National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for 75-09-2 methylene chloride

  1. Methylene chloride exposure and birthweight in Monroe County, New York

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bell, B.P.; Franks, P.; Hildreth, N.; Melius, J. )

    1991-06-01

    This study examined the relationship between birthweight and exposure to emissions of methylene chloride (DCM) from manufacturing processes of the Eastman Kodak Company at Kodak Park in Rochester, Monroe County, New York. County census tracts were categorized as exposed to high, moderate, low or no DCM based on the Kodak Air Monitoring Program (KAMP) model, a theoretical dispersion model of DCM developed by Eastman Kodak Company. Birthweight and information on variables known to influence birthweight were obtained from 91,302 birth certificates of white singleton births to Monroe County residents from 1976 to 1987. No significant adverse effects of exposure to DCM on birthweight were found. Adjusted birthweight in high exposure census tracts was 18.7 g less than in areas with no exposure (95% confidence interval for the difference between high and no exposure - 51.6, 14.2 g). Problems inherent in the method of estimation of exposure, which may decrease power or bias the results, are discussed. Better methods to estimate exposure to emissions from multiple industrial point sources are needed.

  2. Substitutes for methylene chloride paint strippers -- performance evaluation and adaptation to aircraft maintenance procedures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, G.E.; Hollins, E.F.

    1997-12-31

    The US Air Force is conducting a focused review of alternative solvents for use in depainting aircraft. This effort is to provide a replacement for methylene chloride, which is a suspected carcinogen, a listed hazardous air pollutant, presents a serious workplace hazard, and is nearly eliminated from use as a paint stripper by the Aerospace Rule of the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants. An evaluation of available alternatives was conducted through a background and literature search, laboratory analytical work on a subset of alternative candidates, and actual field testing of alternative solvents on removable components of KC-135 aircraft at Tinker AFB, OK. The literature search and lab analyses resulted in a recommendation for field testing of seven alternative products; one of these emerged as superior in removal power testing and was recommended for full scale prototype testing on a KC-135. The entire effort was conducted to identify and test alternatives for use on polyurethane topcoats with a Koroflex (polyurethane) primer paint system. Additional testing of alternative solvents on panels employing three different primer systems: epoxy, BMS 10-11, and a self-priming topcoat are currently planned for the next steps. This project represents the only Air Force project aimed at finding a chemical replacement for methylene chloride. The experimental design of each phase of the project, the specific analytical and technical criteria used in screening and evaluating each alternative, and the documentation of the results in a series of technical reports have yielded not only several viable alternatives, but, more importantly, a detailed methodology for conducting similar projects.

  3. Exposure to methylene chloride from controlled use of a paint remover in residences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodgson, A.T.; Girman, J.R.

    1987-06-01

    A recent laboratory investigation characterized personal exposures to methylene chloride (CH/sub 2/Cl/sub 2/) for simulated typical uses of paint removers and aerosol finishes containing CH/sub 2/Cl/sub 2/ in a room-size environmental chamber at two ventilation rates. Because paint removers produced relatively large exposures to CH/sub 2/Cl/sub 2/ in these experiments, the present investigation was undertaken to measure exposures to CH/sub 2/Cl/sub 2/ for standardized use of a paint remover in a variety of residential environments. A total of 21 experiments were conducted outdoors and indoors in a garage, a basement workshop, and large and small rooms of a house. In the indoor work areas, ventilation patterns and rates were varied by opening windows and doors and by the use of a household fan. Finishes were removed from uniformly-prepared panels and from chairs. The personal exposure of the worker was determined from the continuous measurement of CH/sub 2/Cl/sub 2/ concentration in a pumped breathing-zone sample. Personal exposures resulting from the outdoor use of paint remover were very low (6 to 36 ppM.h). Exposures resulting from the use of paint remover indoors without mechanical exhaust ventilation were considerably higher (190 to 2090 ppM-h). In each indoor location, an open window or exterior door (11 to 142 ppM.h). A single-equation mass-balance model was used to produce estimates of theoretical exposures for experiments conducted indoors. The efficacy of the model for predicting exposures was evaluated by comparing theoretical and measured personal exposures. The model performed best for small-volume work areas with low ventilation rates. In general, the model had an accuracy of +-50 percent when applied to experiments conducted in enclosed work areas without an exhaust fan.

  4. Source characterization and control technology assessment of methylene chloride emissions from Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, NY. Final report, July 1988-April 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walata, S.A.; Rehm, R.M.

    1989-07-01

    This report gives results of an assessment of potential control technologies for methylene chloride (also known as dichloromethane or DCM) emission sources at Eastman Kodak Company's Kodak Park facility in Rochester, NY. DCM is a solvent used by Kodak in the manufacture of cellulose triacetate film support. Work has involved: a plant visit where major DCM emission sources were inspected, and evaluation of current and potential control technologies for the DCM emission sources. The report contains information gathered during the plant visit to the Kodak Park facility. Included are emission estimates determined by Kodak of all emission points greater than 8000 lb (3600 kg)/yr DCM, as well as a description of each point observed during the visit. Also included are results of an evaluation of control technologies that might be applied to the major emission sources. A cost analysis of different add-on control devices is provided for four of the uncontrolled emission points.

  5. Chloride removal from vitrification offgas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slaathaug, E.J. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    This study identified and investigated techniques of selectively purging chlorides from the low-level waste (LLW) vitrification process with the purge stream acceptable for burial on the Hanford Site. Chlorides will be present in high concentration in several individual feeds to the LLW Vitrification Plant. The chlorides are highly volatile in combustion type melters and are readily absorbed by wet scrubbing of the melter offgas. The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) process flow sheets show that the resulting chloride rich scrub solution is recycled back to the melter. The chlorides must be purged from the recycle loop to prevent the buildup of excessively high chloride concentrations.

  6. Process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds from petroleum products. [Polychlorinated biphenyls; methylene chloride; perchloroethylene; trichlorofluoroethane; trichloroethylene; chlorobenzene

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Googin, J.M.; Napier, J.M.; Travaglini, M.A.

    1982-03-31

    A process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls, from petroleum products by solvent extraction. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from a petroleum product into a polar solvent by contracting the petroleum product with the polar solvent. The polar solvent is characterized by a high solubility for the extracted halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, a low solubility for the petroleum product and considerable solvent power for polyhydroxy compound. The preferred polar solvent is dimethylformamide. A miscible polyhydroxy compound, such as, water, is added to the polar extraction solvent to increase the polarity of the polar extraction solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from the highly-polarized mixture of polyhydroxy compound and polar extraction solvent into a low polar or nonpolar solvent by contacting the polyhydroxy compound-polar solvent mixture with the low polar or nonpolar solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds in the low polar or nonpolar solvent by physical means, e.g., vacuum evaporation. The polar and nonpolar solvents are recovered for recycling. The process can easily be designed for continuous operation. Advantages of the process include that the polar solvent and a major portion of the nonpolar solvent can be recycled, the petroleum products are reclaimable and the cost for disposing of waste containing polychlorinated biphenyls is significantly reduced. 2 tables.

  7. Regeneration of zinc chloride hydrocracking catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zielke, Clyde W.

    1979-01-01

    Improved rate of recovery of zinc values from the solids which are carried over by the effluent vapors from the oxidative vapor phase regeneration of spent zinc chloride catalyst is achieved by treatment of the solids with both hydrogen chloride and calcium chloride to selectively and rapidly recover the zinc values as zinc chloride.

  8. Method for the abatement of hydrogen chloride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winston, S.J.; Thomas, T.R.

    1975-11-14

    A method is described for reducing the amount of hydrogen chloride contained in a gas stream by reacting the hydrogen chloride with ammonia in the gas phase so as to produce ammonium chloride. The combined gas stream is passed into a condensation and collection vessel, and a cyclonic flow is created in the combined gas stream as it passes through the vessel. The temperature of the gas stream is reduced in the vessel to below the condensation temperature of ammonium chloride in order to crystallize the ammonium chloride on the walls of the vessel. The cyclonic flow creates a turbulence which breaks off the larger particles of ammonium chloride which are, in turn, driven to the bottom of the vessel where the solid ammonium chloride can be removed from the vessel. The gas stream exiting from the condensation and collection vessel is further cleaned and additional ammonium chloride is removed by passing through additional filters.

  9. Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spormann, Alfred M [Stanford, CA; Muller, Jochen A [Baltimore, MD; Rosner, Bettina M [Berlin, DE; Von Abendroth, Gregory [Mannheim, DE; Meshulam-Simon, Galit [Los Angeles, CA; McCarty, Perry L [Stanford, CA

    2014-02-11

    Compositions and methods are provided that relate to the bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes, particularly the bioremediation of vinyl chloride by Dehalococcoides-like organisms. An isolated strain of bacteria, Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS, that metabolizes vinyl chloride is provided; the genetic sequence of the enzyme responsible for vinyl chloride dehalogenation; methods of assessing the capability of endogenous organisms at an environmental site to metabolize vinyl chloride; and a method of using the strains of the invention for bioremediation.

  10. Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spormann, Alfred M.; Muller, Jochen A.; Rosner, Bettina M.; Von Abendroth, Gregory; Meshulam-Simon, Galit; McCarty, Perry L

    2011-11-22

    Compositions and methods are provided that relate to the bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes, particularly the bioremediation of vinyl chloride by Dehalococcoides-like organisms. An isolated strain of bacteria, Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS, that metabolizes vinyl chloride is provided; the genetic sequence of the enzyme responsible for vinyl chloride dehalogenation; methods of assessing the capability of endogenous organisms at an environmental site to metabolize vinyl chloride; and a method of using the strains of the invention for bioremediation.

  11. REMOVAL OF CHLORIDE FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schulz, W.W.

    1959-08-01

    The removal of chlorides from aqueons solutions is described. The process involves contacting the aqueous chloride containing solution with a benzene solution about 0.005 M in phenyl mercuric acetate whereby the chloride anions are taken up by the organic phase and separating the organic phase from the aqueous solutions.

  12. Production of anhydrous aluminum chloride composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vandergrift, G.F. III; Krumpelt, M.; Horwitz, E.P.

    1981-10-08

    A process is described for producing an anhydrous aluminum chloride composition from a water-based aluminous material such as a slurry of aluminum hydroxide in a multistage extraction process in which the aluminum ion is first extracted into an organic liquid containing an acidic extractant and then extracted from the organic phase into an alkali metal chloride or chlorides to form a melt containing a mixture of chlorides of alkali metal and aluminum. In the process, the organic liquid may be recycled. In addition, the process advantageously includes an electrolysis cell for producing metallic aluminum and the alkali metal chloride or chlorides may be recycled for extraction of the aluminum from the organic phase.

  13. Production of chlorine from chloride salts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rohrmann, Charles A. (Kennewick, WA)

    1981-01-01

    A process for converting chloride salts and sulfuric acid to sulfate salts and elemental chlorine is disclosed. A chloride salt and sulfuric acid are combined in a furnace where they react to produce a sulfate salt and hydrogen chloride. Hydrogen chloride from the furnace contacts a molten salt mixture containing an oxygen compound of vanadium, an alkali metal sulfate and an alkali metal pyrosulfate to recover elemental chlorine. In the absence of an oxygen-bearing gas during the contacting, the vanadium is reduced, but is regenerated to its active higher valence state by separately contacting the molten salt mixture with an oxygen-bearing gas.

  14. Process for synthesis of beryllium chloride dietherate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bergeron, Charles; Bullard, John E.; Morgan, Evan

    1991-01-01

    A low temperature method of producing beryllium chloride dietherate through the addition of hydrogen chloride gas to a mixture of beryllium metal in ether in a reaction vessel is described. A reflux condenser provides an exit for hydrogen produced form the reaction. A distillation condenser later replaces the reflux condenser for purifying the resultant product.

  15. Hydrocracking with molten zinc chloride catalyst containing 2-12% ferrous chloride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zielke, Clyde W.; Bagshaw, Gary H.

    1981-01-01

    In a process for hydrocracking heavy aromatic polynuclear carbonaceous feedstocks to produce hydrocarbon fuels boiling below about 475.degree. C. by contacting the feedstocks with hydrogen in the presence of a molten zinc chloride catalyst and thereafter separating at least a major portion of the hydrocarbon fuels from the spent molten zinc chloride catalyst, an improvement comprising: adjusting the FeCl.sub.2 content of the molten zinc chloride to from about 2 to about 12 mol percent based on the mixture of ferrous chloride and molten zinc chloride.

  16. Fight chloride corrosion in aqueous systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby, G.N.

    1995-02-01

    In iron-based alloys like carbon steel or stainless steel, the chloride ion increases corrosion by increasing the water's conductivity and by penetrating the alloy's protective oxides. It can increase overall or general corrosion, and can cause localized corrosion such as pitting and stress corrosion cracking. The chloride ion occurs naturally in seawater, in ground waters, in potable water, in condensate after incinerating waste materials such as polyvinyl chloride, and from the hydrolysis or decomposition of chlorinated hydrocarbons such as carbon tetrachloride or trichloroethane. Chlorides can also occur as trace impurities in bulk chemicals where they are neither expected nor analyzed for, but nonetheless can cause serious corrosion. This trace effect is worsened by the tendency of chlorides to concentrate in pits and crevices, especially on heated or intermittently wet and dry surfaces, to amounts that can be orders of magnitude greater than the percentage of chlorides in the bulk liquid. In this article the effects of chloride corrosion, as well as corrosion resistance are discussed.

  17. Modeling acid-gas generation from boiling chloride brines (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Modeling acid-gas generation from boiling chloride brines Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Modeling acid-gas generation from boiling chloride brines You are accessing ...

  18. Modeling acid-gas generation from boiling chloride brines (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Modeling acid-gas generation from boiling chloride brines Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Modeling acid-gas generation from boiling chloride brines This study ...

  19. Method of electrode fabrication and an electrode for metal chloride...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Method of electrode fabrication and an electrode for metal chloride battery Title: Method of electrode fabrication and an electrode for metal chloride battery A method of ...

  20. The feasibility of using methylene blue sensitized polyvinylalcohol film as a linear polarizer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jyothilakshmi, K.; Anju, K. S.; Arathy, K.; John, Beena Mary; Krishna, P. B.; Sruthi, C. T.; Chacko, Maria

    2014-01-28

    Linear light polarizing films selectively transmit radiations vibrating along an electromagnetic radiation vector and selectively absorb radiations vibrating along a second electromagnetic radiation vector. It happens according to the anisotropy of the film . In the present study the polarization effects of methylene blue sensitized polyvinyl alcohol is investigated. The polarization effects on the dye concentration, heating and stretching of film also are evaluated.

  1. Graphene oxide functionalized with methylene blue and its performance in singlet oxygen generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wojtoniszak, M.; Rogi?ska, D.; Machali?ski, B.; Drozdzik, M.; Mijowska, E.

    2013-07-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: Adsorption of methylene blue (MB) on graphene oxide (GO). Characterization of graphene oxidemethylene blue nanocomposite (MBGO). Examination of MBGO efficiency in singlet oxygen generation (SOG). MBGO performs higher SOG efficiency than pristine MB. - Abstract: Due to unique electronic, mechanical, optical and structural properties, graphene has shown promising applications in many fields, including biomedicine. One of them is noninvasive anticancer therapy photodynamic therapy (PDT), where singlet oxygen (SO), generated under the irradiation of light with appropriate wavelengths, kills cancer cells. In this study, authors report graphene oxide (GO) noncovalent functionalization with methylene blue (MB). MB molecules underwent adsorption on the surface of GO. Detailed characterization of the obtained material was carried out with UVvis spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Furthermore, its performance in singlet oxygen generation (SOG) under irradiation of laser with excitation wavelengths of 785 nm was investigated. Interestingly, GO functionalized with MB (MBGO) showed enhanced efficiency in singlet oxygen generation compared to pristine MB. The efficiency in SOG was detected by photobleaching of 9,10-anthracenediyl-bis(methylene)dimalonic acid (ABMDMA). These results indicate the material is promising in PDT anticancer therapy and further in vitro and in vivo studies are required.

  2. Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Data Explorer Search Results Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride Title: Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride Compositions and methods are provided that relate to the bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes, particularly the bioremediation of vinyl chloride by Dehalococcoides-like organisms. An isolated strain of bacteria, Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS, that metabolizes vinyl chloride is provided; the genetic sequence of the enzyme responsible for vinyl chloride

  3. Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride Title: Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride Compositions and methods are provided that relate to the bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes, particularly the bioremediation of vinyl chloride by Dehalococcoides-like organisms. An isolated strain of bacteria, Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS, that metabolizes vinyl chloride is provided; the genetic sequence of the enzyme responsible for vinyl chloride dehalogenation; methods of

  4. Electrochemical preparation of poly(methylene blue)/graphene nanocomposite thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erar?kc?, Elif; Da?c?, Kader; Topu, Ezgi; Alanyal?o?lu, Murat

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: Poly(MB)/graphene thin films are prepared by a simple electrochemical approach. Graphene layers in the film show a broad band in visible region of absorbance spectra. Morphology of composite films indicates both disordered and ordered regions. XRD reveals that nanocomposite films include rGO layers after electropolymerization process. Chemically prepared graphene is better than electrochemically prepared graphene for electrooxidation of nitrite. - Abstract: Poly(methylene blue)/graphene nanocomposite thin films were prepared by electropolymerization of methylene blue in the presence of graphene which have been synthesized by two different methods of a chemical oxidation process and an electrochemical approach. Synthesized nanocomposite thin films were characterized by using cyclic voltammetry, UVvis. absorption spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, and scanning tunneling microscopy techniques. Electrocatalytical properties of prepared poly(methylene blue)/graphene nanocomposite films were compared toward electrochemical oxidation of nitrite. Under optimized conditions, electrocatalytical effect of nanocomposite films of chemically prepared graphene through electrochemical oxidation of nitrite was better than that of electrochemically prepared graphene.

  5. Infrared spectroscopy of the methanol cation and its methylene-oxonium isomer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mosley, J. D.; Young, J. W.; Duncan, M. A. E-mail: maduncan@uga.edu; Huang, M.; McCoy, A. B. E-mail: maduncan@uga.edu

    2015-03-21

    The carbenium ion with nominal formula [C,H{sub 4},O]{sup +} is produced from methanol or ethylene glycol in a pulsed-discharge supersonic expansion source. The ion is mass selected, and its infrared spectrum is measured from 2000 to 4000 cm{sup ?1} using laser photodissociation spectroscopy and the method of rare gas atom tagging. Computational chemistry predicts two isomers, the methanol and methylene-oxonium cations. Predicted vibrational spectra based on scaled harmonic and reduced dimensional treatments are compared to the experimental spectra. The methanol cation is the only isomer produced when methanol is used as a precursor. When ethylene glycol is used as the precursor, methylene-oxonium is produced in addition to the methanol cation. Theoretical results at the CCSD(T)/cc-pVTZ level show that methylene-oxonium is lower in energy than methanol cation by 6.4 kcal/mol, and is in fact the global minimum isomer on the [C,H{sub 4},O]{sup +} potential surface. Methanol cation is trapped behind an isomerization barrier in our source, providing a convenient method to produce and characterize this transient species. Analysis of the spectrum of the methanol cation provides evidence for strong CH stretch vibration/torsion coupling in this molecular ion.

  6. Absorption media for irreversibly gettering thionyl chloride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buffleben, George; Goods, Steven H.; Shepodd, Timothy; Wheeler, David R.; Whinnery, Jr., LeRoy

    2002-01-01

    Thionyl chloride is a hazardous and reactive chemical used as the liquid cathode in commercial primary batteries. Contrary to previous thinking, ASZM-TEDA.RTM. carbon (Calgon Corporation) reversibly absorbs thionyl chloride. Thus, several candidate materials were examined as irreversible getters for thionyl chloride. The capacity, rate and effect of temperature were also explored. A wide variety of likely materials were investigated through screening experiments focusing on the degree of heat generated by the reaction as well as the material absorption capacity and irreversibility, in order to help narrow the group of possible getter choices. More thorough, quantitative measurements were performed on promising materials. The best performing getter was a mixture of ZnO and ASZM-TEDA.RTM. carbon. In this example, the ZnO reacts with thionyl chloride to form ZnCl.sub.2 and SO.sub.2. The SO.sub.2 is then irreversibly gettered by ASZM-TEDA.RTM. carbon. This combination of ZnO and carbon has a high capacity, is irreversible and functions effectively above -20.degree. C.

  7. Thermoelectrochemical hydrogen production using sodium chloride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Bassuoni, A.M.A.; Sheffield, J.W.; Veziroglu, T.N.

    1981-01-01

    Three closed-cycle processes for the thermoelectrochemical production of hydrogen from water using sodium chloride are under investigation. The maximum required temperature of 700/degree/C can be achieved by solar energy using various concentration techniques. By means of photovoltaic cells or a solar power station, the required electric power can be obtained. 11 refs.

  8. Measurement of diffusion potentials at porous diaphragms separating chloride and chloride-fluoride melts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitysev, V.S.; Komarov, V.E.

    1985-09-01

    An attempt was made in this work to measure the potential drops across diaphragms separating chloride and chloride-fluoride melts. These values can then be taken into account when analyzing the results of emf measurements made with the galvanic cell expressed here, and will help to make them more reliable, according to the authors. To check whether the activities of the alkali metal in alloys of the two half cells remained equal throughout the entire experiment, an experimental cell was used where alloy M-Bi was placed into a crucible of metallic molybdenum (d = 10 mm, h = 10 mm), which was immersed in turns into the chloride melt and into the chloride-fluoride melt while keeping the setup closed. The emf values increase with increasing temperature and alkali-metal fluoride concentration. They decrease with increasing cation radius in the salt medium.

  9. Method for the regeneration of spent molten zinc chloride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zielke, Clyde W.; Rosenhoover, William A.

    1981-01-01

    In a process for regenerating spent molten zinc chloride which has been used in the hydrocracking of coal or ash-containing polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbonaceous materials derived therefrom and which contains zinc chloride, zinc oxide, zinc oxide complexes and ash-containing carbonaceous residue, by incinerating the spent molten zinc chloride to vaporize the zinc chloride for subsequent condensation to produce a purified molten zinc chloride: an improvement comprising the use of clay in the incineration zone to suppress the vaporization of metals other than zinc. Optionally water is used in conjunction with the clay to further suppress the vaporization of metals other than zinc.

  10. Enhanced photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue by metal-modified silicon nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brahiti, N.; Hadjersi, T.; Menari, H.; Amirouche, S.; El Kechai, O.

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: SiNWs modified with Pd, Au and Pt were used as photocatalysts to degrade MB. Yield of photodegardation increases with UV irradiation time. SiNWs modified with Pd nanoparticles show the best photocatalytic activity. A degradation of 97% was obtained after 200 min of UV irradiation. - Abstract: Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) modified with Au, Pt and Pd nanoparticles were used as heterogeneous photocatalysts for the photodegradation of methylene blue in water under UV light irradiation. The modification of SiNWs was carried out by deposition of metal nanoparticles using the electroless metal deposition (EMD) technique. The effect of metal nanoparticles deposition time on the photocatalytic activity was studied. It was found that the photocatalytic activity of modified SiNWs was enhanced when the deposition time of metal nanoparticles was increased. In addition of modified SiNWs with Pt, Au and Pd nanoparticles, oxidized silicon substrate (Ox-Si), oxidized silicon nanowires (Ox-SiNWs) and hydrogen-terminated silicon nanowires (H-SiNWs) were also evaluated for the photodegradation of methylene blue.

  11. An Exocyclic Methylene Group Acts As a Bioisostere of the 2′-Oxygen Atom in LNA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seth, Punit P.; Allerson, Charles R.; Berdeja, Andres; Siwkowski, Andrew; Pallan, Pradeep S.; Gaus, Hans; Prakash, Thazha P.; Watt, Andrew T.; Egli, Martin; Swayze, Eric E.

    2010-12-07

    We show for the first time that it is possible to obtain LNA-like (Locked Nucleic Acid 1) binding affinity and biological activity with carbocyclic LNA (cLNA) analogs by replacing the 2{prime}-oxygen atom in LNA with an exocyclic methylene group. Synthesis of the methylene-cLNA nucleoside was accomplished by an intramolecular cyclization reaction between a radical at the 2{prime}-position and a propynyl group at the C-4{prime} position. Only methylene-cLNA modified oligonucleotides showed similar thermal stability and mismatch discrimination properties for complementary nucleic acids as LNA. In contrast, the close structurally related methyl-cLNA analogs showed diminished hybridization properties. Analysis of crystal structures of cLNA modified self-complementary DNA decamer duplexes revealed that the methylene group participates in a tight interaction with a 2{prime}-deoxyribose residue of the 5{prime}-terminal G of a neighboring duplex, resulting in the formation of a CH...O type hydrogen bond. This indicates that the methylene group retains a negative polarization at the edge of the minor groove in the absence of a hydrophilic 2{prime}-substituent and provides a rationale for the superior thermal stability of this modification. In animal experiments, methylene-cLNA antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) showed similar in vivo activity but reduced toxicity as compared to LNA ASOs. Our work highlights the interchangeable role of oxygen and unsaturated moieties in nucleic acid structure and emphasizes greater use of this bioisostere to improve the properties of nucleic acids for therapeutic and diagnostic applications.

  12. Regenerable hydrogen chloride removal sorbent and regenerable multi-functional hydrogen sulfide and hydrogen chloride removal sorbent for high temperature gas streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siriwardane, Ranjani

    2010-08-03

    Regenerable hydrogen chloride removal sorbent and regenerable multi-functional hydrogen sulfide and hydrogen chloride removal sorbent for high temperature gas streams

  13. Localized Plasticity in the Streamlined Genomes of Vinyl Chloride...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Localized Plasticity in the Streamlined Genomes of Vinyl Chloride Respiring Dehalococcoides Citation ... Here we report the first, to our knowledge, complete genome ...

  14. Viscosity and density tables of sodium chloride solutions (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Also included is a bibliography of the properties of aqueous sodium chloride solutions. (MHR) Authors: Fair, J.A. ; Ozbek, H. 1 + Show Author Affiliations (comps.) comps. ...

  15. Thermal conductivity of aqueous sodium chloride solutions from...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Thermal conductivity of aqueous sodium chloride solutions from 20 to 330sup 0C Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Thermal conductivity of aqueous sodium ...

  16. VOLATILE CHLORIDE PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF METAL VALUES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hanley, W.R.

    1959-01-01

    A process is presented for recovering uranium, iron, and aluminum from centain shale type ores which contain uranium in minute quantities. The ore is heated wiih a chlorinating agent. such as chlorine, to form a volatilized stream of metal chlorides. The chloride stream is then passed through granular alumina which preferentially absorbs the volatile uranium chloride and from which the uranium may later be recovered. The remaining volatilized chlorides, chiefly those of iron and aluminum, are further treated to recover chlorine gas for recycle, and to recover ferric oxide and aluminum oxide as valuable by-products.

  17. Density of sodium chloride solutions at high temperatures and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; SEAWATER; DENSITY; SODIUM CHLORIDES; AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS; ...

  18. Interactions of Lysozyme in Guanidinium Chloride Solutions FromStatic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; CHLORIDES; LIGHT SCATTERING; LYSOZYME Word Cloud More ...

  19. Fate of Magnesium Chloride Brine Applied to Suppress Dust from...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    occurs primarily within 13 m of treated roads, but can extend as much as 30 m ... SEDIMENTS; SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION; SURFACE WATERS; WATER brine; dust; magnesium chloride; ...

  20. Apparatus and method for making metal chloride salt product

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, William E. (Naperville, IL); Tomczuk, Zygmunt (Homer Glen, IL); Richmann, Michael K. (Carlsbad, NM)

    2007-05-15

    A method of producing metal chlorides is disclosed in which chlorine gas is introduced into liquid Cd. CdCl.sub.2 salt is floating on the liquid Cd and as more liquid CdCl.sub.2 is formed it separates from the liquid Cd metal and dissolves in the salt. The salt with the CdCl.sub.2 dissolved therein contacts a metal which reacts with CdCl.sub.2 to form a metal chloride, forming a mixture of metal chloride and CdCl.sub.2. After separation of bulk Cd from the salt, by gravitational means, the metal chloride is obtained by distillation which removes CdCl.sub.2 and any Cd dissolved in the metal chloride.

  1. Method for synthesizing pollucite from chabazite and cesium chloride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pereira, Candido

    1999-01-01

    A method for immobilizing waste chlorides salts containing radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material for permanent disposal, and in particular, a method for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing cesium, in a synthetic form of pollucite. The method for synthesizing pollucite from chabazite and cesium chloride includes mixing dry, non-aqueous cesium chloride with chabazite and heating the mixture to a temperature greater than the melting temperature of the cesium chloride, or above about 700.degree. C. The method further comprises significantly improving the rate of retention of cesium in ceramic products comprised of a salt-loaded zeolite by adding about 10% chabazite by weight to the salt-loaded zeolite prior to conversion at elevated temperatures and pressures to the ceramic composite.

  2. Method for synthesizing pollucite from chabazite and cesium chloride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pereira, C.

    1999-02-23

    A method is described for immobilizing waste chlorides salts containing radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material for permanent disposal, and in particular, a method is described for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing cesium, in a synthetic form of pollucite. The method for synthesizing pollucite from chabazite and cesium chloride includes mixing dry, non-aqueous cesium chloride with chabazite and heating the mixture to a temperature greater than the melting temperature of the cesium chloride, or above about 700 C. The method further comprises significantly improving the rate of retention of cesium in ceramic products comprised of a salt-loaded zeolite by adding about 10% chabazite by weight to the salt-loaded zeolite prior to conversion at elevated temperatures and pressures to the ceramic composite. 3 figs.

  3. The interactions of azure B, a metabolite of methylene blue, with acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petzer, Anl; Harvey, Brian H.; Petzer, Jacobus P.

    2014-02-01

    Methylene blue (MB) is reported to possess diverse pharmacological actions and is attracting increasing attention for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. Among the pharmacological actions of MB, is the significant inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE). These activities may, at least in part, underlie MB's beneficial effects in Alzheimer's disease. MB is metabolized to yield N-demethylated products of which azure B, the monodemethyl metabolite, is the predominant species. Azure B has been shown to be pharmacologically active and also possesses a variety of biological actions. Azure B therefore may contribute to the pharmacological profile of MB. Based on these considerations, the present study investigates the possibility that azure B may, similar to MB, act as an inhibitor of human AChE and BuChE. The results document that azure B inhibits AChE and BuChE with IC{sub 50} values of 0.486 ?M and 1.99 ?M, respectively. The results further show that azure B inhibits AChE and BuChE reversibly, and that the modes of inhibition are most likely competitive. Although the AChE and BuChE inhibitory activities of azure B are twofold and fivefold, respectively, less potent than those recorded for MB [IC{sub 50}(AChE) = 0.214 ?M; IC{sub 50}(BuChE) = 0.389 ?M] under identical conditions, azure B may be a contributor to MB's in vivo activation of the cholinergic system and beneficial effects in Alzheimer's disease. - Highlights: Methylene blue (MB) is a known inhibitor of AChE and BuChE. Azure B, the major metabolite of MB, also is an inhibitor of AChE and BuChE. Azure B may be a contributor to MB's in vivo activation of the cholinergic system. Azure B may contribute to MB's potential in Alzheimer's disease therapy.

  4. Tubular structured hierarchical mesoporous titania material derived from natural cellulosic substances and application as photocatalyst for degradation of methylene blue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Haiqing; Liu, Xiaoyan; Huang, Jianguo

    2011-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Bio-inspired, tubular structured hierarchical mesoporous titania material with high photocatalytic activity under UV light was fabricated employing natural cellulosic substance (cotton) as hard template and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactant as soft template using a one-pot sol-gel method. Highlights: {yields} Tubular structured mesoporous titania material was fabricated by sol-gel method. {yields} The titania material faithfully recorded the hierarchical structure of the template substrate (cotton). {yields} The titania material exhibited high photocatalytic activity in decomposition of methylene blue. -- Abstract: Bio-inspired, tubular structured hierarchical mesoporous titania material was designed and fabricated employing natural cellulosic substance (cotton) as hard template and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactant as soft template by one-pot sol-gel method. The tubular structured hierarchical mesoporous titania material processes large specific surface area (40.23 m{sup 2}/g) and shows high photocatalytic activity in the photodegradation of methylene blue under UV light irradiation.

  5. Method for the production of uranium chloride salt

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Westphal, Brian R.; Mariani, Robert D.

    2013-07-02

    A method for the production of UCl.sub.3 salt without the use of hazardous chemicals or multiple apparatuses for synthesis and purification is provided. Uranium metal is combined in a reaction vessel with a metal chloride and a eutectic salt- and heated to a first temperature under vacuum conditions to promote reaction of the uranium metal with the metal chloride for the production of a UCl.sub.3 salt. After the reaction has run substantially to completion, the furnace is heated to a second temperature under vacuum conditions. The second temperature is sufficiently high to selectively vaporize the chloride salts and distill them into a condenser region.

  6. Hydrogen chloride in superheated steam and chloride in deep brine at The Geysers geothermal field, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haizlip, J.R.; Truesdell, A.H.

    1988-01-01

    Chloride (Cl) concentrations of 10-120 ppm{sub w} have been measured in superheated steam produced by wells at The Geysers, a vapor-dominated geothermal field in northern California. Corrosion of the well casing and steam-gathering system has been recognized in some parts of The Geysers, and is apparently related to the presence of Cl. Cl in the steam is in a volatile form, generated with the steam at reservoir temperatures, and probably travels to the wellhead as HCl gas. Published experimental data for partial pressures of HCl in steam over aqueous HCl solutions and for dissociation constants of HCl were used to calculate distribution coefficients for HCl. Reservoir liquid Cl concentrations capable of generating steam with the observed Cl concentrations were then calculated as a function of pH and temperatures from 250 to 350 C. Equilibrium mineral/liquid reactions with the K-mica and K-feldspar assemblage found in the wells limit the reservoir liquid pH values at various Cl concentrations to about 5 to 6 (near neutral at 250 to 350 C). Within this pH range, liquid at 250 C could not produce steam containing the high Cl concentrations observed. However, liquid at higher temperatures (300 to 350 C) with chloride concentrations greater than 10,000 ppm{sub w} could generate steam with 10 to over 200 ppm{sub w} Cl. There is a positive correlation between pH and the chloride concentrations required to generate a given Cl concentration in steam. The concentration of Cl in superheated steam constrains not only the reservoir liquid composition, but the temperature at which the steam last equilibrated with liquid.

  7. Automatic electrochemical ambient air monitor for chloride and chlorine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mueller, Theodore R.

    1976-07-13

    An electrochemical monitoring system has been provided for determining chloride and chlorine in air at levels of from about 10-1000 parts per billion. The chloride is determined by oxidation to chlorine followed by reduction to chloride in a closed system. Chlorine is determined by direct reduction at a platinum electrode in 6 M H.sub.2 SO.sub.4 electrolyte. A fully automated system is utilized to (1) acquire and store a value corresponding to electrolyte-containing impurities, (2) subtract this value from that obtained in the presence of air, (3) generate coulometrically a standard sample of chlorine mixed with air sample, and determine it as chlorine and/or chloride, and (4) calculate, display, and store for permanent record the ratio of the signal obtained from the air sample and that obtained with the standard.

  8. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR URANIUM FROM CHLORIDE SOLUTIONS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blake, C.A. Jr.; Brown, K.B.; Horner, D.E.

    1960-05-24

    An improvement was made in a uranium extraction process wherein the organic extractant is a phosphine oxide. An aqueous solution containing phosphate ions or sulfate ions together with uranium is provided with a source of chloride ions during the extraction step. The presence of the chloride ions enables a phosphine oxide to extract uranium in the presence of strong uranium- complexing ions such as phosphate or sulfate ions.

  9. Chloride chemical form in various types of fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fenfen Zhu; Masaki Takaoka; Kenji Shiota; Kazuyuki Oshita; Yoshinori Kitajima

    2008-06-01

    Chloride content is a critical problem for the reuse of fly ash as a raw material in cement, and the method used by recyclers to reduce the fly ash chloride content depends on the chemical form of the chlorides. However, limited information is available on the quantitative distribution of chlorides and the identity of some chlorides such as Friedel's salt. We examined chloride forms and percentages using X-ray absorption near edge structure and X-ray diffraction analyses, as well as corresponding washing experiments. Approximately 15% of the chlorine in raw fly ash was estimated to be in the form of NaCl, 10% in KCl, 50% in CaCl{sub 2}, and the remainder in the form of Friedel's salt. Fly ash collected in a bag filter with the injection of calcium hydroxide for acid gas removal (CaFA) contained 35% chlorine as NaCl, 11% as KCl, 37% as CaCl{sub 2}, 13% as Friedel's salt, and the remaining 4% as CaClOH. In fly ash collected in a bag filter with the injection of sodium bicarbonate for acid gas removal (NaFA), approximately 79% of chlorine was in NaCl, 12% was in KCl, and 9% was in Friedel's salt. 25 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Methylene migration and coupling on a non-reducible metal oxide: The reaction of dichloromethane on stoichiometric α-Cr2O3(0001)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dong, Yujung; Brooks, John D.; Chen, Tsung-Liang; Mullins, David R.; Cox, David F.

    2014-09-17

    The reaction of CH2Cl2 over the nearly-stoichiometric α-Cr2O3(0001) surface produces gas phase ethylene, methane and surface chlorine adatoms. The reaction is initiated by the decomposition of CH2Cl2 into surface methylene and chlorine. Photoemission indicates that surface cations are the preferred binding sites for both methylene and chlorine adatoms. Two reaction channels are observed for methylene coupling to ethylene in temperature-programmed desorption (TPD). A desorption-limited, low-temperature route is attributed to two methylenes bound at a single site. The majority of ethylene is produced by a reaction-limited process involving surface migration (diffusion) of methylene as the rate-limiting step. DFT calculations indicate themore » surface diffusion mechanism is mediated by surface oxygen anions. The source of hydrogen for methane formation is adsorbed background water. Chlorine adatoms produced by the dissociation of CH2Cl2 deactivate the surface by simple site-blocking of surface Cr3+ sites. Finally, a comparison of experiment and theory shows that DFT provides a better description of the surface chemistry of the carbene intermediate than DFT+U using reported parameters for a best representation of the bulk electronic properties of α-Cr2O3.« less

  11. Methylene megration and coupling on a non-reducible metal oxide: the reaction of dichloromethane on stoichiometric -Cr2O3(0001)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, Yujung; Brooks, John; Chen, Tsung-Liang; Mullins, David R; Cox, David F.

    2015-01-01

    The reaction of CH2Cl2 over the nearly-stoichiometric -Cr2O3(0001) surface produces gas phase ethylene, methane and surface chlorine adatoms. The reaction is initiated by the decomposition of CH2Cl2 into surface methylene and chlorine. Photoemission indicates that surface cations are the preferred binding sites for both methylene and chlorine adatoms. Two reaction channels are observed for methylene coupling to ethylene in temperature-programmed desorption (TPD). A desorption-limited, low-temperature route is attributed to two methylenes bound at a single site. The majority of ethylene is produced by a reaction-limited process involving surface migration (diffusion) of methylene as the rate-limiting step. DFT calculations indicate the surface diffusion mechanism is mediated by surface oxygen anions. The source of hydrogen for methane formation is adsorbed background water. Chlorine adatoms produced by the dissociation of CH2Cl2 deactivate the surface by simple site-blocking of surface Cr3+ sites. A comparison of experiment and theory shows that DFT provides a better description of the surface chemistry of the carbene intermediate than DFT+U using reported parameters for a best representation of the bulk electronic properties of -Cr2O3.

  12. Methylene megration and coupling on a non-reducible metal oxide: the reaction of dichloromethane on stoichiometric -Cr2O3(0001)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dong, Yujung; Brooks, John; Chen, Tsung-Liang; Mullins, David R; Cox, David F.

    2015-01-01

    The reaction of CH2Cl2 over the nearly-stoichiometric -Cr2O3(0001) surface produces gas phase ethylene, methane and surface chlorine adatoms. The reaction is initiated by the decomposition of CH2Cl2 into surface methylene and chlorine. Photoemission indicates that surface cations are the preferred binding sites for both methylene and chlorine adatoms. Two reaction channels are observed for methylene coupling to ethylene in temperature-programmed desorption (TPD). A desorption-limited, low-temperature route is attributed to two methylenes bound at a single site. The majority of ethylene is produced by a reaction-limited process involving surface migration (diffusion) of methylene as the rate-limiting step. DFT calculations indicate themore » surface diffusion mechanism is mediated by surface oxygen anions. The source of hydrogen for methane formation is adsorbed background water. Chlorine adatoms produced by the dissociation of CH2Cl2 deactivate the surface by simple site-blocking of surface Cr3+ sites. A comparison of experiment and theory shows that DFT provides a better description of the surface chemistry of the carbene intermediate than DFT+U using reported parameters for a best representation of the bulk electronic properties of -Cr2O3.« less

  13. Production of anhydrous aluminum chloride composition and process for electrolysis thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vandegrift, George F. (Bolingbrook, Naperville, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL); Horwitz, E. Philip (Hinsdale, IL)

    1983-01-01

    A process for producing an anhydrous aluminum chloride composition from a water-based aluminous material such as a slurry of aluminum hydroxide in a multistage extraction process in which the aluminum ion is first extracted into an organic liquid containing an acidic extractant and then extracted from the organic phase into an alkali metal chloride or chlorides to form a melt containing a mixture of chlorides of alkali metal and aluminum. In the process, the organic liquid may be recycled. In addition, the process advantageously includes an electrolysis cell for producing metallic aluminum and the alkali metal chloride or chlorides may be recycled for extraction of the aluminum from the organic phase.

  14. CPP-603 Chloride Removal System Decontamination and Decommissioning. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moser, C.L.

    1993-02-01

    The CPP-603 (annex) Chloride Removal System (CRS) Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Project is described in this report. The CRS was used for removing Chloride ions and other contaminants that were suspended in the waters of the underwater fuel storage basins in the CPP-603 Fuel Receiving and Storage Facility (FRSF) from 1975 to 1981. The Environmental Checklist and related documents, facility characterization, decision analysis`, and D&D plans` were prepared in 1991. Physical D&D activities were begun in mid summer of 1992 and were completed by the end of November 1992. All process equipment and electrical equipment were removed from the annex following accepted asbestos and radiological contamination removal practices. The D&D activities were performed in a manner such that no radiological health or safety hazard to the public or to personnel at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) occurred.

  15. Uranium chloride extraction of transuranium elements from LWR fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, William E.; Ackerman, John P.; Battles, James E.; Johnson, Terry R.; Pierce, R. Dean

    1992-01-01

    A process of separating transuranium actinide values from uranium values present in spent nuclear oxide fuels containing rare earth and noble metal fission products as well as other fission products is disclosed. The oxide fuel is reduced with Ca metal in the presence of Ca chloride and a U-Fe alloy which is liquid at about 800.degree. C. to dissolve uranium metal and the noble metal fission product metals and transuranium actinide metals and rare earth fission product metals leaving Ca chloride having CaO and fission products of alkali metals and the alkali earth metals and iodine dissolved therein. The Ca chloride and CaO and the fission products contained therein are separated from the U-Fe alloy and the metal values dissolved therein. The U-Fe alloy having dissolved therein reduced metals from the spent nuclear fuel is contacted with a mixture of one or more alkali metal or alkaline earth metal halides selected from the class consisting of alkali metal or alkaline earth metal and Fe or U halide or a combination thereof to transfer transuranium actinide metals and rare earth metals to the halide salt leaving the uranium and some noble metal fission products in the U-Fe alloy and thereafter separating the halide salt and the transuranium metals dissolved therein from the U-Fe alloy and the metals dissolved therein.

  16. Uranium chloride extraction of transuranium elements from LWR fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, W.E.; Ackerman, J.P.; Battles, J.E.; Johnson, T.R.; Pierce, R.D.

    1992-08-25

    A process of separating transuranium actinide values from uranium values present in spent nuclear oxide fuels containing rare earth and noble metal fission products as well as other fission products is disclosed. The oxide fuel is reduced with Ca metal in the presence of Ca chloride and a U-Fe alloy which is liquid at about 800 C to dissolve uranium metal and the noble metal fission product metals and transuranium actinide metals and rare earth fission product metals leaving Ca chloride having CaO and fission products of alkali metals and the alkali earth metals and iodine dissolved therein. The Ca chloride and CaO and the fission products contained therein are separated from the U-Fe alloy and the metal values dissolved therein. The U-Fe alloy having dissolved therein reduced metals from the spent nuclear fuel is contacted with a mixture of one or more alkali metal or alkaline earth metal halides selected from the class consisting of alkali metal or alkaline earth metal and Fe or U halide or a combination thereof to transfer transuranium actinide metals and rare earth metals to the halide salt leaving the uranium and some noble metal fission products in the U-Fe alloy and thereafter separating the halide salt and the transuranium metals dissolved therein from the U-Fe alloy and the metals dissolved therein. 1 figure.

  17. Uniform Cu{sub 2}Cl(OH){sub 3} hierarchical microspheres: A novel adsorbent for methylene blue adsorptive removal from aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Wei; Gao, Pin; Xie, Jimin Zong, Sekai; Cui, Henglv; Yue, Xuejie

    2013-08-15

    Using the solution phase method without any surfactants or templates, the hierarchical of Cu{sub 2}Cl(OH){sub 3} microspheres were synthesized by freeze drying. The size and surface area of the microspheres are ca. 12 m and 76.61 m{sup 2} g{sup ?1}, respectively. A possible formation mechanism is presented based on the experimental results. Methylene blue was chosen to investigate the adsorption capacity of the as-prepared adsorbent. The effects of various experimental parameters, such as pH, initial dye concentration, and contact time were investigated. The results showed that the dye removal increased with the increasing in the initial concentration of the dye and also increased in the amount of microspheres used and initial pH. Adsorption data fitted well with the Freundlich adsorption isotherm. The thermodynamic analysis presented the exothermic, spontaneous and more ordered arrangement process. The microspheres could be employed effective for removal of dyes from aqueous solution. - Graphical abstract: The single-crystalline hierarchical Cu{sub 2}Cl(OH){sub 3} spheres can be prepared for the first time by using a template-free process through freeze-drying. Meanwhile, the hierarchical spheres exhibited high adsorption capacity to methylene blue. Display Omitted - Highlights: Cu{sub 2}Cl(OH){sub 3} microspheres were successfully synthesized through a freeze drying process. A possible formation mechanism of hierarchical microspheres was presented. The Cu{sub 2}Cl(OH){sub 3} microspheres have high methylene blue adsorption capacity. Methylene blue adsorption is a spontaneous and exothermic process. The adsorption mechanism of microspheres onto dye was proposed in detail.

  18. Synthesis of pore-variable mesoporous CdS and evaluation of its photocatalytic activity in degrading methylene blue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Wei-Min; Jiang, Yao-Quan; Cao, Xiao-Yan; Chen, Meng; Ge, Dong-Lai; Sun, Zhong-Xi

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: Self-templated synthesis of tubular CdS. Cadmium complexes of aliphatic acids sustain the network of mesoporous structures. Aliphatic acids affect the phase composition and particle size. Pore size and volume vary with aliphatic acids having different hydrocarbonyl. - Abstract: In this study, mesoporous CdS polycrystallites have been synthesized using aliphatic acids of hexanoic acid, octanoic acid, and oleic acid as coordinating and capping agents, respectively. The fibrous Cdfatty acid salts act as a template to form the tubular CdS. The organic species are found to be necessary for maintaining the network of mesoporous CdS. The characterization results indicate that the shorter carbon chain length in aliphatic acids favors the wurtzite phase and particle size growth the specific surface area, pore diameter and pore volume show a monotonic raise with increasing carbon chain. The photocatalytic activities of mesoporous CdS tubes exhibit much higher efficiency than those of nanosized CdS powders in decolorizing methylene blue under simulated visible light.

  19. Solgel synthesis of SnO{sub 2}MgO nanoparticles and their photocatalytic activity towards methylene blue degradation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bayal, Nisha; Jeevanandam, P.

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: A simple solgel method for the synthesis of SnO{sub 2}MgO nanoparticles is reported. Band gap of SnO{sub 2} can be tuned by varying the magnesium content in SnO{sub 2}MgO. SnO{sub 2}MgO shows good photocatalytic activity towards degradation of methylene blue. - Abstract: SnO{sub 2}MgO mixed metal oxide nanoparticles were prepared by a simple solgel method. The nanoparticles were characterized by power X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis, transmission electron microscopy and UVvis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The XRD results indicate the formation of mixed metal oxide nanoparticles and also a decrease of SnO{sub 2} crystallite size in the mixed metal oxide nanoparticles with increasing magnesium oxide content. The reflectance spectroscopy results show a blue shift of the band gap of SnO{sub 2} in the mixed metal oxide nanoparticles. The photocatalytic activity of the SnO{sub 2}MgO nanoparticles was tested using the photodegradation of aqueous methylene blue in the presence of sunlight. The results indicate that the mixed metal oxide nanoparticles possess higher efficiency for the photodegradation of methylene blue compared to pure SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles.

  20. Method of preparing sodalite from chloride salt occluded zeolite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, Michele A.; Pereira, Candido

    1997-01-01

    A method for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material for permanent disposal starting with a substantially dry zeolite and sufficient glass to form leach resistant sodalite with occluded radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material. The zeolite and glass are heated to a temperature up to about 1000.degree. K. to convert the zeolite to sodalite and thereafter maintained at a pressure and temperature sufficient to form a sodalite product near theoretical density. Pressure is used on the formed sodalite to produce the required density.

  1. Method of preparing sodalite from chloride salt occluded zeolite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, M.A.; Pereira, C.

    1997-03-18

    A method is described for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material for permanent disposal starting with a substantially dry zeolite and sufficient glass to form leach resistant sodalite with occluded radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material. The zeolite and glass are heated to a temperature up to about 1000 K to convert the zeolite to sodalite and thereafter maintained at a pressure and temperature sufficient to form a sodalite product near theoretical density. Pressure is used on the formed sodalite to produce the required density.

  2. MO-G-18C-07: Improving T2 Determination and Quantification of Lipid Methylene Protons in Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy at 3 T

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Breitkreutz, D.; Fallone, B. G.; Yahya, A.

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To improve proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) transverse relaxation (T{sub 2}) determination and quantification of lipid methylene chain (1.3 ppm) protons by rewinding their J-coupling evolution. Methods: MRS experiments were performed on four lipid phantoms, namely, almond, corn, sunflower and oleic acid, using a 3 T Philips MRI scanner with a transmit/receive birdcage head coil. Two PRESS (Point RESolved Spectroscopy) pulse sequences were used. The first PRESS sequence employed standard bandwidth (BW) (?550 Hz) RF (radiofrequency) refocussing pulses, while the second used refocussing pulses of narrow BW (?50 Hz) designed to rewind J-coupling evolution of the methylene protons in the voxel of interest. Signal was acquired with each sequence from a 555 mm{sup 3} voxel, with a repetition time (TR) of 3000 ms, and with echo times (TE) of 100 to 200 ms in steps of 20 ms. 2048 sample points were measured with a 2000 Hz sampling bandwidth. Additionally, 30 mm outer volume suppression slabs were used to suppress signal outside the voxel of interest. The frequency of the RF pulses was set to that of the methylene resonance. Methylene peak areas were calculated and fitted in MATLAB to a monexponentially decaying function of the form M{sub 0}exp(-TE/T{sub 2}), where M{sub 0} is the extrapolated area when TE = 0 ms and yields a measure of concentration. Results: The determined values of M{sub 0} and T{sub 2} increased for all fatty acids when using the PRESS sequence with narrow BW refocussing pulses. M{sub 0} and T{sub 2} values increased by an average amount (over all the phantoms) of 31% and 14%, respectively. Conclusion: This investigation has demonstrated that J-coupling interactions of lipid methylene protons causes non-negligible signal losses which, if not accounted for, Result in underestimations of their levels and T{sub 2} values when performing MRS measurements. Funded by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada and the Canadian Breast Cancer Foundation - Prairies.NWT.

  3. Optimizing Reinjection Strategy at Palinpinon, Philippines Based on Chloride Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urbino, Ma. Elena G.; Horne, Roland N.

    1992-03-24

    One of the guidelines established for the safe and efficient management of the Palinpinon Geothermal Field is to adopt a production and well utilization strategy such that the rapid rate and magnitude of reinjection fluid returns leading to premature thermal breakthrough would be minimized. To help achieve this goal, sodium fluorescein and radioactive tracer tests have been conducted to determine the rate and extent of communication between the reinjection and producing sectors of the field. The first objective of this paper is to show how the results of these tests, together with information on field geometry and operating conditions were used in algorithms developed in Operations Research to allocate production and reinjection rates among the different Palinpinon wells. Due to operational and economic constraints, such tracer tests were very limited in number and scope. This prevents obtaining information on the explicit interaction between each reinjection well and the producing wells. Hence, the chloride value of the producing well, was tested to determine if use of this parameter would enable identifying fast reinjection paths among different production/reinjection well pairs. The second aim, therefore, of this paper is to show the different methods of using the chloride data of the producing wells and the injection flow rates of the reinjection wells to provide a ranking of the pair of wells and, thereby, optimize the reinjection strategy of the field.

  4. Vitrification of Polyvinyl Chloride Waste from Korean Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheng, Jiawei [Kyoto University (Japan); Choi, Kwansik [Nuclear Environment Technology Institute (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Kyung-Hwa [Nuclear Environment Technology Institute (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Myung-Chan [Nuclear Environment Technology Institute (Korea, Republic of); Song, Myung-Jae [Nuclear Environment Technology Institute (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-02-15

    Vitrification is considered as an economical and safe treatment technology for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated from nuclear power plants (NPPs). Korea is in the process of preparing for its first ever vitrification plant to handle LLW from its NPPs. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) has the largest volume of dry active wastes and is the main waste stream to treat. Glass formulation development for PVC waste is the focus of study. The minimum additive waste stabilization approach has been utilized in vitrification. It was found that glasses can incorporate a high content of PVC ash (up to 50 wt%), which results in a large volume reduction. A glass frit, KEP-A, was developed to vitrify PVC waste after the optimization of waste loading, melt viscosity, melting temperature, and chemical durability. The KEP-A could satisfactorily vitrify PVC with a waste loading of 30 to 50 wt%. The PVC-frit was tolerant of variations in waste composition.

  5. Estimation of Groundwater Recharge at Pahute Mesa using the Chloride Mass-Balance Method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, Clay A; Hershey, Ronald L; Healey, John M; Lyles, Brad F

    2013-07-01

    Groundwater recharge on Pahute Mesa was estimated using the chloride mass-balance (CMB) method. This method relies on the conservative properties of chloride to trace its movement from the atmosphere as dry- and wet-deposition through the soil zone and ultimately to the saturated zone. Typically, the CMB method assumes no mixing of groundwater with different chloride concentrations; however, because groundwater is thought to flow into Pahute Mesa from valleys north of Pahute Mesa, groundwater flow rates (i.e., underflow) and chloride concentrations from Kawich Valley and Gold Flat were carefully considered. Precipitation was measured with bulk and tipping-bucket precipitation gauges installed for this study at six sites on Pahute Mesa. These data, along with historical precipitation amounts from gauges on Pahute Mesa and estimates from the PRISM model, were evaluated to estimate mean annual precipitation. Chloride deposition from the atmosphere was estimated by analyzing quarterly samples of wet- and dry-deposition for chloride in the bulk gauges and evaluating chloride wet-deposition amounts measured at other locations by the National Atmospheric Deposition Program. Mean chloride concentrations in groundwater were estimated using data from the UGTA Geochemistry Database, data from other reports, and data from samples collected from emplacement boreholes for this study. Calculations were conducted assuming both no underflow and underflow from Kawich Valley and Gold Flat. Model results estimate recharge to be 30 mm/yr with a standard deviation of 18 mm/yr on Pahute Mesa, for elevations >1800 m amsl. These estimates assume Pahute Mesa recharge mixes completely with underflow from Kawich Valley and Gold Flat. The model assumes that precipitation, chloride concentration in bulk deposition, underflow and its chloride concentration, have been constant over the length of time of recharge.

  6. Chloride, bromide and iodide scintillators with europium doping

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhuravleva, Mariya; Yang, Kan

    2014-08-26

    A halide scintillator material is disclosed where the halide may comprise chloride, bromide or iodide. The material is single-crystalline and has a composition of the general formula ABX.sub.3 where A is an alkali, B is an alkali earth and X is a halide which general composition was investigated. In particular, crystals of the formula ACa.sub.1-yEu.sub.yI.sub.3 where A=K, Rb and Cs were formed as well as crystals of the formula CsA.sub.1-yEu.sub.yX.sub.3 (where A=Ca, Sr, Ba, or a combination thereof and X=Cl, Br or I or a combination thereof) with divalent Europium doping where 0.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.1, and more particularly Eu doping has been studied at one to ten mol %. The disclosed scintillator materials are suitable for making scintillation detectors used in applications such as medical imaging and homeland security.

  7. Method for immobilizing mixed waste chloride salts containing radionuclides and other hazardous wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, Michele A.; Johnson, Terry R.

    1993-09-07

    The invention is a method for the encapsulation of soluble radioactive waste chloride salts containing radionuclides such as strontium, cesium and hazardous wastes such as barium so that they may be permanently stored without future threat to the environment. The process consists of contacting the salts containing the radionuclides and hazardous wastes with certain zeolites which have been found to ion exchange with the radionuclides and to occlude the chloride salts so that the resulting product is leach resistant.

  8. Method for immobilizing mixed waste chloride salts containing radionuclides and other hazardous wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, Michele A. (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Terry R. (Wheaton, IL)

    1993-01-01

    The invention is a method for the encapsulation of soluble radioactive waste chloride salts containing radionuclides such as strontium, cesium and hazardous wastes such as barium so that they may be permanently stored without future threat to the environment. The process consists of contacting the salts containing the radionuclides and hazardous wastes with certain zeolites which have been found to ion exchange with the radionuclides and to occlude the chloride salts so that the resulting product is leach resistant.

  9. Revealing a New Conformational State in a Chloride/Proton Exchanger |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Revealing a New Conformational State in a Chloride/Proton Exchanger Friday, January 29, 2016 "CLC" transporters are secondary active-transport membrane proteins that catalyze the transmembrane exchange of chloride (Cl-) for protons (H+). This exchange plays an essential role in proper cardiovascular, neuronal, muscular and epithelial functions. Several diseases arise from CLC defects, and several CLCs are therapeutic targets. For example,

  10. Potassium chloride-bearing ice VII and ice planet dynamics (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Potassium chloride-bearing ice VII and ice planet dynamics Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Potassium chloride-bearing ice VII and ice planet dynamics Authors: Frank, Mark R. ; Scott, Henry P. ; Aarestad, Elizabeth ; Prakapenka, Vitali B. [1] ; UC) [2] ; NIU) [2] + Show Author Affiliations Indiana ( Publication Date: 2015-12-10 OSTI Identifier: 1229896 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation:

  11. Respiratory symptoms among glass bottle makers exposed to stannic chloride solution and other potentially hazardous substances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levy, B.S.; Davis, F.; Johnson, B.

    1985-04-01

    Concern about upper respiratory tract irritation and other symptoms among workers at a glass bottle manufacturing plant led to an epidemiologic and an industrial hygiene survey. Questionnaire responses from 35 hot end and 53 cold end workers indicated that the incidence of wheezing, chest pain, dyspnea on exertion, and cough was significantly elevated among hot end workers. Among both smokers and nonsmokers, hot end workers reported higher, but not significantly higher, rates of wheezing and chest pain. Among smokers, hot end workers reported significantly higher rates of dyspnea on exertion and cough than did cold end workers. Data suggest that reported exposure to stannic chloride solution likely caused these symptoms. The industrial hygiene survey, conducted when stannic chloride use had been reduced, cleaning had been done, and ventilation improved, focused on measuring air contaminants that might possibly cause symptoms. Levels of hydrogen chloride, which apparently was formed by the combination of stannic chloride and water in the presence of heat, were elevated. The finding of increased prevalence of respiratory symptoms among hot end workers was consistent with this exposure. Recommendations were made to reduce hazardous exposures at this plant. Individuals responsible for occupational health should be aware that relatively benign substances, such as stannic chloride and water, can combine spontaneously to form hazardous substances.

  12. LOW TEMPERATURE PROCESS FOR THE REMOVAL AND RECOVERY OF CHLORIDES AND NITRATES FROM AQUEOUS NITRATE SOLUTIONS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Savolainen, J.E.

    1963-01-29

    A method is described for reducing the chloride content of a solution derived from the dissolution of a stainless steel clad nuclear fuel element with an aqua regia dissolution medium. The solutlon is adjusted to a nitric acid concentration in the range 5 to 10 M and is countercurrently contacted at room temperature with a gaseous oxide of nitrogen selected from NO, NO/sub 2/, N/sub 2/ O/sub 3/, and N/sub 2/O/sub 4/. Chlo ride is recovered from the contacted solution as nitrosyl chloride. After reduction of the chloride content, the solution is then contacted with gaseous NO to reduce the nitric acid molarity to a desired level. (AEC)

  13. Fate of Magnesium Chloride Brine Applied to Suppress Dust from Unpaved

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Roads at the INEEL Subsurface Disposal Area (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Fate of Magnesium Chloride Brine Applied to Suppress Dust from Unpaved Roads at the INEEL Subsurface Disposal Area Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fate of Magnesium Chloride Brine Applied to Suppress Dust from Unpaved Roads at the INEEL Subsurface Disposal Area Between 1984 and 1993, MgCl2 brine was used to suppress dust on unpaved roads at a radioactive waste subsurface disposal area. Because Cl-

  14. Time-resolved energy transfer from single chloride-terminated nanocrystals to graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ajayi, O. A. E-mail: cww2104@columbia.edu; Wong, C. W. E-mail: cww2104@columbia.edu; Anderson, N. C.; Wolcott, A.; Owen, J. S.; Cotlet, M.; Petrone, N.; Hone, J.; Gu, T.; Gesuele, F.

    2014-04-28

    We examine the time-resolved resonance energy transfer of excitons from single n-butyl amine-bound, chloride-terminated nanocrystals to two-dimensional graphene through time-correlated single photon counting. The radiative biexponential lifetime kinetics and blinking statistics of the individual surface-modified nanocrystal elucidate the non-radiative decay channels. Blinking modification as well as a 4 reduction in spontaneous emission were observed with the short chloride and n-butylamine ligands, probing the energy transfer pathways for the development of graphene-nanocrystal nanophotonic devices.

  15. Current Status of Health and Safety Issues of Sodium/Metal Chloride (Zebra) Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trickett, D.

    1998-12-15

    This report addresses environmental, health, and safety (EH&S) issues associated with sodium/ metal chloride batteries, in general, although most references to specific cell or battery types refer to units developed or being developed under the Zebra trademark. The report focuses on issues pertinent to sodium/metal chloride batteries and their constituent components; however, the fact that some ''issues'' arise from interaction between electric vehicle (EV) and battery design compels occasional discussion amid the context of EV vehicle design and operation. This approach has been chosen to provide a reasonably comprehensive account of the topic from a cell technology perspective and an applications perspective.

  16. Lithium: Thionyl chloride battery state-of-the-art assessment (Technical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Report) | SciTech Connect Lithium: Thionyl chloride battery state-of-the-art assessment Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Lithium: Thionyl chloride battery state-of-the-art assessment × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A

  17. Method of electrode fabrication and an electrode for metal chloride battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bloom, Ira D.; Nelson, Paul A.; Vissers, Donald R.

    1993-01-01

    A method of fabricating an electrode for use in a metal chloride battery and an electrode are provided. The electrode has relatively larger and more uniform pores than those found in typical electrodes. The fabrication method includes the steps of mixing sodium chloride particles selected from a predetermined size range with metal particles selected from a predetermined size range, and then rigidifying the mixture. The electrode exhibits lower resistivity values of approximately 0.5 .OMEGA.cm.sup.2 than those resistivity values of approximately 1.0-1.5 .OMEGA.cm.sup.2 exhibited by currently available electrodes.

  18. Method of electrode fabrication and an electrode for metal chloride battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bloom, I.D.; Nelson, P.A.; Vissers, D.R.

    1993-03-16

    A method of fabricating an electrode for use in a metal chloride battery and an electrode are provided. The electrode has relatively larger and more uniform pores than those found in typical electrodes. The fabrication method includes the steps of mixing sodium chloride particles selected from a predetermined size range with metal particles selected from a predetermined size range, and then rigidifying the mixture. The electrode exhibits lower resistivity values of approximately 0.5 [Omega]cm[sup 2] than those resistivity values of approximately 1.0-1.5 [Omega]cm[sup 2] exhibited by currently available electrodes.

  19. Evaluation of DUSTRAN Software System for Modeling Chloride Deposition on Steel Canisters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tran, Tracy T.; Jensen, Philip J.; Fritz, Brad G.; Rutz, Frederick C.; Devanathan, Ram

    2015-07-29

    The degradation of steel by stress corrosion cracking (SCC) when exposed to atmospheric conditions for decades is a significant challenge in the fossil fuel and nuclear industries. SCC can occur when corrosive contaminants such as chlorides are deposited on a susceptible material in a tensile stress state. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission has identified chloride-induced SCC as a potential cause for concern in stainless steel used nuclear fuel (UNF) canisters in dry storage. The modeling of contaminant deposition is the first step in predictive multiscale modeling of SCC that is essential to develop mitigation strategies, prioritize inspection, and ensure the integrity and performance of canisters, pipelines, and structural materials. A multiscale simulation approach can be developed to determine the likelihood that a canister would undergo SCC in a certain period of time. This study investigates the potential of DUSTRAN, a dust dispersion modeling system developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, to model the deposition of chloride contaminants from sea salt aerosols on a steel canister. Results from DUSTRAN simulations run with historical meteorological data were compared against measured chloride data at a coastal site in Maine. DUSTRANs CALPUFF model tended to simulate concentrations higher than those measured; however, the closest estimations were within the same order of magnitude as the measured values. The decrease in discrepancies between measured and simulated values as the level of abstraction in wind speed decreased suggest that the model is very sensitive to wind speed. However, the influence of other parameters such as the distinction between open-ocean and surf-zone sources needs to be explored further. Deposition values predicted by the DUSTRAN system were not in agreement with concentration values and suggest that the deposition calculations may not fully represent physical processes. Overall, results indicate that with parameter refinement, DUSTRAN has the potential to simulate atmospheric chloride dispersion on steel canisters.

  20. Branchial and renal pathology in the fish exposed chronically to methoxy ethyl mercuric chloride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gill, T.S.; Pant, J.C.; Tewari, H.

    1988-08-01

    Pathological manifestations causally related to pesticide poisoning have been described in both surficial and internal tissues of the fishes. Among the various organomercurials are phenyl mercuric acetate, methyl mercuric dicyanidiamide, methoxy ethyl mercuric chloride, methoxy ethyl mercuric silicate etc. Of these, the methoxy ethyl mercuric chloride (MEMC) is used in agriculture as an antifungal seed dressing, and its toxicity is primarily manifest in the Hg/sup 2 +/ ion. This report describes pathogenesis of branchial and renal lesions in the common freshwater fish, Puntius conchonius exposed chronically to sublethal levels of MEMC. Prior to this, alterations in the peripheral blood and metabolite levels in response to experimental MEMC poisoning have been demonstrated in this species.

  1. Reaction of uranium oxides with chlorine and carbon or carbon monoxide to prepare uranium chlorides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haas, P.A.; Lee, D.D.; Mailen, J.C.

    1991-11-01

    The preferred preparation concept of uranium metal for feed to an AVLIS uranium enrichment process requires preparation of uranium tetrachloride (UCI{sub 4}) by reacting uranium oxides (UO{sub 2}/UO{sub 3}) and chlorine (Cl{sub 2}) in a molten chloride salt medium. UO{sub 2} is a very stable metal oxide; thus, the chemical conversion requires both a chlorinating agent and a reducing agent that gives an oxide product which is much more stable than the corresponding chloride. Experimental studies in a quartz reactor of 4-cm ID have demonstrated the practically of some chemical flow sheets. Experimentation has illustrated a sequence of results concerning the chemical flow sheets. Tests with a graphite block at 850{degrees}C demonstrated rapid reactions of Cl{sub 2} and evolution of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) as a product. Use of carbon monoxide (CO) as the reducing agent also gave rapid reactions of Cl{sub 2} and formation of CO{sub 2} at lower temperatures, but the reduction reactions were slower than the chlorinations. Carbon powder in the molten salt melt gave higher rates of reduction and better steady state utilization of Cl{sub 2}. Addition of UO{sub 2} feed while chlorination was in progress greatly improved the operation by avoiding the plugging effects from high UO{sub 2} concentrations and the poor Cl{sub 2} utilizations from low UO{sub 2} concentrations. An UO{sub 3} feed gave undesirable effects while a feed of UO{sub 2}-C spheres was excellent. The UO{sub 2}-C spheres also gave good rates of reaction as a fixed bed without any molten chloride salt. Results with a larger reactor and a bottom condenser for volatilized uranium show collection of condensed uranium chlorides as a loose powder and chlorine utilizations of 95--98% at high feed rates. 14 refs., 7 figs., 14 tabs.

  2. Speciation of aqueous palladium(II) chloride solutions using optical spectroscopies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tait, C.D.; Janecky, D.R.; Rogers, P.S.Z. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

    1991-05-01

    Spectroscopic measurements of palladium(II) chloride solutions have been performed under ambient to elevated temperature conditions with systematic changes in pH and (Cl{sup {minus}}). Spectral signatures from electronic absorption spectra (Uv/Vis) and Raman vibrational spectra were determined, and these were subsequently used to systematically map out species along several paths of the predominance diagram. The species PdCl{sub x}(H{sub 2}O){sub 4{minus}x}{sup 2{minus}x} (x = 2, 3, or 4) and Pd(OH){sub 2} were observed, along with a precipitation product formed from > 10 {mu}M (Pd{sup 2+}) solutions under near-neutral conditions. The elemental composition of the precipitation product was examined with a scanning electron micrograph (SEM) and was found to contain chloride as well as palladium. While sub-stoichiometric amounts of available OH{sup {minus}} ligand produced UV/Vis solution spectra likely to be from mixed Pd-Cl-OH species, the pH field of these species would be vanishingly small at low, geologically relevant palladium ion concentrations where (OH{sup {minus}}) is no longer the limiting reagent in the transformation. In mildly acidic media, where chloropalladium(II) species predominate, elevated temperatures (up to 90C) cause lower charged palladium-chloride species to be favored, consistent with the lowered dielectric constant of water at higher temperatures.

  3. Characterization of poly(vinyl chloride) aged in a bromine containing electrolyte

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arnold, C. Jr.; Leo, A.; Tarjani, M.

    1988-01-01

    Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) is being considered for use as a flow frame material in a developmental zinc/bromine battery. The choice of PVC was based on its low cost and the ease with which it can be molded into complex parts. The electrolyte used in this battery is a highly corrosive mixture of bromine, zinc bromide, zinc chloride, potassium bromide, potassium chloride and a quaternary amine salt. The quaternary salt serves to reduce the concentration of free bromine in the electrolyte by virtue of its complexing capability. It is well known that aqueous bromine is capable of oxidizing organic compounds. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of a bromine electrolyte on two PVC formulations, PVC-1 and PVC-4. PVC-1 is the designation given to one of B.F. Goodrich's commercial formulations and is the present baseline material for the flow frame. PVC-4 is an experimental B.F. Goodrich formulation that was developed especially for battery applications. We sought answers to such questions as (1) does oxidation and/or bromination take place. (2) does bromine penetrate into the sample and, if so, how far. (3) how are the mechanical and morphological properties affected. and (4) are there differences in stability between PVC-1 and PVC-4. To accelerate the aging processes we aged the PVC samples at an elevated temperature in an electrolyte which did not contain any complexing agent. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  4. Systems and methods for solar cells with CIS and CIGS films made by reacting evaporated copper chlorides with selenium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Albin, David S.; Noufi, Rommel

    2015-06-09

    Systems and methods for solar cells with CIS and CIGS films made by reacting evaporated copper chlorides with selenium are provided. In one embodiment, a method for fabricating a thin film device comprises: providing a semiconductor film comprising indium (In) and selenium (Se) upon a substrate; heating the substrate and the semiconductor film to a desired temperature; and performing a mass transport through vapor transport of a copper chloride vapor and se vapor to the semiconductor film within a reaction chamber.

  5. Uranium Adsorbent Fibers Prepared by Atom-Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATRP) from Poly(vinyl chloride)- co -chlorinated Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC- co -CPVC) Fiber

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Brown, Suree; Yue, Yanfeng; Kuo, Li-Jung; Mehio, Nada; Li, Meijun; Gill, Gary; Tsouris, Costas; Mayes, Richard T.; Saito, Tomonori; Dai, Sheng

    2016-03-11

    The need to secure future supplies of energy attracts researchers in several countries to a vast resource of nuclear energy fuel: uranium in seawater (estimated at 4.5 billion tons in seawater). In this study, we developed effective adsorbent fibers for the recovery of uranium from seawater via atom-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) from a poly-(vinyl chloride)-co-chlorinated poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC-co-CPVC) fiber. ATRP was employed in the surface graft polymerization of acrylonitrile (AN) and tert-butyl acrylate (tBA), precursors for uranium-interacting functional groups, from PVC-co-CPVC fiber. The [tBA]/[AN] was systematically varied to identify the optimal ratio between hydrophilic groups (from tBA) and uranyl-binding ligandsmore » (from AN). The best performing adsorbent fiber, the one with the optimal [tBA]/[AN] ratio and a high degree of grafting (1390%), demonstrated uranium adsorption capacities that are significantly greater than those of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) reference fiber in natural seawater tests (2.42 3.24 g/kg in 42 days of seawater exposure and 5.22 g/kg in 49 days of seawater exposure, versus 1.66 g/kg in 42 days of seawater exposure and 1.71 g/kg in 49 days of seawater exposure for JAEA). Lastly, adsorption of other metal ions from seawater and their corresponding kinetics were also studied. The grafting of alternative monomers for the recovery of uranium from seawater is now under development by this versatile technique of ATRP.« less

  6. Reconnaissance Estimates of Recharge Based on an Elevation-dependent Chloride Mass-balance Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles E. Russell; Tim Minor

    2002-08-31

    Significant uncertainty is associated with efforts to quantity recharge in arid regions such as southern Nevada. However, accurate estimates of groundwater recharge are necessary to understanding the long-term sustainability of groundwater resources and predictions of groundwater flow rates and directions. Currently, the most widely accepted method for estimating recharge in southern Nevada is the Maxey and Eakin method. This method has been applied to most basins within Nevada and has been independently verified as a reconnaissance-level estimate of recharge through several studies. Recharge estimates derived from the Maxey and Eakin and other recharge methodologies ultimately based upon measures or estimates of groundwater discharge (outflow methods) should be augmented by a tracer-based aquifer-response method. The objective of this study was to improve an existing aquifer-response method that was based on the chloride mass-balance approach. Improvements were designed to incorporate spatial variability within recharge areas (rather than recharge as a lumped parameter), develop a more defendable lower limit of recharge, and differentiate local recharge from recharge emanating as interbasin flux. Seventeen springs, located in the Sheep Range, Spring Mountains, and on the Nevada Test Site were sampled during the course of this study and their discharge was measured. The chloride and bromide concentrations of the springs were determined. Discharge and chloride concentrations from these springs were compared to estimates provided by previously published reports. A literature search yielded previously published estimates of chloride flux to the land surface. {sup 36}Cl/Cl ratios and discharge rates of the three largest springs in the Amargosa Springs discharge area were compiled from various sources. This information was utilized to determine an effective chloride concentration for recharging precipitation and its associated uncertainty via Monte Carlo simulations. Previously developed isohyetal maps were utilized to determine the mean and standard deviation of precipitation within the area. A digital elevation model was obtained to provide elevation information. A geologic model was obtained to provide the spatial distribution of alluvial formations. Both were used to define the lower limit of recharge. In addition, 40 boreholes located in alluvial sediments were drilled and sampled in an attempt to support the argument that the areal distribution of alluvial sediments can be used to define a zone of negligible recharge. The data were compiled in a geographic information system and used in a Monte Carlo analysis to determine recharge occurring within the study area. Results of the analysis yielded estimates of the mean and standard deviation of recharge occurring within the study area (28.168 x 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} yr{sup -1} and 7.008 x 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} yr{sup -1}, and 26.838 x 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} yr{sup -1} and 6.928 x 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} yr{sup -1}) for two sets of simulations using alternate definitions of the lower limit of recharge. A sensitivity analysis determined the recharge estimates were most sensitive to uncertainty associated with the chloride concentration of the spring discharge. The second most sensitive parameter was the uncertainty associated with the mean precipitation within the recharge areas. Comparison of the analysis to previously published estimates of recharge revealed mixed results with the recharge estimates derived during the course of this project generally greater relative to previously published estimates.

  7. Reactivity of liquid and semisolid secondary organic carbon with chloride and nitrate in atmospheric aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Bingbing; O'Brien, Rachel E.; Kelly, Stephen T.; Shilling, John E.; Moffet, Ryan C.; Gilles, Mary K.; Laskin, Alexander

    2015-05-14

    Constituents of secondary organic carbon (SOC) in atmospheric aerosols are often mixed with inorganic components and compose a significant mass fraction of fine particulate matter in the atmosphere. Interactions between SOC and other condensed-phase species are not well understood. Here, we investigate the reactions of liquid-like and semi-solid SOC from ozonolysis of limonene (LSOC) and ?-pinene (PSOC) with NaCl using a set of complementary micro-spectroscopic analyses. These reactions result in chloride depletion in the condensed phase, release of gaseous HCl, and formation of organic salts. The reactions attributed to acid displacement by SOC acidic components are driven by the high volatility of HCl. Similar reactions can take place in SOC/NaNO? particles. The results show that an increase in SOC mass fraction in the internally mixed SOC/NaCl particles leads to higher chloride depletion. Glass transition temperatures and viscosity of PSOC were estimated for atmospherically relevant conditions. Data show that the reaction extent depends on SOC composition, particle phase state and viscosity, mixing state, temperature, relative humidity (RH), and reaction time. LSOC shows slightly higher potential to deplete chloride than PSOC. Higher particle viscosity at low temperatures and RH can hinder these acid displacement reactions. Formation of organic salts from these overlooked reactions can alter particle physiochemical properties and may affect their reactivity and ability to act as cloud condensation and ice nuclei. The release and potential recycling of HCl and HNO? from reacted aerosol particles may have important implications for atmospheric chemistry.

  8. Generalized chloride mass balance: Forward and inverse solutions for one-dimensional tracer convection under transient flux

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ginn, T.R.; Murphy, E.M.

    1996-12-01

    Forward and inverse solutions are provided for analysis of inert tracer profiles resulting from one-dimensional convective transport under fluxes which vary with time and space separately. The developments are displayed as an extension of conventional chloride mass balance (CMB) techniques to account for transient as well as space-dependent water fluxes. The conventional chloride mass balance has been used over two decades to estimate recharge over large time scales in arid environments. In this mass balance approach, the chloride concentration in the pore water, originating from atmospheric fallout, is inversely proportional to the flux of water through the sediments. The CMB method is especially applicable to arid and semi-arid regions where evapotranspirative enrichment of the pore water produces a distinct chloride profile in the unsaturated zone. The solutions presented allow incorporation of transient fluxes and boundary conditions in CMB analysis, and allow analysis of tracer profile data which is not constant with depth below extraction zone in terms of a rational water transport model. A closed-form inverse solution is derived which shows uniqueness of model parameter and boundary condition (including paleoprecipitation) estimation, for the specified flow model. Recent expressions of the conventional chloride mass balance technique are derived from the general model presented here; the conventional CMB is shown to be fully compatible with this transient flow model and it requires the steady-state assumption on chloride mass deposition only (and not on water fluxes or boundary conditions). The solutions and results are demonstrated on chloride profile data from west central New Mexico.

  9. The effects of a stannous chloride-based remediation system in a mercury contaminated stream

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathews, Teresa J; Looney, Brian; BryanJr., Larry; Smith, John G; Miller, Carrie L; Peterson, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    Remediation of mercury (Hg)-contaminated watersheds is often challenging because of the complex nature of Hg biogeochemistry. Stream ecosystems have been shown to be particularly susceptible to Hg contamination and bioaccumulation in fish. Decreasing total Hg loading to stream systems, however, has shown variable performance in decreasing Hg concentrations in fish tissues. In this study, we assess the impacts of an innovative treatment system in reducing releases of Hg to a small stream system in the southeastern United States. The treatment system, installed in 2007, removes Hg from water using tin (Sn) (II) chloride followed by air stripping. Mercury concentrations in the receiving stream, Tims Branch, decreased from > 100 to ~10 ng/L in the four years following treatment, and Hg body burdens in redfin pickerel (Esox americanus) decreased by 70 % at the most contaminated site. Tin concentrations in water and fish increased significantly in the tributary leading to Tims Branch, but concentrations remain below levels of concern for human health or ecological risks. While other studies have shown that Sn may be environmentally methylated and methyltin can transfer its methyl group to Hg, results from our field studies and sediment incubation experiments suggest that the added Sn to the Tims Branch watershed is not contributing to MeHg production and bioaccumulation. The stannous chloride treatment system installed at Tims Branch was effective at removing Hg inputs and reducing Hg bioaccumulation in the stream with minimal impacts on the environment due to the increased Sn in the system.

  10. Crystal growth, structure and characterizations of a new semiorganic nonlinear optical material-{beta}-Alanine zinc chloride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anbuchezhiyan, M.; Ponnusamy, S.; Muthamizhchelvan, C.; Sivakumar, K.

    2010-08-15

    The title compound, {beta}-alanine zinc chloride-a new semiorganic nonlinear optical crystal was grown by slow evaporation technique. Single crystals of {beta}-alanine zinc chloride have been subjected to X-ray diffraction analysis to determine the crystal structure. The powder X-ray diffractogram of the crystal has also been recorded. The amount of carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen in the crystals was also estimated. Fourier Transform Infrared and Raman spectral measurements have been carried out on the grown crystals in order to identify the functional groups. The presence of hydrogen and carbon in the {beta}-alanine zinc chloride was confirmed by using proton and carbon nuclear magnetic resonance spectral analyses. The percentage of zinc in the crystal was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Optical behavior such as ultraviolet-vis-near infrared transmittance spectrum and second harmonic generation has been investigated. The mechanical strength and thermal behavior of the grown crystal have been analyzed.

  11. Synergistic extraction of trivalent lanthanides and actinides from acidic chloride media by tetra(n-octyl)diglycolamide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McAlister, D.R.; Horwitz, E. Philip

    2008-07-01

    Ferric chloride has been found to induce a significant synergistic enhancement of the extraction of trivalent lanthanides and actinides by tetra(n-octyl)diglycolamide (TODGA) from acidic chloride media. In this manuscript, results of a thorough investigation of the TODGA-HCl-Fe(III) system using solvent-extraction experiments designed to elucidate the stoichiometry of the synergistic species will be described. Results for Ac(III), Am(III), Eu(III), Pm(III), Y(III), Th(IV), Pu(IV), and U(VI) will be discussed. (authors)

  12. Simulation of spray drying with reaction: Absorption of hydrogen sulfide in ammoniacal solution of zinc chloride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chander, H.; Ghosh, P.K. ); Baveja, K.K.; Dhingra, S.C. )

    1993-01-01

    Absorption of hydrogen sulfide gas in ammoniacal solution of zinc chloride is accompanied with an instantaneous chemical reaction forming zinc sulfide precipitates. Such reactions are most suited for operation of spray drying with reaction. A mathematical model for the system which incorporates chemical reaction, heat, mass and momentum transfer has been proposed. It is assumed that the gases and the spray is considered monodisperse for sake of simplicity. The differential equations derived for the model have been solved as an initial value problem using the Runge-Kutta method. The variations of temperature, humidity, droplet diameter, moisture content and concentrations of reactants are predicted along the length of the column and compared with experimental data.

  13. Calcium chloride electron injection/extraction layers in organic electronic devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qu, Bo, E-mail: bqu@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: qhgong@pku.edu.cn; Gao, Zhi; Yang, Hongsheng; Xiao, Lixin; Chen, Zhijian; Gong, Qihuang, E-mail: bqu@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: qhgong@pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Artificial Microstructures and Mesoscopic Physics, Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2014-01-27

    Nontoxic calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}) was introduced into organic electronic devices as cathode buffer layer (CBL). The turn-on voltage and maximum luminance of organic light-emitting diode (OLED) with 1.5?nm CaCl{sub 2} was 3.5?V and 21960?cd/m{sup 2}, respectively. OLED with 1.5?nm CaCl{sub 2} possessed comparable electroluminescent characteristics to that of the commonly used LiF. Moreover, the performance of the organic photovoltaic device with 0.5?nm CaCl{sub 2} was comparable to that of the control device with LiF. Therefore, CaCl{sub 2} has the potential to be used as the CBL for organic electronic devices.

  14. Recovery of the actinides by electrochemical methods in molten chlorides using solid aluminium cathode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malmbeck, R.; Mendes, E.; Serp, J.; Soucek, P.; Glatz, J.P.; Cassayre, L.

    2007-07-01

    An electrorefining process in molten chloride salts is being developed at ITU to reprocess the spent nuclear fuel. According to the thermochemical properties of the system, aluminium is the most promising electrode material for the separation of actinides (An) from lanthanides (Ln). The actinides are selectively reduced from the fission products and stabilized by the formation of solid and compact actinide-aluminium alloys with the reactive cathode material. In this work, the maximum loading of aluminium with actinides was investigated by potentiostatic and galvano-static electrorefining of U-Pu- Zr alloys. A very high aluminium capacity was achieved, as the average loading was 1.6 g of U and Pu into 1 g of aluminium and the maximum achieved loading was 2.3 g. For recovery of the actinides from aluminium, a process based on chlorination and a subsequent sublimation of AlCl{sub 3} is proposed. (authors)

  15. Electrochemical Polishing Applications and EIS of a Novel Choline Chloride-Based Ionic Liquid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wixtrom, Alex I.; Buhler, Jessica E.; Reece, Charles E.; Abdel-Fattah, Tarek M.

    2013-06-01

    Minimal surface roughness is a critical feature for high-field superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities used to engineer particle accelerators. Current methods for polishing Niobium cavities typically utilize solutions containing a mixture of concentrated sulfuric and hydrofluoric acid. Polishing processes such as these are effective, yet there are many hazards and costs associated with the use (and safe disposal) of the concentrated acid solutions. An alternative method for electrochemical polishing of the cavities was explored using a novel ionic liquid solution containing choline chloride. Potentiostatic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to analyze the ionic polishing solution. Final surface roughness of the Nb was found to be comparable to that of the acid-polishing method, as assessed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). This indicates that ionic liquid-based electrochemical polishing of Nb is a viable replacement for acid-based methods for preparation of SRF cavities.

  16. Methyl Chloride from Direct Methane Partial Oxidation: A High-Temperature Shilov-Like Catalytic System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yongchun Tang; John Ma

    2012-03-23

    The intention of this study is to demonstrate and evaluate the scientific and economic feasibility of using special solvents to improve the thermal stability of Pt-catalyst in the Shilov system, such that a high reaction temperature could be achieved. The higher conversion rate (near 100%) of methyl chloride from partial oxidation of methane under the high temperature ({approx} 200 C) without significant Pt0 precipitation has been achieved. High concentration of the Cl- ion has been identified as the key for the stabilization of the Pt-catalysts. H/D exchange measurements indicated that the over oxidation will occur at the elevated temperature, developments of the effective product separation processes will be necessary in order to rationalize the industry-visible CH4 to CH3Cl conversion.

  17. The effects of a stannous chloride-based remediation system in a mercury contaminated stream

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mathews, Teresa J; Looney, Brian; BryanJr., Larry; Smith, John G; Miller, Carrie L; Peterson, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    Remediation of mercury (Hg)-contaminated watersheds is often challenging because of the complex nature of Hg biogeochemistry. Stream ecosystems have been shown to be particularly susceptible to Hg contamination and bioaccumulation in fish. Decreasing total Hg loading to stream systems, however, has shown variable performance in decreasing Hg concentrations in fish tissues. In this study, we assess the impacts of an innovative treatment system in reducing releases of Hg to a small stream system in the southeastern United States. The treatment system, installed in 2007, removes Hg from water using tin (Sn) (II) chloride followed by air stripping. Mercury concentrations inmore » the receiving stream, Tims Branch, decreased from > 100 to ~10 ng/L in the four years following treatment, and Hg body burdens in redfin pickerel (Esox americanus) decreased by 70 % at the most contaminated site. Tin concentrations in water and fish increased significantly in the tributary leading to Tims Branch, but concentrations remain below levels of concern for human health or ecological risks. While other studies have shown that Sn may be environmentally methylated and methyltin can transfer its methyl group to Hg, results from our field studies and sediment incubation experiments suggest that the added Sn to the Tims Branch watershed is not contributing to MeHg production and bioaccumulation. The stannous chloride treatment system installed at Tims Branch was effective at removing Hg inputs and reducing Hg bioaccumulation in the stream with minimal impacts on the environment due to the increased Sn in the system.« less

  18. n0053200-sitewide.doc

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... level MSL mean sea level mhoscm micromhos per ... Compliance and Waste Management Plan, Quality ... an ongoing pattern of low- level methylene chloride ...

  19. Rare earth elements in chloride-rich groundwater, Palo Duro Basin, Texas, USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gosselin, D.C. ); Smith, M.R.; Lepel, E.A. ); Laul, J.C. )

    1992-04-01

    Rare earth element (REE) data for groundwater samples from the Deep-Basin Brine aquifer of the Palo Duro Basin, Texas, USA, illustrates the potential use of REE for inferring groundwater flow paths through different geologic materials. The REE content of the groundwaters range over 2.5 orders of magnitude and are depleted by 10{sup 2} to 10{sup 5} relative to aquifer materials. The shale-normalized REE patterns for groundwater that have primarily interacted with arkosic sandstones (granite wash) are flat with similar heavy REE (HREE) enrichments ((Lu/La){sub n} = 0.60 to 0.80). The samples with highest REE contents and REE patterns, which are enriched in the intermediate REEs (IREEs; Sm-Tb) reflect variable degrees of interaction with carbonate rocks. The IREE enrichment is the result of fluid interaction with Fe-Mn coatings on carbonate minerals and/or secondary minerals in fractures and vugs. The chloride complex. (LnCl{sup 2+}), and free-ions are the predominant REE species, accounting for over 95% of the REEs. Carbonate and sulfate species account for the other 5% and have very little influence on the behavior of the REEs. Although this study indicates a potentially important role for the REEs in understanding geochemical transport and groundwater movement, it also indicates the necessity for developing a better understanding of REE speciation in high ionic strength solutions.

  20. Mechanisms, Chemistry, and Kinetics of Anaerobic Biodegradation of cis-Dichloroethene and Vinyl Chloride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCarty, P.L.; Spormann, A.M.

    2000-12-01

    Anaerobic biological processes can result in PCE and TCE destruction through conversion to cis-dichloroethene (cDCE) then to vinyl chloride (VC), and finally to ethene. Here, the chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) serve as electron acceptors in energy metabolism, requiring electron donors such as hydrogen from an external source. The purpose of this study was to learn more about the biochemistry of cDCE and VC conversion to ethene, to better understand the requirements for electron donors, and to determine factors affecting the rates of CAH degradation and organism growth. The biochemistry of reductive dehalogenation of VC was studied with an anaerobic mixed culture enriched on VC. In other studies on electron donor needs for dehalogenation of cDCE and VC, competition for hydrogen was found to occur between the dehalogenators and other microorganisms such as methanogens and homoacetogens in a benzoate-acclimated dehalogenating methanogenic mixed culture. Factors affecting the relative rates of destruction of the solvents and their intermediate products were evaluated. Studies using a mixed PCE-dehalogenating culture as well as the VC enrichment for biochemical studies suggested that the same species was involved in both cDCE and VC dechlorination, and that cDCE and VC competitively inhibited each other's dechlorination rate.

  1. Electrolytic conditioning of a magnesium aluminum chloride complex for reversible magnesium deposition

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Barile, Christopher J.; Barile, Elizabeth C.; Zavadil, Kevin R.; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Gewirth, Andrew A.

    2014-12-04

    We describe in this report the electrochemistry of Mg deposition and dissolution from the magnesium aluminum chloride complex (MACC). The results define the requirements for reversible Mg deposition and definitively establish that voltammetric cycling of the electrolyte significantly alters its composition and performance. Elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) results demonstrate that irreversible Mg and Al deposits form during early cycles. Electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) data show that inhibitory oligomers develop in THF-based solutions. These oligomers form via the well-established mechanism of a cationic ring-opening polymerization of THF during the initial synthesis of the MACC andmore » under resting conditions. In contrast, MACC solutions in 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME), an acyclic solvent, do not evolve as dramatically at open circuit potential. Furthermore, we propose a mechanism describing how the conditioning process of the MACC in THF improves its performance by both tuning the Mg:Al stoichiometry and eliminating oligomers.« less

  2. Electrochemical, galvanic, and mechanical responses of grade 2 titanium in 6% sodium chloride solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Z.F.; Briant, C.L.; Kumar, K.S.

    1999-02-01

    The electrochemical, galvanic, and mechanical responses of grade 2 titanium in 6% sodium chloride (NaCl) solution at different temperatures were investigated. The initial corrosion potential and cathodic reaction rate increased with decreasing pH and increasing temperature. The initial corrosion potential changed when titanium was coupled with other metals. Naval brass and alloy 600 (UNS N06600) anodically polarized titanium, while zinc and aluminum caused titanium to become a cathode. HY80 steel (UNS K31820), type 316 stainless steel ([SS] UNS S31600), and Monel K500 (UNS N05500, a copper-nickel alloy), polarized titanium anodically or cathodically depending upon temperature and pH. Hydrides formed on the titanium surface at potentials < {approximately} {minus}600 mV{sub SCE} to {minus}700 mV{sub SCE}. Zinc at all temperatures and HY80 at high temperatures caused hydride formation in titanium when coupled galvanically with titanium. Mechanical tests showed an {approx} 10% decrease in ductility under prior and dynamic hydrogen charging conditions.

  3. Electrolytic conditioning of a magnesium aluminum chloride complex for reversible magnesium deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barile, Christopher J.; Barile, Elizabeth C.; Zavadil, Kevin R.; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Gewirth, Andrew A.

    2014-12-04

    We describe in this report the electrochemistry of Mg deposition and dissolution from the magnesium aluminum chloride complex (MACC). The results define the requirements for reversible Mg deposition and definitively establish that voltammetric cycling of the electrolyte significantly alters its composition and performance. Elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) results demonstrate that irreversible Mg and Al deposits form during early cycles. Electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) data show that inhibitory oligomers develop in THF-based solutions. These oligomers form via the well-established mechanism of a cationic ring-opening polymerization of THF during the initial synthesis of the MACC and under resting conditions. In contrast, MACC solutions in 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME), an acyclic solvent, do not evolve as dramatically at open circuit potential. Furthermore, we propose a mechanism describing how the conditioning process of the MACC in THF improves its performance by both tuning the Mg:Al stoichiometry and eliminating oligomers.

  4. Catalytic destruction of perchlorate in ferric chloride and hydrochloric acid solution with control of temperature, pressure and chemical reagents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gu, Baohua; Cole, David R.; Brown, Gilbert M.

    2004-10-05

    A method is described to decompose perchlorate in a FeCl.sub.3 /HCl aqueous solution such as would be used to regenerate an anion exchange resin used to remove perchlorate. The solution is mixed with a reducing agent, preferably an organic alcohol and/or ferrous chloride, and can be heated to accelerate the decomposition of perchlorate. Lower temperatures may be employed if a catalyst is added.

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF DISPOSABLE SORBENTS FOR CHLORIDE REMOVAL FROM HIGH TEMPERATURE COAL-DERIVED GASES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gopala Krishnan; Raghubir Gupta

    1999-09-01

    Advanced integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) and integrated-gasification fuel cell (IGFC) systems require the development of high temperature sorbents for the removal of hydrogen chloride (HCl) vapor to less than 1 parts-per-million (ppm) levels. HCl is a highly reactive, corrosive, and toxic gas which must be removed to meet environmental regulations, to protect power generation equipment, and to minimize deterioration of hot gas desulfurization sorbents. The objective of this program was to develop disposable, alkali-based sorbents capable of reducing HCl vapor levels to less than 1 ppm in the temperature range from 400 to 750 C and pressures in the range from 1 to 20 atm. The primary areas of focus of this program were to investigate different methods of sorbent fabrication, testing their suitability for different reactor configurations, obtaining reaction kinetics data, and conducting a preliminary economic feasibility assessment. This program was a joint effort between SRI International (SRI), Research Triangle Institute (RTI), and General Electric Corporate Research and Development (GE-CRD). SRI, the prime contractor and RTI, a major subcontractor, performed most of the work in this program. Thermochemical calculations indicated that sodium-based sorbents were capable of reducing HCl vapor levels to less than 1 ppm at temperatures up to 650 C, but the regeneration of spent sorbents would require complex process steps. Nahcolite (NaHCO{sub 3}), a naturally-occurring mineral, could be used as an inexpensive sorbent to remove HCl vapor in hot coal gas streams. In the current program, nahcolite powder was used to fabricate pellets suitable for fixed-bed reactors and granules suitable for fluidized-bed reactors. Pilot-scale equipment were used to prepare sorbents in large batches: pellets by disk pelletization and extrusion techniques, and granules by granulation and spray-drying techniques. Bench-scale fixed- and fluidized-bed reactors were assembled at SRI and RTI to conduct tests at high-temperature, high-pressure conditions (HTHP). The HTHP tests confirmed the ability of nahcolite pellets and granules to reduce the HCl vapor levels to less than 1 ppm levels with a very high sorbent utilization for chloride capture. The effect of several operating variables such as temperature, pressure, presence of hydrogen sulfide, and sorbent preparation methods was studied on the efficacy of HCl removal by the sorbent. Pilot-scale tests were performed in the fluidized-bed mode at the gasifier facility at the GE-CRD. Sorbent exposure tests were also conducted using a hot coal gas stream from the DOE/FETC's fluidized-bed gasifier at Morgantown, WV. These tests confirmed the results obtained at SRI and RTI. A preliminary economic assessment showed that the cost of HCl removal in a commercial IGCC system will be about $0.001/kWh (1 mills/kWh).

  6. Methyl chloride via oxyhydrochlorination of methane. Quarterly technical progress report No. 13, October--December 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-02-01

    The purpose of this contract is to develop a process for converting light alkane gases to methyl chloride via oxyhydrochlorination using highly selective, stable catalysts in fixed-bed reactors designed to remove the large amount of heat generated, so as to control the reaction temperature. Further, the objective is to obtain the engineering data base necessary for developing a commercially feasible process and to evaluate t economics of the process. Significant progress was made in six different technical areas during this quarter. These key highlights are: (1) Evaluation of catalyst samples from UCI led to the ordering of the OHC PDU catalyst batch. This catalyst batch arrived, was screened and found to be defective, and was reordered. (2) Natural gas containing higher hydrocarbons was used as a methane source. The reactant mixture formed oxygenates at temperatures lower than observed in the past. Burning at such low temperatures seems to create a product stream containing very little CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}. (3) Although it has not been decided if the PDU will use natural gas from the plant or methane or natural gas from cylinders as a methane feed source, it was concluded that an adsorption unit to remove sulfur and higher hydrocarbons is not necessary at this time. (4) PDU construction was completed in December. The bulk of insulation work was completed at the end of November. Much effort has been put into pressure testing the PDU`s systems. The startup team has become adept at finding and correcting such leaks. (5) SOP writing for the PDU was completed this quarter with communication with the software programmer to insure agreement between the software and SOP.

  7. Composition dependent structural organization in trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium chloride ionic liquid-methanol mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, Aditya; Sharma, Shobha; Kashyap, Hemant K.

    2015-04-07

    This article reports results from the molecular dynamics simulations on the structural arrangement of the ions and molecules in the mixtures of trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium chloride ([P{sub 666,14}{sup +}][Cl{sup ?}]) ionic liquid (IL) and methanol (MeOH) over the entire composition range. Effects of composition on the charge and polarity orderings have been investigated via computation of X-ray scattering structure function, S(q), and by using a partitioning scheme proposed for such multi-component mixtures. Except for the neat methanol liquid, the total S(q) shows two peaks in its intermolecular region for all the mole-fractions. The lowest q peak is dominated primarily by anion-anion, cation-anion, and methanol-anion correlations. Our results signify that the methanol bulk structure, which predominantly has short-distance characteristic correlations and is governed by polar group of methanol, is retained for x{sub IL} ? 0.1. Then, the mixture goes through gradual structural changes from methanol-like to the IL-like for 0.1 < x{sub IL} ? 0.7. The dipolar interaction between methanol molecules weakens in this range, and the structural landscape of the mixture is steered by strong ion-ion, anion-methanol, and nonpolar interactions. The IL-like structural arrangement is virtually recovered for x{sub IL} > 0.7. At all the compositions studied, while the cation head groups are predominantly solvated by anions and subsequently by methanol molecules, the polar hydroxyl group of methanol is preferentially solvated by the anions. The radial distribution functions of selected pair of atomic species have also confirmed these observations.

  8. ?-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles: An easily recoverable effective photo-catalyst for the degradation of rose bengal and methylene blue dyes in the waste-water treatment plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dutta, Amit Kumar; Maji, Swarup Kumar; Adhikary, Bibhutosh

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: ?-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs from a single-source precursor and characterized by XRD, TEM, UVvis spectra. The NPs were tested as effective photocatalyst toward degradation of RB and MB dyes. The possible pathway of the photocatalytic decomposition process has been discussed. The active species, OH, was detected by TA photoluminescence probing techniques. - Abstract: ?-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized from a single-source precursor complex [Fe{sub 3}O(C{sub 6}H{sub 5}COO){sub 6}(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}]NO{sub 3} by a simple thermal decomposition process and have been characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UVvis spectroscopic techniques. The NPs were highly pure and well crystallized having hexagonal morphology with an average particle size of 35 nm. The prepared ?-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (maghemite) NPs show effective photo-catalytic activity toward the degradation of rose bengal (RB) and methylene blue (MB) dyes under visible light irradiation and can easily be recoverable in the presence of magnetic field for successive re-uses. The possible photo-catalytic decomposition mechanism is discussed through the detection of hydroxyl radical (OH) by terephthalic acid photo-luminescence probing technique.

  9. Thermal Analysis of Surrogate Simulated Molten Salts with Metal Chloride Impurities for Electrorefining Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toni Y. Gutknecht; Guy L. Fredrickson; Vivek Utgikar

    2012-04-01

    This project is a fundamental study to measure thermal properties (liquidus, solidus, phase transformation, and enthalpy) of molten salt systems of interest to electrorefining operations, which are used in both the fuel cycle research & development mission and the spent fuel treatment mission of the Department of Energy. During electrorefining operations the electrolyte accumulates elements more active than uranium (transuranics, fission products and bond sodium). The accumulation needs to be closely monitored because the thermal properties of the electrolyte will change as the concentration of the impurities increases. During electrorefining (processing techniques used at the Idaho National Laboratory to separate uranium from spent nuclear fuel) it is important for the electrolyte to remain in a homogeneous liquid phase for operational safeguard and criticality reasons. The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner may be adversely affected by the buildup of fission products in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided are: (i) build up of fissile elements in the salt approaching the criticality limits specified for the vessel (ii) freezing of the salts due to change in the liquidus temperature and (iii) phase separation (non-homogenous solution) of elements. The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can potentially be monitored through the thermal characterization of the salts, which can be a function of impurity concentration. This work describes the experimental results of typical salts compositions, consisting of chlorides of strontium, samarium, praseodymium, lanthanum, barium, cerium, cesium, neodymium, sodium and gadolinium (as a surrogate for both uranium and plutonium), used in the processing of used nuclear fuels. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to analyze numerous salt samples providing results on the thermal properties. The property of most interest to pyroprocessing is the liquidus temperature. It was previously known the liquidus temperature of the molten salt would change as spent fuel is processed through the Mk-IV electrorefiner. However, the extent of the increase in liquidus temperature was not known. This work is first of its kind in determining thermodynamic properties of a molten salt electrolyte containing transuranics, fission products and bond sodium. Experimental data concluded that the melting temperature of the electrolyte will become greater than the operating temperature of the Mk-IV ER during current fuel processing campaigns. Collected data also helps predict when the molten salt electrolyte will no longer be able to support electrorefining operations.

  10. Reactant ion chemistry for detection of TNT, RDX, and PETN using an ion mobility spectrometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klassen, S.E.; Rodacy, P.; Silva, R.

    1997-09-01

    This report describes the responses of three energetic materials (TNT, RDX, and PETN) to varying reactant ion chemistries and IMS cell temperatures. The following reactant ion chemistries were evaluated; air-dry; air-wet; methylene chloride-dry; methylene chloride-wet; methylene bromide-dry; nitrogen dioxide-wet; sulfur dioxide-wet. The temperature was varied between 160 - 220{degrees}C.

  11. Equilibrium hydrate formation conditions for hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and ethane in aqueous solutions of ethylene glycol and sodium chloride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majumdar, A.; Mahmoodaghdam, E.; Bishnoi, P.R.

    2000-02-01

    Natural gas components such as hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and ethane form gas hydrates of structure I under suitable temperature and pressure conditions. Information on such conditions is vital to the oil and gas industry in order to design and operate processing equipment and pipelines so that hydrate formation is avoided. Incipient equilibrium hydrate formation conditions for hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and ethane in aqueous solutions of ethylene glycol and sodium chloride were experimentally obtained in the temperature range 264--290 K and the pressure range 0.23--3.18 MPa. A variable-volume sapphire cell was used for the measurements.

  12. The Heat Output of the Waimangu, Waiotapu-Waikite and Reporoa Geothermal Systems (NZ): Do Chloride Fluxes Provide an Accurate Measure?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bibby, H.M.; Glover, R.B.; Whiteford, P.C.

    1995-01-01

    Geothermal waters from the Waimangu, Waiotapu-Waikite and Reporoa geothermal systems find their way into three separate watersheds. The heat flow data from each of these drainage areas have been assessed making it possible to compare the heat outputs from two independent methods: direct heat measurements and the chloride flux method. For both the Waiotapu/Reporoa Valley drainage and the Waikite drainage a discrepancy exists between the two assessments, with the heat output observed at the surface (Waiotapu-540 {+-} 110 MW; Waikite-80 MW) nearly double of that calculated from the chloride flux (300 MW; 36 MW respectively). It appears that much of the throughput of chloride does not reach the surface within the area which was monitored and the basic assumption on which the method is based has been violated. For Waimangu the direct heat output is assessed as 510 {+-} 60 MW. However the ratio of enthalpy to chloride concentration of the source fluid is not well determined. Depending on the ratio chosen the heat output could lie between 360 and 800 MW. Although the chloride flux is accurately known, the heat output cannot be measured accurately without well determined data on the source fluid at depth.

  13. Radiation Stability of Benzyl Tributyl Ammonium Chloride towards Technetium-99 Extraction - 13016

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paviet-Hartmann, Patricia; Horkley, Jared; Campbell, Keri; Roman, Audrey; Nunez, Ana; Espartero, Amparo

    2013-07-01

    A closed nuclear fuel cycle combining new separation technologies along with generation III and generation IV reactors is a promising way to achieve a sustainable energy supply. But it is important to keep in mind that future recycling processes of used nuclear fuel (UNF) must minimize wastes, improve partitioning processes, and integrate waste considerations into processes. New separation processes are being developed worldwide to complement the actual industrialized PUREX process which selectively separates U(VI) and Pu(IV) from the raffinate. As an example, the UREX process has been developed in the United States to co-extract hexavalent uranium (U) and hepta-valent technetium (Tc) by tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP). Tc-99 is recognized to be one of the most abundant, long-lived radio-toxic isotopes in UNF (half-life, t{sub 1/2} = 2.13 x 10{sup 5} years), and as such, is targeted in UNF separation strategies for isolation and encapsulation in solid waste-forms for final disposal in a nuclear waste repository. Immobilization of Tc-99 by a durable solid waste-form is a challenge, and its fate in new advanced technology processes is of importance. It is essential to be able to quantify and locate 1) its occurrence in any new developed flowsheets, 2) its chemical form in the individual phases of a process, 3) its potential quantitative transfer in any waste streams, and consequently, 4) its quantitative separation for either potential transmutation to Ru-100 or isolation and encapsulation in solid waste-forms for ultimate disposal. In addition, as a result of an U(VI)-Tc(VII) co-extraction in a UREX-based process, Tc(VII) could be found in low level waste (LLW) streams. There is a need for the development of new extraction systems that would selectively extract Tc-99 from LLW streams and concentrate it for feed into high level waste (HLW) for either Tc-99 immobilization in metallic waste-forms (Tc-Zr alloys), and/or borosilicate-based waste glass. Studies have been launched to investigate the suitability of new macro-compounds such as crown-ethers, aza-crown ethers, quaternary ammonium salts, and resorcin-arenes for the selective extraction of Tc-99 from nitric acid solutions. The selectivity of the ligand is important in evaluating potential separation processes and also the radiation stability of the molecule is essential for minimization of waste and radiolysis products. In this paper, we are reporting the extraction of TcO{sub 4}{sup -} by benzyl tributyl ammonium chloride (BTBA). Experimental efforts were focused on determining the best extraction conditions by varying the ligand's matrix conditions and concentration, as well as varying the organic phase composition (i.e. diluent variation). Furthermore, the ligand has been investigated for radiation stability. The ?-irradiation was performed on the neat organic phases containing the ligand at different absorbed doses to a maximum of 200 kGy using an external Co-60 source. Post-irradiation solvent extraction measurements will be discussed. (authors)

  14. Radiation Stability of Benzyl Tributyl Ammonium Chloride Towards Technetium-99 Extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jared Horkley; Audrey Roman; Keri Campbell; Ana Nunez; Amparo Espartero

    2013-02-01

    A closed nuclear fuel cycle combining new separation technologies along with generation III and generation IV reactors is a promising way to achieve a sustainable energy supply. But it is important to keep in mind that future recycling processes of used nuclear fuel (UNF) must minimize wastes, improve partitioning process, and integrate waste considerations into processes. New separation processes are being developed worldwide to complement the actual industrialized PUREX process which selectively separates U(VI) and Pu(IV) from the raffinate. As an example, low nitric acid concentration in the aqueous phase of a UREX based process will co-extract U(VI) and Tc(VII) by tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP). Technetium (Tc-99) is recognized to be one of the most abundant, long-lived radiotoxic isotopes in UNF (half-life, t1/2 = 2.13 × 105 years), and as such, it is targeted in UNF separation strategies for isolation and encapsulation in solid waste forms for final disposal in a nuclear waste repository. Immobilization of Tc-99 by a durable solid waste form is a challenge, and its fate in new advanced technology processes is of importance. It is essential to be able to quantify and locate 1) its occurrence in any new developed flow sheets, 2) its chemical form in the individual phases of a process, 3) its potential quantitative transfer in any waste streams, and consequently, 4) its quantitative separation for either potential transmutation to Ru-100 or isolation and encapsulation in solid waste forms for ultimate disposal. Furthermore, as a result of an U(VI)-Tc(VII) co-extraction in a UREX-based process, Tc(VII) could be found in low level waste (LLW) streams. There is a need for the development of new extraction systems that would selectively extract Tc-99 from LLW streams and concentrate it for feed into high level waste (HLW) for either Tc-99 immobilization in metallic waste forms (Tc-Zr alloys), and/or borosilicate-based waste glass. Studies have been launched to investigate the suitability of new macrocompounds such as crown-ethers, aza-crown ethers, and resorcinarenes for the selective extraction of Tc-99 from nitric acid solutions. The selectivity of the ligand is important in evaluating potential separation processes and also the radiation stability of the molecule is essential for minimization of waste and radiolysis products. In this paper, we are reporting the extraction of TcO4- by benzyltributyl ammonium chloride (BTBA). Experimental efforts were focused on determining the best extraction conditions by varying the ligand’s matrix conditions and concentration, as well as varying the organic phase composition (i.e., diluent variation). Furthermore, the ligand has been investigated for radiation stability. The ?-irradiation was performed on the neat organic phases containing the ligand at different absorbed doses to a maximum of 200 kGy using external Co-60 source. Post-irradiation solvent extraction measurements will be discussed.

  15. Optical amplifier operating at 1.3 microns useful for telecommunications and based on dysprosium-doped metal chloride host materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Page, Ralph H.; Schaffers, Kathleen I.; Payne, Stephen A.; Krupke, William F.; Beach, Raymond J.

    1997-01-01

    Dysprosium-doped metal chloride materials offer laser properties advantageous for use as optical amplifiers in the 1.3 .mu.m telecommunications fiber optic network. The upper laser level is characterized by a millisecond lifetime, the host material possesses a moderately low refractive index, and the gain peak occurs near 1.31 .mu.m. Related halide materials, including bromides and iodides, are also useful. The Dy.sup.3+ -doped metal chlorides can be pumped with laser diodes and yield 1.3 .mu.m signal gain levels significantly beyond those currently available.

  16. Optical amplifier operating at 1.3 microns useful for telecommunications and based on dysprosium-doped metal chloride host materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Page, R.H.; Schaffers, K.I.; Payne, S.A.; Krupke, W.F.; Beach, R.J.

    1997-12-02

    Dysprosium-doped metal chloride materials offer laser properties advantageous for use as optical amplifiers in the 1.3 {micro}m telecommunications fiber optic network. The upper laser level is characterized by a millisecond lifetime, the host material possesses a moderately low refractive index, and the gain peak occurs near 1.31 {micro}m. Related halide materials, including bromides and iodides, are also useful. The Dy{sup 3+}-doped metal chlorides can be pumped with laser diodes and yield 1.3 {micro}m signal gain levels significantly beyond those currently available. 9 figs.

  17. Influence of microstructure on the corrosion resistance of AISI type 304L and type 316L sintered stainless steels exposed to ferric chloride solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Otero, E.; Pardo, A.; Utrilla, M.V.; Perez, F.J.; Saenz, E.

    1995-10-01

    The corrosion behavior of type 304L and type 316L austenitic stainless steels, produced by powder metallurgy, when exposed to a ferric chloride solution was studied. The exposures were conducted according to ASTM G48-76, Method A. The influence of ferric chloride concentration and exposure temperature on the corrosion kinetics of these materials was evaluated. A mechanism is proposed to explain the associated morphology observed in the microstructures produced after exposure of these P/M alloys to the aggressive medium.

  18. Reversible Poisoning of the Nickel/Zirconia Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodes by Hydrogen Chloride in Coal Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marina, Olga A.; Pederson, Larry R.; Thomsen, Edwin C.; Coyle, Christopher A.; Yoon, Kyung J.

    2010-10-15

    The performance of anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) was evaluated in synthetic coal gas containing HCl in the temperature range 650 to 850oC. Exposure to up to 800 ppm HCl resulted in reversible poisoning of the Ni/zirconia anode by chlorine species adsorption, the magnitude of which decreased with increased temperature. Performance losses increased with the concentration of HCl to ~100 ppm, above which losses were insensitive to HCl concentration. Cell voltage had no effect on poisoning. No evidence was found for long-term degradation that can be attributed to HCl exposure. Similarly, no evidence of microstructural changes or formation of new solid phases as a result of HCl exposure was found. From thermodynamic calculations, solid nickel chloride phase formation was shown to be highly unlikely in coal gas. Further, the presence of HCl at even the highest anticipated concentrations in coal gas would minimally increase the volatility of nickel.

  19. Effect of hydrogen sulfide partial pressure, pH, and chloride content on the SSC resistance of martensitic stainless steels and martensitic precipitation hardening stainless steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vitale, D.D.

    1999-11-01

    Centrifugal compressor applications require the use of martensitic stainless and martensitic precipitation hardening stainless steels at high hydrogen sulfide partial pressures. These materials do not perform well when tested with standard TM0177 test solutions. This paper describes the effect of hydrogen sulfide partial pressure, pH, and chloride content on their SSC resistance and explains their successful field operational experience. Environmental limits are determined for several materials and heat treat conditions.

  20. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... methylene chloride (1) monoclinic lattices (1) monocrystals (1) reflection (1) silver (1) silver oxides (1) synthesis (1) x-ray diffraction (1) Filter by Author Hong-Guang, Ge ...

  1. On the preparation of TiAl alloy by direct reduction of the oxide mixtures in calcium chloride melt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prabhat K. Tripathy; Derek J. Fray

    2011-11-01

    In recent years, TiAl-based intermetallic alloys are being increasingly considered for application in areas such as (i) automobile/transport sector (passenger cars, trucks and ships) (ii) aerospace industry (jet engines and High Speed Civil Transport propulsion system) and (iii) industrial gas turbines. These materials offer excellent (i) high temperature properties (at higher than 6000C) (ii) mechanical strength and (iii) resistance to corrosion and as a result have raised renewed interest. The combination of these properties make them possible replacement materials for traditional nickel-based super-alloys, which are nearly as twice as dense (than TiAl based alloys). Since the microstructures of these intermetallic alloys affect, to a significant extent, their ultimate performance, further improvements (by way of alteration/modification of these microstructures), have been the subject matter of intense research investigations. It has now been established that the presence of alloy additives, such as niobium, tantalum, manganese, boron, chromium, silicon, nickel and yttrium etc, in specific quantities, impart marked improvement to the properties, viz. fatigue strength, fracture toughness, oxidation resistance and room temperature ductility, of these alloys. From a number of possible alloy compositions, {gamma}-TiAl and Ti-Al-Nb-Cr have, of late, emerged as two promising engineering alloys/materials. . The conventional fabrication process of these alloys include steps such as melting, forging and heat treatment/annealing of the alloy compositions. However, an electrochemical process offers an attractive proposition to prepare these alloys, directly from the mixture of the respective oxides, in just one step. The experimental approach, in this new process, was, therefore, to try to electrochemically reduce the (mixed) oxide pellet to an alloy phase. The removal of oxygen, from the (mixed) oxide pellet, was effected by polarizing the oxide pellet against a graphite electrode in a pool of molten calcium chloride at a temperature of 9000C. The dominant mechanism of the oxygen removal was the ionization of oxygen followed by its subsequent discharge, as CO2/CO, at the anode surface. The removal of oxygen from the oxide mixture helped form the alloy in situ. The presentation shall cover the detailed experimental results pertaining to the preparation, evaluation and characterization of Ti-47Al-2Nb-2Cr (atom%) alloy.

  2. Improved Methods for the Production of Polyurethane Foam | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Methods for the Production of Polyurethane Foam Improved Methods for the Production of Polyurethane Foam New Surfactants Result in a More Environmentally Benign Production Process Methylene chloride, a toxic chemical that contributes to air pollution, was recently eliminated from use in the U.S. polyurethane industry. This mandated elimination did not permit production of as large a range of foam grades as was possible using methylene chloride, thus placing U.S. industry at a

  3. Partitioning of mercury, arsenic, selenium, boron, and chloride in a full-scale coal combustion process equipped with selective catalytic reduction, electrostatic precipitation, and flue gas desulfurization systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chin-Min Cheng; Pauline Hack; Paul Chu; Yung-Nan Chang; Ting-Yu Lin; Chih-Sheng Ko; Po-Han Chiang; Cheng-Chun He; Yuan-Min Lai; Wei-Ping Pan

    2009-09-15

    A full-scale field study was carried out at a 795 MWe coal-fired power plant equipped with selective catalytic reduction (SCR), an electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems to investigate the distribution of selected trace elements (i.e., mercury, arsenic, selenium, boron, and chloride) from coal, FGD reagent slurry, makeup water to flue gas, solid byproduct, and wastewater streams. Flue gases were collected from the SCR outlet, ESP inlet, FGD inlet, and stack. Concurrent with flue gas sampling, coal, bottom ash, economizer ash, and samples from the FGD process were also collected for elemental analysis. By combining plant operation parameters, the overall material balances of selected elements were established. The removal efficiencies of As, Se, Hg, and B by the ESP unit were 88, 56, 17, and 8%, respectively. Only about 2.5% of Cl was condensed and removed from flue gas by fly ash. The FGD process removed over 90% of Cl, 77% of B, 76% of Hg, 30% of Se, and 5% of As. About 90% and 99% of the FGD-removed Hg and Se were associated with gypsum. For B and Cl, over 99% were discharged from the coal combustion process with the wastewater. Mineral trona (trisodium hydrogendicarbonate dehydrate, Na{sub 3}H(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O) was injected before the ESP unit to control the emission of sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}). By comparing the trace elements compositions in the fly ash samples collected from the locations before and after the trona injection, the injection of trona did not show an observable effect on the partitioning behaviors of selenium and arsenic, but it significantly increased the adsorption of mercury onto fly ash. The stack emissions of mercury, boron, selenium, and chloride were for the most part in the gas phase. 47 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs.

  4. The environmental chemical tributyltin chloride (TBT) shows both estrogenic and adipogenic activities in mice which might depend on the exposure dose

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Penza, M.; Jeremic, M.; Marrazzo, E.; Maggi, A.; Ciana, P.; Rando, G.; Grigolato, P.G.; Di Lorenzo, D.

    2011-08-15

    Exposure during early development to chemicals with hormonal action may be associated with weight gain during adulthood because of altered body homeostasis. It is known that organotins affect adipose mass when exposure occurs during fetal development, although no knowledge of effects are available for exposures after birth. Here we show that the environmental organotin tributyltin chloride (TBT) exerts adipogenic action when peripubertal and sexually mature mice are exposed to the chemical. The duration and extent of these effects depend on the sex and on the dose of the compound, and the effects are relevant at doses close to the estimated human intake (0.5 {mu}g/kg). At higher doses (50-500 {mu}g/kg), TBT also activated estrogen receptors (ERs) in adipose cells in vitro and in vivo, based on results from acute and longitudinal studies in ERE/luciferase reporter mice. In 3T3-L1 cells (which have no ERs), transiently transfected with the ERE-dependent reporter plus or minus ER{alpha} or ER{beta}, TBT (in a dose range of 1-100 nM) directly targets each ER subtype in a receptor-specific manner through a direct mechanism mediated by ER{alpha} in undifferentiated preadipocytic cells and by ER{beta} in differentiating adipocytes. The ER antagonist ICI-182,780 inhibits this effect. In summary, the results of this work suggest that TBT is adipogenic at all ages and in both sexes and that it might be an ER activator in fat cells. These findings might help to resolve the apparent paradox of an adipogenic chemical being also an estrogen receptor activator by showing that the two apparently opposite actions are separated by the different doses to which the organism is exposed. - Research Highlights: > The environmental organotin tributyltin chloride shows dose-dependent estrogenic and adipogenic activities in mice. > The duration and extent of these effects depend on the sex and the dose of the compound. > The estrogenic and adipogenic effects of TBT occur at doses closed to the estimated human intake. > TBT activates the estrogen receptors (ER{alpha} and ER{beta}) in 3T3-L1 cells at nM concentrations.

  5. Highly chemoselective palladium-catalyzed conjugate reduction of. cap alpha. ,. beta. -unsaturated carbonyl compounds with silicon hydrides and zinc chloride cocatalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keinan, E.; Greenspoon, N.

    1986-11-12

    A three-component system comprised of a soluble palladium catalyst, hydridosilane, and zinc chloride is capable of efficient conjugate reduction of ..cap alpha..,..beta..-unsaturated ketones and aldehydes. The optimal set of conditions includes diphenylsilane as the most effective hydride donor, any soluble palladium complex in either the O or II oxidation state, when it is stabilized by phosphine ligands, and ZnCl/sub 2/ as the best Lewis acid cocatalyst. The reaction is very general with respect to a broad range of unsaturated ketones and aldehydes, and it is highly selective for these Michael acceptors, as reduction of ..cap alpha..,..beta..-unsaturated carboxylic acid derivatives is very sluggish under these conditions. When dideuteriodiphenylsilane is used to reduce unsaturated ketones, deuterium is stereoselectivity introduced at the less-hindered fact of the substrate and regioselectively at the ..beta..-position. Conversely, when reductions are carried out in the presence of traces of D/sub 2/O, deuterium incorporation occurs at the ..cap alpha..-position. On the basis of deuterium-incorporation experiments and /sup 1/H NMR studies a catalytic cycle is postulated in which the first step involves reversible coordination of the palladium complex to the electron-deficient olefin and oxidative addition of silicon hydride to form a hydridopalladium olefin complex.

  6. Reactions of Ethyl Groups on a Model Chromia Surface: Ethyl Chloride on Stoichiometric Alpha-Cr2O3(1012)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooks, J.; Ma, Q; Cox, D

    2009-01-01

    The reaction of CH3CH2Cl over the nearly-stoichiometric ?-Cr2O3 (1 0 View the MathML source 2) surface yields gas phase CH2double bond; length as m-dashCH2, CH3CH3, H2 and surface chlorine adatoms. The decomposition reaction is initiated via C-Cl bond cleavage to give a surface ethyl (CH3CH2-) intermediate. A rate-limiting ?-hydride elimination from the surface ethyl species produces gas phase CH2double bond; length as m-dashCH2 and surface hydrogen atoms. Two parallel competing reactions form CH3CH3, via ?-hydride addition to remaining surface ethyl species (reductive elimination), and H2, via the combination of two surface hydrogen atoms. The chlorine freed from the dissociation of CH3CH2Cl binds at the five-coordinate surface Cr3+ sites on the stoichiometric surface and inhibits the surface chemistry via simple site blocking. No surface carbon deposition is observed from the thermal reaction of ethyl chloride, suggesting that ethyl intermediates are not primary coke forming intermediates in the dehydrogenation of ethane over (1 0 View the MathML source 2) facets of ?-Cr2O3.

  7. Anisotropy Characterization of I-125 Seed with Attached Encapsulated Cobalt Chloride Complex Contrast Agent Markers for MRI-Based Prostate Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank, Steven J., E-mail: sjfrank@mdanderson.or [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Tailor, Ramesh C.; Kudchadker, Rajat J. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Martirosyan, Karen S. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Stafford, R. Jason; Elliott, Andrew M. [Department of Imaging Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Swanson, David A. [Department of Urology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Sing, David; Choi, Jonathan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Mourtada, Firas; Ibbott, Geoffrey S. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2011-07-01

    We have developed a novel MRI marker for prostate brachytherapy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the changes in anisotropy when cobalt chloride complex contrast agent encapsulated contrast agent markers (C4-ECAM) were placed adjacent to an iodine-125 (I-125) titanium seed, and to verify that the C4-ECAMs were visible on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after radiation exposure. Two C4-ECAMs were verified to be MRI visible in a phantom before radiation exposure. The C4-ECAMs were then attached to each end of a 12.7-U (10-mCi) I-125 titanium seed in a polymer tube. Anisotropy was measured and analyzed with the seed alone and with attached C4-ECAMs by suspending thermoluminescent dosimeters in a water phantom in 2 circles surrounding the radioactive source with radius of 1 or 2 cm. A T1-weighted MRI evaluation of C4-ECAMs was then performed after exposure to the amount of radiation typically delivered during 1 month of prostate brachytherapy. Measured values of the anisotropy function F(r, {theta}) for the I-125 seed with and without the C4-ECAMs were mutually statistically indistinguishable (standard error of the mean <4.2%) and agreed well with published TG-43 values for the bare seed. As expected, the anisotropy function {phi}{sub an}(r) for the 2 datasets (with and without C4-ECAMs) derived from the measured F(r, {theta}) did not exhibit statistically measurable difference. Both datasets showed agreement with the published TG-43 {phi}{sub an}(r) for the bare seed. The C4-ECAMs were well visualized by MRI after 1 month of radiation exposure. There were no changes in anisotropy when the C4-ECAMs were placed next to an I-125 radioactive seed, and the C4-ECAMs were visualized after radiation exposure.

  8. Gold(I) chloride adducts of 1,3-bis(di-2-pyridylphosphino)propane: synthesis, structural studies and antitumour activity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Humphreys, Anthony S.; Filipovska, Aleksandra; Berners-Price, Susan J.; Koutsantonis, George A.; Skelton, Brian W.; White, Allan H.

    2008-06-30

    The novel water soluble bidentate phosphine ligand 1,3-bis(di-2-pyridylphosphino)propane (d2pypp) has been synthesized by a convenient route involving treatment of 2-pyridyllithium with Cl{sub 2}P(CH{sub 2}){sub 3}PCl{sub 2} and isolation in crystalline form as the hydrochloride salt. The synthesis of the precursor Cl{sub 2}P(CH{sub 2}){sub 3}PCl{sub 2} has been optimized by the use of triphosgene as the chlorinating agent. The 2:1 and 1:2 AuCl:d2pypp adducts have been synthesized and characterized by NMR spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray studies, and shown to be of the form (AuCl){sub 2}({mu}-d2pypp-P,P{prime}) and Au(d2pypp-P,P{prime}){sub 2}Cl(-3.75H{sub 2}O), respectively. The latter is more lipophilic than analogous 1:2 adducts of gold(I) chloride with the diphosphine ligands 1,2-bis(di-n-pyridylphosphino)ethane (dnpype) for n = 2, 3 and 4, based on measurement of the n-octanol-water partition coefficient (log P = -0.46). A single crystal structure determination of the 1:2 Au(I) complex of the 3-pyridyl ethane ligand shows it to be of the form [Au(d3pype-P,P{prime}){sub 2}]Cl {center_dot} 5H{sub 2}O. The in vitro cytotoxic activity of [Au(d2pypp){sub 2}]Cl was assessed in human normal and cancer breast cells and selective toxicity to the cancer cells found. The significance of these results to the antitumour properties of chelated 1:2 Au(I) diphosphine complexes is discussed.

  9. Cobalt chloride decreases fibroblast growth factor-21 expression dependent on oxidative stress but not hypoxia-inducible factor in Caco-2 cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Yanlong; Department of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY ; Wang, Chunhong; Department of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY ; Wang, Yuhua; Department of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY ; Ma, Zhenhua; Department of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY ; Xiao, Jian; McClain, Craig; Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY; Alcohol Research Center, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY; Robley Rex Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Louisville, KY ; Li, Xiaokun; Feng, Wenke; Department of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY; Alcohol Research Center, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY

    2012-10-15

    Fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21) is a potential metabolic regulator with multiple beneficial effects on metabolic diseases. FGF21 is mainly expressed in the liver, but is also found in other tissues including the intestine, which expresses β-klotho abundantly. The intestine is a unique organ that operates in a physiologically hypoxic environment, and is responsible for the fat absorption processes including triglyceride breakdown, re-synthesis and absorption into the portal circulation. In the present study, we investigated the effects of hypoxia and the chemical hypoxia inducer, cobalt chloride (CoCl{sub 2}), on FGF21 expression in Caco-2 cells and the consequence of fat accumulation. Physical hypoxia (1% oxygen) and CoCl{sub 2} treatment decreased both FGF21 mRNA and secreted protein levels. Gene silence and inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor-α (HIFα) did not affect the reduction of FGF21 mRNA and protein levels by hypoxia. However, CoCl{sub 2} administration caused a significant increase in oxidative stress. The addition of n-acetylcysteine (NAC) suppressed CoCl{sub 2}-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and completely negated CoCl{sub 2}-induced FGF21 loss. mRNA stability analysis demonstrated that the CoCl{sub 2} administration caused a remarkable reduction in FGF21 mRNA stability. Furthermore, CoCl{sub 2} increased intracellular triglyceride (TG) accumulation, along with a reduction in mRNA levels of lipid lipase, hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) and adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), and an increase of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP1c) and stearoyl-coenzyme A (SCD1). Addition of both NAC and recombinant FGF21 significantly attenuated the CoCl{sub 2}-induced TG accumulation. In conclusion, the decrease of FGF21 in Caco-2 cells by chemical hypoxia is independent of HIFα, but dependent on an oxidative stress-mediated mechanism. The regulation of FGF21 by hypoxia may contribute to intestinal lipid metabolism and absorption. -- Graphical abstract: Physical and chemical hypoxia decrease FGF-21 expression, which is inhibited by antioxidant, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), in Caco-2 cells. Highlights: ► Hypoxia down-regulates FGF21 expression in Caco-2 cells. ► FGF21 down-regulation is HIF-α independent. ► FGF21 down-regulation is modulated by oxidative stress-mediated mRNA stability. ► FGF21 is involved in hypoxia‐induced triglyceride accumulation in Caco-2 cells.

  10. Storm-water characterization and lagoon sediment analysis, Grand Forks Air Force Base, North Dakota. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garland, J.G.; Vaughn, R.W.; Scott, P.T.

    1990-08-01

    Sampling was conducted in the wastewater treatment lagoons and stormwater runoff at Grand Forks AFB. The base was concerned about whether the unlined lagoons were creating a potential groundwater contamination problem and whether their stormwater runoff met North Dakota state stream standards. Lagoon sediment did not contain Extraction Procedure hazardous chemicals. Stormwater runoff exceeded state standards for boron, phosphates, and phenols and contained trace levels of methylene chloride. Characterization of lagoon influent showed it to be generally representative of domestic sewage, but also contained trace levels of boron, phenols, toluene, cyanide, chloroform, methylene chloride and ethyl benzene.

  11. Method of separating organic contaminants from fluid feedstreams with polyphosphazene membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCaffrey, Robert R. (Milford, MA); Cummings, Daniel G. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1991-01-01

    A method is provided for separating halogenated hydrocarbons from a fluid feedstream. The fluid feedstream is flowed across a first surface of a polyphosphazene semipermeable membrane. At least one halogenated hydrocarbon from the fluid feedstream permeates through the polyphosphazene semipermeable membrane to a second opposed surface of the semipermeable membrane. Then the permeated polar hydrocarbon is removed from the second opposed surface of the polyphosphazene semipermeable membrane. Outstanding and unexpected separation selectivities on the order of 10,000 were obtained for methylene chloride when a methylene chloride in water feedstream was flowed across the polyphosphazene semipermeable membrane in the invented method.

  12. Fluid diversion and sweep improvement with chemical gels in oil recovery processes. [Four types of gels: resorcinol-formaldehyde; colloidal silica; Cr sup 3+ (chloride)-xanthan; and Cr sup 3+ (acetate)-polyacrylamide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seright, R.S.; Martin, F.D.

    1992-09-01

    The objectives of this project were to identify the mechanisms by which gel treatments divert fluids in reservoirs and to establish where and how gel treatments are best applied. Several different types of gelants were examined, including polymer-based gelants, a monomer-based gelant, and a colloidal-silica gelant. This research was directed at gel applications in water injection wells, in production wells, and in high-pressure gas floods. The work examined how the flow properties of gels and gelling agents are influenced by permeability, lithology, and wettability. Other goals included determining the proper placement of gelants, the stability of in-place gels, and the types of gels required for the various oil recovery processes and for different scales of reservoir heterogeneity. During this three-year project, a number of theoretical analyses were performed to determine where gel treatments are expected to work best and where they are not expected to be effective. The most important, predictions from these analyses are presented. Undoubtedly, some of these predictions will be controversial. However, they do provide a starting point in establishing guidelines for the selection of field candidates for gel treatments. A logical next step is to seek field data that either confirm or contradict these predictions. The experimental work focused on four types of gels: (1) resorcinol-formaldehyde, (2) colloidal silica, (3) Cr{sup 3+}(chloride)-xanthan, and (4) Cr{sup 3+}(acetate)-polyacrylamide. All experiments were performed at 41{degrees}C.

  13. Sr{sub 4}Ru{sub 6}ClO{sub 18}, a new Ru{sup 4+/5+} oxy-chloride, solved by precession electron diffraction: Electric and magnetic behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roussel, Pascal; Palatinus, Lukas; Belva, Frdric; Daviero-Minaud, Sylvie; Mentre, Olivier; Huve, Marielle

    2014-04-01

    The crystal structure of Sr{sub 4}Ru{sub 6}ClO{sub 18}, a new Ru{sup 4+/5+} oxo-chloride, has been determined from Precession Electron Diffraction (PED) data acquired on a nanocrystal in a transmission electron microscope using the technique of electron diffraction tomography. This approach is described in details following a pedagogic route and a systematic comparison is made of this rather new method with other experimental methods of electron diffraction, and with the standard single crystal X-ray diffraction technique. Both transport and magnetic measurements, showed a transition at low temperature that may be correlated to Ru{sup 4+}/Ru{sup 5+} charge ordering. - Graphical abstract: Structure of Sr{sub 4}Ru{sub 6}ClO{sub 18}, determined using Precession Electron Diffraction data. - Highlights: Structure of Sr{sub 4}Ru{sub 6}ClO{sub 18} was solved ab initio using precession electron diffraction. This was done both on a nanometric sample and on a micrometric one. Different type of experimental methods of electron diffraction are compared. Single crystal X-ray diffraction was used to confirm the results. Transport properties were characterized and show exotic behavior.

  14. Theoretical predictions of properties and volatility of chlorides and oxychlorides of group-4 elements. I. Electronic structures and properties of MCl{sub 4} and MOCl{sub 2} (M = Ti, Zr, Hf, and Rf)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pershina, V.; Borschevsky, A.; Iliaš, M.

    2014-08-14

    Relativistic, infinite order exact two-component, density functional theory electronic structure calculations were performed for MCl{sub 4} and MOCl{sub 2} of group-4 elements Ti, Zr, Hf, and element 104, Rf, with the aim to predict their behaviour in gas-phase chromatography experiments. RfCl{sub 4} and RfOCl{sub 2} were shown to be less stable than their lighter homologs in the group, tetrachlorides and oxychlorides of Zr and Hf, respectively. The oxychlorides turned out to be stable as a bent structure, though the stabilization energy with respect to the flat one (C{sub 2v}) is very small. The trend in the formation of the tetrachlorides from the oxychlorides in group 4 is shown to be Zr < Hf < Rf, while the one in the formation of the oxychlorides from the chlorides is opposite. All the calculated properties are used to estimate adsorption energy of these species on various surfaces in order to interpret results of gas-phase chromatography experiments, as is shown in Paper II.

  15. Orientation imaging microscopy of polycrystalline sodium chloride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staiger, M.P.; Kolbeinsson, I.; Newman, J.; Woodfield, T.; Sato, T.

    2010-04-15

    A novel preparation technique is described that makes possible grain size analysis of polycrystalline NaCl using orientation imaging microscopy via electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The preparation methodology is specifically developed to overcome difficulties in preparing microporous NaCl for microscopy. The grain size and crystallographic texture of polycrystalline NaCl samples, prepared via solution pressure and sintered in the range of 650-780 deg. C, were able to be measured successfully with EBSD. The limitations of the preparation technique for EBSD analysis of NaCl are also discussed.

  16. Sodium/nickel-chloride battery development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Redey, L.; Prakash, J.; Vissers, D.R.; Dowgiallo, E.J.

    1994-02-28

    The performance of the Ni/NiCl{sub 2} positive electrode for the Na/NiCl{sub 2} battery has been significantly improved compared to that of our earlier electrodes, representative for 1990. This improvement has been achieved by lowering the impedance and increasing the usable capacity through the use of chemical additives and a tailored electrode morphology. The improved electrode has excellent performance even at 250{degrees}C and can be recharged within one hour. The performance of this new electrode was measured by the conventional interrupted galvanostatic method and under simulated driving profiles. These measurements were used to project the performance of 40- to 60-kWh batteries built with this new electrode combined with the already highly developed sodium/{beta}{double_prime}-alumina negative electrode. These calculated results yielded a specific power of 150--400 W/kg and a specific energy of 110--200 Wh/kg for batteries with single-tube and bipolar cell designs. This high performance, along with the high cell voltage, mid-temperature operation, fast recharge capability, and short-circuited failure mode of the electrode couple, makes the Na/NiCl{sub 2} battery attractive for electric vehicle applications.

  17. Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride (Patent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Inventors: Spormann, Alfred M. 1 ; Muller, Jochen A. 2 ; Rosner, Bettina M. 3 ; Von Abendroth, Gregory 4 ; Meshulam-Simon, Galit 5 ; McCarty, Perry L 1 + Show Author ...

  18. Method of polymerizing exo-methylene cyclic organic compounds using homogeneous ring-opening catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marks, Tobin J.; Yang, Xinmin; Jia, Li

    1994-01-01

    The regiospecific (1,2-Me.sub.2 C.sub.5 H.sub.3).sub.2 ZrMe.sup.+ MeB(C.sub.6 F.sub.5).sub.3.sup.- mediated ring-opening polymerization of methylenecyclobutane and its copolymerization with ethylene to polyolefins of microstructure--{CH.sub.2 CH.sub.2 CH.sub.2 C(CH.sub.2)]--.sub.n and {--[CH.sub.2 CHR]--.sub.x [CH.sub.2 CH.sub.2 CH.sub.2 C(CH.sub.2)]--.sub.y }.sub.n' respectively, is disclosed.

  19. Molecular Quantum Mechanics 2010: From Methylene to DNA and Beyond Conference Support

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-05-15

    This grant was $12500 for partial support of an international conference, Molecular Quantum Mechanics 2010, which was held on the campus of the University of California, Berkeley, from 24 to 29 May 2010. The conference involved more than 250 participants. The conference schedule ran from as early as 8:00 AM to as late as 10:30 PM at night, in order to accommodate six historical lectures, 16 plenary lectures, 42 invited talks and two very strong poster sessions containing 143 contributed posters. Since 1989, the Molecular Quantum Mechanics (MQM) series of international conferences has show- cased the frontiers of research in quantum chemistry with a strong focus on basic theory and algorithms, as well as highlights of topical applications. Both were strongly in evidence at MQM 2010. At the same time as embracing the future, the MQM conferences also honour the lifetime contributions of some of the most prominent scientists in the field of theoretical and computational quantum chemistry. MQM 2010 recognised the work of Prof. Henry F. ‘Fritz’ Schaefer of the Center for Computational Chemistry at the University of Georgia, who was previously on the faculty at Berkeley The travel of invited speakers was partially covered by sponsorships from Dell Computer, Hewlett-Packard, Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation, Virginia Tech College of Science, Molecular Physics, Q-Chem Inc and the American Institute of Physics. By contrast, the conference grant from the Department of Energy was used to provide fellowships and scholarships to enable graduate students and postdoctoral fellows to attend the meeting, and thereby broaden the participation of young scientists at a meeting where in the past most of the attendees have been more senior faculty researchers. We believe that we were very successful in this regard: 118 students and postdocs attended out of the total of 256 participants. In detail, the DOE sponsorship money was partially used for dormitory scholarships that covered the cost of shared accommodation for students and postdocs at Berkeley dormitories. This covered the $200-$305 cost of a shared room for the 5-day duration of the conference. The only condition of these scholarships was that the awardee must present a poster at the meeting. Approximately $7565 was spent for these dormitory scholarships. The remaining expenditures of $4800 was used for 12 merit scholarships which were awarded to students whose poster presentations were judged the best at the conference. This amount covered a significant part of their travel and registration fees.

  20. Method of polymerizing exo-methylene cyclic organic compounds using homogeneous ring-opening catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marks, T.J.; Yang, X.; Jia, L.

    1994-04-05

    The regiospecific (1,2-Me[sub 2]C[sub 5]H[sub 3])[sub 2]ZrMe[sup +]MeB(C[sub 6]F[sub 5])[sub 3][sup [minus

  1. Parametric Optimization of the MEO Process for Treatment of Mixed Waste Residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cournoyer, M.E.; Smith, W.H.

    1999-02-28

    A series of bench-scale experiments were conducted to determine the optimum reaction conditions for destruction of styrene-divinyl benzene based cation resin and methylene chloride by the mediated electrochemical oxidation (MEO) process. Reaction parameters examined include choice of electron transfer mediator, reaction temperature and solvent system. For the cation exchange resins, maximum destruction efficiencies were obtained using cerium (IV) as mediator in nitric acid at a temperature of 70 C. Reasonable efficiencies were also realized with silver(II) and cobalt (III) at ambient temperature in the same solvent. Use of sulfuric acid as the solvent yielded much lower efficiencies under equivalent conditions. Methylene chloride was found to react only with silver (II) at ambient temperature in nitric acid media, cobalt (III) and cerium (IV) were totally ineffective. These results demonstrate a need to perform bench-scale experiments to determine optimum operating conditions for each organic substrate targeted for treatment by the MEO process.

  2. Chloride-Magnesium Ratio of Shallow Groundwaters as a Regional...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hawaii Abstract Because of the complex geological and hydrological conditions and the virtual lack of thermal springs, regional geothermal investigations in Hawaii require the use...

  3. VISCOSITY OF AQUEOUS SODIUM CHLORIDE SOLUTIONS FROM 0 - 150o...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The result of the evaluation includes a table containing smoothed values for the viscosity of NaCl solutions to 150 C. Authors: Ozbek, H. ; Fair, J.A. ; Phillips, S.L. Publication ...

  4. Use of encapsulated zinc particles in a eutectic chloride salt...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    agglomeration or other type of particle degradation. The measured enhancement in volumetric thermal storage capacity of the composite with just 10 vol% of coated Zn...

  5. Redox flow batteries based on supporting solutions containing chloride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Liyu; Kim, Soowhan; Yang, Zhenguo; Wang, Wei; Nie, Zimin; Chen, Baowei; Zhang, Jianlu; Xia, Guanguang

    2015-07-07

    Redox flow battery systems having a supporting solution that contains Cl.sup.- ions can exhibit improved performance and characteristics. Furthermore, a supporting solution having mixed SO.sub.4.sup.2- and Cl.sup.- ions can provide increased energy density and improved stability and solubility of one or more of the ionic species in the catholyte and/or anolyte. According to one example, a vanadium-based redox flow battery system is characterized by an anolyte having V.sup.2+ and V.sup.3+ in a supporting solution and a catholyte having V.sup.4+ and V.sup.5+ in a supporting solution. The supporting solution can contain Cl.sup.- ions or a mixture of SO.sub.4.sup.2- and Cl.sup.- ions.

  6. Redox flow batteries based on supporting solutions containing chloride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Liyu; Kim, Soowhan; Yang, Zhenguo; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Jianlu; Chen, Baowei; Nie, Zimin; Xia, Guanguang

    2014-01-14

    Redox flow battery systems having a supporting solution that contains Cl.sup.- ions can exhibit improved performance and characteristics. Furthermore, a supporting solution having mixed SO.sub.4.sup.2- and Cl.sup.- ions can provide increased energy density and improved stability and solubility of one or more of the ionic species in the catholyte and/or anolyte. According to one example, a vanadium-based redox flow battery system is characterized by an anolyte having V.sup.2+ and V.sup.3+ in a supporting solution and a catholyte having V.sup.4+ and V.sup.5+ in a supporting solution. The supporting solution can contain Cl.sup.- ions or a mixture of SO.sub.4.sup.2- and Cl.sup.- ions.

  7. Redox flow batteries based on supporting solutions containing chloride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Liyu; Kim, Soowhan; Yang, Zhenguo; Wang, Wei; Nie, Zimin; Chen, Baowei; Zhang, Jianlu; Xia, Guanguang

    2015-09-01

    Redox flow battery systems having a supporting solution that contains Cl.sup.- ions can exhibit improved performance and characteristics. Furthermore, a supporting solution having mixed SO.sub.4.sup.2- and Cl.sup.- ions can provide increased energy density and improved stability and solubility of one or more of the ionic species in the catholyte and/or anolyte. According to one example, a vanadium-based redox flow battery system is characterized by an anolyte having V.sup.2+ and V.sup.3+ in a supporting solution and a catholyte having V.sup.4+ and V.sup.5+ in a supporting solution. The supporting solution can contain Cl.sup.- ions or a mixture of SO.sub.4.sup.2- and Cl.sup.- ions.

  8. Viscosity and density tables of sodium chloride solutions (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 15 GEOTHERMAL ENERGY; ... NUMERICAL DATA; SODIUM COMPOUNDS Geothermal Legacy 152001* -- Geothermal Data & ...

  9. Method for making a uranium chloride salt product

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, William E.; Tomczuk, Zygmunt

    2004-10-05

    The subject apparatus provides a means to produce UCl.sub.3 in large quantities without incurring corrosion of the containment vessel or associated apparatus. Gaseous Cl is injected into a lower layer of Cd where CdCl.sub.2 is formed. Due to is lower density, the CdCl.sub.2 rises through the Cd layer into a layer of molten LiCl--KCL salt where a rotatable basket containing uranium ingots is suspended. The CdCl.sub.2 reacts with the uranium to form UCl.sub.3 and Cd. Due to density differences, the Cd sinks down to the liquid Cd layer and is reused. The UCl.sub.3 combines with the molten salt. During production the temperature is maintained at about 600.degree. C. while after the uranium has been depleted the salt temperature is lowered, the molten salt is pressure siphoned from the vessel, and the salt product LiCl--KCl-30 mol % UCl.sub.3 is solidified.

  10. Sources Of Chloride In Hydrothermal Fluids From The Valles Caldera...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    volcanics are < 100,000 years. Authors Usha Rao, U. Fehn, R. T. D. Teng and Fraser E. Goff Published Journal Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 1996 DOI Not Provided...

  11. Localized Plasticity in the Streamlined Genomes of Vinyl Chloride...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in distinct genomic islands (GEIs) with different predicted integration sites, suggesting that these genes were acquired horizontally and independently by distinct mechanisms. ...

  12. Thermophysical Properties of Sodium Nitrate and Sodium Chloride

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... The entire column has a uniform aqueous phase saturation of S l 0.3, with a step change ... Systematic simulation studies were performed to evaluate the following conditions and ...

  13. Toluene pyrolysis studies and high temperature reactions of propargyl chloride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kern, R.D.; Chen, H.; Qin, Z.

    1993-12-01

    The main focus of this program is to investigate the thermal decompositions of fuels that play an important role in the pre-particle soot formation process. It has been demonstrated that the condition of maximum soot yield is established when the reaction conditions of temperature and pressure are sufficient to establish a radical pool to support the production of polyaromatic hydrocarbon species and the subsequent formation of soot particles. However, elevated temperatures result in lower soot yields which are attributed to thermolyses of aromatic ring structures and result in the bell-shaped dependence of soot yield on temperature. The authors have selected several acyclic hydrocarbons to evaluate the chemical thermodynamic and kinetic effects attendant to benzene formation. To assess the thermal stability of the aromatic ring, the authors have studied the pyrolyses of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, chlorobenzene and pyridine. Time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF) is employed to analyze the reaction zone behind reflected shock waves. Reaction time histories of the reactants, products, and intermediates are constructed and mechanisms are formulated to model the experimental data. The TOF work is often performed with use of laser schlieren densitometry (LS) to measure density gradients resulting from the heats of various reactions involved in a particular pyrolytic system. The two techniques, TOF and LS, provide independent and complementary information about ring formation and ring rupture reactions.

  14. Thermophysical Properties of Sodium Nitrate and Sodium Chloride

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The effect of density and viscosity of saline solutions has been long recognized. Here we focus our attention on the effect of vapor pressure lowering due to salinity. We present ...

  15. Electrochemical studies of calcium chloride-based molten salt systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanchard, T.P. Jr.

    1992-12-01

    Conductance and EMF studies of CaCl{sub 2}-based melts were performed in the temperature range 790--990 C. Conductivity data collected using magnesia tubes and capillaries showed deviations from the data recommended by the National Bureau of Standards. These deviations are attributed to the slow dissolution of magnesia by the CaCl{sub 2}-CaO melt. Conductivity data for molten CaCl{sub 2} using a pyrolytic boron nitride capillary were in reasonable agreement with the recommended data; however, undissolved CaO in CaCl{sub 2} may have caused blockage of the pyrolytic boron nitride capillary, resulting in fluctuations in the measured resistance. The utility of the AgCl/Ag reference electrode in CaCl{sub 2}-AgCl and CaCl{sub 2}-CaO-AgCl melts, using asbestos diaphragms and Vycor glass as reference half-cell membranes, was also investigated. Nernstian behavior was observed using both types of reference half-cell membranes in CaCl{sub 2}-AgCl melts. The AgCl/Ag reference electrode also exhibited Nernstian behavior in CaCl{sub 2}-CaO-AgCl melts using a Vycor reference half-cell membrane and a magnesia crucible. The use of CaCl{sub 2} as a solvent is of interest since it is used in plutonium metal purification, as well as various other commercial applications. 97 refs., 33 figs., 13 tabs.

  16. VISCOSITY OF AQUEOUS SODIUM CHLORIDE SOLUTIONS FROM 0 - 150o...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The literature was screened through October 1977, and a databank of evaluated data was ... Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 99; COMPUTER ...

  17. A [Cyclentetrakis(methylene)]tetrakis[2-hydroxybenzamide]Ligand That Complexes and Sensitizes Lanthanide(III) Ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D'Aleo, Anthony; Xu, Jide; Do, King; Muller, Gilles; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2009-04-30

    The synthesis of a cyclen derivative containing four isophthalamide groups (L{sup 1}) is described. The spectroscopic properties of the Ln(III) complexes of L{sup 1} (Ln = Gd, Tb, Yb, Eu) reveal changes of the UV/visible absorption, circular dichroism absorption, luminescence and circularly polarized luminescence properties. It is shown that at least two metal complex species are present in solution, whose relative amounts are pH dependent. When at pH > 8.0, an intense long lived emission is observed (for [L{sup 1}Tb] and [L{sup 1}Yb]) while at pH < 8.0, a weaker, shorter-lived species predominates. Unconventional Ln(III) emitters (Pr, Nd, Sm, Dy and Tm) were sensitized in basic solution, both in the visible and in the near infra-red, to measure the emission of these ions.

  18. Production of permeable cellulose triacetate membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Bruce M.

    1986-01-01

    A phase inversion process for the preparation of cellulose triacetate (CTA) and regenerated cellulose membranes is disclosed. Such membranes are useful as supports for liquid membranes in facilitated transport processes, as microfiltration membranes, as dialysis or ultrafiltration membranes, and for the preparation of ion-selective electrodes. The process comprises the steps of preparing a casting solution of CTA in a solvent comprising a mixture of cyclohexanone and methylene chloride, casting a film from the casting solution, and immersing the cast film in a methanol bath. The resulting CTA membrane may then be hydrolyzed to regenerated cellulose using conventional techniques.

  19. Process for the manufacture of 117Sn diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srivastava, Suresh C.; Li, Zizhong; Meinken, George

    2003-01-01

    Novel methods are provided for the manufacture of .sup.117m Sn(Sn.sup.4+) DTPA. The method allows the use of DTPA, a toxic chelating agent, in an approximately 1:1 ratio to .sup.117m Sn(Sn.sup.4+) via either aqueous conditions, or using various organic solvents, such as methylene chloride. A pharmaceutical composition manufactured by the novel method is also provided, as well as methods for treatment of bone tumors and pain associated with bone cancer using the pharmaceutical composition of the invention.

  20. Production of permeable cellulose triacetate membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, B.M.

    1986-12-23

    A phase inversion process for the preparation of cellulose triacetate (CTA) and regenerated cellulose membranes is disclosed. Such membranes are useful as supports for liquid membranes in facilitated transport processes, as microfiltration membranes, as dialysis or ultrafiltration membranes, and for the preparation of ion-selective electrodes. The process comprises the steps of preparing a casting solution of CTA in a solvent comprising a mixture of cyclohexanone and methylene chloride, casting a film from the casting solution, and immersing the cast film in a methanol bath. The resulting CTA membrane may then be hydrolyzed to regenerated cellulose using conventional techniques.

  1. Testing of a model to estimate vapor concentration of various organic chemicals. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bakalyar, S.M.

    1990-01-01

    A model developed by Dr. Parker C. Reist to predict the build-up and decay rates of vapor concentrations following a chemical spill and clean-up was tested. The chemicals tested were: acetone, butyl acetate, ethyl acetate, hexane, methylene chloride, methyl ethyl ketone, and toluene. The evaporation rates of these chemicals were determined both by prediction, using a model developed by I. Kawamura and D. Mackay, and empirically and these rates were used in the Reist model. Chamber experiments were done to measure actual building-up and decay of vapor concentrations for simulated spills and simulated clean-up.

  2. Macromolecular coal structure as revealed by novel diffusion tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peppas, N.A.; Olivares, J.; Drummond, R.; Lustig, S.

    1990-01-01

    The main goal of the present work was the elucidation of the mechanistic characteristics of dynamic transport of various penetrants (solvents) in thin sections of coals by examining their penetrant uptake, front swelling and stress development. An important objective of this work was the study of coal network structure in different thermodynamically compatible penetrants and the analysis of dynamic swelling in terms of present anomalous transport theories. Interferometry/polariscopy, surface image analysis and related techniques were used to quantify the stresses and solvent concentration profiles in these sections. Dynamic and equilibrium swelling behavior were correlated using the polar interaction contributions of the solvent solubility parameters. The penetrant front position was followed in thin coal sections as a function of time. The initial front velocity was calculated for various coals and penetrants. Our penetrant studies with thin coal section from the same coal sample but with different thickness show that within the range of 150 {mu}m to 1500{mu}m the transport mechanism of dimethyl formamide in the macromolecular coal network is non-Fickian. In fact, for the thickest samples the transport mechanism is predominately Case-II whereas in the thinner samples penetrant uptake may be diffusion-controlled. Studies in various penetrants such as acetone, cyclohexane, methanol, methyl ethyl ketone, toluene and methylene chloride indicated that penetrant transport is a non-Fickian phenomenon. Stresses and cracks were observed for transport of methylene chloride. 73 refs., 88 figs., 15 tabs.

  3. Health hazard evaluation report HETA 91-0292-2467, Magnetics Division of Spang and Company, Butler, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blade, L.M.; Bresler, F.T.

    1994-11-01

    In response to an employee request, an investigation was begun into possible exposures to paint, paint thinners, and Freon at the Magnetics Division of Spang and Company (SIC-3679), Butler, Pennsylvania. The division employed about 450 people and manufactured two types of magnetic cores used in a variety of electronic devices. Workers in the Tape Core Paint Room had experienced light headedness or fainted episodes. Only one sample contained measurable levels of 2-ethoxyethyl-acetate (111159) but the level was 0.25 parts per million (ppm), one half of the NIOSH recommended exposure limit for full shift time weighted average exposure. Methylene-chloride (75092) was detected in all but one of the air samples with levels ranging up to 35ppm. One personal breathing zone sample had a lead (7439921) concentration of 36 micrograms/cubic meter (microg/m3) which exceeded the OSHA action level for lead of 30 microg/m3. The paint booth exhaust systems appeared to be operating efficiently and there were good work practices among the painters. The authors conclude that workers were exposed to methylene-chloride, considered by NIOSH to be a potential occupational carcinogen. Exposures to lead and 2-ethoxyethyl-acetate may exceed the evaluation criteria. Some workers may experience symptoms when working near solvents and paints, even though the measured exposures were below the permissible exposure limits. The authors recommend that efforts be made to reduce exposures in the paint room.

  4. Characterization of Cerro Negro crude. Part II. Chemical analysis. [Project sponsored by Bartlesville Energy Technology Center and Institute de Tecnologico del Venezolana Petroleo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sturm, G.P. Jr.; Grindstaff, Q.G.; Hirsch, D.E.; Scheppele, S.E.; Hazos, M.

    1981-09-01

    The cooperative research program is explained in Part I. An evaluation is presented of the resolution attained in the separation of a 425 to 550/sup 0/C petroleum distillate fraction according to compound classes using 2 chromatographic methods. Samples were separated by high performance liquid chromatography using 2 columns in series containing 2,4-dinitroanalinopropyl silica and silica, respectively. Initial elution was attained using 1% methylene chloride in pentane followed by a linear gradient up to 30% methylene chloride. In the 2nd method, developed in the American Petroleum Institute's Research Project 60, fractions designated as saturates, monoaromatics, diaromatics, and polyaromatics were collected froma dual silica/alumina column using step gradient elution with pentane, 5% benzene in pentane, 15% benzene in pentane, and 20% ethyl ether, 20% benzene, 60% methanol, followed by pure methanol. The results wil be used to evaluate the quality of the separation in terms of the success in producing fractions containing similar compound classes. 1 figure, 4 tables.

  5. Polyvinyl Chloride/Silica Nanoporous Composite Separator for All-Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Xiaoliang; Nie, Zimin; Luo, Qingtao; Li, Bin; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Wang, Wei

    2013-04-22

    Redox flow batteries (RFBs) are capable of reversible conversion between electricity and chemical energy. Potential RFB applications resolve around mitigating the discrepancy between electricity production and consumption to improve the stability and utilization of the power infrastructure and tackling the intermittency of renewables such as photovoltaics or wind turbines to enable their reliable integration [1, 2]. Because the energy is stored in externally contained liquid electrolytes and the energy conversion reactions take place at the electrodes, RFBs hold a unique capability to separate energy and power and thus possess considerable design flexibility to meet either energy management driven or power rating oriented grid applications, which is considered to be a unparalleled advantage over conventional solid-state secondary batteries [3]. Other advantages of RFBs include fast response to load changes, high round-trip efficiency, long calender and cycle lives, safe operations, tolerance to deep discharge, etc. [4]. Among various flow battery chemistries, all-vanadium redox flow battery (VRB) was invented by Maria Skyllas-Kazacos at the University of New South Wales in the 1980s [5, 6] and have attracted substantial attention in both research and industrial communities today [7, 8]. A well-recognized advantage that makes VRB stands out among other redox chemistries is the reduced crossover contamination ascribed to employing four different oxidation states of the same vanadium element as the two redox couples. Recently, great progress has led to remarkably improved energy density of VRB by using sulfuric-chloric mixed acid supporting electrolytes that were stable at 2.5M vanadium and had wider operational temperature window of -5~50oC [9], compared with the traditional sulfuric acid VRB system [10].

  6. The adsorption of gold, palladium and platinum from acidic chloride solutions on mesoporous carbons.

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zalupski, Peter R.; McDowell, Rocklan; Dutech, Guy

    2014-08-05

    Studies on the adsorption characteristics of gold, palladium and platinum on mesoporous carbon (CMK-3) and sulfur-impregnated mesoporous carbon (CMK-3/S) evaluated the benefits/drawbacks of the presence of a layer of elemental sulfur inside mesoporous carbon structures. Adsorption isotherms collected for Au(III), Pd(II) and Pt(IV) on those materials suggest that sulfur does enhance the adsorption of those metal ions in mildly acidic environment (pH 3). The isotherms collected in 1 M HCl show that the benefit of sulfur disappears due to the competing influence of large concentration of hydrogen ions on the ion-exchanging mechanism of metal ions sorption on mesoporous carbon surfaces.more » The collected acid dependencies illustrate similar adsorption characteristics for CMK-3 and CMK-3/S in 1-5 M HCl concentration range. Sorption of metal ions from diluted aqueous acidic mixtures of actual leached electronic waste demonstrated the feasibility of recovery of gold from such liquors.« less

  7. The dynamic shape factor of sodium chloride nanoparticles as regulated by drying rate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Z.; Lewis, E.; King, S. M.; Freney, E.; Rosenoern, T.; Smith, M.; Chen, Q.; Kuwata, M.; Poschl, U.; Wang, W.; Buseck, P. R.; Martin, S. T.

    2010-09-01

    The influence of drying rate on the dynamic shape factor {chi} of NaCl particles was investigated. The drying rate at the efflorescence relative humidity (ERH) of 45% was controlled in a laminar flow tube and varied from 5.5 {+-} 0.9 to 101 {+-} 3 RH s{sup -1} at ERH, where RH represents one percent unit of relative humidity. Dry particles having mobility diameters of 23-84 nm were studied, corresponding to aqueous particles of 37-129 nm at the RH (57%) prior to drying. At each mobility diameter and drying rate, the critical supersaturation of cloud-condensation activation was also measured. The mobility diameter and the critical supersaturation were combined in an analysis to determine the value of {chi}. The measured values varied from 1.02 to 1.26. For fixed particle diameter the {chi} value decreased with increasing drying rate. For fixed drying rate, a maximum occurred in {chi} between 35- and 40-nm dry mobility diameter, with a lower {chi} for both smaller and larger particles. The results of this study, in conjunction with the introduced apparatus for obtaining quantified drying rates, can allow the continued development of a more detailed understanding of the morphology of submicron salt particles, with the potential for the follow-on development of quantitative modeling of evaporation and crystal growth at these dimensions.

  8. Flow and morphological conditions associated with the directional solidification of aqueous ammonium chloride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magirl, C.S.; Incropera, F.P.

    1993-01-01

    Using 27% aq. NH[sub 4]Cl solutions as transparent analog, shadowgraphy and dye injection were used to observe flow and morphology in unidirectional solidification (UDS) from below. Dendritic crystals that form at the cold surface reject lighter, solute-deficient fluid, and instability is shown by finger-type double-diffusive convection. As the mushy two-phase region grows, perturbations at the liquidus interface cause localized remelting and downward development of channels. Solsutal plumes emanate from the channels, and in time, double-diffusive convection layers also form in the melt. When the solution is chilled at the sides as well as at the bottom, conditions are influenced by detachment and settling of crystals from the sidewall and by plumes from slanted channels. When a slow, oscillatory rocking motion is imposed on UDS, the freckle-type segregates in the final cast is suppressed. Within the melt, plumes and double-diffusive convection are eliminated. Inertially induced convection mixes the melt and produces a dense slurry. Although channels are eliminated from the bottom mushy region, overall heat transfer and macrosegregation in the cavity are unaffected by the slow rocking. Numerical simulations qualitatively predict trends in the field variables and provide insights on interdendritic flows and macrosegregation (freckle-, A-type segregates), although its quantitative predictions are hampered by simplifying assumptions.

  9. Flow and morphological conditions associated with the directional solidification of aqueous ammonium chloride. Annual performance report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magirl, C.S.; Incropera, F.P.

    1993-01-01

    Using 27% aq. NH{sub 4}Cl solutions as transparent analog, shadowgraphy and dye injection were used to observe flow and morphology in unidirectional solidification (UDS) from below. Dendritic crystals that form at the cold surface reject lighter, solute-deficient fluid, and instability is shown by finger-type double-diffusive convection. As the mushy two-phase region grows, perturbations at the liquidus interface cause localized remelting and downward development of channels. Solsutal plumes emanate from the channels, and in time, double-diffusive convection layers also form in the melt. When the solution is chilled at the sides as well as at the bottom, conditions are influenced by detachment and settling of crystals from the sidewall and by plumes from slanted channels. When a slow, oscillatory rocking motion is imposed on UDS, the freckle-type segregates in the final cast is suppressed. Within the melt, plumes and double-diffusive convection are eliminated. Inertially induced convection mixes the melt and produces a dense slurry. Although channels are eliminated from the bottom mushy region, overall heat transfer and macrosegregation in the cavity are unaffected by the slow rocking. Numerical simulations qualitatively predict trends in the field variables and provide insights on interdendritic flows and macrosegregation (freckle-, A-type segregates), although its quantitative predictions are hampered by simplifying assumptions.

  10. Cationic quaternization of cellulose with methacryloyloxy ethyl trimethyl ammonium chloride via ATRP method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Supeno; Daik, Rusli; El-Sheikh, Said M.

    2014-09-03

    The synthesis of a cationic cellulose copolymer from cellulose macro-initiator (MCC-BiB) and quaternary compound monomer (METMA) via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) was studied. By using dimethylformamide (DMF), the optimum condition for successful synthesis was at the mole ratio of MCC-BIB:Catalyst:METMA = 1:1:26. The highest copolymer recovery was 93.2 % for 6 h and at 40°C. The copolymer was insoluble in weak polar solvents such as THF and DMF but soluble in methanol and water. The chemistry of cellulose copolymer was confirmed by the FTIR and TGA in which the METMA monomer was used as a reference. The absence of CC bond in the CiB-g-METMA spectrum indicated that graft copolymerization occurred.

  11. The adsorption of gold, palladium and platinum from acidic chloride solutions on mesoporous carbons.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter Zalupski; Rocklan McDowell; Guy Dutech

    2014-10-01

    Studies on the adsorption characteristics of gold, palladium and platinum on mesoporous carbon (CMK-3) and sulfur-impregnated mesoporous carbon (CMK-3/S) evaluated the benefits/drawbacks of the presence of a layer of elemental sulfur inside mesoporous carbon structures. Adsorption isotherms collected for Au(III), Pd(II) and Pt(IV) on those materials suggest that sulfur does enhance the adsorption of those metal ions in mildly acidic environment (pH 3). The isotherms collected in 1 M HCl show that the benefit of sulfur disappears due to the competing influence of large concentration of hydrogen ions on the ion-exchanging mechanism of metal ions sorption on mesoporous carbon surfaces. The collected acid dependencies illustrate similar adsorption characteristics for CMK-3 and CMK-3/S in 1-5 M HCl concentration range. Sorption of metal ions from diluted aqueous acidic mixtures of actual leached electronic waste demonstrated the feasibility of recovery of gold from such liquors.

  12. Chloride-free processing of aluminum scrap to recover by-product materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riley, W.D.; Jong, B.W.

    1995-12-31

    The US Bureau of Mines has developed technology to recover by-product materials from aluminum scrap using engineered scavenger compounds (ESC). ESCs are structural oxides with a channel or tunnel structure that allows them to hold ions of a specific sizes and charges. The scavenging reaction is easily reversible allowing the ESC to be recharged for continued use and the ion is recovered as an electrodeposit. Key features of this novel technology are: (a) ESC systems are designed to have a high degree of selectivity for a desired ionic species. (b) The recovered material requires little or no additional reprocessing prior to reuse. Two current uses for the ESC technology that are described in this paper are the removal and recycle of lithium (Li) from lithium aluminum (Li-Al) alloys; and, using ESCs as a replacement for the conventional demaging (magnesium removal) technology used by the secondary casting industry. Research indicates that the ESC technology proposed for both these applications has either distinct economic and/or environmental advantages over previously employed methods of recovering metal values from aluminum scrap.

  13. Development of Mercury and Hydrogen Chloride Emission Monitors for Coal Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Norton; D. Eckels; C. Chriswell

    2001-02-26

    The gas conditioning issues involved with coal gasification streams are very complex and do not have simple solutions. This is particularly true in view of the fact that the gas conditioning system must deal with tars, high moisture contents, and problems with NH{sub 3} without affecting low ppb levels of Hg, low levels (low ppm or less) of HCl, or the successful operation of conditioner components and analytical systems. Those issues are far from trivial. Trying to develop a non-chemical system for gas conditioning was very ambitious in view of the difficult sampling environment and unique problems associated with coal gasification streams. Although a great deal was learned regarding calibration, sample transport, instrumentation options, gas stream conditioning, and CEM design options, some challenging issues still remain. Sample transport is one area that is often not adequately considered. Because of the gas stream composition and elevated temperatures involved, special attention will need to be given to the choice of materials for the sample line and other plumbing components. When using gas stream oxidation, there will be sample transport regions under oxidizing as well as reducing conditions, and each of those regions will require different materials of construction for sample transport. The catalytic oxidation approach worked well for removal of tars and NH{sub 3} on a short term basis, but durability issues related to using the catalyst tube during extended testing periods still require study.

  14. The adsorption of gold, palladium and platinum from acidic chloride solutions on mesoporous carbons.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zalupski, Peter R.; McDowell, Rocklan; Dutech, Guy

    2014-08-05

    Studies on the adsorption characteristics of gold, palladium and platinum on mesoporous carbon (CMK-3) and sulfur-impregnated mesoporous carbon (CMK-3/S) evaluated the benefits/drawbacks of the presence of a layer of elemental sulfur inside mesoporous carbon structures. Adsorption isotherms collected for Au(III), Pd(II) and Pt(IV) on those materials suggest that sulfur does enhance the adsorption of those metal ions in mildly acidic environment (pH 3). The isotherms collected in 1 M HCl show that the benefit of sulfur disappears due to the competing influence of large concentration of hydrogen ions on the ion-exchanging mechanism of metal ions sorption on mesoporous carbon surfaces. The collected acid dependencies illustrate similar adsorption characteristics for CMK-3 and CMK-3/S in 1-5 M HCl concentration range. Sorption of metal ions from diluted aqueous acidic mixtures of actual leached electronic waste demonstrated the feasibility of recovery of gold from such liquors.

  15. Ultraviolet-B radiation enhancement in dielectric barrier discharge based xenon chloride exciplex source by air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gulati, P.; Prakash, R.; Pal, U. N.; Kumar, M.; Vyas, V.

    2014-07-07

    A single barrier dielectric barrier discharge tube of quartz with multi-strip Titanium-Gold (Ti-Au) coatings have been developed and utilized for ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation production peaking at wavelength 308 nm. The observed radiation at this wavelength has been examined for the mixtures of the Xenon together with chlorine and air admixtures. The gas mixture composition, chlorine gas content, total gas pressure, and air pressure dependency of the UV intensity, has been analyzed. It is found that the larger concentration of Cl{sub 2} deteriorates the performance of the developed source and around 2% Cl{sub 2} in this source produced optimum results. Furthermore, an addition of air in the xenon and chlorine working gas environment leads to achieve same intensity of UV-B light but at lower working gas pressure where significant amount of gas is air.

  16. Advanced intermediate temperature sodium-nickel chloride batteries with ultra-high energy density

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Kim, Jin Yong; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Chang, Hee -Jung; Canfield, Nathan L.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2016-02-11

    Here we demonstrate for the first time that planar Na-NiCl2 batteries can be operated at an intermediate temperature of 190°C with ultra-high energy density. A specific energy density of 350 Wh/kg, which is 3 times higher than that of conventional tubular Na-NiCl2 batteries operated at 280°C, was obtained for planar Na-NiCl2 batteries operated at 190°C over a long-term cell test (1000 cycles). The high energy density and superior cycle stability are attributed to the slower particle growth of the cathode materials (NaCl and Ni) at 190°C. The results reported in this work demonstrate that planar Na-NiCl2 batteries operated at anmore » intermediate temperature could greatly benefit this traditional energy storage technology by improving battery energy density, cycle life and reducing material costs.« less

  17. Immobilization of chloride-rich radioactive wastes produced by pyrochemical operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDaniel, E.W.; Terry, J.W.

    1997-08-01

    A a result of its former role as a producer of nuclear weapons components, the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), Golden, Colorado accumulated a variety of plutonium-contaminated materials. When the level of contamination exceeded a predetermined level (the economic discard limit), the materials were classified as residues rather than waste and were stored for later recovery of the plutonium. Although large quantities of residues were processed, others, primarily those more difficult to process, remain in storage at the site. It is planned for the residues with lower concentrations of plutonium to be disposed of as wastes at an appropriate disposal facility, probably the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Because the plutonium concentration is too high or because the physical or chemical form would be difficult to get into a form acceptable to WIPP, it may not be possible to dispose of a portion of the residues at WIPP. The pyrochemical salts are among the residues that are difficult to dispose of. For a large percentage of the pyrochemical salts, safeguards controls are required, but WIPP was not designed to accommodate safeguards controls. A potential solution would be to immobilize the salts. These immobilized salts would contain substantially higher plutonium concentrations than is currently permissible but would be suitable for disposal at WIPP. This document presents the results of a review of three immobilization technologies to determine if mature technologies exist that would be suitable to immobilize pyrochemical salts: cement-based stabilization, low-temperature vitrification, and polymer encapsulation. The authors recommend that flow sheets and life-cycle costs be developed for cement-based and low-temperature glass immobilization.

  18. Purificaiton of Lanthanides for Large Neutrino Detectors: Thorium Removal from Gadolinium Chloride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yeh, M.; Cumming, J.B.; Hans, S.; Hahn, R.L.

    2010-06-01

    Metal-loaded liquid scintillators are the detectors of choice for various neutrino experiments. Procedures have been developed to transfer metals into organic liquids by solvent extraction or direct dissolution of a metallic compound. Traces of natural radioactivity introduced into the scintillator with the metal may produce undesirable backgrounds. Measurements using a {sup 229}Th tracer indicate that the inclusion of a pH-controlled partial hydrolysis and filtration prior to the preparation of a gadolinium-loading compound can reduce thorium by a factor of {approx}100. This 'self-scavenging' procedure has the advantage that it uses only reagents encountered in the production process. Addition of non-elemental scavengers such as iron, or the use of solvent extraction or ion exchange procedures can be avoided. It also improves the optical transmission in the blue region by removing traces of iron. This purification method has potential applications to the large-scale production of other metal-loaded liquid scintillators and for the removal of traces of thorium in the industrial production of lanthanides.

  19. EVIDENCE OF CORROSIVE GAS FORMED BY RADIOLYSIS OF CHLORIDE SALTS IN PLUTONIUM-BEARING MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, K.; Louthan, M.

    2010-02-01

    Corrosion and pitting have been observed in headspace regions of stainless steel containers enclosing plutonium oxide/salt mixtures. These observations are consistent with the formation of a corrosive gas, probably HCl, and transport of that gas to the headspace regions of sealed containers. The NH{sub 4}Cl films found on the walls of the sealed containers is also indicative of the presence of HCl gas. Radiolysis of hydrated alkaline earth salts is the probable source of HCl.

  20. Petrographic evidence of calcium oxychloride formation in mortars exposed to magnesium chloride solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutter, Lawrence . E-mail: cee@mtu.edu; Peterson, Karl . E-mail: cee@mtu.edu; Touton, Sayward . E-mail: cee@mtu.edu; Van Dam, Tom . E-mail: cee@mtu.edu; Johnston, Dan . E-mail: Dan.Johnston@state.sd.us

    2006-08-15

    Many researchers have reported chemical interactions between CaCl{sub 2} and MgCl{sub 2} solutions and hardened Portland cement paste. One potentially destructive phase reported in the literature is calcium oxychloride (3CaO.CaCl{sub 2}.15H{sub 2}O). In the past, limited numbers of researchers have reported identification of this phase by X-ray diffraction. In this work, petrographic evidence of oxychloride formation is presented based on optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and microanalysis. This evidence indicates that calcium oxychloride does form in mortars exposed to MgCl{sub 2} solutions.

  1. Cuprous-chloride-modified nanoporous alumina membranes for ethylene-ethane separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Y.S.; Wang, Y.; Ji, W.; Higgins, R.J.

    1999-06-01

    This paper reports an attempt to synthesize a CuCl-modified {gamma}-alumina membrane for separation of ethylene from ethane. CuCl was effectively coated in the 4 nm pore {gamma}-alumina top layers of disk-shaped and tubular alumina membranes by the reservoir method. Permeation of a single gas and binary mixture of ethylene and ethane was measured to characterize separation properties of the modified membranes. Pure ethylene permeance of the CuCl-modified membrane is 10--40% lower than that predicted from the pure ethane permeance by the Knudsen theory. This result is explained by a model based on the adsorbed layer of ethylene via {pi}-complexation. Such an adsorbed layer hinders the diffusion of ethylene in the nanopores of CuCl-modified {gamma}-alumina. Multiple gas permeation measurements on the CuCl-modified membranes show a separation factor for ethylene over ethane larger than the Knudsen value. This confirms a positive contribution of the surface flow of ethylene to the permeance of ethylene in the multiple gas permeation system. A maximum separation factor for ethylene over ethane of 1.4 is obtained for the CuCl-modified membrane at 60 C.

  2. Correlations between structure, spectra, and thermodynamics in solutions of cobalt chloride in sodium tetrachloroaluminates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newman, D.S.; Tumidajski, P.J.; Blander, M.

    1990-01-01

    An EMF technique using the cell Co/CoCl{sub 2} {minus} Na AlCl{sub 4}//(AgCl)x {minus} NaAlCl{sub 4} (x fixed)/Ag was used to measure the solubility of CoCl{sub 2} in NaCl{center dot}AlCl{sub 3} melts. The changes in EMF as a function of changes in melt composition were correlated with changes in the UV-Vis spectra of the dissolved cobalt species. From these data the microscopic structural contributions to the macroscopic thermodynamic properties of the solutions were estimated. 14 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Existing technology transfer report: analytical capabilities. Volume 2. Appendix A. [Methods and procedures for analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tewari, K.C.

    1984-06-01

    This volume contains 10 attachments entitled: Monthly progress reports; Method CHN-4 (Carbon, Hydrogen and Nitrogen analysis by Perkin-Elmer elemental analyses); Method Oxygen-6 (oxygen analyzer); Method Nitrogen-8 (Low level nitrogen analysis by Perkin-Elmer 240 elemental analyzer); Method Sulfur-10 (sulfur analysis by oxidative microcoulometry); Method TGA-3 (thermogravimetric analysis of coal liquefaction products and process solvents); Method DSC-5 (Determination of glass transition temperature by differential scanning calorimetry); Method GC-1 (gas chromatography of Fischer-Tropsch products); Method GC-2 (gas chromatography of distillate products from coal liquefaction); Analytical Method No. 1160 (estimation of OH, NH, NH/sub 2/, concentration in methylene chloride soluble materials from SRC liquids); x-ray diffraction method for determining the orientation tendency in calcined coke; and evaluation of mass spectrometers.

  4. Field test of a generic method for halogenated hydrocarbons: Semivost test at a chemical manufacturing facility. Final project report, August 1992-August 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGaughey, J.F.; Bursey, J.T.; Merrill, R.G.

    1996-11-01

    The candidate methods for semivolatile organic compounds are SW-846 Sampling Method 0010 and Analytical Method 8270, which are applicable to stationary sources. Two field tests were conducted using quadruple sampling trains with dynamic spiking were performed according to the guidelines of EPA Method 301. The first field test was performed at a site with low levels of moisture. The second test reported here was conducted at a chemical manufacturing facility where chemical wastes were burned in a coal-fired boiler. Poor recoveries obtained for the spiked analytes at the second test were attributed to wet sorbent from the sampling train, use of methanol to effect complete transfer of wet sorbent from the sampling module, and use of extraction techniques which did not effect a complete separation of methylene chloride from methanol. A procedure to address problems with preparation of samples from Method 0010 is included in the report.

  5. Product analysis from direct liquefaction of several high-moisture biomass feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, D.C.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.; Butner, R.S.

    1987-04-01

    Product analysis in support of the process development research in biomass direct liquefaction began at rudimentary level of determining solvent-soluble portions of the product. Analysis was soon extended to elemental analyses and proximate analyses, such as ash and moisture. Later, spectrometric analyses were performed followed by detailed chemical analyses used in conjunction with chromatographic separation techniques. At all stages of development, the significant differences in composition between the products of flash pyrolysis and high-pressure processing have been evident. While polar solvents are most effective for both products, less polar solvents such as methylene chloride and even benzene and toluene have been used as extractants for high-pressure product oils.

  6. Treatment of VOCs in high strength wastes using an anaerobic expanded-bed GAC reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narayanian, B.; Suidan, M.T.; Gelderloos, A.B.; Brenner, R.C.

    1993-01-01

    The potential of the expanded-bed granular activated carbon (GAC) anaerobic reactor in treating a high strength waste containing RCRA volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was studied. A total of six VOCs, methylene chloride, chlorobenzene, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, toluene and tetrachloroethylene, were fed to the reactor in a high strength matrix of background solvents. Performance was evaluated. The reactor was found to effect excellent removal of all VOCs (97%). Chloroform, while itself removed at levels in excess of 97%, was found to inhibit the degradation of acetate and acetone, two of the background solvents. Without any source of chloroform in the feed, excellent COD removals were obtained in addition to near-complete removal of all the VOCs.

  7. Heavy Oil Process Monitor: Automated On-Column Asphaltene Precipitation and Re-Dissolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani; Mark Sanderson

    2007-03-31

    An automated separation technique was developed that provides a new approach to measuring the distribution profiles of the most polar, or asphaltenic components of an oil, using a continuous flow system to precipitate and re-dissolve asphaltenes from the oil. Methods of analysis based on this new technique were explored. One method based on the new technique involves precipitation of a portion of residua sample in heptane on a polytetrafluoroethylene-packed (PTFE) column. The precipitated material is re-dissolved in three steps using solvents of increasing polarity: cyclohexane, toluene, and methylene chloride. The amount of asphaltenes that dissolve in cyclohexane is a useful diagnostic of the thermal history of oil, and its proximity to coke formation. For example, about 40 % (w/w) of the heptane asphaltenes from unpyrolyzed residua dissolves in cyclohexane. As pyrolysis progresses, this number decrease to below 15% as coke and toluene insoluble pre-coke materials appear. Currently, the procedure for the isolation of heptane asphaltenes and the determination of the amount of asphaltenes soluble in cyclohexane spans three days. The automated procedure takes one hour. Another method uses a single solvent, methylene chloride, to re-dissolve the material that precipitates on heptane on the PTFE-packed column. The area of this second peak can be used to calculate a value which correlates with gravimetric asphaltene content. Currently the gravimetric procedure to determine asphaltenes takes about 24 hours. The automated procedure takes 30 minutes. Results for four series of original and pyrolyzed residua were compared with data from the gravimetric methods. Methods based on the new on-column precipitation and re-dissolution technique provide significantly more detail about the polar constituent's oils than the gravimetric determination of asphaltenes.

  8. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report, Fourth Quarter 1999 and 1999 Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chase, J.

    2000-03-13

    A maximum of thirty eight-wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Water Permit DWP-087A and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. Iron (Total Recoverable), Chloroethene (Vinyl Chloride) and 1,1-Dichloroethane were the most widespread constituents exceeding the Final Primary Drinking Water Standards during 1999. Trichloroethylene, 1,1-Dichloroethylene, 1,2-Dichloroethane, 1,4-Dichlorobenzene, Aluminum (Total Recoverable), Benzene, cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene, Dichlorodifluoromethane, Dichloromethane (Methylene Chloride), Gross Alpha, Mercury (Total Recoverable), Nonvolatile Beta, Tetrachloroethylene, Total Organic Halogens, Trichlorofluoromethane, Tritium also exceeded standards in one or more wells. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill is to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate in this unit was approximately 144.175 ft/year during first quarter 1999 and 145.27 ft/year during fourth quarter 1999.

  9. Mechanical properties and microstructures of a magnesium alloy gas tungsten arc welded with a cadmium chloride flux

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Z.D.; Liu, L.M. Shen, Y.; Wang, L.

    2008-01-15

    Gas tungsten arc (GTA) welds were prepared on 5-mm thick plates of wrought magnesium AZ31B alloy, using an activated flux. The microstructural characteristics of the weld joint were investigated using optical and scanning microscopy, and the fusion zone microstructure was compared with that of the base metal. The elemental distribution was also investigated by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). Mechanical properties were determined by standard tensile tests on small-scale specimens. The as-welded fusion zone prepared using a CdCl{sub 2} flux exhibited a larger grain size than that prepared without flux; the microstructure consisted of matrix {alpha}-Mg, eutectic {alpha}-Mg and {beta}-Al{sub 12}Mg{sub 17}. The HAZ was observed to be slightly wider for the weld prepared with a CdCl{sub 2} flux compared to that prepared without flux; thus the tensile strength was lower for the flux-prepared weld. The fact that neither Cd nor Cl was detected in the weld seam by EPMA indicates that the CdCl{sub 2} flux has a small effect on convection in the weld pool.

  10. Time-course analysis of the Shewanella amazonensis SB2B proteome in response to sodium chloride shock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parnell, John J.; Callister, Stephen J.; Rompato, Giovanni; Nicora, Carrie D.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Williamson, Ashley; Pfrender, Michael E.

    2011-06-29

    Organisms in the genus Shewanella have become models for response to environmental stress. One of the most important environmental stresses is change in osmolarity. In this study, we experimentally determine the response mechanisms of Shewanella amazonensis SB2B during osmotic stress. Osmotic stress in SB2B was induced through exposure to NaCl, and the time-course proteomics response was measured using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Protein trends were qualitatively compared to gene expression trends and to phenotypic characterization. Osmotic stress affects motility, and has also been associated with a change in the membrane fatty acid composition (due to induction of branched chain amino acid degradation pathways); however, we show this is not the case for SB2B. Although proteins and genes involved with branched chain amino acid degradation are induced, fatty acid degradation pathways are not induced and no change in the fatty acid profile occurs in SB2B as a result of osmotic shock. The most extensive response of SB2B over the time course of acclimation to high salt involves an orchestrated sequence of events comprising increased expression of signal transduction associated with motility and restricted cell division and DNA replication. After SB2B has switched to increased branched chain amino acid degradation, motility, and cellular replication proteins return to pre-perturbed levels.

  11. Experimental and theoretical investigation of the production of HCl and some metal chlorides in magmatic/hydrothermal systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The theoretical analysis is given for calculating the composition of the aqueous vapor and the saline brine (hydrosaline liquid) present at run pressure and temperature in the experiment. The mixture of aqueous vapor and brine is homogenized upon quench. The method for calculating the concentration of HCl and NaCl in the coexisting aqueous vapor and brine is shown.

  12. Structural response in FeCl2 (iron chloride) to pressure-induced electro-magnetic transitions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, R D; Rozenberg, G Kh; Pasternak, M P; Gorodetsky, P; Xu, W M; Dubrovinsky, L S; Le Bihan, T L

    2009-01-01

    High pressure (HP) synchrotron x-ray diffraction studies were carried out in FeCl{sub 2} together with resistivity (R) studies, at various temperatures and pressures to 65 GPa using diamond anvil cells. This work follows a previous HP {sup 57}Fe Mossbauer study in which two pressure-induced (PI) electronic transitions were found interpreted as: (i) quenching of the orbital-term contribution to the hyperfine field concurring with a tilting of the magnetic moment by 55 degrees and (ii) collapse of the magnetism concurring with a sharp decrease of the isomer shift (IS). The R(P,T) studies affirm that the cause the collapse of the magnetism is a PI p-d correlation breakdown, leading to an insulator-metal transition at {approx}45 GPa and is not due to a spi-Ir,crossover (S=2 {yields} S=0). The structure response to the pressure evolution of the two electronic phase transitions starting at low pressures (LP), through an intermediate phase (IP) 30-57 GPa, and culminating in a high-pressure phase (HP), P >32 GPa, can clearly be quantified. The IP-HP phases coexist through the 32-57 GPa range in which the HP abundance increases monotonically at the expense of the IP phase. At the LP-IP interface no volume change is detected, yet the c-axis increases and the a-axis shrinks by 0.21 Angstroms and 0.13 Angstroms, respectively. The fit of the equation of state of the combined LP-IP phases yields a bulk modulus K{sub 0} = 35.3(1.8) GPa. The intralayer CI-CI distances increases, but no change is observed in Fe-CI bond-length nor are there substantial changes in the interlayer spacing. The pressure-induced electronic IP-HP transition leads to a first-order structural phase transition characterized by a decrease in Fe-CI bond length and an abrupt drop in V(P) by {approx}3.5% accompanying the correlation breakdown. In this transition no symmetry change is detected,and the XRD data could be satisfactorily fitted with the CdI{sub 2} structure. The bulk modulus of the HP phase is practically the same as that of the LP-IP phases suggesting negligible changes in the phonon density of state.

  13. Actinide Corroles: Synthesis and Characterization of Thorium(IV) and Uranium(IV) bis(-chloride) Dimers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, Ashleigh L.; Buckley, Heather L.; Gryko, Daniel T.; Lukens, Wayne W.; Arnold, John

    2013-12-01

    The first synthesis and structural characterization of actinide corroles is presented. Thorium(IV) and uranium(IV) macrocycles of Mes2(p-OMePh)corrole were synthesised and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, UV-Visible spectroscopy, variable-temperature 1H NMR, ESI mass spectrometry and cyclic voltammetry.

  14. A study of the effect of chloride on mercury removal in a fluidized bed combustion (FBC) system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, K.; Gao, Y.; Li, F.; Pan, W.P.; Riley, J.T.; Mehta, A.K.; Ho, K.K.; Smith, S.R.

    2000-07-01

    Mercury exists in three forms, which are elemental mercury, inorganic mercury compounds, and organic mercury. Each form of mercury has a very different exposure potential. Oxidized mercury is soluble and has a tendency to associate with particles. Nearly all the post-combustion flue gas cleaning systems proposed to remove mercury may be categorized as either scrubbers or adsorbers. Therefore, the mercury sink in the cleaning system will be either the excess water of a wet scrubber or the mercury laden sorbent from an absorber. The major problem for post-combustion mercury capture systems is capturing the practically water-insoluble elemental mercury. Co-firing with high chlorine coal or RDF in utility boiler systems can provide an HCI atmosphere for the oxidation of elemental mercury in flue gas at relatively low temperatures (500--600 C). The objective of this study is to increase the efficiency of mercury emission cleaning methods by using HCl to convert elemental mercury to oxidized mercury species at low monetary costs and lower other toxic air emissions. When high chlorine (0.3--0.5%) coals were burned and a high intensity vortex flow (from secondary air) was used, around 70% of the total mercury in the fuel was condensed and absorbed by the fly ash (including calcium compounds). The remaining 30% of total fuel mercury was emitted in the gas phase in the flue gas. As for the gas phase mercury, about 98% of it exists in an oxidized form with a higher boiling temperature than elemental mercury and can be easily captured by an ESP or FGP apparatus. Only about 0.5% of the total fuel mercury was released to the atmosphere in elemental form.

  15. Kinetics and mechanism of the outer-sphere oxidation of metal carbonyl anions with coordination complexes containing chloride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lai, C.K.; Corraine, M.S.; Atwood, J.D.

    1992-02-01

    Reactions of metal carbonyl anions, CpFe(CO){sub 2}{sup -}, Re(CO){sub 5}{sup -}, Mn(CO){sub 5}{sup -}, CpMo(CO){sub 3}{sup -}, CpCr(CO){sub 3}{sup -}, and Co(CO){sub 4}{sup -}, with CrCl{sub 3}{center_dot}3S (S = THF, CH{sub 3}CN) and reactions of Mn(CO){sub 5}{sup -} and Re(CO){sub 5}{sup -} with [Co(o-phen){sub 2}Cl{sub 2}]CIO{sub 4} are reported. Net oxidation/reduction chemistry is observed with formation of metal carbonyl dimers and CrCl{sub 2}{center_dot}4S or Co(o-phen){sub 2}Cl{sub 2}. Metal carbonyl halides are also observed and shown to arise from a secondary reaction of the metal carbonyl dimer with the oxidant. The products and rates are most consistent with outer-sphere electron-transfer reactions. Reactions of CpFe(CO){sub 2}{sup -} with CpFe(CO){sub 2}X (X = Cl, Br, I) are also reported. The rate dependence on X is very small and in the order expected for nucleophilic substitution. 21 refs. 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  16. EA-1157: Methyl Chloride via Oxyhydrochlorination of Methane: A Building Black for Chemicals and Fuels from Natural Gas, Carrollton, Kentucky

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts for the proposal to advance Oxyhydrochlorination technology to an integrated engineering-scale process.

  17. Co-electrospinning fabrication and photocatalytic performance...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Language: English Subject: 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; HYDROXYL RADICALS; METHYLENE BLUE; NANOSTRUCTURES; PHOTOCATALYSIS; SILICA; SILICON OXIDES; SURFACE AREA; SURFACES; SYNTHESIS; ...

  18. Recovery of cesium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Izatt, Reed M.; Christensen, James J.; Hawkins, Richard T.

    1984-01-01

    A process of recovering cesium ions from mixtures of ions containing them and other ions, e.g., a solution of nuclear waste materials, which comprises establishing a separate source phase containing such a mixture of ions, establishing a separate recipient phase, establishing a liquid membrane phase in interfacial contact with said source and recipient phases, said membrane phase containing a ligand, preferably a selected calixarene as depicted in the drawing, maintaining said interfacial contact for a period of time long enough to transport by said ligand a substantial portion of the cesium ion from the source phase to the recipient phase, and recovering the cesium ion from the recipient phase. The separation of the source and recipient phases may be by the membrane phase only, e.g., where these aqueous phases are emulsified as dispersed phases in a continuous membrane phase, or may include a physical barrier as well, e.g., an open-top outer container with an inner open-ended container of smaller cross-section mounted in the outer container with its open bottom end spaced from and above the closed bottom of the outer container so that the membrane phase may fill the outer container to a level above the bottom of the inner container and have floating on its upper surface a source phase and a recipient phase separated by the wall of the inner container as a physical barrier. A preferred solvent for the ligand is a mixture of methylene chloride and carbon tetrachloride.

  19. Application and results of whole-body autoradiography in distribution studies of organic solvents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergman, K.

    1983-01-01

    With the growing concern for the health hazards of occupational exposure to toxic substances attention has been focused on the organic solvents, which are associated with both deleterious nervous system effects and specific tissue injuries. Relatively little is known about the distribution of organic solvents and their metabolites in the living organism. Knowledge of the specific tissue localizations and retention of solvents and solvent metabolites is of great value in revealing and understanding the sites and mechanisms of organic solvent toxicity. Whole-body autoradiography has been modified and applied to distribution studies of benzene, toluene, m-xylene, styrene, methylene chloride, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethylene and carbon disulfide. The high volatility of these substances has led to the development of cryo-techniques. Whole-body autoradiographic techniques applicable to the study of volatile substances are reviewed. The localizations of nonvolatile solvent metabolites and firmly bound metabolites have also been examined. The obtained results are discussed in relation to toxic effects and evaluated by comparison with other techniques used in distribution studies of organic solvents and their metabolites.

  20. HEAVY OIL PROCESS MONITOR: AUTOMATED ON-COLUMN ASPHALTENE PRECIPITATION AND RE-DISSOLUTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani Jr; Mark Sanderson

    2006-06-01

    About 37-50% (w/w) of the heptane asphaltenes from unpyrolyzed residua dissolve in cyclohexane. As pyrolysis progresses, this number decrease to below 15% as coke and toluene insoluble pre-coke materials appear. This solubility measurement can be used after coke begins to form, unlike the flocculation titration, which cannot be applied to multi-phase systems. Currently, the procedure for the isolation of heptane asphaltenes and the determination of the amount of asphaltenes soluble in cyclohexane spans three days. A more rapid method to measure asphaltene solubility was explored using a novel on-column asphaltene precipitation and re-dissolution technique. This was automated using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipment with a step gradient sequence using the solvents: heptane, cyclohexane, toluene:methanol (98:2). Results for four series of original and pyrolyzed residua were compared with data from the gravimetric method. The measurement time was reduced from three days to forty minutes. The separation was expanded further with the use of four solvents: heptane, cyclohexane, toluene, and cyclohexanone or methylene chloride. This provides a fourth peak which represents the most polar components, in the oil.

  1. Destruction of Representative Navy Wastes Using Supercritical Water Oxidation. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rice, S.F.; Steeper, R.R.; LaJeunesse, C.A.

    1993-10-01

    Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) is a rapidly emerging technology that presents potential as a hazardous waste treatment method for a wide variety of industrial chemicals ranging from common organic solvents to complex formulations such as paints, lubricating oils, and degreasers. The Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory is contributing to the development of this technology for application to waste materials generated at naval shipyards and bases. These wastes include paint stripping and changeout fluids generated from equipment service procedures as well as herbicides, pesticides, paint, and numerous other materials associated with base facility maintenance. An important design consideration in the development of SCWO systems centers on choosing a reactor operating temperature such that the destruction of the waste organic is sufficiently complete. This report examines the temperature dependence of the oxidation in supercritical water of seven common organic compounds and three industrial commercial materials over the temperature range of 430{degree}C to 585{degree}C and reaction times ranging from seven to thirty seconds at a pressure of 27.5 MPa (4000 psi). The materials studies are methanol, phenol, methyl ethyl ketone, ethylene glycol, acetic acid, methylene chloride, 1,1,1-tichloroethane (TCA), latex paint, motor oil, and Roundup, a commercial general purpose herbicide. The results indicate that for most materials, temperatures over 530{degree}C and residence times near 20 seconds afford destruction efficiencies of greater than 99.95%

  2. Monitoring DNAPL pumping using integrated geophysical techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newmark, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    The removal of DNAPL during pumping was monitored. At Hill AFB in Utah, a free-product DNAPL plume (predominantly TCE, with some TCA, PCE, methylene chloride) is pooled in water-wet soil on a thick clay aquitard. Groundwater pumping at Operable Unit 2 began in 1994; to date, nearly 30,000 gal DNAPL have been recovered. From Sept. 1994 through Sept. 1995, changes in the basin during DNAPL pumping were monitored using fiber optic chemical sensors, neutron logs, and electrical resistance tomography (ERT). The first two sensor types verify the presence of DNAPL in vicinity of 3 boreholes which form a cross section from the perimeter of the basin to its center. Cross borehole ERT images the changes in formation electrical properties due to removal of DNAPL, extending the understanding of DNAPL removal between the boreholes. During pumping, electrical resistivities decreased; we suggest these decreases are directly caused by the reduction in DNAPL. During ground water pumping, water with relatively low resistivity replaces some of the DNAPL pockets as the highly insulating DNAPL is removed. Results suggest that, as DNAPL is pumped from a nearby well, product slowly drains along the top of an aquitard and into the pump well, where it collects.

  3. Solvent Extraction of Chemical Attribution Signature Compounds from Painted Wall Board: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wahl, Jon H.; Colburn, Heather A.

    2009-10-29

    This report summarizes work that developed a robust solvent extraction procedure for recovery of chemical attribution signature (CAS) compound dimethyl methyl phosphonate (DMMP) (as well as diethyl methyl phosphonate (DEMP), diethyl methyl phosphonothioate (DEMPT), and diisopropyl methyl phosphonate (DIMP)) from painted wall board (PWB), which was selected previously as the exposed media by the chemical attribution scientific working group (CASWG). An accelerated solvent extraction approach was examined to determine the most effective method of extraction from PWB. Three different solvent systems were examined, which varied in solvent strength and polarity (i.e., 1:1 dichloromethane : acetone,100% methanol, and 1% isopropanol in pentane) with a 1:1 methylene chloride : acetone mixture having the most robust and consistent extraction for four original target organophosphorus compounds. The optimum extraction solvent was determined based on the extraction efficiency of the target analytes from spiked painted wallboard as determined by gas chromatography x gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCxGC-MS) analysis of the extract. An average extraction efficiency of approximately 60% was obtained for these four compounds. The extraction approach was further demonstrated by extracting and detecting the chemical impurities present in neat DMMP that was vapor-deposited onto painted wallboard tickets.

  4. Energy Distributions of Neutrons Scattered from Graphite, Light and Heavy Water, Ice, Zirconium Hydride, Lithium Hydride, Sodium Hydride and Ammonium Chloride by the Beryllium Detector Method

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Woods, A. D. B.; Brockhouse, Bertram N.; Sakamoto, M.; Sinclair, R. N.

    1960-09-12

    Energy distributions of neutrons scattered from various moderators and from several hydrogenous substances were measured at energy transfers of 0.02 to 0.24 ev. Results from experiments on graphite, light and heavy water, ice, ZrH, LiH, NaH, and NH4Cl are included. It is noted that the results are of a preliminary character; however, they are probably the most accurate measurements of high-energy transfers yet made. (J.R.D.)

  5. Crystal structure of bis(isothiocyanato)[2,6-diacetylpyridine bis(4-hydroxybenzoylhydrazone)]Fe(III) Chloride bis(dimethylformamide) solvate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dilek, N.; Guenes, B.; Bueyuekguengoer, O.; Guep, R.

    2013-01-15

    The crystal structure of title compound (Fe[(C{sub 25}H{sub 21}N{sub 7}O{sub 4}S{sub 2})] {center_dot} 4(C{sub 3}NOH{sub 7}), where C{sub 3}NOH{sub 7} is dimethylformamide, DMF) was determined by the X-ray diffraction method. This compound crystallizes in the monoclinic C2/c space group, Z = 4. Unit cell parameters are: a = 13.6080(5), b = 17.6375(7), c = 19.5571(6) A, {beta} = 108.753(2) Degree-Sign . The N-H...O and O-H...O interactions stabilize the molecules in the lattice. The structure contains also the solvent dimethylformamide molecules, which are connected with intermoleculer hydrogen bond. The O atoms of DMF molecules take place as acceptor atoms.

  6. Determination of a cost-effective air pollution control technology for the control of VOC and HAP emissions from a steroids processing plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamel, T.M.

    1997-12-31

    A steroids processing plant located in northeastern Puerto Rico emits a combined average of 342 lb/hr of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from various process operations. The approach that this facility used to implement maximum achievable control technology (MACT) may assist others who must contend with MACT for pharmaceutical or related manufacturing facilities. Federal air regulations define MACT standards for stationary sources emitting any of 189 HAPs. The MACT standards detailed in the NESHAPs are characterized by industry and type of emission control system or technology. It is anticipated that the standard will require HAP reductions of approximately 95%. The steroid plant`s emissions include the following pollutant loadings: VOC/HAP Emission Rate (lb/hr): Methanol 92.0; Acetone 35.0; Methylene chloride 126.0; Chloroform 25.0; Ethyl acetate 56.0; Tetrahydrofuran 5.00; and 1,4-Dioxane 3.00. The facility`s existing carbon adsorption control system was nearing the end of its useful life, and the operators sought to install an air pollution control system capable of meeting MACT requirements for the pharmaceutical industry. Several stand-alone and hybrid control technologies were considered for replacement of the carbon adsorption system at the facility. This paper examines the following technologies: carbon adsorption, membrane separation, thermal oxidation, membrane separation-carbon adsorption, and condensation-carbon adsorption. Each control technology is described; the advantages and disadvantages of utilizing each technology for the steroid processing plant are examined; and capital and operating costs associated with the implementation of each technology are presented. The rationale for the technology ultimately chosen to control VOC and HAP emissions is presented.

  7. Mobilization and Transport of Organic Compounds from Reservoir Rock and Caprock in Geological Carbon Sequestration Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhong, Lirong; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Mitroshkov, Alexandre V.; Shewell, Jesse L.

    2014-05-06

    Supercritical CO2 (scCO2) is an excellent solvent for organic compounds, including benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylene (BTEX), phenols, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Monitoring results from geological carbon sequestration (GCS) field tests has shown that organic compounds are mobilized following CO2 injection. Such results have raised concerns regarding the potential for groundwater contamination by toxic organic compounds mobilized during GCS. Knowledge of the mobilization mechanism of organic compounds and their transport and fate in the subsurface is essential for assessing risks associated with GCS. Extraction tests using scCO2 and methylene chloride (CH2Cl2) were conducted to study the mobilization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs, including BTEX), the PAH naphthalene, and n-alkanes (n-C20 – n-C30) by scCO2 from representative reservoir rock and caprock obtained from depleted oil reservoirs and coal from an enhanced coal-bed methane recovery site. More VOCs and naphthalene were extractable by scCO2 compared to the CH2Cl2 extractions, while scCO2 extractable alkane concentrations were much lower than concentrations extractable by CH2Cl2. In addition, dry scCO2 was found to extract more VOCs than water saturated scCO2, but water saturated scCO2 mobilized more naphthalene than dry scCO2. In sand column experiments, moisture content was found to have an important influence on the transport of the organic compounds. In dry sand columns the majority of the compounds were retained in the column except benzene and toluene. In wet sand columns the mobility of the BTEX was much higher than that of naphthalene. Based upon results determined for the reservoir rock, caprock, and coal samples studied here, the risk to aquifers from contamination by organic compounds appears to be relatively low; however, further work is necessary to fully evaluate risks from depleted oil reservoirs.

  8. Method of processing aluminous ores

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loutfy, Raouf O.; Keller, Rudolf; Yao, Neng-Ping

    1981-01-01

    A method of producing aluminum chloride from aluminous materials containing compounds of iron, titanium and silicon comprising reacting the aluminous materials with carbon and a chlorine-containing gas at a temperature of about 900.degree. K. to form a gaseous mixture containing chlorides of aluminum, iron, titanium and silicon and oxides of carbon; cooling the gaseous mixture to a temperature of about 400.degree. K. or lower to condense the aluminum chlorides and iron chlorides while titanium chloride and silicon chloride remain in the gas phase to effect a separation thereof; heating the mixture of iron chlorides and aluminum chlorides to a temperature of about 800.degree. K. to form gaseous aluminum chlorides and iron chlorides; passing the heated gases into intimate contact with aluminum sulfide to precipitate solid iron sulfide and to form additional gaseous aluminum chlorides; and separating the gaseous aluminum chloride from the solid iron sulfide.

  9. CO2-H2O Mixtures in the Geological Sequestration of CO2. II....

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and Duan and Sun (2003), which can be extended to chloride solutions other than NaCl. ... BRINES; CHLORIDES; MIXTURES; REACTION KINETICS; SOLUBILITY; SUN; THERMODYNAMIC ACTIVITY

  10. Geochemistry of Thermal Waters in Long Valley, Mono County, California...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Long Valley, California, issue sodium bicarbonate-chloride waters containing 1000-1420 mgl of dissolved solids. Thermal waters of sodium bicarbonate-chloride composition are...

  11. 00third_quarter.pgm

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... the long term," he said, "we will see fast reactors using technologies specifi- cally ... is a mixture of pluto- nium dioxide, sodium chloride and potassium chloride. (These ...

  12. Studies of the regeneration of activated bauxite used as granular...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    BED FILTERS; HOT GAS CLEANUP; POTASSIUM CHLORIDES; SORPTION; SODIUM CHLORIDES; AIR POLLUTION CONTROL; COAL; FLUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTORS; ALKALI METAL COMPOUNDS; ALUMINIUM ORES; ...

  13. Synthesis of CdS nanoparticles for photocatalytic application of methyleneblue degradation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muthuraj, V.; Umadevi, M.; Sankarasubramanian, K.; Kajamuhideen, M. S.

    2014-04-24

    CdS nanoparticles were prepared by the reaction of cadmium acetate with thiourea in the presence and absence of methylene blue dye (MB). The nanoparticles were characterized by, XRD, FT-IR, UV-Vis. XRD study shows the presence of hexagonal phase for the nanoparticles whereas in case of the bulk samples only the hexagonal phase is observed. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) showed a strong interaction of methyl groups with CdS nanoparticles. The degradation of methylene blue was analysed using UV-Vis absorbance spectrum. Thus the results authenticate that methylene blue dye influences the structural and optical properties of the CdS nanoparticles.

  14. Theoretical predictions of properties and volatility of chlorides and oxychlorides of group-4 elements. II. Adsorption of tetrachlorides and oxydichlorides of Zr, Hf, and Rf on neutral and modified surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pershina, V.; Borschevsky, A.; Iliaš, M.; Türler, A.

    2014-08-14

    With the aim to interpret results of gas-phase chromatography experiments on volatility of group-4 tetrachlorides and oxychlorides including those of Rf, adsorption enthalpies of these species on neutral, and modified quartz surfaces were estimated on the basis of relativistic, two-component Density Functional Theory calculations of MCl{sub 4}, MOCl{sub 2}, MCl{sub 6}{sup −}, and MOCl{sub 4}{sup 2} with the use of adsorption models. Several mechanisms of adsorption were considered. In the case of physisorption of MCl{sub 4}, the trend in the adsorption energy in the group should be Zr > Hf > Rf, so that the volatility should change in the opposite direction. The latter trend complies with the one in the sublimation enthalpies, ΔH{sub sub}, of the Zr and Hf tetrachlorides, i.e., Zr < Hf. On the basis of a correlation between these quantities, ΔH{sub sub}(RfCl{sub 4}) was predicted as 104.2 kJ/mol. The energy of physisorption of MOCl{sub 2} on quartz should increase in the group, Zr < Hf < Rf, as defined by increasing dipole moments of these molecules along the series. In the case of adsorption of MCl{sub 4} on quartz by chemical forces, formation of the MOCl{sub 2} or MOCl{sub 4}{sup 2−} complexes on the surface can take place, so that the sequence in the adsorption energy should be Zr > Hf > Rf, as defined by the complex formation energies. In the case of adsorption of MCl{sub 4} on a chlorinated quartz surface, formation of the MCl{sub 6}{sup 2−} surface complexes can occur, so that the trend in the adsorption strength should be Zr ≤ Hf < Rf. All the predicted sequences, showing a smooth change of the adsorption energy in the group, are in disagreement with the reversed trend Zr ≈ Rf < Hf, observed in the “one-atom-at-a-time” gas-phase chromatography experiments. Thus, currently no theoretical explanation can be found for the experimental observations.

  15. Hydrolysis of ZrCl4 and HfCl4: The Initial Steps in the High-Temperature Oxidation of Metal Chlorides to Produce ZrO2 and HfO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, Zongtang; Dixon, David A.

    2013-03-08

    The gas-phase hydrolysis of MCl4 (M = Zr, Hf) to produce the initial particles on the way to zirconia and hafnia nanoparticles has been studied with electronic structure theory. The potential energy surfaces, the themochemistry of the reaction species, and the reaction paths for the initial steps of MCl4 reacting with H2O have been calculated. The hydrolysis of MCl4 at higher temperatures begins with the formation of oxychlorohydroxides followed by the elimination of HCl instead of the direct production of MOCl2 and HCl or MO2 and HCl due to the substantial endothermicities associated with the formation of gas-phase MO2. The structural properties and heats of formation of the reactants and products are consistent with the available experimental results. A number of metal oxychlorides (oxychlorohydroxides) intermediate clusters have been studied to assess their role in the production of MO2 nanoparticles. The calculated clustering reaction energies of those intermediates are highly exothermic, so they could be readily formed in the hydrolysis process. These intermediate clusters can be formed exothermically from metal oxychlorohydroxides by the elimination of one HCl or H2O molecule. Our calculations show that the mechanisms leading to the formation of MO2 nanoparticles are complicated and are accompanied by the potential production of a wide range of intermediates, as found for the production of TiO2 particles from the high-temperature oxidation of TiCl4.

  16. EA-1157: Finding of No Significant Impact

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Methyl Chloride via Oxyhydrochlorination of Methane: A Building Black for Chemicals and Fuels from Natural Gas

  17. Production of aluminum metal by electrolysis of aluminum sulfide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Minh, Nguyen Q.; Loutfy, Raouf O.; Yao, Neng-Ping

    1984-01-01

    Production of metallic aluminum by the electrolysis of Al.sub.2 S.sub.3 at 700.degree.-800.degree. C. in a chloride melt composed of one or more alkali metal chlorides, and one or more alkaline earth metal chlorides and/or aluminum chloride to provide improved operating characteristics of the process.

  18. Production of aluminum metal by electrolysis of aluminum sulfide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Minh, N.Q.; Loutfy, R.O.; Yao, N.P.

    1982-04-01

    Metallic aluminum may be produced by the electrolysis of Al/sub 2/S/sub 3/ at 700 to 800/sup 0/C in a chloride melt composed of one or more alkali metal chlorides, and one or more alkaline earth metal chlorides and/or aluminum chloride to provide improved operating characteristics of the process.

  19. EA-1157: Final Environmental Assessment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Methyl Chloride via Oxyhydrochlorination of Methane: A Building Black for Chemicals and Fuels from Natural Gas

  20. PLUTONIUM RECOVERY FROM NEUTRON-BOMBARDED URANIUM FUEL

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, R.H.

    1962-04-10

    A process of recovering plutonium from neutronbombarded uranium fuel by dissolving the fuel in equimolar aluminum chloride-potassium chloride; heating the mass to above 700 deg C for decomposition of plutonium tetrachloride to the trichloride; extracting the plutonium trichloride into a molten salt containing from 40 to 60 mole % of lithium chloride, from 15 to 40 mole % of sodium chloride, and from 0 to 40 mole % of potassium chloride or calcium chloride; and separating the layer of equimolar chlorides containing the uranium from the layer formed of the plutonium-containing salt is described. (AEC)

  1. Reactions of methyl groups on a non-reducible metal oxide: The reaction of iodomethane on stoichiometric α-Cr2O3(0001)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dong, Yujung; Brooks, John D.; Chen, Tsung-Liang; Mullins, David R.; Cox, David F.

    2015-06-10

    The reaction of iodomethane on the nearly stoichiometric α-Cr2O3(0001) surface produces gas phase ethylene, methane, and surface iodine adatoms. The reaction is first initiated by the dissociation of iodomethane into surface methyl fragments, -CH3, and iodine adatoms. Methyl fragments bound at surface Cr cation sites undergo a rate-limiting dehydrogenation reaction to methylene, =CH2. The methylene intermediates formed from methyl dehydrogenation can then undergo coupling reactions to produce ethylene via two principle reaction pathways: (1) direct coupling of methylene and (2) methylene insertion into the methyl surface bond to form surface ethyl groups which undergo β-H elimination to produce ethylene. Themore » liberated hydrogen also combines with methyl groups to form methane. Iodine adatoms from the dissociation of iodomethane deactivate the surface by simple site blocking of the surface Cr3+ cations.« less

  2. Reactions of methyl groups on a non-reducible metal oxide: The reaction of iodomethane on stoichiometric ?-Cr2O3(0001)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, Yujung; Brooks, John D.; Chen, Tsung-Liang; Mullins, David R.; Cox, David F.

    2015-06-10

    The reaction of iodomethane on the nearly stoichiometric ?-Cr2O3(0001) surface produces gas phase ethylene, methane, and surface iodine adatoms. The reaction is first initiated by the dissociation of iodomethane into surface methyl fragments, -CH3, and iodine adatoms. Methyl fragments bound at surface Cr cation sites undergo a rate-limiting dehydrogenation reaction to methylene, =CH2. The methylene intermediates formed from methyl dehydrogenation can then undergo coupling reactions to produce ethylene via two principle reaction pathways: (1) direct coupling of methylene and (2) methylene insertion into the methyl surface bond to form surface ethyl groups which undergo ?-H elimination to produce ethylene. The liberated hydrogen also combines with methyl groups to form methane. Iodine adatoms from the dissociation of iodomethane deactivate the surface by simple site blocking of the surface Cr3+ cations.

  3. CX-013884: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    BH Anhydrite Pond Chlorides Wash - Pilot Test and Full Pond Chlorides Wash CX(s) Applied: B1.3Date: 07/06/2015 Location(s): None ProvidedOffices(s): Strategic Petroleum Reserve Field Office

  4. I A STUDY OF THE WORKABILITY OF URANIUM BY MEANS OF TENSILE-IMPACT...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... A chloride salt bath, maintained at the different temperatures by means of an immersion thermocouple, would be used to heat the specimens. The chloride salt would be furnished or ...

  5. PRODUCTION OF PLUTONIUM METAL

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lyon, W.L.; Moore, R.H.

    1961-01-17

    A process is given for producing plutonium metal by the reduction of plutonium chloride, dissolved in alkali metal chloride plus or minus aluminum chloride, with magnesium or a magnesium-aluminum alloy at between 700 and 800 deg C and separating the plutonium or plutonium-aluminum alloy formed from the salt.

  6. PROCESS OF DISSOLVING FUEL ELEMENTS OF NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wall, E.M.V.; Bauer, D.T.; Hahn, H.T.

    1963-09-01

    A process is described for dissolving stainless-steelor zirconium-clad uranium dioxide fuel elements by immersing the elements in molten lead chloride, adding copper, cuprous chloride, or cupric chloride as a catalyst and passing chlorine through the salt mixture. (AEC)

  7. PRODUCTION OF URANIUM TETRACHLORIDE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Calkins, V.P.

    1958-12-16

    A process is descrlbed for the production of uranium tetrachloride by contacting uranlum values such as uranium hexafluoride, uranlum tetrafluoride, or uranium oxides with either aluminum chloride, boron chloride, or sodium alumlnum chloride under substantially anhydrous condltlons at such a temperature and pressure that the chlorldes are maintained in the molten form and until the uranium values are completely converted to uranlum tetrachloride.

  8. Reactive triblock polymers from tandem ring-opening polymerization for nanostructured vinyl thermosets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amendt, Mark A.; Pitet, Louis M.; Moench, Sarah; Hillmyer, Marc A.

    2013-03-07

    Multiply functional hydroxyl telechelic poly(cyclooctene-s-5-norbornene-2-methylene methacrylate) was synthesized by ring opening metathesis (co)polymerization of cis-cyclooctene and 5-norbornene-2-methylene methacrylate using the second generation Grubbs catalyst in combination with a symmetric chain transfer agent bearing hydroxyl functionality. The resulting hydroxyl-telechelic polymer was used as a macroinitiator for the ring opening transesterification polymerization of d,l-lactide to form reactive poly(lactide)-b-poly(cyclooctene-s-5-norbornene-2-methylene methacrylate)-b-poly(lactide) triblock polymers. Subsequently, the triblocks were crosslinked by free radical copolymerization with several vinyl monomers including styrene, divinylbenzene, methyl methacrylate, and ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate. Certain conditions led to optically transparent thermosets with mesoscale phase separation as evidenced by small angle X-ray scattering, differential scanning calorimetry and transmission electron microscopy. Disordered, bicontinuous structures with nanoscopic domains were generated in several cases, rendering the samples attractive for size-selective membrane applications.

  9. Carbon Film Electrodes For Super Capacitor Applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tan, Ming X.

    1999-07-20

    A method for treating an organic polymer material, preferably a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer (Saran) to produce a flat sheet of carbon film material having a high surface area (.apprxeq.1000 m.sup.2 /g) suitable as an electrode material for super capacitor applications. The method comprises heating a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer film disposed between two spaced apart graphite or ceramic plates to a first temperature of about 160.degree. C. for about 14 hours to form a stabilized vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride polymer film, thereafter heating the stabilized film to a second temperature of about 750.degree. C. in an inert atmosphere for about one hour to form a carbon film; and finally activating the carbon film to increase the surface area by heating the carbon film in an oxidizing atmosphere to a temperature of at least 750-850.degree. C. for between 1-6 hours.

  10. Method for making carbon films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tan, Ming X.

    1999-01-01

    A method for treating an organic polymer material, preferably a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer (Saran) to produce a flat sheet of carbon film material having a high surface area (.apprxeq.1000 m.sup.2 /g) suitable as an electrode material for super capacitor applications. The method comprises heating a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer film disposed between two spaced apart graphite or ceramic plates to a first temperature of about 160.degree. C. for about 14 hours to form a stabilized vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride polymer film, thereafter heating the stabilized film to a second temperature of about 750.degree. C. in an inert atmosphere for about one hour to form a carbon film; and finally activating the carbon film to increase the surface area by heating the carbon film in an oxidizing atmosphere to a temperature of at least 750-850.degree. C. for between 1-6 hours.

  11. Method for making carbon films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tan, M.X.

    1999-07-29

    A method for treating an organic polymer material, preferably a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer (Saran) to produce a flat sheet of carbon film material having a high surface area ([approx equal]1000 m[sup 2] /g) suitable as an electrode material for super capacitor applications. The method comprises heating a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer film disposed between two spaced apart graphite or ceramic plates to a first temperature of about 160 C for about 14 hours to form a stabilized vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride polymer film, thereafter heating the stabilized film to a second temperature of about 750 C in an inert atmosphere for about one hour to form a carbon film; and finally activating the carbon film to increase the surface area by heating the carbon film in an oxidizing atmosphere to a temperature of at least 750--850 C for between 1--6 hours. 2 figs.

  12. PLUTONIUM RECOVERY FROM NEUTRON-BOMBARDED URANIUM FUEL

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, R.H.

    1964-03-24

    A process of recovering plutonium from fuel by dissolution in molten KAlCl/sub 4/ double salt is described. Molten lithium chloride plus stannous chloride is added to reduce plutonium tetrachloride to the trichloride, which is dissolved in a lithium chloride phase while the uranium, as the tetrachloride, is dissolved in a double-salt phase. Separation of the two phases is discussed. (AEC)

  13. Method of recycling lithium borate to lithium borohydride through diborane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Filby, Evan E.

    1976-01-01

    This invention provides a method for the recycling of lithium borate to lithium borohydride which can be reacted with water to generate hydrogen for utilization as a fuel. The lithium borate by-product of the hydrogen generation reaction is reacted with hydrogen chloride and water to produce boric acid and lithium chloride. The boric acid and lithium chloride are converted to lithium borohydride through a diborane intermediate to complete the recycle scheme.

  14. Method of recycling lithium borate to lithium borohydride through methyl borate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Filby, Evan E.

    1977-01-01

    This invention provides a method for the recycling of lithium borate to lithium borohydride which can be reacted with water to generate hydrogen for utilization as a fuel. The lithium borate by-product of the hydrogen generation reaction is reacted with hydrogen chloride and water to produce boric acid and lithium chloride. The boric acid and lithium chloride are converted to lithium borohydride through a methyl borate intermediate to complete the recycle scheme.

  15. CO2-H2O Mixtures in the Geological Sequestration of CO2. II....

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and Duan and Sun (2003), which can be extended to chloride solutions other than NaCl. ... MIXTURES; REACTION KINETICS; SOLUBILITY; SUN; THERMODYNAMIC ACTIVITY Word Cloud More ...

  16. Microsoft Word - DOE-ID-13-064 Ohio State EC B3-6.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Material Use - Depleted uranium chloride up to 80 g will be utilized under the radiation safety protocol. This will be operated under the state license with an...

  17. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Akutan Fumaroles Area (Kolker...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Elemental Analysis Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes The chemistry of the hot springs strongly suggests the existence of a neutral chloride reservoir...

  18. Geothermometry At Akutan Fumaroles Area (Kolker, Et Al., 2010...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermometry Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes The chemistry of the hot springs strongly suggests the existence of a neutral chloride reservoir...

  19. Assumption to the Annual Energy Outlook 2014 - Industrial Demand...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AEO2014. Pollutants covered by Boiler MACT include the hazardous air pollutants (HAP), hydrogen chloride (HCI), mercury (HG), dioxinfuran, carbon monoxide (CO),and particulate...

  20. DOE/ID-Number

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ... 21, 2015 ACRONYMS ASME B&PVC American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials CISCC Chloride Induced ...

  1. METHOD OF APPLYING NICKEL COATINGS ON URANIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gray, A.G.

    1959-07-14

    A method is presented for protectively coating uranium which comprises etching the uranium in an aqueous etching solution containing chloride ions, electroplating a coating of nickel on the etched uranium and heating the nickel plated uranium by immersion thereof in a molten bath composed of a material selected from the group consisting of sodium chloride, potassium chloride, lithium chloride, and mixtures thereof, maintained at a temperature of between 700 and 800 deg C, for a time sufficient to alloy the nickel and uranium and form an integral protective coating of corrosion-resistant uranium-nickel alloy.

  2. Self Potential At Neal Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Colwell,...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the electrodes are made of leadlead chloride, bentonite, and an extremity of low permeability wood. the moving electrode in this study was offset from the reference electrode at...

  3. SOLUBILIZATION OF ACTINIDE METAL-CONTAINING SLAG

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hopkins, H.H. Jr.

    1959-08-01

    This patent relates to solubilization of the actinide rare earths valves contained in the slag materials resulting from the reduction of actinide salts, such as plutonium tetrafluoride. According to the invention the slag is subjected to a high temperature chloridizing roast, preferably from the reduction of actinide salts, such as plutonium tetrafluoride. According to the invention the slag is subjected to a high temperature chloridizing roast, preferably at about 700 deg C with gaseous hydrogen chloride, until the actinides within the slag are substantially convented to the chlorides. The resultant chlorinated actinides are then leached from the cooled roasted mass by treating with aqueous 0.01 M nitric acid.

  4. FLUX COMPOSITION AND METHOD FOR TREATING URANIUM-CONTAINING METAL

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foote, F.

    1958-08-26

    A flux composition is preseated for use with molten uranium and uranium alloys. It consists of about 60% calcium fluoride, 30% calcium chloride and 10% uranium tetrafluoride.

  5. ARM - Instrument - acsm

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    period. Standard derived quantities are the mass-concentrations in ugm3 of organics, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and chloride. The ACSM is part of the Aerosol Observing System...

  6. CX-013332: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Magnesium Chloride Testing CX(s) Applied: B3.6Date: 12/15/2014 Location(s): South CarolinaOffices(s): Savannah River Operations Office

  7. EA-1944-DEA-2012.pdf

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Groundwater All groundwater sampled in the wells drilled in the vicinity of the Brady Hot Springs Area (Harrill 1970) are high in sodium chloride, arsenic, and boron, which ...

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT DOI-BLM-NV-W010-2012-0057-EA DOE/EA...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Groundwater All groundwater sampled in the wells drilled in the vicinity of the Brady Hot Springs Area (Harrill 1970) are high in sodium chloride, arsenic, and boron, which ...

  9. Microsoft Word - DOE-ID-15-075 Colorado School of Mines B3-6...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    research project is focused on the prediction of canister chloride-induced stress corrosion cracking (CISCC) and its effect on canister integrity during long-term interim...

  10. NON-AQUEOUS DISSOLUTION OF MASSIVE PLUTONIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reavis, J.G.; Leary, J.A.; Walsh, K.A.

    1959-05-12

    A method is presented for obtaining non-aqueous solutions or plutonium from massive forms of the metal. In the present invention massive plutonium is added to a salt melt consisting of 10 to 40 weight per cent of sodium chloride and the balance zinc chloride. The plutonium reacts at about 800 deg C with the zinc chloride to form a salt bath of plutonium trichloride, sodium chloride, and metallic zinc. The zinc is separated from the salt melt by forcing the molten mixture through a Pyrex filter.

  11. DOE-STD-1136-2004; Guide of Good Practices for Occupational Radiologic...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... After capturing a fast neutron, 238 U undergoes two ... Pressurized heavy-water reactors function with natural ... (a mixture of sodium chloride and potassium carbonate). ...

  12. DOE-HDBK-1017/1-93; DOE Fundamentals Handbook Material Science...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Manuals in 1985 for use by DOE category A reactors. ... M aterial Bond Sodium chloride Ionic Diamond Covalent Sodium ... fluctuates, with slow or fast changes in magnitude ...

  13. Hawaii Marine Base Installs Solar Roofs | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Lorelei Laird Writer, Energy Empowers What does this project do? Marine Corps Base Hawaii replaced roofs on two buildings with polyvinyl chloride membrane 'cool' roofs and solar...

  14. Viscosity of NaCl and other solutions up to 350{sup 0}C and 50...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of sodium chloride solutions are critically reviewed for application to geothermal energy. ... Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 15 GEOTHERMAL ENERGY; ...

  15. EM News | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    at DOE headquarters. November 25, 2015 SRNS operators Stanley Creech (left) and Paul Dobson monitor the injection of silver chloride into an aquifer at SRS. Passive...

  16. Method of separating thorium from plutonium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clifton, D.G.; Blum, T.W.

    1984-07-10

    A method is described for chemically separating plutonium from thorium. Plutonium and thorium to be separated are dissolved in an aqueous feed solution, preferably as the nitrate salts. The feed solution is acidified and sodium nitrite is added to the solution to adjust the valence of the plutonium to the +4 state. A chloride salt, preferably sodium chloride, is then added to the solution to induce formation of an anionic plutonium chloride complex. The anionic plutonium chloride complex and the thorium in solution are then separated by ion exchange on a strong base anion exchange column.

  17. Method of separating thorium from plutonium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clifton, David G.; Blum, Thomas W.

    1984-01-01

    A method of chemically separating plutonium from thorium. Plutonium and thorium to be separated are dissolved in an aqueous feed solution, preferably as the nitrate salts. The feed solution is acidified and sodium nitrite is added to the solution to adjust the valence of the plutonium to the +4 state. A chloride salt, preferably sodium chloride, is then added to the solution to induce formation of an anionic plutonium chloride complex. The anionic plutonium chloride complex and the thorium in solution are then separated by ion exchange on a strong base anion exchange column.

  18. Method of separating thorium from plutonium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clifton, D.G.; Blum, T.W.

    A method of chemically separating plutonium from thorium is claimed. Plutonium and thorium to be separated are dissolved in an aqueous feed solution, preferably as the nitrate salts. The feed solution is acidified and sodium nitrite is added to the solution to adjust the valence of the plutonium to the +4 state. A chloride salt, preferably sodium chloride, is then added to the solution to induce formation of an anionic plutonium chloride complex. The anionic plutonium chloride complex and the thorium in solution are then separated by ion exchange on a strong base anion exchange column.

  19. Geothermometry At Lualualei Valley Area (Thomas, 1986) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    have been commonly used in Hawaii for identifying geothermal potential (i.e. silica concentration and chloride to magnesium ion ratios) were anomalous in the groundwater of this...

  20. JOINT EPA/DOE STATEMENT: Radiation Monitors Confirm That No Radiation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... The Particle Physics of You SRNS operators Stanley Creech (left) and Paul Dobson monitor the injection of silver chloride into an aquifer at SRS. Passive Groundwater Cleanup ...

  1. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... and sulfate but had relatively low chloride concentrations. ... The proposed sulfate treatment goal for Monument Valley will ... Yes 5. Were the number and types (alkalinity, temperature, ...

  2. Microsoft Word - RIN 10063122 DVP.doc

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... and sulfate but had relatively low chloride concentrations. ... The proposed sulfate treatment goal for Monument Valley will ... Yes 5. Were the number and types (alkalinity, temperature, ...

  3. Microsoft Word - RIN 09122747 DVP.doc

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... and sulfate but had relatively low chloride concentrations. ... The proposed sulfate treatment goal for Monument Valley will ... Yes 5. Were the number and types (alkalinity, temperature, ...

  4. Microsoft Word - RIN 11053841 & 11063901 DVP

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... and sulfate but had relatively low chloride concentrations. ... The proposed sulfate treatment goal for Monument Valley will ... and types (alkalinity, temperature, specific conductance, ...

  5. Microsoft Word - 10113473 DVP

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... and sulfate but had relatively low chloride concentrations. ... The proposed sulfate treatment goal for Monument Valley will ... Yes 5. Were the number and types (alkalinity, temperature, ...

  6. Microsoft Word - RIN 13055367 DVP.docx

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... and sulfate but had relatively low chloride concentrations. ... The proposed sulfate treatment goal for Monument Valley will ... Yes 5. Were the number and types (alkalinity, temperature, ...

  7. Microsoft Word - RIN 08061655 DocProd.doc

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... and sulfate but had relatively low chloride concentrations. ... The proposed sulfate treatment goal for Monument Valley will ... and types (alkalinity, temperature, specific conductance, ...

  8. Microsoft Word - 11124247 DVP

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... and sulfate but had relatively low chloride concentrations. ... The proposed sulfate treatment goal for Monument Valley will ... Yes 5. Were the number and types (alkalinity, temperature, ...

  9. Microsoft Word - 12124998 DVP.docx

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... and sulfate but had relatively low chloride concentrations. ... The proposed sulfate treatment goal for Monument Valley will ... Yes 5. Were the number and types (alkalinity, temperature, ...

  10. Microsoft Word - RIN 12054584 & 12054586 & 12054587 DVP.doc

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... and sulfate but had relatively low chloride concentrations. ... The proposed sulfate treatment goal for Monument Valley will ... and types (alkalinity, temperature, specific conductance, ...

  11. Low-temperature Sodium-Beta Battery - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary Rechargeable metallic sodium batteries have application in large-scale energy ... sodium-sulfur and sodium-nickel chloride, both referred to as sodium-beta batteries. ...

  12. Sequential pyrolysis of plastic to recover polystyrene HCL and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A process of pyrolyzing plastic waste feed streams containing polyvinyl chloride, ... acid comprising: heating the plastic waste feed stream to a first temperature; adding ...

  13. Furfuryl alcohol cellular product

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, T.; Kukacka, L.E.

    1982-05-26

    Self-extinguishing rigid foam products are formed by polymerization of furfuryl alcohol in the presence of a lightweight, particulate, filler, zinc chloride and selected catalysts.

  14. Geothermometry At Yellowstone Region (Fournier, 1979) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Geothermometry Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Enthalpy-Chloride digram. Not exactly cation geothermometry...

  15. Patents -- Robert Hofstadter

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Patents - Robert Hofstadter Hofstadter Page * Resources with Additional Information US ... US 3,714,057 IODIDE ACTIVATED THALLIUM CHLORIDE SCINTILLATOR - Hofstadter, Robert; Kramer, ...

  16. FERRIC ION-SPECIFIC SEQUESTERING AGENTS. 7. SYNTHESIS, IRON EXCHANGE KINETICS, AND STABILITY CONSTANTS OF N-SUBSTITUTED, SULFONATED CATECHOYLAMIDE ANALOGUES OF ENTEROBACTIN.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pecoraro, Vincent L.; Weitl, Frederick L.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    1980-10-01

    For treatment of chronic iron overload (as occurs in Cooley's anemia), ferric ion sequestering agents with specific properties are necessary. Two analogues of enterobactin [a microbial chelating agent with the greatest stability constant known for an Fe(III) complex] are reported which exhibit: i) hydrolytic stability; ii) water solubility; iii) N-substitution to block peptidase hydrolysis. The first compound, N,N',N"- trimethyl-N,N',N"-tris(2,3-dihydroxysulfobenzoyl)1,3,5-triaminomethyl- benzene, [Me{sub 3}MECAMS, 6] was prepared from the amide of trimesloyl chloride (1) and MeNH{sub 2}. The resulting amide was reduced to the triamine (3) and converted in three steps to the final product 6 in 6% overall yield. The proton-dependent formation constant (log K*) for the reaction: Fe{sup 3+} + H{sub 3}L{sup 6-} = FeL{sup 6-} + 3H{sup +} is 4.87, which gives an equilibrium concentration of [Fe{sup 3+}] at pH 7.4 of 2 x 10{sup -27} M for 10{sup -5} M L (6) and 10{sup -6} M total Fe{sup 3+}. The estimated formation constant (log {beta}{sub 110}) is 40. At low pH the FeL{sup 6-} complex undergoes a series of three, one-proton reactions which probably gives a tris-salicylate complex formed by the carbonyl and ortho-catechol oxygen of the 2,3~dihydroxybenzoyl units (the same reaction that occurs with ferric enterobactin). After six hours in the presence of 6 mM ascorbate, Me{sub 3}MECAMS (6.0 mM) removed 3.7% of the ferric ion initially sequestered by the iron storage protein, ferritin. The human iron transport protein transferrin goves up iron to Me{sub 3}MECAMS with a pseudo first-order rate constant of 1.9 x 10{sup -3}min{sup -1} (ligand concentration 2 X 10{sup -4} M). This rate is comparable to that of enterobactin and other catechoyl amide sequestering agents. and greatly exceeds that of desferrioxamine B (Desferal{reg-sign}). the current drug of choice in treating iron overload. Two related compounds have been prepared in which the catechol ring is attached to the amide nitrogen through a methylene group, with amide formation with an acetyl group. In N,N',N"-triacetyl-N,N' ,N"-tris(2,3- dihydroxysulfobenzoyl) -N,N',N"-triaminomethylbenzene [NAcMECAMS, 111... and its unsulfonated precursor, the amide linkage of the catechoyl amides such as Me{sub 3}MECAMS (6) has been shifted from an endo position relative to the benzene and catechol rings to an exo position in which the amide carbonyl is not conjugated with the catechol ring and cannot form a stable chelate ring in conjunction with a catechol oxygen. The preparation of 11 and 10 proceeded from the previously described precursor of TRIMCAM, 7. borane reduction to the tri.amine 8, and amide formation with acetyl chloride to 9, followed by deprotection of the catechol oxygens with BBr{sub 3}/CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} to give 10. Sulfonation of 10 to NAcMECAMS, 11, is carried out in fuming sulfuric acid. In comparison with Me{sub 3}MECAMS, the protonation of NAcMECAMS (11) proceeds by an initial two-proton step in contrast to the one-proton reactions typical of the catechoyl amides, which can form a salicylate mode of coordination involving the amide carbonyl group. Also as a result of the removal of the carbonyl group from conjugation with the catechol ring, the acidity of NAcMECAMS (11) is less than Me{sub 3}MECAMS (6). While the estimated log {beta{sub 110} is approximately the same as for Me{sub 3}MECAMS (40). the effective formation constant (log K*) and pM.(- log [Fe{sub aq}{sup 3+}] ) values are lower (4.0 and 25.0, respectively).

  17. Low temperature aqueous desulfurization of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Slegeir, W.A.; Healy, F.E.; Sapienza, R.S.

    1985-04-18

    This invention describes a chemical process for desulfurizing coal, especially adaptable to the treatment of coal-water slurries, at temperatures as low as ambient, comprising treating the coal with aqueous titanous chloride whereby hydrogen sulfide is liberated and the desulfurized coal is separated with the conversion of titanous chloride to titanium oxides.

  18. Low temperature aqueous desulfurization of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Slegeir, William A.; Healy, Francis E.; Sapienza, Richard S.

    1985-01-01

    This invention describes a chemical process for desulfurizing coal, especially adaptable to the treatment of coal-water slurries, at temperatures as low as ambient, comprising treating the coal with aqueous titanous chloride whereby hydrogen sulfide is liberated and the desulfurized coal is separated with the conversion of titanous chloride to titanium oxides.

  19. Production of aluminum-26

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinkruger, Fred J.; Phillips, Dennis R.

    1991-01-01

    A method of producing Al-26 from potassium chloride by exposing it to a proton beam in order to break potassium and chlorine atoms into smaller pieces, which include Al-26. The Al-26 is isolated from the potassium chloride and other substances produced by the beam by means of extraction and ion exchange.

  20. Corrosion inhibition for distillation apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baumert, Kenneth L. (Emmaus, PA); Sagues, Alberto A. (Lexington, KY); Davis, Burtron H. (Georgetown, KY); Schweighardt, Frank K. (Upper Macungie, PA)

    1985-01-01

    Tower material corrosion in an atmospheric or sub-atmospheric distillation tower in a coal liquefaction process is reduced or eliminated by subjecting chloride-containing tray contents to an appropriate ion-exchange resin to remove chloride from such tray contents materials.

  1. Plutonium recovery from spent reactor fuel by uranium displacement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ackerman, J.P.

    1992-03-17

    A process is described for separating uranium values and transuranic values from fission products containing rare earth values when the values are contained together in a molten chloride salt electrolyte. A molten chloride salt electrolyte with a first ratio of plutonium chloride to uranium chloride is contacted with both a solid cathode and an anode having values of uranium and fission products including plutonium. A voltage is applied across the anode and cathode electrolytically to transfer uranium and plutonium from the anode to the electrolyte while uranium values in the electrolyte electrolytically deposit as uranium metal on the solid cathode in an amount equal to the uranium and plutonium transferred from the anode causing the electrolyte to have a second ratio of plutonium chloride to uranium chloride. Then the solid cathode with the uranium metal deposited thereon is removed and molten cadmium having uranium dissolved therein is brought into contact with the electrolyte resulting in chemical transfer of plutonium values from the electrolyte to the molten cadmium and transfer of uranium values from the molten cadmium to the electrolyte until the first ratio of plutonium chloride to uranium chloride is reestablished.

  2. Plutonium recovery from spent reactor fuel by uranium displacement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ackerman, John P.

    1992-01-01

    A process for separating uranium values and transuranic values from fission products containing rare earth values when the values are contained together in a molten chloride salt electrolyte. A molten chloride salt electrolyte with a first ratio of plutonium chloride to uranium chloride is contacted with both a solid cathode and an anode having values of uranium and fission products including plutonium. A voltage is applied across the anode and cathode electrolytically to transfer uranium and plutonium from the anode to the electrolyte while uranium values in the electrolyte electrolytically deposit as uranium metal on the solid cathode in an amount equal to the uranium and plutonium transferred from the anode causing the electrolyte to have a second ratio of plutonium chloride to uranium chloride. Then the solid cathode with the uranium metal deposited thereon is removed and molten cadmium having uranium dissolved therein is brought into contact with the electrolyte resulting in chemical transfer of plutonium values from the electrolyte to the molten cadmium and transfer of uranium values from the molten cadmium to the electrolyte until the first ratio of plutonium chloride to uranium chloride is reestablished.

  3. Compounds having aromatic rings and side-chain amide-functionality and a method for transporting monovalent anions across biological membranes using the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davis, Jeffery T.; Sidorov, Vladimir; Kotch, Frank W.

    2008-04-08

    A compound containing at least two aromatic rings covalently bonded together, with each aromatic ring containing at least one oxyacetamide-based side chain, the compound being capable of forming a chloride ion channel across a lipid bilayer, and transporting chloride ion across the lipid bilayer.

  4. H.sub.2 /C.sub.12 fuel cells for power and HCl production - chemical cogeneration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gelb, Alan H.

    1991-01-01

    A fuel cell for the electrolytic production of hydrogen chloride and the generation of electric energy from hydrogen and chlorine gas is disclosed. In typical application, the fuel cell operates from the hydrogen and chlorine gas generated by a chlorine electrolysis generator. The hydrogen chloride output is used to maintain acidity in the anode compartment of the electrolysis cells, and the electric energy provided from the fuel cell is used to power a portion of the electrolysis cells in the chlorine generator or for other chlorine generator electric demands. The fuel cell itself is typically formed by a passage for the flow of hydrogen chloride or hydrogen chloride and sodium chloride electrolyte between anode and cathode gas diffusion electrodes, the HCl increa This invention was made with Government support under Contract No. DE-AC02-86ER80366 with the Department of Energy and the United States Government has certain rights thereto.

  5. Probabilistic evaluation of initiation time in RC bridge beams with load-induced cracks exposed to de-icing salts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu Zhaohui; Zhao Yangang; Yu Zhiwu; Ding Faxing

    2011-03-15

    In this study, a reliability-based method for predicting the initiation time of reinforced concrete bridge beams with load-induced cracks exposed to de-icing salts is presented. A practical model for predicting the diffusion coefficient of chloride ingress into load-induced cracked concrete is proposed. Probabilistic information about uncertainties related to the surface chloride content and the threshold chloride concentration has been estimated from a wide review of previous experimental or statistical studies. Probabilistic analysis to estimate the time to corrosion initiation with/without considering the effect of the load-induced cracks on the chloride ingress into concrete has been carried out. Results of the analysis demonstrate the importance of considering the effect of the load-induced cracks for correct prediction of corrosion initiation in RC bridge beams exposed to chlorides.

  6. H[sub 2]/Cl[sub 2] fuel cells for power and HCl production - chemical cogeneration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gelb, A.H.

    1991-08-20

    A fuel cell for the electrolytic production of hydrogen chloride and the generation of electric energy from hydrogen and chlorine gas is disclosed. In typical application, the fuel cell operates from the hydrogen and chlorine gas generated by a chlorine electrolysis generator. The hydrogen chloride output is used to maintain acidity in the anode compartment of the electrolysis cells, and the electric energy provided from the fuel cell is used to power a portion of the electrolysis cells in the chlorine generator or for other chlorine generator electric demands. The fuel cell itself is typically formed by a passage for the flow of hydrogen chloride or hydrogen chloride and sodium chloride electrolyte between anode and cathode gas diffusion electrodes. 3 figures.

  7. Oxyhydrochlorination catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taylor, Charles E.; Noceti, Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    An improved catalyst and method for the oxyhydrochlorination of methane is disclosed. The catalyst includes a pyrogenic porous support on which is layered as active material, cobalt chloride in major proportion, and minor proportions of an alkali metal chloride and of a rare earth chloride. On contact of the catalyst with a gas flow of methane, HCl and oxygen, more than 60% of the methane is converted and of that converted more than 40% occurs as monochloromethane. Advantageously, the monochloromethane can be used to produce gasoline boiling range hydrocarbons with the recycle of HCl for further reaction. This catalyst is also of value for the production of formic acid as are analogous catalysts with lead, silver or nickel chlorides substituted for the cobalt chloride.

  8. Catalysts and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taylor, Charles E.; Noceti, Richard P.

    1991-01-01

    An improved catlayst and method for the oxyhydrochlorination of methane is disclosed. The catalyst includes a pyrogenic porous support on which is layered as active material, cobalt chloride in major proportion, and minor proportions of an alkali metal chloride and of a rare earth chloride. On contact of the catalyst with a gas flow of methane, HC1 and oxygen, more than 60% of the methane is converted and of that converted more than 40% occurs as monochloromethane. Advantageously, the monochloromethane can be used to produce gasoline boiling range hydrocarbons with the recycle of HCl for further reaction. This catalyst is also of value for the production of formic acid as are analogous catalysts with lead, silver or nickel chlorides substituted for the cobalt chloride.

  9. Oxygen detection using evanescent fields

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duan, Yixiang; Cao, Weenqing

    2007-08-28

    An apparatus and method for the detection of oxygen using optical fiber based evanescent light absorption. Methylene blue was immobilized using a sol-gel process on a portion of the exterior surface of an optical fiber for which the cladding has been removed, thereby forming an optical oxygen sensor. When light is directed through the optical fiber, transmitted light intensity varies as a result of changes in the absorption of evanescent light by the methylene blue in response to the oxygen concentration to which the sensor is exposed. The sensor was found to have a linear response to oxygen concentration on a semi-logarithmic scale within the oxygen concentration range between 0.6% and 20.9%, a response time and a recovery time of about 3 s, ant to exhibit good reversibility and repeatability. An increase in temperature from 21.degree. C. to 35.degree. C. does not affect the net absorption of the sensor.

  10. Evolution of structural and optical properties of photocatalytic Fe doped TiO{sub 2} thin films prepared by RF magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nair, Prabitha B. Maneeshya, L. V. Justinvictor, V. B. Daniel, Georgi P. Joy, K. Thomas, P. V.

    2014-01-28

    Undoped and Fe doped TiO{sub 2} thin films have been prepared by RF magnetron sputtering. Pure TiO{sub 2} thin film exhibited an amorphous-like nature. With increase in iron concentration (00.1 at%), the films exhibited better crystallization to anatase phase . Red shift of absorption edge was observed in the UV-vis transmittance spectra . At higher Fe concentration (0.5 at%), onset of phase transformation to rutile is noticed. Photocatalytic properties of pure and 0.1 at% Fe doped TiO{sub 2} thin films were investigated by degradation of methylene blue in UV light, visible light and light from Hg vapor lamp. 70% degradation of methylene blue was observed in the presence of Fe doped film in comparison with 3% degradation in presence of pure TiO{sub 2} film when irradiated using visible light for 2 h.

  11. One-step electrochemical synthesis of a grapheneZnO hybrid for improved photocatalytic activity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Ang; Xiong, Li; Sun, Li; Liu, Yanjun; Li, Weiwei; Lai, Wenyong; Liu, Xiangmei; Wang, Lianhui; Huang, Wei; Dong, Xiaochen

    2013-08-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: GrapheneZnO hybrid was synthesized by one-step electrochemical deposition. GrapheneZnO hybrid presents a special structure and wide UVvis absorption spectra. GrapheneZnO hybrid exhibits an exceptionally higher photocatalytic activity for the degradation of dye methylene blue. - Abstract: A grapheneZnO (G-ZnO) hybrid was synthesized by one-step electrochemical deposition. During the formation of ZnO nanostructure by cathodic electrochemical deposition, the graphene oxide was electrochemically reduced to graphene simultaneously. Scanning electron microscope images, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectra, and UVvis absorption spectra indicate the resulting G-ZnO hybrid presents a special structure and wide UVvis absorption spectra. More importantly, it exhibits an exceptionally higher photocatalytic activity for the degradation of dye methylene blue than that of pure ZnO nanostructure under both ultraviolet and sunlight irradiation.

  12. Linked supramolecular building blocks for enhanced cluster formation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    McLellan, Ross; Palacios, Maria A.; Beavers, Christine M.; Teat, Simon J.; Piligkos, Stergios; Brechin, Euan K.; Dalgarno, Scott J.

    2015-01-09

    Methylene-bridged calix[4]arenes have emerged as extremely versatile ligand supports in the formation of new polymetallic clusters possessing fascinating magnetic properties. Metal ion binding rules established for this building block allow one to partially rationalise the complex assembly process. The ability to covalently link calix[4]arenes at the methylene bridge provides significantly improved control over the introduction of different metal centres to resulting cluster motifs. Clusters assembled from bis-calix[4]arenes and transition metal ions or 3d-4f combinations display characteristic features of the analogous calix[4]arene supported clusters, thereby demonstrating an enhanced and rational approach towards the targeted synthesis of complex and challenging structures.

  13. Synthesis of tetraalkyl vinylidene diphosphonate monomer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alexandratos, Spiro D.

    1993-10-26

    A method of making a monomer of tetraalkyl vinylidene-1, 1-diphosphonate. The monomer is manufactured by combining an aqueous secondary amine solution with a formaldehyde and a tetra (alkyl) methylene diphosphonate. The resulting mixture is maintained at a pH above about 6 and refluxed for two hours to enable reaction to produce the monomer of tetraalkyl vinylidene-1, 1-diphosphonate. The product monomer is then purified to produce the final end product.

  14. Photochemical reaction dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, B.C.

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of the program is to develop a fundamental understanding of unimolecular and bimolecular reaction dynamics with application in combustion and energy systems. The energy dependence in ketene isomerization, ketene dissociation dynamics, and carbonyl substitution on organometallic rhodium complexes in liquid xenon have been studied. Future studies concerning unimolecular processes in ketene as well as energy transfer and kinetic studies of methylene radicals are discussed.

  15. Fabrication of TiO{sub 2} Thick Film for Photocatalyst from Commercial TiO{sub 2} Powder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asteti, S. Fuji; Syarif, D. Gustaman

    2008-03-17

    Photocatalytic activity of TiO{sub 2} thick film ceramics made of commercial TiO{sub 2} powder has been studied. The TiO{sub 2} powder was nano sized one that was derived from dried TiO{sub 2} suspension. The TiO{sub 2} suspension was made by pouring some blended commercial TiO{sub 2} powder into some amount of water. The paste of TiO{sub 2} was made by mixing the nano sized TiO{sub 2} powder with organic vehicle and glass frit. The paste was spread on a glass substrate. The paste was dried at 100 deg. C and heated at different temperatures (400 deg. C and 500 deg. C) for 60 minutes to produce thick film ceramics. The photocatalytic activity of these films was evaluated by measuring the concentration of a solution of methylene blue where the thick films were inside after being illuminated by UV light at various periods of times. The initial concentration of the methylene blue solution was 5 ppm. Structural analyses were carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The XRD analyses showed that the produced thick film ceramic had mainly crystal structure of anatase. According to the photocatalytical data, it was known that the produced thick film ceramics were photocatalyst which were capable of decomposing an organic compound such as the methylene blue.

  16. Applications of Cu{sub 2}O octahedral particles on ITO glass in photocatalytic degradation of dye pollutants under a halogen tungsten lamp

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhai, Wei; Sun, Fengqiang; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Lihe; Min, Zhilin; Li, Weishan

    2013-11-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: Photocatalytic activity of Cu{sub 2}O octahedral microcrystals on ITO glass was studied. They showed high abilities in degradation of methylene blue in the presence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. H{sub 2}O{sub 2} amount could affect the degradation efficiency. Such particles could be easily recycled and still kept high activity. Many dye pollutants and their mixtures could be efficiently degraded. - Abstract: Cu{sub 2}O octahedral microcrystals were prepared on the ITO glass by galvanostatic electrodeposition in CuSO{sub 4} solution with poly(vinylpryrrolidone) as the surfactant. By controlling the electrodeposition time, the microcrystals could be randomly distributed on the ITO glass and separated from each other, resulting in as many as possible (1 1 1) crystalline planes were exposed. Such microcrystals immobilized on ITO glass were employed in photodegradation of dye pollutants in the presence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} under a 150 W halogen tungsten lamp. The photodegradation of methylene blue was taken as an example to evaluate the photocatalytic activities of the octahedral Cu{sub 2}O microcrystals. Effects of electrodeposition time and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} amount on the degradation efficiency was discussed, giving the optimum conditions and the corresponding degradation mechanism. The catalyst showed high ability in degradation of methylene blue, methyl orange, rhodamine B, eosin B and their mixtures under identical conditions.

  17. Chlorine induced corrosion of steels in fossil fuel power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spiegel, M.; Grabke, H.J.

    1998-12-31

    The corrosion of steels in power plants (coal combustion, waste incineration) is mainly due to condensed chlorides in the ash deposited on the boiler tubes. These chlorides are stabilized by HCl in the combustion gas. In the case of coal as a fuel, chlorine is present as chloride minerals in the raw material which is converted to HCl during the combustion process. Corrosion of steels in chlorine containing environments occurs by the active oxidation mechanism, which is a self-sustaining accelerated oxidation process, catalyzed by chlorine. This study shows that solid chlorides react with the oxide scale of the steels to form chlorine, which initiates active oxidation. In order to prevent chlorine induced corrosion, the deposition of chlorides on the tubes within the coal ash must be avoided. This is possible by the presence of SO{sub 2}, which is present in the combustion gas, converting the chlorides to sulfates in the gas phase. The paper presents an example of a failure case in a coal fired plant in Germany. In this plant, chlorine induced corrosion was observed after effective removal of SO{sub 2} by additions of CaO. From thermodynamic calculations it can be shown that a certain amount of SO{sub 2} is necessary in order to avoid deposition of chlorides and to prevent corrosion.

  18. Dry halide method for separating the components of spent nuclear fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christian, Jerry Dale; Thomas, Thomas Russell; Kessinger, Glen F.

    1998-01-01

    The invention is a nonaqueous, single method for processing multiple spent nuclear fuel types by separating the fission- and transuranic products from the nonradioactive and fissile uranium product. The invention has four major operations: exposing the spent fuels to chlorine gas at temperatures preferably greater than 1200.degree. C. to form volatile metal chlorides; removal of the fission product chlorides, transuranic product chlorides, and any nickel chloride and chromium chloride in a molten salt scrubber at approximately 400.degree. C.; fractional condensation of the remaining volatile chlorides at temperatures ranging from 164.degree. C. to 2.degree. C.; and regeneration and recovery of the transferred spent molten salt by vacuum distillation. The residual fission products, transuranic products, and nickel- and chromium chlorides are converted to fluorides or oxides for vitrification. The method offers the significant advantages of a single, compact process that is applicable to most of the diverse nuclear fuels, minimizes secondary wastes, segregates fissile uranium from the high level wastes to resolve potential criticality concerns, segregates nonradioactive wastes from the high level wastes for volume reduction, and produces a common waste form glass or glass-ceramic.

  19. Dry halide method for separating the components of spent nuclear fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christian, J.D.; Thomas, T.R.; Kessinger, G.F.

    1998-06-30

    The invention is a nonaqueous, single method for processing multiple spent nuclear fuel types by separating the fission and transuranic products from the nonradioactive and fissile uranium product. The invention has four major operations: exposing the spent fuels to chlorine gas at temperatures preferably greater than 1200 C to form volatile metal chlorides; removal of the fission product chlorides, transuranic product chlorides, and any nickel chloride and chromium chloride in a molten salt scrubber at approximately 400 C; fractional condensation of the remaining volatile chlorides at temperatures ranging from 164 to 2 C; and regeneration and recovery of the transferred spent molten salt by vacuum distillation. The residual fission products, transuranic products, and nickel- and chromium chlorides are converted to fluorides or oxides for vitrification. The method offers the significant advantages of a single, compact process that is applicable to most of the diverse nuclear fuels, minimizes secondary wastes, segregates fissile uranium from the high level wastes to resolve potential criticality concerns, segregates nonradioactive wastes from the high level wastes for volume reduction, and produces a common waste form glass or glass-ceramic. 3 figs.

  20. Chlorine enhancement of SO{sub 2} removal efficiency in a spray dryer absorber/fabric filter pilot plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jefcoat, I.A.; Stewart, C.L.; Pearson, T.E.

    1995-12-31

    The presence of chloride ions in a flue gas has been shown to increase the removal efficiency of SO{sub 2} in a spray dryer absorber/fabric filter (SDA/FF). The quantification of this effect has not been reported previously. A 90 cfm gas-fired pilot plant was used at the University to simulate burning coals containing various weight percent chloride. Results from the study were in agreement with those found in the literature. A predictive model was developed for the incremental removal efficiency, which was found to be dependent on the time to SO{sub 2} ratio and weight percent chloride in the coal.

  1. Method for locating metallic nitride inclusions in metallic alloy ingots

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    White, Jack C.; Traut, Davis E.; Oden, Laurance L.; Schmitt, Roman A.

    1992-01-01

    A method of determining the location and history of metallic nitride and/or oxynitride inclusions in metallic melts. The method includes the steps of labeling metallic nitride and/or oxynitride inclusions by making a coreduced metallic-hafnium sponge from a mixture of hafnium chloride and the chloride of a metal, reducing the mixed chlorides with magnesium, nitriding the hafnium-labeled metallic-hafnium sponge, and seeding the sponge to be melted with hafnium-labeled nitride inclusions. The ingots are neutron activated and the hafnium is located by radiometric means. Hafnium possesses exactly the proper metallurgical and radiochemical properties for this use.

  2. Electrolytic process for preparing uranium metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haas, Paul A.

    1990-01-01

    An electrolytic process for making uranium from uranium oxide using Cl.sub.2 anode product from an electrolytic cell to react with UO.sub.2 to form uranium chlorides. The chlorides are used in low concentrations in a melt comprising fluorides and chlorides of potassium, sodium and barium in the electrolytic cell. The electrolysis produces Cl.sub.2 at the anode that reacts with UO.sub.2 in the feed reactor to form soluble UCl.sub.4, available for a continuous process in the electrolytic cell, rather than having insoluble UO.sub.2 fouling the cell.

  3. The Influence of Lewis Acid/Base Chemistry on the Removal of Gallium by

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Volatility from Weapons-Grade Plutonium Dissolved in Molten Chlorides (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect The Influence of Lewis Acid/Base Chemistry on the Removal of Gallium by Volatility from Weapons-Grade Plutonium Dissolved in Molten Chlorides Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Influence of Lewis Acid/Base Chemistry on the Removal of Gallium by Volatility from Weapons-Grade Plutonium Dissolved in Molten Chlorides It has been proposed that GaCl{sub 3} can be removed by direct

  4. High energy density battery with cathode composition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nalewajek, D.; Eibeck, R. E.; Sukornick, B.

    1985-10-22

    A cell which employs an active metal anode such as lithium and a liquid organic electrolyte that is improved by the use of a cathode comprised of carbon fluoride chloride is described. The cathode comprises a carbon fluoride chloride of the general formula (C /SUB y/ F /SUB x/ Cl /SUB z/ ) /SUB n/ wherein y is 1 to 2, x is greater than 0 to 1.2, z is less than or equal to0.1 and n defines the number of repeating units occurring in the carbon fluoride chloride molecule of high molecular weight. The resulting battery has improved discharge and shelf-life characteristics.

  5. METHOD OF SEPARATING FISSION PRODUCTS FROM FUSED BISMUTH-CONTAINING URANIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiswall, R.H.

    1958-06-24

    A process is described for removing metal selectively from liquid metal compositions. The method effects separation of flssion product metals selectively from dilute solution in fused bismuth, which contains uraniunn in solution without removal of more than 1% of the uranium. The process comprises contacting the fused bismuth with a fused salt composition consisting of sodium, potassium and lithium chlorides, adding to fused bismuth and molten salt a quantity of bismuth chloride which is stoichiometrically required to convert the flssion product metals to be removed to their chlorides which are more stable in the fused salt than in the molten metal and are, therefore, preferentially taken up in the fused salt phase.

  6. Radiolysis of Salts and Long-Term Storage Issues for Both Pure and Impure PuO{sub 2} Materials in Plutonium Storage Containers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lav Tandon

    2000-05-01

    The Material Identification and Surveillance (MIS) project sponsored a literature search on the effects of radiation on salts, with focus on alkali chlorides. The goal of the survey was to provide a basis for estimating the magnitude of {alpha} radiation effects on alkali chlorides that can accompany plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) into storage. Chloride radiolysis can yield potentially corrosive gases in plutonium storage containers that can adversely affect long-term stability. This literature search was primarily done to provide a tutorial on this topic, especially for personnel with nonradiation chemistry backgrounds.

  7. URANIUM RECOVERY AND PURIFICATION PROCESS AND PRODUCTION OF HIGH PURITY URANIUM TETRAFLUORIDE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bailes, R.H.; Long, R.S.; Grinstead, R.R.

    1957-09-17

    A process is described wherein an anionic exchange technique is employed to separate uramium from a large variety of impurities. Very efficient and economical purification of contamimated uranium can be achieved by treatment of the contaminated uranium to produce a solution containing a high concentration of chloride. Under these conditions the uranium exists as an aniomic chloride complex. Then the uranium chloride complex is adsorbed from the solution on an aniomic exchange resin, whereby a portion of the impurities remain in the solution and others are retained with the uramium by the resin. The adsorbed impurities are then removed by washing the resin with pure concentrated hydrochloric acid, after which operation the uranium is eluted with pure water yielding an acidic uranyl chloride solution of high purity.

  8. CX-013885: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    BH Anhydrite Pond Sample Collection and Analysis - Pilot Test and Full Pond Chlorides Wash CX(s) Applied: B1.3Date: 07/06/2015 Location(s): None ProvidedOffices(s): Strategic Petroleum Reserve Field Office

  9. CX-005770: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Vacuum Salt Distillation of Nonradioactive Chloride, Fluoride, and Hydroxide SaltCX(s) Applied: B3.6Date: 04/15/2011Location(s): Aiken, South CarolinaOffice(s): Environmental Management, Savannah River Operations Office

  10. Quaternary Borate Deposits As A Geothermal Exploration Tool In...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    white in color and are difficult to distinguish visually from more common chloride and sulfate evaporites. For exploration for borates to be practical, it is essential to have an...

  11. Long-Term Measurements of Submicrometer Aerosol

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    non-refractory submicron particulate matter (NR-PM1) including organic aerosol (OA), sulfate (SO 4 2- ), nitrate (NO 3 - ), ammonium (NH 4 + ), and chloride (Cl-). In this study,...

  12. Property:BrineConstituents | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Chloride type brine, "The content of potassium and calcium are high, while that of lithium, boron and sulfate is very low", See table 1 of Izquierdo et al. (2006). + Chena...

  13. A Key Enzyme to the Potency of an Anticancer Agent

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SalL, however, uses chloride to displace L-methionine from S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) and generate 5'-chloro-5'deoxyadenosine (5'-ClDA) in a rarely observed nucleophilic...

  14. CX-013836: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Purification of Zirconium Cladding Using a Chloride Volatility Process - University of Nevada, Las Vegas CX(s) Applied: B3.6Date: 06/09/2015 Location(s): IdahoOffices(s): Nuclear Energy

  15. Tank 241-A-101 cores 154 and 156 analytical results for the final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steen, F.H.

    1997-05-02

    This report contains tables of the analytical results from sampling Tank 241-A-101 for the following: fluorides, chlorides, nitrites, bromides, nitrates, phosphates, sulfates, and oxalates. This tank is listed on the Hydrogen Watch List.

  16. Remedial System Performance Improvement for the 200-ZP-1_PW-1...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    (RSE) of the 200-ZP-1PW-1 groundwater pump and treat (P&T) system, as well as the ... Laboratory POC Point of Compliance P&T Pump and Treat PVC Polyvinyl Chloride QA ...

  17. Preliminary Notice of Violation, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Office of Enforcement issued a Preliminary Notice of Violation (WEA-2009-01) to Stanford University for violations of 10 C.F.R. 851 associated with a polyvinyl chloride pipe ...

  18. Technical databook for geothermal energy utilization (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The result of the survey is given as a current status of data. More emphasis is placed on the viscosity, thermal conductivity and density of sodium chloride solutions up to 350sup ...

  19. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Dixie Valley Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to be related to characteristics of the fluid at Dixie Valley such as a relatively high pH and low concentrations of sulfate and chloride. References Scott A. Wood (2002) Behavior...

  20. Process for converting light alkanes to higher hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Noceti, Richard P.; Taylor, Charles E.

    1988-01-01

    A process is disclosed for the production of aromatic-rich, gasoline boiling range hydrocarbons from the lower alkanes, particularly from methane. The process is carried out in two stages. In the first, alkane is reacted with oxygen and hydrogen chloride over an oxyhydrochlorination catalyst such as copper chloride with minor proportions of potassium chloride and rare earth chloride. This produces an intermediate gaseous mixture containing water and chlorinated alkanes. The chlorinated alkanes are contacted with a crystalline aluminosilicate catalyst in the hydrogen or metal promoted form to produce gasoline range hydrocarbons with a high proportion of aromatics and a small percentage of light hydrocarbons (C.sub.2 -C.sub.4). The light hydrocarbons can be recycled for further processing over the oxyhydrochlorination catalyst.

  1. Yield and quality of cyanobacteria Spirulina maxima in continuous...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in different concentrations of sodium chloride in steady state. Authors: Tadros, M.G. ; Smith, W. ; Joseph, B. 1 + Show Author Affiliations Alabama A&M Univ., Huntsville, AL...

  2. Ion mixing, hydration, and transport in aqueous ionic systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tse, Ying-Lung Steve; Voth, Gregory A.; Witten, Thomas A.

    2015-05-14

    The enhancement effect on the ion mobility of fluoride (and that of chloride) in a polycationic system, as the chloride content increases, is shown to also exist in other more simple ionic systems with cations such as the cesium ion and an organic ammonium ion. As the chloride content increases, in addition to the finding that there is more unbound water associated with the cation, we also observe that the average lifetime of a hydrogen bond decreases. This change to the hydrogen bonds is correlated to significant changes to both the structural and dynamical properties of water. The more disordered water structure and faster water dynamics are hypothesized to be also responsible for the enhanced ion mobilities. Furthermore, when either the chloride content or hydration level is changed, the self-diffusion constant of each co-ion changes by almost the same factor, implying the existence of a single universal transport mechanism that determines ion mobilities.

  3. Preliminary Notice of Violation, Pacific Underground Construction, Inc.- WEA-2009-02

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Issued to Pacific Underground Construction, Inc. related to a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe explosion that occurred in Sector 30 of the linear accelerator facility at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC).

  4. Preliminary Notice of Violation,Western Allied Mechanical, Inc.- WEA-2009-03

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Issued to Western Allied Mechanical, Inc. related to a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe explosion that occurred in Sector 30 of the linear accelerator facility at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC).

  5. Amplification of subnanosecond nitrogen laser pulses in UV dyes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Au, M.; Rayner, D.M.; Malatesta, V.; Hackett, P.A.

    1982-12-01

    The performance of a short pulse netrogen laser system have been improved by replacing the subatmospheric TE nitrogen laser amplifier with a XV xenon chloride excimer pumped dye amplifier. (AIP)

  6. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Frank, Mark R. (2) Prakapenka, Vitali B. (2) Scott, Henry P. (2) Save Results Save this ... Potassium chloride-bearing ice VII and ice planet dynamics Frank, Mark R. ; Scott, Henry ...

  7. CX-013557: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Silver Chloride Injection at the F Area HWMF Barrier Wall CX(s) Applied: B6.1Date: 04/20/2015 Location(s): South CarolinaOffices(s): Savannah River Operations Office

  8. CX-013564: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Installation of Five New Wells for Silver Chloride Injection CX(s) Applied: B3.1Date: 04/15/2015 Location(s): South CarolinaOffices(s): Savannah River Operations Office

  9. CX-000493: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    H-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility Base and Silver Chloride InjectionCX(s) Applied: B6.1Date: 05/28/2009Location(s): Aiken, South CarolinaOffice(s): Environmental Management, Savannah River Operations Office

  10. Performance predictions of alternative, low cost absorbents for open-cycle absorption solar cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ameel, T.A.; Gee, K.G.; Wood, B.D.

    1995-02-01

    To achieve solar fractions greater than 0.90 using the open-cycle absorption refrigeration system, considerable sorbent solution storage is necessary. Having identified the absorber as the system component whose performance is affected the most by a change in absorbent, an absorber model was selected from available literature pertaining to simultaneous heat and mass transfer. Low-cost absorbent candidates were selected and their physical properties were either located in the literature, measured, or estimated. The most promising of the absorbents considered was a mixture of two parts lithium chloride and one part zinc chloride. Both the lithium-zinc chloride mixture and lithium bromide solutions had estimated pumping powers of less than 0.1 kW. The solubility of the lithium-zinc chloride mixture at absorber conditions was improved over that of lithium bromide, reducing the risk of solidification of the solution. 16 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. CX-000496: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    F Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility Silver Chloride Solution Injection WellsCX(s) Applied: B6.2Date: 06/15/2009Location(s): Aiken, South CarolinaOffice(s): Environmental Management, Savannah River Operations Office

  12. Categorical Exclusion Determinations: B6.2 | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    June 15, 2009 CX-000496: Categorical Exclusion Determination F Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility Silver Chloride Solution Injection Wells CX(s) Applied: B6.2 Date: 0615...

  13. Technical databook for geothermal energy utilization (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The data are useful in the design and construction of power plants and for direct use. The ... Subject: 15 GEOTHERMAL ENERGY; 29 ENERGY PLANNING, POLICY AND ECONOMY; SODIUM CHLORIDES; ...

  14. SURFACE TREATMENT OF METALLIC URANIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gray, A.G.; Schweikher, E.W.

    1958-05-27

    The treatment of metallic uranium to provide a surface to which adherent electroplates can be applied is described. Metallic uranium is subjected to an etchant treatment in aqueous concentrated hydrochloric acid, and the etched metal is then treated to dissolve the resulting black oxide and/or chloride film without destroying the etched metal surface. The oxide or chloride removal is effected by means of moderately concentrated nitric acid in 3 to 20 seconds.

  15. METHOD AND COATING COMPOSITION FOR PROTECTING AND DECONTAMINATING SURFACES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Overhold, D.C.; Peterson, M.D.

    1959-03-10

    A protective coating useful in the decontamination of surfaces exposed to radioactive substances is presented. This coating is placed on the surface before use and is soluble in waters allowing its easy removal in the event decontamination becomes necessary. Suitable coating compositions may be prepared by mixing a water soluble carbohydrate such as sucrose or dextrin, together with a hygroscopic agent such as calcium chloride or zinc chloride.

  16. Method and coating composition for protecting and decontaminating surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Overhold, D C; Peterson, M D

    1959-03-10

    A protective coating useful in the decontamination of surfaces exposed to radioactive substances is described. This coating is placed on the surface before use and is soluble in water, allowing its easy removal in the event decontamination becomes necessary. Suitable coating compositions may be prepared by mixing a water soluble carbohydrate such as sucrose or dextrin, together with a hygroscopic agent such as calcium chloride or zinc chloride.

  17. FUSED SALT METHOD FOR COATING URANIUM WITH A METAL

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eubank, L.D.

    1959-02-01

    A method is presented for coating uranium with a less active metal such as Cr, Ni, or Cu comprising immersing the U in a substantially anhydrous molten solution of a halide of these less active metals in a ternary chloride composition which consists of selected percentages of KCl, NaCl and another chloride such as LiCl or CaCl/sub 2/.

  18. Process for recovering tritium from molten lithium metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maroni, Victor A.

    1976-01-01

    Lithium tritide (LiT) is extracted from molten lithium metal that has been exposed to neutron irradiation for breeding tritium within a thermonuclear or fission reactor. The extraction is performed by intimately contacting the molten lithium metal with a molten lithium salt, for instance, lithium chloride - potassium chloride eutectic to distribute LiT between the salt and metal phases. The extracted tritium is recovered in gaseous form from the molten salt phase by a subsequent electrolytic or oxidation step.

  19. Microsoft Word - CLC_transporters bh

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Revealing a New Conformational State in a Chloride/Proton Exchanger "CLC" transporters are secondary active-transport membrane proteins that catalyze the transmembrane exchange of chloride (Cl - ) for protons (H + ). This exchange plays an essential role in proper cardiovascular, neuronal, muscular and epithelial functions. Several diseases arise from CLC defects, and several CLCs are therapeutic targets. For example, the CLC-7 transporter plays a critical role in bone remodeling

  20. Novel methods of copper vapor laser excitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McColl, W.B.; Ching, H.; Bosch, R.; Brake, M.; Gilgenbach, R.

    1990-12-31

    Microwave and intense electron beam excitation of copper vapor are being investigated to be used in copper vapor lasers for isotope separation. Both methods use copper chloride vapor by heating copper chloride. Helium was used as the buffer gas at 2 to 100 torr. In the microwave system, intense copperlines at 510 nm and 578 nm were observed. Initial electron beam results indicate that light emission follows the beam current.

  1. DATE

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6 SECTION A. Project Title: Integrated Effects Testing & Molten Chloride Fast Reactor Development - Southern Company Services, Inc. SECTION B. Project Description Southern Company Services, in collaboration with TerraPower, LLC and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), proposes to advance the technology readiness of the Molten Chloride Fast Reactor (MCFR) technology under development by TerraPower in support of commercial offering by 2035. To support the licensing, detail design, and

  2. Protective Agent-Free Synthesis of Colloidal Cobalt Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balela, M. D. L.; Lockman, Z.; Azizan, A.; Matsubara, E.; Amorsolo, A. V. Jr.

    2010-03-11

    Spherical colloidal cobalt (Co) nanoparticles of about 2-7 nm were synthesized by hydrazine reduction in ethylene glycol at 80 deg. C. The mean diameter of the Co nanoparticles was varied to some extent by changing the pH, temperature, Co(II) chloride hexahydrate concentration, and amount of hydrazine. The Co particle size was reduced by decreasing Co(II) chloride concentration and increasing amount of hydrazine.

  3. Process for removing copper in a recoverable form from solid scrap metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hartman, Alan D.; Oden, Laurance L.; White, Jack C.

    1995-01-01

    A process for removing copper in a recoverable form from a copper/solid ferrous scrap metal mix is disclosed. The process begins by placing a copper/solid ferrous scrap metal mix into a reactor vessel. The atmosphere within the reactor vessel is purged with an inert gas or oxidizing while the reactor vessel is heated in the area of the copper/solid ferrous scrap metal mix to raise the temperature within the reactor vessel to a selected elevated temperature. Air is introduced into the reactor vessel and thereafter hydrogen chloride is introduced into the reactor vessel to obtain a desired air-hydrogen chloride mix. The air-hydrogen chloride mix is operable to form an oxidizing and chloridizing atmosphere which provides a protective oxide coating on the surface of the solid ferrous scrap metal in the mix and simultaneously oxidizes/chloridizes the copper in the mix to convert the copper to a copper monochloride gas for transport away from the solid ferrous scrap metal. After the copper is completely removed from the copper/solid ferrous scrap metal mix, the flows of air and hydrogen chloride are stopped and the copper monochloride gas is collected for conversion to a recoverable copper species.

  4. Synthesis and photocatalytic activity of mesoporous cerium doped TiO{sub 2} as visible light sensitive photocatalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aman, Noor; Satapathy, P.K.; Mishra, T.; Mahato, M.; Das, N.N.

    2012-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Cerium doped titania having optimum 5 wt% of cerium can decompose methylene blue and reduce selenium (IV) efficiently under visible light. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effect of cerium doping on the surface properties and visible light mediated photocatalytic reaction is studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cerium doping increases the anatase phase stability, surface area (up to 137 m{sup 2}/g) and visible light absorption. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Importance of Ce{sup 3+}/Ce{sup 4+}, oxygen vacancy, surface area and crystallinity is correlated with improved catalytic activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Material with 5 wt% Ce is found to be most active photocatalyst for methylene blue decomposition and Se (IV) reduction. -- Abstract: Cerium doped titania materials were synthesized varying the cerium concentration from 0 to 10 wt%. Materials are characterised by XRD, TEM, XPS and N{sub 2} adsorption desorption method. Surface area and visible light absorption substantially increases and crystallite size decreases with the increasing cerium content. Cerium doping stabilizes the anatase phase and surface area even at 600 Degree-Sign C calcination. Photocatalytic activity towards methylene blue decomposition and selenium (IV) reduction is found to increase with the cerium content up to 5 wt% and then decreases. Materials calcined at 600 Degree-Sign C shows better activity than that calcined at 400 Degree-Sign C, even though surface area decreases. Anatase crystallinity mostly decides the photocatalytic activity rather than only surface area. It can be concluded that the optimum visible light absorption and oxygen vacancy with 5% cerium doping enhances the photocatalytic activity. In addition photocatalytic performance is found to depend on the presence of Ce{sup 4+}/Ce{sup 3+} rather than only visible light absorption.

  5. Two-solvent method synthesis of SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles embedded in SBA-15: Gas-sensing and photocatalytic properties study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dai, Peng; Zhang, Lili; Li, Guang; Sun, Zhaoqi; Liu, Xiansong; Wu, Mingzai

    2014-02-01

    Graphical abstract: Different loadings of SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles embedded in mesoporous silica (sample S1, S2 and S3) show higher response to H{sub 2} at lower operating temperature than pure SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles. - Highlights: Two-solvent method is firstly used to synthesize SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles embedded in mesoporous silica (SBA-15). The SnO{sub 2}/SBA-15 nanocomposites show higher response to H{sub 2} at lower operating temperature than pure SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles. The SnO{sub 2}/SBA-15 nanocomposites have higher photodegradation ability toward methylene blue than pure SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles. - Abstract: Different loadings of SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles embedded in mesoporous silica (SBA-15) were prepared via a two-solvent method with the ordered hexagonal mesoporous structure of SBA-15 kept. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and N{sub 2} adsorption porosimetry were employed to characterize the nanocomposites. Compared with pure SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles, the SnO{sub 2}/SBA-15 nanocomposites show higher response to H{sub 2} at lower operating temperature. The photocatalytic activity of as-prepared SnO{sub 2}/SBA-15 for degradation of methylene blue was investigated under UV light irradiation and the results show that the SnO{sub 2}/SBA-15 nanocomposites have higher photodegradation ability toward methylene blue than pure SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles.

  6. Theoretical studies of the reactions H + CH [yields] C + H[sub 2] and C + H[sub 2] [yields] CH[sub 2] using an ab ini global ground-state potential surface for CH[sub 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harding, L.B. ); Guadagnini, R.; Schatz, G.C. )

    1993-05-27

    Ab initio, multireference, configuration interaction (CI) calculations have been used to characterize the ground-state potential surface of methylene. The calculations employ a full-valence complete-active-space reference wave function and a (4s,3p,2d,If/3s,2p,1d) basis set. The calculations were carried out at approximately 6000 points, and the resulting energies were fit to a many-body expansion including conical intersections between the [sup 3]B[sub 1] and [sup 3]A[sub 2] states for C[sub 2v] geometries and between the [sup 3]II and [sup 3][Sigma][sup [minus

  7. Lignin-derived thermoplastic co-polymers and methods of preparation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naskar, Amit K.; Saito, Tomonori; Pickel, Joseph M.; Baker, Frederick S.; Eberle, Claude Clifford; Norris, Robert E.; Mielenz, Jonathan Richard

    2014-06-10

    The present invention relates to a crosslinked lignin comprising a lignin structure having methylene or ethylene linking groups therein crosslinking between phenyl ring carbon atoms, wherein said crosslinked lignin is crosslinked to an extent that it has a number-average molecular weight of at least 10,000 g/mol, is melt-processible, and has either a glass transition temperature of at least 100.degree. C., or is substantially soluble in a polar organic solvent or aqueous alkaline solution. Thermoplastic copolymers containing the crosslinked lignin are also described. Methods for producing the crosslinked lignin and thermoplastic copolymers are also described.

  8. Plasmon-enhanced UV photocatalysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Honda, Mitsuhiro; Saito, Yuika Kawata, Satoshi; Kumamoto, Yasuaki; Taguchi, Atsushi

    2014-02-10

    We report plasmonic nanoparticle enhanced photocatalysis on titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) in the deep-UV range. Aluminum (Al) nanoparticles fabricated on TiO{sub 2} film increases the reaction rate of photocatalysis by factors as high as 14 under UV irradiation in the range of 260340?nm. The reaction efficiency has been determined by measuring the decolorization rate of methylene blue applied on the TiO{sub 2} substrate. The enhancement of photocatalysis shows particle size and excitation wavelength dependence, which can be explained by the surface plasmon resonance of Al nanoparticles.

  9. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Switch to Detail View for this search SciTech Connect Search Results Page 1 of 1 Search for: All records Creators/Authors contains: "Ramasamy, Mohankandhasamy" × Sort by Relevance Sort by Date (newest first) Sort by Date (oldest first) Sort by Relevance « Prev Next » Everything1 Electronic Full Text0 Citations1 Multimedia0 Datasets0 Software0 Filter Results Filter by Subject dispersions (1) ethylene (1) field emission (1) materials science (1) methylene blue (1) nanoparticles (1)

  10. APPLICATION OF VACUUM SALT DISTILLATION TECHNOLOGY FOR THE REMOVAL OF FLUORIDE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierce, R.; Pak, D.

    2011-08-10

    Vacuum distillation of chloride salts from plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) and simulant PuO{sub 2} has been previously demonstrated at Department of Energy (DOE) sites using kilogram quantities of chloride salt. The apparatus for vacuum distillation contains a zone heated using a furnace and a zone actively cooled using either recirculated water or compressed air. During a vacuum distillation operation, a sample boat containing the feed material is placed into the apparatus while it is cool, and the system is sealed. The system is evacuated using a vacuum pump. Once a sufficient vacuum is attained, heating begins. Volatile salts distill from the heated zone to the cooled zone where they condense, leaving behind the non-volatile materials in the feed boat. The application of vacuum salt distillation (VSD) is of interest to the HB-Line Facility and the MOX Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Both facilities are involved in efforts to disposition excess fissile materials. Many of these materials contain chloride and fluoride salt concentrations which make them unsuitable for dissolution without prior removal of the chloride and fluoride salts. Between September 2009 and January 2011, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and HB-Line designed, developed, tested, and successfully deployed a system for the distillation of chloride salts. Subsequent efforts are attempting to adapt the technology for the removal of fluoride. Fluoride salts of interest are less-volatile than the corresponding chloride salts. Consequently, an alternate approach is required for the removal of fluoride without significantly increasing the operating temperature. HB-Line Engineering requested SRNL to evaluate and demonstrate the feasibility of an alternate approach using both non-radioactive simulants and plutonium-bearing materials. Whereas the earlier developments targeted the removal of sodium chloride (NaCl) and potassium chloride (KCl), the current activities are concerned with the removal of the halide ions associated with plutonium trifluoride (PuF{sub 3}), plutonium tetrafluoride (PuF{sub 4}), calcium fluoride (CaF{sub 2}), and calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}). This report discusses non-radioactive testing of small-scale and pilot-scale systems and radioactive testing of a small-scale system. Experiments focused on demonstrating the chemistry for halide removal and addressing the primary engineering questions associated with a change in the process chemistry.

  11. Recovery of UO[sub 2]/PuO[sub 2] in IFR electrorefining process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tomczuk, Z.; Miller, W.E.

    1994-10-18

    A process is described for converting PuO[sub 2] and UO[sub 2] present in an electrorefiner to the chlorides, by contacting the PuO[sub 2] and UO[sub 2] with Li metal in the presence of an alkali metal chloride salt substantially free of rare earth and actinide chlorides for a time and at a temperature sufficient to convert the UO[sub 2] and PuO[sub 2] to metals while converting Li metal to Li[sub 2]O. Li[sub 2]O is removed either by reducing with rare earth metals or by providing an oxygen electrode for transporting O[sub 2] out of the electrorefiner and a cathode, and thereafter applying an emf to the electrorefiner electrodes sufficient to cause the Li[sub 2]O to disassociate to O[sub 2] and Li metal but insufficient to decompose the alkali metal chloride salt. The U and Pu and excess lithium are then converted to chlorides by reaction with CdCl[sub 2].

  12. Method of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bray, L.A.; Ryan, J.L.

    1999-03-23

    The present invention is a method of removing an impurity of plutonium, lead or a combination thereof from a mixture of radionuclides that contains the impurity and at least one parent radionuclide. The method has the steps of (a) insuring that the mixture is a hydrochloric acid mixture; (b) oxidizing the acidic mixture and specifically oxidizing the impurity to its highest oxidation state; and (c) passing the oxidized mixture through a chloride form anion exchange column whereupon the oxidized impurity absorbs to the chloride form anion exchange column and the {sup 229}Th or {sup 227}Ac ``cow`` radionuclide passes through the chloride form anion exchange column. The plutonium is removed for the purpose of obtaining other alpha emitting radionuclides in a highly purified form suitable for medical therapy. In addition to plutonium, lead, iron, cobalt, copper, uranium, and other metallic cations that form chloride anionic complexes that may be present in the mixture are removed from the mixture on the chloride form anion exchange column. 8 figs.

  13. Bismuth generator method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bray, L.A.; DesChane, J.R.

    1998-05-05

    A method is described for separating {sup 213}Bi from a solution of radionuclides wherein the solution contains a concentration of the chloride ions and hydrogen ions adjusted to allow the formation of a chloride complex. The solution is then brought into contact with an anion exchange resin, whereupon {sup 213}Bi is absorbed from the solution and adhered onto the anion exchange resin in the chloride complex. Other non-absorbing radionuclides such as {sup 225}Ra, {sup 225}Ac, and {sup 221}Fr, along with HCl are removed from the anion exchange resin with a scrub solution. The {sup 213}Bi is removed from the anion exchange resin by washing the anion exchange resin with a stripping solution free of chloride ions and with a reduced hydrogen ion concentration which breaks the chloride anionic complex, releasing the {sup 213}Bi as a cation. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the anion exchange resin is provided as a thin membrane, allowing for extremely rapid adherence and stripping of the {sup 213}Bi. A preferred stripping solution for purification of {sup 213}Bi for use in medical applications includes sodium acetate, pH 5.5. A protein conjugated with bifunctional chelating agents in vivo with the NaOAc receives the {sup 213}Bi as it is being released from the anion exchange resin. 10 figs.

  14. Bismuth generator method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bray, Lane Allan; DesChane, Jaquetta R.

    1998-01-01

    A method for separating .sup.213 Bi from a solution of radionuclides wherein the solution contains a concentration of the chloride ions and hydrogen ions adjusted to allow the formation of a chloride complex. The solution is then brought into contact with an anion exchange resin, whereupon .sup.213 Bi is absorbed from the solution and adhered onto the anion exchange resin in the chloride complex. Other non-absorbing radionuclides such as .sup.225 Ra, .sup.225 Ac, and .sup.221 Fr, along with HCl are removed from the anion exchange resin with a scrub solution. The .sup.213 Bi is removed from the anion exchange resin by washing the anion exchange resin with a stripping solution free of chloride ions and with a reduced hydrogen ion concentration which breaks the chloride anionic complex, releasing the .sup.213 Bi as a cation. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the anion exchange resin is provided as a thin membrane, allowing for extremely rapid adherence and stripping of the .sup.213 Bi. A preferred stripping solution for purification of .sup.213 Bi for use in medical applications includes sodium acetate, pH 5.5. A protein conjugated with bifunctional chelating agents in vivo with the NaOAc, to receive the .sup.213 Bi as it is being released from the anion exchange resin.

  15. Method of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bray, Lane A.; Ryan, Jack L.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is a method of removing an impurity of plutonium, lead or a combination thereof from a mixture of radionuclides that contains the impurity and at least one parent radionuclide. The method has the steps of (a) insuring that the mixture is a hydrochloric acid mixture; (b) oxidizing the acidic mixture and specifically oxidizing the impurity to its highest oxidation state; and (c) passing the oxidized mixture through a chloride form anion exchange column whereupon the oxidized impurity absorbs to the chloride form anion exchange column and the 22.sup.9 Th or 2.sup.27 Ac "cow" radionuclide passes through the chloride form anion exchange column. The plutonium is removed for the purpose of obtaining other alpha emitting radionuclides in a highly purified form suitable for medical therapy. In addition to plutonium; lead, iron, cobalt, copper, uranium, and other metallic cations that form chloride anionic complexes that may be present in the mixture; are removed from the mixture on the chloride form anion exchange column.

  16. Lead induced stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 690 in high temperature water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, K.K.; Lim, J.K.; Moriya, Shinichi; Watanabe, Yutaka; Shoji, Tetsuo

    1995-12-31

    Recent investigations of cracked steam generator tubes at nuclear power plants concluded that lead significantly contributed to cracking the Alloy 600 materials. In order to investigate the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of Alloy 690, slow strain rate tests (SSRT) and anodic polarization measurements were performed. The SSRTs were conducted in a lead-chloride solution (PbCl{sub 2}) and in a chloride but lead free solution (NaCl) at pH of 3 and 4.5 at 288 C. The anodic polarization measurements were carried out at 30 C using the same solutions as in SSRT. The SSRT results showed that Alloy 690 was susceptible to SCC in both solutions. In the lead chloride solution, cracking had slight dependence on lead concentration and pH. Cracking tend to increase with a higher lead concentration and a lower pH and was mainly intergranular and was to be a few tens to hundreds micrometers in length. In the chloride only solution, cracking was similar to the lead induced SCC. The results of anodic polarization measurement and electron probe micro analysis (EPMA) helped to understand lead induced SCC. Lead was a stronger active corrosive element but had a minor affect on cracking susceptibility of the alloy. While, chloride was quite different from lead effect to SCC. A possible mechanism of lead induced SCC of Alloy 690 was also discussed based on the test results.

  17. Recovery of UO{sub 2}/PuO{sub 2} in IFR electrorefining process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tomczuk, Z.; Miller, W.E.

    1992-01-01

    This invention is comprised of a process for converting PuO{sub 2} and U0{sub 2} present in an electrorefiner to the chlorides, by contacting the PuO{sub 2} and U0{sub 2} with Li metal in the presence of an alkali metal chloride salt substantially free of rare earth and actinide chlorides for a time and at a temperature sufficient to convert the U0{sub 2} and PuO{sub 2} to metals while converting Li metal to Li{sub 2}O. Li{sub 2}O is removed either by reducing with rare earth metals or by providing an oxygen electrode for transporting 0{sub 2} out of the electrorefiner and a cathode, and thereafter applying an emf to the electrorefiner electrodes sufficient to cause the Li{sub 2}O to disassociate to 0{sub 2} and Li metal but insufficient to decompose the alkali metal chloride salt. The U and Pu and excess lithium are then converted to chlorides by reaction with CdCl{sub 2}.

  18. Recovery of UO.sub.2 /Pu O.sub.2 in IFR electrorefining process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tomczuk, Zygmunt; Miller, William E.

    1994-01-01

    A process for converting PuO.sub.2 and UO.sub.2 present in an electrorefiner to the chlorides, by contacting the PuO.sub.2 and UO.sub.2 with Li metal in the presence of an alkali metal chloride salt substantially free of rare earth and actinide chlorides for a time and at a temperature sufficient to convert the UO.sub.2 and PuO.sub.2 to metals while converting Li metal to Li.sub.2 O. Li.sub.2 O is removed either by reducing with rare earth metals or by providing an oxygen electrode for transporting O.sub.2 out of the electrorefiner and a cathode, and thereafter applying an emf to the electrorefiner electrodes sufficient to cause the Li.sub.2 O to disassociate to O.sub.2 and Li metal but insufficient to decompose the alkali metal chloride salt. The U and Pu and excess lithium are then converted to chlorides by reaction with CdCl.sub.2.

  19. Synthesis of visible light-activated TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst via surface organic modification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang Dong Xu Yao Hou Bo; Wu Dong; Sun Yuhan

    2007-05-15

    A visible light-activated TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst was successfully synthesized by the surface organic modification to sol-gel-hydrothermal synthesized TiO{sub 2}. The surface hydroxyls of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles reacted with the active -NCO groups of tolylene diisocyanate (TDI) to form a surface complex that was confirmed by the FT-IR and XPS spectra. Due to the existence of surface complex, the absorption edge of as-prepared TDI-modified TiO{sub 2} nanomaterial extended well into visible region. Compared with unmodified TiO{sub 2} and Degussa P25, the TDI-modified TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts showed higher activity for the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue under visible light irradiation. - Graphical abstract: A visible light-activated TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst was successfully synthesized by the surface organic modification to TiO{sub 2}. The surface hydroxyls of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles reacted with the active -NCO groups of tolylene diisocyanate (TDI) to form a surface complex. The TDI-modified TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts showed higher activity for the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue under visible light irradiation.

  20. Synthesis of supported silver nano-spheres on zinc oxide nanorods for visible light photocatalytic applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saoud, Khaled; Alsoubaihi, Rola; Bensalah, Nasr; Bora, Tanujjal; Bertino, Massimo; Dutta, Joydeep

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: Synthesis of supported Ag NPs on ZnO nanorods using open vessel microwave reactor. Use of the Ag/ZnO NPs as an efficient visible light photocatalyst. Complete degradation of methylene blue in 1 h with 0.5 g/L Ag/ZnO NPs. - Abstract: We report the synthesis of silver (Ag) nano-spheres (NS) supported on zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods through two step mechanism, using open vessel microwave reactor. Direct reduction of ZnO from zinc nitrates was followed by deposition precipitation of the silver on the ZnO nanorods. The supported Ag/ZnO nanoparticles were then characterized by electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, FTIR, photoluminescence and UVvis spectroscopy. The visible light photocatalytic activity of Ag/ZnO system was investigated using a test contaminant, methylene blue (MB). Almost complete removal of MB in about 60 min for doses higher than 0.5 g/L of the Ag/ZnO photocatalyst was achieved. This significant improvement in the photocatalytic efficiency of Ag/ZnO photocatalyst under visible light irradiation can be attributed to the presence of Ag nanoparticles on the ZnO nanoparticles which greatly enhances absorption in the visible range of solar spectrum enabled by surface plasmon resonance effect from Ag nanoparticles.

  1. The effect of Ce{sup 4+} incorporation on structural, morphological and photocatalytic characters of ZnO nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kannadasan, N.; Shanmugam, N. Cholan, S.; Sathishkumar, K.; Viruthagiri, G.; Poonguzhali, R.

    2014-11-15

    We report a simple chemical precipitation method for the preparation of undoped and cerium doped ZnO nanocrystals. The concentration of cerium in the products can be controlled in the range of 0.0250.125 mol. The structure and chemical compositions of the products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy; energy dispersive spectrum and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results demonstrate that Ce{sup 4+} ions were successfully incorporated into the lattice position of Zn{sup 2+} ions in ZnO. The morphology of the products was analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscopy and confirmed by high resolution transmission electron microscope analysis. The optical properties of the products were studied by ultravioletvisible and room temperature photoluminescence measurements. The photoluminescence emission spectra of Ce-doped ZnO showed enhanced visible emissions as a result of 5d ? 4f transition of cerium. In particular, a novel photocatalytic activity of the products was assessed using methylene blue. The obtained result reveals that Ce-doped products show higher reduction efficiency for methylene blue than the undoped ZnO. - Highlights: Nanocrystals of ZnO and ZnO:Ce{sup 4+} were grown. XPS results confirmed the incorporated cerium in tetravalence. PL emission exhibited 5d ? 4f transition on cerium doping. Doped ZnO decolorizes MB faster than undoped ZnO.

  2. Template synthesis of Ag/AgCl microrods and their efficient visible light-driven photocatalytic performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Hua; Xiao, Liang; Huang, Jianhua

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: Preparation ofAg/AgCl microrods by reaction of Ag{sub 2}WO{sub 4} microrods with NaCl solution. Generation of metallic Ag is induced by the ambient light in the synthesis process. Ag/AgCl shows excellent visible light-driven photodegradation of organic dyes. - Abstract: Ag/AgCl microrods, aggregated by nanoparticles with a diameter ranging from 100 nm to 2 ?m, were prepared by an ion-exchange reaction at 80 C between Ag{sub 2}WO{sub 4} template and NaCl solution. The existence of metallic Ag species was confirmed by XRD, DRS and XPS measurements. Ag/AgCl microrods showed excellent photocatalytic activity for the degradation of rhodamine B and methylene blue under visible light irradiation. The degradation rate constants of rhodamine B and methylene blue are 0.176 and 0.114 min{sup ?1}, respectively. The cycling photodegradation experiments suggest that Ag/AgCl microds could be employed as stable plasmonic photocatalysts for the degradation of organic dyes under visible light irradiation.

  3. Geopolymeric adsorbents from fly ash for dye removal from aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, L.; Wang, S.B.; Zhu, Z.H.

    2006-08-01

    Adsorbents from coal fly ash treated by a solid-state fusion method using NaOH were prepared. It was found that amorphous aluminosilicate, geopolymers would be formed. These fly ash-derived inorganic polymers were assessed as potential adsorbents for removal of some basic dyes, methylene blue and crystal violet, from aqueous solution. It was found that the adsorption capacity of the synthesised adsorbents depends on the preparation conditions such as NaOH:fly-ash ratio and fusion temperature with the optimal conditions being at 1.2:1 weight ratio of Na:fly-ash at 250-350{sup o}C. The synthesised materials exhibit much higher adsorption capacity than fly ash itself and natural zeolite. The adsorption isotherm can be fitted by Langmuir and Freundlich models while the two-site Langmuir model produced the best results. It was also found that the fly ash derived geopolymeric adsorbents show higher adsorption capacity for crystal violet than methylene blue and the adsorption temperature influences the adsorption capacity. Kinetic studies show that the adsorption process follows the pseudo second-order kinetics.

  4. Pencil-like zinc oxide micro/nano-scale structures: Hydrothermal synthesis, optical and photocatalytic properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moulahi, A.; Sediri, F.

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: Zinc oxide micro/nanopencils have been synthesized hydrothermally. Photocatalytic activity has been evaluated by the degradation of methylene blue under UV light irradiation. ZnO nanopencils exhibit much higher photocatalytic activity than the commercial ZnO. - Abstract: Zinc oxide micro/nanopencils have been successfully synthesized by hydrothermal process using zinc acetate and diamines as structure-directing agents. The morphology, the structure, the crystallinity and the composition of the materials were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The optical properties of synthesized ZnO were investigated by UVvis spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity of the material has been evaluated by the degradation of methylene blue under UV irradiation. As a result, after the lapse of 150 min, around 82% bleaching was observed, with ZnO nanopencils yielding more photodegradation compared to that of commercial ZnO (61%)

  5. Characterization of CMPO and its radiolysis products by Direct Infusion ESI-MS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. S. Groenewold; G. Elias; B. J. Mincher; S. P. Mezyk

    2012-09-01

    Direct infusion electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) approaches were developed for rapid identification of octyl,phenyl,(N,N-(diisobutyl)carbamoylmethyl) phosphine oxide (CMPO) and impurity compounds formed during alpha and gamma irradiation experiments. CMPO is an aggressive Lewis base, and produces extremely abundant metal complex ions in the ESI-MS analysis that make identification of low abundance compounds that are less nucleophilic challenging. Radiolysis products were identified using several approaches including restricting ion trapping so as to exclude the abundant natiated CMPO ions, extraction of acidic products using aqueous NaOH, and extraction of basic products using HNO3. These approaches generated protonated, natiated and deprotonated species derived from CMPO degradation products formed via radiolytic cleavages of several different bonds. Cleavages of the amide and methylene-phosphoryl bonds appear to be favored by both forms of irradiation, while alpha irradiation also appears to induce cleavage of the methylene-carbonyl bond. The degradation products observed are formed from recombination of the initially formed radicals with hydrogen, methyl, isopropyl and hydroxyl radicals that are derived either from CMPO, or the dodecane solvent.

  6. A comparison of the alpha and gamma radiolysis of CMPO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce J. Mincher; Stephen P. Mezyk; Gary Groenewold; Gracy Elias

    2011-06-01

    The radiation chemistry of CMPO has been investigated using a combination of irradiation and analytical techniques. The {alpha}-, and {gamma}-irradiation of CMPO resulted in identical degradation rates (G-value, in {mu}mol Gy{sup -1}) for both radiation types, despite the difference in their linear energy transfer (LET). Similarly, variations in {gamma}-ray dose rates did not affect the degradation rate of CMPO. The solvent extraction behavior was different for the two radiation types, however. Gamma-irradiation resulted in steadily increasing distribution ratios for both forward and stripping extractions, with respect to increasing absorbed radiation dose. This was true for samples irradiated as a neat organic solution, or irradiated in contact with the acidic aqueous phase. In contrast, {alpha}-irradiated samples showed a rapid drop in distribution ratios for forward and stripping extractions, followed by essentially constant distribution ratios at higher absorbed doses. These differences in extraction behavior are reconciled by mass spectrometric examination of CMPO decomposition products under the different irradiation sources. Irradiation by {gamma}-rays resulted in the rupture of phosphoryl-methylene bonds with the production of phosphinic acid products. These species are expected to be complexing agents for americium that would result in higher distribution ratios. Irradiation by {alpha}-sources appeared to favor rupture of carbamoyl-methylene bonds with the production of less deleterious acetamide products.

  7. Reactions of platinum in oxygen- and hydrogen-treated Pt/. gamma. -Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalysts. I. Temperature-programmed reduction, adsorption, and redispersion of platinum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lieske, H.; Lietz, G.; Spindler, H.; Voelter, J.

    1983-05-01

    Alumina-supported platinum (Pt/..gamma..-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/) catalysts with and without chloride (Cl) were treated at different temperatures in oxygen (O) or hydrogen (H/sub 2/) and were studied by temperature-programmed reduction and by hydrogen adsorption. Two surface oxides, ..cap alpha..- and ..beta..-(PtO/sub 2/)/sub s/, and two chloride-containing surface complexes, (Pt/sup IV/(OH)/sub x/Cl/sub y/)/sub s/ and (Pt/sup IV/O/sub x/Cl/sub y/)/sub s/, could be found and a comprehensive scheme of surface reactions is proposed. Redispersion of Pt in oxygen is possible only in the presence of chloride and is connected with the formation of (Pt/sup IV/O/sub x/Cl/sub y/)/sub s/. A model for the redispersion is proposed. 7 figures.

  8. Electrochemical method of producing eutectic uranium alloy and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horton, James A. (Livermore, CA); Hayden, H. Wayne (Oakridge, TN)

    1995-01-01

    An apparatus and method for continuous production of liquid uranium alloys through the electrolytic reduction of uranium chlorides. The apparatus includes an electrochemical cell formed from an anode shaped to form an electrolyte reservoir, a cathode comprising a metal, such as iron, capable of forming a eutectic uranium alloy having a melting point less than the melting point of pure uranium, and molten electrolyte in the reservoir comprising a chlorine or fluorine containing salt and uranium chloride. The method of the invention produces an eutectic uranium alloy by creating an electrolyte reservoir defined by a container comprising an anode, placing an electrolyte in the reservoir, the electrolyte comprising a chlorine or fluorine containing salt and uranium chloride in molten form, positioning a cathode in the reservoir where the cathode comprises a metal capable of forming an uranium alloy having a melting point less than the melting point of pure uranium, and applying a current between the cathode and the anode.

  9. Influence of mobile ion concentrations on the chemical composition of geothermal waters in granitic areas; Example of hot springs form Piemonte Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michard, G.; Grimaud, D. ); D'Amore, F.; Fancelli, R. )

    1989-01-01

    The six hot springs from Vinadio and the springs from Valdieri (Piemonte, Italy) have similar emergence temperatures ({approximately}50{degrees} C), similar deep temperatures ({approximately}115{degrees} C) and their chloride content varies from 0.9 to 30 mmol/kg. Major elements and some trace elements concentrations (Li, Rb, Cs, Sr, Ba, Mn) correlate closely with Na concentrations. The correlations in a log-log diagram are linear with a slope close to the electric charge of the ion. This is explained, for major elements, by an equilibrium between a complete assemblage of minerals and a water containing varying amounts of chloride. It is suggested, from the Cl/Br ratio, that chloride originates by halite dissolution during the descent of the water.

  10. Evaluation of the US Geological Survey ground-water data-collection program in Hawaii, 1992. Water-resources investigations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anthony, S.S.

    1997-12-31

    This report describes an evaluation of the 1992 USGS ground-water data-collection program in Hawaii. The occurrence of ground water in the Hawaiian islands is briefly described. Objectives for the data-collection program are identified followed by a description of well networks needed to prepare maps of water levels and chloride concentrations. For the islands of Oahu, Kauai, Maui, Molokai, and Hawaii, the wells in the 1992 ground-water data-collection program are described followed by maps showing the distribution and magnitude of pumpage, and the distribution of proposed pumped wells. Wells in the 1992 USGS ground-water data-collection program that provide useful data for mapping water levels and chloride concentrations are identified followed by locations where additional wells are needed for water-level and chloride-concentration data. In addition, a procedure to store and review data is described.

  11. Carbon nanotubes grown on bulk materials and methods for fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Menchhofer, Paul A.; Montgomery, Frederick C.; Baker, Frederick S.

    2011-11-08

    Disclosed are structures formed as bulk support media having carbon nanotubes formed therewith. The bulk support media may comprise fibers or particles and the fibers or particles may be formed from such materials as quartz, carbon, or activated carbon. Metal catalyst species are formed adjacent the surfaces of the bulk support material, and carbon nanotubes are grown adjacent the surfaces of the metal catalyst species. Methods employ metal salt solutions that may comprise iron salts such as iron chloride, aluminum salts such as aluminum chloride, or nickel salts such as nickel chloride. Carbon nanotubes may be separated from the carbon-based bulk support media and the metal catalyst species by using concentrated acids to oxidize the carbon-based bulk support media and the metal catalyst species.

  12. Aerosol characterization study using multi-spectrum remote sensing measurement techniques.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glen, Crystal Chanea; Sanchez, Andres L.; Lucero, Gabriel Anthony; Schmitt, Randal L.; Johnson, Mark S.; Tezak, Matthew Stephen; Servantes, Brandon Lee

    2013-09-01

    A unique aerosol flow chamber coupled with a bistatic LIDAR system was implemented to measure the optical scattering cross sections and depolarization ratio of common atmospheric particulates. Each of seven particle types (ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, sodium chloride, potassium chloride, black carbon and Arizona road dust) was aged by three anthropogenically relevant mechanisms: 1. Sulfuric acid deposition, 2. Toluene ozonolysis reactions, and 3. m-Xylene ozonolysis reactions. The results of pure particle scattering properties were compared with their aged equivalents. Results show that as most particles age under industrial plume conditions, their scattering cross sections are similar to pure black carbon, which has significant impacts to our understanding of aerosol impacts on climate. In addition, evidence emerges that suggest chloride-containing aerosols are chemically altered during the organic aging process. Here we present the direct measured scattering cross section and depolarization ratios for pure and aged atmospheric particulates.

  13. PROCESS FOR SEPARATING AMERICIUM AND CURIUM FROM RARE EARTH ELEMENTS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baybarz, R.D.; Lloyd, M.H.

    1963-02-26

    This invention relates to methods of separating americium and curium values from rare earth values. In accordance with the invention americium, curium, and rare earth values are sorbed on an anion exchange resin. A major portion of the rare earth values are selectively stripped from the resin with a concentrated aqueous solution of lithium chloride, and americium, curium, and a minor portion of rare earth values are then stripped from the resin with a dilute aqueous solution of lithium chloride. The americium and curium values are further purified by increasing the concentration of lithium chloride in the solution to at least 8 molar and selectively extracting rare earth values from the resulting solution with a monoalkylphosphoric acid. (AEC)

  14. Novel Self-Thickening Chemicals for Improved Conformance Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patrick J. Shuler, Ph.D.

    2011-07-18

    The objective of this project is to identify single chemical agents that exhibit a desirable rheological property whereby if such a chemical is dissolved in salt water it increases the solution viscosity significantly with time. We term that behavior as 'self-thickening' and have nicknamed this as 'T85 technology'. As detailed in the original project proposal, such single chemical products can be applied to advantage as agents for selectively slowing or blocking high flow water channels in subsurface oil reservoirs. The net effect is a decrease in water and an increase in oil flow and production. The initial testing has focused on five different synthetic co-polymers that have two or more chemical groups. These chemicals were dissolved at a concentration of 2500 ppm into different salt solutions (sodium chloride, potassium chloride, and calcium chloride) that encompass a range of dissolved salt concentrations. For the sodium chloride and potassium chloride solutions the salt concentration ranged from 1-5 wt%. The calcium chloride dihydrate sample concentrations ranged from 0.1-1 wt%. One set of samples being aged at 25 C and a second set at 50 C. Viscosity measurements versus aging time show two of these agents may exhibit apparent self-thickening behavior under certain salinity and temperature conditions. Generally the effect is greater in lower salinity NaCl brines and at 25 C. Preliminary flow experiments confirm that the aged fluids exhibit increased effective viscosity while flowing through a porous medium (sand pack). These flow tests include the case of the chemical fluid being aged on the bench before injection into a sand pack, and also a second series of sand packs where fresh chemical fluid is injected and allowed to age in-situ. Thus, the results of the static ageing tests together with the flow tests are a technical validation of the T85 concept.

  15. Ground-water solutes and eolian processes: An example from the High Plains of Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, W.W.; Sanford, W.E. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Eolian dunes associated with saline-lake basins are important geologic features in arid and semiarid areas. The authors propose that eolian processes may also be important in controlling solute concentration and composition of ground water in these environments. A study of Double Lakes on the Southern High Plains of Texas suggests that approximately 200 megagrams of chloride enters this topographically closed basin from the surrounding water table aquifer, direct precipitation and surface runoff. Solute-transport simulation suggest that approximately 70 of the 200 megagrams of the chloride annually leaves the basin by diffusion and ground-water advection through a 30 meter-thick shale underlying the lake. The remaining 130 megagrams is hypothesized to be removed by eolian processes. Closed water-table contours around the lake and a hydrologic analysis suggest that it is improbable that solutes will reach the surrounding water-table aquifer by ground-water transport from this lake system. The conceptual eolian-transport model is further supported by observed chloride profiles in the unsaturated zone. When analyzed with estimates of recharge fluxes, these profiles suggest that approximately 150 megagrams of chloride enter the unsaturated zone downwind of the lake annually. Thus two independent methods suggest that 130 to 150 megagrams of chloride enter the unsaturated zone downwind of the lake annually. Thus two independent methods suggest that 130 to 150 megagrams of chloride are removed from the basin annually by eolian process and redeposited downwind of the lake. Eolian input to the ground water is consistent with the observed plume shape as well as with the solute and isotopic composition of ground water in the water-table aquifer downwind of the lake basin.

  16. Diluted magnetic semiconductor nanowires exhibiting magnetoresistance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Peidong; Choi, Heonjin; Lee, Sangkwon; He, Rongrui; Zhang, Yanfeng; Kuykendal, Tevye; Pauzauskie, Peter

    2011-08-23

    A method for is disclosed for fabricating diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) nanowires by providing a catalyst-coated substrate and subjecting at least a portion of the substrate to a semiconductor, and dopant via chloride-based vapor transport to synthesize the nanowires. Using this novel chloride-based chemical vapor transport process, single crystalline diluted magnetic semiconductor nanowires Ga.sub.1-xMn.sub.xN (x=0.07) were synthesized. The nanowires, which have diameters of .about.10 nm to 100 nm and lengths of up to tens of micrometers, show ferromagnetism with Curie temperature above room temperature, and magnetoresistance up to 250 Kelvin.

  17. Preparation and characterization of nanodiamond cores coated with a thin Ni-Zn-P alloy film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Rui; Ye Weichun; Ma Chuanli; Wang Chunming

    2008-02-15

    Nanodiamond cores coated with a thin Ni-Zn-P alloy film were prepared by an electroless deposition method under the conditions of tin chloride sensitization and palladium chloride activation. The prepared materials were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The nanostructure of the materials was then characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The alloy film composition was characterized by Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. The results indicated the approximate composition 49.84%Ni-37.29%Zn-12.88%P was obtained.

  18. Carbon film electrodes for super capacitor applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tan, Ming X.

    1999-01-01

    A microporous carbon film for use as electrodes in energy strorage devices is disclosed, which is made by the process comprising the steps of: (1) heating a polymer film material consisting essentially of a copolymer of polyvinylidene chloride and polyvinyl chloride in an inert atmosphere to form a carbon film; and (2) activating said carbon film to form said microporous carbon film having a density between about 0.7 g/cm.sup.2 and 1 g/cm.sup.2 and a gravimetric capacitance of about between 120 F/g and 315 F/g.

  19. FUSED SALT PROCESS FOR RECOVERY OF VALUES FROM USED NUCLEAR REACTOR FUELS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, R.H.

    1960-08-01

    A process is given for recovering plutonium from a neutron-irradiated uranium mass (oxide or alloy) by dissolving the mass in an about equimolar alkali metalaluminum double chloride, adding aluminum metal to the mixture obtained at a temperature of between 260 and 860 deg C, and separating a uranium-containing metal phase and a plutonium-chloride- and fission-product chloridecontaining salt phase. Dissolution can be expedited by passing carbon tetrachloride vapors through the double salt. Separation without reduction of plutonium from neutron- bombarded uranium and that of cerium from uranium are also discussed.

  20. Regeneration of anion exchange resins by catalyzed electrochemical reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gu, Baohua; Brown, Gilbert M.

    2002-01-01

    Anion exchange resins sorbed with perchlorate may be regenerated by a combination of chemical reduction of perchlorate to chloride using a reducing agent and an electrochemical reduction of the oxidized reducing agent. Transitional metals including Ti, Re, and V are preferred chemical reagents for the reduction of perchlorate to chloride. Complexing agents such as oxalate are used to prevent the precipitation of the oxidized Ti(IV) species, and ethyl alcohol may be added to accelerate the reduction kinetics of perchlorate. The regeneration may be performed by continuously recycling the regenerating solution through the resin bed and an electrochemical cell so that the secondary waste generation is minimized.

  1. REGENERATION OF REACTOR FUEL ELEMENTS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lyon, W.L.

    1960-04-01

    A process is described for concentrating uranium and/or plutonium metal in aluminum alloys in which the actinide content was partially consumed by neutron bombardinent. Two embodiments are claimed: Either the alloy is heated, together with zinc chloride to at least 1000 deg C whereby some aluminum, in the form of aluminum chloride, and any zinc formed volatilize; or else aluminum fluoride is added and reacted at 800 to 1000 deg O and substmospheric pressure whereby pant of the aluminum volatilizes and aluminum subfluoride.

  2. Palladium on kieselguhr

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mosley, W.C.

    1988-01-11

    Palladium supported in kieselguhr (Pd/K) is a candidate material for processing of hydrogen isotopes at Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) and Savannah River Plant (SRP). Kieselguhr is a porous, sedimentary rock composed of silicified skeletal remains of single-celled aquatic plants called diatoms. SRL has developed a process for deposition of palladium on kieselguhr particles using immersion in an ammonical palladium chloride solution followed by heating in hydrogen to decompose the chloride to metallic palladium. The goal is to produce Pd/K particles with less than 250 ppm chlorine.

  3. Decomposition of chlorinated ethylenes and ethanes in an electron beam generated plasma reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vitale, S.A.

    1996-02-01

    An electron beam generated plasma reactor (EBGPR) is used to determine the plasma chemistry kinetics, energetics and decomposition pathways of six chlorinated ethylenes and ethanes: 1,1,1-trichloroethane, 1,1-dichloroethane, ethyl chloride, trichloroethylene, 1,1-dichloroethylene, and vinyl chloride. A traditional chemical kinetic and chemical engineering analysis of the data from the EBGPR is performed, and the following hypothesis was verified: The specific energy required for chlorinated VOC decomposition in the electron beam generated plasma reactor is determined by the electron attachment coefficient of the VOC and the susceptibility of the molecule to radical attack. The technology was demonstrated at the Hanford Reservation to remove VOCs from soils.

  4. Study of integration issues to realize the market potential of OTEC energy in the aluminum industry. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Jr., M. S.; Thiagarajan, V.; Sathyanarayana, K.; Markel, A. L.; Snyder, III, J. E.; Sprouse, A. M.; Leshaw, D.

    1980-09-01

    The various integration issues are studied which must be considered to realize the market potential for the use of OTEC by the aluminum industry. The chloride reduction process has been identified as an attractive candidate for use with OTEC systems, and drained-cathode Hall cells and two alternative chloride reduction processes are considered. OTEC power system and plantships for the different processes are described. Aluminum industry characteristics important for OTEC considerations are given, including economic models and case history analyses. Appended are supporting cost estimates and energy bridge concepts for getting OTEC energy to shore. (LEW)

  5. Carbon film electrodes for super capacitor applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan, M.X.

    1999-11-30

    A microporous carbon film for use as electrodes in energy storage devices is disclosed, which is made by the process comprising the steps of: (1) heating a polymer film material consisting essentially of a copolymer of polyvinylidene chloride and polyvinyl chloride in an inert atmosphere to form a carbon film; and (2) activating said carbon film to form said microporous carbon film having a density between about 0.7 g/cm{sup 2} and 1 g/cm{sup 2} and a gravimetric capacitance of about between 120 F/g and 315 F/g.

  6. Sequential pyrolysis of plastic to recover polystyrene HCL and terephthalic acid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, Robert J. (Lakewood, CO); Chum, Helena L. (Arvada, CO)

    1995-01-01

    A process of pyrolyzing plastic waste feed streams containing polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene terephthalate, polystyrene and polyethylene to recover polystyrene HCl and terephthalic acid comprising: heating the plastic waste feed stream to a first temperature; adding an acid or base catalyst on an oxide or carbonate support; heating the plastic waste feed stream to pyrolyze polyethylene terephthalate and polyvinyl chloride; separating terephthalic acid or HCl; heating to a second temperature to pyrolyze polystyrene; separating styrene; heating the waste feed stream to a third temperature to pyrolyze polyethylene; and separating hydrocarbons.

  7. Electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, Thomas D. (New Lenox, IL)

    1984-01-01

    An improved secondary electrochemical cell is disclosed having a negative electrode of lithium aluminum, a positive electrode of iron sulfide, a molten electrolyte of lithium chloride and potassium chloride, and the combination that the fully charged theoretical capacity of the negative electrode is in the range of 0.5-1.0 that of the positive electrode. The cell thus is negative electrode limiting during discharge cycling. Preferably, the negative electrode contains therein, in the approximate range of 1-10 volume % of the electrode, an additive from the materials of graphitized carbon, aluminum-iron alloy, and/or magnesium oxide.

  8. Sequential pyrolysis of plastic to recover polystyrene, HCl and terephthalic acid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, R.J.; Chum, H.L.

    1995-11-07

    A process is described for pyrolyzing plastic waste feed streams containing polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene terephthalate, polystyrene and polyethylene to recover polystyrene, HCl and terephthalic acid comprising: heating the plastic waste feed stream to a first temperature; adding an acid or base catalyst on an oxide or carbonate support; heating the plastic waste feed stream to pyrolyze polyethylene terephthalate and polyvinyl chloride; separating terephthalic acid or HCl; heating to a second temperature to pyrolyze polystyrene; separating styrene; heating the waste feed stream to a third temperature to pyrolyze polyethylene; and separating hydrocarbons. 83 figs.

  9. Ni/YSZ Anode Interactions with Impurities in Coal Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marina, Olga A.; Pederson, Larry R.; Coyle, Christopher A.; Thomsen, Edwin C.; Coffey, Greg W.

    2009-10-16

    Performance of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with nickel/zirconia anodes on synthetic coal gas in the presence of low levels of phosphorus, arsenic, selenium, sulfur, hydrogen chloride, and antimony impurities were evaluated. The presence of phosphorus and arsenic led to the slow and irreversible SOFC degradation due to the formation of secondary phases with nickel, particularly close to the gas inlet. Phosphorus and antimony surface adsorption layers were identified as well. Hydrogen chloride and sulfur interactions with the nickel were limited to the surface adsorption only, whereas selenium exposure also led to the formation of nickel selenide for highly polarized cells.

  10. Technical and economic assessments of electrochemical energy storage systems: Topical report on the potential for savings in load-leveling battery and balance of plant costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abraham, J.; Binas, G.; Del Monaco, J.L.; Pandya, D.A.; Sharp, T.E.; Consiglio, J.A.

    1985-08-31

    The battery technologies considered in this study are zinc-bromide, lead-acid, zinc-chloride and sodium sulfur. Results of the study are presented in self contained sections in the following order: Balance of Plant, Zinc-Bromide, Lead-Acid, Zinc-chloride, and Sodium-Sulfur. The balance of plant cost estimates are examined first since the results of this section are utilized in the following battery sections to generate cost reductions in the battery plant costs for each of the battery technologies.

  11. Rare earth gas laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krupke, W.F.

    1975-10-31

    A high energy gas laser with light output in the infrared or visible region of the spectrum is described. Laser action is obtained by generating vapors of rare earth halides, particularly neodymium iodide or, to a lesser extent, neodymium bromide, and disposing the rare earth vapor medium in a resonant cavity at elevated temperatures; e.g., approximately 1200/sup 0/ to 1400/sup 0/K. A particularly preferred gaseous medium is one involving a complex of aluminum chloride and neodymium chloride, which exhibits tremendously enhanced vapor pressure compared to the rare earth halides per se, and provides comparable increases in stored energy densities.

  12. Cadmium-free junction fabrication process for CuInSe.sub.2 thin film solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramanathan, Kannan V.; Contreras, Miguel A.; Bhattacharya, Raghu N.; Keane, James; Noufi, Rommel

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides an economical, simple, dry and controllable semiconductor layer junction forming process to make cadmium free high efficiency photovoltaic cells having a first layer comprised primarily of copper indium diselenide having a thin doped copper indium diselenide n-type region, generated by thermal diffusion with a group II(b) element such as zinc, and a halide, such as chlorine, and a second layer comprised of a conventional zinc oxide bilayer. A photovoltaic device according the present invention includes a first thin film layer of semiconductor material formed primarily from copper indium diselenide. Doping of the copper indium diselenide with zinc chloride is accomplished using either a zinc chloride solution or a solid zinc chloride material. Thermal diffusion of zinc chloride into the copper indium diselenide upper region creates the thin n-type copper indium diselenide surface. A second thin film layer of semiconductor material comprising zinc oxide is then applied in two layers. The first layer comprises a thin layer of high resistivity zinc oxide. The second relatively thick layer of zinc oxide is doped to exhibit low resistivity.

  13. Separator material for electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cieslak, W.R.; Storz, L.J.

    1991-03-26

    An electrochemical cell is characterized as utilizing an aramid fiber as a separator material. The aramid fibers are especially suited for lithium/thionyl chloride battery systems. The battery separator made of aramid fibers possesses superior mechanical strength, chemical resistance, and is flame retardant.

  14. Method and solvent composition for regenerating an ion exchange resin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Even, William R.; Irvin, David J.; Irvin, Jennifer A.; Tarver, Edward E.; Brown, Gilbert M.; Wang, James C. F.

    2002-01-01

    A method and composition for removing perchlorate from a highly selective ion exchange resin is disclosed. The disclosed approach comprises treating the resin in a solution of super critical or liquid carbon dioxide and one or more quaternary ammonium chloride surfactant compounds.

  15. WATER ACTIVITY DATA ASSESSMENT TO BE USED IN HANFORD WASTE SOLUBILITY CALCULATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DISSELKAMP RS

    2011-01-06

    The purpose of this report is to present and assess water activity versus ionic strength for six solutes:sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, sodium chloride, sodium carbonate, sodium sulfate, and potassium nitrate. Water activity is given versus molality (e.g., ionic strength) and temperature. Water activity is used to estimate Hanford crystal hydrate solubility present in the waste.

  16. TREATMENT OF FISSION PRODUCT WASTE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huff, J.B.

    1959-07-28

    A pyrogenic method of separating nuclear reactor waste solutions containing aluminum and fission products as buring petroleum coke in an underground retort, collecting the easily volatile gases resulting as the first fraction, he uminum chloride as the second fraction, permitting the coke bed to cool and ll contain all the longest lived radioactive fission products in greatly reduced volume.

  17. Method of producing polyalkylated oligoalkylenepolyamines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elangovan, Arumugasamy

    2014-02-25

    A method of preparing polyalkylated oligoalkylenepolyamines is provided. The method includes contacting oligoalkylenepolyamine with a reagent composition comprising (a) alkyl bromide and/or alkyl chloride; (b) a basic agent; and (c) iodide salt. The alkylation reaction may be carried out in a polar, aprotic organic solvent.

  18. ELECTRODEPOSITION OF NICKEL ON URANIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gray, A.G.

    1958-08-26

    A method is described for preparing uranium objects prior to nickel electroplating. The process consiats in treating the surface of the uranium with molten ferric chloride hexahydrate, at a slightiy elevated temperature. This treatment etches the metal surface providing a structure suitable for the application of adherent electrodeposits and at the same time plates the surface with a thin protective film of iron.

  19. CX-013370: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Preparation of Stannous Chloride Reagent for Use by Area Completion Projects at the M-1 Air Stripper CX(s) Applied: B3.6Date: 01/22/2015 Location(s): South CarolinaOffices(s): Savannah River Operations Office

  20. Microsoft Word - 3Q09Web Update, 1-13-10.docm

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chloride Cl - 3.37E+02 2.79E+02 Fluoride F - 3.21E+02 2.68E+02 Hydroxide OH - ... <8.52E-01 Iron Fe 1.44E+02 1.44E+02 Lithium Li <1.51E+01 <1.51E+01 Manganese Mg ...

  1. Microsoft Word - 2Q09Web1, 10-28-09.docm

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chloride Cl - 3.12E+02 3.03E+02 Fluoride F - 2.98E+02 2.93E+02 Hydroxide OH - ... <1.15E+00 Iron Fe 1.80E+02 1.80E+02 Lithium Li 1.26E+00 <1.26E+00 Manganese Mg ...

  2. 2Q08Web.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 2 9.09E+03 Chloride Cl 2.79E+02 Fluoride F 2.44E+02 Hydroxide OH 9.006E+03 ... Copper Cu <1.59E+00 Iron Fe 1.09E+02 Lithium Li <8.36E-01 Manganese Mg 6.43E+01 ...

  3. 3Q10Web Rev 1, 1-20-11.docm

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chloride Cl - 2.59E+02 1.76E+02 Fluoride F - 2.25E+02 1.07E+02 Hydroxide OH - ... <1.18E+00 Iron Fe 1.69E+02 1.69E+02 Lithium Li <1.44E+00 <1.44E+00 Manganese Mg ...

  4. Microsoft Word - 3Q07Web.docm

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2- 4.92E+02 Chloride Cl - 2.59E+02 Fluoride F - 2.08E+01 Hydroxide OH - ... Copper Cu 2.27E+00 Iron Fe 3.01E+00 Lithium Li 3.57E+01 Manganese Mn 8.91E-01 ...

  5. Microsoft Word - 2Q10Web Rev 1, 10-25-10.docm

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chloride Cl - 1.71E+02 2.49E+02 Fluoride F - 1.13E+02 2.39E+02 Hydroxide OH - ... <1.10E+00 Iron Fe 1.85E+02 1.85E+02 Lithium Li <1.64E+00 <1.64E+00 Manganese Mg ...

  6. 4Q07Web.docm

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2- 3.17E+03 Chloride Cl - 2.28E+02 Fluoride F - 1.62E+01 Hydroxide OH - ... Copper Cu 5.06E+00 Iron Fe 4.60E+02 Lithium Li <4.95E+00 Manganese Mg 3.09E+02 ...

  7. Microsoft Word - 4Q09Web Update, 4-15-10.docm

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chloride Cl - 2.51E+02 2.51E+02 Fluoride F - 2.45E+02 2.45E+02 Hydroxide OH - ... <4.89E-01 Iron Fe 1.10E+02 1.10E+02 Lithium Li <8.87E-01 <8.87E-01 Manganese Mg ...

  8. Microsoft Word - 1Q10Web Update, 7-15-10.docm

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chloride Cl - 2.51E+02 1.56E+02 Fluoride F - 2.38E+02 1.03E+02 Hydroxide OH - ... <4.06E-01 Iron Fe 1.32E+02 1.32E+02 Lithium Li <1.08E+00 <1.08E+00 Manganese Mg ...

  9. Synthesizing High-Quality Calcium Boride at Nanoscale | Argonne National

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratory High-Quality Calcium Boride at Nanoscale Technology available for licensing: An innovative method for synthesizing compositionally pure calcium boride at the nanoscale by using two different precursors. Process increases stability, hardness and conductivity of high-melting-point calcium boride Makes calcium boride readily available for manufacturing processes in many industries PDF icon calcium_chloride

  10. CX-005881: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Operation of the Chloride Extraction and Acid Recovery Line at TA-55-4CX(s) Applied: B6.8Date: 05/17/2011Location(s): Los Alamos, New MexicoOffice(s): Los Alamos Site Office

  11. Electrochemical cell with calcium anode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F.; Hosmer, Pamela K.; Kelly, Benjamin E.

    1979-01-01

    An electrochemical cell comprising a calcium anode and a suitable cathode in an alkaline electrolyte consisting essentially of an aqueous solution of an hydroxide and a chloride. Specifically disclosed is a mechanically rechargeable calcium/air fuel cell with an aqueous NaOH/NaCl electrolyte.

  12. Recovery of cesium and palladium from nuclear reactor fuel processing waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campbell, David O.

    1976-01-01

    A method of recovering cesium and palladium values from nuclear reactor fission product waste solution involves contacting the solution with a source of chloride ions and oxidizing palladium ions present in the solution to precipitate cesium and palladium as Cs.sub.2 PdCl.sub.6.

  13. Electrochemistry in neutral ambient-temperature ionic liquids. 1. Studies of iron (III), neodymium (III), and lithium(I)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osteryoung, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    An ambient-temperature neutral ionic liquid composed of aluminum chloride and either N-1-butylpyridinium or 1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride, BuPyCl or ImCl, respectively, was employed in studies that take advantage of their unusual properties. These include an extended electrochemical window, readily controlled additions of excess chloride (base) or aluminum chloride (acid), and the fact that the physical properties of the neutral melt do not change about the 1:1 mole ratio of AlCl/sub 3/ to RCl. Li/sup +/ was found to be reducible in the neutral AlCl/sub 3/-ImCl melt, and its diffusion coefficient was found to be .00000086 sq cm/s. The stoichiometry of the complex formed between Nd(III) and Cl/sup +/ in the molten salt system was investigated by what is essentially an amperometric titration and was found to be NdC/sub 6/(3-). The structure of the Fe(III) chloro complex that exists in basic or acidic melts just slightly varying in composition from the neutral melt was also investigated; a constant value for the diffusion coefficient-viscosity product in both systems suggests no change in structure.

  14. Notice of Violation, Pacific Underground Construction, Inc- WEA-2009-02

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Issued a Final Notice of Violation (WEA-2009-02) to Pacific Underground Construction, Inc. for violations of 10 C.F.R. 851 associated with a polyvinyl chloride pipe explosion that occurred in Sector 30 of the linear accelerator facility at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory on September 13, 2007.

  15. IRON COATED URANIUM AND ITS PRODUCTION

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gray, A.G.

    1960-03-15

    A method of applying a protective coating to a metallic uranium article is given. The method comprises etching the surface of the article with an etchant solution containlng chloride ions, such as a solution of phosphoric acid and hydrochloric acid, cleaning the etched surface, electroplating iron thereon from a ferrous ammonium sulfate electroplating bath, and soldering an aluminum sheath to the resultant iron layer.

  16. METHOD FOR OBTAINING PLUTONIUM METAL FROM ITS TRICHLORIDE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reavis, J.G.; Leary, J.A.; Maraman, W.J.

    1962-08-14

    A method was developed for obtaining plutonium metal by direct reduction of plutonium chloride, without the use of a booster, using calcium and lanthamum as a reductant, the said reduction being carried out at temperature in the range of 700 to 850 deg C and at about atmospheric pressure. (AEC)

  17. Effects of the Exposure to Corrosive Salts on the Frictional Behavior of Gray Cast Iron and a Titanium-Based Metal Matrix Composite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blau, Peter Julian; Truhan, Jr., John J; Kenik, Edward A

    2007-01-01

    The introduction of increasingly aggressive road-deicing chemicals has created significant and costly corrosion problems for the trucking industry. From a tribological perspective, corrosion of the sliding surfaces of brakes after exposure to road salts can create oxide scales on the surfaces that affect friction. This paper describes experiments on the effects of exposure to sodium chloride and magnesium chloride sprays on the transient frictional behavior of cast iron and a titanium-based composite sliding against a commercial brake lining material. Corrosion scales on cast iron initially act as abrasive third-bodies, then they become crushed, spread out, and behave as a solid lubricant. The composition and subsurface microstructures of the corrosion products on the cast iron were analyzed. Owing to its greater corrosion resistance, the titanium composite remained scale-free and its frictional response was markedly different. No corrosion scales were formed on the titanium composite after aggressive exposure to salts; however, a reduction in friction was still observed. Unlike the crystalline sodium chloride deposits that tended to remain dry, hygroscopic magnesium chloride deposits absorbed ambient moisture from the air, liquefied, and retained a persistent lubricating effect on the titanium surfaces.

  18. CORROSION ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL COMPONENTS USED IN NUCLEAR MATERIALS EXTRACTION AND SEPARATION PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mickalonis, J.; Louthan, M.; Sindelar, R.

    2012-12-17

    This paper illustrated the magnitude of the systems, structures and components used at the Savannah River Site for nuclear materials extraction and separation processes. Corrosion issues, including stress corrosion cracking, pitting, crevice corrosion and other corrosion induced degradation processes are discussed and corrosion mitigation strategies such as a chloride exclusion program and corrosion release testing are also discussed.

  19. Separator material for electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cieslak, Wendy R.; Storz, Leonard J.

    1991-01-01

    An electrochemical cell characterized as utilizing an aramid fiber as a separator material. The aramid fibers are especially suited for lithium/thionyl chloride battery systems. The battery separator made of aramid fibers possesses superior mechanical strength, chemical resistance, and is flame retardant.

  20. Characterization of acid flux in osteoclasts from patients harboring a G215R mutation in ClC-7

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henriksen, Kim [Nordic Bioscience A/S, Herlev Hovedgade 207, DK-2730 Herlev (Denmark)], E-mail: kh@nordicbioscience.com; Gram, Jeppe [Department of Endocrinology, Ribe County Hospital, Esbjerg (Denmark)], E-mail: Jeppe.Gram@svs.regionsyddanmark.dk; Neutzsky-Wulff, Anita Vibsig [Nordic Bioscience A/S, Herlev Hovedgade 207, DK-2730 Herlev (Denmark)], E-mail: avn@nordicbioscience.com; Jensen, Vicki Kaiser [Nordic Bioscience A/S, Herlev Hovedgade 207, DK-2730 Herlev (Denmark)], E-mail: vkj@nordicbioscience.com; Dziegiel, Morten H. [HS Blodbank, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen (Denmark)], E-mail: morten.dziegiel@rh.hosp.dk; Bollerslev, Jens [Section of Endocrinology, Dept. of Medicine, National University Hospital, Oslo (Norway)], E-mail: jens.bollerslev@medisin.uio.no; Karsdal, Morten A. [Nordic Bioscience A/S, Herlev Hovedgade 207, DK-2730 Herlev (Denmark)], E-mail: mk@nordicbioscience.com

    2009-01-23

    The chloride-proton antiporter ClC-7 has been speculated to be involved in acidification of the lysosomes and the resorption lacunae in osteoclasts; however, neither direct measurements of chloride transport nor acidification have been performed. Human osteoclasts harboring a dominant negative mutation in ClC-7 (G215R) were isolated, and used these to investigate bone resorption measured by CTX-I, calcium release and pit scoring. The actin cytoskeleton of the osteoclasts was also investigated. ClC-7 enriched membranes from the osteoclasts were isolated, and used to test acidification rates in the presence of a V-ATPase and a chloride channel inhibitor, using a H{sup +} and Cl{sup -} driven approach. Finally, acidification rates in ClC-7 enriched membranes from ADOII osteoclasts and their corresponding controls were compared. Resorption by the G215R osteoclasts was reduced by 60% when measured by both CTX-I, calcium release, and pit area when comparing to age and sex matched controls. In addition, the ADOII osteoclasts showed no differences in actin ring formation. Finally, V-ATPase and chloride channel inhibitors completely abrogated the H{sup +} and Cl{sup -} driven acidification. Finally, the acid influx was reduced by maximally 50% in the ClC-7 deficient membrane fractions when comparing to controls. These data demonstrate that ClC-7 is essential for bone resorption, via its role in acidification of the lysosomes and resorption lacunae in osteoclasts.

  1. METHOD OF BRAZING BERYLLIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hanks, G.S.; Keil, R.W.

    1963-05-21

    A process is described for brazing beryllium metal parts by coating the beryllium with silver (65- 75 wt%)-aluminum alloy using a lithium fluoride (50 wt%)-lithium chloride flux, and heating the coated joint to a temperature of about 700 un. Concent 85% C for about 10 minutes. (AEC)

  2. CX-006406: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Silver Chloride Injection at the F Area Hazardous Waste Management Facilities Barrier WallCX(s) Applied: B6.9Date: 05/13/2011Location(s): Aiken, South CarolinaOffice(s): Environmental Management, Savannah River Operations Office

  3. Carbon paint anode for reinforced concrete bridges in coastal environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cramer, Stephen D.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Russell, James H.; Cryer, C.B.; Laylor, H.M.

    2002-01-01

    Solvent-based acrylic carbon paint anodes were installed on the north approach spans of the Yaquina Bay Bridge (Newport OR) in 1985. The anodes continue to perform satisfactorily after more than 15 years service. The anodes were inexpensive to apply and field repairs are easily made. Depolarization potentials are consistently above 100 mV with long-term current densities around 2 mA/m 2. Bond strength remains adequate, averaging 0.50 MPa (73 psi). Some deterioration of the anode-concrete interface has occurred in the form of cracks and about 4% of the bond strength measurements indicated low or no bond. Carbon anode consumption appears low. The dominant long-term anode reaction appears to be chlorine evolution, which results in limited further acidification of the anode-concrete interface. Chloride profiles were depressed compared to some other coastal bridges suggesting chloride extraction by the CP system. Further evidence of outward chloride migration was a flat chloride profile between the anode and the outer rebar.

  4. Zinc-bromine batteries with improved electrolyte

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kantner, E.

    1985-01-01

    The coulombic efficiency of aqueous zinc bromine batteries can be increased if, in addition to the bromide ions required to be present in the electrolyte to charge the cell to rated capacity, chloride ions are added to the electrolyte in amounts sufficient to reduce the amount of free bromine present in the electrolyte during operation of the cell.

  5. Reduce completion fluid costs with on-site brine tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, D.C.; Darlington, R.K.; Kinney, W.R.; Lowell, J.L.

    1982-09-01

    A newly developed field kit makes on-site brine completion fluid testing practical. Simple titration procedures are used to analyze brine for calcium, zinc, chloride and bromide with an accuracy and repeatability that compares favorably with expensive laboratory techniques. This article describes the field testing theory and details analytical procedures used.

  6. Journal of Nanjing Institute of Technology (selected articles)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Q.; Zhang, M.; Deng, H.; Zhao, S.; Yeng, Z.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, Z.

    1982-12-01

    The use of ellipsometry to measure the thickness of less than 50A ultrathin oxide films on silicon solar cells is described as well as the design of a copper chloride laser with an average power greater than 500 milliwatts and a lifetime exceeding 100 hours.

  7. Phase change thermal energy storage material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, David K.; Burrows, Richard W.

    1987-01-01

    A thermal energy storge composition is disclosed. The composition comprises a non-chloride hydrate having a phase change transition temperature in the range of 70.degree.-95.degree. F. and a latent heat of transformation of at least about 35 calories/gram.

  8. Evaluation of materials for systems using cooled, treated geothermal or high-saline brines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suciu, D.F.; Wikoff, P.M.

    1982-09-01

    Lack of adequate quantities of clean surface water for use in wet (evaporative) cooling systems indicates the use of high-salinity waste waters, or cooled geothermal brines, for makeup purposes. High-chloride, aerated water represents an extremely corrosive environment. In order to determine metals suitable for use in such an environment, metal coupons were exposed to aerated, treated geothermal brine salted to a chloride concentration of 10,000 and 50,000 ppM (mg/L) for periods of up to 30 days. The exposed coupons were evaluated to determine the general, pitting, and crevice corrosion characteristics of the metals. The metals exhibiting corrosion resistance at 50,000 ppM chloride were then evaluated at 100,000 and 200,000 ppM chloride. Since these were screening tests to select materials for components to be used in a cooling system, with primary emphasis on condenser tubing, several materials were exposed for 4 to 10 months in pilot cooling tower test units with heat transfer for further corrosion evaluation. The results of the screening tests indicate that ferritic stainless steels (29-4-2 and SEA-CURE) exhibit excellent corrosion resistance at all levels of chloride concentration. Copper-nickel alloys (70/30 and Monel 400) exhibited excellent corrosion resistance in the high-saline water. The 70/30 copper-nickel alloy, which showed excellent resistance to general corrosion, exhibited mild pitting in the 30-day tests. This pitting was not apparent, however, after 6 months of exposure in the pilot cooling tower tests. The nickel-base alloys exhibited excellent corrosion resistance, but their high cost prevents their use unless no other material is found feasible. Other materials tested, although unsuitable for condenser tubing material, would be suitable as tube sheet material.

  9. Increased photocatalytic activity of TiO2 mesoporous microspheres from codoping with transition metals and nitrogen

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mathis, John E.; Lieffers, Justin J.; Mitra, Chandrima; Reboredo, Fernando A.; Bi, Z.; Bridges, Craig A.; Kidder, Michelle K.; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans

    2015-11-06

    The composition of anatase TiO2 was modified by codoping using combinations of a transition metal and nitrogen in order to increase its photocatalytic activity and extend it performance in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The transition metals (Mn, Co, Ni, Cu) were added during the hydrothermal preparation of mesoporous TiO2 particles, and the nitrogen was introduced by post-annealing in flowing ammonia gas at high temperature. The samples were analyzed by SEM, XRD, BET, inductively-coupled plasma spectroscopy, and diffuse reflectance UV-vis spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity was assessed by observing the change in methylene blue concentrations under both UV-vis andmore » visible-only light irradiation. As a result, the photocatalytic activity of the (Mn,N), (Co,N), (Cu,N), and Ni,N) codoped TiO2 was significantly enhanced relative to (N) TiO2.« less

  10. Effect of Fe doping concentration on photocatalytic activity of ZnO nanosheets under natural sunlight

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khokhra, Richa; Kumar, Rajesh

    2015-05-15

    A facile room temperature, aqueous solution-based chemical method has been adopted for large-scale synthesis of Fe doped ZnO nanosheets. The XRD and SEM results reveal the as-synthesized products well crystalline and accumulated by large amount of interweave nanosheets, respectively. Energy dispersive spectroscopy data confirmed Fe doping of the ZnO nanosheets with a varying Fe concentration. The photoluminescence spectrum reveals a continuous suppression of defect related emissions intensity by increasing the concentration of the Fe ion. A photocatalytic activity using these samples under sunlight irradiation in the mineralization of methylene blue dye was investigated. The photocatalytic activity of Fe doped ZnO nanosheets depends upon the presence of surface oxygen vacancies.

  11. Macrostructure-dependent photocatalytic property of high-surface-area porous titania films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimura, T.

    2014-11-01

    Porous titania films with different macrostructures were prepared with precise control of condensation degree and density of the oxide frameworks in the presence of spherical aggregates of polystyrene-block-poly(oxyethylene) (PS-b-PEO) diblock copolymer. Following detailed explanation of the formation mechanisms of three (reticular, spherical, and large spherical) macrostructures by the colloidal PS-b-PEO templating, structural variation of the titania frameworks during calcination were investigated by X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Then, photocatalytic performance of the macroporous titania films was evaluated through simple degradation experiments of methylene blue under an UV irradiation. Consequently, absolute surface area of the film and crystallinity of the titania frameworks were important for understanding the photocatalytic performance, but the catalytic performance can be improved further by the macrostructural design that controls diffusivity of the targeted molecules inside the film and their accessibility to active sites.

  12. Optimized Design and Synthesis of Cell Permeable Biarsenical Cyanine Probe for Imaging Tagged Cytosolic Bacterial Proteins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fu, Na; Xiong, Yijia; Squier, Thomas C.

    2013-02-01

    To optimize cellular delivery and specific labeling of tagged cytosolic proteins by biarsenical fluorescent probes build around a cyanine dye scaffold, we have systematically varied the polarity of the hydrophobic tails (i.e., 4-5 methylene groups appended by a sulfonate or methoxy ester moiety) and arsenic capping reagent (ethanedithiol versus benzenedithiol). Targeted labeling of the cytosolic proteins SlyD and the alpha subunit of RNA polymerase engineered with a tetracysteine tagging sequences demonstrate the utility of the newly synthesized probes for live-cell visualization, albeit with varying efficiencies and background intensities. Optimal routine labeling and visualization is apparent using the ethanedithiol capping reagent with the uncharged methoxy ester functionalized acyl chains. These measurements demonstrate the general utility of this class of photostable and highly fluorescent biarsenical reagents based on the cyanine scaffold for in vivo targeting of tagged cellular proteins for live cell measurements of protein dynamics.

  13. Method for dialysis on microchips using thin porous polymer membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, Anup K.; Kirby, Brian J.; Shepodd, Timothy J.

    2009-05-19

    Laser-induced phase-separation polymerization of a porous acrylate polymer is used for in-situ fabrication of dialysis membranes inside glass microchannels. A shaped 355 nm laser beam is used to produce a porous polymer membrane with a thickness of about 15 .mu.m, which bonds to the glass microchannel and forms a semi-permeable membrane. Differential permeation through a membrane formed with pentaerythritol triacrylate was observed and quantified by comparing the response of the membrane to fluorescein and fluorescently tagging 200 nm latex microspheres. Differential permeation was observed and quantified by comparing the response to rhodamine 560 and lactalbumin protein in a membrane formed with SPE-methylene bisacrylamide. The porous membranes illustrate the capability for the present technique to integrate sample cleanup into chip-based analysis systems.

  14. Dialysis on microchips using thin porous polymer membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, Anup K.; Kirby, Brian J.; Shepodd, Timothy J.

    2007-09-04

    Laser-induced phase-separation polymerization of a porous acrylate polymer is used for in-situ fabrication of dialysis membranes inside glass microchannels. A shaped 355 nm laser beam is used to produce a porous polymer membrane with a thickness of about 15 .mu.m, which bonds to the glass microchannel and form a semi-permeable membrane. Differential permeation through a membrane formed with pentaerythritol triacrylate was observed and quantified by comparing the response of the membrane to fluorescein and fluorescently tagging 200 nm latex microspheres. Differential permeation was observed and quantified by comparing the response to rhodamine 560 and lactalbumin protein in a membrane formed with SPE-methylene bisacrylamide. The porous membranes illustrate the capability for the present technique to integrate sample cleanup into chip-based analysis systems.

  15. Dialysis membrane for separation on microchips

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, Anup K.; Kirby, Brian J.; Shepodd, Timothy J.

    2010-07-13

    Laser-induced phase-separation polymerization of a porous acrylate polymer is used for in-situ fabrication of dialysis membranes inside glass microchannels. A shaped 355 nm laser beam is used to produce a porous polymer membrane with a thickness of about 15 .mu.m, which bonds to the glass microchannel and forms a semi-permeable membrane. Differential permeation through a membrane formed with pentaerythritol triacrylate was observed and quantified by comparing the response of the membrane to fluorescein and fluorescently tagging 200 nm latex microspheres. Differential permeation was observed and quantified by comparing the response to rhodamine 560 and lactalbumin protein in a membrane formed with SPE-methylene bisacrylamide. The porous membranes illustrate the capability for the present technique to integrate sample cleanup into chip-based analysis systems.

  16. Composition and method for encapsulating photovoltaic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pern, Fu-Jann

    2000-01-01

    A composition and method for encapsulating a photovoltaic device which minimizes discoloration of the encapsulant. The composition includes an ethylene-vinyl acetate encapsulant, a curing agent, an optional ultraviolet light stabilizer, and/or an optional antioxidant. The curing agent is preferably 1,1-di-(t-butylperoxy)-3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexane; the ultraviolet light stabilizer is bis-(N-octyloxy-tetramethyl) piperidinyl sebacate and the antioxidant is selected from the group consisting of tris (2,4-di-tert-butylphenyl) phosphite, tetrakis methylene (3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyhydrocinnamate) methane, octadecyl 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyhydrocinnamate, and 2,2'-ethylidene bis(4,6-di-t-butylphenyl) fluorophosponite. The composition is applied to a solar cell then cured. The cured product contains a minimal concentration of curing-generated chromophores and resists UV-induced degradation.

  17. ES&H development activities for the W89 warhead

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pretzel, C.W.

    1995-08-01

    Environmental, Safety and Health (ES&H) issues became an important design consideration during the development of the W89 warhead for the SRAM 11 (Short-Range Attack Missile) missile. An action plan was developed to handle these issues at all the production agencies and at both the system and the component level. The main thrust was in the area of solvent substitution, in particular for solder flux removal. The cleaner d-limonene followed by an isopropyl alcohol rinse was selected for applications were the traditional cleaners were 1,1,1 trichloroethane or trichloroethylene. Compatibility testing rather than efficacy testing dominated the development effort. In addition to other solvent substitution applications, organic materials that were free of toluene diisocynate (TDI), and methylene dianiline (MDA) were explored for use in the W89.

  18. Synthesis of ZnO decorated graphene nanocomposite for enhanced photocatalytic properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gayathri, S.; Jayabal, P.; Kottaisamy, M.; Ramakrishnan, V.

    2014-05-07

    Zinc oxide/Graphene (GZ) composites with different concentrations of ZnO were successfully synthesized through simple chemical precipitation method. The X-ray diffraction pattern and the micro-Raman spectroscopic technique revealed the formation of GZ composite, and the energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry analysis showed the purity of the prepared samples. The ZnO nanoparticles decorated graphene sheets were clearly visible in the field emission scanning electron micrograph. Raman mapping was employed to analyze the homogeneity of the prepared samples. The diffuse-reflectance spectra clearly indicated that the formation of GZ composites promoted the absorption in the visible region also. The photocatalytic activity of ZnO and GZ composites was studied by the photodegradation of Methylene blue dye. The results revealed that the GZ composites exhibited a higher photocatalytic activity than pristine ZnO. Hence, we proposed a simple wet chemical method to synthesize GZ composite and its application on photocatalysis was demonstrated.

  19. Thermolysis of (1R,2R)-1,2-dideuteriocyclobutane. An application of vibrational circular dichroism to kinetic analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chickos, J.S.; Annamalai, A.; Keiderling, T.A.

    1986-07-23

    The relative rates of geometric isomerization to racemization have been studied for the title compound by using a combination of infrared (IR) and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectroscopies, respectively. The results are interpreted with a kinetic and mechanistic scheme which parallels that used by Berson, Pedersen, and Carpenter on a similar study of chiral cyclopropane-d/sub 2/ thermolysis. Relative rates of isomerization to stereomutation of 1.5 +/- 0.4 were obtained which can be interpreted to be consistent with a mechanism best described by random methylene rotation in tetramethylene-d/sub 2/. This is the first application of VCD to kinetic analysis, and the advantages of IR techniques over the more usually employed UV spectroscopies to this type of basic mechanistic problem are illustrated.

  20. Polar self-assembled thin films for non-linear optical materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, XiaoGuang; Swanson, Basil I.; Li, DeQuan

    2000-01-01

    The design and synthesis of a family of calix[4]arene-based nonlinear optical (NLO) chromophores are discussed. The calixarene chromophores are macrocyclic compounds consisting of four simple D-.pi.-A units bridged by methylene groups. These molecules were synthesized such that four D-.pi.-A units of the calix[4]arene were aligned along the same direction with the calixarene in a cone conformation. These nonlinear optical super-chromophores were subsequently fabricated into covalently bound self-assembled monolayers on the surfaces of fused silica and silicon. Spectroscopic second harmonic generation (SHG) measurements were carried out to determine the absolute value of the dominant element of the second-order nonlinear susceptibility, d.sub.33, and the average molecular alignment, .PSI.. A value of d.sub.33 =60 pm/V at a fundamental wavelength of 890 nm, and .PSI..about.36.degree. was found with respect to the surface normal.

  1. Ruthenium ion-catalyzed oxidation of Shenfu coal and its residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yao-Guo Huang; Zhi-Min Zong; Zi-Shuo Yao; Yu-Xuan Zheng; Jie Mou; Guang-Feng Liu; Jin-Pei Cao; Ming-Jie Ding; Ke-Ying Cai; Feng Wang; Wei Zhao; Zhi-Lin Xia; Lin Wu; Xian-Yong Wei

    2008-05-15

    Shenfu coal (SFC), its liquefaction residue (RL), and carbon disulfide (CS{sub 2})/tetrahydrofuran (THF)-inextractable matter (RE) were subject to ruthenium ion-catalyzed oxidation to understand the differences in structural features among the above three samples. The results suggest that SFC is rich in long-chain arylalkanes and {alpha}. {omega}-diarylalkanes (DAAs) with carbon number of methylene linkage from 2 to 4 and that long-chain arylalkanes and DAAs are reactive toward hydroliquefaction and soluble in a CS{sub 2}/THF mixed solvent, whereas highly condensed aromatic species in SFC show poor solubility in the CS{sub 2}/THF mixed solvent. 29 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Increased photocatalytic activity of TiO2 mesoporous microspheres from codoping with transition metals and nitrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathis, John E.; Lieffers, Justin J.; Mitra, Chandrima; Reboredo, Fernando A.; Bi, Z.; Bridges, Craig A.; Kidder, Michelle K.; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans

    2015-11-06

    The composition of anatase TiO2 was modified by codoping using combinations of a transition metal and nitrogen in order to increase its photocatalytic activity and extend it performance in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The transition metals (Mn, Co, Ni, Cu) were added during the hydrothermal preparation of mesoporous TiO2 particles, and the nitrogen was introduced by post-annealing in flowing ammonia gas at high temperature. The samples were analyzed by SEM, XRD, BET, inductively-coupled plasma spectroscopy, and diffuse reflectance UV-vis spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity was assessed by observing the change in methylene blue concentrations under both UV-vis and visible-only light irradiation. As a result, the photocatalytic activity of the (Mn,N), (Co,N), (Cu,N), and Ni,N) codoped TiO2 was significantly enhanced relative to (N) TiO2.

  3. Soft chemical synthesis of Ag{sub 3}SbS{sub 3} with efficient and recyclable visible light photocatalytic properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gusain, Meenakshi; Rawat, Pooja; Nagarajan, Rajamani

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: Highly crystalline Ag{sub 3}SbS{sub 3} synthesized using soft chemical approach. First time report of photocatalytic activity of Ag{sub 3}SbS{sub 3}. Ag{sub 3}SbS{sub 3} degraded the harmful organic dyes rapidly under visible radiation. Pseudo first order kinetics have been followed in these sets of reactions. Up to 90% of Methylene Blue degraded even after 4th cycle of catalyst reuse. Structure of catalyst is intact after reuse. As the catalyst is heavy, its separation after use is quite simple. - Abstract: Application of Ag{sub 3}SbS{sub 3}, obtained by soft chemical approach involving rapid reaction of air stable metalthiourea complexes in ethylene glycol medium, as visible light photocatalyst for the degradation of dye solutions was investigated. Ag{sub 3}SbS{sub 3} was confirmed by high resolution powder X-ray diffraction pattern and its no defined morphology was present in SEM images. From UVvis spectroscopy measurements, optical band gap of 1.77 eV was deduced for Ag{sub 3}SbS{sub 3}. Rapid degradation kinetics and recyclability was exhibited by Ag{sub 3}SbS{sub 3} towards Methylene Blue, Methyl Orange, Malachite Green, and Rhodamine 6G dye solutions under visible radiation. All these processes followed pseudo first order kinetics. High surface area (6.39 m{sup 2}/g), with mesopores (3.81 nm), arising from solvent mediated synthesis of Ag{sub 3}SbS{sub 3} has been correlated to its catalytic activity.

  4. Low-temperature route to metal titanate perovskite nanoparticles for photocatalytic applications

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Alammar, Tarek; Hamm, Ines; Wark, Michael; Mudring, Anja-Verena

    2014-11-13

    MTiO3 (M = Ca, Sr, Ba) nanoparticles were synthesized by a one-step room-temperature ultrasound synthesis in ionic liquid. The samples we gathered are characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption, UV–vis diffuse reflectance, Raman and IR spectroscopy and their capability in photocatalytic hydrogen evolution and methylene blue degradation was tested. Powder X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopic investigations revealed the products to crystallize in the cubic perovskite structure. SEM observations showed that the obtained CaTiO3 consists of nanospheres, BaTiO3 of raspberry-like shaped particles of 20 nm in diameter. SrTiO3 particles have cubic-like morphology with an edge length varying frommore » 100 to 300 nm. SrTiO3 exhibited the highest catalytic activity for photocatalytic H2 evolution using only 0.025 wt.% Rh as co-catalyst and for the degradation of methylene blue under UV irradiation. The influence of parameters such as synthesis method, calcination temperature, and doping with nitrogen on the morphology, crystallinity, chemical composition, and photocatalytic acivity of SrTiO3 was studied. Heating the as-prepared SrTiO3 to 700 °C for extended time leads to a decrease in surface area and catalytic activity. Ionothermal prepared SrTiO3 exhibits a higher activity than sonochemically prepared one without co-catalyst due to a synergistic effect of anatase which is present in small amount as a by-phase. Furthermore, after photodeposition of Rh, however, the activity is lower than that of the sonochemically prepared SrTiO3. Nitrogen-doped SrTiO3 showed photocatalytic acivity under visible light irradiation.« less

  5. Influence of crystalline phase and defects in the ZrO{sub 2} nanoparticles synthesized by thermal plasma route on its photocatalytic properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nawale, Ashok B.; Kanhe, Nilesh S.; Bhoraskar, S.V.; Mathe, V.L.; Das, A.K.

    2012-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Thermal plasma synthesized nanophase zirconia showing the blue shift in the band gap of monoclinic phase as found from the photoabsorption spectroscopy was found to be the dominant parameter for the enhancement in its photocatalytic activity. The existence of different defect states and their concentration in as synthesized samples also inferred from the photoabsorption measurements were also found to be responsible for the enhanced photocatalytic activity of the samples. Highlights: ? Phase controlled structural formation of nanophase ZrO{sub 2} by thermal plasma route. ? Enhanced photocatalytic degradation rate of methylene blue dye. ? The blue shift in the band gap of monoclinic phase of nanocrystalline ZrO{sub 2}. ? Existence of different defect states in the as synthesized nano phase ZrO{sub 2}. ? Several competing processes which controls the photocatalytic degradation rate. -- Abstract: The photocatalytic activity of pure ZrO{sub 2} samples, prepared by a thermal plasma route, and characterized by X-ray diffraction technique was tested for the degradation of methylene blue, which is known to be a hazardous dye. Although, all these samples synthesized at different operating pressures of the thermal plasma reactor showed the photocatalytic activity; the sample synthesized at 1.33 bar of operating pressure showed the highest photocatalytic activity. The blue shift in the band gap of monoclinic phase, as observed from the photo-absorption spectroscopy, may be attributed to the enhanced photocatalytic activity. The existence of different defect states and their concentration as, inferred from the photo-absorption measurements were also found to be responsible for the enhanced photocatalytic activity of the as synthesized samples.

  6. Low-temperature route to metal titanate perovskite nanoparticles for photocatalytic applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alammar, Tarek; Hamm, Ines; Wark, Michael; Mudring, Anja-Verena

    2014-11-13

    MTiO3 (M = Ca, Sr, Ba) nanoparticles were synthesized by a one-step room-temperature ultrasound synthesis in ionic liquid. The samples we gathered are characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption, UV–vis diffuse reflectance, Raman and IR spectroscopy and their capability in photocatalytic hydrogen evolution and methylene blue degradation was tested. Powder X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopic investigations revealed the products to crystallize in the cubic perovskite structure. SEM observations showed that the obtained CaTiO3 consists of nanospheres, BaTiO3 of raspberry-like shaped particles of 20 nm in diameter. SrTiO3 particles have cubic-like morphology with an edge length varying from 100 to 300 nm. SrTiO3 exhibited the highest catalytic activity for photocatalytic H2 evolution using only 0.025 wt.% Rh as co-catalyst and for the degradation of methylene blue under UV irradiation. The influence of parameters such as synthesis method, calcination temperature, and doping with nitrogen on the morphology, crystallinity, chemical composition, and photocatalytic acivity of SrTiO3 was studied. Heating the as-prepared SrTiO3 to 700 °C for extended time leads to a decrease in surface area and catalytic activity. Ionothermal prepared SrTiO3 exhibits a higher activity than sonochemically prepared one without co-catalyst due to a synergistic effect of anatase which is present in small amount as a by-phase. Furthermore, after photodeposition of Rh, however, the activity is lower than that of the sonochemically prepared SrTiO3. Nitrogen-doped SrTiO3 showed photocatalytic acivity under visible light irradiation.

  7. Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic properties of novel zinc germanate nano-materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boppana, Venkata Bharat Ram; Hould, Nathan D.; Lobo, Raul F.

    2011-05-15

    We report the first instance of a hydrothermal synthesis of zinc germanate (Zn{sub 2}GeO{sub 4}) nano-materials having a variety of morphologies and photochemical properties in surfactant, template and catalyst-free conditions. A systematic variation of synthesis conditions and detailed characterization using X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and small angle X-ray scattering led to a better understanding of the growth of these particles from solution. At 140 {sup o}C, the zinc germanate particle morphology changes with pH from flower-shaped at pH 6.0, to poly-disperse nano-rods at pH 10 when the Zn to Ge ratio in the synthesis solution is 2. When the Zn to Ge ratio is reduced to 1.25, mono-disperse nano-rods could be prepared at pH 7.5. Nanorod formation is also independent of the addition of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), in contrast to previous reports. Photocatalytic tests show that Zn{sub 2}GeO{sub 4} nano-rods (by weight) and flower shaped (by surface area) are the most active for methylene blue dye degradation among the synthesized zinc germanate materials. -- Graphical abstract: Zinc germanate materials were synthesized possessing unique morphologies dependent on the hydrothermal synthesis conditions in the absence of surfactant, catalyst or template. These novel materials are characterized and evaluated for their photocatalytic activities. Display Omitted highlights: > Zinc germanate synthesized hydrothermally (surfactant free) with unique morphologies. > Flower-shaped, nano-rods, globular particles obtained dependent on synthesis pH. > At 140 {sup o}C, they possess the rhombohedral crystal irrespective of synthesis conditions. > They are photocatalytically active for the degradation of methylene blue. > Potential applications could be photocatalytic water splitting and CO{sub 2} reduction.

  8. Template-free hydrothermal derived cobalt oxide nanopowders: Synthesis, characterization, and removal of organic dyes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nassar, Mostafa Y.; Ahmed, Ibrahim S.

    2012-09-15

    Graphical abstract: XRD patterns of the products obtained by hydrothermal treatment at 160 C for 24 h, and at different [Co{sup 2+}]/[CO{sub 3}{sup 2?}] ratios: (a) 1:6, (b) 1:3, (c) 1:1.5, (d) 1:1, (e) 1:0.5. Highlights: ? Spinel cobalt oxide nanoparticles with different morphologies were prepared by hydrothermal approach. ? The optical characteristics of the as-prepared cobalt oxide revealed the presence of two band gaps. ? Adsorption of methylene blue dye on Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} was investigated and the percent uptake was found to be >99% in 24 h. -- Abstract: Pure spinel cobalt oxide nanoparticles were prepared through hydrothermal approach using different counter ions. First, the pure and uniform cobalt carbonate (with particle size of 21.829.8 nm) were prepared in high yield (94%) in an autoclave in absence unfriendly organic surfactants or solvents by adjusting different experimental parameters such as: pH, reaction time, temperature, counter ions, and (Co{sup 2+}:CO{sub 3}{sup 2?}) molar ratios. Thence, the spinel Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} (with mean particle size of 30.547.35 nm) was produced by thermal decomposition of cobalt carbonate in air at 500 C for 3 h. The products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and thermal analysis (TA). Also, the optical characteristics of the as-prepared Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles revealed the presence of two band gaps (1.451.47, and 1.831.93 eV). Additionally, adsorption of methylene blue dye on Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles was investigated and the uptake% was found to be >99% in 24 h.

  9. Evaluation of natural attenuation processes for trichloroethylene and technetium-99 in the Northeast and Northwest plumes at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clausen, J.L.; Sturchio, N.C.; Heraty, L.J.; Huang, L.; Abrajano,T.

    1997-11-25

    NA processes such as biodegradation, sorption, dilution dispersion, advection, and possibly sorption and diffusion are occurring in the Northeast and Northwest plumes. However, the overall biological attenuation rate for TCE within the plumes is not sufficiently rapid to utilize as remedial option. The mobility and toxicity of {sup 99}Tc is not being reduced by attenuating processes within the Northwest Plume. The current EPA position is that NA is not a viable remedial approach unless destructive processes are present or processes are active which reduce the toxicity and mobility of a contaminant. Therefore, active remediation of the dissolved phase plumes will be necessary to reduce contaminant concentrations before an NA approach could be justified at PGDP for either plume. Possible treatment methods for the reduction of dissolved phase concentrations within the plumes are pump-and-treat bioaugmentation, biostimulation, or multiple reactive barriers. Another possibility is the use of a regulatory instrument such as an Alternate Concentration Limit (ACL) petition. Biodegradation of TCE is occurring in both plumes and several hypothesis are possible to explain the apparent conflicts with some of the geochemical data. The first hypothesis is active intrinsic bioremediation is negligible or so slow to be nonmeasurable. In this scenario, the D.O., chloride, TCE, and isotopic results are indicative of past microbiological reactions. It is surmised in this scenario, that when the initial TCE release occurred, sufficient energy sources were available for microorganisms to drive aerobic reduction of TCE, but these energy sources were rapidly depleted. The initial degraded TCE has since migrated to downgradient locations. In the second scenario, TCE anaerobic degradation occurs in organic-rich micro-environments within a generally aerobic aquifer. TCE maybe strongly absorbed to organic-rich materials in the aquifer matrix and degraded by local Immunities of microbes, perhaps even under anaerobic conditions. Chloride, generated by degradation in such microenvironment is released rapidly into the water, as is CO{sub 2}, from respiration of the microorganisms. TCE and its organic degradation products are retained on the aquifer matrix by sorption, and released more slowly into the groundwater. In this process, chloride produced from the microbial reaction may become separated in the plume from the residual TCE. This may explain why the chloride isotope ratio and dissolved TCE do not correlate with the DIC isotope ratio. The relationship between the {delta}{sup 37}Cl values of TCE and dissolved inorganic chloride is consistent with what would be expected from the degradation of TCE, but is complicated by the elevated levels of background chloride, presumably due to agriculture practice, and complex behavior of TCE in the aquifer.

  10. Pyrochemical recovery of plutonium from calcium fluoride reduction slag

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christensen, D.C.

    A pyrochemical method of recovering finely dispersed plutonium metal from calcium fluoride reduction slag is claimed. The plutonium-bearing slag is crushed and melted in the presence of at least an equimolar amount of calcium chloride and a few percent metallic calcium. The calcium chloride reduces the melting point and thereby decreases the viscosity of the molten mixture. The calcium reduces any oxidized plutonium in the mixture and also causes the dispersed plutonium metal to coalesce and settle out as a separate metallic phase at the bottom of the reaction vessel. Upon cooling the mixture to room temperature, the solid plutonium can be cleanly separated from the overlying solid slag, with an average recovery yield on the order of 96 percent.

  11. Conversion of direct process high-boiling residue to monosilanes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brinson, Jonathan Ashley (Vale of Glamorgan, GB); Crum, Bruce Robert (Madison, IN); Jarvis, Jr., Robert Frank (Midland, MI)

    2000-01-01

    A process for the production of monosilanes from the high-boiling residue resulting from the reaction of hydrogen chloride with silicon metalloid in a process typically referred to as the "direct process." The process comprises contacting a high-boiling residue resulting from the reaction of hydrogen chloride and silicon metalloid, with hydrogen gas in the presence of a catalytic amount of aluminum trichloride effective in promoting conversion of the high-boiling residue to monosilanes. The present process results in conversion of the high-boiling residue to monosilanes. At least a portion of the aluminum trichloride catalyst required for conduct of the process may be formed in situ during conduct of the direct process and isolation of the high-boiling residue.

  12. Mesoporous carbons and polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bell, William; Dietz, Steven

    2004-05-18

    A polymer is prepared by polymerizing a polymerizable component from a mixture containing the polymerizable component and a surfactant, the surfactant and the polymerizable component being present in the mixture in a molar ratio of at least 0.2:1, having an average pore size greater than 4 nm and a density greater than 0.1 g/cc. The polymerizable component can comprise a resorcinol/formaldehyde system and the mixture can comprise an aqueous solution or the polymerizable component can comprise a divinylbenzene/styrene system and the mixture can comprise an organic solution. Alternatively, the polymerizable component can comprise vinylidene chloride or a vinylidene chloride/divinylbenzene system. The polymer may be monolithic, have a BET surface area of at least about 50 m.sup.2 /g., include a quantity of at least one metal powder, or have an electrical conductivity greater than 10 Scm.sup.-1.

  13. Aqueous recovery of actinides from aluminum alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, J.H.; Chostner, D.F.; Gray, L.W.

    1989-01-01

    Early in the 1980's, a joint Rocky Flats/Savannah River program was established to recover actinides from scraps and residues generated during Rocky Flats purification operations. The initial program involved pyrochemical treatment of Molten Salt Extraction (MSE) chloride salts and Electrorefining (ER) anode heel metal to form aluminum alloys suitable for aqueous processing at Savannah River. Recently Rocky Flats has expressed interest in expanding the aluminum alloy program to include treatment of chloride salt residues from a modified Molten Salt Extraction process and from the Electrorefining purification operations. Samples of the current aluminum alloy buttons were prepared at Rocky Flats and sent to Savannah River Laboratory for flowsheet development and characterization of the alloys. A summary of the scrub alloy-anode heel alloy program will be presented along with recent results from aqueous dissolution studies of the new aluminum alloys. 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Method of forming components for a high-temperature secondary electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mrazek, Franklin C. (Hickory Hills, IL); Battles, James E. (Oak Forest, IL)

    1983-01-01

    A method of forming a component for a high-temperature secondary electrochemical cell having a positive electrode including a sulfide selected from the group consisting of iron sulfides, nickel sulfides, copper sulfides and cobalt sulfides, a negative electrode including an alloy of aluminum and an electrically insulating porous separator between said electrodes. The improvement comprises forming a slurry of solid particles dispersed in a liquid electrolyte such as the lithium chloride-potassium chloride eutetic, casting the slurry into a form having the shape of one of the components and smoothing the exposed surface of the slurry, cooling the cast slurry to form the solid component, and removing same. Electrodes and separators can be thus formed.

  15. Method of forming components for a high-temperature secondary electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mrazek, F.C.; Battles, J.E.

    1981-05-22

    A method of forming a component for a high-temperature secondary electrochemical cell having a positive electrode including a sulfide selected from the group consisting of iron sulfides, nickel sulfides, copper sulfides and cobalt sulfides, a negative electrode including an alloy of aluminum and an electrically insulating porous separator between said electrodes is described. The improvement comprises forming a slurry of solid particles dispersed in a liquid electrolyte such as the lithium chloride-potassium chloride eutectic, casting the slurry into a form having the shape of one of the components and smoothing the exposed surface of the slurry, cooling the cast slurry to form the solid component, and removing same. Electrodes and separators can be thus formed.

  16. Silica separation from reinjection brines at Monte Amiata geothermal plants, Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vitolo, S.; Cialdella, M.L. . Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica)

    1994-06-01

    A process for the separation of silica from geothermal reinjection brines is reported, in which the phases of coagulation, sedimentation and filtration of silica are involved. The effectiveness of lime and calcium chloride as coagulating agents has been investigated and the separating operations have been set out. Attention has been focused on Monte Amiata reinjection geothermal brines, whose scaling effect causes serious problems in the operation and maintenance of reinjection facilities. The study has been conducted using different amounts of added coagulants and at different temperatures, to determine optimal operating conditions. Though calcium chloride was revealed to be effective as a coagulant of the polymeric silica fraction, lime has also proved capable of removing monomeric dissolved silica at high dosages. Investigation on the behavior of coagulated brine has revealed the feasibility of separating the coagulated silica by sedimentation and filtration.

  17. Low density microcellular carbon or catalytically impregnated carbon foams and process for their prepartion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hopper, Robert W.; Pekala, Richard W.

    1988-01-01

    Machinable and structurally stable, low density microcellular carbon, and catalytically impregnated carbon, foams, and process for their preparation, are provided. Pulverized sodium chloride is classified to improve particle size uniformity, and the classified particles may be further mixed with a catalyst material. The particles are cold pressed into a compact having internal pores, and then sintered. The sintered compact is immersed and then submerged in a phenolic polymer solution to uniformly fill the pores of the compact with phenolic polymer. The compact is then heated to pyrolyze the phenolic polymer into carbon in the form of a foam. Then the sodium chloride of the compact is leached away with water, and the remaining product is freeze dried to provide the carbon, or catalytically impregnated carbon, foam.

  18. Low density microcellular carbon or catalytically impregnated carbon foams and process for their preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hooper, R.W.; Pekala, R.W.

    1987-04-30

    Machinable and structurally stable, low density microcellular carbon, and catalytically impregnated carbon, foams, and process for their preparation, are provided. Pulverized sodium chloride is classified to improve particle size uniformity, and the classified particles may be further mixed with a catalyst material. The particles are cold pressed into a compact having internal pores, and then sintered. The sintered compact is immersed and then submerged in a phenolic polymer solution to uniformly fill the pores of the compact with phenolic polymer. The compact is then heated to pyrolyze the phenolic polymer into carbon in the form of a foam. Then the sodium chloride of the compact is leached away with water, and the remaining product is freeze dried to provide the carbon, or catalytically impregnated carbon, foam.

  19. Low density microcellular carbon or catalytically impregnated carbon forms and process for their preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hopper, Robert W.; Pekala, Richard W.

    1989-01-01

    Machinable and structurally stable, low density microcellular carbon, and catalytically impregnated carbon, foams, and process for their preparation, are provided. Pulverized sodium chloride is classified to improve particle size uniformity, and the classified particles may be further mixed with a catalyst material. The particles are cold pressed into a compact having internal pores, and then sintered. The sintered compact is immersed and then submerged in a phenolic polymer solution to uniformly fill the pores of the compact with phenolic polymer. The compact is then heated to pyrolyze the phenolic polymer into carbon in the form of a foam. Then the sodium chloride of the compact is leached away with water, and the remaining product is freeze dried to provide the carbon, or catalytically impregnated carbon, foam.

  20. Methods for improving solar cell open circuit voltage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jordan, John F.; Singh, Vijay P.

    1979-01-01

    A method for producing a solar cell having an increased open circuit voltage. A layer of cadmium sulfide (CdS) produced by a chemical spray technique and having residual chlorides is exposed to a flow of hydrogen sulfide (H.sub.2 S) heated to a temperature of 400.degree.-600.degree. C. The residual chlorides are reduced and any remaining CdCl.sub.2 is converted to CdS. A heterojunction is formed over the CdS and electrodes are formed. Application of chromium as the positive electrode results in a further increase in the open circuit voltage available from the H.sub.2 S-treated solar cell.

  1. Thermal acidization and recovery process for recovering viscous petroleum

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poston, Robert S.

    1984-01-01

    A thermal acidization and recovery process for increasing production of heavy viscous petroleum crude oil and synthetic fuels from subterranean hydrocarbon formations containing clay particles creating adverse permeability effects is described. The method comprises injecting a thermal vapor stream through a well bore penetrating such formations to clean the formation face of hydrocarbonaceous materials which restrict the flow of fluids into the petroleum-bearing formation. Vaporized hydrogen chloride is then injected simultaneously to react with calcium and magnesium salts in the formation surrounding the bore hole to form water soluble chloride salts. Vaporized hydrogen fluoride is then injected simultaneously with its thermal vapor to dissolve water-sensitive clay particles thus increasing permeability. Thereafter, the thermal vapors are injected until the formation is sufficiently heated to permit increased recovery rates of the petroleum.

  2. Encapsulation of nanoclusters in dried gel materials via an inverse micelle/sol gel synthesis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martino, A.; Yamanaka, S.A.; Kawola, J.S.; Showalter, S.K.; Loy, D.A.

    1998-09-29

    A dried gel material sterically entrapping nanoclusters of a catalytically active material and a process to make the material via an inverse micelle/sol-gel synthesis are disclosed. A surfactant is mixed with an apolar solvent to form an inverse micelle solution. A salt of a catalytically active material, such as gold chloride, is added along with a silica gel precursor to the solution to form a mixture. To the mixture are then added a reducing agent for the purpose of reducing the gold in the gold chloride to atomic gold to form the nanoclusters and a condensing agent to form the gel which sterically entraps the nanoclusters. The nanoclusters are normally in the average size range of from 5--10 nm in diameter with a monodisperse size distribution. 1 fig.

  3. Encapsulation of nanoclusters in dried gel materials via an inverse micelle/sol gel synthesis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martino, Anthony; Yamanaka, Stacey A.; Kawola, Jeffrey S.; Showalter, Steven K.; Loy, Douglas A.

    1998-01-01

    A dried gel material sterically entrapping nanoclusters of a catalytically active material and a process to make the material via an inverse micelle/sol-gel synthesis. A surfactant is mixed with an apolar solvent to form an inverse micelle solution. A salt of a catalytically active material, such as gold chloride, is added along with a silica gel precursor to the solution to form a mixture. To the mixture are then added a reducing agent for the purpose of reducing the gold in the gold chloride to atomic gold to form the nanoclusters and a condensing agent to form the gel which sterically entraps the nanoclusters. The nanoclusters are normally in the average size range of from 5-10 nm in diameter with a monodisperse size distribution.

  4. REDUCTION OF FLUORIDE TO METAL

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, O.N.; Schmidt, F.A.; Spedding, F.H.

    1960-08-30

    A process is given for making yttrium metal by reducing yttrium fluoride with calcium plus magnesium. Calcium is added in an excess of from 10 to 20% and magnesium in a quantity to yield a magnesium--yttrium alloy containing from 12 to 25% magnesium when the reaction mass is heated in an inert atmosphere at from 900 to 1106 deg C, but preferably above the melting point of the alloy. Calcium chloride may be added so as to obtain a less viscous slag containing from 30 to 60% calcium chloride. After removal of the slag the alloy is vacuum-heated at about 1100 deg C for volatilization of the magnesium and calcium.

  5. Electrodeposition of Pd Nanowires and Nanorods on Carbon Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bliznakov, S.; Vukmirovic, M.; Sutter, E.; Adzic, R.

    2011-06-01

    We report on the method for synthesizing palladium nanowires and nanorods involving the electrodeposition on oxidized amorphous carbon nanoparticles from chloride containing solutions. The effect of the deposition overpotential and the concentration of palladium ions on the morphology of the Pd electrodeposits have been established. Palladium grows predominately in the shape of nanowires if electrodeposited at potentials in the H underpotential deposition potential (UPD) range, where chloride ions are adsorbed only at the edges of nucleated monolayer-thick clusters on the carbon surface. The effect of the concentration of palladium ions on deposits morphology is also discussed. The mechanism of electrodeposition of Pd nanowires and nanorods in the H UPD potential range has been proposed.

  6. Ion generation and CPC detection efficiency studies in sub 3-nm size range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kangasluoma, J.; Junninen, H.; Sipilae, M.; Kulmala, M.; Petaejae, T.; Lehtipalo, K.; Mikkilae, J.; Vanhanen, J.; Attoui, M.; Worsnop, D.

    2013-05-24

    We studied the chemical composition of commonly used condensation particle counter calibration ions with a mass spectrometer and found that in our calibration setup the negatively charged ammonium sulphate, sodium chloride and tungsten oxide are the least contaminated whereas silver on both positive and negative and the three mentioned earlier in positive mode are contaminated with organics. We report cut-off diameters for Airmodus Particle Size Magnifier (PSM) 1.1, 1.3, 1.4, 1.6 and 1.6-1.8 nm for negative sodium chloride, ammonium sulphate, tungsten oxide, silver and positive organics, respectively. To study the effect of sample relative humidity on detection efficiency of the PSM we used different humidities in the differential mobility analyzer sheath flow and found that with increasing relative humidity also the detection efficiency of the PSM increases.

  7. Regeneration of strong-base anion-exchange resins by sequential chemical displacement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Gilbert M.; Gu, Baohua; Moyer, Bruce A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.

    2002-01-01

    A method for regenerating strong-base anion exchange resins utilizing a sequential chemical displacement technique with new regenerant formulation. The new first regenerant solution is composed of a mixture of ferric chloride, a water-miscible organic solvent, hydrochloric acid, and water in which tetrachloroferrate anion is formed and used to displace the target anions on the resin. The second regenerant is composed of a dilute hydrochloric acid and is used to decompose tetrachloroferrate and elute ferric ions, thereby regenerating the resin. Alternative chemical displacement methods include: (1) displacement of target anions with fluoroborate followed by nitrate or salicylate and (2) displacement of target anions with salicylate followed by dilute hydrochloric acid. The methodology offers an improved regeneration efficiency, recovery, and waste minimization over the conventional displacement technique using sodium chloride (or a brine) or alkali metal hydroxide.

  8. Uranium dioxide electrolysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Willit, James L.; Ackerman, John P.; Williamson, Mark A.

    2009-12-29

    This is a single stage process for treating spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors. The spent nuclear fuel, uranium oxide, UO.sub.2, is added to a solution of UCl.sub.4 dissolved in molten LiCl. A carbon anode and a metallic cathode is positioned in the molten salt bath. A power source is connected to the electrodes and a voltage greater than or equal to 1.3 volts is applied to the bath. At the anode, the carbon is oxidized to form carbon dioxide and uranium chloride. At the cathode, uranium is electroplated. The uranium chloride at the cathode reacts with more uranium oxide to continue the reaction. The process may also be used with other transuranic oxides and rare earth metal oxides.

  9. Viscosity and density of aqueous solutions of LiBr, LiCl, ZnBr[sub 2], CaCl[sub 2], and LiNO[sub 3]; 1: Single salt solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wimby, J.M.; Berntsson, T.S. . Dept. of Heat and Power Technology)

    1994-01-01

    New experimental data for the viscosity and density of the binary systems lithium chloride + water, lithium bromide + water, calcium chloride + water, lithium nitrate + water, and zinc bromide + water are presented. Densities are presented in tabular form and as 10-parameter correlations, while kinematic and dynamic viscosities are presented in tabular form. Data are presented in the concentration range from intermediate dilution to close to room temperature crystallization concentration. The temperature ranges are 20--70 C for density and 25--90 C for viscosity. When available, literature data are compared with the new data, and some disagreement is found. New thermogravimetric curves are presented for the dehydration of CaCl[sub 2], ZnBr[sub 2], and LiBr in order to enable evaluation of drying as a composition determination technique.

  10. PROCESS OF ELECTROPLATING METALS WITH ALUMINUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schickner, W.C.

    1960-04-26

    A process of electroplating aluminum on metals from a nonaqueous bath and a novel method of pretreating or conditioning the metal prior to electrodeposition of the aluminum are given. The process of this invention, as applied by way of example to the plating of uranium, comprises the steps of plating the uranium with the barrier inetal, immersing the barrier-coated uranium in fatty acid, and electrolyzing a water-free diethyl ether solution of aluminum chloride and lithium hydride while making the uranium the cathode until an aluminum deposit of the desired thickness has been formed. According to another preferred embodiment the barrier-coated uranium is immersed in an isopropyl alcohol solution of sterato chromic chloride prior to the fatty acid treatment of this invention.

  11. Electrolytic process to produce sodium hypochlorite using sodium ion conductive ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balagopal, Shekar; Malhotra, Vinod; Pendleton, Justin; Reid, Kathy Jo

    2012-09-18

    An electrochemical process for the production of sodium hypochlorite is disclosed. The process may potentially be used to produce sodium hypochlorite from seawater or low purity un-softened or NaCl-based salt solutions. The process utilizes a sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane, such as membranes based on NASICON-type materials, in an electrolytic cell. In the process, water is reduced at a cathode to form hydroxyl ions and hydrogen gas. Chloride ions from a sodium chloride solution are oxidized in the anolyte compartment to produce chlorine gas which reacts with water to produce hypochlorous and hydrochloric acid. Sodium ions are transported from the anolyte compartment to the catholyte compartment across the sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane. Sodium hydroxide is transported from the catholyte compartment to the anolyte compartment to produce sodium hypochlorite within the anolyte compartment.

  12. Effects of Variations in Salt-Spray Conditions on the Corrosion Mechanisms of an AE44 Magnesium Alloy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Martin, Holly J.; Horstemeyer, M. F.; Wang, Paul T.

    2010-01-01

    The understanding of how corrosion affects magnesium alloys is of utmost importance as the automotive and aerospace industries have become interested in the use of these lightweight alloys. However, the standardized salt-spray test does not produce adequate corrosion results when compared with field data, due to the lack of multiple exposure environments. This research explored four test combinations through three sets of cycles to determine how the corrosion mechanisms of pitting, intergranular corrosion, and general corrosion were affected by the environment. Of the four test combinations, Humidity-Drying was the least corrosive, while the most corrosive test condition was Salt Spray-Humidity-Drying.more » The differences in corrosivity of the test conditions are due to the various reactions needed to cause corrosion, including the presence of chloride ions to cause pit nucleation, the presence of humidity to cause galvanic corrosion, and the drying phase which trapped chloride ions beneath the corrosion by-products.« less

  13. Heterogeneous Catalysis for Thermochemical Conversion | Bioenergy | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heterogeneous Catalysis for Thermochemical Conversion Our mission is to transform thermal biomass deconstruction products (syngas and pyrolysis oil) into the fuels and chemicals that keep society moving forward. Figure includes three panels. The first pane, labeled single-source precursors, depicts a bis(triphenylphosphine)rhodium(I) carbonyl chloride single-source precursor for producing rhodium phosphide nanoparticles, shown by a vertical line labeled PPh3 at the top, Rh in the middle, and

  14. The Unexpected Discovery of the Mg(HMDS)2/MgCl2 Complex as a Magnesium

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electrolyte for Rechargeable Magnesium Batteries - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research February 2, 2015, Research Highlights The Unexpected Discovery of the Mg(HMDS)2/MgCl2 Complex as a Magnesium Electrolyte for Rechargeable Magnesium Batteries NMR confirms formation of new species Scientific Achievement A simple mixture of magnesium compounds: magnesium hexamethyldisilazide (Mg(HMDS)2) and magnesium chloride (MgCl2) was prepared to achieve reversible Mg deposition/dissolution, a wide

  15. Thesis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thermophysical Properties of Sodium Nitrate and Sodium Chloride Solutions and Their Effects on Fluid Flow in Unsaturated Media Tianfu Xu and Karsten Pruess Earth Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 ABSTRACT. Understanding movement of saline sodium nitrate (NaNO 3 ) waste solutions is important for assessing the contaminant migration near leaking waste storage tanks in the unsaturated zone at the Hanford site (Washington, USA).

  16. Nonaqueous composition for slip casting or cold forming refractory material into solid shapes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montgomery, L.C.

    1993-08-24

    A composition is described for slip casting or cold forming non-oxide refractory material(s) into solid shape comprising finely divided solid refractory materials selected from the group consisting of metal boride, refractory carbide, nitride, silicide and a refractory metal of tungsten, molybdenum, tantalum and chromium suspended in a nonaqueous liquid slip composition consisting essentially of a deflocculent composed of a vinyl chloride-vinyl acetate resin dissolved in an organic solvent.

  17. index | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PM Emissions Control Control Technologies Regulatory In-House R&D This component of the NETL Innovations for Existing Plants Program seeks to develop cost-effective control technology for: 1) primary fine particulates and associated trace metals (e.g., lead, arsenic, etc.), 2) gaseous precursors that react in the atmosphere to form secondary fine particles, and 3) acid gases (e.g., sulfuric acid, hydrogen fluoride, and hydrogen chloride) that can create visible plumes and are reportable

  18. index | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Syngas Processing The Syngas Processing Key Technology area focuses on the development of high-efficiency processes to remove contaminants present in raw syngas (these include hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, hydrogen chloride, and carbonyl sulfide, as well as various forms of trace metals, including arsenic, mercury, selenium, and cadmium) to extremely low levels demanded by stringent regulatory limits on air emissions, and to prevent the harmful effects of these contaminants on downstream equipment

  19. Sequential pyrolysis of plastic to recover polystyrene HCL and terephthalic

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    acid (Patent) | SciTech Connect Sequential pyrolysis of plastic to recover polystyrene HCL and terephthalic acid Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Sequential pyrolysis of plastic to recover polystyrene HCL and terephthalic acid A process of pyrolyzing plastic waste feed streams containing polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene terephthalate, polystyrene and polyethylene to recover polystyrene HCl and terephthalic acid comprising: heating the plastic waste feed stream to a first

  20. PREPARATION OF ACTINIDE-ALUMINUM ALLOYS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, R.H.

    1962-09-01

    BS>A process is given for preparing alloys of aluminum with plutonium, uranium, and/or thorium by chlorinating actinide oxide dissolved in molten alkali metal chloride with hydrochloric acid, chlorine, and/or phosgene, adding aluminum metal, and passing air and/or water vapor through the mass. Actinide metal is formed and alloyed with the aluminum. After cooling to solidification, the alloy is separated from the salt. (AEC)

  1. Method for mercury refinement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, M.W.; Speer, R.; George, W.A.

    1991-04-09

    The effluent from mercury collected during the photochemical separation of the [sup 196]Hg isotope is often contaminated with particulate mercurous chloride, Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2]. The use of mechanical filtering via thin glass tubes, ultrasonic rinsing with acetone (dimethyl ketone) and a specially designed cold trap have been found effective in removing the particulate (i.e., solid) Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] contaminant. The present invention is particularly directed to such filtering. 5 figures.

  2. Apparatus for mercury refinement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W.; Speer, Richard; George, William A.

    1991-01-01

    The effluent from mercury collected during the photochemical separation of the .sup.196 Hg isotope is often contaminated with particulate mercurous chloride, Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2. The use of mechanical filtering via thin glass tubes, ultrasonic rinsing with acetone (dimethyl ketone) and a specially designed cold trap have been found effective in removing the particulate (i.e., solid) Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 contaminant. The present invention is particularly directed to such filtering.

  3. Method for mercury refinement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W.; Speer, Richard; George, William A.

    1991-01-01

    The effluent from mercury collected during the photochemical separation of the .sup.196 Hg isotope is often contaminated with particulate mercurous chloride, Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2. The use of mechanical filtering via thin glass tubes, ultrasonic rinsing with acetone (dimethyl ketone) and a specially designed cold trap have been found effective in removing the particulate (i.e., solid) Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 contaminant. The present invention is particularly directed to such filtering.

  4. Apparatus for mercury refinement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, M.W.; Speer, R.; George, W.A.

    1991-07-16

    The effluent from mercury collected during the photochemical separation of the [sup 196]Hg isotope is often contaminated with particulate mercurous chloride, Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2]. The use of mechanical filtering via thin glass tubes, ultrasonic rinsing with acetone (dimethyl ketone) and a specially designed cold trap have been found effective in removing the particulate (i.e., solid) Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] contaminant. The present invention is particularly directed to such filtering. 5 figures.

  5. METHOD OF APPLYING COPPER COATINGS TO URANIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gray, A.G.

    1959-07-14

    A method is presented for protecting metallic uranium, which comprises anodic etching of the uranium in an aqueous phosphoric acid solution containing chloride ions, cleaning the etched uranium in aqueous nitric acid solution, promptly electro-plating the cleaned uranium in a copper electro-plating bath, and then electro-plating thereupon lead, tin, zinc, cadmium, chromium or nickel from an aqueous electro-plating bath.

  6. Used Fuel Disposition Stainless Steel Canister Challenges Steve Marschman

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Stainless Steel Canister Challenges Steve Marschman Field Demonstration Lead Idaho National Laboratory NEET ASI Review Meeting September 17, 2014 Used Fuel Disposition Date 2 Overview n Chloride-Induced Stress Corrosion Cracking (CISCC) has been identified by the NRC as a potential degradation mechanism for welded, stainless steel used fuel canisters (not bare fuel storage casks). n Systems are difficult to inspect and monitor n Three in-service inspections have been performed - Results

  7. Extinguishing agent for combustible metal fires

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Riley, John F.; Stauffer, Edgar Eugene

    1976-10-12

    A low chloride extinguishing agent for combustible metal fires comprising from substantially 75 to substantially 94 weight percent of sodium carbonate as the basic fire extinguishing material, from substantially 1 to substantially 5 weight percent of a water-repellent agent such as a metal stearate, from substantially 2 to substantially 10 weight percent of a flow promoting agent such as attapulgus clay, and from substantially 3 to substantially 15 weight percent of a polyamide resin as a crusting agent.

  8. Microbial based chlorinated ethene destruction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bagwell, Christopher E.; Freedman, David L.; Brigmon, Robin L.; Bratt, William B.; Wood, Elizabeth A.

    2009-11-10

    A mixed culture of Dehalococcoides species is provided that has an ability to catalyze the complete dechlorination of polychlorinated ethenes such as PCE, TCE, cDCE, 1,1-DCE and vinyl chloride as well as halogenated ethanes such as 1,2-DCA and EDB. The mixed culture demonstrates the ability to achieve dechlorination even in the presence of high source concentrations of chlorinated ethenes.

  9. Polymer gel electrolytes for application in aluminum deposition and rechargeable aluminum ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xiao -Guang; Fang, Youxing; Jiang, Xueguang; Yoshii, Kazuki; Tsuda, Tetsuya; Dai, Sheng

    2015-10-22

    Polymer gel electrolyte using AlCl3 complexed acrylamide as functional monomer and ionic liquids based on acidic mixture of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (EMImCl) and AlCl3 as plasticizer has been successfully prepared for the first time by free radical polymerization. Aluminum deposition is successfully obtained with a polymer gel membrane contianing 80 wt% ionic liquid. As a result, the polymer gel membranes are also good candidates for rechargeable aluminum ion batteries.

  10. Separation of Californium from other Actinides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mailen, J.C.; Ferris, L.M.

    1973-09-25

    A method is provided for separating californium from a fused fluoride composition containing californium and at least one element selected from the group consisting of plutonium, americium, curium, uranium, thorium, and protactinium which comprises contacting said fluoride composition with a liquid bismuth phase containing sufficient lithium or thorium to effect transfer of said actinides to the bismuth phase and then contacting the liquid bismuth phase with molten LiCl to effect selective transfer of californium to the chloride phase.

  11. Method of removing arsenic and other anionic contaminants from contaminated water using enhanced coagulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Teter, David M.; Brady, Patrick V.; Krumhansl, James L.; Khandaker, Nadim R.

    2006-11-21

    An improved water decontamination process comprising contacting water containing anionic contaminants with an enhanced coagulant to form an enhanced floc, which more efficiently binds anionic species (e.g., arsenate, arsenite, chromate, fluoride, selenate, and borate, and combinations thereof) predominantly through the formation of surface complexes. The enhanced coagulant comprises a trivalent metal cation coagulant (e.g., ferric chloride or aluminum sulfate) mixed with a divalent metal cation modifier (e.g., copper sulfate or zinc sulfate).

  12. Reduced weight decontamination formulation utilizing a solid peracid compound for neutralization of chemical and biological warfare agents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tucker, Mark D.

    2011-09-20

    A reduced weight decontamination formulation that utilizes a solid peracid compound (sodium borate peracetate) and a cationic surfactant (dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride) that can be packaged with all water removed. This reduces the packaged weight of the decontamination formulation by .about.80% (as compared to the "all-liquid" DF-200 formulation) and significantly lowers the logistics burden on the warfighter. Water (freshwater or saltwater) is added to the new decontamination formulation at the time of use from a local source.

  13. On the appearance of vorticity and gradient shear bands in wormlike

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    micellar solutions of different CPCl/salt systems (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect On the appearance of vorticity and gradient shear bands in wormlike micellar solutions of different CPCl/salt systems Citation Details In-Document Search Title: On the appearance of vorticity and gradient shear bands in wormlike micellar solutions of different CPCl/salt systems Wormlike micellar salt/surfactant solutions (X-salicylate, cetylpyridinium chloride) are studied with respect to the applied shear

  14. Effect of environmental variables on localized corrosion of high-performance container materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy, A.K.; Fleming, D.L.; Lum, B.Y.

    1997-01-01

    Electrochemical cyclic potentiodynamic polarization (CPP) experiments were performed on several candidate high-performance waste package container materials to evaluate their susceptibility to localized corrosion in aqueous environments relevant to the potential underground high-level nuclear waste repository. This paper presents the results of this study showing the effects of chloride ion (Cl) concentrations, pH, temperature, and electrochemical potential scan rate on the pitting corrosion behavior of these materials.

  15. Determination of actinides in urine and fecal samples

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKibbin, T.T.

    1993-03-02

    A method of determining the radioactivity of specific actinides that are carried in urine or fecal sample material is disclosed. The samples are ashed in a muffle furnace, dissolved in an acid, and then treated in a series of steps of reduction, oxidation, dissolution, and precipitation, including a unique step of passing a solution through a chloride form anion exchange resin for separation of uranium and plutonium from americium.

  16. Chlorinated Hydrocarbons

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by Satish C. B. Myneni, Department of Geosciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 When we think of chlorine, we often relate it to the salt used in food preparation, chloride in the oceans, chlorine gas from swimming pools, and gaseous chlorofluorocarbons that have close links to the depletion of stratospheric ozone. We rarely think of thousands of chlorinated hydrocarbons that exist in the natural systems, several of which are highly toxic to humans (1). The C-Cl bond, common to all

  17. A Lewis Acid-free and Phenolate-based Magnesium Electrolyte for

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rechargeable Magnesium Batteries - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research March 2, 2015, Research Highlights A Lewis Acid-free and Phenolate-based Magnesium Electrolyte for Rechargeable Magnesium Batteries X-ray single crystal isolated from the electrolyte containing the prototype [Mg2Cl3(THF)6]+ cation Scientific Achievement A novel Lewis acid-free all magnesium electrolyte containing 2,6-di-tert-butylphenoxidemagnesium chloride ((DTBP)MgCl + MgCl2) has been deliberately developed. The

  18. Determination of actinides in urine and fecal samples

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKibbin, Terry T.

    1993-01-01

    A method of determining the radioactivity of specific actinides that are carried in urine or fecal sample material is disclosed. The samples are ashed in a muffle furnace, dissolved in an acid, and then treated in a series of steps of reduction, oxidation, dissolution, and precipitation, including a unique step of passing a solution through a chloride form anion exchange resin for separation of uranium and plutonium from americium.

  19. Palladium-catalyzed Br/D exchange of arenes: Selective deuterium incorporation with versatile functional group tolerance and high efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Honghai -Hai; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Hong, Kunlun

    2015-07-13

    There is a facile method for introducing one or more deuterium atoms onto an aromatic nucleus via Br/D exchange with high functional group tolerance and high incorporation efficiency is disclosed. Deuterium-labeled aryl chlorides and aryl borates which could be used as substrates in cross-coupling reactions to construct more complicated deuterium-labeled compounds can also be synthesized by this method.

  20. In situ formation of coal gasification catalysts from low cost alkali metal salts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, Bernard J.; Brittain, Robert D.; Sancier, Kenneth M.

    1985-01-01

    A carbonaceous material, such as crushed coal, is admixed or impregnated with an inexpensive alkali metal compound, such as sodium chloride, and then pretreated with a stream containing steam at a temperature of 350.degree. to 650.degree. C. to enhance the catalytic activity of the mixture in a subsequent gasification of the mixture. The treatment may result in the transformation of the alkali metal compound into another, more catalytically active, form.