Sample records for 75-09-2 methylene chloride

  1. ANALYSIS OF VAPORS FROM METHYLENE CHLORIDE EXTRACTS OF NUCLEAR GRADE HEPA FILTER FIBERGLASS SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FRYE JM; ANASTOS HL; GUTIERREZ FC

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    While several organic compounds were detected in the vapor samples used in the reenactment of the preparation of mounts from the extracts of nuclear grade high-efficiency particulate air filter fiberglass samples, the most significant species present in the samples were methylene chloride, phenol, phenol-d6, and 2-fluorophenol. These species were all known to be present in the extracts, but were expected to have evaporated during the preparation of the mounts, as the mounts appeared to be dry before any vapor was collected. These species were present at the following percentages of their respective occupational exposure limits: methylene chloride, 2%; phenol, 0.4%; and phenol-d6, 0.6%. However, there is no established limit for 2-fluorophenol. Several other compounds were detected at low levels for which, as in the case of 2-fluorophenol, there are no established permissible exposure limits. These compounds include 2-chlorophenol; N-nitroso-1-propanamine; 2-fluoro-1,1{prime}-biphenyl; 1,2-dihydroacenaphthylene; 2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-dione,2,6-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl); trimethyl oxirane; n-propylpropanamine; 2-(Propylamino)ethanol; 4-methoxy-1-butene; 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one; and 3,4-dimethylpyridine. Some of these were among those added as surrogates or spike standards as part ofthe Advanced Technologies and Laboratories International, Inc. preparation ofthe extract of the HEPA filter media and are indicated as such in the data tables in Section 2, Results; other compounds found were not previously known to be present. The main inorganic species detected (sulfate, sodium, and sulfur) are also consistent with species added in the preparation of the methylene chloride extract of the high-efficiency particulate air sample.

  2. Mr. John E. Kieling, Bureau Chief Hazardous Waste Bureau

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    12014 9022 WQSP-4 Methylene Chloride U 7112014 0.4 75-09-2 CEMRC 712014 9022 WQSP-4 Carbon Tetrachloride U 7112014 0.4 56-23-5 CEMRC 712014 9022 WQSP-4...

  3. Mr. John E. Kieling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9129 WQSP-4 Methylene Chloride U 1172014 0.4 75-09-2 CEMRC PPBV 1152014 9129 WQSP-4 Carbon Tetrachloride U 1172014 0.4 56-23-5 CEMRC PPBV 1152014 9129 WQSP-4...

  4. Methylene Chloride Management Plan Review and Approval Authority

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    (Main Office) (301) 405-3960 (Industrial Hygiene, Biological Safety, Occupational Safety, Hazardous Authority Prepared by: Industrial Hygienist Date Reviewed and Approved by: Chair- UM EH&S Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 PERSONAL HYGIENE PRACTICES

  5. Adiabatic state preparation study of methylene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veis, Libor, E-mail: libor.veis@jh-inst.cas.cz; Pittner, Ji?í, E-mail: jiri.pittner@jh-inst.cas.cz [J. Heyrovský Institute of Physical Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Dolejškova 3, 18223 Prague 8 (Czech Republic)

    2014-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum computers attract much attention as they promise to outperform their classical counterparts in solving certain type of problems. One of them with practical applications in quantum chemistry is simulation of complex quantum systems. An essential ingredient of efficient quantum simulation algorithms are initial guesses of the exact wave functions with high enough fidelity. As was proposed in Aspuru-Guzik et al. [Science 309, 1704 (2005)], the exact ground states can in principle be prepared by the adiabatic state preparation method. Here, we apply this approach to preparation of the lowest lying multireference singlet electronic state of methylene and numerically investigate preparation of this state at different molecular geometries. We then propose modifications that lead to speeding up the preparation process. Finally, we decompose the minimal adiabatic state preparation employing the direct mapping in terms of two-qubit interactions.

  6. Exposure to Methylene Diphenyl Diisocyante (MDI) among polyurethane roof workers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narvaez-Cuevas, Carmen Lourdes

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cross-sectional study was done to evaluate the association between methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) exposure and respiratory system deterioration among permanent male workers. The studied company, located in Puerto ...

  7. Photocatalytic reduction of methylene blue by TiO2 nanotube arrays: effects of TiO2 crystalline phase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kang, Xiongwu; Chen, Shaowei

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    reduction of methylene blue by TiO 2 nanotube arrays:the reduction of methylene blue in water as an illustratingpro?les of methylene blue exhibited apparent diminishment.

  8. A neutron diffraction study of bis(cyclopentadienyl)(methyl)(methylene)tantalum(V) at 15 K

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takusagawa, Fusao

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (4) A] in the methyl group is slightly longer than that in the methylene group [1-081 (5) A], while therespective H-C-H angles are 107-8(3)° (methyl, mean value) and 112-3(2)° (methylene). The Ta-C methylene distance is 2-039 (1) A, corresponding to a...

  9. Process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds from petroleum products. [Polychlorinated biphenyls; methylene chloride; perchloroethylene; trichlorofluoroethane; trichloroethylene; chlorobenzene

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Googin, J.M.; Napier, J.M.; Travaglini, M.A.

    1982-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls, from petroleum products by solvent extraction. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from a petroleum product into a polar solvent by contracting the petroleum product with the polar solvent. The polar solvent is characterized by a high solubility for the extracted halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, a low solubility for the petroleum product and considerable solvent power for polyhydroxy compound. The preferred polar solvent is dimethylformamide. A miscible polyhydroxy compound, such as, water, is added to the polar extraction solvent to increase the polarity of the polar extraction solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from the highly-polarized mixture of polyhydroxy compound and polar extraction solvent into a low polar or nonpolar solvent by contacting the polyhydroxy compound-polar solvent mixture with the low polar or nonpolar solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds in the low polar or nonpolar solvent by physical means, e.g., vacuum evaporation. The polar and nonpolar solvents are recovered for recycling. The process can easily be designed for continuous operation. Advantages of the process include that the polar solvent and a major portion of the nonpolar solvent can be recycled, the petroleum products are reclaimable and the cost for disposing of waste containing polychlorinated biphenyls is significantly reduced. 2 tables.

  10. Chloride Depletion in Aged Sea Salt Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chloride Depletion in Aged Sea Salt Particles Chloride Depletion in Aged Sea Salt Particles Print Wednesday, 06 February 2013 00:00 Particles or aerosols can be directly released...

  11. Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spormann, Alfred M. (Stanford, CA); Muller, Jochen A. (Baltimore, MD); Rosner, Bettina M. (Berlin, DE); Von Abendroth, Gregory (Nannhein, DE); Meshulam-Simon, Galit (Los Altos, CA); McCarty, Perry L (Stanford, CA)

    2011-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Compositions and methods are provided that relate to the bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes, particularly the bioremediation of vinyl chloride by Dehalococcoides-like organisms. An isolated strain of bacteria, Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS, that metabolizes vinyl chloride is provided; the genetic sequence of the enzyme responsible for vinyl chloride dehalogenation; methods of assessing the capability of endogenous organisms at an environmental site to metabolize vinyl chloride; and a method of using the strains of the invention for bioremediation.

  12. Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spormann, Alfred M [Stanford, CA; Muller, Jochen A [Baltimore, MD; Rosner, Bettina M [Berlin, DE; Von Abendroth, Gregory [Mannheim, DE; Meshulam-Simon, Galit [Los Angeles, CA; McCarty, Perry L [Stanford, CA

    2014-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Compositions and methods are provided that relate to the bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes, particularly the bioremediation of vinyl chloride by Dehalococcoides-like organisms. An isolated strain of bacteria, Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS, that metabolizes vinyl chloride is provided; the genetic sequence of the enzyme responsible for vinyl chloride dehalogenation; methods of assessing the capability of endogenous organisms at an environmental site to metabolize vinyl chloride; and a method of using the strains of the invention for bioremediation.

  13. An Exocyclic Methylene Group Acts As a Bioisostere of the 2?-Oxygen Atom in LNA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seth, Punit P.; Allerson, Charles R.; Berdeja, Andres; Siwkowski, Andrew; Pallan, Pradeep S.; Gaus, Hans; Prakash, Thazha P.; Watt, Andrew T.; Egli, Martin; Swayze, Eric E. (Isis Pharm.); (Vanderbilt)

    2010-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We show for the first time that it is possible to obtain LNA-like (Locked Nucleic Acid 1) binding affinity and biological activity with carbocyclic LNA (cLNA) analogs by replacing the 2{prime}-oxygen atom in LNA with an exocyclic methylene group. Synthesis of the methylene-cLNA nucleoside was accomplished by an intramolecular cyclization reaction between a radical at the 2{prime}-position and a propynyl group at the C-4{prime} position. Only methylene-cLNA modified oligonucleotides showed similar thermal stability and mismatch discrimination properties for complementary nucleic acids as LNA. In contrast, the close structurally related methyl-cLNA analogs showed diminished hybridization properties. Analysis of crystal structures of cLNA modified self-complementary DNA decamer duplexes revealed that the methylene group participates in a tight interaction with a 2{prime}-deoxyribose residue of the 5{prime}-terminal G of a neighboring duplex, resulting in the formation of a CH...O type hydrogen bond. This indicates that the methylene group retains a negative polarization at the edge of the minor groove in the absence of a hydrophilic 2{prime}-substituent and provides a rationale for the superior thermal stability of this modification. In animal experiments, methylene-cLNA antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) showed similar in vivo activity but reduced toxicity as compared to LNA ASOs. Our work highlights the interchangeable role of oxygen and unsaturated moieties in nucleic acid structure and emphasizes greater use of this bioisostere to improve the properties of nucleic acids for therapeutic and diagnostic applications.

  14. Graphene oxide functionalized with methylene blue and its performance in singlet oxygen generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wojtoniszak, M., E-mail: mwojtoniszak@zut.edu.pl [West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin, Institute of Chemical and Environment Engineering, Pulaskiego 10, 70-322 Szczecin (Poland); Rogi?ska, D.; Machali?ski, B. [Pomeranian Medical University, Department of General Pathology, Powsta?ców Wlkp. 72, 70-111 Szczecin (Poland); Drozdzik, M. [Pomeranian Medical University, Department of Pharmacology, Powsta?ców Wlkp. 72, 70-111 Szczecin (Poland); Mijowska, E. [West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin, Institute of Chemical and Environment Engineering, Pulaskiego 10, 70-322 Szczecin (Poland)

    2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Adsorption of methylene blue (MB) on graphene oxide (GO). • Characterization of graphene oxide–methylene blue nanocomposite (MB–GO). • Examination of MB–GO efficiency in singlet oxygen generation (SOG). • MB–GO performs higher SOG efficiency than pristine MB. - Abstract: Due to unique electronic, mechanical, optical and structural properties, graphene has shown promising applications in many fields, including biomedicine. One of them is noninvasive anticancer therapy – photodynamic therapy (PDT), where singlet oxygen (SO), generated under the irradiation of light with appropriate wavelengths, kills cancer cells. In this study, authors report graphene oxide (GO) noncovalent functionalization with methylene blue (MB). MB molecules underwent adsorption on the surface of GO. Detailed characterization of the obtained material was carried out with UV–vis spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Furthermore, its performance in singlet oxygen generation (SOG) under irradiation of laser with excitation wavelengths of 785 nm was investigated. Interestingly, GO functionalized with MB (MB–GO) showed enhanced efficiency in singlet oxygen generation compared to pristine MB. The efficiency in SOG was detected by photobleaching of 9,10-anthracenediyl-bis(methylene)dimalonic acid (ABMDMA). These results indicate the material is promising in PDT anticancer therapy and further in vitro and in vivo studies are required.

  15. The feasibility of using methylene blue sensitized polyvinylalcohol film as a linear polarizer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jyothilakshmi, K.; Anju, K. S.; Arathy, K. [Department of Physics, Vimala College, Thrissur-9, Kerala (India); John, Beena Mary, E-mail: beenamary@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Bharata Mata College, Thrikkakara, Cochin-21,Kerala (India); Krishna, P. B.; Sruthi, C. T.; Chacko, Maria [Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin-22, Kerala (India)

    2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Linear light polarizing films selectively transmit radiations vibrating along an electromagnetic radiation vector and selectively absorb radiations vibrating along a second electromagnetic radiation vector. It happens according to the anisotropy of the film . In the present study the polarization effects of methylene blue sensitized polyvinyl alcohol is investigated. The polarization effects on the dye concentration, heating and stretching of film also are evaluated.

  16. Production of anhydrous aluminum chloride composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vandergrift, G.F. III; Krumpelt, M.; Horwitz, E.P.

    1981-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for producing an anhydrous aluminum chloride composition from a water-based aluminous material such as a slurry of aluminum hydroxide in a multistage extraction process in which the aluminum ion is first extracted into an organic liquid containing an acidic extractant and then extracted from the organic phase into an alkali metal chloride or chlorides to form a melt containing a mixture of chlorides of alkali metal and aluminum. In the process, the organic liquid may be recycled. In addition, the process advantageously includes an electrolysis cell for producing metallic aluminum and the alkali metal chloride or chlorides may be recycled for extraction of the aluminum from the organic phase.

  17. Chapter Six TITANIUM(III) CHLORIDE*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Girolami, Gregory S.

    , and purged with dry nitrogen gas. The flask is charged with 1.6 mL (2.8 g, 15 mmol) of titanium tetrachlorideChapter Six TITANIUM(III) CHLORIDE* 50. AN ACTIVE FORM OF TITANIUM(III) CHLORIDE Me3SiSiMe3 + 2Ti. ANDERSEN The reduction of TiCl4 with hexamethyldisilane does not afford titanium(II) chloride as reported

  18. Production of chlorine from chloride salts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rohrmann, Charles A. (Kennewick, WA)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for converting chloride salts and sulfuric acid to sulfate salts and elemental chlorine is disclosed. A chloride salt and sulfuric acid are combined in a furnace where they react to produce a sulfate salt and hydrogen chloride. Hydrogen chloride from the furnace contacts a molten salt mixture containing an oxygen compound of vanadium, an alkali metal sulfate and an alkali metal pyrosulfate to recover elemental chlorine. In the absence of an oxygen-bearing gas during the contacting, the vanadium is reduced, but is regenerated to its active higher valence state by separately contacting the molten salt mixture with an oxygen-bearing gas.

  19. Hydrocracking with molten zinc chloride catalyst containing 2-12% ferrous chloride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zielke, Clyde W. (McMurray, PA); Bagshaw, Gary H. (Library, PA)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a process for hydrocracking heavy aromatic polynuclear carbonaceous feedstocks to produce hydrocarbon fuels boiling below about 475.degree. C. by contacting the feedstocks with hydrogen in the presence of a molten zinc chloride catalyst and thereafter separating at least a major portion of the hydrocarbon fuels from the spent molten zinc chloride catalyst, an improvement comprising: adjusting the FeCl.sub.2 content of the molten zinc chloride to from about 2 to about 12 mol percent based on the mixture of ferrous chloride and molten zinc chloride.

  20. Process for synthesis of beryllium chloride dietherate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bergeron, Charles (Baton Rouge, LA); Bullard, John E. (Kendall Park, NJ); Morgan, Evan (Lynchburg, VA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A low temperature method of producing beryllium chloride dietherate through the addition of hydrogen chloride gas to a mixture of beryllium metal in ether in a reaction vessel is described. A reflux condenser provides an exit for hydrogen produced form the reaction. A distillation condenser later replaces the reflux condenser for purifying the resultant product.

  1. acidic chloride media: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    et al., 1986, 1996), acetylsalicylic acid (Stilborn et al., 1988), sodium chloride (Smith, 1994), potassium chloride Paris-Sud XI, Universit de 12 CH activation in...

  2. Electrochemical preparation of poly(methylene blue)/graphene nanocomposite thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erçar?kc?, Elif; Da?c?, Kader; Topçu, Ezgi; Alanyal?o?lu, Murat, E-mail: malanya@atauni.edu.tr

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: • Poly(MB)/graphene thin films are prepared by a simple electrochemical approach. • Graphene layers in the film show a broad band in visible region of absorbance spectra. • Morphology of composite films indicates both disordered and ordered regions. • XRD reveals that nanocomposite films include rGO layers after electropolymerization process. • Chemically prepared graphene is better than electrochemically prepared graphene for electrooxidation of nitrite. - Abstract: Poly(methylene blue)/graphene nanocomposite thin films were prepared by electropolymerization of methylene blue in the presence of graphene which have been synthesized by two different methods of a chemical oxidation process and an electrochemical approach. Synthesized nanocomposite thin films were characterized by using cyclic voltammetry, UV–vis. absorption spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, and scanning tunneling microscopy techniques. Electrocatalytical properties of prepared poly(methylene blue)/graphene nanocomposite films were compared toward electrochemical oxidation of nitrite. Under optimized conditions, electrocatalytical effect of nanocomposite films of chemically prepared graphene through electrochemical oxidation of nitrite was better than that of electrochemically prepared graphene.

  3. Evaluation of the kinetics of Cr-51 methylene diphosphonate: a potential therapeutic radiopharmaceutical for osteogenic sarcoma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poteet, Brian Allen

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , have been observed (3). Although there is no unanimity of agreement on which of these radiopharmaceuticals is preferred for skeletal imaging, the majority of the recent work suggests that 99m-Tc labeled methylene diphosphonate (99m-Tc HDP) ofi... in dog D and dog E. 1 represents dog D while 2 represents dog E. 33 DISCUSSION The normal bone scan when using Tc-99m MDP as the radiopharmaceutical, usually follows relatively predictable In Vivo kinetics. Tc-99m labeled diphosphonates provide a...

  4. Reactions of dimethyl carbonyl ylide produced by singlet methylene reactions with acetone in the gas phase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buckley, Gary Steven

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    REACTIONS OF DIMETHYL CARBONYL YLIDE PRODUCED BY SINGLET NETHYLENE REACTIONS WITH ACETONE IN THE GAS PHASE A Thesis GARY STEVEN BUCKLEY Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8cN University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of NASTER OF SCIENCE May 197B Major Subject: Chemistry REACTIONS OF DIMETHYL CARBONYL YLIDE PRODUCED BY SINGLET METHYLENE REACTIONS WITH ACETONE IN THE GAS PHASE A Thesis GARY STEVEN BUCKLEY Approved as to style and content by: C rman of...

  5. Alkyl Chlorides as Hydrogen Bond Acceptors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nadas, Janos I [ORNL; Vukovic, Sinisa [ORNL; Hay, Benjamin [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To gain an understanding of the role of an alkyl chloride as a hydrogen bond acceptor, geometries and interaction energies were calculated at the MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ level of theory for complexes between ethyl chloride and representative hydrogen donor groups. The results establish that these donors, which include hydrogen cyanide, methanol, nitrobenzene, pyrrole, acetamide, and N-methylurea, form X-H {hor_ellipsis} Cl hydrogen bonds (X = C, N, O) of weak to moderate strength, with {Delta}E values ranging from -2.8 to -5.3 kcal/mol.

  6. antimony chlorides: Topics by E-print Network

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    made with either sodium chloride or potassium chloride. The addition of 75 or 150 porn N02 did not lower plate counts (P&0. 05... Kayfus, Timothy Jon 2012-06-07 53...

  7. ammonium chlorides: Topics by E-print Network

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  8. ammonium chloride annual: Topics by E-print Network

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  9. aryl chlorides bromides: Topics by E-print Network

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  10. anhydrous magnesium chloride: Topics by E-print Network

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  11. analyzing polyvinyl chloride: Topics by E-print Network

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  12. actinium chlorides: Topics by E-print Network

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  13. aluminum sodium chloride: Topics by E-print Network

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  14. astatine chlorides: Topics by E-print Network

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  15. americium chlorides: Topics by E-print Network

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  16. aqueous metal chloride: Topics by E-print Network

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  17. aerated sodium chloride: Topics by E-print Network

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  18. anhydrous uranyl chloride: Topics by E-print Network

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  19. ammonium chloride adbac: Topics by E-print Network

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  20. apical chloride channels: Topics by E-print Network

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  1. aqueous ammonium chloride: Topics by E-print Network

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  2. aqueous sodium chloride: Topics by E-print Network

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  3. aqueous potassium chloride: Topics by E-print Network

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  4. ammonium chloride: Topics by E-print Network

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  5. activates apical chloride: Topics by E-print Network

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  6. ammonium chloride pc: Topics by E-print Network

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  7. Method for the regeneration of spent molten zinc chloride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zielke, Clyde W. (McMurray, PA); Rosenhoover, William A. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a process for regenerating spent molten zinc chloride which has been used in the hydrocracking of coal or ash-containing polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbonaceous materials derived therefrom and which contains zinc chloride, zinc oxide, zinc oxide complexes and ash-containing carbonaceous residue, by incinerating the spent molten zinc chloride to vaporize the zinc chloride for subsequent condensation to produce a purified molten zinc chloride: an improvement comprising the use of clay in the incineration zone to suppress the vaporization of metals other than zinc. Optionally water is used in conjunction with the clay to further suppress the vaporization of metals other than zinc.

  8. The interactions of azure B, a metabolite of methylene blue, with acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petzer, Anél, E-mail: 12264954@nwu.ac.za [Centre of Excellence for Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, North-West University, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa); Harvey, Brian H. [Centre of Excellence for Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, North-West University, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa); Petzer, Jacobus P. [Division of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, North-West University, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa)

    2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methylene blue (MB) is reported to possess diverse pharmacological actions and is attracting increasing attention for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. Among the pharmacological actions of MB, is the significant inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE). These activities may, at least in part, underlie MB's beneficial effects in Alzheimer's disease. MB is metabolized to yield N-demethylated products of which azure B, the monodemethyl metabolite, is the predominant species. Azure B has been shown to be pharmacologically active and also possesses a variety of biological actions. Azure B therefore may contribute to the pharmacological profile of MB. Based on these considerations, the present study investigates the possibility that azure B may, similar to MB, act as an inhibitor of human AChE and BuChE. The results document that azure B inhibits AChE and BuChE with IC{sub 50} values of 0.486 ?M and 1.99 ?M, respectively. The results further show that azure B inhibits AChE and BuChE reversibly, and that the modes of inhibition are most likely competitive. Although the AChE and BuChE inhibitory activities of azure B are twofold and fivefold, respectively, less potent than those recorded for MB [IC{sub 50}(AChE) = 0.214 ?M; IC{sub 50}(BuChE) = 0.389 ?M] under identical conditions, azure B may be a contributor to MB's in vivo activation of the cholinergic system and beneficial effects in Alzheimer's disease. - Highlights: • Methylene blue (MB) is a known inhibitor of AChE and BuChE. • Azure B, the major metabolite of MB, also is an inhibitor of AChE and BuChE. • Azure B may be a contributor to MB's in vivo activation of the cholinergic system. • Azure B may contribute to MB's potential in Alzheimer's disease therapy.

  9. Regenerable hydrogen chloride removal sorbent and regenerable multi-functional hydrogen sulfide and hydrogen chloride removal sorbent for high temperature gas streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siriwardane, Ranjani (Morgantown, WV)

    2010-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Regenerable hydrogen chloride removal sorbent and regenerable multi-functional hydrogen sulfide and hydrogen chloride removal sorbent for high temperature gas streams

  10. alkali chloride ternary: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    behavior and absorption spectra of the ternary system cobaltous chloride-water-acetonitrile Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: . HE PHASZ BEHAVIOR ARD ABSORPTION SPECTRA....

  11. Apparatus and method for making metal chloride salt product

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, William E. (Naperville, IL); Tomczuk, Zygmunt (Homer Glen, IL); Richmann, Michael K. (Carlsbad, NM)

    2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of producing metal chlorides is disclosed in which chlorine gas is introduced into liquid Cd. CdCl.sub.2 salt is floating on the liquid Cd and as more liquid CdCl.sub.2 is formed it separates from the liquid Cd metal and dissolves in the salt. The salt with the CdCl.sub.2 dissolved therein contacts a metal which reacts with CdCl.sub.2 to form a metal chloride, forming a mixture of metal chloride and CdCl.sub.2. After separation of bulk Cd from the salt, by gravitational means, the metal chloride is obtained by distillation which removes CdCl.sub.2 and any Cd dissolved in the metal chloride.

  12. Method for synthesizing pollucite from chabazite and cesium chloride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pereira, Candido (Naperville, IL)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for immobilizing waste chlorides salts containing radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material for permanent disposal, and in particular, a method for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing cesium, in a synthetic form of pollucite. The method for synthesizing pollucite from chabazite and cesium chloride includes mixing dry, non-aqueous cesium chloride with chabazite and heating the mixture to a temperature greater than the melting temperature of the cesium chloride, or above about 700.degree. C. The method further comprises significantly improving the rate of retention of cesium in ceramic products comprised of a salt-loaded zeolite by adding about 10% chabazite by weight to the salt-loaded zeolite prior to conversion at elevated temperatures and pressures to the ceramic composite.

  13. Method for synthesizing pollucite from chabazite and cesium chloride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pereira, C.

    1999-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for immobilizing waste chlorides salts containing radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material for permanent disposal, and in particular, a method is described for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing cesium, in a synthetic form of pollucite. The method for synthesizing pollucite from chabazite and cesium chloride includes mixing dry, non-aqueous cesium chloride with chabazite and heating the mixture to a temperature greater than the melting temperature of the cesium chloride, or above about 700 C. The method further comprises significantly improving the rate of retention of cesium in ceramic products comprised of a salt-loaded zeolite by adding about 10% chabazite by weight to the salt-loaded zeolite prior to conversion at elevated temperatures and pressures to the ceramic composite. 3 figs.

  14. Calibration of the On-Line Aerosol Monitor (OLAM) with ammonium chloride and sodium chloride aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brockmann, J.E.; Lucero, D.A.; Romero, T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pentecost, G. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The On-Line Aerosol Monitor (OLAM) is a light attenuation device designed and built at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) by EG&G Idaho. Its purpose is to provide an on-line indication of aerosol concentration in the PHEBUS-FP tests. It does this by measuring the attenuation of a light beam across a tube through which an aerosol is flowing. The OLAM does not inherently give an absolute response and must be calibrated. A calibration has been performed at Sandia National Laboratories` (SNL) Sandia Aerosol Research Laboratory (SARL) and the results are described here. Ammonium chloride and sodium chloride calibration aerosols are used for the calibration and the data for the sodium chloride aerosol is well described by a model presented in this report. Detectable instrument response is seen over a range of 0.1 cm{sup 3} of particulate material per m{sup 3} of gas to 10 cm{sup 3} of particulate material per m{sup 3} of gas.

  15. Method for the production of uranium chloride salt

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Westphal, Brian R.; Mariani, Robert D.

    2013-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for the production of UCl.sub.3 salt without the use of hazardous chemicals or multiple apparatuses for synthesis and purification is provided. Uranium metal is combined in a reaction vessel with a metal chloride and a eutectic salt- and heated to a first temperature under vacuum conditions to promote reaction of the uranium metal with the metal chloride for the production of a UCl.sub.3 salt. After the reaction has run substantially to completion, the furnace is heated to a second temperature under vacuum conditions. The second temperature is sufficiently high to selectively vaporize the chloride salts and distill them into a condenser region.

  16. Cotton responses to mepiquat chloride and PGR-IV treatments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biles, Stephen Paul

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plant growth regulators (PGRS) are applied to cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) to control vegetative growth, increase yields and hasten maturity. Two of these PGRS, mepiquat chloride (MC) and PGR-IV, affect plant growth in different ways. MC inhibits...

  17. Active primary lithium thionyl chloride battery for artillery applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baldwin, A.R.; Delnick, F.M. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Miller, D.L. (Eagle-Picher Industries, Inc., Joplin, MO (USA))

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sandia National Laboratories and Eagle Picher Industries have successfully developed an Active Lithium Thionyl Chloride (ALTC) power battery for unique artillery applications. Details of the design and the results of safety and performance will be presented. 1 ref., 5 figs.

  18. Cotton responses to mepiquat chloride and PGR-IV treatments 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biles, Stephen Paul

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plant growth regulators (PGRS) are applied to cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) to control vegetative growth, increase yields and hasten maturity. Two of these PGRS, mepiquat chloride (MC) and PGR-IV, affect plant growth in ...

  19. The Salt or Sodium Chloride Content of Feeds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach); Lomanitz, S. (Sebastian)

    1920-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1 EXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS W. B. BIZZELL, Preeident BULLETIN NO. 271 OCTOBER, 1920 DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY THE SALT OR SODIUM CHLORIDE CONTENT OF FEEDS B. YOUNGBLOOD, DIRECTOK COLLEGE.... ............... Salt content of feecls.. ......... Salt content of mixed feeds.. ................... Summary ancl conclusions. Page. l1 [Blank Page in Original Bulletin] BULLETIN XO. 271. OCTOBE- '"On THE SALT OR SODIUM CHLORIDE CONTENT OF FEI The Texas feed...

  20. Effect of metal chlorides on thermal degradation of (waste) polycarbonate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiu, S.-J. [Department of Chemical Engineering, MingChi University of Technology, 243, Taishan, Taipei, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: sjchiu@ns1.mit.edu.tw; Chen, S.-H. [Department of Chemical Engineering, MingChi University of Technology, 243, Taishan, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Tsai, C.-T. [Department of Biochemical Engineering, MingChi University of Technology, 243, Taishan, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, we investigated how to treat (waste) polycarbonate efficiently to reduce its degraded residue. The study was carried out in an isothermal reactor under continuous nitrogen flow at atmospheric pressure to pyrolyze polycarbonate (PC) alone and in the presence of metal chloride. Some metal chlorides were shown to be catalytic active for the degradation of PC at 400 deg. C, which increased degradation conversion from 8.5% to more than 58.3%. Among those active metal chlorides, ZnCl{sub 2} and SnCl{sub 2} can produce higher liquid product yields. Effects such as particle size of PC, temperature, the weight ratio of metal chloride/PC, and degradation time on the degradation conversion of PC without and with these two most active metal chlorides were studied. Results of the liquid product analysis by GC/MS demonstrated the product composition of PC degradation over the metal chlorides is much simpler than that of degradation alone. The main liquid product is phenol, p-isopropylphenol, diphenyl carbonate, and bisphenol A for all cases.

  1. Azure B, a metabolite of methylene blue, is a high-potency, reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petzer, Anél, E-mail: 12264954@nwu.ac.za [Unit for Drug Research and Development, School of Pharmacy, North-West University, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom, 2520 (South Africa)] [Unit for Drug Research and Development, School of Pharmacy, North-West University, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom, 2520 (South Africa); Harvey, Brian H. [Division of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, North-West University, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom, 2520 (South Africa)] [Division of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, North-West University, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom, 2520 (South Africa); Wegener, Gregers [Centre for Psychiatric Research, Aarhus University Hospital-Risskov, Skovagervej 2, 8240 Risskov (Denmark)] [Centre for Psychiatric Research, Aarhus University Hospital-Risskov, Skovagervej 2, 8240 Risskov (Denmark); Petzer, Jacobus P. [Division of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, North-West University, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom, 2520 (South Africa)] [Division of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, North-West University, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom, 2520 (South Africa)

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methylene blue (MB) has been shown to act at multiple cellular and molecular targets and as a result possesses diverse medical applications. Among these is a high potency reversible inhibition of monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) that may, at least in part, underlie its adverse effects but also its psycho- and neuromodulatory actions. MB is metabolized to yield N-demethylated products of which azure B, the monodemethyl species, is the major metabolite. Similar to MB, azure B also displays a variety of biological activities and may therefore contribute to the pharmacological profile of MB. Based on these observations, the present study examines the interactions of azure B with recombinant human MAO-A and -B. The results show that azure B is a potent MAO-A inhibitor (IC{sub 50} = 11 nM), approximately 6-fold more potent than is MB (IC{sub 50} = 70 nM) under identical conditions. Measurements of the time-dependency of inhibition suggest that the interaction of azure B with MAO-A is reversible. Azure B also reversibly inhibits the MAO-B isozyme with an IC{sub 50} value of 968 nM. These results suggest that azure B may be a hitherto under recognized contributor to the pharmacology and toxicology of MB by blocking central and peripheral MAO-A activity and as such needs to be considered during its use in humans and animals. Highlights: ? Methylene blue (MB) is a known potent MAO-A inhibitor. ? Azure B, the major metabolite of MB, is more potent as a MAO-A inhibitor. ? Azure B may be a contributor to the CNS pharmacology and toxicology of MB.

  2. Production of anhydrous aluminum chloride composition and process for electrolysis thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vandegrift, George F. (Bolingbrook, Naperville, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL); Horwitz, E. Philip (Hinsdale, IL)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for producing an anhydrous aluminum chloride composition from a water-based aluminous material such as a slurry of aluminum hydroxide in a multistage extraction process in which the aluminum ion is first extracted into an organic liquid containing an acidic extractant and then extracted from the organic phase into an alkali metal chloride or chlorides to form a melt containing a mixture of chlorides of alkali metal and aluminum. In the process, the organic liquid may be recycled. In addition, the process advantageously includes an electrolysis cell for producing metallic aluminum and the alkali metal chloride or chlorides may be recycled for extraction of the aluminum from the organic phase.

  3. The effect of freezing on the sulfate-chloride and density-chloride ratios of sea-water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burkhalter, Albert Charles

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the sulphate-chloride ratio would be expected to have a corresponi- ingly larger effect, on density than would one of the less abundant iona. CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW Evidence for Sulphate Enricl ment in Ice The sulphate-chloride ratio was studied... as early as 1907 vhen Ringer performed laboratory freezing experiments vith sea-vater in which he cooled sea-water until solid salts began to freeze out. of solution. l Portions of the ice and the brine below the ice vere collected and analyzed...

  4. Beam damage of poly(vinyl chloride) [PVC] as observed by x-ray...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    damage of poly(vinyl chloride) PVC as observed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy at 143 K, 303 K and 373 K. Beam damage of poly(vinyl chloride) PVC as observed by x-ray...

  5. Beam Damage of Poly(Vinyl Chloride) [PVC] Film as Observed by...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Damage of Poly(Vinyl Chloride) PVC Film as Observed by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. Beam Damage of Poly(Vinyl Chloride) PVC Film as Observed by X-ray Photoelectron...

  6. awaited calcium-activated chloride: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    made with either sodium chloride or potassium chloride. The addition of 75 or 150 porn N02 did not lower plate counts (P&0. 05... Kayfus, Timothy Jon 2012-06-07 38...

  7. Agronomic differences in growth and yield between BT and conventional cotton treated with mepiquat chloride 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Underbrink, Shelley Marie

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), an indeterminacy plant, may exhibit rank vegetative growth under conditions of high fertility and high moisture. Traditionally, mepiquat chloride (l,l-dimethylpiperidinium chloride) has been ...

  8. Removal of Chloride from Wastewater by Advanced Softening Process Using Electrochemically Generated Aluminum Hydroxide 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mustafa, Syed Faisal

    2014-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    solubility. Chloride can be removed from water and wastewater by precipitation as calcium chloroaluminate using advanced softening process. This research was conducted to evaluate chloride removal using electrochemically generated aluminum hydroxide and lime...

  9. apical sodium-chloride cotransporter: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    g magnesium chloride, 3.24 g magnesium sulfate bromide, 34 mg strontium chloride, 22 mg boric acid, 4 mg sodium silicate, 2.4 mg sodium fluoride, 1.6 mg Bae, Jin-Woo 302 The...

  10. Reduction of Vinyl Chloride in Metallic Iron-Water Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Baolin

    Reduction of Vinyl Chloride in Metallic Iron-Water Systems B A O L I N D E N G * Department to groundwater and soil contamination. In particular, VC can be produced as an intermediate in the reductive- lenging. Traditional "pump-and-treat" treatment systems have proven to be costly and ineffective in many

  11. Lithium Diisopropylamide-Mediated Ortholithiations: Lithium Chloride Catalysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collum, David B.

    Lithium Diisopropylamide-Mediated Ortholithiations: Lithium Chloride Catalysis Lekha Gupta, 2008 Ortholithiations of a range of arenes mediated by lithium diisopropylamide (LDA) in THF at -78 °C protocols with unpurified commercial samples of n-butyl- lithium to prepare LDA or commercially available

  12. Fiber-optic oxygen sensor using molybdenum chloride cluster luminescence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghosh, Ruby N.

    Fiber-optic oxygen sensor using molybdenum chloride cluster luminescence Ruby N. Ghosh,a) Gregory L on a reflection-mode fiber-optic oxygen sensor based on the 3 O2 quenching of the red emission from hexanuclear, and medical applications. In these en- vironments the advantages of fiber-optic chemical sensors are that they

  13. alkaline earth chlorides: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkaline earth chlorides First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Quantum computing with...

  14. Uniform Cu{sub 2}Cl(OH){sub 3} hierarchical microspheres: A novel adsorbent for methylene blue adsorptive removal from aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Wei; Gao, Pin; Xie, Jimin, E-mail: xiejm391@sohu.com; Zong, Sekai; Cui, Henglv; Yue, Xuejie

    2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Using the solution phase method without any surfactants or templates, the hierarchical of Cu{sub 2}Cl(OH){sub 3} microspheres were synthesized by freeze drying. The size and surface area of the microspheres are ca. 1–2 µm and 76.61 m{sup 2} g{sup ?1}, respectively. A possible formation mechanism is presented based on the experimental results. Methylene blue was chosen to investigate the adsorption capacity of the as-prepared adsorbent. The effects of various experimental parameters, such as pH, initial dye concentration, and contact time were investigated. The results showed that the dye removal increased with the increasing in the initial concentration of the dye and also increased in the amount of microspheres used and initial pH. Adsorption data fitted well with the Freundlich adsorption isotherm. The thermodynamic analysis presented the exothermic, spontaneous and more ordered arrangement process. The microspheres could be employed effective for removal of dyes from aqueous solution. - Graphical abstract: The single-crystalline hierarchical Cu{sub 2}Cl(OH){sub 3} spheres can be prepared for the first time by using a template-free process through freeze-drying. Meanwhile, the hierarchical spheres exhibited high adsorption capacity to methylene blue. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Cu{sub 2}Cl(OH){sub 3} microspheres were successfully synthesized through a freeze drying process. • A possible formation mechanism of hierarchical microspheres was presented. • The Cu{sub 2}Cl(OH){sub 3} microspheres have high methylene blue adsorption capacity. • Methylene blue adsorption is a spontaneous and exothermic process. • The adsorption mechanism of microspheres onto dye was proposed in detail.

  15. A fluorescent assay for chloride transport; identification of a synthetic anionophore with improved activity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Bradley D.

    A fluorescent assay for chloride transport; identification of a synthetic anionophore with improved on the chloride-sensitive probe, lucigenin, is developed for monitoring chloride transport into vesicles, and used to compare the effectiveness of three steroid- derived transporters. A topic of growing interest

  16. The stability of aqueous nickel(II) chloride complexes in hydrothermal solutions: Results of UVVisible

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The stability of aqueous nickel(II) chloride complexes in hydrothermal solutions: Results of UV of aqueous nickel chloride complexes is important for understanding and quantitatively evaluating nickel for dissolved nickel in perchlorate, triflic acid and sodium chloride solutions at temperatures up to 250 °C

  17. Sol–gel synthesis of SnO{sub 2}–MgO nanoparticles and their photocatalytic activity towards methylene blue degradation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bayal, Nisha; Jeevanandam, P., E-mail: jeevafcy@iitr.ernet.in

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A simple sol–gel method for the synthesis of SnO{sub 2}–MgO nanoparticles is reported. • Band gap of SnO{sub 2} can be tuned by varying the magnesium content in SnO{sub 2}–MgO. • SnO{sub 2}–MgO shows good photocatalytic activity towards degradation of methylene blue. - Abstract: SnO{sub 2}–MgO mixed metal oxide nanoparticles were prepared by a simple sol–gel method. The nanoparticles were characterized by power X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis, transmission electron microscopy and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The XRD results indicate the formation of mixed metal oxide nanoparticles and also a decrease of SnO{sub 2} crystallite size in the mixed metal oxide nanoparticles with increasing magnesium oxide content. The reflectance spectroscopy results show a blue shift of the band gap of SnO{sub 2} in the mixed metal oxide nanoparticles. The photocatalytic activity of the SnO{sub 2}–MgO nanoparticles was tested using the photodegradation of aqueous methylene blue in the presence of sunlight. The results indicate that the mixed metal oxide nanoparticles possess higher efficiency for the photodegradation of methylene blue compared to pure SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles.

  18. Synthesis of pore-variable mesoporous CdS and evaluation of its photocatalytic activity in degrading methylene blue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Wei-Min, E-mail: chm_zhangwm@ujn.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan (China); Jiang, Yao-Quan [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan (China); Cao, Xiao-Yan [Key Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology, Ocean University of China, Ministry of Education (China); Chen, Meng; Ge, Dong-Lai [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan (China); Sun, Zhong-Xi, E-mail: sunzx@ujn.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan (China)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Self-templated synthesis of tubular CdS. • Cadmium complexes of aliphatic acids sustain the network of mesoporous structures. • Aliphatic acids affect the phase composition and particle size. • Pore size and volume vary with aliphatic acids having different hydrocarbonyl. - Abstract: In this study, mesoporous CdS polycrystallites have been synthesized using aliphatic acids of hexanoic acid, octanoic acid, and oleic acid as coordinating and capping agents, respectively. The fibrous Cd–fatty acid salts act as a template to form the tubular CdS. The organic species are found to be necessary for maintaining the network of mesoporous CdS. The characterization results indicate that the shorter carbon chain length in aliphatic acids favors the wurtzite phase and particle size growth the specific surface area, pore diameter and pore volume show a monotonic raise with increasing carbon chain. The photocatalytic activities of mesoporous CdS tubes exhibit much higher efficiency than those of nanosized CdS powders in decolorizing methylene blue under simulated visible light.

  19. CPP-603 Chloride Removal System Decontamination and Decommissioning. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moser, C.L.

    1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The CPP-603 (annex) Chloride Removal System (CRS) Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Project is described in this report. The CRS was used for removing Chloride ions and other contaminants that were suspended in the waters of the underwater fuel storage basins in the CPP-603 Fuel Receiving and Storage Facility (FRSF) from 1975 to 1981. The Environmental Checklist and related documents, facility characterization, decision analysis`, and D&D plans` were prepared in 1991. Physical D&D activities were begun in mid summer of 1992 and were completed by the end of November 1992. All process equipment and electrical equipment were removed from the annex following accepted asbestos and radiological contamination removal practices. The D&D activities were performed in a manner such that no radiological health or safety hazard to the public or to personnel at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) occurred.

  20. Uranium chloride extraction of transuranium elements from LWR fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, William E. (Naperville, IL); Ackerman, John P. (Downers Grove, IL); Battles, James E. (Oak Forest, IL); Johnson, Terry R. (Wheaton, IL); Pierce, R. Dean (Naperville, IL)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of separating transuranium actinide values from uranium values present in spent nuclear oxide fuels containing rare earth and noble metal fission products as well as other fission products is disclosed. The oxide fuel is reduced with Ca metal in the presence of Ca chloride and a U-Fe alloy which is liquid at about 800.degree. C. to dissolve uranium metal and the noble metal fission product metals and transuranium actinide metals and rare earth fission product metals leaving Ca chloride having CaO and fission products of alkali metals and the alkali earth metals and iodine dissolved therein. The Ca chloride and CaO and the fission products contained therein are separated from the U-Fe alloy and the metal values dissolved therein. The U-Fe alloy having dissolved therein reduced metals from the spent nuclear fuel is contacted with a mixture of one or more alkali metal or alkaline earth metal halides selected from the class consisting of alkali metal or alkaline earth metal and Fe or U halide or a combination thereof to transfer transuranium actinide metals and rare earth metals to the halide salt leaving the uranium and some noble metal fission products in the U-Fe alloy and thereafter separating the halide salt and the transuranium metals dissolved therein from the U-Fe alloy and the metals dissolved therein.

  1. Uranium chloride extraction of transuranium elements from LWR fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, W.E.; Ackerman, J.P.; Battles, J.E.; Johnson, T.R.; Pierce, R.D.

    1992-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of separating transuranium actinide values from uranium values present in spent nuclear oxide fuels containing rare earth and noble metal fission products as well as other fission products is disclosed. The oxide fuel is reduced with Ca metal in the presence of Ca chloride and a U-Fe alloy which is liquid at about 800 C to dissolve uranium metal and the noble metal fission product metals and transuranium actinide metals and rare earth fission product metals leaving Ca chloride having CaO and fission products of alkali metals and the alkali earth metals and iodine dissolved therein. The Ca chloride and CaO and the fission products contained therein are separated from the U-Fe alloy and the metal values dissolved therein. The U-Fe alloy having dissolved therein reduced metals from the spent nuclear fuel is contacted with a mixture of one or more alkali metal or alkaline earth metal halides selected from the class consisting of alkali metal or alkaline earth metal and Fe or U halide or a combination thereof to transfer transuranium actinide metals and rare earth metals to the halide salt leaving the uranium and some noble metal fission products in the U-Fe alloy and thereafter separating the halide salt and the transuranium metals dissolved therein from the U-Fe alloy and the metals dissolved therein. 1 figure.

  2. Neuroendocrine effects of acute nickel chloride administration in rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clemons, G.K.; Garcia, J.F.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An sc injection of nickel chloride (20 and 10 mg/kg) led to a profound and consistent increase of circulating prolactin (PRL) levels after 1 day and lasted for 4 days (p < 0.001) in male rats. Increases in insulin levels occurred 1 and 2 days postinjection. The nickel-induced PRL rise could be abolished by a simultaneous administration of 2-bromo-..cap alpha..-ergocryptine (CB 154). In vitro incubation of pituitaries from rats that received 20 mg/kg of nickel chloride 48 hr prior to sacrifice released more PRL into the culture medium, as well as contained more PRL in the final tissue than did the pituitaries from control animals. The hypothalamic extracts (HE) obtained from hypothalami of nickel-injected rats were tested also in vitro on normal rat pituitaries and the results showed that the HE from such rats released more PRL and therefore had less prolactin-inhibiting factor (PIF) than the HE obtained from control rats. The results show that nickel chloride has effects on the endocrine system that (a) last considerably longer than previously reported, (b) are mediated through the neuroendocrine system, and (c) instead of specifically inhibiting PRL secretion from the pituitary promote high circulating PRL levels lasting from 1 to 4 days.

  3. Uptake of chloride and carbonate ions by calcium monosulfoaluminate hydrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mesbah, Adel [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, CEA DEN/DTCD/SPDE, F-30207 Bagnols sur Ceze (France); Clermont Universite, ENSCCF, Laboratoire des Materiaux Inorganiques, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); Cau-dit-Coumes, Celine, E-mail: celine.cau-dit-coumes@cea.fr [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, CEA DEN/DTCD/SPDE, F-30207 Bagnols sur Ceze (France); Renaudin, Guillaume [Clermont Universite, ENSCCF, Laboratoire des Materiaux Inorganiques, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); CNRS, UMR 6002, F-63177 Aubiere (France); Frizon, Fabien [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, CEA DEN/DTCD/SPDE, F-30207 Bagnols sur Ceze (France); Leroux, Fabrice [Clermont Universite, Universite Blaise Pascal, Laboratoire des Materiaux Inorganiques, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); CNRS, UMR 6002, F-63177 Aubiere (France)

    2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Decommissioning of old nuclear reactors may produce waste streams containing chlorides and carbonates, including radioactive {sup 36}Cl{sup -} and {sup 14}CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}. Their insolubilization by calcium monosulfoaluminate hydrate was investigated. Carbonates were readily depleted from the solution, giving at thermodynamic equilibrium monocarboaluminate, monocarboaluminate + calcite, or calcite only, depending on the initial ratio between the anion and calcium monosulfoaluminate hydrate. Chloride ions reacted more slowly and were precipitated as Kuzel's salt, Kuzel's and Friedel's salts, or Friedel's salt only. Rietveld refinement of X-Ray powder diffraction patterns was successfully used to quantify the phase distributions, which were compared to thermodynamic calculations. Moreover, analysing the lattice parameters of Kuzel's salt as a function of its chloride content showed the occurrence of a restricted solid solution towards the sulfate side with general formula 3CaO{center_dot}Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}{center_dot}xCaCl{sub 2}{center_dot}(1 - x)CaSO{sub 4}{center_dot}(12 - 2x){center_dot}H{sub 2}O (0.36 {<=} x {<=} 0.50).

  4. Polarization and Charge Transfer in the Hydration of Chloride Ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhen Zhao; David M. Rogers; Thomas L. Beck

    2009-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A theoretical study of the structural and electronic properties of the chloride ion and water molecules in the first hydration shell is presented. The calculations are performed on an ensemble of configurations obtained from molecular dynamics simulations of a single chloride ion in bulk water. The simulations utilize the polarizable AMOEBA force field for trajectory generation, and MP2-level calculations are performed to examine the electronic structure properties of the ions and surrounding waters in the external field of more distant waters. The ChelpG method is employed to explore the effective charges and dipoles on the chloride ions and first-shell waters. The Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules (QTAIM) is further utilized to examine charge transfer from the anion to surrounding water molecules. From the QTAIM analysis, 0.2 elementary charges are transferred from the ion to the first-shell water molecules. The default AMOEBA model overestimates the average dipole moment magnitude of the ion compared with the estimated quantum mechanical value. The average magnitude of the dipole moment of the water molecules in the first shell treated at the MP2 level, with the more distant waters handled with an AMOEBA effective charge model, is 2.67 D. This value is close to the AMOEBA result for first-shell waters (2.72 D) and is slightly reduced from the bulk AMOEBA value (2.78 D). The magnitude of the dipole moment of the water molecules in the first solvation shell is most strongly affected by the local water-water interactions and hydrogen bonds with the second solvation shell, rather than by interactions with the ion.

  5. Method of preparing sodalite from chloride salt occluded zeolite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, M.A.; Pereira, C.

    1997-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material for permanent disposal starting with a substantially dry zeolite and sufficient glass to form leach resistant sodalite with occluded radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material. The zeolite and glass are heated to a temperature up to about 1000 K to convert the zeolite to sodalite and thereafter maintained at a pressure and temperature sufficient to form a sodalite product near theoretical density. Pressure is used on the formed sodalite to produce the required density.

  6. Method of preparing sodalite from chloride salt occluded zeolite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, Michele A. (Naperville, IL); Pereira, Candido (Lisle, IL)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material for permanent disposal starting with a substantially dry zeolite and sufficient glass to form leach resistant sodalite with occluded radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material. The zeolite and glass are heated to a temperature up to about 1000.degree. K. to convert the zeolite to sodalite and thereafter maintained at a pressure and temperature sufficient to form a sodalite product near theoretical density. Pressure is used on the formed sodalite to produce the required density.

  7. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) singly encapsulated cesium chloride capsules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smyth, W.W.

    1997-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Three nonstandard Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) cesium chloride capsules are being shipped from WESF (225B building) to the 324 building. They would normally be shipped in the Beneficial Uses Shipping System (BUSS) cask under its US Department of Energy (DOE) license (DOE 1996), but these capsules are nonstandard: one has a damaged or defective weld in the outer layer of encapsulation, and two have the outer encapsulation removed. The 3 capsules, along with 13 other capsules, will be overpacked in the 324 building to meet the requirements for storage in WESF`s pool.

  8. Reactions of Methylene Hydrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Griffin, E. L.

    1912-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    was orystallized out as a yellow solid from aloohol and then from ethyl aostate. Melting point 170°C Analysis: Calculated for C17H14O2U s - 10.10$ Found I = 10.00$ SUMMARY 0 It was found that the methods given in the literature for the preparation... following* 1. Metallic sodium replaces either one, or both of the hydrogens, the latter being given off as a free gas. 2. Sodium hydroxide replaces the hydrogen by the metal, with a splitting off of water. 3. Sodium ethylate reacts, giving the metal 3...

  9. Electrodeposition of nickel-aluminum alloys from the aluminum chloride-1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride room temperature molten salt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitner, W.R.; Hussey, C.L. [Univ. of Mississippi, University, MS (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Stafford, G.R. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States). Materials Science and Engineering Lab.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The electrodeposition of Ni and Ni-Al alloys on glassy carbon was investigated in the 66.7--33.3 mole percent (m/o) Al chloride-1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride molten salt containing electrogenerated Ni(II) at 40 C. The electrodeposition of Ni on glassy carbon involves 3-D progressive nucleation on a finite number of active sites with hemispherical diffusion-controlled growth of the nuclei. At potentials slightly more negative than those needed to induce the reduction of Ni(II) to the metal, Al is codeposited with Ni to produce Ni-Al alloys. Controlled-potential and controlled-current experiments revealed that it is possible to produce alloy deposits containing up to approximately 40 atomic percent (a/o) Al under conditions that circumvent the bulk deposition of Al. The Al content of the Ni-Al deposit was found to vary linearly with the deposition potential but nonlinearly with the current density. The electrodeposited Ni-Al alloys are thermodynamically unstable with respect to Ni(II), i.e., immersion of the alloy deposit in melt containing Ni(II) under open-circuit conditions leads to a reduction in the Al content of the alloy. The mechanism of alloy formation appears to involve underpotential deposition of Al on the developing Ni deposit; however, alloy formation must be kinetically hindered because the Al content is always less than predicted from theoretical considerations. Ni-Al alloys produced at 0.30 V in melt containing Ni(II) and 20% (w/w) benzene as a cosolvent contained about 15 a/o Ni and were of high quality with a disordered fcc structure, but alloys produced at more negative potentials had the visual appearance of a loosely adherent, finely divided, black powder and were heavily contaminated with chloride, probably as a result of the occlusion of the molten salt solvent by the dendritic alloy deposit during deposit growth.

  10. Laboratory Hazard Assessment Questionnaire EH&S is available to assist with the recognition, evaluation and control of laboratory hazards. This form is to be used to help evaluate possible hazards reported by members of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jia, Songtao

    Chloroform Chromium (VI) Ethylene oxide Formaldehyde Isoflurane Lead Mercury Acrylonitrile Crystalline silica Methyl methacrylate Methylene chloride Nitrous oxide Vinyl chloride Other Brief Description

  11. Control of structure and reactivity by ligand design : applications to small molecule activation by low-valent uranium complexes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lam, Oanh Phi

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    methylene chloride and acetonitrile solvent molecules aremethylene chloride CH 3 CN acetonitrile calcd calculated xiiand co-crystallized benzene and acetonitrile are omitted for

  12. ORIGINAL PAPER Natural Fiber Reinforced Poly(vinyl chloride) Composites: Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ORIGINAL PAPER Natural Fiber Reinforced Poly(vinyl chloride) Composites: Effect of Fiber Type Science+Business Media, LLC 2008 Abstract Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) and natural fiber composites were copolymer on composite properties was investigated. Mechanical analysis showed that storage modulus

  13. Preparation of Genomic DNA from Hawaiian Bobtail Squid (Euprymna scolopes) Tissue by Cesium Chloride Gradient

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruby, Edward G.

    by Cesium Chloride Gradient Centrifugation Patricia N. Lee1,2 , Margaret J. McFall-Ngai3 , Patrick Callaerts from adult bobtail squid (Euprymna scolopes) tissues by cesium chloride (CsCl) gradient centrifugation modifications of nucleic acids are inhibited by these contaminants. The method described here yields high

  14. Effect of sodium chloride concentration on the heat resistance and recovery of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Effect of sodium chloride concentration on the heat resistance and recovery of Salmonella inhibitory effect in the recovery media. Keywords : Salmonella typhimurium, Sodium chloride, Heat treatment, but they also generate damaged cells. The ability of heated cells to survive depends on the recovery conditions

  15. Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of a Lithium/Thionyl Chloride Battery with Electrolyte Flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Chao-Yang

    Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of a Lithium/Thionyl Chloride Battery with Electrolyte Flow W-dimensional model is developed to simulate discharge of a primary lithium/thionyl chloride battery. The model to the first task with important examples of lead-acid,1-3 nickel-metal hydride,4-8 and lithium-based batteries

  16. Equilibrium diagrams at 27 [degree]C of the water + sodium tungstate + dodecylamine chloride system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dantas Neto, A.A.; Castro Dantas, T.N. de; Duarte, M.M.L.; Avelino, S. (Univ. Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Quimica)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Amines are usually used in extracting tungsten from scheelite. Dodecylamine chloride in kerosene and octanol was used as an extracting agent in order to establish the phase diagram at 27C for water + sodium tungstate + dodecylamine chloride. Acetone was used to prevent emulsion formation. This procedure made it possible to achieve better partition coefficients; however, there appears to be a saturation region.

  17. Hydrogen and chloride ions effects on the automobile interstitial-free steel corrosion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volinsky, Alex A.

    1 Hydrogen and chloride ions effects on the automobile interstitial-free steel corrosion L.Q. Guo 1 , D. Liang 1 , Y. Bai 1 , X.L. Miao 2 , L.J. Qiao 1 , Alex A. Volinsky 3 1 Corrosion and Protection Abstract The effects of hydrogen and chloride ions on the corrosion behavior of interstitial-free steel

  18. Soil stabilization using optimum quantity of calcium chloride with Class F fly ash 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Hyung Jun

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    in soil to verify the effectiveness and optimum ratio of calcium chloride and Class F fly ash in soil stabilization. Mix design was programmed at pure calcium chloride concentrations at 0% to 6% and Class F fly ash at 10 to 15%. Laboratory tests showed...

  19. Influence of weather and global warming in chloride ingress into concrete: a stochastic approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Influence of weather and global warming in chloride ingress into concrete: a stochastic approach E the influence of weather conditions and global warming on chloride ingress into concrete. The assessment including seasonal variations and global warming is also proposed in this work. Three scenarios of global

  20. Estimation of Groundwater Recharge at Pahute Mesa using the Chloride Mass-Balance Method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, Clay A [DRI] [DRI; Hershey, Ronald L [DRI] [DRI; Healey, John M [DRI] [DRI; Lyles, Brad F [DRI] [DRI

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Groundwater recharge on Pahute Mesa was estimated using the chloride mass-balance (CMB) method. This method relies on the conservative properties of chloride to trace its movement from the atmosphere as dry- and wet-deposition through the soil zone and ultimately to the saturated zone. Typically, the CMB method assumes no mixing of groundwater with different chloride concentrations; however, because groundwater is thought to flow into Pahute Mesa from valleys north of Pahute Mesa, groundwater flow rates (i.e., underflow) and chloride concentrations from Kawich Valley and Gold Flat were carefully considered. Precipitation was measured with bulk and tipping-bucket precipitation gauges installed for this study at six sites on Pahute Mesa. These data, along with historical precipitation amounts from gauges on Pahute Mesa and estimates from the PRISM model, were evaluated to estimate mean annual precipitation. Chloride deposition from the atmosphere was estimated by analyzing quarterly samples of wet- and dry-deposition for chloride in the bulk gauges and evaluating chloride wet-deposition amounts measured at other locations by the National Atmospheric Deposition Program. Mean chloride concentrations in groundwater were estimated using data from the UGTA Geochemistry Database, data from other reports, and data from samples collected from emplacement boreholes for this study. Calculations were conducted assuming both no underflow and underflow from Kawich Valley and Gold Flat. Model results estimate recharge to be 30 mm/yr with a standard deviation of 18 mm/yr on Pahute Mesa, for elevations >1800 m amsl. These estimates assume Pahute Mesa recharge mixes completely with underflow from Kawich Valley and Gold Flat. The model assumes that precipitation, chloride concentration in bulk deposition, underflow and its chloride concentration, have been constant over the length of time of recharge.

  1. Titanium(IV) Chloride Promoted Syntheses of New Imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine Derivatives under Microwave Conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Jun

    PAPER 133 Titanium(IV) Chloride Promoted Syntheses of New Imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine Derivatives under Microwave Conditions Titanium(IV)Chloride-PromotedSynthesesofNewImidazo[1,2-a]pyridinesLisheng Cai,* Chad of 2-aminopy- ridines with a-haloketones. The critical reagent is titanium(IV) chloride, which appears

  2. Chloride, bromide and iodide scintillators with europium doping

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhuravleva, Mariya; Yang, Kan

    2014-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A halide scintillator material is disclosed where the halide may comprise chloride, bromide or iodide. The material is single-crystalline and has a composition of the general formula ABX.sub.3 where A is an alkali, B is an alkali earth and X is a halide which general composition was investigated. In particular, crystals of the formula ACa.sub.1-yEu.sub.yI.sub.3 where A=K, Rb and Cs were formed as well as crystals of the formula CsA.sub.1-yEu.sub.yX.sub.3 (where A=Ca, Sr, Ba, or a combination thereof and X=Cl, Br or I or a combination thereof) with divalent Europium doping where 0.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.1, and more particularly Eu doping has been studied at one to ten mol %. The disclosed scintillator materials are suitable for making scintillation detectors used in applications such as medical imaging and homeland security.

  3. Release mechanism of octadecyl rhodamine B chloride from Au nanorods by ultrafast laser pulses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alper, Joshua Daniel

    We investigated the release of octadecyl rhodamine B chloride (R[subscript 18]) loaded onto cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) coated gold nanorods (NR) by pulsed ultrafast laser excitation. R[subscript 18] intercalates ...

  4. Contribution of garbage burning to chloride and PM[subscript 2.5] in Mexico City

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, G.

    The contribution of garbage burning (GB) emissions to chloride and PM[subscript 2.5] in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) has been investigated for the period of 24 to 29 March during the MILAGRO-2006 campaign using ...

  5. Nickel-Catalyzed Heck-Type Reactions of Benzyl Chlorides and Simple Olefins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matsubara, Ryosuke

    Nickel-catalyzed intermolecular benzylation and heterobenzylation of unactivated alkenes to provide functionalized allylbenzene derivatives are described. A wide range of both the benzyl chloride and alkene coupling partners ...

  6. The effects of mepiquat chloride on the water relations of cotton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stuart, Bryan Lee

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    by the BASF Corporation and sold under the trade name FIX. The purpose of the investigations described here was to deter- mine the effects of mepiquat chloride treatment on cotton productiv- ity under different soil moisture regimes and to describe...

  7. Iron (III) Chloride doping of large-area chemical vapor deposition graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Yi, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical doping is an effective method of reducing the sheet resistance of graphene. This thesis aims to develop an effective method of doping large area Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) graphene using Iron (III) Chloride ...

  8. A Novel, Green Technology for the Production of Aromatic Thiol from Aromatic Sulfonyl Chloride

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atkinson, Bradley R.

    2010-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The hydrogenation of aromatic sulfonyl chloride to produce aromatic thiol is an important industrial reaction. The aromatic thiol is a critical intermediate in the production of many pharmaceuticals as well as several agrochemicals. Density...

  9. Negishi Coupling of Secondary Alkylzinc Halides with Aryl Bromides and Chlorides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Chong

    An efficient palladium-catalyzed process has been developed for Negishi coupling of secondary alkylzinc halides with a wide range of aryl bromides and activated aryl chlorides. A palladium catalyst composed of a new ...

  10. Selective Monoarylation of Acetate Esters and Aryl Methyl Ketones Using Aryl Chlorides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biscoe, Mark R.

    Simple, efficient procedures for the monoarylation of acetate esters and aryl methyl ketones using aryl chlorides are presented. Previously, no general method was available to ensure the highly selective monoarylation of ...

  11. The ultra-high lime with aluminum process for removing chloride from recirculating cooling water 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdel-wahab, Ahmed Ibraheem Ali

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    and XRD analysis of precipitated solids indicated that this deviation was due to the formation of other solid phases such as tricalcium hydroxyaluminate and tetracalcium hydroxyaluminate. Effect of pH on chloride removal was characterized. Optimum pH...

  12. A study of the reaction between antimony (III) chloride and organic amine hydrochlorides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Linder, Donald Ernst

    1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for the oxidation of antimony was: SbCI + KHC H 0 + NaHC03 = K(SbO)C H 0 + 3NaC1 + 2H 0 + 3CO 2 K(SbO)C H40 + I2 + NaHC03 = KNaC4H 0 + NaH SbO + 2Nal + H 0 + CO The results of this analysis is given in Table II. II. Determination of Chloride. The chloride...

  13. Method for immobilizing mixed waste chloride salts containing radionuclides and other hazardous wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, Michele A.; Johnson, Terry R.

    1993-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a method for the encapsulation of soluble radioactive waste chloride salts containing radionuclides such as strontium, cesium and hazardous wastes such as barium so that they may be permanently stored without future threat to the environment. The process consists of contacting the salts containing the radionuclides and hazardous wastes with certain zeolites which have been found to ion exchange with the radionuclides and to occlude the chloride salts so that the resulting product is leach resistant.

  14. Method for immobilizing mixed waste chloride salts containing radionuclides and other hazardous wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, Michele A. (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Terry R. (Wheaton, IL)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a method for the encapsulation of soluble radioactive waste chloride salts containing radionuclides such as strontium, cesium and hazardous wastes such as barium so that they may be permanently stored without future threat to the environment. The process consists of contacting the salts containing the radionuclides and hazardous wastes with certain zeolites which have been found to ion exchange with the radionuclides and to occlude the chloride salts so that the resulting product is leach resistant.

  15. Determination of transport parameters from coincident chloride and tritium plumes at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fryar, Alan Ernest

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (after Barraclough et al. , 1981). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Well layout in the vicinity of the ICPP (after Lewis and Jensen, 1984). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Contour map of the ICPP chloride plume. Concentrations... discharged to the ICPP disposal well during the period January 1962-December 1981 (after Lewis and Jensen, 1984). 40 50 LIST OF TABLES Table page Chloride concentrations at monitoring wells in the vicinity of the ICPP during the period October 1980...

  16. Effect of chloride salts, curing compounds and heating and freezing on Trichinella spiralis in pork products

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kayfus, Timothy Jon

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EFFECT OF CHLORIDE SALTS, CURING COMPOUNDS AND HEATING AND FREEZING ON TRICHINELLA SPIRALIS IN PORK PRODUCTS A Thesis by TIMOTHY JON KAYFUS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1981 Major Subject: Food Science and Technology EFFECT OF CHLORIDE SALTS, CURING COMPOUNDS AND HEATING AND FREEZING ON TRICHINELLA SPIRALIS IN PORK PRODUCTS A Thesis by TIMOTHY JON KAYFUS Approved as to style...

  17. The effect of sodium chloride in the irrigation water on the growth of selected ornamental plants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apps, Gary Edward

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE EFFECT OF SODIUM CHLORIDE IN THE IRRIGATION WATER ON THE GROWTH OF SELECTED ORNAMENTAL PLANTS A Thesis by GARY EDWARD APPS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A6M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1976 Major Subject: Floriculture THE EFFECT OF SODIUM CHLORIDE IN THE IRRIGATION WATER ON THE GROWTH OF SELECTED ORNAMENTAL PLANTS A Thesis by GARY EDWARD APPS Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee...

  18. The phase behavior and absorption spectra of the ternary system cobaltous chloride-water-acetonitrile

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bobbitt, Jeffrey Lovett

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CONCIUSION Interpretation of Zxoerimental Results Summary and Suggestions for Further Study APP 'NDICES ~ 1 3 8 11 12 14 15 15 24 36 36 39 41 Cobaltous Chloride-Nater Solutions Prepared for Phase Diagram Determination . Cobaltous Chloride-Acetonitrile... Solutions Prepared for Phase Diagram Determination . Density of Acetonitrile as 1'unction of Temperature BIBLIOGRAPHY 44 45 LIST OF TABLES A%3 FIGURZS TABLE 1 Activity Coefficients of Acetonitrile and Water in a Binary Solution 1'age TAB'Z 2 Pnase...

  19. Evaluation of PFP Furnace Systems for Thermal Stabilization of Washed High Chloride Plutonium Oxide Items

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, Christopher M.; Elmore, Monte R.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Gerber, Mark A.; Muzatko, Danielle S.; Gano, Susan R.; Thornton, Brenda M.

    2002-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    High chloride content plutonium (HCP) oxides are impure plutonium oxide scrap which contains NaCl, KCl, MgCl2 and/or CaCl2 salts at potentially high concentrations and must be stabilized at 950 C per the DOE Standard, DOE-STD-3013-2000. The chlorides pose challenges to stabilization because volatile chloride salts and decomposition products can corrode furnace heating elements and downstream ventilation components. A high-temperature furnace (same make and model as used at the RMC at Plutonium Finishing Plant) and the associated offgas system were set up at PNNL to identify system vulnerabilities and to investigate alternative materials and operating conditions that would mitigate any corrosion and plugging of furnace and offgas components. The key areas of interest for this testing were the furnace heating elements, the offgas line located inside the furnace, the offgas line between the furnace and the filter/knockout pot, the filter/knockout pot, the sample boat, and corrosion coupons to evaluate alternative materials of construction. The evaluation was conducted by charging the furnace with CeO2 that had been impregnated with a mixture of chloride salts (selected to represent the expected residual chloride salt level in washed high chloride items) and heated in the furnace in accordance with the temperature ramp rates and hold times used at PFP.

  20. Strontium-copper selenite-chlorides: Synthesis and structural investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berdonosov, Peter S., E-mail: berdonosov@inorg.chem.msu.r [Department of Chemistry, Moscow State University, 119991 GSP-1, Leninskie Gory, 1 build. 3, Moscow (Russian Federation); Olenev, Andrei V.; Dolgikh, Valery A. [Department of Chemistry, Moscow State University, 119991 GSP-1, Leninskie Gory, 1 build. 3, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Two new complex selenite-chlorides of strontium and copper Sr{sub 2}Cu(SeO{sub 3}){sub 2}Cl{sub 2} (I) and SrCu{sub 2}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 2}Cl{sub 2} (II) were obtained and characterized by X-ray diffraction technique, DTA and IR spectroscopy. Both compounds crystallize in the monoclinic system I: Sp. gr. P2{sub 1}/n, a=5.22996(3) A, b=6.50528(4) A, c=12.34518(7) A, beta=91.3643(2){sup o}, Z=2; II: Sp. gr. P2{sub 1}, a=7.1630(14) A, b=7.2070(14) A, c=8.0430(16) A, beta=95.92(3){sup o}, Z=2. Comparison of the crystal structure of (I) with the structures of Sr{sub 2}M(SeO{sub 3}){sub 2}Cl{sub 2} (M=Co, Ni) was performed. The substitution of strontium atom in the structure of (I) by Cu{sup 2+} ion with a 3d{sup 9} Jahn-Teller distorted surrounding leads to the lowering of the structure symmetry and to the appearance of the noncentrosymmetric structure of (II). The noncentrosymmetric character of the structure of (II) was confirmed by SHG signal (1.2 units relative to an alpha-quartz powder sample). - Graphical abstract: Sr{sub 2}Cu(SeO{sub 3}){sub 2}Cl{sub 2} and SrCu{sub 2}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 2}Cl{sub 2} were obtained and characterized by X-ray diffraction technique, DTA and IR spectroscopy.

  1. Experiences with combined corrosion effects on stainless steel due to chlorides and H{sub 2}S

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell, M.T.; Wortham, G.M.; Lawson, D.M.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chloride contamination of amines in contact with stainless steel creates a well known potential for stress corrosion cracking (SCC). A far less recognized hazard of chloride contamination, when sulfides are present, is drastically accelerated generalized corrosion. Chloride induced corrosion can be avoided with an inlet gas reverse flow coalescer and an inlet slug catcher to knock out brine bearing produced water. If the amine is already contaminated with chlorides, steps can be taken to minimize this type of corrosion such as better amine filtration, amine reclamation and using stainless steel with higher nickel contents.

  2. Respiratory symptoms among glass bottle makers exposed to stannic chloride solution and other potentially hazardous substances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levy, B.S.; Davis, F.; Johnson, B.

    1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Concern about upper respiratory tract irritation and other symptoms among workers at a glass bottle manufacturing plant led to an epidemiologic and an industrial hygiene survey. Questionnaire responses from 35 hot end and 53 cold end workers indicated that the incidence of wheezing, chest pain, dyspnea on exertion, and cough was significantly elevated among hot end workers. Among both smokers and nonsmokers, hot end workers reported higher, but not significantly higher, rates of wheezing and chest pain. Among smokers, hot end workers reported significantly higher rates of dyspnea on exertion and cough than did cold end workers. Data suggest that reported exposure to stannic chloride solution likely caused these symptoms. The industrial hygiene survey, conducted when stannic chloride use had been reduced, cleaning had been done, and ventilation improved, focused on measuring air contaminants that might possibly cause symptoms. Levels of hydrogen chloride, which apparently was formed by the combination of stannic chloride and water in the presence of heat, were elevated. The finding of increased prevalence of respiratory symptoms among hot end workers was consistent with this exposure. Recommendations were made to reduce hazardous exposures at this plant. Individuals responsible for occupational health should be aware that relatively benign substances, such as stannic chloride and water, can combine spontaneously to form hazardous substances.

  3. Effect of chloride content of molten nitrate salt on corrosion of A516 carbon steel.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradshaw, Robert W.; Clift, W. Miles

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The corrosion behavior of A516 carbon steel was evaluated to determine the effect of the dissolved chloride content in molten binary Solar Salt. Corrosion tests were conducted in a molten salt consisting of a 60-40 weight ratio of NaNO{sub 3} and KNO{sub 3} at 400{sup o}C and 450{sup o}C for up to 800 hours. Chloride concentrations of 0, 0.5 and 1.0 wt.% were investigated to determine the effect on corrosion of this impurity, which can be present in comparable amounts in commercial grades of the constituent salts. Corrosion rates were determined by descaled weight losses, corrosion morphology was examined by metallographic sectioning, and the types of corrosion products were determined by x-ray diffraction. Corrosion proceeded by uniform surface scaling and no pitting or intergranular corrosion was observed. Corrosion rates increased significantly as the concentration of dissolved chloride in the molten salt increased. The adherence of surface scales, and thus their protective properties, was degraded by dissolved chloride, fostering more rapid corrosion. Magnetite was the only corrosion product formed on the carbon steel specimens, regardless of chloride content or temperature.

  4. Current techniques in acid-chloride corrosion control and monitoring at The Geysers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirtz, Paul; Buck, Cliff; Kunzman, Russell

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Acid chloride corrosion of geothermal well casings, production piping and power plant equipment has resulted in costly corrosion damage, frequent curtailments of power plants and the permanent shut-in of wells in certain areas of The Geysers. Techniques have been developed to mitigate these corrosion problems, allowing continued production of steam from high chloride wells with minimal impact on production and power generation facilities.The optimization of water and caustic steam scrubbing, steam/liquid separation and process fluid chemistry has led to effective and reliable corrosion mitigation systems currently in routine use at The Geysers. When properly operated, these systems can yield steam purities equal to or greater than those encountered in areas of The Geysers where chloride corrosion is not a problem. Developments in corrosion monitoring techniques, steam sampling and analytical methodologies for trace impurities, and computer modeling of the fluid chemistry has been instrumental in the success of this technology.

  5. Synthesis of macrocycles and their biological evaluation as antitumor and antibacterial agents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, Po-Shen

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    methylene chloride and acetonitrile (1:1) to 0.1M. Reactionsmethylene chloride and acetonitrile (1:1 ratio) resulting inmethylene chloride and acetonitrile (1:1 ratio, 0.1M). The

  6. A description of the vapor phase in the lithium thionyl chloride battery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morales, Rodolfo

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A DESCRIPTION OF TIIE YAPOP, PHASE IN THF. LITHIUM THIONYI. CHLORIDE BATTERY A Thesis by RODOLFO MORALES, JR. Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AEzM University in partial fulfrHment of the requirement for the degree oi' MASTER... OF SCIENCE August 1988 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering A DESCRIPTION OF THE VAPOR PHASE IN THE LITHIUM THIONYL CHLORIDE BATTERY A Thesis bv RODOLFO 'vIORALES, JR. Approved as to style and content by: Ralph E. White (Chairman of Committee) James...

  7. Time-resolved energy transfer from single chloride-terminated nanocrystals to graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ajayi, O. A., E-mail: oaa2114@columbia.edu, E-mail: cww2104@columbia.edu; Wong, C. W., E-mail: oaa2114@columbia.edu, E-mail: cww2104@columbia.edu [Optical Nanostructures Laboratory, Center for Integrated Science and Engineering, Solid-State Science and Engineering, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Anderson, N. C.; Wolcott, A.; Owen, J. S. [Department of Chemistry, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Cotlet, M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York, New York 11973 (United States); Petrone, N.; Hone, J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Gu, T.; Gesuele, F. [Optical Nanostructures Laboratory, Center for Integrated Science and Engineering, Solid-State Science and Engineering, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

    2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine the time-resolved resonance energy transfer of excitons from single n-butyl amine-bound, chloride-terminated nanocrystals to two-dimensional graphene through time-correlated single photon counting. The radiative biexponential lifetime kinetics and blinking statistics of the individual surface-modified nanocrystal elucidate the non-radiative decay channels. Blinking modification as well as a 4× reduction in spontaneous emission were observed with the short chloride and n-butylamine ligands, probing the energy transfer pathways for the development of graphene-nanocrystal nanophotonic devices.

  8. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) for cesium chloride capsules with type W overpacks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCoy, J.C.

    1997-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This Safety Evaluation for Packaging (SEP) documents the evaluation of a new basket design and overpacked cesium chloride capsule payload for the Beneficial Uses Shipping System (BUSS) Cask in accordance with the onsite transportation requirements of the Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping manual, WHC-CM-2-14. This design supports the one-time onsite shipment of 16 cesium chloride capsules with Type W overpacks from the 324 Building to the 224T Building at the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF). The SEP is valid for a one-time onsite shipment or until August 1, 1998, whichever occurs first.

  9. Evaluation of calcium chloride and ammonium thiosulfate as ammonia volatilization inhibitors for surface-applied urea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sloan, John J.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (Fenn and Kissel, 1973). Ammonia exiting the soil chainber with the air-flow was captured in a boric acid indicator trap containing 40 mL of boric acid indicator solution. The boric acid indicator traps were changed every 24 h and titrated... as 90%. Calcium chloride reacts with the (NH4)2CO2 formed during urea hydrolysis in the following manner: (NH4)2CO2 + CaC12 CaCO& + 2NH4C1 Ammonium chloride is a slightly acidic product and does not produce (NH4)2CO2 in a calcareous soil. Ammonia...

  10. The influence of chloride ions on the corrosion of copper in soil 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hirani, Raju K

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE INFLUENCE OF CHLORIDE IONS ON THE CORROSION OF COPPER IN SOIL A Thesis by RA JU K . H I RAN I Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in Partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May... 1980 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering THE INFLUENCE OF CHLORIDE IONS ON THE CORROSION OF COPPER IN SOIL A Thesis by RAJU K. HIRANI Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) '(2. (Member ) (Member) (Member) ( ea o Dep...

  11. Facilitated transport of sodium or potassium chloride across vesicle membranes using a ditopic salt-binding macrobicycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Bradley D.

    Facilitated transport of sodium or potassium chloride across vesicle membranes using a ditopic salt or potassium chloride as a contact ion-pair, is shown to effect- ively transport either salt across vesicle membranes. Sig- nificant transport is observed even when the transporter : phospholipid ratio is as low as 1

  12. Hot Pin Welding of Thin Poly(vinyl chloride) Sheet James D. Van de Ven, Arthur G. Erdman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van de Ven, James D.

    Hot Pin Welding of Thin Poly(vinyl chloride) Sheet James D. Van de Ven, Arthur G. Erdman Mechanical of welding two thin sheets of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) with a heated pin, thus allowing construction of a relationship between the weld temperature and weld strength. Constructing a relationship between weld strength

  13. Theoretical Study of Solvent Effects on the Thermodynamics of Iron(III) [Tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)]porphyrin Chloride Dissociation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bell, Alexis T.

    on the extent of iron(III) [tetrakis- (pentafluorophenyl)]porphyrin chloride dissociation in acetonitrile in acetonitrile primarily because of the strong specific interactions between the chloride anion and the solvent methanol molecules in its first solvation shell. These interactions are weaker in acetonitrile. The final

  14. Near-Infrared Laser Absorption of Poly(vinyl chloride) at Elevated Temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van de Ven, James D.

    Near-Infrared Laser Absorption of Poly(vinyl chloride) at Elevated Temperatures James D. Van de Ven polymer, pigments, and fillers. Because of the complex phase transition that occurs when heating the charac- teristics of heating owing to the laser radiation. This paper discusses an experiment measuring

  15. Note and Record A note on polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe traps for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pretoria, University of

    Note and Record A note on polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe traps for sampling vegetation of traditional traps, and many are furtive (Myers et al., 2007; Pittman et al., 2008). PVC pipe traps, which and Hyperolius (see Channing, 2001; du Preez & Carruthers, 2009), may be attracted to artificial refugia of PVC

  16. Adsorption of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate and Sodium Dodecyl Benzenesulfonate on Poly(Vinyl Chloride) Latexes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Adsorption of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate and Sodium Dodecyl Benzenesulfonate on Poly(Vinyl Chloride@cpe.fr #12;2 Abstract The adsorption of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and sodium dodecyl benzenesulfonate performed to determine the area per surfactant molecule at various temperatures (20-50ºC) and the adsorption

  17. Nucleophilic substitutions of 1-alkenylcyclopropyl esters and 1-alkynylcyclopropyl chlorides catalyzed by palladium (0)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stolle, A. [George-August-Universitaet, Goettingen (Germany)]|[Universite de Paris-Sud, Orsay (France); Ollivier, J.; Salauen, J. [Universite de Paris-Sud, Orsay (France)] [and others

    1992-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The 1-ethenylcyclopropylsulfonates 2e,f and 2-cyclopropylideneethyl esters 10b,c, readily available from cyclopropanone hemiacetal 1, undergo regioselective Pd(0) catalyzed nucleophilic substitution via the unsymmetric 1,1-dimethylene-{pi}-allyl complex 23. With stabilized anions (enolates of malonic ester, {beta}-dicarbonyl compounds, {beta}-sulfonyl ester, and Schiff bases as well as acetate anion, sulfonamide anion, etc.) the nucleophilic substitution occurs at the terminal vinylic position exclusively, providing cyclopropylideneethyl derivatives as building blocks of high synthetic potential. Competition experiments have disclosed that 1-ethenylcyclopropyl tosylate (2e) and cyclopropylideneethyl acetate (10b) are more reactive than dimethylallyl acetates 19 and 22, respectively. Use of chiral phosphines as ligands in the palladium catalyst can provide optically active methylenecyclopropane derivatives. With phenyl-, methyl-, and even n-butylzinc chloride as nucleophiles, the reaction apparently proceeds with initial transfer of the organic residue to palladium, followed by reductive elimination entailing tertiary substitution on the cyclopropane ring exclusively; the same type of product is obtained with azide and bis(trimethylsilyl)amide. But the site of hydride attack to yield reduction products depends on the hydride source. 1-Alkynylcyclopropyl chlorides 12, 13, and 14 react only with organozinc chlorides (nonstabilized nucleophiles) to provide mixtures of ethenylidenecyclopropanes 65 and alkynylcyclopropanes 66, via the {sigma}-palladium complexes 69 and 70, while chloride 15 undergoes mainly reduction. Other transition metal catalysts (Ni, Mo) also induce substitutions, but with poorer regioselectivity. 81 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of the Transport Properties of Molten Transuranic Chloride Salts 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baty, Austin Alan

    2013-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

    enduring hazard of nuclear power. TRU contain high radiotoxicity and have half-lives of a thousand to a million years. The ADSMS core is fueled by a homogeneous chloride-based molten salt mixture containing TRUCl3 and NaCl. Certain thermodynamic properties...

  19. Chloride Analysis of the Soils Overlaying the Carrizo-Wilcox Aquifer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolf, Emery

    2013-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    With a vast amount of people living in semi-arid to arid environments around the globe, the resource of water is valued very highly. The Carrizo-Wilcox aquifer in SW Texas is a semi-arid zone and was chosen as the site for this study. The Chloride...

  20. The Corrosion / Electrochemistry of Beryllium and Beryllium Weldments in Aqueous Chloride Environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Corrosion / Electrochemistry of Beryllium and Beryllium Weldments in Aqueous Chloride Environments submitted by: Mary Ann Hill, Darryl P. Butt, R. Scott Lillard Materials Corrosion year. Our goals for FY '96 were two-fold: 1) develop a sensor for monitoring the corrosion of beryllium

  1. Dissolved Oxygen Sensing in a Flow Stream using Molybdenum Chloride Optical Indicators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghosh, Ruby N.

    Dissolved Oxygen Sensing in a Flow Stream using Molybdenum Chloride Optical Indicators Reza Loloee1@msu.edu Abstract--Dissolved oxygen concentration is considered the most important water quality variable in fish culture. Reliable and continuous (24/7) oxygen monitoring of dissolved oxygen (DO) in the 1 ­ 11 mg

  2. Simultaneous measurement of laser reflection and transmission of poly,,vinyl chloride...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van de Ven, James D.

    , unpigmented state are highly transmissive of light in the near-infrared range, al- lowing laser transmissionSimultaneous measurement of laser reflection and transmission of poly,,vinyl chloride... James D reflection, emphasizing the light transmitted through a material. This paper presents work creating a low

  3. Growing season methyl bromide and methyl chloride fluxes at a sub-arctic wetland in Sweden 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hardacre, Catherine J.; Blei, Emanuel; Heal, Mathew R

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methyl bromide and methyl chloride fluxes were measured at several sites in a sub-arctic wetland near Abisko, Sweden (68°28?N 18°49?E) throughout the 2008 growing season. Averaged over 92 flux measurements the sub-arctic wetland was found to be a...

  4. Chloride Analysis of the Soils Overlaying the Carrizo-Wilcox Aquifer 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolf, Emery

    2013-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    With a vast amount of people living in semi-arid to arid environments around the globe, the resource of water is valued very highly. The Carrizo-Wilcox aquifer in SW Texas is a semi-arid zone and was chosen as the site for this study. The Chloride...

  5. Effects of Sodium Chloride Particles, Ozone, UV, and Relative Humidity on Atmospheric Corrosion of Silver

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Effects of Sodium Chloride Particles, Ozone, UV, and Relative Humidity on Atmospheric Corrosion The corrosion of Ag contaminated with NaCl particles in gaseous environments containing humidity and ozone analyzed using a coulometric reduction technique. The atmospheric corrosion of Ag was greatly accelerated

  6. Uses of chloride/bromide ratios in studies of potable water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, S.N. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Hydrology and Water Resources; Whittemore, D.O. [Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States). Kansas Geological Survey; Fabryka-Martin, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In natural ground water systems, both chlorine and bromine occur primarily as monovalent anions, chloride and bromide. Although dissolution or precipitation of halite, biological activity in the root zone, anion sorption, and exchange can affect chloride/bromide ratios in some settings, movement of the ions in potable ground water is most often conservative. Atmospheric precipitation will generally have mass ratios between 50 and 150; shallow ground water, between 100 and 200; domestic sewage, between 300 and 600; water affected by dissolution of halite, between 1,000 and 10,000; and summer runoff from urban streets, between 10 and 100. These, and other distinctive elemental ratios, are useful in the reconstruction of the origin and movement of ground water, as illustrated by case studies investigating sources of salinity in ground water from Alberta, Kansas, and Arizona, and infiltration rates and pathways at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

  7. An electron spin resonance investigation of irradiated potassium chloride crystals doped with sodium nitroprusside

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mayers, Richard Ralph

    1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (CN) 15NO'2H20, turns the quintet into a triplet. This shows that the observed paramagnetic species is genetically connected with the NO d'sp"aced by irradi- ation from its position in the nitroprusside ion. Nuniz and Danon located eight quintets which...AN ELECTRON SPIN RESONANCE INVESTIGATION OF IRRADIATED POTASSIUiv, . CHLORIDE CRYSTALS DOPED MITE SODIUN NITROPRUSSID A Thesis by Richard Ralph iviayers Submitted to the Gradus. e College of Texas AS-. N University in partial fulfillzent...

  8. The influence of chloride ions on the corrosion of copper in soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hirani, Raju K

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    not manifest itself electri- cally, and seldom shows up in any kind of routine main- tenance inspection. Failure Mechanisms of Copper Cable Corrosion Galvanic Corrosion As semiconducting polyethylene is electropositive with respect to copper...THE INFLUENCE OF CHLORIDE IONS ON THE CORROSION OF COPPER IN SOIL A Thesis by RA JU K . H I RAN I Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in Partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May...

  9. Determination of transport parameters from coincident chloride and tritium plumes at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fryar, Alan Ernest

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -radioactive waste, but rad1onuclides are often toxic at far lower concentrations than are hazardous non-radi oacti ve speci es (Freeze and Cherry, 1979). Most radioactive waste, in terms of activity, is generated at vari ous stages of what Freeze and Cherry...DETERMINATION OF TRANSPORT PARAMETERS FROM COINCIDENT CHLORIDE AND TRITIUM PLUMES AT THE IDAHO NATIONAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY A Thesis by ALAN ERNEST FRYAR Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment...

  10. Removal of Chloride from Wastewater by Advanced Softening Process Using Electrochemically Generated Aluminum Hydroxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mustafa, Syed Faisal

    2014-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    produced mass of aluminum and theoretical mass as predicted by Faraday’s law vs time during electrolysis of 30 mM NaCl electrolyte solution. ........................................................................................... 35 Figure 8 Change... of pH versus time during electrolysis performed at different current values of 30mM NaCl electrolyte solution. ...................................................... 36 Figure 9 Removal of chloride during advanced softening experiment performed after...

  11. The ultra-high lime with aluminum process for removing chloride from recirculating cooling water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdel-wahab, Ahmed Ibraheem Ali

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    THE ULTRA-HIGH LIME WITH ALUMINUM PROCESS FOR REMOVING CHLORIDE FROM RECIRCULATING COOLING WATER A Dissertation by AHMED IBRAHEEM ALI ABDEL-WAHAB Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment...-WAHAB Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Approved as to style and content by: Bill Batchelor (Chair of Committee) Robin L. Autenrieth (Member...

  12. EFFECT OF CHLORIDE AND SULFATE CONCENTRATION ON PROBABLITY BASED CORROSION CONTROL FOR LIQUID WASTE TANKS- PART IV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, E.

    2012-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of cyclic potentiodynamic polarization tests was performed on samples of A537 carbon steel in support of a probability-based approach to evaluate the effect of chloride and sulfate on corrosion susceptibility. Testing solutions were chosen to build off previous experimental results from FY07, FY08, FY09 and FY10 to systemically evaluate the influence of the secondary aggressive species, chloride, and sulfate. The FY11 results suggest that evaluating the combined effect of all aggressive species, nitrate, chloride, and sulfate, provides a consistent response for determining corrosion susceptibility. The results of this work emphasize the importance for not only nitrate concentration limits, but also chloride and sulfate concentration limits as well.

  13. Firmness and cell wall characteristics of pasteurized jalapeno pepper rings affected by acetic acid, calcium chloride and preheating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burma, Prashanthi V

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    pasteurization and storage, especially when high acid brines are used. Development of treatments to retard softening may result in a higher quality product. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of calcium chloride (CaCI2), acetic acid...

  14. Nickel-catalyzed asymmetric cross-couplings of secondary allylic chlorides and planar-chiral compounds in asymmetric synthesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Son, Sunghee

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In Part I, nickel-catalyzed asymmetric carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions are described. A nickel/Pybox system effectively catalyzes regio- and enantioselective cross-couplings between racemic secondary allylic chlorides ...

  15. Palladium-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling of Aryl Chlorides and Triflates with Sodium Cyanate: A Practical Synthesis of Unsymmetrical Ureas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fors, Brett P.

    An efficient method for palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling of aryl chlorides and triflates with sodium cyanate is reported. The protocol allows for the synthesis of unsymmetrical N,N?-di- and N,N,N?-trisubstituted ureas ...

  16. Periadolescent oral manganese exposure affects conditioned place preference by cocaine and conditioned place aversion by lithium chloride in rats

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Samuel Ming Hin

    2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Manganese neurotoxicity compromises basal ganglia functions that could affect the limbic system and drug sensitivity. Male rats were orally exposed to manganese chloride (0, 100, 200 mg/kg/day Mn) for 15 days starting at postnatal day (PND) 28...

  17. Concrete cover cracking with reinforcement corrosion of RC beam during chloride-induced corrosion process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Ruijin, E-mail: rjzhang@mail.neu.edu.c [Modern Design and Analysis Research Institute, Northeastern University, Shenyang (China); Castel, Arnaud; Francois, Raoul [LMDC - Laboratoire Materiaux et Durabilite des Constructions, Universite de Toulouse, UPS, INSA, Toulouse (France)

    2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper deals with the evolution of the corrosion pattern based on two beams corroded by 14 years (beam B1CL1) and 23 years (beam B2CL1) of conservation in a chloride environment. The experimental results indicate that, at the cracking initiation stage and the first stage of cracking propagation, localized corrosion due to chloride ingress is the predominant corrosion pattern and pitting corrosion is the main factor that influences the cracking process. As corrosion cracking increases, general corrosion develops rapidly and gradually becomes predominant in the second stage of cracking propagation. A comparison between existing models and experimental results illustrates that, although Vidal et al.'s model can better predict the reinforcement corrosion of beam B1CL1 under localized corrosion, it cannot predict the corrosion of beam B2CL1 under general corrosion. Also, Rodriguez's model, derived from the general corrosion due to electrically accelerated corrosion experiments, cannot match natural chloride corrosion irrespective of whether corrosion is localized or general. Thus, for natural general corrosion in the second stage of cracking propagation, a new model based on the parameter of average steel cross-section loss is put forward to predict steel corrosion from corrosion cracking.

  18. The Effect of Continuous and Pulse Dose Ammonium Chloride Regimens on the Urine pH of Goats

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sprake, Philippa May

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    i THE EFFECT OF CONTINUOUS AND PULSE DOSE AMMONIUM CHLORIDE REGIMENS ON THE URINE PH OF GOATS A Thesis by PHILIPPA MAY SPRAKE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 2012 Major Subject: Biomedical Sciences ii The effect of continuous and pulse dose ammonium chloride regimens on the urine pH of goats. Copyright...

  19. A comparative study of extraction methods for analysis of chloride in plant tissue by means of the Cotlove chloridometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norris, Richard Eugene

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EXTRACTION METHODS FOR ANALYSIS OF CHLORIDE IN PLANT TISSUE BY MEANS OF THE COTLOVE CHLORIDOMETER A Thesis by RICHARD EUGENE NORRIS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1976 Major Subject: Horticulture A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EXTRACTION METHODS FOR ANALYSIS OF CHLORIDE IN PLANT TISSUE BY MEANS OF THE COTLOVE CHLORIDOMETER A Thesis by RICHARD EUGENE NORP...

  20. Control technology of vinyl chloride in EDC-VCM and PVC plants at main source points and fugitive emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parra, Dario Antonio

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in a boiler and the combustion gases scrubbed with water or a caustic solution to remove the hydrogen chloride to form hydrochloric acid or sodium chloride. According to the Trane Thermal Company, thermal incineration is a basic proven process... and fugitive emissions, (b) collection of data by using a questionaire ? survey from industries located in the United States, and (c) a statistical analysis of the data. It was found that thermal incineration is considered the best approach to control...

  1. Long-Term Hydrologic Responses To Shrub Removal In A SW Texas Rangeland: Using Soil Chloride To Estimate Deep Drainage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barre, David Anthony

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    LONG-TERM HYDROLOGIC RESPONSES TO SHRUB REMOVAL IN A SW TEXAS RANGELAND: USING SOIL CHLORIDE TO ESTIMATE DEEP DRAINAGE A Thesis by DAVID ANTHONY BARRE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University... of the study were to identify those biotic and abiotic factors facilitating deep drainage and to examine differences in recharge for the years following clearing of natural shrub vegetation. Soil chloride was examined to estimate long-term recharge rates...

  2. Voluntary Protection Program Onsite Review, Advanced Technologies...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    shower operations drill involving both hydrofluoric acid and methylene chloride, seismic events, waste drum release, minor injury in contamination area and high winds, odor...

  3. Preparation of graphene–Ag composites and their application for electrochemical detection of chloride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Mei, E-mail: yumei@buaa.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)] [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Liu, Pengrui; Zhang, Shilu; Liu, Jianhua; An, Junwei; Li, Songmei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)] [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: ? Graphene–Ag composites were prepared in situ using ascorbic acid as green reducing agent. ? The morphology of Ag particles was irregular sheet and Ag particles homogeneously distributed on the graphene matrix. ? The surface-enhanced Raman scattering enhancement factor of D band is 5.85 for composites. ? The composites exhibited good sensitivity for the detection of chloride ions. -- Abstract: Graphene–Ag composites were prepared in situ using ascorbic acid as green reducing agent. The composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), selected-area electronic diffraction (SAED), and Raman spectrometer. It was showed that Ag particles homogeneously distributed on the graphene matrix. The morphology of Ag particles was irregular sheet with (1 1 1) basal plane. The surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) enhancement factor of D band is 5.85 for composites. The application of the composites for electrochemical detection of chloride was studied by cyclic voltammetry. The composites exhibited good sensitivity for the detection of chloride ions. The maximum peak current of cyclic voltammetry curve in 5 mM KCl was 0.80 mA. In the range of 500 ?M to 50 mM for Cl{sup ?}, the current response was proportional and linear to the Cl{sup ?} concentration. The sensitivity to the detection for Cl{sup ?} was 0.059 (mA/mM) and the detection limit was 61 ?M for Cl{sup ?}. It indicates graphene–Ag composites would be a competitive material for detection of halide.

  4. The effect of sodium chloride on the dissolution of calcium silicate hydrate gels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, J. [UK Nirex Limited, Curie Avenue, Harwell, Didcot Oxfordshire, OX11 0RH (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: joanne.hill@nirex.co.uk; Harris, A.W. [UK Nirex Limited, Curie Avenue, Harwell, Didcot Oxfordshire, OX11 0RH (United Kingdom); Manning, M. [Formerly AEA Technology, Building 220, Harwell, Didcot Oxfordshire, OX11 0RA (United Kingdom); Chambers, A. [Serco Assurance, Building 150, Harwell International Business Centre, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0RA (United Kingdom); Swanton, S.W. [Serco Assurance, Building 150, Harwell International Business Centre, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0RA (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of cement based materials will be widespread in the long-term management of radioactive materials in the United Kingdom. One of the applications could be the Nirex reference vault backfill (NRVB) as an engineered barrier within a deep geological repository. NRVB confers alkaline conditions, which would provide a robust chemical barrier through the control of the solubility of some key radionuclides, enhanced sorption and minimised corrosion of steel containers. An understanding of the dissolution of C-S-H gels in cement under the appropriate conditions (e.g., saline groundwaters) is necessary to demonstrate the expected evolution of the chemistry over time and to provide sufficient cement to buffer the porewater conditions for the required time. A programme of experimental work has been undertaken to investigate C-S-H gel dissolution behaviour in sodium chloride solutions and the effect of calcium/silicon ratio (C/S), temperature and cation type on this behaviour. Reductions in calcium concentration and pH values were observed with samples equilibrated at 45 deg. C compared to those prepared at 25 deg. C. The effect of salt cation type on salt-concentration dependence of the dissolution of C-S-H gels was investigated by the addition of lithium or potassium chloride in place of sodium chloride for gels with a C/S of 1.0 and 1.8. With a C/S of 1.0, similar increases in dissolved calcium concentration with increasing ionic strength were recorded for the different salts. However, at a C/S of 1.8, anomalously high calcium concentrations were observed in the presence of lithium.

  5. Genome Sequence of the Ethene- and Vinyl Chloride-Oxidizing Actinomycete Nocardioides sp Strain JS614

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coleman, Nicholas V [University of Sydney, Australia; Wilson, Neil L [University of Sydney, Australia; Barry, Kerrie [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Copeland, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Dalin, Eileen [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Hammon, Nancy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Han, Shunsheng [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Israni, Sanjay [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kim, Edwin [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Larimer, Frank W [ORNL; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Richardson, Paul [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Schmutz, Jeremy [Stanford University; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Thompson, Sue [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Tice, Hope [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Spain, Jim C [Georgia Institute of Technology; Gossett, James G [Cornell University; Mattes, Timothy E [University of Iowa

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nocardioides sp. strain JS614 grows on ethene and vinyl chloride (VC) as sole carbon and energy sources and is of interest for bioremediation and biocatalysis. Sequencing of the complete genome of JS614 provides insight into the genetic basis of alkene oxidation, supports ongoing research into the physiology and biochemistry of growth on ethene and VC, and provides biomarkers to facilitate detection of VC/ethene oxidizers in the environment. This is the first genome sequence from the genus Nocardioides and the first genome of a VC/ethene-oxidizing bacterium.

  6. Effect of nonlinear absorption on electric field applied lead chloride by Z-scan technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rejeena, I. [International School of Photonics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin Kerala, India and M.S.M. College, Kayamkulam, Kerala (India); Lillibai,; Nampoori, V. P. N.; Radhakrishnan, P. [International School of Photonics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin Kerala (India); Rahimkutty, M. H. [M.S.M. College, Kayamkulam, Kerala (India)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The preparation, spectral response and optical nonlinearity of gel grown lead chloride single crystals subjected to electric field of 20V using parallel plate arrangements have been investigated. Optical band gap of the samples were determined using linear absorption spectra. Open aperture z-scan was employed for the determination of nonlinear absorption coefficient of PbCl{sub 2} solution. The normalized transmittance curve exhibits a valley shows reverse saturable absorption. The non linear absorption at different input fluences were recorded using a single Gaussian laser beam in tight focus geometry. The RSA nature of the sample makes it suitable for optical limiting applications.

  7. Unexpected synthesis and structural characterization of Pt(II)Cl2-1,5-hexadiene from reaction of allyl chloride and K2PtCl4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nair, Reji N; Golen, James A; Rheingold, Arnold L; Grotjahn, Douglas B

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    4 and allyl chloride in the presence of so- dium acetateacetate nor acetic acid, which would be lost on rotary evaporation, nor allyl-

  8. Wet extraction of heavy metals and chloride from MSWI and straw combustion fly ashes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aguiar del Toro, M. [Hamburg University of Technology, Institute of Environmental Technology and Energy Economics, Eissendorfer Street 40, D-21073 Hamburg (Germany); Calmano, W. [Hamburg University of Technology, Institute of Environmental Technology and Energy Economics, Eissendorfer Street 40, D-21073 Hamburg (Germany)], E-mail: calmano@tuhh.de; Ecke, H. [Vattenfall Research and Development AB, SE-814 26 Alvkarleby (Sweden)

    2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Fly ash residues from combustion often do not meet the criteria neither for reuse as construction materials nor landfilling as non-hazardous waste, mainly because of the high concentration of heavy metals and chlorides. This work aimed to technically evaluate an innovative wet treatment process for the extraction of chloride (Cl{sup -}), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) from fly ashes from a municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) plant and from a straw combustion (SC) facility. Factors investigated were liquid/solid (L/S) ratio, full carbonation (CO{sub 2} treatment), influence of pH and leaching time, using a two-level full factorial design. The most significant factor for all responses was low pH, followed by L/S ratio. Multiple linear regression models describing the variation in extraction data had R{sup 2} values ranging from 58% to 98%. An optimization of the element extraction models was performed and a set of treatment conditions is suggested.

  9. The effects of a stannous chloride-based remediation system in a mercury contaminated stream

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathews, Teresa J [ORNL; Looney, Brian [Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL); BryanJr., Larry [Savannah River Ecology Laboratory; Smith, John G [ORNL; Miller, Carrie L [ORNL; Peterson, Mark J [ORNL

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Remediation of mercury (Hg)-contaminated watersheds is often challenging because of the complex nature of Hg biogeochemistry. Stream ecosystems have been shown to be particularly susceptible to Hg contamination and bioaccumulation in fish. Decreasing total Hg loading to stream systems, however, has shown variable performance in decreasing Hg concentrations in fish tissues. In this study, we assess the impacts of an innovative treatment system in reducing releases of Hg to a small stream system in the southeastern United States. The treatment system, installed in 2007, removes Hg from water using tin (Sn) (II) chloride followed by air stripping. Mercury concentrations in the receiving stream, Tims Branch, decreased from > 100 to ~10 ng/L in the four years following treatment, and Hg body burdens in redfin pickerel (Esox americanus) decreased by 70 % at the most contaminated site. Tin concentrations in water and fish increased significantly in the tributary leading to Tims Branch, but concentrations remain below levels of concern for human health or ecological risks. While other studies have shown that Sn may be environmentally methylated and methyltin can transfer its methyl group to Hg, results from our field studies and sediment incubation experiments suggest that the added Sn to the Tims Branch watershed is not contributing to MeHg production and bioaccumulation. The stannous chloride treatment system installed at Tims Branch was effective at removing Hg inputs and reducing Hg bioaccumulation in the stream with minimal impacts on the environment due to the increased Sn in the system.

  10. An inverse analytical technique applied to a chloride contamination of groundwater at Indian School and Levering sites, Michigan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shumway, Helen

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and the Indian River Site. were used to store road salt. Seepage from precipitation on these road salt piles has resulted in chloride contamination of the groundwater down gradient of the storage areas. The resulting chloride plumes were examined using two... Descriptions. 3. 1. 1. Indian River Site, 3. 1. 2. Levering Site 3. 2. Modeling Results for the Michigan Sites . . . . . . . . 3. 2. 1. Modeling Results for the Indian River Site, 3. 2. 2, MOdeling Results for the Levering Site. . 20 20 22 23 34 4...

  11. Spectrophotometric determination of vanadium in metallurgical products with carminic acid and cetyltrimethylammonium chloride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babenko, N.L.; Blokh, M. Sh.; Guseva, T.D.

    1985-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    According to the authors, there is an increasing demand for sensitive, selective, and rapid methods of determining low levels of vanadium in metallurgical products, and solvent-extraction methods do not meet the requirements. The authors used an anthraquinone dye carminic acid (CA) as a chromophoric organic reagent: 1, 3, 4, 6-tetrahydroxy-2-R-5carboxy-8-methylanthra-9, 10-quinone. The CSA was cetyltrimethylammonium chloride CTA. The three-component system was examined in order to devise a reasonably sensitive and rapid method of determining vanadium in metallurgical products. A study is made of the complexing in the system formed by vanadium (IV) with CA and the CSA. The optimum conditions for the formation of the complex have been established together with the spectrophotometric characteristics. A spectrophotometric method has been devised for determining from 0.05 to 5% of vanadium in metallurgical products with a relative standard deviation of not more than 0.04.

  12. Calcium chloride electron injection/extraction layers in organic electronic devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qu, Bo, E-mail: bqu@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: qhgong@pku.edu.cn; Gao, Zhi; Yang, Hongsheng; Xiao, Lixin; Chen, Zhijian; Gong, Qihuang, E-mail: bqu@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: qhgong@pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Artificial Microstructures and Mesoscopic Physics, Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2014-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Nontoxic calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}) was introduced into organic electronic devices as cathode buffer layer (CBL). The turn-on voltage and maximum luminance of organic light-emitting diode (OLED) with 1.5?nm CaCl{sub 2} was 3.5?V and 21 960?cd/m{sup 2}, respectively. OLED with 1.5?nm CaCl{sub 2} possessed comparable electroluminescent characteristics to that of the commonly used LiF. Moreover, the performance of the organic photovoltaic device with 0.5?nm CaCl{sub 2} was comparable to that of the control device with LiF. Therefore, CaCl{sub 2} has the potential to be used as the CBL for organic electronic devices.

  13. Corrosion of nickel-based alloys in acidified lithium chloride solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pawell, S.J. (Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, TN (United States). Development Div.)

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Immersion tests were performed on nickel (Ni)-based alloys in acidified 2 M lithium chloride (LiCl) solutions as a function of temperature and pH. Results indicated alloy C-22 (UNS N06022) and alloy C-276 (UNS N10276) were very resistant to corrosion in this environment to pH 1 at 95 C. Other alloys revealed extreme corrosion at low pH (alloy G-30 [UNS N06030] and alloy 20Mo6 [UNS N08026]) or accelerated corrosion due to solution aeration (alloy B-2 [UNS N10665]) and were not recommended for the process described. Failures of C-276 in similar service environments were attributed to poor control of process pH, with values [le] 0.5 leading to extreme general corrosion.

  14. Influence of zirconium and niobium on cathodic deposition of uranium dioxide from alkali chloride melts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Komarov, V.E.; Borodina, N.P.; Martem`yanova, Z.S. [Institute of High-Temperature Electrochemistry, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrocrystallization of uranium dioxide from molten chloride electrolytes in the presence of zirconium(IV) and niobium(V) was studied by voltammetry. Zirconium(IV) was found to react with uranium dioxide according to exchange mechanism to form (1 - x)UO{sub 2}{center_dot}xZrO{sub 2} solid solutions. Niobium(IV), a product of cathodic reduction of niobium(V), enters into the exchange reaction with uranium dioxide to yield (1 - y)UO{sub 2{center_dot}y}NbO{sub 2} solid solutions. In the case of simultaneous presence of Nb(V) and Zr(IV) in electrolyte, ternary (1 - x - y)UO{sub 2 {center_dot}x}ZrO{sub 2{center_dot}y}NbO{sub 2} solid solutions are obtained at the cathode surface. Nucleation of the solid solutions phase was shown to occurs at the most active sites of the crystalline precipitate of uranium dioxide.

  15. Methyl Chloride from Direct Methane Partial Oxidation: A High-Temperature Shilov-Like Catalytic System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yongchun Tang; John (Qisheng) Ma

    2012-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The intention of this study is to demonstrate and evaluate the scientific and economic feasibility of using special solvents to improve the thermal stability of Pt-catalyst in the Shilov system, such that a high reaction temperature could be achieved. The higher conversion rate (near 100%) of methyl chloride from partial oxidation of methane under the high temperature ({approx} 200 C) without significant Pt0 precipitation has been achieved. High concentration of the Cl- ion has been identified as the key for the stabilization of the Pt-catalysts. H/D exchange measurements indicated that the over oxidation will occur at the elevated temperature, developments of the effective product separation processes will be necessary in order to rationalize the industry-visible CH4 to CH3Cl conversion.

  16. Using electroless nickel to coat reinforcing steel in chloride contaminated concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanchez, M.A.; Parra, L.A.; Perez, O.A.; Rincon, O. de [Univ. del Zulia, Maracaibo (Venezuela)

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This work is a study of the behavior of steel rebar coated by electroless nickel in chloride-contaminated concrete. The steel rebars were coated in an electroless nickel bath for 1, 2 and 3 hours. They were then subjected to heat treatment at 400 C for periods of 1, 2 and 3 hours. The nickel-coated rebars were embedded in concrete samples with NaCl concentrations at 0.00; 0.10; 0.15 and 0.20 %, based on concrete weight. Their behavior was evaluated by measurement of potentials, polarization resistance, potentiodynamic polarization curves, electrical resistance and visual inspection. Corrosion rates were less than 0.01 {micro}A/cm{sup 2} after 40 months` testing.

  17. DECONTAMINATION OF PLUTONIUM FOR FLUORIDE AND CHLORIDE DURING OXALATE PRECIPITATION, FILTRATION AND CALCINATION PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kyser, E.

    2012-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to analytical limitations for the determination of fluoride (F) and chloride (Cl) in a previous anion exchange study, an additional study of the decontamination of Pu from F and Cl by oxalate precipitation, filtration and calcination was performed. Anion product solution from the previous impurity study was precipitated as an oxalate, filtered, and calcined to produce an oxide for analysis by pyrohydrolysis for total Cl and F. Analysis of samples from this experiment achieved the purity specification for Cl and F for the proposed AFS-2 process. Decontamination factors (DF's) for the overall process (including anion exchange) achieved a DF of {approx}5000 for F and a DF of {approx}100 for Cl. Similar experiments where both HF and HCl were spiked into the anion product solution to a {approx}5000 {micro}g /g Pu concentration showed a DF of 5 for F and a DF of 35 for Cl across the combined precipitation-filtration-calcination process steps.

  18. Electrochemical Polishing Applications and EIS of a Novel Choline Chloride-Based Ionic Liquid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wixtrom, Alex I. [Christopher Newport University, Newport News, VA (United States); Buhler, Jessica E. [Christopher Newport University, Newport News, VA (United States); Reece, Charles E. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Abdel-Fattah, Tarek M. [Christopher Newport University, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Minimal surface roughness is a critical feature for high-field superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities used to engineer particle accelerators. Current methods for polishing Niobium cavities typically utilize solutions containing a mixture of concentrated sulfuric and hydrofluoric acid. Polishing processes such as these are effective, yet there are many hazards and costs associated with the use (and safe disposal) of the concentrated acid solutions. An alternative method for electrochemical polishing of the cavities was explored using a novel ionic liquid solution containing choline chloride. Potentiostatic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to analyze the ionic polishing solution. Final surface roughness of the Nb was found to be comparable to that of the acid-polishing method, as assessed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). This indicates that ionic liquid-based electrochemical polishing of Nb is a viable replacement for acid-based methods for preparation of SRF cavities.

  19. The effect of competition by chloride and sulfate anions on the adsorption of arsenate ion onto activated alumina

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Janis, Patrick John

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for adsorption sites on the activated alumina. The results of this study showed that the presence of 15 meq/L chloride anion depresses the ability of the arsenate to be adsorbed by F-1 activated alumina initial liquid phase arsenate ion concentration of 5 mg...

  20. Dynamics of cavitation bubble induced by 193 nm ArF excimer laser in concentrated sodium chloride solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palanker, Daniel

    of pulsed lasers for ablation, drilling, and cutting of soft tissues in liquid environments are accompaniedDynamics of cavitation bubble induced by 193 nm ArF excimer laser in concentrated sodium chloride solutions Igor Turovets and Daniel Palanker Laser Center, Hadassah University Hospital, P.O. Box 12000

  1. ?-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles: An easily recoverable effective photo-catalyst for the degradation of rose bengal and methylene blue dyes in the waste-water treatment plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dutta, Amit Kumar; Maji, Swarup Kumar; Adhikary, Bibhutosh, E-mail: bibhutoshadhikary@yahoo.in

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • ?-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs from a single-source precursor and characterized by XRD, TEM, UV–vis spectra. • The NPs were tested as effective photocatalyst toward degradation of RB and MB dyes. • The possible pathway of the photocatalytic decomposition process has been discussed. • The active species, OH·, was detected by TA photoluminescence probing techniques. - Abstract: ?-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized from a single-source precursor complex [Fe{sub 3}O(C{sub 6}H{sub 5}COO){sub 6}(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}]NO{sub 3} by a simple thermal decomposition process and have been characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV–vis spectroscopic techniques. The NPs were highly pure and well crystallized having hexagonal morphology with an average particle size of 35 nm. The prepared ?-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (maghemite) NPs show effective photo-catalytic activity toward the degradation of rose bengal (RB) and methylene blue (MB) dyes under visible light irradiation and can easily be recoverable in the presence of magnetic field for successive re-uses. The possible photo-catalytic decomposition mechanism is discussed through the detection of hydroxyl radical (OH·) by terephthalic acid photo-luminescence probing technique.

  2. Saturated Sodium Chloride Solution under an External Static Electric Field: a Molecular Dynamics Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gan Ren; Yanting Wang

    2015-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The behavior of saturated aqueous sodium chloride solutions under a constant external electric field (E) was studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Our dynamic MD simulations have indicated that the irreversible nucleation process towards crystallization is accelerated by a moderate E, but retarded or even prohibited under a stronger E, which can be understood by the competition between self-diffusion and drift motion. The former increases with E resulting in the acceleration of the nucleation process, and the latter tears oppositely charged ions more apart under a stronger E leading to the deceleration of nucleation. Moreover, our steady-state MD simulations have indicated that a first-order phase transition happens in saturated solutions only when the applied E is below a certain threshold Ec, and the ratio of crystallized ions does not change with the electric field. The magnitude of Ec increases with concentration, because larger clusters are easy to form in a more concentrated solution and require a stronger E to dissociate them.

  3. High-temperature oxidation and corrosion of structural materials in molten chlorides.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Indacochea, J. E.; Smith, J. L.; Litko, K. R.; Karell, E. J.; Raraz, A. G.; Chemical Engineering

    2001-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A molten salt-based process for treatment of spent oxide fuels is under development at the Argonne National Laboratory. A major part of the development effort involves identification of corrosion-resistant structural materials for the process vessels. Coupons of two stainless steels, tantalum, and two Inconel alloys were submitted to a corrosion test in an argon atmosphere with 10% oxygen. The coupons were partially immersed in molten lithium chloride salt containing small amounts of lithium metal, lithium oxide, and lithium nitride. Two sets of coupons were tested, the first at 750{sup o}C for 30 days and the second at 650{sup o}C for 6 days. Coupons of the first set corroded completely. In the second set of coupons, all corroded to some extent, but Inconel 600 showed the best performance overall. The salt-exposed region generally showed the greatest corrosion in the other coupons. One of the 316L SS coupons was welded and the weld area was severely attacked.

  4. Mechanisms, Chemistry, and Kinetics of Anaerobic Biodegradation of cis-Dichloroethene and Vinyl Chloride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCarty, P.L.; Spormann, A.M.

    2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Anaerobic biological processes can result in PCE and TCE destruction through conversion to cis-dichloroethene (cDCE) then to vinyl chloride (VC), and finally to ethene. Here, the chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) serve as electron acceptors in energy metabolism, requiring electron donors such as hydrogen from an external source. The purpose of this study was to learn more about the biochemistry of cDCE and VC conversion to ethene, to better understand the requirements for electron donors, and to determine factors affecting the rates of CAH degradation and organism growth. The biochemistry of reductive dehalogenation of VC was studied with an anaerobic mixed culture enriched on VC. In other studies on electron donor needs for dehalogenation of cDCE and VC, competition for hydrogen was found to occur between the dehalogenators and other microorganisms such as methanogens and homoacetogens in a benzoate-acclimated dehalogenating methanogenic mixed culture. Factors affecting the relative rates of destruction of the solvents and their intermediate products were evaluated. Studies using a mixed PCE-dehalogenating culture as well as the VC enrichment for biochemical studies suggested that the same species was involved in both cDCE and VC dechlorination, and that cDCE and VC competitively inhibited each other's dechlorination rate.

  5. Novel short chain fatty acids restore chloride secretion in cystic fibrosis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, Toan D. [Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, University of Washington and VA Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, WA 98108 (United States)]. E-mail: T1Nguyen@u.washington.edu; Kim, Ug-Sung [Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, University of Washington and VA Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, WA 98108 (United States); Perrine, Susan P. [Cancer Center, Departments of Pediatrics, Medicine, Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118 (United States)

    2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Phenylalanine deletion at position 508 of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator ({delta}F508-CFTR), the most common mutation in cystic fibrosis (CF), causes a misfolded protein exhibiting partial chloride conductance and impaired trafficking to the plasma membrane. 4-Phenylbutyrate corrects defective {delta}F508-CFTR trafficking in vitro, but is not clinically efficacious. From a panel of short chain fatty acid derivatives, we showed that 2,2-dimethyl-butyrate (ST20) and {alpha}-methylhydrocinnamic acid (ST7), exhibiting high oral bioavailability and sustained plasma levels, correct the {delta}F508-CFTR defect. Pre-incubation ({>=}6 h) of CF IB3-1 airway cells with {>=}1 mM ST7 or ST20 restored the ability of 100 {mu}M forskolin to stimulate an {sup 125}I{sup -} efflux. This efflux was fully inhibited by NPPB, DPC, or glibenclamide, suggesting mediation through CFTR. Partial inhibition by DIDS suggests possible contribution from an additional Cl{sup -} channel regulated by CFTR. Thus, ST7 and ST20 offer treatment potential for CF caused by the {delta}F508 mutation.

  6. Formation and fluidity measurement of supported lipid bilayer on polyvinyl chloride membrane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kobayashi, Takuji, E-mail: kobayashi-t@int.ee.tut.ac.jp; Kono, Akiteru, E-mail: kobayashi-t@int.ee.tut.ac.jp; Sawada, Kazuaki [Department of Electrical and Electronic Information Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi, 441-8580 (Japan); Futagawa, Masato [Department of Electrical and Electronic Information Engineering and Head Office for the Tailor-Made and Baton-Zone Graduate Course, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi, 441-8580 (Japan); Tero, Ryugo, E-mail: tero@tut.jp [Electronics-Inspired Interdisciplinary Research Institute and Department of Environmental and Life Sciences, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi, 441-8580 (Japan)

    2014-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We prepared an artificial lipid bilayer on a plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) membrane on a Si3N4 layer deposited on a Si wafer. We optimized the experimental condition for the fabrication of the PVC membrane, and obtained a PVC membrane with a flat and uniform surface on the scale of several hundreds of micrometer suitable for a substrate for supported lipid bilayers (SLBs). The SLB of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) was formed on the PVC membrane by the vesicle fusion method. The observation with a conventional epi-fluorescence microscope and a confocal laser scanning microscope gave geometrically uniform images of the SLB on the PVC membrane. The fluidity and the mobile fraction of the SLB was evaluated by the fluorescence recovery after photobleaching method, and compared with that on a thermally oxidized SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate. The SLB on the PVC membrane contained immobile fraction ?30%, but the diffusion in the mobile fraction was two times faster than that in the SLB on SiO{sub 2}/Si, which had little immobile fraction.

  7. Studies of micromorphology and current efficiency of zinc electrodeposited from flowing chloride electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mc Vay, L.; Muller, R.H.; Tobias, C.W.

    1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Results of a study of the micromorphology and current efficiency of zinc electrodeposited from flowing, acidic chloride solutions are reported. The effects of six variables were examined: flow rate, current density, zinc and hydrogen ion concentration, concentrations of nickel, iron and cadmium impurity ions, and the nature of the substrate. The development of micromorphology was studied in-situ by means of videomicrography and ex-situ by means of scanning electron microscopy. This investigation focused on the formation of grooved deposits, which are found under a wide range of deposition conditions. The major conclusions of this study are: the most important variable determining whether grooved deposits form is the interfacial concentration; large protrusions orient themselves parallel to the flow direction with the orientation starting upstream and progressing downstream; large protrusions become ridges due to growth of the highest current density portions of the electrode under mass transport control. The current efficiency was measured using EDTA titration and weight measurements. The fraction of the current taken by zinc deposition increased with zinc concentration, ranging up to 100%, and decreased with pH. The efficiency of zinc deposition was affected by the flow rate and the substrate employed. Impurities lowered the current efficiency.

  8. Changes in niacin content produced by nickel-chloride in a rust susceptible wheat and oat variety

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lacy, Logan Wayne

    1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ONANNES IN NIACIN CONTENT PRODUOE9 BT NICKEL-CNLORIBE IN k RSST SOSOEPTIBLE NNEST SNB OST VSRXETT k Thesis Suhnitted to the Graduate School of the SSricultural and Nechanical Collage- of Tunas in partial fulfillment of the requireneat.... d typical standard curve for tha growth of 17-5 f Idee b ill d l . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . 12 I, The affeot of nickel-chloride sprays on niacin content of 131 wheat conpared to controls at thre~ ages4 ~ 4 ~ ~ 4...

  9. Control technology of vinyl chloride in EDC-VCM and PVC plants at main source points and fugitive emissions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parra, Dario Antonio

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    phase. A free radical catalyst (dibenzoil peroxide) is dissolved in the VCM feed, and is used to initiate polymerization. Suspending agents such as polyvinyl alcohol are used along with continuous agitation to keep VCM droplets small. The heat... The sources of fugitive emissions from both processes correspond to: 1. Leakage from pumps, compressors, agitator seals, relief valves, and flanges. 2. Taking samples of vinyl chloride product. 3. In process waste water. The emission sources...

  10. Accelerated quantification of critical parameters for predicting the service life and life cycle costs of chloride-laden reinforced concrete structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pillai Gopalakrishnan, Radhakrishna

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    systems. A parametric study with different steel reinforcement, water-cement ratios, and chloride exposure conditions indicated that the use of corrosion resistant steels will increase the overall service life and can reduce the LCC of RC structures...

  11. Study of the Susceptibility of Oxygen-Free Phosphorous Doped Copper to Corrosion in Simulated Groundwater in the Presence of Chloride and Sulfide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Escobar, Ivan; Lamas, Claudia [Chilean Commission for Nuclear Energy, Amunategui No 95, Santiago, 834-0701 (Chile); Werme, Lars [Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (SKB), Stockholm (Sweden)]|[Department of Physics, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Oversby, Virginia [VMO Konsult, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxygen free high conductivity copper, doped with phosphorus (Cu OFP) has been chosen as the material for the fabrication of high level nuclear waste containers in Sweden. This material will be the corrosion barrier for spent fuel in the environment of a deep geological repository in granitic rock. The service life of this container is expected to exceed 1,000,000 years. During this time, which includes several glaciations, water of different compositions, including high concentration of chloride ions, will contact the copper surface. This work reports a study of the susceptibility of Cu OFP to corrosion when chloride ions are present, in deionized water (DW) and in synthetic groundwater (SGW). The techniques used were electrochemical methods such as corrosion potential evolution and Tafel curves. The system was studied with Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). We also used as characterization techniques Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). The main conclusions are that copper is more susceptible to corrosion at high chloride ion concentration. When the chloride concentration is low, it is possible to form copper chloride crystals, but at the highest concentration, copper chloride complexes are formed, leaving the copper surface without deposits. When the chloride concentration is low (<0.1 M) the corrosion process is mainly controlled by diffusion, while at higher concentrations (0.1 M to 1 M) corrosion is controlled by charge transfer processes. At low concentration of sulfide (<3 . 10{sup -5} M), copper corrosion in the presence of chloride is controlled by diffusional processes, while at higher concentrations corrosion is controlled by charge transfer processes. (authors)

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF DISPOSABLE SORBENTS FOR CHLORIDE REMOVAL FROM HIGH TEMPERATURE COAL-DERIVED GASES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gopala Krishnan; Raghubir Gupta

    1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Advanced integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) and integrated-gasification fuel cell (IGFC) systems require the development of high temperature sorbents for the removal of hydrogen chloride (HCl) vapor to less than 1 parts-per-million (ppm) levels. HCl is a highly reactive, corrosive, and toxic gas which must be removed to meet environmental regulations, to protect power generation equipment, and to minimize deterioration of hot gas desulfurization sorbents. The objective of this program was to develop disposable, alkali-based sorbents capable of reducing HCl vapor levels to less than 1 ppm in the temperature range from 400 to 750 C and pressures in the range from 1 to 20 atm. The primary areas of focus of this program were to investigate different methods of sorbent fabrication, testing their suitability for different reactor configurations, obtaining reaction kinetics data, and conducting a preliminary economic feasibility assessment. This program was a joint effort between SRI International (SRI), Research Triangle Institute (RTI), and General Electric Corporate Research and Development (GE-CRD). SRI, the prime contractor and RTI, a major subcontractor, performed most of the work in this program. Thermochemical calculations indicated that sodium-based sorbents were capable of reducing HCl vapor levels to less than 1 ppm at temperatures up to 650 C, but the regeneration of spent sorbents would require complex process steps. Nahcolite (NaHCO{sub 3}), a naturally-occurring mineral, could be used as an inexpensive sorbent to remove HCl vapor in hot coal gas streams. In the current program, nahcolite powder was used to fabricate pellets suitable for fixed-bed reactors and granules suitable for fluidized-bed reactors. Pilot-scale equipment were used to prepare sorbents in large batches: pellets by disk pelletization and extrusion techniques, and granules by granulation and spray-drying techniques. Bench-scale fixed- and fluidized-bed reactors were assembled at SRI and RTI to conduct tests at high-temperature, high-pressure conditions (HTHP). The HTHP tests confirmed the ability of nahcolite pellets and granules to reduce the HCl vapor levels to less than 1 ppm levels with a very high sorbent utilization for chloride capture. The effect of several operating variables such as temperature, pressure, presence of hydrogen sulfide, and sorbent preparation methods was studied on the efficacy of HCl removal by the sorbent. Pilot-scale tests were performed in the fluidized-bed mode at the gasifier facility at the GE-CRD. Sorbent exposure tests were also conducted using a hot coal gas stream from the DOE/FETC's fluidized-bed gasifier at Morgantown, WV. These tests confirmed the results obtained at SRI and RTI. A preliminary economic assessment showed that the cost of HCl removal in a commercial IGCC system will be about $0.001/kWh (1 mills/kWh).

  13. Radiation hardness of the storage phosphor europium doped potassium chloride for radiation therapy dosimetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Driewer, Joseph P.; Chen, Haijian; Osvet, Andres; Low, Daniel A.; Li, H. Harold [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, 4921 Parkview Place, Campus Box 8224, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 and Nuclear Science and Engineering Institute, University of Missouri, E4431 Lafferre Hall, Columbia, Missouri 65211 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, 4921 Parkview Place, Campus Box 8224, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Martensstrasse 7, Erlangen 91058 (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, 4921 Parkview Place, Campus Box 8224, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States)

    2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: An important property of a reusable dosimeter is its radiation hardness, that is, its ability to retain its dosimetric merits after irradiation. The radiation hardness of europium doped potassium chloride (KCl:Eu{sup 2+}), a storage phosphor material recently proposed for radiation therapy dosimetry, is examined in this study. Methods: Pellet-style KCl:Eu{sup 2+} dosimeters, 6 mm in diameter, and 1 mm thick, were fabricated in-house for this study. The pellets were exposed by a 6 MV photon beam or in a high dose rate {sup 137}Cs irradiator. Macroscopic properties, such as radiation sensitivity, dose response linearity, and signal stability, were studied with a laboratory photostimulated luminescence (PSL) readout system. Since phosphor performance is related to the state of the storage centers and the activator, Eu{sup 2+}, in the host lattice, spectroscopic and temporal measurements were carried out in order to explore radiation-induced changes at the microscopic level. Results: KCl:Eu{sup 2+} dosimeters retained approximately 90% of their initial signal strength after a 5000 Gy dose history. Dose response was initially supralinear over the dose range of 100-700 cGy but became linear after 60 Gy. Linearity did not change significantly in the 0-5000 Gy dose history spanned in this study. Annealing high dose history chips resulted in a return of supralinearity and a recovery of sensitivity. There were no significant changes in the PSL stimulation spectra, PSL emission spectra, photoluminescence spectra, or luminescence lifetime, indicating that the PSL signal process remains intact after irradiation but at a reduced efficiency due to reparable radiation-induced perturbations in the crystal lattice. Conclusions: Systematic studies of KCl:Eu{sup 2+} material are important for understanding how the material can be optimized for radiation therapy dosimetry purposes. The data presented here indicate that KCl:Eu{sup 2+} exhibits strong radiation hardness and lends support for further investigations of this novel material.

  14. Thermal Analysis of Surrogate Simulated Molten Salts with Metal Chloride Impurities for Electrorefining Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toni Y. Gutknecht; Guy L. Fredrickson; Vivek Utgikar

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project is a fundamental study to measure thermal properties (liquidus, solidus, phase transformation, and enthalpy) of molten salt systems of interest to electrorefining operations, which are used in both the fuel cycle research & development mission and the spent fuel treatment mission of the Department of Energy. During electrorefining operations the electrolyte accumulates elements more active than uranium (transuranics, fission products and bond sodium). The accumulation needs to be closely monitored because the thermal properties of the electrolyte will change as the concentration of the impurities increases. During electrorefining (processing techniques used at the Idaho National Laboratory to separate uranium from spent nuclear fuel) it is important for the electrolyte to remain in a homogeneous liquid phase for operational safeguard and criticality reasons. The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner may be adversely affected by the buildup of fission products in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided are: (i) build up of fissile elements in the salt approaching the criticality limits specified for the vessel (ii) freezing of the salts due to change in the liquidus temperature and (iii) phase separation (non-homogenous solution) of elements. The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can potentially be monitored through the thermal characterization of the salts, which can be a function of impurity concentration. This work describes the experimental results of typical salts compositions, consisting of chlorides of strontium, samarium, praseodymium, lanthanum, barium, cerium, cesium, neodymium, sodium and gadolinium (as a surrogate for both uranium and plutonium), used in the processing of used nuclear fuels. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to analyze numerous salt samples providing results on the thermal properties. The property of most interest to pyroprocessing is the liquidus temperature. It was previously known the liquidus temperature of the molten salt would change as spent fuel is processed through the Mk-IV electrorefiner. However, the extent of the increase in liquidus temperature was not known. This work is first of its kind in determining thermodynamic properties of a molten salt electrolyte containing transuranics, fission products and bond sodium. Experimental data concluded that the melting temperature of the electrolyte will become greater than the operating temperature of the Mk-IV ER during current fuel processing campaigns. Collected data also helps predict when the molten salt electrolyte will no longer be able to support electrorefining operations.

  15. Free energy, enthalpy, and entropy changes for the transference of zinc chloride from enthylene glycol to water solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lomonte, John Nicholas

    1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    FREE ENERGY, ENTlDKPY, AND ENTROPY CHANGES FOR THE TRANCE OF ZINC CHLORIDE FROM ETHYLENE GLYCOL TO WATER SOLUTIONS A Thesis JOHN NICHOLAS'8 LOMONTE Submitted to the Graduate School of' the Agricultural and. Mechanical College of' Texas... By JOHN NICHOLAS LOMONTE App oved to sty1e and content by: irman of Committee Head of Department or Stud. ent Adv sor January, 1960 AC KN(NLEDGEMENTS The author wishes to express his appreciation to Dr. J. K. Gladden for his excellent direction...

  16. Electrochemistry and Spectroelectrochemistry of Europium(III) chloride in 3 LiCl – 2KCl from 643 to 1123 K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schroll, Cynthia A.; Chatterjee, Sayandev; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Heineman, William R.; Bryan, Samuel A.

    2013-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical behavior of Europium(III) chloride in a molten salt eutectic, 3 LiCl – 2 KCl, over a temperature range of 643 – 1123 K using differential pulse voltammetry, cyclic voltammetry, potential step chronoabsorptometry, and thin-layer spectroelectrochemistry is reported. The electrochemical reaction was determined to be the one electron reduction of Eu3+ to Eu2+ at all temperatures. The redox potential of Eu3+/2+ shifts to more positive potentials and the diffusion coefficient for Eu3+ increases as temperature increases. The results for the number of electrons transferred, redox potential and diffusion coefficient are in good agreement between the electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical techniques.

  17. Standard test method for evaluating stress-corrosion cracking of stainless alloys with different nickel content in boiling acidified sodium chloride solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.1 This test method describes a procedure for conducting stress-corrosion cracking tests in an acidified boiling sodium chloride solution. This test method is performed in 25% (by mass ) sodium chloride acidified to pH 1.5 with phosphoric acid. This test method is concerned primarily with the test solution and glassware, although a specific style of U-bend test specimen is suggested. 1.2 This test method is designed to provide better correlation with chemical process industry experience for stainless steels than the more severe boiling magnesium chloride test of Practice G36. Some stainless steels which have provided satisfactory service in many environments readily crack in Practice G36, but have not cracked during interlaboratory testing using this sodium chloride test method. 1.3 This boiling sodium chloride test method was used in an interlaboratory test program to evaluate wrought stainless steels, including duplex (ferrite-austenite) stainless and an alloy with up to about 33% nickel. It may also b...

  18. Performance of copper chloride-impregnated sorbents on mercury vapor control in an entrained-flow reactor system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sang-Sup Lee; Joo-Youp Lee; Tim C. Keener [University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH (United States). Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An entrained-flow system has been designed and constructed to simulate in-flight mercury (Hg) capture by sorbent injection in ducts of coal-fired utility plants. The test conditions of 1.2-sec residence time, 140{degree}C gas temperature, 6.7 m/sec (22 ft/sec) gas velocity, and 0-0.24 g/m{sup 3} (0-15 lbs of sorbent per 1 million actual cubic feet of flue gas sorbent injection rates were chosen to simulate conditions in the ducts. Four kinds of sorbents were used in this study. Darco Hg-LH (lignite-based) served as a benchmark sorbent with which Hg control capability of other sorbents could be compared. Also, Darco-FGD (lignite-based) was used as a representative raw activated carbon sorbent. Two different copper chloride-impregnated sorbents were developed in the laboratory and tested in the entrained-flow system to examine the possibility of using these sorbents at coal-fired power plants. The test results showed that one of the copper chloride sorbents has remarkable elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) oxidation capability, and the other sorbent demonstrated a better performance in Hg removal than Darco Hg-LH. 13 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Effects of loading mode on the critical cracking potential of duplex ([alpha] + [gamma]) stainless steel in a hot chloride solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwon, Hyuk Sang (Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Tech., Taejon (Korea, Republic of))

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the common characteristics in stress corrosion cracking (SCC) between austenitic and ferritic stainless steels in chloride environments is that cracking occurs at potentials noble to a critical value which has been designated as the critical cracking potential, E[sub cc]. For austenitic stainless steels, E[sub cc] is insensitive to prior cold work with or without the generation of martensite and has been interpreted as the minimum potential for crack propagation. On the other hand, for low interstitial ferritic stainless steels., E[sub cc] is extremely sensitive to microstructural variations induced by small amounts of cold work or grain coarsening. It has been demonstrated that E[sub cc] for the low interstitial ferritic stainless steels, when it is measured at constant load, is that for crack initiation and is determined by the competing rates of generation of a new surface by slip induced film breakdown and repassivation. However, the physical and/or electrochemical meaning for E[sub cc] of duplex stainless steels has not yet been studied. It is the purpose of this work to determine if E[sub cc] for duplex stainless is a potential for crack initiation or one for crack propagation in a hot chloride environment and to examine the effects of loading modes on the E[sub cc] of these alloys.

  20. Radiation Stability of Benzyl Tributyl Ammonium Chloride Towards Technetium-99 Extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jared Horkley; Audrey Roman; Keri Campbell; Ana Nunez; Amparo Espartero

    2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A closed nuclear fuel cycle combining new separation technologies along with generation III and generation IV reactors is a promising way to achieve a sustainable energy supply. But it is important to keep in mind that future recycling processes of used nuclear fuel (UNF) must minimize wastes, improve partitioning process, and integrate waste considerations into processes. New separation processes are being developed worldwide to complement the actual industrialized PUREX process which selectively separates U(VI) and Pu(IV) from the raffinate. As an example, low nitric acid concentration in the aqueous phase of a UREX based process will co-extract U(VI) and Tc(VII) by tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP). Technetium (Tc-99) is recognized to be one of the most abundant, long-lived radiotoxic isotopes in UNF (half-life, t1/2 = 2.13 × 105 years), and as such, it is targeted in UNF separation strategies for isolation and encapsulation in solid waste forms for final disposal in a nuclear waste repository. Immobilization of Tc-99 by a durable solid waste form is a challenge, and its fate in new advanced technology processes is of importance. It is essential to be able to quantify and locate 1) its occurrence in any new developed flow sheets, 2) its chemical form in the individual phases of a process, 3) its potential quantitative transfer in any waste streams, and consequently, 4) its quantitative separation for either potential transmutation to Ru-100 or isolation and encapsulation in solid waste forms for ultimate disposal. Furthermore, as a result of an U(VI)-Tc(VII) co-extraction in a UREX-based process, Tc(VII) could be found in low level waste (LLW) streams. There is a need for the development of new extraction systems that would selectively extract Tc-99 from LLW streams and concentrate it for feed into high level waste (HLW) for either Tc-99 immobilization in metallic waste forms (Tc-Zr alloys), and/or borosilicate-based waste glass. Studies have been launched to investigate the suitability of new macrocompounds such as crown-ethers, aza-crown ethers, and resorcinarenes for the selective extraction of Tc-99 from nitric acid solutions. The selectivity of the ligand is important in evaluating potential separation processes and also the radiation stability of the molecule is essential for minimization of waste and radiolysis products. In this paper, we are reporting the extraction of TcO4- by benzyltributyl ammonium chloride (BTBA). Experimental efforts were focused on determining the best extraction conditions by varying the ligand’s matrix conditions and concentration, as well as varying the organic phase composition (i.e., diluent variation). Furthermore, the ligand has been investigated for radiation stability. The ?-irradiation was performed on the neat organic phases containing the ligand at different absorbed doses to a maximum of 200 kGy using external Co-60 source. Post-irradiation solvent extraction measurements will be discussed.

  1. Radiation Stability of Benzyl Tributyl Ammonium Chloride towards Technetium-99 Extraction - 13016

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paviet-Hartmann, Patricia; Horkley, Jared; Campbell, Keri [Idaho National Laboratory, 2525 Fremont Street, Idaho Falls, ID 83402 (United States)] [Idaho National Laboratory, 2525 Fremont Street, Idaho Falls, ID 83402 (United States); Roman, Audrey [University of Nevada - Las Vegas, Harry Reid Center, 4505 S. Maryland Pkwy, Box 4009, Las Vegas, NV 89154-4009 (United States)] [University of Nevada - Las Vegas, Harry Reid Center, 4505 S. Maryland Pkwy, Box 4009, Las Vegas, NV 89154-4009 (United States); Nunez, Ana; Espartero, Amparo [CIEMAT, Avda Complutense, 40, 28040- Madrid (Spain)] [CIEMAT, Avda Complutense, 40, 28040- Madrid (Spain)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A closed nuclear fuel cycle combining new separation technologies along with generation III and generation IV reactors is a promising way to achieve a sustainable energy supply. But it is important to keep in mind that future recycling processes of used nuclear fuel (UNF) must minimize wastes, improve partitioning processes, and integrate waste considerations into processes. New separation processes are being developed worldwide to complement the actual industrialized PUREX process which selectively separates U(VI) and Pu(IV) from the raffinate. As an example, the UREX process has been developed in the United States to co-extract hexavalent uranium (U) and hepta-valent technetium (Tc) by tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP). Tc-99 is recognized to be one of the most abundant, long-lived radio-toxic isotopes in UNF (half-life, t{sub 1/2} = 2.13 x 10{sup 5} years), and as such, is targeted in UNF separation strategies for isolation and encapsulation in solid waste-forms for final disposal in a nuclear waste repository. Immobilization of Tc-99 by a durable solid waste-form is a challenge, and its fate in new advanced technology processes is of importance. It is essential to be able to quantify and locate 1) its occurrence in any new developed flowsheets, 2) its chemical form in the individual phases of a process, 3) its potential quantitative transfer in any waste streams, and consequently, 4) its quantitative separation for either potential transmutation to Ru-100 or isolation and encapsulation in solid waste-forms for ultimate disposal. In addition, as a result of an U(VI)-Tc(VII) co-extraction in a UREX-based process, Tc(VII) could be found in low level waste (LLW) streams. There is a need for the development of new extraction systems that would selectively extract Tc-99 from LLW streams and concentrate it for feed into high level waste (HLW) for either Tc-99 immobilization in metallic waste-forms (Tc-Zr alloys), and/or borosilicate-based waste glass. Studies have been launched to investigate the suitability of new macro-compounds such as crown-ethers, aza-crown ethers, quaternary ammonium salts, and resorcin-arenes for the selective extraction of Tc-99 from nitric acid solutions. The selectivity of the ligand is important in evaluating potential separation processes and also the radiation stability of the molecule is essential for minimization of waste and radiolysis products. In this paper, we are reporting the extraction of TcO{sub 4}{sup -} by benzyl tributyl ammonium chloride (BTBA). Experimental efforts were focused on determining the best extraction conditions by varying the ligand's matrix conditions and concentration, as well as varying the organic phase composition (i.e. diluent variation). Furthermore, the ligand has been investigated for radiation stability. The ?-irradiation was performed on the neat organic phases containing the ligand at different absorbed doses to a maximum of 200 kGy using an external Co-60 source. Post-irradiation solvent extraction measurements will be discussed. (authors)

  2. Optical amplifier operating at 1.3 microns useful for telecommunications and based on dysprosium-doped metal chloride host materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Page, R.H.; Schaffers, K.I.; Payne, S.A.; Krupke, W.F.; Beach, R.J.

    1997-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Dysprosium-doped metal chloride materials offer laser properties advantageous for use as optical amplifiers in the 1.3 {micro}m telecommunications fiber optic network. The upper laser level is characterized by a millisecond lifetime, the host material possesses a moderately low refractive index, and the gain peak occurs near 1.31 {micro}m. Related halide materials, including bromides and iodides, are also useful. The Dy{sup 3+}-doped metal chlorides can be pumped with laser diodes and yield 1.3 {micro}m signal gain levels significantly beyond those currently available. 9 figs.

  3. Optical amplifier operating at 1.3 microns useful for telecommunications and based on dysprosium-doped metal chloride host materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Page, Ralph H. (San Ramon, CA); Schaffers, Kathleen I. (Pleasanton, CA); Payne, Stephen A. (Castro Valley, CA); Krupke, William F. (Pleasanton, CA); Beach, Raymond J. (Livermore, CA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dysprosium-doped metal chloride materials offer laser properties advantageous for use as optical amplifiers in the 1.3 .mu.m telecommunications fiber optic network. The upper laser level is characterized by a millisecond lifetime, the host material possesses a moderately low refractive index, and the gain peak occurs near 1.31 .mu.m. Related halide materials, including bromides and iodides, are also useful. The Dy.sup.3+ -doped metal chlorides can be pumped with laser diodes and yield 1.3 .mu.m signal gain levels significantly beyond those currently available.

  4. The effect of different dietary ratios of sodium and chloride on the physiological responses of lactating dairy cattle in hot weather 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grant, Pamela Ann

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT DIETARY RATIOS OF SODIUM AND CHLORIDE ON THE PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF LACTATING DAIRY CATTLE IN HOT WEATHER A Thesis by PAMELA ANN GRANT Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8cM Univers' ty in partial... fulfillme'nt of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1980 Major Subject: Animal Nutrition THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT DIETARY RATIOS OF SODIUM AND CHLORIDE ON THE PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF LACTATING DAIRY CATTLE IN HOT WEATHER A Thesis...

  5. Assessment of organic compound exposures, thermal comfort parameters, and HVAC system-driven air exchange rates in public school portable classrooms in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shendell, Derek Garth

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ND m e t h y l e n e chloride MTBE chloroprene c a r b o ny l e n e chloride Max. ND MTBE chloroform 0.11 N D c a r b1,3-butadiene methylene chloride MTBE chloroprene chloroform

  6. A Systematic Study of Chloride Ion Solvation in Water using van der Waals Inclusive Hybrid Density Functional Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bankura, Arindam; DiStasio, Robert A; Swartz, Charles W; Klein, Michael L; Wu, Xifan

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, the solvation and electronic structure of the aqueous chloride ion solution was investigated using Density Functional Theory (DFT) based \\textit{ab initio} molecular dynamics (AIMD). From an analysis of radial distribution functions, coordination numbers, and solvation structures, we found that exact exchange ($E_{\\rm xx}$) and non-local van der Waals (vdW) interactions effectively \\textit{weaken} the interactions between the Cl$^-$ ion and the first solvation shell. With a Cl-O coordination number in excellent agreement with experiment, we found that most configurations generated with vdW-inclusive hybrid DFT exhibit 6-fold coordinated distorted trigonal prism structures, which is indicative of a significantly disordered first solvation shell. By performing a series of band structure calculations on configurations generated from AIMD simulations with varying DFT potentials, we found that the solvated ion orbital energy levels (unlike the band structure of liquid water) strongly depend on the un...

  7. Assessment of susceptibility to chloride stress corrosion cracking of highly alloyed stainless steels. Part 2: A new immersion test method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drugli, J.M.; Steinsmo, U. [SINTEF Materials Technology, Trondheim (Norway)

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new method for assessment of susceptibility to chloride stress corrosion cracking under severe evaporative conditions has been developed. The basic idea is to test under submerged conditions simulating the electrolyte composition and concentration of sea water during evaporation. Two duplex and one austenitic stainless steel were tested loaded to the yield point at the test temperature. Time to failure, potential and temperature were recorded continuously. The results showed cracking of the austenitic material UNS S31254 at 110 C by long term testing. For the duplex stainless steels UNS S31803 and UNS S32750 cracking was observed at 100 C. The time to cracking was longest for the last mentioned and highest alloyed duplex material.

  8. Sodium Chloride interaction with solvated and crystalline cellulose : sodium ion affects the tetramer and fibril in aqueous solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bellesia, Giovanni

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Inorganic salts are a natural component of biomass which have a significant effect on the product yields from a variety of biomass conversion processes. Understanding their effect on biomass at the microscopic level can help discover their mechanistic role. We present a study of the effect of aqueous sodium chloride (NaCl) on the largest component of biomass, cellulose, focused on the thermodynamic and structural effect of a sodium ion on the cellulose tetramer, and fibril. Replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations of a cellulose tetramer reveal a number of preferred cellulose-Na contacts and bridging positions. Large scale MD simulations on a model cellulose fibril find that Na+ perturbs the hydroxymethyl rotational state population and consequently disrupts the "native" hydrogen bonding network.

  9. MOSSBAUER STUDY OF Fe(ll) DOPED ALKALI CHLORIDE CRYSTALS AND DEFECT STRUCTURE Y. Takashima, N. Kai, T. Nishida and L. Chandler*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    MOSSBAUER STUDY OF Fe(ll) DOPED ALKALI CHLORIDE CRYSTALS AND DEFECT STRUCTURE Y. Takashima, N. Kai-ray diffraction measurements and absorption Mossbauer spectroscopy, the behavior of the system especially related as being due to the substitution of Fe2+ for Li+ was observed in the Mossbauer spectrum. In the Na

  10. The following values were studied : pH, water retention ability, coloring, transformation yield, amount of residual nitrite, and distributior of sodium chloride in the finished product.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    The following values were studied : pH, water retention ability, coloring, transformation yield, amount of residual nitrite, and distributior of sodium chloride in the finished product. As a general sampling sites, lard weight, coloration index, and water retention ability in fresh ham. Values obtained

  11. Corrosion of 304 Stainless Steel Exposed To Nitric Acid -Chloride Environments D.G. Kolman, D.K. Ford, D.P. Butt, and T.O. Nelson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corrosion of 304 Stainless Steel Exposed To Nitric Acid - Chloride Environments D.G. Kolman, D.K. Ford, D.P. Butt, and T.O. Nelson Materials Corrosion and Environmental Effects Laboratory Los AlamosCl, and temperature on the general corrosion behavior of 304 stainless steel (SS), electrochemical studies were

  12. Chemical Engineering Science 55 (2000) 1921}1923 Shorter Communication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nair, Sankar

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . VOCs like methylene chloride and toluene are widely used to clean these inks from presses"cation proceeds by the repetition of this process on the freshly exposed surface of the ink drop. In this shorter

  13. Dynamics of electron transfer at the localized-to- delocalized transition of mixed valency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glover, Starla Demorest

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    minus 1 state of complex 5 in acetonitrile as a function ofcomplexes 1 - – 4 - in acetonitrile and methylene chloride.All data is for the complexes in acetonitrile at 298

  14. Ionic strength dependence of the oxidation of SO2 by H2O2 in sodium chloride particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ali, Hashim M.; Iedema, Martin J.; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Cowin, James P.

    2014-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The reaction of sulfur dioxide and hydrogen peroxide in the presence of deliquesced (>75% RH) sodium particles was studied by utilizing a crossflow-mini reactor. The reaction kinetics was followed by observing chloride depletion in particles by computer-controlled scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray analysis, namely SEM/EDX. The reactions take place in concentrated mixed salt brine aerosols, for which no complete kinetic equilibrium data previously existed. We measured the Henry’s law solubility of H2O2 to close that gap. We also calculated the reaction rate as the particle transforms continuously from concentrated NaCl brine to eventually a mixed NaHSO4 plus H2SO4 brine solution. The reaction rate of the SO2 oxidation by H2O2 was found to be influenced by the change in ionic strength as the particle undergoes compositional transformation, following closely the dependence of the third order rate constant on ionic strength as predicted rates using previously established rate equations. This is the first study that has measured the ionic strength dependence of sulfate formation (in non-aqueous media) from oxidation of mixed salt brine aerosols in the presence of H2O2. It also gives the first report of the Henry’s law constant of H2O2 dependence on ionic strength.

  15. Re-passivation Potential of Alloy 22 in Chloride plus Nitrate Solutions using the Potentiodynamic-Galvano-static-Potentiostatic Method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, Kenneth J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA, 94550 (United States); Rebak, Raul B. [Chemistry and Materials Science, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Ave, L- 631, Livermore, CA, 94550 (United States)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In general, the susceptibility of Alloy 22 to suffer crevice corrosion is measured using the Cyclic Potentiodynamic Polarization (CPP) technique. This is a fast technique that gives rather accurate and reproducible values of re-passivation potential (ER1) in most cases. In the fringes of susceptibility, when the environment is not highly aggressive, the values of re-passivation potential using the CPP technique may not be highly reproducible, especially because the technique is fast. To circumvent this, the re-passivation potential of Alloy 22 was measured using a slower method that combines Potentiodynamic-Galvano-static-Potentiostatic steps (called here the Tsujikawa-Hisamatsu Electrochemical or THE method). The THE method applies the charge to the specimen in a more controlled way, which may give more reproducible re-passivation potential values, especially when the environment is not aggressive. The values of re-passivation potential of Alloy 22 in sodium chloride plus potassium nitrate solutions were measured using the THE and CPP methods. Results show that both methods yield similar values of re-passivation potential, especially under aggressive conditions. (authors)

  16. A Systematic Study of Chloride Ion Solvation in Water using van der Waals Inclusive Hybrid Density Functional Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arindam Bankura; Biswajit Santra; Robert A. DiStasio Jr.; Charles W. Swartz; Michael L. Klein; Xifan Wu

    2015-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, the solvation and electronic structure of the aqueous chloride ion solution was investigated using Density Functional Theory (DFT) based \\textit{ab initio} molecular dynamics (AIMD). From an analysis of radial distribution functions, coordination numbers, and solvation structures, we found that exact exchange ($E_{\\rm xx}$) and non-local van der Waals (vdW) interactions effectively \\textit{weaken} the interactions between the Cl$^-$ ion and the first solvation shell. With a Cl-O coordination number in excellent agreement with experiment, we found that most configurations generated with vdW-inclusive hybrid DFT exhibit 6-fold coordinated distorted trigonal prism structures, which is indicative of a significantly disordered first solvation shell. By performing a series of band structure calculations on configurations generated from AIMD simulations with varying DFT potentials, we found that the solvated ion orbital energy levels (unlike the band structure of liquid water) strongly depend on the underlying molecular structures. In addition, these orbital energy levels were also significantly affected by the DFT functional employed for the electronic structure; as the fraction of $E_{\\rm xx}$ was increased, the gap between the highest occupied molecular orbital of Cl$^-$ and the valence band maximum of liquid water steadily increased towards the experimental value.

  17. Study of benzotriazole as corrosion inhibitors of carbon steel in chloride solution containing hydrogen sulfide using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solehudin, Agus, E-mail: asolehudin@upi.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering Education, Indonesia University of Education (UPI), Bandung, West Java (Indonesia); Nurdin, Isdiriayani [Department of Chemical Engineering, Bandung Institute of Technology, Bandung, West Java (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Corrosion and inhibition studies on API 5LX65 carbon steel in chloride solution containing various concentrations of benzotriazole has been conducted at temperature of 70°C using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). Corroded carbon steel surface with and without inhibitor have been observed using X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). The objectives of this research are to study the performance of benzotriazole as corrosion inhibitors. The experimental results of carbon steel corrosion in 3.5% NaCl solution containing 500 mg/l H{sub 2}S at different BTAH concentrations showed that corrosion rate of carbon steel decreases with increasing of BTAH concentrations from 0 to 10 mmol/l. The inhibition efficiency of BTAH was found to be affected by its concentration. The optimum efficiency obtained of BTAH is 93% at concentration of 5 mmol/l. The result of XRD and EDS analysis reveal the iron sulfide (FeS) formation on corroded carbon steel surface without inhibitor. The EDS spectrum show the Nitrogen (N) bond on carbon steel surface inhibited by BTAH.

  18. Anhydrous aluminum chloride as an alkylation catalyst: identification of mono- and dialkyl-benzenes from the condensation of tertiary butyl alcohol with benzene.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scoggins, Lacey E

    1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LIBRARY a a w c"I. I. SI - O~ TI:YAf ANHYDROUS ALUMINUM CHLORIDE AS AN ALKYLATION CATALYST: IDENTIFICATION OF MONO- AND DIALKYIZENZENES FROM THE CONDENSATION QF TERTIARY BUTYL ALCOHOL WITH BENKENE IACEY EUGENE SCOGGINS 4 A Thesis Submitted...: IDENTIFICATION OF MONO- AND DI~NZZNES FROM THE CONDENSATION OF TERTIARY BUTYL ALCOHOL WITH BENZENE A Thesis By LACEY EUGENE SCOGGINS Approved as to style and content hy: Chairman of Committee Head of Chemistry Department 1959 ACKNOWLEDGME1VTS The author...

  19. An experimental investigation of the effect of sodium chloride on talc solubility and complexing of aqueous magnesium in supercritical hydrothermal fluids 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grabman, Kenneth Bryan

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AN EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECT OF SODIUM CHLORIDE ON TALC SOLUBILITY AND COMPLEXING OF AQUEOUS MAGNESIUM IN SUPERCRITICAL HYDROTHERMAL FLUIDS A Thesis by KENNETH BRYAN GRABMAN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas... MAGNESIUM IN SUPERCRITICAL HYDROTHERMAL FLUIDS A Thesis by KENNETH BRYAN GRABMAN Approved as to style and content by: ~A. Robert K. Popp (Ch of Commi ee) Andrew Haj sh, Jr. (Member) Brann J son (Me ) J Span (Head o Department) December 1989...

  20. Process for the polymerization of vinyl chloride in aqueous suspension utilizing an oil-soluble initiator and subsequently a water-soluble initiator and use of the powders obtained thereby

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petit, A.

    1981-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Process for the polymerization of vinyl chloride in aqueous suspension in the presence of a dispersing system comprising a cellulosic derivative and an anionic emulsifying agent wherein the polymerizaton is initiated by an oil-soluble initiator and a water-soluble free radical polymerization initiator is added in the course of polymerization. The thus obtained polyvinyl chloride powders are particularly suitable for the production of battery separators.

  1. On the preparation of TiAl alloy by direct reduction of the oxide mixtures in calcium chloride melt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prabhat K. Tripathy; Derek J. Fray

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent years, TiAl-based intermetallic alloys are being increasingly considered for application in areas such as (i) automobile/transport sector (passenger cars, trucks and ships) (ii) aerospace industry (jet engines and High Speed Civil Transport propulsion system) and (iii) industrial gas turbines. These materials offer excellent (i) high temperature properties (at higher than 6000C) (ii) mechanical strength and (iii) resistance to corrosion and as a result have raised renewed interest. The combination of these properties make them possible replacement materials for traditional nickel-based super-alloys, which are nearly as twice as dense (than TiAl based alloys). Since the microstructures of these intermetallic alloys affect, to a significant extent, their ultimate performance, further improvements (by way of alteration/modification of these microstructures), have been the subject matter of intense research investigations. It has now been established that the presence of alloy additives, such as niobium, tantalum, manganese, boron, chromium, silicon, nickel and yttrium etc, in specific quantities, impart marked improvement to the properties, viz. fatigue strength, fracture toughness, oxidation resistance and room temperature ductility, of these alloys. From a number of possible alloy compositions, {gamma}-TiAl and Ti-Al-Nb-Cr have, of late, emerged as two promising engineering alloys/materials. . The conventional fabrication process of these alloys include steps such as melting, forging and heat treatment/annealing of the alloy compositions. However, an electrochemical process offers an attractive proposition to prepare these alloys, directly from the mixture of the respective oxides, in just one step. The experimental approach, in this new process, was, therefore, to try to electrochemically reduce the (mixed) oxide pellet to an alloy phase. The removal of oxygen, from the (mixed) oxide pellet, was effected by polarizing the oxide pellet against a graphite electrode in a pool of molten calcium chloride at a temperature of 9000C. The dominant mechanism of the oxygen removal was the ionization of oxygen followed by its subsequent discharge, as CO2/CO, at the anode surface. The removal of oxygen from the oxide mixture helped form the alloy in situ. The presentation shall cover the detailed experimental results pertaining to the preparation, evaluation and characterization of Ti-47Al-2Nb-2Cr (atom%) alloy.

  2. "Kohn-Shamification" of the classical density-functional theory of inhomogeneous polar molecular liquids with application to liquid hydrogen chloride

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johannes Lischner; T. A. Arias

    2008-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The Gordian knot of density-functional theories for classical molecular liquids remains finding an accurate free-energy functional in terms of the densities of the atomic sites of the molecules. Following Kohn and Sham, we show how to solve this problem by considering noninteracting molecules in a set of effective potentials. This shift in perspective leads to an accurate and computationally tractable description in terms of simple three-dimensional functions. We also treat both the linear- and saturation- dielectric responses of polar systems, presenting liquid hydrogen chloride as a case study.

  3. A study of the condensation of primary, secondary, and tertiary butyl alcohols with benzene in the presence of anhydrous ferric chloride

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dodson, Ralph Jordan

    1939-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A PKDT Qt THE COND%SATION QE PRECUT, SSQGNDART~ AND T~ NOTCL ALCOHOLS NITH SEEZEEE IN THE ~E GF ANBIINKU8 mRIQ CHLORIDE Asm 1959 4 et Chea1stxy and 0 A STOSX Gf THE OQtGRWSATIOR Of PRXRARX, SWOORBARX ARRI TCBTXARX WTXL ALQOBOLB WITH 8%%ESSE IR... THS F58XWOR Of AWHXQREUS FERRIC CBLORISR A STUART OF TBR CNRRGATTGR OF PIIRSGKo SROOP~e ARD TRRTZART RDTTL ALCOHOLS RITE ~R ZN TKR FRRSRBCR OP ARBTDROUS PRIBKC OHLORTDR A Theete Parttal Palfileaat cf the ReRNLreewate Ter the aeggso cf Rse4e et...

  4. The synthesis and crystal structures of the first rare-earth alkaline-earth selenite chlorides MNd{sub 10}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 12}Cl{sub 8} (M=Ca and Sr)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berdonosov, P.S. [Department of Chemistry, Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation)], E-mail: psberd@inorg.chem.msu.ru; Olenev, A.V.; Dolgikh, V.A. [Department of Chemistry, Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Lightfoot, P. [EaStChem, School of Chemistry, St. Andrews University, St. Andrews, KY16 9ST (United Kingdom)

    2007-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Two new alkaline-earth Nd selenite chlorides MNd{sub 10}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 12}Cl{sub 8} (M=Ca, Sr) were obtained using crystal growth from alkaline-earth chloride melts in quartz tubes. These new compounds crystallize in the orthorhombic system in space group C cca (no. 68). The compounds were studied by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction. It was shown that both compounds adopt the same structure type, constructed by complex [M{sub 11}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 12}]{sup 8+} slabs separated by chloride anion layers perpendicular to the longest cell parameter. The SeO{sub 3} groups show a pyramidal shape and may be described as SeO{sub 3}E tetrahedra. Such SeO{sub 3} groups decorate the Nd-O skeletons forming the [M{sub 11}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 12}]{sup 8+} slabs. - Graphical abstract: Two new alkaline-earth Nd selenite chlorides MNd{sub 10}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 12}Cl{sub 8} (M=Ca, Sr) were synthesized. These structures are constructed by [M{sub 11}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 12}]{sup 8+} slabs separated by chloride anion layers.

  5. Technology Evaluations Related to Mercury, Technetium, and Chloride in Treatment of Wastes at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. M. Barnes; D. D. Taylor; S. C. Ashworth; J. B. Bosley; D. R. Haefner

    1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Idaho High-Level Waste and Facility Disposition Environmental Impact Statement defines alternative for treating and disposing of wastes stored at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. Development is required for several technologies under consideration for treatment of these wastes. This report contains evaluations of whether specific treatment is needed and if so, by what methods, to remove mercury, technetium, and chlorides in proposed Environmental Impact Statement treatment processes. The evaluations of mercury include a review of regulatory requirements that would apply to mercury wastes in separations processes, an evaluation of the sensitivity of mercury flowrates and concentrations to changes in separations processing schemes and conditions, test results from laboratory-scale experiments of precipitation of mercury by sulfide precipitation agents from the TRUEX carbonate wash effluent, and evaluations of methods to remove mercury from New Waste Calcining Facility liquid and gaseous streams. The evaluation of technetium relates to the need for technetium removal and alternative methods to remove technetium from streams in separations processes. The need for removal of chlorides from New Waste Calcining Facility scrub solution is also evaluated.

  6. A group of new selenite-chlorides of strontium and d-metals (Co,Ni): Synthesis, thermal behavior and crystal chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berdonosov, Peter S. [Department of Chemistry, Moscow State University, GSP-1, Leninskie Gory, 1 Build. 3, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)], E-mail: berdonosov@inorg.chem.msu.ru; Olenev, Andrey V.; Kuznetsov, Alexei N.; Dolgikh, Valery A. [Department of Chemistry, Moscow State University, GSP-1, Leninskie Gory, 1 Build. 3, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The new selenite-chlorides with composition Sr{sub 3}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 2}Cl{sub 2} (I) and Sr{sub 2}M(SeO{sub 3}){sub 2}Cl{sub 2} (M=Co, Ni (II and III)) were obtained. They crystallize in monoclinic system I: space group C2/m, a=13.203(2) A, b=5.5355(8) A, c=6.6170(10) A, {beta}=95.89(1){sup o}, Z=2; II Space group P2{sub 1}/n, a=5.3400(10) A, b =6.4279(6) A, c=12.322(1) A, {beta}=92.44(1){sup o}, Z=2; III: space group P2{sub 1}/n, a=5.3254(11) A, b=6.4363(13) A, c=12.197(2), {beta}=92.53(3){sup o}, Z=2. All three compounds are constructed in the same manner. Sr polyhedra form infinite layers, which are interconnected into a 3D framework by means of Sr polyhedra in the case of I or Co and Ni polyhedra in the case of II and III. Se atoms are situated inside the channels of the 3D framework. The topological analysis of ELF for I confirmed that the lone electron pairs of SeO{sub 3} groups are located inside these channels. - Graphical abstract: Three new selenite-chlorides Sr{sub 3}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 2}Cl{sub 2} and Sr{sub 2}M(SeO{sub 3}){sub 2}Cl{sub 2} (M= Co,Ni)

  7. Synthesis, crystal structure and magnetic property of a new nickel selenite chloride: Ni{sub 5}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 4}Cl{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen Yueling [State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and the Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Mao Jianggao [State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and the Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou 350002 (China)]. E-mail: mjg@ms.fjirsm.ac.cn; Jiang Hailong [State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and the Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou 350002 (China)

    2005-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The new nickel selenite chloride, Ni{sub 5}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 4}Cl{sub 2}, was obtained by high-temperature solid state reaction of NiCl{sub 2}, Ni{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SeO{sub 2} in a 1:2:4molar ratio at 700{sup o}C in an evacuated quartz tube. Its structure was established by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Ni{sub 5}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 4}Cl{sub 2} crystallizes in the triclinic system, space group P-1 (No. 2) with cell parameters of a=8.076(2), b=9.288(2), c=9.376(2)A, {alpha}=101.97(3), {beta}=105.60(3), {gamma}=91.83(3){sup o} and Z=2. All nickel(II) ions in Ni{sub 5}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 4}Cl{sub 2} are octahedrally coordinated by selenite oxygens or/and chloride anions (([Ni(1)O{sub 5}Cl], [Ni(2)O{sub 4}Cl{sub 2}], [Ni(3)O{sub 5}Cl], [Ni(4)O{sub 6}] and [Ni(5)O{sub 4}Cl]). The structure of the title compound features a condensed three-dimensional (3D) network built by Ni(II) ions interconnected by SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-} anions as well as Cl{sup -} anions. Magnetic property measurements show strong antiferromagnetic interaction between nickel(II) ions.

  8. Methyl chloride via oxyhydrochlorination of methane: A building block for chemicals and fuels from natural gas. Quarterly technical progress report No. 01, September 30, 1996--December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wineland, J.

    1997-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this cooperative agreement are to develop the oxyhydrochlorination (OHC) process for the conversion of methane to methyl chloride. In the first Phase of the project, Dow Corning has developed a stable selective catalyst and demonstrated the technology on a laboratory and a pilot plant scale. Specific tasks to achieve these objectives have been developed as follows: TASK 1 Fundamental Technical and Economic Evaluation TASK 2 Catalyst Selection Optimization and Characterization Studies TASK 3 Pilot Plant Design TASK 4 Pilot Plant Detailed Engineering, Procurement and Construction TASK 5 Pilot Plant Startup and Operation TASK 6 Pilot Plant Process Optimization TASK 7 Pilot Plant Extended Operation TASK 8 Pilot Plant Economic Evaluation/Scale-up Decision Significant progress has been completed in Task 1 with the objective to complete a fundamental technical and economic evaluation of learning gathered the Phase I effort of this project. A decision to proceed with the project will be made after completion of this Task. A computer model of the reactor system has been developed, which includes heat and mass transfer effects as well as reactions. Model validation is in progress. The Absorber/Stripper technology evaluated and implemented on the Phase I PDU to recover chlorocarbons (including methyl chloride) from reaction products has been scaled to evaluate economics for a commercial scale plant. In a parallel exercise, alternate recovery technologies were investigated for economic evaluation, to assure that the minimum capital option is pursued for the Phase II design. Commercial scale plant equipment and total plant costs are being evaluated using information from the Phase I PDU, reactor modeling and recovery system evaluation to estimate capital and operating costs for a commercial scale OHC unit.

  9. The gas phase reactions of methylene with propionaldehyde

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuqua, Peter Joseph

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . 03 2. 93 2. 01 11. 08 11. 03 9. 95 15. 82 14. 06 9. 80 11. 29 15. 96 11. 70 11, 49 9. 27 10. 56 2Z. 30 7. 96 7. 90 4. 64 1. 83 5. 97 2. 05 3. 41 2. 51 Z. 9Z 2. 74 3. 18 2. 87 1. 78 1. 94 2. 20 1. 86 2. 11 1. 73 1. 97... of the data in table IU fit to equa- tions 38-40 gave the f'ol lowing results. slope (eq. 38) ? 53~30 torr slope (eq. 39) =- 2~3 torr slope (eq. 40) = 14-22 torr intercept (eq. 48) = 21. 9. 4. 6 intercept (eq. 39) = 2. 46a0. 45 intercept (eq. 40) = 10...

  10. Exposure to Methylene Diphenyl Diisocyante (MDI) among polyurethane roof workers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narvaez-Cuevas, Carmen Lourdes

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the typical symptoms of asthma, "' i. e. , recurrent episodes of difficulty in breathing, wheezing (especially on expiration), cough and thick mucus production. "' The asthmatic reaction may develop immediately or some time after the first exposure. Some... hyperreactivity, chronic deterioration in lung function, and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. '" At high isocyanate exposures, all employees can experience conjunctival irritation, nasal congestion, scratchy throat, nonproductive cough, and dyspnea. For longer...

  11. Methylene Blue as a Cerebral Metabolic and Hemodynamic Enhancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duong, Timothy Q.

    . Glickman, MD, Endowed Chair in Ophthalmic Research. The funders had no role in study design, data the PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials. * E-mail: lina3@uthscsa.edu (ALL); shaohua.yang@unthsc.edu (SHY); duongt@uthscsa.edu (TD) Introduction As powerhouses in mammalian cells, mitochondria are respon

  12. active methylene groups: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    VO. J. E. Ruz; J. D. Santander-Vela; E. Garca; V. Espigares; S. Leon; L. Verdes-Montenegro 2008-10-14 3 Learning Latent Constituents for Recognition of Group Activities in...

  13. Broensted superacidity of HCl in a liquid chloroaluminate. AlCl sub 3 -1-ethyl-3-methyl-1H-imidazolium chloride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, G.P.; Dworkin, A.S.; Zingg, S.P. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Pagni, R.M. (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville (USA))

    1989-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The system HCl (0.1-1 atm)/AlCl{sub 3}-EMIC (55.0 mol % AlCl{sub 3}) (EMIC = 1-ethyl-3-methyl-1H-imidazolium chloride) at 23{degree}C is a Broensted superacid capable of protonating arenes to a degree similar to that of liquid HF at 0{degree}C (H{sub 0} = {minus}15.1). Arenes used in this investigation were biphenyl (I), naphthalene (II), 9H-fluorene (III), chrysene (IV), 2-methylnaphthalene (V), mesitylene (VI), pentamethylbenzene (VII), hexamethylbenzene (VIII), anthracene (IX), and 9,10-dimethylanthracene (X). In both the chloroaluminate melt and HF I is a weak base while VIII-X are strong bases. In between these extremes the order of basicities in both media is II < III and IV < V < VI < VII < VIII. A study of the effect of HCl partial pressure showed, for example that V is 50% protonated at 0.3 atm HCl. The overall reaction is arene + HCl + Al{sub 2}Cl{sub 7}{sup {minus}} {r reversible} arene {times} H{sup +} + 2AlCl{sub 4}{sup {minus}} and is reversible. The degree of protonation was measured by optical absorption spectrophotometry. The arenes are stable in the liquid chloroaluminate for many hours, and their protonated forms (arenium ions) are stable for 1 h or more. A new procedure for the preparation of EMIC was developed that yields exceptionally clean AlCl{sub 3}-EMIC melts with very low concentrations of protic and oxidizing impurities. 17 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Quality assurance in the Brenham Residue Lab

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Jerry

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the methylene chloride layer through sodium sulfate into a 588 mL Kurdina-Danish flask with a 18 mL Mills Tube. Add 1 or 2 Carborundum boiling chips and attach a Snyder column and evaporate on a steam bath to about 2 mL. Take this to dzyness on a N...

  15. Fluid diversion and sweep improvement with chemical gels in oil recovery processes. [Four types of gels: resorcinol-formaldehyde; colloidal silica; Cr sup 3+ (chloride)-xanthan; and Cr sup 3+ (acetate)-polyacrylamide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seright, R.S.; Martin, F.D.

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this project were to identify the mechanisms by which gel treatments divert fluids in reservoirs and to establish where and how gel treatments are best applied. Several different types of gelants were examined, including polymer-based gelants, a monomer-based gelant, and a colloidal-silica gelant. This research was directed at gel applications in water injection wells, in production wells, and in high-pressure gas floods. The work examined how the flow properties of gels and gelling agents are influenced by permeability, lithology, and wettability. Other goals included determining the proper placement of gelants, the stability of in-place gels, and the types of gels required for the various oil recovery processes and for different scales of reservoir heterogeneity. During this three-year project, a number of theoretical analyses were performed to determine where gel treatments are expected to work best and where they are not expected to be effective. The most important, predictions from these analyses are presented. Undoubtedly, some of these predictions will be controversial. However, they do provide a starting point in establishing guidelines for the selection of field candidates for gel treatments. A logical next step is to seek field data that either confirm or contradict these predictions. The experimental work focused on four types of gels: (1) resorcinol-formaldehyde, (2) colloidal silica, (3) Cr{sup 3+}(chloride)-xanthan, and (4) Cr{sup 3+}(acetate)-polyacrylamide. All experiments were performed at 41{degrees}C.

  16. An XAFS Study of Nickel Chloride in the Ionic Liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl Imidazolium Chloride/ Aluminum Chloride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roeper, D.; Cheek, G; Pandya, K; O'Gragy, W

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The electrodeposition of metals from aqueous solutions has a successful history for many metals. However, some metals cannot be deposited from aqueous solutions because their potentials fall outside of the window of stability for water. Using ionic liquids for the electrodeposition of metals can avoid some of these difficulties because they have a larger region of stability than water. The electrochemical window can be tailored to fit a particular application by choosing appropriate anions and cations to form the melt. There is also the possibility to deposit pure metals without the oxides and hydrides that can form in aqueous solutions. The study of the structure of metal salts in ionic liquids is an important step towards achieving these goals.

  17. Chloride Depletion in Aged Sea Salt Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced. C o w l i t z CPlasma of theChemistryChicagoFuel CellX

  18. Molecular Quantum Mechanics 2010: From Methylene to DNA and Beyond Conference Support

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This grant was $12500 for partial support of an international conference, Molecular Quantum Mechanics 2010, which was held on the campus of the University of California, Berkeley, from 24 to 29 May 2010. The conference involved more than 250 participants. The conference schedule ran from as early as 8:00 AM to as late as 10:30 PM at night, in order to accommodate six historical lectures, 16 plenary lectures, 42 invited talks and two very strong poster sessions containing 143 contributed posters. Since 1989, the Molecular Quantum Mechanics (MQM) series of international conferences has show- cased the frontiers of research in quantum chemistry with a strong focus on basic theory and algorithms, as well as highlights of topical applications. Both were strongly in evidence at MQM 2010. At the same time as embracing the future, the MQM conferences also honour the lifetime contributions of some of the most prominent scientists in the field of theoretical and computational quantum chemistry. MQM 2010 recognised the work of Prof. Henry F. ‘Fritz’ Schaefer of the Center for Computational Chemistry at the University of Georgia, who was previously on the faculty at Berkeley The travel of invited speakers was partially covered by sponsorships from Dell Computer, Hewlett-Packard, Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation, Virginia Tech College of Science, Molecular Physics, Q-Chem Inc and the American Institute of Physics. By contrast, the conference grant from the Department of Energy was used to provide fellowships and scholarships to enable graduate students and postdoctoral fellows to attend the meeting, and thereby broaden the participation of young scientists at a meeting where in the past most of the attendees have been more senior faculty researchers. We believe that we were very successful in this regard: 118 students and postdocs attended out of the total of 256 participants. In detail, the DOE sponsorship money was partially used for dormitory scholarships that covered the cost of shared accommodation for students and postdocs at Berkeley dormitories. This covered the $200-$305 cost of a shared room for the 5-day duration of the conference. The only condition of these scholarships was that the awardee must present a poster at the meeting. Approximately $7565 was spent for these dormitory scholarships. The remaining expenditures of $4800 was used for 12 merit scholarships which were awarded to students whose poster presentations were judged the best at the conference. This amount covered a significant part of their travel and registration fees.

  19. Methylene Bromide Chemistry and Photochemistry on Rutile TiO2...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    such as CD2Br2 on TiO2 likely occurs via indirect processes (such as OH radical attack) as opposed to direct mechanisms involving charge carriers generated in TiO2 by...

  20. Diosmacycloalkanes as models for the formation of hydrocarbons from surface methylenes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norton, J.R.

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The report is divided into: vibrational models for surface ethylidenes (on catalyst surfaces); alpha vs beta hydrogen elimination in formation of propene from an osmacyclobutane; mechanism of formation and fragmentation of diosmacyclobutanes; reaction of dienes and allenes with diosmacyclobutanes; structure of Os(CO)[sub 4](C[sub 2]H[sub 4]), an osmacyclopropane; and reaction of [mu]-oxobis [(trifluoromethanesulfanato) (phenyl)iodine(III)] with Group 14 propargyl derivatives and a propargyl ether. 16 refs, figs.

  1. Application of the Modified Methylene Blue Test to Detect Clay Minerals in Coarse Aggregate Fines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pitre, Brandon

    2012-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    mix asphalt (HMA) and Portland cement concrete (PCC) mixes was also conducted. In one phase of the study, known amounts of standard clay minerals were introduced to the mixes, and performance testing was carried out. This was done in hopes...

  2. A [Cyclentetrakis(methylene)]tetrakis[2-hydroxybenzamide] Ligand That Complexes and Sensitizes Lanthanide(III) Ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D'Aleo, Anthony

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    structure and size with europium (4f 7 versus 4f 6 ), butvisible emitter). 5. Europium A reasonable level ofsplit spectrum of europium was observed (Figure 9). The

  3. Programmable optic-fiber delay line

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fang, Shin-Puu

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Motion of coupled pendula . 4. Circuit schematic of temperature control 5. Basic configuration of electric arc fusion splicer . . . 6. The arrangement of heater 7. The output optical power from one port versus the temperature of the heater 8... ( stripping tool ) and chemical stripping ( acetone or methylene chloride ) technique can be used to remove the protective polymer fiber coating. A commercial Fujikura ct-40 fiber cleaver used skillfully can produce an end surface suitable for fiber fusion...

  4. A comparison of the thermodynamic model to the conventional mathematical model for passive dosimetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayes, Mary Kathleen

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    - and moderately-adsorbing compounds (methylene chloride and toluene) with passive dosimeters (GAsHADGE organic vapor Dosimeters). The first part of the experiment encompassed forward sampling by exposure to the same concentration of 300 ppm over varying time... periods from 0. 5 to 8. 0 hours. The tests were performed at the same humidity and temperature, 65% and 25'C, respectively. The dosimeters were analyzed by means of gas chromatography. The second part entailed backward diffusion by exposure to 300 ppm...

  5. Synthesis and characterization of dialkyl ditellurides and dialkyl tellurides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Sang Woo

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) ditelluride bonded to the tellurium atoms form a dihedral angle of 86 [17]. Sink and Harvey[18] assumed a similar structure for dimethyl ditelluride with a dihedral angle of 82 in their vibrational analyses of this molecule. Disodrum ditelluride... diethyl ether, petroleum ether (b. p. 35-60 ), tetrahydrofuran, methanol, benzene, methylene chloride, and chloroform, were purchased from Manufacturing Chemists Inc. Absolute diethyl ether, ethylenediamine, N, N-dimethylformamide, chloroform, benzene...

  6. A Thermodynamic Model for Predicting Mineral Reactivity in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide: I. Phase Behavior of Carbon Dioxide - Water - Chloride Salt Systems Across the H2O-Rich to the CO2-Rich Regions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Springer, Ronald D.; Wang, Zheming; Anderko, Andre; Wang, Peiming; Felmy, Andrew R.

    2012-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Phase equilibria in mixtures containing carbon dioxide, water, and chloride salts have been investigated using a combination of solubility measurements and thermodynamic modeling. The solubility of water in the CO2-rich phase of ternary mixtures of CO2, H2O and NaCl or CaCl2 was determined, using near infrared spectroscopy, at 90 atm and 40 to 100 °C. These measurements fill a gap in the experimental database for CO2 water salt systems, for which phase composition data have been available only for the H2O-rich phases. A thermodynamic model for CO2 water salt systems has been constructed on the basis of the previously developed Mixed-Solvent Electrolyte (MSE) framework, which is capable of modeling aqueous solutions over broad ranges of temperature and pressure, is valid to high electrolyte concentrations, treats mixed-phase systems (with both scCO2 and water present) and can predict the thermodynamic properties of dry and partially water-saturated supercritical CO2 over broad ranges of temperature and pressure. Within the MSE framework the standard-state properties are calculated from the Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers equation of state whereas the excess Gibbs energy includes a long-range electrostatic interaction term expressed by a Pitzer-Debye-Hückel equation, a virial coefficient-type term for interactions between ions and a short-range term for interactions involving neutral molecules. The parameters of the MSE model have been evaluated using literature data for both the H2O-rich and CO2-rich phases in the CO2 - H2O binary and for the H2O-rich phase in the CO2 - H2O - NaCl / KCl / CaCl2 / MgCl2 ternary and multicompontent systems. The model accurately represents the properties of these systems at temperatures from 0°C to 300 °C and pressures up to ~4000 atm. Further, the solubilities of H2O in CO2-rich phases that are predicted by the model are in agreement with the new measurements for the CO2 - H2O - NaCl and CO2 - H2O - CaCl2 systems. Thus, the model can be used to predict the effect of various salts on the water content and water activity in CO2-rich phases on the basis of parameters determined from the properties of aqueous systems. Given the importance of water activity in CO2-rich phases for mineral reactivity, the model can be used as a foundation for predicting mineral transformations across the entire CO2/H2O composition range from aqueous solution to anhydrous scCO2. An example application using the model is presented which involves the transformation of forsterite to nesquehonite as a function of temperature and water content in the CO2-rich phase.

  7. Preparation of Solid Alkaline Fuel Cell Binders Based on Fluorinated Poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)s

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Preparation of Solid Alkaline Fuel Cell Binders Based on Fluorinated Poly to be used in a Solid Alkaline Fuel Cell (SAFC) needs to (i) be insoluble in both aqueous solutions,10% > 320 °C). When used in a fuel cell as a binder in the membrane-electrodes assembly (MEA

  8. Mechanisms of growth inhibition induced by methylene-substituted and ring-substituted dims in breast cancer cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vanderlaag, Kathryn Elisabeth

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    One in 8 women will be diagnosed with breast cancer in the United States and estrogen receptor (ER) status largely influences the type and subsequent success of treatment employed. Although ER-positive breast cancer can be treated with endocrine...

  9. Highly Enantioselective Syntheses of Functionalized r-Methylene--butyrolactones via Rh(I)-catalyzed Intramolecular Alder Ene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Xumu

    the utility of our methodology, we introduced various functional groups at the allylic position (Table 3). If R2 is an acetyl group, the desired product is a vinyl acetate-substituted -lactone. If R2 is an alkyl group, a vinyl ether is the corresponding product. Due to the wide applications of vinyl acetates

  10. Diosmacycloalkanes as models for the formation of hydrocarbons from surface methylenes. Progress report, November 1, 1992--October 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norton, J.R.

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The report is divided into: vibrational models for surface ethylidenes (on catalyst surfaces); alpha vs beta hydrogen elimination in formation of propene from an osmacyclobutane; mechanism of formation and fragmentation of diosmacyclobutanes; reaction of dienes and allenes with diosmacyclobutanes; structure of Os(CO){sub 4}(C{sub 2}H{sub 4}), an osmacyclopropane; and reaction of {mu}-oxobis [(trifluoromethanesulfanato) (phenyl)iodine(III)] with Group 14 propargyl derivatives and a propargyl ether. 16 refs, figs.

  11. Photocatalytic reduction of methylene blue by TiO2 nanotube arrays: effects of TiO2 crystalline phase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kang, Xiongwu; Chen, Shaowei

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    N, Pelizzetti E (1989) Photocatalysis: fundamentals andPhotoelectrochemistry, photocatalysis, and photoreactors:performance. Introduction Photocatalysis of a chemical

  12. 2180 J. Am. Chem. SOC.1986, 108, 2180-2191 Bonding in Transition-Metal-Methylene Complexes. 2.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    for numerous catalytic reactions (e.g., Fischer- Tropsch reductive polymerization of CO and olefin metathesis) and have been isolated in a number of cases includingk,b Me, ,OMe C o/ u" oc',, I( ..co and OC" t oc 0 1 2=CH2)+ (7), (Mn=CH2)+ (8), and (Fe=CH2)+ (9) lead also to a double bond with a similar covalent M ds

  13. Process for the manufacture of 117Sn diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srivastava, Suresh C. (Setauket, NY); Li, Zizhong (Upton, NY); Meinken, George (Middle Island, NY)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Novel methods are provided for the manufacture of .sup.117m Sn(Sn.sup.4+) DTPA. The method allows the use of DTPA, a toxic chelating agent, in an approximately 1:1 ratio to .sup.117m Sn(Sn.sup.4+) via either aqueous conditions, or using various organic solvents, such as methylene chloride. A pharmaceutical composition manufactured by the novel method is also provided, as well as methods for treatment of bone tumors and pain associated with bone cancer using the pharmaceutical composition of the invention.

  14. Copolymerization study of 1,2- and 1,4-cyclohexene oxide 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glaesmann, Orville Lee

    1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and the poor resolution of' the spectra. Polvmers contain ing cycl~? ~vyl rings are compl icated because of the stere~el emistry. The NNR spectra of the cis and trans is~mere of 1, 2-cyclohexanediol serving as model comnounds were helpful in this study... of cyclohexene was used to obtain the sensitivity of the unsaturated band to the methylene bend mode frequency at 1450 wavenumbers, The end group analysis can be summarized by point- ing out that the major end group is the chloride atom with hydroxyl...

  15. Supercritical fluid extraction and chromatography using a Lee Scientific Series 600 SFE/SFC System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Green, Timothy Scott

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , a vial with methylene chloride (MeC1) and from spiked soil into MeC1. The recoveries were 15, 88, and 8&% 21 Restr ctor Glass frit 4 ~ Glass, nner sleeve ~V, CMrane v re vv vo ~Metnylene CntOride Figure 6. Resistively heated SFE collector... (adapted from McMair and Frasier, 1991). respectively. The high recoveries in MeC1 show a great deal of potential for this relatively simple recovery system. Lee Scientific began marketing a Model 703 eight cell off-line supercritical fluid extractor...

  16. Public health assessment for Chemfax, Gulfport, Harrison County, Mississippi, Region 4. Cerclis No. MSD008154486. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemfax Inc. is an active chemical processing plant in Gulfport, Harrison County, Mississippi. Workers at the site were exposed to several PAHs in surface soil and sediments, and to benzene, methylene chloride, and styrene in air at levels of public health concern. Potential routes for human exposure include ambient air, surface water and edible fish from the Industrial Seaway, groundwater, well water, and public supply water. ATSDR has made recommendations to reduce and prevent exposure to contaminants, characterize the site better, and implement institutional controls and other activities.

  17. ammonium chloride solution: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    deduplication and compression with the cloud to reduce the storage footprint as well as CapEx and OpEx costs Chaudhuri, Surajit 337 On Lovelock vacuum solution HEP - Theory (arXiv)...

  18. acidic chloride solutions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    deduplication and compression with the cloud to reduce the storage footprint as well as CapEx and OpEx costs Chaudhuri, Surajit 327 On Lovelock vacuum solution HEP - Theory (arXiv)...

  19. MULTIPHASE REACTOR MODELING FOR ZINC CHLORIDE CATALYZED COAL LIQUEFACTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joyce, Peter James

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen Requirement for Coal Slurry Reactor, G. Gas-LiquidFlow of Gas-Liquid and Gas-Coal Slurry Mixtures in Verticalper unit volume of melt coal slurry can be expressed in

  20. ammonium chloride surfactant: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    For vanishing hydrophobic forces this complex has the architecture of a molecular bottle-brush cylindrically centered around the stretched PE molecule. Upon increasing the...

  1. aluminum chloride vapor: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??This study investigated the adsorptive capacity and isotherm of HgCl2 onto spherical activated carbons (SAC) via thermogravimetric analysis...

  2. MULTIPHASE REACTOR MODELING FOR ZINC CHLORIDE CATALYZED COAL LIQUEFACTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joyce, Peter James

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for the Coal Slurry Reactor Calculations are shown here for= Total reactor pressure, psi. The calculation is iterative,

  3. The Palladium-Catalyzed Trifluoromethylation of Aryl Chlorides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, Eun Jin

    The trifluoromethyl group can dramatically influence the properties of organic molecules, thereby increasing their applicability as pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, or building blocks for organic materials. Despite the ...

  4. Catalytic hydrogenation of an aromatic sulfonyl chloride into thiophenol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rouckout, Nicolas Julien

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    to the facile oxidation by air into disulfides [3]. Many aliphatic thiols are important starting materials for the synthesis of crop- protection agents, pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals and polysulfides. They are also widely used as polymerization regulators... for the preparation of pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, dyes, pigments, rubber, plastics and metal finishing [3]. The current market volume for aromatic thiols was determined to be more than 10 million pounds per year [4]. Aromatic thiols are commonly synthesized...

  5. Redox flow batteries based on supporting solutions containing chloride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Liyu; Kim, Soowhan; Yang, Zhenguo; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Jianlu; Chen, Baowei; Nie, Zimin; Xia, Guanguang

    2014-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Redox flow battery systems having a supporting solution that contains Cl.sup.- ions can exhibit improved performance and characteristics. Furthermore, a supporting solution having mixed SO.sub.4.sup.2- and Cl.sup.- ions can provide increased energy density and improved stability and solubility of one or more of the ionic species in the catholyte and/or anolyte. According to one example, a vanadium-based redox flow battery system is characterized by an anolyte having V.sup.2+ and V.sup.3+ in a supporting solution and a catholyte having V.sup.4+ and V.sup.5+ in a supporting solution. The supporting solution can contain Cl.sup.- ions or a mixture of SO.sub.4.sup.2- and Cl.sup.- ions.

  6. Sources Of Chloride In Hydrothermal Fluids From The Valles Caldera...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mexico hosts a high-temperature geothermal system, which is manifested in a number of hot springs discharging in and around the caldera. In order to determine the fluid pathways...

  7. aluminium chlorides: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by spacecraft-derived debris (as have been tentatively recognized in the collector aerogel by the solar wind to > 300 kms-1 13 is also be- ing investigated, using both...

  8. DOEEA-1157 ENVIRONlMENTAL ASSESSMENT METHYL CHLORIDE VIA OXYHYDROCHLOF...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    VIA OXYHYDROCHLOFUNATION OF METHANE: A BUILDING BLOCK FOR CHEMICALS AND FUELS FROM NATURAL GAS DOW CORNING CORPORATION CARROLLTON, KENTUCKY SEPTEMBER 1996 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF...

  9. 1 INTRODUCTION In Spain, Plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zornberg, Jorge G.

    to rapid deterioration. Towards the end of that dec- ade, the former Spanish official standardization body ozone resistance tests on PVC-P geomembranes. In the Spanish Peninsula, the use of PVC-P geomembranes

  10. MULTIPHASE REACTOR MODELING FOR ZINC CHLORIDE CATALYZED COAL LIQUEFACTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joyce, Peter James

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of noble gases in molten salts, which also provide a modeln Hexane B2 275°C. Hydrogen-Molten Salt WI (dynes/em) WI PI

  11. The Thermodynamics of Gaseous, Cuprous Chloride Monomer and Trimer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brewer, Leo

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    No.W-7405-eng~48B TIiE THERMODYNAMICS OF GASEOUS" CUPROUSCu(s) + HCl::= I Thermodynamics of Vaporization to Monomeric

  12. Interfacial tension between aluminum and chloride-fluoride melts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silny, A. [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava (Slovakia). Inst. of Inorganic Chemistry] [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava (Slovakia). Inst. of Inorganic Chemistry; Utigard, T.A. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Science] [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Science

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Scrap and recycled aluminum have to be remelted and refined before being made into useful new products. This often involves melting the aluminum under a molten salt cover in order to prevent oxidation and to enhance the coalescence and recovery of the molten metal. A technique was developed for the measurement of the interfacial tension between liquid metals and molten salts at elevated temperatures. The technique is based on the measurement of the capillary depression occurring when a capillary, which is moved vertically down through the molten salt layer, passes through the salt/metal interface. The depression is measured by simultaneous video recording of the immersion height of the alumina capillary and the position of a liquid meniscus in a horizontal tube connected to the alumina capillary. The interfacial tension was measured for (a) aluminum and an equimolar melt of NaCl + KCl with several salt additions at 1,000 K, (b) aluminum and NaCl + NaF at 1,123 K, and (c) aluminum and NaCl + KF at 1,123 K. It was found that the interfacial tension decreases with increasing amount of NaF, increases with the increasing amount of MgCl{sub 2} additions, remains unchanged with AlF{sub 3} additions, and slightly decreases with the addition of MgF{sub 2} and Na{sub 3}AlF{sub 6}.

  13. Modeling acid-gas generation from boiling chloride brines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Guoxiang

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    solutions, Journal of nuclear technology 2008, 164:180– 35.Modeling and Analysis. Nuclear Technology 1993, 104: 418- 2.

  14. MULTIPHASE REACTOR MODELING FOR ZINC CHLORIDE CATALYZED COAL LIQUEFACTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joyce, Peter James

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in a sulfur dioxide scrubber. Application to ZnC12/MeOHcan be made to include the scrubber in the final design. B.diverting the gas to a water scrubber system partway through

  15. acute cadmium chloride: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    pancreatitis CiteSeer Summary: Background: Acute pancreatitis continues to be a serious illness, and the patients with acute pancreatitis are at risk to develop different...

  16. MULTIPHASE REACTOR MODELING FOR ZINC CHLORIDE CATALYZED COAL LIQUEFACTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joyce, Peter James

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical Engineering University of California Berkeley~ California 94720 ABSTRACT A generalized reactor design

  17. Toluene pyrolysis studies and high temperature reactions of propargyl chloride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kern, R.D.; Chen, H.; Qin, Z. [Univ. of New Orleans, LA (United States)

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The main focus of this program is to investigate the thermal decompositions of fuels that play an important role in the pre-particle soot formation process. It has been demonstrated that the condition of maximum soot yield is established when the reaction conditions of temperature and pressure are sufficient to establish a radical pool to support the production of polyaromatic hydrocarbon species and the subsequent formation of soot particles. However, elevated temperatures result in lower soot yields which are attributed to thermolyses of aromatic ring structures and result in the bell-shaped dependence of soot yield on temperature. The authors have selected several acyclic hydrocarbons to evaluate the chemical thermodynamic and kinetic effects attendant to benzene formation. To assess the thermal stability of the aromatic ring, the authors have studied the pyrolyses of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, chlorobenzene and pyridine. Time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF) is employed to analyze the reaction zone behind reflected shock waves. Reaction time histories of the reactants, products, and intermediates are constructed and mechanisms are formulated to model the experimental data. The TOF work is often performed with use of laser schlieren densitometry (LS) to measure density gradients resulting from the heats of various reactions involved in a particular pyrolytic system. The two techniques, TOF and LS, provide independent and complementary information about ring formation and ring rupture reactions.

  18. alkali metal chlorides: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NMR to explosives detec- tion and fundamental Romalis, Mike 2 Spin-Exchange Optical Pumping with Alkali-Metal Vapors Physics Websites Summary: Spin-Exchange Optical Pumping with...

  19. alkali metal chloride: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NMR to explosives detec- tion and fundamental Romalis, Mike 2 Spin-Exchange Optical Pumping with Alkali-Metal Vapors Physics Websites Summary: Spin-Exchange Optical Pumping with...

  20. argon chlorides: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and presents some first results. Christian Regenfus 2009-12-15 5 The Argon Dark Matter Experiment CERN Preprints Summary: The ArDM experiment, a 1 ton liquid argon TPC...

  1. aqueous chloride environment: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CiteSeer Summary: The Inscape Environment is an integrated software development enviroment for building large software systems by large groups of developers. It provides...

  2. Chloride-Magnesium Ratio of Shallow Groundwaters as a Regional...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    large number of hydrological wells in the state provides an appreciable source of groundwater chemical data. However, largely because of the island environment, interpretation...

  3. RESEARCH ARTICLE Increasing chloride concentrations in Lake Constance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wehrli, Bernhard

    contributed 52%, waste water 23%, farming 11%, soil weathering 9%, precipitation and solid waste incineration with population density, the density of roads, intensification of farming, and solid waste incineration

  4. MULTIPHASE REACTOR MODELING FOR ZINC CHLORIDE CATALYZED COAL LIQUEFACTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joyce, Peter James

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    II. c. High Yield Batch Reactor Results. . . • .Objectives •. Slurry Reactors . . . . . . .A. StudiesSystems. D. Slurry Reactor Theory. General. . Application to

  5. Method for making a uranium chloride salt product

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, William E. (Naperville, IL); Tomczuk, Zygmunt (Lockport, IL)

    2004-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The subject apparatus provides a means to produce UCl.sub.3 in large quantities without incurring corrosion of the containment vessel or associated apparatus. Gaseous Cl is injected into a lower layer of Cd where CdCl.sub.2 is formed. Due to is lower density, the CdCl.sub.2 rises through the Cd layer into a layer of molten LiCl--KCL salt where a rotatable basket containing uranium ingots is suspended. The CdCl.sub.2 reacts with the uranium to form UCl.sub.3 and Cd. Due to density differences, the Cd sinks down to the liquid Cd layer and is reused. The UCl.sub.3 combines with the molten salt. During production the temperature is maintained at about 600.degree. C. while after the uranium has been depleted the salt temperature is lowered, the molten salt is pressure siphoned from the vessel, and the salt product LiCl--KCl-30 mol % UCl.sub.3 is solidified.

  6. Modeling acid-gas generation from boiling chloride brines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Guoxiang

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Analysis Preliminary calculations assuming pure CaCl 2 solutions were carried out to investigate relationships between salt concentration, HCl gas fugacity (? partial pressure), and condensate

  7. acid cupric chloride: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    In the present study, bonding among formic, acetic and benzoic acids, sulfuric acid, ammonia, acetic, and benzoic acids with free and hydrated sulfuric acid has been...

  8. arsenic chlorides: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    arsenic uptake and heavy metals on arsenic distribution in an arsenic-contaminated soil Environmental Management and Restoration Websites Summary: Effects of plant arsenic uptake...

  9. Water content and morphology of sodium chloride aerosol particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weis, David D.; Ewing, George E.

    1999-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    2 for explanation) were obtained by bypassing the diffusion dryer (dashed line). The aerosol cell is 12 cm in length. path length of 12 cm and an inside diameter of 2.5 cm. The ends were sealed with silicon windows having a 30 min wedge (Infrared... of the FTIR spectrometer such that the focus point of the IR beam was near the center of the cell. The laser window and light trap were also sealed to the cell with O-rings and clamps but were used for an experiment that is not re- ported here. IR spectra...

  10. Original article Effects of sodium chloride salinity on root growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    either 50 or 250 mM NaCl. Both moderate and high salinity treatment strongly altered root elongation. In contrast, specific respiration of roots was unaffected by the moderate salinity treatment while ecosystems [11].The effects of snow melt have been documented for wetland ecosystems [14] but

  11. MULTIPHASE REACTOR MODELING FOR ZINC CHLORIDE CATALYZED COAL LIQUEFACTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joyce, Peter James

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ix Introduction. A. Coal Liquefaction Overview B.L ZnCl 2-catalyzed Coal Liquefaction . . . . . . . . . • ,Results. . . • . ZnC1 2/MeOH Coal liquefaction Process

  12. Thermophysical Properties of Sodium Nitrate and Sodium Chloride

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem Not Found Item Not Found The item youThe Discovery ofTechnology used in

  13. A comparison of the catalytic effect of anhydrous ferric chloride and anhydrous aluminum chloride in Friedel and Crafts reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weddell, William MacNelley

    1941-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    tAy8 N, aX 84?8 XX+V Sle5 48+8 84ol Se8 88e5 Qy8 88~8 M+0 XSq5 XV j8 'NA' 88i5 N~Q 80+8 P@g Ce~ NeX4 88+% 44s5 85p8 85g8 ~seep 4eggeey Agc'io eMoxtds grows 'ho 5s a @ovy effkoie54 ea4e~ ~st Ce %be coso yf %he Xo&se csA gatko 4... keoioyheeoee 8golheXe eel, eg kye4le ye~ +~%NO I 4 9 'Q + 1 0 4 '4 4. I If + 4 $, t, III 5 0 4f 0 4 4 l8 ZXX+ Rll94'LS 4f 84950$405080 @$5'Ch0848 g s +, s a 1 Xa k0455J4j5051 &4@5 k04tgI @kX@FXC@ y s e y e' e y: * e e e 1I XXw k95%1gltI5050 AOA AHIRO @kg...

  14. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report. Fourth Quarter 1997 and 1997 Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chase, J. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A maximum of forty-eight wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Water Permit DWP-087A and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. Chloroethene (vinyl chloride) and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituents exceeding standards during 1997. Lead (total recoverable), 1,4-dichlorobenzene, mercury, benzene, dichloromethane (methylene chloride), a common laboratory contaminant, tetrachloroethylene, 1,2-dichloroethane, gross alpha, tritium, and 1.2-dichloropropane also exceeded standards in one or more wells. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill was to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate in this unit was approximately 139 ft/year during first quarter 1997 and 132 ft/year during fourth quarter.

  15. The nature and fate of natural resins in the geosphere - VIII - NMR and Py-GC-MS characterization of soluble labdanoid polymers isolated from holocene class I resins.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clifford, D. J.; Hatcher, P. G.; Botto, R. E.; Muntean, J. V.; Michaels, B.; Anderson, K. B.; Chemistry; Pennsylvania State Univ.; Amoco Oil Co.

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Soluble polylabdanoids isolated by sequential solvent extraction have been characterized by liquid-state {sup 13}C- and {sup 1}H NMR and {sup 13}C-{sup 1}H HMQC (heteronuclear correlation) NMR spectroscopy in addition to solid-state NMR and Py-GC-MS techniques. Two Holocene resins originating from Santander, Colombia and Mombasa, Kenya were analyzed. Soluble polymers were isolated by extraction with a 1:1 (v/v) methylene chloride-methanol mixture following sequential extractions with methylene chloride and methanol. The molecular weight of polymer extracts was shown by GPC analyses to exceed that of non-polymeric occluded terpenoids. Py-GC-MS, solid-state {sup 13}C CP/MAS and {sup 13}C cross-polarization/depolarization NMR spectroscopy results indicated that chemical compositions of soluble polymers isolated from immature resins are highly representative of the structure of corresponding insoluble polymers, i.e. polylabdatrienes. These data provide evidence for cross-linking or cyclization of side-chain olefinic carbons during or shortly after polymerization. Generally, the characterization of soluble resin polymers by liquid-state NMR spectroscopy has proven to be an excellent means for investigating the maturation mechanism of polylabdanoid resinites, and has potential for furthering the application of Class I resinites as geothermal indicators.

  16. Effects of bacitracin methylene disalicylate, bacitracin zinc, and virginiamycin in combination with new coccidiostats on the performance of commercial broiler chickens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ofori Bekoe, Kwadwo

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CONVERSION TO 48 DAYS OF AGE IN COMMERCIAL BROILERS TREATMENTS NO. OF BIRDS FEED CONVERSION (FEED/WEIGHT) 2 WK 4 WK 6 WK 48 DAYS MAXIBAN MAXI BAN + BMD 400 400 1. 066 1 ' 518 1. 071 1. 473 1. 933 (1) 1. 950 (2) 1. 842 1. 852y 1. 991 2 031x 1... or in combination with bacitracin Zn when added to the diet affects males and females alike. There were no statis- tically significant differences between the treatments in feed conversion at 2, 4 and 6 weeks, or 48 days of age (Tables 18 and 19). However...

  17. Assimilation and respiration of radioactive ethylene glycol, in the presence of high sodium chloride concentrations, by a sodium chloride requiring bacterium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gonzalez, Carlos Francisco

    1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and the contents distilled over into 5 ml of a 2X boric acid solution containing 3 ml of a O. l%%d ethanolic solution of methyl red and 5. 7 ml of a 0. 1X ethanolic 29 solution of brom cresol green. The samples were titrated, with 0. 1N HC1 using a... limits. Sodium requirement Effect of pH on growth Utilization of carbon sources. Respiration studies. Quantitation of ethylene glycol carbon Disappearance of. glucose and ammonia-nitrogen from cultures of Bacterium T-52. Possible pathways...

  18. Detecting multiple cell-secreted cytokines from the same aptamer-functionalized electrode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferrara, Katherine W.

    with anthraquinone (AQ) and methylene blue (MB) redox reporters respectively. Random immobilization of two aptamer

  19. Evaporation of water from sodium chloride solutions under controlled climatic conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, Jaroy

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Ratios of daily evaporation of the salt solutions to that oi distilled water were as follows: [2% (NaC1 soln. ) ? 0. 97; 5%(NaC1 soln. ) ? 0. 98; 10/(NaC1 soln. ) ? 0. 93; and 20%(NaC1 soln. ) ? 0. 79. ] Air temperatures during the course of study... of equation [1], calculations of evaporation rates using adjusted solution temperatures were possible. 3. 0 Y = 0. 0456 X 2. 5 Cocff. of Deter. = 93. 24 S = 0. 593 2 X 2. 0 c 1 r o CL e 1. 0 e ~ ~ ~ s s ~ e ~ e es 10 15 Vapor Pre . sure...

  20. ZINC CHLORIDE CATALYSIS IN COAL AND BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION AT PREPYROLYSIS TEMPERATURES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Onu, Christopher O.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Synthoil process employs a fixed bed of cobalt molybdateoil, and gas through the fixed bed. The H-Coal process has

  1. CATALYTIC LIQUEFACTION BY ZINC CHLORIDE MELTS AT PRE-PYROLYSIS TEMPERATURE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vermeulen, T.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    stream. Plug flow of melt/coal slurry is projected, becauseviscosity of the melt/coal slurry would always be less thanscheme, raw coal is blended into a slurry with ZnCl2/CH30H

  2. Comparative Neurotoxicity of Methylmercury and Mercuric Chloride In Vivo and In Vitro

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thuett, Kerry A.

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    of in vivo MeHg exposure. Total mercury (Hg) levels in tissue / cells were determined by combustion / trapping / atomic absorption. Cell death was determined by Fluoro-Jade histochemical staining and activated caspase 3 immunohistochemistry for in vivo...

  3. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of the Transport Properties of Molten Transuranic Chloride Salts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baty, Austin Alan

    2013-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

    are critical to modeling both the neutronics and heat transfer of an ADSMS system. There is a lack of experimental data on the density, heat capacity, electrical and thermal conductivities, and viscosity of TRUCl3 salt systems. Molecular dynamics simulations...

  4. COAL LIQUEFACTION USING ZINC CHLORIDE CATALYST IN AN EXTRACTING SOLVENT MEDIUM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gandhi, Shamim Ahmed

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    iv List of Tables . , I. INTRODUCTION e o Coal Chemistry B.Coal Liquefaction c.Coal Liquefaction a D. II. o Experiment Equipment Summary of

  5. ZINC CHLORIDE CATALYSIS IN COAL AND BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION AT PREPYROLYSIS TEMPERATURES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Onu, Christopher O.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Geochemistry, Springer Verlag, E2 EPRI ER-746-SR, Biofuels:and C.Z-1. Sliepcevivh, EPRI Rept. AF-974 TPS 77-716, (Jan.Cata- lytica Assocs. for EPRI (Oct. 1975). B7 D.M. Bodily,

  6. Thermodynamic analysis and growth of ZrO2 by chloride chemical vapor deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Timothy J.

    reaction [9­12], and simple chamber designs (e.g., vertical, cold-wall, axisymmetric chamber) to deposit flow injector can be used. A stagnation plane flow injector (for vertical, cold-wall CVD chambers homogeneous nucleation and/ or reactor wall deposition. For example, Holstein [17] de- monstrated that at high

  7. Rate-dependent deformation behavior of poss-filled and plasticized poly(vinyl chloride)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soong, Sharon Yu-Wen

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Polymers are known to exhibit strong time-dependent mechanical behavior. In different temperatures or frequency regimes, the rate sensitivities of polymers change as various primary and secondary molecular mobility mechanisms ...

  8. Electron Beam Damage in Poly(Vinyl Chloride) and Poly(Acrylonitrile...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in the PVC film as a function of dose (time). It takes a dose of approximately 7.0x10-5 Ccm-5 for the chlorine concentration to fall from its original value by 10% (one definition...

  9. ZINC CHLORIDE CATALYSIS IN COAL AND BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION AT PREPYROLYSIS TEMPERATURES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Onu, Christopher O.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Toluene hexane R (gm ret. solv. / gm coal org. ) (gm) Corr.79 CaC12, 158 · 0 Ot-S c- N/C Solv. l_ncor Hex Tol Pyr CorrToluene Pyrid1ne (gm ret. solv. / hexane gm coal org. )

  10. Dietary ammonium chloride and the urinary excretion of chlortetracycline and oxytetracycline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roberts, Ronald Curtis

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    into the digestive tract, The concentrati. on of the tetracyclines in the bile is five to fifteen times that in the plasma of normal subJects. The tetracyclines are excreted primarily by the kidneys into the urine. Ap- proximately twenty-five percent of a single... dose of tetra- cycline can be found in the urine. S1nce the tetracyclines are slowly excreted by the kidney, this could explain the persistence of these antibiotics in the plasma for rela- tively long periods of t1me, Following oral administration...

  11. ZINC CHLORIDE CATALYSIS IN COAL AND BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION AT PREPYROLYSIS TEMPERATURES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Onu, Christopher O.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nature and Origin of Asphaltenes in Processed Coal, Mobilc 40 en j ~Asphaltenes ~ ~-------------------A----Melt-treated Coal Oils Asphaltenes Preasphaltenes o.ss 275°C

  12. HYDROGENOLYSIS OF A SUB-BITUMINOUS COAL WITH MOLTEN ZINC CHLORIDE SOLUTIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holten, R.R.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    molecular-weight ranges of asphaltenes and preasphaltenes.consecutive reactions: coal asphaltenes oil Since the firstfirst being con- verted to asphaltenes. Recently, Sternberg,

  13. CATALYTIC LIQUEFACTION BY ZINC CHLORIDE MELTS AT PRE-PYROLYSIS TEMPERATURE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vermeulen, T.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    solubles ("oils" and "asphaltenes"). Characteristically, the50 and 80°C, and the asphaltenes between 120 and 200°C. A i~in the conversion of asphaltenes to oils, and raises the

  14. COAL LIQUEFACTION USING ZINC CHLORIDE CATALYST IN AN EXTRACTING SOLVENT MEDIUM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gandhi, Shamim Ahmed

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Coal- derived Asphaltene, Fuel, Vol. 57, 676 (1978) Mayo,Castex, H. , Analysis of Asphaltenes by Carbon and Protonalso increased the asphaltene and preasphaltene content of

  15. COAL LIQUEFACTION USING ZINC CHLORIDE CATALYST IN AN EXTRACTING SOLVENT MEDIUM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gandhi, Shamim Ahmed

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    increasing the yield of oil like products. In contrast, Niconversion of coal to oil-like products. The third and finalremoval of the oil-like products from the unreacted products

  16. Modeling Zinc and Sodium Chloride Migration in Vadose Zone Soils Beneath Stormwater Infiltration Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, Shirley E.

    Environmental Pollution Control Program Penn State Harrisburg, Middletown, PA 17057 Objectives To determine

  17. E-Print Network 3.0 - ammonium chloride monolithic Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    mixtures over a range of compositions yielded monolithic green... -gel method; Aerogels 1. Introduction Supercritical drying of monolithic V O gels2 5 formed from the...

  18. Purificaiton of Lanthanides for Large Neutrino Detectors: Thorium Removal from Gadolinium Chloride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yeh, M.; Cumming, J.B.; Hans, S.; Hahn, R.L.

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal-loaded liquid scintillators are the detectors of choice for various neutrino experiments. Procedures have been developed to transfer metals into organic liquids by solvent extraction or direct dissolution of a metallic compound. Traces of natural radioactivity introduced into the scintillator with the metal may produce undesirable backgrounds. Measurements using a {sup 229}Th tracer indicate that the inclusion of a pH-controlled partial hydrolysis and filtration prior to the preparation of a gadolinium-loading compound can reduce thorium by a factor of {approx}100. This 'self-scavenging' procedure has the advantage that it uses only reagents encountered in the production process. Addition of non-elemental scavengers such as iron, or the use of solvent extraction or ion exchange procedures can be avoided. It also improves the optical transmission in the blue region by removing traces of iron. This purification method has potential applications to the large-scale production of other metal-loaded liquid scintillators and for the removal of traces of thorium in the industrial production of lanthanides.

  19. aerobic vinyl chloride-assimilating: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    organic sulfides,6 and perfluorinated polyesters,7,8 have been used to create release coatings Chaudhury, Manoj K. 425 1283J. Blumel, F. H. Kohler Metallated...

  20. Degradation of Vinyl Chloride and 1,2-Dichloroethane by Advanced Reduction Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Xu

    2013-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    UV with dithionite, sulfite, sulfide or ferrous iron. Complete degradation of both target compounds was achieved by all ARP and the reactions were found to follow pseudo-first-order decay kinetics. The effects of pH, sulfite dose, UV light intensity...

  1. An investigation of the transfer of alkali metal chlorides from dimethyl sulfoxide to water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Roger

    1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    works well with sodium metal also. In some preliminary investigations lithium amalgam was prepared electrolytically by depositing lithium at a stirred mercury cathode from a concentrated solution of lithium hydroxide. Lithium amalgams could... -7 -1 18. 3-18. 4o C Redistilled Dimethyl sulfoxide Wate r -7 -1 -1 9. 4x 10 ohm cm -8 -1 -1 2 5x 10 ohm cm 17, 8-17. 9 C 13 Salutes. Salts used in the preparation of solutions were lithium, sodium, potassium, and cesium chlorrdes. Each...

  2. The rate of hydrolysis of benzoyl chloride as a function of water concentration in acetone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelly, Minton Jones

    1956-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ?WY?Y WX RE? u?gEu BI TggEXXWKLE GTL?EX Kh jTgWLWBTBWH? XILGTBWIH jIRgEX 0PWgP WHgRETXE TX BPE gPTR?E BRTHXjER WHgRETXEXV CT?XEX jIR bTBE CPTH?EX 0WBP bEXmEgB BI BPE dILGEHB NWBP BPWX KTXWg mWgB?RE Ij BPE YEgPTHWXYX Ij H?gLEID mPWLWg X?KXBWB?BWIH? IHE... XILGEHB THu RETgBTHB BI KE ?V? ? e? XEg TB ??CV THu ???. ? e??: XEg?: TB ?.?CV r?gEmB jIR BPEXE GTL?EX jIR BPE ?HX?KXBWB?BEu KEH?IhL gPLIRWuE? BPE REXB Ij BPEWR 0IR? uETLX 0WBP BPE EjjEgB Ij X?KXBWB?EHBX IH BPE mTREHB gIYmI?HuV SRTHgP THu FW...

  3. HYDROGENOLYSIS OF A SUB-BITUMINOUS COAL WITH MOLTEN ZINC CHLORIDE SOLUTIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holten, R.R.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    variations in coal from rank to rank, mine to mine, seam tocoal was supplied by the Wyodak t. Resources Development Corporation from the Roland top seam

  4. COAL LIQUEFACTION USING ZINC CHLORIDE CATALYST IN AN EXTRACTING SOLVENT MEDIUM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gandhi, Shamim Ahmed

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Alkylation of Pittsburgh Seam Coal, Fuel, Vol. 57, 697 Olah,The Wyodak coal was obtained from the Roland top seam of the

  5. EVIDENCE OF CORROSIVE GAS FORMED BY RADIOLYSIS OF CHLORIDE SALTS IN PLUTONIUM-BEARING MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, K.; Louthan, M.

    2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Corrosion and pitting have been observed in headspace regions of stainless steel containers enclosing plutonium oxide/salt mixtures. These observations are consistent with the formation of a corrosive gas, probably HCl, and transport of that gas to the headspace regions of sealed containers. The NH{sub 4}Cl films found on the walls of the sealed containers is also indicative of the presence of HCl gas. Radiolysis of hydrated alkaline earth salts is the probable source of HCl.

  6. Syntheses of Tungsten tert-Butylimido and Adamantylimido Alkylidene Complexes Employing Pyridinium Chloride as the Acid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeong, Hyangsoo

    Routes to new tungsten alkylidene complexes that contain tert-butylimido or adamantylimido ligands have been devised that begin with a reaction between WCl[subscript 6] and 4 equivalents of HNR(TMS) to give [W(NR)[subscript ...

  7. VISCOSITY OF AQUEOUS SODIUM CHLORIDE SOLUTIONS FROM 0 - 150oC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ozbek, H.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and evaluate data on geothermal energy for electrical andeconomic aspects of geothermal energy. While the larger workDivision of Geothermal Energy; Office of Environmental

  8. Bleaching of F-centers in sodium chloride at room temperature by electron tunneling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carroll, Herbert Burnett

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of a'1uminu", was found by absorption r::easurements to have an effective wave length of ~ K2 A (see Appendix j). The x-ray bear. . was uollLrmted i~ a petr of 1 x 8 mm el'ts in lead discs, 31 and ~, mounted appm&~tely 6 cent5wietere apart in ae...

  9. A comparison of the urea and guanidinium chloride denaturation of four proteins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greene, Raymond Franklin

    1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . 3. ~sos(ace Lysosyme (Lot No. LYSF OCC) was obtained from Worthington Biochemical Corporation as a two time recrystallised powder. The protein was used without further purification. 0. c-+C~a~ot ~sip. e-Chymotrypsln (Lot No. CDI 2LX), a three... time recrystallised produot of chymo- trypsinogen was obtained from Worthington Biochemical Corporation as a lyophilised powder and used without further purifioation. 5. Urea. Ultra pure urea (Lot No. U1039) was purchased from Mann Research...

  10. ZINC CHLORIDE CATALYSIS IN COAL AND BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION AT PREPYROLYSIS TEMPERATURES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Onu, Christopher O.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    pores of coal. c~n pene- Molten salts, particularly SnC1 2 ,the selection of ZnC1 2 as the molten salt catalyst for coalis very necessary. Molten salts have demonstrated catalytic

  11. HYDROGENOLYSIS OF A SUB-BITUMINOUS COAL WITH MOLTEN ZINC CHLORIDE SOLUTIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holten, R.R.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquefaction Chemistry B. Molten Salt Catalysis RationaleUsed Equipment and Procedure Molten Salt a. b. c. Treat~entEquipment and Procedure Molten Salt Treatment a. Equipment

  12. E-Print Network 3.0 - acids restore chloride Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Channel Restoration on Water Velocity, Transient Storage, and Nutrient Uptake... of stream restoration, but little is known of the interplay between hydrogeomorphic features...

  13. Development of Mercury and Hydrogen Chloride Emission Monitors for Coal Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Norton; D. Eckels; C. Chriswell

    2001-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The gas conditioning issues involved with coal gasification streams are very complex and do not have simple solutions. This is particularly true in view of the fact that the gas conditioning system must deal with tars, high moisture contents, and problems with NH{sub 3} without affecting low ppb levels of Hg, low levels (low ppm or less) of HCl, or the successful operation of conditioner components and analytical systems. Those issues are far from trivial. Trying to develop a non-chemical system for gas conditioning was very ambitious in view of the difficult sampling environment and unique problems associated with coal gasification streams. Although a great deal was learned regarding calibration, sample transport, instrumentation options, gas stream conditioning, and CEM design options, some challenging issues still remain. Sample transport is one area that is often not adequately considered. Because of the gas stream composition and elevated temperatures involved, special attention will need to be given to the choice of materials for the sample line and other plumbing components. When using gas stream oxidation, there will be sample transport regions under oxidizing as well as reducing conditions, and each of those regions will require different materials of construction for sample transport. The catalytic oxidation approach worked well for removal of tars and NH{sub 3} on a short term basis, but durability issues related to using the catalyst tube during extended testing periods still require study.

  14. STUDIES OF MICROMORPHOLOGY AND CURRENT EFFICIENCY OF ZINC ELECTRODEPOSITED FROM FLOWING CHLORIDE ELECTROLYTES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mc Vay, L.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    were then encased in The brass core with silver epoxy resin.epoxy resin, heat-cured and machined to the desired circularbolt that was coated with epoxy resin corrosion. The anodes

  15. chloride tent was permeable to NHs and that small amounts of 4NHs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wurtman, Richard

    hydroxide hydrolysis of the MgO-distilled water from the tent did release small amounts of NHa. These data suggest that small amounts of amide N may have leaked or been present in the condensed water from, though its glucuronide can be extracted from Joroad bean, Vicia faba (2, 3). Solid pellets of Big Red

  16. Loading effects of sodium chloride solutions on the high frequency titrimeter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Benjamin Peter

    1952-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    developed by 1, T. Jensen and k. I, . Parrack at College Station, Tsxasi (4) (5) The uee of this instrument is based on ths loading of an induc tance ooil in the oscillator oircuit by chemical solutions. The mag niti!ke of this loedin ie controlled ?y... 8'. & 'oint& ':;-s r:=. ct t". ! - t":sre &of=+ or Mrht not 1o ca~lots fidelity in instru ] r q q "P r ""d pw + &' r ''ll Al J e 1 5 5 s! rect !hAt i ?e nature of the 'ionic c. o . -u& e differs t, "&: a?d ma~liege ot k"s end . . aint...

  17. Flow and morphological conditions associated with the directional solidification of aqueous ammonium chloride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magirl, C.S.; Incropera, F.P.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using 27% aq. NH[sub 4]Cl solutions as transparent analog, shadowgraphy and dye injection were used to observe flow and morphology in unidirectional solidification (UDS) from below. Dendritic crystals that form at the cold surface reject lighter, solute-deficient fluid, and instability is shown by finger-type double-diffusive convection. As the mushy two-phase region grows, perturbations at the liquidus interface cause localized remelting and downward development of channels. Solsutal plumes emanate from the channels, and in time, double-diffusive convection layers also form in the melt. When the solution is chilled at the sides as well as at the bottom, conditions are influenced by detachment and settling of crystals from the sidewall and by plumes from slanted channels. When a slow, oscillatory rocking motion is imposed on UDS, the freckle-type segregates in the final cast is suppressed. Within the melt, plumes and double-diffusive convection are eliminated. Inertially induced convection mixes the melt and produces a dense slurry. Although channels are eliminated from the bottom mushy region, overall heat transfer and macrosegregation in the cavity are unaffected by the slow rocking. Numerical simulations qualitatively predict trends in the field variables and provide insights on interdendritic flows and macrosegregation (freckle-, A-type segregates), although its quantitative predictions are hampered by simplifying assumptions.

  18. Flow and morphological conditions associated with the directional solidification of aqueous ammonium chloride. Annual performance report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magirl, C.S.; Incropera, F.P.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using 27% aq. NH{sub 4}Cl solutions as transparent analog, shadowgraphy and dye injection were used to observe flow and morphology in unidirectional solidification (UDS) from below. Dendritic crystals that form at the cold surface reject lighter, solute-deficient fluid, and instability is shown by finger-type double-diffusive convection. As the mushy two-phase region grows, perturbations at the liquidus interface cause localized remelting and downward development of channels. Solsutal plumes emanate from the channels, and in time, double-diffusive convection layers also form in the melt. When the solution is chilled at the sides as well as at the bottom, conditions are influenced by detachment and settling of crystals from the sidewall and by plumes from slanted channels. When a slow, oscillatory rocking motion is imposed on UDS, the freckle-type segregates in the final cast is suppressed. Within the melt, plumes and double-diffusive convection are eliminated. Inertially induced convection mixes the melt and produces a dense slurry. Although channels are eliminated from the bottom mushy region, overall heat transfer and macrosegregation in the cavity are unaffected by the slow rocking. Numerical simulations qualitatively predict trends in the field variables and provide insights on interdendritic flows and macrosegregation (freckle-, A-type segregates), although its quantitative predictions are hampered by simplifying assumptions.

  19. The value of tetrazolium chloride test reagent in the evaluation of seed quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Metzer, Robert Benjamin

    1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cotton seed germination. Seed which stained a pink to dark red with tetrasolium were considered as germinating seed. In the hulled seed method, the hulled seed were tested in the germinator at 88 F. and counts were made the second day. They found... crops fumigated at 80 F. and stored ten months prior to a second fumigation at 95 P. are 0 presented in Table 5 . The analysis of vaziance of this data is given in Table 6. The differences in methods (stain vs. germination) were signifi- cant...

  20. Syntheses of Tungsten tert-Butylimido and Adamantylimido Alkylidene Complexes Employing Pyridinium Chloride As the Acid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Müller, Peter

    Syntheses of Tungsten tert-Butylimido and Adamantylimido Alkylidene Complexes Employing Pyridinium Supporting Information ABSTRACT: Routes to new tungsten alkylidene complexes that contain tert and tungsten, especially aryls that are mono- or disubstituted in the ortho position(s).2 However, it has

  1. Selected genomic and phenotypic responses of Salmonella serovars to chlorine, chlorine dioxide, and cetylpyridinium chloride

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kakani, Grihalakshmi

    2012-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    but nonculturable (VBNC) state in Salmonella due to CPC was also investigated. The inactivation parameters for each serovar and the chemical were estimated based on the Hom's model, ln (N/N0) = -k C^n T^m and it appeared that while disinfectant contact time...

  2. Agronomic differences in growth and yield between BT and conventional cotton treated with mepiquat chloride

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Underbrink, Shelley Marie

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the Department of Soil and Crop Sciences at Texas A&M University. In addition, thanks to BASF Chemical Company for providing the chemicals and finances necessary for completion of this thesis experiment. vn TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT. Page nl DEDICATION...

  3. Soil stabilization using optimum quantity of calcium chloride with Class F fly ash

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Hyung Jun

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Ash at 90days ............... 38 5-13 Stress Strain Curve of 6% CaCl2+10% Fly Ash at 90days ............... 39 5-14 Stress Strain Curve of 4% CaCl2+15% Fly Ash at 90days ............... 39 5-15 Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy... (E-SEM) of Class F Fly Ash ................................................................................. 40 5-16 Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (E-SEM) of Control Soil after 7 Days of Curing...

  4. Probabilistic evaluation of the sustainability of maintenance strategies for RC structures exposed to chloride ingress

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    is proposed. Keywords: reinforced concrete, sustainability, corrosion, maintenance, reliability. hal-00796729, to guarantee optimum levels of serviceability and safety during the life-cycle, maintenance planning1 Probabilistic evaluation of the sustainability of maintenance strategies for RC structures

  5. VISCOSITY OF AQUEOUS SODIUM CHLORIDE SOLUTIONS FROM 0 - 150oC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ozbek, H.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A. , Fabuss, B.M. , "Viscosities of Binary Aqueous Solutionsof Pressure on the Viscosity of Aqueous NaCl Solutions inF.A. , Kestin, J. , "The Viscosity of NaCl and KCl Solutions

  6. a-dependent cftr chloride: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: recently demonstrated that the oncogenic, constitutively kinase activated NPM-ALK protein was antiapoptotic identified as part of the NPM-ALK oncogenic fusion...

  7. Cationic quaternization of cellulose with methacryloyloxy ethyl trimethyl ammonium chloride via ATRP method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Supeno [Cenderawasih University, Jayapura, Papua, Indonesia and School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Daik, Rusli, E-mail: rusli@ukm.edu.my [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); El-Sheikh, Said M. [Nano-Structured Materials Division, Advanced Materials Department, Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute, Cairo (Egypt)

    2014-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The synthesis of a cationic cellulose copolymer from cellulose macro-initiator (MCC-BiB) and quaternary compound monomer (METMA) via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) was studied. By using dimethylformamide (DMF), the optimum condition for successful synthesis was at the mole ratio of MCC-BIB:Catalyst:METMA = 1:1:26. The highest copolymer recovery was 93.2 % for 6 h and at 40°C. The copolymer was insoluble in weak polar solvents such as THF and DMF but soluble in methanol and water. The chemistry of cellulose copolymer was confirmed by the FTIR and TGA in which the METMA monomer was used as a reference. The absence of CC bond in the CiB-g-METMA spectrum indicated that graft copolymerization occurred.

  8. A study of the reaction between antimony (V) chloride and organic amine hydrochlorides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bier, Harold Dean

    1962-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    - line and. dimethyl aniline salts of the same composition were also reported. Ephraim and Meinberg prepared methyl and diethyl ammonium hexachloroantimonate (V) salts. Gutbier and Haussmann prepared several amine hexachloroantimonates. These 6... begins to precipitate from these solvents. The pre- cipitate is gelatinous and creamy white in color. The pre- cipitate is probably a hydrolysis product of the hexachloro- antimonate (V) ion. The compounds are slightly soluble in diethyl ether and...

  9. Localized Plasticity in the Streamlined Genomes of Vinyl Chloride Respiring Dehalococcoides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McMurdie, Paul J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conceived and designed the experiments: PJM SFB FEL AMS.Performed the experiments: PJM SFB KMR.Analyzed the data: PJM SFB JAM JG KMR RW EG AL SH FEL AMS.

  10. Methyl chloride variability in the Taylor Dome ice core during the Holocene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Verhulst, Kristal R; Aydin, Murat; Saltzman, Eric S

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the Taylor Dome ice core during the Holocene Kristal R.2005GB002680. Lee-Taylor, J. , and K. R. Redeker (2005),

  11. HYDROGENOLYSIS OF A SUB-BITUMINOUS COAL WITH MOLTEN ZINC CHLORIDE SOLUTIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holten, R.R.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for Liquefaction and Gasification of Western Coals", in5272 (1976). COal Processing - Gasification, Liguefaction,or gaseous fuels, coal gasification has advanced furthest

  12. An In-depth Investigation of an Aluminum Chloride Retarded Mud Acid System on Sandstone Reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aneto, Nnenna

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved by: Chair of Committee, Hisham Nasr-El-Din Committee Members, Jerome Schubert Mahmoud El-Halwagi Head of Department, Stephen Holditch May 2012 Major... Committee: Dr. Hisham Nasr-El-Din Sandstone acidizing using mud acid is a quick and complex process where dissolution and precipitation occur simultaneously. Retarded mud acids are less reactive with the rock reducing the reaction rate hence increased...

  13. Ultraviolet-B radiation enhancement in dielectric barrier discharge based xenon chloride exciplex source by air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gulati, P., E-mail: pgulati1512@gmail.com [CSIR-Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute (CSIR-CEERI), Pilani, Rajasthan-333031 (India); Department of Physics, Banasthali University, P.O. Banasthali Vidyapith, Rajasthan 304022 (India); Prakash, R.; Pal, U. N.; Kumar, M. [CSIR-Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute (CSIR-CEERI), Pilani, Rajasthan-333031 (India); Vyas, V. [Department of Physics, Banasthali University, P.O. Banasthali Vidyapith, Rajasthan 304022 (India)

    2014-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A single barrier dielectric barrier discharge tube of quartz with multi-strip Titanium-Gold (Ti-Au) coatings have been developed and utilized for ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation production peaking at wavelength 308?nm. The observed radiation at this wavelength has been examined for the mixtures of the Xenon together with chlorine and air admixtures. The gas mixture composition, chlorine gas content, total gas pressure, and air pressure dependency of the UV intensity, has been analyzed. It is found that the larger concentration of Cl{sub 2} deteriorates the performance of the developed source and around 2% Cl{sub 2} in this source produced optimum results. Furthermore, an addition of air in the xenon and chlorine working gas environment leads to achieve same intensity of UV-B light but at lower working gas pressure where significant amount of gas is air.

  14. Time-resolved energy transfer from single chloride-terminated nanocrystals to graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hone, James

    and Engineering, Solid-State Science and Engineering, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027, USA 2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027, USA 3 Department of Chemistry, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027, USA 4 Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New

  15. HYDROGENOLYSIS OF A SUB-BITUMINOUS COAL WITH MOLTEN ZINC CHLORIDE SOLUTIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holten, R.R.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of char and gases. The Fischer-Tropsch process is an exampleprocess economics, the Fischer-Tropsch process has not beenevaluations for a Fischer-Tropsch plant in the United

  16. Localized Plasticity in the Streamlined Genomes of Vinyl Chloride Respiring Dehalococcoides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McMurdie, Paul J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    package [75] of the R language for statistical computing [R Development Core Team (2009) R: A Language and Environment for Statistical

  17. Acetic Acid from the Carbonylation of Chloride Methane Over Rhodium Based Catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bao, Xinhe

    on an indirect route via synthesis gas (syngas), i.e., methane is first con- verted to syngas before it is further transformed into other useful products [6]. However, the production of syngas from methane) 130:286­290 DOI 10.1007/s10562-009-0017-9 #12;[12], which is produced from syngas feedstock with Cu

  18. Chlorine activation indoors and outdoors via surface-mediated reactions of nitrogen oxides with hydrogen chloride.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    garbage burning (7), incineration of municipal and medicalindustrial settings, incineration fa- cilities (5), biomass

  19. Effect of Brush Vegetation on Deep Drainage Using Chloride Mass Balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Navarrete Ganchozo, Ronald J.

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Groundwater use is of fundamental importance to meet rapidly expanding urban, industrial, and agricultural water requirements, particularly in semiarid zones. To quantify the current rate of groundwater recharge is thus a prerequisite for efficient...

  20. The Role of the Ocean in the Atmospheric Budgets of Methyl Bromide, Methyl Chloride and Methane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Lei

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    , which was 700 (490 to 920) Gg yr^-1 and -370 (-440 to -280) Gg yr^-1, respectively. The ocean accounts for 10 - 19 % in the global CH3Cl emission and 6 - 9 % in its global sinks. Methane (CH4) is a potent greenhouse gas, which has a warming potential...

  1. HYDROGENOLYSIS OF A SUB-BITUMINOUS COAL WITH MOLTEN ZINC CHLORIDE SOLUTIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holten, R.R.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    or gaseous fuels, coal gasification has advanced furthestrapidly. While coal gasification may reach commercializa-5272 (1976). COal Processing - Gasification, Liguefaction,

  2. Chloride and Lithium Transport in Large Arrays of Undisturbed Silt Loam and Sandy Loam Soil Columns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, M.Todd

    -The transport of Cl and Li was investigated in 90 undisturbed ing of trace metals from an old sludge application through preferential flowpaths. variety of sewage sludges (biosolids) at agronomic rates. With soil;of deionized water and multiple subsequent irrigations with synthetic Yasuda et al., 1996; Jorgenson

  3. Palladium chloride to palladium metal two-dimensional nucleation and growth phenomena

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, H.C. de; Carlin, R.T. [Air Force Academy, CO (United States). Frank J. Seiler Research Lab.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The reduction of a monolayer of surface-bound Pd(II) to Pd(0) on a palladium substrate reveals two-dimensional nucleation and growth phenomena. Using well-known 2D nucleation-growth theories, this reduction is shown to proceed by an instantaneous nucleation and growth mechanism. However, when a submonolayer of Pd(II) is present, this mechanism fails to account for the experimentally observed high cathodic currents seen at zero time. A model incorporating preexisting Pd(0) cylindrical sites on the partially oxidized Pd(0) surface has been successfully applied to account for the discrepancy between the experimental results and current 2D theories. Using this modified 2D model, values for the mathematical product of cylindrical growth rate and the square root of the nucleation site densities have been determined, and the overpotential dependence of the growth rate has been confirmed and quantified. These 2D nucleation-growth phenomena have practical consequences on the performance of the Pd(II)/Pd(0) system as a faradaic supercapacitor, and probably on the performance of other 2D faradaic supercapacitor systems. In addition, because many electrodes undergo monolayer surface oxidation-reduction reactions in other solvent systems, especially aqueous electrolytes, these 2D nucleation-growth phenomena may play a role in these important surface-modifying redox systems as well.

  4. Copper(I) Chloride Carbonyl Polymers Austin B. Wiles and Robert D. Pike*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pike, Robert D.

    of Chemistry, College of William and Mary, P.O. Box 8795, Williamsburg, Virginia 23187-8795 ReceiVed February.; Gaudinski, C. M.; Miller, S. M.; Anderson, O. P.; Strauss, S. H. Organometallics 1999, 18, 3769. (c) Polyakov, A. G.; Nolan, B. G.; Fauber, B. P.; Miller, S. M.; Anderson, O. P.; Strauss, S. H. Inorg. Chem

  5. The effect of mechanical strain on the radiation-coloration of potassium chloride

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Everett, James Eugene

    1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    but clamping it in a vise securely enough to apply a considerable tension provod difficult. After trying several methods of' clamping and applying tension, it was found that s pair of battery clamps would hold tho sample while tension was applied.... As the tension was increased, the clamping force holding the sample was i?creased nnd this "biting" action uf the battery clamps prevented the sample from slipping free as the tension was increased. The sample was subjected to intonse forces of compression...

  6. Optical spectra and luminescence of REE and TRU for analytical purposes in chloride melts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aloy, A.S.; Gorshkov, N.G.; Nekhoroshkov, S.N. [FSUE RPA - V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute - KRI, 2 Murinsky Ave., 28, St. Petersburg, 194021(Russian Federation); Osipenko, A.G.; Mayorshin, A.A. [Federal State Unitary Enterprise - State Scientific Center of RF Research Institute of Atomic Reactors, Dimitrovgrad-10, Ulyanovsk region 43351 (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper analyzes absorption spectra of molten salts containing some of the actinide and rare-earth elements (REE) and evaluated the prospects of using the individual transitions to control the composition of the spent molten salts using adsorption and luminescence spectroscopy from the standpoint of the theory of Judd-Ofelt. It is shown that the fluorescent method can be recommended only for the monitoring of the degree of purification of the molten salt from the REE in the final stage, when only trace amounts of fission products are in the molten salt. In this case, the content of REE in the molten process is much smaller than that of the used model samples and that eliminates the problem of a significant decrease in the population levels of fluorescent Eu{sup 3+} by quenching impurities. In addition, the presence of salt in the matrix of americium and curium can cause self-luminescence of Eu{sup 3+} due to alpha disintegration energy of transuranics, which also complicates the quantitative measurement of luminescence for the determination of REE.

  7. Chloride-Magnesium Ratio of Shallow Groundwaters as a Regional Geothermal

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model, click here.TelluricPower International New EnergyChippewa

  8. Sources Of Chloride In Hydrothermal Fluids From The Valles Caldera, New

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries Pvt LtdShawangunk, NewSingaporeSonix Japan Inc Jump to:Sound Beach, New

  9. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report, Fourth Quarter 1999 and 1999 Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chase, J.

    2000-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A maximum of thirty eight-wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Water Permit DWP-087A and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. Iron (Total Recoverable), Chloroethene (Vinyl Chloride) and 1,1-Dichloroethane were the most widespread constituents exceeding the Final Primary Drinking Water Standards during 1999. Trichloroethylene, 1,1-Dichloroethylene, 1,2-Dichloroethane, 1,4-Dichlorobenzene, Aluminum (Total Recoverable), Benzene, cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene, Dichlorodifluoromethane, Dichloromethane (Methylene Chloride), Gross Alpha, Mercury (Total Recoverable), Nonvolatile Beta, Tetrachloroethylene, Total Organic Halogens, Trichlorofluoromethane, Tritium also exceeded standards in one or more wells. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill is to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate in this unit was approximately 144.175 ft/year during first quarter 1999 and 145.27 ft/year during fourth quarter 1999.

  10. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report - Third and Fourth Quarters 2000 and 2000 Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chase, J.A.

    2001-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A maximum of forty wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Waste Permit DWP-087A and as part of the Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Quality Assessment Plan. Chloroethene (vinyl chloride) and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituent exceeding the Final Primary Drinking Water Standards during the calendar year 2000. 1,4-Dichlorobenzene, benzene, dichloromethane (methylene chloride), gross alpha, lead (total recoverable) mercury (total recoverable), thallium (total recoverable), and tritium also exceeded standards in one or more wells. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill is to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate at this unit was approximately 122.64 ft/year during first quarter 2000 and 132.28 ft/year during fourth quarter 2000.

  11. Manganese Porphyrins Catalyze Selective C-H Bond Halogenations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Wei; Groves, John T

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report a manganese porphyrin mediated aliphatic C?H bond chlorination using sodium hypochlorite as the chlorine source. In the presence of catalytic amounts of phase transfer catalyst and manganese porphyrin Mn(TPP)Cl 1, reaction of sodium hypochlorite with different unactivated alkanes afforded alkyl chlorides as the major products with only trace amounts of oxygenation products. Substrates with strong C?H bonds, such as neopentane (BDE =?100 kcal/mol) can be also chlorinated with moderate yield. Chlorination of a diagnostic substrate, norcarane, afforded rearranged products indicating a long-lived carbon radical intermediate. Moreover, regioselective chlorination was achieved by using a hindered catalyst, Mn(TMP)Cl, 2. Chlorination of trans-decalin with 2 provided 95% selectivity for methylene-chlorinated products as well as a preference for the C2 position. This novel chlorination system was also applied to complex substrates. With 5?-cholestane as the substrate, we observed chlorination only at the C2 and C3 positions in a net 55% yield, corresponding to the least sterically hindered methylene positions in the A-ring. Similarly, chlorination of sclareolide afforded the equatorial C2 chloride in a 42% isolated yield. Regarding the mechanism, reaction of sodium hypochlorite with the Mn{sup III} porphyrin is expected to afford a reactive Mn{sup V}?O complex that abstracts a hydrogen atom from the substrate, resulting in a free alkyl radical and a Mn{sup IV}—OH complex. We suggest that this carbon radical then reacts with a Mn{sup IV}—OCl species, providing the alkyl chloride and regenerating the reactive Mn{sup V}?O complex. The regioselectivity and the preference for CH{sub 2} groups can be attributed to nonbonded interactions between the alkyl groups on the substrates and the aryl groups of the manganese porphyrin. The results are indicative of a bent [Mn{sup v}?O---H---C] geometry due to the C—H approach to the Mn{sup v}?O (d??p?)* frontier orbital.

  12. The Solvent Mediated Thermodynamics of Cellulose Deconstruction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gross, Adam S

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    5 Preferential Interactions between Lithium Chloride and5 – Preferential Interactions between Lithium Chloride and

  13. Treatment of recalcitrant plantar hyperhidrosis with type-A botulinum toxin injections and aluminum chloride in salicylic acid gel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benohanian, Antranik

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    hyperhidrosis. Needle-free anesthesia as an alternative toBenohanian A. Needle-free anesthesia: a promising techniqueunits (mu) per sole. Anesthesia was achieved through the

  14. Estimation of agricultural benefits due to chloride control along the Pease River alluvium in the rolling plains of Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zacharias, Thomas Paul

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Objectives Description of the project Impacts of Salinity Study Area Justification II. CONCEPTUAL ~ORK 1 2 3 4 6 7 10 Opening Remarks Review of Literature Irrigation and Salinity The Interest Rate . Appropriate Measure of Benefit... for Dryland Cotton 91 20. Base Budget for Irrigated Cotton 92 21. Base Budget for Dryland Wheat 93 22. Base Budget for Irrigated Wheat 23. Base Budget for Dryland Alfalfa Establishment 24. Base Budget for Dryland Alfalfa Maintenance 25. Base Budget...

  15. Morphology of GaAs/sub 1-x/P/sub x/ superlattices grown by MOCVD and chloride VPE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blakeslee, A.E.; Kibbler, A.; Wanlass, M.W.

    1985-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Distorted layer growth manifested by nonuniform etching may occur in GaAs/sub 1-x/P/sub x/ superlattices grown by MOCVD and VPE. The distortion was found to be more severe for MOCVD growth than for VPE. The distortion is decreased by decreasing the magnitude of the interlayer strain in the superlattice but does not depend upon the layer thickness. The rate of crystal growth, the temperature of growth and the strain rate in the layer supporting the superlattice also influence the distortion. Several possible causes of the effect are discussed, including nonuniform elastic stress and/or compositional nonuniformity. 12 references, 6 figures.

  16. Anhydrous ferric chloride as an alkylation catalyst: The condensation of 2-methylpropene and benzene, preparation and identification of several fractions.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mommessin, Pierre Robert

    1950-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lg T: I snoop /~qua ep ? polio mn'[IunIp snoop. &qua 'op:zonI. xzg uo'oq 'oppxc+uad snzoqdsoqd 'pgoa o-?zngIos 'ap-=onIg ue3ozpZq sa qons 'sos. . Ie'=- plo'-' 1 c acTTa e Jd aqua uQ suoqgT oogppq ot )gmo Te qf~ $ese J IIT+ sane&Ia g&qq. emI~ amos... -uesezo. Qq~ , T eosazuao, qq. . ~ aueguq Pua . ue~::nod ~o uotgus -ueP too ev", PetPuq s Pixatsvnoty, Puu 'B?og 'Butuatip Q' "g J. elQ J euagnq-u erg qgtsp. Qe. ~-. aqqa eZV. SgtuSa Zattmtg Ouasueo. -tfiouo--. , see-tap pu- euez, :aqtfi. ?nq...

  17. A 2000 year atmospheric history of methyl chloride from a South Pole ice core: Evidence for climate-controlled variability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Margaret B; Aydin, Murat; Tatum, Cheryl; Saltzman, Eric S

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    from NW Atlantic and Pacific Ocean studies, J. Geophys.in both the Atlantic and Pacific oceans for elevated low

  18. ZINC CHLORIDE-CATALYZED REACTIONS OF OXYGEN- AND SULFUR-CONTAINING COMPOUNDS WITH MODEL STRUCTURES IN COAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mobley, David Paul

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    H. H. , ed. , "Chemistry of Coal Utilization", Suppl. Vol. ,H. H. , ed. , "Chemistry of Coal Utilization", Suppl. Vol. ,Internat. Conf. Bituminous Coal, 3d Con£. , 2, 35 (1932);

  19. The interrelations of mineral colloids and sodium chloride as measured by pH, conductivity, and water-soluble cations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crozier, Baalis B

    1952-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is iegebteg to tbe fallortsg for assis'tasse awl gaigance ia tbe yroyaratioa of this thesis. To Dr. E. E. Eseytoa~ Professor of kgr~ aag Ore&eats kgrisor, aod Dr+ J. De Page, Professor of kgrsssaeP for ssyervisioa throaghoat ths staging to Dr. L. C. gay...'~ Professor of AgroaosP~ for belyfal saggasti~j to Professor C D OogbePp Eeaclp De+arts%at of Qeaeticsp for assist ~ ace ia oabiog the statistical emesis ?f resaltsi to Dr. J. E. kha3ss~ Read, Deyartaeat of kgroooay~ for soggesteg iwyrow...

  20. Comparison of the cytotoxic effects of cadmium chloride and cadmium-metallothionein in LLC-PK[sub 1] cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prozialeck, W.C.; Wellington, D.R.; Lamar, P.C. (Midwestern Univ., Downers Grove, IL (United States))

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent studies have shown that ionic cadmium (Cd[sup 2+]) can selectively damage the tight junctions between LLC-PK[sub 1] cells. The objective of the present studies was to determine if cadmium that is bound to metallothionein (CD-MT) can also damage the junctions between these cells. Cells on Falcon Cell Culture Inserts were exposed to Cd[sup 2+] or Cd-Mt from the apical and basolateral compartments. The integrity of cell junctions was assessed by monitoring the transepithelial electrical resistance, and cell viability was evaluated by monitoring the release of lactate dehydrogenase into the medium. Exposure to Cd[sup 2+] for 1-4 hours caused a pronounced decrease in the transepithelial resistance without affecting cell viability. By contrast, exposure to Cd-Mt had little effect on the electrical resistance until the cells began to die, which did not occur until 24-48 hours of exposure. Additional results showed that the cells accumulated Cd[sup 2+] more rapidly than Cd-Mt. These results indicate that Cd-Mt does not damage the junctions between LLC-PK[sub 1] cells, but that it can kill the cells after prolonged exposure.

  1. Actinide Corroles: Synthesis and Characterization of Thorium(IV) and Uranium(IV) bis(-chloride) Dimers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, Ashleigh L.; Buckley, Heather L.; Gryko, Daniel T.; Lukens, Wayne W.; Arnold, John

    2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The first synthesis and structural characterization of actinide corroles is presented. Thorium(IV) and uranium(IV) macrocycles of Mes2(p-OMePh)corrole were synthesised and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, UV-Visible spectroscopy, variable-temperature 1H NMR, ESI mass spectrometry and cyclic voltammetry.

  2. Experimental and theoretical investigation of the production of HCl and some metal chlorides in magmatic/hydrothermal systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The theoretical analysis is given for calculating the composition of the aqueous vapor and the saline brine (hydrosaline liquid) present at run pressure and temperature in the experiment. The mixture of aqueous vapor and brine is homogenized upon quench. The method for calculating the concentration of HCl and NaCl in the coexisting aqueous vapor and brine is shown.

  3. Comparison of analytical results for chloride, sulfate and nitrate obtained from adjacent ice core samples by two ion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, John

    and sulfate but not for nitrate. 2% of the data indicate real differences in concentrations across the ice atmosphere. Ice core data are widely used to understand environmental and climate processes in the past.1 suited for the analysis of low concentrations of soluble ions in ice core samples without pretreatment.5

  4. Effects of Methanol on the Thermodynamics of Iron(III) [Tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)]porphyrin Chloride Dissociation and the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bell, Alexis T.

    Effects of Methanol on the Thermodynamics of Iron(III) [Tetrakis in acetonitrile but is catalytically active if the solvent contains methanol. It was suggested that the precursor to the active species is (F20TPP)Fe(OCH3) in methanol-containing solvents. The present study was aimed

  5. 5-Cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride (CTC) reduction in a mesophilic anaerobic digester: Measuring redox behavior,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pace, Norman

    this work suggest that CTC reduction in cell-free samples may impede accurate enzyme activity measurements: Measuring redox behavior, differentiating abiotic reduction, and comparing FISH response as an activity). Dehydrogenase activity assays and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) were simultaneously carried out

  6. Diatomaceous earth and activated bauxite used as granular sorbents for the removal of sodium chloride vapor from hot flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.H.D.; Swift, W.M.; Johnson, I.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Diatomaceous earth and activated bauxite were tested as granular sorbents for use as filter media in granular-bed filters for the removal of gaseous alkali metal compounds from the hot (800/sup 0/C) flue gas of PFBC. Tests were performed at atmospheric pressure, using NaCl vapor transported in relatively dry simulated flue gas of PFBC. Either a fixed-bed combustor or a high-temperature sorption test rig was used. The effects of sorbent bed temperature, superficial gas velocity, gas hourly space velocity, and NaCl-vapor concentration in flue gas on the sorption behavior of these two sorbents and their ultimate sorption capacities were determined. Both diatomaceous earth and activated bauxite were found to be very effective in removing NaCl vapor from flue gas. Preliminary cost evaluations showed that they are economically attractive as granular sorbents for cleaning alkali vapor from simulated flue gas.

  7. Functional characterization of flavobacteria rhodopsins reveals a unique class of light-driven chloride pump in bacteria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoshizawa, Susumu

    Light-activated, ion-pumping rhodopsins are broadly distributed among many different bacteria and archaea inhabiting the photic zone of aquatic environments. Bacterial proton- or sodium-translocating rhodopsins can convert ...

  8. Amino Alcohols as Ligands for Nickel-Catalyzed Suzuki Reactions of Unactivated Alkyl Halides, Including Secondary Alkyl Chlorides, with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fu, Gregory C.

    Amino Alcohols as Ligands for Nickel-Catalyzed Suzuki Reactions of Unactivated Alkyl Halides February 27, 2006; E-mail: gcf@mit.edu Early work in the area of palladium- and nickel-catalyzed cross of unactivated secondary alkyl halides is based on nickel/bathophenanthroline.4 This method can be applied

  9. The interrelations of mineral colloids and sodium chloride as measured by pH, conductivity, and water-soluble cations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crozier, Baalis B

    1952-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is iegebteg to tbe fallortsg for assis'tasse awl gaigance ia tbe yroyaratioa of this thesis. To Dr. E. E. Eseytoa~ Professor of kgr~ aag Ore&eats kgrisor, aod Dr+ J. De Page, Professor of kgrsssaeP for ssyervisioa throaghoat ths staging to Dr. L. C. gay...'~ Professor of AgroaosP~ for belyfal saggasti~j to Professor C D OogbePp Eeaclp De+arts%at of Qeaeticsp for assist ~ ace ia oabiog the statistical emesis ?f resaltsi to Dr. J. E. kha3ss~ Read, Deyartaeat of kgroooay~ for soggesteg iwyrow...

  10. Effect of calcium chloride on pH and availability of zinc and phosphorus in three calcareous soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Podisuk, Varangkana

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    loam ~ 39 2' 10 Effect of applied CaC12, P and Zn on water extractable soil Cl of Miller clay. 43 Effect of applied CaC1, P and Zn on water extractable soil Cl of Houston Black clay 12 Effect of applied CaC12, P and Zn on water extractable soil Cl... clay, Houston Black clay and Trinity fine sandy loam . 6p 19 Water extractable soil P as affected by dif- ferent treatments of Ca, P and Zn of the Miller, Houston Black and Trinity soils. . . . . . . . . 63 20 Water extractable soil Zn as affected...

  11. Structural response in FeCl2 (iron chloride) to pressure-induced electro-magnetic transitions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, R D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rozenberg, G Kh [TEL AVIV UNIV; Pasternak, M P [TEL AVIV UNIV; Gorodetsky, P [TEL AVIV UNIV; Xu, W M [TEL AVIV UNIV; Dubrovinsky, L S [UNIV OF BAYREUTH; Le Bihan, T L [FRANCE

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High pressure (HP) synchrotron x-ray diffraction studies were carried out in FeCl{sub 2} together with resistivity (R) studies, at various temperatures and pressures to 65 GPa using diamond anvil cells. This work follows a previous HP {sup 57}Fe Mossbauer study in which two pressure-induced (PI) electronic transitions were found interpreted as: (i) quenching of the orbital-term contribution to the hyperfine field concurring with a tilting of the magnetic moment by 55 degrees and (ii) collapse of the magnetism concurring with a sharp decrease of the isomer shift (IS). The R(P,T) studies affirm that the cause the collapse of the magnetism is a PI p-d correlation breakdown, leading to an insulator-metal transition at {approx}45 GPa and is not due to a spi-Ir,crossover (S=2 {yields} S=0). The structure response to the pressure evolution of the two electronic phase transitions starting at low pressures (LP), through an intermediate phase (IP) 30-57 GPa, and culminating in a high-pressure phase (HP), P >32 GPa, can clearly be quantified. The IP-HP phases coexist through the 32-57 GPa range in which the HP abundance increases monotonically at the expense of the IP phase. At the LP-IP interface no volume change is detected, yet the c-axis increases and the a-axis shrinks by 0.21 Angstroms and 0.13 Angstroms, respectively. The fit of the equation of state of the combined LP-IP phases yields a bulk modulus K{sub 0} = 35.3(1.8) GPa. The intralayer CI-CI distances increases, but no change is observed in Fe-CI bond-length nor are there substantial changes in the interlayer spacing. The pressure-induced electronic IP-HP transition leads to a first-order structural phase transition characterized by a decrease in Fe-CI bond length and an abrupt drop in V(P) by {approx}3.5% accompanying the correlation breakdown. In this transition no symmetry change is detected,and the XRD data could be satisfactorily fitted with the CdI{sub 2} structure. The bulk modulus of the HP phase is practically the same as that of the LP-IP phases suggesting negligible changes in the phonon density of state.

  12. A study of the condensation of propene and isobutene with benzene in the presence of anhydrous ferric chloride

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carpenter, Louis Linden

    1938-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Distillsdioa of Csadeasaiioa Products osiag Porrio Chlosido aa4 JGaajaaa Chlox'ido ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ IC II. Kssillatioa of Polyaorkxaaioa Pzodue1s asiad Povris Chio&do sad Aloaiaaa Chlos ido ~ e ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ e l... (lygs) ~ due te the higher parity ef the slhoao whish was eeadeaood with tho areastio hfdrsearboa. lsobatsae pr?yare4 bf the dehydratiea ef tertiarf batrl sloohel is reported te have a parity greater thea 99 yer coat Qsiag oqaiaelsr ssswats...

  13. Quantitative analysis of heavy metals emission during the combustion and baling of polyvinyl chloride insulated copper wire

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pickard, David Paul

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ". After a sample has been irradiated, a high resolution semiconductor radiation detector is used to quantitatively count the characteristic decay gammas (y) emitted by these radionuclidcs. The y-ray energies and occurrence rates are then measured... to be detected by a high resolution semiconductor (germanium) radiation detector. To detect the longer lived isotopes of antimony, cadmium, chromium, iron, and zinc, TABLE 4 Masses for Ash Samples Sample ID Mass (mg) 1-B-1 1-B-2 1-B-3 2-B- I 2-B-2 2-B-3...

  14. Effect of pre-harvest calcium chloride applications on fruit calcium level and post-harvest anthracnose disease of papaya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biggs, Alan R.

    -harvest anthracnose disease of papaya Babak Madani a,*, Mahmud Tengku Muda Mohamed a,**, Alan R. Biggs c , Jugah Kadir

  15. Effect of different ratios of sodium to chloride using isokalemic diets for growing and finishing swine raised during hot weather

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Serna-Saldivar, Sergio Othon

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    /day) and F/0 ratio (3. 41, 3 4 2 and 3. 41) This suggests that the larger fini hing pigs have a better metabolic capacity to control excess electrolytes (acidosis or alkalosis) than growing pigs durinq hat weather ACKBOQIZDGEBZNTS The author vishes..., the realization of this research project vould not have been possible. vf TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODDCTION Page LITERA 'I DBE RE VIE W Function of Electrolytes Extracellular and Intracellular Fluids ? ? ??? Transpczt cf Zlectrolytes Concentration...

  16. Influence of internal curing using lightweight aggregates on interfacial transition zone percolation and chloride ingress in mortars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bentz, Dale P.

    paste [5]. If sufficient curing water is not readily available at early ages, the concrete will undergo on the nature of the aggregate, specifically its porosity and water absorption. Lightweight aggre- gates (LWA) with a porous surface layer have been noted to produce a dense ITZ microstructure that is equivalent

  17. Hematological findings in neotropical fish Hoplias malabaricus exposed to subchronic and dietary doses of methylmercury, inorganic lead, and tributyltin chloride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oliveira Ribeiro, C.A. [Departamento de Biologia Celular, Universidade Federal do Parana, CP. 19031, CEP: 81.531-990 Curitiba, PR (Brazil)]. E-mail: ciro@ufpr.br; Filipak Neto, F. [Departamento de Biologia Celular, Universidade Federal do Parana, CP. 19031, CEP: 81.531-990 Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Mela, M. [Departamento de Biologia Celular, Universidade Federal do Parana, CP. 19031, CEP: 81.531-990 Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Silva, P.H. [Departamento de Patologia Medica, Universidade Federal do Parana, CP. 19031, CEP: 81.531-990 Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Randi, M.A.F. [Departamento de Patologia Medica, Universidade Federal do Parana, CP. 19031, CEP: 81.531-990 Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Rabitto, I.S. [Departamento de Biologia Celular, Universidade Federal do Parana, CP. 19031, CEP: 81.531-990 Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Alves Costa, J.R.M. [Departamento de Biologia Celular, Universidade Federal do Parana, CP. 19031, CEP: 81.531-990 Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Pelletier, E. [Institut des Sciences de la Mer de Rimouski, Universite du Quebec a Rimouski, 310 allee des Ursulines, Rimouski, Quebec, G5L 3A1 (Canada)

    2006-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Hematological indices are gaining general acceptance as valuable tools in monitoring various aspects the health of fish exposed to contaminants. In this work some effects of methyl mercury (MeHg), inorganic lead (Pb{sup 2+}), and tributyltin (TBT) in a tropical fish species were evaluated by hematological methods after a trophic exposition at a subchronic level. Forty-two mature individuals of the freshwater top predator fish Hoplias malabaricus were exposed to trophic doses (each 5 days) of MeHg (0.075 {mu}g g{sup -1}), Pb{sup 2+} (21 {mu}g g{sup -1}), and TBT (0.3 {mu}g g{sup -1}) using young fish Astyanax sp. as prey vehicle. After 14 successive doses over 70 days, blood was sampled from exposed and control groups to evaluate hematological effects of metals on erythrocytes, total leukocytes and differential leukocytes counts, hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, and red blood cell indices mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). Transmission electron microscopy and image analysis of erythrocytes were also used to investigate some morphometric parameters. Results show no significant effects in MCH and MCHC for all tested metals, but differences were found in erythrocytes, hemoglobin, hematocrit, MCV, and white blood cells counts. The number of leukocytes was increased in the presence of MeHg, suggesting effects on the immune system. Also the MCV increased in individuals exposed to MeHg. No ultrastructural damages were observed in red blood cells but the image analysis using light microscopy revealed differences in area, elongation, and roundness of erythrocytes from individuals exposed to Pb{sup 2+} and TBT but not in the group exposed to MeHg. The present work shows that changes in hematological and blood indices could highlight some barely detectable metal effects in fish after laboratory exposure to contaminated food, but their application in field biomonitoring using H. malabaricus will need more detailed studies and a careful consideration of environmental parameters.

  18. EA-1157: Methyl Chloride via Oxyhydrochlorination of Methane: A Building Black for Chemicals and Fuels from Natural Gas, Carrollton, Kentucky

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts for the proposal to advance Oxyhydrochlorination technology to an integrated engineering-scale process.

  19. Impacts of Venturi Turbulent Mixing on the Size Distributions of Sodium Chloride and Dioctyl-Phthalate Aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, M-D.

    2000-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Internal combustion engines are a major source of airborne particulate matter (PM). The size of the engine PM is in the sub-micrometer range. The number of engine particles per unit volume is high, normally in the range of 10{sup 12} to 10{sup 14}. To measure the size distribution of the engine particles dilution of an aerosol sample is required. A diluter utilizing a venturi ejector mixing technique is commercially available and tested. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if turbulence created by the ejector in the mini-dilutor changes the size of particles passing through it. The results of the NaCl aerosol experiments show no discernible difference in the geometric mean diameter and geometric standard deviation of particles passing through the ejector. Similar results were found for the DOP particles. The ratio of the total number concentrations before and after the ejector indicates that a dilution ratio of approximately 20 applies equally for DOP and NaCl particles. This indicates the dilution capability of the ejector is not affected by the particle composition. The statistical analysis results of the first and second moments of a distribution indicate that the ejector may not change the major parameters (e.g., the geometric mean diameter and geometric standard deviation) characterizing the size distributions of NaCl and DOP particles. However, when the skewness was examined, it indicates that the ejector modifies the particle size distribution significantly. The ejector could change the skewness of the distribution in an unpredictable and inconsistent manner. Furthermore, when the variability of particle counts in individual size ranges as a result of the ejector is examined, one finds that the variability is greater for DOP particles in the size range of 40-150 nm than for NaCl particles in the size range of 30 to 350 nm. The numbers or particle counts in this size region are high enough that the Poisson counting errors are small (<10%) compared with the tail regions. This result shows that the ejector device could have a higher bin-to-bin counting uncertainty for ''soft'' particles such as DOP than for a solid dry particle like NaCl. The results suggest that it may be difficult to precisely characterize the size distribution of particles ejected from the mini-dilution system if the particle is not solid.

  20. Impacts of Venturi Turbulent Mixing on the Size Distribution of Sodium Chloride and Dioctyl-Phthalate Aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, M.-D.; Wainman, T.; Storey, J.

    2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Internal combustion engines are a major source of airborne particulate matter (PM). The size of the engine PM is in the sub-micrometer range. The number of engine particles per unit volume is high, normally in the range of 10{sup 12} to 10{sup 14}. To measure the size distribution of the engine particles dilution of an aerosol sample is required. A diluter utilizing a venturi ejector mixing technique is commercially available and tested. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if turbulence created by the ejector in the mini-dilutor changes the size of particles passing through it.

  1. Mechanical properties and microstructures of a magnesium alloy gas tungsten arc welded with a cadmium chloride flux

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Z.D. [State Key Laboratory of Material Surface Modification by Laser, Ion, and Beams, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Liu, L.M. [State Key Laboratory of Material Surface Modification by Laser, Ion, and Beams, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)], E-mail: liulm@dlut.edu.cn; Shen, Y.; Wang, L. [State Key Laboratory of Material Surface Modification by Laser, Ion, and Beams, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas tungsten arc (GTA) welds were prepared on 5-mm thick plates of wrought magnesium AZ31B alloy, using an activated flux. The microstructural characteristics of the weld joint were investigated using optical and scanning microscopy, and the fusion zone microstructure was compared with that of the base metal. The elemental distribution was also investigated by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). Mechanical properties were determined by standard tensile tests on small-scale specimens. The as-welded fusion zone prepared using a CdCl{sub 2} flux exhibited a larger grain size than that prepared without flux; the microstructure consisted of matrix {alpha}-Mg, eutectic {alpha}-Mg and {beta}-Al{sub 12}Mg{sub 17}. The HAZ was observed to be slightly wider for the weld prepared with a CdCl{sub 2} flux compared to that prepared without flux; thus the tensile strength was lower for the flux-prepared weld. The fact that neither Cd nor Cl was detected in the weld seam by EPMA indicates that the CdCl{sub 2} flux has a small effect on convection in the weld pool.

  2. Toxicologic evaluation of analytes from Tank 241-C-103

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahlum, D.D.; Young, J.Y.; Weller, R.E.

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Westinghouse Hanford Company requested PNL to assemble a toxicology review panel (TRP) to evaluate analytical data compiled by WHC, and provide advice concerning potential health effects associated with exposure to tank-vapor constituents. The team`s objectives would be to (1) review procedures used for sampling vapors from tanks, (2) identify constituents in tank-vapor samples that could be related to symptoms reported by workers, (3) evaluate the toxicological implications of those constituents by comparison to establish toxicological databases, (4) provide advice for additional analytical efforts, and (5) support other activities as requested by WHC. The TRP represents a wide range of expertise, including toxicology, industrial hygiene, and occupational medicine. The TRP prepared a list of target analytes that chemists at the Oregon Graduate Institute/Sandia (OGI), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and PNL used to establish validated methods for quantitative analysis of head-space vapors from Tank 241-C-103. this list was used by the analytical laboratories to develop appropriate analytical methods for samples from Tank 241-C-103. Target compounds on the list included acetone, acetonitrile, ammonia, benzene, 1, 3-butadiene, butanal, n-butanol, hexane, 2-hexanone, methylene chloride, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, nitrous oxide, dodecane, tridecane, propane nitrile, sulfur oxide, tributyl phosphate, and vinylidene chloride. The TRP considered constituent concentrations, current exposure limits, reliability of data relative to toxicity, consistency of the analytical data, and whether the material was carcinogenic or teratogenic. A final consideration in the analyte selection process was to include representative chemicals for each class of compounds found.

  3. Oak Ridge K-25 Site chlorinated solvent pollution prevention opportunity assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A pollution prevention opportunity assessment (PPOA) was conducted at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site to identify opportunities to reduce and better manage the use of chlorinated solvents. At the K-25 Site, 67 control areas were examined for their potential use of chlorinated solvents. Of these areas, 27 were found to be using (1) chlorinated solvents for cleaning, degreasing, and lubricating; (2) laboratory standards and solvents; and (3) test medium. Current management practices encourage the identification and use of nonhazardous chemicals, including the use of chlorinated solvents. The main pollution prevention principles are source reduction and recycling, and a number of pollution prevention options based on these principles were identified and evaluated as part of this chlorinated solvent PPOA. Source reduction options evaluated for the K-25 Site include the substitution of chlorinated solvents with nonchlorinated solvents. Recycling was identified for those areas that would benefit most from the reuse of the chlorinated solvents in use. The pollution prevention options that offer the greatest opportunity for success at the K-25 Site are the implementation of substitutes at the 10 control areas using chlorinated solvents for cleaning, degreasing, and lubrication. A change in the process may be all that is needed to eliminate the use of a chlorinated solvent. Once a decision is made to implement a substitution, the information should be communicated to all shops and laboratories. Another option to consider is the installation of recycling units to recycle the large amounts of methylene chloride used in the analytical sampling procedure.

  4. Antioxidant behavior in flexible PU foam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skorpenske, R.G.; Schrock, A.K.

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this article, data are given regarding the AO concentration profiles across foam buns as a function of the corresponding temperature profile of the foams studied, three were produced on a Varimax pilot line located at Dow Chemical Company Freeport, Texas. The fourth foam used for this study was a production scale foam made at Texas Fibers, a Division of Leggett and Platt, Brenham, Texas. The foams produced on the Varimas include formulations using 4.1, 5.1 and 6.1 parts per hundred parts (pphp) water based on polyol and can be compared to the 4.1 pphp water foam made at Texas Fibers. Temperature data, collected from a foam-in-place grid of thermocouples, gives the time-temperature profile within the foam bun as a function of location. Foam samples which have been removed from locations corresponding to the thermocouples are examined, via methylene chloride extraction and liquid chromatographic analysis, for antioxidant content. The objective is to determine the significance of the foam environment, as a function of formulation, on the behavior of antioxidants.

  5. Recovery of cesium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Izatt, Reed M. (Provo, UT); Christensen, James J. (Provo, UT); Hawkins, Richard T. (Orem, UT)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of recovering cesium ions from mixtures of ions containing them and other ions, e.g., a solution of nuclear waste materials, which comprises establishing a separate source phase containing such a mixture of ions, establishing a separate recipient phase, establishing a liquid membrane phase in interfacial contact with said source and recipient phases, said membrane phase containing a ligand, preferably a selected calixarene as depicted in the drawing, maintaining said interfacial contact for a period of time long enough to transport by said ligand a substantial portion of the cesium ion from the source phase to the recipient phase, and recovering the cesium ion from the recipient phase. The separation of the source and recipient phases may be by the membrane phase only, e.g., where these aqueous phases are emulsified as dispersed phases in a continuous membrane phase, or may include a physical barrier as well, e.g., an open-top outer container with an inner open-ended container of smaller cross-section mounted in the outer container with its open bottom end spaced from and above the closed bottom of the outer container so that the membrane phase may fill the outer container to a level above the bottom of the inner container and have floating on its upper surface a source phase and a recipient phase separated by the wall of the inner container as a physical barrier. A preferred solvent for the ligand is a mixture of methylene chloride and carbon tetrachloride.

  6. Solvent Extraction of Chemical Attribution Signature Compounds from Painted Wall Board: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wahl, Jon H.; Colburn, Heather A.

    2009-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes work that developed a robust solvent extraction procedure for recovery of chemical attribution signature (CAS) compound dimethyl methyl phosphonate (DMMP) (as well as diethyl methyl phosphonate (DEMP), diethyl methyl phosphonothioate (DEMPT), and diisopropyl methyl phosphonate (DIMP)) from painted wall board (PWB), which was selected previously as the exposed media by the chemical attribution scientific working group (CASWG). An accelerated solvent extraction approach was examined to determine the most effective method of extraction from PWB. Three different solvent systems were examined, which varied in solvent strength and polarity (i.e., 1:1 dichloromethane : acetone,100% methanol, and 1% isopropanol in pentane) with a 1:1 methylene chloride : acetone mixture having the most robust and consistent extraction for four original target organophosphorus compounds. The optimum extraction solvent was determined based on the extraction efficiency of the target analytes from spiked painted wallboard as determined by gas chromatography x gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCxGC-MS) analysis of the extract. An average extraction efficiency of approximately 60% was obtained for these four compounds. The extraction approach was further demonstrated by extracting and detecting the chemical impurities present in neat DMMP that was vapor-deposited onto painted wallboard tickets.

  7. Electron-donor properties of eta/sup 5/-cyclopentadienylcarbonyl and eta/sup 6/-arenecarbonyl compounds of transition metals in reactions with v acceptors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gur'yanova, E.N.; Isaeva, E.S.; Ginzburg, A.G.

    1987-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The complexation reactions of compounds of the types eta/sup 5/-CpM(CO)/sub n/(PR/sub 3/)/sub 3-n/ (M = Mn, Re; R = i-C/sub 3/H/sub 7/, C/sub 6/H/sub 5/, 4-CH/sub 3/C/sub 6/H/sub 4/; n = 1 to 3) and eta/sup 6/-MesM(CO)/sub 3/ (Mes = 1,3,5-(CH/sub 3/)/sub 3/C/sub 6/H/sub 3/, M = Cr, Mo, W) with aluminum bromide, gallium trichloride, and mercuric trifluoroacetate in various solvents (benzene, methylene chloride, dichloroethane) have been investigated by IR spectroscopy, calorimetry, and measurements of the dielectric constant. The coordination sites have been established. It has been shown that the compounds investigated coordinate the acceptor molecules by means of their metal atoms. One exception is CpMn (CO)/sub 3/, which gives a complex with AlBr/sub 3/ with the participation of an oxygen atom of a carbonyl group. The heats of formation and the dipole moments of the complexes have been determined. The dipole moments of the intermolecular M-Al and M-Ga bonds have been evaluated. On the basis of a comparison of the energy of the coordinate bonds and the degree of charge transfer, it has been conducted that the intermolecular metal-metal bonds in the complexes investigated have a donor-acceptor nature.

  8. Health hazard evaluation report HETA 91-0190-2491, International Association of Fire Fighters (IAFF), Jersey City, New Jersey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kinnes, G.M.; Deitchman, S.

    1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In response to a request from the International Association of Fire Fighters, an investigation was begun into the health and safety practices used during the handling of a fire at an illegal dumpsite by Jersey City Fire Department (SIC-9224), Jersey City, New Jersey. The investigation centered around the incident command system, safety management, the arrangements for medical service, and decontamination. High winds and several directional wind shifts hampered operations at the fire scene. Some fire fighters did not wear their self contained breathing apparatus or depleted their supply of air cylinders during the fire. Several fire fighters were treated at the scene for dizziness, mucosal irritation and elevated blood pressure. Abnormalities were noted on the field cardiac monitors for several of the firemen. A total of 171 fire fighters were transported to area hospitals and three were admitted. The fire department indicated that 68 fire fighters received incident related injuries. Findings indicated that exposure to methylene-chloride (75092) may have been responsible for some of the adverse health experiences reported. The authors conclude that it was not possible to determine a definitive environment cause for the health effects experienced by fire fighters during the dumpsite fire. The authors recommend that changes be made in incident command and safety procedures.

  9. Monitoring DNAPL pumping using integrated geophysical techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newmark, R.L.

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The removal of DNAPL during pumping was monitored. At Hill AFB in Utah, a free-product DNAPL plume (predominantly TCE, with some TCA, PCE, methylene chloride) is pooled in water-wet soil on a thick clay aquitard. Groundwater pumping at Operable Unit 2 began in 1994; to date, nearly 30,000 gal DNAPL have been recovered. From Sept. 1994 through Sept. 1995, changes in the basin during DNAPL pumping were monitored using fiber optic chemical sensors, neutron logs, and electrical resistance tomography (ERT). The first two sensor types verify the presence of DNAPL in vicinity of 3 boreholes which form a cross section from the perimeter of the basin to its center. Cross borehole ERT images the changes in formation electrical properties due to removal of DNAPL, extending the understanding of DNAPL removal between the boreholes. During pumping, electrical resistivities decreased; we suggest these decreases are directly caused by the reduction in DNAPL. During ground water pumping, water with relatively low resistivity replaces some of the DNAPL pockets as the highly insulating DNAPL is removed. Results suggest that, as DNAPL is pumped from a nearby well, product slowly drains along the top of an aquitard and into the pump well, where it collects.

  10. Chemico-Biological Interactions 166 (2007) 264276 Chemical process-based reconstruction of exposures for an

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Illinois at Chicago, University of

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Keywords: Chloroprene; Vinyl chloride; Plastics; Synthetic rubber; Exposure reconstruction; Occupational

  11. LARGE MULTICONFIGURATION SELF-CONSISTENT-FIELD WAVEFUNCTIONS FOR THE OZONE MOLECULE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schaefer III., Henry F.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    theory comparable to that employed here for ozone. HoweverB (cyclopentadiyl) > B (ozone) > B (methylene), based onfor the its state of ozone near geometry. Coefficients of

  12. Synthesis of Cationic Extended Frameworks for Anion-Based Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fei, Honghan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Blue Degradation Photocatalysis ……………………… 258 10.3 ResultsBlue Degradation Photocatalysis ……………………… 263 10.3.3methylene blue photocatalysis ………………………..…. 264 Figure 10.5

  13. Influence of varying levels of ammonium chloride on urine pH and specific gravity, overall feed conversion, and water consumption in mature wether goats.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kennedy, Matthew joseph

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    America (Bailey, 1981). Diets high in silica along with high calcium-to-phosphorus ratios, that are supplemented with sodium bicarbonate may predispose the formation of silica calculi (Stewart et al., 1990). 4 Oxalate calculi are caused... by the ingestion of excessive quantities of oxalate- containing plants including the Greasewood, found in the western U.S., and the Halogelen, found mostly in Nevada (Pugh, 2002). Oxalates bind calcium in the rumen, but bacteria in a healthy rumen may adapt...

  14. The effect of specific chloride adsorption on the electrochemical behavior of ultrathin Pd films deposited on Pt(111) in acid solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arenz, M.; Stamenkovic, V.; Schmidt, T.J.; Wandelt, K.; Ross, P.N.; Markovic, N.M.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the Pd surface coverage modifies the voltammetric profilesFigure 2 voltammetric profiles of the Pt(111)-Pd electrodethe voltammetric profiles that demonstrate the effect of Pd.

  15. Using a Vadose Zone Model to Predict the Migration Depth of Zinc and Sodium Chloride in Soils beneath Stormwater Infiltration Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, Shirley E.

    Mikula , Penn State Harrisburg, 777 West Harrisburg Pike, TL 105, Middletown, PA, 17057, Tel: 717-948-6358, Fax: 717-948-6580, email: jum170@psu.edu 2 Shirley E. Clark, Penn State Harrisburg, email: sec16@psu.edu 3 Katherine H. Baker, Penn State Harrisburg, email: khb4@psu.edu Abstract Urbanization has been

  16. Development and Construction of Low-Cracking High-Performance Concrete (LC-HPC) Bridge Decks: Construction Methods, Specifications, and Resistance to Chloride Ion Penetration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McLeod, Heather Anne Kirkvold

    2009-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The development, construction, and evaluation of Low-Cracking High-Performance Concrete (LC-HPC) bridge decks are described based on laboratory test results and experiences gained through the construction of 14 LC-HPC ...

  17. A New Class of Easily Activated Palladium Precatalysts for Facile C?N Cross-Coupling Reactions and the Low Temperature Oxidative Addition of Aryl Chlorides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biscoe, Mark R.

    A new class of one-component Pd precatalysts bearing biarylphosphine ligands is described. These precatalysts are air- and thermally stable, are easily activated under normal reaction conditions at or below room temperature, ...

  18. Experimental and Computational Investigations of Candidate Fuel Salt Melt Properties and Corrosion and Irradiation Damage in Nickel for a Molten Chloride Fission System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sooby, Elizabeth S

    2014-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    , physicists have dug deeper into the structure of the atom. The trail of discoveries from protons, neutrons, electrons, quarks, leptons, to most recently the discovery of Higgs Boson spans 100 years of particle physics discoveries. Even though a vast amount...

  19. An experimental investigation of the effect of sodium chloride on talc solubility and complexing of aqueous magnesium in supercritical hydrothermal fluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grabman, Kenneth Bryan

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    5 0. 539 0. 0308 0. 0017 0. 0009 0. 0032 0. 0011 0. 0109 0. 0048 0. 0139 0. 0066 0. 0095 0. 0143 0. 0229 0. 0070 0. 0128 0. 0255 0. 00 1. 17 1. 26 1. 09 1. 98 2. 43 1. 99 3. 08 3. 22 0. 00 3. 78 3. 93 5. 34 4. 71 5. 98 6... NaCl at 500'C Figure 4. Plot of mMg species versus NaCI at 500'C Figure S. Plot of Mgr versus NaCI at 600'C Figure 6. Plot of log mMg, ?versus log ag, ct* at 600'C Figure 7. Plot of log mMg, ?versus log act- at 600'C Figure 8. Plot of mMg species...

  20. Magnetic Exchange Coupling in Chloride-Bridged 5f-3d Heterometallic Complexes Generated via Insertion into a Uranium(IV) Dimethylpyrazolate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Insertion into a Uranium(IV) Dimethylpyrazolate Dimer Stosh A. Kozimor, Bart M. Bartlett, Jeffrey D. Rinehart, and Jeffrey R. Long* Department of Chemistry, UniVersity of California, Berkeley, California additional products were observed: a THF adduct, (Me2Pz)4U(THF), and a salt of the pentapyrazolate uranium

  1. Viscosities of the Mixtures of 1-Ethyl-3-Methylimidazolium Chloride with Water, Acetonitrile and Glucose: A Molecular Dynamics Simulation and Experimental Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bell, Alexis

    of biomass are soluble in ionic liquids (ILs), salts that are liquid below 373 K and are green solvent

  2. Studies on the inuence of chloride ion and pH on the corrosion and electrochemical behaviour of AZ91D magnesium alloy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Wei

    alloys weigh $35% lower than their aluminium counterparts at equal stiness [1]. In addition, these alloys of cast AZ91 magnesium alloy. In AZ91, magnesium and the principal alloying element aluminium, have91D magnesium alloy R. AMBAT, N.N. AUNG and W. ZHOU School of Mechanical and Production Engineering

  3. Nickel-Catalyzed Mizoroki-Heck Reaction of Aryl Sulfonates and Chlorides with Electronically Unbiased Terminal Olefins: High Selectivity for Branched Products

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tasker, Sarah Z.

    Achieving high selectivity in the Heck reaction of electronically unbiased alkenes has been a longstanding challenge. Using a nickel-catalyzed cationic Heck reaction, we were able to achieve excellent selectivity for ...

  4. Enhancement of specific heat capacity of high-temperature silica-nanofluids synthesized in alkali chloride salt eutectics for solar thermal-energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banerjee, Debjyoti

    Enhancement of specific heat capacity of high-temperature silica-nanofluids synthesized in alkali nanoparticles at 1% mass concentration. The specific heat capacity of the nanofluid was enhanced by 14 of nanoparticles at min- ute concentrations are termed as ``nanofluids'' [1­3]. Nanoparticles are defined

  5. Crystal structure of bis(isothiocyanato)[2,6-diacetylpyridine bis(4-hydroxybenzoylhydrazone)]Fe(III) Chloride bis(dimethylformamide) solvate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dilek, N., E-mail: nefised@gmail.com [Aksaray University, Department of Physics, Arts and Sciences Faculty (Turkey); Guenes, B. [Gazi University, Department of Physics Education, Gazi Education Faculty (Turkey)] [Gazi University, Department of Physics Education, Gazi Education Faculty (Turkey); Bueyuekguengoer, O. [Ondokuz Mayis University, Department of Physics, Arts and Sciences Faculty (Turkey)] [Ondokuz Mayis University, Department of Physics, Arts and Sciences Faculty (Turkey); Guep, R. [Mugla University, Department of Chemistry, Arts and Sciences Faculty (Turkey)] [Mugla University, Department of Chemistry, Arts and Sciences Faculty (Turkey)

    2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The crystal structure of title compound (Fe[(C{sub 25}H{sub 21}N{sub 7}O{sub 4}S{sub 2})] {center_dot} 4(C{sub 3}NOH{sub 7}), where C{sub 3}NOH{sub 7} is dimethylformamide, DMF) was determined by the X-ray diffraction method. This compound crystallizes in the monoclinic C2/c space group, Z = 4. Unit cell parameters are: a = 13.6080(5), b = 17.6375(7), c = 19.5571(6) A, {beta} = 108.753(2) Degree-Sign . The N-H...O and O-H...O interactions stabilize the molecules in the lattice. The structure contains also the solvent dimethylformamide molecules, which are connected with intermoleculer hydrogen bond. The O atoms of DMF molecules take place as acceptor atoms.

  6. Mobilization and Transport of Organic Compounds from Reservoir Rock and Caprock in Geological Carbon Sequestration Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhong, Lirong; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Mitroshkov, Alexandre V.; Shewell, Jesse L.

    2014-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Supercritical CO2 (scCO2) is an excellent solvent for organic compounds, including benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylene (BTEX), phenols, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Monitoring results from geological carbon sequestration (GCS) field tests has shown that organic compounds are mobilized following CO2 injection. Such results have raised concerns regarding the potential for groundwater contamination by toxic organic compounds mobilized during GCS. Knowledge of the mobilization mechanism of organic compounds and their transport and fate in the subsurface is essential for assessing risks associated with GCS. Extraction tests using scCO2 and methylene chloride (CH2Cl2) were conducted to study the mobilization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs, including BTEX), the PAH naphthalene, and n-alkanes (n-C20 – n-C30) by scCO2 from representative reservoir rock and caprock obtained from depleted oil reservoirs and coal from an enhanced coal-bed methane recovery site. More VOCs and naphthalene were extractable by scCO2 compared to the CH2Cl2 extractions, while scCO2 extractable alkane concentrations were much lower than concentrations extractable by CH2Cl2. In addition, dry scCO2 was found to extract more VOCs than water saturated scCO2, but water saturated scCO2 mobilized more naphthalene than dry scCO2. In sand column experiments, moisture content was found to have an important influence on the transport of the organic compounds. In dry sand columns the majority of the compounds were retained in the column except benzene and toluene. In wet sand columns the mobility of the BTEX was much higher than that of naphthalene. Based upon results determined for the reservoir rock, caprock, and coal samples studied here, the risk to aquifers from contamination by organic compounds appears to be relatively low; however, further work is necessary to fully evaluate risks from depleted oil reservoirs.

  7. Novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for temperature-programmed coal liquefaction. Technical progress report, October 1995--December 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, C.; Cooke, W.S.; Schmidt, E.; Schobert, H.H.

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal liquefaction involves cleavage of methylene, dimethylene and ether bridges connecting polycyclic aromatic units and the reactions of various oxygen functional groups. Here in this quarterly, we report on the catalytic effects of several molybdenum-, cobalt-, and iron-containing compounds in the reactions of dibenzothiophene (DBT) with hydrogen under conditions related to coal liquefaction. The catalytic effects of several molybdenum-, cobalt-, and iron-containing compounds have been examined in the hydrogenation and hydrodesulfurization reactions of dibenzothiophene (DBT) under conditions related to coal liquefaction. The metal compounds are candidate catalyst precursors for direct coal liquefaction. The reactions were carried out in batch microautoclave reactors at 400{degrees}C for 30 minutes with 6.9 MPa (cold) hydrogen pressure, and tridecane solvent. A metal loading of 0.5 mol% resulted in low conversion and only hydrogenation. Addition of sulfur in 4:1 molar ratio led only to a minor increase in conversion and hydrodesulfurization. The use of a higher boiling solvent (octadecane vs. tridecane) was beneficial in providing increased conversion, hydrodesulfurization, and hydrogenation. An increase in metal compound loading to 36.2 mol% led to a dramatic increase in conversion, hydrodesulfurization, and hydrocracking. Molybdenum hexacarbonyl at 36 mol% loading, with added sulfur at 6:1 ratio and octadecane solvent, gave 100% conversion of dibenzothiophene to other products with 100% hydrodesulfurization. Ammonium tetrathiomolybdate and molybdenum(III) chloride are less active under similar conditions. A cobalt-molybdenum thiocubane complex gave unexpectedly low conversions. Iron and cobalt carbonyls also provided very low conversions, even with added sulfur.

  8. Hypochlorous acid and hydrogen peroxide-induced negative regulation of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ompW by the response regulator ArcA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hypochlorous acid and hydrogen peroxide-induced negative5. Thomas E: Myeloperoxidase: Hydrogen Peroxide, ChlorideUse the Myeloperoxidase-Hydrogen Peroxide-Chloride System to

  9. Identification of a haloalkaliphilic and thermostable cellulase with improved ionic liquid tolerance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Tao

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    acetate ([Emim]Ac), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Emim]Cl), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Bmim]Cl) and 1-allyl-

  10. Synthesis of CdS nanoparticles for photocatalytic application of methyleneblue degradation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muthuraj, V., E-mail: muthuraj75@gmail.com [Research Department of Chemistry, VHNSN College, Virudhunagar-626001 (India); Umadevi, M. [Department of Chemistry, Nehru Memorial College, Puthanampatti, Trichy-621007, Tamilnadu (India); Sankarasubramanian, K.; Kajamuhideen, M. S. [School of Physics, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai-625 021, Tamilnadu (India)

    2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    CdS nanoparticles were prepared by the reaction of cadmium acetate with thiourea in the presence and absence of methylene blue dye (MB). The nanoparticles were characterized by, XRD, FT-IR, UV-Vis. XRD study shows the presence of hexagonal phase for the nanoparticles whereas in case of the bulk samples only the hexagonal phase is observed. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) showed a strong interaction of methyl groups with CdS nanoparticles. The degradation of methylene blue was analysed using UV-Vis absorbance spectrum. Thus the results authenticate that methylene blue dye influences the structural and optical properties of the CdS nanoparticles.

  11. GELEST, INC. 11 East Steel Rd. Morrisville, PA 19067

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    vapors, hydrogen chloride. -2-(SIO6640.0) #12;SPECIAL PROTECTION INFORMATION Ventilation: Local exhaust

  12. Viral metagenomics in host-associated systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Willner, Dana Leigh

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cesium chloride density gradient centrifugation and DNase I treatment was for removing human genomic contamination

  13. EA-1157: Final Environmental Assessment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Methyl Chloride via Oxyhydrochlorination of Methane: A Building Black for Chemicals and Fuels from Natural Gas

  14. Production of aluminum metal by electrolysis of aluminum sulfide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Minh, N.Q.; Loutfy, R.O.; Yao, N.P.

    1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Metallic aluminum may be produced by the electrolysis of Al/sub 2/S/sub 3/ at 700 to 800/sup 0/C in a chloride melt composed of one or more alkali metal chlorides, and one or more alkaline earth metal chlorides and/or aluminum chloride to provide improved operating characteristics of the process.

  15. In-situ Analysis of Zinc Electrodeposition within an Ionic Liquid Electrolyte

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keist, Jayme

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    chloride low temperature molten salt. Electrochimica Acta,room temperature molten salt. Journal of the Electrochemical

  16. )potash( . , )K(

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simon, Emmanuel

    ;41 , : , . , . , , , , . , , , , , . , )( ) ( .)biofuels( , .2030 . : . K­ 94.5%­ Potassium Chloride (KCl( . K

  17. Carbon and Water Resource Management for Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hendrickson, Thomas Peter

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reliability Corporation Polyethylene Polyvinyl chloride Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry Water Distribution System

  18. Computational modelling of the mechanical behavior of nanocrystalline metals based on the deformation mechanisms and their transitions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Baozhi

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ties of Nanostructured Nickel Produced by Electrodepositionnickel chloride and boric acid with properly chosen electrodeposition

  19. Palladium-catalyzed allylic alkylation via decarboxylative and retro-Claisen C-C cleavage methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grenning, Alexander James

    2012-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    coupling partners are prepared in situ by a single retro-Claisen event. Furthermore, DaA substrate synthesis begins from commercial/readily available active methylene nucleophiles (?-dicarbonyl compounds) and can utilize robust methods previously developed...

  20. IBTM-Containing Gramicidin S Analogues: Evidence for IBTM as a Suitable Type II -Turn Mimetic1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pompeu Fabra, Universitat

    Vance ACS Abstracts, October 1, 1997. (1) Abbreviations: AAA, amino acid analysis; Al, allyl; Boc, tert)methylene]-N-methylmethanaminium hexa- fluorophosphate N-oxide; HOAc, acetic acid; HOAt, 7-azahydroxybenzo- triazole; HOBt, 1

  1. A new class of photoresponsive surfactants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shang, Tiangang, 1969-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis, a new class of nonionic, photoresponsive surfactants consisting of a polar di(ethylene oxide) head group attached to an alkyl spacer of between two and eight methylene groups, coupled through an ether linkage ...

  2. Crystal structure of the binary complex of cobalt and zinc chlorides with carbamide [Co(OCN{sub 2}H{sub 4}){sub 5}(H{sub 2}O)][ZnCl{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Furmanova, N. G., E-mail: furm@ns.crys.ras.ru; Chernaya, T. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Resnyanskii, V. F., E-mail: kakin@inbox.ru; Sulaimankulov, K. S. [National Academy of Sciences of Kyrgyzstan, Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology (Kyrgyzstan)

    2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Mixed single crystals of [Co(OCN{sub 2}H{sub 4}){sub 5}(H{sub 2}O)][ZnCl{sub 4}] were grown by the isothermal evaporation of an aqueous solution. The crystal structure of this complex was established by X-ray diffraction (R = 0.052 based on 7003 reflections). The crystals consist of [Co(OCN{sub 2}H{sub 4}){sub 5}(H{sub 2}O)]{sup 2+} cations containing Co atoms in an octahedral coordination and [ZnCl{sub 4}]{sup 2-}] anions containing Zn atoms in a tetrahedral coordination. The carbamide molecules are involved in both intramolecular and interionic hydrogen bonds. The H{sub 2}O molecule forms hydrogen bonds with the anions.

  3. The germination and development of seedlings from seeds treated with growth regulators: (2-chloroethyl) trimethylammonium chloride, succinic acid 2,2 dimethylhydrazide and 2,3-dihydro-5-6-diphenyl-1,4 oxathiin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kamp, Marihelen

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    intensity, demonstrate any significant reduction in leaf width (Table II). Leaf length was not significantly affected by these treatments under either light level (Table III). Because the influence of growth retarding chemicals is in the subapical meris...

  4. Effect of glucose and pH on the microbial flora and sensory characteristics of normal and dark, firm, dry beef steaks displayed in polyvinyl chloride film and in vacuum packages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chesser, Linda Kay

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ches ser, B. S. , Texas AEVI Uni vers i ty Cha1rman of Advisory Comm1ttee: Dr. C. Vanderzant Normal and DFD beef steaks with and without added glucose or ac1d (1. 3M disod1um c1trate or 1. 3M d1sodium c1trate - 1. 5M lactic acid) were packaged..., odor, or f di i tio. o do aa oo. d s. ~th h cta dom1nant and/or made up a cons1derable part of the microflora of normal and DFD beef steaks, with and without added glucose or acid, stored for 0-6 days in PVC film. Lactic aci d bacteria constituted a...

  5. Effects of certain chloride salts on properties of frankfurters, hams and restructured pork roasts and of certain non-meat protein products on properties of pork fat emulsions and mortadella sausage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hand, Larry Wayne

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    by the functional contributions of NaC1. Salt decreases water activity (A ), enhances flavor, improves w binding in comminuted meats, and improves texture. Shelf- life, stability (microbiological) and food safety of salted meats is known to be associated... industry and research foundations to conduct research on ways to reduce sodium contents of processed foods without diminishing their palatability or safety. Salt is an essential part of the human diet. Sodium ions are required in mammals to maintain...

  6. PERFORMANCE OF LIQUI-CEL EXTRA-FLOW MEMBRANE CONTRACTOR IN A PURE WATER AND IN A 0.2% SODIUM CHLORIDE SOLUTION (SNO-STR-2001-11).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    YEH,M.; BOGER,J.; HAHN,R.L.

    2001-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    After completion of SNO's first phase measurement of the neutrino charge current, two tons of salt were added into the SNO heavy water to increase the sensitivity of the neutral current measurement (Phase II). Liqui-Cel Extra-Flow Membrane Contactors (simply called Liqui-Cel) are used in the SNO heavy-water circulating system to remove the dissolved gases, such as oxygen, nitrogen, radon, and water vapor from the liquid water. One possible scenario with phase II operation is that the salt may leak through the Liqui-Cel Membrane and come in contact with the vacuum pumps and other metal components of the Heavy-Water Vapor Recovery System. In this scenario, corrosion will damage these components, especially the vacuum pump (Pfeiffer UniDry Pump with cast iron interior), and increase the operational difficulties. A series of tests for the behavior of the Liqui-Cel System in pure water and in salt systems was conducted at the Brookhaven National Laboratory in order to measure the transfer of (a) water vapor and (b) salt, if there is any, through the membrane. Initially a 10-inch by 28-inch Liqui-Cel unit, identical to those used in the SNO heavy-water circulating system, was obtained from SNO site. However, extensive analysis showed that the membrane in this unit was defective: a replacement membrane would cost several thousand dollars. Instead, a smaller, 2.5-inch x 8-inch Liqui-Cel, obtained from Dr. Richard Helmers of the University of British Columbia, was used in this experiment. A comparison of the present experiment with the SNO heavy-water system is done with theoretical calculations. The results are discussed in the following sections.

  7. CO2-H2O Mixtures in the Geological Sequestration of CO2. II. Partitioning in Chloride Brines at 12-100 °C and 1-600 bar.

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem Not Found Item Not Found The itemAIR57451 Clean Energy Technologies A! CJ M H z

  8. The extraction of thulium, dysprosium and samarium by di(n-octyl)arsinc acid (HDOAA) in chloroform 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    El Seoud, Monica Irma

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    into the organic phase. The maximum E values of 33 for thulium, 15 for dysprosium and a -3 41 for samarium were observed for the 1 x 10 M chloride/1M perchlor- ate, 1 x 10 M chloride/1M nitrate, and 1 x 10 M chloride/1M sulfate systems respectively. The data... behavior of Thulium( III) in the acetate/1 x 10-3M chloride/1N nitrate system. . Extraction behavior of Thulium(III) in the 1 x 10-3N chloride/4N nitrate system. Extraction behayior of Thulium( III) in the acetate/1 x 10 ~N chloride/1M sulfate system...

  9. E-Print Network 3.0 - acute alcohol exposure Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    chloride 100-44-7) and benzoyl chloride 98-88-4 (combined exposures) IARC-2A Acrolein Acutely... alcohol AcutelyHazardousWaste alpha,alpha-Dimethylphenethylan-dne...

  10. E-Print Network 3.0 - acute oral exposure Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    chloride 100-44-7) and benzoyl chloride 98-88-4 (combined exposures) IARC-2A Acrolein Acutely... toxins, biotoxins and acutely toxic substances is not exhaustive Chemical...

  11. E-Print Network 3.0 - acute ozone exposure Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    chloride 100-44-7) and benzoyl chloride 98-88-4 (combined exposures) IARC-2A Acrolein Acutely... toxins, biotoxins and acutely toxic substances is not exhaustive Chemical...

  12. E-Print Network 3.0 - acute cadmium exposure Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    chloride 100-44-7) and benzoyl chloride 98-88-4 (combined exposures) IARC-2A Acrolein Acutely... toxins, biotoxins and acutely toxic substances is not exhaustive Chemical...

  13. E-Print Network 3.0 - acute arsenic exposure Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    chloride 100-44-7) and benzoyl chloride 98-88-4 (combined exposures) IARC-2A Acrolein Acutely... OSHAReproToxin Arsenic 7440-38-2 and arsenic compounds IARC-1 Arsenic...

  14. E-Print Network 3.0 - acute chemical exposure Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    chloride 100-44-7) and benzoyl chloride 98-88-4 (combined exposures) IARC-2A Acrolein Acutely... Ca(CN)2 AcutelyHazardousWaste Captafol 2425-06-1 IARC-2A ... Source:...

  15. Growth and yield comparisons of Pix® Plus and additional Bacillus cereus treated cotton 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nuti, Russell Carlo

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pix® Plus, a plant growth regulator (PGR) applied to cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), is a combination of mepiquat chloride (MC) and Bacillus cereus (BC). Mepiquat chloride is a gibberellic acid (GA) synthesis inhibitor, ...

  16. Characterizing Microalgae (Nannochloris oculata) Harvesting by Aluminum Flocculation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, Ryan T.

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    oculata by aluminum chloride. N. oculata flocculation was studied by manipulating the culture pH and ionic strength before the addition of aluminum chloride. The removal efficiency, concentration factor, settling rate, and zeta potential of the culture...

  17. Beef customer satisfaction: factors affecting consumer evaluations of clod, top round, and top sirloin steaks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodson, Kyla Judene

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , but the differences were of no practical significance. Most research involving calcium chloride and beef now follows this application recommendation. More recent research has supported these earlier findings regarding the benefits of calcium chloride injection...

  18. aerobic nicotinic acid: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    g magnesium chloride, 3.24 g magnesium sulfate bromide, 34 mg strontium chloride, 22 mg boric acid, 4 mg sodium silicate, 2.4 mg sodium fluoride, 1.6 mg Bae, Jin-Woo 189 XYLARIC...

  19. A Preliminary Evaluation of Alternative Liquid Desiccants for a Hybrid Desiccant Air Conditioner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Studak, J. W.; Peterson, J. L.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and the condenser of a vapor-compression air conditioner. The liquid desiccants studied were lithium chloride, lithium bromide, calcium chloride, and triethylene glycol. Each candidate desiccant was subjected to a screening process which weighed the merits...

  20. activity-dependent polyadenylation site: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    commercial setting. Contaminants: Contaminants: Vinyl Chloride 37 Clinical Research Site Management Engineering Websites Summary: Clinical Research Site Management Dan...

  1. alpine site jungfraujoch: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    commercial setting. Contaminants: Contaminants: Vinyl Chloride 166 Clinical Research Site Management Engineering Websites Summary: Clinical Research Site Management Dan...

  2. allosteric site: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    commercial setting. Contaminants: Contaminants: Vinyl Chloride 69 Clinical Research Site Management Engineering Websites Summary: Clinical Research Site Management Dan...

  3. affect redd site: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    commercial setting. Contaminants: Contaminants: Vinyl Chloride 62 Clinical Research Site Management Engineering Websites Summary: Clinical Research Site Management Dan...

  4. allosteric citalopram-binding site: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    commercial setting. Contaminants: Contaminants: Vinyl Chloride 69 Clinical Research Site Management Engineering Websites Summary: Clinical Research Site Management Dan...

  5. atp-binding site lesions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    commercial setting. Contaminants: Contaminants: Vinyl Chloride 107 Clinical Research Site Management Engineering Websites Summary: Clinical Research Site Management Dan...

  6. agnostic splice site: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    commercial setting. Contaminants: Contaminants: Vinyl Chloride 279 Clinical Research Site Management Engineering Websites Summary: Clinical Research Site Management Dan...

  7. agent dumping site: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    commercial setting. Contaminants: Contaminants: Vinyl Chloride 357 Clinical Research Site Management Engineering Websites Summary: Clinical Research Site Management Dan...

  8. adenine dinucleotide-binding site: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    commercial setting. Contaminants: Contaminants: Vinyl Chloride 43 Clinical Research Site Management Engineering Websites Summary: Clinical Research Site Management Dan...

  9. Open Archive TOULOUSE Archive Ouverte (OATAO) OATAO is an open access repository that collects the work of Toulouse researchers and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mailhes, Corinne

    Chimique, Toulouse, France 2 Ineos ChlorVinyls, Mazingarbe, France On-line Monitoring of Vinyl Chloride

  10. TUDE CONOMIQUE DES DIFFRENTES MTHODES D'LABORATION DU NIOBIUM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    or not by chlorides distillation, and finishing with an electron beam melting. That still gives high costs, indeed

  11. HOSPITAL VENTILATION STANDARDS AND ENERGY CONSERVATION: A SUMMARY OF THE LITERATURE WITH CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS, FY 78 FINAL REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeRoos, R.L.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ESTIMATED LITERS/NONTH TLV (EEm) NIOSH ACGIH ACGIH ACGIHPainters - Solvent TLV (EEm) ACGIH Vinyl Chloride (Monomer)

  12. Stabilization of Platinum Nanoparticle Electrocatalysts for Oxygen...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Platinum Nanoparticle Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Using Poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride). Stabilization of Platinum Nanoparticle Electrocatalysts for Oxygen...

  13. SciTech Connect: The determination of aluminum by atomic absorption...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Language: English Subject: CHEMISTRY; ABSORPTION; ALUMINUM; CEMENTS; CHLORIDES; COMBUSTION; PHOTOMETRY; QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS; SILICON OXIDES; SOLUTIONS; SPECTROSCOPY; STEELS...

  14. Methylmercury Production in Tidal Salt Marsh Sediments and Potential Control Using Iron Amendments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulrich, Patrick D.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    phosphorus removal in treatment wetlands (Ann et al. 2000),within a wetland soil following ferric chloride treatment to

  15. t e n t i p s f o r your private

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    residue Hardness Water tastes salty Chloride, sodium, TDS* Odor of gas / fuel VOCs** Pin hole leaks / blue operations Nitrate, coliform bacteria, pesticides Coal mining pH, iron, manganese Gas drilling Sodium, chloride, barium Dump, landfill, factory Metals, VOCs** Heavily salted roadways Sodium, chloride, TDS* TDS

  16. Electrochemical Generation of Superoxide in Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weidner, John W.

    with an inorganic salt.7 They are directly related to more familiar high-temperature molten salts that are used by the reduction of dioxygen in imidizalium chloride-aluminum chloride molten salt. However, the resulting su and chlorides.2,3,6 Room-temperature ionic liquids RTILs are stable mixtures of an organic cation/anion salt

  17. Salt Brine Blending to Optimize Deicing and Anti-icing Performance and Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Salt Brine Blending to Optimize Deicing and Anti-icing Performance and Cost Effectiveness Stephen J in Method? #12;Deicing and Anti-icing Treatments ·Sodium Chloride (NaCl) ·Cargill, NA Salt ·Magnesium Chloride (MgCl2) w/additives ·Envirotech Serv., Scotwood Ind., NA Salt ·Calcium Chloride (CaCl2) ·Tiger

  18. Reactive triblock polymers from tandem ring-opening polymerization for nanostructured vinyl thermosets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amendt, Mark A.; Pitet, Louis M.; Moench, Sarah; Hillmyer, Marc A. (UMM)

    2013-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Multiply functional hydroxyl telechelic poly(cyclooctene-s-5-norbornene-2-methylene methacrylate) was synthesized by ring opening metathesis (co)polymerization of cis-cyclooctene and 5-norbornene-2-methylene methacrylate using the second generation Grubbs catalyst in combination with a symmetric chain transfer agent bearing hydroxyl functionality. The resulting hydroxyl-telechelic polymer was used as a macroinitiator for the ring opening transesterification polymerization of d,l-lactide to form reactive poly(lactide)-b-poly(cyclooctene-s-5-norbornene-2-methylene methacrylate)-b-poly(lactide) triblock polymers. Subsequently, the triblocks were crosslinked by free radical copolymerization with several vinyl monomers including styrene, divinylbenzene, methyl methacrylate, and ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate. Certain conditions led to optically transparent thermosets with mesoscale phase separation as evidenced by small angle X-ray scattering, differential scanning calorimetry and transmission electron microscopy. Disordered, bicontinuous structures with nanoscopic domains were generated in several cases, rendering the samples attractive for size-selective membrane applications.

  19. Theoretical susceptibilities of linear antiferromagnets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McSwain, Sulane

    1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION II. THEORY AND APPLICATIONS A. Manganese(II) Chloride B. Iron(II) Chloride C. Cobalt(II) Chloride D. Nickel(II) Chloride E. Copper(II) Chloride F. Manganese(II) Squarate Dihydrate G. Iron(II) Squarate... Dihydrate H. Cobalt(II) Squarate Dihydrate I. Nickel(II) Squarate Dihydrate III. DISCUSSION IV. EXPERIMENTAL Page 12 15 18 20 26 29 52 54 57 APPENDIX A. Synthesis of Transition Metal Squarates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 B. Electron Spin...

  20. The Action of Certain Acid Reagents on the Substituted Ureas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brewster, Ray Q.

    1915-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    aniline and methyl phenyl urea chloride with pyridine - 6 Di-phenyl ethyl thio urea and phosgene with pyridine 7 Para mono brom di-phenyl thio urea and methyl phenyl urea chloride - 8 Di-phenyl thio urea and chlor formic ethyl ester with pyridine 9... Methyl ether of di-phenyl thio urea and methyl phenyl urea chloride with pyridine - - 10 Ethyl ether of ortho di-tolyl thio urea and methyl phenyl urea chloride 13 Ethyl ether of ortho di-tolyl thio urea and di-phenyl urea chloride 14 Methyl ether...

  1. Theoretical susceptibilities of linear antiferromagnets 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McSwain, Sulane

    1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION II. THEORY AND APPLICATIONS A. Manganese(II) Chloride B. Iron(II) Chloride C. Cobalt(II) Chloride D. Nickel(II) Chloride E. Copper(II) Chloride F. Manganese(II) Squarate Dihydrate G. Iron(II) Squarate... Dihydrate H. Cobalt(II) Squarate Dihydrate I. Nickel(II) Squarate Dihydrate III. DISCUSSION IV. EXPERIMENTAL Page 12 15 18 20 26 29 52 54 57 APPENDIX A. Synthesis of Transition Metal Squarates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 B. Electron Spin...

  2. The stereochemistry of excited state atom reorganization processes; the di-pi-methane rearrangement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ko, Jan Kwei

    1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    methylene groups, as 1-methylene-4, 4- dimethyl-2, 5-cyclohexadiene (+1 ) , l-methylidene-4, 4-di- 7 phenyl-2-cyclohexene (17) and its cyclohexadiene analog 8 (~) , are exclusive singlet excited state processes 20 ( se e Figure 2) ~ HC CH R l... bonds (a known triplet excited state process ). These path- 21 ways, demonstrated to be responsible for deactivation of the acyclic l, l-diphenyl-3, 3-dimethyl-1, 4-hexadiene (~L ) triplet by Zimmerman and Pratt , effectively quench the 22 triplet...

  3. Feasibility of Detecting Byproducts of Chemical Weapons Manufacturing in Environmental Media: A Preliminary Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davisson, L; Reynolds, J G; Koester, C; Chinn, S C; Maxwell, R S; Love, A H; Viani, B E

    2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantitative information on the environmental transport and fate of organophosphorus nerve agents has been limited to studies conducted at high concentration representative of acute doses (Munroe et al. 1999). Nerve agents have relatively rapidly degradation rates at acute levels, and first order degradation pathways and half-lives have been characterized. However, similar knowledge is lacking in the open literature on the long-term environmental persistence of nerve agents, their manufacturing precursors and byproducts, and their degradation products, particularly at sub-acute or chronic health levels. Although many recent publications reflect low-level detection methods for chemical weapons signature compounds extracted from a variety of different media (e.g. D'Agostino et al., 2001; Kataoka et al., 2001), little of this work answers questions regarding their adsorptive character and chemical persistence. However, these questions are a central theme to both the detection of illegal chemical weapons manufacturing, as well as determining long-term cleanup needs and health risks associated with potential terrorist acts using such agents. Adsorption onto environmental surfaces can enhance the persistence of organophosphorus compounds, particularly with strong chelators like phosphonic acids. In particular, organophosphorus compound adsorption can lead to irreversible binding (e.g. Aubin and Smith, 1992), and current methods of chemical extraction and solid-state detection are challenged to detect them. This may be particularly true if the adsorbed compound is of a low initial concentration because it may be that the most preferred adsorption sites form the strongest bonds. This is particularly true in mixed media having various adsorption domains that adsorb at different rates (e.g. Weber and Huang, 1996). For high enough initial concentrations, sorption sites become saturated and solvent extraction has a relatively high efficiency. It is no surprise that many CW fate studies can report findings using traditional extraction or solid-state methods of detection, since release concentration exceed the capacity of environmental media to adsorb or degrade them. This report documents a test using solid-state {sup 31}P-NMR and GC/MS methods to delineate two adsorbed phosphonates on a uniform silica gel substrate at different concentrations. The test sought to determine the sensitivity of {sup 31}P-NMR detection, delineate adsorption character of the phosphonates, quantify their extraction efficiency using different solvents, and test the phosphonate mobility and photodegradability under short-term idealized conditions. The results show that solid-state detection at the experimental conditions can detect individual phosphonate species down to the 100 ppm level. Sensitivity could be further increased using larger samples and longer collection times. Solvent extraction of the phosphonates from the silica gel showed that a chlorinated solvent (methylene chloride) produced poor recovery for phosphonic acids from the silica gel, whereas methanol used as a solvent achieved high extraction efficiency. The phosphonates used showed strong aqueous mobility in a silica gel column experiment, with a small but significant amount left adsorbed to the substrate. A 96 hour photo-degradation experiment showed no degradation of the compounds.

  4. Infrared Study of the Molecular Orientation in Ultrathin Films of Behenic Acid Methyl Ester: Comparison between

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pezolet, Michel

    Infrared Study of the Molecular Orientation in Ultrathin Films of Behenic Acid Methyl Ester-Blodgett transfer. The presence in the infrared spectra of several bands due to the methylene wagging and twisting and infrared spectroscopy have been developed to study these films. Infrared spectroscopy is particularly

  5. amine methanol, ether . Amine amine CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Deog Ki

    IP [2012] 7 C O 2 (CO2) . CO2 amine methanol, ether . Amine amine CO2 CO2 .Amine CO2 (functional group) amine amine+ +promoter .Amine CO2 CO2 . . , methanol ether methanol, ether promoter CO2 CO2 H2S, COS CO2 . Methanol rectisol process, di-methylene ether polypropylene glycol selexol (-30oC) . CO2

  6. Structural and dynamic properties of propane coordinated to TpRh(CNR) from a confrontation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, William D.

    Structural and dynamic properties of propane coordinated to TpRh(CNR) from a confrontation between] in interaction with propane. Two complexes have been found as minima coordinated through either a methyl the methylene complex of propane into a methyl complex of pro- pane. This latter reaction has a much lower

  7. DNA Strand Damage Product Analysis Provides Evidence That the Tumor Cell-Specific Cytotoxin Tirapazamine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gates, Kent. S.

    DNA Strand Damage Product Analysis Provides Evidence That the Tumor Cell-Specific Cytotoxin DNA strand damage that is initiated by the abstraction of hydrogen atoms from the deoxyribose damage. We find that the action of TPZ on duplex DNA under hypoxic conditions generates 5-methylene-2

  8. JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE IV Colloque C4, supplkmentau Journal de Physique 11, Volume 3,septembre 1993

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    K for polycarbonate and polyoxy- methylene samples. The values of 73 and 13 are a constant below measurements have also been performed to deduce the free-volume hole distributions in the polycarbonate using the particle in a spherical box theory. The free-volume hole radii of polycarbonate at 293 K

  9. Computer simulation study of liquid CH2F2 with a new effective pair potential model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mezei, Mihaly

    to reproduce the thermodynamic internal energy, density, heat capacity, vapor-liquid equilibrium and structuralComputer simulation study of liquid CH2F2 with a new effective pair potential model Pa potential model is proposed for computer simulations of liquid methylene fluoride and used in Monte Carlo

  10. Northeastern University Department of Biology Bio U545/G245 Marine Science Center, Nahant Tuesdays, Fall Quarter, 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ayers, Joseph

    -frame video analysis and electrophysiological techniques. A term paper will involve a review of the behavior identified organisms, neuroanatomy, ethograms, video analysis of behavior, kinematic analysis, analysis Sept 16 Social Learning in Honeybees 2 23 Ladder like Chains, Methylene Blue, HRP, Cobalt, 3 30 Lobster

  11. Chemically grown TiO2 on glass with superior photocatalytic properties G. Kenanakis a,b,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : Titanium dioxide thin films Degussa P25 TiO2 Sol­gel technique Photocatalysis Stearic acid Methylene blue of photocatalysis for various applications such as water treatment, air purification and fuel cells [1­5]. TiO2

  12. aisi-348 h2o b4c: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    200 ml 60 g Acrylamide 1.6 g Methylene Bis acrylamide (1:37.5) Bring to 200 27.5 g Boric Acid 3.72 g Na2EDTA-2dH2O (ultrapure) 40% Acrylamide Stock Solution For Nucleic Acid...

  13. Method for making carbon films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan, M.X.

    1999-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for treating an organic polymer material, preferably a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer (Saran) to produce a flat sheet of carbon film material having a high surface area ([approx equal]1000 m[sup 2] /g) suitable as an electrode material for super capacitor applications. The method comprises heating a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer film disposed between two spaced apart graphite or ceramic plates to a first temperature of about 160 C for about 14 hours to form a stabilized vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride polymer film, thereafter heating the stabilized film to a second temperature of about 750 C in an inert atmosphere for about one hour to form a carbon film; and finally activating the carbon film to increase the surface area by heating the carbon film in an oxidizing atmosphere to a temperature of at least 750--850 C for between 1--6 hours. 2 figs.

  14. Anionic Salt Programs for Close-Up Dry Cows 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stokes, Sandra R.

    1998-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    (magnesium sulfate, calcium sulfate, ammonium Using anionic salts to manipulate DCAD Keep these guidelines in mind when using anionic salts to manipulate the dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD): n Know the macromineral (potassium, calcium, sulfur, chlo... Supplement with calcium sulfate, ammonium sulfate, mag- nesium sulfate or a combination until total dietary sulfur reaches 0.4 percent. n Add calcium chloride, magnesium chloride, ammonium chloride or a combination until the DCAD is 10 to 15 milli...

  15. Cainelli, G. Cardillo, M. Contento, G. Trapani, and A. Umani-Ronchi, J. Chem. SoC.. Perkin Trans. 1, 400 (1973);G, Cainelii. G. Cardillo, M.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellison, Barney

    chloride and bromide with enamines; see M. E. Kuehne, J. Am. Chem. SOC.,81,5400(1959); (1974). R. Fusco, S

  16. asthma systematic review: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Meta-analysis CiteSeer Summary: BACKGROUND: Phthalates from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics may have adverse effects on airways and immunologic systems, but the evidence...

  17. allergy quantitative exposure: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Meta-analysis CiteSeer Summary: BACKGROUND: Phthalates from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics may have adverse effects on airways and immunologic systems, but the evidence...

  18. actinides exposure review: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Meta-analysis CiteSeer Summary: BACKGROUND: Phthalates from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics may have adverse effects on airways and immunologic systems, but the evidence...

  19. allergy asthma smoke: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Meta-analysis CiteSeer Summary: BACKGROUND: Phthalates from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics may have adverse effects on airways and immunologic systems, but the evidence...

  20. Developing Low-Conductance Window Frames: Capabilities and Limitations of Current Window Heat Transfer Design Tools

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gustavsen, Arild

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    contours for one of the PVC frames studied by Gustavsen etframe with a polyvinyl chloride (PVC ) thermal breakand a PVC frame] were examined with air leakage rates of