of the strength of the construction sector but also the specific policies that require and promote efficient building components. At the same time, as requirements have become more stringent, there has been fierce competition, and quality has at time suffered, which in turn has created additional challenges. Next we examine existing buildings in chapter four. China has many Soviet-style, inefficient buildings built before stringent requirements for efficiency were more widely enforced. As a result, there are several specific market opportunities related to retrofits. These fall into two or three categories. First, China now has a code for retrofitting residential buildings in the north. Local governments have targets of the number of buildings they must retrofit each year, and they help finance the changes. The requirements focus on insulation, windows, and heat distribution. Second, the Chinese government recently decided to increase the scale of its retrofits of government and state-owned buildings. It hopes to achieve large scale changes through energy service contracts, which creates an opportunity for energy service companies. Third, there is also a small but growing trend to apply energy service contracts to large commercial and residential buildings. This report assesses the impacts of China’s policies on building energy efficiency. By examining the existing literature and interviewing stakeholders from the public, academic, and private sectors, the report seeks to offer an in-depth insights of the opportunities and barriers for major market segments related to building energy efficiency. The report also discusses trends in building energy use, policies promoting building energy efficiency, and energy performance contracting for public building retrofits.

  8. High Efficiency, Illumination Quality OLEDs for Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph Shiang; James Cella; Kelly Chichak; Anil Duggal; Kevin Janora; Chris Heller; Gautam Parthasarathy; Jeffery Youmans; Joseph Shiang

    2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of the program was to demonstrate a 45 lumen per watt white light device based upon the use of multiple emission colors through the use of solution processing. This performance level is a dramatic extension of the team's previous 15 LPW large area illumination device. The fundamental material system was based upon commercial polymer materials. The team was largely able to achieve these goals, and was able to deliver to DOE a 90 lumen illumination source that had an average performance of 34 LPW a 1000 cd/m{sup 2} with peak performances near 40LPW. The average color temperature is 3200K and the calculated CRI 85. The device operated at a brightness of approximately 1000cd/m{sup 2}. The use of multiple emission colors particularly red and blue, provided additional degrees of design flexibility in achieving white light, but also required the use of a multilayered structure to separate the different recombination zones and prevent interconversion of blue emission to red emission. The use of commercial materials had the advantage that improvements by the chemical manufacturers in charge transport efficiency, operating life and material purity could be rapidly incorporated without the expenditure of additional effort. The program was designed to take maximum advantage of the known characteristics of these material and proceeded in seven steps. (1) Identify the most promising materials, (2) assemble them into multi-layer structures to control excitation and transport within the OLED, (3) identify materials development needs that would optimize performance within multilayer structures, (4) build a prototype that demonstrates the potential entitlement of the novel multilayer OLED architecture (5) integrate all of the developments to find the single best materials set to implement the novel multilayer architecture, (6) further optimize the best materials set, (7) make a large area high illumination quality white OLED. A photo of the final deliverable is shown. In 2003, a large area, OLED based illumination source was demonstrated that could provide light with a quality, quantity, and efficiency on par with what can be achieved with traditional light sources. The demonstration source was made by tiling together 16 separate 6-inch x 6-inch blue-emitting OLEDs. The efficiency, total lumen output, and lifetime of the OLED based illumination source were the same as what would be achieved with an 80 watt incandescent bulb. The devices had an average efficacy of 15 LPW and used solution-processed OLEDs. The individual 6-inch x 6-inch devices incorporated three technology strategies developed specifically for OLED lighting -- downconversion for white light generation, scattering for outcoupling efficiency enhancement, and a scalable monolithic series architecture to enable large area devices. The downconversion approach consists of optically coupling a blue-emitting OLED to a set of luminescent layers. The layers are chosen to absorb the blue OLED emission and then luminescence with high efficiency at longer wavelengths. The composition and number of layers are chosen so that the unabsorbed blue emission and the longer wavelength re-emission combine to make white light. A downconversion approach has the advantage of allowing a wide variety of colors to be made from a limited set of blue emitters. In addition, one does not have to carefully tune the emission wavelength of the individual electro-luminescent species within the OLED device in order to achieve white light. The downconversion architecture used to develop the 15LPW large area light source consisted of a polymer-based blue-emitting OLED and three downconversion layers. Two of the layers utilized perylene based dyes from BASF AG of Germany with high quantum efficiency (>98%) and one of the layers consisted of inorganic phosphor particles (Y(Gd)AG:Ce) with a quantum efficiency of {approx}85%. By independently varying the optical density of the downconversion layers, the overall emission spectrum could be adjusted to maximize performance for lighting (e.g. blackbody temp

  9. Parameter Estimation of Dynamic Air-conditioning Component Models Using Limited Sensor Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hariharan, Natarajkumar

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    .1). ?? , is the area of orifice opening and ?? is the coefficient of discharge of the expansion valve at that specific condition. Coefficient of discharge is a dependent on the EEV geometry and the thermal?fluid properties of the refrigerant flowing through... Area of application of bulb pressure ?2 Area of application of evaporator pressure ?? External surface area of the TEV bulb ??? Area of heat conduction between the refrigerant and the bulb ?? Area of opening for refrigerant flow in expansion...

  10. Business Case for Energy Efficiency in Support of Climate Change Mitigation, Economic and Societal Benefits in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McNeil, Michael A.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    subsidize 150m energy-efficient bulbs” June 30, 2010 Cheung,China's Booming Energy Efficiency Industry. World Resourceschinas_booming_energy_efficiency_industry.pdf CNIS, 2010.

  11. TOMORROW: Department of Energy to Announce Philips Lighting North...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    American consumers and businesses money. Philips developed a highly efficient light emitting diode (LED) bulb to meet rigorous requirements of the L Prize competition - ensuring...

  12. Program Name: Simple Steps, Smart Savings Simple Steps, Smart...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and install high-quality, energy-efficient compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs), light emitting diode bulbs (LEDs), light fixtures and energy-saving showerheads. Beginning in...

  13. CX-006564: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    3) retrofit outdoor lighting, traffic signals, and lighted street signs with light emitting diode bulbs and replace indoor light fixtures in the Esther Snyder Community Center...

  14. CX-004779: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    (i.e., install compact and linear fluorescent light bulbs and ballasts, light emitting diode emergency and exit signs lighting, occupancy sensors, andor appliances) and...

  15. U.S. Department of Energy NEPA Categorical Exclusion Determination...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    3) retrofit outdoor lighting, traffic signals, and lighted street signs with light emitting diode bulbs and replace indoor light fixtures in the Esther Snyder Community Center...

  16. EIA - Annual Energy Outlook 2013 Early Release

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    households adopt more efficient technologies, such as compact fluorescent and light-emitting diode bulbs. Commercial Commercial sector energy consumption grows from 8.6...

  17. Laser Compression of Tantalum /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Chia-Hui

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tantalum has been widely used as filaments in electric light bulbs, rectifiers, preparation of skull plates, surgical instruments, chemical equipment, and furnaces [

  18. Manufacturing | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the production of clean energy technologies like electric vehicles, LED bulbs and solar panels. The Department is also working with manufacturers to increase their energy...

  19. anatomy plant: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    other food item was more widely traded (Gunther 1973). People traveled great distances to harvest the bulbs and there is some suggestion that plants were dispersed beyond their...

  20. Department of Energy Announces Philips Lighting North America...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Product Delivers on Department's Challenge to Replace Common Light Bulb with Energy-Saving Lighting Alternative Washington, D.C. - The U.S. Department of Energy today...

  1. Graduate Teaching Assistant Lab Setup Revised September 9, 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dai, Pengcheng

    ................................................................................................6 Mechanical Equivalent of Heat..........................................................................................................10 Standing Waves I--The Vibrating String ........................................................................................................14 Ohm's Law I--Elementary DC Circuits with Light Bulbs ...................................15 Ohm

  2. Anoka Municipal Utility- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Anoka Municipal Utilities (AMU) offers incentives for residential customers to install energy-efficient appliances and light bulbs in eligible homes. Rebates are available for Energy Star qualified...

  3. Income Tax Deduction for Energy-Efficient Products

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This incentive is available for dishwashers, clothes washers, air conditioners, ceiling fans, compact fluorescent light bulbs, dehumidifiers, programmable thermostats or refrigerators that meet or...

  4. Essays on Environmental and Resource Economics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toledo, Chantal Nathalie

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    education, health, trans- portation, electricity and watereducation, the type of light bulb the participant has at home, whether she fully pays the electricity

  5. General Counsel's Office Issues Guidance on Inherently Governmental...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Creation of New Health, Safety and Security Office Westinghouse Pays 50,000 Civil Penalty to Resolve Light Bulb Efficiency Violations DOE Launches New Smart Grid Web Portal...

  6. Data:72f9105d-8b34-485e-8b32-81e35b137afe | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    schedule. This includes photoelectric control equipment, lighting fixture, mast arm and bulb. Any additional investment required by the extension of secondary lines, or hanging of...

  7. Climatically Diverse Data Set for Flat-Plate PV Module Model...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    o Direct normal, diffuse and global horiz. irradiance o Wind speed and direction; dry bulb temperature; relative humidity; barometric pressure; precipitation 7 Daily Operations *...

  8. DOE Resolves Nearly All of its September 2010 Certification Enforcemen...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    one case based on tangible evidence that the company, Aero-Tech, sells a type of bulb that qualifies for an exemption from the certification requirement. Four proposed...

  9. Data:7f0c8183-5b88-4bd5-857a-e29d0c8a9ddf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    20100501 End date if known: Rate name: SECURITY LIGHTING SERVICES: 400W Mercury Vapor Bulb Sector: Lighting Description: Dusk till Dawn Lighting Service Source or reference:...

  10. Emergence of neuronal diversity from patterning of telencephalic progenitors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azzarelli, Roberta; Hardwick, Laura J. A.; Philpott, Anna

    2015-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

      long  distances  to  populate  the  cortex  and  the  olfactory  bulb  139-­?141.    In   contrast   to   neurogenesis   in   the   dorsal   pallium,   it   is   well   established   that   each...

  11. Data:7262b279-e32b-4a52-9d7f-9cf28788ca1e | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    20100501 End date if known: Rate name: SECURITY LIGHTING SERVICES: 175w Mercury Vapor Bulb Sector: Lighting Description: Dusk till Dawn Lighting Service Source or reference:...

  12. Energy Department Announces Next Phase of L Prize® Competition...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    The Energy Department estimates that replacing them with bulbs efficient enough to win the L Prize would save the country 11 terawatt-hours of electricity per year -...

  13. Microsoft Word - SWMU 214 OS-03 rev 121407 - draft.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    waste formerly stored included welding rods, light bulbs, metal marker, drum of used steam turbine oil, can of pipe threadgasket sealant, respirator canisters, capacitors,...

  14. Utilization of oilseed proteins in ground beef formulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marshall, William Houston

    1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , overwrapped with a oxygen permeable film (Goodyear Choice Wrap) and placed in a retail display case. The case temperature was maintained at O'C. The case was illuminated for 12 hr periods with 82 footcandles of incandescent light. The samples were rated...

  15. Today LED Holiday Lights, Tomorrow the World?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon, Kelly L.

    2004-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This article for The APEM Advantage, the quarterly newsletter of the Association of Professional Energy Managers (APEM) describes the recent increase in the popularity of light emitting diode (LED) lighting and compares LED light output with that of incandescent and compact fluorescent lighting.

  16. Numerical Modelling of Light Emission and Propagation in (Organic) LEDs with the Green's Tensor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Floreano, Dario

    light emitting diodes, light emission, light extraction, dipole radiation, stratified media, layered surpasses incandescent sources by a factor of 2 and with further improvements light emitting diodes could on light extraction techniques from inorganic light emitting diodes we recommend chapter 5 in 1 . Organic

  17. Optical Wireless based on High Brightness Visible LEDs Grantham Pang, Thomas Kwan, Hugh Liu, Chi-Ho Chan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pang, Grantham

    and encoded with audio or data signal. Hence, an LED indicator lamp or traffic light can become an information for incandescent lamps [3,4]. This advancement has led to the production of large- area full-color LED displaysOptical Wireless based on High Brightness Visible LEDs Grantham Pang, Thomas Kwan, Hugh Liu, Chi

  18. DUAL USE OF LEDS: SIGNALING AND COMMUNICATIONS IN ITS Grantham Pang, Chi-ho Chan, Hugh Liu, Thomas Kwan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pang, Grantham

    of an incandescent lamp is 800 hours while the life expectancy of LED is 10-23 years. This result shows that LED has : · LED indicator lamps (as in some dashboard, traffic signals, card readers). · LED displays (1 DUAL USE OF LEDS: SIGNALING AND COMMUNICATIONS IN ITS Grantham Pang, Chi-ho Chan, Hugh Liu

  19. The light-emitting diode (LED) is an fairly new kind of light source found currently in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The light-emitting diode (LED) is an fairly new kind of light source found currently in only a few applications, such as traffic lights and exit signs. As a relatively untested technology, luminaire this technology an ideal replacement for less efficient incandescent light sources, particularly in applications

  20. Peak Power Reduction Strategies for the Lighting Systems in Government Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Nakib, D.; Al-Mulla, A. A.; Maheshwari, G. P.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    fluorescent lamps with ECGs, CFLs, incandescent lamps and light emitting diodes (LEDs). The building has a peak load of around 2900 kW and it is mainly shared by A/C and lighting. Lighting system is controlled by DELMATIC software which controls...

  1. A positive vision for restoring balance to the carbon cycle, while allowing for global growth in population and wellbeing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eisen, Michael

    of the Earth is located between one solid mass, whose central heat may surpass that of incandescent matter, into dark radiant heat... This distinction between luminous heat and dark heat explains the increase basis for influence of Water and CO2 on Earth's temperature "As a dam built across a river causes

  2. The atoms may be charged or neutral (how?) mass range: 1.67 10-27

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : where does our food come from? different plants have a different isotope content What other uses (2008) *mention UCSB project "Children of the corn" #12; Can we get energy from atoms? ... fusion and fission "The sun is a mass of incandescent gas A gigantic nuclear furnace Where hydrogen is built

  3. Research paper Impact of the eruptive activity on glacier evolution at Popocatpetl Volcano

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kääb, Andreas

    , Colombia, the eruption melted, fractured and destabilized the ice cap (Thouret, 1990). On the other hand to melting processes. The most important loss occurred over 2000­2001 when 19% of the glacier-covered area and low activity. Pyroclastic flow generation, ejection of incandescent material, and tephra fall affected

  4. 851 S.W. Sixth Avenue, Suite 1100 Steve Crow 503-222-5161 Portland, Oregon 97204-1348 Executive Director 800-452-5161

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    savings come primarily from commercial and industrial equipment and residential water heaters. · Savings Ballasts Water Heaters Small Electric Motors Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps Clothes Dryers Clothes Incandescent Reflector Lamps Direct Heating Equipment Pool Heaters Clothes Washers, Commercial Dishwashers

  5. Electrical Appliances Students may use clocks, sound equipment, computers, electric razors, hair dryers,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aalberts, Daniel P.

    with a heating coil *Torchiere type lamps with a halogen bulb, and other lamps with a halogen bulb greater than there is specific UL approval for a higher wattage. Violators of any of the above policies will be charged $50, Prohibited Appliances, and Halogen Torchiere Lamps 1st offense: $50.00 fine and the student will be called

  6. University of Winnipeg Department of Theatre and Film Safe Handling of Lighting Instruments Updated: 09/2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Jeff

    . - Depending on the facility you are working in wattages may vary. Replace bulbs only of the same type the pipe and lower or hand it down to a spotter. CHANGING LAMPS: - The light must be physically unplugged to change a bulb you must wait a minimum of 5 minutes after the lamp has been on and you must use gloves

  7. A Study of Transient Behavior During Start-Up of Residential Heat Pumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katipamula, Srinivas

    in the cooling node. All the tests were conducted according to the ASHRAE Standard (1983). The effects of indoor dry-bulb temperature (72 to 80 F), indoor relative humidity (20 to 67%), outdoor dry-bulb temperature (82 to 100 F), cycling rate (0.8 to 10 cph...

  8. Marvell NanoLab Member login Lab Manual Contents MercuryWeb Berkeley Microlab Chapter 4.34

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Healy, Kevin Edward

    irradiates ultraviolet (UV) light by means of an electrodeless, sealed bulb. High voltage DC power is converted to microwave energy by two magnetrons, which in turn produce a high-temperature plasma inside the bulb. This plasma then re-radiates the energy in the form of infrared, visible, and ultraviolet

  9. Distinguished Lecture Series - Balancing the Energy & Climate Budget

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The average American uses 11400 Watts of power continuously. This is the equivalent of burning 114 x100 Watt light bulbs, all the time. The average person globally uses 2255 Watts of power, or a little less than 23 x100 Watt light bulbs.

  10. Table Set-up with Modern Engineering Tools Target Aud ience: Parents of elementary school students (grades 3-6) and Middle and High School Students

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Linhardt, Robert J.

    of a 40 lumen equivalent LED bulb (cluster of single LEDs) attached , the Lamp specifications spreadsheet (grades 3-6) and Middle and High School Students Objectives: 1. Introduce LED technology and design by using the USB Microscope. 2. Introduce the LED and bulb as an efficient alternative to conventional

  11. Comparative Study Between Air-Cooled and Water-Cooled Condensers of the Air-Conditioning Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maheshwari, G. P.; Mulla Ali, A. A.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The weather in Kuwait is very dry where the dry-bulb temperature exceeds the wet-bulb temperature more than 20oC in most of the summer months. Thus, the air-conditioning (A/C) system with the water-cooled (WC) condensers is expected to perform more...

  12. Homework.docx

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Owner

    A life policy insurance policy was issued two years ago to (52). .... A maintenance contract on a hotel promises to replace burned out light bulbs at the end of each ... Each light bulb costs 1. .... Losses are based on the contract premium. Using the normal approximation, calculate the minimum number of policies the insurer ...

  13. AS102 -Day Laboratory Exercise #2: Luminosity and Brightness _ Page 1 Introduction -How do we determine the value of the Sun's luminosity or the luminosity of other

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Opher, Merav

    : light bulbs, meter sticks, calculators, wax blocks, aluminum foil Methods: · Mask light from a bulb consists of two wax blocks and a piece of aluminum foil located between the wax blocks. When viewed from the edge, this photometer will allow you to judge when the two wax blocks are equally bright. Then, if we

  14. Fan and Pad Greenhouse Evaporative Cooling Systems1 R. A. Bucklin, J. D. Leary, D. B. McConnell, and E. G. Wilkerson2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Craig A.

    CIR1135 Fan and Pad Greenhouse Evaporative Cooling Systems1 R. A. Bucklin, J. D. Leary, D. B. Mc systems. Such high temperatures reduce crop quality and worker productivity. Evaporative cooling temperatures are important when dealing with evaporative cooling systems ­ dry bulb temperature and wet bulb

  15. Comparative Study Between Air-Cooled and Water-Cooled Condensers of the Air-Conditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maheshwari, G. P.; Mulla Ali, A. A.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The weather in Kuwait is very dry where the dry-bulb temperature exceeds the wet-bulb temperature more than 20oC in most of the summer months. Thus, the air-conditioning (A/C) system with the water-cooled (WC) condensers is expected to perform more...

  16. Energy Efficiency Wins Top Prize at EPA App Contest

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The winner of best overall app at the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Apps for the Environment is called Light Bulb Finder, a free iOS and Android application that helps a user choose the energy efficient bulbs that best match their home’s current lighting conditions.

  17. Electronic diamond: Fabrication processes and electron emission performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, M.; Springer, R.

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project sought to develop a working Laboratory prototype model that would demonstrate the viability of a mercury-free light bulb concept in a controlled laboratory setting. A successful demonstration of the light bulb is reported.

  18. Small Flock Poultry Management Series

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Hampshire, University of

    to care for your chicks in advance of them arriving at your home. Newly hatched chicks can not control (water splashed on the hot bulb will shatter it); Where possible use a `Hard Glass' bulb Family, HomeSmall Flock Poultry Management Series Brooding Chicks Starting your chicks Raising a flock

  19. UMass Amherst Green Office Program Checklist v2.0

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    lamps we use CFLs (Compact Fluorescent Light bulbs) or LED bulbs E7. We use power strips as central AND RECYCLING Prerequisites WRP1. We have a designated area in our supply closet, or elsewhere in our office clips, etc). WRP2. All common areas and work areas (cube or office) has a recycling bin Credits WR1

  20. Distinguished Lecture Series - Balancing the Energy & Climate Budget

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The average American uses 11400 Watts of power continuously. This is the equivalent of burning 114 x100 Watt light bulbs, all the time. The average person globally uses 2255 Watts of power, or a little less than 23 x100 Watt light bulbs.

  1. Microwave generated plasma light source apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshizawa, K.; Ito, H.; Kodama, H.; Komura, H.; Minowa, Y.

    1985-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A microwave generated plasma light source including a microwave generator, a microwave cavity having a light reflecting member forming at least a portion of the cavity, and a member transparent to light and opaque to microwaves disposed across an opening of the cavity opposite the feeding opening through which the microwave generator is coupled. An electrodeless discharge bulb is disposed at a position in the cavity such that the cavity operates as a resonant cavity at least when the bulb is emitting light. In the bulb is encapsulated at least one discharge light emissive substance. The bulb has a shape and is sufficiently small that the bulb acts substantially as a point light source.

  2. Evaluation of a 6-wire thermocouple psychrometer for determination of in-situ water potentials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loskot, C.L.; Rousseau, J.P. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Kurzmack, M.A. [Foothill Engineering Consultants, Golden, CO (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A 6-wire, Peltier-type thermocouple psychrometer was designed and evaluated by the U.S. Geological Survey for monitoring in-situ water potentials in dry-drilled boreholes in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada. The psychrometer consists of a wet-bulb, chromel-constantan, sensing junction and a separate dry-bulb, copper-constantan, reference junction. Two additional reference junctions are formed where the chromel and constantan wires of the wet-bulb sensing junction are soldered to separate, paired, copper, lead wires. In contrast, in the standard 3-wire thermocouple psychrometer, both the wet bulb and dry bulb share a common wire. The new design has resulted in a psychrometer that has an expanded range and greater reliability, sensitivity, and accuracy compared to the standard model.

  3. Start-up control system and vessel for lmfbr

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durrant, O.W.; Kakarala, C.R.; Mandel, S.W.

    1987-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a start-up vessel for a start-up system suitable for liquid metal fast breeder reactors comprising: a lower bulb defining a lower space; an upper bulb defining an upper space; a mid-section of a cross-sectional diameter less than that of the lower and upper bulbs, defining a mid-space and connected between the upper and lower bulbs; heating means associated with the lower bulb for heating water in the lower space; at least one inlet conduit connection connected to the vessel for admitting feed water to the lower space to be heated by the heating means to produce steam; at least one outlet conduit connection connected to the vessel for discharging steam; an auxiliary feed water line connected through the upper bulb having at least one nozzle at the end thereof for spraying feed water into the upper space; and a main steam inlet connection connected to the upper bulb for heating the auxiliary feed water to produce steam.

  4. Carburetor priming system for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Everts, R.G.

    1986-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A carburetor priming system is described for an internal combustion engine, the engine including: a fuel tank, a carburetor having an air inlet, a fuel-air mixing throat, and an air-fuel mixture outlet communicating with the combustion chambers of the engine, the priming system comprising, in combination: (a) a hollow housing having air inlet openings in the walls thereof, shaped and dimensioned to cover the air inlet of the carburetor; (b) an air-permeable wick retained in the housing; (c) priming fuel pump means, including (i) a depressable hollow resilient priming bulb, (ii) a priming fuel supply conduit extending between the fuel tank and the interior of the priming bulb, (iii) a priming fuel discharge conduit extending between the interior of the priming bulb and the wick, (iv) a normally closed first check valve in the priming fuel supply conduit which opens to permit fuel to flow into the priming bulb and which closes when the priming bulb is depressed, (v) a normally closed second check valve disposed in the priming fuel discharge conduit, the second check valve being mechanically actuated by external pressure on the priming bulb, to open when the priming bulb is depressed.

  5. Compact light source performance in recessed type luminaires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammer, E.E.

    1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Photometric comparisons were made with an indoor, recessed, type luminaire using incandescent, high intensity discharge and compact fluorescent lamps. The test results show substantial performance advantages, as expected, for the discharge light sources where the efficacy gains can be in the order for 400% even when including the ballast losses associated with the discharge lamps. The candlepower distribution patterns emerging from these luminaries are also different from those associated with the baseline incandescent lamps, and which are in some ways, even more desirable from a uniformity of illuminance perspective. A section on fluorescent lamp starting is also included which describes a system having excellent starting characteristics in terms of electrode starting temperature (RH/RC technique), proper operating frequency to minimize unwanted IR interactions, and satisfactory current crest factor values to help insure life performance.

  6. High-Rise Residential Building Energy Analysis in Shanghai, China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Hongyun

    2014-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Weather for Energy Calculation 2.0 LBNL Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory LED Light Emitting Diode MBE Mean Bias Error MVR model Multi-Variable Regression models NMBE Normalized Mean Bias Error PCM... heating. Therefore, lighting fixtures and domestic appliances used the most energy in this survey. For lighting fixtures, incandescent and fluorescent lamps are the most popular, only a small number of light-emitting diode (LED) lights were used (Chen...

  7. Energy Use, Information, and Behavior in Small Commercial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haberl, J. S.; Kempton, W.; Komor, P.

    2009-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    management and tenant businesses. Here we describe both the method by which equipment choice decisions are made and the system for sharing energy costs. Equipment choice In a privately owned residence, the homeowner pays the energy bills and makes any...-type incandescent lamps to emphasize certain merchandise. No business, however, mentioned that the energy costs of additional spot lighting (both for lighting and for additional cooling load) are quite high. Further information about lighting was obtained with a...

  8. Development and Construction of Bioclimatic Double Skin Active Facade for Hot and Humid Climate of UAE 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karbor, R. G.; Mohamed, I.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    tracking venetian blinds, LED (light emitting diodes) lighting and Building Management system. 1.01 Modeling And Simulation Of Double Skin Active Facade The modeling and simulation of the Double Skin Fa?ade Cavity is a complicated task, since... sweating/condensation on the water coil. 3.06 LED (Light Emitting Diode) Lighting The building is illuminated using extremely energy efficient LED?s which last 5 times as long as fluorescents and 50 times longer than typical incandescent. So...

  9. High-Rise Residential Building Energy Analysis in Shanghai, China 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Hongyun

    2014-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Weather for Energy Calculation 2.0 LBNL Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory LED Light Emitting Diode MBE Mean Bias Error MVR model Multi-Variable Regression models NMBE Normalized Mean Bias Error PCM... heating. Therefore, lighting fixtures and domestic appliances used the most energy in this survey. For lighting fixtures, incandescent and fluorescent lamps are the most popular, only a small number of light-emitting diode (LED) lights were used (Chen...

  10. Rod-to-rod spacing illuminating device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fodor, G.; Gaal, P.S.

    1984-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for obtaining an image of an object includes at least one light source having an incandescent filament. An image of the filament is projected onto an object to be observed. Using light reflected from the object, an image of the object is generated. Such a system may employ a television camera to generate the image, and is especially suited for remote observation of objects.

  11. Overview of the Rebuild America Program in Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saman, N.; Haberl, J. S.; Turner, W. D.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    storage. Medical air scheduling, modify EMS controls. Install EMS systems, DDC EMS conversion, replace EMS. Control room temperature via EMS, repair and reactivate EMS. connect . - HI: Controls I individual rooftop unih, convert HVAC unih to central... . - . , - . . > . . . ballasts, use high eff~cien ballasts and lamps. L4: Exit signs I Replace exit light fixtures, energy elficient exit lights. change exit lights to LZ: Fixture changdreflectors L3: Uoerade photocells. Replaedremove lamps/Fixtures, convert incandescent...

  12. Development and Construction of Bioclimatic Double Skin Active Facade for Hot and Humid Climate of UAE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karbor, R. G.; Mohamed, I.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    tracking venetian blinds, LED (light emitting diodes) lighting and Building Management system. 1.01 Modeling And Simulation Of Double Skin Active Facade The modeling and simulation of the Double Skin Fa?ade Cavity is a complicated task, since... sweating/condensation on the water coil. 3.06 LED (Light Emitting Diode) Lighting The building is illuminated using extremely energy efficient LED?s which last 5 times as long as fluorescents and 50 times longer than typical incandescent. So...

  13. Business Case for Energy Efficiency in Support of Climate Change Mitigation, Economic and Societal Benefits in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McNeil, Michael A.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    sites/china.lbl.gov/files/LBNL-3939E.pdf China Daily.2010. “China to subsidize 150m energy-efficient bulbs” JuneR. and Kang, A. , 2008. China's Booming Energy Efficiency

  14. Retrofitting the Streetlights in Boise, Idaho

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Young, Clay; Oliver, LeAnn; Bieter, David; Johnson, Michael; Oldemeyer, Neal

    2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Boise, Idaho is using an energy efficiency grant to retrofit hundreds of streetlights throughout the downtown area with energy-efficient LED bulbs, which will save money and improve safety and local quality of life.

  15. Design and Predictive Control of a Net Zero Energy Home 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morelli, F.; Abbarno, N.; Boese, E.; Bullock, J.; Carter, B.; Edwards, R.; Lapite, O.; Mann, D.; Mulvihill, C.; Purcell, E.; Stein, M. IV; Rasmussen, B. P.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    geothermal heat pump and ceiling fans to effect convection, humidity, and dry bulb temperature. The second method reflects an analysis towards augmenting traditional home systems with modern and efficient counterparts. Electrochromic glass is used...

  16. FYI: July 5,1991 - December 30, 1991

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    kinds of emergency lighting systems in use on campus (individual battery-pack lights, regular fluorescent lights with one bulb wired to a central battery bank, standby generator) and their inherent problems, he said he had high hopes there would...

  17. Electrodeless lighting RF power source development. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    An efficient, solid state RF power source has been developed on this NICE project for exciting low power electrodeless lamp bulbs. This project takes full advantage of concurrent advances in electrodeless lamp technology. Electrodeless lamp lighting systems utilizing the sulfur based bulb type developed by Fusion Lighting, Inc., is an emerging technology which is based on generating light in a confined plasma created and sustained by RF excitation. The bulb for such a lamp is filled with a particular element and inert gas at low pressure when cold. RF power from the RF source creates a plasma within the bulb which reaches temperatures approaching those of high pressure discharge lamp plasmas. At these temperatures the plasma radiates substantial visible light with a spectrum similar to sunlight.

  18. Optimizing Cooling Tower Performance Refrigeration Systems, Chemical Plants, and Power Plants All Have A Resource Quietly Awaiting Exploitation-Cold Water!!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burger, R.

    requirements before a cooling tower is purchased. This relates to the volume of circulating water, hot water temperature on the tower, cold water discharge, and wet bulb temperature (consisting of ambient temperature and relative humidity). After the tower...

  19. SUGGESTED ITEMS FOR YOUR EMERGENCY DISASTER KIT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jawitz, James W.

    . Bug Repellant Pet Food and Cat Litter, Pet Carrier Film for camcorder and camera. Cash or Traveler (battery consumption is high). Flashlights with extra bulbs. Hurricane Lamps and oil. Caulking to seal

  20. Biotic Adaptations ESP 30 Lecture 4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richerson, Peter J.

    with bulbs or other major underground storage organs #12;Life form: Competitive tradeoffs · Trees and shrubs can often see traces of it on the landscape, as in the successive invaders of an abandoned field

  1. GNESD and Impact Analysis Gordon Mackenzie

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    - no of inverters - hours of lighting - no of light bulbs used - no of SHS sold - no of SHS installed - no of SHS cheaper with PV electricity than batteries) · Improved security => Increased revenues and income #12

  2. Applied Optimal Shape Design B. Mohammadi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pironneau, Olivier

    are critical too. The paper is also a summary of the material covered in our recent book[7] keywords · Electromagnetically optimal shapes, such as in stealth airplanes · Wave canceling fore bulbe in boat design · Drag

  3. The Thermodynamic and Cost Benefits of Floating Cooling Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Svoboda, K. J.; Klooster, H. J.; Johnnie, D. H., Jr.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Historically, a fixed cooling concept is used in the design of evaporative heat rejection systems for process and power plants. In the fixed cooling mode, a plant is designed for maximum output at the design summer wet bulb temperature...

  4. An Energy Analysis Of A Large, Multipurpose Educational Building In A Hot Climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kamranzadeh, Vahideh

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Preheating Leaving Temperature Tdb Dry Bulb Temperature Tph Preheat Temperature Tpc Precool Temperature TCE Cooling Entering Temperature qCS Cooling Sensible Load qRH Heating Load WR? Return Air Humidity Ratio, dry WMA? Mixed Air Humidity Ratio...

  5. B O N N E V I L L E P O W E R A D M I N I S T R A T I O N Fact...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of the high voltage grid in the Northwest. But how does it all work, and how does the energy get from a dam in eastern Washington to a light bulb in Portland or Seattle? First,...

  6. IN THIS ISSUE... Noted writers highlight River City Writers Series for fall 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Memphis, University of

    to power a TV for three hours. One recycled glass bottle would save enough energy to power a computer for 25 minutes while one recycled plastic bottle would save enough energy to power a 60-watt light bulb

  7. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and, ultimately, our energy needs as a nation. Students will use a photovoltaic (PV) cell to measure the energy from the sun. Using a light bulb with a known wattage, the...

  8. Remote-Controlled Home Automation Systems with Different Network Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grout, Vic

    in order to close a circuit of a battery and light bulb. Later, companies developed automated systems word formed from domus (Latin, meaning house) and robotics" (click on this link for more information

  9. Energy 101: Lumens

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Description: In this edition of Energy 101, we talk about Lumens. When you're shopping for light bulbs, compare lumens to be sure you're getting the amount of light, or level of brightness, you want.

  10. Robot-guided open-loop insertion of skew-line needle arrangements for high dose rate brachytherapy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    bulb. 3) Expert Human Physician Experiment on Ph3: Co-The expert human physician experiment was completed in underhardware, and experiments with a human-centered automa- tion

  11. Building Energy-Efficiency Best Practice Policies and Policy Packages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levine, Mark

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    renewables- integrated green building floor space growing towhich renewable energy resources are used to provide spacerenewable energy (especially rooftop solar), and energy-efficient light bulbs, rather than for energy-efficient space-

  12. aktivnoj zone reaktora: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the adult mammalian brain, the SVZ (Doetsch and Alvarez-Buylla, 1996). In fully adult mammals, mew neurons born in the SVZ of adults migrate anteriorly into the olfactory bulb...

  13. Retrofitting the Streetlights in Boise, Idaho

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Boise, Idaho is using an energy efficiency grant to retrofit hundreds of streetlights throughout the downtown area with energy-efficient LED bulbs, which will save money and improve safety and...

  14. Energy 101: Lumens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Description: In this edition of Energy 101, we talk about Lumens. When you're shopping for light bulbs, compare lumens to be sure you're getting the amount of light, or level of brightness, you want.

  15. EnergyUnited- Commercial Energy Efficient Lighting Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Commercial and industrial members who upgrade to energy-efficient light bulbs which meet EnergyUnited's standards are eligible for a prescriptive, "per unit" rebate. The cooperative will provide a...

  16. Current HMS Observations - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    25 F Wind Direction 300 WNW Wind Speed 6 mph Mixing Height 140 m Station Pressure 29.57 inches Hg Ambient Temp. 37 F Wet Bulb Temp. 33 F Relative Humidity 62% Sky Cover 1...

  17. Randolph EMC- Commercial and Industrial Efficient Lighting Rebate Program (North Carolina)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Commercial and industrial members who upgrade to energy-efficient light bulbs which meet Randolph EMC's standards are eligible for a prescriptive incentive payment. The cooperative will provide a...

  18. Randolph EMC- Agricultural Efficient Lighting Rebate Program (North Carolina)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Agricultural members of Randolph EMC (REMC) who upgrade to energy-efficient CFL bulbs in agricultural facilities are eligible for an incentive to help cover the initial cost of installation. The...

  19. The Thermodynamic and Cost Benefits of Floating Cooling Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Svoboda, K. J.; Klooster, H. J.; Johnnie, D. H., Jr.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Historically, a fixed cooling concept is used in the design of evaporative heat rejection systems for process and power plants. In the fixed cooling mode, a plant is designed for maximum output at the design summer wet bulb temperature...

  20. Concord Municipal Light Plant- Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Concord Municipal Light Plant (CMLP) offers rebates to commercial customers for a variety of appliances, ETS heating systems, general lighting upgrades, CFL bulbs, and exit sign retrofit kits. A...

  1. Environmental and health aspects of lighting: Mercury

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clear, R.; Berman, S.

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Most discharge lamps, including fluorescent lamps, metal halide lamps, and high pressure sodium lamps, contain Mercury, a toxic chemical. Lighting professionals need to be able to respond to questions about the direct hazards of Mercury from accidentally breaking lamps, and the potential environmental hazards of lamp operation and disposal. We calculated the exposures that could occur from an accidental breakage of lamps. Acute poisoning appears almost impossible. Under some circumstances a sealed environment, such as a space station, could be contaminated enough to make it unhealthy for long-term occupation. Mercury becomes a potential environmental hazard after it becomes methylated. Mercury is methylated in aquatic environments, where it may accumulate in fish, eventually rendering them toxic to people and other animals. Lighting causes Mercury to enter the environment directly from lamp disposal, and indirectly from power plant emissions. The environmental tradeoffs between incandescent and discharge lamps depend upon the amounts released by these two sources, their local concentrations, and their probabilities of being methylated. Indirect environmental effects of lighting also include the release of other heavy metals (Cadmium, Lead and Arsenic), and other air pollutants and carbon dioxide that are emitted by fossil fuel power plants. For a given light output, the level of power plant emissions depends upon the efficacy of the light source, and is thus much larger for incandescent lamps than for fluorescent or discharge lamps. As disposal and control technologies change the relative direct and indirect emissions from discharge and incandescent lamps will change.

  2. Demonstration of Recessed Downlight Technologies: Power and Illumination Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, Steven A.; Beeson, Tracy A.

    2009-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid state lighting (SSL), specifically light-emitting diodes (LED), has been advancing at a rapid pace, and there are presently multiple products available that serve as direct replacements for traditional luminaires. In this demonstration, conventional recessed lights in a conference room were used to compare conventional incandescent A-lamps, incandescent reflector R-lamps, dimming compact fluorescent lamps (CFL), to an LED replacement product. The primary focus during the study was on light delivered to the task plane as provided by the power required by the lighting system. Vertical illuminance, dimming range, and color shift are also important indicators of lighting quality and are discussed in the report. The results clearly showed that LEDs, with dimming-capable drivers, are much more efficient than incandescent and CFLs. Further, LEDs provide much smoother and consistent dimming than dimmable CFLs. On the potential negative side, it is important that the dimming switch be identified as compatible with the LED driver. A wide variety of dimmer switches are capable of dimming LEDs down to 15% of full light output, while select others can be capable of dimming LEDs down to 5%. In addition, LEDs can be intensive light sources, which can result in uncomfortable glare in some applications and to some occupants. Higher ceiling (9-foot or greater) or non-specular reflectors can act to alleviate the potential for glare.

  3. Advanced Technology for Economical Dehumidification to Improve Indoor Air Quality 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckwith, W. R.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    degrees dry bulb and 67 degrees wet bulb. To demonstrate the energy savings, economics, and positive environmental impact, we will compare the SCADR to an electric reheat system. Without SCADR, the system performs ten tons of cooling... psychrometric chart showing the performance enhancement of the SCADR Syetem (see fig. 5.). POSITIVE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT Conserving 46,530 KWH per year prevents the burning of 23.3 tons of coal at an electric power plant every year. This reduces...

  4. 1) Laura Secord was making solid spherical cannon balls of radius R for General Brock during the war of 1812. She placed three of them on her smooth level floor. Each was in contact with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boutaba, Raouf

    of the above. 8 , f i ~ e n d c M Corn/- Cam, 45a4-3p k c d -* #12;2) A rigid metal pipe packed with recycled as point masses, all collisions are elastic, and air resistance is negligible. Find the ratio hllhz, where uses identical bulbs connectedto a 12 V battery as shown, list the bulbs in order of increasing

  5. Solar-powered aroma generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spector, D.

    1986-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    In combination with a switch-controlled electric light bulb having a threaded plug and a threaded socket disposed in a room which is also subject to natural ambient light, a switchless aroma generator is installed in the room which is automatically activated only when the electric light bulb is switched on. The activated generator functions to discharge an air current into the room which conveys an aromatic vapor to modify the atmosphere. The generator described in this patent consists of: A.) an air-permeable cartridge containing an aroma supply which is exuded into the atmosphere at a relatively rapid rate as an air current is forced through the cartridge; B.) a fan driven by a low-voltage, direct-current motor having predetermined power requirements, the fan being arranged to force an air current through the cartridge; C.) a housing incorporating the cartridge and the motordriven fan, the housing containing an apparatus for mounting it on a wall in the room; and D.) a solar cell assembly producing a direct-current output placed in close proximity to the bulb in the room and irradiated when the bulb is switched on. The assembly is connected to the motor to supply power, the electrical relationship of the assembly to the motor being such that the cell output is sufficient to power the motor only when the bulb is switched on to irradiate the assembly, and is insufficient when the bulb is switched off. The cell output then depends on ambient light in the room, and the operation of the generator is coordinated with that of the bulb despite the absence of a wired connection between and an aroma is generated only when the bulb is switched on.

  6. Low-temperature spray ponds: performance evaluation and prediction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kerig, Philip Dwan

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    pond. These figures were used along with the dry-bulb temperatures measured at the pond to estimate the wet-bulb temperature at the spray pond. A second problem encountered during very cold weather was that the manometer lines would often freeze...LOW-TEMPERATURE SPRAY PONDS: PERFORMANCE EVALUATION AND PREDICTION A Thesis by PHILIP DWAN KERIG Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May...

  7. The effects of expansion devices on the transient response characteristics of the air-source heat pump during the reverse cycle defrost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peterson, Kurt T.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    using fast and slow response TXVs and different diameter orifices. The overall performance of each test was analyzed as well as a detailed investigation . of the refrigerant dynamics. The results of the investigation for TXVs indicated bulb.../suction line contact was more critical to the response of the TXV than the internal bulb charge. The orifice investigation showed a general trend of faster defrost times with larger orifices, although the largest orifices allowed liquid refrigerant...

  8. Development of the design climatic data for the 1997 ASHRAE Handbook -- Fundamentals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colliver, D.G.; Burks, T.F.; Gates, R.S.; Zhang, H.

    2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the process used to revise the design weather data tables in the 1997 ASHRAE Handbook--Fundamentals. Design conditions were determined for 509 US, 134 Canadian, 339 European, 293 Asian, and 169 other worldwide locations. Thirty-three years of hourly weather data were used for approximately half of the US and all of the Canadian locations. Twelve years of data were used for the other locations. The data went through quality checking and short-term linear interpolation filling processes. Months that had sufficient data were then used in the analysis. The data were analyzed to produce annual frequency-of-occurrence design dry-bulb (DB), wet-bulb (WB), and dew-point (DP) temperatures with mean coincident values at the design conditions. A comparison with the previous design values indicated that the new dry-bulb and wet-bulb design conditions are slightly less extreme than the values previously published. However, the new design dew-point values indicate the potential for significantly more extreme dehumidification design conditions than would be found by using the old extreme dry-bulb temperature with mean coincident wet-bulb temperature. Software was also developed so users could extract the design values, cumulative frequencies, and DB/DP, DB/WB, DB/H, and DB/WS coincident matrices for 1444 locations from a CD-ROM.

  9. Reducing the Cost of Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scanlon, B.

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar-powered electricity prices could soon approach those of power from coal or natural gas thanks to collaborative research with solar startup Ampulse Corporation at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Silicon wafers account for almost half the cost of today's solar photovoltaic panels, so reducing or eliminating wafer costs is essential to bringing prices down. Current crystalline silicon technology converts energy in a highly efficient manner; however, that technology is manufactured with processes that could stand some improvement. The industry needs a method that is less complex, creates less waste and uses less energy. First, half the refined silicon is lost as dust in the wafer-sawing process, driving module costs higher. Wafers are sawn off of large cylindrical ingots, or boules, of silicon. A typical 2-meter boule loses as many as 6,000 potential wafers during sawing. Second, the wafers produced are much thicker than necessary. To efficiently convert sunlight into electricity, the wafers need be only one-tenth the typical thickness. NREL, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Ampulse have partnered on an approach to eliminate this waste and dramatically lower the cost of the finished solar panels. By using a chemical vapor deposition process to grow the silicon on inexpensive foil, Ampulse is able to make the solar cells just thick enough to convert most of the solar energy into electricity. No more sawdust - and no more wasting refined silicon materials. NREL developed the technology to grow high-quality silicon and ORNL developed the metal foil that has the correct crystal structure to support that growth. Ampulse is installing a pilot manufacturing line in NREL's Process Development Integration Laboratory, where solar companies can work closely with lab scientists on integrated equipment to answer pressing questions related to their technology development, as well as rapidly overcoming R and D challenges and risk. NREL's program is focused on transformative innovation in the domestic PV industry. With knowledge and expertise acquired from the PDIL pilot production line tools, Ampulse plans to design a full-scale production line to accommodate long rolls of metal foil. The Ampulse process 'goes straight from pure silicon-containing gas to high-quality crystal silicon film,' said Brent Nelson, the operational manager for the Process Development Integration Laboratory. 'The advantage is you can make the wafer just as thin as you need it - 10 microns or less.' Most of today's solar cells are made out of wafer crystalline silicon, though thin-film cells made of more exotic elements such as copper, indium, gallium, arsenic, cadmium, tellurium and others are making a strong push into the market. The advantage of silicon is its abundance, because it is derived from sand. Silicon's disadvantage is that purifying it into wafers suitable for solar cells can be expensive and energy intensive. Manufacturers add carbon and heat to sand to produce metallurgical-grade silicon, which is useful in other industries, but not yet suitable for making solar cells. So this metallurgical-grade silicon is then converted to pure trichlorosilane (SiCl3) or silane (SiH4) gas. Typically, the purified gas is then converted to create a silicon feedstock at 1,000 degrees Celsius. This feedstock is melted at 1,414 C and recrystallized into crystal ingots that are finally sawed into wafers. The Ampulse method differs in that it eliminates the last two steps in the traditional process and works directly with the silane gas growing only the needed silicon right onto a foil substrate. A team of NREL scientists had developed a way to use a process called hot-wire chemical vapor deposition to thicken silicon wafers with near perfect crystal structure. Using a hot tungsten filament much like the one found in an incandescent light bulb, the silane gas molecules are broken apart and deposited onto the wafer using the chemical vapor deposition technique at about 700 C - a much lower temperature than needed to make the wafer. The hot filament dec

  10. Domain walls riding the wave.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karapetrov, G.; Novosad, V.; Materials Science Division

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent years have witnessed a rapid proliferation of electronic gadgets around the world. These devices are used for both communication and entertainment, and it is a fact that they account for a growing portion of household energy consumption and overall world consumption of electricity. Increasing the energy efficiency of these devices could have a far greater and immediate impact than a gradual switch to renewable energy sources. The advances in the area of spintronics are therefore very important, as gadgets are mostly comprised of memory and logic elements. Recent developments in controlled manipulation of magnetic domains in ferromagnet nanostructures have opened opportunities for novel device architectures. This new class of memories and logic gates could soon power millions of consumer electronic devices. The attractiveness of using domain-wall motion in electronics is due to its inherent reliability (no mechanical moving parts), scalability (3D scalable architectures such as in racetrack memory), and nonvolatility (retains information in the absence of power). The remaining obstacles in widespread use of 'racetrack-type' elements are the speed and the energy dissipation during the manipulation of domain walls. In their recent contribution to Physical Review Letters, Oleg Tretiakov, Yang Liu, and Artem Abanov from Texas A&M University in College Station, provide a theoretical description of domain-wall motion in nanoscale ferromagnets due to the spin-polarized currents. They find exact conditions for time-dependent resonant domain-wall movement, which could speed up the motion of domain walls while minimizing Ohmic losses. Movement of domain walls in ferromagnetic nanowires can be achieved by application of external magnetic fields or by passing a spin-polarized current through the nanowire itself. On the other hand, the readout of the domain state is done by measuring the resistance of the wire. Therefore, passing current through the ferromagnetic wire is the preferred method, as it combines manipulation and readout of the domain-wall state. The electrons that take part in the process of readout and manipulation of the domain-wall structure in the nanowire do so through the so-called spin transfer torque: When spin-polarized electrons in the ferromagnet nanowire pass through the domain wall they experience a nonuniform magnetization, and they try to align their spins with the local magnetic moments. The force that the electrons experience has a reaction force counterpart that 'pushes' the local magnetic moments, resulting in movement of the domain wall in the direction of the electron flow through the spin-transfer torque. The forces between the electrons and the local magnetic moments in the ferromagnet also create additional electrical resistance for the electrons passing through the domain wall. By measuring resistance across a segment of the nanowire, one determines if a domain wall is present; i.e., one can read the stored information. The interaction of the spin-polarized electrons with the domain wall in the ferromagnetic nanowire is not very efficient. Even for materials achieving high polarization of the free electrons, it is very difficult to move the magnetic domain wall. Several factors contribute to this problem, with imperfections of the ferromagnetic nanowire that cause domain-wall pinning being the dominant one. Permalloy nanowires, one of the best candidates for domain-wall-based memory and logic devices, require current densities of the order of 10{sup 8} A/cm{sup 2} in order to move a domain wall from a pinning well. Considering that this current has to pass through a relatively long wire, it is not very difficult to imagine that most of the energy will go to Joule heating. The efficiency of the process - the ratio of the energy converted to domain-wall motion to the total energy consumed - is comparable to that of an incandescent light bulb converting electricity to light. A step towards more efficient domain-wall-based memory devices is the advance of using alternating currents or curren

  11. Radioisotope Stirling Generator Options for Pluto Fast Flyby Mission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schock, Alfred

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The preceding paper described conceptual designs and analytical results for five Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) options for the Pluto Fast Flyby (PFF) mission, and the present paper describes three Radioisotope Stirling Generator (RSG) options for the same mission. The RSG options are based on essentially the same radioisotope heat source modules used in previously flown RTGs and on designs and analyses of a 75-watt free-piston Stirling engine produced by Mechanical Technology Incorporated (MTI) for NASA's Lewis Research Center. The integrated system design options presented were generated in a Fairchild Space study sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Special Applications, in support of ongoing PFF mission and spacecraft studies that the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is conducting for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). That study's NASA-directed goal is to reduce the spacecraft mass from its baseline value of 166 kg to ~110 kg, which implies a mass goal of less than 10 kg for a power source able to deliver 69 watts(e) at the end of the 9.2-year mission. In general, the Stirling options were found to be lighter than the thermoelectric options described in the preceding paper. But they are less mature, requiring more development, and entailing greater programmatic risk. The Stirling power system mass ranged from 7.3 kg (well below the 10-kg goal) for a non-redundant system to 11.3 kg for a redundant system able to maintain full power if one of its engines fails. In fact, the latter system could deliver as much as 115 watts(e) if desired by the mission planners. There are 5 copies in the file.

  12. Radioisotope Stirling Generator Options for Pluto Fast Flyby Mission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schock, Alfred

    2012-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The preceding paper described conceptual designs and analytical results for five Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) options for the Pluto Fast Flyby (PFF) mission, and the present paper describes three Radioisotope Stirling Generator (RSG) options for the same mission. The RSG options are based on essentially the same radioisotope heat source modules used in previously flown RTGs and on designs and analyses of a 75-watt free-piston Stirling engine produced by Mechanical Technology Incorporated (MTI) for NASA's Lewis Research Center. The integrated system design options presented were generated in a Fairchild Space study sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Special Applications, in support of ongoing PFF mission and spacecraft studies that the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is conducting for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). That study's NASA-directed goal is to reduce the spacecraft mass from its baseline value of 166 kg to ~110 kg, which implies a mass goal of less than 10 kg for a power source able to deliver 69 watts(e) at the end of the 9.2-year mission. In general, the Stirling options were found to be lighter than the thermoelectric options described in the preceding paper. But they are less mature, requiring more development, and entailing greater programmatic risk. The Stirling power system mass ranged from 7.3 kg (well below the 10-kg goal) for a non-redundant system to 11.3 kg for a redundant system able to maintain full power if one of its engines fails. In fact, the latter system could deliver as much as 115 watts(e) if desired by the mission planners. There are 2 copies in the file.

  13. Photomultiplier tube failure under hydrostatic pressure in future neutrino detectors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chambliss, K.; Diwan, M.; Simos, N.; Sundaram, S. K.

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Failure of photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) under hydrostatic pressure is a concern in neutrino detection, specifically, in the proposed Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment project. Controlled hydrostatic implosion tests were performed on prototypic PMT bulbs of 10-inch diameter and recorded using high speed filming techniques to capture failures in detail. These high-speed videos were analyzed frame-by-frame in order to identify the origin of a crack, measure the progression of individual crack along the surface of the bulb as it propagates through the glass, and estimate crack velocity. Crack velocity was calculated for each individual crack, and an average velocity was determined for allmore »measurable cracks on each bulb. Overall, 32 cracks were measured in 9 different bulbs tested. Finite element modeling (FEM) of crack formation and growth in prototypic PMT shows stress concentration near the middle section of the PMT bulbs that correlates well with our crack velocity measurements in that section. The FEM model predicts a crack velocity value that is close to the terminal crack velocity reported. Our measurements also reveal significantly reduced crack velocities compared to terminal crack velocities measured in glasses using fracture mechanics testing and reported in literature.« less

  14. Photomultiplier tube failure under hydrostatic pressure in future neutrino detectors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chambliss, K. [Alfred Univ., Alfred, NY (United States). Multifunctional Materials Lab, Kazuo Inamori School of Engineering; Diwan, M. [Alfred Univ., Alfred, NY (United States). Multifunctional Materials Lab, Kazuo Inamori School of Engineering; Simos, N. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Sundaram, S. K. [Alfred Univ., Alfred, NY (United States). Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Failure of photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) under hydrostatic pressure is a concern in neutrino detection, specifically, in the proposed Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment project. Controlled hydrostatic implosion tests were performed on prototypic PMT bulbs of 10-inch diameter and recorded using high speed filming techniques to capture failures in detail. These high-speed videos were analyzed frame-by-frame in order to identify the origin of a crack, measure the progression of individual crack along the surface of the bulb as it propagates through the glass, and estimate crack velocity. Crack velocity was calculated for each individual crack, and an average velocity was determined for all measurable cracks on each bulb. Overall, 32 cracks were measured in 9 different bulbs tested. Finite element modeling (FEM) of crack formation and growth in prototypic PMT shows stress concentration near the middle section of the PMT bulbs that correlates well with our crack velocity measurements in that section. The FEM model predicts a crack velocity value that is close to the terminal crack velocity reported. Our measurements also reveal significantly reduced crack velocities compared to terminal crack velocities measured in glasses using fracture mechanics testing and reported in literature.

  15. Hazard-evaluation and technical-assistance report HETA 90-122-l2073, technical assistance to San Francisco General Hospital and Medical Center, San Francisco, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moss, C.E.; Seitz, T.

    1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In response to a request from the Director of the Environmental Health and Safety Department of the San Francisco General Hospital and Medical Center, located in San Francisco, California, an evaluation was undertaken of possible hazardous working conditions at that site. Concern existed about exposures to hazards while operating the germicidal lamp at the facility. Germicidal lamps were used to disinfect the air in tuberculosis and aerosolized pentamidine clinics. The workers wore no protective eye wear. All rooms used a 30 watt germicidal lamp. Lower wattage bulbs in the smaller rooms would have reduced occupational ultraviolet (UV) exposure. Reflectance levels of UV radiation were quite high and varied. Worker exposure to germicidal lamp UV levels was dependent on many factors, some of the most important ones being the position of the bulb in the room, age of the bulb, obstruction of the UV radiation by objects near the bulb, and the height of the worker. While there are no consensus guidelines available on ventilation systems designed for areas where germicidal lamps are used, the provision of good room air distribution and mixing is recommended to prevent stagnant air conditions or short circuiting of supply air within the room. Bulb changers need to be aware of the need for protective clothing and gloves for protection from both the UV radiation levels as well as possible glass breakage.

  16. LED exit signs: Improved technology leads the way to energy savings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sardinsky, R.; Hawthorne, S.

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent innovations in light-emitting diode (LED) exit signs may make LED signs the best choice among the energy efficient options available. In the past, LED signs have offered low power consumption, projected long lamp life, and low maintenance requirements. Now, the best of the LED signs also offer improved optical designs that reduce their already low power consumption while improving visibility and appearance, and even reduce their cost. LED exit signs are gaining market share, and E Source expects this technology to eventually dominate over incandescent, compact fluorescent, and electroluminescent signs. More research is needed, however, to confirm manufacturers` claims of 20-year operating lives for LED signs. Conservative estimates place the number of exit signs in US buildings at about 40 million. Although each sign represents a very small part of a building`s load, exit signs are ready targets for energy efficiency upgrades -- they operate continuously and most use inefficient incandescent sources. With an LED sign, annual energy and maintenance costs can be reduced by more than 90 percent compared to a typical incandescent sign. Low annual costs help to offset the LED sign`s relatively high first cost. More than 25 utilities offer DSM incentives for energy efficient exit signs, and efficient alternatives are becoming more readily available. Recent improvements in optical designs enable many LED signs to visually out perform other sources. In addition to these benefits, LED exit signs have lower life cycle cost than most other options. The biggest barrier to their success, however, is that their first cost has been considerably higher than competing technologies. LED sign prices are falling rapidly, though, because manufacturers are continually improving optical designs of the fixtures to use fewer LEDs and thus even less energy while providing better performance.

  17. A theory for heat exchangers with liquid-desiccant-wetted surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Otterbein, R.T. [Otterbein Engineering, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The following theory extends the wet surface model of Maclaine-cross and Banks (1981) to include heat exchangers that heat or cool moist air with liquid-desiccant-wetted surfaces. The theory uses a wall boundary condition that forces the moist air to be at an arbitrary relative humidity that is less than totally saturated. The theory defines a new temperature scale (brine-bulb temperature) for which the wet-bulb temperature is a special case. Brine-bulb heat capacitance and heat transfer coefficient are defined. By using an analogy to the dry surface heat exchanger theory, the performance of these heat exchangers can then be estimated from the performance of geometrically identical heat exchangers with a dry surface. Charts to utilize the theory at various elevations are shown.

  18. Indoor design condition and the cooling load calculation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, T.Y. [Sun (Tseng-Yao), Rancho Palos Verde, CA (United States)

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cooling load calculation involves two steps. The first is to determine the basic building load. This consists of external loads through the building envelope and internal loads from people, lights, appliances, and other heat sources. The required supply air quantity for each conditioned space generally is determined in the first step. This is because each relates only to the coil leaving and required room dry bulb temperatures (unless reheat is required to control the humidity level in the conditioned space). The second step, after completing the above, is to calculate the system cooling load. This step adapts the selected air distribution system to the building load and involves the introduction of the required outdoor air volume into the air conditioning system for ventilation. Proper psychrometric analysis is required to calculate the entering and leaving wet bulb conditions of the air passing through the cooling coil. These, together with the corresponding dry bulb temperatures, will determine the system cooling load.

  19. Cooling towers, the neglected energy conservations and money making machine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burger, R. [Burger Associates, Dallas, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The heat Rejection Industry defines a nominal cooling tower as circulating three gallons of water per minute (GPM) per ton of refrigeration from entering the tower at 95 {degrees}F, Hot Water temperature (HWT), Leaving at 85{degrees}F Cold Water Temperature (CWT) at a Design Wet Bulb of 70{degrees}F (WBT). Manufacturers then provide a selection chart based on various wet bulb temperatures and HWTs. The wet bulb fluctuates and varies throughout the world since it is the combination ambient temperature, relative humidity, and/or dew point. Different HWT and CWT requirements are usually charted as they change, so that the user can select the nominal cooling tower model recommended by the manufacturer. In the specification of cooling towers it is necessary to clearly understand the definition of nominal cooling tower, and to make sure the specification you need addressed can be met by the system you purchase. This should be tested prior to final acceptance.

  20. ASRC RSS Data

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kiedron, Peter

    Once every minute between sunrise and sunset the Rotating Shadowband Spectroradiometer (RSS) measures simultaneously three irradiances: total horizontal, diffuse horizontal and direct normal in near ultraviolet, visible and near infrared range (approx. 370nm-1050nm) at 512 (RSS103) or 1024 (RSS102 and RSS105) adjacent spectral resolving elements (pixels). The resolution is pixel (wavelength) dependent and it differs from instrument to instrument. The reported irradiances are cosine response corrected. And their radiometric calibration is based on incandescent lamp calibrators that can be traced to the NIST irradiance scale. The units are W/m2/nm.

  1. Employee Motivation and Communication Methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heller, D. M.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the entire year. A few bugs cropped up or savings would have been even greater. SEE THE LIGHT Flourescent lamps produce up to five times .as much light for the same energy as incandescent lamps and last 10 to 15 times longer. Wattage does not measure... or non-exempt. We produce various types of indus trial catalysts, with our major product being DABCO, a urethane foam catalyst. The Paulsboro Plant has seen sharply spiraling energy costs over the last few years, as we all have. From 1978 to 1981...

  2. Lighting Options for Homes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, W.S.

    1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report covers many aspects of various lighting options for homes. Types of light sources described include natural light, artificial light, incandescent lamps, fluorescent lamps, and high intensity discharge lamps. A light source selection guide gives the physical characteristics of these, design considerations, and common applications. Color, strategies for efficient lighting, and types of lighting are discussed. There is one section giving tips for various situations in specific rooms. Rooms and types of fixtures are shown on a matrix with watts saved by using the recommended type lighting for that room and room location. A major emphasis of this report is saving energy by utilizing the most suitable, recommended lighting option. (BN)

  3. Advances in Lighting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tumber, A. J.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    colour rendition. The quartz-halogen incandescent lam s operate at higher temperatures, and have a somewhat higher efficacy, but they are rarely used except for special applicati ns. 3-2 High Intensity Discharge Lamps. Mercury is the grandfather... of the H.I.D. lamps. Its blue-green light, has been used almost exclusively for streetlighti and, often with colour-improving phospho it is still being used in industrial and commercial applications. Reactor-type ballasted mercury lamps can now...

  4. The effect of blade tenderization on the palatability and retail caselife of beef steaks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huerta, Nelson Orlando

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the Student Newman-Keuls' test. (Steel and Torrie, 1960). E i tie. S * t*pra ds (ZMPS168) ad 7 bottom rounds (IMPS 171B) were wrapped in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) film (Goodyear "Prime Wrap" ) and stored for 23-25 days at 3-4 C in order to develop slime... steak. All steaks in this experiment were placed in individual styroi'oam trays, overwrapped with PVC film (Goodyear "Prime 25 Wrap" ) and placed under simulated retail caselife conditions (1-3 C under 90 ft-C of incandescent light). A trained 2...

  5. Enhancement of the resolution of full-field optical coherence tomography by using a colour image sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalyanov, A L; Lychagov, V V; Smirnov, I V; Ryabukho, V P [N.G. Chernyshevsky Saratov State University, Saratov (Russian Federation)

    2013-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The influence of white balance in a colour image detector on the resolution of a full-field optical coherence tomograph (FFOCT) is studied. The change in the interference pulse width depending on the white balance tuning is estimated in the cases of a thermal radiation source (incandescent lamp) and a white light emitting diode. It is shown that by tuning white balance of the detector in a certain range, the FFOCT resolution can be increased by 20 % as compared to the resolution, attained with the use of a monochrome detector. (optical coherence tomography)

  6. Secondary Electron Emission from Dust and Its Effect on Charging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saikia, B. K.; Kakati, B.; Kausik, S. S. [Centre of Plasma Physics, Institute for Plasma Research, Nazirakhat, Sonapur-782402, Assam (India); Bandyopadhyay, M. [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar-382 428 (India)

    2011-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen plasma is produced in a plasma chamber by striking discharge between incandescent tungsten filaments and the permanent magnetic cage [1], which is grounded. The magnetic cage has a full line cusped magnetic field geometry used to confine the plasma elements. A cylindrical Langmuir probe is used to study the plasma parameters in various discharge conditions. The charge accumulated on the dust particles is calculated using the capacitance model and the dust current is measured by the combination of a Faraday cup and an electrometer at different discharge conditions. It is found Secondary electron emission from dust having low emission yield effects the charging of dust particles in presence of high energetic electrons.

  7. Demonstration of LED Retrofit Lamps at the Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington, DC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Naomi J.; Rosenfeld, Scott M.

    2012-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents observations and results obtained from a lighting demonstration project conducted under the U.S. Department of Energy GATEWAY Solid-State Lighting (SSL) Technology Demonstration Program at the Smithsonain American Art Museum in Washington, DC. LED Lamp samples were tested in the museum workshop, temporarily installed in a gallery for feedback, and ultimately replaced all traditional incandescent lamps in one gallery of modernist art at the American Art Museum and partially replacing lamps in two galleries at the Musesum's Renwick Gallery. This report describes the selection and testing process, technology challenges, perceptions, economics, energy use, and mixed results of usign LED replacement lamps in art galleries housing national treasures.

  8. Texas LoanSTAR Monitoring & Analysis Program- Characterizing Loanstar Buildings & Energy Consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Challa, V.; Athar, A.; Abbas, M.; Claridge, D.; Haberl, J.

    ) conversion. Other widely recommended measures arc the conversion of incandescent lighting to fluorescent lighting and installing an Energy Monitoring and Control System (EMC...$). TIle estimated savings frollllhese retrofits arc more or less in line..., TX, May 13-14, 1992 Code Building Area Recommended Retrofits Aetro", Completion SQ-It 081e ZEC zachry Engineerlng Cenler 324,000 VAV (48Ohp), EMCS Ma,ch 1991 U,T, Austin EOB Educalion Buildinn 251,161 UOhlS Incd ,OS, VAV (4oohp), VSP 75hp...

  9. Method of improving BeO as a thermoluminescent detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gammage, Richard B. (Oak Ridge, TN); Thorngate, John H. (Livermore, CA); Christian, Danny J. (Knoxville, TN)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurements of radiation exposure below 1 mR are possible with a BeO ceramic thermoluminescent detector (TLD) by treating the TL signal in a manner that discriminates against an interferring pyroelectric incandescence (PI). This is accomplished by differentiating the signals electronically to cause the composite signal to cross the baseline. A zero-crossing detector then senses and clips the negative-going portion of the signal. The resultant signal is integrated, producing a result wherein the true TL signal is substantially greater than the PI signal.

  10. Aerogel-supported filament

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wuest, Craig R. (Danville, CA); Tillotson, Thomas M. (Tracy, CA); Johnson, III, Coleman V. (Dallas, TX)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a thin filament embedded in a low density aerogel for use in radiation detection instruments and incandescent lamps. The aerogel provides a supportive matrix that is thermally and electrically nonconductive, mechanically strong, highly porous, gas-permeable, and transparent to ionizing radiation over short distances. A low density, open-cell aerogel is cast around a fine filament or wire, which allows the wire to be positioned with little or no tension and keeps the wire in place in the event of breakage. The aerogel support reduces the stresses on the wire caused by vibrational, gravitational, electrical, and mechanical forces.

  11. Aerogel-supported filament

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wuest, C.R.; Tillotson, T.M.; Johnson, C.V. III

    1995-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a thin filament embedded in a low density aerogel for use in radiation detection instruments and incandescent lamps. The aerogel provides a supportive matrix that is thermally and electrically nonconductive, mechanically strong, highly porous, gas-permeable, and transparent to ionizing radiation over short distances. A low density, open-cell aerogel is cast around a fine filament or wire, which allows the wire to be positioned with little or no tension and keeps the wire in place in the event of breakage. The aerogel support reduces the stresses on the wire caused by vibrational, gravitational, electrical, and mechanical forces. 6 Figs.

  12. White light velocity interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erskine, D.J.

    1999-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a technique that allows the use of broadband and incoherent illumination. Although denoted white light velocimetry, this principle can be applied to any wave phenomenon. For the first time, powerful, compact or inexpensive sources can be used for remote target velocimetry. These include flash and arc lamps, light from detonations, pulsed lasers, chirped frequency lasers, and lasers operating simultaneously in several wavelengths. The technique is demonstrated with white light from an incandescent source to measure a target moving at 16 m/s. 41 figs.

  13. DOE Publishes Final Rule for the Request for Exclusion of 100 Watt R20

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: Theof"WaveInteractions and Policy (2009)| Department ofofShort Incandescent

  14. Incorporating Behavior Change Efforts Into Energy Efficiency Programs |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking of BlytheDepartment of Energy IRSJulyIncandescent Lighting

  15. Incorporating Energy Efficiency into Disaster Recovery Efforts | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking of BlytheDepartment of Energy IRSJulyIncandescent Lightingof Energy

  16. Increase Your H2IQ | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking of BlytheDepartment of Energy IRSJulyIncandescent Lightingof

  17. Increasing Access to Materials Critical to the Clean Energy Economy |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking of BlytheDepartment of Energy IRSJulyIncandescent LightingofDepartment

  18. Increasing Renewable Energy with Hydrogen Storage and Fuel Cell

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking of BlytheDepartment of Energy IRSJulyIncandescent

  19. Increasing the Capacity of Existing Power Lines

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking of BlytheDepartment of Energy IRSJulyIncandescentIncreasing Solar

  20. Incorporating Biodiversity Considerations Into Environmental Impact

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently Asked Questions for DOEthe RankingReform at theDepartmentIncandescentAnalysis Under

  1. Incorporating Past Lessons Learned on UPF Project - John Eschenberg, UPF

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently Asked Questions for DOEthe RankingReform at theDepartmentIncandescentAnalysis

  2. Increase Your H2IQ | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently Asked Questions for DOEthe RankingReform at theDepartmentIncandescentAnalysisEducation

  3. Analysis of neutral active particle loss in afterglow in krypton at 2.6 mbar pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pejovic, Momcilo M.; Karamarkovic, Jugoslav P.; Ristic, Goran S.; Pejovic, Milic M. [Faculty of Electronic Engineering, University of Nis, P.O. Box 73, 18001 Nis (Serbia); Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Nis, A. Medvedeva 14, 18001 Nis (Serbia); Faculty of Electronic Engineering, University of Nis, P.O. Box 73, 18001 Nis (Serbia)

    2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the analysis of the surface recombination and/or de-excitation of neutral active particles in two different volume krypton-filled tubes at pressure of 2.6 mbar with 1 ppm oxygen impurities. The analysis was performed on the basis of secondary electron emission from the cathode induced by positive ions and neutral active particles using the experimental data of electrical breakdown time delay mean value t{sub d} as a function of afterglow period {tau} ('memory curve'). It was shown that the main channel of neutral active particles' loss in afterglow is their recombination and/or de-excitation on the bulb walls. The loss rate increases with the increase of available wall surface per unit of gas volume. It was also shown that in early afterglow (15 ms for the tube with smaller bulb volume and 30 ms for the tube with bigger bulb volume) positive ions are formed in the mutual collisions of neutral active particles, and these ions dominantly influence the secondary electron emission from the cathode. In late afterglow (to 30 s for the tube with smaller bulb volume and to 150 s for the tube with bigger bulb volume) neutral active particles have dominant role in secondary electron emission from the cathode. The probability for this process decreases with the increase of afterglow period as a consequence of the decrease of the concentration of neutral active particles in gas, and this probability is smaller for the tube with smaller bulb volume. The influence of additional electron yield in the electrode gap caused by gamma radiation on breakdown initiation is also analyzed. It is shown that the influence of the neutral active particles in the process of secondary electron emission in the case of gamma radiation is also significant in both early and late afterglow.

  4. The computer BESK and an early attempt to simulate galactic dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lindblad, Per Olof

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The first N-body simulation of interacting galaxies, even producing spiral arms, was performed by Erik Holmberg in Lund (1941), not with a numerical computer, but by his arrangement of movable light-bulbs and photocells to measure the luminosity at each bulb and thereby estimate the gravitational force. A decade later, and with the arrival of the first programable computers, computations of galactic dynamics were performed, which were later transferred into a N-body simulation movie. I present here the background details for this work with a description of the important elements to note in the movie which may be retrieved at http://ttt.astro.su.se/~po .

  5. Heat transfer assembly for a fluorescent lamp and fixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siminovitch, M.J.; Rubenstein, F.M.; Whitman, R.E.

    1992-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

    In a lighting fixture including a lamp and a housing, a heat transfer structure is disclosed for reducing the minimum lamp wall temperature of a fluorescent light bulb. The heat transfer structure, constructed of thermally conductive material, extends from inside the housing to outside the housing, transferring heat energy generated from a fluorescent light bulb to outside the housing where the heat energy is dissipated to the ambient air outside the housing. Also disclosed is a method for reducing minimum lamp wall temperatures. Further disclosed is an improved lighting fixture including a lamp, a housing and the aforementioned heat transfer structure. 11 figs.

  6. The proliferation of functions: multiple systems playing multiple roles in multiple super systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crilly, Nathan

    2014-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

     a type of design representation and are useful for  developing methods and tools to support designers in their work. They are  also used in artificial intelligence research aimed at formalising design  knowledge so that designing might be automated (Chakrabarti et al., 2011;  Rosenman & Gero, 1998; Umeda...  respect to its more distant super?systems (for supporting  arguments see Neander, 1995: p. 117; McLaughlin; 2001: p. 55; Lewens, 2005:  pp. 133, 158; also see Chakrabarti, 1998).7 To give an example, consider the  indicator bulb (turn signal bulb) of a motor vehicle. In particular, consider a  context in which the...

  7. AC System Equipment Specification, Installation and Operational Options for Improved Indoor Humidity Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shirey, D. B.

    of 80?F (26.7?C) dry-bulb temperature and 67?F (19.4?C) wet-bulb temperature air entering the indoor unit (AHRI 2006), the equipment SHRs range from 0.67 to 0.8. Thus, the dehumidification fraction (one minus SHR) varies from 0.2 (20%) to 0.33 (33... Building Systems in Hot and Humid Climates, Plano, TX, December 15-17, 2008 Figure 3. Latent Capacity Degradation with Supply Air Fan Overrun at Reduced Air Flow compressor on cycle (Shirey et al. 2006). The plotted lines are results from a...

  8. Factors involved in the operation of fiberoptic dynamic lane assignment signs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sunkari, Srinivasa R

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    some time to change from one display to another display. They contain a number of moving parts. Bulb matrix, fiberoptic signs, and light-emitting diode (LED) signs are examples of light source signs. They have an independent light source. While bulb... to the use of circular reflective matrix disk signs. However, advances in technology and the need for a higher target value and legibility renewed the interest in light-emitting CMS. Fiberoptic, light-emitting diode (LED), and liquid crystal display (LCD...

  9. Heat transfer assembly for a fluorescent lamp and fixture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siminovitch, Michael J. (Richmond, CA); Rubenstein, Francis M. (Berkeley, CA); Whitman, Richard E. (Richmond, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a lighting fixture including a lamp and a housing, a heat transfer structure is disclosed for reducing the minimum lamp wall temperature of a fluorescent light bulb. The heat transfer structure, constructed of thermally conductive material, extends from inside the housing to outside the housing, transferring heat energy generated from a fluorescent light bulb to outside the housing where the heat energy is dissipated to the ambient air outside the housing. Also disclosed is a method for reducing minimum lamp wall temperatures. Further disclosed is an improved lighting fixture including a lamp, a housing and the aforementioned heat transfer structure.

  10. LED Update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Mark L.; Gordon, Kelly L.

    2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article, which will appear in RESIDENTIAL LIGHTING MAGAZINE, interviews PNNL's Kelly Gordon and presents the interview in question and answer format. The topic is a light emitting diode (LED) lighting also known as solid state lighting. Solid state lighting will be a new category in an energy efficient lighting fixture design competition called Lighting for Tomorrow sponsored by the US Department of Energy Emerging Technologies Office, the American Institute for Lighting, and the Consortium for Energy Efficiency. LED technology has been around since the ’60s, but it has been used mostly for indicator lights on electronics equipment. The big breakthrough was the development in the 1990s of blue LEDs which can be combined with the red and green LEDs that already existed to make white light. LEDs produce 25 to 40 lumens of light per watt of energy used, almost as much as a CFL (50 lumens per watt) and much more efficient than incandescent sources, which are around 15 lumens per watt. They are much longer lived and practical in harsh environments unsuitable for incandescent lighting. They are ready for niche applications now, like under-counter lighting and may be practical for additional applications as technological challenges are worked out and the technology is advancing in leaps and bounds.

  11. THE UNIVERSITY OF WESTERN ONTARIO HUMAN RESOURCES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cunningham, Ian

    Compatibility 6 6.0 Organic Solvents 7 7.0 Unknown Chemicals 7 8.0 Controlled Substances and Goods 7 9.0 Shock Chemical Glass Containers 15 13.0 Asbestos 16 14.0 Electronics, Fluorescent Light Bulbs 16 15.0 Sharps the requirements covered in this handbook. The waste disposal program at Western is convenient, flexible, and easy

  12. Behavioural Brain Research 172 (2006) 97105 Research report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schallert, Tim

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (D2 -/-) to a battery of olfactory tests. In addition to behavioral characterization, several of olfactory bulb processing. Several disorders characterized by altered dopamine homeostasis in olfaction-related brain regions display olfactory deficits. To further characterize the role of dopamine in olfactory

  13. A Multipath Channel Estimation Algorithm using a Kalman filter. Rupul Safaya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kansas, University of

    ? __________________________________________10 1.4 Training Sequences vs. Blind Methods.________________________________11 1.5 Thesis Overview they use training sequences to estimate the channel. This thesis presents a method of improving the channel here. She still thinks that I am writing something about fixing light bulbs, but this thesis would

  14. A Multipath Channel Estimation Algorithm using a Kalman filter. Rupul Safaya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kansas, University of

    ? __________________________________________10 1.4 Training Sequences vs. Blind Methods.________________________________11 1.5 Thesis Overview they use training sequences to estimate the channel. This thesis presents a method of improving the channel thinks that I am writing something about fixing light bulbs, but this thesis would not be possible

  15. Reducing home lighting expenses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aimone, M.A.

    1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ways to reduce lighting expenses are summarized. These include: turning off lights when not in use; keeping fixtures and lamps clean; replacing lamps with more efficient types; using three-way bulbs; use of daylighting; buying fewer lamps and reducing lamp wattage; consider repainting rooms; replacing recessed fixtures with tracklighting; and using efficient lamps for outdoor use. (MCW)

  16. ILP is Dead, Long Live IPC!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Uht, Augustus K.

    Pentium 4's) have power dissipations measurable in light bulb or toaster equivalents. The net result large power dissipation; in short, it would burn up. The industry 'fix' to this problem is to put two on the left-most comparison: the processors running the SPECint2000 benchmarks without tuning. Figure 1. Intel

  17. Busting Arbitration Myths

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drahozal, Christopher R.

    2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the Hindenburg contributed to the 1937 disaster (the skin was painted with layers of aluminum powder and iron oxide?which, when combined in proper proportions, make thermite); whether you save energy by leaving a light bulb on, rather than turning it off when...

  18. Physics for Future Presidents (Professional Physicists have knowledge that can

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Browder, Tom

    , that is a serious title. Energy, global warming, terrorism and counter-terrorism, health, internet, satellites full spectrum light, and use 66% less electricity than regular bulbs automotive emissions have been prize) Instrumentation the accuracy of atomic clocks (the basis for Global Positioning Systems (GPS

  19. Multipole expansion method for supernova neutrino oscillations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duan, Huaiyu

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate a multipole expansion method to calculate collective neutrino oscillations in supernovae using the neutrino bulb model. We show that it is much more efficient to solve multi-angle neutrino oscillations in multipole basis than in angle basis. The multipole expansion method also provides interesting insights into multi-angle calculations that were accomplished previously in angle basis.

  20. Office of Environmental Sustainability Volume 2, Issue 3 December 2008 Sustainability Bulletin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Linsley, Braddock K.

    and thermostats, compact fluorescent light bulbs were distributed, RA's conducted energy audits of rooms and held Inside this Issue: Intersession Energy Savings Initiative 1 Fall Energy Campaign 2 Blackle 2 Green The Intersession Energy Savings Initiative is a new program designed to save energy and money during the holiday

  1. LIFE CYCLE SUSTAINABILITY ASSESSMENT An agent based approach to the potential for rebound resulting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Illinois at Chicago, University of

    efficient lighting options, such as com- pact fluorescent bulbs and light emitting diodes are predicted . Light emitting diode . Lighting . Rebound effect . Residential consumption 1 Introduction Light (US EIA 2011). Light emitting diode (LED) lamps1 represent an evolution in how residential 1 Light

  2. 25th Annual CTS Transportation Research Conference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    -Tension Ducts 7,000 psi Concrete beams 1 (1x7) post-tensioned CFCC strands 3/8 (1x7) non-prestressed CFCC strands 0.6 (1x7) prestressed CFCC strands Main Components of Bulb-T Bridge Model #12;· Overall value

  3. Energymaster Desiccant System Application to Light Commercial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blanpied, M. C.; Coellner, J. A.; Macintosh, D. S.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in representative cities are: New Orleans 72 - 80F Chicago 50 - 76F Cas Vegas 53 - 68F The fact that wet bulbs remain in a narrow band at high levels means the air conditioninq loads are high and continuous over the coollnq season. In addition humid climates...

  4. has generated a two-class distinction of sub-fields of microbiology. Sadly, ecology has been largely relegated to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovley, Derek

    process that can power a light bulb? The study of microbial fuel cells and, more generally, microbe degrade could be converted to elec- tricity in a microbial fuel cell, but if there was ever was any doubt approach. Future shock from the microbe electric Derek R. Lovley, Department of Microbiology, University

  5. Predictions for Scienti c Computing Fifty Years From Now

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trefethen, Nick

    of radio, television, light bulbs, telephones, phonographs, lasers, refrigerators, 1 #12;automobiles engineering? I believe that the explanation of our special position in history may be that it is not so special after all, because history tends not to last very long. This argument has been called

  6. Inspection Checklist When you are being shown a new rental facility, thoroughly inspect the area. Note any damages or

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rhode Island, University of

    ? · Are the windows well-insulated? · Can you put in an air conditioner or a fan? Heating and air conditioning units and outlets: · Do all the light switches work? · Do you have to buy replacement light bulbs, or does your

  7. Multipole expansion method for supernova neutrino oscillations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huaiyu Duan; Shashank Shalgar

    2014-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate a multipole expansion method to calculate collective neutrino oscillations in supernovae using the neutrino bulb model. We show that it is much more efficient to solve multi-angle neutrino oscillations in multipole basis than in angle basis. The multipole expansion method also provides interesting insights into multi-angle calculations that were accomplished previously in angle basis.

  8. Summer Research with Professor Kenneth L. Simons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lü, James Jian-Qiang

    promises to replace traditional light bulbs with more energy-efficient alternatives, and moreover analyzes the emerging "smart lighting" industries, using worldwide data on companies, patents, publications for all participants throughout summer, in the Sage Lab building. It may help if you can bring your own

  9. Thermosiphon Cooling of a Large Office /Laboratory Complex

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, T. L.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For the past six winters a thermosiphon system has been used with two 2000 ton centrifugal chillers to supply chilled water for building cooling. Whenever the outside wet bulb temperature drops to 45 F or below, the compressors are shut down...

  10. IR-4 Ornamental Horticulture Program Research Report Form

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lieth, J. Heinrich

    . The plants in the Control group received no V-10142. The bulbs were pot- cooled for 3 weeks and then grown the pots are set in a cool location where the plants are waiting to emerge. Some growers cool their potted management) and Priyasheila Singh (plant culture, data collection). The materials being tested were supplied

  11. Olfactory learning modifies the expression of odour-induced oscillatory responses in the gamma (6090 Hz) and beta

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gutkin, Boris

    ­90 Hz) and beta (15­40 Hz) bands in the rat olfactory bulb Nadine Ravel,1 Pascal Chabaud,1 Claire Martin the question of the possible functional relevance of two different oscillatory activities, beta and gamma (15 activities were used as an index of local synchrony. Beta and gamma oscillatory activities were quantified

  12. High voltage ignition of high pressure microwave powered UV light sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank, J.D.; Cekic, M.; Wood, C.H. [Fusion U.V. Curing Systems Corp., Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Industrial microwave powered (electrodeless) light sources have been limited to quiescent pressures of {approximately}300 Torr of buffer gas and metal-halide fills. The predominant reason for such restrictions has been the inability to microwave ignite the plasma due to the collisionality of higher pressure fills and/or the electronegativity of halide bulb chemistries. Commercially interesting bulb fills require electric fields for ionization that are often large multiples of the breakdown voltage for air. Many auxiliary ignition methods are evaluated for efficiency and practicality before the choice of a high-voltage system with a retractable external electrode. The scheme utilizes a high voltage pulse power supply and a novel field emission source. Acting together they create localized condition of pressure reduction and high free electron density. This allows the normal microwave fields to drive this small region into avalanche, ignite the bulb, and heat the plasma to its operating point (T{sub e} {approx} 0.5 eV). This process is currently being used in a new generation of lamps, which are using multi-atmospheric excimer laser chemistries and pressure and constituent enhanced metal-halide systems. At the present time, production prototypes produce over 900 W of radiation in a 30 nm band, centered at 308 nm. Similarly, these prototypes when loaded with metal-halide bulb fills produce over 1 kW of radiation in 30 nm wide bands, centered about the wavelength of interest.

  13. Smart Spaces Industry/Academia Day | 02.08.2011 | Page 1 Dr. M.A.Stough | Research Solid-State Lighting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lü, James Jian-Qiang

    With such a history, the momentum is large for just making SSL `bulbs' But, energy efficiency demands intelligent mission ­ LEAD THE CHIPS TO NEW ENERGY Green energy technology utilize SSL Fusion of SSL and Solar Quality · High Performance Computing/Energy Efficiency #12;6 Afina Portfolio #12;

  14. What to do with Your Waste All major types of waste are listed below. Click on the item that you want to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, Paul

    of the Environment Team. B Batteries Books Bulbs Bulky Items C Cans Cardboard Clinical Waste Clothing Paint Paper Plastics Printer/Toner Cartridges R Radioactive Waste S Sharp Items T Toner Cartridges WWhat to do with Your Waste All major types of waste are listed below. Click on the item that you

  15. Chapter 24: Alternating-Current Circuits 2. The voltage in the European wall socket oscillates between the positive and negative peak voltages, resulting in an rms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kioussis, Nicholas

    1 Chapter 24: Alternating-Current Circuits 2. The voltage in the European wall socket oscillates 240 V 340 VV V 6. A light bulb dissipates power as the voltage oscillates across its filament.0 V 1.32 A 15.2 V I X 13. An oscillating voltage drives an alternating current through a capacitor

  16. 2009 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University 2902-1087 Virginia Cooperative Extension programs and employment are open to all, regardless of race, color, national origin, sex, religion, age, disability, political beliefs, sexual orientation, o

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    temperature swings. High/low thermometers are good to insure the temperature in the brooder do not get too hot light bulbs, heat lamps, electric hovers, gas hovers, and hot water radiators. Each of these works satisfactory as long as it is set-up in a safe manner and maintains a constant temperature comfortable

  17. High brightness microwave lamp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirkpatrick, Douglas A.; Dolan, James T.; MacLennan, Donald A.; Turner, Brian P.; Simpson, James E.

    2003-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrodeless microwave discharge lamp includes a source of microwave energy, a microwave cavity, a structure configured to transmit the microwave energy from the source to the microwave cavity, a bulb disposed within the microwave cavity, the bulb including a discharge forming fill which emits light when excited by the microwave energy, and a reflector disposed within the microwave cavity, wherein the reflector defines a reflective cavity which encompasses the bulb within its volume and has an inside surface area which is sufficiently less than an inside surface area of the microwave cavity. A portion of the reflector may define a light emitting aperture which extends from a position closely spaced to the bulb to a light transmissive end of the microwave cavity. Preferably, at least a portion of the reflector is spaced from a wall of the microwave cavity. The lamp may be substantially sealed from environmental contamination. The cavity may include a dielectric material is a sufficient amount to require a reduction in the size of the cavity to support the desired resonant mode.

  18. Salt Control on Sedimentary Processes in Early Pleistocene: Ship Shoal South Addition Blocks 349-358, Gulf of Mexico.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Syarif, Munji

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    recent salt and associated sediments reveals the evolution of a supralobal basin in the study area. The basin depocenter shifted from the northeastern part to the center of the study area through time. A small, bulb-shaped, salt-stock structure occurs...

  19. Analysis of Innovative HVAC System Technologies and Their Application for Office Buildings in Hot and Humid Climates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tanskyi, Oleksandr

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    air distribution system VAV ? Variable air volume VFD ? Variable frequency drive wb ? wet-bulb WERC ? Wisenbaker Engineering Research Center viii TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2010 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering Analysis of Innovative HVAC System Technologies and Their Application for Office...

  20. By Jennifer McNulty f anthropologist

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yi

    plant structures, referred to by the unwieldy moniker "underground storage organs" or USOs, are dietary him to bulbs and tu- bers, familiar to us as onions and potatoes. These nutrient-rich underground of teeth by drawing deeply from the fields of chemistry, molec- ular biology, and genetics