Measurement enhancement for state estimation
Chen, Jian
2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z
in the power system. A robust state estimation should have the capability of keeping the system observable during different contingencies, as well as detecting and identifying the gross errors in measurement set and network topology. However, this capability...
State Energy Production Estimates
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:5(Million Cubic Feet) Oregon (Including Vehicle Fuel) (MillionStructural Basis of Wnt Recognition by Frizzled SSRL Science SummaryInitiativesPriceState
Efficient Power System State Estimation
Lavaei, Javad
monitoring of power systems. 2. Background Power systems have four main components: transmission, sub-transmissionEfficient Power System State Estimation Zafirah Baksh Expected BS, Department of Electrical Engineering May 2013 ELEN E4511 Power Systems Analysis Professor Javad Lavaeiyanesi #12;1. Introduction Power
Enhanced State Estimators Final Project Report
. State estimators, integrated into control center energy management systems, provide estimates of varying magnitude. As a result, a state estimator is an essential tool for system monitoring becauseEnhanced State Estimators Final Project Report Power Systems Engineering Research Center A National
State energy data report 1994: Consumption estimates
NONE
1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z
This document provides annual time series estimates of State-level energy consumption by major economic sector. The estimates are developed in the State Energy Data System (SEDS), operated by EIA. SEDS provides State energy consumption estimates to members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, and the general public, and provides the historical series needed for EIA`s energy models. Division is made for each energy type and end use sector. Nuclear electric power is included.
Uncertainty Quantification in ocean state estimation
Kalmikov, Alexander G
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Quantifying uncertainty and error bounds is a key outstanding challenge in ocean state estimation and climate research. It is particularly difficult due to the large dimensionality of this nonlinear estimation problem and ...
State energy data report 1993: Consumption estimates
NONE
1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
The State Energy Data Report (SEDR) provides annual time series estimates of State-level energy consumption by major economic sector. The estimates are developed in the State Energy Data System (SEDS), which is maintained and operated by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The goal in maintaining SEDS is to create historical time series of energy consumption by State that are defined as consistently as possible over time and across sectors. SEDS exists for two principal reasons: (1) to provide State energy consumption estimates to Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, and the general public; and (2) to provide the historical series necessary for EIA`s energy models.
State energy data report 1995 - consumption estimates
NONE
1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z
The State Energy Data Report (SEDR) provides annual time series estimates of State-level energy consumption by major economic sectors. The estimates are developed in the State Energy Data System (SEDS), which is maintained and operated by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The goal in maintaining SEDS exists for two principal reasons: (1) to provide State energy consumption estimates to Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, and the general public, and (2) to provide the historical series necessary for EIA`s energy models.
Parallel State Estimation Assessment with Practical Data
Chen, Yousu; Jin, Shuangshuang; Rice, Mark J.; Huang, Zhenyu
2014-10-31T23:59:59.000Z
This paper presents a full-cycle parallel state estimation (PSE) implementation using a preconditioned conjugate gradient algorithm. The developed code is able to solve large-size power system state estimation within 5 seconds using real-world data, comparable to the Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) rate. This achievement allows the operators to know the system status much faster to help improve grid reliability. Case study results of the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) system with real measurements are presented. The benefits of fast state estimation are also discussed.
State energy data report 1996: Consumption estimates
NONE
1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z
The State Energy Data Report (SEDR) provides annual time series estimates of State-level energy consumption by major economic sectors. The estimates are developed in the Combined State Energy Data System (CSEDS), which is maintained and operated by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The goal in maintaining CSEDS is to create historical time series of energy consumption by State that are defined as consistently as possible over time and across sectors. CSEDS exists for two principal reasons: (1) to provide State energy consumption estimates to Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, and the general public and (2) to provide the historical series necessary for EIA`s energy models. To the degree possible, energy consumption has been assigned to five sectors: residential, commercial, industrial, transportation, and electric utility sectors. Fuels covered are coal, natural gas, petroleum, nuclear electric power, hydroelectric power, biomass, and other, defined as electric power generated from geothermal, wind, photovoltaic, and solar thermal energy. 322 tabs.
PMU Deployment for Optimal State Estimation Performance
Roy, Sumit
the observability of candidate deployments at each step and improves the convergence speed of the search. In [5PMU Deployment for Optimal State Estimation Performance Yue Yang, Student Member IEEE, and Sumit electronic devices (IED), that sense the grid state variables so as to support enhanced, real-time monitoring
Sub-Second Parallel State Estimation
Chen, Yousu; Rice, Mark J.; Glaesemann, Kurt R.; Wang, Shaobu; Huang, Zhenyu
2014-10-31T23:59:59.000Z
This report describes the performance of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) sub-second parallel state estimation (PSE) tool using the utility data from the Bonneville Power Administrative (BPA) and discusses the benefits of the fast computational speed for power system applications. The test data were provided by BPA. They are two-days’ worth of hourly snapshots that include power system data and measurement sets in a commercial tool format. These data are extracted out from the commercial tool box and fed into the PSE tool. With the help of advanced solvers, the PSE tool is able to solve each BPA hourly state estimation problem within one second, which is more than 10 times faster than today’s commercial tool. This improved computational performance can help increase the reliability value of state estimation in many aspects: (1) the shorter the time required for execution of state estimation, the more time remains for operators to take appropriate actions, and/or to apply automatic or manual corrective control actions. This increases the chances of arresting or mitigating the impact of cascading failures; (2) the SE can be executed multiple times within time allowance. Therefore, the robustness of SE can be enhanced by repeating the execution of the SE with adaptive adjustments, including removing bad data and/or adjusting different initial conditions to compute a better estimate within the same time as a traditional state estimator’s single estimate. There are other benefits with the sub-second SE, such as that the PSE results can potentially be used in local and/or wide-area automatic corrective control actions that are currently dependent on raw measurements to minimize the impact of bad measurements, and provides opportunities to enhance the power grid reliability and efficiency. PSE also can enable other advanced tools that rely on SE outputs and could be used to further improve operators’ actions and automated controls to mitigate effects of severe events on the grid. The power grid continues to grow and the number of measurements is increasing at an accelerated rate due to the variety of smart grid devices being introduced. A parallel state estimation implementation will have better performance than traditional, sequential state estimation by utilizing the power of high performance computing (HPC). This increased performance positions parallel state estimators as valuable tools for operating the increasingly more complex power grid.
State energy data report 1992: Consumption estimates
Not Available
1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z
This is a report of energy consumption by state for the years 1960 to 1992. The report contains summaries of energy consumption for the US and by state, consumption by source, comparisons to other energy use reports, consumption by energy use sector, and describes the estimation methodologies used in the preparation of the report. Some years are not listed specifically although they are included in the summary of data.
Estimated Water Flows in 2005: United States
Smith, C A; Belles, R D; Simon, A J
2011-03-16T23:59:59.000Z
Flow charts depicting water use in the United States have been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of water use patterns. Approximately 410,500 million gallons per day of water are managed throughout the United States for use in farming, power production, residential, commercial, and industrial applications. Water is obtained from four major resource classes: fresh surface-water, saline (ocean) surface-water, fresh groundwater and saline (brackish) groundwater. Water that is not consumed or evaporated during its use is returned to surface bodies of water. The flow patterns are represented in a compact 'visual atlas' of 52 state-level (all 50 states in addition to Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands) and one national water flow chart representing a comprehensive systems view of national water resources, use, and disposition.
Parallel State Estimation Assessment with Practical Data
Chen, Yousu; Jin, Shuangshuang; Rice, Mark J.; Huang, Zhenyu
2013-07-31T23:59:59.000Z
This paper presents a parallel state estimation (PSE) implementation using a preconditioned gradient algorithm and an orthogonal decomposition-based algorithm. The preliminary tests against a commercial Energy Management System (EMS) State Estimation (SE) tool using real-world data are performed. The results show that while the precondition gradient algorithm can solve the SE problem quicker with the help of parallel computing techniques, it might not be good for real-world data due to the large condition number of gain matrix introduced by the wide range of measurement weights. With the help of PETSc package and considering one iteration of the SE process, the orthogonal decomposition-based PSE algorithm can achieve 5-20 times speedup comparing against the commercial EMS tool. It is very promising that the developed PSE can solve the SE problem for large power systems at the SCADA rate, to improve grid reliability.
Estimated United States Transportation Energy Use 2005
Smith, C A; Simon, A J; Belles, R D
2011-11-09T23:59:59.000Z
A flow chart depicting energy flow in the transportation sector of the United States economy in 2005 has been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of national energy use patterns. Approximately 31,000 trillion British Thermal Units (trBTUs) of energy were used throughout the United States in transportation activities. Vehicles used in these activities include automobiles, motorcycles, trucks, buses, airplanes, rail, and ships. The transportation sector is powered primarily by petroleum-derived fuels (gasoline, diesel and jet fuel). Biomass-derived fuels, electricity and natural gas-derived fuels are also used. The flow patterns represent a comprehensive systems view of energy used within the transportation sector.
Parameter and state estimation in nonlinear dynamical systems
Creveling, Daniel R.
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
and J. Kurths. Nonlinear dynamical system identi?ca- tionEstimation In Nonlinear Dynamical Systems A dissertationState Estimation In Nonlinear Dynamical Systems by Daniel R.
Estimating Power System Dynamic States Using Extended Kalman Filter
Huang, Zhenyu; Schneider, Kevin P.; Nieplocha, Jaroslaw; Zhou, Ning
2014-10-31T23:59:59.000Z
Abstract—The state estimation tools which are currently deployed in power system control rooms are based on a steady state assumption. As a result, the suite of operational tools that rely on state estimation results as inputs do not have dynamic information available and their accuracy is compromised. This paper investigates the application of Extended Kalman Filtering techniques for estimating dynamic states in the state estimation process. The new formulated “dynamic state estimation” includes true system dynamics reflected in differential equations, not like previously proposed “dynamic state estimation” which only considers the time-variant snapshots based on steady state modeling. This new dynamic state estimation using Extended Kalman Filter has been successfully tested on a multi-machine system. Sensitivity studies with respect to noise levels, sampling rates, model errors, and parameter errors are presented as well to illustrate the robust performance of the developed dynamic state estimation process.
Back-and-forth Operation of State Observers and Norm Estimation of Estimation Error
Back-and-forth Operation of State Observers and Norm Estimation of Estimation Error Hyungbo Shim with the plant, this paper proposes a state estimation algorithm that executes Luenberger observers in a back in the past have employed time-varying gains to over- come this problem [1], where the basic idea is to obtain
Quantum phase estimation using a multi-headed cat state
Su-Yong Lee; Chang-Woo Lee; Hyunchul Nha; Dagomir Kaszlikowski
2015-05-16T23:59:59.000Z
It was recently shown that an entangled coherent state, which is a superposition of two different coherent states, can surpass the performance of noon state in estimating an unknown phase-shift. This may hint at further enhancement in phase estimation by incorporating more component states in the superposition of resource state. We here introduce a four-headed cat state (4HCS), a superposition of four different coherent states, and propose its application to quantum phase estimation. We demonstrate the enhanced performance in phase estimation by employing an entangled state via the 4HCS, which can surpass that of the two-headed cat state (2HCS), particularly in the regime of small average photon numbers. Moreover, we show that an entangled state modified from the 4HCS can further enhance the phase estimation, even in the regime of large average photon number under a photon-loss channel. Our investigation further extends to incorporate an increasingly large number of component states in the resource superposition state and clearly show its merit in phase estimation.
Guaranteed state estimation by zonotopes for systems with interval uncertainties
Damm, Werner
. Stoica T. Alamo E.F. Camacho D. Dumur This talk focuses on guaranteed state estimation by zonotopes [1 example. References [1] T. Alamo, J.M. Bravo, and E.F. Camacho. Guaranteed state estimation by zonotopes. Automatica, 41:10351043, 2005. [2] V.T.H. Le, T. Alamo, E.F. Camacho, C. Stoica, and D. Dumur. A new
SWOT Satellite Mission: Combined State Parameter Estimation
Washington at Seattle, University of
-parameter estimation problem Data assimilation experiments Water depth Discharge Channel width Roughness coefficient #12;3 Need for a surface water mission Importance to hydrology gauge measurements insufficient hydraulics Amazon Siberia Ohio #12;4 Global gauge measurements #12;5 SWOT Technology These surface water
Dynamic State Estimation Utilizing High Performance Computing Methods
Schneider, Kevin P.; Huang, Zhenyu; Yang, Bo; Hauer, Matthew L.; Nieplocha, Jaroslaw
2009-03-18T23:59:59.000Z
The state estimation tools which are currently deployed in power system control rooms are based on a quasi-steady-state assumption. As a result, the suite of operational tools that rely on state estimation results as inputs do not have dynamic information available and their accuracy is compromised. This paper presents an overview of the Kalman Filtering process and then focuses on the implementation of the predication component on multiple processors.
Distributed Dynamic State Estimation with Extended Kalman Filter
Du, Pengwei; Huang, Zhenyu; Sun, Yannan; Diao, Ruisheng; Kalsi, Karanjit; Anderson, Kevin K.; Li, Yulan; Lee, Barry
2011-08-04T23:59:59.000Z
Increasing complexity associated with large-scale renewable resources and novel smart-grid technologies necessitates real-time monitoring and control. Our previous work applied the extended Kalman filter (EKF) with the use of phasor measurement data (PMU) for dynamic state estimation. However, high computation complexity creates significant challenges for real-time applications. In this paper, the problem of distributed dynamic state estimation is investigated. One domain decomposition method is proposed to utilize decentralized computing resources. The performance of distributed dynamic state estimation is tested on a 16-machine, 68-bus test system.
Optimal State Estimation for Boolean Dynamical Systems
Braga-Neto, Ulisses
of its components, f = (f1,f2,...,fd), where each component fi {0,1}d {0,1}, i = 1,...,d, is a Boolean Engineering Texas A & M University College Station, Texas 77843 Email: ub@ieee.org Abstract--A novel state
Electric Grid State Estimators for Distribution Systems with Microgrids
Gupta, Vijay
Electric Grid State Estimators for Distribution Systems with Microgrids Jing Huang, Vijay Gupta and Yih-Fang Huang Department of Electrical Engineering University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 Emails: {jhuang6,vgupta2,huang}@nd.edu Abstract--In the development of smart grid, state
Improved measurement placement and topology processing in power system state estimation
Wu, Yang
2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z
State estimation plays an important role in modern power system energy management systems. The network observability is a pre-requisite for the state estimation solution. Topological error in the network may cause the state estimation results...
Current (2009) State-of-the-Art Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Current (2009) State-of-the-Art Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Water Electrolysis Current (2009) State-of-the-Art Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Water...
UNSCENTED KALMAN FILTERING FOR SPACECRAFT ATTITUDE STATE AND PARAMETER ESTIMATION
Hall, Christopher D.
AAS-04-115 UNSCENTED KALMAN FILTERING FOR SPACECRAFT ATTITUDE STATE AND PARAMETER ESTIMATION Matthew C. VanDyke , Jana L. Schwartz , Christopher D. Hall An Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) is derived with an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF). The EKF is an extension of the linear Kalman Filter for nonlinear systems
Estimation of steady-state basic parameters of stars
B. V. Vasiliev
2000-03-30T23:59:59.000Z
From a minimum of total energy of celestial bodies, their basic parameters are obtained. The steady-state values of the mass, radius, and temperature of stars and white dwarfs, as well as masses of pulsars are calculated. The luminosity and giromagnetic ratio of celestial bodies are estimated. All the obtained values are in a satisfactory agreement with observation data.
Phasor Measurement Unit Data in Power System State Estimation
Phasor Measurement Unit Data in Power System State Estimation Intermediate Project Report Power Center since 1996 PSERC #12;Power Systems Engineering Research Center Phasor Measurement Unit Data deals with the placement of phasor measurement units (PMUs) based on the improvement in error
OPTIMAL PLACEMENT AND UTILIZATION OF PHASOR MEASUREMENTS FOR STATE ESTIMATION
measurement unit (PMU). Buses with zero and non- zero injections, and branches with power flow measure- ments simulations. Keywords: State estimation, phasor measurement units, network observability, optimal meter to the development of phasor measurement units (PMU). As the PMUs become more and more afford- able
Optimal Estimation of States in Quantum Image Processing
Mario Mastriani
2014-06-19T23:59:59.000Z
An optimal estimator of quantum states based on a modified Kalman Filter is presented in this work. Such estimator acts after state measurement, allowing to obtain an optimal estimation of quantum state resulting in the output of any quantum image algorithm. Besides, a new criteria, logic, and arithmetic based on projections onto vertical axis of Bloch Sphere exclusively are presented too. This approach will allow us: 1) a simpler development of logic and arithmetic quantum operations, where they will closer to those used in the classical digital image processing algorithms, 2) building simple and robust classical-to-quantum and quantum-to-classical interfaces. Said so far is extended to quantum algorithms outside image processing too. In a special section on metrics and simulations, three new metrics based on the comparison between the classical and quantum versions algorithms for filtering and edge detection of images are presented. Notable differences between the results of classical and quantum versions of such algorithms (outside and inside of quantum computer, respectively) show the need for modeling state and measurement noise inside estimation scheme.
The Lithium-Ion Cell: Model, State Of Charge Estimation
Schenato, Luca
. Di Domenico, A. Stefanopoulou, and G. Fiengo., Reduced Order Lithium-ion Battery Electrochemical+ontestresultsIncreasingamplitudeHPPCprofiles #12;LithiumionbaEery:ExtendedKalmanFilter cs cse I V Lithium-ion battery EKF. Stefanopoulou, and G. Fiengo., Experimental Validation of a Lithium-Ion Battery State of Charge Estimation
Multiple phase estimation for arbitrary pure states under white noise
Yao Yao; Li Ge; Xing Xiao; Xiaoguang Wang; C. P. Sun
2014-09-08T23:59:59.000Z
In any realistic quantum metrology scenarios, the ultimate precision in the estimation of parameters is limited not only by the so-called Heisenberg scaling, but also the environmental noise encountered by the underlying system. In the context of quantum estimation theory, it is of great significance to carefully evaluate the impact of a specific type of noise on the corresponding quantum Fisher information (QFI) or quantum Fisher information matrix (QFIM). Here we investigate the multiple phase estimation problem for a natural parametrization of arbitrary pure states under white noise. We obtain the explicit expression of the symmetric logarithmic derivative (SLD) and hence the analytical formula of QFIM. Moreover, the attainability of the quantum Cram\\'{e}r-Rao bound (QCRB) is confirmed by the commutability of SLDs and the optimal estimators are elucidated for the experimental purpose. These findings generalize previously known partial results and highlight the role of white noise in quantum metrology.
Freeman, Matthew A
2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z
investigates the benefits that stem from utilizing a multi-area state estimator instead of a serial state estimator. These benefits are largely in the form of increased accuracy and decreased processing time. First, the theory behind power system state...
Freeman, Matthew A
2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z
investigates the benefits that stem from utilizing a multi-area state estimator instead of a serial state estimator. These benefits are largely in the form of increased accuracy and decreased processing time. First, the theory behind power system state...
Estimated Carbon Dioxide Emissions in 2008: United States
Smith, C A; Simon, A J; Belles, R D
2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z
Flow charts depicting carbon dioxide emissions in the United States have been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of state-level energy use patterns. Approximately 5,800 million metric tons of carbon dioxide were emitted throughout the United States for use in power production, residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation applications in 2008. Carbon dioxide is emitted from the use of three major energy resources: natural gas, coal, and petroleum. The flow patterns are represented in a compact 'visual atlas' of 52 state-level (all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and one national) carbon dioxide flow charts representing a comprehensive systems view of national CO{sub 2} emissions. Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL) has published flow charts (also referred to as 'Sankey Diagrams') of important national commodities since the early 1970s. The most widely recognized of these charts is the U.S. energy flow chart (http://flowcharts.llnl.gov). LLNL has also published charts depicting carbon (or carbon dioxide potential) flow and water flow at the national level as well as energy, carbon, and water flows at the international, state, municipal, and organizational (i.e. United States Air Force) level. Flow charts are valuable as single-page references that contain quantitative data about resource, commodity, and byproduct flows in a graphical form that also convey structural information about the system that manages those flows. Data on carbon dioxide emissions from the energy sector are reported on a national level. Because carbon dioxide emissions are not reported for individual states, the carbon dioxide emissions are estimated using published energy use information. Data on energy use is compiled by the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (U.S. EIA) in the State Energy Data System (SEDS). SEDS is updated annually and reports data from 2 years prior to the year of the update. SEDS contains data on primary resource consumption, electricity generation, and energy consumption within each economic sector. Flow charts of state-level energy usage and explanations of the calculations and assumptions utilized can be found at: http://flowcharts.llnl.gov. This information is translated into carbon dioxide emissions using ratios of carbon dioxide emissions to energy use calculated from national carbon dioxide emissions and national energy use quantities for each particular sector. These statistics are reported annually in the U.S. EIA's Annual Energy Review. Data for 2008 (US. EIA, 2010) was updated in August of 2010. This is the first presentation of a comprehensive state-level package of flow charts depicting carbon dioxide emissions for the United States.
Numerical Estimation of Frictional Torques with Rate and State Friction
Arun K. Singh; T. N. Singh
2015-01-20T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper, numerical estimation of frictional torques is carried out of a rotary elastic disc on a hard and rough surface under different rotating conditions. A one dimensional spring- mass rotary system is numerically solved under the quasistatic condition with the rate and state dependent friction model. It is established that torque of frictional strength as well as torque of steady dynamic stress increases with radius and found to be maximum at the periphery of the disc. Torque corresponding to frictional strength estimated using the analytical solution matches closely with the simulation only in the case of high stiffness of the connecting spring. In steady relaxation simulation, a steadily rotating disc is suddenly stopped and relaxational angular velocity and corresponding frictional torque decreases with both steady angular velocity and stiffness of the connecting spring in the velocity strengthening regime. In velocity weakening regime, in contrast, torque of relaxation stress deceases but relaxation velocity increases. The reason for the contradiction is explained.
Estimated United States Residential Energy Use in 2005
Smith, C A; Johnson, D M; Simon, A J; Belles, R D
2011-12-12T23:59:59.000Z
A flow chart depicting energy flow in the residential sector of the United States economy in 2005 has been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of national energy use patterns. Approximately 11,000 trillion British Thermal Units (trBTUs) of electricity and fuels were used throughout the United States residential sector in lighting, electronics, air conditioning, space heating, water heating, washing appliances, cooking appliances, refrigerators, and other appliances. The residential sector is powered mainly by electricity and natural gas. Other fuels used include petroleum products (fuel oil, liquefied petroleum gas and kerosene), biomass (wood), and on-premises solar, wind, and geothermal energy. The flow patterns represent a comprehensive systems view of energy used within the residential sector.
Meliopoulos, Sakis; Cokkinides, George; Fardanesh, Bruce; Hedrington, Clinton
2013-12-31T23:59:59.000Z
This is the final report for this project that was performed in the period: October1, 2009 to June 30, 2013. In this project, a fully distributed high-fidelity dynamic state estimator (DSE) that continuously tracks the real time dynamic model of a wide area system with update rates better than 60 times per second is achieved. The proposed technology is based on GPS-synchronized measurements but also utilizes data from all available Intelligent Electronic Devices in the system (numerical relays, digital fault recorders, digital meters, etc.). The distributed state estimator provides the real time model of the system not only the voltage phasors. The proposed system provides the infrastructure for a variety of applications and two very important applications (a) a high fidelity generating unit parameters estimation and (b) an energy function based transient stability monitoring of a wide area electric power system with predictive capability. Also the dynamic distributed state estimation results are stored (the storage scheme includes data and coincidental model) enabling an automatic reconstruction and “play back” of a system wide disturbance. This approach enables complete play back capability with fidelity equal to that of real time with the advantage of “playing back” at a user selected speed. The proposed technologies were developed and tested in the lab during the first 18 months of the project and then demonstrated on two actual systems, the USVI Water and Power Administration system and the New York Power Authority’s Blenheim-Gilboa pumped hydro plant in the last 18 months of the project. The four main thrusts of this project, mentioned above, are extremely important to the industry. The DSE with the achieved update rates (more than 60 times per second) provides a superior solution to the “grid visibility” question. The generator parameter identification method fills an important and practical need of the industry. The “energy function” based transient stability monitoring opens up new ways to protect the power grid, better manage disturbances, confine their impact and in general improve the reliability and security of the system. Finally, as a by-product of the proposed research project, the developed system is able to “play back” disturbances by a click of a mouse. The importance of this by-product is evident by considering the tremendous effort exerted after the August 2003 blackout to piece together all the disturbance recordings, align them and recreate the sequence of events. This project has moved the state of art from fault recording by individual devices to system wide disturbance recording with “play back” capability.
Measurement calibration/tuning & topology processing in power system state estimation
Zhong, Shan
2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z
State estimation plays an important role in modern power systems. The errors in the telemetered measurements and the connectivity information of the network will greatly contaminate the estimated system state. This dissertation provides solutions...
Reduced Measurement-space Dynamic State Estimation (ReMeDySE) for Power Systems
Zhang, Jinghe; Welch, Greg; Bishop, Gary; Huang, Zhenyu
2011-06-19T23:59:59.000Z
Abstract- Applying Kalman filtering techniques to dynamic state estimation is a developing research area in modern power systems.
Chen Lin [Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117543 (Singapore); Zhu Huangjun [Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117543 (Singapore); Graduate School for Integrative Sciences and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117597 (Singapore); Wei, Tzu-Chieh [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z1 (Canada)
2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z
We study the geometric measure of entanglement (GM) of pure symmetric states related to rank 1 positive-operator-valued measures (POVMs) and establish a general connection with quantum state estimation theory, especially the maximum likelihood principle. Based on this connection, we provide a method for computing the GM of these states and demonstrate its additivity property under certain conditions. In particular, we prove the additivity of the GM of pure symmetric multiqubit states whose Majorana points under Majorana representation are distributed within a half sphere, including all pure symmetric three-qubit states. We then introduce a family of symmetric states that are generated from mutually unbiased bases and derive an analytical formula for their GM. These states include Dicke states as special cases, which have already been realized in experiments. We also derive the GM of symmetric states generated from symmetric informationally complete POVMs (SIC POVMs) and use it to characterize all inequivalent SIC POVMs in three-dimensional Hilbert space that are covariant with respect to the Heisenberg-Weyl group. Finally, we describe an experimental scheme for creating the symmetric multiqubit states studied in this article and a possible scheme for measuring the permanence of the related Gram matrix.
Feasibility Studies of Applying Kalman Filter Techniques to Power System Dynamic State Estimation
Huang, Zhenyu; Schneider, Kevin P.; Nieplocha, Jarek
2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z
Abstract—Lack of dynamic information in power system operations mainly attributes to the static modeling of traditional state estimation, as state estimation is the basis driving many other operations functions. This paper investigates the feasibility of applying Kalman filter techniques to enable the inclusion of dynamic modeling in the state estimation process and the estimation of power system dynamic states. The proposed Kalman-filter-based dynamic state estimation is tested on a multi-machine system with both large and small disturbances. Sensitivity studies of the dynamic state estimation performance with respect to measurement characteristics – sampling rate and noise level – are presented as well. The study results show that there is a promising path forward to implementation the Kalman-filter-based dynamic state estimation with the emerging phasor measurement technologies.
Toward a 6 DOF Body State Estimator for a Hexapod Robot with Dynamical Gaits
Lin, Pei-Chun
Toward a 6 DOF Body State Estimator for a Hexapod Robot with Dynamical Gaits Pei-Chun Lin on a continuous time full body state estimator for a hexapod robot operating in the dynamical regime (entailing-per-stride estimates. I. INTRODUCTION The hexapod, RHex [1], exhibits unprecedented mobility for a legged autonomous
Sensor Data Fusion for Body State Estimation in a Hexapod Robot with Dynamical Gaits
Lin, Pei-Chun
Sensor Data Fusion for Body State Estimation in a Hexapod Robot with Dynamical Gaits Pei-Chun Lin toward a continuous time full 6 DOF translational body state estimator for a hexapod robot executing this estimation procedure on the hexapod robot RHex and evaluate its per- formance using a visual ground truth
Hierarchical models for estimating state and demographic trends in U.S. death penalty public opinion
Gelman, Andrew
Hierarchical models for estimating state and demographic trends in U.S. death penalty public?" Because the death penalty is governed by state laws rather than federal laws, it is of special interest logistic regression model to estimate support for the death penalty as a function of the year, the state
Sukhatme, Gaurav S.
State Estimation of an Autonomous Helicopter Using Kalman Filtering Myungsoo Juny, Stergios I the state of a robot helicopter using a combina- tion of gyroscopes, accelerometers, inclinometers and GPS modeling. The number of estimated states of helicopter is nine : three attitudes( ) from the gyroscopes
A Survey of State-Level Cost and Benefit Estimates of Renewable Portfolio Standards
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
This report surveys and summarizes existing state-level RPS cost and benefit estimates and examines the various methods used to calculate such estimates. The report relies largely upon data or results reported directly by electric utilities and state regulators. As such, the estimated costs and benefits itemized in this document do not result from the application of a standardized approach or the use of a consistent set of underlying assumptions. Because the reported values may differ from those derived through a more consistent analytical treatment, we do not provide an aggregate national estimate of RPS costs and benefits, nor do we attempt to quantify net RPS benefits at national or state levels.
Trust-aware State Estimation Under False Data Injection in Distributed Sensor Networks
Baras, John S.
1 Trust-aware State Estimation Under False Data Injection in Distributed Sensor Networks Shanshan of nodes and the volatility of the network. In this paper, we focus on robust distributed state estimation Engineering University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 20742 Email: {sszheng,tjiang,baras}@umd.edu Abstract--Distributed
Communication Capacity Requirement for Reliable and Secure State Estimation in Smart Grid
Qiu, Robert Caiming
1 Communication Capacity Requirement for Reliable and Secure State Estimation in Smart Grid Husheng, Cookeville, TN Abstract-- Secure system state estimation is an important issue in smart grid to assure the information the- oretic perspective. The smart grid is modeled as a linear dynamic system. Then, the channel
Baldick, Ross
) and the Southwest Power Pool (SPP) systems. I. INTRODUCTION TO HOST SCADA and Energy Management System soft- ware1240 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 15, NO. 4, NOVEMBER 2000 State Estimation Distributed- rithm to Power Systems State Estimation. We apply the Auxiliary Problem Principle to develop
False Data Injection Attacks against State Estimation in Electric Power Grids
Ning, Peng
False Data Injection Attacks against State Estimation in Electric Power Grids Yao Liu and Peng Ning A power grid is a complex system connecting electric power generators to consumers through power of attacks, called false data injection attacks, against state estimation in electric power grids. Under
Tests of the impact of assimilation of surface data on ocean state estimates
Kurapov, Alexander
Tests of the impact of assimilation of surface data on ocean state estimates The coastal ocean. The relative impact of these data on the ocean state estimate has been evaluated. Accurate prediction of the front location is important to fisheries. Prediction and forecasting of surface currents would
Load Modeling and State Estimation Methods for Power Distribution Systems: Final Report
Tom McDermott
2010-05-07T23:59:59.000Z
The project objective was to provide robust state estimation for distribution systems, comparable to what has been available on transmission systems for decades. This project used an algorithm called Branch Current State Estimation (BCSE), which is more effective than classical methods because it decouples the three phases of a distribution system, and uses branch current instead of node voltage as a state variable, which is a better match to current measurement.
Improved estimates of the total correlation energy in the ground state of the water molecule
Anderson, James B.
Improved estimates of the total correlation energy in the ground state of the water molecule Arne calculations of the electronic energy of the ground state of the water molecule yield energies lower than those for the electronic energy of the ground state of the water molecule. The energy given by a fixed-node quantum Monte
Cerf, Nicolas
Superiority of Entangled Measurements over All Local Strategies for the Estimation of Product discrimination of product states via entangled measurements was verified experimentally only very recently measurement than with any local strategy supplemented by classical communication. Although this ensemble
Efficient Hydraulic State Estimation Technique Using Reduced Models of Urban Water Networks
Preis, Ami
This paper describes and demonstrates an efficient method for online hydraulic state estimation in urban water networks. The proposed method employs an online predictor-corrector (PC) procedure for forecasting future water ...
Measurement calibration/tuning & topology processing in power system state estimation
Zhong, Shan
2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z
[4], [11] and they are successfully utilized. However, the conventional state estimators are still vulnerable to errors in the topology of the system, which show up when the assumed status of the circuit breakers and switches do not coincide...
1 N. Logic, E. Kyriakides, G. T. Heydt, "Lp State Estimators for Power Systems," N. Logic, E. Kyriakides, G. T. Heydt, "Lp state estimators for power systems," Journal of Electric Power Components and Systems, accepted for publication, 2002. #12;2 Lp State Estimators for Power Systems N. Logic E
Estimated Benefits of IBWC Rio Grande Flood-Control Projects in the United States
Sturdivant, Allen W.; Lacewell, Ronald D.; Michelsen, Ari M.; Rister, M. Edward; Assadian, Naomi; Eriksson, Marian; Freeman, Roger; Jacobs, Jennifer H.; Madison, W. Tom; McGuckin, James T.; Morrison, Wendy; Robinson, John R.C.; Staats, Chris; Sheng, Zhuping; Srinivasan, R.; Villalobos, Joshua I.
TR- 275 2004 Estimated Benefits of IBWC Rio Grande Flood-Control Projects in the United States Allen W. Sturdivant Ronald D. Lacewell Ari M. Michelsen M. Edward Rister Naomi Assadian Marian Eriksson Roger Freeman Jennifer H... A&M University System Texas Water Resources Institute Report: TR-275 Estimated Benefits of IBWC Rio Grande Flood-Control Projects in the United States Texas Water Resources Institute Report: TR-275 This research was supported by a cooperative...
Yoon, Yeo Jun
2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z
This thesis will investigate the impact of the use of the Phasor Measurement Units (PMU) on the state estimation problem. First, incorporation of the PMU measurements in a conventional state estimation program will be discussed. Then, the effect...
Yoon, Yeo Jun
2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z
This thesis will investigate the impact of the use of the Phasor Measurement Units (PMU) on the state estimation problem. First, incorporation of the PMU measurements in a conventional state estimation program will be discussed. Then, the effect...
Survey of State-Level Cost and Benefit Estimates of Renewable Portfolio Standards
Heeter, J.; Barbose, G.; Bird, L.; Weaver, S.; Flores-Espino, F.; Kuskova-Burns, K.; Wiser, R.
2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z
Most renewable portfolio standards (RPS) have five or more years of implementation experience, enabling an assessment of their costs and benefits. Understanding RPS costs and benefits is essential for policymakers evaluating existing RPS policies, assessing the need for modifications, and considering new policies. This study provides an overview of methods used to estimate RPS compliance costs and benefits, based on available data and estimates issued by utilities and regulators. Over the 2010-2012 period, average incremental RPS compliance costs in the United States were equivalent to 0.8% of retail electricity rates, although substantial variation exists around this average, both from year-to-year and across states. The methods used by utilities and regulators to estimate incremental compliance costs vary considerably from state to state and a number of states are currently engaged in processes to refine and standardize their approaches to RPS cost calculation. The report finds that state assessments of RPS benefits have most commonly attempted to quantitatively assess avoided emissions and human health benefits, economic development impacts, and wholesale electricity price savings. Compared to the summary of RPS costs, the summary of RPS benefits is more limited, as relatively few states have undertaken detailed benefits estimates, and then only for a few types of potential policy impacts. In some cases, the same impacts may be captured in the assessment of incremental costs. For these reasons, and because methodologies and level of rigor vary widely, direct comparisons between the estimates of benefits and costs are challenging.
Query Cost Estimation through Remote System Contention States Analysis over the Internet
Liu, Weiru
Query Cost Estimation through Remote System Contention States Analysis over the Internet Weiru Liu costs of possible query plans in order to select the best one with the minimum cost. In this context, the cost of a query is affected by three factors: network congestion, server contention state
False Data Injection Attacks against State Estimation in Electric Power Grids
Reiter, Michael
13 False Data Injection Attacks against State Estimation in Electric Power Grids YAO LIU and PENG A power grid is a complex system connecting electric power generators to consumers through power transmis of attacks, called false data injection attacks, against state estima- tion in electric power grids. Under
Asymptotic Efficiency and Finite Sample Performance of Frequentist Quantum State Estimation
Raj Chakrabarti; Anisha Ghosh
2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z
We undertake a detailed study of the performance of maximum likelihood (ML) estimators of the density matrix of finite-dimensional quantum systems, in order to interrogate generic properties of frequentist quantum state estimation. Existing literature on frequentist quantum estimation has not rigorously examined the finite sample performance of the estimators and associated methods of hypothesis testing. While ML is usually preferred on the basis of its asymptotic properties - it achieves the Cramer-Rao (CR) lower bound - the finite sample properties are often less than optimal. We compare the asymptotic and finite-sample properties of the ML estimators and test statistics for two different choices of measurement bases: the average case optimal or mutually unbiased bases (MUB) and a representative set of suboptimal bases, for spin-1/2 and spin-1 systems. We show that, in both cases, the standard errors of the ML estimators sometimes do not contain the true value of the parameter, which can render inference based on the asymptotic properties of the ML unreliable for experimentally realistic sample sizes. The results indicate that in order to fully exploit the information geometry of quantum states and achieve smaller reconstruction errors, the use of Bayesian state reconstruction methods - which, unlike frequentist methods, do not rely on asymptotic properties - is desirable, since the estimation error is typically lower due to the incorporation of prior knowledge.
A Biochemical Ocean State Estimate in the Southern1 Ocean Gas Exchange Experiment2
Haine, Thomas W. N.
of the oceanic31 carbon pool. It influences light penetration with consequences for primary productivity1 A Biochemical Ocean State Estimate in the Southern1 Ocean Gas Exchange Experiment2 S. Dwivedi1 , T. W. N. Haine2 and C. E. Del Castillo3 3 1 Department of Atmospheric and Ocean Sciences, University
Kalman filtering with unknown inputs via optimal state estimation of singular systems
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
1 Kalman filtering with unknown inputs via optimal state estimation of singular systems M. DAROUACH de Lorraine, 54400 COSNES ET ROMAIN, FRANCE A new method for designing a Kalman filter for linear the Kalman filter, it is generally assumed that all system parameters, noise covariances, and inputs
Using graph theory to resolve state estimator issues faced by deregulated power systems
Lei, Jiansheng
2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z
) Jiansheng Lei, B.S., Tsinghua University, Beijing, China; M.S., Tsinghua University, Beijing, China Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Garng M. Huang Power industry is undergoing a transition from the traditional regulated environment to the competitive... even under a contingency.............................................................................................1 B. Challenge 2: Run state estimator over a grid with extremely large size ...2 1.2 Topic 1: Network observability...
State-Estimators for Chemical Reaction Networks of Feinberg-Horn-Jackson Zero De ciency Type
Chaves, Madalena
State-Estimators for Chemical Reaction Networks of Feinberg-Horn-Jackson Zero De#12;ciency Type #3 for detectability for chemical reaction networks of the Feinberg-Horn-Jackson zero de#12;ciency type. Under. Keywords: observers, chemical reaction systems, detectability 1 Introduction One of the most interesting
PREDICTIVE POWER CONTROL FOR DYNAMIC STATE ESTIMATION OVER WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS WITH RELAYS
for state estimation of a stationary ARMA process over a wireless sensor network (WSN), consisting of sensor networks for a widespread of ap- plications, e.g., target-tracking and data acquisition [5,15]. A WSN energy. The wireless communication channel between nodes in the WSN is subject to fading, which
Using graph theory to resolve state estimator issues faced by deregulated power systems
Lei, Jiansheng
2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z
) Jiansheng Lei, B.S., Tsinghua University, Beijing, China; M.S., Tsinghua University, Beijing, China Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Garng M. Huang Power industry is undergoing a transition from the traditional regulated environment to the competitive... even under a contingency.............................................................................................1 B. Challenge 2: Run state estimator over a grid with extremely large size ...2 1.2 Topic 1: Network observability...
Distributed state estimation and model predictive control of linear interconnected system
Boyer, Edmond
requirements, modern control systems are becoming more and more complex. For these processes, different controlDistributed state estimation and model predictive control of linear interconnected system: In this paper, a distributed and networked control system architecture based on independent Model Predictive
False Data Injection Attacks against State Estimation in Electric Power Grids
Ning, Peng
False Data Injection Attacks against State Estimation in Electric Power Grids Yao Liu, Peng Ning@cs.unc.edu ABSTRACT A power grid is a complex system connecting electric power generators to consumers through power using IEEE test systems. Our results indicate that security protection of the electric power grid must
False Data Injection Attacks against State Estimation in Electric Power Grids
Ning, Peng
@cs.unc.edu ABSTRACT A power grid is a complex system connecting electric power generators to consumers through power estimate the power grid state through analysis of meter measurements and power system models. Various using IEEE test systems. Our results indicate that security protection of the electric power grid must
Cell Equalization In Battery Stacks Through State Of Charge Estimation Polling
Stefanopoulou, Anna
storage capacity, shortening the battery lifetime and, eventually, permanently damaging the cellCell Equalization In Battery Stacks Through State Of Charge Estimation Polling Carmelo Speltino, Anna Stefanopoulou and Giovanni Fiengo Abstract-- Battery packs are charged and discharged as a single
False Data Injection Attacks against State Estimation in Electric Power Grids
Qiu, Robert Caiming
@cs.unc.edu Abstract--A power grid is a complex system connecting electric power generators to consumers through power estimate the power grid state through analysis of meter measure- ments and power system models. Various malicious attacks. I. INTRODUCTION A power grid is a complex system connecting a variety of electric power
2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
electrode is limiting. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: State of charge; Lithium ion battery; Online; Extended Kalman filter; Parameter estimation 1. Introduction The phrase state of charge
Latchman, Haniph A.
when the system is Gaussian. Index Terms-- Dual control, entropy, Kalman filtering, state estimation. I systems. Fol- lowing the classical work of Gauss on least squares estimation and the modern day approach studies on least squares estimation. When applied to stochastic control systems, Kalman filtering theory
Zhou, Ning; Huang, Zhenyu; Meng, Da; Elbert, Stephen T.; Wang, Shaobu; Diao, Ruisheng
2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z
With the increasing complexity resulting from uncertainties and stochastic variations introduced by intermittent renewable energy sources, responsive loads, mobile consumption of plug-in vehicles, and new market designs, more and more dynamic behaviors are observed in everyday power system operation. To operate a power system efficiently and reliably, it is critical to adopt a dynamic paradigm so that effective control actions can be taken in time. The dynamic paradigm needs to include three fundamental components: dynamic state estimation; look-ahead dynamic simulation; and dynamic contingency analysis (Figure 1). These three components answer three basic questions: where the system is; where the system is going; and how secure the system is against accidents. The dynamic state estimation provides a solid cornerstone to support the other 2 components and is the focus of this study.
Lin, Pei-Chun
Estimation in a Hexapod Robot With Dynamical Gaits Pei-Chun Lin, Member, IEEE, Haldun Komsuo¯glu, Member state estimator for a hexapod robot executing a jogging gait in steady state on level terrain of the hexapod robot RHex (bearing the appropriate sensor suite) and evaluate its performance with reference
Estimation of the Dynamic States of Synchronous Machines Using an Extended Particle Filter
Zhou, Ning; Meng, Da; Lu, Shuai
2013-11-11T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper, an extended particle filter (PF) is proposed to estimate the dynamic states of a synchronous machine using phasor measurement unit (PMU) data. A PF propagates the mean and covariance of states via Monte Carlo simulation, is easy to implement, and can be directly applied to a non-linear system with non-Gaussian noise. The extended PF modifies a basic PF to improve robustness. Using Monte Carlo simulations with practical noise and model uncertainty considerations, the extended PF’s performance is evaluated and compared with the basic PF and an extended Kalman filter (EKF). The extended PF results showed high accuracy and robustness against measurement and model noise.
Zhe An; Daniel Rey; Henry D. I. Abarbanel
2014-05-11T23:59:59.000Z
Utilizing the information in observations of a complex system to make accurate predictions through a quantitative model when observations are completed at time $T$, requires an accurate estimate of the full state of the model at time $T$. When the number of measurements $L$ at each observation time within the observation window is larger than a sufficient minimum value $L_s$, the impediments in the estimation procedure are removed. As the number of available observations is typically such that $L \\ll L_s$, additional information from the observations must be presented to the model. We show how, using the time delays of the measurements at each observation time, one can augment the information transferred from the data to the model, removing the impediments to accurate estimation and permitting dependable prediction. We do this in a core geophysical fluid dynamics model, the shallow water equations, at the heart of numerical weather prediction. The method is quite general, however, and can be utilized in the analysis of a broad spectrum of complex systems where measurements are sparse. When the model of the complex system has errors, the method still enables accurate estimation of the state of the model and thus evaluation of the model errors in a manner separated from uncertainties in the data assimilation procedure.
Teixeira, André; Sandberg, Henrik; Johansson, Karl H
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The electrical power network is a critical infrastructure in today's society, so its safe and reliable operation is of major concern. State estimators are commonly used in power networks, for example, to detect faulty equipment and to optimally route power flows. The estimators are often located in control centers, to which large numbers of measurements are sent over unencrypted communication channels. Therefore cyber security for state estimators becomes an important issue. In this paper we analyze the cyber security of state estimators in supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) for energy management systems (EMS) operating the power network. Current EMS state estimation algorithms have bad data detection (BDD) schemes to detect outliers in the measurement data. Such schemes are based on high measurement redundancy. Although these methods may detect a set of basic cyber attacks, they may fail in the presence of an intelligent attacker. We explore the latter by considering scenarios where stealthy de...
Peng, Huei
A Unified Open-Circuit-Voltage Model of Lithium-ion Batteries for State-of-Charge Estimation. Keywords: Electric vehicles, Lithium-ion batteries, Open-Circuit-Voltage, State-of-Charge, State is widely used for characterizing battery properties under different conditions. It contains important
Marius Buibas; Gabriel A. Silva
2010-06-22T23:59:59.000Z
We present a framework for simulating signal propagation in geometric networks (i.e. networks that can be mapped to geometric graphs in some space) and for developing algorithms that estimate (i.e. map) the state and functional topology of complex dynamic geometric net- works. Within the framework we define the key features typically present in such networks and of particular relevance to biological cellular neural networks: Dynamics, signaling, observation, and control. The framework is particularly well-suited for estimating functional connectivity in cellular neural networks from experimentally observable data, and has been implemented using graphics processing unit (GPU) high performance computing. Computationally, the framework can simulate cellular network signaling close to or faster than real time. We further propose a standard test set of networks to measure performance and compare different mapping algorithms.
Valbuena Olivares, Ernesto
2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z
to estimate the ultimate CO2 storage in depleted oil and gas reservoirs by implementing a volume constrained thermodynamic equation of state (EOS) using the reservoir?s average pressure and fluid composition. This method was implemented in an algorithm...
Esposito, A.; Porro, C.; Augustine, C.; Roberts, B.
2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z
Because most sedimentary basins have been explored for oil and gas, well logs, temperatures at depth, and reservoir properties such as depth to basement and formation thickness are well known. The availability of this data reduces exploration risk and allows development of geologic exploration models for each basin. This study estimates the magnitude of recoverable geothermal energy from 15 major known U.S. sedimentary basins and ranks these basins relative to their potential. The total available thermal resource for each basin was estimated using the volumetric heat-in-place method originally proposed by (Muffler, 1979). A qualitative recovery factor was determined for each basin based on data on flow volume, hydrothermal recharge, and vertical and horizontal permeability. Total sedimentary thickness maps, stratigraphic columns, cross sections, and temperature gradient information was gathered for each basin from published articles, USGS reports, and state geological survey reports. When published data were insufficient, thermal gradients and reservoir properties were derived from oil and gas well logs obtained on oil and gas commission databases. Basin stratigraphy, structural history, and groundwater circulation patterns were studied in order to develop a model that estimates resource size, temperature distribution, and a probable quantitative recovery factor.
Mi, Chunting "Chris"
A robust state-of-charge estimator for multiple types of lithium-ion batteries using adaptive a SOC estimator for suitable for multiple lithium ion battery chemistries. Proved the system robustness of charge (SoC) of multiple types of lithium ion battery (LiB) cells with adaptive extended Kalman filter
Prasad, Rajiv; Hibler, Lyle F.; Coleman, Andre M.; Ward, Duane L.
2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
The purpose of this document is to describe approaches and methods for estimation of the design-basis flood at nuclear power plant sites. Chapter 1 defines the design-basis flood and lists the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) regulations that require estimation of the design-basis flood. For comparison, the design-basis flood estimation methods used by other Federal agencies are also described. A brief discussion of the recommendations of the International Atomic Energy Agency for estimation of the design-basis floods in its member States is also included.
Wu, M.; Peng, J. (Energy Systems); ( NE)
2011-02-24T23:59:59.000Z
Freshwater consumption for electricity generation is projected to increase dramatically in the next couple of decades in the United States. The increased demand is likely to further strain freshwater resources in regions where water has already become scarce. Meanwhile, the automotive industry has stepped up its research, development, and deployment efforts on electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). Large-scale, escalated production of EVs and PHEVs nationwide would require increased electricity production, and so meeting the water demand becomes an even greater challenge. The goal of this study is to provide a baseline assessment of freshwater use in electricity generation in the United States and at the state level. Freshwater withdrawal and consumption requirements for power generated from fossil, nonfossil, and renewable sources via various technologies and by use of different cooling systems are examined. A data inventory has been developed that compiles data from government statistics, reports, and literature issued by major research institutes. A spreadsheet-based model has been developed to conduct the estimates by means of a transparent and interactive process. The model further allows us to project future water withdrawal and consumption in electricity production under the forecasted increases in demand. This tool is intended to provide decision makers with the means to make a quick comparison among various fuel, technology, and cooling system options. The model output can be used to address water resource sustainability when considering new projects or expansion of existing plants.
A Two-Stage Kalman Filter Approach for Robust and Real-Time Power System State Estimation
Zhang, Jinghe; Welch, Greg; Bishop, Gary; Huang, Zhenyu
2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z
As electricity demand continues to grow and renewable energy increases its penetration in the power grid, realtime state estimation becomes essential for system monitoring and control. Recent development in phasor technology makes it possible with high-speed time-synchronized data provided by Phasor Measurement Units (PMU). In this paper we present a two-stage Kalman filter approach to estimate the static state of voltage magnitudes and phase angles, as well as the dynamic state of generator rotor angles and speeds. Kalman filters achieve optimal performance only when the system noise characteristics have known statistical properties (zero-mean, Gaussian, and spectrally white). However in practice the process and measurement noise models are usually difficult to obtain. Thus we have developed the Adaptive Kalman Filter with Inflatable Noise Variances (AKF with InNoVa), an algorithm that can efficiently identify and reduce the impact of incorrect system modeling and/or erroneous measurements. In stage one, we estimate the static state from raw PMU measurements using the AKF with InNoVa; then in stage two, the estimated static state is fed into an extended Kalman filter to estimate the dynamic state. Simulations demonstrate its robustness to sudden changes of system dynamics and erroneous measurements.
Tracking shocked dust: State estimation for a complex plasma during a shock wave
Oxtoby, Neil P.; Ralph, Jason F.; Durniak, Celine; Samsonov, Dmitry [Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, L69 3GJ (United Kingdom)
2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z
We consider a two-dimensional complex (dusty) plasma crystal excited by an electrostatically-induced shock wave. Dust particle kinematics in such a system are usually determined using particle tracking velocimetry. In this work we present a particle tracking algorithm which determines the dust particle kinematics with significantly higher accuracy than particle tracking velocimetry. The algorithm uses multiple extended Kalman filters to estimate the particle states and an interacting multiple model to assign probabilities to the different filters. This enables the determination of relevant physical properties of the dust, such as kinetic energy and kinetic temperature, with high precision. We use a Hugoniot shock-jump relation to calculate a pressure-volume diagram from the shocked dust kinematics. Calculation of the full pressure-volume diagram was possible with our tracking algorithm, but not with particle tracking velocimetry.
Woli, Prem; Paz, Joel O.
2011-12-23T23:59:59.000Z
Global solar radiation Rg is an important input for crop models to simulate crop responses. Because the scarcity of long and continuous records of Rg is a serious limitation in many countries, Rg is estimated using models. For crop-model application, empirical Rg models that use commonly measured meteorological variables, such as temperature and precipitation, are generally preferred. Although a large number of models of this kind exist, few have been evaluated for conditions in the United States. This study evaluated the performances of 16 empirical, temperature- and/or precipitation-based Rg models for the southeastern United States. By taking into account spatial distribution and data availability, 30 locations in the region were selected and their daily weather data spanning eight years obtained. One-half of the data was used for calibrating the models, and the other half was used for evaluation. For each model, location-specific parameter values were estimated through regressions. Models were evaluated for each location using the root-mean-square error and the modeling efficiency as goodness-of-fit measures. Among the models that use temperature or precipitation as the input variable, the Mavromatis model showed the best performance. The piecewise linear regressionÃ?Â¢Ã?Â?Ã?Â?based Wu et al. model (WP) performed best not only among the models that use both temperature and precipitation but also among the 16 models evaluated, mainly because it has separate relationships for low and high radiation levels. The modeling efficiency of WP was from ~5% to more than 100% greater than those of the other models, depending on models and locations.
Estimated Value of Service Reliability for Electric Utility Customers in the United States
Sullivan, M.J.
2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
applied to indicators like SAIDI and SAIFI for purposes ofperformance (e.g. , SAIFI and SAIDI); estimate partialperformance (e.g. , SAIFI and SAIDI); estimate partial
Sun, Jian
[1] We use a conditional averaging approach to estimate the parameters of a land surface water and energy balance model and then use the estimated parameters to partition net radiation into latent, sensible, and ground ...
Stefanopoulou, Anna
Experimental Validation of a Lithium-Ion Battery State of Charge Estimation with an Extended Kalman unobservable conditions as discussed in [3] and allow the application of an extended Kalman Filter (EKF) from Kalman Filter (EKF) based on the averaged model and the performance is shown experimentally in a 10 cell
State Estimation for Force-Controlled Humanoid Balance using Simple Models in the Presence-based control frameworks, such as model predictive control (MPC), use the expected dynamics to generate that requires active balance control in the presence of modeling error. Primus humanoid shown in Figure 1
Robustness analysis of State-of-Charge estimation methods for two types of Li-ion batteries
Peng, Huei
Robustness analysis of State-of-Charge estimation methods for two types of Li-ion batteries i g h l i g h t s battery model parameters are optimized. 2012 Accepted 1 June 2012 Available online 9 June 2012 Keywords: Battery management systems SOC
Lithium-Ion battery State of Charge estimation with a Kalman Filter based on a electrochemical model
Stefanopoulou, Anna
Lithium-Ion battery State of Charge estimation with a Kalman Filter based on a electrochemical model Domenico Di Domenico, Giovanni Fiengo and Anna Stefanopoulou Abstract-- Lithium-ion battery hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). In most cases the lithium-ion battery performance plays an important role
Baldick, Ross
data detection. In this analysis, to make the problem manageable, we use the 1-norm to calculateIEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 16, NO. 2, MAY 2001 273 State Estimator Condition Number is related to available finite precision arithmetic. The more precision in the calculations, the higher
A SURVEY OF STATE-LEVEL COST ESTIMATES OF RENEWABLES PORTFOLIO STANDARDS
Barbose, Galen
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
LEVEL COST ESTIMATES OF RENEWABLES PORTFOLIO STANDARDS Galenthe incremental cost of renewables portfolio standards (RPS)Washington DC have adopted renewables portfolio standards (
Estimated Value of Service Reliability for Electric Utility Customers in the United States
Sullivan, M.J.
2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Ordinary Least Squares SAIDI – System Average Interruptionapplied to indicators like SAIDI and SAIFI for purposes ofe.g. , SAIFI and SAIDI); estimate partial interruption cost;
Berry, L.
1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The DOE Weatherization Assistance Program is one of the largest energy conservation programs in the nation. To obtain an updated estimate of national Program savings, an approach of metaevaluation was selected, which involved locating, assembling, and summarizing the results of all state-level evaluations of the Program that have become available since 1990. All of the savings estimates that are presented in this report are for dwellings that heat primarily with natural gas.This review of the state-level evaluations conducted since 1990 concluded that Program performance has improved significantly in the last seven years. The finding that savings are increasing are supported by a literature review, within-state comparisons of savings over time, and regression modeling results.
Estimated Value of Service Reliability for Electric Utility Customers in the United States
Sullivan, M.J.
2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Goods: The Contingent Valuation Method. Resources for theare called contingent valuation methods or stated preference
Convolution particle filtering for parameter estimation in general state-space models
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
of these aspects [6] [4]. The second approach takes place in a classical Bayesian framework, a prior probability suited, given the context of parameter estimation. Firstly the usual non Bayesian statistical estimates results in practice but suffer from an absence of theoretical backing. The particle filters propose a good
Bouaynaya, Nidhal
estimated, the neural drive can be used to control upper- extremity myoelectric prosthesis. Commonly prosthesis control problem [1]. Such algorithms are based on the assumption that there exist distinguishable the hypothesis of muscle synergies to estimate the neural drive from the surface myoelectric signal. Once
Not Available
2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z
This independent review examines DOE cost targets for state-of-the art hydrogen production using water electrolysis.
Current (2009) State-of-the-Art Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Water Electrolysis
Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)
This independent review examines DOE cost targets for state-of-the art hydrogen production using water electrolysis.
Embedded avionics with Kalman state estimation for a novel micro-scale unmanned aerial vehicle
Tzanetos, Theodore
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
An inertial navigation system leveraging Kalman estimation techniques and quaternion dynamics is developed for deployment to a micro-scale unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The capabilities, limitations, and requirements of ...
Johansson, Karl Henrik
Cyber Security Analysis of State Estimators in Electric Power Systems AndrÂ´e Teixeira, Saurabh Amin security of state estimators in Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems operating in power random outliers in the measurement data. Such schemes are based on high measurement redundancy. Although
Murphy, Robert F.
1 Robust Data-Driven State Estimation for Smart Grid Yang Weng, Student Member, IEEE, Rohit Negi, a grand challenge to the newly built smart grid is how to "optimally" estimate the state with increasing in the volatile smart grid. Frequent topology changes, poor measurement accuracy, and malicious attack can further
Estimated Value of Service Reliability for Electric Utility Customers in the United States
Sullivan, M.J.; Mercurio, Matthew; Schellenberg, Josh
2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z
Information on the value of reliable electricity service can be used to assess the economic efficiency of investments in generation, transmission and distribution systems, to strategically target investments to customer segments that receive the most benefit from system improvements, and to numerically quantify the risk associated with different operating, planning and investment strategies. This paper summarizes research designed to provide estimates of the value of service reliability for electricity customers in the US. These estimates were obtained by analyzing the results from 28 customer value of service reliability studies conducted by 10 major US electric utilities over the 16 year period from 1989 to 2005. Because these studies used nearly identical interruption cost estimation or willingness-to-pay/accept methods it was possible to integrate their results into a single meta-database describing the value of electric service reliability observed in all of them. Once the datasets from the various studies were combined, a two-part regression model was used to estimate customer damage functions that can be generally applied to calculate customer interruption costs per event by season, time of day, day of week, and geographical regions within the US for industrial, commercial, and residential customers. Estimated interruption costs for different types of customers and of different duration are provided. Finally, additional research and development designed to expand the usefulness of this powerful database and analysis are suggested.
Wu, Jianyong; Zhou, Ying; Gao, Yang; Fu, Joshua S.; Johnson, Brent; Huang, Cheng; Kim, Young-Min; Liu, Yang
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Background: It is anticipated that climate change will influence heat-related mortality in the future. However, the estimation of excess mortality attributable to future heat waves is subject to large uncertainties, which have not been examined under the latest greenhouse gas emission scenarios. Objectives: We estimated the future heat wave impact on mortality in the eastern United States (~ 1,700 counties) under two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) and analyzed the sources of uncertainties. Methods Using dynamically downscaled hourly temperature projections in 2057-2059, we calculated heat wave days and episodes based on four heat wave metrics, and estimated the excess mortality attributable to them. The sources of uncertainty in estimated excess mortality were apportioned using a variance-decomposition method. Results: In the eastern U.S., the excess mortality attributable to heat waves could range from 200-7,807 with the mean of 2,379 persons/year in 2057-2059. The projected average excess mortality in RCP 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios was 1,403 and 3,556 persons/year, respectively. Excess mortality would be relatively high in the southern and eastern coastal areas. The major sources of uncertainty in the estimates are relative risk of heat wave mortality, the RCP scenarios, and the heat wave definitions. Conclusions: The estimated mortality risks from future heat waves are likely an order of magnitude higher than its current level and lead to thousands of deaths each year under the RCP8.5 scenario. The substantial spatial variability in estimated county-level heat mortality suggests that effective mitigation and adaptation measures should be developed based on spatially resolved data.
Los Angeles, California, May 6 -9, 2012 A Behavioral Algorithm for State of Charge Estimation
He, Lei
conditions while producing adequate re- sults with other battery types or discharge con- ditions. Moreover an electrochemical battery. A variety of methods to solve this estimation problem have been proposed in the literature. However, most of these methods either assume equivalent circuit models for the battery and thus
Real-time State Estimation on Micro-grids Ying Hu, Anthony Kuh, Aleksandar Kavcic
Kavcic, Aleksandar
. In addition, the proposed graphical model can integrate new models for solar/wind cor- relation that will help been made on the individual feeder circuit estimating the customer load characteristics. One reason for this lack of study is that there is hardly any real-time load measure- ments for individual customers
Estimation of the urban household demand for water in the United States
Foster, Henry Sessam
1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Htctec FIi3iiary Academy Chai:man of Advisory Commi. t Lee: Br. iiruce R. B' aItie This research was rnndertai~en to specify;. nd estimat? model rc- 1- ting household demand lor urban water i. o its principal dcLcrImLnun Ls. Feud specif ic objectives... were ustabldshed to guide the analysis: To postulaLo; n srpropriaLc:-c nomic demand mcdcl for house- ho]ds uh To estimate. pam motors of *hc model based. on pcoi cd data re?resent' ng uli. of the U. H, '3. To csc-blish cL ULor:a for a. breawdcwn...
Geothermal -- The Energy Under Our Feet: Geothermal Resource Estimates for the United States
Green, B. D.; Nix, R. G.
2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
On May 16, 2006, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado hosted a geothermal resources workshop with experts from the geothermal community. The purpose of the workshop was to re-examine domestic geothermal resource estimates. The participating experts were organized into five working groups based on their primary area of expertise in the following types of geothermal resource or application: (1) Hydrothermal, (2) Deep Geothermal Systems, (3) Direct Use, (4) Geothermal Heat Pumps (GHPs), and (5) Co-Produced and Geopressured. The workshop found that the domestic geothermal resource is very large, with significant benefits.
Chan, Kung-Sik
Kalman Filter Kwang Woo Ahn Division of Biostatistics Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226 function computed approximately via unscented Kalman filter (UKF). We derive conditions 1 #12;under which. ---------------------------- Keywords: Nonlinear time series; State-space model; Unscented Kalman filter; SIR model. 1. INTRODUCTION
A Biochemical Upper Ocean State Estimate in the Southern Ocean GasEx Region
Haine, Thomas W. N.
Methods: Data Sources: In-situ: T, S, CDOM (350, 380, 400 nm), SF6 from SO GasEx cruise. Satellite: Sea. CDOM photodegradation model (del Vecchio & Blough, 2002). SF6 model including deliberate release multipliers ("4DVAR" method). Controls are Initial conditions for T, S, (u, v), CDOM,& SF6 . The state
Estimated Benefits of IBWC Rio Grande Flood-Control Projects in the United States
Sturdivant, Allen W.; Lacewell, Ronald D.; Michelsen, Ari M.; Rister, M. Edward; Assadian, Naomi; Eriksson, Marian; Freeman, Roger; Jacobs, Jennifer H.; Madison, W. Tom; McGuckin, James T.; Morrison, Wendy; Robinson, John R.C.; Staats, Chris; Sheng, Zhuping; Srinivasan, R.; Villalobos, Joshua I.
2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Rio Grande Flood-Control Projects in the United States Allen W. Sturdivant Ronald D. Lacewell Ari M. Michelsen M. Edward Rister Naomi Assadian Marian Eriksson Roger Freeman Jennifer H. Jacobs W. Tom Madison James T. McGuckin Wendy... Naomi Assadian Marian Eriksson Roger Freeman Jennifer H. Jacobs W. Tom Madison James T. McGuckin Wendy Morrison John R. C. Robinson Chris Staats Zhuping Sheng R. Srinivasan Joshua I. Villalobos Project management provided by Sturdivant, Extension...
Hansen, James E.
U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 341 Table E1. Estimated Primary of Statistics for 16351945," at end of section. Sources: Coal, Natural Gas, and Petroleum: Energy in the United States 1630-1930, February 1942. This source estimates fuelwood consumption in cords per decade
Mi, Chunting "Chris"
Estimation of Lithium-Ion Batteries Based on a Proportional-Integral Observer Jun Xu, Student Member, IEEE--With the development of electric drive vehicles (EDVs), the state-of-charge (SOC) estimation for lithium-ion (Li of lithium-ion batteries in EDVs. The structure of the proposed PI observer is analyzed, and the con
Mi, Chunting "Chris"
Estimation of Lithium-Ion Batteries Based on a Proportional-Integral Observer Jun Xu, Student Member, IEEE--With the development of electric drive vehicles (EDVs), the state-of-charge (SOC) estimation for lithium-ion (Li-ion of lithium-ion batteries in EDVs. The structure of the proposed PI observer is analyzed, and the con
Estimated winter 1980-1981 electric demand and supply, contiguous United States. Staff report
None
1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z
This report summarizes the most recent data available concerning projected electrical peak demands and available power resouces for the 1980-1981 winter peak period, as reported by electric utilities in the contiguous United States. The data, grouped by Regional Reliability Council areas and by Electrical Regions within the Council areas, was obtained from the Form 12E-2 reports filed by utilities with the Department of Energy on October 15, 1980 (data as of September 30). In some instances the data were revised or verified by telephone. Considerations affecting reliability, arising from Nuclear Regulatory Commission actions based on lessons learned from the forced outage of Three Mile Island Nuclear Unit No. 2, were factored into the report. No widespread large-scale reliability problems are foreseen for electric power supply this winter, on the basis of the supply and demand projections furnished by the electric utilities. Reserve margins could drop in some electric regions to levels considered inadequate for reliable service, if historical forced-outage magnitudes recur.
Ozkale, Aslihan
2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z
OVERPRESSURE PREDICTION BY MEAN TOTAL STRESS ESTIMATE USING WELL LOGS FOR COMPRESSIONAL ENVIRONMENTS WITH STRIKE-SLIP OR REVERSE FAULTING STRESS STATE A Thesis by ASLIHAN OZKALE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies... of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2006 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering OVERPRESSURE PREDICTION BY MEAN TOTAL STRESS ESTIMATE USING WELL LOGS...
Paul, P.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
An accurate estimation of process state variables not only can increase the effectiveness and reliability of process measurement technology, but can also enhance plant efficiency, improve control system performance, and increase plant availability. Future integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants with CO2 capture will have to satisfy stricter operational and environmental constraints. To operate the IGCC plant without violating stringent environmental emission standards requires accurate estimation of the relevant process state variables, outputs, and disturbances. Unfortunately, a number of these process variables cannot be measured at all, while some of them can be measured, but with low precision, low reliability, or low signal-to-noise ratio. As a result, accurate estimation of the process variables is of great importance to avoid the inherent difficulties associated with the inaccuracy of the data. Motivated by this, the current paper focuses on the state estimation of an acid gas removal (AGR) process as part of an IGCC plant with CO2 capture. This process has extensive heat and mass integration and therefore is very suitable for testing the efficiency of the designed estimators in the presence of complex interactions between process variables. The traditional Kalman filter (KF) (Kalman, 1960) algorithm has been used as a state estimator which resembles that of a predictor-corrector algorithm for solving numerical problems. In traditional KF implementation, good guesses for the process noise covariance matrix (Q) and the measurement noise covariance matrix (R) are required to obtain satisfactory filter performance. However, in the real world, these matrices are unknown and it is difficult to generate good guesses for them. In this paper, use of an adaptive KF will be presented that adapts Q and R at every time step of the algorithm. Results show that very accurate estimations of the desired process states, outputs or disturbances can be achieved by using the adaptive KF.
.S.), regardless of age, sex, race, or ethnicity. Although the exact cause of asthma is unknown and it cannotAsthma in New York State Asthma is a chronic lung disease that affects an estimated 16.4 million exposure to environmental triggers. The following data provide an overview of the burden of asthma in New
Frothy Bloat Mitigation in Grazing Cattle Frothy bloat impacts on cattle production in the United States in 1999 were estimated to be greater than $300 million dollars. Frothy bloat is the major nonpathogenic cause of death loss and depressed weight gains in stocker cattle grazing winter wheat
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
SimHydro 2012: Hydraulic modeling and uncertainty, 12-14 September 2012, Sophia Antipolis N. Jean-Baptiste, C. Dorée, P-O. Malaterre, J. Sau - Data assimilation for hydraulic state estimation of a development project Data assimilation for hydraulic state estimation of a development project Assimilation de données
Trattner, Sigal [Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Columbia University Medical Center and New York-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York 10032 (United States)] [Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Columbia University Medical Center and New York-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York 10032 (United States); Cheng, Bin [Department of Biostatistics, Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, New York, New York 10032 (United States)] [Department of Biostatistics, Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, New York, New York 10032 (United States); Pieniazek, Radoslaw L. [Center for Radiological Research, Columbia University Medical Center and New York-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York 10032 (United States)] [Center for Radiological Research, Columbia University Medical Center and New York-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York 10032 (United States); Hoffmann, Udo [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States)] [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States); Douglas, Pamela S. [Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27715 (United States)] [Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27715 (United States); Einstein, Andrew J., E-mail: andrew.einstein@columbia.edu [Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Columbia University Medical Center and New York-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York and Department of Radiology, Columbia University Medical Center and New York-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York (United States)
2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z
Purpose: Effective dose (ED) is a widely used metric for comparing ionizing radiation burden between different imaging modalities, scanners, and scan protocols. In computed tomography (CT), ED can be estimated by performing scans on an anthropomorphic phantom in which metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) solid-state dosimeters have been placed to enable organ dose measurements. Here a statistical framework is established to determine the sample size (number of scans) needed for estimating ED to a desired precision and confidence, for a particular scanner and scan protocol, subject to practical limitations. Methods: The statistical scheme involves solving equations which minimize the sample size required for estimating ED to desired precision and confidence. It is subject to a constrained variation of the estimated ED and solved using the Lagrange multiplier method. The scheme incorporates measurement variation introduced both by MOSFET calibration, and by variation in MOSFET readings between repeated CT scans. Sample size requirements are illustrated on cardiac, chest, and abdomen–pelvis CT scans performed on a 320-row scanner and chest CT performed on a 16-row scanner. Results: Sample sizes for estimating ED vary considerably between scanners and protocols. Sample size increases as the required precision or confidence is higher and also as the anticipated ED is lower. For example, for a helical chest protocol, for 95% confidence and 5% precision for the ED, 30 measurements are required on the 320-row scanner and 11 on the 16-row scanner when the anticipated ED is 4 mSv; these sample sizes are 5 and 2, respectively, when the anticipated ED is 10 mSv. Conclusions: Applying the suggested scheme, it was found that even at modest sample sizes, it is feasible to estimate ED with high precision and a high degree of confidence. As CT technology develops enabling ED to be lowered, more MOSFET measurements are needed to estimate ED with the same precision and confidence.
Kim, Young-Min; Zhou, Ying; Gao, Yang; Fu, Joshua S.; Johnson, Brent; Huang, Cheng; Liu, Yang
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
BACKGROUND: The spatial pattern of the uncertainty in climate air pollution health impact has rarely been studied due to the lack of high-resolution model simulations, especially under the latest Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). OBJECTIVES: We estimated county-level ozone (O3) and PM2.5 related excess mortality (EM) and evaluated the associated uncertainties in the continental United States in the 2050s under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. METHODS: Using dynamically downscaled climate model simulations, we calculated changes in O3 and PM2.5 levels at 12 km resolution between the future (2057-2059) and present (2001-2004) under two RCP scenarios. Using concentration-response relationships in the literature and projected future populations, we estimated EM attributable to the changes in O3 and PM2.5. We finally analyzed the contribution of input variables to the uncertainty in the county-level EM estimation using Monte Carlo simulation. RESULTS: O3-related premature deaths in the continental U.S. were estimated to be 1,082 deaths/year under RCP8.5 (95% confidence interval (CI): -288 to 2,453), and -5,229 deaths/year under RCP4.5 (-7,212 to -3,246). Simulated PM2.5 changes resulted in a significant decrease in EM under the two RCPs. The uncertainty of O3-related EM estimates was mainly caused by RCP scenarios, whereas that of PM2.5-related EMs was mainly from concentration-response functions. CONCLUSION: EM estimates attributable to climate change-induced air pollution change as well as the associated uncertainties vary substantially in space, and so are the most influential input variables. Spatially resolved data is crucial to develop effective mitigation and adaptation policy.
Xiao, Jingfeng; Zhuang, Qianlai; Baldocchi, Dennis D.; Bolstad, Paul V.; Burns, Sean P.; Chen, Jiquan; Cook, David R.; Curtis, Peter S.; Drake, Bert G.; Foster, David R.; Gu, Lianhong; Hadley, Julian L.; Hollinger, David Y.; Katul, Gabriel G.; Law, Beverly E.; Litvak, Marcy; Ma, Siyan; Martin, Timothy A.; Matamala, Roser; McNulty, Steve; Meyers, Tilden P.; Monson, Russell K.; Munger, J. William; Noormets, Asko; Oechel, Walter C.; Oren, Ram; Richardson, Andrew D.; Schmid, Hans Peter; Scott, Russell L.; Starr, Gregory; Sun, Ge; Suyker, Andrew E.; Torn, Margaret S.; Paw, Kyaw; Verma, Shashi B.; Wharton, Sonia; Wofsy, Steven C.
2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z
Eddy covariance flux towers provide continuous measurements of net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE) for a wide range of climate and biome types. However, these measurements only represent the carbon fluxes at the scale of the tower footprint. To quantify the net exchange of carbon dioxide between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere for regions or continents, flux tower measurements need to be extrapolated to these large areas. Here we used remotely sensed data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) instrument on board the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Terra satellite to scale up AmeriFlux NEE measurements to the continental scale. We first combined MODIS and AmeriFlux data for representative U.S. ecosystems to develop a predictive NEE model using a modified regression tree approach. The predictive model was trained and validated using eddy flux NEE data over the periods 2000-2004 and 2005-2006, respectively. We found that the model predicted NEE well (r = 0.73, p < 0.001). We then applied the model to the continental scale and estimated NEE for each 1 km x 1 km cell across the conterminous U.S. for each 8-day interval in 2005 using spatially explicit MODIS data. The model generally captured the expected spatial and seasonal patterns of NEE as determined from measurements and the literature. Our study demonstrated that our empirical approach is effective for scaling up eddy flux NEE measurements to the continental scale and producing wall-to-wall NEE estimates across multiple biomes. Our estimates may provide an independent dataset from simulations with biogeochemical models and inverse modeling approaches for examining the spatiotemporal patterns of NEE and constraining terrestrial carbon budgets over large areas.
Xiao, Jingfeng; Zhuang, Qianlai; Baldocchi, Dennis D.; Law, Beverly E.; Richardson, Andrew D.; Chen, Jiquan; Oren, Ram; Starr, Gregory; Noormets, Asko; Ma, Siyan; Verma, Shashi B.; Wharton, Sonia; Wofsy, Steven C.; Bolstad, Paul V.; Burns, Sean P.; Cook, David R.; Curtis, Peter S.; Drake, Bert G.; Falk, Matthias; Fischer, Marc L.; Foster, David R.; Gu, Lianhong; Hadley, Julian L.; Hollinger, David Y.; Katul, Gabriel G.; Litvak, Marcy; Martin, Timothy A.; Matamala, Roser; McNulty, Steve; Meyers, Tilden P.; Monson, Russell K.; Munger, J. William; Oechel, Walter C.; U, Kyaw Tha Paw; Schmid, Hans Peter; Scott, Russell L.; Sun, Ge; Suyker, Andrew E.; Torn, Margaret S.
2009-03-06T23:59:59.000Z
Eddy covariance flux towers provide continuous measurements of net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE) for a wide range of climate and biome types. However, these measurements only represent the carbon fluxes at the scale of the tower footprint. To quantify the net exchange of carbon dioxide between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere for regions or continents, flux tower measurements need to be extrapolated to these large areas. Here we used remotely-sensed data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) instrument on board NASA's Terra satellite to scale up AmeriFlux NEE measurements to the continental scale. We first combined MODIS and AmeriFlux data for representative U.S. ecosystems to develop a predictive NEE model using a regression tree approach. The predictive model was trained and validated using NEE data over the periods 2000-2004 and 2005-2006, respectively. We found that the model predicted NEE reasonably well at the site level. We then applied the model to the continental scale and estimated NEE for each 1 km x 1 km cell across the conterminous U.S. for each 8-day period in 2005 using spatially-explicit MODIS data. The model generally captured the expected spatial and seasonal patterns of NEE. Our study demonstrated that our empirical approach is effective for scaling up eddy flux NEE measurements to the continental scale and producing wall-to-wall NEE estimates across multiple biomes. Our estimates may provide an independent dataset from simulations with biogeochemical models and inverse modeling approaches for examining the spatiotemporal patterns of NEE and constraining terrestrial carbon budgets for large areas.
Venkatasubramanian, Mani V.
. The approximation follows from an analysis of the fundamental equations describing synchronous machine models models. Index Terms--Synchronous machine models, power system dynamics, power system models, power system of the dynamic state variables of a synchronous machine connected to an arbitrary external network. The technique
Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]
1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z
Based on the project's scope, the purpose of the estimate, and the availability of estimating resources, the estimator can choose one or a combination of techniques when estimating an activity or project. Estimating methods, estimating indirect and direct costs, and other estimating considerations are discussed in this chapter.
Xing-Gang Wu
2008-12-08T23:59:59.000Z
Main theoretical uncertainties in estimating the indirect production of $(b\\bar{c})$-quarkonium ($B^-_c$ meson and its excited states) via top quark decays, $t\\to (b\\bar{c})+c+W^{+}$, are studied within the non-relativistic QCD framework. It is found that the dimensionless reduced decay width for a particular $(b\\bar{c})$-quarkonium state, $\\bar\\Gamma_{n}=\\Gamma_{n} /\\Gamma_{t\\to W^{+}+b}$, is very sensitive to the $c$-quark mass, while the uncertainties from the $b$-quark and $t$-quark masses are small, where $n$ stands for the eight $(b\\bar{c})$-quarkonium states up to ${\\cal O}(v^4)$: $|(b\\bar{c})(^1S_0)_1>$, $|(b\\bar{c})(^3S_1)_1>$, $|(b\\bar{c})(^1P_1)_1>$, $|(b\\bar{c})(^3P_J)_1>$ (with $J=(1,2,3)$), $|(b\\bar{c})(^1S_0)_{8}g>$ and $|(b\\bar{c})(^3S_1)_{8}g>$ respectively. About $10^8$ $t\\bar{t}$-pairs shall be produced per year at CERN LHC, if adopting the assumption that all the higher Fock states decay to the ground state with 100% probability, then we shall have $(1.038^{+1.353}_{-0.782})\\times 10^5$ $B^-_c $ events per year. So the indirect production provides another important way to study the properties of $B^-_c$ meson in comparison to that of the direct hadronic production at CERN LHC.
Distributed Road Grade Estimation
Johansson, Karl Henrik
Distributed Road Grade Estimation for Heavy Duty Vehicles PER SAH LHOLM Doctoral Thesis in Automatic Control Stockholm, Sweden 2011 #12;Distributed Road Grade Estimation for Heavy Duty Vehicles PER state-of-charge control decrease the energy consumption of vehicles and increase the safety
Major, III, Walter; Grassley, James M.; Ryding, Kristen E. (University of Washington, Quantitive Ecology Program, Seattle, WA)
2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z
This report is divided into two chapters. The abstract for chapter one is--Understanding of the abundance and spatial and temporal distributions of piscivorous birds and their potential consumption of fish is an increasingly important aspect of fisheries management. During 1999-2002, we determined the abundance and distribution and estimated the maximum consumption (kg biomass) of fish-eating birds along the length of the Yakima River in Washington State. Sixteen different species were observed during the 4-yr study, but only half of those were observed during all years. Abundance and estimated consumption of fish within the upper and middle sections of the river were dominated by common mergansers (Mergus merganser) which are known to breed in those reaches. Common mergansers accounted for 78 to 94% of the estimated total fish take for the upper river or approximately 28,383 {+-} 1,041 kg over the 4 yrs. A greater diversity of avian piscivores occurred in the lower river and potential impacts to fish populations was more evenly distributed among the species. In 1999-2000, great blue herons potentially accounted for 29 and 36% of the fish consumed, whereas in 2001-2002 American white pelicans accounted for 53 and 55%. We estimated that approximately 75,878 {+-} 6,616 kg of fish were consumed by piscivorous birds in the lower sections of the river during the study. Bird assemblages differed spatially along the river with a greater abundance of colonial nesting species within the lower sections of the river, especially during spring and the nesting season. The abundance of avian piscivores and consumption estimates are discussed within the context of salmonid supplementation efforts on the river and juvenile out-migration. The abstract for chapter two is--Consumption of fish by piscivorous birds may be a significant constraint on efforts to enhance salmonid populations within tributaries to the Columbia River in Washington State. During 1999-2002, we determined the abundance of fish-eating birds, primarily ring-billed (Larus delawarensis) and California (L. californicus) gulls and monitored their behavior at two man-made structures within the Yakima River in eastern Washington: Horn Rapids Dam, a low-head irrigation dam, and the return pipe for the Chandler Juvenile Fish Handling Facility. Earlier observations of congregations of gulls at these structures suggested an increased likelihood of predation of out-migrating juvenile salmonids. We estimated the number of fish consumed and examined the relationship between river flow and gull numbers and fish taken. Numbers of gulls at the structures varied daily between their arrival in Late March-early April and departure in late June (mean ({+-}SE) - Horn Rapids: 11.7 ({+-}2.0), Chandler: 20.1 ({+-}1.5) ). During the 4-yr study, numbers at Horn Rapids peaked dramatically during the last 2 weeks in May (between 132.9 ({+-}4.2) to 36.6 ({+-}2.2) gulls/day) and appeared to the associated with the release of > 1-mil hatchery juvenile fall chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) above the 2 study sites. A comparable peak in gull abundance was not observed at Chandler. Diurnal patterns of gull abundance also varied among years and sites. The relationship between foraging efficiency and gull numbers was not consistent among years or sites. Gull numbers were not correlated with river flow when year was considered. However, variations in flow among years appeared to be associated with average gull numbers at each site, but trends were not consistent between sites. Low seasonal flows were associated with increased predation at Chandler, whereas high seasonal flows were associated with increased predation at Horn Rapids. Assuming all fish taken were salmonids, we estimate gulls consumed between 0.1-10.3 % of the juvenile salmonids passing or being released from the Chandler Juvenile Fish Monitoring Facility located above the two structures. Staggered releases of hatchery fish, nocturnal releases of fish entrained in the Chandler facility, changes in the orientation of the outflow from the f
Measurement enhancement for state estimation
Chen, Jian
2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z
After the deregulation of the power industry, power systems are required to be operated efficiently and economically in today’s strongly competitive environment. In order to achieve these objectives, it is crucial for power system control centers...
United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Intermountain Research Station General acrossthe United States provide estimates of the amount of erosion reductionon forest roadsfrom
Mi, Chunting "Chris"
Estimation of Lithium-Ion Batteries in Electric Drive Vehicles Using Extended Kalman Filtering Zheng Chen. Index Terms--Extended Kalman filter (EKF), hardware-in- the-loop, lithium-ion battery, nonlinear battery], a modeling approach for the scale-up of a lithium- ion polymer battery (LIPB) is reported. A comparison
is a widely used tool in power system energy management systems. The essence of state esti- mation-collocated complex power measurements. Complex power is usually calculated from voltage and current measurements@srpnet.com). It will be shown that a more accurate power measurement can be calculated utilizing a non-collocated value plus
Lucas, Matthew Allen
2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z
.............................................................. 31 Results: ROW Estimation State of Practice ................................... 31 Critical Issues ....................................................................... 32 Overview of Current Practice... ............................................... 35 Analysis: Critical Review of Practices ........................................... 41 General ROW Cost Estimation Procedure ........................... 42 ROW Cost Estimation...
REPORT NO. 4 ESTIMATES AND EVALUATION OF
REPORT NO. 4 ESTIMATES AND EVALUATION OF FALLOUT IN THE UNITED STATES FROM NUCLEAR WEAPONS ESTIMATES AND EVALUATION OF FALLOUT IN THE UNITED STATES FROM NUCLEAR WEAPONS TESTING CONDUCTED THROUGH 1962 Section II History of Nuclear Weapons Testing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Section III Atmospheric
Dionne, B.; Tzanos, C. P. (Nuclear Engineering Division)
2011-05-23T23:59:59.000Z
To support the safety analyses required for the conversion of the Belgian Reactor 2 (BR2) from highly-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel, the simulation of a number of loss-of-flow tests, with or without loss of pressure, has been undertaken. These tests were performed at BR2 in 1963 and used instrumented fuel assemblies (FAs) with thermocouples (TC) imbedded in the cladding as well as probes to measure the FAs power on the basis of their coolant temperature rise. The availability of experimental data for these tests offers an opportunity to better establish the credibility of the RELAP5-3D model and methodology used in the conversion analysis. In order to support the HEU to LEU conversion safety analyses of the BR2 reactor, RELAP simulations of a number of loss-of-flow/loss-of-pressure tests have been undertaken. Preliminary analyses showed that the conservative power distributions used historically in the BR2 RELAP model resulted in a significant overestimation of the peak cladding temperature during the transient. Therefore, it was concluded that better estimates of the steady-state and decay power distributions were needed to accurately predict the cladding temperatures measured during the tests and establish the credibility of the RELAP model and methodology. The new approach ('best estimate' methodology) uses the MCNP5, ORIGEN-2 and BERYL codes to obtain steady-state and decay power distributions for the BR2 core during the tests A/400/1, C/600/3 and F/400/1. This methodology can be easily extended to simulate any BR2 core configuration. Comparisons with measured peak cladding temperatures showed a much better agreement when power distributions obtained with the new methodology are used.
Crichton, John Alston
1953-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A CRITICAL REVIEW OF METHODS USED IN THE ESTIMATION OF NATURAL GAS RESERVES NATURAL GAS RESERVES IN THE SI'AT. S OF TEXAS SOME EDUCATIONAL PREREQUISITES IN THE FIELD OF PETROLEUM ECONOMICS AND EVAI UATION Sy John Alston Crichton... ENGINEERING TABLE of CONTENTS ~Pa e A CRITICAL REVIEW OF METHODS USED IN THE ESTIMATION OF NATURAL GAS RESERVES Abstract Introdu=tion History of the Estimation of Gas Reserves Present Methods of Estimating Gas Reserves Meth& ds of Estimating Non...
Estimated UseofWaterintheUnitedStatesin2005 Trends in estimated water use in the United States.L., Hutson, S.S., Linsey, K.S., Lovelace, J.K., and Maupin, M.A., 2009, Estimated use of water in the United
Discrete and Hybrid Stochastic State Estimation Algorithms
Johansson, Karl Henrik
oper- ation and reduce cost of installation and maintenance, potentially at the price of increasing, and in the control system maintenance, since the control unit can be deployed far from the plant, that often operates constant statistical properties has
Adaptive Distributed Parameter and Input Estimation in Plasma Tokamak Heat
Boyer, Edmond
. Keywords: Thermonuclear fusion, distributed parameter systems, input state and parameter estimation, adaptive infinite-dimensional estimation, Galerkin method 1. INTRODUCTION In a controlled thermonuclear fusion reactor, the plasma thermal diffusivity and heating energy play an important role
Statistical Estimation of Quantum Tomography Protocols Quality
Yu. I. Bogdanov; G. Brida; M. Genovese; S. P. Kulik; E. V. Moreva; A. P. Shurupov
2010-02-18T23:59:59.000Z
A novel operational method for estimating the efficiency of quantum state tomography protocols is suggested. It is based on a-priori estimation of the quality of an arbitrary protocol by means of universal asymptotic fidelity distribution and condition number, which takes minimal value for better protocol. We prove the adequacy of the method both with numerical modeling and through the experimental realization of several practically important protocols of quantum state tomography.
United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Northeastern Research Station General Estimates for Forest Types of the United States James E. Smith Linda S. Heath Kenneth E. Skog Richard A forest types within 10 regions of the United States. Separate tables were developed for afforestation
United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Northeastern Research Station General reported in USDA Forest Service surveys for forests of the conterminous United States. Developed for use estimates are provided for regional tree-mass totals using summary forest statistics for the United States
Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]
1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z
This chapter focuses on the components (or elements) of the cost estimation package and their documentation.
Modeling, Estimation, and Control of Waste Heat Recovery Systems
Luong, David
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
State Estimation for Open Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC)138optimization of an organic Rankine cycle waste heat powerand Simulation of an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) System for
Check Estimates and Independent Costs
Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]
1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z
Check estimates and independent cost estimates (ICEs) are tools that can be used to validate a cost estimate. Estimate validation entails an objective review of the estimate to ensure that estimate criteria and requirements have been met and well documented, defensible estimate has been developed. This chapter describes check estimates and their procedures and various types of independent cost estimates.
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
model in southern states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu for non-JHARKHAND (19) KARNATAKA (26) KERALA (28) MADHYA PRADESH (
Origin State Destination State
Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]
transportation rates for coal, state to state, STB data Origin State Destination State 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2001-2009 2008-2009 Alabama Alabama W W W W W W...
Input estimation from measured structural response
Harvey, Dustin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cross, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Silva, Ramon A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Farrar, Charles R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bement, Matt [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This report will focus on the estimation of unmeasured dynamic inputs to a structure given a numerical model of the structure and measured response acquired at discrete locations. While the estimation of inputs has not received as much attention historically as state estimation, there are many applications where an improved understanding of the immeasurable input to a structure is vital (e.g. validating temporally varying and spatially-varying load models for large structures such as buildings and ships). In this paper, the introduction contains a brief summary of previous input estimation studies. Next, an adjoint-based optimization method is used to estimate dynamic inputs to two experimental structures. The technique is evaluated in simulation and with experimental data both on a cantilever beam and on a three-story frame structure. The performance and limitations of the adjoint-based input estimation technique are discussed.
Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]
1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z
The chapter describes the estimates required on government-managed projects for both general construction and environmental management.
Estimated Costs of Crop Production in Iowa 2001
Duffy, Michael D.
Estimated Costs of Crop Production in Iowa 2001 The estimated costs of corn, corn silage. They include the annual Iowa Farm Business Association record summaries, production and costs data from and a survey of selected agriculture cooperatives around the state. These costs estimates are representative
Estimated Costs of Crop Production in Iowa 2000
Duffy, Michael D.
Estimated Costs of Crop Production in Iowa 2000 The estimated costs of corn, corn silage. They include the annual Iowa Farm Business Association record summaries, production and costs data from and a survey of selected agriculture cooperatives around the state. These costs estimates are representative
Spatial Sequence Estimation Based Decoding Algorithm for V-BLAST
Al-Ghadhban, Samir
Spatial Sequence Estimation Based Decoding Algorithm for V-BLAST Maruf Mohammad, Samir Al degrades the performance. A detection algorithm for V-BLAST based on sequence estimation is proposed. The concept of maximum likelihood sequence estimation (MLSE) is applied to combat spatial interference. State
Kalman Filter Constraint Switching for Turbofan Engine Health Estimation
Simon, Dan
Kalman Filter Constraint Switching for Turbofan Engine Health Estimation Dan Simon Cleveland State Cleveland, Ohio, 44135 Abstract Kalman filters are often used to estimate the state variables of a dynamic system. However, in the application of Kalman filters some known signal information is often either
Stochastic Wireless Channel Modeling, Estimation and Identification from Measurements
Olama, Mohammed M [ORNL; Djouadi, Seddik M [ORNL; Li, Yanyan [ORNL
2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
This paper is concerned with stochastic modeling of wireless fading channels, parameter estimation, and system identification from measurement data. Wireless channels are represented by stochastic state-space form, whose parameters and state variables are estimated using the expectation maximization algorithm and Kalman filtering, respectively. The latter are carried out solely from received signal measurements. These algorithms estimate the channel inphase and quadrature components and identify the channel parameters recursively. The proposed algorithm is tested using measurement data, and the results are presented.
Estimates of US biomass energy consumption 1992
Not Available
1994-05-06T23:59:59.000Z
This report is the seventh in a series of publications developed by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to quantify the biomass-derived primary energy used by the US economy. It presents estimates of 1991 and 1992 consumption. The objective of this report is to provide updated estimates of biomass energy consumption for use by Congress, Federal and State agencies, biomass producers and end-use sectors, and the public at large.
A TIME ESTIMATE FOR CONSOLIDATION AND DISINTEGRATION OF AN ASTEROID RUBBLE PILE. THE SIMPLEST model shows that an asteroid rubble pile evolves, depending on the parameter V2 d (where V rubble pile to survive for a long time, and on the other hand, even without tidal effects, it prevents
Blumenthal, Jurg M.; Thompson, Wayne
2009-06-12T23:59:59.000Z
This publication explains how to estimate the grain yield of a corn crop before harvest. An interactive grain yield calculator is included. 6 pages, 3 tables, 1 figure....
Crichton, John Alston
1953-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
that three types of well tests were then being used to determine the value of gas wells, naxnely, open flow capacity, closed pressure, and xninute-pressure-above-the-line. Open flow tests were not usually available, and the fact that line pressure varied... and production tests. Sand volumes are obtained by planimetering. Core analysis data and electrical log interpretation permit reasonable estimates of porosity, connate water, and net productive thickness so that the volume of gas filled pore space may...
SPACE TECHNOLOGY Actual Estimate
technology readiness of new missions, mitigate their technological risks, improve the quality of cost estimates, and thereby contribute to better overall mission cost management..." Space Technology investmentsSPACE TECHNOLOGY TECH-1 Actual Estimate Budget Authority (in $ millions) FY 2011 FY 2012 FY 2013 FY
Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]
1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z
Specialty costs are those nonstandard, unusual costs that are not typically estimated. Costs for research and development (R&D) projects involving new technologies, costs associated with future regulations, and specialty equipment costs are examples of specialty costs. This chapter discusses those factors that are significant contributors to project specialty costs and methods of estimating costs for specialty projects.
Kalman filter data assimilation: Targeting observations and parameter estimation
Bellsky, Thomas, E-mail: bellskyt@asu.edu; Kostelich, Eric J.; Mahalov, Alex [School of Mathematical and Statistical Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States)] [School of Mathematical and Statistical Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States)
2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z
This paper studies the effect of targeted observations on state and parameter estimates determined with Kalman filter data assimilation (DA) techniques. We first provide an analytical result demonstrating that targeting observations within the Kalman filter for a linear model can significantly reduce state estimation error as opposed to fixed or randomly located observations. We next conduct observing system simulation experiments for a chaotic model of meteorological interest, where we demonstrate that the local ensemble transform Kalman filter (LETKF) with targeted observations based on largest ensemble variance is skillful in providing more accurate state estimates than the LETKF with randomly located observations. Additionally, we find that a hybrid ensemble Kalman filter parameter estimation method accurately updates model parameters within the targeted observation context to further improve state estimation.
Joint estimation of phase and phase diffusion for quantum metrology
Mihai D. Vidrighin; Gaia Donati; Marco G. Genoni; Xian-Min Jin; W. Steven Kolthammer; M. S. Kim; Animesh Datta; Marco Barbieri; Ian A. Walmsley
2014-10-20T23:59:59.000Z
Phase estimation, at the heart of many quantum metrology and communication schemes, can be strongly affected by noise, whose amplitude may not be known, or might be subject to drift. Here, we investigate the joint estimation of a phase shift and the amplitude of phase diffusion, at the quantum limit. For several relevant instances, this multiparameter estimation problem can be effectively reshaped as a two-dimensional Hilbert space model, encompassing the description of an interferometer phase probed with relevant quantum states -- split single-photons, coherent states or N00N states. For these cases, we obtain a trade-off bound on the statistical variances for the joint estimation of phase and phase diffusion, as well as optimum measurement schemes. We use this bound to quantify the effectiveness of an actual experimental setup for joint parameter estimation for polarimetry. We conclude by discussing the form of the trade-off relations for more general states and measurements.
Hradil, Zdenek
over a complete set of mutually complementary observables (MCO) exhibits invariance with respect to unitary transformations applied to the state of the system and/or to the measured set of MCO. Moreover, namely, when (i) a complete set of MCO is not available, and when (ii) the observables measured
Temperature Dependent Wire Delay Estimation in Floorplanning
Nannarelli, Alberto
Temperature Dependent Wire Delay Estimation in Floorplanning Andreas Thor Winther, Wei Liu, Alberto, Arizona State University, Tempe, USA Abstract--Due to large variations in temperature in VLSI cir- cuits and the linear relationship between metal resistance and temperature, the delay through wires of the same length
REACTOR SAFETY KEYWORDS: best estimate plus
Hoppe, Fred M.
REACTOR SAFETY KEYWORDS: best estimate plus uncertainty analysis, epistemic error and aleatory phe- nomena that underlie the safety analyses. The use of BE codes within the reactor technology in advance and that result from a variety of operating conditions or states. These arise because the reactor
Estimating Bounds for Quadratic Assignment Problems Associated ...
2010-09-17T23:59:59.000Z
?Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-. 1804 ... Department of Industrial and Enterprise System Engineering , ... Malah used the projection method [13] to estimate lower and upper bounds for ...... DIMACS 25 Series in Discrete Mathematics and Theoretical Computer Sci-.
Quantum limits to estimation of photon deformation
Giovanni De Cillis; Matteo G. A. Paris
2014-07-08T23:59:59.000Z
We address potential deviations of radiation field from the bosonic behaviour and employ local quantum estimation theory to evaluate the ultimate bounds to precision in the estimation of these deviations using quantum-limited measurements on optical signals. We consider different classes of boson deformation and found that intensity measurement on coherent or thermal states would be suitable for their detection making, at least in principle, tests of boson deformation feasible with current quantum optical technology. On the other hand, we found that the quantum signal-to-noise ratio (QSNR) is vanishing with the deformation itself for all the considered classes of deformations and probe signals, thus making any estimation procedure of photon deformation inherently inefficient. A partial way out is provided by the polynomial dependence of the QSNR on the average number of photon, which suggests that, in principle, it would be possible to detect deformation by intensity measurements on high-energy thermal states.
Operated device estimation framework
Rengarajan, Janarthanan
2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z
Protective device estimation is a challenging task because there are numerous protective devices present in a typical distribution system. Among various protective devices, auto-reclosers and fuses are the main overcurrent protection on distribution...
Operated device estimation framework
Rengarajan, Janarthanan
2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z
protective device estimation algorithm which helps in identifying which protective devices have operated to clear a short circuit condition. The algorithm uses manufacturer’s device details, power quality data measured from substation monitoring devices...
Estimation of food consumption
Callaway, J.M. Jr.
1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z
The research reported in this document was conducted as a part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project. The objective of the HEDR Project is to estimate the radiation doses that people could have received from operations at the Hanford Site. Information required to estimate these doses includes estimates of the amounts of potentially contaminated foods that individuals in the region consumed during the study period. In that general framework, the objective of the Food Consumption Task was to develop a capability to provide information about the parameters of the distribution(s) of daily food consumption for representative groups in the population for selected years during the study period. This report describes the methods and data used to estimate food consumption and presents the results developed for Phase I of the HEDR Project.
State energy price and expenditure report 1991
Not Available
1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z
The State Energy Price and Expenditure Report (SEPER) presents energy price and expenditure estimates individually for the 50 States and the District of Columbia and in aggregate for the United States. The price and expenditure estimates are provided by energy source and economic sector and are published for the years 1970, 1975, 1980, and 1985 through 1991. Data for all years, 1970 through 1991, are available on personal computer diskettes. Documentation in Appendix A describes how the price estimates are developed, including sources of data, methods of estimation, and conversion factors applied. This report is an update of the State Energy Price and Expenditure Report 1990, published in September 1992.
Solid-State Lighting Technical Reports
None
2011-12-16T23:59:59.000Z
A page that contains links to technical reports of studies estimating the energy savings potential of solid-state lighting in numerous applications.
State energy price and expenditure report, 1995
NONE
1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z
The State Energy Price and Expenditure Report (SEPER) presents energy price and expenditure estimates individually for the 50 States and the District of Columbia and in aggregate for the US. The estimates developed in the State Energy Price and Expenditure Data System (SEPEDS) are provided by energy source and economic sector and are published for the years 1970 through 1995. Data for all years are available on a CD-ROM and via Internet. Consumption estimates used to calculate expenditures and the documentation for those estimates are taken from the State Energy Data Report 1995, Consumption Estimates (SEDR), published in December 1997. Expenditures are calculated by multiplying the price estimates by the consumption estimates, which are adjusted to remove process fuel; intermediate petroleum products; and other consumption that has no direct fuel costs, i.e., hydroelectric, geothermal, wind, solar, and photovoltaic energy sources.
EM algorithm estimation of TCM scheme over multipath fading
Gunawan, Wiedy
1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Channel State Estimation on Slow-Fading Channels, " Proceedings 1994 IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory, Trondheim, Norway, June 1994, p. 27. [3] Jae Choong Han, "Optimum Decoding of TCM in the Presence of Phase Errors, " M. S. Thesis...
Control and estimation problems under partially nested information pattern
Gattami, Ather Said
In this paper we study distributed estimation and control problems over graphs under partially nested information patterns. We show a duality result that is very similar to the classical duality result between state ...
Fourier Analytic Approach to Quantum Estimation of Group Action
Masahito Hayashi
2014-09-08T23:59:59.000Z
This article proposes a unified method to estimation of group action by using the inverse Fourier transform of the input state. The method provides optimal estimation for commutative and non-commutative group with/without energy constraint. The proposed method can be applied to projective representations of non-compact groups as well as of compact groups. This paper addresses the optimal estimation of R, U(1), SU(2), SO(3), and R^2 with Heisenberg representation under a suitable energy constraint.
Battery Calendar Life Estimator Manual Modeling and Simulation
Jon P. Christophersen; Ira Bloom; Ed Thomas; Vince Battaglia
2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z
The Battery Life Estimator (BLE) Manual has been prepared to assist developers in their efforts to estimate the calendar life of advanced batteries for automotive applications. Testing requirements and procedures are defined by the various manuals previously published under the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC). The purpose of this manual is to describe and standardize a method for estimating calendar life based on statistical models and degradation data acquired from typical USABC battery testing.
Quantum enhanced estimation of a multi-dimensional field
Tillmann Baumgratz; Animesh Datta
2015-07-10T23:59:59.000Z
We present a framework for the quantum enhanced estimation of multiple parameters corresponding to non-commuting unitary generators. Our formalism provides a recipe for the simultaneous estimation of all three components of a magnetic field. We propose a probe state that surpasses the precision of estimating the three components individually and discuss measurements that come close to attaining the quantum limit. Our study also reveals that too much quantum entanglement may be detrimental to attaining the Heisenberg scaling in quantum metrology.
Thermodynamic estimation: Ionic materials
Glasser, Leslie, E-mail: l.glasser@curtin.edu.au
2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z
Thermodynamics establishes equilibrium relations among thermodynamic parameters (“properties”) and delineates the effects of variation of the thermodynamic functions (typically temperature and pressure) on those parameters. However, classical thermodynamics does not provide values for the necessary thermodynamic properties, which must be established by extra-thermodynamic means such as experiment, theoretical calculation, or empirical estimation. While many values may be found in the numerous collected tables in the literature, these are necessarily incomplete because either the experimental measurements have not been made or the materials may be hypothetical. The current paper presents a number of simple and relible estimation methods for thermodynamic properties, principally for ionic materials. The results may also be used as a check for obvious errors in published values. The estimation methods described are typically based on addition of properties of individual ions, or sums of properties of neutral ion groups (such as “double” salts, in the Simple Salt Approximation), or based upon correlations such as with formula unit volumes (Volume-Based Thermodynamics). - Graphical abstract: Thermodynamic properties of ionic materials may be readily estimated by summation of the properties of individual ions, by summation of the properties of ‘double salts’, and by correlation with formula volume. Such estimates may fill gaps in the literature, and may also be used as checks of published values. This simplicity arises from exploitation of the fact that repulsive energy terms are of short range and very similar across materials, while coulombic interactions provide a very large component of the attractive energy in ionic systems. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Estimation methods for thermodynamic properties of ionic materials are introduced. • Methods are based on summation of single ions, multiple salts, and correlations. • Heat capacity, entropy, lattice energy, enthalpy, Gibbs energy values are available.
Kalman Filtering with Inequality Constraints for Turbofan Engine Health Estimation
Simon, Dan
Kalman Filtering with Inequality Constraints for Turbofan Engine Health Estimation ¤ Dan Simon, OH 44115 Cleveland, OH 44135 Abstract Kalman ¯lters are often used to estimate the state variables of a dynamic system. However, in the application of Kalman ¯lters some known signal information is often either
Estimated Costs of Crop Production in Iowa 2005
Duffy, Michael D.
Estimated Costs of Crop Production in Iowa 2005 The estimated costs of corn, corn silage. They include the annual Iowa Farm Business Association record summaries, production and costs data from and a survey of selected agricultural cooperatives and other input suppliers around the state. These costs
Estimated Costs of Crop Production in Iowa 2002
Duffy, Michael D.
Estimated Costs of Crop Production in Iowa 2002 The estimated costs of corn, corn silage. They include the annual Iowa Farm Business Association record summaries, production and costs data from and a survey of selected agricultural cooperatives and other input suppliers around the state. These costs
Estimated Costs of Crop Production in Iowa 2006
Duffy, Michael D.
Estimated Costs of Crop Production in Iowa 2006 The estimated costs of corn, corn silage. They include the annual Iowa Farm Business Association record summaries, production and costs data from and a survey of selected agricultural cooperatives and other input suppliers around the state. These costs
DAMAGE ESTIMATION USING MULTI-OBJECTIVE GENETIC ALGORITHMS Faisal Shabbir
Boyer, Edmond
DAMAGE ESTIMATION USING MULTI-OBJECTIVE GENETIC ALGORITHMS Faisal Shabbir 1 , Piotr Omenzetter 2 1.omenzetter@abdn.ac.uk ABSTRACT It is common to estimate structural damage severity by updating a structural model against experimental responses at different damage states. When experimental results from the healthy and damaged
Method and system to estimate variables in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant
Kumar, Aditya; Shi, Ruijie; Dokucu, Mustafa
2013-09-17T23:59:59.000Z
System and method to estimate variables in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant are provided. The system includes a sensor suite to measure respective plant input and output variables. An extended Kalman filter (EKF) receives sensed plant input variables and includes a dynamic model to generate a plurality of plant state estimates and a covariance matrix for the state estimates. A preemptive-constraining processor is configured to preemptively constrain the state estimates and covariance matrix to be free of constraint violations. A measurement-correction processor may be configured to correct constrained state estimates and a constrained covariance matrix based on processing of sensed plant output variables. The measurement-correction processor is coupled to update the dynamic model with corrected state estimates and a corrected covariance matrix. The updated dynamic model may be configured to estimate values for at least one plant variable not originally sensed by the sensor suite.
MULTIVARIATE REGRESSION S-ESTIMATORS FOR ROBUST ESTIMATION AND INFERENCE
Van Aelst, Stefan
1 MULTIVARIATE REGRESSION S-ESTIMATORS FOR ROBUST ESTIMATION AND INFERENCE Stefan Van Aelst-estimators for multivariate regression. We study the robustness of the estimators in terms of their breakdown point and in and multivariate location and scatter. Furthermore we develop a fast and robust bootstrap method
Use of Cost Estimating Relationships
Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]
1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z
Cost Estimating Relationships (CERs) are an important tool in an estimator's kit, and in many cases, they are the only tool. Thus, it is important to understand their limitations and characteristics. This chapter discusses considerations of which the estimator must be aware so the Cost Estimating Relationships can be properly used.
State energy price and expenditure report 1989
Not Available
1991-09-30T23:59:59.000Z
The State Energy Price and Expenditure Report (SEPER) presents energy price and expenditure estimates for the 50 States, the District of Columbia, and the United States. The estimates are provided by energy source (e.g., petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity) and by major consuming or economic sector. This report is an update of the State Energy Price and Expenditure Report 1988 published in September 1990. Changes from the last report are summarized in a section of the documentation. Energy price and expenditure estimates are published for the years 1970, 1975, 1980, and 1985 through 1989. Documentation follows the tables and describes how the price estimates are developed, including sources of data, methods of estimation, and conversion factors applied. Consumption estimates used to calculate expenditures, and the documentation for those estimates, are from the State Energy Data Report, Consumption Estimates, 1960--1989 (SEDR), published in May 1991. Expenditures are calculated by multiplying the price estimates by the consumption estimates, adjusted to remove process fuel and intermediate product consumption. All expenditures are consumer expenditures, that is, they represent estimates of money directly spent by consumers to purchase energy, generally including taxes. 11 figs., 43 tabs.
Monotonic Local Decay Estimates
Avy Soffer
2011-10-29T23:59:59.000Z
For the Hamiltonian operator H = -{\\Delta}+V(x) of the Schr\\"odinger Equation with a repulsive potential, the problem of local decay is considered. It is analyzed by a direct method, based on a new, L^2 bounded, propagation observable. The resulting decay estimate, is in certain cases monotonic in time, with no "Quantum Corrections". This method is then applied to some examples in one and higher dimensions. In particular the case of the Wave Equation on a Schwarzschild manifold is redone: Local decay, stronger than the known ones are proved (minimal loss of angular derivatives and lower order of radial derivatives of initial data). The method developed here can be an alternative in some cases to the Morawetz type estimates, with L^2-multipliers replacing the first order operators. It provides an alternative to Mourre's method, by including thresholds and high energies.
Kampa, Aleksander Edward
1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
) December 1988 Extremal Index Estimation (December 1988) Aleksander Edward Kampa, Ecole Centrale de Paris, France Chairman of Advisory Comittee: Dr. Tailen Hsing If (X ) is a strictly stationary sequence satisfying certain n dependence restrictions (e.... g. D or A), then the relationship between the extremal properties of (X ) and its associated independent sequence (X ) n n can. under certain conditions, be summed up by a single constant Be[0. 1]. called the extremal index. Results of extreme...
Origin State Destination State
Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:5 TablesExports to3,1,50022,3,,0,,6,1,Separation 23 362 334 318 706Production% of Total2003Year Jan Feb19Feet) Year511Feet) Working5. Estimated
Origin State Destination State
Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:5 TablesExports to3,1,50022,3,,0,,6,1,Separation 23 362 334 318 706Production% of Total2003Year Jan Feb19Feet) Year511Feet) Working5. Estimated6.
Origin State Destination State
Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:5 TablesExports to3,1,50022,3,,0,,6,1,Separation 23 362 334 318 706Production% of Total2003Year Jan Feb19Feet) Year511Feet) Working5.8. Estimated
Origin State Destination State
Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:5 TablesExports to3,1,50022,3,,0,,6,1,Separation 23 362 334 318 706Production% of Total2003Year Jan Feb19Feet) Year511Feet)8. Estimated rail
Quantitative estimation in Health Impact Assessment: Opportunities and challenges
Bhatia, Rajiv, E-mail: rajiv.bhatia@sfdph.or [San Francisco Department of Public Health, CA (United States); Seto, Edmund [University of California at Berkeley, CA (United States)
2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z
Health Impact Assessment (HIA) considers multiple effects on health of policies, programs, plans and projects and thus requires the use of diverse analytic tools and sources of evidence. Quantitative estimation has desirable properties for the purpose of HIA but adequate tools for quantification exist currently for a limited number of health impacts and decision settings; furthermore, quantitative estimation generates thorny questions about the precision of estimates and the validity of methodological assumptions. In the United States, HIA has only recently emerged as an independent practice apart from integrated EIA, and this article aims to synthesize the experience with quantitative health effects estimation within that practice. We use examples identified through a scan of available identified instances of quantitative estimation in the U.S. practice experience to illustrate methods applied in different policy settings along with their strengths and limitations. We then discuss opportunity areas and practical considerations for the use of quantitative estimation in HIA.
Robust Single-Qubit Process Calibration via Robust Phase Estimation
Shelby Kimmel; Guang Hao Low; Theodore J. Yoder
2015-02-09T23:59:59.000Z
An important step in building a quantum computer is calibrating experimentally implemented quantum gates to produce operations that are close to ideal unitaries. The calibration step involves estimating the error in gates and then using controls to correct the implementation. Quantum process tomography is a standard technique for estimating these errors, but is both time consuming, (when one only wants to learn a few key parameters), and requires resources, like perfect state preparation and measurement, that might not be available. With the goal of efficiently estimating specific errors using minimal resources, we develop a parameter estimation technique, which can gauge two key parameters (amplitude and off-resonance errors) in a single-qubit gate with provable robustness and efficiency. In particular, our estimates achieve the optimal efficiency, Heisenberg scaling. Our main theorem making this possible is a robust version of the phase estimation procedure of Higgins et al. [B. L. Higgins, New J. Phys. 11, 073023 (2009)].
REQUESTS FOR RETIREMENT ESTIMATE
Office of Environmental Management (EM)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:5 TablesExports to3,1,50022,3,,0,,6,1,Separation 23 362 of Thomas P.Oil,J. B.Department ofEnergyREQUEST FOR RETIREMENT ANNUITY ESTIMATE Instructions:
Image-based meteorologic visibility estimation
Graves, Nathan
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
the estimated luminance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Nephelometer . . . . . . 3.4.3 Luminance Meter . . . . 4intensity and the estimated luminance. . . . . . . . . .
State energy price and expenditure report 1992
Not Available
1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z
The State Energy Price and Expenditure Report (SEPER) presents energy price and expenditure estimates individually for the 50 States and the District of Columbia and in aggregate for the United States. The price and expenditure estimates are provided by energy source and economic sector and are published for the years 1970, 1980, and 1985 through 1992. Data for all years, 1970 through 1992, are available on personal computer diskettes.
Estimated Costs of Crop Production in Iowa -2007 File A1-20
Duffy, Michael D.
Estimated Costs of Crop Production in Iowa - 2007 File A1-20 T he estimated costs of corn, corn sources. They include the annual Iowa Farm Business Asso- ciation record summaries, production and costs the state. These costs estimates are representative of average costs for farms in Iowa. Very large or small
Estimated Costs of Crop Production in Iowa -2009 File A1-20
Duffy, Michael D.
Estimated Costs of Crop Production in Iowa - 2009 File A1-20 T he estimated costs of corn, corn sources. They include the annual Iowa Farm Business Asso- ciation record summaries, production and costs the state. These costs estimates are representative of average costs for farms in Iowa. Very large or small
Estimated Costs of Crop Production in Iowa -2008 File A1-20
Duffy, Michael D.
Estimated Costs of Crop Production in Iowa - 2008 File A1-20 T he estimated costs of corn, corn sources. They include the annual Iowa Farm Business Asso- ciation record summaries, production and costs the state. These costs estimates are representative of average costs for farms in Iowa. Very large or small
Cost Estimating, Analysis, and Standardization
Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]
1984-11-02T23:59:59.000Z
To establish policy and responsibilities for: (a) developing and reviewing project cost estimates; (b) preparing independent cost estimates and analysis; (c) standardizing cost estimating procedures; and (d) improving overall cost estimating and analytical techniques, cost data bases, cost and economic escalation models, and cost estimating systems. Cancels DOE O 5700.2B, dated 8-5-1983; DOE O 5700.8, dated 5-27-1981; and HQ 1130.1A, dated 12-30-1981. Canceled by DOE O 5700.2D, dated 6-12-1992
Load Modeling and State Estimation Methods for Power Distribution Systems:
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:5 TablesExports(Journal Article)41clothThe Bonneville PowerTariff Pages default Sign InCenter (LMI-EFRC) Hotel &NUGVehiclesLiving With
State Energy Profiles and Estimates (SEDS) Report Archives
Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:5 TablesExports to3,1,50022,3,,0,,6,1,Separation 23 362 334 318 706Production% of41.1Diesel pricesAdministrationpropanedrivers3 Outlook for GulfSpotU.S.
Linear and Nonlinear State Estimation in the Czochralski Process
Gravdahl, Jan Tommy
is the only method used commercially for production of monocrystalline silicon for semiconductor and solar decades because of the development of semiconductor engineering and the solar industries. After production process is shown in Figure 1. The solid silicon put in a crucible. Electrical heaters are used both
Real-time state estimation of laboratory flows
Stransky, Scott (Scott M.)
2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
In this project, we use a real time computer model to simulate a differentially heated laboratory annulus. The laboratory annulus allows us to study chaotic flows typical of the atmosphere. Our objective is to bring the ...
Monte Carlo approaches to hidden Markov model state estimation
Sollberger, Derek
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Results with Sample Size T = 100 Energy Prices and B =with Sample Size T = 100 Energy Prices and B = 50 . . . . .is in metric tons. 3. Energy Prices: California Independent
A Nonstochastic Information Theory for Communication and State Estimation
Nair, Girish N
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
In communications, unknown variables are usually modelled as random variables, and concepts such as independence, entropy and information are defined in terms of the underlying probability distributions. In contrast, control theory often treats uncertainties and disturbances as bounded unknowns having no statistical structure. The area of networked control combines both fields, raising the question of whether it is possible to construct meaningful analogues of stochastic concepts such as independence, Markovness, entropy and information without assuming a probability space. This paper introduces a framework for doing so, leading to the construction of a "maximin information" functional for nonstochastic variables. It is shown that the largest maximin information rate through a memoryless, error-prone channel in this framework coincides with the block-coding zero-error capacity of the channel. Maximin information is then used to derive a tight condition for achieving exponential uniform convergence when estima...
Optimal PMU Placement Evaluation for Power System Dynamic State Estimation
Pollefeys, Marc
--The synchronized phasor measurement unit (PMU), developed in the 1980s, is considered to be one of the most of clock synchronization via the global positioning system (GPS), phasor measurement units (PMU), which of measurement precision that typically exceeds conventional measurement units. As such the PMU has been
Runtime Verification with State Estimation Scott D. Stoller1
Grosu, Radu
. Recently, a number of techniques have been developed to mitigate the over- head due to RV [12, 9, 1, 13, 5 by sampling. In such situations, there may be gaps in the observed program executions, thus making ac- curate demonstrate high prediction accuracy for the probabilities computed by our algorithm. They also show that our
Estimates of State Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions
Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:5 TablesExports to3,1,50022,3,,0,,6,1,Separation 23 362 334 318 706 802Decade Year-0 Year-1ColoradoDatabase FormInformation Administration
ARM Site Atmospheric State Best Estimates for AIRS Validation
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:5 TablesExports(Journal Article)41cloth Documentation Data ManagementProductswsicloudwsicloudsummary Documentation Data Management8Data from009Science1
The time to reach pseudosteady-state in horizontal wells
Al-Kahtani, Abdulghafour
1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Engineers need to estimate the expected productivity of horizontal wells. We need to know how long it takes to reach pseudosteady-state to accept that estimation. When all boundaries influence the pressure distribution in the drainage area...
Heuristic for estimation of multiqubit genuine multipartite entanglement
Paulo E. M. F. Mendonca; Marcelo A. Marchiolli; Gerard J. Milburn
2015-01-28T23:59:59.000Z
For every N-qubit density matrix written in the computational basis, an associated "X-density matrix" can be obtained by vanishing all entries out of the main- and anti-diagonals. It is very simple to compute the genuine multipartite (GM) concurrence of this associated N-qubit X-state, which, moreover, lower bounds the GM-concurrence of the original (non-X) state. In this paper, we rely on these facts to introduce and benchmark a heuristic for estimating the GM-concurrence of an arbitrary multiqubit mixed state. By explicitly considering two classes of mixed states, we illustrate that our estimates are usually very close to the standard lower bound on the GM-concurrence, being significantly easier to compute. In addition, while evaluating the performance of our proposed heuristic, we provide the first characterization of GM-entanglement in the steady states of the driven Dicke model at zero temperature.
Residential Lighting End-Use Consumption Study: Estimation Framework and Initial Estimates
Gifford, Will R.; Goldberg, Miriam L.; Tanimoto, Paulo M.; Celnicker, Dane R.; Poplawski, Michael E.
2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z
The U.S. DOE Residential Lighting End-Use Consumption Study is an initiative of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Solid-State Lighting Program that aims to improve the understanding of lighting energy usage in residential dwellings. The study has developed a regional estimation framework within a national sample design that allows for the estimation of lamp usage and energy consumption 1) nationally and by region of the United States, 2) by certain household characteristics, 3) by location within the home, 4) by certain lamp characteristics, and 5) by certain categorical cross-classifications (e.g., by dwelling type AND lamp type or fixture type AND control type).
A multivariate phase distribution and its estimation
Charles F. Cadieu; Kilian Koepsell
2009-06-21T23:59:59.000Z
Circular variables such as phase or orientation have received considerable attention throughout the scientific and engineering communities and have recently been quite prominent in the field of neuroscience. While many analytic techniques have used phase as an effective representation, there has been little work on techniques that capture the joint statistics of multiple phase variables. In this paper we introduce a distribution that captures empirically observed pair-wise phase relationships. Importantly, we have developed a computationally efficient and accurate technique for estimating the parameters of this distribution from data. We show that the algorithm performs well in high-dimensions (d=100), and in cases with limited data (as few as 100 samples per dimension). We also demonstrate how this technique can be applied to electrocorticography (ECoG) recordings to investigate the coupling of brain areas during different behavioral states. This distribution and estimation technique can be broadly applied to any setting that produces multiple circular variables.
Duffy, Michael D.
The estimated costs of corn, corn silage, soybeans, al- falfa, and pasture maintenance record summaries, production and costs data from the Departments of Economics, Agricultural cooperatives and other input suppliers around the state. These costs estimates are representative of average
Kalman Filtering with State Equality Constraints
Simon, Dan
Kalman Filtering with State Equality Constraints DAN SIMON, Member, IEEE Cleveland State University TIEN LI CHIA, Member, IEEE ControlSoft, Inc. Kalman filters are commonly used to estimate the states of a dynamic system. However, in the application of Kalman filters there is often known model or signal
Demonstration of Entanglement-Enhanced Phase Estimation in Solid
Gang-Qin Liu; Yu-Ran Zhang; Yan-Chun Chang; Jie-Dong Yue; Heng Fan; Xin-Yu Pan
2015-04-08T23:59:59.000Z
Precise parameter estimation plays a central role in science and technology. The statistical error in estimation can be decreased by repeating measurement, leading to that the resultant uncertainty of the estimated parameter is proportional to the square root of the number of repetitions in accordance with the central limit theorem. Quantum parameter estimation, an emerging field of quantum technology, aims to use quantum resources to yield higher statistical precision than classical approaches. Here, we report the first room-temperature implementation of entanglement-enhanced phase estimation in a solid-state system: the nitrogen-vacancy centre in pure diamond. We demonstrate a super-resolving phase measurement with two entangled qubits of different physical realizations: an nitrogen-vacancy centre electron spin and a proximal ${}^{13}$C nuclear spin. The experimental data shows clearly the uncertainty reduction when entanglement resource is used, confirming the theoretical expectation. Our results represent an elemental demonstration of enhancement of quantum metrology against classical procedure.
Different approaches to estimating transition costs in the electric- utility industry
Baxter, L.W.
1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z
The term ``transition costs`` describes the potential revenue shortfall (or welfare loss) a utility (or other actor) may experience through government-initiated deregulation of electricity generation. The potential for transition costs arises whenever a regulated industry is subject to competitive market forces as a result of explicit government action. Federal and state proposals to deregulate electricity generation sparked a national debate on transition costs in the electric-utility industry. Industry-wide transition cost estimates range from about $20 billion to $500 billion. Such disparate estimates raise important questions on estimation methods for decision makers. This report examines different approaches to estimating transition costs. The study has three objectives. First, we discuss the concept of transition cost. Second, we identify the major cost categories included in transition cost estimates and summarize the current debate on which specific costs are appropriately included in these estimates. Finally, we identify general and specific estimation approaches and assess their strengths and weaknesses. We relied primarily on the evidentiary records established at the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission and the California Public Utilities Commission to identify major cost categories and specific estimation approaches. We also contacted regulatory commission staffs in ten states to ascertain estimation activities in each of these states. We refined a classification framework to describe and assess general estimation options. We subsequently developed and applied criteria to describe and assess specific estimation approaches proposed by federal regulators, state regulators, utilities, independent power companies, and consultants.
Magnetostrophic balance as the optimal state for turbulent magnetoconvection
King, EM; Aurnou, JM
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
that the magnetostrophic balance is no longer attained (Magnetostrophic balance as the optimal state for turbulentLorentz and Coriolis forces balance. One can estimate the
Mapping and Assessment of the United States Ocean Wave Energy...
Mapping and Assessment of the United States Ocean Wave Energy Resource This project estimates the naturally available and technically recoverable U.S. wave energy resources, using...
Examples of Cost Estimation Packages
Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]
1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z
Estimates can be performed in a variety of ways. Some of these are for projects for an undefined scope, a conventional construction project, or where there is a level of effort required to complete the work. Examples of cost estimation packages for these types of projects are described in this appendix.
Murcia, Universidad de
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
of the aquatic Hemiptera (Gerromorpha & Nepomorpha) in the Segura River basin (Spain) Jos´e Antonio Carbonell Hemiptera (Gerromorpha & Nepomor- pha) in the Segura River basin (Spain) Although the Segura River basin of which are rare within the European continent. Assemblages of aquatic Hemiptera and their indicator
State Energy Overview. [Contains glossary
Not Available
1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z
An overview of selected energy-related data for the United States, for each state, and for the District of Columbia is presented. Included are the quantities of energy produced and consumed, estimates of fuel reserves, the value of nonrenewable fuels produced by type, energy expenditures, and consumer prices. Also provided for each state are selected demographic and energy-related information that have been ranked and expressed as a percent of the national total. This overview provides a ready reference and a quick access to selected state energy information and state rankings for various socioeconomic and energy items. The State Energy Overview is arranged in five sections. The first section presents United States totals and an overview of state rankings. The second depicts data for the 50 states and the District of Columbia. The glossary presents definitions germane to this publication and the fourth section describes methodology and includes remarks concerning the information and methods used to estimate 1982 consumption numbers. The fifth section presents sources of data and information for this publication. A summary of each section is included.
State coal profiles, January 1994
Not Available
1994-02-02T23:59:59.000Z
The purpose of State Coal Profiles is to provide basic information about the deposits, production, and use of coal in each of the 27 States with coal production in 1992. Although considerable information on coal has been published on a national level, there is a lack of a uniform overview for the individual States. This report is intended to help fill that gap and also to serve as a framework for more detailed studies. While focusing on coal output, State Coal Profiles shows that the coal-producing States are major users of coal, together accounting for about three-fourths of total US coal consumption in 1992. Each coal-producing State is profiled with a description of its coal deposits and a discussion of the development of its coal industry. Estimates of coal reserves in 1992 are categorized by mining method and sulfur content. Trends, patterns, and other information concerning production, number of mines, miners, productivity, mine price of coal, disposition, and consumption of coal are detailed in statistical tables for selected years from 1980 through 1992. In addition, coal`s contribution to the State`s estimated total energy consumption is given for 1991, the latest year for which data are available. A US summary of all data is provided for comparing individual States with the Nation as a whole. Sources of information are given at the end of the tables.
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
per year (or one incident every 1.4 years). Petroleum product does not appear to be transported by rail in the State of Hawaii. ENERGY SECTOR RISK PROFILE State of Hawaii...
U.S. Energy Information Administration | State Energy Data 2013...
Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)
at state end-use consumption estimates by individual energy source in the State Energy Data System (SEDS). This section describes how all energy sources are added in Btu to...
State energy price and expenditure report 1993
NONE
1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z
The State Energy Price and Expenditure Report (SEPER) presents energy price and expenditure estimates individually for the 50 states and the District of Columbia and in aggregate for the US. The five economic sectors used in SEPER correspond to those used in SEDR and are residential, commercial, industrial, transportation, and electric utility. Documentation in appendices describe how the price estimates are developed, provide conversion factors for measures used in the energy analysis, and include a glossary. 65 tabs.
AN UNSCENTED KALMAN FILTER FOR FREEWAY TRAFFIC ESTIMATION
Mihaylova, Lyudmila
AN UNSCENTED KALMAN FILTER FOR FREEWAY TRAFFIC ESTIMATION L. Mihaylova , R. Boel and A. Hegyi at boundaries between some segments and averaged within regular time intervals. An Unscented Kalman filter state. Keywords: macroscopic traffic models, unscented Kalman filter, particle filter 1. INTRODUCTION
Measurement Noise versus Process Noise in Ionosphere Estimation for WAAS
Stanford University
Measurement Noise versus Process Noise in Ionosphere Estimation for WAAS Juan Blanch, Todd Walter of several parameters: the geometry of the measurements, the measurement noise, and the state of the ionosphere, which yields the process noise. It is very important to distinguish carefully between measurement
Estimation of Groundwater Flow Parameters Using Least Squares
Estimation of Groundwater Flow Parameters Using Least Squares K.R. Bailey \\Lambda , B state flow parameters in a groundwater model. We test the approach on numerically generated data algorithm is implemented in parallel using PVM. 1 Introduction The successful modeling of groundwater flow
Enhancement of satellite precipitation estimation via unsupervised dimensionality reduction
Mahrooghy, Majid [Mississippi State University (MSU); Younan, Nicolas H. [Mississippi State University (MSU); Anantharaj, Valentine G [ORNL; Aanstoos, James [Mississippi State University (MSU)
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A methodology to enhance Satellite Precipitation Estimation (SPE) using unsupervised dimensionality reduction (UDR) techniques is developed. This enhanced technique is an extension to the Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Imagery using an Artificial Neural Network (PERSIANN) and Cloud Classification System (CCS) method (PERSIANN-CCS) enriched using wavelet features combined with dimensionality reduction. Cloud-top brightness temperature measurements from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-12) are used for precipitation estimation at 4 km 4 km spatial resolutions every 30 min. The study area in the continental United States covers parts of Louisiana, Arkansas, Kansas, Tennessee, Mississippi, and Alabama. Based on quantitative measures, root mean square error (RMSE) and Heidke skill score (HSS), the results show that the UDR techniques can improve the precipitation estimation accuracy. In addition, ICA is shown to have better performance than other UDR techniques; and in some cases, it achieves 10% improvement in the HSS.
Tonn, B.; Hwang, Ho-Ling; Elliot, S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Peretz, J.; Bohm, R.; Hendrucko, B. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)
1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z
This report contains descriptions of methodologies to be used to estimate the one-time generation of hazardous waste associated with five different types of remediation programs: Superfund sites, RCRA Corrective Actions, Federal Facilities, Underground Storage Tanks, and State and Private Programs. Estimates of the amount of hazardous wastes generated from these sources to be shipped off-site to commercial hazardous waste treatment and disposal facilities will be made on a state by state basis for the years 1993, 1999, and 2013. In most cases, estimates will be made for the intervening years, also.
Estimation of resources and reserves
Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Energy Laboratory.
1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This report analyzes the economics of resource and reserve estimation. Current concern about energy problems has focused attention on how we measure available energy resources. One reads that we have an eight-year oil ...
Motion Estimation from Disparity Images
Demirdjian, D.
2001-05-07T23:59:59.000Z
A new method for 3D rigid motion estimation from stereo is proposed in this paper. The appealing feature of this method is that it directly uses the disparity images obtained from stereo matching. We assume that the stereo ...
Estimate product quality with ANNs
Brambilla, A. [Univ. of Pisa (Italy); Trivella, F. [Adicon Advanced Distillation Control SrL, Pisa (Italy)
1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z
Artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been applied to predict catalytic reformer octane number (ON) and gasoline splitter product qualities. Results show that ANNs are a valuable tool to derive fast and accurate product quality measurements, and offer a low-cost alternative to online analyzers or rigorous mathematical models. The paper describes product quality measurements, artificial neural networks, ANN structure, estimating gasoline octane numbers, and estimating naphtha splitter product qualities.
14th World Congress of IFACA FINITE-DIMENSIONAL CODER-ESTIMATOR FOR RATE-CONS... Copyright 1999 IFAC
Nair, Girish
14th World Congress of IFACA FINITE-DIMENSIONAL CODER-ESTIMATOR FOR RATE-CONS... Copyright © 1999. KEYWORDS · State estimation · Kalman filter · Finite bit-rate ISBN: 0 08 043248 4Copyright 1999 IFAC #12Copyright 1999 IFAC #12;14th World Congress of IFACA FINITE-DIMENSIONAL CODER-ESTIMATOR FOR RATE
Quick Estimate of IRR From Capital Estimate Ratios
Larson, R. J.
specific problem. However, the derivation is simple enough so that a new chart can be derived, using the principles described, which is applicable to a specific situation or class of situations. Using conventional Discounted Cash Flow techniques... of the use of this chart is as follows: The estimate capital to carry out a proj ct is $24,000. The estimated savings to be experienced n the first year of operation is $11,300. 21 ESL-IE-85-05-05 Proceedings from the Seventh National Industrial Energy...
Weldon Spring historical dose estimate
Meshkov, N.; Benioff, P.; Wang, J.; Yuan, Y.
1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
This study was conducted to determine the estimated radiation doses that individuals in five nearby population groups and the general population in the surrounding area may have received as a consequence of activities at a uranium processing plant in Weldon Spring, Missouri. The study is retrospective and encompasses plant operations (1957-1966), cleanup (1967-1969), and maintenance (1969-1982). The dose estimates for members of the nearby population groups are as follows. Of the three periods considered, the largest doses to the general population in the surrounding area would have occurred during the plant operations period (1957-1966). Dose estimates for the cleanup (1967-1969) and maintenance (1969-1982) periods are negligible in comparison. Based on the monitoring data, if there was a person residing continually in a dwelling 1.2 km (0.75 mi) north of the plant, this person is estimated to have received an average of about 96 mrem/yr (ranging from 50 to 160 mrem/yr) above background during plant operations, whereas the dose to a nearby resident during later years is estimated to have been about 0.4 mrem/yr during cleanup and about 0.2 mrem/yr during the maintenance period. These values may be compared with the background dose in Missouri of 120 mrem/yr.
SECPOP90: Sector population, land fraction, and economic estimation program
Humphreys, S.L.; Rollstin, J.A.; Ridgely, J.N.
1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z
In 1973 Mr. W. Athey of the Environmental Protection Agency wrote a computer program called SECPOP which calculated population estimates. Since that time, two things have changed which suggested the need for updating the original program - more recent population censuses and the widespread use of personal computers (PCs). The revised computer program uses the 1990 and 1992 Population Census information and runs on current PCs as {open_quotes}SECPOP90.{close_quotes} SECPOP90 consists of two parts: site and regional. The site provides population and economic data estimates for any location within the continental United States. Siting analysis is relatively fast running. The regional portion assesses site availability for different siting policy decisions; i.e., the impact of available sites given specific population density criteria within the continental United States. Regional analysis is slow. This report compares the SECPOP90 population estimates and the nuclear power reactor licensee-provided information. Although the source, and therefore the accuracy, of the licensee information is unknown, this comparison suggests SECPOP90 makes reasonable estimates. Given the total uncertainty in any current calculation of severe accidents, including the potential offsite consequences, the uncertainty within SECPOP90 population estimates is expected to be insignificant. 12 refs., 55 figs., 7 tabs.
KALMAN FILTERING WITH STATISTICAL STATE CONSTRAINTS
Simon, Dan
KALMAN FILTERING WITH STATISTICAL STATE CONSTRAINTS T. L. Chia ControlSoft Inc. 5387 Avion Park with white process and measurement noise, the Kalman ¯lter is known to be the minimum variance linear state estimator. In the case that the random quantities are Gaussian, then the Kalman ¯lter is the minimim
Donnell, Kelly Elaine
2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z
Project cost escalation is a major problem for State Highway Agencies (SHA). This problem is evident in cost estimating procedures that may not promote consistency and accuracy of costs over the project development process. ...
Control, estimation, and planning algorithms for aggressive flight using onboard sensing
Bry, Adam Parker
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This thesis is motivated by the problem of fixed-wing flight through obstacles using only on-board sensing. To that end, we propose novel algorithms in trajectory generation for fixed-wing vehicles, state estimation in ...
Estimates of LGBT Public Employees
Sears, Brad; Mallory, Christy; Hunter, Nan D.
2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
largest employers in the state, Honda, UAB Hospital, UABAlabama Alaska Arizona Honda Anchorag e Internatio nalChildren's Hospital Meritcare Honda of America Manufactur
Current Estimation and Remote Temperature Monitoring System for Low Power Digitally
Prodiæ, Aleksandar
1139 Current Estimation and Remote Temperature Monitoring System for Low Power Digitally Controlled-state inductor current and, at the same time, provide remote temperature monitoring of power switches in low a solution for combining a digital controller, current estimator and remote temperature monitor on a single
Estimated Costs of Crop Production in Iowa -2011 File A1-20
Duffy, Michael D.
Estimated Costs of Crop Production in Iowa - 2011 File A1-20 T heestimatedcostsofcorn the annual Iowa Farm Business Association record summaries, production and costs data from the Departments of selected agricultural coop- eratives and other input suppliers around the state. These costs estimates
Duffy, Michael D.
The estimated costs of corn, corn silage, soybeans, alfalfa, and pasture maintenance in this report summaries, production and costs data from the Depart- ments of Economics, Agricultural and Biosystems and other input suppliers around the state. These costs estimates are representative of average costs
Estimated Costs of Crop Production in Iowa -2014 File A1-20
Duffy, Michael D.
Estimated Costs of Crop Production in Iowa - 2014 File A1-20 T he estimated costs of corn, corn. They include the annual Iowa Farm Busi- ness Association record summaries, production and costs data from, and a survey of selected agricultural cooperatives and other input suppliers around the state. These cost
Estimated Costs of Crop Production in Iowa -2013 File A1-20
Duffy, Michael D.
Estimated Costs of Crop Production in Iowa - 2013 File A1-20 T he estimated costs of corn, corn. They include the annual Iowa Farm Busi- ness Association record summaries, production and costs data from and a survey of selected agricultural cooperatives and other input suppliers around the state. These cost
Estimated Costs of Crop Production in Iowa -2012 File A1-20
Duffy, Michael D.
Estimated Costs of Crop Production in Iowa - 2012 File A1-20 T he estimated costs of corn, corn. They include the annual Iowa Farm Business Asso- ciation record summaries, production and costs data from and a survey of selected agricultural cooperatives and other input suppliers around the state. These costs
Optimal Strategies for Communication and Remote Estimation with an Energy Harvesting Sensor
Teneketzis, Demosthenis
1 Optimal Strategies for Communication and Remote Estimation with an Energy Harvesting Sensor A strategies. Communication problems with energy harvesting transmitters have been studied recently (see [1 with an energy harvesting sensor and a remote estimator. The sensor observes the state of a discrete-time source
PELLET COUNT INDICES COMPARED TO MARKRECAPTURE ESTIMATES FOR EVALUATING SNOWSHOE HARE DENSITY
PELLET COUNT INDICES COMPARED TO MARKRECAPTURE ESTIMATES FOR EVALUATING SNOWSHOE HARE DENSITY L in the contiguous United States. Efforts to evalu- ate hare densities using pellets have traditionally been based there was concordance between pellet-based predictions and markrecapture density estimates of hares. We developed local
Adjusted Estimates of Texas Natural Gas Production
U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site
1 Energy Information Administration Adjusted Estimates of Texas Natural Gas Production Background The Energy Information Administration (EIA) is adjusting its estimates of natural...
Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification: Independent Review Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification: Independent Review This independent review is the...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
(0% total U.S.) Crude Oil: 0 Mbarrels (0% total U.S.) Ethanol: 0 Mbarrels (0% total U.S.) SOUTH CAROLINA STATE FACTS NATURAL HAZARDS OVERVIEW Annual Frequency of Occurrence of...
TOWARDS ESTIMATING TOTAL ECONOMIC VALUE
Bateman, Ian J.
TOWARDS ESTIMATING TOTAL ECONOMIC VALUE OF FORESTS IN MEXICO by Neil Adger Katrina Brown Raffaello OF FORESTS IN MEXICO by Neil Adger Katrina Brown Raffaello Cervigni Dominic Moran Centre for Social and SEDESOL for their assistance whilst in Mexico, and David Pearce and Kerry Turner for comments on earlier
Empirical Bayes Estimation of Reliability
Pensky, Marianna
types of equipment relies on statistical inference about char- acteristics of reliabilityEmpirical Bayes Estimation of Reliability Introduction Assessment of the reliability of various such as reliability function, mean lifetime of the devices, or failure rate. Gen- eral techniques of statistical
Operating Costs Estimates Cost Indices
Boisvert, Jeff
cost projections · Chemical Engineering (CE) Plant Construction Cost Index Base value = 100 in 1957.0 in 2Q 2001 · Engineering News Record (ENR) · Nelson Refinery (NR) Construction Cost Index Cost Indices available for estimation are based upon the past · These data must be updated using cost indexes . · Cost
Mandatory Photovoltaic System Cost Estimate
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
If the customer has a ratio of estimated monthly kilowatt-hour (kWh) usage to line extension mileage that is less than or equal to 1,000, the utility must provide the comparison at no cost. If the...
Technical report: Multivariate generalized S-estimators
Van Aelst, Stefan
Technical report: Multivariate generalized S-estimators Roelant E. a, Van Aelst S. a Croux C. b a-estimators for the multivariate regression model. This class of estimators combines high robustness and high efficiency of residuals. In the special case of a multivariate location model, the generalized S-estimator has
Guidelines for Estimating Unmetered Landscapting Water Use
None
2010-07-30T23:59:59.000Z
Guidance to help Federal agencies estimate unmetered landscaping water use as required by Executive Order 13514
Best Linear Unbiased Estimate Motivation for BLUE
Fowler, Mark
1 Chapter 6 Best Linear Unbiased Estimate (BLUE) #12;2 Motivation for BLUE Except for Linear Model to a sub-optimal estimate BLUE is one such sub-optimal estimate Idea for BLUE: 1. Restrict estimate) Advantage of BLUE:Needs only 1st and 2nd moments of PDF Mean & Covariance Disadvantages of BLUE: 1. Sub
Convective rainfall estimation from digital GOES-1 infrared data
Sickler, Gary L
1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
scheme was adapted for this study and used with the digital geostationary satellite data. The concept of enhancement curves with respect to rainfall approxima- tion is discussed. Raingage rainfall analyses and satellite-derived rainfall estimation... digital geostationary infrared satellite data is feasible. A CKNOWLE DG EMENT S The author's graduate program was sponsored and financed by the Air Force Institute of Technology, United States Air Force. I would like to express my appreciation...
Biomass Feedstock Availability in the United States: 1999 State Level Analysis
None
2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Interest in using biomass feedstocks to produce power, liquid fuels, and chemicals in the U.S. is increasing. Central to determining the potential for these industries to develop is an understanding of the location, quantities, and prices of biomass resources. This paper describes the methodology used to estimate biomass quantities and prices for each state in the continental United States.
Short communication Real-time estimation of lead-acid battery parameters: A dynamic
Ray, Asok
Short communication Real-time estimation of lead-acid battery parameters: A dynamic data of State of charge (SOC) and State of health (SOH) in lead-acid batteries. Algorithm development based Lead-acid battery Symbolic dynamic filtering k-NN regression a b s t r a c t This short paper presents
A non-degenerate Rao-Blackwellised particle filter for estimating static
SchÃ¶n, Thomas
A non-degenerate Rao-Blackwellised particle filter for estimating static parameters in dynamical some static parameter. This is true also for the RBPF, even if the static states are marginalised analytically by a Kalman filter. The reason is that the posterior density of the static states is computed
Short communication Real-time estimation of lead-acid battery parameters: A dynamic
Ray, Asok
Short communication Real-time estimation of lead-acid battery parameters: A dynamic data-driven approach Yue Li, Zheng Shen, Asok Ray* , Christopher D. Rahn Department of Mechanical and Nuclear of State of charge (SOC) and State of health (SOH) in lead-acid batteries. Algorithm development based
Estimating uncertainty of inference for validation
Booker, Jane M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Langenbrunner, James R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hemez, Francois M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ross, Timothy J [UNM
2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z
We present a validation process based upon the concept that validation is an inference-making activity. This has always been true, but the association has not been as important before as it is now. Previously, theory had been confirmed by more data, and predictions were possible based on data. The process today is to infer from theory to code and from code to prediction, making the role of prediction somewhat automatic, and a machine function. Validation is defined as determining the degree to which a model and code is an accurate representation of experimental test data. Imbedded in validation is the intention to use the computer code to predict. To predict is to accept the conclusion that an observable final state will manifest; therefore, prediction is an inference whose goodness relies on the validity of the code. Quantifying the uncertainty of a prediction amounts to quantifying the uncertainty of validation, and this involves the characterization of uncertainties inherent in theory/models/codes and the corresponding data. An introduction to inference making and its associated uncertainty is provided as a foundation for the validation problem. A mathematical construction for estimating the uncertainty in the validation inference is then presented, including a possibility distribution constructed to represent the inference uncertainty for validation under uncertainty. The estimation of inference uncertainty for validation is illustrated using data and calculations from Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). The ICF measurements of neutron yield and ion temperature were obtained for direct-drive inertial fusion capsules at the Omega laser facility. The glass capsules, containing the fusion gas, were systematically selected with the intent of establishing a reproducible baseline of high-yield 10{sup 13}-10{sup 14} neutron output. The deuterium-tritium ratio in these experiments was varied to study its influence upon yield. This paper on validation inference is the first in a series of inference uncertainty estimations. While the methods demonstrated are primarily statistical, these do not preclude the use of nonprobabilistic methods for uncertainty characterization. The methods presented permit accurate determinations for validation and eventual prediction. It is a goal that these methods establish a standard against which best practice may evolve for determining degree of validation.
Shale Natural Gas Estimated Production
Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)
2,116 3,110 5,336 7,994 10,371 11,415 2007-2013 Alaska 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007-2013 Lower 48 States 2,116 3,110 5,336 7,994 10,371 11,415 2007-2013 Alabama 0 0 0 2007-2010 Arkansas 279...
Harmonizing Systems and Software Cost Estimation
Wang, Gan
2009-07-19T23:59:59.000Z
The objective of this paper is to examine the gaps and overlaps between software and systems engineering cost models with intent to harmonize the estimates in engineering engineering estimation. In particular, we evaluate ...
Bayesian estimation of resistivities from seismic velocities
Werthmüller, Dieter
2014-06-30T23:59:59.000Z
I address the problem of finding a background model for the estimation of resistivities in the earth from controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) data by using seismic data and well logs as constraints. Estimation of ...
Cost Model and Cost Estimating Software
Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]
1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z
This chapter discusses a formalized methodology is basically a cost model, which forms the basis for estimating software.
Quantum learning of coherent states
Gael Sentís; Madalin Guta; Gerardo Adesso
2014-10-31T23:59:59.000Z
We develop a quantum learning scheme for binary discrimination of coherent states of light. This is a problem of technological relevance for the reading of information stored in a digital memory. In our setting, a coherent light source is used to illuminate a memory cell and retrieve its encoded bit by determining the quantum state of the reflected signal. We consider a situation where the amplitude of the states produced by the source is not fully known, but instead this information is encoded in a large training set comprising many copies of the same coherent state. We show that an optimal global measurement, performed jointly over the signal and the training set, provides higher successful identification rates than any learning strategy based on first estimating the unknown amplitude by means of Gaussian measurements on the training set, followed by an adaptive discrimination procedure on the signal. By considering a simplified variant of the problem, we argue that this is the case even for non-Gaussian estimation measurements. Our results show that, even in absence of entanglement, collective quantum measurements yield an enhancement in the readout of classical information, which is particularly relevant in the operating regime of low-energy signals.
An approach to Bayesian based Effort Estimation
Bae, Doo-Hwan
project/activities and performing cost/benefits analysis Early estimate and accurate evaluation can of considering to estimate effort for software maintenance in view of system architecture Not enough to reflect as to requirement in architecture Lack of supporting to estimate effort for software maintenance in view
A SIMPLEX-BASED PROJECTIVE TRANSFORM ESTIMATOR
Robinson, John A.
A SIMPLEX-BASED PROJECTIVE TRANSFORM ESTIMATOR J A Robinson University of York, UK. INTRODUCTION. THE SAM ESTIMATOR The estimator to be described here is called Simplex-Adapted Mesh (SAM). It has two to in the name a sparse sam- ple mesh and the Nelder-Mead simplex and is more novel. For convenience I use
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:5(Million Cubic Feet) Oregon (Including Vehicle Fuel) (MillionStructural Basis of5, 2014 | ReleaseUNCLASSIDepartment of EnergyPrinceton (12-84)States
Simon, Dan
Using Nonlinear Kalman Filtering to Estimate Signals Dan Simon It appears that no particular is better than a strictly linear one.1 The Kalman filter is a tool that can estimate the variables of a wide range of processes. In mathematical terms we would say that a Kalman filter estimates the states
2007 Estimated International Energy Flows
Smith, C A; Belles, R D; Simon, A J
2011-03-10T23:59:59.000Z
An energy flow chart or 'atlas' for 136 countries has been constructed from data maintained by the International Energy Agency (IEA) and estimates of energy use patterns for the year 2007. Approximately 490 exajoules (460 quadrillion BTU) of primary energy are used in aggregate by these countries each year. While the basic structure of the energy system is consistent from country to country, patterns of resource use and consumption vary. Energy can be visualized as it flows from resources (i.e. coal, petroleum, natural gas) through transformations such as electricity generation to end uses (i.e. residential, commercial, industrial, transportation). These flow patterns are visualized in this atlas of 136 country-level energy flow charts.
Supplemental report on cost estimates'
NONE
1992-04-29T23:59:59.000Z
The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers have completed an analysis of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Fiscal Year (FY) 1993 budget request for its Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ERWM) program. The results were presented to an interagency review group (IAG) of senior-Administration officials for their consideration in the budget process. This analysis included evaluations of the underlying legal requirements and cost estimates on which the ERWM budget request was based. The major conclusions are contained in a separate report entitled, ''Interagency Review of the Department of Energy Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program.'' This Corps supplemental report provides greater detail on the cost analysis.
Robustness analysis of linear estimators
Tayade, Rajeshwary
2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z
. Conditional Maximum Likelihood, i.e. given that the conditional probability function p(yjx) is known, find x such that p(y0jx) is maximum for a particular observation y0. Thus we can have estimators that minimize the average cost, or minimizes the max- imum... as the particle moves from t0 to t is given by s = Z t t0 jx0(t)jdt (2.2) Here we have an expression for s as a function of t : s = f(t). To show that s is a regular parameter, we note that this function is also analytic. Differentiating equation 2.2 we have, ds...
The value of United States oil and gas reserves
Adelman, Morris Albert
1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The object of this research is to estimate a time series, starting in 1979, for the value of in-ground oil reserves and natural gas reserves in the United States. Relatively good statistics exist for the physical quantities. ...
, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA. (Dated: May 11, 2011) Estimating the ground state energy#12;A fast algorithm for approximating the ground state energy on a quantum computer Anargyros
Crop acreage estimators based on satellite imagery
Vidart, Stephane
1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
of S and K. That attempt requires that equations J z (x T(x /s)+x v(x /s) ij (Xl +X2) f ((X. +X. )/S) lj 2j lj 2j = X log(p ) + X log(P ) ? (X +X )log(P +P ), be solved for S and J Z ((T -X . ) V((T -X )/KS) ? T. 'P(T /Ks)+X III(X /Ks)) = X log... Estimators 15 4. ESTIMATION OF THE PARAMETERS OF THE KDP 18 4. 1 Moment Estimates of the KDP 4. 2 Other Estimation Techniques 18 20 4. 2. 1 Need for new estimates 4. 2. 2 Maximum likelihood estimators of S and K 4. 2. 3 Other estimators . 20 21 23...
Robust bearing estimation for 3-component stations
CLAASSEN,JOHN P.
2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z
A robust bearing estimation process for 3-component stations has been developed and explored. The method, called SEEC for Search, Estimate, Evaluate and Correct, intelligently exploits the inherent information in the arrival at every step of the process to achieve near-optimal results. In particular the approach uses a consistent framework to define the optimal time-frequency windows on which to make estimates, to make the bearing estimates themselves, to construct metrics helpful in choosing the better estimates or admitting that the bearing is immeasurable, and finally to apply bias corrections when calibration information is available to yield a single final estimate. The algorithm was applied to a small but challenging set of events in a seismically active region. It demonstrated remarkable utility by providing better estimates and insights than previously available. Various monitoring implications are noted from these findings.
Ijaz, Umer Zeeshan; Khambampati, Anil Kumar [Department of Electronic Engineering, Cheju National University, Cheju 690-756 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Seong; Kim, Sin [Department of Nuclear and Energy Engineering, Cheju National University, Cheju 690-756 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyung Youn [Department of Electronic Engineering, Cheju National University, Cheju 690-756 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: kyungyk@cheju.ac.kr
2008-07-20T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper, an effective nonstationary phase boundary estimation scheme in electrical impedance tomography is presented based on the unscented Kalman filter. The inverse problem is treated as a stochastic nonlinear state estimation problem with the nonstationary phase boundary (state) being estimated online with the aid of unscented Kalman filter. This research targets the industrial applications, such as imaging of stirrer vessel for detection of air distribution or detecting large air bubbles in pipelines. Within the domains, there exist 'voids' having zero conductivity. The design variables for phase boundary estimation are truncated Fourier coefficients. Computer simulations and experimental results are provided to evaluate the performance of unscented Kalman filter in comparison with extended Kalman filter to show a better performance of the unscented Kalman filter approach.
Estimating fare and expenditure elasticities of demand for air travel in the U.S. domestic market
Alwaked, Ahmad Abdelrahman Fahed
2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z
This study estimates the demand for domestic air travel services in the United States in order to calculate the fare and expenditure elasticities of demand. We segmented the market according to number of operating airlines, distances and traveler...
Estimation of Recharge to the Middle Trinity Aquifer of Central Texas Using Water-Level Fluctuations
Jennings, Marshall; Chad, Thomas; Burch, John; Creutzburg, Brian; Lambert, Lance
TR – 185 Estimation of Recharge to the Middle Trinity Aquifer of Central Texas Using Water-Level Fluctuations Marshall Jennings Chad Thomas John Burch Brian Creutzburg, and Lance Lambert TEXAS WATER RESOURCES INSTITUTE TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY OCTOBER... 2001 ii Estimation of Recharge to the Middle Trinity Aquifer of Central Texas Using Water-Level Fluctuations Marshall Jennings Chad Thomas John Burch Brian Creutzburg, and Lance Lambert Edwards Aquifer Research & Data Center Southwest Texas State...
Jackson, Robert B.
The impact of geologic variability on capacity and cost estimates for storing CO2 in deep States could store many de- cades worth of the nation's current annual CO2 emissions, the likely cost estimates for storage span three orders of magnitude and average>$100/tonne CO2. However, when the cost
A Dynamic Programming Approach to Estimate the Capacity Value of Energy Storage
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
We present a method to estimate the capacity value of storage. Our method uses a dynamic program to model the effect of power system outages on the operation and state of charge of storage in subsequent periods. We combine the optimized dispatch from the dynamic program with estimated system loss of load probabilities to compute a probability distribution for the state of charge of storage in each period. This probability distribution can be used as a forced outage rate for storage in standard reliability-based capacity value estimation methods. Our proposed method has the advantage over existing approximations that it explicitly captures the effect of system shortage events on the state of charge of storage in subsequent periods. We also use a numerical case study, based on five utility systems in the U.S., to demonstrate our technique and compare it to existing approximation methods.
State Energy Program Helps States Plan
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Energy Program Helps States Plan and Implement Energy Efficiency The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) State Energy Program (SEP) provides grants and technical assis- tance to states...
Efficiency of quantum state tomography for qubits
Koichi Yamagata
2011-05-19T23:59:59.000Z
The efficiency of quantum state tomography is discussed from the point of view of quantum parameter estimation theory, in which the trace of the weighted covariance is to be minimized. It is shown that tomography is optimal only when a special weight is adopted.
Spectral thresholding quantum tomography for low rank states
Cristina Butucea; Madalin Guta; Theodore Kypraios
2015-04-30T23:59:59.000Z
The estimation of high dimensional quantum states is an important statistical problem arising in current quantum technology applications. A key example is the tomography of multiple ions states, employed in the validation of state preparation in ion trap experiments \\cite{Haffner2005}. Since full tomography becomes unfeasible even for a small number of ions, there is a need to investigate lower dimensional statistical models which capture prior information about the state, and to devise estimation methods tailored to such models. In this paper we propose several new methods aimed at the efficient estimation of low rank states in multiple ions tomography. All methods consist in first computing the least squares estimator, followed by its truncation to an appropriately chosen smaller rank. The latter is done by setting eigenvalues below a certain "noise level" to zero, while keeping the rest unchanged, or normalising them appropriately. We show that (up to logarithmic factors in the space dimension) the mean square error of the resulting estimators scales as $r\\cdot d/N$ where $r$ is the rank, $d=2^k$ is the dimension of the Hilbert space, and $N$ is the number of quantum samples. Furthermore we establish a lower bound for the asymptotic minimax risk which shows that the above scaling is optimal. The performance of the estimators is analysed in an extensive simulations study, with emphasis on the dependence on the state rank, and the number of measurement repetitions. We find that all estimators perform significantly better that the least squares, with the "physical estimator" (which is a bona fide density matrix) slightly outperforming the other estimators.
Guidance on Utility Rate Estimations and Weather Normalization...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
on Utility Rate Estimations and Weather Normalization in an ESPC Guidance on Utility Rate Estimations and Weather Normalization in an ESPC Document explains how to use estimated...
Population estimates for Phase 1: Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project
Beck, D.M.; Erickson, A.R.; Harkreader, S.A.
1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z
This report summarizes the population estimates of Phase I of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project. These estimates were used to develop preliminary dose estimates.
How to Estimate the Value of Service Reliability Improvements
Sullivan, Michael J.
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
most current estimates of outage costs, it is hopeful thatand D. M. Keane. “Outage Cost Estimation Guidebook,” EPRIanalysts on how to apply outage cost estimates to a smart
Prostate cancer remains the most common cancer in men in the United States, with an
Cai, Long
Prostate cancer remains the most common cancer in men in the United States, with an estimated of death from cancer in men, with 33,720 estimated deaths (11% of all estimated deaths) in 2011 (REF. 1-year relative survival rate is essentially 100% based on 20012007 statistics2 . However, for patients
Al Faruque, Mohammad Abdullah
Protect Your Family From Lead in Your Home United States Environmental Protection Agency United States Consumer Product Safety Commission United States Department of Housing and Urban Development
Estimating externalities of biomass fuel cycles, Report 7
Barnthouse, L.W.; Cada, G.F.; Cheng, M.-D.; Easterly, C.E.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Lee, R.; Shriner, D.S.; Tolbert, V.R.; Turner, R.S.
1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This report documents the analysis of the biomass fuel cycle, in which biomass is combusted to produce electricity. The major objectives of this study were: (1) to implement the methodological concepts which were developed in the Background Document (ORNL/RFF 1992) as a means of estimating the external costs and benefits of fuel cycles, and by so doing, to demonstrate their application to the biomass fuel cycle; (2) to develop, given the time and resources, a range of estimates of marginal (i.e., the additional or incremental) damages and benefits associated with selected impact-pathways from a new wood-fired power plant, using a representative benchmark technology, at two reference sites in the US; and (3) to assess the state of the information available to support energy decision making and the estimation of externalities, and by so doing, to assist in identifying gaps in knowledge and in setting future research agendas. The demonstration of methods, modeling procedures, and use of scientific information was the most important objective of this study. It provides an illustrative example for those who will, in the future, undertake studies of actual energy options and sites. As in most studies, a more comprehensive analysis could have been completed had budget constraints not been as severe. Particularly affected were the air and water transport modeling, estimation of ecological impacts, and economic valuation. However, the most important objective of the study was to demonstrate methods, as a detailed example for future studies. Thus, having severe budget constraints was appropriate from the standpoint that these studies could also face similar constraints. Consequently, an important result of this study is an indication of what can be done in such studies, rather than the specific numerical estimates themselves.
Interval estimation in calibration problems: an alternate approach
Quaino, Oscar Rodolfo
1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
measurement of the dependent varia- ble. This interval will depend upon the dependent variable and also on the outcome of the calibration experiment. For each unknown a state- ment is made in the sense that it belongs to the interval. Then he searches... is computed as 2 n , 1(yi ? y) Ss n ? 2 and will also be denoted by NSE. (2. 2) In the calibration problem, the classical estimator of x* given an obsezvation y* is y* ? b 0 x* bl Under the normality assumption x" is the NLE of x* (Graybill 1976...
Interval estimation in calibration problems: an alternate approach
Quaino, Oscar Rodolfo
1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
measurement of the dependent varia- ble. This interval will depend upon the dependent variable and also on the outcome of the calibration experiment. For each unknown a state- ment is made in the sense that it belongs to the interval. Then he searches... is computed as 2 n , 1(yi ? y) Ss n ? 2 and will also be denoted by NSE. (2. 2) In the calibration problem, the classical estimator of x* given an obsezvation y* is y* ? b 0 x* bl Under the normality assumption x" is the NLE of x* (Graybill 1976...
Budget estimates. Fiscal year 1998
NONE
1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z
The U.S. Congress has determined that the safe use of nuclear materials for peaceful purposes is a legitimate and important national goal. It has entrusted the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with the primary Federal responsibility for achieving that goal. The NRC`s mission, therefore, is to regulate the Nation`s civilian use of byproduct, source, and special nuclear materials to ensure adequate protection of public health and safety, to promote the common defense and security, and to protect the environment. The NRC`s FY 1998 budget requests new budget authority of $481,300,000 to be funded by two appropriations - one is the NRC`s Salaraies and Expenses appropriation for $476,500,000, and the other is NRC`s Office of Inspector General appropriation for $4,800,000. Of the funds appropriated to the NRC`s Salaries and Expenses, $17,000,000, shall be derived from the Nuclear Waste Fund and $2,000,000 shall be derived from general funds. The proposed FY 1998 appropriation legislation would also exempt the $2,000,000 for regulatory reviews and other assistance provided to the Department of Energy from the requirement that the NRC collect 100 percent of its budget from fees. The sums appropriated to the NRC`s Salaries and Expenses and NRC`s Office of Inspector General shall be reduced by the amount of revenues received during FY 1998 from licensing fees, inspection services, and other services and collections, so as to result in a final FY 1998 appropriation for the NRC of an estimated $19,000,000 - the amount appropriated from the Nuclear Waste Fund and from general funds. Revenues derived from enforcement actions shall be deposited to miscellaneous receipts of the Treasury.
Framework for State-Level Renewable Energy Market Potential Studies
Kreycik, C.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Doris, E.
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
State-level policymakers are relying on estimates of the market potential for renewable energy resources as they set goals and develop policies to accelerate the development of these resources. Therefore, accuracy of such estimates should be understood and possibly improved to appropriately support these decisions. This document provides a framework and next steps for state officials who require estimates of renewable energy market potential. The report gives insight into how to conduct a market potential study, including what supporting data are needed and what types of assumptions need to be made. The report distinguishes between goal-oriented studies and other types of studies, and explains the benefits of each.
Improved diagnostic model for estimating wind energy
Endlich, R.M.; Lee, J.D.
1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z
Because wind data are available only at scattered locations, a quantitative method is needed to estimate the wind resource at specific sites where wind energy generation may be economically feasible. This report describes a computer model that makes such estimates. The model uses standard weather reports and terrain heights in deriving wind estimates; the method of computation has been changed from what has been used previously. The performance of the current model is compared with that of the earlier version at three sites; estimates of wind energy at four new sites are also presented.
Estimating Temperature Distributions In Geothermal Areas Using...
an analytical model, showing that the errors in neuronet temperature estimates based on well log data derive from: (a) the neuronet "education level" (which depends on the amount...
Joko Tingkir program for estimating tsunami potential rapidly
Madlazim,, E-mail: m-lazim@physics.its.ac.id; Hariyono, E., E-mail: m-lazim@physics.its.ac.id [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Negeri Surabaya (UNESA) , Jl. Ketintang, Surabaya 60231 (Indonesia)
2014-09-25T23:59:59.000Z
The purpose of the study was to estimate P-wave rupture durations (T{sub dur}), dominant periods (T{sub d}) and exceeds duration (T{sub 50Ex}) simultaneously for local events, shallow earthquakes which occurred off the coast of Indonesia. Although the all earthquakes had parameters of magnitude more than 6,3 and depth less than 70 km, part of the earthquakes generated a tsunami while the other events (Mw=7.8) did not. Analysis using Joko Tingkir of the above stated parameters helped understand the tsunami generation of these earthquakes. Measurements from vertical component broadband P-wave quake velocity records and determination of the above stated parameters can provide a direct procedure for assessing rapidly the potential for tsunami generation. The results of the present study and the analysis of the seismic parameters helped explain why the events generated a tsunami, while the others did not.
8, 20612084, 2008 Estimation of Asian
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
ACPD 8, 20612084, 2008 Estimation of Asian dust effect on cloud radiation forcing J. Su et al Chemistry and Physics Discussions Estimation of Asian dust aerosol effect on cloud radiation forcing using of Asian dust effect on cloud radiation forcing J. Su et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction Conclusions
Quality Estimation and Segmentation of Pig Backs
Quality Estimation and Segmentation of Pig Backs Mads Fogtmann Hansen Kongens Lyngby 2005 Master the quality of the pig product "18cm back". It presents the necessary tools for deriving the measures, which are needed to perform a quality estimation. This includes finding the ribs, extracting the 18cm back from
Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification
Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification National Renewable Energy Laboratory Panel, Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification To: Mr. Mark Ruth, NREL, DOE dollars. Costs for a pioneer plant [a 1st plant with a capacity of 500 dry ton per day (dtpd) biomass
CONFIDENTIALITY AND VARIANCE ESTIMATION IN COMPLEX SURVEYS
Brennand, Tracy
is the conflict of interest between in- formation sharing and disclosure control. Statistical agencies routinelyCONFIDENTIALITY AND VARIANCE ESTIMATION IN COMPLEX SURVEYS by Wen Wilson Lu M.Sc., Simon Fraser of Philosophy Title of thesis: Confidentiality and Variance Estimation in Complex Surveys Examining Committee
The Importance of Carbon Footprint Estimation Boundaries
Kammen, Daniel M.
The Importance of Carbon Footprint Estimation Boundaries H . S C O T T M A T T H E W S , C H R I and organizations are pursuing "carbon footprint" projects to estimate their own contributions to global climate change. Protocol definitions from carbon registries help organizations analyze their footprints
Wavelet Based Estimation for Univariate Stable Laws
GonÃ§alves, Paulo
Wavelet Based Estimation for Univariate Stable Laws Anestis Antoniadis Laboratoire IMAG to implement. This article describes a fast, wavelet-based, regression-type method for estimating the parameters of a stable distribution. Fourier domain representations, combined with a wavelet multiresolution
Schedule Estimation for Web Application Development
Fernando, Lake
2008-05-16T23:59:59.000Z
application system when it comes to estimating development time. The main reasons for difficulty in estimating hours are the dynamic nature of the business and the customer’s lack of requirements for the web application. This particular project will generate...
Falcon 9 Launch Vehicle NAFCOM Cost Estimates
. The updated estimates provided both Cost Plus Fee and Firm Fixed Price approaches and included two flight Updated Estimate Cost Plus Fee Cost Plus Fee Firm Fixed Price Cost Plus Fee Total Total Total Total in structure Interstage (composite material) was included in structures (aluminum lithium material) Interstage
Reservation Price Estimation by Adaptive Conjoint Analysis
Schmidt-Thieme, Lars
Reservation Price Estimation by Adaptive Conjoint Analysis Christoph Breidert1 , Michael Hahsler1 applied the eco- nomic definition of reservation price in combination with a conjoint study on product pricing. In this paper we present a novel approach to estimate the economic reser- vation price using
On fast integration to steady state and earlier times
2008-07-18T23:59:59.000Z
Jul 18, 2008 ... Page 1 ... The integration to steady state of many initial value ODEs and PDEs ... very different from what we face solving the steady state equations ... now boils down to selecting the step size for the gradient descent method. ...... Using this noise estimate for more realistic situations where we don't know the.
Mining withdrawals by water quality and State, 2005. EXPLANATION
Mining withdrawals by water quality and State, 2005. 0 to 10 10 to 50 50 to 100 100 to 200 200 mining withdrawals Freshwater mining withdrawals Saline-water mining withdrawals Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 2005 - Mining USGS Water-Science School -- http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/wumi.html Source
Characterization of wind power resource in the United States*
Characterization of wind power resource in the United States* U. Bhaskar Gunturu and C. Adam Chemistry and Physics Characterization of wind power resource in the United States U. B. Gunturu and C. A, 120 m turbine hub heights. The wind power density (WPD) estimates at 50 m are qualitatively similar
Estimating The Thermodynamics And Kinetics Of Chlorinated Hydrocarbon...
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Estimating The Thermodynamics And Kinetics Of Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Degradation. Estimating The Thermodynamics And Kinetics Of Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Degradation. Abstract: Many...
Product-state Approximations to Quantum Ground States
Fernando G. S. L. Brandão; Aram W. Harrow
2014-12-15T23:59:59.000Z
The local Hamiltonian problem consists of estimating the ground-state energy (given by the minimum eigenvalue) of a local quantum Hamiltonian. First, we show the existence of a good product-state approximation for the ground-state energy of 2-local Hamiltonians with one or more of the following properties: (1) high degree, (2) small expansion, or (3) a ground state with sublinear entanglement with respect to some partition into small pieces. The approximation based on degree is a surprising difference between quantum Hamiltonians and classical CSPs (constraint satisfaction problems), since in the classical setting, higher degree is usually associated with harder CSPs. The approximation based on low entanglement, in turn, was previously known only in the regime where the entanglement was close to zero. Since the existence of a low-energy product state can be checked in NP, the result implies that any Hamiltonian used for a quantum PCP theorem should have: (1) constant degree, (2) constant expansion, (3) a "volume law" for entanglement with respect to any partition into small parts. Second, we show that in several cases, good product-state approximations not only exist, but can be found in polynomial time: (1) 2-local Hamiltonians on any planar graph, solving an open problem of Bansal, Bravyi, and Terhal, (2) dense k-local Hamiltonians for any constant k, solving an open problem of Gharibian and Kempe, and (3) 2-local Hamiltonians on graphs with low threshold rank, via a quantum generalization of a recent result of Barak, Raghavendra and Steurer. Our work introduces two new tools which may be of independent interest. First, we prove a new quantum version of the de Finetti theorem which does not require the usual assumption of symmetry. Second, we describe a way to analyze the application of the Lasserre/Parrilo SDP hierarchy to local quantum Hamiltonians.
Scrap tires: STATEing the facts
Dabaie, M.
1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z
Starting with a piece of Minnesota legislation passed in 1984, state governments have spent the last 10 years attempting to clean up and find markets for decades worth of stockpiled tires, as well as the millions more generated each year. The US EPA estimates that 242 million scrap tires were generated in the US in 1990 alone. Of these, an alarming 188 million were disposed of illegally. At least 34 states have bans on the landfilling of whole, and in some cases even shredded, tires. Last year, 37 states considered scrap-tire-related bills, most of which were amendments to earlier legislation. Among the scrap tire legislation passed in the past year are comprehensive laws in Ohio and Colorado, including fees for the disposal of tires, most of which are paid by the consumer. Fees were increased in North Carolina and Texas, and a $2-per-tire fee was begun in Connecticut, while hauler registration requirements were enacted in California. This article discusses what five states are doing with the management of scrap tires. They are: Minnesota; Wisconsin; Texas; Oklahoma; and Illinois.
Bae, Doo-Hwan
Is This Cost Estimate Reliable?Is This Cost Estimate Reliable? - The Relationship between/4)( / ) Software cost estimation Definition · Task of predicting the cost required to complete a software projectproject Techniques for software cost estimation · Algorithmic estimationAlgorithmic estimation Calculate
How to fool CMB parameter estimation
William H. Kinney
2000-05-19T23:59:59.000Z
With the release of the data from the Boomerang and MAXIMA-1 balloon flights, estimates of cosmological parameters based on the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) have reached unprecedented precision. In this paper I show that it is possible for these estimates to be substantially biased by features in the primordial density power spectrum. I construct primordial power spectra which mimic to within cosmic variance errors the effect of changing parameters such as the baryon density and neutrino mass, meaning that even an ideal measurement would be unable to resolve the degeneracy. Complementary measurements are necessary to resolve this ambiguity in parameter estimation efforts based on CMB temperature fluctuations alone.
Seismic Intensity Estimation of Tall Buildings in Earthquake Early Warning System
Greer, Julia R.
prediction equation (GMPE) that predicts response spectral amplitude from knowledge of earthquake magnitudeSeismic Intensity Estimation of Tall Buildings in Earthquake Early Warning System M. H. Cheng & T. W. Graves U.S. Geological Survey, USA SUMMARY: In California, United States, an earthquake early
Modeling Estimated Personnel Needs for a Potential Foot and Mouth Disease Outbreak
Simmons, K; Hullinger, P
2008-01-29T23:59:59.000Z
Foot and Mouth disease (FMD) is a highly infectious and contagious viral disease affecting cloven-hoofed livestock that was last detected in the United States (US) in 1929. The prevalence of FMD in other countries, as well as the current potential for this virus to be used as a form of agroterrorism, has made preparations for a potential FMD outbreak a national priority. To assist in the evaluation of national preparedness, all 50 states were surveyed via e-mail, telephone and web search to obtain emergency response plans for FMD or for foreign animal diseases in general. Information from 33 states was obtained and analyzed for estimates of personnel resources needed to respond to an outbreak. These estimates were consolidated and enhanced to create a tool that could be used by individual states to better understand the personnel that would be needed to complete various tasks over time during an outbreak response. The estimates were then coupled, post-processing, to the output from FMD outbreaks simulated in California using the Multiscale Epidemiological/Economic Simulation and Analysis (MESA) model at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to estimate the personnel resource demands, by task, over the course of an outbreak response.
Outlier rejection by oriented tracks to aid pose estimation from video
Koschan, Andreas
Ferris Hall, Knoxville, TN 37996, United States b U.S. Army RDECOM Tank-Automotive Research, Development Motion for a mobile sensing platform. Typical methods for pose estimation require point correspondences these mismatches for scenes generated by a mobile scanning platform. The algorithm utilizes the motion
Estimation of Diffusion Coefficient of Lithium in Carbon Using AC Impedance Technique
in a lithium-ion battery from ac impedance measurement is of great interest to us.1-6 Basically, the impedance are used to esti- mate this parameter. Among the methods developed to estimate Ds of a lithium-ion such as the steady-state lithium-ion concentration, c0 , surface con- centration, cs , of intercalation species
UNCERTAINTY-DRIVEN ADAPTIVE ESTIMATION WITH APPLICATIONS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS
Welch, Greg
UNCERTAINTY-DRIVEN ADAPTIVE ESTIMATION WITH APPLICATIONS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS Jinghe Zhang in Electrical Power Systems (Under the direction of Gregory F. Welch) From electrical power systems areas: 1. Grid Sensor Placement. I present a method that combines off-line steady-state uncer- tainty
Current Estimates for HIV-1 Production Imply Rapid Viral Clearance in Lymphoid Tissues
de Boer, Rob J.
, Los Alamos, New Mexico, United States of America Abstract It has recently been estimated that a single for many months. It has also been difficult to reconcile the vast difference in the rates at which to reconcile these seemingly contradictory observations by considering the virion clearance rate in various
Equilibrium free energy estimates based on nonequilibrium work relations and extended dynamics
Sun, Sean
Equilibrium free energy estimates based on nonequilibrium work relations and extended dynamics the equilibrium free energy and the nonequilibrium work is useful for computer simulations. In this paper, we exploit the fact that the free energy is a state function, independent of the pathway taken to change
Parameter estimation with Sandage-Loeb test
Geng, Jia-Jia; Zhang, Jing-Fei; Zhang, Xin, E-mail: gengjiajia163@163.com, E-mail: jfzhang@mail.neu.edu.cn, E-mail: zhangxin@mail.neu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, College of Sciences, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004 (China)
2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z
The Sandage-Loeb (SL) test directly measures the expansion rate of the universe in the redshift range of 2 ?< z ?< 5 by detecting redshift drift in the spectra of Lyman-? forest of distant quasars. We discuss the impact of the future SL test data on parameter estimation for the ?CDM, the wCDM, and the w{sub 0}w{sub a}CDM models. To avoid the potential inconsistency with other observational data, we take the best-fitting dark energy model constrained by the current observations as the fiducial model to produce 30 mock SL test data. The SL test data provide an important supplement to the other dark energy probes, since they are extremely helpful in breaking the existing parameter degeneracies. We show that the strong degeneracy between ?{sub m} and H{sub 0} in all the three dark energy models is well broken by the SL test. Compared to the current combined data of type Ia supernovae, baryon acoustic oscillation, cosmic microwave background, and Hubble constant, the 30-yr observation of SL test could improve the constraints on ?{sub m} and H{sub 0} by more than 60% for all the three models. But the SL test can only moderately improve the constraint on the equation of state of dark energy. We show that a 30-yr observation of SL test could help improve the constraint on constant w by about 25%, and improve the constraints on w{sub 0} and w{sub a} by about 20% and 15%, respectively. We also quantify the constraining power of the SL test in the future high-precision joint geometric constraints on dark energy. The mock future supernova and baryon acoustic oscillation data are simulated based on the space-based project JDEM. We find that the 30-yr observation of SL test would help improve the measurement precision of ?{sub m}, H{sub 0}, and w{sub a} by more than 70%, 20%, and 60%, respectively, for the w{sub 0}w{sub a}CDM model.
State of the State's Rural Health
Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa
of health status, health behavior, or health- care access and Oklahomans do not compare favorablyState of the State's Rural Health 2007 Edition Produced by OSU Center for Rural Health ASnapshotof-4391 January 1, 2007 Dear Reader: Welcome to the Oklahoma State University Center for Rural Health's inaugural
Improving thermodynamic property estimation through volume translation
Frey, Kurt, Sc. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Steady state process simulation is used throughout the chemical industry to guide development and help reduce uncertainty and risk. Volumetric equations of state (EOS)s are the most robust of the numerous methods available ...
Russell, Darrell James
1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
In his book, Anarchy , State, and Utopia, Robert Nozick argues that the only state that can be justified is the minimal state, a state limited to providing protection for all its citizens. Nozick explains how a minimal state could naturally develop...
Extragalactic Water Masers, Geometric Estimation of H_o and Characterization of Dark Energy
L. J. Greenhill
2004-09-10T23:59:59.000Z
High precision estimation of the equation of state of dark energy depends on constraints external to analyses of Cosmic Microwave Background fluctuations. A geometric estimation of the local expansion rate, H_o, would provide the most direct and robust constraint. Traditional techniques to estimate H_o have depended on observations of standard candles for which systematic effects can be 10% or more. Observations of water maser sources in the accretion disks that feed the central engines of active galaxies enable simplified, robust, and largely geometric analyses. Many thousand maser sources will be discovered in studies with the SKA, owing to its great sensitivity. Spectroscopic monitoring and interferometric mapping - with intercontinental baselines - will allow estimation of H_o to 1% and possibly better.
A simple method to estimate interwell autocorrelation
Pizarro, J.O.S.; Lake, L.W. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)
1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z
The estimation of autocorrelation in the lateral or interwell direction is important when performing reservoir characterization studies using stochastic modeling. This paper presents a new method to estimate the interwell autocorrelation based on parameters, such as the vertical range and the variance, that can be estimated with commonly available data. We used synthetic fields that were generated from stochastic simulations to provide data to construct the estimation charts. These charts relate the ratio of areal to vertical variance and the autocorrelation range (expressed variously) in two directions. Three different semivariogram models were considered: spherical, exponential and truncated fractal. The overall procedure is demonstrated using field data. We find that the approach gives the most self-consistent results when it is applied to previously identified facies. Moreover, the autocorrelation trends follow the depositional pattern of the reservoir, which gives confidence in the validity of the approach.
Estimates of Oil Reserves Jean Laherrere
O'Donnell, Tom
Estimates of Oil Reserves Jean Laherrere e-mail: jean.laherrere@wanadoo.fr sites: http oil will solve the present problems on welfare, retirement and they would dearly love to see the reserves of oil
Minimizing Biases in Radar Precipitation Estimates
McRoberts, Douglas B
2014-12-08T23:59:59.000Z
The demand for real-time drought information in recent years led to the development of a suite of objective drought indicators that relies on the high-resolution Stage IV precipitation estimates that are produced each day ...
Budget estimates, fiscal year 1997. Volume 12
NONE
1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z
This report contains the fiscal year budget justification to Congress. The budget provides estimates for salaries and expenses and for the Office of the Inspector General for fiscal year 1997.
Fracture compliance estimation using borehole tube waves
Bakku, Sudhish Kumar
We tested two models, one for tube-wave generation and the other for tube-wave attenuation at a fracture intersecting a borehole that can be used to estimate fracture compliance, fracture aperture, and lateral extent. In ...
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
This simple spreadsheet model estimates either the flow rate required to produce a specified level of power output, or the power output that can be produced from a specified flow rate.
BPA Metering Services Editing and Estimating Procedures
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
be used to scale the estimated interval data with a shape projection applied. If SCADA data is available and has been mapped to the point of metering, it may be used for...
FROM STATISTICAL SIGNIFICANCE TO EFFECT ESTIMATION
Burgman, Mark
such as the American Psychological Association, and the absence of appropriate editorial pressure, statistical reformFROM STATISTICAL SIGNIFICANCE TO EFFECT ESTIMATION: STATISTICAL REFORM IN PSYCHOLOGY, MEDICINE ABSTRACT Compelling criticisms of statistical significance testing (or Null Hypothesis Significance Testing
Compressing measurements in quantum dynamic parameter estimation
Magesan, Easwar
We present methods that can provide an exponential savings in the resources required to perform dynamic parameter estimation using quantum systems. The key idea is to merge classical compressive sensing techniques with ...
Updating MIT's cost estimation model for shipbuilding
Smith, Matthew B., Lieutenant, junior grade
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This thesis project will update the MIT ship cost estimation model by combining the two existing models (the Basic Military Training School (BMTS) Cost Model and the MIT Math Model) in order to develop a program that can ...
Information Fusion for Improved Motion Estimation
Peacock, Andrew M
Motion Estimation is an important research field with many commercial applications including surveillance, navigation, robotics, and image compression. As a result, the field has received a great deal of attention and ...
Buildings GHG Mitigation Estimator Worksheet, Version 1
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
Xcel document describes Version 1 of the the Buildings GHG Mitigation Estimator tool. This tool assists federal agencies in estimating the greenhouse gas mitigation reduction from implementing energy efficiency measures across a portfolio of buildings. It is designed to be applied to groups of office buildings, for example, at a program level (regional or site) that can be summarized at the agency level. While the default savings and cost estimates apply to office buildings, users can define their own efficiency measures, costs, and savings estimates for inclusion in the portfolio assessment. More information on user-defined measures can be found in Step 2 of the buildings emission reduction guidance. The output of this tool is a prioritized set of activities that can help the agency to achieve its greenhouse gas reduction targets most cost-effectively.
Language model parameter estimation using user transcriptions
Hsu, Bo-June
In limited data domains, many effective language modeling techniques construct models with parameters to be estimated on an in-domain development set. However, in some domains, no such data exist beyond the unlabeled test ...
Nonlinear parameter estimation in parallel computing environments
Li, Jie
1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Paragon supercomputer. We use a two-dimensional permeability estimation problem as the example to test and demonstrate the usage of the parallel PEST. An existing simulator program called US3D, which solves the three-dimensional groudwater flow...
Estimating diesel engine performance by indirect methods
McKiernan, Michael
1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
ESTIMATING DIESEL ENGINE PERFORMANCE BY INDIRECT METHODS A Thesis by MICHAEL MCKIERNAN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1987 Major... Subject: Agricultural Engineering ESTIMATING DIESEL ENGINE PERFORMANCE BY INDIRECT NETHODS A Thesis by NICHAEL MCKIERNAN Approved as to style and content by: i A. Stout (Chairman of Comittee) ephen W. Searcy (Member) Thomas R. La (Nember...
Guidelines for Estimating Unmetered Industrial Water Use
Boyd, Brian K.
2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z
The document provides a methodology to estimate unmetered industrial water use for evaporative cooling systems, steam generating boiler systems, batch process applications, and wash systems. For each category standard mathematical relationships are summarized and provided in a single resource to assist Federal agencies in developing an initial estimate of their industrial water use. The approach incorporates industry norms, general rules of thumb, and industry survey information to provide methodologies for each section.
Estimating diesel engine performance by indirect methods
McKiernan, Michael
1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
ESTIMATING DIESEL ENGINE PERFORMANCE BY INDIRECT METHODS A Thesis by MICHAEL MCKIERNAN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1987 Major... Subject: Agricultural Engineering ESTIMATING DIESEL ENGINE PERFORMANCE BY INDIRECT NETHODS A Thesis by NICHAEL MCKIERNAN Approved as to style and content by: i A. Stout (Chairman of Comittee) ephen W. Searcy (Member) Thomas R. La (Nember...
On Quantum Channel Estimation with Minimal Resources
M. Zorzi; F. Ticozzi; A. Ferrante
2011-06-10T23:59:59.000Z
We determine the minimal experimental resources that ensure a unique solution in the estimation of trace-preserving quantum channels with both direct and convex optimization methods. A convenient parametrization of the constrained set is used to develop a globally converging Newton-type algorithm that ensures a physically admissible solution to the problem. Numerical simulations are provided to support the results, and indicate that the minimal experimental setting is sufficient to guarantee good estimates.
LAT and Solar Neutrons: Preliminary estimates
Longo, Francesco [Department of Physics, University of Trieste, Trieste, via Valerio 2, 34127 Trieste (Italy)]|[INFN, Trieste, via Valerio 2, 34127 Trieste (Italy)
2007-07-12T23:59:59.000Z
GLAST LAT will detect several solar flares in gamma rays. Motivated by the CGRO results on neutrons emitted during a solar flare, we try to estimate the possibility of the LAT to detect solar neutrons. Besides gamma rays, neutrons could indeed interact in the LAT instrument and mimic a gamma-ray signal. An estimate of the contamination of gamma-ray detection in solar flares by the neutron component is given.
Top-down methane emissions estimates for the San Francisco Bay Area from 1990 to 2012
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Fairley, David; Fischer, Marc L.
2015-01-30T23:59:59.000Z
Methane is a potent greenhouse gas (GHG) that is now included in both California State and San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA) bottom-up emission inventories as part of California's effort to reduce anthropogenic GHG emissions. Here we provide a top-down estimate of methane (CH4) emissions from the SFBA by combining atmospheric measurements with the comparatively better estimated emission inventory for carbon monoxide (CO). Local enhancements of CH4 and CO are estimated using measurements from 14 air quality sites in the SFBA combined together with global background measurements. Mean annual CH4 emissions are estimated from the product of Bay Area Air Qualitymore »Management District (BAAQMD) emission inventory CO and the slope of ambient local CH4 to CO. The resulting top-down estimates of CH4 emissions are found to decrease slightly from 1990 to 2012, with a mean value of 240 ± 60 GgCH4 yr?¹ (at 95% confidence) in the most recent (2009–2012) period, and correspond to reasonably a constant factor of 1.5–2.0 (at 95% confidence) times larger than the BAAQMD CH4 emission inventory. However, we note that uncertainty in these emission estimates is dominated by the variation in CH4:CO enhancement ratios across the observing sites and we expect the estimates could represent a lower-limit on CH4 emissions because BAAQMD monitoring sites focus on urban air quality and may be biased toward CO rather than CH4 sources.« less
United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Pacific Southwest Forest and Range symposium dealing with this subject in the western United States, the papers presented address current ........................................................................................................................................ 1 Annosus Root Disease in Europe and the Southeastern United States: Occurrence, Research
Are Quantum States Subjective?
R. K. Pradhan
2012-02-22T23:59:59.000Z
The subjective nature of the quantum states is brought out and it is argued that the objective state assignment is subsequent to the subjective state of the observer regarding his state of knowledge about the system. The collapse postulate is examined in detail to bring out the inherent subjectivity of the quantum state. The role of doubt and faith in quantum state assignment is examined.
NoT evej United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service United States Department's Fire Management Planning and Economics Research Unit. headquartered at the Forest Fire Laboratory
Wang, Changlu
United States Department of Agriculture Rural Business- Cooperative Service Research Report 157, concentration, globalization, agency theory Cooperatives in a Changing Global Food System United States
SESAME equation of state number 7740: Polycarbonate
Boettger, J.C.
1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z
An equation of state (EOS) for polycarbonate (a widely used polymer) has been generated with the computer code GRIZZLY and will be added to the SESAME library as material number 7740. Although a number of the input parameter used in the calculations are based on rough estimates. 7740 provides a good match to experimental Hugoniot data and should be reliable on or near the principal Hugoniot. 6 refs., 1 fig.
Qutrit Magic State Distillation
Anwar, Hussain; Browne, Dan E
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Magic state distillation (MSD) is a purification protocol that plays a central role in fault tolerant quantum computation. Repeated iteration of the steps of a MSD protocol, generates pure single non-stabilizer states, or magic states, from multiple copies of a mixed resource state using stabilizer operations only. Thus mixed resource states promote the stabilizer operations to full universality. Magic state distillation was introduced for qubit-based quantum computation, but little has been known concerning MSD in higher dimensional qudit-based computation. Here, we describe a general approach for studying MSD in higher dimensions. We use it to investigate the features of a qutrit MSD protocol based on the 5-qutrit stabilizer code. We show that this protocol distills non-stabilizer magic states, and identify two types of states, that are attractors of this iteration map. Finally, we show how these states may be converted, via stabilizer circuits alone, into a state suitable for state injected implementation ...
Building unbiased estimators from non-gaussian likelihoods with application to shear estimation
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Madhavacheril, Mathew S. [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Slosar, Anze [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); McDonald, Patrick [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sehgal, Neelima [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We develop a general framework for generating estimators of a given quantity which are unbiased to a given order in the difference between the true value of the underlying quantity and the fiducial position in theory space around which we expand the likelihood. We apply this formalism to rederive the optimal quadratic estimator and show how the replacement of the second derivative matrix with the Fisher matrix is a generic way of creating an unbiased estimator (assuming choice of the fiducial model is independent of data). Next we apply the approach to estimation of shear lensing, closely following the work of Bernstein and Armstrong (2014). Our first order estimator reduces to their estimator in the limit of zero shear, but it also naturally allows for the case of non-constant shear and the easy calculation of correlation functions or power spectra using standard methods. Both our first-order estimator and Bernstein and Armstrong’s estimator exhibit a bias which is quadratic in true shear. Our third-order estimator is, at least in the realm of the toy problem of Bernstein and Armstrong, unbiased to 0.1% in relative shear errors ?g/g for shears up to |g| = 0.2.
Building unbiased estimators from non-gaussian likelihoods with application to shear estimation
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Madhavacheril, Mathew S.; Slosar, Anze; McDonald, Patrick; Sehgal, Neelima
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We develop a general framework for generating estimators of a given quantity which are unbiased to a given order in the difference between the true value of the underlying quantity and the fiducial position in theory space around which we expand the likelihood. We apply this formalism to rederive the optimal quadratic estimator and show how the replacement of the second derivative matrix with the Fisher matrix is a generic way of creating an unbiased estimator (assuming choice of the fiducial model is independent of data). Next we apply the approach to estimation of shear lensing, closely following the workmore »of Bernstein and Armstrong (2014). Our first order estimator reduces to their estimator in the limit of zero shear, but it also naturally allows for the case of non-constant shear and the easy calculation of correlation functions or power spectra using standard methods. Both our first-order estimator and Bernstein and Armstrong’s estimator exhibit a bias which is quadratic in true shear. Our third-order estimator is, at least in the realm of the toy problem of Bernstein and Armstrong, unbiased to 0.1% in relative shear errors ?g/g for shears up to |g| = 0.2.« less
A Flexible Method of Estimating Luminosity Functions
Brandon C. Kelly; Xiaohui Fan; Marianne Vestergaard
2008-05-19T23:59:59.000Z
We describe a Bayesian approach to estimating luminosity functions. We derive the likelihood function and posterior probability distribution for the luminosity function, given the observed data, and we compare the Bayesian approach with maximum-likelihood by simulating sources from a Schechter function. For our simulations confidence intervals derived from bootstrapping the maximum-likelihood estimate can be too narrow, while confidence intervals derived from the Bayesian approach are valid. We develop our statistical approach for a flexible model where the luminosity function is modeled as a mixture of Gaussian functions. Statistical inference is performed using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods, and we describe a Metropolis-Hastings algorithm to perform the MCMC. The MCMC simulates random draws from the probability distribution of the luminosity function parameters, given the data, and we use a simulated data set to show how these random draws may be used to estimate the probability distribution for the luminosity function. In addition, we show how the MCMC output may be used to estimate the probability distribution of any quantities derived from the luminosity function, such as the peak in the space density of quasars. The Bayesian method we develop has the advantage that it is able to place accurate constraints on the luminosity function even beyond the survey detection limits, and that it provides a natural way of estimating the probability distribution of any quantities derived from the luminosity function, including those that rely on information beyond the survey detection limits.
Phase Estimation with Non-Unitary Interferometers: Information as a Metric
Thomas B. Bahder
2011-03-02T23:59:59.000Z
Determining the phase in one arm of a quantum interferometer is discussed taking into account the three non-ideal aspects in real experiments: non-deterministic state preparation, non-unitary state evolution due to losses during state propagation, and imperfect state detection. A general expression is written for the probability of a measurement outcome taking into account these three non-ideal aspects. As an example of applying the formalism, the classical Fisher information and fidelity (Shannon mutual information between phase and measurements) are computed for few-photon Fock and N00N states input into a lossy Mach-Zehnder interferometer. These three non-ideal aspects lead to qualitative differences in phase estimation, such as a decrease in fidelity and Fisher information that depends on the true value of the phase.
A GEOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF PROSTATE CANCER MORTALITY IN THE UNITED STATES, 197089
Wright, Dawn Jeannine
rates,2 with 30,200 estimated deaths in the United States during 2002.3 Over time the mortality rate of cancer mortality in the United States revealed that prostate cancer mortality rates were elevated among cancer deaths (National Center for Health Statistics) for each county in the contiguous United States
Sandia Energy - Solid-State Lighting Technology: Current State...
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Solid-State Lighting Technology: Current State of the Art and Grand Challenges Home Energy Research EFRCs Solid-State Lighting Science EFRC Overview Solid-State Lighting...
Murray, Richard M.
On the Control of Jump Linear Markov Systems with Markov State Estimation Vijay Gupta, Richard M of such a system and also solve the optimal LQR control problem for the case when the state estimate update uses. As an example of how jump linear Markov systems might be useful to model systems being controlled over a network
Evaluating the complementary relationship for estimating evapotranspiration from arid shrublands
Szilagyi, Jozsef
Evaluating the complementary relationship for estimating evapotranspiration from arid shrublands J supplies, accurate estimates of evapotranspiration (LE) from arid shrublands of the Southwestern United for estimating regional LE in arid shrubland environments. Our observational evidence supports the idea
Cost estimating projects for large cutter and hopper dredges
Belesimo, Francesco John
2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Estimating the cost of a dredging project is the most important part of a project's life cycle. A precise account of the costs associated with performing dredging work begins with the production estimate and ends with the cost estimate...
Truong, Thanh N.
: Unidad Quimica Fiiica, Departamento Quimica, Uni- versidad Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra 08193
Ben-Zion, Yehuda
process. Earthquake forecast/prediction The forecast or predic- tion of an earthquake is a statement about question in earthquake science is whether earthquake prediction is possible. Related issues include the following: Can a prediction of earthquakes solely based on the emergence of seismicity patterns be re
Fourier Analytic Approach to Phase Estimation
Hiroshi Imai; Masahito Hayashi
2008-10-31T23:59:59.000Z
For a unified analysis on the phase estimation, we focus on the limiting distribution. It is shown that the limiting distribution can be given by the absolute square of the Fourier transform of $L^2$ function whose support belongs to $[-1,1]$. Using this relation, we study the relation between the variance of the limiting distribution and its tail probability. As our result, we prove that the protocol minimizing the asymptotic variance does not minimize the tail probability. Depending on the width of interval, we derive the estimation protocol minimizing the tail probability out of a given interval. Such an optimal protocol is given by a prolate spheroidal wave function which often appears in wavelet or time-limited Fourier analysis. Also, the minimum confidence interval is derived with the framework of interval estimation that assures a given confidence coefficient.
Estimating exposure of terrestrial wildlife to contaminants
Sample, B.E.; Suter, G.W. II
1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z
This report describes generalized models for the estimation of contaminant exposure experienced by wildlife on the Oak Ridge Reservation. The primary exposure pathway considered is oral ingestion, e.g. the consumption of contaminated food, water, or soil. Exposure through dermal absorption and inhalation are special cases and are not considered hereIN. Because wildlife mobile and generally consume diverse diets and because environmental contamination is not spatial homogeneous, factors to account for variation in diet, movement, and contaminant distribution have been incorporated into the models. To facilitate the use and application of the models, life history parameters necessary to estimate exposure are summarized for 15 common wildlife species. Finally, to display the application of the models, exposure estimates were calculated for four species using data from a source operable unit on the Oak Ridge Reservation.
Optimal error estimates for corrected trapezoidal rules
Talvila, Erik
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Corrected trapezoidal rules are proved for $\\int_a^b f(x)\\,dx$ under the assumption that $f"\\in L^p([a,b])$ for some $1\\leq p\\leq\\infty$. Such quadrature rules involve the trapezoidal rule modified by the addition of a term $k[f'(a)-f'(b)]$. The coefficient $k$ in the quadrature formula is found that minimizes the error estimates. It is shown that when $f'$ is merely assumed to be continuous then the optimal rule is the trapezoidal rule itself. In this case error estimates are in terms of the Alexiewicz norm. This includes the case when $f"$ is integrable in the Henstock--Kurzweil sense or as a distribution. All error estimates are shown to be sharp for the given assumptions on $f"$. It is shown how to make these formulas exact for all cubic polynomials $f$. Composite formulas are computed for uniform partitions.
Robust estimation procedure in panel data model
Shariff, Nurul Sima Mohamad [Faculty of Science of Technology, Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia (USIM), 71800, Nilai, Negeri Sembilan (Malaysia); Hamzah, Nor Aishah [Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Malaya, 50630, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)
2014-06-19T23:59:59.000Z
The panel data modeling has received a great attention in econometric research recently. This is due to the availability of data sources and the interest to study cross sections of individuals observed over time. However, the problems may arise in modeling the panel in the presence of cross sectional dependence and outliers. Even though there are few methods that take into consideration the presence of cross sectional dependence in the panel, the methods may provide inconsistent parameter estimates and inferences when outliers occur in the panel. As such, an alternative method that is robust to outliers and cross sectional dependence is introduced in this paper. The properties and construction of the confidence interval for the parameter estimates are also considered in this paper. The robustness of the procedure is investigated and comparisons are made to the existing method via simulation studies. Our results have shown that robust approach is able to produce an accurate and reliable parameter estimates under the condition considered.
ESTIMATING RISK TO CALIFORNIA ENERGY INFRASTRUCTURE FROM PROJECTED CLIMATE CHANGE
Sathaye, Jayant
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
infrastructure includes the state’s natural gas-fired power generation facilities, electricinfrastructure includes the state’s natural gas-fired power generation facilities, electric
Online parameter estimation applied to mixed conduction/radiation
Shah, Tejas Jagdish
2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z
covariance : P0 = E[(x0 ? E[x0])(x0 ? E[x0])T ] (3.21) Time update equations State estimate propagation ^k? = f(k; ^k?1) (3.22) Error covariance propagation P?k = Fk;k?1Pk?1FTk;k?1 + Qk?1 (3.23) Measurement update equations Kalman gain matrix Gk = P?k HTk [HkPk...)(xa0 ? ^a0)T = 2 66 66 4 P0 0 0 0 Rv 0 0 0 Rn 3 77 77 5 (3.36) Calculate sigma points : Xak?1 = ? ^k?1a ^k?1a + ?pPak?1 ^k?1a ? ?pPak?1 ? (3.37) Time update equations Xxkjk?1 = F(Xxkjk?1;uk?1;Xvk?1) (3.38) ^k? = 2LX i=0 W(m)i Xxi;kjk?1 (3.39) P?k = 2LX...
A New Maximum-Likelihood Change Estimator for Two-Pass SAR Coherent Change Detection.
Wahl, Daniel E.; Yocky, David A.; Jakowatz, Charles V,
2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper, we derive a new optimal change metric to be used in synthetic aperture RADAR (SAR) coherent change detection (CCD). Previous CCD methods tend to produce false alarm states (showing change when there is none) in areas of the image that have a low clutter-to-noise power ratio (CNR). The new estimator does not suffer from this shortcoming. It is a surprisingly simple expression, easy to implement, and is optimal in the maximum-likelihood (ML) sense. The estimator produces very impressive results on the CCD collects that we have tested.
NREL Triples Previous Estimates of U.S. Wind Power Potential (Fact Sheet)
Not Available
2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently released new estimates of the U.S. potential for wind-generated electricity, using advanced wind mapping and validation techniques to triple previous estimates of the size of the nation's wind resources. The new study, conducted by NREL and AWS TruePower, finds that the contiguous 48 states have the potential to generate up to 37 million gigawatt-hours annually. In comparison, the total U.S. electricity generation from all sources was roughly 4 million gigawatt-hours in 2009.
Dynamics of Noncommutative Solitons II: Spectral Theory, Dispersive Estimates and Stability
August J. Krueger; Avy Soffer
2014-11-21T23:59:59.000Z
We consider the Schr\\"odinger equation with a (matrix) Hamiltonian given by a second order difference operator with nonconstant growing coefficients, on the half one dimensional lattice. This operator appeared first naturally in the construction and dynamics of noncommutative solitons in the context of noncommutative field theory. We completely determine the spectrum of the Hamiltonian linearized around a ground state soliton and prove the optimal decay rate of $t^{-1}\\log^{-2}t$ for the associated time decay estimate. We use a novel technique involving generating functions of orthogonal polynomials to achieve this estimate.
Process for estimating likelihood and confidence in post detonation nuclear forensics.
Darby, John L.; Craft, Charles M.
2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
Technical nuclear forensics (TNF) must provide answers to questions of concern to the broader community, including an estimate of uncertainty. There is significant uncertainty associated with post-detonation TNF. The uncertainty consists of a great deal of epistemic (state of knowledge) as well as aleatory (random) uncertainty, and many of the variables of interest are linguistic (words) and not numeric. We provide a process by which TNF experts can structure their process for answering questions and provide an estimate of uncertainty. The process uses belief and plausibility, fuzzy sets, and approximate reasoning.
Estimation of precipitable water from surface observations
Kahan, Archie Marion
1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
for estimating the precipitable water at Lake Charles, Louisiana. P red ic tors employed were surface vapor p re s ? sure, ceiling, cloud cover , cloud type, wind, pressure change and iv season. E rrors of estimate averaged approximately one tenth o f... of the photocells and the intense radiation of the noon sun leads one to accept the reality of a ce ll temperature greater than the ambient air temperature. The ce lls are, in effect, miniature green ? houses, The epoxy resin cylinder encasing the crysta l...
CONTAMINATED SOIL VOLUME ESTIMATE TRACKING METHODOLOGY
Durham, L.A.; Johnson, R.L.; Rieman, C.; Kenna, T.; Pilon, R.
2003-02-27T23:59:59.000Z
The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is conducting a cleanup of radiologically contaminated properties under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). The largest cost element for most of the FUSRAP sites is the transportation and disposal of contaminated soil. Project managers and engineers need an estimate of the volume of contaminated soil to determine project costs and schedule. Once excavation activities begin and additional remedial action data are collected, the actual quantity of contaminated soil often deviates from the original estimate, resulting in cost and schedule impacts to the project. The project costs and schedule need to be frequently updated by tracking the actual quantities of excavated soil and contaminated soil remaining during the life of a remedial action project. A soil volume estimate tracking methodology was developed to provide a mechanism for project managers and engineers to create better project controls of costs and schedule. For the FUSRAP Linde site, an estimate of the initial volume of in situ soil above the specified cleanup guidelines was calculated on the basis of discrete soil sample data and other relevant data using indicator geostatistical techniques combined with Bayesian analysis. During the remedial action, updated volume estimates of remaining in situ soils requiring excavation were calculated on a periodic basis. In addition to taking into account the volume of soil that had been excavated, the updated volume estimates incorporated both new gamma walkover surveys and discrete sample data collected as part of the remedial action. A civil survey company provided periodic estimates of actual in situ excavated soil volumes. By using the results from the civil survey of actual in situ volumes excavated and the updated estimate of the remaining volume of contaminated soil requiring excavation, the USACE Buffalo District was able to forecast and update project costs and schedule. The soil volume tracking methodology helped the USACE Buffalo District track soil quantity changes from projected excavation work over time and across space, providing the basis for an explanation of some of the project cost and schedule variances.
Estimating vehicle height using homographic projections
Cunningham, Mark F; Fabris, Lorenzo; Gee, Timothy F; Ghebretati, Jr., Frezghi H; Goddard, James S; Karnowski, Thomas P; Ziock, Klaus-peter
2013-07-16T23:59:59.000Z
Multiple homography transformations corresponding to different heights are generated in the field of view. A group of salient points within a common estimated height range is identified in a time series of video images of a moving object. Inter-salient point distances are measured for the group of salient points under the multiple homography transformations corresponding to the different heights. Variations in the inter-salient point distances under the multiple homography transformations are compared. The height of the group of salient points is estimated to be the height corresponding to the homography transformation that minimizes the variations.
Background Suppression Effects on Signal Estimation
Burr, Tom [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Gamma detectors at border crossings are intended to detect illicit nuclear material. One performance challenge involves the fact that vehicles suppress the natural background, thus potentially reducing detection probability for threat items. Methods to adjust for background suppression have been considered in related but different settings. Here, methods to adjust for background suppression are tested in the context of signal estimation. Adjustment methods include several clustering options. We find that for the small-to-moderate suppression magnitudes exhibited in the analyzed data, suppression adjustment is only moderatel helpful in locating the signal peak, and in estimating its width or magnitude.
A robustness application for linear estimation
Kitzman, Kenneth Victor
1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
the maximization of a, term which reflects the ' contributions of both estimator robustness and performance. Recall from Chapter II that we denote this term as J = q P. + (1 ? q) %. , where q can vary, according to the estimator application, between zero... error formula, we recall from Chapter II tlrat the maximum of this performance value is achieved at the point E[XY] E[Xz] Recall that our example nominal densities are Jz+y, if0?*1, 0&y&1; ), 0, otherwise, f ()z+z, if0&z&1; I 0, otherwise. 23 I...
Recent experiences with error estimation and adaptivity
Haque, Khalid Ansar
1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
RECENT EXPERIENCES WITH ERROR ESTIMATION AND ADAPTIVITY A Thesis by K HA LID ANSA R I I A & )UE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1991 Major Subject: Aerospace Engineering RECENT EXPERIENCES WITH ERROR ESTIMATION AND ADAPTIVITY A Thesis by KHALID ANSAR HAQUE Approved as to style and content by: W b4 f. ou Lou (i s T. Strouboulis (Chair of Committee) W. E...
Collins, Gary S.
Using MODIS FRP Values to Estimate Forest Fire PM 2.5 Emissions Riley Start, Brian Lamb, Brian Potter, Alistair Smith Forest and Rangeland Measurements Laboratory, College of Natural Resources, Washington State University USDA Forest Service 1. Introduction Accurate estimates of PM 2.5 (particulate
Stukey, Jared D.
2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z
, individual bole height (IBH), diameter at breast height (DBH), length of crown (CrHT), and age for use in TAMBEETLE; (2) to estimate individual tree age using lidar-estimated height and site index provided by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA...
Summary and Presentations from "Estimating the Benefits and Costs...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Summary and Presentations from "Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Distributed Energy Technologies" Workshop Now Available Summary and Presentations from "Estimating the Benefits...
Direct Hydrogen PEMFC Manufacturing Cost Estimation for Automotive...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Direct Hydrogen PEMFC Manufacturing Cost Estimation for Automotive Applications: Fuel Cell Tech Team Review Direct Hydrogen PEMFC Manufacturing Cost Estimation for Automotive...
Estimating Appliance and Home Electronic Energy Use | Department...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
how much electricity your appliances and home electronics use: The Energy Guide Label, which shows the estimated yearly operating cost and estimated yearly electricity use...
Methodology for Estimating Reductions of GHG Emissions from Mosaic...
Estimating Reductions of GHG Emissions from Mosaic Deforestation Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Methodology for Estimating Reductions of GHG Emissions...
An Analytical Approach for Tail-Pipe Emissions Estimation with...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
An Analytical Approach for Tail-Pipe Emissions Estimation with Coupled Engine and Aftertreatment System An Analytical Approach for Tail-Pipe Emissions Estimation with Coupled...
Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Distributed Energy Technologies...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Distributed Energy Technologies Workshop - Agenda and Summary Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Distributed Energy Technologies Workshop -...
Estimating the Impact (Energy, Emissions and Economics) of the...
Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)
Technical Report: Estimating the Impact (Energy, Emissions and Economics) of the US Fluid Power Industry Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Estimating the Impact (Energy,...
Energy savings estimates and cost benefit calculations for high...
Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)
Energy savings estimates and cost benefit calculations for high performance relocatable classrooms Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Energy savings estimates and cost...
Estimation and Control of Diesel Engine Processes Utilizing Variable...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Estimation and Control of Diesel Engine Processes Utilizing Variable Intake Valve Actuation Estimation and Control of Diesel Engine Processes Utilizing Variable Intake Valve...
Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat...
Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat Pump Water Heaters Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat Pump Water Heaters A water heater's...
Lucien Hardy
2012-06-14T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper we consider theories in which reality is described by some underlying variables. Each value these variables can take represents an ontic state (a particular state of reality). The preparation of a quantum state corresponds to a distribution over the ontic states. If we make three basic assumptions, we can show that the distributions over ontic states corresponding to distinct pure states are non-overlapping. This means that we can deduce the quantum state from a knowledge of the ontic state. Hence, if these assumptions are correct, we can claim that the quantum state is a real thing (it is written into the underlying variables that describe reality). The key assumption we use in this proof is ontic indifference - that quantum transformations that do not affect a given pure quantum state can be implemented in such a way that they do not affect the ontic states in the support of that state. In fact this assumption is violated in the Spekkens toy model (which captures many aspects of quantum theory and in which different pure states of the model have overlapping distributions over ontic states). This paper proves that ontic indifference must be violated in any model reproducing quantum theory in which the quantum state is not a real thing. The argument presented in this paper is different from that given in a recent paper by Pusey, Barrett, and Rudolph. It uses a different key assumption and it pertains to a single copy of the system in question.
Colorado State University Colorado State University
to promote the liberal and practical education of the industrial classes in the several pursuits medicine. Colorado State University has a unique mission in the state of Colorado. The land-grant concept global environment, and has a commitment to excellence in international education in all its
Estimating the greenhouse gas benefits of forestry projects: A Costa Rican Case Study
Busch, Christopher; Sathaye, Jayant; Sanchez Azofeifa, G. Arturo
2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z
If the Clean Development Mechanism proposed under the Kyoto Protocol is to serve as an effective means for combating global climate change, it will depend upon reliable estimates of greenhouse gas benefits. This paper sketches the theoretical basis for estimating the greenhouse gas benefits of forestry projects and suggests lessons learned based on a case study of Costa Rica's Protected Areas Project, which is a 500,000 hectare effort to reduce deforestation and enhance reforestation. The Protected Areas Project in many senses advances the state of the art for Clean Development Mechanism-type forestry projects, as does the third-party verification work of SGS International Certification Services on the project. Nonetheless, sensitivity analysis shows that carbon benefit estimates for the project vary widely based on the imputed deforestation rate in the baseline scenario, e.g. the deforestation rate expected if the project were not implemented. This, along with a newly available national dataset that confirms other research showing a slower rate of deforestation in Costa Rica, suggests that the use of the 1979--1992 forest cover data originally as the basis for estimating carbon savings should be reconsidered. When the newly available data is substituted, carbon savings amount to 8.9 Mt (million tones) of carbon, down from the original estimate of 15.7 Mt. The primary general conclusion is that project developers should give more attention to the forecasting land use and land cover change scenarios underlying estimates of greenhouse gas benefits.
Estimating density of Florida Key deer
Roberts, Clay Walton
2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z
for this species since 1968; however, a need to evaluate the precision of existing and alternative survey methods (i.e., road counts, mark-recapture, infrared-triggered cameras [ITC]) was desired by USFWS. I evaluated density estimates from unbaited ITCs and road...
Estimating the Burden of Neurocysticercosis in Mexico
Bhattarai, Rachana
2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z
-demographic characteristics of NCC patients, to compare quality of life of individuals diagnosed with NCC with an age and sex matched control population and to estimate the non-monetary burden of NCC in Mexico. In order to accomplish these objectives, a case series of NCC...
BAYESIAN ESTIMATION OF FUEL ECONOMY POTENTIAL
Berger, Jim
BAYESIAN ESTIMATION OF FUEL ECONOMY POTENTIAL DUE TO TECHNOLOGY IMPROVEMENTS by Richard W. Andrews comments. 4 #12; 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background and Overview In 1975 the Energy Policy and Conservation Act average fuel economy (CAFE) standard. This legislation separates each manufacturer's production
Research Summary Estimating Woodfuel Resource Cost Curves
and extraction methods. Background Just under half of the final energy consumed in the UK (49%) is in the formResearch Summary Estimating Woodfuel Resource Cost Curves As a renewable energy source, woodfuel. The woodfuel strategy adopted by Forestry Commission England supports delivery of these. It aims to sustainably
ESTIMATING COMPLEMENTARITY BETWEEN EDUCATION AND TRAINING
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
ESTIMATING COMPLEMENTARITY BETWEEN EDUCATION AND TRAINING Christian BELZIL Jørgen HANSEN Nicolai BETWEEN EDUCATION AND TRAINING* Christian BELZIL1 Jørgen HANSEN2 Nicolai KRISTENSEN3 November 2008 Cahier-schooling training that explicitly allows for possible complementarity between initial schooling levels and returns
PRELIMINARY TIME ESTIMATES FOR CORING OPERATIONS
., under contract with the National Science Foundation. Funding for the program is provided by the following agencies: Department of Energy, Mines and Resources (Canada) Deutsche ForschungsgemeinschaftPRELIMINARY TIME ESTIMATES FOR CORING OPERATIONS Ocean Drilling Program Texas A&M University
Guidelines for Estimating Unmetered Landscaping Water Use
McMordie Stoughton, Kate
2010-07-28T23:59:59.000Z
The document lays-out step by step instructions to estimate landscaping water using two alternative approaches: evapotranspiration method and irrigation audit method. The evapotranspiration method option calculates the amount of water needed to maintain a healthy turf or landscaped area for a given location based on the amount of water transpired and evaporated from the plants. The evapotranspiration method offers a relatively easy “one-stop-shop” for Federal agencies to develop an initial estimate of annual landscape water use. The document presents annual irrigation factors for 36 cities across the U.S. that represents the gallons of irrigation required per square foot for distinct landscape types. By following the steps outlined in the document, the reader can choose a location that is a close match their location and landscape type to provide a rough estimate of annual irrigation needs without the need to research specific data on their site. The second option presented in the document is the irrigation audit method, which is the physical measurement of water applied to landscaped areas through irrigation equipment. Steps to perform an irrigation audit are outlined in the document, which follow the Recommended Audit Guidelines produced by the Irrigation Association.[5] An irrigation audit requires some knowledge on the specific procedures to accurately estimate how much water is being consumed by the irrigation equipment.
Estimating Vehicle Miles Traveled on Local Roads
Qian, Jiayu
2013-11-07T23:59:59.000Z
This research presents a new method to estimate the local road vehicle miles traveled (VMT) with the concept of betweenness centrality. Betweenness centrality is a measure of a node’s or link’s centrality on a network that has been applied popularly...
Estimating the uncertainty in underresolved nonlinear dynamics
Chorin, Alelxandre; Hald, Ole
2013-06-12T23:59:59.000Z
The Mori-Zwanzig formalism of statistical mechanics is used to estimate the uncertainty caused by underresolution in the solution of a nonlinear dynamical system. A general approach is outlined and applied to a simple example. The noise term that describes the uncertainty turns out to be neither Markovian nor Gaussian. It is argued that this is the general situation.
PARAMETER ESTIMATION IN PETROLEUM AND GROUNDWATER MODELING
Ewing, Richard E.
PARAMETER ESTIMATION IN PETROLEUM AND GROUNDWATER MODELING R.E. Ewing, M.S. Pilant, J.G. Wade the location and subsequent remediation of contaminants in groundwater to the optimization of production on grand challenge problems. In today's petroleum industry, reservoir simulators are routinely used
ROBUST ESTIMATION VIA GENERALIZED L-STATISTICS
Serfling, Robert
CHAPTER 1 ROBUST ESTIMATION VIA GENERALIZED L-STATISTICS: THEORY, APPLICATIONS, AND PERSPECTIVES ROBERT SERFLING University of Texas at Dallas Abstract: Generalized L-statistics, introduced in Ser ing (1984) and including classical U-statistics and L-statistics, are linear functions based on the ordered
Essays on Estimation of Inflation Equation
Kim, Woong
2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z
. . . . . . . . . . . . 11 1. Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 2. Numerical Analysis for the Theoretical Relationship . 13 3. Numerical Analysis for the Empirical Issues . . . . . . 25 C. Alternative Kurtosis... 3. Detection of Outliers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 C. Empirical Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 D. Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 IV ESTIMATION OF HYBRID PHILLIPS CURVE...
Adaptive Background Estimation using Intensity Independent Features
Lunds Universitet
Adaptive Background Estimation using Intensity Independent Features HÃ¥kan ArdÃ¶, Rikard Berthilsson to rapid changes in lighting conditions. Furthermore, the features can be computed very efficiently using reliable way, also in outdoor scenes where the lighting conditions is changing rapidly due to passing
ESTIMATES OF ADDITIONAL ACHIEVABLE ENERGY SAVINGS
by assumptions related to economic growth, changes in electricity and natural gas rates, and a host of inputs Manager DEMAND ANALYSIS OFFICE Sylvia Bender Deputy Director ELECTRICITY SUPPLY ANALYSIS DIVISION's demand forecast. #12;2 utility level.4 AAEE electricity savings were estimated for the Pacific Gas
IFE Target Fabrication, Delivery, and Cost Estimates
Foam Shell Generation Seal Coat Formation CO2 Drying High-Z Sputter CoatingDT Filling DT LayeringIFE Target Fabrication, Delivery, and Cost Estimates N. B. Alexander, L. Brown, D. Callahan, P degrees... SOMBRERO 3-D model for neutronics analysisLaser Fusion HIF - HYLIFE-II ZFE #12;An initial cost
Position and velocity estimation through acceleration measurements
Boyer, Edmond
from inertial sensors inherently causes errors to grow with time, commonly known as integration drift/position estimation based on inertial sensors requires some addi- tional source of information providing navigation systems (INS) aiding sensors are applied. An INS consists of a triad of orthogonal ac
Filtering and parameter estimation for electricity
Fournier, John J.F.
Filtering and parameter estimation for electricity markets by Alberto Molina-Escobar B to be particularly difficult for electricity, where markets are complex, and ex- hibit a number of unique features, mainly due to the problems involved in storing electricity. In this thesis we propose three models
Edgar Gabriel Estimation of MPI Application
Subhlok, Jaspal
Edgar Gabriel Estimation of MPI Application Performance on Volunteer Environments Girish Nandagudi, Jaspal Subhlok, Edgar Gabriel Department of Computer Science, University of Houston jaspal, egabriel@uh.edu Judit Gimenez Barcelona Supercomputing Center judit@bsc.es #12;Edgar Gabriel Overview · The Volpex
Probability Grid: A Location Estimation Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks
Stankovic, John A.
estimation, grid topology, probability. I. INTRODUCTION Recent advances in micro-electro-mechanical systems
Kernel Density Based Linear Regression Estimate and Zhibiao Zhao
Zhao, Zhibiao
Kernel Density Based Linear Regression Estimate Weixin Yao and Zhibiao Zhao Abstract For linear regression models with non-normally distributed errors, the least squares estimate (LSE) will lose some words: EM algorithm, Kernel density estimate, Least squares estimate, Linear regression, Maximum
Estimating transition times for a model of
Mitchener, W. Garrett
= mean usage rate of G2 dm dt = birth q(m) - death m 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 Mean at a rate k K Simplify K = 1: Each agent uses G1 (state 0) or G2 (state 1) @ Ck = number youth in state kD = death rate: each time step each adult dies with prob- ability pD = rD N , replaced by sampling from
State Water Quality (Virginia)
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
It is the policy of the Commonwealth of Virginia to: (1) protect existing high quality state waters and restore the quality of all other state waters to permit all reasonable public uses and...
United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Northeastern Research Station Research Paper-Central United States (Monserud and Ek 1977; Monserud 1987). This model was used within the framework of FOREST
United States Department of Agriculture Usual Planting and Harvesting Dates for U.S. Field Crops million acres of barley were harvested in the United States (U.S.) during 1996. After reaching a peak
Southern States Energy Compact (Multiple States)
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
The Southern States Energy Compact provides for the proper employment and conservation of energy, and for the employment of energy-related facilities, materials, and products, within the context of...
Climate change impacts on freshwater recreational fishing in the United States
Jones, Russell
We estimated the biological and economic impacts of climate change on freshwater fisheries in the United States (U.S.). Changes in stream temperatures, flows, and the spatial extent of suitable thermal habitats for fish ...
Jacob, Suresh
2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This work develops a method for the real time monitoring of well performance by using Kalman filtering. A system of two or more wells draining the same reservoir under pseudo steady state condition is monitored simultaneously to estimate both...
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)
003198MLTPL00 AASG State Geothermal Data Repository for the National Geothermal Data System. http://repository.stategeothermaldata.org/repository/
Lopez, F. A.
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
. Code ? State that SECO shall establish and publish mandatory energy and water conservation design standards for each new state building or major renovation project ? SECO shall define ?major renovation project? and shall review and update... and water conservation design standards that SECO has adopted under this chapter, when constructing new state buildings or conducting major renovations of existing state buildings. 4 CATEE-Dallas 11-09-2011 Texas Administrative Code (TAC) Amended ?19...
States & Emerging Energy Technologies
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
This presentation, given through the DOE's Technical Assitance Program (TAP), provides information on States & Emerging Energy Technologies.
Unsupervised State-Space Modelling Using Reproducing Kernels
Tobar, Felipe; Djuri?, Petar M.; Mandic, Danilo P.
2015-06-22T23:59:59.000Z
gradient- based methods. These include ridge regression (RR) in the offline case, and least mean square (LMS) and recursive least squares (RLS) in online cases. These linear estimation algorithms are the basis of kernel adaptive filters. [ACCEPTED... in red. the observation signal yt using kernels and an LMS-based update rule; see [41]. Kernel State-Space Model (KSSM): The adaptive version of the proposed method, where the predictions are gener- ated by propagating the particles of the state according...
Biogas Potential in the United States (Fact Sheet)
Not Available
2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z
Biogas has received increased attention as an alternative energy source in the United States. The factsheet provides information about the biogas (methane) potential from various sources in the country (by county and state) and estimates the power generation and transportation fuels production (renewable natural gas) potential from these biogas sources. It provides valuable information to the industry, academia and policy makers in support of their future decisions.
MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERSITY INTRODUCTIONi.
#12;2 MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERSITY INTRODUCTIONi. Welcome to the Online Professional Master of Science), and the College of Veterinary Medicine (CVM) at Michigan State University (MSU). This booklet contains important, Program Director Online Master of Science in Food Safety Michigan State University 1129 Farm Lane, Rm B 51
Sustainability Cal State Fullerton
de Lijser, Peter
Sustainability at Cal State Fullerton A Report from the Sustainability Initiative Study Group October 28, 2008 #12;Sustainability at Cal State Fullerton A Report from the Sustainability Initiative Safety Sally Yassine Contracts & Procurement #12;Sustainability at Cal State Fullerton A Report from
F. V. Mendes; R. V. Ramos
2014-08-20T23:59:59.000Z
In a recent paper it has been shown how to create a quantum state related to the prime number sequence using Grover's algorithm. Moreover, its multiqubit entanglement was analyzed. In the present work, we compare the multiqubit entanglement of several quantum sequence states as well we study the feasibility of producing such states using Grover's algorithm.
FISHERY STATISTICS UNITED STATES
FISHERY STATISTICS OF THE UNITED STATES 1972 STATISTICAL DIGEST NO. 66 Prepared by STATISTICS;ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The data in this edition of "Fishery Statistics of the United States" were collected in co- operation with the various States and tabulated by the staff of the Statistics and Market News Division
United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station P.O. Box in the United States to iso- late and examine the individual factors affecting fire behavior. A potential dis in the United States, that have been used for fire research have been described.8 Three of these tunnels
United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station General,000 xylem resin samples of pine (Pinus) species and hybrids--largely from the western United States locations in the eastern and southern United States. Cover Image: Chapter 6, Figure 6-2. #12;Xylem
Holberton, Rebecca L.
United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Northeastern Research Station General Technical Report NE-318 Atlas of Climate Change Effects in 150 Bird Species of the Eastern United States Service 359 Main Road Delaware, OH 43015 USA #12;United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service
United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Northeastern Research Station Research Paper NE-722 James E. Smith Linda S. Heath A Model of Forest Floor Carbon Mass for United States Forest contiguous United States. Manuscript received for publication 22 April 2002 #12;A Model of Forest Floor
United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station General (Populus tremuloides) in the Western United States and a New Tool for Surveying Aspen Decline Toni Lyn of the potential effects of climate change on quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) in the Western United States
United States Nuclear Regulatory
United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission United States Department of Energy United States.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Washington, DC 20555-0001 E-mail: DISTRIBUTION@nrc.gov Facsimile: 301 and Safety Licensing Boards and of Directors' decisions under Section 2.206 of NRC's regulations (NUREG0750
Modeling, Real-Time Estimation, and Identification of UWB Indoor Wireless Channels
Olama, Mohammed M [ORNL] [ORNL; Djouadi, Seddik M [ORNL] [ORNL; Li, Yanyan [ORNL] [ORNL; Fathy, Aly [University of Tennessee (UT)] [University of Tennessee (UT)
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper, stochastic differential equations (SDEs) are used to model ultrawideband (UWB) indoor wireless channels. We show that the impulse responses for time-varying indoor wireless channels can be approximated in a mean square sense as close as desired by impulse responses that can be realized by SDEs. The state variables represent the inphase and quadrature components of the UWB channel. The expected maximization and extended Kalman filter are employed to recursively identify and estimate the channel parameters and states, respectively, from online received signal strength measured data. Both resolvable and non-resolvable multipath received signals are considered and represented as small-scaled Nakagami fading. The proposed models together with the estimation algorithm are tested using UWB indoor measurement data demonstrating the method s viability and the results are presented.
Recursive Pathways to Marginal Likelihood Estimation with Prior-Sensitivity Analysis
Cameron, Ewan
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We investigate the utility to contemporary Bayesian studies of recursive, Gauss-Seidel-type pathways to marginal likelihood estimation characterized by reverse logistic regression and the density of states. Through a pair of illustrative, numerical examples (including mixture modeling of the well-known 'galaxy dataset') we highlight both the remarkable diversity of bridging schemes amenable to recursive normalization and the notable efficiency of the resulting pseudo-mixture densities for gauging prior-sensitivity in the model selection context. Our key theoretical contributions show the connection between the nested sampling identity and the density of states. Further, we introduce a novel heuristic ('thermodynamic integration via importance sampling') for qualifying the role of the bridging sequence in marginal likelihood estimation. An efficient pseudo-mixture density scheme for harnessing the information content of otherwise discarded draws in ellipse-based nested sampling is also introduced.
Birman-Schwinger and the number of Andreev states in BCS superconductors
Israel Klich
2011-04-25T23:59:59.000Z
The number of bound states due to inhomogeneities in a BCS superconductor is usually established either by variational means or via exact solutions of particularly simple, symmetric perturbations. Here we propose estimating the number of sub-gap states using the Birman-Schwinger principle. We show how to obtain upper bounds on the number of sub-gap states for small normal regions and derive a suitable Cwikel-Lieb-Rozenblum inequality. We also estimate the number of such states for large normal regions using high dimensional generalizations of the Szego theorem. The method works equally well for local inhomogeneities of the order parameter and for external potentials.
Improved measurement placement and topology processing in power system state estimation
Wu, Yang
2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z
and the branch power flow measurements. The advanced level design keeps the network observable under certain contingencies. To preserve as many substation measurements as possible and maintain the net-work observability, an advanced network topology processor...
Estimation of the urban household demand for water in the United States
Foster, Henry Sessam
1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
only apparenl: fa&. tor in septic 'ark area S?para ie demarrd equal;i ons for sums&sr prinkling &tom&'nstrated that sp:insLing demand ha. s significaritly greater: price elasticity Lhr-n domo;tic demand. 77ry r&estorn areas oxhibite0 a, price ela. r...
New Wind Energy Resource Potential Estimates for the United States (Presentation)
Elliott, D.; Schwartz, M.; Haymes, S.; Heimiller, D.; Scott, G.; Brower, M.; Hale, E.; Phelps, B.
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This presentation provides an overview of the wind energy resource mapping efforts conducted at NREL and by Truepower.
On the optimal thresholds in remote state estimation with communication costs
Mahajan, Aditya
in households and com- municate these measurements to an aggregator which will use this information for demand response etc. In such a scenario, it is important not to flood the communication network with measurement
Estimated Value of Service Reliability for Electric Utility Customers in the United States
Schrijver, Karel
, Sullivan & Co. Energy Analysis Department Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 1 Cyclotron NATIONAL LABORATORY #12;Disclaimer This document was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United Laboratory for support and guidance in the development of this research We would also like to thank C-K. Woo
Estimated Benefits of IBWC Rio Grande Flood-Control Projects in the United States
reservoirs, dams, hydroelectric energy-generation facilities, floodways, and levees downstream of Caballo
Lee, Sang-il, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Formation fight of multiple satellites is an attractive concept for achieving complicated space missions that are di±cult or impossible with a single monolithic satellite. Since traditional thrusters require propellant ...
Error and uncertainty in estimates of Reynolds stress using ADCP in an energetic ocean state
Rapo, Mark Andrew.
2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
(cont.) To that end, the space-time correlations of the error, turbulence, and wave processes are developed and then utilized to find the extent to which the environmental and internal processing parameters contribute to ...
Estimated Value of Service Reliability for Electric Utility Customers in the United States
Sullivan, M.J.
2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems - Special Issueschemes. Electrical Power and Energy Systems, 2005 Vol. 27.power interruptions: a consistent model and methodology,” Electrical Power and Energy Systems,
Dynamic State Estimation in Distributed Aircraft Electric Control Systems via Adaptive Submodularity
Murray, Richard M.
for the international space station, [10] for an aircraft electric system, and [7] for a marine vehicle power system industry signifies progress in the direction of more energy efficient vehicles. Electric systems are replac on electric power, the flight-criticality of an aircraft becomes more dependent on the electric power system
Dynamic State Estimation in Distributed Aircraft Electric Control Systems via Adaptive Submodularity
Xu , Huan
exists on diagnostics of electric power systems focusing on AC systems [5], as well as large vehicle industry signifies progress in the direction of more energy efficient vehicles. Electric systems are replac, the flight-criticality of an aircraft becomes more dependent on the electric power system as well. Because
Estimated Value of Service Reliability for Electric Utility Customers in the United States
Administration, Duke Energy, Mid America Power, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Puget Sound Energy, Salt River
Assessment of GPS-enabled smartphone data and its use in traffic state estimation for highways
by Juan Carlos Herrera INGEN (Universidad Catolica de Chile) 2002 M.S. (University of California Berkeley
Binary asteroid systems: Tidal end states and estimates of material properties
Taylor, PA; Margot, JL
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
tidal evolution and then discuss stability limits and energyon tidal evolution. Angular momentum and energy content Theenergy can be dissipated as heat as a result of internal friction due to tidal ?
Current (2009) State-of-the-Art Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate
2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
, including 20% postconsumer waste #12;List of Acronyms AEO EIA Annual Energy Outlook BOP balance of plant CF Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard · Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 303-275-3000 · www.nrel.gov NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency
STATE ESTIMATION OF SOFC/GT HYBRID SYSTEM USING UKF Rambabu Kandepu*, 1
Foss, Bjarne A.
. With today's increasing concern about global warming and climate change, there is an incentive to investigate production processes with CO2 capture capabilities. It is widely accepted that fuel cells are power sources converts the chemical energy of fuel directly to electrical energy. Since SOFCs operate at high
Comparative study of State Estimation of Fuel Cell Hybrid System Using UKF and EKF
Foss, Bjarne A.
of energy. With today's increasing concern about global warming and climate change, there is an incentive.Imsland@sintef.no that operate efficiently, thus emitting less per kWh produced, and also investigate power production processes energy of fuel directly to electrical energy. Since SOFCs operate at high temperatures (about 1000 C
visibility of the system is achieved with the use of the SCADA system and processing of the SCADA data via
Estimated Value of Service Reliability for Electric Utility Customers in the United States
Sullivan, M.J.
2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
They include: Bonneville Power Administration, Duke Energy,data included: Bonneville Power Administration, Cinergy (Now
On Parameter and State Estimation for Linear Differential-Algebraic Equations
Schön, Thomas
). These models arise as the natural product of object-oriented modeling languages, such as Modelica. However September 2006 #12;resentations that are close to those of object-oriented modeling tools, like Modelica
On Parameter and State Estimation for Linear Differential-Algebraic Equations
Gustafsson, Fredrik
). These models arise as the natural product of object-oriented modeling languages, such as Modelica. However September 2005 #12;tations that are close to those of object-oriented mod- eling tools, like Modelica
Chen, J.
2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
2005), Developments in bioremediation of soils and sediments2. Field research on bioremediation of metals andassociated with Cr(VI) bioremediation, Environmental
On-line Hydraulic State Estimation in Urban Water Networks Using Reduced Models
Preis, Ami
A Predictor-Corrector (PC) approach for on-line forecasting of water usage in an urban water system is presented and demonstrated. The M5 Model-Trees algorithm is used to predict water demands and Genetic Algorithms (GAs) ...
Energy pathways and structures of oceanic eddies from the ECCO2 State Estimate and Simplified Models
Chen, Ru, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Studying oceanic eddies is important for understanding and predicting ocean circulation and climate variability. The central focus of this dissertation is the energy exchange between eddies and mean ow and banded structures ...
New Directions in the Development of Population Estimates in the United States?
Swanson, David A.; McKibben, Jerome N.
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
ima-aim2009/modgen-eng.htm. Statistics Finland. (2004). UseBest practices of Statistics Finland. Handbook Series, No.45. Helsinki, Finland: Statistics Finland. Stockwell, E. ,
A SURVEY OF STATE-LEVEL COST ESTIMATES OF RENEWABLES PORTFOLIO STANDARDS
Barbose, Galen
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (Solar TechnologiesRPS costs, per unit of renewable energy generation, rangedFlores-Espino National Renewable Energy Laboratory 15013
Micro-grid State Estimation Using Belief Propagation on Factor Graphs
Kavcic, Aleksandar
devices such as Advanced Metering Infras- tructure (AMI) and Phase Measurement Unit (PMU) requires huge processing. The utility needs the validation of the effectiveness of this data- driven approach so
An Information-centric Communication Infrastructure for Real-time State Estimation of
Poll, Erik
by the use of Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs). A critical challenge in deploying PMU-based RTSE applications and scalable (re)configuration of PMU data communication for seamless full observability of power conditions in complex and dynamic scenarios. Based on the derived set of requirements for supporting PMU-based RTSE
A Survey of State-Level Cost and Benefit Estimates of Renewable Portfolio Standards
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:5 TablesExports(Journal Article) |govInstrumentsmfrirtA Journey InsideMicroBooNEAugust 2013 Tue, 08/27/2013 -11% - A : aHarvestingAStudy of the RoleA A
Tamma, Raja Venkatesh
2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z
We study and analyze the performance of iterative equalization and decoding (IED) using an M-BCJR equalizer. We use bit error rate (BER), frame error rate simulations and extrinsic information transfer (EXIT) charts to study and compare...
Current (2009) State-of-the-Art Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankShale_Gas.pdfService on theFossilAction No.Completeand Ash CriticalCrystallineMay2015 | Department
Estimating Renewable Energy Economic Potential in the United States: Methodology and Initial Results
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:5 TablesExports(Journal Article)41clothThe Bonneville Power AdministrationHawaiiEnergy Storage ManagementENVIRONMENTALEnzymePoolscriptEstablishOffice
Estimating Renewable Energy Economic Potential in the United States: Methodology and Initial Results
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:5 TablesExports(Journal Article)41clothThe Bonneville Power AdministrationHawaiiEnergy Storage ManagementENVIRONMENTALEnzymePoolscriptEstablishOfficeEs#ma#ng
Nonparametric Density Estimation for Stochastic Optimization with an Observable State Variable
Blei, David M.
Princeton, NJ 08544 powell@princeton.edu David M. Blei Princeton University Princeton, NJ 08544 blei
Synchrophasor Based Tracking Three-Phase State Estimator and It's Applications
Phadke, A. G.; Thorp, James; Centeno, Virgilio; Gardner, Matthew; Novosel, Damir; Hu, Yi; Elizondo, David
2013-08-31T23:59:59.000Z
Electric power infrastructure is one of the critical resources of the nation. Its reliability in the face of natural or man-made catastrophes is of paramount importance for the economic and public health wellbeing of a modern society. Maintaining high levels of security for the high voltage transmission back bone of the electric supply network is a task requiring access to modern monitoring tools. These tools have been made particularly effective with the advent of synchronized phasor measurement units (PMUs) which became available in late 1990s, and have now become an indispensable for optimal monitoring, protection and control of the power grid. The present project was launched with an objective of demonstrating the value of the Wide Area Measurement System (WAMS) using PMUs and its applications on the Dominion Virginia Power High Voltage transmission grid. Virginia Tech is the birth place of PMUs, and was chosen to be the Principal Investigator of this project. In addition to Dominion Virginia Power, Quanta Technology of Raleigh, NC was selected to be co-Principal Investigators of this project.
Bounds on the Lyapunov exponent via crude estimates on the density of states
Mira Shamis; Thomas Spencer
2014-07-24T23:59:59.000Z
We study the Chirikov (standard) map at large coupling $\\lambda \\gg 1$, and prove that the Lyapounov exponent of the associated Schroedinger operator is of order $\\log \\lambda$ except for a set of energies of measure $\\exp(-c \\lambda^\\beta)$ for some $1 < \\beta < 2$. We also prove a similar (sharp) lower bound on the Lyapunov exponent (outside a small exceptional set of energies) for a large family of ergodic Schroedinger operators, the prime example being the $d$-dimensional skew shift.
State estimation of the Labrador Sea with a coupled sea ice-ocean adjoint model
Fenty, Ian Gouverneur
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Sea ice (SI) and ocean variability in marginal polar and subpolar seas are closely coupled. SI variability in the Labrador Sea is of climatic interest because of its relationship to deep convection/mode water formation, ...
Observer design for state and clinker hardness estimation in cement mill
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
in the mineral in- dustry is to optimize the recovery of the valuable minerals, while maintaining the quality of the concentrates delivered to the metal extraction plants. Surveys on the current status and future trends in the automation and control of mineral and metal processing are proposed by J¨ams¨a- Jounela (2001) and Hodouin et