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Sample records for 6061-t6 aluminum view

  1. April 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Materials | OSTI, US Dept of Energy,

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information April 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Materials Science Subject Feed Fatigue design curves for 6061-T6 aluminum Yahr, G.T. (1993) 554 /> Charpy impact test results on five materials and NIST verification specimens using instrumented 2-mm and 8-mm strikers Nanstad, R.K.; Sokolov, M.A. (1995) 534 /> Heat Treatment Procedure Qualification -- Final Technical Report Robert C. Voigt (2004) 488 /> The influence of grain size on the mechanical

  2. March 2016 Most Viewed Documents for Materials | OSTI, US Dept of Energy,

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information Materials The influence of grain size on the mechanical properties ofsteel Morris Jr., J.W. (2001) 1234 Fatigue design curves for 6061-T6 aluminum Yahr, G.T. (1993) 981 Heat Treatment Procedure Qualification -- Final Technical Report Robert C. Voigt (2004) 946 Charpy impact test results on five materials and NIST verification specimens using instrumented 2-mm and 8-mm strikers Nanstad, R.K.; Sokolov, M.A. (1995) 855 Mechanical properties and

  3. ITP Aluminum: Aluminum Industry Vision: Sustainable Solutions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Aluminum Industry Vision: Sustainable Solutions for a Dynamic World ITP Aluminum: Aluminum Industry Vision: Sustainable Solutions for a Dynamic World PDF icon alumvision.pdf More ...

  4. FAX

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    FATIGUE DESIGN CURVES FOR 6061-T6 ALUMINUM* G . T . Yahr Engineering Technology Division Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-8051 ABSTRACT A request has been made to the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Committee that 6061-T6 aluminum be approved for use in the construction of Class 1 welded nuclear vessels so it can be used for the pressure vessel of the Advanced Neutron Source research reactor. Fatigue design curves with and without mean stress effects have been proposed. A

  5. Alumina and Aluminum (2010 MECS) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Alumina and Aluminum (2010 MECS) Alumina and Aluminum (2010 MECS) Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint for Alumina and Aluminum Sector (NAICS 3313) Energy use data source: 2010 EIA MECS (with adjustments) Footprint Last Revised: February 2014 View footprints for other sectors here. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint PDF icon Alumina and Aluminum More Documents & Publications MECS 2006 - Alumina and Aluminum Cement (2010 MECS) Glass and Glass Products (2010 MECS) Manufacturing

  6. Aluminum-Alkaline Metal-Metal Composite Conductor - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Alumina and Aluminum (2010 MECS) Alumina and Aluminum (2010 MECS) Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint for Alumina and Aluminum Sector (NAICS 3313) Energy use data source: 2010 EIA MECS (with adjustments) Footprint Last Revised: February 2014 View footprints for other sectors here. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint PDF icon Alumina and Aluminum More Documents & Publications MECS 2006 - Alumina and Aluminum Cement (2010 MECS) Glass and Glass Products Portal

    Electricity

  7. Aluminum | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Aluminum Aluminum U.S. aluminum producers recognize that energy efficiency offers a competitive edge in world markets. The aluminum industry has worked with AMO to develop a range of resources that can help to increase energy efficiency and lower carbon emissions. Analytical Studies & Other Publications Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprints provide a mapping of energy use, energy loss, and carbon emissions for selected industry sectors. U.S. Energy Requirements for Aluminum Production,

  8. ITP Aluminum: Aluminum Industry Roadmap for the Automotive Market...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Aluminum Industry Roadmap for the Automotive Market (May 1999) ITP Aluminum: Aluminum Industry Roadmap for the Automotive Market (May 1999) PDF icon autoroadmap.pdf More Documents ...

  9. ITP Aluminum: Aluminum Industry Technology Roadmap | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technology Roadmap ITP Aluminum: Aluminum Industry Technology Roadmap PDF icon al_roadmap.pdf More Documents & Publications ITP Aluminum: Aluminum Industry Vision: Sustainable Solutions for a Dynamic World ITP Aluminum: Aluminum Industry Roadmap for the Automotive Market (May 1999) Overview of Recycling Technology R&D

  10. Aluminum reference electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sadoway, D.R.

    1988-08-16

    A stable reference electrode is described for use in monitoring and controlling the process of electrolytic reduction of a metal. In the case of Hall cell reduction of aluminum, the reference electrode comprises a pool of molten aluminum and a solution of molten cryolite, Na[sub 3]AlF[sub 6], wherein the electrical connection to the molten aluminum does not contact the highly corrosive molten salt solution. This is accomplished by altering the density of either the aluminum (decreasing the density) or the electrolyte (increasing the density) so that the aluminum floats on top of the molten salt solution. 1 fig.

  11. Aluminum reference electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sadoway, Donald R. (Belmont, MA)

    1988-01-01

    A stable reference electrode for use in monitoring and controlling the process of electrolytic reduction of a metal. In the case of Hall cell reduction of aluminum, the reference electrode comprises a pool of molten aluminum and a solution of molten cryolite, Na.sub.3 AlF.sub.6, wherein the electrical connection to the molten aluminum does not contact the highly corrosive molten salt solution. This is accomplished by altering the density of either the aluminum (decreasing the density) or the electrolyte (increasing the density) so that the aluminum floats on top of the molten salt solution.

  12. Preliminary Investigation of Zircaloy-4 as a Research Reactor Cladding Material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brian K Castle

    2012-05-01

    As part of a scoping study for the ATR fuel conversion project, an initial comparison of the material properties of Zircaloy-4 and Aluminum-6061 (T6 and O-temper) is performed to provide a preliminary evaluation of Zircaloy-4 for possible inclusion as a candidate cladding material for ATR fuel elements. The current fuel design for the ATR uses Aluminum 6061 (T6 and O temper) as a cladding and structural material in the fuel element and to date, no fuel failures have been reported. Based on this successful and longstanding operating history, Zircaloy-4 properties will be evaluated against the material properties for aluminum-6061. The preliminary investigation will focus on a comparison of density, oxidation rates, water chemistry requirements, mechanical properties, thermal properties, and neutronic properties.

  13. ITP Aluminum: Aluminum Industry Vision: Sustainable Solutions for a Dynamic

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    World | Department of Energy Aluminum Industry Vision: Sustainable Solutions for a Dynamic World ITP Aluminum: Aluminum Industry Vision: Sustainable Solutions for a Dynamic World PDF icon alum_vision.pdf More Documents & Publications ITP Aluminum: Alumina Technology Roadmap U.S. Energy Requirements for Aluminum Production

  14. BONDING ALUMINUM METALS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Noland, R.A.; Walker, D.E.

    1961-06-13

    A process is given for bonding aluminum to aluminum. Silicon powder is applied to at least one of the two surfaces of the two elements to be bonded, the two elements are assembled and rubbed against each other at room temperature whereby any oxide film is ruptured by the silicon crystals in the interface; thereafter heat and pressure are applied whereby an aluminum-silicon alloy is formed, squeezed out from the interface together with any oxide film, and the elements are bonded.

  15. Carbothermic Aluminum Production Using Scrap Aluminum As A Coolant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    LaCamera, Alfred F.

    2002-11-05

    A process for producing aluminum metal by carbothermic reduction of alumina ore. Alumina ore is heated in the presence of carbon at an elevated temperature to produce an aluminum metal body contaminated with about 10-30% by wt. aluminum carbide. Aluminum metal or aluminum alloy scrap then is added to bring the temperature to about 900-1000.degree. C. and precipitate out aluminum carbide. The precipitated aluminum carbide is filtered, decanted, or fluxed with salt to form a molten body having reduced aluminum carbide content.

  16. Corrosion Protection of Aluminum

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dalrymple, R. S.; Nelson, W. B.

    1963-07-01

    Treatment of aluminum-base metal surfaces in an autoclave with an aqueous chromic acid solution of 0.5 to 3% by weight and of pH below 2 for 20 to 50 hrs at 160 to 180 deg C produces an extremely corrosion-resistant aluminum oxidechromium film on the surface. A chromic acid concentration of 1 to 2% and a pH of about 1 are preferred.

  17. CORROSION PROTECTION OF ALUMINUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dalrymple, R.S.; Nelson, W.B.

    1963-07-01

    Treatment of aluminum-base metal surfaces in an autoclave with an aqueous chromic acid solution of 0.5 to 3% by weight and of pH below 2 for 20 to 50 hrs at 160 to 180 deg C produces an extremely corrosion-resistant aluminum oxidechromium film on the surface. A chromic acid concentration of 1 to 2% and a pH of about 1 are preferred. (D.C.W.)

  18. Better Buildings Network View | September 2015 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Network View | September 2015 Better Buildings Network View | September 2015 The Better Buildings Network View monthly newsletter from the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings Residential Network. PDF icon Better Buildings Network View September 2015 More Documents & Publications TTWG Licensing Guide ITP Aluminum: Technical Working Group on Inert Anode Technologies EIS-0333: Draft Environmental Impact Statement

  19. ITP Aluminum: Aluminum Industry Roadmap for the Automotive Market (May

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1999) | Department of Energy Aluminum Industry Roadmap for the Automotive Market (May 1999) ITP Aluminum: Aluminum Industry Roadmap for the Automotive Market (May 1999) PDF icon autoroadmap.pdf More Documents & Publications Vehicle Technologies Office: US DRIVE Materials Technical Team Roadmap Development of Integrated Die Casting Process for Large Thin-Wall Magnesium Applications Enabling Production of Lightweight Magnesium Parts for Near-Term Automotive Applications ITP Aluminum:

  20. ALUMINUM AND CHROMIUM LEACHING WORKSHOP WHITEPAPER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCabe, D; Jeff Pike, J; Bill Wilmarth, B

    2007-04-25

    A workshop was held on January 23-24, 2007 to discuss the status of processes to leach constituents from High Level Waste (HLW) sludges at the Hanford and Savannah River Sites. The objective of the workshop was to examine the needs and requirements for the HLW flowsheet for each site, discuss the status of knowledge of the leaching processes, communicate the research plans, and identify opportunities for synergy to address knowledge gaps. The purpose of leaching of non-radioactive constituents from the sludge waste is to reduce the burden of material that must be vitrified in the HLW melter systems, resulting in reduced HLW glass waste volume, reduced disposal costs, shorter process schedules, and higher facility throughput rates. The leaching process is estimated to reduce the operating life cycle of SRS by seven years and decrease the number of HLW canisters to be disposed in the Repository by 1000 [Gillam et al., 2006]. Comparably at Hanford, the aluminum and chromium leaching processes are estimated to reduce the operating life cycle of the Waste Treatment Plant by 20 years and decrease the number of canisters to the Repository by 15,000-30,000 [Gilbert, 2007]. These leaching processes will save the Department of Energy (DOE) billions of dollars in clean up and disposal costs. The primary constituents targeted for removal by leaching are aluminum and chromium. It is desirable to have some aluminum in glass to improve its durability; however, too much aluminum can increase the sludge viscosity, glass viscosity, and reduce overall process throughput. Chromium leaching is necessary to prevent formation of crystalline compounds in the glass, but is only needed at Hanford because of differences in the sludge waste chemistry at the two sites. Improving glass formulations to increase tolerance of aluminum and chromium is another approach to decrease HLW glass volume. It is likely that an optimum condition can be found by both performing leaching and improving formulations. Disposal of the resulting aluminum and chromium-rich streams are different at the two sites, with vitrification into Low Activity Waste (LAW) glass at Hanford, and solidification in Saltstone at SRS. Prior to disposal, the leachate solutions must be treated to remove radionuclides, resulting in increased operating costs and extended facility processing schedules. Interim storage of leachate can also add costs and delay tank closure. Recent projections at Hanford indicate that up to 40,000 metric tons of sodium would be needed to dissolve the aluminum and maintain it in solution, which nearly doubles the amount of sodium in the entire current waste tank inventory. This underscores the dramatic impact that the aluminum leaching can have on the entire system. A comprehensive view of leaching and the downstream impacts must therefore be considered prior to implementation. Many laboratory scale tests for aluminum and chromium dissolution have been run on Hanford wastes, with samples from 46 tanks tested. Three samples from SRS tanks have been tested, out of seven tanks containing high aluminum sludge. One full-scale aluminum dissolution was successfully performed on waste at SRS in 1982, but generated a very large quantity of liquid waste ({approx}3,000,000 gallons). No large-scale tests have been done on Hanford wastes. Although the data to date give a generally positive indication that aluminum dissolution will work, many issues remain, predominantly because of variable waste compositions and changes in process conditions, downstream processing, or storage limitations. Better approaches are needed to deal with the waste volumes and limitations on disposal methods. To develop a better approach requires a more extensive understanding of the kinetics of dissolution, as well as the factors that effect rates, effectiveness, and secondary species. Models of the dissolution rate that have been developed are useful, but suffer from limitations on applicable compositional ranges, mineral phases, and particle properties that are difficult to measure. The experimental

  1. Regeneration of aluminum hydride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Graetz, Jason Allan; Reilly, James J; Wegrzyn, James E

    2012-09-18

    The present invention provides methods and materials for the formation of hydrogen storage alanes, AlH.sub.x, where x is greater than 0 and less than or equal to 6 at reduced H.sub.2 pressures and temperatures. The methods rely upon reduction of the change in free energy of the reaction between aluminum and molecular H.sub.2. The change in free energy is reduced by lowering the entropy change during the reaction by providing aluminum in a state of high entropy, and by increasing the magnitude of the change in enthalpy of the reaction or combinations thereof.

  2. Regeneration of aluminum hydride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Graetz, Jason Allan (Mastic, NY); Reilly, James J. (Bellport, NY)

    2009-04-21

    The present invention provides methods and materials for the formation of hydrogen storage alanes, AlH.sub.x, where x is greater than 0 and less than or equal to 6 at reduced H.sub.2 pressures and temperatures. The methods rely upon reduction of the change in free energy of the reaction between aluminum and molecular H.sub.2. The change in free energy is reduced by lowering the entropy change during the reaction by providing aluminum in a state of high entropy, by increasing the magnitude of the change in enthalpy of the reaction or combinations thereof.

  3. Scientists ignite aluminum water mix

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scientists ignite aluminum water mix Scientists ignite aluminum water mix Don't worry, that beer can you're holding is not going to spontaneously burst into flames. June 30, 2014 Los Alamos National Laboratory chemist Bryce Tappan ignites a small quantity of aluminum nanoparticle water mixture. In open air, the compound burns like a Fourth of July sparkler. Los Alamos National Laboratory chemist Bryce Tappan ignites a small quantity of aluminum nanoparticle water mixture. In open air, the

  4. Aluminum battery alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thompson, D.S.; Scott, D.H.

    1984-09-28

    Aluminum alloys suitable for use as anode structures in electrochemical cells are disclosed. These alloys include iron levels higher than previously felt possible, due to the presence of controlled amounts of manganese, with possible additions of magnesium and controlled amounts of gallium.

  5. Aluminum battery alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thompson, David S.; Scott, Darwin H.

    1985-01-01

    Aluminum alloys suitable for use as anode structures in electrochemical cs are disclosed. These alloys include iron levels higher than previously felt possible, due to the presence of controlled amounts of manganese, with possible additions of magnesium and controlled amounts of gallium.

  6. Fluxless aluminum brazing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Werner, W.J.

    1974-01-01

    This invention relates to a fluxless brazing alloy for use in forming brazed composites made from members of aluminum and its alloys. The brazing alloy consists of 35-55% Al, 10--20% Si, 25-60% Ge; 65-88% Al, 2-20% Si, 2--18% In; 65--80% Al, 15-- 25% Si, 5- 15% Y. (0fficial Gazette)

  7. SOLDERING OF ALUMINUM BASE METALS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erickson, G.F.

    1958-02-25

    This patent deals with the soldering of aluminum to metals of different types, such as copper, brass, and iron. This is accomplished by heating the aluminum metal to be soldered to slightly above 30 deg C, rubbing a small amount of metallic gallium into the part of the surface to be soldered, whereby an aluminum--gallium alloy forms on the surface, and then heating the aluminum piece to the melting point of lead--tin soft solder, applying lead--tin soft solder to this alloyed surface, and combining the aluminum with the other metal to which it is to be soldered.

  8. Aluminum processing energy benchmark report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2007-02-01

    Substantial energy efficiency gains have been made in the aluminum industry over the past forty years, resulting in a 58 percent decrease in energy utilization.

  9. Scientists ignite aluminum water mix

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of a chemical reaction - is a primary function in determining nanoaluminum combustion burn rates. "It's been long understood that nanoscale aluminum particles, 110 nanometers and...

  10. ITP Aluminum: Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Aluminum

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Industry | Department of Energy ITP Aluminum: Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Aluminum Industry ITP Aluminum: Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Aluminum Industry PDF icon aluminum.pdf More Documents & Publications ITP Aluminum: Technical Working Group on Inert Anode Technologies TTWG Licensing Guide EIS-0333: Draft Environmental Impact Statement

  11. Production of aluminum metal by electrolysis of aluminum sulfide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Minh, Nguyen Q.; Loutfy, Raouf O.; Yao, Neng-Ping

    1984-01-01

    Production of metallic aluminum by the electrolysis of Al.sub.2 S.sub.3 at 700.degree.-800.degree. C. in a chloride melt composed of one or more alkali metal chlorides, and one or more alkaline earth metal chlorides and/or aluminum chloride to provide improved operating characteristics of the process.

  12. Production of aluminum metal by electrolysis of aluminum sulfide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Minh, N.Q.; Loutfy, R.O.; Yao, N.P.

    1982-04-01

    Metallic aluminum may be produced by the electrolysis of Al/sub 2/S/sub 3/ at 700 to 800/sup 0/C in a chloride melt composed of one or more alkali metal chlorides, and one or more alkaline earth metal chlorides and/or aluminum chloride to provide improved operating characteristics of the process.

  13. Aluminum plasmonic metamaterials for structural color printing...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Aluminum plasmonic metamaterials for structural color printing Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Aluminum plasmonic metamaterials for structural color printing Authors: ...

  14. Aluminum alloys for satellite boxes : engineering guidelines...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Aluminum alloys for satellite boxes : engineering guidelines for obtaining adequate ... Title: Aluminum alloys for satellite boxes : engineering guidelines for obtaining adequate ...

  15. Spray Rolling Aluminum Strip

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lavernia, E.J.; Delplanque, J-P; McHugh, K.M.

    2006-05-10

    Spray forming is a competitive low-cost alternative to ingot metallurgy for manufacturing ferrous and non-ferrous alloy shapes. It produces materials with a reduced number of processing steps, while maintaining materials properties, with the possibility of near-net-shape manufacturing. However, there are several hurdles to large-scale commercial adoption of spray forming: 1) ensuring strip is consistently flat, 2) eliminating porosity, particularly at the deposit/substrate interface, and 3) improving material yield. Through this program, a new strip/sheet casting process, termed spray rolling, has been developed, which is an innovative manufacturing technique to produce aluminum net-shape products. Spray rolling combines the benefits of twin-roll casting and conventional spray forming, showing a promising potential to overcome the above hurdles associated with spray forming. Spray rolling requires less energy and generates less scrap than conventional processes and, consequently, enables the development of materials with lower environmental impacts in both processing and final products. Spray Rolling was developed as a collaborative project between the University of California-Davis, the Colorado School of Mines, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, and an industry team. The following objectives of this project were achieved: (1) Demonstration of the feasibility of the spray rolling process at the bench-scale level and evaluation of the materials properties of spray rolled aluminum strip alloys; and (2) Demonstration of 2X scalability of the process and documentation of technical hurdles to further scale up and initiate technology transfer to industry for eventual commercialization of the process.

  16. PREPARATION OF URANIUM-ALUMINUM ALLOYS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, R.H.

    1962-09-01

    A process is given for preparing uranium--aluminum alloys from a solution of uranium halide in an about equimolar molten alkali metal halide-- aluminum halide mixture and excess aluminum. The uranium halide is reduced and the uranium is alloyed with the excess aluminum. The alloy and salt are separated from each other. (AEC)

  17. Electrolyte treatment for aluminum reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Craig W.; Brooks, Richard J.; Frizzle, Patrick B.; Juric, Drago D.

    2002-01-01

    A method of treating an electrolyte for use in the electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum employing an anode and a cathode, the alumina dissolved in the electrolyte, the treating improving wetting of the cathode with molten aluminum during electrolysis. The method comprises the steps of providing a molten electrolyte comprised of ALF.sub.3 and at least one salt selected from the group consisting of NaF, KF and LiF, and treating the electrolyte by providing therein 0.004 to 0.2 wt. % of a transition metal or transition metal compound for improved wettability of the cathode with molten aluminum during subsequent electrolysis to reduce alumina to aluminum.

  18. Aluminum industry applications for OTEC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, M.S.; Leshaw, D.; Sathyanarayana, K.; Sprouse, A.M.; Thiagarajan, V.

    1980-12-01

    The objective of the program is to study the integration issues which must be resolved to realize the market potential of ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) power for the aluminum industry. The study established, as a baseline, an OTEC plant with an electrical output of 100 MWe which would power an aluminum reduction plant. The reduction plant would have a nominal annual output of about 60,000 metric tons of aluminum metal. Three modes of operation were studied, viz: 1. A reduction plant on shore and a floating OTEC power plant moored offshore supplying energy by cable. 2. A reduction plant on shore and a floating OTEC power plant at sea supplying energy by means of an ''energy bridge.'' 3. A floating reduction plant on the same platform as the OTEC power plant. For the floating OTEC/aluminum plantship, three reduction processes were examined. 1. The conventional Hall process with prebaked anodes. 2. The drained cathode Hall cell process. 3. The aluminum chloride reduction process.

  19. PREPARATION OF DIBASIC ALUMINUM NITRATE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gresky, A.T.; Nurmi, E.O.; Foster, D.L.; Wischow, R.P.; Savolainen, J.E.

    1960-04-01

    A method is given for the preparation and recovery of basic aluminum nltrates having an OH: Al ratio of at least two, comprising two steps. First, metallic aluminum is dissolved in aqueous Al(NO/sub 3/)/sub 3/, in the presence of a small quantity of elemental or ionic mercury, to increase its Al: NO/sub 3/ ratio into the range 1 to 1.2. The resulting aqueous solution is then added to an excess of a special organic solvent, typically a mixture of five parts methanol and six parts diethyl ether, whereupon the basic aluminum nitrate, e.g. Al/sub 6/(OH)/sub 13/-(NO/sub 3/)/sub 5/, recoverably precipitates.

  20. Aluminum-carbon composite electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farahmandi, C. Joseph (Auburn, AL); Dispennette, John M. (Auburn, AL)

    1998-07-07

    A high performance double layer capacitor having an electric double layer formed in the interface between activated carbon and an electrolyte is disclosed. The high performance double layer capacitor includes a pair of aluminum impregnated carbon composite electrodes having an evenly distributed and continuous path of aluminum impregnated within an activated carbon fiber preform saturated with a high performance electrolytic solution. The high performance double layer capacitor is capable of delivering at least 5 Wh/kg of useful energy at power ratings of at least 600 W/kg.

  1. Aluminum-carbon composite electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farahmandi, C.J.; Dispennette, J.M.

    1998-07-07

    A high performance double layer capacitor having an electric double layer formed in the interface between activated carbon and an electrolyte is disclosed. The high performance double layer capacitor includes a pair of aluminum impregnated carbon composite electrodes having an evenly distributed and continuous path of aluminum impregnated within an activated carbon fiber preform saturated with a high performance electrolytic solution. The high performance double layer capacitor is capable of delivering at least 5 Wh/kg of useful energy at power ratings of at least 600 W/kg. 3 figs.

  2. Dissolution and Separation of Aluminum and Aluminosilicates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFarlane, Joanna; Benker, Dennis; DePaoli, David W.; Felker, Leslie Kevin; Mattus, Catherine H.

    2015-12-19

    The selection of an aluminum alloy for target irradiation affects post-irradiation target dissolution and separations. Recent tests with aluminum alloy 6061 yielded greater than expected precipitation in the dissolver, forming up to 10 wt.% solids of aluminum hydroxides and aluminosilicates. Aluminosilicate dissolution presents challenges in a number of different areas, metals extraction from minerals, flyash treatment, and separations from aluminum alloys. We present experimental work that attempts to maximize dissolution of aluminum metal, along with silicon, magnesium, and copper impurities, through control of temperature, the rate of reagent addition, and incubation time. Aluminum phase transformations have been identified as a function of time and temperature, using X-ray diffraction. Solutions have been analyzed using wet chemical methods and X-ray fluorescence. Our data have been compared with published calculations of aluminum phase diagrams. Approaches are given to enhance the dissolution of aluminum and aluminosilicate phases in caustic solution.

  3. Dissolution and Separation of Aluminum and Aluminosilicates

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    McFarlane, Joanna; Benker, Dennis; DePaoli, David W.; Felker, Leslie Kevin; Mattus, Catherine H.

    2015-12-19

    The selection of an aluminum alloy for target irradiation affects post-irradiation target dissolution and separations. Recent tests with aluminum alloy 6061 yielded greater than expected precipitation in the dissolver, forming up to 10 wt.% solids of aluminum hydroxides and aluminosilicates. Aluminosilicate dissolution presents challenges in a number of different areas, metals extraction from minerals, flyash treatment, and separations from aluminum alloys. We present experimental work that attempts to maximize dissolution of aluminum metal, along with silicon, magnesium, and copper impurities, through control of temperature, the rate of reagent addition, and incubation time. Aluminum phase transformations have been identified as amore » function of time and temperature, using X-ray diffraction. Solutions have been analyzed using wet chemical methods and X-ray fluorescence. Our data have been compared with published calculations of aluminum phase diagrams. Approaches are given to enhance the dissolution of aluminum and aluminosilicate phases in caustic solution.« less

  4. Electron beam weld development on a Filter Pack Assembly. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dereskiewicz, J.P.

    1994-06-01

    A continuous electron beam welding procedure was developed to replace the manual gas tungsten arc welding procedure on the Filter Pack Assembly. A statistical study was used to evaluate the feasibility of electron beam welding 6061-T6 aluminum covers to A356 cast weldments throughout the joint tolerance range specified on product drawings. Peak temperature exposures were not high enough to degrade the heat sensitive electrical components inside the cast weldment. Actual weldments with alodine coating on the weld joint area were successfully cleaned using a nonmetallic fiberglass brush cleaning method.

  5. Electrolytic Cell For Production Of Aluminum From Alumina

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bradford, Donald R; Barnett, Robert J.; Mezner, Michael B.

    2004-11-02

    An electrolytic cell for producing aluminum from alumina having a reservoir for collecting molten aluminum remote from the electrolysis.

  6. ITP Aluminum: Alumina Technology Roadmap | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Alumina Technology Roadmap ITP Aluminum: Alumina Technology Roadmap PDF icon alumina.pdf More Documents & Publications U.S. Energy Requirements for Aluminum Production ITP Aluminum: Aluminum Industry Vision: Sustainable Solutions for a Dynamic World ITP Aluminum: Aluminum Industry Technology Roadmap

  7. Decarbonization process for carbothermically produced aluminum

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bruno, Marshall J.; Carkin, Gerald E.; DeYoung, David H.; Dunlap, Sr., Ronald M.

    2015-06-30

    A method of recovering aluminum is provided. An alloy melt having Al.sub.4C.sub.3 and aluminum is provided. This mixture is cooled and then a sufficient amount of a finely dispersed gas is added to the alloy melt at a temperature of about 700.degree. C. to about 900.degree. C. The aluminum recovered is a decarbonized carbothermically produced aluminum where the step of adding a sufficient amount of the finely dispersed gas effects separation of the aluminum from the Al.sub.4C.sub.3 precipitates by flotation, resulting in two phases with the Al.sub.4C.sub.3 precipitates being the upper layer and the decarbonized aluminum being the lower layer. The aluminum is then recovered from the Al.sub.4C.sub.3 precipitates through decanting.

  8. Titanium Matrix Composite Tooling Material for Aluminum Die Castings |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Titanium Matrix Composite Tooling Material for Aluminum Die Castings Titanium Matrix Composite Tooling Material for Aluminum Die Castings Innovative Material Saves Energy and Extends Product Life In Aluminum Die-Casting Components In aluminum die-casting, molten aluminum is forced under high pressure into a die cavity. First a "shot" of molten aluminum is ladled into a shot sleeve and the shot of molten aluminum is forced by a plunger through the shot sleeve

  9. Production of anhydrous aluminum chloride composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vandergrift, G.F. III; Krumpelt, M.; Horwitz, E.P.

    1981-10-08

    A process is described for producing an anhydrous aluminum chloride composition from a water-based aluminous material such as a slurry of aluminum hydroxide in a multistage extraction process in which the aluminum ion is first extracted into an organic liquid containing an acidic extractant and then extracted from the organic phase into an alkali metal chloride or chlorides to form a melt containing a mixture of chlorides of alkali metal and aluminum. In the process, the organic liquid may be recycled. In addition, the process advantageously includes an electrolysis cell for producing metallic aluminum and the alkali metal chloride or chlorides may be recycled for extraction of the aluminum from the organic phase.

  10. MECS 2006 - Alumina and Aluminum | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Alumina and Aluminum MECS 2006 - Alumina and Aluminum Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint for Alumina and Aluminum Sector (NAICS 3313) with Total Energy Input, October 2012 (MECS 2006) All available footprints and supporting documents Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint PDF icon Alumina and Aluminum More Documents & Publications Alumina and Aluminum (2010 MECS) MECS 2006 - Cement MECS 2006 - Glass

  11. Ultrahigh-Efficiency Aluminum Production Cells | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ultrahigh-Efficiency Aluminum Production Cells Ultrahigh-Efficiency Aluminum Production Cells PDF icon ultrahi-eff_aluminum.pdf More Documents & Publications U.S. Energy Requirements for Aluminum Production WA_98_001_REYNOLDS_METALS_COMPANY_Waiver_of_Domestic_and_For.pdf ITP Aluminum: Inert Anodes Roadmap

  12. PREPARATION OF ACTINIDE-ALUMINUM ALLOYS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, R.H.

    1962-09-01

    BS>A process is given for preparing alloys of aluminum with plutonium, uranium, and/or thorium by chlorinating actinide oxide dissolved in molten alkali metal chloride with hydrochloric acid, chlorine, and/or phosgene, adding aluminum metal, and passing air and/or water vapor through the mass. Actinide metal is formed and alloyed with the aluminum. After cooling to solidification, the alloy is separated from the salt. (AEC)

  13. Could Aluminum Nitride Produce Quantum Bits?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Home » News & Publications » NERSC News » Science News » Could Aluminum Nitride Produce Quantum Bits? Could Aluminum Nitride Produce Quantum Bits? After running simulations at NERSC researchers believe it's possible May 2, 2016 Linda Vu, lvu@lbl.gov, 510.495.2402 Graphical Abstract AlN Sci Rep no logo cropped This graphic illustrates an engineered nitrogen vacancy in aluminum nitride. Quantum computers have the potential to break common cryptography techniques, search huge datasets and

  14. High resistivity aluminum antimonide radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sherohman, John W.; Coombs, III, Arthur W.; Yee, Jick H.

    2005-05-03

    Bulk Aluminum Antimonide (AlSb)-based single crystal materials have been prepared for use as ambient (room) temperature X-ray and Gamma-ray radiation detection.

  15. Enhanced structural color generation in aluminum metamaterials...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Enhanced structural color generation in aluminum metamaterials coated with a thin polymer layer Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Enhanced structural color generation in ...

  16. Aluminum-stabilized NB3SN superconductor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scanlan, Ronald M.

    1988-01-01

    An aluminum-stabilized Nb.sub.3 Sn superconductor and process for producing same, utilizing ultrapure aluminum. Ductile components are co-drawn with aluminum to produce a conductor suitable for winding magnets. After winding, the conductor is heated to convert it to the brittle Nb.sub.3 Sn superconductor phase, using a temperature high enough to perform the transformation but still below the melting point of the aluminum. This results in reaction of substantially all of the niobium, while providing stabilization and react-in-place features which are beneficial in the fabrication of magnets utilizing superconducting materials.

  17. High resistivity aluminum antimonide radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sherohman, John W. (Livermore, CA); Coombs, III, Arthur W. (Patterson, CA); Yee, Jick H. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-12-18

    Bulk Aluminum Antimonide (AlSb)-based single crystal materials have been prepared for use as ambient (room) temperature X-ray and Gamma-ray radiation detection.

  18. Activated Aluminum Hydride Hydrogen Storage Compositions - Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Startup America Startup America Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Find More Like This Return to Search Activated Aluminum Hydride Hydrogen Storage Compositions...

  19. ITP Aluminum: Inert Anodes Roadmap | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Inert Anodes Roadmap ITP Aluminum: Inert Anodes Roadmap PDF icon inertroad.pdf More Documents & Publications U.S. Energy Requirements for Aluminum Production Ultrahigh-Efficiency Aluminum Production Cells

  20. Aluminum low temperature smelting cell metal collection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beck, Theodore R.; Brown, Craig W.

    2002-07-16

    A method of producing aluminum in an electrolytic cell containing alumina dissolved in an electrolyte. The method comprises the steps of providing a molten salt electrolyte in an electrolytic cell having an anodic liner for containing the electrolyte, the liner having an anodic bottom and walls including at least one end wall extending upwardly from the anodic bottom, the anodic liner being substantially inert with respect to the molten electrolyte. A plurality of non-consumable anodes is provided and disposed vertically in the electrolyte. A plurality of cathodes is disposed vertically in the electrolyte in alternating relationship with the anodes. The anodes are electrically connected to the anodic liner. An electric current is passed through the anodic liner to the anodes, through the electrolyte to the cathodes, and aluminum is deposited on said cathodes. Oxygen bubbles are generated at the anodes and the anodic liner, the bubbles stirring the electrolyte. Molten aluminum is collected from the cathodes into a tubular member positioned underneath the cathodes. The tubular member is in liquid communication with each cathode to collect the molten aluminum therefrom while excluding electrolyte. Molten aluminum is delivered through the tubular member to a molten aluminum reservoir located substantially opposite the anodes and cathodes. The molten aluminum is collected from the cathodes and delivered to the reservoir while avoiding contact of the molten aluminum with the anodic bottom.

  1. SOLID STATE BONDING OF THORIUM WITH ALUMINUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Storchhelm, S.

    1959-12-01

    A method is described for bonding thorium and aluminum by placing clean surfaces of thorium and aluminum in contact with each other and hot pressing the metals together in a protective atmosphere at a temperature of about 375 to 575 deg C and at a pressure of at least 10 tsi to effect a bond.

  2. METHOD FOR JOINING ALUMINUM TO STAINLESS STEEL

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lemon, L.C.

    1960-05-24

    Aluminum may be joined to stainless steel without the use of flux by tinning the aluminum with a tin solder containing 1% silver and 1% lead, tinning the stainless steel with a 50% lead 50% tin solder, and then sweating the tinned surfaces together.

  3. Materials Selection for the HFIR Cold Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrell, K.

    2001-08-24

    In year 2002 the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) will be fitted with a source of cold neutrons to upgrade and expand its existing neutron scattering facilities. The in-reactor components of the new source consist of a moderator vessel containing supercritical hydrogen gas moderator at a temperature of 20K and pressure of 15 bar, and a surrounding vacuum vessel. They will be installed in an enlarged beam tube located at the site of the present horizontal beam tube, HB-4; which terminates within the reactor's beryllium reflector. These components must withstand exceptional service conditions. This report describes the reasons and factors underlying the choice of 6061-T6 aluminum alloy for construction of the in-reactor components. The overwhelming considerations are the need to minimize generation of nuclear heat and to remove that heat through the flowing moderator, and to achieve a minimum service life of about 8 years coincident with the replacement schedule for the beryllium reflector. 6061-T6 aluminum alloy offers the best combination of low nuclear heating, high thermal conductivity, good fabricability, compatibility with hydrogen, superior cryogenic properties, and a well-established history of satisfactory performance in nuclear environments. These features are documented herein. An assessment is given of the expected performance of each component of the cold source.

  4. Commonwealth Aluminum: Manufacturer Conducts Plant-Wide Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PDF icon Commonwealth Aluminum: Manufacturer Conducts Plant-Wide Energy Assessments at Two Aluminum Sheet Production Operations (April 2006) More Documents & Publications Metal and ...

  5. Friction Stir Welding Aluminum for Lightweight Vehicles | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Friction Stir Welding Aluminum for Lightweight Vehicles Friction Stir Welding Aluminum for Lightweight Vehicles Addthis Description In this video, a researcher from Pacific ...

  6. Composite-Reinforced Aluminum Conductor | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    annealed trapezoidal-shaped conductive aluminum wires. Compared with a conventional steel core cable, the new core allows for up to 28% more conductive aluminum to be wrapped...

  7. Rechargeable Aluminum Batteries with Conducting Polymers as Positive...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Rechargeable Aluminum Batteries with Conducting Polymers as Positive Electrodes. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Rechargeable Aluminum Batteries with ...

  8. Rechargeable Aluminum Batteries with Conducting Polymers as Active...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Rechargeable Aluminum Batteries with Conducting Polymers as Active Cathode Materials. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Rechargeable Aluminum Batteries with ...

  9. Aluminum-based metal-air batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Friesen, Cody A.; Martinez, Jose Antonio Bautista

    2016-01-12

    Provided in one embodiment is an electrochemical cell, comprising: (i) a plurality of electrodes, comprising a fuel electrode that comprises aluminum and an air electrode that absorbs gaseous oxygen, the electrodes being operable in a discharge mode wherein the aluminum is oxidized at the fuel electrode and oxygen is reduced at the air electrode, and (ii) an ionically conductive medium, comprising an organic solvent; wherein during non-use of the cell, the organic solvent promotes formation of a protective interface between the aluminum of the fuel electrode and the ionically conductive medium, and wherein at an onset of the discharge mode, at least some of the protective interface is removed from the aluminum to thereafter permit oxidation of the aluminum during the discharge mode.

  10. U.S. Energy Requirements for Aluminum Production | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Requirements for Aluminum Production U.S. Energy Requirements for Aluminum Production Historical Perspective, Theoretical Limits, and Current Practices. PDF icon U.S. Energy Requirements for Aluminum Production (February 2007) More Documents & Publications Ultrahigh-Efficiency Aluminum Production Cells ITP Aluminum: Aluminum Industry Technology Roadmap ITP Aluminum: Aluminum Industry Vision: Sustainable Solutions for a Dynamic World

  11. Decontamination and reuse of ORGDP aluminum scrap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Hayden, H.W.; Wilson, D.F.

    1996-12-01

    The Gaseous Diffusion Plants, or GDPs, have significant amounts of a number of metals, including nickel, aluminum, copper, and steel. Aluminum was used extensively throughout the GDPs because of its excellent strength to weight ratios and good resistance to corrosion by UF{sub 6}. This report is concerned with the recycle of aluminum stator and rotor blades from axial compressors. Most of the stator and rotor blades were made from 214-X aluminum casting alloy. Used compressor blades were contaminated with uranium both as a result of surface contamination and as an accumulation held in surface-connected voids inside of the blades. A variety of GDP studies were performed to evaluate the amounts of uranium retained in the blades; the volume, area, and location of voids in the blades; and connections between surface defects and voids. Based on experimental data on deposition, uranium content of the blades is 0.3%, or roughly 200 times the value expected from blade surface area. However, this value does correlate with estimated internal surface area and with lengthy deposition times. Based on a literature search, it appears that gaseous decontamination or melt refining using fluxes specific for uranium removal have the potential for removing internal contamination from aluminum blades. A melt refining process was used to recycle blades during the 1950s and 1960s. The process removed roughly one-third of the uranium from the blades. Blade cast from recycled aluminum appeared to perform as well as blades from virgin material. New melt refining and gaseous decontamination processes have been shown to provide substantially better decontamination of pure aluminum. If these techniques can be successfully adapted to treat aluminum 214-X alloy, internal and, possibly, external reuse of aluminum alloys may be possible.

  12. Cathode for aluminum producing electrolytic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Craig W.

    2004-04-13

    A method of producing aluminum in an electrolytic cell comprising the steps of providing an anode in a cell, preferably a non-reactive anode, and also providing a cathode in the cell, the cathode comprised of a base material having low electrical conductivity reactive with molten aluminum to provide a highly electrically conductive layer on the base material. Electric current is passed from the anode to the cathode and alumina is reduced and aluminum is deposited at the cathode. The cathode base material is selected from boron carbide, and zirconium oxide.

  13. A simple aluminum gasket for use with both stainless steel and aluminum flanges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langley, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    A technique has been developed for making aluminum wire seal gaskets of various sizes and shapes for use with both stainless steel and aluminum alloy flanges. The gasket material used is 0.9999 pure aluminum, drawn to a diameter of 3 mm. This material can be easily welded and formed into various shapes. A single gasket has been successfully used up to five times without baking. The largest gasket tested to date is 3.5 m long and was used in the shape of a parallelogram. Previous use of aluminum wire gaskets, including results for bakeout at temperatures from 20 to 660{degree}C, is reviewed. A search of the literature indicates that this is the first reported use of aluminum wire gaskets for aluminum alloy flanges. The technique is described in detail, and the results are summarized. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Formulation and method for preparing gels comprising hydrous aluminum oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collins, Jack L.

    2014-06-17

    Formulations useful for preparing hydrous aluminum oxide gels contain a metal salt including aluminum, an organic base, and a complexing agent. Methods for preparing gels containing hydrous aluminum oxide include heating a formulation to a temperature sufficient to induce gel formation, where the formulation contains a metal salt including aluminum, an organic base, and a complexing agent.

  15. A scanning Kelvin probe analysis of aluminum and aluminum alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, D.C.; Grecsek, G.E.; Roberts, R.O.

    1999-07-01

    A scanning Kelvin probe was used to determine a correlation between work function measurements in air and corrosion potential measurements in solution of pure metals. Test panels of AA2024-T3 treated with various surface preparations and primer/coatings were also analyzed using this technique. Filiform corrosion was observed on a scribed panel that had been exposed to a humid environment, whereas on a non-scribed and non-exposed test panel, holidays in the coating were observed and clearly defined. Work function (wf) analysis yielded more noble values for areas within the scribe mark and more active values were observed for areas adjacent to the scribe mark where delamination of the coating and filiform corrosion was observed. The tips of corrosion filaments were found to be anodic in relation to the body of the filament, with areas of activity extending away from the filaments themselves. Measurements made on an aircraft access panel resulted in the detection of a potential gradient within the repair area. These results indicate that the scanning Kelvin probe is a useful non-destructive technique for the detection of delamination and disbanding of coatings, coating anomalies and corrosion susceptibility of coatings on aluminum aircraft alloys.

  16. Aqueous recovery of actinides from aluminum alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, J.H.; Chostner, D.F.; Gray, L.W.

    1989-01-01

    Early in the 1980's, a joint Rocky Flats/Savannah River program was established to recover actinides from scraps and residues generated during Rocky Flats purification operations. The initial program involved pyrochemical treatment of Molten Salt Extraction (MSE) chloride salts and Electrorefining (ER) anode heel metal to form aluminum alloys suitable for aqueous processing at Savannah River. Recently Rocky Flats has expressed interest in expanding the aluminum alloy program to include treatment of chloride salt residues from a modified Molten Salt Extraction process and from the Electrorefining purification operations. Samples of the current aluminum alloy buttons were prepared at Rocky Flats and sent to Savannah River Laboratory for flowsheet development and characterization of the alloys. A summary of the scrub alloy-anode heel alloy program will be presented along with recent results from aqueous dissolution studies of the new aluminum alloys. 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. PROCESS OF ELECTROPLATING METALS WITH ALUMINUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schickner, W.C.

    1960-04-26

    A process of electroplating aluminum on metals from a nonaqueous bath and a novel method of pretreating or conditioning the metal prior to electrodeposition of the aluminum are given. The process of this invention, as applied by way of example to the plating of uranium, comprises the steps of plating the uranium with the barrier inetal, immersing the barrier-coated uranium in fatty acid, and electrolyzing a water-free diethyl ether solution of aluminum chloride and lithium hydride while making the uranium the cathode until an aluminum deposit of the desired thickness has been formed. According to another preferred embodiment the barrier-coated uranium is immersed in an isopropyl alcohol solution of sterato chromic chloride prior to the fatty acid treatment of this invention.

  18. Study of constitution diagram aluminum-tantalum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glazov, V.M.; Mal'tsev, M.V.; Chistyakov, Y.D.

    1988-10-20

    Alloys of aluminum with tantalum were for the first time obtained by aluminothermic method in 1868 by Moriniak. Later these alloys were studied in the works of Schirmeister (1915) and Brouwer (1938), moreover Brouwer established that tantalum with aluminum forms the chemical compound TaA1, which has tetragonal crystal lattice with parameters a=5.422 angstroms and c=8.536 angstroms (1). However despite the fact that alloys of aluminum with tantalum long ago are obtained already, constitution diagram of this system is not studied until recently. In connection with the application of tantalum as the modifying additive in aluminum alloys an emergency in the construction of this diagram, without the knowledge by which it is not possible to give the correct explanation of the mechanism of the very process of the modification of primary grain. For this purpose was undertaken this work. Russian translations.

  19. Regeneration of Aluminum Hydride - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Regeneration of Aluminum Hydride Brookhaven National Laboratory Contact BNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Regeneration of Lithium Aluminum Hydride (919 KB) Technology Marketing Summary Alane is one of the most promising solutions to storing hydrogen for use in hydrogen fuel cells. This technology provides exceptional improvement in solving the difficult problem of economically preparing the material. Description Describes methods and materials required for the

  20. The Electrical Properties of Native and Deposited Thin Aluminum Oxide

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Layers on Aluminum: Hydration Effects (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: The Electrical Properties of Native and Deposited Thin Aluminum Oxide Layers on Aluminum: Hydration Effects Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Electrical Properties of Native and Deposited Thin Aluminum Oxide Layers on Aluminum: Hydration Effects × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical

  1. Low Temperature Aluminum Dissolution Of Sludge Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keefer, M.T.; Hamm, B.A.; Pike, J.A. [Washington Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States)

    2008-07-01

    High Level Waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently stored in aging underground storage tanks. This waste is a complex mixture of insoluble solids, referred to as sludge, and soluble salts. Continued long-term storage of these radioactive wastes poses an environmental risk. The sludge is currently being stabilized in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) through a vitrification process immobilizing the waste in a borosilicate glass matrix for long-term storage in a federal repository. Without additional treatment, the existing volume of sludge would produce nearly 8000 canisters of vitrified waste. Aluminum compounds, along with other non-radioactive components, represent a significant portion of the sludge mass currently planned for vitrification processing in DWPF. Removing the aluminum from the waste stream reduces the volume of sludge requiring vitrification and improves production rates. Treating the sludge with a concentrated sodium hydroxide (caustic) solution at elevated temperatures (>90 deg. C) to remove aluminum is part of an overall sludge mass reduction effort to reduce the number of vitrified canisters, shorten the life cycle for the HLW system, and reduce the risk associated with the long term storage of radioactive wastes at SRS. A projected reduction of nearly 900 canisters will be achieved by performing aluminum dissolution on six targeted sludge batches; however, a project to develop and install equipment will not be ready for operation until 2013. The associated upgrades necessary to implement a high temperature process in existing facilities are costly and present many technical challenges. Efforts to better understand the characteristics of the sludge mass and dissolution kinetics are warranted to overcome these challenges. Opportunities to further reduce the amount of vitrified waste and increase production rates should also be pursued. Sludge staged in Tank 51 as the next sludge batch for feed to DWPF consisted primarily of radioactive wastes containing a very high aluminum concentration. Based on initial laboratory testing and previous sludge characterization, aluminum in this sludge could be dissolved at low temperature (no more than 65 deg. C) in a concentrated caustic solution. The amount of aluminum predicted to dissolve under these conditions ranged from 25% to 80%. An opportunity existed to remove a significant amount of aluminum prior to vitrification in DWPF and increase the level of understanding of the effects of caustic dissolution of aluminum at lower temperatures. This paper presents the results of a real waste laboratory demonstration and full-scale implementation of a low temperature aluminum dissolution process which should be considered as a viable means to reduce radioactive sludge mass and reduce the amount of waste to be vitrified. (authors)

  2. Underwater vapor phase burning of aluminum particles and on aluminum ignition during steam explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Epstein, M. )

    1991-09-01

    Recently reported experimental studies on aluminum-water steam explosions indicate that there may be a critical metal temperature at which the process changes over from a physical explosion to one which is very violent and involves the rapid liberation of chemical energy. In this report we examine the hypothesis that vapor-phase burning of aluminum is a necessary condition for the occurrence of such ignition-type'' steam explosions. An available two-phase stagnation flow film-boiling model is used to calculate the steam flux to the vaporizing aluminum surface. Combining this calculation with the notion that there is an upper limit to the magnitude of the metal vaporization rate at which the reaction regime must change from vapor phase to surface burning, leads to prediction of the critical metal surface temperature below which vapor phase burning is impossible. The critical temperature is predicted for both the aluminum-water pre-mixture configuration in which coarse drops of aluminum are falling freely through water and for the finely-fragmented aluminum drops in the wake of the pressure shock that triggers'' the explosion. Vapor phase burning is predicted to be possible during the pre-mixture phase but not very likely during the trigger phase of a steam explosion. The implications of these findings in terms of the validity of the hypothesis that ignition may begin with the vapor phase burning of aluminum is discussed. Recently postulated, alternative mechanisms of underwater aluminum ignition are also discussed.

  3. Underwater vapor phase burning of aluminum particles and on aluminum ignition during steam explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Epstein, M.

    1991-09-01

    Recently reported experimental studies on aluminum-water steam explosions indicate that there may be a critical metal temperature at which the process changes over from a physical explosion to one which is very violent and involves the rapid liberation of chemical energy. In this report we examine the hypothesis that vapor-phase burning of aluminum is a necessary condition for the occurrence of such ``ignition-type`` steam explosions. An available two-phase stagnation flow film-boiling model is used to calculate the steam flux to the vaporizing aluminum surface. Combining this calculation with the notion that there is an upper limit to the magnitude of the metal vaporization rate at which the reaction regime must change from vapor phase to surface burning, leads to prediction of the critical metal surface temperature below which vapor phase burning is impossible. The critical temperature is predicted for both the aluminum-water pre-mixture configuration in which coarse drops of aluminum are falling freely through water and for the finely-fragmented aluminum drops in the wake of the pressure shock that ``triggers`` the explosion. Vapor phase burning is predicted to be possible during the pre-mixture phase but not very likely during the trigger phase of a steam explosion. The implications of these findings in terms of the validity of the hypothesis that ignition may begin with the vapor phase burning of aluminum is discussed. Recently postulated, alternative mechanisms of underwater aluminum ignition are also discussed.

  4. JOBAID-VIEWING USER RECORDS

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    In this job aid you will View To-Do List using Filter and View options, View Completed Work, and View Curriculum Status and Detials areas.

  5. Aluminum phosphate ceramics for waste storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagh, Arun; Maloney, Martin D

    2014-06-03

    The present disclosure describes solid waste forms and methods of processing waste. In one particular implementation, the invention provides a method of processing waste that may be particularly suitable for processing hazardous waste. In this method, a waste component is combined with an aluminum oxide and an acidic phosphate component in a slurry. A molar ratio of aluminum to phosphorus in the slurry is greater than one. Water in the slurry may be evaporated while mixing the slurry at a temperature of about 140-200.degree. C. The mixed slurry may be allowed to cure into a solid waste form. This solid waste form includes an anhydrous aluminum phosphate with at least a residual portion of the waste component bound therein.

  6. Roll Casting of Aluminum Alloy Clad Strip

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakamura, R.; Tsuge, H. [Graduate School of Osaka Institute of Technology (Japan); Haga, T. [Osaka Institute of Technology, 5-16-1 Omiya Asahiku Osaka city 535-8585 (Japan); Watari, H. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuda Midoriku Yokohama city 226-8502 (Japan); Kumai, S. [Gunma University, 1-5-1 tenjin cho Kiryu city 376-8515 (Japan)

    2011-01-17

    Casting of aluminum alloy three layers of clad strip was tried using the two sets of twin roll casters, and effects of the casting parameters on the cladding conditions were investigated. One twin roll caster was mounted on the other twin roll caster. Base strip was 8079 aluminum alloy and overlay strips were 6022 aluminum alloy. Effects of roll-load of upper and lower casters and melt temperature of the lower caster were investigated. When the roll-load of the upper and lower caster was large enough, the overlay strip could be solidified and be connected. The overlay strip could be connected when the melt of the overlay strip cast by the lower caster was low enough. Sound three layers of clad strip could be cast by proper conditions.

  7. Lithium-aluminum-iron electrode composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1979-01-01

    A negative electrode composition is presented for use in a secondary electrochemical cell. The cell also includes an electrolyte with lithium ions such as a molten salt of alkali metal halides or alkaline earth metal halides that can be used in high-temperature cells. The cell's positive electrode contains a a chalcogen or a metal chalcogenide as the active electrode material. The negative electrode composition includes up to 50 atom percent lithium as the active electrode constituent in an alloy of aluminum-iron. Various binary and ternary intermetallic phases of lithium, aluminum and iron are formed. The lithium within the intermetallic phase of Al.sub.5 Fe.sub.2 exhibits increased activity over that of lithium within a lithium-aluminum alloy to provide an increased cell potential of up to about 0.25 volt.

  8. Lithium-aluminum-magnesium electrode composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Melendres, Carlos A.; Siegel, Stanley

    1978-01-01

    A negative electrode composition is presented for use in a secondary, high-temperature electrochemical cell. The cell also includes a molten salt electrolyte of alkali metal halides or alkaline earth metal halides and a positive electrode including a chalcogen or a metal chalcogenide as the active electrode material. The negative electrode composition includes up to 50 atom percent lithium as the active electrode constituent and a magnesium-aluminum alloy as a structural matrix. Various binary and ternary intermetallic phases of lithium, magnesium, and aluminum are formed but the electrode composition in both its charged and discharged state remains substantially free of the alpha lithium-aluminum phase and exhibits good structural integrity.

  9. ThreatView

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2007-09-25

    The ThreatView project is based on our prior work with the existing ParaView open-source scientific visualization application. Where ParaView provides a grapical client optimized scientific visualization over the VTK parallel client server architecture, ThreatView provides a client optimized for more generic visual analytics over the same architecture. Because ThreatView is based on the VTK parallel client-server architecture, data sources can reside on remote hosts, and processing and rendering can be performed in parallel. As seenmore » in Fig. 1, ThreatView provides four main methods for visualizing data: Landscape View, which displays a graph using a landscape metaphor where clusters of graph nodes produce "hills" in the landscape; Graph View, which displays a graph using a traditional "ball-and-stick" style; Table View, which displays tabular data in a standard spreadsheet; and Attribute View, which displays a tabular "histogram" of input data - for a selected table column, the Attribute View displays each unique value within the column, and the number of times that value appears in the data. There are two supplemental view types: Text View, which displays tabular data one-record-at-a-time; and the Statistics View, which displays input metadata, such as the number of vertices and edges in a graph, the number of rows in a table, etc.« less

  10. Designing aluminum sealing glasses for manufacturability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kovacic, L.; Crowder, S.V.; Brow, R.K.; Bencoe, D.N.

    1993-12-31

    Manufacturability issues involved in the development of new sealing glasses include tailoring glass compositions to meet material and component requirements and determining the optimum seal processing parameters. For each of these issues, statistical analysis can be used to shorten the time between concept and product in the development of what is essentially a new manufacturing technology. We use the development of our new family of phosphate-based glasses for aluminum/stainless steel and aluminum/CuBe hermetic sealing, the ALSG family, to illustrate the statistical approach.

  11. Aluminum plasmonic metamaterials for structural color printing

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cheng, Fei; Gao, Jie; Stan, Liliana; Rosenmann, Daniel; Czaplewski, David; Yang, Xiaodong

    2015-05-26

    We report a structural color printing platform based on aluminum plasmonic metamaterials supporting near perfect light absorption and narrow-band spectral response tunable across the visible spectrum to realize high-resolution, angle-insensitive color printing with high color purity and saturation. Additionally, the fabricated metamaterials can be protected by a transparent polymer thin layer for ambient use with further improved color performance. The demonstrated structural color printing with aluminum plasmonic metamaterials offers great potential for relevant applications such as security marking and information storage.

  12. Method of winning aluminum metal from aluminous ore

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loutfy, Raouf O.; Keller, Rudolf; Yao, Neng-Ping

    1981-01-01

    Aluminous ore such as bauxite containing alumina is blended with coke or other suitable form of carbon and reacted with sulfur gas at an elevated temperature. For handling, the ore and coke can be extruded into conveniently sized pellets. The reaction with sulfur gas produces molten aluminum sulfide which is separated from residual solid reactants and impurities. The aluminum sulfide is further increased in temperature to cause its decomposition or sublimation, yielding aluminum subsulfide liquid (AlS) and sulfur gas that is recycled. The aluminum monosulfide is then cooled to below its disproportionation temperature to again form molten aluminum sulfide and aluminum metal. A liquid-liquid or liquid-solid separation, depending on the separation temperature, provides product aluminum and aluminum sulfide for recycle to the disproportionation step.

  13. Reaction of Aluminum with Water to Produce Hydrogen: A Study...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Study of Issues Related to the Use of Aluminum for On-Board Vehicular Hydrogen Storage. Version 2, 2010. Reaction of Aluminum with Water to Produce Hydrogen: A Study of...

  14. Reaction of Aluminum with Water to Produce Hydrogen - 2010 Update

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    A Study of Issues Related to the Use of Aluminum for On-Board Vehicular Hydrogen Storage The purpose of this White Paper is to describe and evaluate the potential of aluminum-water reactions for the

  15. Cathode Connector For Aluminum Low Temperature Smelting Cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Craig W.; Beck, Theodore R.; Frizzle, Patrick B.

    2003-07-16

    Cathode connector means for low temperature aluminum smelting cell for connecting titanium diboride cathode or the like to bus bars.

  16. Activated aluminum hydride hydrogen storage compositions and uses thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sandrock, Gary; Reilly, James; Graetz, Jason; Wegrzyn, James E.

    2010-11-23

    In one aspect, the invention relates to activated aluminum hydride hydrogen storage compositions containing aluminum hydride in the presence of, or absence of, hydrogen desorption stimulants. The invention particularly relates to such compositions having one or more hydrogen desorption stimulants selected from metal hydrides and metal aluminum hydrides. In another aspect, the invention relates to methods for generating hydrogen from such hydrogen storage compositions.

  17. Friction Stir Welding Aluminum for Lightweight Vehicles | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Friction Stir Welding Aluminum for Lightweight Vehicles Friction Stir Welding Aluminum for Lightweight Vehicles Addthis Description In this video, a researcher from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory describes a new aluminum joining process and the industry partnership that enabled its use for mass auto production

  18. High-Temperature Aluminum Alloys | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon pm044_smith_2012_o.pdf More Documents & Publications High-Temperature Aluminum Alloys Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: High Temperature Aluminum Alloys (Agreement ID:24034) Project ID:18518 Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Rapidly Solidified High Temperature Aluminum Alloys

  19. Method And Reactor For Production Of Aluminum By Carbothermic Reduction Of Alumina

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aune, Jan Arthur; Johansen, Kai

    2004-10-19

    A hollow partition wall is employed to feed carbon material to an underflow of a carbothermic reduction furnace used to make aluminum. The partition wall divides a low temperature reaction zone where aluminum oxide is reacted with carbon to form aluminum carbide and a high temperature reaction zone where the aluminum carbide and remaining aluminum oxide are reacted to form aluminum and carbon monoxide.

  20. Commonwealth Aluminum: Manufacturer Conducts Plant-Wide Energy Assessments at Two Aluminum Sheet Production Operations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This case study describes how Commonwealth Industries (now Aleris Rolled Products) conducted plant-wide energy assessments at its aluminum sheet rolling mills in Lewisport, Kentucky, and Uhrichsville, Ohio, to improve process and energy efficiency.

  1. Chemical vapor deposition of aluminum oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gordon, Roy; Kramer, Keith; Liu, Xinye

    2000-01-01

    An aluminum oxide film is deposited on a heated substrate by CVD from one or more alkylaluminum alkoxide compounds having composition R.sub.n Al.sub.2 (OR').sub.6-n, wherein R and R' are alkyl groups and n is in the range of 1 to 5.

  2. Polymer gel electrolytes for application in aluminum deposition and rechargeable aluminum ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xiao -Guang; Fang, Youxing; Jiang, Xueguang; Yoshii, Kazuki; Tsuda, Tetsuya; Dai, Sheng

    2015-10-22

    Polymer gel electrolyte using AlCl3 complexed acrylamide as functional monomer and ionic liquids based on acidic mixture of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (EMImCl) and AlCl3 as plasticizer has been successfully prepared for the first time by free radical polymerization. Aluminum deposition is successfully obtained with a polymer gel membrane contianing 80 wt% ionic liquid. As a result, the polymer gel membranes are also good candidates for rechargeable aluminum ion batteries.

  3. Polymer gel electrolytes for application in aluminum deposition and rechargeable aluminum ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sun, Xiao -Guang; Fang, Youxing; Jiang, Xueguang; Yoshii, Kazuki; Tsuda, Tetsuya; Dai, Sheng

    2015-10-22

    Polymer gel electrolyte using AlCl3 complexed acrylamide as functional monomer and ionic liquids based on acidic mixture of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (EMImCl) and AlCl3 as plasticizer has been successfully prepared for the first time by free radical polymerization. Aluminum deposition is successfully obtained with a polymer gel membrane contianing 80 wt% ionic liquid. As a result, the polymer gel membranes are also good candidates for rechargeable aluminum ion batteries.

  4. FLOWSHEET FOR ALUMINUM REMOVAL FROM SLUDGE BATCH 6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pike, J; Jeffrey Gillam, J

    2008-12-17

    Samples of Tank 12 sludge slurry show a substantially larger fraction of aluminum than originally identified in sludge batch planning. The Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) plans to formulate Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) with about one half of the sludge slurry in Tank 12 and one half of the sludge slurry in Tank 4. LWO identified aluminum dissolution as a method to mitigate the effect of having about 50% more solids in High Level Waste (HLW) sludge than previously planned. Previous aluminum dissolution performed in a HLW tank in 1982 was performed at approximately 85 C for 5 days and dissolved nearly 80% of the aluminum in the sludge slurry. In 2008, LWO successfully dissolved 64% of the aluminum at approximately 60 C in 46 days with minimal tank modifications and using only slurry pumps as a heat source. This report establishes the technical basis and flowsheet for performing an aluminum removal process in Tank 51 for SB6 that incorporates the lessons learned from previous aluminum dissolution evolutions. For SB6, aluminum dissolution process temperature will be held at a minimum of 65 C for at least 24 days, but as long as practical or until as much as 80% of the aluminum is dissolved. As planned, an aluminum removal process can reduce the aluminum in SB6 from about 84,500 kg to as little as 17,900 kg with a corresponding reduction of total insoluble solids in the batch from 246,000 kg to 131,000 kg. The extent of the reduction may be limited by the time available to maintain Tank 51 at dissolution temperature. The range of dissolution in four weeks based on the known variability in dissolution kinetics can range from 44 to more than 80%. At 44% of the aluminum dissolved, the mass reduction is approximately 1/2 of the mass noted above, i.e., 33,300 kg of aluminum instead of 66,600 kg. Planning to reach 80% of the aluminum dissolved should allow a maximum of 81 days for dissolution and reduce the allowance if test data shows faster kinetics. 47,800 kg of the dissolved aluminum will be stored in Tank 8 and 21,000 kg will be stored in saltcake via evaporation. Up to 77% of the total aluminum planned for SB6 may be removed via aluminum dissolution. Storage of the aluminum-laden supernate in Tank 8 will require routine evaluation of the free hydroxide concentration in order to maintain aluminum in solution. Periodic evaluation will be established on concurrent frequency with corrosion program samples as previously established for aluminum-laden supernate from SB5 that is stored in Tank 11.

  5. Process of electrolysis and fractional crystallization for aluminum purification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dawless, Robert K. (Monroeville, PA); Bowman, Kenneth A. (Leechburg, PA); Mazgaj, Robert M. (Lower Burrell, PA); Cochran, C. Norman (Oakmont, PA)

    1983-10-25

    A method for purifying aluminum that contains impurities, the method including the step of introducing such aluminum containing impurities to a charging and melting chamber located in an electrolytic cell of the type having a porous diaphragm permeable by the electrolyte of the cell and impermeable to molten aluminum. The method includes further the steps of supplying impure aluminum from the chamber to the anode area of the cell and electrolytically transferring aluminum from the anode area to the cathode through the diaphragm while leaving impurities in the anode area, thereby purifying the aluminum introduced into the chamber. The method includes the further steps of collecting the purified aluminum at the cathode, and lowering the level of impurities concentrated in the anode area by subjecting molten aluminum and impurities in said chamber to a fractional crystallization treatment wherein eutectic-type impurities crystallize and precipitate out of the aluminum. The eutectic impurities that have crystallized are physically removed from the chamber. The aluminum in the chamber is now suited for further purification as provided in the above step of electrolytically transferring aluminum through the diaphragm.

  6. Process of electrolysis and fractional crystallization for aluminum purification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dawless, R.K.; Bowman, K.A.; Mazgaj, R.M.; Cochran, C.N.

    1983-10-25

    A method is described for purifying aluminum that contains impurities, the method including the step of introducing such aluminum containing impurities to a charging and melting chamber located in an electrolytic cell of the type having a porous diaphragm permeable by the electrolyte of the cell and impermeable to molten aluminum. The method includes further the steps of supplying impure aluminum from the chamber to the anode area of the cell and electrolytically transferring aluminum from the anode area to the cathode through the diaphragm while leaving impurities in the anode area, thereby purifying the aluminum introduced into the chamber. The method includes the further steps of collecting the purified aluminum at the cathode, and lowering the level of impurities concentrated in the anode area by subjecting molten aluminum and impurities in said chamber to a fractional crystallization treatment wherein eutectic-type impurities crystallize and precipitate out of the aluminum. The eutectic impurities that have crystallized are physically removed from the chamber. The aluminum in the chamber is now suited for further purification as provided in the above step of electrolytically transferring aluminum through the diaphragm. 2 figs.

  7. Aluminum Target Dissolution in Support of the Pu-238 Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFarlane, Joanna; Benker, Dennis; DePaoli, David W; Felker, Leslie Kevin; Mattus, Catherine H

    2014-09-01

    Selection of an aluminum alloy for target cladding affects post-irradiation target dissolution and separations. Recent tests with aluminum alloy 6061 yielded greater than expected precipitation in the caustic dissolution step, forming up to 10 wt.% solids of aluminum hydroxides and aluminosilicates. We present a study to maximize dissolution of aluminum metal alloy, along with silicon, magnesium, and copper impurities, through control of temperature, the rate of reagent addition, and incubation time. Aluminum phase transformations have been identified as a function of time and temperature, using X-ray diffraction. Solutions have been analyzed using wet chemical methods and X-ray fluorescence. These data have been compared with published calculations of aluminum phase diagrams. Temperature logging during the transients has been investigated as a means to generate kinetic and mass transport data on the dissolution process. Approaches are given to enhance the dissolution of aluminum and aluminosilicate phases in caustic solution.

  8. Issues for conversion coating of aluminum alloys with hydrotalcite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drewien, C.A.; Buchheit, R.G.

    1993-12-01

    Hydrotalcite coatings on aluminum alloys are being developed for corrosion protection of aluminum in aggressive saline environments. Coating bath composition, surface pretreatment, and alloying elements in aluminum all influence the performance of these coatings during salt spray testing. The coating bath, comprised of lithium carbonate, requires aging by dissolution of aluminum into the bath in order to grow corrosion resistant coatings. Coatings formed in non- aged baths do not perform well in salt spray testing. The alloying elements in aluminum alloys, especially copper, influence the coating growth and formation leading to thin coatings. The effect of the alloy elements is to limit the supply of aluminum to the coating/electrolyte interface and hinder growth of hydrotalcite upon aluminum alloys.

  9. Production of sodium-22 from proton irradiated aluminum

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taylor, Wayne A.; Heaton, Richard C.; Jamriska, David J.

    1996-01-01

    A process for selective separation of sodium-22 from a proton irradiated minum target including dissolving a proton irradiated aluminum target in hydrochloric acid to form a first solution including aluminum ions and sodium ions, separating a portion of the aluminum ions from the first solution by crystallization of an aluminum salt, contacting the remaining first solution with an anion exchange resin whereby ions selected from the group consisting of iron and copper are selectively absorbed by the anion exchange resin while aluminum ions and sodium ions remain in solution, contacting the solution with an cation exchange resin whereby aluminum ions and sodium ions are adsorbed by the cation exchange resin, and, contacting the cation exchange resin with an acid solution capable of selectively separating the adsorbed sodium ions from the cation exchange resin while aluminum ions remain adsorbed on the cation exchange resin is disclosed.

  10. Ignition of Aluminum Particles and Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuhl, A L; Boiko, V M

    2010-04-07

    Here we review experimental data and models of the ignition of aluminum (Al) particles and clouds in explosion fields. The review considers: (i) ignition temperatures measured for single Al particles in torch experiments; (ii) thermal explosion models of the ignition of single Al particles; and (iii) the unsteady ignition Al particles clouds in reflected shock environments. These are used to develop an empirical ignition model appropriate for numerical simulations of Al particle combustion in shock dispersed fuel explosions.

  11. Mr. Mark Jackson Aluminum Company of America

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    _ of Energy Washington, DC 20565 Mr. Mark Jackson Aluminum Company of America 100 Technical Drive Alcoa Center, Pennsylvania 15069-0001 Dear Mr. Jackson: At,the request of the U.S. Department of Energy and with the consent of your company, Oak Ridge National Laboratory performed a radiological survey of the former ALCOA Research Labo,ratory at 600 Freeport Road in New Kensington, Pennsylvania. Three copies of the radiological survey report are enclosed for your information and use. An additional

  12. Degassing of Aluminum Alloys Using Ultrasonic Vibration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meek, T. T.; Han, Q.; Xu, H.

    2006-06-01

    The research was intended to lead to a better fundamental understanding of the effect of ultrasonic energy on the degassing of liquid metals and to develop practical approaches for the ultrasonic degassing of alloys. The goals of the project described here were to evaluate core principles, establish a quantitative basis for the ultrasonic degassing of aluminum alloy melts, and demonstrate the application of ultrsaonic processing during ingot casting and foundry shape casting.

  13. Regeneration of aluminum hydride - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    268,288 Site Map Printable Version Share this resource About Search Categories (15) Advanced Materials Biomass and Biofuels Building Energy Efficiency Electricity Transmission Energy Analysis Energy Storage Geothermal Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydropower, Wave and Tidal Industrial Technologies Solar Photovoltaic Solar Thermal Startup America Vehicles and Fuels Wind Energy Partners (27) Visual Patent Search Success Stories Find More Like This Return to Search Regeneration of aluminum hydride United

  14. Aluminum doped zinc oxide for organic photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murdoch, G. B.; Hinds, S.; Sargent, E. H.; Tsang, S. W.; Mordoukhovski, L.; Lu, Z. H.

    2009-05-25

    Aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) was grown via magnetron sputtering as a low-cost alternative to indium tin oxide (ITO) for organic photovoltaics (OPVs). Postdeposition ozone treatment resulted in devices with lower series resistance, increased open-circuit voltage, and power conversion efficiency double that of devices fabricated on untreated AZO. Furthermore, cells fabricated using ozone treated AZO and standard ITO displayed comparable performance.

  15. On the dissolution of iridium by aluminum.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hewson, John C.

    2009-08-01

    The potential for liquid aluminum to dissolve an iridium solid is examined. Substantial uncertainties exist in material properties, and the available data for the iridium solubility and iridium diffusivity are discussed. The dissolution rate is expressed in terms of the regression velocity of the solid iridium when exposed to the solvent (aluminum). The temperature has the strongest influence in the dissolution rate. This dependence comes primarily from the solubility of iridium in aluminum and secondarily from the temperature dependence of the diffusion coefficient. This dissolution mass flux is geometry dependent and results are provided for simplified geometries at constant temperatures. For situations where there is negligible convective flow, simple time-dependent diffusion solutions are provided. Correlations for mass transfer are also given for natural convection and forced convection. These estimates suggest that dissolution of iridium can be significant for temperatures well below the melting temperature of iridium, but the uncertainties in actual rates are large because of uncertainties in the physical parameters and in the details of the relevant geometries.

  16. THE ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF NATIVE AND DEPOSITED THIN ALUMINUM OXIDE LA'YERS ON ALUMINUM:

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF NATIVE AND DEPOSITED THIN ALUMINUM OXIDE LA'YERS ON ALUMINUM: HYDRATION EFFECTS J. P. Sullivan, J. C. Barbour, R G. Dunn, L A . Son, L. P. Montes, N. Missed, and R. G. Copeland Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 871 85 ABSTRACT The electronic defect density of native, anodic, and synthetic Al oxide layers on Al were studied by solid state electrical measurement as a function of hydration o F the oxide. The non-hydrated synthetic Al oxide layers, which

  17. High Speed Joining of Dissimilar Alloy Aluminum Tailor Welded Blanks |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy High Speed Joining of Dissimilar Alloy Aluminum Tailor Welded Blanks High Speed Joining of Dissimilar Alloy Aluminum Tailor Welded Blanks 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon lm075_hovanski_2013_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: High Speed Joining of Dissimilar Alloy Aluminum Tailor Welded Blanks Vehicle Technologies Office

  18. Energy Assessment Helps Kaiser Aluminum Save Energy and Improve...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... At Kaiser Aluminum, energy efficiency is a high priority in keep- ing with the company's emphasis on Lean Manufacturing and Six Sigma methodologies. The Save Energy Now assessment ...

  19. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Hunter Douglas Aluminum...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: Hunter Douglas Aluminum Corporation CA.11-1 Location: 3016 Kansas Avenue , Riverside , California CA.11-1 Evaluation Year: 1995 ...

  20. Enhancement of Aluminum Alloy Forgings Using Rapid Infrared Heating...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and industry partners, Queen City Forging Company and Infra Red Heating Technologies LLC, have developed a process for forging aluminum parts using infrared (IR) technology. ...

  1. Joining of parts via magnetic heating of metal aluminum powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Ian

    2013-05-21

    A method of joining at least two parts includes steps of dispersing a joining material comprising a multi-phase magnetic metal-aluminum powder at an interface between the at least two parts to be joined and applying an alternating magnetic field (AMF). The AMF has a magnetic field strength and frequency suitable for inducing magnetic hysteresis losses in the metal-aluminum powder and is applied for a period that raises temperature of the metal-aluminum powder to an exothermic transformation temperature. At the exothermic transformation temperature, the metal-aluminum powder melts and resolidifies as a metal aluminide solid having a non-magnetic configuration.

  2. Local residual stress monitoring of aluminum nitride MEMS using...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    micro-Raman spectroscopy This content will become publicly available on January 6, 2017 Title: Local residual stress monitoring of aluminum nitride MEMS using UV micro-Raman ...

  3. Aluminum-stabilized Nb[sub 3]Sn superconductor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scanlan, R.M.

    1988-05-10

    Disclosed are an aluminum-stabilized Nb[sub 3]Sn superconductor and process for producing same, utilizing ultrapure aluminum. Ductile components are co-drawn with aluminum to produce a conductor suitable for winding magnets. After winding, the conductor is heated to convert it to the brittle Nb[sub 3]Sn superconductor phase, using a temperature high enough to perform the transformation but still below the melting point of the aluminum. This results in reaction of substantially all of the niobium, while providing stabilization and react-in-place features which are beneficial in the fabrication of magnets utilizing superconducting materials. 4 figs.

  4. Energy and Environmental Profile of the Aluminum Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Margolis, Nancy

    1997-07-01

    This detailed report (PDF 2.5 MB) benchmarks the energy and environmental characteristics of the key technologies used in the major processes of the aluminum industry.

  5. Design of defect spins in piezoelectric aluminum nitride for...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Design of defect spins in piezoelectric aluminum nitride for solid-state hybrid quantum technologies Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Design of defect spins in ...

  6. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Aluminum Co of America ...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Related to Aluminum Company of America (ALCOA) PA.23-1 - DOE Letter; Williams to Jackson (ALCOA) concerning results of radiological surveys and elimination of the site from...

  7. Microsoft PowerPoint - Aluminum Concentrations in Storm Water...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    guarantee its technical correctness. Title: Solid and Dissolved Phase Aluminum in Storm Water Runoff on the Pajarito Plateau, Poster, Individual Permit for Storm Water, NPDES...

  8. High Methane Storage Capacity in Aluminum Metal-Organic Frameworks...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High Methane Storage Capacity in Aluminum Metal-Organic Frameworks Previous Next List Felipe Gndara, Hiroyasu Furukawa, Seungkyu Lee, and Omar M. Yaghi, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 136,...

  9. Mold Materials For Permanent Molding of Aluminum Alloys (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Sponsoring Org: (US) Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 36 ... FATIGUE; WEAR RESISTANCE; MATERIALS TESTING MOLD CASTING; CASTING OF ALUMINUM; ...

  10. Aluminum-stabilized Nb/sub 3/Sn superconductor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scanlan, R.M.

    1984-02-10

    This patent discloses an aluminum-stabilized Nb/sub 3/Sn superconductor and process for producing same, utilizing ultrapure aluminum. Ductile components are co-drawn with aluminum to produce a conductor suitable for winding magnets. After winding, the conductor is heated to convert it to the brittle Nb/sub 3/Sn superconductor phase, using a temperature high enough to perform the transformation but still below the melting point of the aluminum. This results in reaction of substantially all of the niobium, while providing stabilization and react-in-place features which are beneficial in the fabrication of magnets utilizing superconducting materials.

  11. Electrodeposition of magnesium and magnesium/aluminum alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, A.

    1988-01-21

    Electrolytes and plating solutions for use in processes for electroplating and electroforming pure magnesium and alloys of aluminum and magnesium and also electrodeposition processes. An electrolyte of this invention is comprised of an alkali metal fluoride or a quaternary ammonium halide, dimethyl magnesium and/or diethyl magnesium, and triethyl aluminum and/or triisobutyl aluminum. An electrolyte may be dissolved in an aromatic hydrocarbon solvent to form a plating solution. The proportions of the component compounds in the electrolyte are varied to produce essentially pure magnesium or magnesium/aluminum alloys having varying selected compositions.

  12. Magnesium Replacement of Aluminum Cast Components in a Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to Effect Cost-Effective Mass Reduction Magnesium Replacement of Aluminum Cast Components in a Production V6 Engine to Effect Cost-Effective Mass Reduction Presentation given ...

  13. Virtual Aluminum Castings An Industrial Application of Integrated...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and cost challenges. Nowhere is this more evident than in the development of designs and manufacturing processes for cast aluminum engine blocks and cylinder heads. Increasing...

  14. Electrodeposition of magnesium and magnesium/aluminum alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, Anton

    1988-01-01

    Electrolytes and plating solutions for use in processes for electroplating and electroforming pure magnesium and alloys of aluminum and magnesium and also electrodeposition processes. An electrolyte of this invention is comprised of an alkali metal fluoride or a quaternary ammonium halide, dimethyl magnesium and/or diethyl magnesium, and triethyl aluminum and/or triisobutyl aluminum. An electrolyte may be dissolved in an aromatic hydrocarbon solvent to form a plating solution. The proportions of the component compounds in the electrolyte are varied to produce essentially pure magnesium or magnesium/aluminum alloys having varying selected compositions.

  15. Lithium aluminum/iron sulfide battery having lithium aluminum and silicon as negative electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gilbert, Marian; Kaun, Thomas D.

    1984-01-01

    A method of making a negative electrode, the electrode made thereby and a secondary electrochemical cell using the electrode. Silicon powder is mixed with powdered electroactive material, such as the lithium-aluminum eutectic, to provide an improved electrode and cell.

  16. Spray-formed tooling and aluminum strip

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McHugh, K.M.

    1995-11-01

    Spray forming is an advanced materials processing technology that converts a bulk liquid metal to a near-net-shape solid by depositing atomized droplets onto a suitably shaped substrate. By combining rapid solidification processing with product shape control, spray forming can reduce manufacturing costs while improving product quality. De Laval nozzles offer an alternative method to the more conventional spray nozzle designs. Two applications are described: high-volume production of aluminum alloy strip, and the production of specialized tooling, such as injection molds and dies, for rapid prototyping.

  17. UPDATE ON FRICTION BONDING OF MONOLITHIC U-MO FUEL PLATES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. E. Burkes; N. P. Hallinan; J. M. Wight; M. D. Chapple

    2007-09-01

    Friction Bonding (FB), formerly referred to as Friction Stir Welding, is an alternative plate fabrication technique to encapsulate monolithic U-Mo fuel foils inside 6061-T6 aluminum alloy cladding. Over the past year, significant progress has been made in the area of FB, including improvements in tool material, tool design, process parameters, cooling capability and capacity and modeling, all of which improve and enhance the quality of fabricated fuel plates, reproducibility of the fabrication process and bond quality of the fuel plates. Details of this progress and how it relates to the observed improvements and enhancements are discussed. In addition, details on how these improvements have been implemented into the last two RERTR mini-plate irradiation campaigns are also discussed.

  18. Measurement of tool forces in diamond turning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drescher, J.; Dow, T.A.

    1988-12-01

    A dynamometer has been designed and built to measure forces in diamond turning. The design includes a 3-component, piezoelectric transducer. Initial experiments with this dynamometer system included verification of its predicted dynamic characteristics as well as a detailed study of cutting parameters. Many cutting experiments have been conducted on OFHC Copper and 6061-T6 Aluminum. Tests have involved investigation of velocity effects, and the effects of depth and feedrate on tool forces. Velocity has been determined to have negligible effects between 4 and 21 m/s. Forces generally increase with increasing depth of cut. Increasing feedrate does not necessarily lead to higher forces. Results suggest that a simple model may not be sufficient to describe the forces produced in the diamond turning process.

  19. Taking the long view

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2012 Los Alamos Aerial Aerial view of a canyon in Los Alamos, New Mexico. Contact Environmental Communication & Public Outreach P.O. Box 1663 MS M996 Los Alamos, NM 87545 (505)...

  20. Brazed aluminum, Plate-fin heat exchangers for OTEC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foust, H.D.

    1980-12-01

    Brazed aluminum plate-fin heat exchangers have been available for special applications for over thirty years. The performance, compactness, versatility, and low cost of these heat exchangers has been unequaled by other heat exchanger configuration. The application of brazed aluminum has been highly limited because of necessary restrictions for clean non-corrosive atmospheres. Air and gas separation have provided ideal conditions for accepting brazed aluminum and in turn have benefited by the salient features of these plate-fin heat exchangers. In fact, brazed aluminum and cryogenic gas and air separation have become nearly synonymous. Brazed aluminum in its historic form could not be considered for a seawater atmosphere. However, technology presents a new look of significant importance to OTEC in terms of compactness and cost. The significant technological variation made was to include one-piece hollow extensions for the seawater passages. Crevice corrosion sites are thereby entirely eliminated and pitting corrosion attack will be controlled by an integral and sacrificial layer of a zinc-aluminum alloy. This paper on brazed aluminum plate-fin heat exchangers for OTEC will aquaint the reader with the state-of-art and variations suggested to qualify this form of aluminum for seawater use. In order to verify the desirable cost potential for OTEC, Trane teamed with Westinghouse to perform an OTEC system analysis with this heat exchanger. These results are very promising and reported in detail elsewhere.

  1. Electrolytic production of high purity aluminum using ceramic inert anodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ray, Siba P.; Liu, Xinghua; Weirauch, Douglas A.; DiMilia, Robert A.; Dynys, Joseph M.; Phelps, Frankie E.; LaCamera, Alfred F.

    2002-01-01

    A method of producing commercial purity aluminum in an electrolytic reduction cell comprising ceramic inert anodes is disclosed. The method produces aluminum having acceptable levels of Fe, Cu and Ni impurities. The ceramic inert anodes used in the process may comprise oxides containing Fe and Ni, as well as other oxides, metals and/or dopants.

  2. Electrolytic production of high purity aluminum using inert anodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ray, Siba P.; Liu, Xinghua; Weirauch, Jr., Douglas A.

    2001-01-01

    A method of producing commercial purity aluminum in an electrolytic reduction cell comprising inert anodes is disclosed. The method produces aluminum having acceptable levels of Fe, Cu and Ni impurities. The inert anodes used in the process preferably comprise a cermet material comprising ceramic oxide phase portions and metal phase portions.

  3. Method of forming aluminum oxynitride material and bodies formed by such methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bakas, Michael P. (Ammon, ID) [Ammon, ID; Lillo, Thomas M. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Chu, Henry S. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-11-16

    Methods of forming aluminum oxynitride (AlON) materials include sintering green bodies comprising aluminum orthophosphate or another sacrificial material therein. Such green bodies may comprise aluminum, oxygen, and nitrogen in addition to the aluminum orthophosphate. For example, the green bodies may include a mixture of aluminum oxide, aluminum nitride, and aluminum orthophosphate or another sacrificial material. Additional methods of forming aluminum oxynitride (AlON) materials include sintering a green body including a sacrificial material therein, using the sacrificial material to form pores in the green body during sintering, and infiltrating the pores formed in the green body with a liquid infiltrant during sintering. Bodies are formed using such methods.

  4. Superconducting structure with layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murduck, James M.; Lepetre, Yves J.; Schuller, Ivan K.; Ketterson, John B.

    1989-01-01

    A superconducting structure is formed by depositing alternate layers of aluminum nitride and niobium nitride on a substrate. Deposition methods include dc magnetron reactive sputtering, rf magnetron reactive sputtering, thin-film diffusion, chemical vapor deposition, and ion-beam deposition. Structures have been built with layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride having thicknesses in a range of 20 to 350 Angstroms. Best results have been achieved with films of niobium nitride deposited to a thickness of approximately 70 Angstroms and aluminum nitride deposited to a thickness of approximately 20 Angstroms. Such films of niobium nitride separated by a single layer of aluminum nitride are useful in forming Josephson junctions. Structures of 30 or more alternating layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride are useful when deposited on fixed substrates or flexible strips to form bulk superconductors for carrying electric current. They are also adaptable as voltage-controlled microwave energy sources.

  5. Superconducting structure with layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murduck, J.M.; Lepetre, Y.J.; Schuller, I.K.; Ketterson, J.B.

    1989-07-04

    A superconducting structure is formed by depositing alternate layers of aluminum nitride and niobium nitride on a substrate. Deposition methods include dc magnetron reactive sputtering, rf magnetron reactive sputtering, thin-film diffusion, chemical vapor deposition, and ion-beam deposition. Structures have been built with layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride having thicknesses in a range of 20 to 350 Angstroms. Best results have been achieved with films of niobium nitride deposited to a thickness of approximately 70 Angstroms and aluminum nitride deposited to a thickness of approximately 20 Angstroms. Such films of niobium nitride separated by a single layer of aluminum nitride are useful in forming Josephson junctions. Structures of 30 or more alternating layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride are useful when deposited on fixed substrates or flexible strips to form bulk superconductors for carrying electric current. They are also adaptable as voltage-controlled microwave energy sources. 8 figs.

  6. Diode laser welding of aluminum to steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santo, Loredana; Quadrini, Fabrizio; Trovalusci, Federica [University of Rome Tor Vergata, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Rome (Italy)

    2011-05-04

    Laser welding of dissimilar materials was carried out by using a high power diode laser to join aluminum to steel in a butt-joint configuration. During testing, the laser scan rate was changed as well as the laser power: at low values of fluence (i.e. the ratio between laser power and scan rate), poor joining was observed; instead at high values of fluence, an excess in the material melting affected the joint integrity. Between these limiting values, a good aesthetics was obtained; further investigations were carried out by means of tensile tests and SEM analyses. Unfortunately, a brittle behavior was observed for all the joints and a maximum rupture stress about 40 MPa was measured. Apart from the formation of intermeltallic phases, poor mechanical performances also depended on the chosen joining configuration, particularly because of the thickness reduction of the seam in comparison with the base material.

  7. Process for strengthening aluminum based ceramics and material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moorhead, Arthur J.; Kim, Hyoun-Ee

    2000-01-01

    A process for strengthening aluminum based ceramics is provided. A gaseous atmosphere consisting essentially of silicon monoxide gas is formed by exposing a source of silicon to an atmosphere consisting essentially of hydrogen and a sufficient amount of water vapor. The aluminum based ceramic is exposed to the gaseous silicon monoxide atmosphere for a period of time and at a temperature sufficient to produce a continuous, stable silicon-containing film on the surface of the aluminum based ceramic that increases the strength of the ceramic.

  8. New Process for Grain Refinement of Aluminum. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Joseph A. Megy

    2000-09-22

    A new method of grain refining aluminum involving in-situ formation of boride nuclei in molten aluminum just prior to casting has been developed in the subject DOE program over the last thirty months by a team consisting of JDC, Inc., Alcoa Technical Center, GRAS, Inc., Touchstone Labs, and GKS Engineering Services. The Manufacturing process to make boron trichloride for grain refining is much simpler than preparing conventional grain refiners, with attendant environmental, capital, and energy savings. The manufacture of boride grain refining nuclei using the fy-Gem process avoids clusters, salt and oxide inclusions that cause quality problems in aluminum today.

  9. Cast B2-phase iron-aluminum alloys with improved fluidity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maziasz, Philip J. (122 Clark La., Oak Ridge, TN 37830); Paris, Alan M. (P.O. Box 64, Tarrs, PA 15688); Vought, Joseph D. (124 Cove Point Rd., Rockwood, TN 37854)

    2002-01-01

    Systems and methods are described for iron aluminum alloys. A composition includes iron, aluminum and manganese. A method includes providing an alloy including iron, aluminum and manganese; and processing the alloy. The systems and methods provide advantages because additions of manganese to iron aluminum alloys dramatically increase the fluidity of the alloys prior to solidification during casting.

  10. Stereoscopic optical viewing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tallman, Clifford S.

    1987-01-01

    An improved optical system which provides the operator a stereoscopic viewing field and depth of vision, particularly suitable for use in various machines such as electron or laser beam welding and drilling machines. The system features two separate but independently controlled optical viewing assemblies from the eyepiece to a spot directly above the working surface. Each optical assembly comprises a combination of eye pieces, turning prisms, telephoto lenses for providing magnification, achromatic imaging relay lenses and final stage pentagonal turning prisms. Adjustment for variations in distance from the turning prisms to the workpiece, necessitated by varying part sizes and configurations and by the operator's visual accuity, is provided separately for each optical assembly by means of separate manual controls at the operator console or within easy reach of the operator.

  11. REACTOR VIEWING APPARATUS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Monk, G.S.

    1959-01-13

    An optical system is presented that is suitable for viewing objects in a region of relatively high radioactivity, or high neutron activity, such as a neutronic reactor. This optical system will absorb neutrons and gamma rays thereby protecting personnel fronm the harmful biological effects of such penetrating radiations. The optical system is comprised of a viewing tube having a lens at one end, a transparent solid member at the other end and a transparent aqueous liquid completely filling the tube between the ends. The lens is made of a polymerized organic material and the transparent solid member is made of a radiation absorbent material. A shield surrounds the tube betwcen the flanges and is made of a gamma ray absorbing material.

  12. Stereoscopic optical viewing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tallman, C.S.

    1986-05-02

    An improved optical system which provides the operator with a stereoscopic viewing field and depth of vision, particularly suitable for use in various machines such as electron or laser beam welding and drilling machines. The system features two separate but independently controlled optical viewing assemblies from the eyepiece to a spot directly above the working surface. Each optical assembly comprises a combination of eye pieces, turning prisms, telephoto lenses for providing magnification, achromatic imaging relay lenses and final stage pentagonal turning prisms. Adjustment for variations in distance from the turning prisms to the workpiece, necessitated by varying part sizes and configurations and by the operator's visual accuity, is provided separately for each optical assembly by means of separate manual controls at the operator console or within easy reach of the operator.

  13. HIGH ALUMINUM HLW GLASSES FOR HANFORDS WTP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KRUGER AA; JOSEPH I; BOWMAN BW; GAN H; KOT W; MATLACK KS; PEGG IL

    2009-08-19

    The world's largest radioactive waste vitrification facility is now under construction at the United State Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford site. The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is designed to treat nearly 53 million gallons of mixed hazardous and radioactive waste now residing in 177 underground storage tanks. This multi-decade processing campaign will be one of the most complex ever undertaken because of the wide chemical and physical variability of the waste compositions generated during the cold war era that are stored at Hanford. The DOE Office of River Protection (ORP) has initiated a program to improve the long-term operating efficiency of the WTP vitrification plants with the objective of reducing the overall cost of tank waste treatment and disposal and shortening the duration of plant operations. Due to the size, complexity and duration of the WTP mission, the lifecycle operating and waste disposal costs are substantial. As a result, gains in High Level Waste (HLW) and Low Activity Waste (LAW) waste loadings, as well as increases in glass production rate, which can reduce mission duration and glass volumes for disposal, can yield substantial overall cost savings. EnergySolutions and its long-term research partner, the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) of the Catholic University of America, have been involved in a multi-year ORP program directed at optimizing various aspects of the HLW and LAW vitrification flow sheets. A number of Hanford HLW streams contain high concentrations of aluminum, which is challenging with respect to both waste loading and processing rate. Therefore, a key focus area of the ORP vitrification process optimization program at EnergySolutions and VSL has been development of HLW glass compositions that can accommodate high Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations while maintaining high processing rates in the Joule Heated Ceramic Melters (JHCMs) used for waste vitrification at the WTP. This paper, reviews the achievements of this program with emphasis on the recent enhancements in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} loadings in HLW glass and its processing characteristics. Glass formulation development included crucible-scale preparation and characterization of glass samples to assess compliance with all melt processing and product quality requirements, followed by small-scale screening tests to estimate processing rates. These results were used to down-select formulations for subsequent engineering-scale melter testing. Finally, further testing was performed on the DM1200 vitrification system installed at VSL, which is a one-third scale (1.20 m{sup 2}) pilot melter for the WTP HLW melters and which is fitted with a fully prototypical off-gas treatment system. These tests employed glass formulations with high waste loadings and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} contents of {approx}25 wt%, which represents a near-doubling of the present WTP baseline maximum Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} loading. In addition, these formulations were processed successfully at glass production rates that exceeded the present requirements for WTP HLW vitrification by up to 88%. The higher aluminum loading in the HLW glass has an added benefit in that the aluminum leaching requirements in pretreatment are reduced, thus allowing less sodium addition in pretreatment, which in turn reduces the amount of LAW glass to be produced at the WTP. The impact of the results from this ORP program in reducing the overall cost and schedule for the Hanford waste treatment mission will be discussed.

  14. Aluminum electroplating on steel from a fused bromide electrolyte

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prabhat K. Tripathy; Laura A. Wurth; Eric J. Dufek; Toni Y. Gutknecht; Natalie J. Gese; Paula Hahn; Steven M. Frank; Guy L. Frederickson; J. Stephen Herring

    2014-08-01

    A quaternary bromide bath (LiBrKBrCsBrAlBr3) was used to electro-coat aluminum on steel substrates. The electrolytewas prepared by the addition of AlBr3 into the eutectic LiBrKBrCsBr melt. A smooth, thick, adherent and shiny aluminum coating could be obtained with 80 wt.% AlBr3 in the ternary melt. The SEM photographs of the coated surfaces suggest the formation of thick and dense coatings with good aluminum coverage. Both salt immersion and open circuit potential measurement suggested that the coatings did display a good corrosionresistance behavior. Annealing of the coated surfaces, prior to corrosion tests, suggested the robustness of the metallic aluminum coating in preventing the corrosion of the steel surfaces. Studies also indicated that the quaternary bromide plating bath can potentially provide a better aluminumcoating on both ferrous and non-ferrous metals, including complex surfaces/geometries.

  15. Aluminum Surface Texturing by Means of Laser Interference Metallurgy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    laser interferometry produced by two beams of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser operating at 10Hz of frequency to clean aluminum surfaces, and meanwhile creating periodic and rough surface...

  16. Gas-tungsten arc welding of aluminum alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frye, L.D.

    1982-03-25

    The present invention is directed to a gas-tungsten arc welding method for joining together structures formed of aluminum alloy with these structures disposed contiguously to a heat-damagable substrate of a metal dissimilar to the aluminum alloy. The method of the present invention is practiced by diamond machining the fay surfaces of the aluminum alloy structures to profice a mirror finish thereon having a surface roughness in the order of about one microinch. The fay surface are aligned and heated sufficiently by the tungsten electrode to fuse the aluminum alloy continguous to the fay surfaces to effect the weld joint. The heat input used to provide an oxide-free weld is significantly less than that required if the fay surfaces were prepared by using conventional chemical and mechanical practices.

  17. Gas-tungsten arc welding of aluminum alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frye, Lowell D.

    1984-01-01

    A gas-tungsten arc welding method for joining together structures formed of aluminum alloy with these structures disposed contiguously to a heat-damagable substrate of a metal dissimilar to the aluminum alloy. The method of the present invention is practiced by diamond machining the fay surfaces of the aluminum alloy structures to provide a mirror finish thereon having a surface roughness in the order of about one microinch. The fay surfaces are aligned and heated sufficiently by the tungsten electrode to fuse the aluminum alloy contiguous to the fay surfaces to effect the weld joint. The heat input used to provide an oxide-free weld is significantly less than that required if the fay surfaces were prepared by using conventional chemical and mechanical practices.

  18. Method of Preparing Hydrous Hafnium, Cerium, or Aluminum Oxide...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cerium, or aluminum oxide microspheres was invented at ORNL. The invention is a type of sol-gel process that solidifies droplets of solution as they enter into a warm environment....

  19. Improving the Cycling Life of Aluminum and Germanium Thin Films...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Li-Ion Batteries. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Improving the Cycling Life of Aluminum and Germanium Thin Films for use as Anodic Materials in Li-Ion Batteries. You ...

  20. Aluminum for bonding Si-Ge alloys to graphite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eggemann, Robert V.

    1976-01-13

    Improved thermoelectric device and process, comprising the high-temperature, vacuum bonding of a graphite contact and silicon-germanium thermoelectric element by the use of a low void, aluminum, metallurgical shim with low electrical resistance sandwiched therebetween.

  1. Ames Lab 101: BAM (Boron-Aluminum-Magnesium)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Bruce Cook

    2013-06-05

    Materials scientist, Bruce Cook, discusses the super hard, low friction, and lubricious alloy know as BAM (Boron-Aluminum-Magnesium). BAM was discovered by Bruce Cook and his team a

  2. Enhanced structural color generation in aluminum metamaterials coated with

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    a thin polymer layer (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Enhanced structural color generation in aluminum metamaterials coated with a thin polymer layer Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Enhanced structural color generation in aluminum metamaterials coated with a thin polymer layer Authors: Cheng, Fei ; Yang, Xiaodong ; Rosenmann, Daniel ; Stan, Liliana ; Czaplewski, David ; Gao, Jie Publication Date: 2015-09-18 OSTI Identifier: 1221855 Grant/Contract Number: AC02-06CH11357 Type:

  3. Aluminum plasmonic metamaterials for structural color printing (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Aluminum plasmonic metamaterials for structural color printing Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Aluminum plasmonic metamaterials for structural color printing Authors: Cheng, Fei ; Gao, Jie ; Stan, Liliana ; Rosenmann, Daniel ; Czaplewski, David ; Yang, Xiaodong Publication Date: 2015-05-26 OSTI Identifier: 1222274 Grant/Contract Number: AC02-06CH11357 Type: Published Article Journal Name: Optics Express Additional Journal Information: Journal Volume: 23;

  4. Reactions of aluminum with uranium fluorides and oxyfluorides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leitnaker, J.M.; Nichols, R.W.; Lankford, B.S.

    1991-12-31

    Every 30 to 40 million operating hours a destructive reaction is observed in one of the {approximately}4000 large compressors that move UF{sub 6} through the gaseous diffusion plants. Despite its infrequency, such a reaction can be costly in terms of equipment and time. Laboratory experiments reveal that the presence of moderate pressures of UF{sub 6} actually cools heated aluminum, although thermodynamic calculations indicate the potential for a 3000-4000{degrees}C temperature rise. Within a narrow and rather low (<100 torr; 1 torr = 133.322 Pa) pressure range, however, the aluminum is seen to react with sufficient heat release to soften an alumina boat. Three things must occur in order for aluminum to react vigorously with either UF{sub 6} or UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}. 1. An initiating source of heat must be provided. In the compressors, this source can be friction, permitted by disruption of the balance of the large rotating part or by creep of the aluminum during a high-temperature treatment. In the absence of this heat source, compressors have operated for 40 years in UF{sub 6} without significant reaction. 2. The film protecting the aluminum must be breached. Melting (of UF{sub 5} at 620 K or aluminum at 930 K) can cause such a breach in laboratory experiments. In contrast, holding Al samples in UF{sub 6} at 870 K for several hours produces only moderate reaction. Rubbing in the cascade can undoubtedly breach the protective film. 3. Reaction products must not build up and smother the reaction. While uranium products tend to dissolve or dissipate in molten aluminum, AIF{sub 3} shows a remarkable tendency to surround and hence protect even molten aluminum. Hence the initial temperature rise must be rapid and sufficient to move reactants into a temperature region in which products are removed from the reaction site.

  5. Rechargeable Aluminum Batteries with Conducting Polymers as Active Cathode

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Materials. (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Rechargeable Aluminum Batteries with Conducting Polymers as Active Cathode Materials. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Rechargeable Aluminum Batteries with Conducting Polymers as Active Cathode Materials. Abstract not provided. Authors: Hudak, Nicholas Publication Date: 2014-04-01 OSTI Identifier: 1143066 Report Number(s): SAND2014-3282C 511744 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC04-94AL85000 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation:

  6. Rechargeable Aluminum Batteries with Conducting Polymers as Positive

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electrodes. (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Rechargeable Aluminum Batteries with Conducting Polymers as Positive Electrodes. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Rechargeable Aluminum Batteries with Conducting Polymers as Positive Electrodes. Abstract not provided. Authors: Hudak, Nicholas S. Publication Date: 2013-12-01 OSTI Identifier: 1124475 Report Number(s): SAND2013-10810J 493199 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC04-94AL85000 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource

  7. Rechargeable aluminum batteries with conducting polymers as positive

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    electrodes. (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Rechargeable aluminum batteries with conducting polymers as positive electrodes. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Rechargeable aluminum batteries with conducting polymers as positive electrodes. This report is a summary of research results from an Early Career LDRD project con-ducted from January 2012 to December 2013 at Sandia National Laboratories. Demonstrated here is the use of conducting polymers as active

  8. Virtual Aluminum Castings An Industrial Application of Integrated

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Computational Materials Engineering | Energy Frontier Research Centers Virtual Aluminum Castings An Industrial Application of Integrated Computational Materials Engineering Home Author: J. Allison, M. Li, C. Wolverton, X. Su Year: 2006 Abstract: The automotive product design and manufacturing community is continually besieged by Hercule an engineering, timing, and cost challenges. Nowhere is this more evident than in the development of designs and manufacturing processes for cast aluminum

  9. Recovery of aluminum and other metal values from fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDowell, W.J.; Seeley, F.G.

    1979-11-01

    The invention relates to a method for improving the acid leachability of aluminum and other metal values found in fly ash which comprises sintering the fly ash, prior to acid leaching, with a calcium sulfate-containing composition at a temperature at which the calcium sulfate is retained in said composition during sintering and for a time sufficient to quantitatively convert the aluminum in said fly ash into an acid-leachable form.

  10. Recovery of aluminum and other metal values from fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDowell, William J.; Seeley, Forest G.

    1981-01-01

    The invention described herein relates to a method for improving the acid leachability of aluminum and other metal values found in fly ash which comprises sintering the fly ash, prior to acid leaching, with a calcium sulfate-containing composition at a temperature at which the calcium sulfate is retained in said composition during sintering and for a time sufficient to quantitatively convert the aluminum in said fly ash into an acid-leachable form.

  11. Temperature Dependence of Dynamic Deformation in FCC Metals, Aluminum and

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Invar (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Temperature Dependence of Dynamic Deformation in FCC Metals, Aluminum and Invar Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Temperature Dependence of Dynamic Deformation in FCC Metals, Aluminum and Invar Authors: Chen, L ; Swift, D C ; Austin, R A ; Florando, J N ; Hawreliak, J ; Lazicki, A ; Saculla, M D ; Eakins, D ; Bernier, J V ; Kumar, M Publication Date: 2015-09-23 OSTI Identifier: 1239232 Report Number(s): LLNL-PROC-679036 DOE Contract

  12. Aluminum Bronze Alloys to Improve Furnace Component Life | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Aluminum Bronze Alloys to Improve Furnace Component Life Aluminum Bronze Alloys to Improve Furnace Component Life Improved System Increases Steelmaking Furnace Efficiency, Safety, and Productivity Hoods, roofs, and sidewall systems in basic oxygen furnaces (BOFs) and electric arc furnaces (EAFs) enable effluent gases in excess of 3000°F to be properly captured, cooled, and processed prior to delivery to the environmental control equipment. Traditionally, these carbon steel components

  13. Aluminum-Alkaline Metal-Metal Composite Conductor - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Portal Electricity Transmission Electricity Transmission Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Aluminum-Alkaline Metal-Metal Composite Conductor Ames Laboratory Contact AMES About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Researchers have developed a high strength, lightweight aluminum wire for high-voltage power transmission with reduced electrical resistance for overhead electrical lines. High-voltage electric power transmission cables based on pure

  14. Aluminum-doped Zinc Oxide Nanoink - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Building Energy Efficiency Building Energy Efficiency Find More Like This Return to Search Aluminum-doped Zinc Oxide Nanoink Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Scientists at Berkeley Lab have developed a method for fabricating conductive aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) nanocrystals that provide a lower cost, less toxic, earth-abundant alternative

  15. Fluorescent lighting with aluminum nitride phosphors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cherepy, Nerine J.; Payne, Stephen A.; Seeley, Zachary M.; Srivastava, Alok M.

    2016-05-10

    A fluorescent lamp includes a glass envelope; at least two electrodes connected to the glass envelope; mercury vapor and an inert gas within the glass envelope; and a phosphor within the glass envelope, wherein the phosphor blend includes aluminum nitride. The phosphor may be a wurtzite (hexagonal) crystalline structure Al.sub.(1-x)M.sub.xN phosphor, where M may be drawn from beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium, zinc, scandium, yttrium, lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, europium, gadolinium, terbium, ytterbium, bismuth, manganese, silicon, germanium, tin, boron, or gallium is synthesized to include dopants to control its luminescence under ultraviolet excitation. The disclosed Al.sub.(1-x)M.sub.xN:Mn phosphor provides bright orange-red emission, comparable in efficiency and spectrum to that of the standard orange-red phosphor used in fluorescent lighting, Y.sub.2O.sub.3:Eu. Furthermore, it offers excellent lumen maintenance in a fluorescent lamp, and does not utilize "critical rare earths," minimizing sensitivity to fluctuating market prices for the rare earth elements.

  16. The View from HQ

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

     NA-ASC-500-07 Issue 2 January 2007 The View from HQ Sitting in airports and planes is risky beyond the obvious dangers now in the news. Uninter- rupted time to think may lead to new ideas. Instinct instructs us that when we hear Wash- ington has some new ideas, the result must be bad. After all, ideas suggest change, which is inherently disruptive. Today the notion of predictivity is on my mind as I am leaving the V&V 2007 meeting in Los Alamos. Predictivity is on my short list of

  17. The View from HQ

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    A publication of the Office of Advanced Simulation & Computing, NNSA Defense Programs NA-ASC-500-07-Issue 3 May 2007 The View from HQ by Dimitri Kusnezov I have been spending much of my time these days thinking about science, technology and engineering and the role of the laboratories and how that will be reflected in the Complex of the future. This is on my mind for two reasons: one is my responsibility to produce a science and technology roadmap for Complex 2030-Defense Program's vision

  18. Hydrogen storage in sodium aluminum hydride.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ozolins, Vidvuds; Herberg, J.L.; McCarty, Kevin F.; Maxwell, Robert S.; Stumpf, Roland Rudolph; Majzoub, Eric H.

    2005-11-01

    Sodium aluminum hydride, NaAlH{sub 4}, has been studied for use as a hydrogen storage material. The effect of Ti, as a few mol. % dopant in the system to increase kinetics of hydrogen sorption, is studied with respect to changes in lattice structure of the crystal. No Ti substitution is found in the crystal lattice. Electronic structure calculations indicate that the NaAlH{sub 4} and Na{sub 3}AlH{sub 6} structures are complex-ionic hydrides with Na{sup +} cations and AlH{sub 4}{sup -} and AlH{sub 6}{sup 3-} anions, respectively. Compound formation studies indicate the primary Ti-compound formed when doping the material at 33 at. % is TiAl{sub 3} , and likely Ti-Al compounds at lower doping rates. A general study of sorption kinetics of NaAlH{sub 4}, when doped with a variety of Ti-halide compounds, indicates a uniform response with the kinetics similar for all dopants. NMR multiple quantum studies of solution-doped samples indicate solvent interaction with the doped alanate. Raman spectroscopy was used to study the lattice dynamics of NaAlH{sub 4}, and illustrated the molecular ionic nature of the lattice as a separation of vibrational modes between the AlH{sub 4}{sup -} anion-modes and lattice-modes. In-situ Raman measurements indicate a stable AlH{sub 4}{sup -} anion that is stable at the melting temperature of NaAlH{sub 4}, indicating that Ti-dopants must affect the Al-H bond strength.

  19. Protective laser beam viewing device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neil, George R.; Jordan, Kevin Carl

    2012-12-18

    A protective laser beam viewing system or device including a camera selectively sensitive to laser light wavelengths and a viewing screen receiving images from the laser sensitive camera. According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the camera is worn on the head of the user or incorporated into a goggle-type viewing display so that it is always aimed at the area of viewing interest to the user and the viewing screen is incorporated into a video display worn as goggles over the eyes of the user.

  20. False color viewing device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1991-05-08

    This invention consists of a viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching, the user`s eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage.

  1. False color viewing device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W.

    1992-01-01

    A viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching the user's eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage.

  2. False color viewing device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1992-10-20

    A viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching the user's eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage. 7 figs.

  3. REAL TIME ULTRASONIC ALUMINUM SPOT WELD MONITORING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Regalado, W. Perez; Chertov, A. M.; Maev, R. Gr. [Institute for Diagnostic Imaging Research, Physics Department, University of Windsor, 292 Essex Hall, 401 Sunset Ave. N9B 3P4 Windsor, Ontario (Canada)

    2010-02-22

    Aluminum alloys pose several properties that make them one of the most popular engineering materials: they have excellent corrosion resistance, and high weight-to-strength ratio. Resistance spot welding of aluminum alloys is widely used today but oxide film and aluminum thermal and electrical properties make spot welding a difficult task. Electrode degradation due to pitting, alloying and mushrooming decreases the weld quality and adjustment of parameters like current and force is required. To realize these adjustments and ensure weld quality, a tool to measure weld quality in real time is required. In this paper, a real time ultrasonic non-destructive evaluation system for aluminum spot welds is presented. The system is able to monitor nugget growth while the spot weld is being made. This is achieved by interpreting the echoes of an ultrasound transducer located in one of the welding electrodes. The transducer receives and transmits an ultrasound signal at different times during the welding cycle. Valuable information of the weld quality is embedded in this signal. The system is able to determine the weld nugget diameter by measuring the delays of the ultrasound signals received during the complete welding cycle. The article presents the system performance on aluminum alloy AA6022.

  4. Hermetic aluminum radio frequency interconnection and method for making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kilgo, Riley D.; Kovacic, Larry; Brow, Richard K.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides a light-weight, hermetic coaxial radio-frequency (RF) interconnection having an electrically conductive outer housing made of aluminum or an aluminum alloy, a central electrical conductor made of ferrous or non-ferrous material, and a cylinder of dielectric material comprising a low-melting-temperature, high-thermal-expansion aluminophosphate glass composition for hermetically sealing between the aluminum-alloy outer housing and the ferrous or non-ferrous center conductor. The entire RF interconnection assembly is made permanently hermetic by thermally fusing the center conductor, glass, and housing concurrently by bringing the glass to the melt point by way of exposure to an atmospheric temperature sufficient to melt the glass, less than 540.degree. C., but that does not melt the center conductor or the outer aluminum or aluminum alloy housing. The composition of the glass used is controlled to provide a suitable low dielectric constant so that an appropriate electrical characteristic impedance, for example 50 ohms, can be achieved for an electrical interconnection that performs well at high radio frequencies and also provides an interconnection maintaining a relatively small physical size.

  5. Boron-doped back-surface fields using an aluminum-alloy process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gee, J.M.; Bode, M.D.; Silva, B.L.

    1997-10-01

    Boron-doped back-surface fields (BSF`s) have potentially superior performance compared to aluminum-doped BSF`s due to the higher solid solubility of boron compared to aluminum. However, conventional boron diffusions require a long, high temperature step that is both costly and incompatible with many photovoltaic-grade crystalline-silicon materials. We examined a process that uses a relatively low-temperature aluminum-alloy process to obtain a boron-doped BSF by doping the aluminum with boron. In agreement with theoretical expectations, we found that thicker aluminum layers and higher boron doping levels improved the performance of aluminum-alloyed BSF`s.

  6. Production of anhydrous aluminum chloride composition and process for electrolysis thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vandegrift, George F. (Bolingbrook, Naperville, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL); Horwitz, E. Philip (Hinsdale, IL)

    1983-01-01

    A process for producing an anhydrous aluminum chloride composition from a water-based aluminous material such as a slurry of aluminum hydroxide in a multistage extraction process in which the aluminum ion is first extracted into an organic liquid containing an acidic extractant and then extracted from the organic phase into an alkali metal chloride or chlorides to form a melt containing a mixture of chlorides of alkali metal and aluminum. In the process, the organic liquid may be recycled. In addition, the process advantageously includes an electrolysis cell for producing metallic aluminum and the alkali metal chloride or chlorides may be recycled for extraction of the aluminum from the organic phase.

  7. Mountain View Grand | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mountain View Grand Jump to: navigation, search Name Mountain View Grand Facility Mountain View Grand Sector Wind energy Facility Type Small Scale Wind Facility Status In Service...

  8. Aluminum and polymeric coatings for protection of uranium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colmenares, C.; McCreary, T.; Monaco, S.; Walkup, C.; Gleeson, G.; Kervin, J.; Smith, R.L.; McCaffrey, C.

    1983-12-21

    Ion-plated aluminum films on uranium will not provide adequate protection for 25 years. Magnetron-plated aluminum films on uranium are much better than ion-plated ones. Kel-F 800 films on uranium can provide adequate protection for 25 years. Their use in production must be delayed until the following factors are sorted out: water permeability in Kel-F 800 must be determined between 30 and 60/sup 0/C; the effect of UF/sub 3/, at the Kel-F/metal interface, on the permeability of water must be assessed; and the effect of crystallinity on water permeability must be evaluated. Applying Kel-F films on aluminum ion-plated uranium provides a good interim solution for long term storage.

  9. Carbonaceous cathode with enhanced wettability for aluminum production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keller, Rudolf; Gatty, David G.; Barca, Brian J.

    2003-09-09

    A method of preparing carbonaceous blocks or bodies for use in a cathode in an electrolytic cell for producing aluminum wherein the cell contains an electrolyte and has molten aluminum contacting the cathode, the cathode having improved wettability with molten aluminum. The method comprises the steps of providing a carbonaceous block and a boron oxide containing melt. The carbonaceous block is immersed in the melt and pressure is applied to the melt to impregnate the melt into pores in the block. Thereafter, the carbonaceous block is withdrawn from the melt, the block having boron oxide containing melt intruded into pores therein, the boron oxide capable of reacting with a source of titanium or zirconium or like metal to form titanium or zirconium diboride during heatup or operation of said cell.

  10. COMPILATION OF LABORATORY SCALE ALUMINUM WASH AND LEACH REPORT RESULTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HARRINGTON SJ

    2011-01-06

    This report compiles and analyzes all known wash and caustic leach laboratory studies. As further data is produced, this report will be updated. Included are aluminum mineralogical analysis results as well as a summation of the wash and leach procedures and results. Of the 177 underground storage tanks at Hanford, information was only available for five individual double-shell tanks, forty-one individual single-shell tanks (e.g. thirty-nine 100 series and two 200 series tanks), and twelve grouped tank wastes. Seven of the individual single-shell tank studies provided data for the percent of aluminum removal as a function of time for various caustic concentrations and leaching temperatures. It was determined that in most cases increased leaching temperature, caustic concentration, and leaching time leads to increased dissolution of leachable aluminum solids.

  11. Al/sub 2/S/sub 3/ preparation and use in electrolysis process for aluminum production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, C.C.; Loutfy, R.O.; Yao, N.P.

    A continuous process for producing aluminum sulfide and for electrolyzing the aluminum sulfide to form metallic aluminum in which the aluminum sulfide is produced from aluminum oxide and COS or CS/sub 2/ in the presence of a chloride melt which also serves as the electrolysis bath. Circulation between the reactor and electrolysis cell is carried out to maintain the desired concentration of aluminum sulfide in the bath.

  12. The influence of aluminum grain size on alumina nanoporous structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feil, A. F.; Costa, M. V. da; Amaral, L.; Teixeira, S. R.; Migowski, P.; Dupont, J.; Machado, G.; Peripolli, S. B.

    2010-01-15

    An approach to control the interpore distances and nanopore diameters of 150-nm-thick thin aluminum films is reported here. The Al thin films were grown by sputtering on p-type silicon substrate and anodized with a conventional anodization process in a phosphoric acid solution. It was found that interpore distance and pore diameter are related to the aluminum grain size and can be controlled by annealing. The grain contours limit the sizes of alumina cells. This mechanism is valid for grain sizes supporting only one alumina cell and consequently only one pore.

  13. Aluminum Surface Texturing by Means of Laser Interference Metallurgy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Jian; Sabau, Adrian S; Jones, Jonaaron F.; Hackett, Alexandra C.; Daniel, Claus; Warren, Charles David

    2015-01-01

    The increasing use of lightweight materials, such as aluminum alloys, in auto body structures requires more effective surface cleaning and texturing techniques to improve the quality of the structural components. The present work introduces a novel surface treatment method using laser interferometry produced by two beams of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser operating at 10Hz of frequency to clean aluminum surfaces, and meanwhile creating periodic and rough surface structures. The influences of beam size, laser fluence, wavelength, and pulse number per spot are investigated. High resolution optical profiler images reveal the change of the peak-to-valley height on the laser-treated surface.

  14. Electrolytic Cell For Production Of Aluminum Employing Planar Anodes.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barnett, Robert J.; Mezner, Michael B.; Bradford, Donald R

    2004-10-05

    A method of producing aluminum in an electrolytic cell containing alumina dissolved in an electrolyte, the method comprising providing a molten salt electrolyte having alumina dissolved therein in an electrolytic cell. A plurality of anodes and cathodes having planar surfaces are disposed in a generally vertical orientation in the electrolyte, the anodes and cathodes arranged in alternating or interleaving relationship to provide anode planar surfaces disposed opposite cathode planar surfaces, the anode comprised of carbon. Electric current is passed through anodes and through the electrolyte to the cathodes depositing aluminum at the cathodes and forming carbon containing gas at the anodes.

  15. Low temperature aluminum reduction cell using hollow cathode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Craig W. (Seattle, WA); Frizzle, Patrick B. (Seattle, WA)

    2002-08-20

    A method of producing aluminum in an electrolytic cell containing alumina dissolved in an electrolyte. A plurality of non-consumable anodes are disposed substantially vertically in the electrolyte along with a plurality of monolithic hollow cathodes. Each cathode has a top and bottom and the cathodes are disposed vertically in the electrolyte and the anodes and the cathodes are arranged in alternating relationship. Each of the cathodes is comprised of a first side facing a first opposing anode and a second side facing a second opposing anode. The first and second sides are joined by ends to form a reservoir in the hollow cathode for collecting aluminum therein deposited at the cathode.

  16. Fermilab | Tritium at Fermilab | Ferry Creek Aerial View

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ferry Creek Aerial View Ferry Creek Aerial View

  17. Fermilab | Tritium at Fermilab | Kress Creek Aerial View

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Kress Creek Aerial View Kress Creek Aerial View

  18. Shock-ramp loading of tin and aluminum. (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Shock-ramp loading of tin and aluminum. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Shock-ramp loading of tin and aluminum. Abstract not provided. Authors: Seagle, Christopher T ...

  19. Evaluation of Corrosion of Aluminum Based Reactor Fuel Cladding Materials During Dry Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peacock, H.B. Jr.

    1999-10-21

    This report provides an evaluation of the corrosion behavior of aluminum cladding alloys and aluminum-uranium alloys at conditions relevant to dry storage. The details of the corrosion program are described and the results to date are discussed.

  20. Energy-Efficient Melting and Direct Delivery of High Quality Molten Aluminum

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Fact Sheet About Complete Scrap-to-Caster System Will Save Energy and Reduce Costs in the Aluminum Industry

  1. One step process for producing dense aluminum nitride and composites thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holt, J.B.; Kingman, D.D.; Bianchini, G.M.

    1989-10-31

    A one step combustion process for the synthesis of dense aluminum nitride compositions is disclosed. The process comprises igniting pure aluminum powder in a nitrogen atmosphere at a pressure of about 1,000 atmospheres or higher. The process enables the production of aluminum nitride bodies to be formed directly in a mold of any desired shape.

  2. One step process for producing dense aluminum nitride and composites thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holt, J. Birch; Kingman, Donald D.; Bianchini, Gregory M.

    1989-01-01

    A one step combustion process for the synthesis of dense aluminum nitride compositions is disclosed. The process comprises igniting pure aluminum powder in a nitrogen atmosphere at a pressure of about 1000 atmospheres or higher. The process enables the production of aluminum nitride bodies to be formed directly in a mold of any desired shape.

  3. Mercury-free dissolution of aluminum-clad fuel in nitric acid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christian, Jerry D.; Anderson, Philip A.

    1994-01-01

    A mercury-free dissolution process for aluminum involves placing the aluminum in a dissolver vessel in contact with nitric acid-fluoboric acid mixture at an elevated temperature. By maintaining a continuous flow of the acid mixture through the dissolver vessel, an effluent containing aluminum nitrate, nitric acid, fluoboric acid and other dissolved components are removed.

  4. Mercury-free dissolution of aluminum-clad fuel in nitric acid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christian, J.D.; Anderson, P.A.

    1994-11-15

    A mercury-free dissolution process for aluminum involves placing the aluminum in a dissolver vessel in contact with nitric acid-fluoboric acid mixture at an elevated temperature. By maintaining a continuous flow of the acid mixture through the dissolver vessel, an effluent containing aluminum nitrate, nitric acid, fluoboric acid and other dissolved components are removed. 5 figs.

  5. Highland View school | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Highland View school Highland View school Aerial showing Highland View school and surrounding homes

  6. Radiation View Factor With Shadowing

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-02-24

    FACET calculates the radiation geometric view factor (alternatively called shape factor, angle factor, or configuration factor) between surfaces for axisymmetric, two-dimensional planar and three-dimensional geometries with interposed third surface obstructions. FACET was developed to calculate view factors as input data to finite element heat transfer analysis codes.

  7. Improved Irradiation Performance of Uranium-Molybdenum/Aluminum Dispersion Fuel by Silicon Addition in Aluminum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yeon Soo Kim; G. L. Hofman; A. B. Robinson; D. M. Wachs

    2013-10-01

    Uranium-molybdenum fuel particle dispersion in aluminum is a form of fuel under development for conversion of high-power research and test reactors from highly enriched to low-enriched uranium in the U.S. Global Threat Reduction Initiative program (also known as the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors program). Extensive irradiation tests have been conducted to find a solution for problems caused by interaction layer growth and pore formation between U-Mo and Al. Adding a small amount of Si (up to [approximately]5 wt%) in the Al matrix was one of the proposed remedies. The effect of silicon addition in the Al matrix was examined using irradiation test results by comparing side-by-side samples with different Si additions. Interaction layer growth was progressively reduced with increasing Si addition to the matrix Al, up to 4.8 wt%. The Si addition also appeared to delay pore formation and growth between the U-Mo and Al.

  8. TotalView Training 2015

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    TotalView Training 2015 TotalView Training 2015 NERSC will host an in-depth training course on TotalView, a graphical parallel debugger developed by Rogue Wave Software, on Thursday, March 26, 2015. This will be provided by Rogue Wave Software staff members. The training will include a lecture and demo sessions in the morning, followed by a hands-on parallel debugging session in the afternoon. Location This event will be presented online using WebEx technology and in person at NERSC Oakland

  9. Cost-Effective Consolidation of Fine Aluminum Scrap for Increased Remelting Effieciency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William Van Geertruyden

    2005-09-22

    The main objective of this research was to develop a new re-melting process for fine or light gauge aluminum scrap products that exhibits dramatic improvements in energy efficiency. Light gauge aluminum scrap in the form of chips, turnings, and borings has historically been underutilized in the aluminum recycling process due to its high surface area to volume ratio resulting in low melt recovery. Laboratory scale consolidation experiments were performed using loose aluminum powder as a modeling material as well as shredded aluminum wire scrap. The processing parameters necessary to create consolidated aluminum material were determined. Additionally, re-melting experiments using consolidated and unconsolidated aluminum powder confirmed the hypothesis that metal recovery using consolidated material will significantly improve by as much as 20%. Based on this research, it is estimated that approximately 495 billion Btu/year can be saved by implementation of this technology in one domestic aluminum rolling plant alone. The energy savings are realized by substituting aluminum scrap for primary aluminum, which requires large amounts of energy to produce. While there will be an initial capital investment, companies will benefit from the reduction of dependence on primary aluminum thus saving considerable costs. Additionally, the technology will allow companies to maintain in-house alloy scrap, rather than purchasing from other vendors and eliminate the need to discard the light gauge scrap to landfills.

  10. Reduction of Annealing Times for Energy Conservation in Aluminum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anthony D. Rollett; Hasso Weiland; Mohammed Alvi; Abhijit Brahme

    2005-08-31

    Carnegie Mellon University was teamed with the Alcoa Technical Center with support from the US Dept. of Energy (Office of Industrial Technology) and the Pennsylvania Technology Investment Authority (PTIA) to make processing of aluminum less costly and more energy efficient. Researchers in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering have investigated how annealing processes in the early stages of aluminum processing affect the structure and properties of the material. Annealing at high temperatures consumes significant amounts of time and energy. By making detailed measurements of the crystallography and morphology of internal structural changes they have generated new information that will provide a scientific basis for shortening processing times and consuming less energy during annealing.

  11. Influence of insulating coating on aluminum wire explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yang; Wu, Jian; Sheng, Liang; Zhao, Jizhen; Zhang, Mei; Yuan, Yuan; Peng, Bodong; Li, Xingwen

    2014-10-15

    Single wire explosions are widely used in understanding the early stages of z-pinch experiments. This paper presents a serial of experiments conducted on the pulse power generator with ?1?kA peak current and ?10?ns rising time in Xi'an Jiao Tong University. Polyimide coated aluminum wires and uncoated ones were tested under three different voltages to analyze the effect of insulating coating. Experimental results showed that insulating coating can increase the energy deposition 10%?30% in aluminum wires by delaying the voltage collapse and raising the maximum load resistance. The substantial energy deposition resulted in about 20% faster expansion rates for coated wires. Experimental evidence that plasma channel shunts the current from the wire core was observed by streak camera and schlieren graphs. This paper also briefly discussed the influence of nonuniform coating on the morphology of wire expansion.

  12. Precursor detonation wave development in ANFO due to aluminum confinement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, Scott I; Klyanda, Charles B; Short, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Detonations in explosive mixtures of ammonium-nitrate-fuel-oil (ANFO) confined by aluminum allow for transport of detonation energy ahead of the detonation front due to the aluminum sound speed exceeding the detonation velocity. The net effect of this energy transport on the detonation is unclear. It could enhance the detonation by precompressing the explosive near the wall. Alternatively, it could decrease the explosive performance by crushing porosity required for initiation by shock compression or destroying confinement ahead of the detonation. At present, these phenomena are not well understood. But with slowly detonating, non-ideal high explosive (NIHE) systems becoming increasing prevalent, proper understanding and prediction of the performance of these metal-confined NIHE systems is desirable. Experiments are discussed that measured the effect of this ANFO detonation energy transported upstream of the front by a 76-mm-inner-diameter aluminum confining tube. Detonation velocity, detonation-front shape, and aluminum response are recorded as a function of confiner wall thickness and length. Detonation shape profiles display little curvature near the confining surface, which is attributed to energy transported upstream modifying the flow. Average detonation velocities were seen to increase with increasing confiner thickness, while wavefront curvature decreased due to the stiffer, subsonic confinement. Significant radial sidewall tube motion was observed immediately ahead of the detonation. Axial motion was also detected, which interfered with the front shape measurements in some cases. It was concluded that the confiner was able to transport energy ahead of the detonation and that this transport has a definite effect on the detonation by modifying its characteristic shape.

  13. Indirect-Fired Kiln Conserves Scrap Aluminum and Cuts Costs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This case study examines a succesful process heating technology improvement implemented by Wabash Alloys at its East Syracuse, New York, facility. A demonstration project conducted at this plant by Energy Research Company (ERCo), of Staten Island, New York, involves a new energy-efficient kiln that heats scrap aluminum for reuse. This kiln has enabled Wabash to reduce metal loss and emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and, in addition, has reduced kiln energy use by more than half.

  14. Red-emitting manganese-doped aluminum nitride phosphor

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cherepy, Nerine J.; Payne, Stephen A.; Harvey, Nicholas M.; Aberg, Daniel; Seeley, Zachary M.; Holliday, Kiel S.; Tran, Ich C.; Zhou, Fei; Martinez, H. Paul; Demeyer, Jessica M.; et al

    2016-02-10

    Here, we report high efficiency luminescence with a manganese-doped aluminum nitride red-emitting phosphor under 254 nm excitation, as well as its excellent lumen maintenance in fluorescent lamp conditions, making it a candidate replacement for the widely deployed europium-doped yttria red phosphor. Solid-state reaction of aluminum nitride powders with manganese metal at 1900 °C, 10 atm N2 in a reducing environment results in nitrogen deficiency, as revealed diffuse reflectance spectra. When these powders are subsequently annealed in flowing nitrogen at 1650 °C, higher nitrogen content is recovered, resulting in white powders. Silicon was added to samples as an oxygen getter tomore » improve emission efficiency. NEXAFS spectra and DFT calculations indicate that the Mn dopant is divalent. From DFT calculations, the UV absorption band is proposed to be due to an aluminum vacancy coupled with oxygen impurity dopants, and Mn2+ is assumed to be closely associated with this site. In contrast with some previous reports, we find that the highest quantum efficiency with 254 nm excitation (Q.E. = 0.86 ± 0.14) is obtained in aluminum nitride with a low manganese doping level of 0.06 mol.%. The principal Mn2+ decay of 1.25 ms is assigned to non-interacting Mn sites, while additional components in the microsecond range appear with higher Mn doping, consistent with Mn clustering and resultant exchange coupling. Slower components are present in samples with low Mn doping, as well as strong afterglow, assigned to trapping on shallow traps followed by detrapping and subsequent trapping on Mn.« less

  15. Microstructure Development and Characteristics of Semisolid Aluminum Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merton Flemings; srinath Viswanathan

    2001-05-15

    A drop forge viscometer was employed to investigate the flow behavior under very rapid compression rates of A357, A356 diluted with pure aluminum and Al-4.5%Cu alloys. The A357 alloys were of commercial origin (MHD and SIMA) and the rheocast, modified A356 and Al-4.5Cu alloys were produced by a process developed at the solidification laboratory of MIT.

  16. Adiabatic release measurements in aluminum between 400-1200 GPa. Characterization of aluminum as a shock standard in the multimegabar regime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knudson, Marcus D.; Desjarlais, Michael P.; Pribram-Jones, Aurora

    2015-06-15

    Aluminum has been used prolifically as an impedance matching standard in the multimegabar regime (1 Mbar = 100 GPa), particularly in nuclear driven, early laser driven, and early magnetically driven flyer plate experiments. The accuracy of these impedance matching measurements depends upon the knowledge of both the Hugoniot and release or reshock response of aluminum. Here, we present the results of several adiabatic release measurements of aluminum from ~4001200 GPa states along the principal Hugoniot using full density polymethylpentene (commonly known as TPX), and both ~190 and ~110 mg/cc silica aerogel standards. Additionally, these data were analyzed within the framework of a simple, analytical model that was motivated by a first-principles molecular dynamics investigation into the release response of aluminum, as well as by a survey of the release response determined from several tabular equations of state for aluminum. Combined, this theoretical and experimental study provides a method to perform impedance matching calculations without the need to appeal to any tabular equation of state for aluminum. Furthermore, as an analytical model, this method allows for propagation of all uncertainty, including the random measurement uncertainties and the systematic uncertainties of the Hugoniot and release response of aluminum. This work establishes aluminum for use as a high-precision standard for impedance matching in the multimegabar regime.

  17. Adiabatic release measurements in aluminum between 400-1200 GPa. Characterization of aluminum as a shock standard in the multimegabar regime

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Knudson, Marcus D.; Desjarlais, Michael P.; Pribram-Jones, Aurora

    2015-06-15

    Aluminum has been used prolifically as an impedance matching standard in the multimegabar regime (1 Mbar = 100 GPa), particularly in nuclear driven, early laser driven, and early magnetically driven flyer plate experiments. The accuracy of these impedance matching measurements depends upon the knowledge of both the Hugoniot and release or reshock response of aluminum. Here, we present the results of several adiabatic release measurements of aluminum from ~400–1200 GPa states along the principal Hugoniot using full density polymethylpentene (commonly known as TPX), and both ~190 and ~110 mg/cc silica aerogel standards. Additionally, these data were analyzed within the frameworkmore » of a simple, analytical model that was motivated by a first-principles molecular dynamics investigation into the release response of aluminum, as well as by a survey of the release response determined from several tabular equations of state for aluminum. Combined, this theoretical and experimental study provides a method to perform impedance matching calculations without the need to appeal to any tabular equation of state for aluminum. Furthermore, as an analytical model, this method allows for propagation of all uncertainty, including the random measurement uncertainties and the systematic uncertainties of the Hugoniot and release response of aluminum. This work establishes aluminum for use as a high-precision standard for impedance matching in the multimegabar regime.« less

  18. Off-Board Considerations

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    MPa CF * Al 6061-T6 alloy liner Heat Transfer System * 1.5 kgmin H 2 refueling rate * ... removed to input electrical energy) is a function of refrigeration T and plant size 0 1 2 ...

  19. Wide field of view telescope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ackermann, Mark R.; McGraw, John T.; Zimmer, Peter C.

    2008-01-15

    A wide field of view telescope having two concave and two convex reflective surfaces, each with an aspheric surface contour, has a flat focal plane array. Each of the primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary reflective surfaces are rotationally symmetric about the optical axis. The combination of the reflective surfaces results in a wide field of view in the range of approximately 3.8.degree. to approximately 6.5.degree.. The length of the telescope along the optical axis is approximately equal to or less than the diameter of the largest of the reflective surfaces.

  20. Effect of grain orientation on aluminum relocation at incipient melt conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yilmaz, Nadir; Vigil, Francisco M.; Vigil, Miquela S.; Branam, Robert; Tolendino, Greg; Gill, Walt; Burl Donaldson, A.

    2015-09-01

    Aluminum is commonly used for structural applications in the aerospace industry because of its high strength in relation to its weight. It is necessary to understand the mechanical response of aluminum structures at elevated temperatures such as those experienced in a fire. Additionally, aluminum alloys exhibit many complicated behaviors that require further research and understanding, such as aluminum combustion, oxide skin formation and creep behavior. This paper discusses the effect of grain orientation on aluminum deformation subjected to heating at incipient melt conditions. Experiments were conducted by applying a vertical compressive force to aluminum alloy 7075 block test specimens. Furthermore, compression testing was done on test specimens with the applied load on the long transverse and short transverse orientations. Our results showed that the grain orientation significantly influences aluminum’s strength and mode of failure.

  1. Effect of grain orientation on aluminum relocation at incipient melt conditions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yilmaz, Nadir; Vigil, Francisco M.; Vigil, Miquela S.; Branam, Robert; Tolendino, Greg; Gill, Walt; Burl Donaldson, A.

    2015-09-01

    Aluminum is commonly used for structural applications in the aerospace industry because of its high strength in relation to its weight. It is necessary to understand the mechanical response of aluminum structures at elevated temperatures such as those experienced in a fire. Additionally, aluminum alloys exhibit many complicated behaviors that require further research and understanding, such as aluminum combustion, oxide skin formation and creep behavior. This paper discusses the effect of grain orientation on aluminum deformation subjected to heating at incipient melt conditions. Experiments were conducted by applying a vertical compressive force to aluminum alloy 7075 block test specimens. Furthermore,more » compression testing was done on test specimens with the applied load on the long transverse and short transverse orientations. Our results showed that the grain orientation significantly influences aluminum’s strength and mode of failure.« less

  2. Susceptibility of Aluminum Alloys to Corrosion in Simulated Fuel Blends Containing Ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomson, Jeffery K; Pawel, Steven J; Wilson, Dane F

    2013-01-01

    The compatibility of aluminum and aluminum alloys with synthetic fuel blends comprised of ethanol and reference fuel C (a 50/50 mix of toluene and iso-octane) was examined as a function of water content and temperature. Commercially pure wrought aluminum and several cast aluminum alloys were observed to be similarly susceptible to substantial corrosion in dry (< 50 ppm water) ethanol. Corrosion rates of all the aluminum materials examined was accelerated by increased temperature and ethanol content in the fuel mixture, but inhibited by increased water content. Pretreatments designed to stabilize passive films on aluminum increased the incubation time for onset of corrosion, suggesting film stability is a significant factor in the mechanism of corrosion.

  3. Use of aluminum nitride to obtain temperature measurements in a high temperature and high radiation environment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wernsman, Bernard R.; Blasi, Raymond J.; Tittman, Bernhard R.; Parks, David A.

    2016-04-26

    An aluminum nitride piezoelectric ultrasonic transducer successfully operates at temperatures of up to 1000.degree. C. and fast (>1 MeV) neutron fluencies of more than 10.sup.18 n/cm.sup.2. The transducer comprises a transparent, nitrogen rich aluminum nitride (AlN) crystal wafer that is coupled to an aluminum cylinder for pulse-echo measurements. The transducer has the capability to measure in situ gamma heating within the core of a nuclear reactor.

  4. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Hunter Douglas Aluminum Plant Div of

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Bridgeport Brass Co - CA 11 Hunter Douglas Aluminum Plant Div of Bridgeport Brass Co - CA 11 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: HUNTER DOUGLAS ALUMINUM PLANT, DIV. OF BRIDGEPORT BRASS CO. (CA.11 ) Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: Hunter Douglas Aluminum Corporation CA.11-1 Location: 3016 Kansas Avenue , Riverside , California CA.11-1 Evaluation Year: 1995 CA.11-2 Site Operations: Fabricated uranium metal tubing during the late 1950s.

  5. Impact of Aluminum on Anticipated Corrosion in a Flooded SNF Multi Canister Overpack (MCO)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DUNCAN, D.R.

    1999-07-06

    Corrosion reactions in a flooded MCO are examined to determine the impact of aluminum corrosion products (from aluminum basket grids and spacers) on bound water estimates and subsequent fuel/environment reactions during storage. The mass and impact of corrosion products were determined to be insignificant, validating the choice of aluminum as an MCO component and confirming expectations that no changes to the Technical Databook or particulate mass or water content are necessary.

  6. Bandwidth Study U.S. Aluminum Manufacturing, Draft | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Aluminum Manufacturing, Draft Bandwidth Study U.S. Aluminum Manufacturing, Draft Bandwidth Study U.S. Aluminum Manufacturing, Draft Energy bandwidth studies can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities in manufacturing. This bandwidth study is one of a series of six energy bandwidth studies on manufacturing lightweight structural materials. The study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in

  7. Updated Life-Cycle Assessment of Aluminum Production and Semi-fabrication for the GREET Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dai, Qiang; Kelly, Jarod C.; Burnham, Andrew; Elgowainy, Amgad

    2015-09-01

    This report serves as an update for the life-cycle analysis (LCA) of aluminum production based on the most recent data representing the state-of-the-art of the industry in North America. The 2013 Aluminum Association (AA) LCA report on the environmental footprint of semifinished aluminum products in North America provides the basis for the update (The Aluminum Association, 2013). The scope of this study covers primary aluminum production, secondary aluminum production, as well as aluminum semi-fabrication processes including hot rolling, cold rolling, extrusion and shape casting. This report focuses on energy consumptions, material inputs and criteria air pollutant emissions for each process from the cradle-to-gate of aluminum, which starts from bauxite extraction, and ends with manufacturing of semi-fabricated aluminum products. The life-cycle inventory (LCI) tables compiled are to be incorporated into the vehicle cycle model of Argonne National Laboratory’s Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) Model for the release of its 2015 version.

  8. High Methane Storage Capacity in Aluminum Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome High Methane Storage Capacity in Aluminum Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs)

  9. Investigation of Opportunities for High-Temperature Solar Energy in the Aluminum Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murray, J.

    2006-05-01

    This report gives the conclusions drawn from a study of the potential application of high-temperature solar process heat for production of aluminum.

  10. New Aluminum Alloys for Energy-Efficient Transportation | U.S...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    New Aluminum Alloys for Energy-Efficient Transportation Basic Energy Sciences (BES) BES Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of BES Funding Opportunities ...

  11. FRICTION STIR SPOT WELDING OF 6016 ALUMINUM ALLOY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mishra, Rajiv S.; Webb, S.; Freeney, T. A.; Chen, Y. L.; Gayden, X.; Grant, Glenn J.; Herling, Darrell R.

    2007-01-08

    Friction stir spot welding (FSSW) of 6016 aluminum alloy was evaluated with conventional pin tool and new off-center feature tools. The off-center feature tool provides significant control over the joint area. The tool rotation rate was varied between 1000 and 2500 rpm. Maximum failure strength was observed in the tool rotation range of 1200-1500 rpm. The results are interpreted in the context of material flow in the joint and influence of thermal input on microstructural changes. The off-center feature tool concept opens up new possibilities for plunge-type friction stir spot welding.

  12. The Effect of Impurities on the Processing of Aluminum Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zi-Kui Liu; Shengjun Zhang; Qingyou Han; Vinod Sikka

    2007-04-23

    For this Aluminum Industry of the Future (IOF) project, the effect of impurities on the processing of aluminum alloys was systematically investigated. The work was carried out as a collaborative effort between the Pennsylvania State University and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Industrial support was provided by ALCOA and ThermoCalc, Inc. The achievements described below were made. A method that combines first-principles calculation and calculation of phase diagrams (CALPHAD) was used to develop the multicomponent database Al-Ca-K-Li-Mg-Na. This method was extensively used in this project for the development of a thermodynamic database. The first-principles approach provided some thermodynamic property data that are not available in the open literature. These calculated results were used in the thermodynamic modeling as experimental data. Some of the thermodynamic property data are difficult, if not impossible, to measure. The method developed and used in this project allows the estimation of these data for thermodynamic database development. The multicomponent database Al-Ca-K-Li-Mg-Na was developed. Elements such as Ca, Li, Na, and K are impurities that strongly affect the formability and corrosion behavior of aluminum alloys. However, these impurity elements are not included in the commercial aluminum alloy database. The process of thermodynamic modeling began from Al-Na, Ca-Li, Li-Na, K-Na, and Li-K sub-binary systems. Then ternary and higher systems were extrapolated because of the lack of experimental information. Databases for five binary alloy systems and two ternary systems were developed. Along with other existing binary and ternary databases, the full database of the multicomponent Al-Ca-K-Li-Mg-Na system was completed in this project. The methodology in integrating with commercial or other aluminum alloy databases can be developed. The mechanism of sodium-induced high-temperature embrittlement (HTE) of Al-Mg is now understood. Using the thermodynamic database developed in this project, thermodynamic simulations were carried out to investigate the effect of sodium on the HTE of Al-Mg alloys. The simulation results indicated that the liquid miscibility gap resulting from the dissolved sodium in the molten material plays an important role in HTE. A liquid phase forms from the solid face-centered cubic (fcc) phase (most likely at grain boundaries) during cooling, resulting in the occurrence of HTE. Comparison of the thermodynamic simulation results with experimental measurements on the high-temperature ductility of an Al-5Mg-Na alloy shows that HTE occurs in the temperature range at which the liquid phase exists. Based on this fundamental understanding of the HTE mechanism during processing of aluminum alloy, an HTE sensitive zone and a hot-rolling safe zone of the Al-Mg-Na alloys are defined as functions of processing temperature and alloy composition. The tendency of HTE was evaluated based on thermodynamic simulations of the fraction of the intergranular sodium-rich liquid phase. Methods of avoiding HTE during rolling/extrusion of Al-Mg-based alloys were suggested. Energy and environmental benefits from the results of this project could occur through a number of avenues: (1) energy benefits accruing from reduced rejection rates of the aluminum sheet and bar, (2) reduced dross formation during the remelting of the aluminum rejects, and (3) reduced CO2 emission related to the energy savings. The sheet and extruded bar quantities produced in the United States during 2000 were 10,822 and 4,546 million pounds, respectively. It is assumed that 50% of the sheet and 10% of the bar will be affected by implementing the results of this project. With the current process, the rejection rate of sheet and bar is estimated at 5%. Assuming that at least half of the 5% rejection of sheet and bar will be eliminated by using the results of this project and that 4% of the aluminum will be lost through dross (Al2O3) during remelting of the rejects, the full-scale industrial implementation of the project results would lead to energy savings in excess of 6.2 trillion Btu/year and cost savings of $42.7 million by 2020.

  13. Dynamic consolidation of aluminum-silicon carbide composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabin, B.H.; Korth, G.E.; Williamson, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    Dynamic consolidation was investigated as a potential method for producing P/M metal matrix composites. In this study, 2124 aluminum powders were mixed with silicon carbide particulate and consolidated using explosives. Numerical simulations were performed to provide insight into the consolidation process and to aid in the selection of experimental conditions. The microstructure of the as-consolidated product was dependent upon processing variables. Careful control of the shock parameters allowed full density, crack free composites to be achieved in cylindrical geometries. Although full density was obtained, low fracture strengths suggested a lack of interparticle bonding, probably resulting from the limited ability to redistribute surface oxides during consolidation. 10 refs., 9 figs.

  14. Views of the solar system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamilton, C.

    1995-02-01

    Views of the Solar System has been created as an educational tour of the solar system. It contains images and information about the Sun, planets, moons, asteroids and comets found within the solar system. The image processing for many of the images was done by the author. This tour uses hypertext to allow space travel by simply clicking on a desired planet. This causes information and images about the planet to appear on screen. While on a planet page, hyperlinks travel to pages about the moons and other relevant available resources. Unusual terms are linked to and defined in the Glossary page. Statistical information of the planets and satellites can be browsed through lists sorted by name, radius and distance. History of Space Exploration contains information about rocket history, early astronauts, space missions, spacecraft and detailed chronology tables of space exploration. The Table of Contents page has links to all of the various pages within Views Of the Solar System.

  15. For current viewing resistor loads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lyons, Gregory R.; Hass, Jay B.

    2011-04-19

    The invention comprises a terminal unit for a flat cable comprising a BNC-PCB connector having a pin for electrically contacting one or more conducting elements of a flat cable, and a current viewing resistor having an opening through which the pin extends and having a resistor face that abuts a connector face of the BNC-PCB connector, wherein the device is a terminal unit for the flat cable.

  16. X-ray diffractometry of lanthanum-nickel-aluminum alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mosley, W.C.

    1988-08-08

    X-ray diffractometry provides much useful information on LANA alloys that complements data obtained by SEM and Electron Microprobe Analysis. Accurate measurements of the hexagonal lattice parameters of the primary LaNi{sub 5-y}Aly phase reveal the aluminum content (y) and allow the prediction of desorption pressures for the hydrogen isotopes. A study of the broadening of x-ray diffraction lines of the LaNi{sub 5-y}Aly primary phase caused by cyclic absorption and desorption of hydrogen suggests that substitution of aluminum for nickel stabilizes the primary phase with respect to formation of antistructure defects that could cause undesirable trapping of hydrogen isotopes. Correlation of XRD with SEM and EMPA results has helped identify secondary phases, determine their abundances in volume percent, and reveal how they react with hydrogen and the atmosphere. Characterizations of LANA alloys used in process development has provided the bases for development of specifications for alloys to be used in the Replacement Trittium Facility. 28 refs., 4 tabs., 12 figs.

  17. Morphological development and oxidation mechanisms of aluminum nitride whiskers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hou Xinmei; Yue Changsheng; Kumar Singh, Ankit; Zhang Mei; Chou Kuochih

    2010-04-15

    Hexagonal aluminum nitride (AlN) whiskers have been synthesized at 1873 K under a flowing nitrogen atmosphere. The synthesized whiskers are long straight filaments with diameters between 1 and 5 {mu}m and length in the cm range. In order to investigate its 'oxidation resistance', a series of experiments have been performed. The oxidation behavior was quite different in the experimental temperature range assigned, which can be attributed to the kinetic factor and the morphological development during oxidation process. It was chemical controlled at lower temperature while both chemical reaction and diffusion controlled at medium temperature. Further accelerating of temperature to 1473 K, AlN whiskers was peeled into smaller parts, which increased the oxidation rate and hence showed powder-like oxidation behavior. Our new kinetic theory has been applied to study the oxidation behavior of AlN whiskers. The comparison of the experimental data with the theoretical ones validates the applicability of the new model. - Hexagonal aluminum nitride (AlN) whiskers have been synthesized at 1873 K under a flowing nitrogen atmosphere. The synthesized whiskers are long straight filaments with diameters between 1 and 5 {mu}m and length in the cm range.

  18. Metastable phases in mechanically alloyed aluminum germanium powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yvon, P.J.; Schwarz, R.B.

    1993-03-01

    Aluminum and germanium form a simple eutectic system with no stable intermetallic phase, and limited mutual solubility. We report the formation of a metastable rhombohedral,{gamma}{sub 1} phase by mechanically alloying aluminum and germanium powders. This phase, which appears for compositions between 20 and 50 at. % germanium, has also been observed in rapidly quenched alloys, but there is disagreement as to its composition. By measuring the heat of crystallization as a function of composition, we determined the composition of the {gamma}{sub 1} phase to be Al{sub 70}Ge{sub 30}. We also produced Al{sub 70}Ge{sub 30} by arc melting the pure elements, followed by splat-quenching at a cooling rate in the range of 10{sup 8} K s{sup {minus}1}. This method produced two metastable phases, one of which was found to be the {gamma}{sub 1} phase obtained by mechanical alloying. The other was a monoclinic phase reported earlier in the literature as {gamma}{sub 2}.

  19. Interfacial charging phenomena of aluminum (hydr)oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hiemstra, T.; Yong, H.; Van Riemsdijk, W.H.

    1999-08-31

    The interfacial charging of Al(OH){sub 3} (gibbsite and bayerite) and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} has been studied. For Al(OH){sub 3} it can be shown that the very strong variation in charging behavior for different preparations is related to the relative presence of differently reacting crystal planes. The edge faces of the hexagonal gibbsite crystals are proton reactive over the whole pH range, in contrast to the 001 plane, which is mainly uncharged below pH = 10. On this 001 face only doubly coordinated surface groups are found, in contrast to the edges which also have singly coordinated surface groups. The results are fully in agreement with the predictions of the Multi site complexation (MUSIC) model. The proton adsorption, electrolyte ion adsorption, and shift of the IEP of gibbsite and aluminum oxide have been modeled simultaneously. For gibbsite, the ion pair formation of Na is larger than that of Cl, as is evidenced by modeling the experimentally observed upward shift on the IEP and charge reversal at high electrolyte concentrations. All these experimental results can be satisfactorily modeled with the MUSIC model, including the experimental surface potential of aluminum oxide (ISFET).

  20. Radiation tolerance of piezoelectric bulk single-crystal aluminum nitride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David A. Parks; Bernhard R. Tittmann

    2014-07-01

    For practical use in harsh radiation environments, we pose selection criteria for piezoelectric materials for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and material characterization. Using these criteria, piezoelectric aluminum nitride is shown to be an excellent candidate. The results of tests on an aluminumnitride-based transducer operating in a nuclear reactor are also presented. We demonstrate the tolerance of single-crystal piezoelectric aluminum nitride after fast and thermal neutron fluences of 1.85 × 1018 neutron/cm2 and 5.8 × 1018 neutron/cm2, respectively, and a gamma dose of 26.8 MGy. The radiation hardness of AlN is most evident from the unaltered piezoelectric coefficient d33, which measured 5.5 pC/N after a fast and thermal neutron exposure in a nuclear reactor core for over 120 MWh, in agreement with the published literature value. The results offer potential for improving reactor safety and furthering the understanding of radiation effects on materials by enabling structural health monitoring and NDE in spite of the high levels of radiation and high temperatures, which are known to destroy typical commercial ultrasonic transducers.

  1. Reaction of Aluminum with Water to Produce Hydrogen: A Study of Issues Related to the Use of Aluminum for On-Board Vehicular Hydrogen Storage. Version 2, 2010.

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Produced in 2008 by DOE and updated in 2010, this report focuses on the key issues as well as advantages and disadvantages associated with using the reaction between aluminum metal and water for on-board vehicular hydrogen storage.

  2. Synthesis and use of (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium and indium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marks, Tobin J.; Chen, You-Xian

    2000-01-01

    Salts of (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium are described. The (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions have the formula [ER'R"R'"F].sup..crclbar. wherein E is aluminum, gallium, or indium, wherein F is fluorine, and wherein R', R", and R'" is each a fluorinated phenyl, fluorinated biphenyl, or fluorinated polycyclic group.

  3. Life-cycle energy savings potential from aluminum-intensive vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stodolsky, F.; Vyas, A.; Cuenca, R.; Gaines, L.

    1995-07-01

    The life-cycle energy and fuel-use impacts of US-produced aluminum-intensive passenger cars and passenger trucks are assessed. The energy analysis includes vehicle fuel consumption, material production energy, and recycling energy. A model that stimulates market dynamics was used to project aluminum-intensive vehicle market shares and national energy savings potential for the period between 2005 and 2030. We conclude that there is a net energy savings with the use of aluminum-intensive vehicles. Manufacturing costs must be reduced to achieve significant market penetration of aluminum-intensive vehicles. The petroleum energy saved from improved fuel efficiency offsets the additional energy needed to manufacture aluminum compared to steel. The energy needed to make aluminum can be reduced further if wrought aluminum is recycled back to wrought aluminum. We find that oil use is displaced by additional use of natural gas and nonfossil energy, but use of coal is lower. Many of the results are not necessarily applicable to vehicles built outside of the United States, but others could be used with caution.

  4. Cathode for a hall-heroult type electrolytic cell for producing aluminum

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Craig W.

    2004-04-13

    A method of producing aluminum from alumina in an electrolytic cell including using a cathode comprised of a base material having low electrical conductivity and wettable with molten aluminum to form a reaction layer having a high electrical conductivity on said base layer and a cathode bar extending from said reaction layer through said base material to conduct electrical current from said reaction layer.

  5. Aluminum-blade development for the Mod-0A 200-kilowatt wind turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linscott, B.S.; Shaltens, R.K.; Eggers, A.G.

    1981-12-01

    This report documents the operating experience with two aluminum blades used on the DOE/NASA Mod-0A 200-kilowatt wind turbine located at Clayton, New Mexico. Each Mod-0A aluminum blade is 59.9 feet long and weighs 2360 pounds. The aluminum Mod-0A blade design requirements, the selected design, fabrication procedures, and the blade analyses are discussed. A detailed chronology is presented on the operating experience of the Mod-0A aluminum blades used at Clayton, New Mexico. Blade structural damage was experienced. Inspection and damage assessment were required. Structural modifications that were incorporated to the blades successfully extended the useful operating life of the blades. The aluminum blades completed the planned 2 years of operation of the Clayton wind turbine. The blades were removed from service in August 1980 to allow testing of advanced technology wood composite blades.

  6. Carbothermic reduction and prereduced charge for producing aluminum-silicon alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stevenson, David T.; Troup, Robert L.

    1985-01-01

    Disclosed is a method for the carbothermic reduction of aluminum oxide to form an aluminum alloy including producing silicon carbide by heating a first mix of carbon and silicon oxide in a combustion reactor to an elevated temperature sufficient to produce silicon carbide at an accelerated rate, the heating being provided by an in situ combustion with oxygen gas, and then admixing the silicon carbide with carbon and aluminum oxide to form a second mix and heating the second mix in a second reactor to an elevated metal-forming temperature sufficient to produce aluminum-silicon alloy. The prereduction step includes holding aluminum oxide substantially absent from the combustion reactor. The metal-forming step includes feeding silicon oxide in a preferred ratio with silicon carbide.

  7. Carbothermic reduction and prereduced charge for producing aluminum-silicon alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stevenson, D.T.; Troup, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Disclosed is a method for the carbothermic reduction of aluminum oxide to form an aluminum alloy including producing silicon carbide by heating a first mix of carbon and silicon oxide in a combustion reactor to an elevated temperature sufficient to produce silicon carbide at an accelerated rate, the heating being provided by an in situ combustion with oxygen gas, and then admixing the silicon carbide with carbon and aluminum oxide to form a second mix and heating the second mix in a second reactor to an elevated metal-forming temperature sufficient to produce aluminum-silicon alloy. The prereduction step includes holding aluminum oxide substantially absent from the combustion reactor. The metal-forming step includes feeding silicon oxide in a preferred ratio with silicon carbide. 1 fig.

  8. Process for mitigating corrosion and increasing the conductivity of steel studs in soderberg anodes of aluminum reduction cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oden, Laurance L.; White, Jack C.; Ramsey, James A.

    1994-01-01

    A corrosion resistant electrically conductive coating on steel anode studs used in the production of aluminum by electrolysis.

  9. Final Technical Report Microwave Assisted Electrolyte Cell for Primary Aluminum Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiaodi Huang; J.Y. Hwang

    2007-04-18

    This research addresses the high priority research need for developing inert anode and wetted cathode technology, as defined in the Aluminum Industry Technology Roadmap and Inert Anode Roadmap, with the performance targets: a) significantly reducing the energy intensity of aluminum production, b) ultimately eliminating anode-related CO2 emissions, and c) reducing aluminum production costs. This research intended to develop a new electrometallurgical extraction technology by introducing microwave irradiation into the current electrolytic cells for primary aluminum production. This technology aimed at accelerating the alumina electrolysis reduction rate and lowering the aluminum production temperature, coupled with the uses of nickel based superalloy inert anode, nickel based superalloy wetted cathode, and modified salt electrolyte. Michigan Technological University, collaborating with Cober Electronic and Century Aluminum, conducted bench-scale research for evaluation of this technology. This research included three sub-topics: a) fluoride microwave absorption; b) microwave assisted electrolytic cell design and fabrication; and c) aluminum electrowinning tests using the microwave assisted electrolytic cell. This research concludes that the typically used fluoride compound for aluminum electrowinning is not a good microwave absorbing material at room temperature. However, it becomes an excellent microwave absorbing material above 550C. The electrowinning tests did not show benefit to introduce microwave irradiation into the electrolytic cell. The experiments revealed that the nickel-based superalloy is not suitable for use as a cathode material; although it wets with molten aluminum, it causes severe reaction with molten aluminum. In the anode experiments, the chosen superalloy did not meet corrosion resistance requirements. A nicked based alloy without iron content could be further investigated.

  10. Analyzing the performance of diamond-coated micro end mills.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torres, C. D.; Heaney, P. J.; Sumant, A. V.; Hamilton, M. A.; Carpick, R. W.; Pfefferkorn, F. E.; Univ. of Wisconsin at Madison; Univ. of Pennsylvania

    2009-06-01

    A method is presented to improve the tool life and cutting performance of 300 {micro}m diameter tungsten carbide (WC) micro end mills by applying thin (<300 nm) fine-grained diamond (FGD) and nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) coatings using the hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (HF-CVD) process. The performance of the diamond-coated tools has been evaluated by comparing their performance in dry slot milling of 6061-T6 aluminum against uncoated WC micro end mills. Tool wear, coating integrity, and chip morphology were characterized using SEM and white light interferometry. The initial test results show a dramatic improvement in the tool integrity (i.e., corners not breaking off), a lower wear rate, no observable adhesion of aluminum to the diamond-coated tool, and a significant reduction in the cutting forces (>50%). Reduction of the cutting forces is attributed to the low friction and adhesion of the diamond coating. However, approximately 80% of the tools coated with the larger FGD coatings failed during testing due to delamination. Additional machining benefits were attained for the NCD films, which was obtained by using a higher nucleation density seeding process for diamond growth. This process allowed for thinner, smaller grained diamond coatings to be deposited on the micro end mills, and enabled continued operation of the tool even after the integrity of the diamond coating had been compromised. As opposed to the FGD-coated end mills, only 40% of the NCD-tools experienced delamination issues.

  11. December 2015 Most Viewed Documents for Materials | OSTI, US...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    - Literature Review Lundin, C.D.; Zhou, G.; Ruprecht, W. (1999) 308 Overcoming residual stresses and machining distortion in the production of aluminum alloy satellite boxes. ...

  12. September 2015 Most Viewed Documents for Materials | OSTI, US...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A.; Rice, J. (Texaloy Foundry Co., Inc., Floresville, Texas) (2004) 220 Overcoming residual stresses and machining distortion in the production of aluminum alloy satellite boxes. ...

  13. July 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Materials | OSTI, US Dept...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    residual stresses and machining distortion in the production of aluminum alloy satellite boxes. Younger, Mandy S.; Eckelmeyer, Kenneth Hall (2007) 54 > Work Functions of the ...

  14. Final Report - Melt Rate Enhancement for High Aluminum HLW Glass Formulation, VSL-08R1360-1, Rev. 0, dated 12/19/08

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruger, Albert A.; Pegg, I. L.; Chaudhuri, M.; Gong, W.; Gan, H.; Matlack, K. S.; Bardakci, T.; Kot, W.

    2013-11-13

    The principal objective of the work reported here was to develop and identify HLW glass compositions that maximize waste processing rates for the aluminum limted waste composition specified by ORP while maintaining high waste loadings and acceptable glass properties. This was accomplished through a combination of crucible-scale tests, confirmation tests on the DM100 melter system, and demonstration at pilot scale (DM1200). The DM100-BL unit was selected for these tests since it was used previously with the HLW waste streams evaluated in this study, was used for tests on HLW glass compositions to support subsequent tests on the HLW Pilot Melter, conduct tests to determine the effect of various glass properties (viscosity and conductivity) and oxide concentrations on glass production rates with HLW feed streams, and to assess the volatility of cesium and technetium during the vitrification of an HLW AZ-102 composition. The same melter was selected for the present tests in order to maintain comparisons between the previously collected data. These tests provide information on melter processing characteristics and off-gas data, including formation of secondary phases and partitioning. Once DM100 tests were completed, one of the compositions was selected for further testing on the DM1200; the DM1200 system has been used for processing a variety of simulated Hanford waste streams. Tests on the larger melter provide processing data at one third of the scale of the actual WTP HLW melter and, therefore, provide a more accurate and reliable assessment of production rates and potential processing issues. The work focused on maximizing waste processing rates for high aluminum HLW compositions. In view of the diversity of forms of aluminum in the Hanford tanks, tests were also conducted on the DM100 to determine the effect of changes in the form of aluminum on feed properties and production rate. In addition, the work evaluated the effect on production rate of modest increases in melter operating temperature. Glass composition development was based on one of the HLW waste compositions specified by ORP that has a high concentration of aluminum. Small-scale tests were used to provide an initial screening of various glass formulations with respect to melt rates; more definitive screening was provided by the subsequent DM100 tests. Glass properties evaluated included: viscosity, electrical conductivity, crystallinity, gross glass phase separation and the 7- day Product Consistency Test (ASTM-1285). Glass property limits were based upon the reference properties for the WTP HLW melter. However, the WTP crystallinity limit (< 1 vol% at 950oC) was relaxed slightly as a waste loading constraint for the crucible melts.

  15. Better Buildings Network View | March 2014

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Better Buildings Network View monthly newsletter from the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings Residential Network.

  16. Better Buildings Network View | January 2015

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Better Buildings Network View monthly newsletter from the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings Residential Network.

  17. Better Buildings Network View | June 2015

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Better Buildings Network View monthly newsletter from the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings Residential Network.

  18. Better Buildings Network View | May 2014

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Better Buildings Network View monthly newsletter from the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings Residential Network.

  19. The Better Buildings Neighborhood View-- July 2012

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Better Buildings Neighborhood View monthly newsletter from the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings Neighborhood Program.

  20. The Better Buildings Neighborhood View-- Fall 2011

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Better Buildings Neighborhood View, from the Better Buildings Neighborhood Program of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  1. View Shed - Version 1.0

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-09-18

    The View Shed library is a collection of Umbra modules that are used to calculate areas of visual coverage (view sheds). It maps high and low visibility areas and calculates sensor (camera placement for maximum coverage and performance. This assertion includes a managed C++ wrapper code (ViewShedWrapper) to enable C# applications, such as OpShed, to incorporate this library.

  2. Energy Assessment Helps Kaiser Aluminum Save Energy and Improve Productivity

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This case study describes how a DOE energy assessment at Kaiser Aluminum's extrusion plant in Sherman, Texas, identified significant potential energy savings in its process heating systems. Employees at the Sherman plant wasted no time moving forward with assessment recommendations. First, they adjusted burner controls on one of the main reverberatory melting furnaces to lower excess oxygen levels. They also made some repairs to the furnace’s door sill and jamb to prevent cold air from seeping into it. By implementing these measures the plant achieved annual energy savings of approximately 45,000 MMBtu and improved the furnace’s energy intensity by 11.1% between 2006 and 2007. With project costs of approximately $28,000 and energy cost savings of $360,000, the simple payback was under 1 month.

  3. Laser assisted high entropy alloy coating on aluminum: Microstructural evolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katakam, Shravana; Joshi, Sameehan S.; Mridha, Sanghita; Mukherjee, Sundeep; Dahotre, Narendra B.

    2014-09-14

    High entropy alloy (Al-Fe-Co-Cr-Ni) coatings were synthesized using laser surface engineering on aluminum substrate. Electron diffraction analysis confirmed the formation of solid solution of body centered cubic high entropy alloy phase along with phases with long range periodic structures within the coating. Evolution of such type of microstructure was a result of kinetics associated with laser process, which generates higher temperatures and rapid cooling resulting in retention of high entropy alloy phase followed by reheating and/or annealing in subsequent passes of the laser track giving rise to partial decomposition. The partial decomposition resulted in formation of precipitates having layered morphology with a mixture of high entropy alloy rich phases, compounds, and long range ordered phases.

  4. Supersonic laser-induced jetting of aluminum micro-droplets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zenou, M.; Sa'ar, A.; Kotler, Z.

    2015-05-04

    The droplet velocity and the incubation time of pure aluminum micro-droplets, printed using the method of sub-nanosecond laser induced forward transfer, have been measured indicating the formation of supersonic laser-induced jetting. The incubation time and the droplet velocity were extracted by measuring a transient electrical signal associated with droplet landing on the surface of the acceptor substrate. This technique has been exploited for studying small volume droplets, in the range of 10–100 femto-litters for which supersonic velocities were measured. The results suggest elastic propagation of the droplets across the donor-to-acceptor gap, a nonlinear deposition dynamics on the surface of the acceptor and overall efficient energy transfer from the laser beam to the droplets.

  5. Structure of stagnated plasma in aluminum wire array Z pinches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, G. N.; Pikuz, S. A.; Shelkovenko, T. A.; Bland, S. N.; Lebedev, S. V.; Ampleford, D. J.; Palmer, J. B. A.; Bott, S. C.; Rapley, J.; Chittenden, J. P.; Apruzese, J. P.

    2006-08-15

    Experiments with aluminum wire array Z pinches have been carried out on the mega-ampere generator for plasma implosion experiments (MAGPIE) at Imperial College London [I. H. Mitchell et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 1533 (1996)]. It has been shown that in these arrays, there are two intense sources of radiation during stagnation; Al XII line emission from a precursor-sized object, and both continuum and Al XIII radiation from bright spots of either significantly higher temperature or density randomly distributed around this object so as to produce a hollow emission profile. Spatially resolved spectra produced by spherically bent crystals were recorded, both time-integrated and time-resolved, and were used to show that these two sources of radiation peak at the same time.

  6. Formability Prediction Of Aluminum Sheet In Automotive Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leppin, Christian; Daniel, Dominique; Shahani, Ravi; Gese, Helmut; Dell, Harry

    2007-05-17

    In the following paper, a full mechanical characterization of the AA6016 T4 aluminum alloy car body sheet DR100 is presented. A comprehensive experimental program was performed to identify and model the orthotopic elasto-plastic deformation behavior of the material and its fracture characteristics including criteria for localized necking, ductile fracture and shear fracture. The commercial software package MF GenYld + CrachFEM in combination with the explicit finite element code Ls-Dyna is used to validate the quality of the material model with experiments, namely, prediction of the FLD, deep drawing with a cross-shaped punch and finally, analysis of a simplified hemming process using a solid discretization of the problem. The focus is on the correct prediction of the limits of the material in such processes.

  7. Method of manufacturing a niobium-aluminum-germanium superconductive material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, John L.; Pickus, Milton R.; Douglas, Kent E.

    1980-01-01

    A method for manufacturing flexible Nb.sub.3 (Al,Ge) multifilamentary superconductive material in which a sintered porous niobium compact is infiltrated with an aluminum-germanium alloy and thereafter deformed and heat treated in a series of steps at different successively higher temperatures preferably below 1000.degree. C. to produce filaments composed of Nb.sub.3 (Al,G3) within the compact. By avoiding temperatures in excess of 1000.degree. C. during the heat treatment, cladding material such as copper can be applied to facilitate a deformation step preceding the heat treatment and can remain in place through the heat treatment to also serve as a temperature stabilizer for supeconductive material produced. Further, these lower heat treatment temperatures favor formation of filaments with reduced grain size and, hence with more grain boundaries which in turn increase the current-carrying capacity of the superconductive material.

  8. Photothermally activated motion and ignition using aluminum nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abboud, Jacques E.; Chong Xinyuan; Zhang Mingjun; Zhang Zhili; Jiang Naibo; Roy, Sukesh; Gord, James R.

    2013-01-14

    The aluminum nanoparticles (Al NPs) are demonstrated to serve as active photothermal media, to enhance and control local photothermal energy deposition via the photothermal effect activated by localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) and amplified by Al NPs oxidation. The activation source is a 2-AA-battery-powered xenon flash lamp. The extent of the photothermally activated movement of Al NPs can be {approx}6 mm. Ignition delay can be {approx}0.1 ms. Both scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy measurements of motion-only and after-ignition products confirm significant Al oxidation occurs through sintering and bursting after the flash exposure. Simulations suggest local heat generation is enhanced by LSPR. The positive-feedback effects from the local heat generation amplified by Al oxidation produce a large increase in local temperature and pressure, which enhances movement and accelerates ignition.

  9. Characterization of an explosively bonded aluminum proton beam window for the Spallation Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McClintock, David A; Janney, Jim G; Parish, Chad M

    2014-01-01

    An effort is underway at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) to change the design of the 1st Generation high-nickel alloy proton beam window (PBW) to one that utilizes aluminum for the window material. One of the key challenges to implementation of an aluminum PBW at the SNS was selection of an appropriate joining method to bond an aluminum window to the stainless steel bulk shielding of the PBW assembly. An explosively formed bond was selected as the most promising joining method for the aluminum PBW design. A testing campaign was conducted to evaluate the strength and efficacy of explosively formed bonds that were produced using two different interlayer materials: niobium and titanium. The characterization methods reported here include tensile testing, thermal-shock leak testing, optical microscopy, and advanced scanning electron microscopy. All tensile specimens examined failed in the aluminum interlayer and measured tensile strengths were all slightly greater than the native properties of the aluminum interlayer, while elongation values were all slightly lower. A leak developed in the test vessel with a niobium interlayer joint after repeated thermal-shock cycles, and was attributed to an extensive crack network that formed in a layer of niobium-rich intermetallics located on the bond interfaces of the niobium interlayer; the test vessel with a titanium interlayer did not develop a leak under the conditions tested. Due to the experience gained from these characterizations, the explosively formed bond with a titanium interlayer was selected for the aluminum PBW design at the SNS.

  10. Aluminum Leaching of ''Archived'' Sludge from Tanks 8F, 11H, and 12H

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FONDEUR, FERNANDOF.

    2004-03-12

    Aluminum can promote formation or dissolution of networks in hydroxide solid solutions. When present in large amounts it will act as a network former increasing both the viscosity and the surface tension of melts. This translates into poor free flow properties that affect pour rate of glass production in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). To mitigate this situation, DWPF operations limit the amount of aluminum contained in sludge. This study investigated the leaching of aluminum compounds from archived sludge samples. The conclusions found boehmite present as the predominant aluminum compound in sludge from two tanks. We did not identify an aluminum compound in sludge from the third tank. We did not detect any amorphous aluminum hydroxide in the samples. The amount of goethite measured 4.2 percentage weight while hematite measured 3.7 percentage weight in Tank 11H sludge. The recommended recipe for removing gibbsite in sludge proved inefficient for digesting boehmite, removing less than 50 per cent of the compound within 48 hours. The recipe did remove boehmite when the test ran for 10 days (i.e., 7 more days than the recommended baseline leaching period). Additions of fluoride and phosphate to Tank 12H archived sludge did not improve the aluminum leaching efficiency of the baseline recipe.

  11. ALUMINUM READINESS EVALUATION FOR ALUMINUM REMOVAL AND SODIUM HYDROXIDE REGENRATION FROM HANFORD TANK WASTE BY LITHIUM HYDROTALCITE PRECIPITATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SAMS TL; MASSIE HL

    2011-01-27

    A Technology Readiness Evaluation (TRE) performed by AREV A Federal Services, LLC (AFS) for Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) shows the lithium hydrotalcite (LiHT) process invented and patented (pending) by AFS has reached an overall Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of 3. The LiHT process removes aluminum and regenerates sodium hydroxide. The evaluation used test results obtained with a 2-L laboratory-scale system to validate the process and its critical technology elements (CTEs) on Hanford tank waste simulants. The testing included detailed definition and evaluation for parameters of interest and validation by comparison to analytical predictions and data quality objectives for critical subsystems. The results of the TRE would support the development of strategies to further mature the design and implementation of the LiHT process as a supplemental pretreatment option for Hanford tank waste.

  12. Salt-soda sinter process for recovering aluminum from fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mcdowell, W.J.; Seeley, F.G.

    1981-03-03

    A method for recovering aluminum values from fly ash comprises sintering the fly ash with a mixture of NaCl and Na2CO3 to a temperature in the range 700*-900* C for a period of time sufficient to convert greater than 90% of the aluminum content of the fly ash into an acid-soluble fraction and then contacting the thus-treated fraction with an aqueous solution of nitric or sulfuric acid to effect dissolution of aluminum and other metal values in said solution.

  13. Enhanced structural color generation in aluminum metamaterials coated with a thin polymer layer

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cheng, Fei; Yang, Xiaodong; Rosenmann, Daniel; Stan, Liliana; Czaplewski, David; Gao, Jie

    2015-09-18

    A high-resolution and angle-insensitive structural color generation platform is demonstrated based on triple-layer aluminum-silica-aluminum metamaterials supporting surface plasmon resonances tunable across the entire visible spectrum. The color performances of the fabricated aluminum metamaterials can be strongly enhanced by coating a thin transparent polymer layer on top. The results show that the presence of the polymer layer induces a better impedance matching for the plasmonic resonances to the free space so that strong light absorption can be obtained, leading to the generation of pure colors in cyan, magenta, yellow and black (CMYK) with high color saturation.

  14. Comparing Laser Welding Technologies with Friction Stir Welding for Production of Aluminum Tailor-Welded Blanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hovanski, Yuri; Carsley, John; Carlson, Blair; Hartfield-Wunsch, Susan; Pilli, Siva Prasad

    2014-01-15

    A comparison of welding techniques was performed to determine the most effective method for producing aluminum tailor-welded blanks for high volume automotive applications. Aluminum sheet was joined with an emphasis on post weld formability, surface quality and weld speed. Comparative results from several laser based welding techniques along with friction stir welding are presented. The results of this study demonstrate a quantitative comparison of weld methodologies in preparing tailor-welded aluminum stampings for high volume production in the automotive industry. Evaluation of nearly a dozen welding variations ultimately led to down selecting a single process based on post-weld quality and performance.

  15. Salt-soda sinter process for recovering aluminum from fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDowell, W.J.; Seeley, F.G.

    A method for recovering aluminum values from fly ash comprises sintering the fly ash with a mixture of NaCl and Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ to a temperature in the range 700/sup 0/ to 900/sup 0/C for a period of time sufficient to convert greater than 90% of the aluminum content of the fly ash into an acidsoluble fraction and then contacting the thus-treated fraction with an aqueous solution of nitric or sulfuric acid to effect dissolution of aluminum and other metal values in said solution.

  16. Salt-soda sinter process for recovering aluminum from fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDowell, William J.; Seeley, Forest G.

    1981-01-01

    A method for recovering aluminum values from fly ash comprises sintering the fly ash with a mixture of NaCl and Na.sub.2 CO.sub.3 to a temperature in the range 700.degree.-900.degree. C. for a period of time sufficient to convert greater than 90% of the aluminum content of the fly ash into an acid-soluble fraction and then contacting the thus-treated fraction with an aqueous solution of nitric or sulfuric acid to effect dissolution of aluminum and other metal values in said solution.

  17. Fabrication of super-hydrophobic surfaces on aluminum alloy substrates by RF-sputtered polytetrafluoroethylene coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yang; Liu, Xiao Wei; Zhang, Hai Feng Zhou, Zhi Ping

    2014-03-15

    In this work, we present a method of fabricating super-hydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy substrate. The etching of aluminum surfaces has been performed using Beck's dislocation etchant for different time to create micrometer-sized irregular steps. An optimised etching time of 50 s is found to be essential before polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) coating, to obtain a highest water contact angle of 1652 with a lowest contact angle hysteresis as low as 52. The presence of patterned microstructure as revealed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) together with the low surface energy ultrathin RF-sputtered PTFE films renders the aluminum alloy surfaces highly super-hydrophobic.

  18. The BetterBuildings View | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The BetterBuildings View The BetterBuildings View The BetterBuildings View Newsletter, April 2011, from the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings Neighborhood Program. PDF icon The BetterBuildings View April 2011 More Documents & Publications The Better Buildings Neighborhood View - October 2012 The Better Buildings Neighborhood View -- Fall 2011 The Better Buildings Neighborhood View -- April 2013

  19. Prairie View Gas Recovery Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    View Gas Recovery Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Prairie View Gas Recovery Biomass Facility Facility Prairie View Gas Recovery Sector Biomass Facility Type...

  20. Better Buildings Network View | September 2015 | Department of...

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    Better Buildings Network View | September 2015 Better Buildings Network View | September 2015 The Better Buildings Network View monthly newsletter from the U.S. Department of...

  1. Solubility and Reaction Rates of Aluminum Solid Phases Under Geothermal Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benezeth, P.; Palmer, D.A.; Wesolowski, D.J.; Anovitz, L.M.

    2000-05-28

    Experimental studies involving equilibrium solubility and dissolution/precipitation rates were initiated on aluminum hydroxide phases prevalent under geothermal reservoir conditions. A large capacity, hydrogen-electrode concentration cell (HECC) was constructed specifically for this purpose.

  2. Ignition characteristics of laser-ablated aluminum at shock pressures up to 2 GPa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Kyung-Cheol; Young Lee, Jae; Yoh, Jack J.; Taira, Tsubasa; Mo Koo, Goon

    2014-01-07

    The ignition of aluminum particles under high pressure and temperature conditions is considered. The laser ablation method is used to generate oxide-free aluminum particles exposed to pressures ranging between 0.35 and 2.2 GPa. A continuous wave CO{sub 2} laser radiation heats the surface of the aluminum target until ignition is observed. We confirm ignition by a spectroscopic analysis of AlO vibronic band of 484 nm wavelength, and the radiant temperature is measured with respect to various pressures for estimating the heating energy for ignition. The ignition characteristics of the oxide-free aluminum particles exposed to extremely high pressures are reported.

  3. Aluminum ion parameters for the 2015 PP-on-Al setup in RHIC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardner, C. J.

    2015-10-02

    In this note the nominal parameters for aluminum ions in Booster, AGS, and RHIC are given for the PP-on-Al setup in RHIC. The setup parameters are summarized in Sections 13, 14, 15.

  4. Metal binding in an aluminum based metal-organic framework for carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    dioxide capture | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome Metal binding in an aluminum based metal-organic framework for carbon dioxide capture

  5. Iron-niobium-aluminum alloy having high-temperature corrosion resistance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, Huey S.

    1988-04-14

    An alloy for use in high temperature sulfur and oxygen containing environments, having aluminum for oxygen resistance, niobium for sulfur resistance and the balance iron, is discussed. 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Improving the Cycling Life of Aluminum and Germanium Thin Films for use as

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Anodic Materials in Li-Ion Batteries. (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Improving the Cycling Life of Aluminum and Germanium Thin Films for use as Anodic Materials in Li-Ion Batteries. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Improving the Cycling Life of Aluminum and Germanium Thin Films for use as Anodic Materials in Li-Ion Batteries. Abstract not provided. Authors: Hudak, Nicholas ; Huber, Dale L. ; Gulley, Gerald Publication Date: 2014-09-01 OSTI Identifier:

  7. Precipitation and Deposition of Aluminum-Containing Phases in Tank Wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel M. Dabbs; Ilhan A. Aksay

    2005-01-12

    Aluminum-containing phases compose the bulk of solids precipitating during the processing of radioactive tank wastes. Processes designed to minimize the volume of high-level waste through conversion to glassy phases require transporting waste solutions near-saturated with aluminum-containing species from holding tank to processing center. The uncontrolled precipitation within transfer lines results in clogged pipes and lines and fouled ion exchangers, with the potential to shut down processing operations.

  8. Design of defect spins in piezoelectric aluminum nitride for solid-state

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    hybrid quantum technologies (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Design of defect spins in piezoelectric aluminum nitride for solid-state hybrid quantum technologies Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Design of defect spins in piezoelectric aluminum nitride for solid-state hybrid quantum technologies Spin defects in wide-band gap semiconductors are promising systems for the realization of quantum bits, or qubits, in solid-state

  9. CHARACTERIZATION OF NEAR NET-SHAPE CASTABLE RARE EARTH MODIFIED ALUMINUM

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ALLOYS FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE APPLICATION (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: CHARACTERIZATION OF NEAR NET-SHAPE CASTABLE RARE EARTH MODIFIED ALUMINUM ALLOYS FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE APPLICATION Citation Details In-Document Search Title: CHARACTERIZATION OF NEAR NET-SHAPE CASTABLE RARE EARTH MODIFIED ALUMINUM ALLOYS FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE APPLICATION Authors: Sims, Zachary C [1] ; Rios, Orlando [1] ; McCall, S. K. [2] ; Ott, Dr. Ryan T. [3] ; Van Buuren, Tony [2] + Show Author Affiliations

  10. Process for the synthesis of nanophase dispersion-strengthened aluminum alloy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barbour, John C. (Albuquerque, NM); Knapp, James Arthur (Albuquerque, NM); Follstaedt, David Martin (Albuquerque, NM); Myers, Samuel Maxwell (Albuquerque, NM)

    1998-12-15

    A process for fabricating dispersion-strengthened ceramic-metal composites is claimed. The process comprises in-situ interaction and chemical reaction of a metal in gaseous form with a ceramic producer in plasma form. Such composites can be fabricated with macroscopic dimensions. Special emphasis is placed on fabrication of dispersion-strengthened aluminum oxide-aluminum composites, which can exhibit flow stresses more characteristic of high strength steel.

  11. Direct acid dissolution of aluminum and other metals from fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelmers, A.D.; Egan, B.Z.; Seeley, F.G.; Campbell, G.D.

    1981-01-01

    Fly ash could provide a significant domestic source of alumina and thus supply a large part of the US needs for aluminum and possibly also several other metals. The aluminum and other metals can be solubilized from fly ash by acid dissolution methods. The aluminum may be present in any or all of three solid phases: (1) crystalline; (2) glassy amorphous; and (3) irregular, spongy amorphous. The chemistry of these phases controls the solubilization behavior. The aluminum in high-calcium western ashes is primarily found in the amorphous phases, and much of it can be solubilized by using short-time, ambient-temperature leaching. Little of the aluminum in the low-calcium eastern ashes is solubilized under ambient-temperature conditions, and only a portion can be solubilized even at reflux temperature conditions. Some of the aluminum in these eastern ashes is present as mullite, while some is found in the amorphous material. The fraction contained in mullite is relativey acid insoluble, and only partial solubilization can be achieved even under vigorous acid leach conditions.

  12. Understanding composite explosive energetics: 3, Reactive flow modeling of aluminum reaction kinetics in PETN and TNT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao, W.C.; Tarver, C.M.; Ornellas, D.L.

    1991-12-06

    Using Fabry-Perot interferometry techniques, we have determined that early time rate of energy release from detonating PETN and TNT explosives filled with 5 and 10 wt % of either 5 {mu}m of 18 {mu}m spherical aluminum (Al) particles. From the measured particle velocity data, we are able to infer the reaction rate of aluminum with the detonation products, and calculate the extent of reaction 1--3 {mu}s after the detonation. We observed that a substantional portion of the aluminum metal in all of the PETN and TNE formulations reacted within the timeframe of the one-dimensional experiment. In the PETN formulation filed with 5 wt % of 5 {mu}m aluminum, all of the metal reacted within 1.5 {mu}s, resulting in an increase of 22% in energy compared to pure PETN. A reactive-flow hydrodynamic model based on the Zeldovich-von Neumann-Doring (ZND) description of the reaction zone and subsequent reaction produce expansion (Taylor wave) is used to interpret the reaction rate of the aluminum particles with detonation product gases. The diffusion-controlled reaction mechanism for aluminum and the global kinetic parameters used in the model have been found to be consistent for all the PETN and TNT formulations.

  13. Retention and release of tritium in aluminum clad, Al-Li alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Louthan, M.R. Jr.

    1991-12-31

    Tritium retention in and release from aluminum clad, aluminum-lithium alloys is modeled from experimental and operational data developed during the thirty plus years of tritium production at the Savannah River Site. The model assumes that tritium atoms, formed by the {sup 6}Li(n,{alpha}){sup 3}He reaction, are produced in solid solution in the Al-Li alloy. Because of the low solubility of hydrogen isotopes in aluminum alloys, the irradiated Al-Li rapidly becomes supersaturated in tritium. Newly produced tritium atoms are trapped by lithium atoms to form a lithium tritide. The effective tritium pressure required for trap or tritide stability is the equilibrium decomposition pressure of tritium over a lithium tritide-aluminum mixture. The temperature dependence of tritium release is determined by the permeability of the cladding to tritium and the local equilibrium at the trap sites. This model is used to calculate tritium release from aluminum clad, aluminum-lithium alloys. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Retention and release of tritium in aluminum clad, Al-Li alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Louthan, M.R. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Tritium retention in and release from aluminum clad, aluminum-lithium alloys is modeled from experimental and operational data developed during the thirty plus years of tritium production at the Savannah River Site. The model assumes that tritium atoms, formed by the {sup 6}Li(n,{alpha}){sup 3}He reaction, are produced in solid solution in the Al-Li alloy. Because of the low solubility of hydrogen isotopes in aluminum alloys, the irradiated Al-Li rapidly becomes supersaturated in tritium. Newly produced tritium atoms are trapped by lithium atoms to form a lithium tritide. The effective tritium pressure required for trap or tritide stability is the equilibrium decomposition pressure of tritium over a lithium tritide-aluminum mixture. The temperature dependence of tritium release is determined by the permeability of the cladding to tritium and the local equilibrium at the trap sites. This model is used to calculate tritium release from aluminum clad, aluminum-lithium alloys. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Structural and valence state of iron ions in sodium-aluminum-phosphate glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vashman, A.A.; Pronin, I.S.; Samsonov, V.E.; Filin, V.M.

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the structural and valence state of iron ions in sodium-aluminum-phosphate glass for the application of liquid radioactive waste solidification. Electron paramagnetic resonance, Moessbauer spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonances were used to conduct the study. Results were used to determine the characteristics of the occupancy and distribution of iron ions over tetra- and octahedral positions as a function of the ratio of the concentration of iron and aluminum oxides, to determine the concentration of Fe{sup 3}{sup +} and Fe{sup 2}{sup +} ions and the number of phosphorus and aluminum atoms in the nearest neighbor environment of the impurity iron ions, and estimate the effect of the concentration of aluminum oxide on the average distance between the phosphorus atoms in the glass. Results indicate that it must be assumed that tetrahedral glass-forming positions of ions are more stable than octahedral positions. Therefore, the long-term fixation of iron ions in sodium-aluminum-phosphate glasses will be more reliable with lower iron-aluminum ratios. These results will apparently extend to radioactive ions due to similar valence properties. 8 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Better Buildings Network View, April 2015

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... systems Better Buildings Network View financial sector. ... Sunnovations, Inc., is a McLean, Virginia-based firm offering ... as featured in the new Resource Corner Designing ...

  17. High Performance Builder Spotlight: Clifton View Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-01-01

    Clifton View Homess remodel of a 1962 rambler, on Whidbey Island in Washington State, cut energy costs by two-thirds.

  18. Better Buildings Network View, May 2015

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... now Leveraging Seasonal Opportunities for Marketing Better Buildings Network View making. ... Prize (GUEP) participants are going digital to encourage people across the United ...

  19. The Better Buildings Neighborhood View-- July 2013

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Better Buildings Neighborhood View monthly newsletter from the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings Neighborhood Program - July 2013.

  20. Process Development for Stamping Á-Pillar Covers with Aluminum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Jung-Pyung; Rohatgi, Aashish; Smith, Mark T.; Lavender, Curt A.

    2015-02-20

    In this work, performed in close collaboration with PACCAR and Magna International, a 6XXX series aluminum alloy was used for the development of A-Pillar cover for the cab of a typical heavy-duty Class-8 truck. The use of Al alloy for the A-pillar cover represents an approximately 40% weight savings over its steel or molded fiberglass composite counterpart. For the selected Al alloy, a small amount of cold work (5% tensile strain), following prior hot-forming, was found to significantly improve the subsequent age-hardening response. The role of solutionizing temperature and rate of cooling on the age-hardening response after paint-bake treatment were investigated. For the temperature range selected in this work, higher solutionizing temperature correlated with greater subsequent age-hardening and vice-versa. However, the age-hardening response was insensitive to the mode of cooling (water quench vs. air cooling). Finally, a two-step forming process was developed where, in the first step, the blank was heated to solutionizing temperature, quenched, and then partially formed at room temperature. For the second step, the pre-form was re-heated and quenched as in the first step, and the forming was completed at room temperature. The resulting A-pillars had sufficient residual ductility to be compatible with hemming and riveting

  1. Room temperature aluminum antimonide radiation detector and methods thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lordi, Vincenzo; Wu, Kuang Jen J.; Aberg, Daniel; Erhart, Paul; Coombs, III, Arthur W; Sturm, Benjamin W

    2015-03-03

    In one embodiment, a method for producing a high-purity single crystal of aluminum antimonide (AlSb) includes providing a growing environment with which to grow a crystal, growing a single crystal of AlSb in the growing environment which comprises hydrogen (H.sub.2) gas to reduce oxide formation and subsequent incorporation of oxygen impurities in the crystal, and adding a controlled amount of at least one impurity to the growing environment to effectively incorporate at least one dopant into the crystal. In another embodiment, a high energy radiation detector includes a single high-purity crystal of AlSb, a supporting structure for the crystal, and logic for interpreting signals obtained from the crystal which is operable as a radiation detector at a temperature of about 25.degree. C. In one embodiment, a high-purity single crystal of AlSb includes AlSb and at least one dopant selected from a group consisting of selenium (Se), tellurium (Te), and tin (Sn).

  2. Ergonomics Designs of Aluminum Beverage Cans and Bottles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han Jing; Itoh, Ryouiti; Shinguryo, Takuro; Yamazaki, Koetsu; Nishiyama, Sadao

    2005-08-05

    This paper introduced the finite element analyses into the ergonomics designs to evaluate the human feelings numerically and objectively. Two design examples in developing aluminum beverage cans and bottles are presented. The first example describes a design of the tab of the can with better finger access. A simulation of finger pulling up the tab of the can has been performed and a pain in the finger has been evaluated by using the maximum value of the contact stress of a finger model. The finger access comparison of three kinds of tab ring shape designs showed that the finger access of the tab that may have a larger contact area with finger is better. The second example describes a design of rib-shape embossed bottles for hot vending. Analyses of tactile sensation of heat have been performed and the amount of heat transmitted from hot bottles to finger was used to present the hot touch feeling. Comparison results showed that the hot touch feeling of rib-shape embossed bottles is better than that of cylindrical bottles, and that the shape of the rib also influenced the hot touch feeling.

  3. Longitudinal study of workers in an aluminum smelter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chan-Yeung, M.; Enarson, D.A.; MacLean, L.; Irving, D.

    1989-05-01

    We conducted a 6-y follow-up study that included workers in an aluminum smelter in British Columbia. Of the original cohort, 951 workers left the industry and 985 workers participated in both studies. Comparison of those who left and those who remained showed that those who left were (1) older, (2) had a slightly higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms, and (3) had lower lung function; this was especially true for workers who were 50 + y of age at the time the initial study was conducted. Analyses were conducted only on 586 male workers who did not change their job location or smoking habits between the initial and the follow-up study. Potroom workers in the ''high-exposure'' group had a significant reduction in the prevalence of cough, but experienced an increase in the prevalence of wheeze. There was no significant difference in the annual decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 sec and forced vital capacity between the potroom workers and controls. In general, older workers and smokers had a greater decline in lung function compared to younger workers and nonsmokers. Leukocyte count done during the initial study was found to be an independent predictor of longitudinal decline in lung function. The lack of exposure effect on longitudinal decline in lung function could be due to ''healthy worker'' effect and improvement in the working condition of the smelter.

  4. The Better Buildings Neighborhood View -- April 2012 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 The Better Buildings Neighborhood View -- April 2012 The Better Buildings Neighborhood View monthly newsletter from the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings Neighborhood Program. PDF icon BB Neighborhood View -- April 2012 More Documents & Publications The Better Buildings Neighborhood View -- March 2012 The Better Buildings Neighborhood View - September 2012 The Better Buildings Neighborhood View -- July 2012

  5. The Better Buildings Neighborhood View -- April 2013 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3 The Better Buildings Neighborhood View -- April 2013 The Better Buildings Neighborhood View monthly newsletter from the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings Neighborhood Program - April 2013. PDF icon BB Neighborhood View -- April 2013 More Documents & Publications The Better Buildings Neighborhood View -- July 2013 The Better Buildings Neighborhood View -- January 2013 The Better Buildings Neighborhood View -- December 2013

  6. The Better Buildings Neighborhood View -- August 2012 | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy August 2012 The Better Buildings Neighborhood View -- August 2012 The Better Buildings Neighborhood View monthly newsletter from the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings Neighborhood Program. PDF icon BB Neighborhood View -- August 2012 More Documents & Publications The Better Buildings Neighborhood View - September 2012 The Better Buildings Neighborhood View -- July 2012 The Better Buildings Neighborhood View -- June 2012

  7. The Better Buildings Neighborhood View -- January 2012 | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 2 The Better Buildings Neighborhood View -- January 2012 The Better Buildings Neighborhood View monthly newsletter from the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings Neighborhood Program. PDF icon BB Neighborhood View -- January 2012 More Documents & Publications The Better Buildings Neighborhood View -- March 2012 The Better Buildings Neighborhood View -- February 2012 The BetterBuildings View

  8. The Better Buildings Neighborhood View -- June 2012 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    June 2012 The Better Buildings Neighborhood View -- June 2012 The Better Buildings Neighborhood View monthly newsletter from the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings Neighborhood Program. PDF icon BB Neighborhood View -- June 2012 More Documents & Publications The Better Buildings Neighborhood View -- August 2012 The Better Buildings Neighborhood View - October 2012 The Better Buildings Neighborhood View -- April 2012

  9. Better Buildings Network View | April 2015 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5 Better Buildings Network View | April 2015 The Better Buildings Network View monthly newsletter from the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings Residential Network. PDF icon Better Buildings Network View April 2015 More Documents & Publications Better Buildings Network View | May 2015 Better Buildings Network View | March 2015 Better Buildings Network View | July-August

  10. Better Buildings Network View | April 2016 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    6 Better Buildings Network View | April 2016 The Better Buildings Network View monthly newsletter from the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings Residential Network. PDF icon Better Buildings Network View April 2016 More Documents & Publications Better Buildings Network View | March 2016 Better Buildings Network View | January 2016 Better Buildings Network View | February 2016

  11. Better Buildings Network View | February 2014 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4 Better Buildings Network View | February 2014 The Better Buildings Network View monthly newsletter from the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings Residential Network. PDF icon Better Buildings Network View February 2014 More Documents & Publications Better Buildings Network View | January 2014 Better Buildings Network View | May 2015 Better Buildings Network View | June 2015

  12. Better Buildings Network View | February 2016 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    6 Better Buildings Network View | February 2016 The Better Buildings Network View monthly newsletter from the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings Residential Network. PDF icon Better Buildings Network View February 2016 More Documents & Publications Better Buildings Network View | March 2016 Better Buildings Network View | June 2014 Better Buildings Network View | April 2016

  13. Better Buildings Network View | January 2014 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4 Better Buildings Network View | January 2014 The Better Buildings Network View monthly newsletter from the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings Residential Network. PDF icon Better Buildings Network View January 2014 More Documents & Publications Better Buildings Network View | February 2015 Better Buildings Network View | May 2015 Better Buildings Network View | September 2014

  14. Better Buildings Network View | January 2016 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    6 Better Buildings Network View | January 2016 The Better Buildings Network View monthly newsletter from the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings Residential Network. PDF icon Better Buildings Network View January 2016 More Documents & Publications Better Buildings Network View | October 2015 Better Buildings Network View | April 2016 Better Buildings Network View | December

  15. Better Buildings Network View | June 2014 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4 Better Buildings Network View | June 2014 The Better Buildings Network View monthly newsletter from the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings Residential Network. PDF icon Better Buildings Network View June 2014 More Documents & Publications Better Buildings Network View | June 2015 Better Buildings Network View | July-August 2014 Better Buildings Network View | April 2014

  16. Better Buildings Network View | March 2015 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5 Better Buildings Network View | March 2015 The Better Buildings Network View monthly newsletter from the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings Residential Network. PDF icon Better Buildings Network View March 2015 More Documents & Publications Better Buildings Network View | January 2015 Better Buildings Network View | December 2014 Better Buildings Network View | April 2015

  17. Better Buildings Network View | March 2016 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    6 Better Buildings Network View | March 2016 The Better Buildings Network View monthly newsletter from the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings Residential Network. PDF icon Better Buildings Network View March 2016 More Documents & Publications Better Buildings Network View | April 2016 Better Buildings Network View | February 2016 Better Buildings Network View | January 2016

  18. Better Buildings Network View | October 2015 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5 Better Buildings Network View | October 2015 The Better Buildings Network View monthly newsletter from the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings Residential Network. PDF icon Better Buildings Network View October 2015 More Documents & Publications Better Buildings Network View | January 2016 Better Buildings Network View | April 2016 Better Buildings Network View | November

  19. An Energy Based Fatigue Life Prediction Framework for In-Service Structural Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H. Ozaltun; M. H.H. Shen; T. George; C. Cross

    2011-06-01

    An energy based fatigue life prediction framework has been developed for calculation of remaining fatigue life of in service gas turbine materials. The purpose of the life prediction framework is to account aging effect caused by cyclic loadings on fatigue strength of gas turbine engines structural components which are usually designed for very long life. Previous studies indicate the total strain energy dissipated during a monotonic fracture process and a cyclic process is a material property that can be determined by measuring the area underneath the monotonic true stress-strain curve and the sum of the area within each hysteresis loop in the cyclic process, respectively. The energy-based fatigue life prediction framework consists of the following entities: (1) development of a testing procedure to achieve plastic energy dissipation per life cycle and (2) incorporation of an energy-based fatigue life calculation scheme to determine the remaining fatigue life of in-service gas turbine materials. The accuracy of the remaining fatigue life prediction method was verified by comparison between model approximation and experimental results of Aluminum 6061-T6. The comparison shows promising agreement, thus validating the capability of the framework to produce accurate fatigue life prediction.

  20. Optimization of Squeeze Casting for Aluminum Alloy Parts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Schwam; John F. Wallace; Qingming Chang; Yulong Zhu

    2002-07-30

    This study was initiated with the installation of a new production size UBE 350 Ton VSC Squeeze Casting system in the Metal Casting Laboratory at Case Western University. A Lindberg 75k W electrical melting furnace was installed alongside. The challenge of installation and operation of such industrial-size equipment in an academic environment was met successfully. Subsequently, a Sterling oil die heater and a Visi-Track shot monitoring system were added. A significant number of inserts were designed and fabricated over the span of the project, primarily for squeeze casting different configurations of test bars and plates. A spiral ''ribbon insert'' for evaluation of molten metal fluidity was also fabricated. These inserts were used to generate a broad range of processing conditions and determine their effect on the quality of the squeeze cast parts. This investigation has studied the influence of the various casting variables on the quality of indirect squeeze castings primarily of aluminum alloys. The variables studied include gating design, fill time and fill patter, metal pressure and die temperature variations. The quality of the die casting was assessed by an analysis of both their surface condition and internal soundness. The primary metal tested was an aluminum 356 alloy. In addition to determining the effect of these casting variables on casting quality as measured by a flat plate die of various thickness, a number of test bar inserts with different gating designs have been inserted in the squeeze casting machine. The mechanical properties of these test bars produced under different squeeze casting conditions were measured and reported. The investigation of the resulting properties also included an analysis of the microstructure of the squeeze castings and the effect of the various structural constituents on the resulting properties. The main conclusions from this investigation are as follows: The ingate size and shape are very important since it must remain open until the casting is solidified and pressure is maintained on the solidifying casting. Fanned gates, particularly on the smaller section castings avoid jetting effects at the ingate end. The fan type ingate helps accomplish a rapid fill without high velocities. The molten metal has to fill the cavity before localized solidification occurs. This is best accomplished with a larger ingate to attain rapid filling without excessive velocity or jetting that occurs at high metal velocities. Straight gates are prone to case jetting of the metal stream even a low velocities. Fanned gates allow use of higher fill velocity without excessive jetting. A higher metal pressure provides a more complete fill of the die including improved compensation for solidification shrinkage. With the proper filling pattern, ingates, overflows and die temperature for a given die, very good tensile properties can be attained in squeeze casting. In general, the smaller squeeze castings require higher die temperatures. Computer models using the UES Procast and MagmaSoft finite element software can, after suitable adjustments, predict the flow pattern in the die cavity.

  1. TiN coated aluminum electrodes for DC high voltage electron guns

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mamun, Md Abdullah A.; Elmustafa, Abdelmageed A.; Taus, Rhys; Forman, Eric; Poelker, Matthew

    2015-05-01

    Preparing electrodes made of metals like stainless steel, for use inside DC high voltage electron guns, is a labor-intensive and time-consuming process. In this paper, the authors report the exceptional high voltage performance of aluminum electrodes coated with hard titanium nitride (TiN). The aluminum electrodes were comparatively easy to manufacture and required only hours of mechanical polishing using silicon carbide paper, prior to coating with TiN by a commercial vendor. The high voltage performance of three TiN-coated aluminum electrodes, before and after gas conditioning with helium, was compared to that of bare aluminum electrodes, and electrodes manufactured from titanium alloymore » (Ti-6AI-4V). Following gas conditioning, each TiN-coated aluminum electrode reached -225 kV bias voltage while generating less than 100 pA of field emission (<10 pA) using a 40 mm cathode/anode gap, corresponding to field strength of 13.7 MV/m. Smaller gaps were studied to evaluate electrode performance at higher field strength with the best performing TiN-coated aluminum electrode reaching ~22.5 MV/m with field emission less than 100 pA. These results were comparable to those obtained from our best-performing electrodes manufactured from stainless steel, titanium alloy and niobium, as reported in references cited below. The TiN coating provided a very smooth surface and with mechanical properties of the coating (hardness and modulus) superior to those of stainless steel, titanium-alloy, and niobium electrodes. These features likely contributed to the improved high voltage performance of the TiN-coated aluminum electrodes.« less

  2. TiN coated aluminum electrodes for DC high voltage electron guns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mamun, Md Abdullah A.; Elmustafa, Abdelmageed A.; Taus, Rhys; Forman, Eric; Poelker, Matthew

    2015-05-15

    Preparing electrodes made of metals like stainless steel, for use inside DC high voltage electron guns, is a labor-intensive and time-consuming process. In this paper, the authors report the exceptional high voltage performance of aluminum electrodes coated with hard titanium nitride (TiN). The aluminum electrodes were comparatively easy to manufacture and required only hours of mechanical polishing using silicon carbide paper, prior to coating with TiN by a commercial vendor. The high voltage performance of three TiN-coated aluminum electrodes, before and after gas conditioning with helium, was compared to that of bare aluminum electrodes, and electrodes manufactured from titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V). Following gas conditioning, each TiN-coated aluminum electrode reached −225 kV bias voltage while generating less than 100 pA of field emission (<10 pA) using a 40 mm cathode/anode gap, corresponding to field strength of 13.7 MV/m. Smaller gaps were studied to evaluate electrode performance at higher field strength with the best performing TiN-coated aluminum electrode reaching ∼22.5 MV/m with field emission less than 100 pA. These results were comparable to those obtained from our best-performing electrodes manufactured from stainless steel, titanium alloy and niobium, as reported in references cited below. The TiN coating provided a very smooth surface and with mechanical properties of the coating (hardness and modulus) superior to those of stainless steel, titanium-alloy, and niobium electrodes. These features likely contributed to the improved high voltage performance of the TiN-coated aluminum electrodes.

  3. TiN coated aluminum electrodes for DC high voltage electron guns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mamun, Md Abdullah A.; Elmustafa, Abdelmageed A.; Taus, Rhys; Forman, Eric; Poelker, Matthew

    2015-05-01

    Preparing electrodes made of metals like stainless steel, for use inside DC high voltage electron guns, is a labor-intensive and time-consuming process. In this paper, the authors report the exceptional high voltage performance of aluminum electrodes coated with hard titanium nitride (TiN). The aluminum electrodes were comparatively easy to manufacture and required only hours of mechanical polishing using silicon carbide paper, prior to coating with TiN by a commercial vendor. The high voltage performance of three TiN-coated aluminum electrodes, before and after gas conditioning with helium, was compared to that of bare aluminum electrodes, and electrodes manufactured from titanium alloy (Ti-6AI-4V). Following gas conditioning, each TiN-coated aluminum electrode reached -225 kV bias voltage while generating less than 100 pA of field emission (<10 pA) using a 40 mm cathode/anode gap, corresponding to field strength of 13.7 MV/m. Smaller gaps were studied to evaluate electrode performance at higher field strength with the best performing TiN-coated aluminum electrode reaching ~22.5 MV/m with field emission less than 100 pA. These results were comparable to those obtained from our best-performing electrodes manufactured from stainless steel, titanium alloy and niobium, as reported in references cited below. The TiN coating provided a very smooth surface and with mechanical properties of the coating (hardness and modulus) superior to those of stainless steel, titanium-alloy, and niobium electrodes. These features likely contributed to the improved high voltage performance of the TiN-coated aluminum electrodes.

  4. Molecular dynamics simulations of hydrogen diffusion in aluminum

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhou, X. W.; El Gabaly, F.; Stavila, V.; Allendorf, M. D.

    2016-03-23

    In this study, hydrogen diffusion impacts the performance of solid-state hydrogen storage materials and contributes to the embrittlement of structural materials under hydrogen-containing environments. In atomistic simulations, the diffusion energy barriers are usually calculated using molecular statics simulations where a nudged elastic band method is used to constrain a path connecting the two end points of an atomic jump. This approach requires prior knowledge of the “end points”. For alloy and defective systems, the number of possible atomic jumps with respect to local atomic configurations is tremendous. Even when these jumps can be exhaustively studied, it is still unclear howmore » they can be combined to give an overall diffusion behavior seen in experiments. Here we describe the use of molecular dynamics simulations to determine the overall diffusion energy barrier from the Arrhenius equation. This method does not require information about atomic jumps, and it has additional advantages, such as the ability to incorporate finite temperature effects and to determine the pre-exponential factor. As a test case for a generic method, we focus on hydrogen diffusion in bulk aluminum. We find that the challenge of this method is the statistical variation of the results. However, highly converged energy barriers can be achieved by an appropriate set of temperatures, output time intervals (for tracking hydrogen positions), and a long total simulation time. Our results help elucidate the inconsistencies of the experimental diffusion data published in the literature. The robust approach developed here may also open up future molecular dynamics simulations to rapidly study diffusion properties of complex material systems in multidimensional spaces involving composition and defects.« less

  5. (Polyfluoroaryl) fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium of enhanced utility, uses thereof, and products based thereon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marks, Tobin J. (Evanston, IL); Chen, You-Xian (Midland, MI)

    2001-01-01

    The (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium are novel weakly coordinating anions which are highly fluorinated. (Polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of one such type contain at least one ring substituent other than fluorine. These (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium have greater solubility in organic solvents, or have a coordinative ability essentially equal to or less than that of the corresponding (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanion of aluminum, gallium, or indium in which the substituent is replaced by fluorine. Another type of new (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanion of aluminum, gallium, and indium have 1-3 perfluorinated fused ring groups and 2-0 perfluorophenyl groups. When used as a cocatalyst in the formation of novel catalytic complexes with d- or f-block metal compounds having at least one leaving group such as a methyl group, these anions, because of their weak coordination to the metal center, do not interfere in the ethylene polymerization process, while affecting the propylene process favorably, if highly isotactic polypropylene is desired. Thus, the (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium of this invention are useful in various polymerization processes such as are described.

  6. (Polyfluoroaryl) fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium of enhanced utility, uses thereof, and products based thereon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marks, Tobin J. (Evanston, IL); Chen, You-Xian (Midland, MI)

    2002-01-01

    The (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium are novel weakly coordinating anions which are highly fluorinated. (Polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of one such type contain at least one ring substituent other than fluorine. These (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium have greater solubility in organic solvents, or have a coordinative ability essentially equal to or less than that of the corresponding (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanion of aluminum, gallium, or indium in which the substituent is replaced by fluorine. Another type of new (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanion of aluminum, gallium, and indium have 1-3 perfluorinated fused ring groups and 2-0 perfluorophenyl groups. When used as a cocatalyst in the formation of novel catalytic complexes with d- or f-block metal compounds having at least one leaving group such as a methyl group, these anions, because of their weak coordination to the metal center, do not interfere in the ethylene polymerization process, while affecting the propylene process favorably, if highly isotactic polypropylene is desired. Thus, the (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium of this invention are useful in various polymerization processes such as are described.

  7. June 2015 Most Viewed Documents for Materials | OSTI, US Dept...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    urethane foam systems Madden, J.P.; Baker, G.K.; Smith, C.H. (1971) 148 Overcoming residual stresses and machining distortion in the production of aluminum alloy satellite boxes. ...

  8. The Better Buildings Neighborhood View - October 2012 | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy The Better Buildings Neighborhood View - October 2012 The Better Buildings Neighborhood View - October 2012 The Better Buildings Neighborhood View monthly newsletter from the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings Neighborhood Program - October 2012 PDF icon bb_view_october2012.pdf More Documents & Publications The Better Buildings Neighborhood View -- July 2013 The Better Buildings Neighborhood View -- Fall 2011 The Better Buildings Neighborhood View -- December 2013

  9. Uranium deposition study on aluminum: results of early tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, M.R.; Nolan, T.A.

    1984-06-19

    Laboratory experiments to quantify uranium compound deposition on Aluminum 3003 test coupons have been initiated. These experiments consist of exposing the coupons to normal assay UF/sub 6/ (0.7% /sup 235/U) in nickel reaction vessels under various conditions of UF/sub 6/ pressure, temperature, and time. To-date, runs from 5 minutes to 2000 hr have been completed at a UF/sub 6/ pressure of 100 torr and at a temperature of 60/sup 0/C. Longer exposure times are in progress. Initial results indicated that a surface film of uranium, primarily as uranyl fluoride (UO/sub 2/F/sub 2/), is deposited very soon after exposure to UF/sub 6/. In a five minute UF/sub 6/ exposure at a temperature of 60/sup 0/C, an average of 2.9 ..mu..g U/cm/sup 2/ was deposited; after 24 hr the deposit typically increased to 5.0 ..mu..g/cm/sup 2/ and then increased to 10.4 ..mu..g/cm/sup 2/ after 2000 hr. This amount of deposit (at 2000 hr exposure) would contribute roughly 10 to 20% to the total 186 keV gamma signal obtained from a GCEP product header pipe being operated at UF/sub 6/ pressures of 2 to 5 torr. The amount of isotopic exchange which would occur in the deposit in the event that HEU and LEU productions were alternated is considered. It is felt that isotopic exchange would not occur to any significant amount within the fixed deposit during relatively short HEU production periods since the HEU would be present primarily as adsorbed UF/sub 6/ molecules on the surface of the deposit. The adsorbed HEU molecules would be removed by evacuation and diluted by LEU production. Major increases in the deposit count would be observed if a leak occurred or moisture was introduced into the system while HEU was being produced.

  10. A common-view disciplined oscillator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lombardi, Michael A.; Dahlen, Aaron P.

    2010-05-15

    This paper describes a common-view disciplined oscillator (CVDO) that locks to a reference time scale through the use of common-view global positioning system (GPS) satellite measurements. The CVDO employs a proportional-integral-derivative controller that obtains near real-time common-view GPS measurements from the internet and provides steering corrections to a local oscillator. A CVDO can be locked to any time scale that makes real-time common-view data available and can serve as a high-accuracy, self-calibrating frequency and time standard. Measurement results are presented where a CVDO is locked to UTC(NIST), the coordinated universal time scale maintained at the National Institute of Standards and Technology in Boulder, Colorado.

  11. TotalView Parallel Debugger at NERSC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The performance of the GUI can be greatly improved if used in conjunction with free NX software. The TotalView documentation web page is a good resource for learning more...

  12. JOBAID-VIEWING AN EMPLOYEE MATRIX (SUPERVISOR)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The purpose of this job aid is to guide supervisor users through the step-by-step process of viewing an employee matrix within SuccessFactors Learning.

  13. Exploring Mbar shock conditions and isochorically heated aluminum at the MEC end station of the LCLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fletcher, L. B.; Lee, H. J.; SLAC, aff; Barbrel, B.; Gauthier, M.; Galtier, E.; Nagler, B.; Doppner, T.; LePape, S.; Ma, T.; Pak, A.; Turnbull, D.; White, T.; Gregori, G.; Wei, M.; Falcone, R. W.; Heimann, P.; Zastrau, U.; Hastings, J. B.; Glenzer, S. H.

    2015-02-05

    Recent experiments performed at the Matter in Extreme Conditions end station (MEC) of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) have demonstrated the first spectrally resolved measurements of plasmons from isochorically heated aluminum. The experiments have been performed using a seeded 8-keV x-ray laser beam as a pump and probe to both volumetrically heat and scatter x-rays from aluminum. Collective x-ray Thomson scattering spectra show a well-resolved plasmon feature that is down-shifted in energy by 19 eV. In addition, Mbar shock pressures from laser-compressed aluminum foils using Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector (VISAR) have been measured. The combination of experiments fully demonstrates the possibility to perform warm dense matter studies at the LCLS with unprecedented accuracy and precision.

  14. Kinetic energy distributions of sputtered neutral aluminum clusters: Al--Al{sub 6}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coon, S.R.; Calaway, W.F.; Pellin, M.J.; Curlee, G.A.; White, J.M.

    1992-12-01

    Neutral aluminum clusters sputtered from polycrystalline aluminum were analyzed by laser postionization time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry. The kinetic energy distributions of Al through Al{sub 6} were measured by a neutrals time-of-flight technique. The interpretation of laser postionization TOF data to extract velocity and energy distributions is presented. The aluminum cluster distributions are qualitatively similar to previous copper cluster distribution measurements from our laboratory. In contrast to the steep high energy tails predicted by the single- or multiple- collision models, the measured cluster distributions have high energy power law dependences in the range of E{sup {minus}3} to E{sup {minus}4.5}. Correlated collision models may explain the substantial abundance of energetic clusters that are observed in these experiments. Possible influences of cluster fragmentation on the distributions are discussed.

  15. Kinetic energy distributions of sputtered neutral aluminum clusters: Al--Al[sub 6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coon, S.R.; Calaway, W.F.; Pellin, M.J. ); Curlee, G.A. . Dept. of Physics); White, J.M. . Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry)

    1992-01-01

    Neutral aluminum clusters sputtered from polycrystalline aluminum were analyzed by laser postionization time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry. The kinetic energy distributions of Al through Al[sub 6] were measured by a neutrals time-of-flight technique. The interpretation of laser postionization TOF data to extract velocity and energy distributions is presented. The aluminum cluster distributions are qualitatively similar to previous copper cluster distribution measurements from our laboratory. In contrast to the steep high energy tails predicted by the single- or multiple- collision models, the measured cluster distributions have high energy power law dependences in the range of E[sup [minus]3] to E[sup [minus]4.5]. Correlated collision models may explain the substantial abundance of energetic clusters that are observed in these experiments. Possible influences of cluster fragmentation on the distributions are discussed.

  16. Method for removing magnesium from aluminum-magnesium alloys with engineered scavenger compound

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riley, W.D.; Jong, B.W.

    1994-12-31

    The invention relates to a method for removal and production of high purity magnesium from aluminum-magnesium alloys using an engineered scanvenger compound. In particular, the invention relates to a method for removal and production of high purity magnesium from aluminum-magnesium alloys using the engineered scanvenger compound (ESC) lithium titanate (Li2O3TiO2). The removal of magnesium from the aluminum-magnesium alloys is performed at about 600-750 C in a molten salt bath of KCl or KCl-MgCl2 using lithium titanate (Li2O3TiO2) as the engineered scavenger compound (ESC). Electrode deposition of magnesium from the loaded ESC onto a stainless steel electrode is accomplished in a second step, and provides a clean magnesium electrode deposit for recycling. The second step also prepares the ESC for reuse.

  17. Hyperveolcity impacts on aluminum from 6 to 11 km/s for hydrocode benchmarking.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saul, W. Venner; Reinhart, William Dodd; Thornhill, Tom Finley, III; Lawrence, Raymond Jeffery Jr.; Chhabildas, Lalit Chandra; Bessette, Gregory Carl; Kipp, Marlin E.

    2003-04-01

    A systematic computational and experimental study is presented on impact generated debris resulting from record-high impact speeds recently achieved on the Sandia three-stage light-gas gun. In these experiments, a target plate of aluminum is impacted by a titanium-alloy flyer plate at speeds ranging from 6.5 to 11 km/s, producing pressures from 1 Mb to over 2.3 Mb, and temperatures as high as 15000 K (>1 eV). The aluminum plate is totally melted at stresses above 1.6 Mb. Upon release, the thermodynamic release isentropes will interact with the vapor dome. The amount of vapor generated in the debris cloud will depend on many factors such as the thickness of the aluminum plate, super-cooling, vaporization kinetics, the distance, and therefore time, over which the impact-generated debris is allowed to expand. To characterize the debris cloud, the velocity history produced by stagnation of the aluminum expansion products against a witness plate is measured using velocity interferometry. X-ray measurements of the debris cloud are also recorded prior to stagnation against an aluminum witness plate. Both radiographs and witness-plate velocity measurements suggest that the vaporization process is both time-dependent and heterogeneous when the material is released from shocked states around 230 GPa. Experiments suggest that the threshold for vaporization kinetics in aluminum should become significant when expanded from shocked states over 230 GPa. Numerical simulations are conducted to compare the measured x-ray radiographs of the debris cloud and the time-resolved experimental interferometer record with calculational results using the 3-D hydrodynamic wavecode, CTH. Results of these experiments and calculations are discussed in this paper.

  18. The Better Buildings Neighborhood View - Summer 2011 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Summer 2011 The Better Buildings Neighborhood View - Summer 2011 The quarterly update newsletter of the Better Buildings program of the U.S. Department of Energy. PDF icon BB Neighborhood View -- Summer 2011 More Documents & Publications The Better Buildings Neighborhood View -- January 2012 The Better Buildings Neighborhood View -- March 2012 The Better Buildings Neighborhood View -- May

  19. The Better Buildings Neighborhood View -- March 2012 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    March 2012 The Better Buildings Neighborhood View -- March 2012 The Better Buildings Neighborhood View monthly newsletter from the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings Neighborhood Program PDF icon BB Neighborhood View -- March 2012 More Documents & Publications The Better Buildings Neighborhood View -- February 2012 The Better Buildings Neighborhood View -- January 2012 Commercial Buildings Integration Program Overview - 2015 BTO Peer Review

  20. The Better Buildings Neighborhood View -- May 2012 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    - May 2012 The Better Buildings Neighborhood View -- May 2012 The Better Buildings Neighborhood View monthly newsletter from the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings Neighborhood Program PDF icon BB Neighborhood View -- May 2012 More Documents & Publications The Better Buildings Neighborhood View -- June 2012 The Better Buildings Neighborhood View - September 2012

  1. Better Buildings Network View | April 2014 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4 Better Buildings Network View | April 2014 The Better Buildings Network View monthly newsletter from the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings Residential Network. PDF icon Better Buildings Network View April 2014 More Documents & Publications Better Buildings Network View | December 2014 Better Buildings Residential Network Orientation Webinar Better Buildings Network View | May

  2. Better Buildings Network View | December 2014 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4 Better Buildings Network View | December 2014 The Better Buildings Network View monthly newsletter from the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings Residential Network. PDF icon Better Buildings Network View December 2014 More Documents & Publications Better Buildings Network View | February 2014 Better Buildings Network View | November 2014 Lessons Learned: Peer Exchange Calls -- No. 3

  3. Better Buildings Network View | February 2015 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5 Better Buildings Network View | February 2015 The Better Buildings Network View monthly newsletter from the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings Residential Network. PDF icon Better Buildings Network View February 2015 More Documents & Publications Better Buildings Network View | June 2015 Nothing But Networking for Residential Network Members Better Buildings Network View | November 2014

  4. Better Buildings Network View | May 2015 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5 Better Buildings Network View | May 2015 The Better Buildings Network View monthly newsletter from the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings Residential Network. PDF icon Better Buildings Network View May 2015 More Documents & Publications Better Buildings Network View | June 2015 Home Performance with ENERGY STAR - 2014 BTO Peer Review Better Buildings Network View | April 2015

  5. Better Buildings Network View | November 2014 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4 Better Buildings Network View | November 2014 The Better Buildings Network View monthly newsletter from the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings Residential Network. PDF icon Better Buildings Network View November 2014 More Documents & Publications Better Buildings Network View | July-August 2014 Better Buildings Residential Network Orientation Webinar Better Buildings Network View | December 2014

  6. Better Buildings Network View | October 2014 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    October 2014 Better Buildings Network View | October 2014 The Better Buildings Network View monthly newsletter from the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings Residential Network. PDF icon Better Buildings Network View October 2014 More Documents & Publications Better Buildings Network View | September 2014 Better Buildings Network View | December 2014

  7. A high performance hybrid battery based on aluminum anode and LiFePO4 cathode

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sun, Xiao-Guang; Bi, Zhonghe; Liu, Hansan; Bridges, Craig A.; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Dai, Sheng; Brown, Gilbert M.

    2015-12-07

    A unique battery hybrid utilizes an aluminum anode, a LiFePO4 cathode and an acidic ionic liquid electrolyte based on 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (EMImCl) and aluminum trichloride (AlCl 3) (EMImCl-AlCl 3, 1-1.1 in molar ratio) with or without LiAlCl4 is proposed. This hybrid ion battery delivers an initial high capacity of 160 mAh g-1 at a current rate of C/5. It also shows good rate capability and cycling performance.

  8. City of Mountain View, Missouri (Utility Company) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    View Place: Missouri Phone Number: (417) 934-2601 Website: mountainviewmo.comindex.phpg Facebook: https:www.facebook.comCityOfMountainViewMissouri Outage Hotline: (877)...

  9. Mountain View Power Partners II Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    II Wind Farm Jump to: navigation, search Name Mountain View Power Partners II Wind Farm Facility Mountain View Power Partners II Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale...

  10. Mountain View Power Partners III Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    III Wind Farm Jump to: navigation, search Name Mountain View Power Partners III Wind Farm Facility Mountain View Power Partners III Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial...

  11. OpenEI:Neutral point of view | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    point of view Jump to: navigation, search Neutral point of view (NPOV) means that articles and content contributed or edited on the platform must be unbiased. All significant...

  12. The Better Buildings Neighborhood View -- January 2013 | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3 The Better Buildings Neighborhood View -- January 2013 The Better Buildings Neighborhood View monthly newsletter from the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings...

  13. Better Buildings Network View | September 2014 | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    September 2014 Better Buildings Network View | September 2014 The Better Buildings Network View monthly newsletter from the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings Residential...

  14. The Better Buildings Neighborhood View -- July 2013 | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3 The Better Buildings Neighborhood View -- July 2013 The Better Buildings Neighborhood View monthly newsletter from the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings Neighborhood...

  15. The Better Buildings Neighborhood View -- April 2013 | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3 The Better Buildings Neighborhood View -- April 2013 The Better Buildings Neighborhood View monthly newsletter from the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings Neighborhood...

  16. The Better Buildings Neighborhood View -- April 2012 | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 The Better Buildings Neighborhood View -- April 2012 The Better Buildings Neighborhood View monthly newsletter from the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings Neighborhood...

  17. The Better Buildings Neighborhood View -- August 2012 | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    August 2012 The Better Buildings Neighborhood View -- August 2012 The Better Buildings Neighborhood View monthly newsletter from the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings...

  18. Better Buildings Network View | November 2015 | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5 Better Buildings Network View | November 2015 The Better Buildings Network View monthly newsletter from the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings Residential Network. PDF...

  19. The Better Buildings Neighborhood View -- March 2012 | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    March 2012 The Better Buildings Neighborhood View -- March 2012 The Better Buildings Neighborhood View monthly newsletter from the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings...

  20. The Better Buildings Neighborhood View -- June 2012 | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    June 2012 The Better Buildings Neighborhood View -- June 2012 The Better Buildings Neighborhood View monthly newsletter from the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings...

  1. The Better Buildings Neighborhood View -- July 2012 | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 The Better Buildings Neighborhood View -- July 2012 The Better Buildings Neighborhood View monthly newsletter from the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings Neighborhood...

  2. The Better Buildings Neighborhood View -- January 2012 | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 The Better Buildings Neighborhood View -- January 2012 The Better Buildings Neighborhood View monthly newsletter from the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings...

  3. The Better Buildings Neighborhood View -- May 2012 | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    - May 2012 The Better Buildings Neighborhood View -- May 2012 The Better Buildings Neighborhood View monthly newsletter from the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings...

  4. The Better Buildings Neighborhood View -- Fall 2011 | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fall 2011 The Better Buildings Neighborhood View -- Fall 2011 Better Buildings Neighborhood View, from the Better Buildings Neighborhood Program of the U.S. Department of Energy....

  5. Better Buildings Network View | April 2014 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4 Better Buildings Network View | April 2014 The Better Buildings Network View monthly newsletter from the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings Residential Network. PDF ...

  6. Better Buildings Network View | January 2016 | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    6 Better Buildings Network View | January 2016 The Better Buildings Network View monthly newsletter from the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings Residential Network. PDF ...

  7. Better Buildings Network View | February 2015 | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5 Better Buildings Network View | February 2015 The Better Buildings Network View monthly newsletter from the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings Residential Network. PDF ...

  8. Better Buildings Network View | December 2015 | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5 Better Buildings Network View | December 2015 The Better Buildings Network View monthly newsletter from the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings Residential Network. PDF ...

  9. Better Buildings Network View | June 2014 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4 Better Buildings Network View | June 2014 The Better Buildings Network View monthly newsletter from the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings Residential Network. PDF icon ...

  10. Better Buildings Network View | October 2014 | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    October 2014 Better Buildings Network View | October 2014 The Better Buildings Network View monthly newsletter from the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings Residential ...

  11. Better Buildings Network View | January 2015 | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5 Better Buildings Network View | January 2015 The Better Buildings Network View monthly newsletter from the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings Residential Network. PDF ...

  12. Better Buildings Network View | May 2015 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5 Better Buildings Network View | May 2015 The Better Buildings Network View monthly newsletter from the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings Residential Network. PDF icon ...

  13. Better Buildings Network View | February 2014 | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4 Better Buildings Network View | February 2014 The Better Buildings Network View monthly newsletter from the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings Residential Network. PDF ...

  14. Better Buildings Network View | November 2014 | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4 Better Buildings Network View | November 2014 The Better Buildings Network View monthly newsletter from the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings Residential Network. PDF ...

  15. Better Buildings Network View | July-August 2014 | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4 Better Buildings Network View | July-August 2014 The Better Buildings Network View monthly newsletter from the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings Residential Network. ...

  16. Better Buildings Network View | February 2016 | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    6 Better Buildings Network View | February 2016 The Better Buildings Network View monthly newsletter from the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings Residential Network. PDF ...

  17. Better Buildings Network View | May 2014 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4 Better Buildings Network View | May 2014 The Better Buildings Network View monthly newsletter from the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings Residential Network. PDF icon ...

  18. Better Buildings Network View | March 2014 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4 Better Buildings Network View | March 2014 The Better Buildings Network View monthly newsletter from the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings Residential Network. PDF ...

  19. Better Buildings Network View | April 2015 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5 Better Buildings Network View | April 2015 The Better Buildings Network View monthly newsletter from the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings Residential Network. PDF ...

  20. Better Buildings Network View | December 2014 | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4 Better Buildings Network View | December 2014 The Better Buildings Network View monthly newsletter from the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings Residential Network. PDF ...

  1. Better Buildings Network View | March 2015 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5 Better Buildings Network View | March 2015 The Better Buildings Network View monthly newsletter from the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings Residential Network. PDF ...

  2. Better Buildings Network View | January 2014 | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4 Better Buildings Network View | January 2014 The Better Buildings Network View monthly newsletter from the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings Residential Network. PDF ...

  3. Better Buildings Network View | October 2015 | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5 Better Buildings Network View | October 2015 The Better Buildings Network View monthly newsletter from the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings Residential Network. PDF ...

  4. Better Buildings Network View | March 2016 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    6 Better Buildings Network View | March 2016 The Better Buildings Network View monthly newsletter from the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings Residential Network. PDF ...

  5. Better Buildings Network View | June 2015 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5 Better Buildings Network View | June 2015 The Better Buildings Network View monthly newsletter from the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings Residential Network. PDF icon ...

  6. Better Buildings Network View | July-August 2015 | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5 Better Buildings Network View | July-August 2015 The Better Buildings Network View monthly newsletter from the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings Residential Network. ...

  7. Residential Windows and Window Coverings: A Detailed View of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Residential Windows and Window Coverings: A Detailed View of the Installed Base and User Behavior Residential Windows and Window Coverings: A Detailed View of the Installed Base ...

  8. SPERT Destructive Test - I on Aluminum, Highly Enriched Plate Type Core

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-04-05

    SPERT - Special Power Excursion Reactor Tests Destructive Test number 1 On Aluminum, Highly Enriched Plate Type Core. A test studying the behavior of the reactor under destructive conditions on a light water moderated pool-type reactor with a plate-type core.

  9. Ionic Current Mapping Techniques and Applications to Aluminum-Copper Corrosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Isaacs, H. S.; Jeffcoate, C. S.; Missert, N. A.; Barbour, J. C.

    1999-10-17

    Measurements have been made of the aluminum/metal galvanic couple. A wide range of geometries were investigated varying the areas of anodic and cathodic surfaces and employing specially designed galvanic cells with crevices. In situ ionic current density mapping was used to monitor galvanic corrosion and currents flowing between separated metals was measured.

  10. SPERT Destructive Test - I on Aluminum, Highly Enriched Plate Type Core

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-05-07

    SPERT - Special Power Excursion Reactor Tests Destructive Test number 1 On Aluminum, Highly Enriched Plate Type Core. A test studying the behavior of the reactor under destructive conditions on a light water moderated pool-type reactor with a plate-type core.

  11. Reduced temperature aluminum production in an electrolytic cell having an inert anode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dawless, Robert K.; Ray, Siba P.; Hosler, Robert B.; Kozarek, Robert L.; LaCamera, Alfred F.

    2000-01-01

    Aluminum is produced by electrolytic reduction of alumina in a cell having a cathode, an inert anode and a molten salt bath containing metal fluorides and alumina. The inert anode preferably contains copper, silver and oxides of iron and nickel. Reducing the molten salt bath temperature to about 900-950.degree. C. lowers corrosion on the inert anode constituents.

  12. Development of an electronic device quality aluminum antimonide (AlSb) semiconductor for solar cell applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sherohman, John W; Yee, Jick Hong; Combs, III, Arthur W

    2014-11-11

    Electronic device quality Aluminum Antimonide (AlSb)-based single crystals produced by controlled atmospheric annealing are utilized in various configurations for solar cell applications. Like that of a GaAs-based solar cell devices, the AlSb-based solar cell devices as disclosed herein provides direct conversion of solar energy to electrical power.

  13. Mechanical Properties of Aluminum Matrix Composite Reinforced by Carbothermally Reduced of Fly Ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jamasri; Wildan, M. W.; Sulardjaka; Kusnanto

    2011-01-17

    The addition of fly ash into aluminum as reinforcement can potentially reduce the production cost and density of aluminum. However, mechanical properties of aluminum matrix composite reinforced by fly ash (MMC ALFA) have some limitations due to the characteristic of fly ash. In this study, a carbothermal reduction process of fly ash and activated carbon powder with particle size <32 {mu}m was performed prior to produce MMC ALFA.The process was carried out in a furnace at 1300 deg. C in vacuum condition under argon flow. Synthesis product was analyzed by XRD with Cu-K{sub {alpha}} radiation. From XRD analysis, it shows that the synthesis process can produce SiC powder. The synthesis product was subsequently used as reinforcement particle. Aluminum powder was mixed with 5, 10 and 15% of the synthesized powder, and then uni-axially compacted at pressure of 300 MPa. The compacted product was sintered for 2 hours in argon atmosphere at temperature variation of 550 and 600 deg. C. Flexural strength, hardness and density of MMC ALFA's product were respectively evaluated using a four point bending test method based on ASTM C1161 standard, Brinell hardness scale and Archimedes method. The result of this study shows that the increase of weight of reinforcement can significantly increase the hardness and flexural strength of MMCs. The highest hardness and flexural strength of the MMC product are 300 kg/mm{sup 2} and 107.5 MPa, respectively.

  14. MANAGEMENT OF RESEARCH AND TEST REACTOR ALUMINUM SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL - A TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vinson, D.

    2010-07-11

    The Department of Energy's Environmental Management (DOE-EM) Program is responsible for the receipt and storage of aluminum research reactor spent nuclear fuel or used fuel until ultimate disposition. Aluminum research reactor used fuel is currently being stored or is anticipated to be returned to the U.S. and stored at DOE-EM storage facilities at the Savannah River Site and the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. This paper assesses the technologies and the options for safe transportation/receipt and interim storage of aluminum research reactor spent fuel and reviews the comprehensive strategy for its management. The U.S. Department of Energy uses the Appendix A, Spent Nuclear Fuel Acceptance Criteria, to identify the physical, chemical, and isotopic characteristics of spent nuclear fuel to be returned to the United States under the Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Acceptance Program. The fuel is further evaluated for acceptance through assessments of the fuel at the foreign sites that include corrosion damage and handleability. Transport involves use of commercial shipping casks with defined leakage rates that can provide containment of the fuel, some of which are breached. Options for safe storage include wet storage and dry storage. Both options must fully address potential degradation of the aluminum during the storage period. This paper focuses on the various options for safe transport and storage with respect to technology maturity and application.

  15. Silicon Solar Cells with Front Hetero-Contact and Aluminum Alloy Back Junction: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuan, H.-C.; Page, M. R.; Iwaniczko, E.; Xu, Y.; Roybal, L.; Wang, Q.; Branz, H. M.; Meier, D. L.

    2008-05-01

    We prototype an alternative n-type monocrystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cell structure that utilizes an n/i-type hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) front hetero-contact and a back p-n junction formed by alloying aluminum (Al) with the n-type Si wafer.

  16. Our view: Vaccinate now, prevent flu later

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Our view: Vaccinate now, prevent flu later Our view: Vaccinate now, prevent flu later Los Alamos National Laboratory scientists are predicting that this winter's flu season is most likely to peak in February across much of the United States. The scientists can say this because of the model they have constructed. December 24, 2015 Man sneezing Model suggests still time to get your flu shot and be protected. "There's no crystal ball when it comes to predicting disease outbreaks," said

  17. Linked-View Parallel Coordinate Plot Renderer

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2011-06-28

    This software allows multiple linked views for interactive querying via map-based data selection, bar chart analytic overlays, and high dynamic range (HDR) line renderings. The major component of the visualization package is a parallel coordinate renderer with binning, curved layouts, shader-based rendering, and other techniques to allow interactive visualization of multidimensional data.

  18. The Better Buildings Neighborhood View - September 2012 | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy September 2012 The Better Buildings Neighborhood View - September 2012 Monthly newsletter from the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings Neighborhood Program. PDF icon BB Neighborhood View -- September 2012 More Documents & Publications The Better Buildings Neighborhood View -- Fall 2011 The Better Buildings Neighborhood View -- July 2013

  19. Better Buildings Network View | December 2015 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5 Better Buildings Network View | December 2015 The Better Buildings Network View monthly newsletter from the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings Residential Network. PDF icon Better Buildings Network View December 2015 More Documents & Publications BBRN Factsheet: Case Study: Community Engagement Better Buildings Network View | July-August 2015 Better Buildings Residential Network Orientation Webinar

  20. The Better Buildings Neighborhood View -- December 2013 | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy December 2013 The Better Buildings Neighborhood View -- December 2013 The Better Buildings Neighborhood View monthly newsletter from the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings Neighborhood Program. PDF icon BB Neighborhood View -- December 2013 More Documents & Publications The Better Buildings Neighborhood View -- July 2013 Focus Series: Philadelphia Energyworks: In the City of Brotherly Love, Sharing Know-How Leads to Sustainability The Better Buildings Neighborhood View

  1. The Better Buildings Neighborhood View -- February 2012 | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy February 2012 The Better Buildings Neighborhood View -- February 2012 The Better Buildings Neighborhood View monthly newsletter from the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings Neighborhood Program. PDF icon BB Neighborhood View -- February 2012 More Documents & Publications The Better Buildings Neighborhood View -- March 2012 The Better Buildings Neighborhood View -- January 2012 Microsoft Word - T4_VEIC_TO2_ Sub3_Residential Retrofit Program Design Guide Play Book_TEAM 4

  2. The Better Buildings Neighborhood View -- January 2013 | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 3 The Better Buildings Neighborhood View -- January 2013 The Better Buildings Neighborhood View monthly newsletter from the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings Neighborhood Program -- January 2013. PDF icon BB Neighborhood View -- January 2013 More Documents & Publications The Better Buildings Neighborhood View - September 2012 The Better Buildings Neighborhood View - October 2012 It's Academic: BetterBuildings for Michigan Partners With University to Reach Employees

  3. Method of making highly porous, stable aluminum oxides doped with silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khosravi-Mardkhe, Maryam; Woodfield, Brian F.; Bartholomew, Calvin H.; Huang, Baiyu

    2016-03-22

    The present invention relates to a method for making high surface area and large pore volume thermally stable silica-doped alumina (aluminum oxide) catalyst support and ceramic materials. The ability of the silica-alumina to withstand high temperatures in presence or absence of water and prevent sintering allows it to maintain good activity over a long period of time in catalytic reactions. The method of preparing such materials includes adding organic silicon reagents to an organic aluminum salt such as an alkoxide in a controlled quantity as a doping agent in a solid state, solvent deficient reaction followed by calcination. Alternatively, the organic silicon compound may be added after calcination of the alumina, followed by another calcination step. This method is inexpensive and simple. The alumina catalyst support material prepared by the subject method maintains high pore volumes, pore diameters and surface areas at very high temperatures and in the presence of steam.

  4. Colloidal infrared reflective and transparent conductive aluminum-doped zinc oxide nanocrystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buonsanti, Raffaella; Milliron, Delia J

    2015-02-24

    The present invention provides a method of preparing aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) nanocrystals. In an exemplary embodiment, the method includes (1) injecting a precursor mixture of a zinc precursor, an aluminum precursor, an amine, and a fatty acid in a solution of a vicinal diol in a non-coordinating solvent, thereby resulting in a reaction mixture, (2) precipitating the nanocrystals from the reaction mixture, thereby resulting in a final precipitate, and (3) dissolving the final precipitate in an apolar solvent. The present invention also provides a dispersion. In an exemplary embodiment, the dispersion includes (1) nanocrystals that are well separated from each other, where the nanocrystals are coated with surfactants and (2) an apolar solvent where the nanocrystals are suspended in the apolar solvent. The present invention also provides a film. In an exemplary embodiment, the film includes (1) a substrate and (2) nanocrystals that are evenly distributed on the substrate.

  5. CHARACTERIZATION OF TANK 11H AND TANK 51H POST ALUMINUM DISSOLUTION PROCESS SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hay, M; Daniel McCabe, D

    2008-05-16

    A dip sample of the liquid phase from Tank 11H and a 3-L slurry sample from Tank 51H were obtained and sent to Savannah River National Laboratory for characterization. These samples provide data to verify the amount of aluminum dissolved from the sludge as a result of the low temperature aluminum dissolution process conducted in Tank 51H. The characterization results for the as-received Tank 11H and Tank 51H supernate samples and the total dried solids of the Tank 51H sludge slurry sample appear quite good with respect to the precision of the sample replicates and minimal contamination present in the blank. The two supernate samples show similar concentrations for the major components as expected.

  6. Energy conservation in the primary aluminum and chlor-alkali industries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    The primary aluminum and chlor-alkali industries together use nearly 13% of the electrical energy consumed by US industry. As part of its mission to promote energy conservation in basic US industries, the DOE surveys the present technological status of the major electrochemical industries and evaluates promising technological innovations that may lead to reduced energy requirements. This study provides technical and economic analyses in support of a government program of research and development in advanced electrolytic technology. This program is intended to supplement the development efforts directed toward energy savings by private industry. Sections II and III of this report cover aluminum and chlorine production processes only, since these two industries represent over 90% of the electrical energy requirements of all electrolytic industries in the United States. Section IV examines barriers to accelerated research and development by the electrolytic industries, and makes suggestions for government actions to overcome these barriers.

  7. Target designs for Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) utilizing lithium-aluminum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Todosow, M.; Van Tuyle, G.J.

    1996-03-01

    A number of accelerator-driven spallation neutron-source target/blanket systems have been developed for production of tritium under the APT Program. The two systems described in this paper employ a proton linear accelerator, and a target which contains a heavy-metal(s) for the production of neutrons via spallation, and solid lithium-aluminum for the production of tritium via neutron capture. lie lithium-aluminum technology is based on that employed at Savannah River for tritium production since the 1950`s. In the APT concept tritium is produced without the presence of fissionable materials; therefore, no high-level waste is produced, and the ES&H concerns are significantly reduced compared to reactor systems.

  8. Cu--Ni--Fe anode for use in aluminum producing electrolytic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bergsma, S. Craig; Brown, Craig W.; Bradford, Donald R; Barnett, Robert J.; Mezner, Michael B.

    2006-07-18

    A method of producing aluminum in an electrolytic cell containing alumina dissolved in an electrolyte, the method comprising the steps of providing a molten salt electrolyte at a temperature of less than 900.degree. C. having alumina dissolved therein in an electrolytic cell having a liner for containing the electrolyte, the liner having a bottom and walls extending upwardly from said bottom. A plurality of non-consumable Cu--Ni--Fe anodes and cathodes are disposed in a vertical direction in the electrolyte, the cathodes having a plate configuration and the anodes having a flat configuration to compliment the cathodes. The anodes contain apertures therethrough to permit flow of electrolyte through the apertures to provide alumina-enriched electrolyte between the anodes and the cathodes. Electrical current is passed through the anodes and through the electrolyte to the cathodes, depositing aluminum at the cathodes and producing gas at the anodes.

  9. Iron-aluminum alloys having high room-temperature and method for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sikka, Vinod K. (Oak Ridge, TN); McKamey, Claudette G. (Knoxville, TN)

    1993-01-01

    Iron-aluminum alloys having selectable room-temperature ductilities of greater than 20%, high resistance to oxidation and sulfidation, resistant pitting and corrosion in aqueous solutions, and possessing relatively high yield and ultimate tensile strengths are described. These alloys comprise 8 to 9.5% aluminum, up to 7% chromium, up to 4% molybdenum, up to 0.05% carbon, up to 0.5% of a carbide former such as zirconium, up to 0.1 yttrium, and the balance iron. These alloys in wrought form are annealed at a selected temperature in the range of 700.degree. C. to about 1100.degree. C. for providing the alloys with selected room-temperature ductilities in the range of 20 to about 29%.

  10. Nucleation and growth of damage in polycrystalline aluminum under dynamic tensile loading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qi, M. L.; Yao, Y.; Ran, X. X.; Ye, W.; Bie, B. X.; Fan, D.; Li, P.

    2015-03-15

    Plate-impact experiments were conducted to study the features and mechanisms of void nucleation and growth in the polycrystalline of pure aluminum under dynamic loading. Soft-recovered samples have been analyzed by metallographic microscopy, electron back scattering diffraction (EBSD), and synchrotron radiation x-ray tomography technology. It was found that most of the void nucleation in grains neared the boundaries of “weak-orientation” grains and grew toward the grain boundaries with fractured small grains around the boundaries. This was mainly caused by the accumulation and interaction of slip systems in the “weak-orientation” grains. In addition, the micro voids were nearly octahedron because the octahedral slip systems were formed by 8 slip planes in the polycrystalline of pure aluminum. The EBSD results are consistent with the three-dimensional structure observed by synchrotron radiation x-ray.

  11. Boron-carbide-aluminum and boron-carbide-reactive metal cermets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Halverson, Danny C.; Pyzik, Aleksander J.; Aksay, Ilhan A.

    1986-01-01

    Hard, tough, lightweight boron-carbide-reactive metal composites, particularly boron-carbide-aluminum composites, are produced. These composites have compositions with a plurality of phases. A method is provided, including the steps of wetting and reacting the starting materials, by which the microstructures in the resulting composites can be controllably selected. Starting compositions, reaction temperatures, reaction times, and reaction atmospheres are parameters for controlling the process and resulting compositions. The ceramic phases are homogeneously distributed in the metal phases and adhesive forces at ceramic-metal interfaces are maximized. An initial consolidation step is used to achieve fully dense composites. Microstructures of boron-carbide-aluminum cermets have been produced with modulus of rupture exceeding 110 ksi and fracture toughness exceeding 12 ksi.sqroot.in. These composites and methods can be used to form a variety of structural elements.

  12. Iron-aluminum alloys having high room-temperature and method for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sikka, V.K.; McKamey, C.G.

    1993-08-24

    A wrought and annealed iron-aluminum alloy is described consisting essentially of 8 to 9.5% aluminum, an effective amount of chromium sufficient to promote resistance to aqueous corrosion of the alloy, and an alloying constituent selected from the group of elements consisting of an effective amount of molybdenum sufficient to promote solution hardening of the alloy and resistance of the alloy to pitting when exposed to solutions containing chloride, up to about 0.05% carbon with up to about 0.5% of a carbide former which combines with the carbon to form carbides for controlling grain growth at elevated temperatures, and mixtures thereof, and the balance iron, wherein said alloy has a single disordered [alpha] phase crystal structure, is substantially non-susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement, and has a room-temperature ductility of greater than 20%.

  13. Method for processing aluminum spent potliner in a graphite electrode ARC furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Connor, William K.; Turner, Paul C.; Addison, Gerald W.

    2002-12-24

    A method of processing spent aluminum pot liner containing carbon, cyanide compositions, fluorides and inorganic oxides. The spent aluminum pot liner is crushed iron oxide is added to form an agglomerated material. The agglomerated material is melted in an electric arc furnace having the electrodes submerged in the molten material to provide a reducing environment during the furnace operation. In the reducing environment, pot liner is oxidized while the iron oxides are reduced to produce iron and a slag substantially free of cyanide compositions and fluorides. An off-gas including carbon oxides and fluorine is treated in an air pollution control system with an afterburner and a scrubber to produce NaF, water and a gas vented to the atmosphere free of cyanide compositions, fluorine and CO.

  14. Method of preparing an electrode material of lithium-aluminum alloy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Settle, Jack L.; Myles, Kevin M.; Battles, James E.

    1976-01-01

    A solid compact having a uniform alloy composition of lithium and aluminum is prepared as a negative electrode for an electrochemical cell. Lithium losses during preparation are minimized by dissolving aluminum within a lithium-rich melt at temperatures near the liquidus temperatures. The desired alloy composition is then solidified and fragmented. The fragments are homogenized to a uniform composition by annealing at a temperature near the solidus temperature. After comminuting to fine particles, the alloy material can be blended with powdered electrolyte and pressed into a solid compact having the desired electrode shape. In the preparation of some electrodes, an electrically conductive metal mesh is embedded into the compact as a current collector.

  15. Method for processing aluminum spent potliner in a graphite electrode arc furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Connor, William K.; Turner, Paul C.; Addison, G.W.

    2002-12-24

    A method of processing spent aluminum pot liner containing carbon, cyanide compositions, fluorides and inorganic oxides. The spend aluminum pot liner is crushed, iron oxide is added to form an agglomerated material. The agglomerated material is melted in an electric arc furnace having the electrodes submerged in the molten material to provide a reducing environment during the furnace operation. In the reducing environment, pot liner is oxidized while the iron oxides are reduced to produce iron and a slag substantially free of cyanide compositions and fluorides. An off-gas including carbon oxides and fluorine is treated in an air pollution control system with an afterburner and a scrubber to produce NaF, water and a gas vented to the atmosphere free of cyanide compositions, fluorine, and CO.

  16. Quench-age method for the fabrication of niobium-aluminum superconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pickus, Milton R.; Ciardella, Robert L.

    1978-01-01

    A flexible Nb.sub.3 Al superconducting wire is fabricated from a niobium-aluminum composite wire by heating to form a solid solution which is retained at room temperature as a metastable solid solution by quenching. The metastable solid solution is then transformed to the stable superconducting A-15 phase by low temperature aging. The transformation induced by aging can be controlled to yield either a multifilamentary or a solid A-15 core surrounded by ductile niobium.

  17. Design of an Aluminum Proton Beam Window for the Spallation Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janney, Jim G; McClintock, David A

    2012-01-01

    An aluminum proton beam window design is being considered at the Spallation Neutron Source primarily to increase the lifetime of the window, with secondary advantages of higher beam transport efficiency and lower activation. The window separates the core vessel, the location of the mercury target, from the vacuum of the accelerator, while withstanding the pass through of a proton beam of up to 2 MW with 1.0 GeV proton energy. The current aluminum alloy being investigated for the window material is 6061-T651 due to its combination of high strength, high thermal conductivity, and good resistance to aqueous corrosion, as well as demonstrated dependability in previous high-radiation environments. The window design will feature a thin plate with closely spaced cross drilled cooling holes. An analytical approach was used to optimize the dimensions of the window before finite element analysis was used to simulate temperature profiles and stress fields resulting from thermal and static pressure loading. The resulting maximum temperature of 60 C and Von Mises stress of 71 MPa are very low compared to allowables for Al 6061-T651. A significant challenge in designing an aluminum proton beam window for SNS is integrating the window with the current 316L SS shield blocks. Explosion bonding was chosen as a joining technique because of the large bonding area required. A test program has commenced to prove explosion bonding can produce a robust vacuum joint. Pending successful explosion bond testing, the aluminum proton beam window design will be proven acceptable for service in the Spallation Neutron Source.

  18. Refining of solid ferrous scrap intermingled with copper by using molten aluminum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iwase, M.

    1996-12-31

    A new approach for the removal of copper from solid ferrous scrap has been proposed by the present authors. With this process, solid ferrous scrap intermingled with pure copper is brought into contact with molten aluminum, which dissolved copper preferentially, and is recovered as {l_brace}Al + Cu{r_brace} alloys. After a duration of 30 minutes at temperatures between 963 K and 1,223 K, steel scrap is removed from the bath, resulting in being free of copper contamination.

  19. Relative electrochemical stability of lithium and aluminum salts and their solvents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ciemiecki, K.T.; Auborn, J.J.

    1983-10-01

    The stability series were determined by cyclic voltammetric measurements at platinum electrodes in dry acetonitrile. These results are applicable to the electrochemical synthesis of new organic electrodes and to the development of an ambient temperature rechargeable battery. Cyclic voltammetry was also used to establish electrochemical windows for a class of room temperature chloroaluminate molten salts from which aluminum can be reversibly electrodeposited. Enhancement of oxidative stability by increased Lewis acidity was observed in both the melts and the more conventional electrolytes.

  20. Maintaining molten salt electrolyte concentration in aluminum-producing electrolytic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barnett, Robert J.; Mezner, Michael B.; Bradford, Donald R

    2005-01-04

    A method of maintaining molten salt concentration in a low temperature electrolytic cell used for production of aluminum from alumina dissolved in a molten salt electrolyte contained in a cell free of frozen crust wherein volatile material is vented from the cell and contacted and captured on alumina being added to the cell. The captured volatile material is returned with alumina to cell to maintain the concentration of the molten salt.

  1. THE APPARENT SOLUBILITY OF ALUMINUM(III) IN HANFORD HIGH-LEVEL WASTE TANKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    REYNOLDS JG

    2012-06-20

    The solubility of aluminum in Hanford nuclear waste impacts on the process ability of the waste by a number of proposed treatment options. For many years, Hanford staff has anecdotally noted that aluminum appears to be considerably more soluble in Hanford waste than the simpler electrolyte solutions used as analogues. There has been minimal scientific study to confirm these anecdotal observations, however. The present study determines the apparent solubility product for gibbsite in 50 tank samples. The ratio of hydroxide to aluminum in the liquid phase for the samples is calculated and plotted as a function of total sodium molarity. Total sodium molarity is used as a surrogate for ionic strength, because the relative ratios of mono, di and trivalent anions are not available for all of the samples. These results were compared to the simple NaOH-NaAl(OH{sub 4})H{sub 2}O system, and the NaOH-NaAl(OH{sub 4})NaCl-H{sub 2}O system data retrieved from the literature. The results show that gibbsite is apparently more soluble in the samples than in the simple systems whenever the sodium molarity is greater than two. This apparent enhanced solubility cannot be explained solely by differences in ionic strength. The change in solubility with ionic strength in simple systems is small compared to the difference between aluminum solubility in Hanford waste and the simple systems. The reason for the apparent enhanced solubility is unknown, but could include. kinetic or thermodynamic factors that are not present in the simple electrolyte systems. Any kinetic explanation would have to explain why the samples are always supersaturated whenever the sodium molarity is above two. Real waste characterization data should not be used to validate thermodynamic solubility models until it can be confirmed that the apparent enhanced gibbsite solubility is a thermodynamic effect and not a kinetic effect.

  2. An investigation of aluminum titanate-spinel composites behavior in radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cevikbas, G.; Tugrul, A. B.; Boyraz, T.; Buyuk, B.; Onen, U.

    2015-03-30

    In the present work, the radiation attenuation properties of Aluminum titanate (Al{sub 2}TiO{sub 5})-Spinel (MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}) ceramics composites were investigated. Al{sub 2}TiO{sub 5}-MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} ceramics composites which have different Al{sub 2}TiO{sub 5} percentages (0%, 5% and 10%) were produced and performed against gamma sources. Cs-137 and Co-60 were used as gamma radiation sources. Transmission technique was used in the experiments. The linear and mass attenuation coefficients of the samples were carried out for gamma radiation sources. The experimental results were compared with the theoretical mass attenuation coefficients which were calculated by using XCOM computer code. Increasing Al{sub 2}TiO{sub 5} percentage in the Aluminum titanate/ Spinel ceramics composites causes the higher linear and mass attenuation coefficients of the composites against Cs-137 and Co-60 gamma radioisotopes. Therefore Also theoretical mass attenuation coefficients are compatible with the experimental results. In conclusion, increasing the Aluminum titanate ratio in the Al{sub 2}TiO{sub 5}-MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} ceramics composites increases the gamma shielding property of the Al{sub 2}TiO{sub 5}-MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} ceramics for nuclear shielding applications.

  3. A hot-cracking mitigation technique for welding high-strength aluminum alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Y.P.; Dong, P.; Zhang, J.; Tian, X.

    2000-01-01

    A hot-cracking mitigation technique for gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) of high-strength aluminum alloy 2024 is presented. The proposed welding technique incorporates a trailing heat sink (an intense cooling source) with respect to the welding torch. The development of the mitigation technique was based on both detailed welding process simulation using advanced finite element techniques and systematic laboratory experiments. The finite element methods were used to investigate the detailed thermomechanical behavior of the weld metal that undergoes the brittle temperature range (BTR) during welding. As expected, a tensile deformation zone within the material BTR region was identified behind the weld pool under conventional GTA welding process conventional GTA welding process conditions for the aluminum alloy studied. To mitigate hot cracking, the tensile zone behind the weld pool must be eliminated or reduce to a satisfactory level if the weld metal hot ductility cannot be further improved. With detailed computational modeling, it was found that by the introduction of a trailing heat sink at some distance behind the welding arc, the tensile strain rate with respect to temperature in the zone encompassing the BTR region can be significantly reduced. A series of parametric studies were also conducted to derive optimal process parameters for the trailing heat sink. The experimental results confirmed the effectiveness of the trailing heat sink technique. With a proper implementation of the trailing heat sink method, hot cracking can be completely eliminated in welding aluminum alloy 2024 (AA 2024).

  4. Chloride-free processing of aluminum scrap to recover by-product materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riley, W.D.; Jong, B.W.

    1995-12-31

    The US Bureau of Mines has developed technology to recover by-product materials from aluminum scrap using engineered scavenger compounds (ESC). ESCs are structural oxides with a channel or tunnel structure that allows them to hold ions of a specific sizes and charges. The scavenging reaction is easily reversible allowing the ESC to be recharged for continued use and the ion is recovered as an electrodeposit. Key features of this novel technology are: (a) ESC systems are designed to have a high degree of selectivity for a desired ionic species. (b) The recovered material requires little or no additional reprocessing prior to reuse. Two current uses for the ESC technology that are described in this paper are the removal and recycle of lithium (Li) from lithium aluminum (Li-Al) alloys; and, using ESCs as a replacement for the conventional demaging (magnesium removal) technology used by the secondary casting industry. Research indicates that the ESC technology proposed for both these applications has either distinct economic and/or environmental advantages over previously employed methods of recovering metal values from aluminum scrap.

  5. DOWNSTREAM IMPACTS OF SLUDGE MASS REDUCTION VIA ALUMINUM DISSOLUTION ON DWPF PROCESSING OF SAVANNAH RIVER SITE HIGH LEVEL WASTE - 9382

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pareizs, J; Cj Bannochie, C; Michael Hay, M; Daniel McCabe, D

    2009-01-14

    The SRS sludge that was to become a major fraction of Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) contained a large fraction of H-Modified PUREX (HM) sludge, containing a large fraction of aluminum compounds that could adversely impact the processing and increase the vitrified waste volume. It is beneficial to reduce the non-radioactive fraction of the sludge to minimize the number of glass waste canisters that must be sent to a Federal Repository. Removal of aluminum compounds, such as boehmite and gibbsite, from sludge can be performed with the addition of NaOH solution and heating the sludge for several days. Preparation of SB5 involved adding sodium hydroxide directly to the waste tank and heating the contents to a moderate temperature through slurry pump operation to remove a fraction of this aluminum. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked with demonstrating this process on actual tank waste sludge in our Shielded Cells Facility. This paper evaluates some of the impacts of aluminum dissolution on sludge washing and DWPF processing by comparing sludge processing with and without aluminum dissolution. It was necessary to demonstrate these steps to ensure that the aluminum removal process would not adversely impact the chemical and physical properties of the sludge which could result in slower processing or process upsets in the DWPF.

  6. Preliminary study of the electrolysis of aluminum sulfide in molten salts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minh, N.Q.; Loutfy, R.O.; Yao, N.P.

    1983-02-01

    A preliminary laboratory-scale study of the electrolysis of aluminum sulfide in molten salts investigated the (1) solubility of Al/sub 2/S/sub 3/ in molten salts, (2) electrochemical behavior of Al/sub 2/S/sub 3/, and (3) electrolysis of Al/sub 2/S/sub 3/ with the determination of current efficiency as a function of current density. The solubility measurements show that MgCl/sub 2/-NaCl-KCl eutectic electrolyte at 1023 K can dissolve up to 3.3 mol % sulfide. The molar ratio of sulfur to aluminum in the eutectic is about one, which suggests that some sulfur remains undissolved, probably in the form of MgS. The experimental data and thermodynamic calculations suggest that Al/sub 2/S/sub 3/ dissolves in the eutectic to form AlS/sup +/ species in solution. Addition of AlCl/sub 3/ to the eutectic enhances the solubility of Al/sub 2/S/sub 3/; the solubility increases with increasing AlCl/sub 3/ concentration. The electrode reaction mechanism for the electrolysis of Al/sub 2/S/sub 3/ was elucidated by using linear sweep voltammetry. The cathodic reduction of aluminum-ion-containing species to aluminum proceeds by a reversible, diffusion-controlled, three-electron reaction. The anodic reaction involves the two-electron discharge of sulfide-ion-containing species, followed by the fast dimerization of sulfur atoms to S/sub 2/. Electrolysis experiments show that Al/sub 2/S/sub 3/ dissolved in molten MgCl/sub 2/-NaCl-KCl eutectic or in eutectic containing AlCl/sub 3/ can be electrolyzed to produce aluminum and sulfur. In the eutectic at 1023 K, the electrolysis can be conducted up to about 300 mA/cm/sup 2/ for the saturation solubility of Al/sub 2/S/sub 3/. Although these preliminary results are promising, additional studies are needed to elucidate many critical operating parameters before the technical potential of the electrolysis can be accurately assessed. 20 figures, 18 tables.

  7. Metallic Reinforcement of Direct Squeeze Die Casting Aluminum Alloys for Improved Strength and Fracture Resistance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. Schwam: J.F. Wallace: Y. Zhu: J.W. Ki

    2004-10-01

    The utilization of aluminum die casting as enclosures where internal equipment is rotating inside of the casting and could fracture requires a strong housing to restrain the fractured parts. A typical example would be a supercharger. In case of a failure, unless adequately contained, fractured parts could injure people operating the equipment. A number of potential reinforcement materials were investigated. The initial work was conducted in sand molds to create experimental conditions that promote prolonged contact of the reinforcing material with molten aluminum. Bonding of Aluminum bronze, Cast iron, and Ni-resist inserts with various electroplated coatings and surface treatments were analyzed. Also toughening of A354 aluminum cast alloy by steel and stainless steel wire mesh with various conditions was analyzed. A practical approach to reinforcement of die cast aluminum components is to use a reinforcing steel preform. Such performs can be fabricated from steel wire mesh or perforated metal sheet by stamping or deep drawing. A hemispherical, dome shaped casting was selected in this investigation. A deep drawing die was used to fabricate the reinforcing performs. The tendency of aluminum cast enclosures to fracture could be significantly reduced by installing a wire mesh of austenitic stainless steel or a punched austenitic stainless steel sheet within the casting. The use of reinforcements made of austenitic stainless steel wire mesh or punched austenitic stainless steel sheet provided marked improvement in reducing the fragmentation of the casting. The best strengthening was obtained with austenitic stainless steel wire and with a punched stainless steel sheet without annealing this material. Somewhat lower results were obtained with the annealed punched stainless steel sheet. When the annealed 1020 steel wire mesh was used, the results were only slightly improved because of the lower mechanical properties of this unalloyed steel. The lowest results were obtained with unreinforced 356 aluminum casting. Good strength can be obtained with a sound die casting without any defects produced by squeeze casting. The use of higher pressure to produce the squeeze casting has been shown to increase the strength of a hemispherical dome casting. This dome shape casting has been produced both with and without reinforcement and tested to determine its pressure resistance under internal pressure of water. Only a slight improvement in strength could be determined because of water leaks at the seal between hemispherical dome and its flat supporting side. However, when the ability of the casting was tested under the compressive force of a plunger, the strengthening effect of wire mesh or sheet was evident. Higher loads to failure were obtained because of the reinforcement of the stainless steel wire and punched sheet. Rather than a sudden failure occurring, the reinforcement of the stainless steel wire or the punched hard stainless steel sheet held the material together and prevented any loss of the fractured casting to the surroundings. Unalloyed steel did not have the required strength or mechanical properties to increase the properties of the casting.

  8. The Better Buildings Neighborhood View -- February 2012 | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    View -- March 2012 The Better Buildings Neighborhood View -- January 2012 Microsoft Word - T4VEICTO2 Sub3Residential Retrofit Program Design Guide Play BookTEAM 4 FINAL.docx

  9. ParaView Red Blood Cell Tutorial | Argonne Leadership Computing...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ParaView Red Blood Cell Tutorial Goals This tutorial is intended to be a hands-on resource ... Data set for ParaView Red Blood Cell Tutorial File Open Icon Load Multi-component Dataset ...

  10. ALS Technique Gives Novel View of Lithium Battery Dendrite Growth

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS Technique Gives Novel View of Lithium Battery Dendrite Growth ALS Technique Gives Novel View of Lithium Battery Dendrite Growth Print Thursday, 24 April 2014 09:46 Lithium-ion ...

  11. New Window Technology Saves Energy and the View | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    New Window Technology Saves Energy and the View New Window Technology Saves Energy and the View November 5, 2013 - 3:55pm Addthis Researchers at the Energy Department's National...

  12. Mountain View Power Partners I Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    I Wind Farm Jump to: navigation, search Name Mountain View Power Partners I Wind Farm Facility Mountain View Power Partners I Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind...

  13. Better Buildings Network View | September 2014 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    September 2014 Better Buildings Network View | September 2014 The Better Buildings Network View monthly newsletter from the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings Residential Network. PDF icon Better Buildings Network View September 2014 More Documents & Publications Focus Series: OREGON-On Bill Financing Program: On-Bill Financing Brings Lenders and Homeowners On Board Better Buildings Network View | December 2014 On-Bill Financing for Energy E

  14. Better Buildings Network View | November 2015 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    November 2015 Better Buildings Network View | November 2015 The Better Buildings Network View monthly newsletter from the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings Residential Network. PDF icon Better Buildings Network View November 2015 More Documents & Publications Lessons Learned: Peer Exchange Calls -- No. 3 Better Buildings Residential Network Membership Form

  15. REPORT ON QUALITATIVE VALIDATION EXPERIMENTS USING LITHIUM-ALUMINUM LAYERED DOUBLE-HYDROXIDES FOR THE REDUCTION OF ALUMINUM FROM THE WASTE TREATMENT PLANT FEEDSTOCK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HUBER HJ; DUNCAN JB; COOKE GA

    2010-05-11

    A process for removing aluminum from tank waste simulants by adding lithium and precipitating Li-Al-dihydroxide (Lithiumhydrotalcite, [LiAl{sub 2}(OH){sub 6}]{sup +}X{sup -}) has been verified. The tests involved a double-shell tank (DST) simulant and a single-shell tank (SST) simulant. In the case of the DST simulant, the product was the anticipated Li-hydrotalcite. For the SST simulant, the product formed was primarily Li-phosphate. However, adding excess Li to the solution did result in the formation of traces of Li-hydrotalcite. The Li-hydrotalcite from the DST supernate was an easily filterable solid. After four water washes the filter cake was a fluffy white material made of < 100 {micro}m particles made of smaller spheres. These spheres are agglomerates of {approx} 5 {micro}m diameter platelets with < 1 {micro}m thickness. Chemical and mineralogical analyses of the filtrate, filter cake, and wash waters indicate a removal of 90+ wt% of the dissolved Al for the DST simulant. For the SST simulant, the main competing reaction to the formation of lithium hydrotalcite appears to be the formation of lithium phosphate. In case of the DST simulant, phosphorus co-precipitated with the hydrotalcite. This would imply the added benefit of the removal of phosphorus along with aluminum in the pre-treatment part of the waste treatment and immobilization plant (WTP). For this endeavor to be successful, a serious effort toward process parameter optimization is necessary. Among the major issues to be addressed are the dependency of the reaction yield on the solution chemistry, as well as residence times, temperatures, and an understanding of particle growth.

  16. Multidimensional display controller for displaying to a user an aspect of a multidimensional space visible from a base viewing location along a desired viewing orientation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davidson, George S.; Anderson, Thomas G.

    2001-01-01

    A display controller allows a user to control a base viewing location, a base viewing orientation, and a relative viewing orientation. The base viewing orientation and relative viewing orientation are combined to determine a desired viewing orientation. An aspect of a multidimensional space visible from the base viewing location along the desired viewing orientation is displayed to the user. The user can change the base viewing location, base viewing orientation, and relative viewing orientation by changing the location or other properties of input objects.

  17. Exaggerated supine oblique view of the cervical spine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abel, M.S.

    1982-06-01

    The technique of the 60 degree supine oblique view is described together with anatomic skeletal studies of this projection. The view is convenient for emergency room radiography and useful in other clinical radiography. The view separates widely the anterior and posterior portions of the vertebrae in a side to side projection. This makes for an elongated but detailed view of the articular processes, pedicles, and intervertebral foramina. In the cadavar specimen and clinically the view is shown to be useful in delineating fracture deformities of the articular process and visualizing constriction of the intervertebral foramen superiorly. Encroachment of the foramen superiorly is likely to compromise the emerging nerve root in this area.

  18. Fish scale deformation analysis using scanning electron microscope: New potential biomarker in aquatic environmental monitoring of aluminum and iron contamination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hidayati, Dewi; Sulaiman, Norela; Othman, Shuhaimi; Ismail, B. S.

    2013-11-27

    Fish scale has the potential to be a rapid biomarker due to its structure and high possibility to come into contact with any pollutant in the aquatic environment. The scale structure consists of osteoblastic cells and other bone materials such as collagen where it is possible to form a molecular complex with heavy metals such as aluminum and iron. Hence, aluminum and iron in water could possibly destroy the scale material and marked as a scale deformation that quantitatively could be analyzed by comparing it to the normal scale structure. Water sampling and fish cage experiment were performed between June and July 2011 in Porong river which represented the water body that has high aluminum and iron contamination. The filtered water samples were preserved and extracted using the acid-mixture procedure prior to measurement of the aluminum and iron concentrations using Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES), while samples for total suspended solid (TSS) analysis were kept at 4 °C in cool-boxes. The scales were cleaned with sterile water, then dehydrated in 30, 50, 70, and 90% ethanol and dried on filter papers. They were then mounted on an aluminum stub and coated with gold in a sputter coater prior to Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) observation. According to the SEM analysis, it was found that there were several deformations on the scale samples taken from sites that have high concentrations of aluminum and iron i.e. the increasing number of pits, deformation and decreasing number of spherules and ridges while the control scale exhibited the normal features. However, the site with higher TSS and pH indicated lower aluminum effect. A moderate correlation was found between the number of pits with aluminum (r=0.43) and iron (r=0.41) concentrations. Fish scale deformation using SEM analysis can potentially be a rapid biomarker in aquatic monitoring of aluminum and iron contamination. However, the measurement must be accompanied by pH and TSS observations.

  19. (Polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium of enhanced utility, uses thereof, and products based thereon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marks, Tobin J. (Evanston, IL); Chen, You-Xian (Midland, MI)

    2001-01-01

    The (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium are novel weakly coordinating anions which are are highly fluorinated. (Polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of one such type contain at least one ring substituent other than fluorine. These (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium have greater solubility in organic solvents, or have a coordinative ability essentially equal to or less than that of the corresponding (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanion of aluminum, gallium, or indium in which the substituent is replaced by fluorine. Another type of new (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanion of aluminum, gallium, and indium have 1-3 perfluorinated fused ring groups and 2-0 perfluorophenyl groups. When used as a cocatalyst in the formation of novel catalytic complexes with d- or f-block metal compounds having at least one leaving group such as a methyl group, these anions, because of their weak coordination to the metal center, do not interefere in the ethylene polymerization process, while affecting the the propylene process favorably, if highly isotactic polypropylene is desired. Thus, the (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium of this invention are useful in various polymerization processes such as are described.

  20. SLUDGE HEEL REMOVAL BY ALUMINUM DISSOLUTION AT SAVANNAH RIVER SITE 12390

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keefer, M.

    2012-01-12

    High Level Waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently stored in aging underground storage tanks. This waste is a complex mixture of insoluble solids, referred to as sludge, and soluble salts. Continued long-term storage of these radioactive wastes poses an environmental risk. Operations are underway to remove and disposition the waste, clean the tanks and fill with grout for permanent closure. Heel removal is the intermediate phase of the waste retrieval and tank cleaning process at SRS, which is intended to reduce the volume of waste prior to treatment with oxalic acid. The goal of heel removal is to reduce the residual amount of radioactive sludge wastes to less than 37,900 liters (10,000 gallons) of wet solids. Reducing the quantity of residual waste solids in the tank prior to acid cleaning reduces the amount of acid required and reduces the amount of excess acid that could impact ongoing waste management processes. Mechanical heel removal campaigns in Tank 12 have relied solely on the use of mixing pumps that have not been effective at reducing the volume of remaining solids. The remaining waste in Tank 12 is known to have a high aluminum concentration. Aluminum dissolution by caustic leaching was identified as a treatment step to reduce the volume of remaining solids and prepare the tank for acid cleaning. Dissolution was performed in Tank 12 over a two month period in July and August, 2011. Sample results indicated that 16,440 kg of aluminum oxide (boehmite) had been dissolved representing 60% of the starting inventory. The evolution resulted in reducing the sludge solids volume by 22,300 liters (5900 gallons), preparing the tank for chemical cleaning with oxalic acid.

  1. Steel and Aluminum Energy Conservation and Technology Competitiveness Act of 1988. Fiscal year 1993 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Steel and Aluminum Energy Conservation and Technology Competitiveness Act of 1988 (Act), commonly referred to as the Metals Initiative, was signed into law on November 17, 1988 (Public Law 100-680). The Act, 15 U.S.C. 5101 et seq., has tile following purposes: (1) to {open_quotes}increase the energy efficiency and enhance the competitiveness of American steel, aluminum, and copper industries{close_quotes}; and (2) to continue the research and development efforts begun under the Department of Energy (DOE) program known as the Steel Initiative. Section 8 of tile Act requires the Secretary of Energy to prepare an annual report to Congress describing the activities carried out under the Act during each fiscal year. 15 U.S.C. 5107 In addition, with respect to reports on fiscal years 1993, 1995, and 1997, Section 8 requires a complete summary of activities under the management plan and research plan from inception with an analysis of extent of their success in accomplishing the purposes of the Act. Id. The Metals Initiative is currently supporting six steel industry research and development projects: (1) Superplastic Steel Processing with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; (2) Direct Steelmaking with the American Iron and Steel Institute; (3) Electrochemical Dezincing of Steel Scrap with Argonne National Laboratory and Metal Recovery Industries (U.S.), Inc.; (4) Rapid Analysis of Molten Metals Using Laser Produced Plasmas with Lehigh University; (5) Direct Strip Casting using a single wheel caster with Armco, Inc.; and (6) Advanced Process Control, also with the American Iron and Steel Institute. At the close of the fiscal year, a seventh project, Waste Oxide Recycling with the American Iron and Steel Institute, was selected for inclusion in the Direct Steelmaking project. There are three projects with the aluminum industry. The first, Wettable Cathodes for Alumina Reduction Cells with the Reynolds Metals Company, continues from the prior periods.

  2. Life Cycle Energy and Environmental Assessment of Aluminum-Intensive Vehicle Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Sujit

    2014-01-01

    Advanced lightweight materials are increasingly being incorporated into new vehicle designs by automakers to enhance performance and assist in complying with increasing requirements of corporate average fuel economy standards. To assess the primary energy and carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) implications of vehicle designs utilizing these materials, this study examines the potential life cycle impacts of two lightweight material alternative vehicle designs, i.e., steel and aluminum of a typical passenger vehicle operated today in North America. LCA for three common alternative lightweight vehicle designs are evaluated: current production ( Baseline ), an advanced high strength steel and aluminum design ( LWSV ), and an aluminum-intensive design (AIV). This study focuses on body-in-white and closures since these are the largest automotive systems by weight accounting for approximately 40% of total curb weight of a typical passenger vehicle. Secondary mass savings resulting from body lightweighting are considered for the vehicles engine, driveline and suspension. A cradle-to-cradle life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted for these three vehicle material alternatives. LCA methodology for this study included material production, mill semi-fabrication, vehicle use phase operation, and end-of-life recycling. This study followed international standards ISO 14040:2006 [1] and ISO 14044:2006 [2], consistent with the automotive LCA guidance document currently being developed [3]. Vehicle use phase mass reduction was found to account for over 90% of total vehicle life cycle energy and CO2e emissions. The AIV design achieved mass reduction of 25% (versus baseline) resulting in reductions in total life cycle primary energy consumption by 20% and CO2e emissions by 17%. Overall, the AIV design showed the best breakeven vehicle mileage from both primary energy consumption and climate change perspectives.

  3. Precipitation and Deposition of Aluminum-Containing Phases in Tank Wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dabbs, Daniel M.; Aksay, I.A.

    2005-12-01

    In the first phase of our study, we focused on the use of simple organics to raise the solubility of aluminum oxyhydroxides in high alkaline aqueous solvents. In a limited survey of common organic acids, we determined that citric acid had the highest potential to achieve our goal. However, our subsequent investigation revealed that the citric acid appeared to play two roles in the solutions: first, raising the concentration of aluminum in highly alkaline solutions by breaking up or inhibiting ''seed'' polycations and thereby delaying the nucleation and growth of particles; and second, stabilizing nanometer-sized particles in suspension when nucleation did occur. The results of this work were recently published in Langmuir: D.M. Dabbs, U. Ramachandran, S. Lu, J. Liu, L.-Q. Wang, I.A. Aksay, ''Inhibition of Aluminum Oxyhydroxide Precipitation with Citric Acid'' Langmuir, 21, 11690-11695 (2005). The second phase of our work involved the solvation of silicon, again in solutions of high alkalinity. Citric acid, due to its unfavorable pKa values, was not expected to be useful with silicon-containing solutions. Here, the use of polyols was determined to be effective in maintaining silicon-containing particles under high pH conditions but at smaller size with respect to standard suspensions of silicon-containing particles. There were a number of difficulties working with highly alkaline silicon-containing solutions, particularly in solutions at or near the saturation limit. Small deviations in pH resulted in particle formation or dissolution in the absence of the organic agents. One of the more significant observations was that the polyols appeared to stabilize small particles of silicon oxyhydroxides across a wider range of pH, albeit this was difficult to quantify due to the instability of the solutions.

  4. Target Fabrication: A View from the Users

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kyrala, George A.; Balkey, Matthew M.; Barnes, Cris W.; Batha, Steven H.; Christensen, Cindy R.; Cobble, James A.; Fincke, James; Keiter, Paul; Lanier, Nicholas; Paisley, Dennis; Sorem, Michael; Swift, Damian; Workman, Jonathan

    2004-03-15

    Targets are used for a variety of purposes, but ultimately we use them to validate codes that help us predict and understand new phenomena or effects. The sophistication and complexity of High Energy Density Physics (HEDP) and Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) targets has increased in to match the advances made in modeling complex phenomena. The targets have changed from simple hohlraums, spherical geometries, and planar foils, to 3-dimensional geometries that require precision in construction, alignment, and metrology. Furthermore, material properties, such as surface morphologies and volume texture, have significant impact on the behavior of the targets and must be measured and controlled. In the following we will discuss how experimental physicists view targets and the influence that target construction has on interpreting the experimental results. We review a representative sampling of targets fabricated at the Los Alamos National Laboratory that are used in different experiments in support of ICF and HEDP.

  5. TARGET FABRICATION: A VIEW FROM THE USERS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kyrala, George A.; Balkey, Matthew M.; Batha, Steven H.; Barnes, Cris W.; Christensen, Cindy; Cobble, James; Fincke, James; Keiter, Paul; Lanier, Nicholas; Paisley, Dennis; Sorem, Michael S.; Swift, Damian; Workman, Jonathan

    2003-07-18

    Targets are used for a variety of purposes, but ultimately we use them to validate codes that help us predict and understand new phenomena or effects. The sophistication and complexity of High Energy Density Physics (HEDP) and Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) targets has increased in time to match the advances made in modeling complex phenomena. The targets have changed from simple hohlraums, spherical geometries, and planar foils, to 3-dimensional geometries that require precision in construction, alignment, and metrology. Furthermore, material properties, such as surface morphologies and volume texture, have significant impact on the behavior of the targets and must be measured and controlled. In the following we will discuss how experimental physicists view targets and the influence that target construction has on interpreting the experimental results. We review a representative sampling of targets fabricated at the Los Alamos National Laboratory that are used in different experiments in support of ICF and HEDP.

  6. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint - Sector: Alumina and Aluminum (NAICS 3313), January 2014 (MECS 2010)

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Alumina and Aluminum (NAICS 3313) Process Energy Electricity and Steam Generation Losses Process Losses 3 Nonprocess Losses 456 105 Steam Distribution Losses 3 7 Nonprocess Energy 99 Electricity Generation Steam Generation 456 5 Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy, Advanced Manufacturing Office by Energetics Incorporated 16 198 116 Generation and Transmission Losses Generation and Transmission Losses 2 234 214 207 13 220 351 7 10 0.4 20.3 20.8 4.2 24.0 1.3 26 5.3 26.1 0.4 Fuel Total

  7. Non-consumable anode and lining for aluminum electrolytic reduction cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beck, Theodore R.; Brooks, Richard J.

    1994-01-01

    An oxidation resistant, non-consumable anode, for use in the electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum, has a composition comprising copper, nickel and iron. The anode is part of an electrolytic reduction cell comprising a vessel having an interior lined with metal which has the same composition as the anode. The electrolyte is preferably composed of a eutectic of AlF.sub.3 and either (a) NaF or (b) primarily NaF with some of the NaF replaced by an equivalent molar amount of KF or KF and LiF.

  8. Process for the fabrication of aluminum metallized pyrolytic graphite sputtering targets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Makowiecki, Daniel M.; Ramsey, Philip B.; Juntz, Robert S.

    1995-01-01

    An improved method for fabricating pyrolytic graphite sputtering targets with superior heat transfer ability, longer life, and maximum energy transmission. Anisotropic pyrolytic graphite is contoured and/or segmented to match the erosion profile of the sputter target and then oriented such that the graphite's high thermal conductivity planes are in maximum contact with a thermally conductive metal backing. The graphite contact surface is metallized, using high rate physical vapor deposition (HRPVD), with an aluminum coating and the thermally conductive metal backing is joined to the metallized graphite target by one of four low-temperature bonding methods; liquid-metal casting, powder metallurgy compaction, eutectic brazing, and laser welding.

  9. Measurement of quasiparticle transport in aluminum films using tungsten transition-edge sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yen, J. J. Shank, B.; Cabrera, B.; Moffatt, R.; Redl, P.; Young, B. A.; Tortorici, E. C.; Brink, P. L.; Cherry, M.; Tomada, A.; Kreikebaum, J. M.

    2014-10-20

    We report on experimental studies of phonon sensors which utilize quasiparticle diffusion in thin aluminum films connected to tungsten transition-edge-sensors (TESs) operated at 35 mK. We show that basic TES physics and a simple physical model of the overlap region between the W and Al films in our devices enables us to accurately reproduce the experimentally observed pulse shapes from x-rays absorbed in the Al films. We further estimate quasiparticle loss in Al films using a simple diffusion equation approach. These studies allow the design of phonon sensors with improved performance.

  10. Laser-induced short-range disorder in aluminum revealed by ultrafast electron diffuse scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Pengfei; Chen, Jie; Li, Runze; Chen, Long; Cao, Jianming; Sheng, Zhengming; Zhang, Jie; Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190

    2013-12-02

    We report ultrafast electron diffuse scattering intensity (DSI) measurement in order to study the structural response of aluminum to femtosecond laser excitation. In this measurement, the evolutions of DSI and Bragg peak intensities after the laser excitation are measured and compared in the time domain. Their differences suggest that two kinds of lattice disorder, short-range and long-range, are triggered simultaneously. The former, induced by electron excitation, arises and decays with a faster rate than the latter which is subject to lattice heating. The results presented show that the time-resolved DSI measurements provide complementary insights to the ultrafast diffraction measurements.

  11. Pulsed DC magnetron sputtered piezoelectric thin film aluminum nitride – Technology and piezoelectric properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoeckel, C. Kaufmann, C.; Hahn, R.; Schulze, R.; Billep, D.; Gessner, T.

    2014-07-21

    Pulsed DC magnetron sputtered aluminum nitride (AlN) thin films are prepared on several seed layers and at different sputtering conditions. The piezoelectric c-axis (002) orientation of the AlN is analyzed with X-ray diffraction method. The transverse piezoelectric coefficient d{sub 31} is determined with a Laser-Doppler-Vibrometer at cantilevers and membranes by analytical calculations and finite element method. Additionally, thin film AlN on bulk silicon is used to characterize the longitudinal piezoelectric charge coefficient d{sub 33}.

  12. Influence of Aluminum Content on Grain Refinement and Strength of AZ31 Magnesium GTA Weld Metal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babu, N. Kishore; Cross, Carl E.

    2012-06-28

    The goal is to characterize the effect of Al content on AZ31 weld metal, the grain size and strength, and examine role of Al on grain refinement. The approach is to systematically vary the aluminum content of AZ31 weld metal, Measure average grain size in weld metal, and Measure cross-weld tensile properties and hardness. Conclusions are that: (1) increased Al content in AZ31 weld metal results in grain refinement Reason: higher undercooling during solidification; (2) weld metal grain refinement resulted in increased strength & hardness Reason: grain boundary strengthening; and (3) weld metal strength can be raised to wrought base metal levels.

  13. Inert anode containing base metal and noble metal useful for the electrolytic production of aluminum

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ray, Siba P.; Liu, Xinghua

    2000-01-01

    An inert anode for production of metals such as aluminum is disclosed. The inert anode comprises a base metal selected from Cu and Ag, and at least one noble metal selected from Ag, Pd, Pt, Au, Rh, Ru, Ir and Os. The inert anode may optionally be formed of sintered particles having interior portions containing more base metal than noble metal and exterior portions containing more noble metal than base metal. In a preferred embodiment, the base metal comprises Cu, and the noble metal comprises Ag, Pd or a combination thereof.

  14. Manganese-Aluminum-Based Magnets: Nanocrystalline t-MnAI Permanent Magnets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    REACT Project: Dartmouth is developing specialized alloys with magnetic properties superior to the rare earths used in todays best magnets. EVs and renewable power generators typically use rare earths to turn the axles in their electric motors due to the magnetic strength of these minerals. However, rare earths are difficult and expensive to refine. Dartmouth will swap rare earths for a manganese-aluminum alloy that could demonstrate better performance and cost significantly less. The ultimate goal of this project is to develop an easily scalable process that enables the widespread use of low-cost and abundant materials for the magnets used in EVs and renewable power generators.

  15. Numerical Simulation and Experimental Characterization of a Binary Aluminum Alloy Spray - Application to the Spray Rolling Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. B. Johnson; J.-P. Delplanque; Y. Lin; Y. Zhou; E. J. Lavernia; K. M. McHugh

    2005-02-01

    A stochastic, droplet-resolved model has been developed to describe the behavior of a binary aluminum alloy spray during the spray-rolling process. In this process, a molten aluminum alloy is atomized and the resulting spray is depostied on the rolls of a twin-roll caster to produce aluminum strip. The one-way coupled spray model allows the prediction of spray characteristics such as enthalph and solid fraction, and their distribution between the nozzle and the depostion surface. This paper outlines the model development and compares the predicted spray dynamics to PDI measurements performed in a controlled configuration. Predicted and measured droplet velocity and size distributions are presented for two points along the spray centerline along with predicted spray averaged specific enthalph and solid fraction curves.

  16. Simulation of Turbulent Combustion Fields of Shock-Dispersed Aluminum Using the AMR Code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuhl, A L; Bell, J B; Beckner, V E; Khasainov, B

    2006-11-02

    We present a Model for simulating experiments of combustion in Shock-Dispersed-Fuel (SDF) explosions. The SDF charge consisted of a 0.5-g spherical PETN booster, surrounded by 1-g of fuel powder (flake Aluminum). Detonation of the booster charge creates a high-temperature, high-pressure source (PETN detonation products gases) that both disperses the fuel and heats it. Combustion ensues when the fuel mixes with air. The gas phase is governed by the gas-dynamic conservation laws, while the particle phase obeys the continuum mechanics laws for heterogeneous media. The two phases exchange mass, momentum and energy according to inter-phase interaction terms. The kinetics model used an empirical particle burn relation. The thermodynamic model considers the air, fuel and booster products to be of frozen composition, while the Al combustion products are assumed to be in equilibrium. The thermodynamic states were calculated by the Cheetah code; resulting state points were fit with analytic functions suitable for numerical simulations. Numerical simulations of combustion of an Aluminum SDF charge in a 6.4-liter chamber were performed. Computed pressure histories agree with measurements.

  17. Combustion of Shock-Dispersed Flake Aluminum - High-Speed Visualization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neuwald, P; Reichenbach, H; Kuhl, A

    2006-06-19

    Charges of 0.5 g PETN were used to disperse 1 g of flake aluminum in a rectangular test chamber of 4 liter inner volume and inner dimensions of approximately 10 cm x 10 cm x 40 cm. The subsequent combustion of the flake aluminum with the ambient air in the chamber gave rise to a highly luminous flame. The evolution of the luminous region was studied by means of high-speed cinematography. The high-speed camera is responsive to a broad spectral range in the visible and near infra-red. For a number of tests this response range was narrowed down by means of a band-pass filter with a center wavelength of 488 nm and a half-width of 23 nm. The corresponding images were expected to have a stronger temperature dependence than images obtained without the filter, thus providing better capability to highlight hot-spots. Emission in the range of the pass-band of the filter can be due to continuous thermal radiation from hot Al and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles or to molecular band emission from gaseous AlO. A time-resolving spectrometer was improvised to inspect this topic. The results suggest that AlO emission occurs, but that the continuous spectrum is the dominating effect in our experiments.

  18. X-ray diffractometry of lanthanum-nickel-aluminum alloys. Part 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mosley, W.C.

    1988-08-08

    X-ray diffractometry provides much useful information on LANA alloys that complements data obtained by SEM and Electron Microprobe Analysis. Accurate measurements of the hexagonal lattice parameters of the primary LaNi{sub 5-y}Aly phase reveal the aluminum content (y) and allow the prediction of desorption pressures for the hydrogen isotopes. A study of the broadening of x-ray diffraction lines of the LaNi{sub 5-y}Aly primary phase caused by cyclic absorption and desorption of hydrogen suggests that substitution of aluminum for nickel stabilizes the primary phase with respect to formation of antistructure defects that could cause undesirable trapping of hydrogen isotopes. Correlation of XRD with SEM and EMPA results has helped identify secondary phases, determine their abundances in volume percent, and reveal how they react with hydrogen and the atmosphere. Characterizations of LANA alloys used in process development has provided the bases for development of specifications for alloys to be used in the Replacement Trittium Facility. 28 refs., 4 tabs., 12 figs.

  19. Aluminum Stabilized NbTi Conductor Test Coil Design, Fabrication, and Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andreev, N.; Chlachidze, G.; Evbota, D.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Lamm, M.; Makarov, A.; Tartaglia, M.; Nakamoto, T.; Ogitsu, T.; Tanaka, K.; Yamamoto, A.; /KEK, Tsukuba

    2011-09-01

    A new generation of precision muon conversion experiments is planned at both Fermilab and KEK. These experiments will depend upon a complex set of solenoid magnets for the production, momentum selection and transport of a muon beam to a stopping target, and for tracking detector momentum analysis of candidate conversion electrons from the target. Baseline designs for the production and detector solenoids use NbTi cable that is heavily stabilized by an extruded high RRR aluminum jacket. A U.S.-Japan research collaboration has begun whose goal is to advance the development of optimized Al-NbTi conductors, gain experience with the technology of winding coils from this material, and test the conductor performance as modest length samples become available. For this purpose, a 'conductor test' solenoid with three coils was designed and built at Fermilab. A sample of the RIKEN Al-NbTi conductor from KEK was wound into a 'test' coil; this was sandwiched between two 'field' coils wound from doubled SSC cable, to increase the peak field on the RIKEN test coil. All three solenoid coils were epoxy impregnated, and utilized aluminum outer bandage rings to apply preload to the coils when cold. The design and fabrication details, and results of the magnet quench performance tests are presented and discussed.

  20. Joining aluminum to titanium alloy by friction stir lap welding with cutting pin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Yanni [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an 710072 (China) [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an 710072 (China); Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Friction Welding Technologies, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an 710072 (China); Li, Jinglong, E-mail: lijinglg@nwpu.edu.cn [Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Friction Welding Technologies, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an 710072 (China)] [Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Friction Welding Technologies, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an 710072 (China); Xiong, Jiangtao [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an 710072 (China) [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an 710072 (China); Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Friction Welding Technologies, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an 710072 (China); Huang, Fu; Zhang, Fusheng; Raza, Syed Hamid [Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Friction Welding Technologies, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an 710072 (China)] [Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Friction Welding Technologies, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an 710072 (China)

    2012-09-15

    Aluminum 1060 and titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V plates were lap joined by friction stir welding. A cutting pin of rotary burr made of tungsten carbide was employed. The microstructures of the joining interface were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Joint strength was evaluated by a tensile shear test. During the welding process, the surface layer of the titanium plate was cut off by the pin, and intensively mixed with aluminum situated on the titanium plate. The microstructures analysis showed that a visible swirl-like mixed region existed at the interface. In this region, the Al metal, Ti metal and the mixed layer of them were all presented. The ultimate tensile shear strength of joint reached 100% of 1060Al that underwent thermal cycle provided by the shoulder. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FSW with cutting pin was successfully employed to form Al/Ti lap joint. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Swirl-like structures formed due to mechanical mixing were found at the interface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High-strength joints fractured at Al suffered thermal cycle were produced.

  1. Computer-assisted Rheo-forging Processing of A356 Aluminum Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, H. H. [Department of Mechanical and Precision Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, C. G. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    Die casting process has been used widely for complex automotive products such as the knuckle, arm and etc. Generally, a part fabricated by casting has limited strength due to manufacturing defects by origin such as the dendrite structure and segregation. As an attempt to offer a solution to these problems, forging has been used as an alternative process. However, the forging process provides limited formability for complex shape products. Rheo-forging of metal offers not only superior mechanical strength but also requires significantly lower machine loads than solid forming processes. In order to produce semi-solid materials of the desired microstructure, a stirring process is applied during solidification of A356 aluminum molten state. This paper presents the results of an A356 aluminum alloy sample, which were obtained by experiment and by simulation using DEFORM 3D V6.1. Samples of metal parts were subsequently fabricated by using hydraulic press machinery. In order to compare the influence of loading method, two types of samples were fabricated: (1) samples fabricated under direct loading die sets (2) those fabricated under indirect loading die sets. The formability and defects, which were predicted by FEM simulation, were similar to those of samples used in practice.

  2. Optical fiducial timing system for X-ray streak cameras with aluminum coated optical fiber ends

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nilson, David G. (Oakland, CA); Campbell, E. Michael (Pleasanton, CA); MacGowan, Brian J. (Livermore, CA); Medecki, Hector (Livermore, CA)

    1988-01-01

    An optical fiducial timing system is provided for use with interdependent groups of X-ray streak cameras (18). The aluminum coated (80) ends of optical fibers (78) are positioned with the photocathodes (20, 60, 70) of the X-ray streak cameras (18). The other ends of the optical fibers (78) are placed together in a bundled array (90). A fiducial optical signal (96), that is comprised of 2.omega. or 1.omega. laser light, after introduction to the bundled array (90), travels to the aluminum coated (82) optical fiber ends and ejects quantities of electrons (84) that are recorded on the data recording media (52) of the X-ray streak cameras (18). Since both 2.omega. and 1.omega. laser light can travel long distances in optical fiber with only a slight attenuation, the initial arial power density of the fiducial optical signal (96) is well below the damage threshold of the fused silica or other material that comprises the optical fibers (78, 90). Thus the fiducial timing system can be repeatably used over long durations of time.

  3. Iron and aluminum interaction with amyloid-beta peptides associated with Alzheimer’s disease

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drochioiu, Gabi; Ion, Laura; Murariu, Manuela; Habasescu, Laura

    2014-10-06

    An elevation in the concentration of heavy metal ions in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) brain has been demonstrated in many studies. Aβ precipitation and toxicity in AD brains seem to be caused by abnormal interactions with neocortical metal ions, especially iron, copper, zinc, and aluminum [1–3]. There is increasing evidence that iron and aluminum ions are involved in the mechanisms that underlie the neurodegenerative diseases [4,5]. However, evidence was brought to demonstrate that some Aβ fragments, at physiological pH, are not able to form binary complexes with Fe(III) ions of sufficient stability to compete with metal hydroxide precipitation [6]. On the contrary, multiple metal ions are known to interact with Aβ peptides [7]. Consequently, we investigated here the interaction of Fe(II/III) and Al(III) ions with some amyloid-β peptides and fragments that results in peptide aggregation and fibrillation [8,9]. Infrared spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, electrophoresis and mass spectrometry demonstrated conformational changes of peptides in the presence of such metals.

  4. Models of the elastic x-ray scattering feature for warm dense aluminum

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Starrett, Charles Edward; Saumon, Didier

    2015-09-03

    The elastic feature of x-ray scattering from warm dense aluminum has recently been measured by Fletcher et al. [Nature Photonics 9, 274 (2015)] with much higher accuracy than had hitherto been possible. This measurement is a direct test of the ionic structure predicted by models of warm dense matter. We use the method of pseudoatom molecular dynamics to predict this elastic feature for warm dense aluminum with temperatures of 1–100 eV and densities of 2.7–8.1g/cm3. We compare these predictions to experiments, finding good agreement with Fletcher et al. and corroborating the discrepancy found in analyses of an earlier experiment ofmore » Ma et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 065001 (2013)]. Lastly, we also evaluate the validity of the Thomas-Fermi model of the electrons and of the hypernetted chain approximation in computing the elastic feature and find them both wanting in the regime currently probed by experiments.« less

  5. ASSESSMENT OF THE STATE OF PRECIPITATION IN ALUMINUM CASTING A356.2 ALLOY USING NONDESTRUCTIVE MICROSTRUCTURE ELECTRONIC PROPERTY MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiattisaksri, P.; Gibbs, P. J.; Koenig, K.; Pfeif, E. A.; Mishra, B.; Olson, D. L. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado (United States); Lasseigne, A. N. [Generation 2 Materials Technology LLC, Firestone, Colorado (United States); Mendez, P. F. [University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

    2010-02-22

    Application of nondestructive electronic property measurements to assess the strengthening of Mg{sub 2}Si precipitates in aluminum A356.2 casting has been demonstrated. The results indicated the evolution of precipitation phase through over aging with increased cooling time or thickness of the cast part. The classical optimum precipitation behavior has been characterized and verified with thermal analysis, thermoelectric power, low frequency impedance, and micro hardness measurements. A proposed practice to use nondestructive electronic property measurement tools to assess aluminum casting for acceptable mechanical properties after mold shake out is presented.

  6. Role of stoichiometric ratio of components during the formation of oxide and hydroxide layers on aluminum in oxoanion solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mikhailovskii, Y.N.; Derdzenishvili, G.A.

    1986-07-01

    This paper investigates the corrosion-electrochemical behavior of aluminum in chloride-fluoride solutions containing oxoanions of the oxidizing type (CrO/sup 2 -//sub 4/, MnO/sup -//sub 4/, MoO/sup 2 -//sub 4/, VO/sup 3 -//sub 4/, WO/sup 2 -//sub 4/). It is shown that, depending on the ratio of the concentrations of the oxoanions and hydroxonium ions, the oxidizing agent may activate or inhibit the corrosion process on the metal. The conditions of formation of surface phases is studied, which can impart good protective properties (conversion coatings), on aluminum during its self-solution.

  7. Study of integration issues to realize the market potential of OTEC energy in the aluminum industry. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Jr., M. S.; Thiagarajan, V.; Sathyanarayana, K.; Markel, A. L.; Snyder, III, J. E.; Sprouse, A. M.; Leshaw, D.

    1980-09-01

    The various integration issues are studied which must be considered to realize the market potential for the use of OTEC by the aluminum industry. The chloride reduction process has been identified as an attractive candidate for use with OTEC systems, and drained-cathode Hall cells and two alternative chloride reduction processes are considered. OTEC power system and plantships for the different processes are described. Aluminum industry characteristics important for OTEC considerations are given, including economic models and case history analyses. Appended are supporting cost estimates and energy bridge concepts for getting OTEC energy to shore. (LEW)

  8. A high performance hybrid battery based on aluminum anode and LiFePO4 cathode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xiao-Guang; Bi, Zhonghe; Liu, Hansan; Bridges, Craig A.; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Dai, Sheng; Brown, Gilbert M.

    2015-12-07

    A unique battery hybrid utilizes an aluminum anode, a LiFePO4 cathode and an acidic ionic liquid electrolyte based on 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (EMImCl) and aluminum trichloride (AlCl 3) (EMImCl-AlCl 3, 1-1.1 in molar ratio) with or without LiAlCl4 is proposed. This hybrid ion battery delivers an initial high capacity of 160 mAh g-1 at a current rate of C/5. It also shows good rate capability and cycling performance.

  9. Improved information analysis - views and actions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheely, K.B.; Manatt, D.R.

    1995-07-01

    The IAEA continues to assess, develop, and test recommendations for strengthening the cost effectiveness of safeguards. The IAEA`s investigation has focused on ways to increase Agency access to data, including access to sites and site data, export/import data, environmental data, open-source data, and other expanded data sources. Although the acquisition of this raw data is essential to strengthening safeguards, the effectiveness of the system is going to be judged by what the Agency does with the data once they have acquired it. Therefore, the IAEA must have the capability to organize, analyze and present the data in a timely manner for internal management evaluation and external dissemination. The United States Department of Energy has established a Safeguards Information Management Systems (SIMS) Initiative to provide support and equipment which will improve the IAEA`s capability to utilize this expanded data to analyze State`s nuclear activities. This paper will present views on steps to improve information analysis and discuss the status of actions undertaken by the SIMS initiative.

  10. Influence of pH on electrochemical and corrosion behavior of aluminum in media containing oxo anions of the oxidizing type

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mikhailovskii, Y.N.; Berdzenishvili, G.A.

    1986-07-01

    This paper investigates the influence of CrO/sub 4//sup 2 -/, MnO/sub 4//sup -/, VO/sub 4//sup 3 -/, MoO/sub 4//sup 2 -/, and WO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ on the potential and corrosion rate of aluminum in chloride-fluoride solutions with pH from 2 to 12. In neutral solutions on aluminum there is formed a mixed oxide-hydroxide layer with excess hydroxides which inhibits the corrosion of aluminum. Vanadates, molybdates, and tungstates in neutral solutions also formed mixed oxide-hydroxide layers with excess OH/sup -/ on the surface of the aluminum. This paper clearly displays the general laws of variation of the corrosion-electrochemical properties of aluminum in relation to pH in the presence of oxoanions of the oxidizing type.

  11. September 2015 Most Viewed Documents for Energy Storage, Conversion...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    September 2015 Most Viewed Documents for Energy Storage, Conversion, And Utilization ... of heavy metals: Removal from industrial wastewaters and contaminated soil ...

  12. December 2015 Most Viewed Documents for Energy Storage, Conversion...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    December 2015 Most Viewed Documents for Energy Storage, Conversion, And Utilization ... of heavy metals: Removal from industrial wastewaters and contaminated soil ...

  13. June 2015 Most Viewed Documents for Energy Storage, Conversion...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    June 2015 Most Viewed Documents for Energy Storage, Conversion, And Utilization Process ... of heavy metals: Removal from industrial wastewaters and contaminated soil ...

  14. March 2016 Most Viewed Documents for Energy Storage, Conversion...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    March 2016 Most Viewed Documents for Energy Storage, Conversion, And Utilization Process ... of heavy metals: Removal from industrial wastewaters and contaminated soil ...

  15. BrightView Systems Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: BrightView Systems Ltd Place: Petach-Tikva, Israel Zip: 49510 Product: Has developed an unspecified technology for PV cell manufacture....

  16. Narrow Field of View Zenith Radiometer (NFOV) Handbook (Technical Report) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Technical Report: Narrow Field of View Zenith Radiometer (NFOV) Handbook Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Narrow Field of View Zenith Radiometer (NFOV) Handbook The two-channel narrow field-of-view radiometer (NFOV2) is a ground-based radiometer that looks straight up and measures radiance directly above the instrument at wavelengths of 673 and 870 nm. The field-of-view of the instrument is 1.2 degrees, and the sampling time resolution is one second. Measurements of

  17. July 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Chemistry | OSTI, US Dept...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    July 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Chemistry Science Subject Feed Lithium literature ... Grandy, J. (1997) 35 > Background chemistry for chemical warfare agents and ...

  18. March 2014 Most Viewed Documents for Chemistry | OSTI, US Dept...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    4 Most Viewed Documents for Chemistry Science Subject Feed Flammability characteristics of ... Richards, P. (1989) 19 > Background chemistry for chemical warfare agents and ...

  19. MediaWiki:Pagetitle-view-mainpage | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search Energy Information and Data | OpenEI.org Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleMediaWiki:Pagetitle-view-mainpage&oldid277068...

  20. January 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Chemistry | OSTI, US Dept...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    January 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Chemistry Dialkylenecarbonate-Bridged Polysilsesquioxanes. Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Sol-Gels with a Thermally Labile Bridging Group Assink, ...

  1. January 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Renewable Energy Sources...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    January 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Renewable Energy Sources Photovoltaic Materials ... UV Test Methods for Encapsulants of Photovoltaic Modules (Presentation) Kempe, M. D. ...

  2. Forest View, Illinois: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Forest View, Illinois: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 41.8086431, -87.7933895 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mapping...

  3. A Lidar View of Clouds in Southeastern China

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lidar View of Clouds in Southeastern China For original submission and image(s), see ARM Research Highlights http:www.arm.govsciencehighlights Research Highlight From May 2008...

  4. June 2015 Most Viewed Documents for Fission And Nuclear Technologies...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    June 2015 Most Viewed Documents for Fission And Nuclear Technologies Estimation of gas ... MIGRATION IN SOILS OF THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT EXCLUSION ZONE Farfan, E ...

  5. December 2015 Most Viewed Documents for Fission And Nuclear Technologi...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    December 2015 Most Viewed Documents for Fission And Nuclear Technologies Estimation of gas ... methods and test results utilized for nuclear core applications (LWBR Development ...

  6. Most Viewed Documents for Fission and Nuclear Technologies: December...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Most Viewed Documents for Fission and Nuclear Technologies: December 2014 Stress analysis ... States)) (1992) 67 Behavior of spent nuclear fuel in water pool storage Johnson, A.B. ...

  7. The Better Buildings Neighborhood View - September 2012 | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    September 2012 The Better Buildings Neighborhood View - September 2012 Monthly newsletter from the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings Neighborhood Program. PDF icon BB...

  8. Helix Wind Inc formerly ClearView Acquisitions | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (formerly ClearView Acquisitions) Place: San Diego, California Zip: 92113 Sector: Wind energy Product: California-based manufacturer of small scale wind turbines. References: Helix...

  9. September 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Engineering | OSTI,...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    September 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Engineering Science Subject Feed Conduction heat transfer solutions VanSant, J.H. (1980) 190 > Charpy impact test results on five ...

  10. Mountain View Acres, California: Energy Resources | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mountain View Acres, California: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 34.496663, -117.3489352 Show Map Loading map......

  11. Mountain View, California: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mountain View, California: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 37.3860517, -122.0838511 Show Map Loading map......

  12. Mountain View, Colorado: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mountain View, Colorado: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 39.7744311, -105.0555389 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mapp...

  13. The Better Buildings Neighborhood View -- December 2013 | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications The Better Buildings Neighborhood View -- July 2013 Focus Series: Philadelphia Energyworks: In the City of Brotherly Love, Sharing Know-How Leads to ...

  14. September 2015 Most Viewed Documents for Engineering | OSTI,...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    September 2015 Most Viewed Documents for Engineering Heat Treatment Procedure Qualification -- Final Technical Report Robert C. Voigt (2004) 583 Charpy impact test results on five ...

  15. Deuterium accelerator experiments for APT.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Causey, Rion A. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Hertz, Kristin L. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Cowgill, Donald F. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA)

    2005-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories in California initiated an experimental program to determine whether tritium retention in the tube walls and permeation through the tubes into the surrounding coolant water would be a problem for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT), and to find ways to mitigate the problem, if it existed. Significant holdup in the tube walls would limit the ability of APT to meet its production goals, and high levels of permeation would require a costly cleanup system for the cooling water. To simulate tritium implantation, a 200 keV accelerator was used to implant deuterium into Al 6061-T and SS3 16L samples at temperatures and particle fluxes appropriate for APT, for times varying between one week and five months. The implanted samples were characterized to determine the deuterium retention and Permeation. During the implantation, the D(d,p)T nuclear reaction was used to monitor the build-up of deuterium in the implant region of the samples. These experiments increased in sophistication, from mono-energetic deuteron implants to multi-energetic deuteron and proton implants, to more accurately reproduce the conditions expected in APT. Micron-thick copper, nickel, and anodized aluminum coatings were applied to the front surface of the samples (inside of the APT walls) in an attempt to lower retention and permeation. The reduction in both retention and permeation produced by the nickel coatings, and the ability to apply them to the inside of the APT tubes, indicate that both nickel-coated Al 6061-T6 and nickel-coated SS3 16L tubes would be effective for use in APT. The results of this work were submitted to the Accelerator Production of Tritium project in document number TPO-E29-Z-TNS-X-00050, APT-MP-01-17.

  16. Chemical Hydrogen Storage Using Polyhedral Borane Anions and Aluminum-Ammonia-Borane Complexes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hawthorne, M. Frederick; Jalisatgi, Satish S.; Safronov, Alexander V.; Lee, Han Beak; Wu, Jianguo

    2010-10-01

    Phase 1. Hydrolysis of borohydride compounds offer the potential for significant hydrogen storage capacity, but most work to date has focused on one particular anion, BH4-, which requires high pH for stability. Other borohydride compounds, in particular polyhedral borane anions offer comparable hydrogen storage capacity without requiring high pH media and their long term thermal and hydrolytic stability coupled with non-toxic nature make them a very attractive alternative to NaBH4. The University of Missouri project provided the overall program focal point for the investigation of catalytic hydrolysis of polyhedral borane anions for hydrogen release. Due to their inherent stability, a transition metal catalyst was necessary for the hydrolysis of polyhedral borane anions. Transition metal ions such as cobalt, nickel, palladium and rhodium were investigated for their catalytic activity in the hydrolysis of nido-KB11H14, closo-K2B10H10, and closo-K2B12H12. The rate of hydrolysis follows first-order kinetics with respect to the concentration of the polyhedral borane anion and surface area of the rhodium catalyst. The rate of hydrolysis depends upon a) choice of polyhedral borane anion, c) concentration of polyhedral borane anion, d) surface area of the rhodium catalyst and e) temperature of the reaction. In all cases the yield of hydrogen was 100% which corresponds to ~7 wt% of hydrogen (based on material wt%). Phase 2. The phase 2 of program at the University of Missouri was focused upon developing aluminum ammonia-boranes (Al-AB) as chemical hydrogen storage materials, specifically their synthesis and studies of their dehydrogenation. The ammonia borane molecule (AB) is a demonstrated source of chemically stored hydrogen (19.6 wt%) which meets DOE performance parameters except for its regeneration from spent AB and elemental hydrogen. The presence of an aluminum center bonded to multiple AB residues might combine the efficiency of AB dehydrogenation with an aluminum mediated hydrogenation process leading to reversibility. The Al-AB complexes have comparable hydrogen capacity with other M-AB and have potential to meet DOEs 2010 and 2015 targets for system wt%.

  17. Evaluation of cast carbon steel and aluminum for rack insert in MCO Mark 1A fuel basket

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graves, C.E., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-03-21

    This document evaluates the effects ofusing a cast carbon steel or aluminum instead of 3O4L stainless steel in the construction ofthe fuel rack insert for the Spent Nuclear Fuel MCO Mark IA fuel baskets. The corrosion, structural, and cost effects are examined.

  18. Nondestructive detection of an undesirable metallic phase, T.sub.1, during processing of aluminum-lithium alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buck, Otto; Bracci, David J.; Jiles, David C.; Brasche, Lisa J. H.; Shield, Jeffrey E.; Chumbley, Leonard S.

    1990-08-07

    A method is disclosed for detecting the T.sub.1 phase in aluminum-lithium alloys through simultaneous measurement of conductivity and hardness. In employing eddy current to measure conductivity, when the eddy current decreases with aging of the alloy, while the hardness of the material continues to increase, the presence of the T.sub.1 phase may be detected.

  19. Pechiney Rolled Products: Plant-Wide Energy Assessment Identifies Opportunities to Optimize Aluminum Casting and Rolled Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2004-07-01

    A Pechiney Rolled Products plant focused on various aluminum casting processes during a PWA. The assessment revealed potential annual savings of 460,000 MMBtu in natural gas, 9.6 million kWh in electricity, 69 million pounds in CO2, and $2.5 million.

  20. Technology maturation project on optimization of sheet metal forming of aluminum for use in transportation systems: Final project report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, K.I.; Smith, M.T.; Lavender, C.A.; Khalell, M.A.

    1994-10-01

    Using aluminum instead of steel in transportation systems could dramatically reduce the weight of vehicles--an effective way of decreasing energy consumption and emissions. The current cost of SMF aluminum alloys (about $4 per pound) and the relatively long forming times of current materials are serious drawbacks to the widespread use of SMF in industry. The interdependence of materials testing and model development is critical to optimizing SMF since the current process is conducted in a heated, pressurized die where direct measurement of critical SMF parameters is extremely difficult. Numerical models provide a means of tracking the forming process, allowing the applied gas pressure to be adjusted to maintain the optimum SMF behavior throughout the forming process. Thus, models can help produce the optimum SMF component in the least amount of time. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory is integrating SMF model development with research in improved aluminum alloys for SMF. The objectives of this research are: develop and characterize competitively priced aluminum alloys for SMF applications in industry; improve numerical models to accurately predict the optimum forming cycle for reduced forming time and improved quality; verify alloy performance and model accuracy with forming tests conducted in PNL`s Superplastic Forming User Facility. The activities performed in this technology maturation project represent a critical first step in achieving these objectives through cooperative research among industry, PNL, and universities.