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Sample records for 56-23-5 carbon tetrachloride

  1. Desorption Behavior of Carbon Tetrachloride and Chloroform in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Behavior of Carbon Tetrachloride and Chloroform in contaminated Low Organic Carbon Aquifer Sediments Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Desorption Behavior of Carbon ...

  2. Expedited approach to a carbon tetrachloride spill interim remedial action

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cowdery, C.; Primrose, A.; Uhland, J.; Castaneda, N.

    1998-07-01

    Monitored natural attenuation was selected as an interim measure for a carbon tetrachloride spill site where source removal or in situ treatment cannot currently be implemented due to the surrounding infrastructure. Rather than delay action until the site is more accessible to an interim action, this more expedited approach would support a final action. Individual Hazard Substance Site (IHSS) 118.1 is a former underground storage tank at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) that stored carbon tetrachloride for process use. Inadvertent releases associated with filling and failure of the tank system resulted in an accumulation of carbon tetrachloride in a bedrock depression around a group of former process waste tanks. Access to the source of contamination is obstructed by numerous utilities, the process waste tanks, and other components of the site infrastructure that limit the ability to conduct an effective remedial action. A preremedial field investigation was conducted in September 1997 to identify and delineate the extent of the dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) in the subsurface. Data collected from the investigation revealed that natural processes might be limiting the migration of contaminants from the source area.

  3. Summary of canister overheating incident at the Carbon Tetrachloride Expedited Response Action site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Driggers, S.A.

    1994-03-10

    The granular activated carbon (GAC)-filled canister that overheated was being used to adsorb carbon tetrachloride vapors drawn from a well near the 216-Z-9 Trench, a subsurface disposal site in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The overheating incident resulted in a band of discolored paint on the exterior surface of the canister. Although there was no other known damage to equipment, no injuries to operating personnel, and no releases of hazardous materials, the incident is of concern because it was not anticipated. It also poses the possibility of release of carbon tetrachloride and other hazardous vapors if the incident were to recur. All soil vapor extraction system (VES) operations were halted until a better understanding of the cause of the incident could be determined and controls implemented to reduce the possibility of a recurrence. The focus of this report and the intent of all the activities associated with understanding the overheating incident has been to provide information that will allow safe restart of the VES operations, develop operational limits and controls to prevent recurrence of an overheating incident, and safely optimize recovery of carbon tetrachloride from the ground.

  4. Liver fibrosis in mice induced by carbon tetrachloride and its reversion by luteolin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Domitrovic, Robert; Jakovac, Hrvoje; Tomac, Jelena; Sain, Ivana

    2009-12-15

    Hepatic fibrosis is effusive wound healing process in which excessive connective tissue builds up in the liver. Because specific treatments to stop progressive fibrosis of the liver are not available, we have investigated the effects of luteolin on carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4})-induced hepatic fibrosis. Male Balb/C mice were treated with CCl{sub 4} (0.4 ml/kg) intraperitoneally (i.p.), twice a week for 6 weeks. Luteolin was administered i.p. once daily for next 2 weeks, in doses of 10, 25, and 50 mg/kg of body weight. The CCl{sub 4} control group has been observed for spontaneous reversion of fibrosis. CCl{sub 4}-intoxication increased serum aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase levels and disturbed hepatic antioxidative status. Most of these parameters were spontaneously normalized in the CCl{sub 4} control group, although the progression of liver fibrosis was observed histologically. Luteolin treatment has increased hepatic matrix metalloproteinase-9 levels and metallothionein (MT) I/II expression, eliminated fibrinous deposits and restored architecture of the liver in a dose-dependent manner. Concomitantly, the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein and alpha-smooth muscle actin indicated deactivation of hepatic stellate cells. Our results suggest the therapeutic effects of luteolin on CCl{sub 4}-induced liver fibrosis by promoting extracellular matrix degradation in the fibrotic liver tissue and the strong enhancement of hepatic regenerative capability, with MTs as a critical mediator of liver regeneration.

  5. New therapeutic aspect for carvedilol: Antifibrotic effects of carvedilol in chronic carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamdy, Nadia; El-Demerdash, Ebtehal

    2012-06-15

    Portal hypertension is a common complication of chronic liver diseases associated with liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. At present, beta-blockers such as carvedilol remain the medical treatment of choice for protection against variceal bleeding and other complications. Since carvedilol has powerful antioxidant properties we assessed the potential antifibrotic effects of carvedilol and the underlying mechanisms that may add further benefits for its clinical usefulness using a chronic model of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity. Two weeks after CCl4 induction of chronic hepatotoxicity, rats were co-treated with carvedilol (10 mg/kg, orally) daily for 6 weeks. It was found that treatment of animals with carvedilol significantly counteracted the changes in liver function and histopathological lesions induced by CCl4. Also, carvedilol significantly counteracted lipid peroxidation, GSH depletion, and reduction in antioxidant enzyme activities; glutathione-S-transferase and catalase that was induced by CCl4. In addition, carvedilol ameliorated the inflammation induced by CCl4 as indicated by reducing the serum level of acute phase protein marker; alpha-2-macroglobulin and the liver expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B). Finally, carvedilol significantly reduced liver fibrosis markers including hydroxyproline, collagen accumulation, and the expression of the hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation marker; alpha smooth muscle actin. In conclusion, the present study provides evidences for the promising antifibrotic effects of carvedilol that can be explained by amelioration of oxidative stress through mainly, replenishment of GSH, restoration of antioxidant enzyme activities and reduction of lipid peroxides as well as amelioration of inflammation and fibrosis by decreasing collagen accumulation, acute phase protein level, NF-?B expression and finally HSC activation. -- Highlights: ? Carvedilol is a beta blocker with antioxidant and antifibrotic properties. ? It restores GSH and antioxidant enzyme activities and reduces lipid peroxidation. ? It ameliorates inflammation and nuclear factor kappa-B expression. ? It ameliorates fibrosis by decreasing collagen accumulation and HSC activation.

  6. PRODUCTION OF URANIUM TETRACHLORIDE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Calkins, V.P.

    1958-12-16

    A process is descrlbed for the production of uranium tetrachloride by contacting uranlum values such as uranium hexafluoride, uranlum tetrafluoride, or uranium oxides with either aluminum chloride, boron chloride, or sodium alumlnum chloride under substantially anhydrous condltlons at such a temperature and pressure that the chlorldes are maintained in the molten form and until the uranium values are completely converted to uranlum tetrachloride.

  7. METHOD FOR PRODUCING THORIUM TETRACHLORIDE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mason, E.A.; Cobb, C.M.

    1960-03-15

    A process for producing thorium tetrachloride from thorium concentrate comprises reacting thorium concentrates with a carbonaceous reducing agent in excess of 0.05 part by weight per part of thoriferous concentrate at a temperature in excess of 1300 deg C, cooling and comminuting the mass, chlorinating the resulting comminuting mass by suspending in a gaseous chlorinating agent in a fluidized reactor at a temperatare maintained between about l85 deg C and 770 deg C, and removing the resulting solid ThCl/sub 4/ from the reaction zone.

  8. Waterless TiO{sub 2} atomic layer deposition using titanium tetrachloride and titanium tetraisopropoxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Virginia R.; Cavanagh, Andrew S.; Abdulagatov, Aziz I.; Gibbs, Zachary M.; George, Steven M.

    2014-01-15

    The surface chemistry for TiO{sub 2} atomic layer deposition (ALD) typically utilizes water or other oxidants that can oxidize underlying substrates such as magnetic disks or semiconductors. To avoid this oxidation, waterless or oxidant-free surface chemistry can be used that involves titanium halides and titanium alkoxides. In this study, waterless TiO{sub 2} ALD was accomplished using titanium tetrachloride (TiCl{sub 4}) and titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP). In situ transmission Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) studies were employed to study the surface species and the reactions during waterless TiO{sub 2} ALD. At low temperatures between 125 and 225  °C, the FTIR absorbance spectra revealed that the isopropoxide species remained on the surface after TTIP exposures. The TiCl{sub 4} exposures then removed the isopropoxide species and deposited additional titanium species. At high temperatures between 250 and 300  °C, the isopropoxide species were converted to hydroxyl species by β-hydride elimination. The observation of propene gaseous reaction product by quadrupole mass spectrometry (QMS) confirmed the β-hydride elimination reaction pathway. The TiCl{sub 4} exposures then easily reacted with the hydroxyl species. QMS studies also observed the 2-chloropropane and HCl gaseous reaction products and monitored the self-limiting nature of the TTIP reaction. Additional studies examined the waterless TiO{sub 2} ALD growth at low and high temperature. Quartz crystal microbalance measurements observed growth rates of ∼3 ng/cm{sup 2} at a low temperature of 150  °C. Much higher growth rates of ∼15 ng/cm{sup 2} were measured at a higher temperature of 250  °C under similar reaction conditions. X-ray reflectivity analysis measured a growth rate of 0.55 ± 0.05 Å/cycle at 250  °C. X-ray photoelectron depth-profile studies showed that the TiO{sub 2} films contained low Cl concentrations <1 at. %. This waterless TiO{sub 2} ALD process using TiCl{sub 4} and TTIP should be valuable to prevent substrate oxidation during TiO{sub 2} ALD on oxygen-sensitive substrates.

  9. Treatability Test Report: Characterization of Vadose Zone Carbon Tetrachloride Source Strength Using Tomographic Methods at the 216-Z-9 Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Truex, Michael J.; Carroll, Kenneth C.; Rohay, Virginia J.; Mackley, Rob D.; Parker, Kyle R.

    2012-09-28

    A treatability test was conducted in 2011 at the 216-Z-9 Trench to evaluate methods for collecting characterization information that supports refined assessment of SVE performance goals based on impact to groundwater. The characterization information can also provide input to operational strategies for continued SVE operation and decisions regarding closure of the SVE system or transition to other remedies, if necessary.

  10. Carbon Smackdown: Carbon Capture

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Jeffrey Long

    2010-09-01

    In this July 9, 2010 Berkeley Lab summer lecture, Lab scientists Jeff Long of the Materials Sciences and Nancy Brown of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division discuss their efforts to fight climate change by capturing carbon from the flue gas of power plants, as well as directly from the air

  11. Carbon Smackdown: Carbon Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey Long

    2010-07-12

    In this July 9, 2010 Berkeley Lab summer lecture, Lab scientists Jeff Long of the Materials Sciences and Nancy Brown of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division discuss their efforts to fight climate change by capturing carbon from the flue gas of power plants, as well as directly from the air

  12. Carbon Storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Storage Fact Sheet Research Team Members Key Contacts Carbon Storage Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a key component of the U.S. carbon management portfolio. Numerous studies have shown that CCS can account for up to 55 percent of the emissions reductions needed to stabilize and ultimately reduce atmospheric concentrations of CO2. NETL's Carbon Storage Program is readying CCS technologies for widespread commercial deployment by 2020. The program's goals are: By 2015, develop technologies

  13. Electrical and optical properties of carbon-doped GaN grown by MBE on MOCVD GaN templates using a CCl4 dopant source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armitage, Rob; Yang, Qing; Feick, Henning; Park, Yeonjoon; Weber, Eicke R.

    2002-04-15

    Carbon-doped GaN was grown by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy using carbon tetrachloride vapor as the dopant source. For moderate doping mainly acceptors were formed, yielding semi-insulating GaN. However at higher concentrations p-type conductivity was not observed, and heavily doped films (>5 x 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}) were actually n-type rather than semi-insulating. Photoluminescence measurements showed two broad luminescence bands centered at 2.2 and 2.9 eV. The intensity of both bands increased with carbon content, but the 2.2 eV band dominated in n-type samples. Intense, narrow ({approx}6 meV) donor-bound exciton peaks were observed in the semi-insulating samples.

  14. Reaction of uranium oxides with chlorine and carbon or carbon monoxide to prepare uranium chlorides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haas, P.A.; Lee, D.D.; Mailen, J.C.

    1991-11-01

    The preferred preparation concept of uranium metal for feed to an AVLIS uranium enrichment process requires preparation of uranium tetrachloride (UCI{sub 4}) by reacting uranium oxides (UO{sub 2}/UO{sub 3}) and chlorine (Cl{sub 2}) in a molten chloride salt medium. UO{sub 2} is a very stable metal oxide; thus, the chemical conversion requires both a chlorinating agent and a reducing agent that gives an oxide product which is much more stable than the corresponding chloride. Experimental studies in a quartz reactor of 4-cm ID have demonstrated the practically of some chemical flow sheets. Experimentation has illustrated a sequence of results concerning the chemical flow sheets. Tests with a graphite block at 850{degrees}C demonstrated rapid reactions of Cl{sub 2} and evolution of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) as a product. Use of carbon monoxide (CO) as the reducing agent also gave rapid reactions of Cl{sub 2} and formation of CO{sub 2} at lower temperatures, but the reduction reactions were slower than the chlorinations. Carbon powder in the molten salt melt gave higher rates of reduction and better steady state utilization of Cl{sub 2}. Addition of UO{sub 2} feed while chlorination was in progress greatly improved the operation by avoiding the plugging effects from high UO{sub 2} concentrations and the poor Cl{sub 2} utilizations from low UO{sub 2} concentrations. An UO{sub 3} feed gave undesirable effects while a feed of UO{sub 2}-C spheres was excellent. The UO{sub 2}-C spheres also gave good rates of reaction as a fixed bed without any molten chloride salt. Results with a larger reactor and a bottom condenser for volatilized uranium show collection of condensed uranium chlorides as a loose powder and chlorine utilizations of 95--98% at high feed rates. 14 refs., 7 figs., 14 tabs.

  15. Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-05-06

    Carbon Sequestration- the process of capturing the CO2 released by the burning of fossil fuels and storing it deep withing the Earth, trapped by a non-porous layer of rock.

  16. Carbon Fiber

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    McGetrick, Lee

    2014-07-23

    Lee McGetrick leads ORNL's effort to produce light, durable carbon fiber at lower cost -- a key to improvements in manufacturing that will produce more fuel-efficient vehicles and other advances.

  17. Carbon Fiber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGetrick, Lee

    2014-04-17

    Lee McGetrick leads ORNL's effort to produce light, durable carbon fiber at lower cost -- a key to improvements in manufacturing that will produce more fuel-efficient vehicles and other advances.

  18. Carbon Capture

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Capture Fact Sheet Research Team Members Key Contacts Carbon Capture Research & Development Carbon capture and storage from fossil-based power generation is a critical component of realistic strategies for arresting the rise in atmospheric CO2 concentrations, but capturing substantial amounts of CO2 using current technology would result in a prohibitive rise in the cost of producing energy. The National Energy Technology Laboratory, in collaboration with researchers from regional

  19. Carbon Capture

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Carbon Capture Carbon capture involves the separation of CO2 from coal-based power plant flue gas or syngas. Commercially available first-generation CO2 capture technologies are currently being used in various industrial applications. However, in their current state of development, these technologies are not ready for implementation on coal-based power plants because they have not been demonstrated at appropriate scale, require approximately one-third of the plant's steam and power to operate,

  20. Carbon particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, Arlon J.

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus whereby small carbon particles are made by pyrolysis of a mixture of acetylene carried in argon. The mixture is injected through a nozzle into a heated tube. A small amount of air is added to the mixture. In order to prevent carbon build-up at the nozzle, the nozzle tip is externally cooled. The tube is also elongated sufficiently to assure efficient pyrolysis at the desired flow rates. A key feature of the method is that the acetylene and argon, for example, are premixed in a dilute ratio, and such mixture is injected while cool to minimize the agglomeration of the particles, which produces carbon particles with desired optical properties for use as a solar radiant heat absorber.

  1. Carbon supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delnick, F.M.

    1993-11-01

    Carbon supercapacitors are represented as distributed RC networks with transmission line equivalent circuits. At low charge/discharge rates and low frequencies these networks approximate a simple series R{sub ESR}C circuit. The energy efficiency of the supercapacitor is limited by the voltage drop across the ESR. The pore structure of the carbon electrode defines the electrochemically active surface area which in turn establishes the volume specific capacitance of the carbon material. To date, the highest volume specific capacitance reported for a supercapacitor electrode is 220F/cm{sup 3} in aqueous H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (10) and {approximately}60 F/cm{sup 3} in nonaqueous electrolyte (8).

  2. Carbon microtubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, Huisheng (Shanghai, CN); Zhu, Yuntian Theodore (Cary, NC); Peterson, Dean E. (Los Alamos, NM); Jia, Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM)

    2011-06-14

    A carbon microtube comprising a hollow, substantially tubular structure having a porous wall, wherein the microtube has a diameter of from about 10 .mu.m to about 150 .mu.m, and a density of less than 20 mg/cm.sup.3. Also described is a carbon microtube, having a diameter of at least 10 .mu.m and comprising a hollow, substantially tubular structure having a porous wall, wherein the porous wall comprises a plurality of voids, said voids substantially parallel to the length of the microtube, and defined by an inner surface, an outer surface, and a shared surface separating two adjacent voids.

  3. Carbon | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Carbon Jump to: navigation, search TODO: Add description Related Links List of Companies in Carbon Sector Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleCarbon&oldid271960...

  4. Theoretical predictions of properties and volatility of chlorides and oxychlorides of group-4 elements. II. Adsorption of tetrachlorides and oxydichlorides of Zr, Hf, and Rf on neutral and modified surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pershina, V.; Borschevsky, A.; Iliaš, M.; Türler, A.

    2014-08-14

    With the aim to interpret results of gas-phase chromatography experiments on volatility of group-4 tetrachlorides and oxychlorides including those of Rf, adsorption enthalpies of these species on neutral, and modified quartz surfaces were estimated on the basis of relativistic, two-component Density Functional Theory calculations of MCl{sub 4}, MOCl{sub 2}, MCl{sub 6}{sup −}, and MOCl{sub 4}{sup 2} with the use of adsorption models. Several mechanisms of adsorption were considered. In the case of physisorption of MCl{sub 4}, the trend in the adsorption energy in the group should be Zr > Hf > Rf, so that the volatility should change in the opposite direction. The latter trend complies with the one in the sublimation enthalpies, ΔH{sub sub}, of the Zr and Hf tetrachlorides, i.e., Zr < Hf. On the basis of a correlation between these quantities, ΔH{sub sub}(RfCl{sub 4}) was predicted as 104.2 kJ/mol. The energy of physisorption of MOCl{sub 2} on quartz should increase in the group, Zr < Hf < Rf, as defined by increasing dipole moments of these molecules along the series. In the case of adsorption of MCl{sub 4} on quartz by chemical forces, formation of the MOCl{sub 2} or MOCl{sub 4}{sup 2−} complexes on the surface can take place, so that the sequence in the adsorption energy should be Zr > Hf > Rf, as defined by the complex formation energies. In the case of adsorption of MCl{sub 4} on a chlorinated quartz surface, formation of the MCl{sub 6}{sup 2−} surface complexes can occur, so that the trend in the adsorption strength should be Zr ≤ Hf < Rf. All the predicted sequences, showing a smooth change of the adsorption energy in the group, are in disagreement with the reversed trend Zr ≈ Rf < Hf, observed in the “one-atom-at-a-time” gas-phase chromatography experiments. Thus, currently no theoretical explanation can be found for the experimental observations.

  5. Carbon investment funds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-01-15

    The report is a study of the development of funds to invest in the purchase of carbon credits. It takes a look at the growing market for carbon credits, the rise of carbon investment funds, and the current state of carbon investing. Topics covered in the report include: Overview of climate change, greenhouse gases, and the Kyoto Protocols. Analysis of the alternatives for reducing carbon emissions including nitrous oxide reduction, coal mine methane capture and carbon capture and storage; Discussion of the different types of carbon credits; Discussion of the basics of carbon trading; Evaluation of the current status of carbon investing; and Profiles of 37 major carbon investment funds worldwide.

  6. Carbon Capital | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Capital Jump to: navigation, search Name: Carbon Capital Place: United Kingdom Sector: Carbon Product: Manages a carbon fund specialised in forestry projects References: Carbon...

  7. Method of making carbon-carbon composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Engle, Glen B.

    1993-01-01

    A process for making 2D and 3D carbon-carbon composites having a combined high crystallinity, high strength, high modulus and high thermal and electrical conductivity. High-modulus/high-strength mesophase derived carbon fibers are woven into a suitable cloth. Layers of this easily graphitizible woven cloth are infiltrated with carbon material to form green composites. The carbonized composite is then impregnated several times with pitch by covering the composite with hot pitch under pressure. The composites are given a heat treatment between each impregnant step to crack up the infiltrated carbon and allow additional pitch to enter the microstructure during the next impregnation cycle. The impregnated composites are then given a final heat treatment in the range 2500.degree. to 3100.degree. C. to fully graphitize the fibers and the matrix carbon. The composites are then infiltrated with pyrolytic carbon by chemical vapor deposition in the range 1000.degree. C. to 1300.degree. C. at a reduced. pressure.

  8. Carbon Capture (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Smit, Berend

    2011-06-08

    Berend Smit speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 3, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  9. Forest Carbon Cycle

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of carbon is the difference of two large fluxes: photosynthesis and respiration. Carbon fixation by photosynthesis is, to a large extent, a single process with theoretical...

  10. Composite carbon foam electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, Steven T.; Pekala, Richard W.; Kaschmitter, James L.

    1997-01-01

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivty and power to system energy.

  11. Composite carbon foam electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, S.T.; Pekala, R.W.; Kaschmitter, J.L.

    1997-05-06

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granulated materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivity and power to system energy. 1 fig.

  12. Acetylenic carbon allotrope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lagow, R.J.

    1998-02-10

    A fourth allotrope of carbon, an acetylenic carbon allotrope, is described. The acetylenic carbon allotropes of the present invention are more soluble than the other known carbon allotropes in many common organic solvents and possesses other desirable characteristics, e.g. high electron density, ability to burn cleanly, and electrical conductive properties. Many uses for this fourth allotrope are described herein. 17 figs.

  13. Acetylenic carbon allotrope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lagow, Richard J.

    1999-01-01

    A fourth allotrope of carbon, an acetylenic carbon allotrope, is described. The acetylenic carbon allotropes of the present invention are more soluble than the other known carbon allotropes in many common organic solvents and possesses other desirable characteristics, e.g. high electron density, ability to burn cleanly, and electrical conductive properties. Many uses for this fourth allotrope are described herein.

  14. Acetylenic carbon allotrope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lagow, Richard J.

    1998-01-01

    A fourth allotrope of carbon, an acetylenic carbon allotrope, is described. The acetylenic carbon allotropes of the present invention are more soluble than the other known carbon allotropes in many common organic solvents and possesses other desirable characteristics, e.g. high electron density, ability to burn cleanly, and electrical conductive properties. Many uses for this fourth allotrope are described herein.

  15. Carbon nanotube composite materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Bryan, Gregory; Skinner, Jack L; Vance, Andrew; Yang, Elaine Lai; Zifer, Thomas

    2015-03-24

    A material consisting essentially of a vinyl thermoplastic polymer, un-functionalized carbon nanotubes and hydroxylated carbon nanotubes dissolved in a solvent. Un-functionalized carbon nanotube concentrations up to 30 wt % and hydroxylated carbon nanotube concentrations up to 40 wt % can be used with even small concentrations of each (less than 2 wt %) useful in producing enhanced conductivity properties of formed thin films.

  16. Carbon Nanotube Based Sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Mian; Lin, Yuehe

    2006-11-01

    This review article provides a comprehensive review on sensors and biosensors based on functionalized carbon nanotubes.

  17. Mesoporous carbon materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng; Fulvio, Pasquale Fernando; Mayes, Richard T.; Wang, Xiqing; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Guo, Bingkun

    2014-09-09

    A conductive mesoporous carbon composite comprising conductive carbon nanoparticles contained within a mesoporous carbon matrix, wherein the conductive mesoporous carbon composite possesses at least a portion of mesopores having a pore size of at least 10 nm and up to 50 nm, and wherein the mesopores are either within the mesoporous carbon matrix, or are spacings delineated by surfaces of said conductive carbon nanoparticles when said conductive carbon nanoparticles are fused with each other, or both. Methods for producing the above-described composite, devices incorporating them (e.g., lithium batteries), and methods of using them, are also described.

  18. Catching the role of anisotropic electronic distribution and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    recognized to play a role in fields ranging from elementary processes to biochemistry. ... CHEMISTRY; ANISOTROPY; ATOMS; BIOCHEMISTRY; BONDING; CARBON TETRACHLORIDE; CARBON ...

  19. Carbon fuel cells with carbon corrosion suppression

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F.

    2012-04-10

    An electrochemical cell apparatus that can operate as either a fuel cell or a battery includes a cathode compartment, an anode compartment operatively connected to the cathode compartment, and a carbon fuel cell section connected to the anode compartment and the cathode compartment. An effusion plate is operatively positioned adjacent the anode compartment or the cathode compartment. The effusion plate allows passage of carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide exhaust channels are operatively positioned in the electrochemical cell to direct the carbon dioxide from the electrochemical cell.

  20. Metallic carbon materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cohen, Marvin Lou; Crespi, Vincent Henry; Louie, Steven Gwon Sheng; Zettl, Alexander Karlwalter

    1999-01-01

    Novel metallic forms of planar carbon are described, as well as methods of designing and making them. Nonhexagonal arrangements of carbon are introduced into a graphite carbon network essentially without destroying the planar structure. Specifically a form of carbon comprising primarily pentagons and heptagons, and having a large density of states at the Fermi level is described. Other arrangements of pentagons and heptagons that include some hexagons, and structures incorporating squares and octagons are additionally disclosed. Reducing the bond angle symmetry associated with a hexagonal arrangement of carbons increases the likelihood that the carbon material will have a metallic electron structure.

  1. Carbon Jungle | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jungle Jump to: navigation, search Name: Carbon Jungle Place: El Segundo, California Zip: 90246 Sector: Carbon Product: Carbon Jungle's mission is to decrease CO2 in the atmosphere...

  2. Carbon Connections | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Connections Jump to: navigation, search Name: Carbon Connections Place: Norfolk, England, United Kingdom Zip: NR4 7TJ Sector: Carbon Product: Carbon Connections links partner...

  3. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print Wednesday, 31 August 2011 00:00 From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile...

  4. Asset Carbon | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Carbon Jump to: navigation, search Name: Asset Carbon Place: United Kingdom Product: UK-based startup looking to invest in CDMJI projects. References: Asset Carbon1 This article...

  5. Method of making carbon-carbon composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Engle, Glen B.

    1991-01-01

    A process for making a carbon-carbon composite having a combination of high crystallinity, high strength, high modulus and high thermal and electrical conductivity. High-modulus/high-strength mesophase derived carbon fibers are woven into a suitable cloth. Layers of this easily graphitizable woven cloth are covered with petroleum or coal tar pitch and pressed at a temperature a few degrees above the softening point of the pitch to form a green laminated composite. The green composite is restrained in a suitable fixture and heated slowly to carbonize the pitch binder. The carbonized composite is then impregnated several times with pitch by covering the composite with hot pitch under pressure. The composites are given a heat treatment between each impregnation step to crack up the infiltrated carbon and allow additional pitch to enter the microstructure during the next impregnation cycle. The impregnated composites are then given a final heat treatment in the range 2500.degree. to 3000.degree. C. to fully graphitize the fibers and the matrix carbon. The composites are then infiltrated with pyrolytic carbon by chemical vapor deposition in the range 1000.degree. to 1300.degree. C. at a reduced pressure for approximately one hundred and fifty (150) hours.

  6. Carbon Emissions: Food Industry

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Food Industry Carbon Emissions in the Food Industry The Industry at a Glance, 1994 (SIC Code: 20) Total Energy-Related Emissions: 24.4 million metric tons of carbon (MMTC) -- Pct....

  7. Carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ren, Zhifeng; Lin, Yuehe; Yantasee, Wassana; Liu, Guodong; Lu, Fang; Tu, Yi

    2008-11-18

    The present invention relates to microelectode arrays (MEAs), and more particularly to carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays (CNT-NEAs) for chemical and biological sensing, and methods of use. A nanoelectrode array includes a carbon nanotube material comprising an array of substantially linear carbon nanotubes each having a proximal end and a distal end, the proximal end of the carbon nanotubes are attached to a catalyst substrate material so as to form the array with a pre-determined site density, wherein the carbon nanotubes are aligned with respect to one another within the array; an electrically insulating layer on the surface of the carbon nanotube material, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the electrically insulating layer; a second adhesive electrically insulating layer on the surface of the electrically insulating layer, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the second adhesive electrically insulating layer; and a metal wire attached to the catalyst substrate material.

  8. Carbon Bearing Trace Gases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Carbon Bearing Trace Gases A critical scientific and policy oriented question is what are the present day sources and sinks of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the natural environment and...

  9. Metal filled porous carbon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gross, Adam F.; Vajo, John J.; Cumberland, Robert W.; Liu, Ping; Salguero, Tina T.

    2011-03-22

    A porous carbon scaffold with a surface and pores, the porous carbon scaffold containing a primary metal and a secondary metal, where the primary metal is a metal that does not wet the surface of the pores of the carbon scaffold but wets the surface of the secondary metal, and the secondary metal is interspersed between the surface of the pores of the carbon scaffold and the primary metal.

  10. Carbon Sequestration.ppt

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Concepts Current Sequestration Methods Novel Concepts * Glacial Storage * Biogenic Methane * Mineralization * Waste Streams Recycling * Calcium Carbonate Hydrates Glacial...

  11. Carbon Storage Program

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Illinois | Department of Energy Carbon Storage Partner Completes First Year of CO2 Injection Operations in Illinois Carbon Storage Partner Completes First Year of CO2 Injection Operations in Illinois November 19, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - A project important to demonstrating the commercial viability of carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS) technology has completed the first year of injecting carbon dioxide (CO2) from an industrial plant at a large-scale test site in

  12. Big Sky Carbon Atlas

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    (Acknowledgment to the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership (BSCSP); see home page at http://www.bigskyco2.org/)

  13. ARM - Measurement - Total carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    carbon ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Total carbon The total concentration of carbon in all its organic and non-organic forms. Categories Aerosols, Atmospheric Carbon Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including

  14. Intro to Carbon Sequestration

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-08

    NETL's Carbon Sequestration Program is helping to develop technologies to capture, purify, and store carbon dioxide (CO2) in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions without adversely influencing energy use or hindering economic growth. Carbon sequestration technologies capture and store CO2 that would otherwise reside in the atmosphere for long periods of time.

  15. How Carbon Capture Works

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Carbon capture, utilization and storage is a process that captures carbon dioxide emissions from sources like coal-fired power plants and either reuses or stores it so it will not enter the atmosphere. We'll break down the process step by step so you can learn how this technology can help us lower our carbon pollution.

  16. Intro to Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-03-06

    NETL's Carbon Sequestration Program is helping to develop technologies to capture, purify, and store carbon dioxide (CO2) in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions without adversely influencing energy use or hindering economic growth. Carbon sequestration technologies capture and store CO2 that would otherwise reside in the atmosphere for long periods of time.

  17. Soil metagenomics and carbon cycling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biosecurity, and Health Environmental Microbiology Soil metagenomics and carbon cycling Soil metagenomics and carbon cycling Establishing a foundational understanding...

  18. Carbon dioxide sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dutta, Prabir K. (Worthington, OH); Lee, Inhee (Columbus, OH); Akbar, Sheikh A. (Hilliard, OH)

    2011-11-15

    The present invention generally relates to carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors. In one embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor that incorporates lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3). In another embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor has a reduced sensitivity to humidity due to a sensing electrode with a layered structure of lithium carbonate and barium carbonate. In still another embodiment, the present invention relates to a method of producing carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors having lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3).

  19. Mesoporous carbon materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng (Knoxville, TN); Wang, Xiqing (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2012-02-14

    The invention is directed to a method for fabricating a mesoporous carbon material, the method comprising subjecting a precursor composition to a curing step followed by a carbonization step, the precursor composition comprising: (i) a templating component comprised of a block copolymer, (ii) a phenolic compound or material, (iii) a crosslinkable aldehyde component, and (iv) at least 0.5 M concentration of a strong acid having a pKa of or less than -2, wherein said carbonization step comprises heating the precursor composition at a carbonizing temperature for sufficient time to convert the precursor composition to a mesoporous carbon material. The invention is also directed to a mesoporous carbon material having an improved thermal stability, preferably produced according to the above method.

  20. Mesoporous carbon materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng; Wang, Xiqing

    2013-08-20

    The invention is directed to a method for fabricating a mesoporous carbon material, the method comprising subjecting a precursor composition to a curing step followed by a carbonization step, the precursor composition comprising: (i) a templating component comprised of a block copolymer, (ii) a phenolic compound or material, (iii) a crosslinkable aldehyde component, and (iv) at least 0.5 M concentration of a strong acid having a pKa of or less than -2, wherein said carbonization step comprises heating the precursor composition at a carbonizing temperature for sufficient time to convert the precursor composition to a mesoporous carbon material. The invention is also directed to a mesoporous carbon material having an improved thermal stability, preferably produced according to the above method.

  1. Carbon Dioxide Utilization Summit

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The 6th Carbon Dioxide Utilization Summit will be held in Newark, New Jersey, from Feb. 24–26, 2016. The conference will look at the benefits and challenges of carbon dioxide utilization. Advanced Algal Systems Program Manager Alison Goss Eng and Technology Manager Devinn Lambert will be in attendance. Dr. Goss Eng will be chairing a round table on Fuels and Chemicals during the Carbon Dioxide Utilization: From R&D to Commercialization discussion session.

  2. Activated Carbon Injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-07-16

    History of the Clean Air Act and how the injection of carbon into a coal power plant's flu smoke can reduce the amount of mercury in the smoke.

  3. Reinforced Carbon Nanotubes.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ren, Zhifen; Wen, Jian Guo; Lao, Jing Y.; Li, Wenzhi

    2005-06-28

    The present invention relates generally to reinforced carbon nanotubes, and more particularly to reinforced carbon nanotubes having a plurality of microparticulate carbide or oxide materials formed substantially on the surface of such reinforced carbon nanotubes composite materials. In particular, the present invention provides reinforced carbon nanotubes (CNTs) having a plurality of boron carbide nanolumps formed substantially on a surface of the reinforced CNTs that provide a reinforcing effect on CNTs, enabling their use as effective reinforcing fillers for matrix materials to give high-strength composites. The present invention also provides methods for producing such carbide reinforced CNTs.

  4. Activated Carbon Injection

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-07-22

    History of the Clean Air Act and how the injection of carbon into a coal power plant's flu smoke can reduce the amount of mercury in the smoke.

  5. Carbon-Based and Carbon-Supported Heterogeneous Catalysts for...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Carbon-Based and Carbon-Supported Heterogeneous Catalysts for the Conversion of Biomass Carbon-based heterogeneous catalysts play a central role in the conversion of biomass to...

  6. Renaissance Carbon Investment Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Carbon Investment Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Renaissance Carbon Investment Ltd. Place: Shanghai, China Zip: 200052 Sector: Carbon Product: Renaissance Carbon Investment...

  7. Boston Carbon Corp | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Carbon Corp Jump to: navigation, search Name: Boston Carbon Corp Place: Carlisle, Massachusetts Zip: 1741 Sector: Carbon Product: Boston Carbon Corporation helps develop clean...

  8. Edgewood Carbon Holdings LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Edgewood Carbon Holdings LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Edgewood Carbon Holdings LLC Place: Cornwall, Vermont Zip: 57530 Sector: Carbon Product: Edgewood Carbon Holdings LLC...

  9. Eon Masdar Integrated Carbon | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Eon Masdar Integrated Carbon Jump to: navigation, search Name: Eon Masdar Integrated Carbon Place: Germany Sector: Carbon Product: Germany-based carbon emission projects developer....

  10. Lead carbonate scintillator materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Derenzo, Stephen E.; Moses, William W.

    1991-01-01

    Improved radiation detectors containing lead carbonate or basic lead carbonate as the scintillator element are disclosed. Both of these scintillators have been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to other known scintillator materials. The radiation detectors disclosed are favorably suited for use in general purpose detection and in medical uses.

  11. Fly ash carbon passivation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    La Count, Robert B; Baltrus, John P; Kern, Douglas G

    2013-05-14

    A thermal method to passivate the carbon and/or other components in fly ash significantly decreases adsorption. The passivated carbon remains in the fly ash. Heating the fly ash to about 500 and 800 degrees C. under inert gas conditions sharply decreases the amount of surfactant adsorbed by the fly ash recovered after thermal treatment despite the fact that the carbon content remains in the fly ash. Using oxygen and inert gas mixtures, the present invention shows that a thermal treatment to about 500 degrees C. also sharply decreases the surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash even though most of the carbon remains intact. Also, thermal treatment to about 800 degrees C. under these same oxidative conditions shows a sharp decrease in surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash due to the fact that the carbon has been removed. This experiment simulates the various "carbon burnout" methods and is not a claim in this method. The present invention provides a thermal method of deactivating high carbon fly ash toward adsorption of AEAs while retaining the fly ash carbon. The fly ash can be used, for example, as a partial Portland cement replacement in air-entrained concrete, in conductive and other concretes, and for other applications.

  12. Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposites, Methods of Making Carbon Nanotube...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    By combining aligned carbon nanotubes with metal oxides, this technology has higher energy density than technologies based solely on carbon nanotubes, while having higher power ...

  13. Carbonation Mechanism of Reservoir Rock by Supercritical Carbon...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Carbonation Mechanism of Reservoir Rock by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Geothermal Lab Call Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title...

  14. First Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon First Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon Print Wednesday, 25 July 2007 00:00 Although it has long been suspected that carbon belongs on the short list of...

  15. carbon | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    carbon Home Graham7781's picture Submitted by Graham7781(2017) Super contributor 9 January, 2014 - 13:12 Suburbs offset Low Carbon Footprint of major U.S. Cities carbon cities CO2...

  16. ARM - Measurement - Black carbon concentration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of carbon in its very absorbing, elemental, non-organic, non-oxide form (e.g. graphite). Categories Aerosols, Atmospheric Carbon Instruments The above measurement is...

  17. Carbone Lorraine | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Carbone Lorraine Jump to: navigation, search Name: Carbone Lorraine Place: France Product: Paris-based company developing industrial applications and systems for the optimal...

  18. Fossil Energy Research Benefits Carbon...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    has become a world leader in carbon capture and storage (CCS) science and technology. ... and storing in geologic formations carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from industrial or power plants. ...

  19. Carbon Capture Research and Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Research Institute of Innovative Energy Carbon Capture Research and Development Carbon capture and storage from fossil-based power...

  20. Carbon International | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    International Jump to: navigation, search Name: Carbon International Place: London, United Kingdom Zip: NW1 8LH Sector: Carbon Product: London-based energy and communications...

  1. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    sensors, and data processing. Fortunately, additional research has proven that etching carbon with sulfuric acid can also make the carbon magnetic, opening the door for...

  2. METHOD OF OPERATING A HEAVY WATER MODERATED REACTOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vernon, H.C.

    1962-08-14

    A method of removing fission products from the heavy water used in a slurry type nuclear reactor is described. According to the process the slurry is steam distilled with carbon tetrachloride so that at least a part of the heavy water and carbon tetrachloride are vaporized; the heavy water and carbon tetrachloride are separated; the carbon tetrachloride is returned to the steam distillation column at different points in the column to aid in depositing the slurry particles at the bottom of the column; and the heavy water portion of the condensate is purified. (AEC)

  3. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... and molecular physics (1) atoms (1) biochemistry (1) bonding (1) carbon tetrachloride ... recognized to play a role in fields ranging from elementary processes to biochemistry. ...

  4. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (2) molecular beams (2) atoms (1) biochemistry (1) bonding (1) carbon tetrachloride ... recognized to play a role in fields ranging from elementary processes to biochemistry. ...

  5. Microsoft Word - DVZ Technologies Public Information Exchange...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... of Tank Farm sub-surface work with this work is important. Consider steam injectionreforming for carbon tetrachloride. Foams, polymers, etc. should be looked ...

  6. Terrestrial Carbon Cycle

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Terrestrial Carbon Cycle "Only about half of the CO2 released into the atmosphere by human activities currently resides in the atmosphere, the rest absorbed on land and in the oceans. The period over which the carbon will be sequestered is unclear, and the efficiency of future sinks is unknown." US Carbon Cycle Research Plan "We" desire to be able to predict the future spatial and temporal distribution of sources and sinks of atmospheric CO2 and their interaction (forcing and

  7. IMPACCT: Carbon Capture Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    IMPACCT Project: IMPACCT’s 15 projects seek to develop technologies for existing coal-fired power plants that will lower the cost of carbon capture. Short for “Innovative Materials and Processes for Advanced Carbon Capture Technologies,” the IMPACCT Project is geared toward minimizing the cost of removing carbon dioxide (CO2) from coal-fired power plant exhaust by developing materials and processes that have never before been considered for this application. Retrofitting coal-fired power plants to capture the CO2 they produce would enable greenhouse gas reductions without forcing these plants to close, shifting away from the inexpensive and abundant U.S. coal supply.

  8. Improving carbon fixation pathways

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ducat, DC; Silver, PA

    2012-08-01

    A recent resurgence in basic and applied research on photosynthesis has been driven in part by recognition that fulfilling future food and energy requirements will necessitate improvements in crop carbon-fixation efficiencies. Photosynthesis in traditional terrestrial crops is being reexamined in light of molecular strategies employed by photosynthetic microbes to enhance the activity of the Calvin cycle. Synthetic biology is well-situated to provide original approaches for compartmentalizing and enhancing photosynthetic reactions in a species independent manner. Furthermore, the elucidation of alternative carbon-fixation routes distinct from the Calvin cycle raises possibilities that novel pathways and organisms can be utilized to fix atmospheric carbon dioxide into useful materials.

  9. Wetland (peat) Carbon Cycle

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wetland (peat) Carbon Cycle Methane (CH4) is an important greenhouse gas, twenty times more potent than CO2, but atmospheric concentrations of CH4 under future climate change are uncertain. This is in part because many climate-sensitive ecosystems release both CH4 and carbon dioxide (CO2) and it is unknown how these systems will partition future releases of carbon to the atmosphere. Ecosystem observations of CH4 emissions lack mechanistic links to the processes that govern CH4 efflux: microbial

  10. ATK - Supersonic Carbon Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castrogiovanni, Anthony; Calayag, Bon

    2014-03-05

    ATK and ACEnt Laboratories, with the help of ARPA-E funding, have taken an aerospace problem, supersonic condensation, and turned it into a viable clean energy solution for carbon capture.

  11. Activated carbon aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanzawa, Y.; Kaneko, K. [Chiba Univ. (Japan)] [Chiba Univ. (Japan); Pekala, R.W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Dresselhaus, M.S. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)] [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-12-25

    Activated carbon aerogels were obtained from the CO{sub 2} activation of the carbon aerogels. The adsorption isotherms of nitrogen on activated carbon aerogels at 77 K were measured and analyzed by the high-resolution {alpha}{sub s} plot to evaluate their porosities. The {alpha}{sub s} plot showed an upward deviation from linearity below {alpha}{sub s} = 0.5, suggesting that the presence of micropores becomes more predominant with the extent of the activation. Activation increased noticeably the pore volume and the surface area (the maximum value: 2600 m{sup 2}.g{sup -1}) without change of the basic network structure of primary particles. Activated carbon aerogels had a bimodal pore size distribution of uniform micropores and mesopores. 16 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  12. ATK - Supersonic Carbon Capture

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Castrogiovanni, Anthony (ACEnT Laboratories, President and CEO); Calayag, Bon (ATK, Program Manager)

    2014-04-11

    ATK and ACEnt Laboratories, with the help of ARPA-E funding, have taken an aerospace problem, supersonic condensation, and turned it into a viable clean energy solution for carbon capture.

  13. Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE has created a network of seven Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (RCSPs) to help develop the technology, infrastructure, and regulations to implement large-scale CO2 storage (also...

  14. Lead carbonate scintillator materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Derenzo, S.E.; Moses, W.W.

    1991-05-14

    Improved radiation detectors containing lead carbonate or basic lead carbonate as the scintillator element are disclosed. Both of these scintillators have been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to other known scintillator materials. The radiation detectors disclosed are favorably suited for use in general purpose detection and in medical uses. 3 figures.

  15. Carbon Capture Simulation Initiative

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Carbon Capture Innovation: Making an IMPACCT on Coal Carbon Capture Innovation: Making an IMPACCT on Coal February 16, 2012 - 4:48pm Addthis The ICES team from Alliant Techsystems and ACENT Laboratories (L to R): Fred Gregory, Andy Robertson, Tony Castrogiovanni, Florin Girlea, Vincenzo Verrelli, Bon Calayag, Vladimir Balepin, Kirk Featherstone. | Courtesy of the ICES team. The ICES team from Alliant Techsystems and ACENT Laboratories (L to R): Fred Gregory, Andy Robertson, Tony Castrogiovanni,

  16. Carbon dioxide removal process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Richard W.; Da Costa, Andre R.; Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.

    2003-11-18

    A process and apparatus for separating carbon dioxide from gas, especially natural gas, that also contains C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons. The invention uses two or three membrane separation steps, optionally in conjunction with cooling/condensation under pressure, to yield a lighter, sweeter product natural gas stream, and/or a carbon dioxide stream of reinjection quality and/or a natural gas liquids (NGL) stream.

  17. An unusual carbon-carbon bond cleavage reaction during phosphinothricin

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    biosynthesis (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect An unusual carbon-carbon bond cleavage reaction during phosphinothricin biosynthesis Citation Details In-Document Search Title: An unusual carbon-carbon bond cleavage reaction during phosphinothricin biosynthesis Natural products containing phosphorus-carbon bonds have found widespread use in medicine and agriculture. One such compound, phosphinothricin tripeptide, contains the unusual amino acid phosphinothricin attached to two alanine

  18. Method for synthesizing carbon nanotubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fan, Hongyou

    2012-09-04

    A method for preparing a precursor solution for synthesis of carbon nanomaterials, where a polar solvent is added to at least one block copolymer and at least one carbohydrate compound, and the precursor solution is processed using a self-assembly process and subsequent heating to form nanoporous carbon films, porous carbon nanotubes, and porous carbon nanoparticles.

  19. Biosensors Based on Carbon Nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Yuehe; Yantasee, Wassana; Lu, Fang; Wang, Joseph; Musameh, Mustafa; Tu, Yi; Ren, Zhifeng

    2009-03-24

    This chapter summarizes the recent development of carbon nanotube based electrochemical biosensors work at PNNL.

  20. Biosensors Based on Carbon Nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Yuehe; Yantasee, Wassana; Lu, Fang; Wang, Joseph; Musameh, Mustafa; Tu, Yi; Ren, Zhifeng; J. A. Schwarz, C. Contescu, K. Putyera

    2004-04-01

    This invited review article summarizes recent work on biosensor development based on carbon nanotubes

  1. WESTCARB Carbon Atlas

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (known as WESTCARB) was established in Fall 2003. It is one of seven research partnerships co-funded by DOE to characterize regional carbon sequestration opportunities and conduct pilot-scale validation tests. The California Energy Commission manages WESTCARB and is a major co-funder. WESTCARB is characterizing the extent and capacity of geologic formations capable of storing CO2, known as sinks. Results are entered into a geographic information system (GIS) database, along with the location of major CO2-emitting point sources in each of the six WESTCARB states, enabling researchers and the public to gauge the proximity of candidate CO2 storage sites to emission sources and the feasibility of linking them via pipelines. Specifically, the WESTCARB GIS database (also known as the carbon atlas) stores layers of geologic information about potential underground storage sites, such as porosity and nearby fault-lines and aquifers. Researchers use these data, along with interpreted geophysical data and available oil and gas well logs to estimate the region's potential geologic storage capacity. The database also depicts existing pipeline routes and rights-of-way and lands that could be off-limits, which can aid the development of a regional carbon management strategy. The WESTCARB Carbon Atlas, which is accessible to the public, provides a resource for public discourse on practical solutions for regional CO2 management. A key WESTCARB partner, the Utah Automated Geographic Reference Center, has developed data serving procedures to enable the WESTCARB Carbon Atlas to be integrated with those from other regional partnerships, thereby supporting the U.S. Department of Energy's national carbon atlas, NATCARB

  2. Measurement of carbon capture efficiency and stored carbon leakage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keeling, Ralph F.; Dubey, Manvendra K.

    2013-01-29

    Data representative of a measured carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) concentration and of a measured oxygen (O.sub.2) concentration at a measurement location can be used to determine whether the measured carbon dioxide concentration at the measurement location is elevated relative to a baseline carbon dioxide concentration due to escape of carbon dioxide from a source associated with a carbon capture and storage process. Optionally, the data can be used to quantify a carbon dioxide concentration increase at the first location that is attributable to escape of carbon dioxide from the source and to calculate a rate of escape of carbon dioxide from the source by executing a model of gas-phase transport using at least the first carbon dioxide concentration increase. Related systems, methods, and articles of manufacture are also described.

  3. Chemically modified carbonic anhydrases useful in carbon capture systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Novick, Scott; Alvizo, Oscar

    2013-01-15

    The present disclosure relates to chemically modified carbonic anhydrase polypeptides and soluble compositions, homogenous liquid formulations comprising them. The chemically modified carbonic anhydrase polypeptides have improved properties relative to the same carbonic anhydrase polypeptide that is not chemically modified including the improved properties of increased activity and/or stability in the presence of amine compounds, ammonia, or carbonate ion. The present disclosure also provides methods of preparing the chemically modified polypeptides and methods of using the chemically modified polypeptides for accelerating the absorption of carbon dioxide from a gas stream into a solution as well as for the release of the absorbed carbon dioxide for further treatment and/or sequestering.

  4. Chemically modified carbonic anhydrases useful in carbon capture systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Novick, Scott J; Alvizo, Oscar

    2013-10-29

    The present disclosure relates to chemically modified carbonic anhydrase polypeptides and soluble compositions, homogenous liquid formulations comprising them. The chemically modified carbonic anhydrase polypeptides have improved properties relative to the same carbonic anhydrase polypeptide that is not chemically modified including the improved properties of increased activity and/or stability in the presence of amine compounds, ammonia, or carbonate ion. The present disclosure also provides methods of preparing the chemically modified polypeptides and methods of using the chemically modified polypeptides for accelerating the absorption of carbon dioxide from a gas stream into a solution as well as for the release of the absorbed carbon dioxide for further treatment and/or sequestering.

  5. Carbon Fuel Particles Used in Direct Carbon Conversion Fuel Cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F.; Cherepy, Nerine

    2008-10-21

    A system for preparing particulate carbon fuel and using the particulate carbon fuel in a fuel cell. Carbon particles are finely divided. The finely dividing carbon particles are introduced into the fuel cell. A gas containing oxygen is introduced into the fuel cell. The finely divided carbon particles are exposed to carbonate salts, or to molten NaOH or KOH or LiOH or mixtures of NaOH or KOH or LiOH, or to mixed hydroxides, or to alkali and alkaline earth nitrates.

  6. Carbon fuel particles used in direct carbon conversion fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F.; Cherepy, Nerine

    2012-10-09

    A system for preparing particulate carbon fuel and using the particulate carbon fuel in a fuel cell. Carbon particles are finely divided. The finely dividing carbon particles are introduced into the fuel cell. A gas containing oxygen is introduced into the fuel cell. The finely divided carbon particles are exposed to carbonate salts, or to molten NaOH or KOH or LiOH or mixtures of NaOH or KOH or LiOH, or to mixed hydroxides, or to alkali and alkaline earth nitrates.

  7. Carbon fuel particles used in direct carbon conversion fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F.; Cherepy, Nerine

    2012-01-24

    A system for preparing particulate carbon fuel and using the particulate carbon fuel in a fuel cell. Carbon particles are finely divided. The finely dividing carbon particles are introduced into the fuel cell. A gas containing oxygen is introduced into the fuel cell. The finely divided carbon particles are exposed to carbonate salts, or to molten NaOH or KOH or LiOH or mixtures of NaOH or KOH or LiOH, or to mixed hydroxides, or to alkali and alkaline earth nitrates.

  8. Carbon fuel particles used in direct carbon conversion fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F.; Cherepy, Nerine

    2011-08-16

    A system for preparing particulate carbon fuel and using the particulate carbon fuel in a fuel cell. Carbon particles are finely divided. The finely dividing carbon particles are introduced into the fuel cell. A gas containing oxygen is introduced into the fuel cell. The finely divided carbon particles are exposed to carbonate salts, or to molten NaOH or KOH or LiOH or mixtures of NaOH or KOH or LiOH, or to mixed hydroxides, or to alkali and alkaline earth nitrates.

  9. Carbon-particle generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, A.J.

    1982-09-29

    A method and apparatus whereby small carbon particles are made by pyrolysis of a mixture of acetylene carried in argon. The mixture is injected through a nozzle into a heated tube. A small amount of air is added to the mixture. In order to prevent carbon build-up at the nozzle, the nozzle tip is externally cooled. The tube is also elongated sufficiently to assure efficient pyrolysis at the desired flow rates. A key feature of the method is that the acetylene and argon, for example, are premixed in a dilute ratio, and such mixture is injected while cool to minimize the agglomeration of the particles, which produces carbon particles with desired optical properties for use as a solar radiant heat absorber.

  10. HOLLOW CARBON ARC DISCHARGE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luce, J.S.

    1960-10-11

    A device is described for producing an energetic, direct current, hollow, carbon-arc discharge in an evacuated container and within a strong magnetic field. Such discharges are particularly useful not only in dissociation and ionization of high energy molecular ion beams, but also in acting as a shield or barrier against the instreaming of lowenergy neutral particles into a plasma formed within the hollow discharge when it is used as a dissociating mechanism for forming the plasma. There is maintained a predetermined ratio of gas particles to carbon particles released from the arc electrodes during operation of the discharge. The carbon particles absorb some of the gas particles and are pumped along and by the discharge out of the device, with the result that smaller diffusion pumps are required than would otherwise be necessary to dispose of the excess gas.

  11. Carbon Capture and Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedmann, S

    2007-10-03

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is the long-term isolation of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere through physical, chemical, biological, or engineered processes. This includes a range of approaches including soil carbon sequestration (e.g., through no-till farming), terrestrial biomass sequestration (e.g., through planting forests), direct ocean injection of CO{sub 2} either onto the deep seafloor or into the intermediate depths, injection into deep geological formations, or even direct conversion of CO{sub 2} to carbonate minerals. Some of these approaches are considered geoengineering (see the appropriate chapter herein). All are considered in the 2005 special report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC 2005). Of the range of options available, geological carbon sequestration (GCS) appears to be the most actionable and economic option for major greenhouse gas reduction in the next 10-30 years. The basis for this interest includes several factors: (1) The potential capacities are large based on initial estimates. Formal estimates for global storage potential vary substantially, but are likely to be between 800 and 3300 Gt of C (3000 and 10,000 Gt of CO{sub 2}), with significant capacity located reasonably near large point sources of the CO{sub 2}. (2) GCS can begin operations with demonstrated technology. Carbon dioxide has been separated from large point sources for nearly 100 years, and has been injected underground for over 30 years (below). (3) Testing of GCS at intermediate scale is feasible. In the US, Canada, and many industrial countries, large CO{sub 2} sources like power plants and refineries lie near prospective storage sites. These plants could be retrofit today and injection begun (while bearing in mind scientific uncertainties and unknowns). Indeed, some have, and three projects described here provide a great deal of information on the operational needs and field implementation of CCS. Part of this interest comes from several key documents written in the last three years that provide information on the status, economics, technology, and impact of CCS. These are cited throughout this text and identified as key references at the end of this manuscript. When coupled with improvements in energy efficiency, renewable energy supplies, and nuclear power, CCS help dramatically reduce current and future emissions (US CCTP 2005, MIT 2007). If CCS is not available as a carbon management option, it will be much more difficult and much more expensive to stabilize atmospheric CO{sub 2} emissions. Recent estimates put the cost of carbon abatement without CCS to be 30-80% higher that if CCS were to be available (Edmonds et al. 2004).

  12. Formation of rare earth carbonates using supercritical carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fernando, Quintus; Yanagihara, Naohisa; Dyke, James T.; Vemulapalli, Krishna

    1991-09-03

    The invention relates to a process for the rapid, high yield conversion of select rare earth oxides or hydroxides, to their corresponding carbonates by contact with supercritical carbon dioxide.

  13. CarbonMicro | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Place: Irvine, California Zip: CA 92618 Sector: Carbon Product: Carbon Micro Battery Corporation has a unique technology of creating micro and nanoscale carbon...

  14. Carbon Micro Battery LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Micro Battery LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Carbon Micro Battery, LLC Place: California Sector: Carbon Product: Carbon Micro Battery, LLC, technology developer of micro and...

  15. Carbon Solutions Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solutions Group Jump to: navigation, search Name: Carbon Solutions Group Place: Chicago, Illinois Zip: 60601 Sector: Carbon Product: Carbon Solutions Group collaborates with...

  16. Participatory Carbon Monitoring: Operational Guidance for National...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Participatory Carbon Monitoring: Operational Guidance for National REDD+ Carbon Accounting Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Participatory Carbon...

  17. Arreon Carbon Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Arreon Carbon Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Arreon Carbon Ltd Place: Beijing, Beijing Municipality, China Zip: 100022 Sector: Carbon Product: Beijing-based firm that...

  18. GS Carbon Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Carbon Corporation Jump to: navigation, search Name: GS Carbon Corporation Place: New York, New York Zip: 10119 Sector: Carbon Product: The company offsets emissions output with...

  19. Carbon Market Brasil Consulting | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Market Brasil Consulting Jump to: navigation, search Name: Carbon Market Brasil Consulting Place: Sao Paulo, Brazil Zip: 04120-070 Sector: Carbon Product: Brazil-based carbon...

  20. Universal Carbon Credits Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Universal Carbon Credits Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Universal Carbon Credits Limited Place: London, England, United Kingdom Zip: EC3A6DF Sector: Carbon Product:...

  1. Carbon Trust Enterprises Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Enterprises Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Carbon Trust Enterprises Limited Place: London, United Kingdom Zip: WC2A 2AZ Sector: Carbon Product: Carbon Trust Enterprises...

  2. Equinox Carbon Equities LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Equinox Carbon Equities LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Equinox Carbon Equities, LLC Place: Newport Beach, California Zip: 92660 Sector: Carbon Product: Investment firm...

  3. The Social Carbon Company | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Social Carbon Company Jump to: navigation, search Name: The Social Carbon Company Place: Brasilia, Distrito Federal (Brasilia), Brazil Zip: CEP 70610-440 Sector: Carbon, Services...

  4. Carbon Credit Capital | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Capital Jump to: navigation, search Name: Carbon Credit Capital Place: New York, New York Zip: 10012 Sector: Carbon, Services Product: Project Advisory Services and Carbon...

  5. The Global Carbon Bank | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Carbon Bank Jump to: navigation, search Name: The Global Carbon Bank Place: Houston, Texas Zip: 77025 Sector: Carbon, Services Product: Houston-based provider of advisory...

  6. Method for production of carbon nanofiber mat or carbon paper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Naskar, Amit K.

    2015-08-04

    Method for the preparation of a non-woven mat or paper made of carbon fibers, the method comprising carbonizing a non-woven mat or paper preform (precursor) comprised of a plurality of bonded sulfonated polyolefin fibers to produce said non-woven mat or paper made of carbon fibers. The preforms and resulting non-woven mat or paper made of carbon fiber, as well as articles and devices containing them, and methods for their use, are also described.

  7. Carbon cloth supported electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Wen-Tong P. (Upper St. Clair, PA); Ammon, Robert L. (Baldwin both of, PA)

    1982-01-01

    A flow-by anode is disclosed made by preparing a liquid suspension of about to about 18% by weight solids, the solids comprising about 3.5 to about 8% of a powdered catalyst of platinum, palladium, palladium oxide, or mixtures thereof; about 60 to about 76% carbon powder (support) having a particle size less than about 20 m.mu.m and about 20 to about 33% of an inert binder having a particle size of less than about 500 m.mu.m. A sufficient amount of the suspension is poured over a carbon cloth to form a layer of solids about 0.01 to about 0.05 cm thick on the carbon cloth when the electrode is completed. A vacuum was applied to the opposite side of the carbon cloth to remove the liquid and the catalyst layer/cloth assembly is dried and compressed at about 10 to about 50 MPa's. The binder is then sintered in an inert atmosphere to complete the electrode. The electrode is used for the oxidation of sulfur dioxide in a sulfur based hybrid cycle for the decomposition of water.

  8. Carbon-Fuelled Future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Appel, Aaron M.

    2014-09-12

    Whether due to changes in policy or consumption of available fossil fuels, alternative sources of energy will be required, especially given the rising global energy demand. However, one of the main factors limiting the widespread utilization of renewable energy, such as wind, solar, wave or geothermal, is our ability to store energy. Storage of energy from carbon-neutral sources, such as electricity from solar or wind, can be accomplished through many routes. One approach is to store energy in the form of chemical bonds, as fuels. The conversion of low-energy compounds, such as water and carbon dioxide, to higher energy molecules, such as hydrogen or carbon-based fuels, enables the storage of carbon-neutral energy on a very large scale. The author¹s work in this area is supported by the US Department of Energy Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

  9. Carbon Footprint Calculator

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This calculator estimates the amount of carbon emissions you and members of your household are responsible for. It does not include emissions associated with your work or getting to work if you commute by public transportation. It was developed by IEEE Spectrum magazine.

  10. Carbon smackdown: wind warriors

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Glen Dahlbacka of the Accelerator & Fusion Research Division and Ryan Wiser of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division are the speakers.

    2010-09-01

    July 16. 2010 carbon smackdown summer lecture: learn how Berkeley Lab scientists are developing wind turbines to be used in an urban setting, as well as analyzing what it will take to increase the adoption of wind energy in the U.S.

  11. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile element. Now, another use has been found: magnets. One would not expect pure...

  12. Carbon Trust | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Trust Jump to: navigation, search Name: Carbon Trust Place: London, Greater London, United Kingdom Zip: EC4A 3BF Sector: Carbon Product: London-based independent company funded by...

  13. Sustainable Carbon | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Carbon Jump to: navigation, search Name: Sustainable Carbon Place: Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil Zip: 04 038 032 Product: Sao Paulo-based joint-venture with CantorCO2e Brazil. The...

  14. Carbon Clear | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Clear Jump to: navigation, search Name: Carbon Clear Place: United Kingdom Product: UK-based voluntary offset provider. References: Carbon Clear1 This article is a stub. You can...

  15. Boron nitride converted carbon fiber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rousseas, Michael; Mickelson, William; Zettl, Alexander K.

    2016-04-05

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to boron nitride converted carbon fiber. In one aspect, a method may include the operations of providing boron oxide and carbon fiber, heating the boron oxide to melt the boron oxide and heating the carbon fiber, mixing a nitrogen-containing gas with boron oxide vapor from molten boron oxide, and converting at least a portion of the carbon fiber to boron nitride.

  16. First Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    First Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon Print Although it has long been suspected that carbon belongs on the short list of materials that can be magnetic at room temperature, attempts to prove that pure carbon can be magnetized have remained unconvincing. However, using a proton beam and an advanced x-ray microscope at the Advanced Light Source, a multinational team of researchers from the SSRL, the University of Leipzig, and the ALS finally put to rest doubts about the existence of magnetic carbon.

  17. First Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon Print Although it has long been suspected that carbon belongs on the short list of materials that can be magnetic at room temperature, attempts to prove that pure carbon can be magnetized have remained unconvincing. However, using a proton beam and an advanced x-ray microscope at the Advanced Light Source, a multinational team of researchers from the SSRL, the University of Leipzig, and the ALS finally put to rest doubts about the existence of magnetic carbon.

  18. Carbon nanotube array based sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Christopher L.; Noy, Aleksandr; Swierkowski, Stephan P.; Fisher, Karl A.; Woods, Bruce W.

    2005-09-20

    A sensor system comprising a first electrode with an array of carbon nanotubes and a second electrode. The first electrode with an array of carbon nanotubes and the second electrode are positioned to produce an air gap between the first electrode with an array of carbon nanotubes and the second electrode. A measuring device is provided for sensing changes in electrical capacitance between the first electrode with an array of carbon nanotubes and the second electrode.

  19. Soil metagenomics and carbon cycling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Soil metagenomics and carbon cycling Soil metagenomics and carbon cycling Establishing a foundational understanding of the microbial and ecosystem factors that control carbon cycling to improve climate modeling and carbon management. Get Expertise Principle Investigator Cheryl Kuske Bioscience Division 505 665 4800 Email Get Expertise John Dunbar Bioscience Division Email Get Expertise Chris Yeager Bioscience Division Email Get Expertise Jean Challacombe Bioscience Division Email This

  20. First Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon Print Although it has long been suspected that carbon belongs on the short list of materials that can be magnetic at room temperature, attempts to prove that pure carbon can be magnetized have remained unconvincing. However, using a proton beam and an advanced x-ray microscope at the Advanced Light Source, a multinational team of researchers from the SSRL, the University of Leipzig, and the ALS finally put to rest doubts about the existence of magnetic carbon.

  1. First Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    First Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon Print Although it has long been suspected that carbon belongs on the short list of materials that can be magnetic at room temperature, attempts to prove that pure carbon can be magnetized have remained unconvincing. However, using a proton beam and an advanced x-ray microscope at the Advanced Light Source, a multinational team of researchers from the SSRL, the University of Leipzig, and the ALS finally put to rest doubts about the existence of magnetic carbon.

  2. First Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon Print Although it has long been suspected that carbon belongs on the short list of materials that can be magnetic at room temperature, attempts to prove that pure carbon can be magnetized have remained unconvincing. However, using a proton beam and an advanced x-ray microscope at the Advanced Light Source, a multinational team of researchers from the SSRL, the University of Leipzig, and the ALS finally put to rest doubts about the existence of magnetic carbon.

  3. First Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon Print Although it has long been suspected that carbon belongs on the short list of materials that can be magnetic at room temperature, attempts to prove that pure carbon can be magnetized have remained unconvincing. However, using a proton beam and an advanced x-ray microscope at the Advanced Light Source, a multinational team of researchers from the SSRL, the University of Leipzig, and the ALS finally put to rest doubts about the existence of magnetic carbon.

  4. First Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon First Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon Print Wednesday, 25 July 2007 00:00 Although it has long been suspected that carbon belongs on the short list of materials that can be magnetic at room temperature, attempts to prove that pure carbon can be magnetized have remained unconvincing. However, using a proton beam and an advanced x-ray microscope at the Advanced Light Source, a multinational team of researchers from the SSRL, the University of Leipzig, and the ALS

  5. Apparatus for producing carbon-coated nanoparticles and carbon nanospheres

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perry, W. Lee; Weigle, John C.; Phillips, Jonathan

    2015-10-20

    An apparatus for producing carbon-coated nano- or micron-scale particles comprising a container for entraining particles in an aerosol gas, providing an inlet for carbon-containing gas, providing an inlet for plasma gas, a proximate torch for mixing the aerosol gas, the carbon-containing gas, and the plasma gas, bombarding the mixed gases with microwaves, and providing a collection device for gathering the resulting carbon-coated nano- or micron-scale particles. Also disclosed is a method and apparatus for making hollow carbon nano- or micro-scale spheres.

  6. Dispersion toughened silicon carbon ceramics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wei, G.C.

    1984-01-01

    Fracture resistant silicon carbide ceramics are provided by incorporating therein a particulate dispersoid selected from the group consisting of (a) a mixture of boron, carbon and tungsten, (b) a mixture of boron, carbon and molybdenum, (c) a mixture of boron, carbon and titanium carbide, (d) a mixture of aluminum oxide and zirconium oxide, and (e) boron nitride. 4 figures.

  7. 2e Carbon Access | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    e Carbon Access Jump to: navigation, search Name: 2e Carbon Access Place: New York, New York Zip: 10280 Sector: Carbon Product: 2E Carbon Access is an enterprise focused solely on...

  8. Less Carbon Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Less Carbon Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Less Carbon Ltd Place: London, Greater London, United Kingdom Zip: EC3M 4BT Sector: Carbon Product: Less Carbon advises energy...

  9. SGL Carbon AG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Carbon AG Jump to: navigation, search Name: SGL Carbon AG Place: Wiesbaden, Hessen, Germany Zip: 65203 Sector: Carbon Product: A Germany-based manufacturer of carbon-based products...

  10. Thermodynamic assessment of microencapsulated sodium carbonate slurry for carbon capture

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Stolaroff, Joshuah K.; Bourcier, William L.

    2014-01-01

    Micro-encapsulated Carbon Sorbents (MECS) are a new class of carbon capture materials consisting of a CO₂- absorbing liquid solvent contained within solid, CO₂-permeable, polymer shells. MECS enhance the rate of CO₂ absorption for solvents with slow kinetics and prevent solid precipitates from scaling and fouling equipment, two factors that have previously limited the use of sodium carbonate solution for carbon capture. Here, we examine the thermodynamics of sodium carbonate slurries for carbon capture. We model the vapour-liquid-solid equilibria of sodium carbonate and find several features that can contribute to an energy-efficient capture process: very high CO₂ pressures in stripping conditions,more » relatively low water vapour pressures in stripping conditions, and good swing capacity. The potential energy savings compared with an MEA system are discussed.« less

  11. Thermodynamic assessment of microencapsulated sodium carbonate slurry for carbon capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stolaroff, Joshuah K.; Bourcier, William L.

    2014-01-01

    Micro-encapsulated Carbon Sorbents (MECS) are a new class of carbon capture materials consisting of a CO?- absorbing liquid solvent contained within solid, CO?-permeable, polymer shells. MECS enhance the rate of CO? absorption for solvents with slow kinetics and prevent solid precipitates from scaling and fouling equipment, two factors that have previously limited the use of sodium carbonate solution for carbon capture. Here, we examine the thermodynamics of sodium carbonate slurries for carbon capture. We model the vapour-liquid-solid equilibria of sodium carbonate and find several features that can contribute to an energy-efficient capture process: very high CO? pressures in stripping conditions, relatively low water vapour pressures in stripping conditions, and good swing capacity. The potential energy savings compared with an MEA system are discussed.

  12. Establishing MICHCARB, a geological carbon sequestration research...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Western Michigan University 58 GEOSCIENCES Geological carbon sequestration Enhanced oil recovery Characterization of oil, gas and saline reservoirs Geological carbon...

  13. Carbon Capture and Storage, 2008

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-08

    The U.S. Department of Energy is researching the safe implementation of a technology called carbon sequestration, also known as carbon capture and storage, or CCS. Based on an oilfield practice, this approach stores carbon dioxide, or CO2 generated from human activities for millennia as a means to mitigate global climate change. In 2003, the Department of Energys National Energy Technology Laboratory formed seven Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships to assess geologic formations suitable for storage and to determine the best approaches to implement carbon sequestration in each region. This video describes the work of these partnerships.

  14. Carbon Capture and Storage, 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-03-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy is researching the safe implementation of a technology called carbon sequestration, also known as carbon capture and storage, or CCS. Based on an oilfield practice, this approach stores carbon dioxide, or CO2 generated from human activities for millennia as a means to mitigate global climate change. In 2003, the Department of Energys National Energy Technology Laboratory formed seven Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships to assess geologic formations suitable for storage and to determine the best approaches to implement carbon sequestration in each region. This video describes the work of these partnerships.

  15. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print Wednesday, 31 August 2011 00:00 From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile element. Now, another use has been found: magnets. One would not expect pure carbon to be magnetic, but for more than ten years scientists have suspected that carbon can be made to be magnetic by doping it with nonmagnetic materials, changing its order ever so slightly. Years ago, the first x-ray images obtained using the

  16. Interface Induced Carbonate Mineralization: A Fundamental Geochemical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Process Relevant to Carbon Sequestration (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Interface Induced Carbonate Mineralization: A Fundamental Geochemical Process Relevant to Carbon Sequestration Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Interface Induced Carbonate Mineralization: A Fundamental Geochemical Process Relevant to Carbon Sequestration Mica, biotite, muscovite, diopside, tremolite, ultramafic rock, hematite, Ca-Mg-carbonate, calcite, aragonite, dolomite, crystal nucleation,

  17. Carbonate fuel cell matrix

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farooque, Mohammad; Yuh, Chao-Yi

    1996-01-01

    A carbonate fuel cell matrix comprising support particles and crack attenuator particles which are made platelet in shape to increase the resistance of the matrix to through cracking. Also disclosed is a matrix having porous crack attenuator particles and a matrix whose crack attenuator particles have a thermal coefficient of expansion which is significantly different from that of the support particles, and a method of making platelet-shaped crack attenuator particles.

  18. Carbonate fuel cell matrix

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farooque, M.; Yuh, C.Y.

    1996-12-03

    A carbonate fuel cell matrix is described comprising support particles and crack attenuator particles which are made platelet in shape to increase the resistance of the matrix to through cracking. Also disclosed is a matrix having porous crack attenuator particles and a matrix whose crack attenuator particles have a thermal coefficient of expansion which is significantly different from that of the support particles, and a method of making platelet-shaped crack attenuator particles. 8 figs.

  19. Carbon Ion Pump for Carbon Dioxide Removal - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Find More Like This Return to Search Carbon Ion Pump for Carbon Dioxide Removal Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Contact LLNL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary The limitation to reducing greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is the expense of stripping carbon dioxide from other combustion gases. Without a cost-effective means of accomplishing this, hydrocarbon resources cannot be used freely. A few power plants currently remove

  20. Geologic Carbon Sequestration and Biosequestration (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    DePaolo, Don [Director, LBNL Earth Sciences Division

    2011-06-08

    Don DePaolo, Director of LBNL's Earth Sciences Division, speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 3, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  1. Method for joining carbon-carbon composites to metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Moorhead, A.J.

    1997-07-15

    A method for joining carbon-carbon composites to metals by brazing. Conventional brazing of recently developed carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) material to a metal substrate is limited by the tendency of the braze alloy to ``wick`` into the CBCF composite rather than to form a strong bond. The surface of the CBCF composite that is to be bonded is first sealed with a fairly dense carbonaceous layer achieved by any of several methods. The sealed surface is then brazed to the metal substrate by vacuum brazing with a Ti-Cu-Be alloy. 1 fig.

  2. Method for joining carbon-carbon composites to metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, Robert J.; McMillan, April D.; Moorhead, Arthur J.

    1997-01-01

    A method for joining carbon-carbon composites to metals by brazing. Conventional brazing of recently developed carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) material to a metal substrate is limited by the tendency of the braze alloy to "wick" into the CBCF composite rather than to form a strong bond. The surface of the CBCF composite that is to be bonded is first sealed with a fairly dense carbonaceous layer achieved by any of several methods. The sealed surface is then brazed to the metal substrate by vacuum brazing with a Ti-Cu-Be alloy.

  3. Global carbon budget 2014

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Peters, G. P.; Ciais, P.; Friedlingstein, P.; Jones, S. D.; Sitch, S.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; et al

    2015-05-08

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates, consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissionsmore » from fossil fuel combustion and cement production (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover-change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2, and land-cover-change (some including nitrogen–carbon interactions). We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ;, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global carbon budget. For the last decade available (2004–2013), EFF was 8.9 ± 0.4 GtC yr⁻¹,ELUC 0.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr⁻¹, GATM 4.3 ± 0.1 GtC yr⁻¹, SOCEAN 2.6 ± 0.5 GtC yr⁻¹, and SLAND 2.9 ± 0.8 GtC yr⁻¹. For year 2013 alone, EFF grew to 9.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr⁻¹, 2.3% above 2012, continuing the growth trend in these emissions, ELUC was 0.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr⁻¹, GATM was 5.4 ± 0.2 GtC yr⁻¹, SOCEAN was 2.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr⁻¹, and SLAND was 2.5 ± 0.9 GtC yr⁻¹. GATM was high in 2013, reflecting a steady increase in EFF and smaller and opposite changes between SOCEAN and SLAND compared to the past decade (2004–2013). The global atmospheric CO2 concentration reached 395.31 ± 0.10 ppm averaged over 2013. We estimate that EFF will increase by 2.5% (1.3–3.5%) to 10.1 ± 0.6 GtC in 2014 (37.0 ± 2.2 GtCO2 yr⁻¹), 65% above emissions in 1990, based on projections of world gross domestic product and recent changes in the carbon intensity of the global economy. From this projection of EFF and assumed constant ELUC for 2014, cumulative emissions of CO2 will reach about 545 ± 55 GtC (2000 ± 200 GtCO2) for 1870–2014, about 75% from EFF and 25% from ELUC. This paper documents changes in the methods and data sets used in this new carbon budget compared with previous publications of this living data set (Le Quéré et al., 2013, 2014). All observations presented here can be downloaded from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (doi:10.3334/CDIAC/GCP_2014).« less

  4. Carbonate fuel cell anodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donado, R.A.; Hrdina, K.E.; Remick, R.J.

    1993-04-27

    A molten alkali metal carbonates fuel cell porous anode of lithium ferrite and a metal or metal alloy of nickel, cobalt, nickel/iron, cobalt/iron, nickel/iron/aluminum, cobalt/iron/aluminum and mixtures thereof wherein the total iron content including ferrite and iron of the composite is about 25 to about 80 percent, based upon the total anode, provided aluminum when present is less than about 5 weight percent of the anode. A process is described for production of the lithium ferrite containing anode by slipcasting.

  5. Global carbon budget 2014

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Peters, G. P.; Ciais, P.; Friedlingstein, P.; Jones, S. D.; Sitch, S.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Boden, T. A.; Bopp, L.; Bozec, Y.; Canadell, J. G.; Chini, L. P.; Chevallier, F.; Cosca, C. E.; Harris, I.; Hoppema, M.; Houghton, R. A.; House, J. I.; Jain, A. K.; Johannessen, T.; Kato, E.; Keeling, R. F.; Kitidis, V.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Koven, C.; Landa, C. S.; Landschützer, P.; Lenton, A.; Lima, I. D.; Marland, G.; Mathis, J. T.; Metzl, N.; Nojiri, Y.; Olsen, A.; Ono, T.; Peng, S.; Peters, W.; Pfeil, B.; Poulter, B.; Raupach, M. R.; Regnier, P.; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Salisbury, J. E.; Schuster, U.; Schwinger, J.; Séférian, R.; Segschneider, J.; Steinhoff, T.; Stocker, B. D.; Sutton, A. J.; Takahashi, T.; Tilbrook, B.; van der Werf, G. R.; Viovy, N.; Wang, Y.-P.; Wanninkhof, R.; Wiltshire, A.; Zeng, N.

    2015-05-08

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates, consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover-change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2, and land-cover-change (some including nitrogen–carbon interactions). We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ;, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global carbon budget. For the last decade available (2004–2013), EFF was 8.9 ± 0.4 GtC yr⁻¹,ELUC 0.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr⁻¹, GATM 4.3 ± 0.1 GtC yr⁻¹, SOCEAN 2.6 ± 0.5 GtC yr⁻¹, and SLAND 2.9 ± 0.8 GtC yr⁻¹. For year 2013 alone, EFF grew to 9.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr⁻¹, 2.3% above 2012, continuing the growth trend in these emissions, ELUC was 0.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr⁻¹, GATM was 5.4 ± 0.2 GtC yr⁻¹, SOCEAN was 2.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr⁻¹, and SLAND was 2.5 ± 0.9 GtC yr⁻¹. GATM was high in 2013, reflecting a steady increase in EFF and smaller and opposite changes between SOCEAN and SLAND compared to the past decade (2004–2013). The global atmospheric CO2 concentration reached 395.31 ± 0.10 ppm averaged over 2013. We estimate that EFF will increase by 2.5% (1.3–3.5%) to 10.1 ± 0.6 GtC in 2014 (37.0 ± 2.2 GtCO2 yr⁻¹), 65% above emissions in 1990, based on projections of world gross domestic product and recent changes in the carbon intensity of the global economy. From this projection of EFF and assumed constant ELUC for 2014, cumulative emissions of CO2 will reach about 545 ± 55 GtC (2000 ± 200 GtCO2) for 1870–2014, about 75% from EFF and 25% from ELUC. This paper documents changes in the methods and data sets used in this new carbon budget compared with previous publications of this living data set (Le Quéré et al., 2013, 2014). All observations presented here can be downloaded from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (doi:10.3334/CDIAC/GCP_2014).

  6. Carbonate fuel cell anodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donado, Rafael A. (Chicago, IL); Hrdina, Kenneth E. (Glenview, IL); Remick, Robert J. (Bolingbrook, IL)

    1993-01-01

    A molten alkali metal carbonates fuel cell porous anode of lithium ferrite and a metal or metal alloy of nickel, cobalt, nickel/iron, cobalt/iron, nickel/iron/aluminum, cobalt/iron/aluminum and mixtures thereof wherein the total iron content including ferrite and iron of the composite is about 25 to about 80 percent, based upon the total anode, provided aluminum when present is less than about 5 weight percent of the anode. A process for production of the lithium ferrite containing anode by slipcasting.

  7. Carbon Joins the Magnetic Club

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Press Release 29 May 2007 Carbon Joins the Magnetic Club summary written by Brad Plummer, SLAC Communication Office The exclusive club of magnetic elements officially has a new member-carbon. Using a proton beam and advanced x-ray techniques, SLAC researchers in collaboration with colleagues from LBNL and the University of Leipzig in Germany have finally put to rest doubts about carbon's ability to be made magnetic. "In the past, some groups thought they had discovered magnetic

  8. ARM - Sources of Atmospheric Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sources of Atmospheric Carbon Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Sources of Atmospheric Carbon Atmospheric carbon represented a steady state system, where influx equaled outflow, before the Industrial Revolution. Currently, it is no longer a steady state system because the

  9. First Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Administration Plutonium Bomb Successfully Tested First Plutonium Bomb Successfully Tested Los Alamos, NM Los Alamos scientists successfully test a plutonium implosion bomb in the Trinity shot at Alamogordo, New Mexico

    Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon Print Although it has long been suspected that carbon belongs on the short list of materials that can be magnetic at room temperature, attempts to prove that pure carbon can be magnetized have remained unconvincing. However, using a proton beam

  10. Carbon-assisted flyer plates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stahl, David B.; Paisley, Dennis L.

    1994-01-01

    A laser driven flyer plate utilizing an optical fiber connected to a laser. The end of the optical fiber has a layer of carbon and a metal layer deposited onto it. The carbon layer provides the laser induced plasma which is superior to the plasma produced from most metals. The carbon layer plasma is capable of providing a flatter flyer plate, converting more of the laser energy to driving plasma, promoting a higher flyer plate acceleration, and providing a more uniform pulse behind the plate. In another embodiment, the laser is in optical communication with a substrate onto which a layer of carbon and a layer of metal have been deposited.

  11. Carbon Sequestration Atlas IV Video

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Rodosta, Traci

    2014-06-27

    The Carbon Sequestration Atlas is a collection of all the storage sites of CO2 such as, petroleum, natural gas, coal, and oil shale.

  12. Carbonate Deposition | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Alteration Products Carbonate deposits come in many forms and sometimes develop into spectacular colorful terraces such as these at Mammoth Hot Springs in Yellowstone National...

  13. Carbon Sequestration Atlas IV Video

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodosta, Traci

    2013-04-19

    The Carbon Sequestration Atlas is a collection of all the storage sites of CO2 such as, petroleum, natural gas, coal, and oil shale.

  14. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile element. Now, another use has been found: magnets. One would not expect pure carbon to be magnetic, but for more than ten years scientists have suspected that carbon can be made to be magnetic by doping it with nonmagnetic materials, changing its order ever so slightly. Years ago, the first x-ray images obtained using the scanning transmission x-ray microscope at ALS Beamline 11.0.2 provided

  15. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile element. Now, another use has been found: magnets. One would not expect pure carbon to be magnetic, but for more than ten years scientists have suspected that carbon can be made to be magnetic by doping it with nonmagnetic materials, changing its order ever so slightly. Years ago, the first x-ray images obtained using the scanning transmission x-ray microscope at ALS Beamline 11.0.2 provided

  16. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile element. Now, another use has been found: magnets. One would not expect pure carbon to be magnetic, but for more than ten years scientists have suspected that carbon can be made to be magnetic by doping it with nonmagnetic materials, changing its order ever so slightly. Years ago, the first x-ray images obtained using the scanning transmission x-ray microscope at ALS Beamline 11.0.2 provided

  17. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile element. Now, another use has been found: magnets. One would not expect pure carbon to be magnetic, but for more than ten years scientists have suspected that carbon can be made to be magnetic by doping it with nonmagnetic materials, changing its order ever so slightly. Years ago, the first x-ray images obtained using the scanning transmission x-ray microscope at ALS Beamline 11.0.2 provided

  18. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile element. Now, another use has been found: magnets. One would not expect pure carbon to be magnetic, but for more than ten years scientists have suspected that carbon can be made to be magnetic by doping it with nonmagnetic materials, changing its order ever so slightly. Years ago, the first x-ray images obtained using the scanning transmission x-ray microscope at ALS Beamline 11.0.2 provided

  19. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile element. Now, another use has been found: magnets. One would not expect pure carbon to be magnetic, but for more than ten years scientists have suspected that carbon can be made to be magnetic by doping it with nonmagnetic materials, changing its order ever so slightly. Years ago, the first x-ray images obtained using the scanning transmission x-ray microscope at ALS Beamline 11.0.2 provided

  20. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile element. Now, another use has been found: magnets. One would not expect pure carbon to be magnetic, but for more than ten years scientists have suspected that carbon can be made to be magnetic by doping it with nonmagnetic materials, changing its order ever so slightly. Years ago, the first x-ray images obtained using the scanning transmission x-ray microscope at ALS Beamline 11.0.2 provided

  1. Carbon Stars | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Stars Jump to: navigation, search Name: Carbon Stars Place: Netherlands Sector: Services Product: General Financial & Legal Services ( Private family-controlled ) References:...

  2. Carbon dioxide and climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    Scientific and public interest in greenhouse gases, climate warming, and global change virtually exploded in 1988. The Department's focused research on atmospheric CO{sub 2} contributed sound and timely scientific information to the many questions produced by the groundswell of interest and concern. Research projects summarized in this document provided the data base that made timely responses possible, and the contributions from participating scientists are genuinely appreciated. In the past year, the core CO{sub 2} research has continued to improve the scientific knowledge needed to project future atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations, to estimate climate sensitivity, and to assess the responses of vegetation to rising concentrations of CO{sub 2} and to climate change. The Carbon Dioxide Research Program's goal is to develop sound scientific information for policy formulation and governmental action in response to changes of atmospheric CO{sub 2}. The Program Summary describes projects funded by the Carbon Dioxide Research Program during FY 1990 and gives a brief overview of objectives, organization, and accomplishments.

  3. Carbonation Mechanism of Reservoir Rock by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project Objectives: Elucidate comprehensively the carbonation reaction mechanisms between supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) and reservoir rocks consisting of different mineralogical compositions in aqueous and non-aqueous environments at temperatures of up to 250ºC, and to develop chemical modeling of CO2-reservior rock interactions.

  4. Carbon Fiber Technology Facility | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Carbon Fiber Technology Facility Carbon Fiber Technology Facility 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon lm003_warren_2012_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Carbon Fiber Technology Facility Carbon Fiber Pilot Plant and Research Facilities Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Carbon Fiber Technology Facility

  5. Solar Fuels and Carbon Cycle 2.0 (Carbon Cycle 2.0) (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Solar Fuels and Carbon Cycle 2.0 (Carbon Cycle 2.0) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Solar Fuels and Carbon Cycle 2.0 (Carbon Cycle 2.0) Paul Alivisatos, LBNL Director...

  6. Core Carbon Group AS CCG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Carbon Group AS CCG Jump to: navigation, search Name: Core Carbon Group AS (CCG) Place: Copenhagen, Denmark Zip: DK-1074 Sector: Carbon Product: The Core Carbon Group (formerly...

  7. Permafrost soils and carbon cycling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ping, C. L.; Jastrow, J. D.; Jorgenson, M. T.; Michaelson, G. J.; Shur, Y. L.

    2015-02-05

    Knowledge of soils in the permafrost region has advanced immensely in recent decades, despite the remoteness and inaccessibility of most of the region and the sampling limitations posed by the severe environment. These efforts significantly increased estimates of the amount of organic carbon stored in permafrost-region soils and improved understanding of how pedogenic processes unique to permafrost environments built enormous organic carbon stocks during the Quaternary. This knowledge has also called attention to the importance of permafrost-affected soils to the global carbon cycle and the potential vulnerability of the region's soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks to changing climatic conditions. Inmore » this review, we briefly introduce the permafrost characteristics, ice structures, and cryopedogenic processes that shape the development of permafrost-affected soils, and discuss their effects on soil structures and on organic matter distributions within the soil profile. We then examine the quantity of organic carbon stored in permafrost-region soils, as well as the characteristics, intrinsic decomposability, and potential vulnerability of this organic carbon to permafrost thaw under a warming climate. Overall, frozen conditions and cryopedogenic processes, such as cryoturbation, have slowed decomposition and enhanced the sequestration of organic carbon in permafrost-affected soils over millennial timescales. Due to the low temperatures, the organic matter in permafrost soils is often less humified than in more temperate soils, making some portion of this stored organic carbon relatively vulnerable to mineralization upon thawing of permafrost.« less

  8. Natural materials for carbon capture.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myshakin, Evgeniy M.; Romanov, Vyacheslav N.; Cygan, Randall Timothy

    2010-11-01

    Naturally occurring clay minerals provide a distinctive material for carbon capture and carbon dioxide sequestration. Swelling clay minerals, such as the smectite variety, possess an aluminosilicate structure that is controlled by low-charge layers that readily expand to accommodate water molecules and, potentially, carbon dioxide. Recent experimental studies have demonstrated the efficacy of intercalating carbon dioxide in the interlayer of layered clays but little is known about the molecular mechanisms of the process and the extent of carbon capture as a function of clay charge and structure. A series of molecular dynamics simulations and vibrational analyses have been completed to assess the molecular interactions associated with incorporation of CO2 in the interlayer of montmorillonite clay and to help validate the models with experimental observation.

  9. Method for producing carbon nanotubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Jonathan; Perry, William L.; Chen, Chun-Ku

    2006-02-14

    Method for producing carbon nanotubes. Carbon nanotubes were prepared using a low power, atmospheric pressure, microwave-generated plasma torch system. After generating carbon monoxide microwave plasma, a flow of carbon monoxide was directed first through a bed of metal particles/glass beads and then along the outer surface of a ceramic tube located in the plasma. As a flow of argon was introduced into the plasma through the ceramic tube, ropes of entangled carbon nanotubes, attached to the surface of the tube, were produced. Of these, longer ropes formed on the surface portion of the tube located in the center of the plasma. Transmission electron micrographs of individual nanotubes revealed that many were single-walled.

  10. Carbon-free | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Carbon-free Subscribe to RSS - Carbon-free Carbon-free PPPL physicists simulate innovative method for starting up tokamaks without using a solenoid Scientists at the U.S....

  11. CarbonFree Technology | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    CarbonFree Technology Jump to: navigation, search Logo: CarbonFree Technology Name: CarbonFree Technology Address: 22 St. Clair Ave. E., Suite 1103 Place: Toronto, Ontario Country:...

  12. Carbon Trust CECIC JV | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    CECIC JV Jump to: navigation, search Name: Carbon Trust & CECIC JV Place: China Sector: Carbon Product: China-based JV innovator and transferrer of low carbon technology in China....

  13. Mandarin Global Carbon Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mandarin Global Carbon Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Mandarin Global Carbon Ltd Place: Londaon, Greater London, United Kingdom Zip: W1S 1TD Sector: Carbon, Hydro Product:...

  14. First Carbon Fund Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fund Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: First Carbon Fund Ltd Place: London, Greater London, United Kingdom Zip: EC1V 9EE Sector: Carbon Product: First Carbon Fund Ltd., acts as...

  15. Catalytic Growth of Macroscopic Carbon Nanofibers Bodies with Activated Carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdullah, N.; Muhammad, I. S.; Hamid, S. B. Abd.; Rinaldi, A.; Su, D. S.; Schlogl, R.

    2009-06-01

    Carbon-carbon composite of activated carbon and carbon nanofibers have been synthesized by growing Carbon nanofiber (CNF) on Palm shell-based Activated carbon (AC) with Ni catalyst. The composites are in an agglomerated shape due to the entanglement of the defective CNF between the AC particles forming a macroscopic body. The macroscopic size will allow the composite to be used as a stabile catalyst support and liquid adsorbent. The preparation of CNT/AC nanocarbon was initiated by pre-treating the activated carbon with nitric acid, followed by impregnation of 1 wt% loading of nickel (II) nitrate solutions in acetone. The catalyst precursor was calcined and reduced at 300 deg. C for an hour in each step. The catalytic growth of nanocarbon in C{sub 2}H{sub 4}/H{sub 2} was carried out at temperature of 550 deg. C for 2 hrs with different rotating angle in the fluidization system. SEM and N{sub 2} isotherms show the level of agglomeration which is a function of growth density and fluidization of the system. The effect of fluidization by rotating the reactor during growth with different speed give a significant impact on the agglomeration of the final CNF/AC composite and thus the amount of CNFs produced. The macrostructure body produced in this work of CNF/AC composite will have advantages in the adsorbent and catalyst support application, due to the mechanical and chemical properties of the material.

  16. Interface Induced Carbonate Mineralization: A Fundamental Geochemical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Process Relevant to Carbon Sequestration (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Interface Induced Carbonate Mineralization: A Fundamental Geochemical Process Relevant to Carbon Sequestration Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Interface Induced Carbonate Mineralization: A Fundamental Geochemical Process Relevant to Carbon Sequestration We have approached the long-standing geochemical question why anhydrous high-Mg carbonate minerals (i.e., magnesite and dolomite) cannot be formed at

  17. How to Store Carbon | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to Store Carbon How to Store Carbon March 17, 2016 - 3:30pm Addthis Jenny Bowman National Energy Technology Laboratory What does this project do? Carbon capture and storage is critical to fighting climate change. (Learn the basics with our Carbon Capture 101 infographic.) Researchers are developing modeling tools to ensure carbon storage is safe, viable and worthwhile. The tools will make it easier to select and monitor underground carbon storage sites. The project is led by NETL, one of the

  18. Process for making hollow carbon spheres

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luhrs, Claudia C.; Phillips, Jonathan; Richard, Monique N.; Knapp, Angela Michelle

    2013-04-16

    A hollow carbon sphere having a carbon shell and an inner core is disclosed. The hollow carbon sphere has a total volume that is equal to a volume of the carbon shell plus an inner free volume within the carbon shell. The inner free volume is at least 25% of the total volume. In some instances, a nominal diameter of the hollow carbon sphere is between 10 and 180 nanometers.

  19. Greenstone Carbon Management Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    solutions provider to measure, manage and mitigate their carbon emissions and realise business and financial benefits. References: Greenstone Carbon Management Ltd.1 This...

  20. ARM - Measurement - Carbon dioxide (CO2) flux

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    carbon dioxide, a heavy, colorless greenhouse gas. Categories Atmospheric Carbon, Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the...

  1. Visualizing Individual Carbon Nanotubes with Optical Microscopy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Published Article: Visualizing Individual Carbon Nanotubes with Optical Microscopy Title: Visualizing Individual Carbon Nanotubes with Optical Microscopy Authors: Novak, Michael A. ...

  2. Project Profile: Carbon Dioxide Shuttling Thermochemical Storage...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Experimental data describing the cyclic TCES process for strontium carbonate. Heating strontium carbonate up from 1000C to 1300C causes the compound to undergo a decomposition ...

  3. Princeton Plasma Physics Lab - Carbon-free

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    carbon-free Carbon-free en PPPL physicists simulate innovative method for starting up tokamaks without using a solenoid http:www.pppl.govnewspress-releases201601...

  4. USAID Carbon Calculator | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Application ComplexityEase of Use: Not Available Website: www.afolucarbon.org Cost: Free Language: English USAID Carbon Calculator Screenshot Logo: USAID Carbon Calculator This...

  5. Robust carbon monolith having hierarchical porosity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng; Guiochon, Georges A; Liang, Chengdu

    2014-01-14

    A carbon monolith includes a robust carbon monolith characterized by a skeleton size of at least 100 nm, and a hierarchical pore structure having macropores and mesopores.

  6. Interface Induced Carbonate Mineralization: A Fundamental Geochemical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Interface Induced Carbonate Mineralization: A Fundamental Geochemical Process Relevant to Carbon Sequestration Teng, H. Henry PI, The George Washington University PI, The George...

  7. China Low Carbon Platform | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Low Carbon Platform Jump to: navigation, search Name China Low Carbon Platform AgencyCompany Organization Institute of Development Studies, Climate Change and Development Centre,...

  8. Energy-Related Carbon Emissions in Manufacturing

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2000-01-01

    Energy-related carbon emissions in manufacturing analysis and issues related to the energy use, energy efficiency, and carbon emission indicators.

  9. Robust carbon monolith having hierarchical porosity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng; Guiohon, Georges A; Liang, Chengdu

    2013-02-05

    A carbon monolith includes a robust carbon monolith characterized by a skeleton size of at least 100 nm, and a hierarchical pore structure having macropores and mesopores.

  10. SciTech Connect: "carbon sequestration"

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    carbon sequestration" Find + Advanced Search Term Search Semantic Search Advanced Search All Fields: "carbon sequestration" Semantic Semantic Term Title: Full Text:...

  11. CUFR Tree Carbon Calculator | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Desktop Application Website: www.fs.fed.usccrctopicsurban-forestsctcc Cost: Free Language: English References: CUFR Tree Carbon Calculator1 Overview "The CUFR Tree Carbon...

  12. Project Profile: Regenerative Carbonate-Based Thermochemical...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Project Profile: Regenerative Carbonate-Based Thermochemical Energy Storage System for Concentrating Solar Power Project Profile: Regenerative Carbonate-Based Thermochemical Energy ...

  13. Development and Commercialization of Alternative Carbon Fiber...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Advanced Oxidation & Stabilization of PAN-Based Carbon Precursor Fibers Advanced Oxidation & Stabilization of PAN-Based Carbon ...

  14. Timing Carbon Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Timing Carbon Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Timing Carbon Ltd Place: Beijing, Beijing Municipality, China Zip: 100022 Product: UK registered, China based CDM and voluntary...

  15. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide / Reservoir Rock Chemical Interactions...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Reservoir Rock Chemical Interactions Jump to: navigation, search Geothermal Lab Call Projects for Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Reservoir Rock...

  16. Carbon Trust Investments Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Investments Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Carbon Trust Investments Ltd Place: United Kingdom Sector: Carbon Product: UK-based venture capital investment division of The...

  17. Campus Carbon Calculator | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Campus Carbon Calculator Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Campus Carbon Calculator AgencyCompany Organization: Clean Air-Cool Planet Phase: Create a...

  18. Carbon Capture Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Corporation Jump to: navigation, search Name: Carbon Capture Corporation Address: 7825 Fay Avenue Place: La Jolla, California Zip: 92037 Region: Southern CA Area Sector: Carbon...

  19. Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery The simulation provides an important approach to estimate...

  20. Carbon Sequestration Initiative CSI | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sequestration Initiative CSI Jump to: navigation, search Name: Carbon Sequestration Initiative (CSI) Place: Cambridge, Massachusetts Zip: MA 02139-4307 Sector: Carbon Product:...

  1. Carbon Trade Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Carbon Trade Ltd Place: Scotland, United Kingdom Zip: ML12 6HW Product: Scotland-based landfill gas project developer. References: Carbon...

  2. Intan Carbon Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Intan Carbon Corporation Jump to: navigation, search Name: Intan Carbon Corporation Place: Beijing, Beijing Municipality, China Zip: 100031 Sector: Efficiency Product:...

  3. BSMB Carbon Consult | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    BSMB Carbon Consult Jump to: navigation, search Name: BSMB Carbon Consult Place: Brazil Product: Sao Paulo-based in-house resource of Banco Sumitomo Mitsui Brasileiro. References:...

  4. Carbon Bank Ireland | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ireland Jump to: navigation, search Name: Carbon Bank Ireland Place: Nevada Zip: 89411 Product: Investment bank focused on CDM projects. References: Carbon Bank Ireland1 This...

  5. Carbon Opportunity Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Opportunity Group Jump to: navigation, search Name: Carbon Opportunity Group Place: Chicago, Illinois Zip: 60606 Sector: Carbon, Services Product: Chicago-based firm that provides...

  6. Forest Carbon Index | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Forest Carbon Index Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Forest Carbon Index AgencyCompany Organization: Resources for the Future Partner: United Nations...

  7. Low Carbon Research Institute | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Research Institute Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Low Carbon Research Institute Name: Low Carbon Research Institute Address: King Edward VII Avenue CF10 3NB Place: Cardiff,...

  8. Common Carbon Metric | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Common Carbon Metric Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Common Carbon Metric AgencyCompany Organization: United Nations Environment Programme, World...

  9. Carbon Limiting Technologies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Limiting Technologies Jump to: navigation, search Name: Carbon Limiting Technologies Place: London, Greater London, United Kingdom Zip: N1 8HA Sector: Carbon Product: UK-based...

  10. Energy-Related Carbon Emissions in Manufacturing

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Energy-Related Carbon Emissions Detailed Energy-Related Carbon Emissions All Industry Groups 1994 emissions Selected Industries Petroleum refining Chemicals Iron & Steel...

  11. Hydrogen Adsorption Induces Interlayer Carbon Bond Formation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen Adsorption Induces Interlayer Carbon Bond Formation in Supported Few-Layer Graphene Friday, February 28, 2014 Among the allotropes of carbon, diamond has some of the most...

  12. California Low Carbon Fuels Infrastructure Investment Initiative...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low Carbon Fuels Infrastructure Investment Initiative California Low Carbon Fuels Infrastructure Investment Initiative 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle ...

  13. Gas permeability of carbon aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kong, F.; LeMay, J.D.; Hulsey, S.S.; Alviso, C.T.; Pekala, R.W. (Chemistry and Materials Science Department, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States))

    1993-12-01

    Carbon aerogels are synthesized via the aqueous polycondensation of resorcinol with formaldehyde, followed by supercritical drying and subsequent pyrolysis at 1050 [degree]C. As a result of their interconnected porosity, ultrafine cell/pore size, and high surface area, carbon aerogels have many potential applications such as supercapacitors, battery electrodes, catalyst supports, and gas filters. The performance of carbon aerogels in the latter two applications depends on the permeability or gas flow conductance in these materials. By measuring the pressure differential across a thin specimen and the nitrogen gas flow rate in the viscous regime, the permeability of carbon aerogels was calculated from equations based upon Darcy's law. Our measurements show that carbon aerogels have permeabilities on the order of 10[sup [minus]12] to 10[sup [minus]10] cm[sup 2] over the density range from 0.05--0.44 g/cm[sup 3]. Like many other aerogel properties, the permeability of carbon aerogels follows a power law relationship with density, reflecting differences in the average mesopore size. Comparing the results from this study with the permeability of silica aerogels reported by other workers, we found that the permeability of aerogels is governed by a simple universal flow equation. This paper discusses the relationship between permeability, pore size, and density in carbon aerogels.

  14. Carbon films produced from ionic liquid carbon precursors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng; Luo, Huimin; Lee, Je Seung

    2013-11-05

    The invention is directed to a method for producing a film of porous carbon, the method comprising carbonizing a film of an ionic liquid, wherein the ionic liquid has the general formula (X.sup.+a).sub.x(Y.sup.-b).sub.y, wherein the variables a and b are, independently, non-zero integers, and the subscript variables x and y are, independently, non-zero integers, such that ax=by, and at least one of X.sup.+ and Y.sup.- possesses at least one carbon-nitrogen unsaturated bond. The invention is also directed to a composition comprising a porous carbon film possessing a nitrogen content of at least 10 atom %.

  15. Atmospheric carbon dioxide and the global carbon cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trabalka, J R

    1985-12-01

    This state-of-the-art volume presents discussions on the global cycle of carbon, the dynamic balance among global atmospheric CO2 sources and sinks. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the individual papers. (ACR)

  16. Aluminum-carbon composite electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farahmandi, C. Joseph (Auburn, AL); Dispennette, John M. (Auburn, AL)

    1998-07-07

    A high performance double layer capacitor having an electric double layer formed in the interface between activated carbon and an electrolyte is disclosed. The high performance double layer capacitor includes a pair of aluminum impregnated carbon composite electrodes having an evenly distributed and continuous path of aluminum impregnated within an activated carbon fiber preform saturated with a high performance electrolytic solution. The high performance double layer capacitor is capable of delivering at least 5 Wh/kg of useful energy at power ratings of at least 600 W/kg.

  17. Aluminum-carbon composite electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farahmandi, C.J.; Dispennette, J.M.

    1998-07-07

    A high performance double layer capacitor having an electric double layer formed in the interface between activated carbon and an electrolyte is disclosed. The high performance double layer capacitor includes a pair of aluminum impregnated carbon composite electrodes having an evenly distributed and continuous path of aluminum impregnated within an activated carbon fiber preform saturated with a high performance electrolytic solution. The high performance double layer capacitor is capable of delivering at least 5 Wh/kg of useful energy at power ratings of at least 600 W/kg. 3 figs.

  18. Capacitor with a composite carbon foam electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, Steven T.; Pekala, Richard W.; Kaschmitter, James L.

    1999-01-01

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid partides being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivity and power to system energy.

  19. Capacitor with a composite carbon foam electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, S.T.; Pekala, R.W.; Kaschmitter, J.L.

    1999-04-27

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivity and power to system energy. 1 fig.

  20. Method for fabricating composite carbon foam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, Steven T.; Pekala, Richard W.; Kaschmitter, James L.

    2001-01-01

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivity and power to system energy.

  1. High capacity carbon dioxide sorbent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietz, Steven Dean; Alptekin, Gokhan; Jayaraman, Ambalavanan

    2015-09-01

    The present invention provides a sorbent for the removal of carbon dioxide from gas streams, comprising: a CO.sub.2 capacity of at least 9 weight percent when measured at 22.degree. C. and 1 atmosphere; an H.sub.2O capacity of at most 15 weight percent when measured at 25.degree. C. and 1 atmosphere; and an isosteric heat of adsorption of from 5 to 8.5 kilocalories per mole of CO.sub.2. The invention also provides a carbon sorbent in a powder, a granular or a pellet form for the removal of carbon dioxide from gas streams, comprising: a carbon content of at least 90 weight percent; a nitrogen content of at least 1 weight percent; an oxygen content of at most 3 weight percent; a BET surface area from 50 to 2600 m.sup.2/g; and a DFT micropore volume from 0.04 to 0.8 cc/g.

  2. Method for making carbon films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tan, Ming X.

    1999-01-01

    A method for treating an organic polymer material, preferably a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer (Saran) to produce a flat sheet of carbon film material having a high surface area (.apprxeq.1000 m.sup.2 /g) suitable as an electrode material for super capacitor applications. The method comprises heating a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer film disposed between two spaced apart graphite or ceramic plates to a first temperature of about 160.degree. C. for about 14 hours to form a stabilized vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride polymer film, thereafter heating the stabilized film to a second temperature of about 750.degree. C. in an inert atmosphere for about one hour to form a carbon film; and finally activating the carbon film to increase the surface area by heating the carbon film in an oxidizing atmosphere to a temperature of at least 750-850.degree. C. for between 1-6 hours.

  3. Method for making carbon films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tan, M.X.

    1999-07-29

    A method for treating an organic polymer material, preferably a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer (Saran) to produce a flat sheet of carbon film material having a high surface area ([approx equal]1000 m[sup 2] /g) suitable as an electrode material for super capacitor applications. The method comprises heating a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer film disposed between two spaced apart graphite or ceramic plates to a first temperature of about 160 C for about 14 hours to form a stabilized vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride polymer film, thereafter heating the stabilized film to a second temperature of about 750 C in an inert atmosphere for about one hour to form a carbon film; and finally activating the carbon film to increase the surface area by heating the carbon film in an oxidizing atmosphere to a temperature of at least 750--850 C for between 1--6 hours. 2 figs.

  4. Non-carbon induction furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, C.E.; Masters, D.R.; Pfeiler, W.A.

    1984-01-06

    The present invention is directed to an induction furnace for melting and casting highly pure metals and alloys such as uranium and uranium alloys in such a manner as to minimize contamination of the melt by carbon derived from the materials and the environment within the furnace. The subject furnace is constructed of non-carbon materials and is housed within a conventional vacuum chamber. The furnace comprises a ceramic oxide crucible for holding the charge of metal or alloys. The heating of the crucible is achieved by a plasma-sprayed tungsten susceptor surrounding the crucible which, in turn, is heated by an rf induction coil separated from the susceptor by a cylinder of inorganic insulation. The furnace of the present invention is capable of being rapidly cycled from ambient temperatures to about 1650/sup 0/C for effectively melting uranium and uranium alloys without the attendant carbon contamination problems previously encountered when using carbon-bearing furnace materials.

  5. Carbon-free induction furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, Cressie E.; Masters, David R.; Pfeiler, William A.

    1985-01-01

    An induction furnace for melting and casting highly pure metals and alloys such as uranium and uranium alloys in such a manner as to minimize contamination of the melt by carbon derived from the materials and the environment within the furnace. The subject furnace is constructed of carbon free materials and is housed within a conventional vacuum chamber. The furnace comprises a ceramic oxide crucible for holding the charge of metal or alloy. The heating of the crucible is achieved by a plasma-sprayed tungsten susceptor surrounding the crucible which, in turn, is heated by an RF induction coil separated from the susceptor by a cylinder of inorganic insulation. The furnace of the present invention is capable of being rapidly cycled from ambient temperatures to about 1650.degree. C. for effectively melting uranium and uranium alloys without the attendant carbon contamination problems previously encountered when using carbon-bearing furnace materials.

  6. Reducing carbon dioxide to products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cole, Emily Barton; Sivasankar, Narayanappa; Parajuli, Rishi; Keets, Kate A

    2014-09-30

    A method reducing carbon dioxide to one or more products may include steps (A) to (C). Step (A) may bubble said carbon dioxide into a solution of an electrolyte and a catalyst in a divided electrochemical cell. The divided electrochemical cell may include an anode in a first cell compartment and a cathode in a second cell compartment. The cathode may reduce said carbon dioxide into said products. Step (B) may adjust one or more of (a) a cathode material, (b) a surface morphology of said cathode, (c) said electrolyte, (d) a manner in which said carbon dioxide is bubbled, (e), a pH level of said solution, and (f) an electrical potential of said divided electrochemical cell, to vary at least one of (i) which of said products is produced and (ii) a faradaic yield of said products. Step (C) may separate said products from said solution.

  7. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... It is a perfect "diamagnet," repelled by an external magnetic field. Over the past decade, however, research has indicated that proton irradiation (i.e. hydrogen doping) of carbon ...

  8. ARM - Measurement - Organic Carbon Concentration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govMeasurementsOrganic Carbon Concentration ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send...

  9. Carbon-assisted flyer plates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stahl, D.B.; Paisley, D.L.

    1994-04-12

    A laser driven flyer plate is described utilizing an optical fiber connected to a laser. The end of the optical fiber has a layer of carbon and a metal layer deposited onto it. The carbon layer provides the laser induced plasma which is superior to the plasma produced from most metals. The carbon layer plasma is capable of providing a flatter flyer plate, converting more of the laser energy to driving plasma, promoting a higher flyer plate acceleration, and providing a more uniform pulse behind the plate. In another embodiment, the laser is in optical communication with a substrate onto which a layer of carbon and a layer of metal have been deposited. 2 figures.

  10. ARM - Field Campaign - Aircraft Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Abstract Airborne trace-gas measurements at ARM-SGP provided valuable data for addressing carbon-cycle questions highlighted by the US Climate Change Research Program and the North...

  11. Low density carbonized composite foams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Fung-Ming

    1991-01-01

    A carbonized composite foam having a density less than about 50 mg/cm.sup.3 and individual cell sizes no greater than about 1 .mu.m in diameter is described, and the process of making it.

  12. Low density carbonized composite foams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Fung-Ming

    1993-01-01

    A carbonized composite foam having a density less than about 50 mg/cm.sup.3 and individual cell sizes no greater than about 1 .mu.m in diameter is described, and the process of making it.

  13. Lithographically defined microporous carbon structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burckel, David Bruce; Washburn, Cody M.; Polsky, Ronen; Brozik, Susan M.; Wheeler, David R.

    2013-01-08

    A lithographic method is used to fabricate porous carbon structures that can provide electrochemical electrodes having high surface area with uniform and controllable dimensions, providing enormous flexibility to tailor the electrodes toward specific applications. Metal nanoparticles deposited on the surface of the porous carbon electrodes exhibit ultra small dimensions with uniform size distribution. The resulting electrodes are rugged, electrically conductive and show excellent electrochemical behavior.

  14. Activated carbon to the rescue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sen, S.

    1996-03-01

    This article describes the response to pipeline spill of ethylene dichloride (EDC) on the property of an oil company. Activated carbon cleanup proceedure was used. During delivery, changeout, transport, storage, thermal reactivation, and return delivery to the site, the carbon never came into direct contact with operating personnel or the atmosphere. More than 10,000 tones of dredge soil and 50 million gallons of surface water were processed during the emergency response.

  15. Toward transformational carbon capture systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, David C.; Litynski, John T.; Brickett, Lynn A.; Morreale, Bryan D.

    2015-10-28

    This paper will briefly review the history and current state of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) research and development and describe the technical barriers to carbon capture. it will argue forcefully for a new approach to R&D, which leverages both simulation and physical systems at the laboratory and pilot scales to more rapidly move the best technoogies forward, prune less advantageous approaches, and simultaneously develop materials and processes.

  16. Recuperative supercritical carbon dioxide cycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Sprouse, Kenneth M; Subbaraman, Ganesan; O'Connor, George M; Johnson, Gregory A

    2014-11-18

    A power plant includes a closed loop, supercritical carbon dioxide system (CLS-CO.sub.2 system). The CLS-CO.sub.2 system includes a turbine-generator and a high temperature recuperator (HTR) that is arranged to receive expanded carbon dioxide from the turbine-generator. The HTR includes a plurality of heat exchangers that define respective heat exchange areas. At least two of the heat exchangers have different heat exchange areas.

  17. Carbon sequestration research and development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reichle, Dave; Houghton, John; Kane, Bob; Ekmann, Jim; and others

    1999-12-31

    Predictions of global energy use in the next century suggest a continued increase in carbon emissions and rising concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in the atmosphere unless major changes are made in the way we produce and use energy--in particular, how we manage carbon. For example, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts in its 1995 ''business as usual'' energy scenario that future global emissions of CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere will increase from 7.4 billion tonnes of carbon (GtC) per year in 1997 to approximately 26 GtC/year by 2100. IPCC also projects a doubling of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration by the middle of next century and growing rates of increase beyond. Although the effects of increased CO{sub 2} levels on global climate are uncertain, many scientists agree that a doubling of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations could have a variety of serious environmental consequences. The goal of this report is to identify key areas for research and development (R&D) that could lead to an understanding of the potential for future use of carbon sequestration as a major tool for managing carbon emissions. Under the leadership of DOE, researchers from universities, industry, other government agencies, and DOE national laboratories were brought together to develop the technical basis for conceiving a science and technology road map. That effort has resulted in this report, which develops much of the information needed for the road map.

  18. Scale-up of Carbon/Carbon Bipolar Plates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David P. Haack

    2009-04-08

    This project was focused upon developing a unique material technology for use in PEM fuel cell bipolar plates. The carbon/carbon composite material developed in this program is uniquely suited for use in fuel cell systems, as it is lightweight, highly conductive and corrosion resistant. The project further focused upon developing the manufacturing methodology to cost-effectively produce this material for use in commercial fuel cell systems. United Technology Fuel Cells Corp., a leading fuel cell developer was a subcontractor to the project was interested in the performance and low-cost potential of the material. The accomplishments of the program included the development and testing of a low-cost, fully molded, net-shape carbon-carbon bipolar plate. The process to cost-effectively manufacture these carbon-carbon bipolar plates was focused on extensively in this program. Key areas for cost-reduction that received attention in this program was net-shape molding of the detailed flow structures according to end-user design. Correlations between feature detail and process parameters were formed so that mold tooling could be accurately designed to meet a variety of flow field dimensions. A cost model was developed that predicted the cost of manufacture for the product in near-term volumes and long-term volumes (10+ million units per year). Because the roduct uses lowcost raw materials in quantities that are less than competitive tech, it was found that the cost of the product in high volume can be less than with other plate echnologies, and can meet the DOE goal of $4/kW for transportation applications. The excellent performance of the all-carbon plate in net shape was verified in fuel cell testing. Performance equivalent to much higher cost, fully machined graphite plates was found.

  19. Rapid oxidation/stabilization technique for carbon foams, carbon fibers and C/C composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tan, Seng; Tan, Cher-Dip

    2004-05-11

    An enhanced method for the post processing, i.e. oxidation or stabilization, of carbon materials including, but not limited to, carbon foams, carbon fibers, dense carbon-carbon composites, carbon/ceramic and carbon/metal composites, which method requires relatively very short and more effective such processing steps. The introduction of an "oxygen spill over catalyst" into the carbon precursor by blending with the carbon starting material or exposure of the carbon precursor to such a material supplies required oxygen at the atomic level and permits oxidation/stabilization of carbon materials in a fraction of the time and with a fraction of the energy normally required to accomplish such carbon processing steps. Carbon based foams, solids, composites and fiber products made utilizing this method are also described.

  20. Carbonic Acid Pretreatment of Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Peter van Walsum; Kemantha Jayawardhana; Damon Yourchisin; Robert McWilliams; Vanessa Castleberry

    2003-05-31

    This project sought to address six objectives, outlined below. The objectives were met through the completion of ten tasks. 1) Solidify the theoretical understanding of the binary CO2/H2O system at reaction temperatures and pressures. The thermodynamics of pH prediction have been improved to include a more rigorous treatment of non-ideal gas phases. However it was found that experimental attempts to confirm theoretical pH predictions were still off by a factor of about 1.8 pH units. Arrhenius experiments were carried out and the activation energy for carbonic acid appears to be substantially similar to sulfuric acid. Titration experiments have not yet confirmed or quantified the buffering or acid suppression effects of carbonic acid on biomass. 2) Modify the carbonic acid pretreatment severity function to include the effect of endogenous acid formation and carbonate buffering, if necessary. It was found that the existing severity functions serve adequately to account for endogenous acid production and carbonate effects. 3) Quantify the production of soluble carbohydrates at different reaction conditions and severity. Results show that carbonic acid has little effect on increasing soluble carbohydrate concentrations for pretreated aspen wood, compared to pretreatment with water alone. This appears to be connected to the release of endogenous acids by the substrate. A less acidic substrate such as corn stover would derive benefit from the use of carbonic acid. 4) Quantify the production of microbial inhibitors at selected reaction conditions and severity. It was found that the release of inhibitors was correlated to reaction severity and that carbonic acid did not appear to increase or decrease inhibition compared to pretreatment with water alone. 5) Assess the reactivity to enzymatic hydrolysis of material pretreated at selected reaction conditions and severity. Enzymatic hydrolysis rates increased with severity, but no advantage was detected for the use of carbonic acid compared to water alone. 6) Determine optimal conditions for carbonic acid pretreatment of aspen wood. Optimal severities appeared to be in the mid range tested. ASPEN-Plus modeling and economic analysis of the process indicate that the process could be cost competitive with sulfuric acid if the concentration of solids in the pretreatment is maintained very high (~50%). Lower solids concentrations result in larger reactors that become expensive to construct for high pressure applications.

  1. Carbonic Acid Retreatment of Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baylor university

    2003-06-01

    This project sought to address six objectives, outlined below. The objectives were met through the completion of ten tasks. (1) Solidify the theoretical understanding of the binary CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O system at reaction temperatures and pressures. The thermodynamics of pH prediction have been improved to include a more rigorous treatment of non-ideal gas phases. However it was found that experimental attempts to confirm theoretical pH predictions were still off by a factor of about 1.8 pH units. Arrhenius experiments were carried out and the activation energy for carbonic acid appears to be substantially similar to sulfuric acid. Titration experiments have not yet confirmed or quantified the buffering or acid suppression effects of carbonic acid on biomass. (2) Modify the carbonic acid pretreatment severity function to include the effect of endogenous acid formation and carbonate buffering, if necessary. It was found that the existing severity functions serve adequately to account for endogenous acid production and carbonate effects. (3) Quantify the production of soluble carbohydrates at different reaction conditions and severity. Results show that carbonic acid has little effect on increasing soluble carbohydrate concentrations for pretreated aspen wood, compared to pretreatment with water alone. This appears to be connected to the release of endogenous acids by the substrate. A less acidic substrate such as corn stover would derive benefit from the use of carbonic acid. (4) Quantify the production of microbial inhibitors at selected reaction conditions and severity. It was found that the release of inhibitors was correlated to reaction severity and that carbonic acid did not appear to increase or decrease inhibition compared to pretreatment with water alone. (5) Assess the reactivity to enzymatic hydrolysis of material pretreated at selected reaction conditions and severity. Enzymatic hydrolysis rates increased with severity, but no advantage was detected for the use of carbonic acid compared to water alone. (6) Determine optimal conditions for carbonic acid pretreatment of aspen wood. Optimal severities appeared to be in the mid range tested. ASPEN-Plus modeling and economic analysis of the process indicate that the process could be cost competitive with sulfuric acid if the concentration of solids in the pretreatment is maintained very high ({approx}50%). Lower solids concentrations result in larger reactors that become expensive to construct for high pressure applications.

  2. Unravelling the Mysteries of Carbonic Acid

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Unravelling the Mysteries of Carbonic Acid Unravelling the Mysteries of Carbonic Acid Molecular Dynamics Simulations Carried Out at NERSC June 18, 2015 Lynn Yarris, (510) 486-5375, lcyarris@lbl.gov Saykally co2 in water When gaseous carbon dioxide is dissolved in water, its hydrophobic nature carves out a cylindrical cavity, setting the stage for the proton transfer reactions that produce carbonic acid. Blink your eyes and it's long gone. Carbonic acid exists for only a tiny fraction of a second

  3. ARM - What is the Carbon Cycle?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans What is the Carbon Cycle? Oceanic Properties Future Trends Carbon Cycle Balance Destination of Atmospheric Carbon Sources of Atmospheric Carbon The cycling of carbon from the atmosphere to organic compounds and back again not only involves

  4. Carbon nanotubes on a substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gao, Yufei [Kennewick, WA; Liu, Jun [West Richland, WA

    2002-03-26

    The present invention includes carbon nanotubes whose hollow cores are 100% filled with conductive filler. The carbon nanotubes are in uniform arrays on a conductive substrate and are well-aligned and can be densely packed. The uniformity of the carbon nanotube arrays is indicated by the uniform length and diameter of the carbon nanotubes, both which vary from nanotube to nanotube on a given array by no more than about 5%. The alignment of the carbon nanotubes is indicated by the perpendicular growth of the nanotubes from the substrates which is achieved in part by the simultaneous growth of the conductive filler within the hollow core of the nanotube and the densely packed growth of the nanotubes. The present invention provides a densely packed carbon nanotube growth where each nanotube is in contact with at least one nearest-neighbor nanotube. The substrate is a conductive substrate coated with a growth catalyst, and the conductive filler can be single crystals of carbide formed by a solid state reaction between the substrate material and the growth catalyst. The present invention further provides a method for making the filled carbon nanotubes on the conductive substrates. The method includes the steps of depositing a growth catalyst onto the conductive substrate as a prepared substrate, creating a vacuum within a vessel which contains the prepared substrate, flowing H2/inert (e.g. Ar) gas within the vessel to increase and maintain the pressure within the vessel, increasing the temperature of the prepared substrate, and changing the H2/Ar gas to ethylene gas such that the ethylene gas flows within the vessel. Additionally, varying the density and separation of the catalyst particles on the conductive substrate can be used to control the diameter of the nanotubes.

  5. Carbon tax or carbon permits: The impact on generators' risks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, R.

    2008-07-01

    Volatile fuel prices affect both the cost and price of electricity in a liberalized market. Generators with the price-setting technology will face less risk to their profit margins than those with costs that are not correlated with price, even if those costs are not volatile. Emissions permit prices may respond to relative fuel prices, further increasing volatility. This paper simulates the impact of this on generators' profits, comparing an emissions trading scheme and a carbon tax against predictions for the UK in 2020. The carbon tax reduces the volatility faced by nuclear generators, but raises that faced by fossil fuel stations. Optimal portfolios would contain a higher proportion of nuclear plant if a carbon tax was adopted.

  6. Novel method for carbon nanofilament growth on carbon fibers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, Johathan; Luhrs, Claudia; Terani, Mehran; Al - Haik, Marwan; Garcia, Daniel; Taha, Mahmoud R

    2009-01-01

    Fiber reinforced structural composites such as fiber reinforced polymers (FRPs) have proven to be key materials for blast mitigation due to their enhanced mechanical performance. However, there is a need to further increase total energy absorption of the composites in order to retain structural integrity in high energy environments, for example, blast events. Research has shown that composite failure in high energy environments can be traced to their relatively low shear strength attributed to the limited bond strength between the matrix and the fibers. One area of focus for improving the strength of composite materials has been to create 'multi-scale' composites. The most common approach to date is to introduce carbon nanotubes into a more traditional composite consisting of epoxy with embedded micron scale fibers. The inclusion of carbon nanotubes (CNT) clearly toughens different matrices. Depositing CNT in brittle matrix increases stiffness by orders of magnitude. Currently, this approach to create multiscale composites is limited due to the difficulty of dispersing significant amounts of nanotubes. It has repeatedly been reported that phase separation occurs above relatively low weight percent loading (ca. 3%) due to the strong van der Waals forces between CNTs compared with that between CNT and polymer. Hence, the nanotubes tend to segregate and form inclusions. One means to prevent nanotube or nanofilament agglomeration is to anchor one end of the nanostructure, thereby creating a stable multi-phase structure. This is most easily done by literally growing the CNTs directly on micron scale fibers. Recently, CNT were grown on carbon fibers, both polyacrylonitrile- (PAN-) and pitch-based, by hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) using H2 and CH4 as precursors. Nickel clusters were electrodeposited on the fiber surfaces to catalyze the growth and uniform CNT coatings were obtained on both the PAN- and pitch-based carbon fibers. Multiwalled CNTs with smooth walls and low impurity content were grown. Carbon nanofibers were also grown on a carbon fiber cloth using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (CVD) from a mixture of acetylene and ammonia. In this case, a cobalt colloid was used to achieve a good coverage of nanofibers on carbon fibers in the cloth. Caveats to CNT growth include damage in the carbon fiber surface due to high-temperatures (>800 C). More recently, Qu et al. reported a new method for uniform deposition of CNT on carbon fibers. However, this method requires processing at 1100 C in the presence of oxygen and such high temperature is anticipated to deepen the damage in the carbon fibers. In the present work, multi-scale filaments (herein, linear carbon structures with multi-micron diameter are called 'fibers', all structures with sub-micron diameter are called 'filaments') were created with a low temperature (ca. 550 C) alternative to CVD growth of CNTs. Specifically, nano-scale filaments were rapidly generated (> 10 microns/hour) on commercial micron scale fibers via catalytic (Pd particles) growth from a fuel rich combustion environment at atmospheric pressure. This atmospheric pressure process, derived from the process called Graphitic Growth by Design (GSD), is rapid, the maximum temperature low enough (below 700 C) to avoid structural damage and the process inexpensive and readily scalable. In some cases, a significant and unexpected aspect of the process was the generation of 'three scale' materials. That is, materials with these three size characteristics were produced: (1) micrometer scale commercial PAN fibers, (2) a layer of 'long' sub-micrometer diameter scale carbon filaments, and (3) a dense layer of 'short' nanometer diameter filaments.

  7. Compacted carbon for electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greinke, Ronald Alfred; Lewis, Irwin Charles

    1997-01-01

    This invention provides compacted carbon that is useful in the electrode of an alkali metal/carbon electrochemical cell of improved capacity selected from the group consisting of: (a) coke having the following properties: (i) an x-ray density of at least 2.00 grams per cubic centimeters, (ii) a closed porosity of no greater than 5%, and (iii) an open porosity of no greater than 47%; and (b) graphite having the following properties: (i) an x-ray density of at least 2.20 grams per cubic centimeters, (ii) a closed porosity of no greater than 5%, and (iii) an open porosity of no greater than 25%. This invention also relates to an electrode for an alkali metal/carbon electrochemical cell comprising compacted carbon as described above and a binder. This invention further provides an alkali metal/carbon electrochemical cell comprising: (a) an electrode as described above, (b) a non-aqueous electrolytic solution comprising an organic aprotic solvent and an electrolytically conductive salt and an alkali metal, and (c) a counterelectrode.

  8. Compacted carbon for electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greinke, R.A.; Lewis, I.C.

    1997-10-14

    This invention provides compacted carbon that is useful in the electrode of an alkali metal/carbon electrochemical cell of improved capacity selected from the group consisting of: (a) coke having the following properties: (1) an x-ray density of at least 2.00 grams per cubic centimeters, (2) a closed porosity of no greater than 5%, and (3) an open porosity of no greater than 47%; and (b) graphite having the following properties: (1) an x-ray density of at least 2.20 grams per cubic centimeters, (2) a closed porosity of no greater than 5%, and (3) an open porosity of no greater than 25%. This invention also relates to an electrode for an alkali metal/carbon electrochemical cell comprising compacted carbon as described above and a binder. This invention further provides an alkali metal/carbon electrochemical cell comprising: (a) an electrode as described above, (b) a non-aqueous electrolytic solution comprising an organic aprotic solvent and an electrolytically conductive salt and an alkali metal, and (c) a counter electrode. 10 figs.

  9. Carbon fiber manufacturing via plasma technology

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paulauskas, Felix L.; Yarborough, Kenneth D.; Meek, Thomas T.

    2002-01-01

    The disclosed invention introduces a novel method of manufacturing carbon and/or graphite fibers that avoids the high costs associated with conventional carbonization processes. The method of the present invention avoids these costs by utilizing plasma technology in connection with electromagnetic radiation to produce carbon and/or graphite fibers from fully or partially stabilized carbon fiber precursors. In general, the stabilized or partially stabilized carbon fiber precursors are placed under slight tension, in an oxygen-free atmosphere, and carbonized using a plasma and electromagnetic radiation having a power input which is increased as the fibers become more carbonized and progress towards a final carbon or graphite product. In an additional step, the final carbon or graphite product may be surface treated with an oxygen-plasma treatment to enhance adhesion to matrix materials.

  10. CARBON DIOXIDE AS A FEEDSTOCK.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CREUTZ,C.; FUJITA,E.

    2000-12-09

    This report is an overview on the subject of carbon dioxide as a starting material for organic syntheses of potential commercial interest and the utilization of carbon dioxide as a substrate for fuel production. It draws extensively on literature sources, particularly on the report of a 1999 Workshop on the subject of catalysis in carbon dioxide utilization, but with emphasis on systems of most interest to us. Atmospheric carbon dioxide is an abundant (750 billion tons in atmosphere), but dilute source of carbon (only 0.036 % by volume), so technologies for utilization at the production source are crucial for both sequestration and utilization. Sequestration--such as pumping CO{sub 2} into sea or the earth--is beyond the scope of this report, except where it overlaps utilization, for example in converting CO{sub 2} to polymers. But sequestration dominates current thinking on short term solutions to global warming, as should be clear from reports from this and other workshops. The 3500 million tons estimated to be added to the atmosphere annually at present can be compared to the 110 million tons used to produce chemicals, chiefly urea (75 million tons), salicylic acid, cyclic carbonates and polycarbonates. Increased utilization of CO{sub 2} as a starting material is, however, highly desirable, because it is an inexpensive, non-toxic starting material. There are ongoing efforts to replace phosgene as a starting material. Creation of new materials and markets for them will increase this utilization, producing an increasingly positive, albeit small impact on global CO{sub 2} levels. The other uses of interest are utilization as a solvent and for fuel production and these will be discussed in turn.

  11. Gold-catalyzed synthesis of carbonates and carbamates from carbon monoxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Friend, Cynthia M; Madix, Robert J; Xu, Bingjun

    2015-01-20

    The invention provides a method for producing organic carbonates via the reaction of alcohols and carbon monoxide with oxygen adsorbed on a metallic gold or gold alloy catalyst.

  12. Ultra low friction carbon/carbon composites for extreme temperature applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erdemir, Ali; Busch, Donald E.; Fenske, George R.; Lee, Sam; Shepherd, Gary; Pruett, Gary J.

    2001-01-01

    A carbon/carbon composite in which a carbon matrix containing a controlled amount of boron or a boron compound is reinforced with carbon fiber exhibits a low coefficient of friction, i.e., on the order of 0.04 to 0.1 at temperatures up to 600.degree. C., which is one of the lowest frictional coefficients for any type of carbonaceous material, including graphite, glassy carbon, diamond, diamond-like carbon and other forms of carbon material. The high degree of slipperiness of the carbon composite renders it particularly adapted for limiting friction and wear at elevated temperatures such as in seals, bearings, shafts, and flexible joints

  13. Covalently functionalized carbon nanostructures and methods for their separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, YuHuang; Brozena, Alexandra H; Deng, Shunliu; Zhang, Yin

    2015-03-17

    The present invention is directed to carbon nanostructures, e.g., carbon nanotubes, methods of covalently functionalizing carbon nanostructures, and methods of separating and isolating covalently functionalized carbon. In some embodiments, carbon nanotubes are reacted with alkylating agents to provide water soluble covalently functionalized carbon nanotubes. In other embodiments, carbon nanotubes are reacted with a thermally-responsive agent and exposed to light in order to separate carbon nanotubes of a specific chirality from a mixture of carbon nanotubes.

  14. Carbon Capture | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Carbon Capture Carbon Capture This GIF shows how CO2 emissions vary across the United States. Each bar represents a 50x50 kilometer grid. Bar height is proportional to total CO2 emissions and bar color represents the type of CO2 emissions. Red bars represent proportionately more CO2 emissions from electricity generation (coal, gas and oil). Green bars represent CO2 emissions by other sources (such as ethanol production, iron-steel production and cement manufacture). Yellow/orange bars signify a

  15. CMOS Integrated Carbon Nanotube Sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perez, M. S.; Lerner, B.; Boselli, A.; Lamagna, A.; Obregon, P. D. Pareja; Julian, P. M.; Mandolesi, P. S.; Buffa, F. A.

    2009-05-23

    Recently carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been gaining their importance as sensors for gases, temperature and chemicals. Advances in fabrication processes simplify the formation of CNT sensor on silicon substrate. We have integrated single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with complementary metal oxide semiconductor process (CMOS) to produce a chip sensor system. The sensor prototype was designed and fabricated using a 0.30 um CMOS process. The main advantage is that the device has a voltage amplifier so the electrical measure can be taken and amplified inside the sensor. When the conductance of the SWCNTs varies in response to media changes, this is observed as a variation in the output tension accordingly.

  16. Methods for purifying carbon materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dailly, Anne; Ahn, Channing; Yazami, Rachid; Fultz, Brent T.

    2009-05-26

    Methods of purifying samples are provided that are capable of removing carbonaceous and noncarbonaceous impurities from a sample containing a carbon material having a selected structure. Purification methods are provided for removing residual metal catalyst particles enclosed in multilayer carbonaceous impurities in samples generate by catalytic synthesis methods. Purification methods are provided wherein carbonaceous impurities in a sample are at least partially exfoliated, thereby facilitating subsequent removal of carbonaceous and noncarbonaceous impurities from the sample. Methods of purifying carbon nanotube-containing samples are provided wherein an intercalant is added to the sample and subsequently reacted with an exfoliation initiator to achieve exfoliation of carbonaceous impurities.

  17. Microcellular carbon foam and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simandl, Ronald F.; Brown, John D.

    1993-01-01

    A microcellular carbon foam characterized by a density in the range of about 30 to 1000 mg/cm.sup.3, substantially uniform distribution of cell sizes of diameters less than 100 .mu.m with a majority of the cells being of a diameter of less than about 10 .mu.m, well interconnected strut morphology providing open porosity, and an expanded d(002) X-ray turbostatic spacing greater than 3.50 angstroms. The precursor for the carbon foam is prepared by the phase inversion of polyacrylonitrile in a solution consisting essentially of at least one alkali metal halide and a phase inversion solvent for the polyacrylonitrile.

  18. Microcellular carbon foam and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simandl, Ronald F.; Brown, John D.

    1994-01-01

    A microcellular carbon foam characterized by a density in the range of about 30 to 1000 mg/cm.sup.3, substantially uniform distribution of cell sizes of diameters less than 100 .mu.m with a majority of the cells being of a diameter of less than about 10 .mu.m, well interconnected strut morphology providing open porosity, and an expanded d(002) X-ray turbostatic spacing greater than 3.50 angstroms. The precursor for the carbon foam is prepared by the phase inversion of polyacrylonitrile in a solution consisting essentially of at least one alkali metal halide and a phase inversion solvent for the polyacrylonitrile.

  19. Microcellular carbon foam and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simandl, R.F.; Brown, J.D.

    1993-12-07

    A microcellular carbon foam is characterized by a density in the range of about 30 to 1000 mg/cm[sup 3], substantially uniform distribution of cell sizes of diameters less than 100 [mu]m with a majority of the cells being of a diameter of less than about 10 [mu]m, well interconnected strut morphology providing open porosity, and an expanded d(002) X-ray turbostatic spacing greater than 3.50 angstroms. The precursor for the carbon foam is prepared by the phase inversion of polyacrylonitrile in a solution consisting essentially of at least one alkali metal halide and a phase inversion solvent for the polyacrylonitrile.

  20. Simple ocean carbon cycle models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caldeira, K.; Hoffert, M.I.; Siegenthaler, U.

    1994-02-01

    Simple ocean carbon cycle models can be used to calculate the rate at which the oceans are likely to absorb CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere. For problems involving steady-state ocean circulation, well calibrated ocean models produce results that are very similar to results obtained using general circulation models. Hence, simple ocean carbon cycle models may be appropriate for use in studies in which the time or expense of running large scale general circulation models would be prohibitive. Simple ocean models have the advantage of being based on a small number of explicit assumptions. The simplicity of these ocean models facilitates the understanding of model results.

  1. Method for extracting and sequestering carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rau, Gregory H. (Castro Valley, CA); Caldeira, Kenneth G. (Livermore, CA)

    2005-05-10

    A method and apparatus to extract and sequester carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) from a stream or volume of gas wherein said method and apparatus hydrates CO.sub.2, and reacts the resulting carbonic acid with carbonate. Suitable carbonates include, but are not limited to, carbonates of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, preferably carbonates of calcium and magnesium. Waste products are metal cations and bicarbonate in solution or dehydrated metal salts, which when disposed of in a large body of water provide an effective way of sequestering CO.sub.2 from a gaseous environment.

  2. Apparatus for extracting and sequestering carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rau, Gregory H. (Castro Valley, CA); Caldeira, Kenneth G. (Livermore, CA)

    2010-02-02

    An apparatus and method associated therewith to extract and sequester carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) from a stream or volume of gas wherein said apparatus hydrates CO.sub.2 and reacts the resulting carbonic acid with carbonate. Suitable carbonates include, but are not limited to, carbonates of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, preferably carbonates of calcium and magnesium. Waste products are metal cations and bicarbonate in solution or dehydrated metal salts, which when disposed of in a large body of water provide an effective way of sequestering CO.sub.2 from a gaseous environment.

  3. Heterologous production of an energy-conserving carbon monoxide...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    In this study, carbon monoxide (CO) is an important intermediate in anaerobic carbon ... hydrogen; carbon monoxide; energy; anaerobic respiration; Thermococcales Word Cloud ...

  4. Indonesia-Low Carbon Development Options Study | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Indonesia-Low Carbon Development Options Study (Redirected from ESMAP-Indonesia-Low Carbon Development Options Study) Jump to: navigation, search Name Indonesia-ESMAP Low Carbon...

  5. Tools for Forest Carbon Inventory, Management, and Reporting...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of carbon in forests are crucial for forest carbon management, carbon credit trading, national reporting of greenhouse gas inventories to the United Nations Framework...

  6. Beryllium-7 labeled carbon particles and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richards, Powell; Mausner, Leonard F.; Prach, Thomas F.

    1987-01-01

    Beryllium-7 labeled carbon particles made from the proton irradiation of carbon materials, preferably from dry carbon black are disclosed. Such particles are useful as gamma emitting radiotracers.

  7. Time-Resolved Study of Bonding in Liquid Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    results from molecular dynamics simulations. Extreme Carbon: Liquid Diamond or Molten Graphite? Versatile carbon takes on a dizzying array of forms and functions. Chains of carbon...

  8. Beryllium-7 labeled carbon particles and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richards, P.; Mausner, L.F.; Prach, T.F.

    1987-11-17

    Beryllium-7 labeled carbon particles made from the proton irradiation of carbon materials, preferably from dry carbon black are disclosed. Such particles are useful as gamma emitting radiotracers.

  9. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbo-Expander and Heat Exchangers...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbo-Expander and Heat Exchangers Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbo-Expander and Heat Exchangers This fact sheet describes a supercritical carbon ...

  10. Low Cost Carbon Fiber Overview | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    02_warren_2011_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Low Cost Carbon Fiber Overview Lower Cost, Higher Performance Carbon Fiber Lower Cost Carbon Fiber Precursors

  11. Beryllium-7 labeled carbon particles and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richards, P.; Mausner, L.F.; Prach, T.F.

    1985-04-29

    Beryllium-7 labeled carbon particles made from the proton irradiation of carbon materials, preferably from dry carbon black are disclosed. Such particles are useful as gamma emitting radiotracers.

  12. Energy-Related Carbon Emissions, by Industry, 1994

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Efficiency Page > Energy Energy-Related Carbon Emissions > Total Table Total Energy-Related Carbon Emissions for Manufacturing Industries, 1994 Carbon Emissions (million...

  13. Mexico-Low-Carbon Development | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mexico-Low-Carbon Development (Redirected from ESMAP-Low-Carbon Development for Mexico) Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Mexico-ESMAP Low Carbon Growth Studies Program Name...

  14. 2011 Department of Energy Investments in Carbon Capture Technologies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Investments in Carbon Capture Technologies 2011 Department of Energy Investments in Carbon Capture Technologies 2011 Department of Energy Investments in Carbon...

  15. Morocco-Low Carbon Development Planning in the Power Sector ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Low Carbon Development Planning in the Power Sector Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Morocco-Low Carbon Development Planning in the Power Sector Name Morocco-Low Carbon...

  16. Bloomberg New Energy Finance Carbon Markets formerly New Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Bloomberg New Energy Finance Carbon Markets formerly New Energy Finance Carbon Markets Group Jump to: navigation, search Name: Bloomberg New Energy Finance Carbon Markets (formerly...

  17. Easy Carbon Consultancy Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Carbon Consultancy Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Easy Carbon Consultancy Co Ltd Place: Chaoyang District, Beijing Municipality, China Zip: 100022 Sector: Carbon Product:...

  18. Nigeria-Low Carbon Development Planning in the Power Sector ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Low Carbon Development Planning in the Power Sector Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Nigeria-Low Carbon Development Planning in the Power Sector Name Nigeria-Low Carbon...

  19. EFRC Carbon Capture and Sequestration Activities at NERSC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    EFRC Carbon Capture and Sequestration Activities at NERSC EFRC Carbon Capture and Sequestration Activities at NERSC Why it Matters: Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas is considered to be...

  20. International Carbon Reduction Offset Alliance ICROA | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Carbon Reduction Offset Alliance ICROA Jump to: navigation, search Name: International Carbon Reduction & Offset Alliance (ICROA) Place: United Kingdom Sector: Carbon Product:...

  1. Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Carbon Sequestration Partnership Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership Name: Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership Address: 2327 University...

  2. Carbon Credit Capital and Feedback Ventures JV | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Capital and Feedback Ventures JV Jump to: navigation, search Name: Carbon Credit Capital and Feedback Ventures JV Place: India Sector: Carbon Product: String representation "Carbon...

  3. Low Carbon Communities of the Americas | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Low Carbon Communities of the Americas Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Low Carbon Communities of the Americas Name Low Carbon Communities of the Americas AgencyCompany...

  4. Carbon Nanotube Membranes: Carbon Nanotube Membranes for Energy-Efficient Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-03-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Porifera is developing carbon nanotube membranes that allow more efficient removal of CO2 from coal plant exhaust. Most of todays carbon capture methods use chemical solvents, but capture methods that use membranes to draw CO2 out of exhaust gas are potentially more efficient and cost effective. Traditionally, membranes are limited by the rate at which they allow gas to flow through them and the amount of CO2 they can attract from the gas. Smooth support pores and the unique structure of Poriferas carbon nanotube membranes allows them to be more permeable than other polymeric membranes, yet still selective enough for CO2 removal. This approach could overcome the barriers facing membrane-based approaches for capturing CO2 from coal plant exhausts.

  5. Carbon Constraints and the Electric Power Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-11-15

    The report is designed to provide a thorough understanding of the type of carbon constraints that are likely to be imposed, when they are likely to take effect, and how they will impact the electric power industry. The main objective of the report is to provide industry participants with the knowledge they need to plan for and react to a future in which carbon emissions are restricted. The main goal of the report is to ensure an understanding of the likely restrictions that will be placed on carbon emissions, the methods available for reducing their carbon emissions, and the impact that carbon reductions will have on the electric power industry. A secondary goal of the report is to provide information on key carbon programs and market participants to enable companies to begin participating in the international carbon marketplace. Topics covered in the report include: overview of what climate change and the Kyoto Protocol are; analysis of the impacts of climate change on the U.S. and domestic efforts to mandate carbon reductions; description of carbon reduction mechanisms and the types of carbon credits that can be created; evaluation of the benefits of carbon trading and the rules for participation under Kyoto; Description of the methods for reducing carbon emissions available to the U.S. electric power industry; analysis of the impact of carbon restrictions on the U.S. electric power industry in terms of both prices and revenues; evaluation of the impact of carbon restrictions on renewable energy; overview of the current state of the global carbon market including descriptions of the three major marketplaces; descriptions of the industry and government programs already underway to reduce carbon emissions in the U.S. electric power industry; and, profiles of the major international carbon exchanges and brokers.

  6. Low Carbon Aviation Committee Meeting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The first committee meeting of the Propulsion and Energy Systems to Reduce Commercial Aviation Carbon Emissions Project will be held on June 2–3, 2015 at the National Academy of Sciences. BETO Director Jonathan Male will be speaking on a Department of Energy panel at the meeting, and Lead Analyst Zia Haq will be in attendance.

  7. Desalination with carbon aerogel electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farmer, J.C.; Richardson, J.H.; Fix, D.V.

    1996-10-21

    An electrically regenerated electrosorption process known as carbon aerogel CDI was developed for continuously removing ionic impurities from aqueous streams. A salt solution flows in a channel formed by pairs of parallel carbon aerogel electrodes. Each electrode has a very high BET surface area and very low resistivity. After polarization, anions and cations are removed from electrolyte by the electric field and electrosorbed onto the carbon aerogel. The solution is thus separated into two streams, brine and water. Based on this, carbon aerogel CDI appears to be an energy-efficient alternative to evaporation, electrodialysis, and reverse osmosis. The energy required by this process is about QV/2, plus losses. Estimated energy requirement for sea water desalination is 18-27 Wh gal{sup -1}, depending on cell voltage and flow rate. The requirement for brackish water desalination is less, 1.2-2.5 Wh gal{sup -1} at 1600 ppM. This is assuming that stored electrical energy is reclaimed during regeneration.

  8. Terahertz detection and carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leonard, Francois

    2014-06-11

    Researchers at Sandia National Laboratories, along with collaborators from Rice University and the Tokyo Institute of Technology, are developing new terahertz detectors based on carbon nanotubes that could lead to significant improvements in medical imaging, airport passenger screening, food inspection and other applications.

  9. Terahertz detection and carbon nanotubes

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Leonard, Francois

    2014-06-13

    Researchers at Sandia National Laboratories, along with collaborators from Rice University and the Tokyo Institute of Technology, are developing new terahertz detectors based on carbon nanotubes that could lead to significant improvements in medical imaging, airport passenger screening, food inspection and other applications.

  10. Precise carbon control of fabricated stainless steel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nilsen, R.J.

    1975-12-01

    A process is described for controlling the carbon content of fabricated stainless steel components including the steps of heat treating the component in hydrogen atmospheres of varying dewpoints and carbon potentials.

  11. DOE Manual Studies Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    There is considerable opportunity and growing technical sophistication to make terrestrial carbon sequestration both practical and effective, according to the latest carbon capture and storage "best practices" manual issued by the U.S. Department of Energy.

  12. Recycling Carbon Dioxide to Make Plastics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The world’s first successful large-scale production of a polypropylene carbonate polymer using waste carbon dioxide as a key raw material has resulted from a projected funded in part by the U.S. Department of Energy.

  13. Activated, coal-based carbon foam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rogers, Darren Kenneth; Plucinski, Janusz Wladyslaw

    2004-12-21

    An ablation resistant, monolithic, activated, carbon foam produced by the activation of a coal-based carbon foam through the action of carbon dioxide, ozone or some similar oxidative agent that pits and/or partially oxidizes the carbon foam skeleton, thereby significantly increasing its overall surface area and concurrently increasing its filtering ability. Such activated carbon foams are suitable for application in virtually all areas where particulate or gel form activated carbon materials have been used. Such an activated carbon foam can be fabricated, i.e. sawed, machined and otherwise shaped to fit virtually any required filtering location by simple insertion and without the need for handling the "dirty" and friable particulate activated carbon foam materials of the prior art.

  14. FE Carbon Capture and Storage News

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DC 20585202-586-6660 en NETL's 2015 Carbon Storage Atlas Shows Increase in U.S. CO2 Storage Potential http:energy.govfearticlesnetl-s-2015-carbon-storage-atlas-shows-...

  15. ARM - Measurement - Carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration The amount of carbon dioxide, a heavy, colorless...

  16. EcoBio Carbon | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EcoBio Carbon Jump to: navigation, search Name: EcoBio Carbon Place: Sao Paulo, Santa Catarina, Brazil Zip: 88750-000 Product: Brazilian CDM project developer. References: EcoBio...

  17. Sindicatum Carbon Capital SCC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sindicatum Carbon Capital SCC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Sindicatum Carbon Capital (SCC) Place: London, United Kingdom Zip: W1S 1HX Product: SCC is a specialist end-to-end...

  18. Carbon Capital Markets | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Capital Markets Jump to: navigation, search Name: Carbon Capital Markets Place: London, United Kingdom Zip: W1J 8DY Sector: Carbon Product: London-based fund manager and trader...

  19. Low Carbon Investors Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Investors Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Low Carbon Investors Ltd Place: London, England, United Kingdom Zip: W1W 7TH Sector: Carbon Product: London-based manager of the Low...

  20. Integrated Climate and Carbon-cycle Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2006-03-06

    The INCCA model is a numerical climate and carbon cycle modeling tool for use in studying climate change and carbon cycle science. The model includes atmosphere, ocean, land surface, and sea ice components.

  1. New Species of Cyanobacteria Forms Intracellular Carbonates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Species of Cyanobacteria Forms Intracellular Carbonates Print A new species of cyanobacteria-photosynthetic bacteria that occupy a wide array of habitats-was discovered in the Mexican Lake of Alchichica where massive carbonate rocks form. Cyanobacteria have been impacting the global carbon cycle of the Earth for more than 2.3 billion years by assimilating CO2 into organic compounds and triggering calcium carbonate (CaCO3) precipitation. Despite the importance of this cyanobacteria-mediated

  2. New Species of Cyanobacteria Forms Intracellular Carbonates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Species of Cyanobacteria Forms Intracellular Carbonates Print A new species of cyanobacteria-photosynthetic bacteria that occupy a wide array of habitats-was discovered in the Mexican Lake of Alchichica where massive carbonate rocks form. Cyanobacteria have been impacting the global carbon cycle of the Earth for more than 2.3 billion years by assimilating CO2 into organic compounds and triggering calcium carbonate (CaCO3) precipitation. Despite the importance of this cyanobacteria-mediated

  3. New Species of Cyanobacteria Forms Intracellular Carbonates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Species of Cyanobacteria Forms Intracellular Carbonates Print A new species of cyanobacteria-photosynthetic bacteria that occupy a wide array of habitats-was discovered in the Mexican Lake of Alchichica where massive carbonate rocks form. Cyanobacteria have been impacting the global carbon cycle of the Earth for more than 2.3 billion years by assimilating CO2 into organic compounds and triggering calcium carbonate (CaCO3) precipitation. Despite the importance of this cyanobacteria-mediated

  4. New Species of Cyanobacteria Forms Intracellular Carbonates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Species of Cyanobacteria Forms Intracellular Carbonates New Species of Cyanobacteria Forms Intracellular Carbonates Print Wednesday, 30 January 2013 00:00 A new species of cyanobacteria-photosynthetic bacteria that occupy a wide array of habitats-was discovered in the Mexican Lake of Alchichica where massive carbonate rocks form. Cyanobacteria have been impacting the global carbon cycle of the Earth for more than 2.3 billion years by assimilating CO2 into organic compounds and triggering

  5. New Species of Cyanobacteria Forms Intracellular Carbonates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Species of Cyanobacteria Forms Intracellular Carbonates Print A new species of cyanobacteria-photosynthetic bacteria that occupy a wide array of habitats-was discovered in the Mexican Lake of Alchichica where massive carbonate rocks form. Cyanobacteria have been impacting the global carbon cycle of the Earth for more than 2.3 billion years by assimilating CO2 into organic compounds and triggering calcium carbonate (CaCO3) precipitation. Despite the importance of this cyanobacteria-mediated

  6. Carbon sequestration in depleted oil shale deposits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burnham, Alan K; Carroll, Susan A

    2014-12-02

    A method and apparatus are described for sequestering carbon dioxide underground by mineralizing the carbon dioxide with coinjected fluids and minerals remaining from the extraction shale oil. In one embodiment, the oil shale of an illite-rich oil shale is heated to pyrolyze the shale underground, and carbon dioxide is provided to the remaining depleted oil shale while at an elevated temperature. Conditions are sufficient to mineralize the carbon dioxide.

  7. Greening up fossil fuels with carbon sequestration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Greening up fossil fuels with carbon sequestration 1663 Los Alamos science and technology magazine Latest Issue:March 2016 past issues All Issues » submit Greening up fossil fuels with carbon sequestration Researchers make progress fighting climate change by capturing carbon dioxide from power plants and storing it deep underground in geological reservoirs March 25, 2013 Greening up fossil fuels with carbon sequestration Most of the world's existing energy supply is stored underground in

  8. Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) Announces Renewable Carbon...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) Announces ... Related Articles Renewable Carbon Fibers Bioenergy Technologies Office Announces Notice of ...

  9. Comparison Of Hydrothermal Alteration Of Carboniferous Carbonate...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    could invade carbonate rocks which were otherwise essentially impermeable. Alteration intensity (and correspondingly inferred paleopermeability) is only slightly higher in...

  10. Carbon dioxide capture process with regenerable sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pennline, Henry W.; Hoffman, James S.

    2002-05-14

    A process to remove carbon dioxide from a gas stream using a cross-flow, or a moving-bed reactor. In the reactor the gas contacts an active material that is an alkali-metal compound, such as an alkali-metal carbonate, alkali-metal oxide, or alkali-metal hydroxide; or in the alternative, an alkaline-earth metal compound, such as an alkaline-earth metal carbonate, alkaline-earth metal oxide, or alkaline-earth metal hydroxide. The active material can be used by itself or supported on a substrate of carbon, alumina, silica, titania or aluminosilicate. When the active material is an alkali-metal compound, the carbon-dioxide reacts with the metal compound to generate bicarbonate. When the active material is an alkaline-earth metal, the carbon dioxide reacts with the metal compound to generate carbonate. Spent sorbent containing the bicarbonate or carbonate is moved to a second reactor where it is heated or treated with a reducing agent such as, natural gas, methane, carbon monoxide hydrogen, or a synthesis gas comprising of a combination of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The heat or reducing agent releases carbon dioxide gas and regenerates the active material for use as the sorbent material in the first reactor. New sorbent may be added to the regenerated sorbent prior to subsequent passes in the carbon dioxide removal reactor.

  11. Method of removing carbon monoxide from gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gerstein, Bernard C.; Macaulay, David B.

    1976-06-01

    A process and catalyst are disclosed for purifying an atmosphere containing carbon monoxide by passing the atmosphere through a bed of a catalyst of TbO.sub.x, where x = 1.8 to 1.5, which oxidizes the carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide.

  12. Pyrolytic carbon-coated nuclear fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lindemer, Terrence B.; Long, Jr., Ernest L.; Beatty, Ronald L.

    1978-01-01

    An improved nuclear fuel kernel having at least one pyrolytic carbon coating and a silicon carbon layer is provided in which extensive interaction of fission product lanthanides with the silicon carbon layer is avoided by providing sufficient UO.sub.2 to maintain the lanthanides as oxides during in-reactor use of said fuel.

  13. High surface area silicon carbide-coated carbon aerogel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Worsley, Marcus A; Kuntz, Joshua D; Baumann, Theodore F; Satcher, Jr, Joe H

    2014-01-14

    A metal oxide-carbon composite includes a carbon aerogel with an oxide overcoat. The metal oxide-carbon composite is made by providing a carbon aerogel, immersing the carbon aerogel in a metal oxide sol under a vacuum, raising the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol to atmospheric pressure, curing the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol at room temperature, and drying the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol to produce the metal oxide-carbon composite. The step of providing a carbon aerogel can provide an activated carbon aerogel or provide a carbon aerogel with carbon nanotubes that make the carbon aerogel mechanically robust. Carbon aerogels can be coated with sol-gel silica and the silica can be converted to silicone carbide, improved the thermal stability of the carbon aerogel.

  14. CE2 Carbon Capital LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Carbon Capital LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: CE2 Carbon Capital LLC Place: California Sector: Carbon, Renewable Energy Product: US-based carbon trader that looks to take...

  15. Allied Carbon Credit GmbH | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Allied Carbon Credit GmbH Jump to: navigation, search Name: Allied Carbon Credit GmbH Place: Hessen, Germany Sector: Carbon Product: Frankfurt-based carbon advisory and consultancy...

  16. Combustion and Carbon Cycle 2.0 and Computation in CC 2.0 (Carbon Cycle

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    2.0) (Conference) | SciTech Connect Combustion and Carbon Cycle 2.0 and Computation in CC 2.0 (Carbon Cycle 2.0) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Combustion and Carbon Cycle 2.0 and Computation in CC 2.0 (Carbon Cycle 2.0) Robert Cheng and Juan Meza provide two presentations in one session at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 3, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle

  17. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint Definitions and Assumptions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Definitions and Assumptions, October 2012 Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint ... More Documents & Publications Understanding Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprints, ...

  18. CO2 CAPTURE BY ABSORPTION WITH POTASSIUM CARBONATE (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Subject: 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; CARBON DIOXIDE; ABSORPTION; SORPTIVE PROPERTIES; POTASSIUM CARBONATES; THERMODYNAMIC MODEL; VAPOR PRESSURE; AIR POLLUTION CONTROL Word Cloud ...

  19. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Subject: 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; CARBON DIOXIDE; ABSORPTION; POTASSIUM CARBONATES; SORPTIVE PROPERTIES; AMINES; MATERIALS RECOVERY; AIR POLLUTION CONTROL; MATHEMATICAL MODELS ...

  20. CO2 CAPTURE BY ABSORPTION WITH POTASSIUM CARBONATE (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Subject: 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; ABSORPTION; HEAT EXCHANGERS; PILOT PLANTS; POTASSIUM CARBONATES; THERMODYNAMICS; VAPOR PRESSURE; CARBON DIOXIDE; AIR POLLUTION CONTROL; SORPTIVE ...

  1. The Structure of Ions near Carbon Nanotubes: New Insights into Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Surface Chemistry and Implications for Water Purification The Structure of Ions near Carbon Nanotubes: New Insights into Carbon Surface Chemistry and Implications for Water Purification Carbon-based materials have long been used for a variety of water purification operations. Researchers have investigated carbon materials as adsorbents for decades, but only limited information on the precise details of aqueous ion interactions with carbon surfaces has been uncovered. It is empirically known

  2. Novel Application of Carbonate Fuel Cell for Capturing Carbon Dioxide from

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Flue Gas Streams (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Novel Application of Carbonate Fuel Cell for Capturing Carbon Dioxide from Flue Gas Streams Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Novel Application of Carbonate Fuel Cell for Capturing Carbon Dioxide from Flue Gas Streams To address concerns about climate change resulting from emission of CO2 by coal-fueled power plants, FuelCell Energy, Inc. has developed the Combined Electric Power and Carbon-dioxide Separation (CEPACS) system

  3. Method for the preparation of carbon fiber from polyolefin fiber precursor, and carbon fibers made thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Naskar, Amit Kumar; Hunt, Marcus Andrew; Saito, Tomonori

    2015-08-04

    Methods for the preparation of carbon fiber from polyolefin fiber precursor, wherein the polyolefin fiber precursor is partially sulfonated and then carbonized to produce carbon fiber. Methods for producing hollow carbon fibers, wherein the hollow core is circular- or complex-shaped, are also described. Methods for producing carbon fibers possessing a circular- or complex-shaped outer surface, which may be solid or hollow, are also described.

  4. Carbon nanotube coatings as chemical absorbers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tillotson, Thomas M.; Andresen, Brian D.; Alcaraz, Armando

    2004-06-15

    Airborne or aqueous organic compound collection using carbon nanotubes. Exposure of carbon nanotube-coated disks to controlled atmospheres of chemical warefare (CW)-related compounds provide superior extraction and retention efficiencies compared to commercially available airborne organic compound collectors. For example, the carbon nanotube-coated collectors were four (4) times more efficient toward concentrating dimethylmethyl-phosphonate (DMMP), a CW surrogate, than Carboxen, the optimized carbonized polymer for CW-related vapor collections. In addition to DMMP, the carbon nanotube-coated material possesses high collection efficiencies for the CW-related compounds diisopropylaminoethanol (DIEA), and diisopropylmethylphosphonate (DIMP).

  5. Surface-functionalized mesoporous carbon materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng; Gorka, Joanna; Mayes, Richard T.

    2016-02-02

    A functionalized mesoporous carbon composition comprising a mesoporous carbon scaffold having mesopores in which polyvinyl polymer grafts are covalently attached, wherein said mesopores have a size of at least 2 nm and up to 50 nm. Also described is a method for producing the functionalized mesoporous composition, wherein a reaction medium comprising a precursor mesoporous carbon, vinyl monomer, initiator, and solvent is subjected to sonication of sufficient power to result in grafting and polymerization of the vinyl monomer into mesopores of the precursor mesoporous carbon. Also described are methods for using the functionalized mesoporous carbon, particularly in extracting metal ions from metal-containing solutions.

  6. Probing the Surprising Secrets of Carbonic Acid

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Surprising Secrets of Carbonic Acid Probing the Surprising Secrets of Carbonic Acid Berkeley Lab Study Holds Implications for Geological and Biological Processes October 23, 2014 Contact: Lynn Yarris, lcyarris@lbl.gov, 510.486.5375 CarbonicAcid Though carbonic acid exists for only a fraction of a second before changing into a mix of hydrogen and bicarbonate ions, it is critical to both the health of the atmosphere and the human body. Though it garners few public headlines, carbonic acid, the

  7. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2004-06-30

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks; development of GIS-based reporting framework; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. At the first two Partnership meetings the groundwork was put in place to provide an assessment of capture and storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. During the third quarter, planning efforts are underway for the next Partnership meeting which will showcase the architecture of the GIS framework and initial results for sources and sinks, discuss the methods and analysis underway for assessing geological and terrestrial sequestration potentials. The meeting will conclude with an ASME workshop (see attached agenda). The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other western DOE partnerships. Efforts are also being made to find funding to include Wyoming in the coverage areas for both geological and terrestrial sinks and sources. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but all policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts begun in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is also underway to identify and validate best management practices for soil C in the Partnership region, and to design a risk/cost effectiveness framework to make comparative assessments of each viable sink, taking into account economic costs, offsetting benefits, scale of sequestration opportunities, spatial and time dimensions, environmental risks, and long-term viability. Scientifically sound information on MMV is critical for public acceptance of these technologies. Two key deliverables were completed in the second quarter--a literature review/database to assess the soil carbon on rangelands, and the draft protocols, contracting options for soil carbon trading. The protocols developed for soil carbon trading are unique and provide a key component of the mechanisms that might be used to efficiently sequester GHG and reduce CO2 concentrations. While no key deliverables were due during the third quarter, progress on other deliverables is noted in the PowerPoint presentations and in this report. A series of meetings held during the second and third quarters have laid the foundations for assessing the issues surrounding carbon sequestration in this region, the need for a holistic approach to meeting energy demands and economic development potential, and the implementation of government programs or a market-based setting for soil C credits. These meetings provide a connection to stakeholders in the region and a basis on which to draw for the DOE PEIS hearings. A third Partnership meeting has been planned for August 04 in Idaho Falls; a preliminary agenda is attached.

  8. The National Carbon Capture Center

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    National Carbon Capture Center at the Power Systems Development Facility Topical Report Budget Period Four Ja n u a r y 1, 2013 - D e c e m b e r 31, 2013 DOE C o o p e ra tiv e A g r e e m e n t DE-NT0000749 The National Carbon Capture Center at the Power Systems Developm ent Facility Topical Report Budget Period Four Ja n u a r y 1, 2013 - D e c e m b e r 31, 2013 DOE C o o p e ra tiv e A g r e e m e n t DE-NT0000749 P r e p a r e d by: S o u t h e r n C o m p a n y Services, Inc. P o w e r S

  9. Method for carbon dioxide sequestration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Yifeng; Bryan, Charles R.; Dewers, Thomas; Heath, Jason E.

    2015-09-22

    A method for geo-sequestration of a carbon dioxide includes selection of a target water-laden geological formation with low-permeability interbeds, providing an injection well into the formation and injecting supercritical carbon dioxide (SC--CO.sub.2) into the injection well under conditions of temperature, pressure and density selected to cause the fluid to enter the formation and splinter and/or form immobilized ganglia within the formation. This process allows for the immobilization of the injected SC--CO.sub.2 for very long times. The dispersal of scCO2 into small ganglia is accomplished by alternating injection of SC--CO.sub.2 and water. The injection rate is required to be high enough to ensure the SC--CO.sub.2 at the advancing front to be broken into pieces and small enough for immobilization through viscous instability.

  10. Microcellular carbon foam and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simandl, R.F.; Brown, J.D.

    1994-04-05

    A microcellular carbon foam is described which is characterized by a density in the range of about 30 to 1000 mg/cm[sup 3], substantially uniform distribution of cell sizes of diameters less than 100 [mu]m with a majority of the cells being of a diameter of less than about 10 [mu]m, well interconnected strut morphology providing open porosity, and an expanded d(002) X-ray turbostatic spacing greater than 3.50 angstroms. The precursor for the carbon foam is prepared by the phase inversion of polyacrylonitrile in a solution consisting essentially of at least one alkali metal halide and a phase inversion solvent for the polyacrylonitrile.

  11. Microcellular carbon foam and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simandl, R.F.; Brown, J.D.

    1993-05-04

    A microcellular carbon foam is characterized by a density in the range of about 30 to 1,000 mg/cm[sup 3], substantially uniform distribution of cell sizes of diameters less than 100 [mu]m with a majority of the cells being of a diameter of less than about 10 [mu]m. The foam has a well interconnected strut morphology providing open porosity, and an expanded d(002) X-ray turbostatic spacing greater than 3.50 angstroms. The precursor for the carbon foam is prepared by the phase inversion of polyacrylonitrile in a solution consisting essentially of at least one alkali metal halide and a phase inversion solvent for the polyacrylonitrile.

  12. Anion Solvation in Carbonate Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Zhengcheng

    2015-11-16

    With the correlation between Li+ solvation and interphasial chemistry on anodes firmly established in Li-ion batteries, the effect of cation–solvent interaction has gone beyond bulk thermodynamic and transport properties and become an essential element that determines the reversibility of electrochemistry and kinetics of Li-ion intercalation chemistries. As of now, most studies are dedicated to the solvation of Li+, and the solvation of anions in carbonate-based electrolytes and its possible effect on the electrochemical stability of such electrolytes remains little understood. As a mirror effort to prior Li+ solvation studies, this work focuses on the interactions between carbonate-based solvents and two anions (hexafluorophosphate, PF6–, and tetrafluoroborate, BF4–) that are most frequently used in Li-ion batteries. The possible correlation between such interaction and the interphasial chemistry on cathode surface is also explored.

  13. Characterization of electrospun lignin based carbon fibers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poursorkhabi, Vida; Mohanty, Amar; Misra, Manjusri

    2015-05-22

    The production of lignin fibers has been studied in order to replace the need for petroleum based precursors for carbon fiber production. In addition to its positive environmental effects, it also benefits the economics of the industries which cannot take advantage of carbon fiber properties because of their high price. A large amount of lignin is annually produced as the byproduct of paper and growing cellulosic ethanol industry. Therefore, finding high value applications for this low cost, highly available material is getting more attention. Lignin is a biopolymer making about 15 30 % of the plant cell walls and has a high carbon yield upon carbonization. However, its processing is challenging due to its low molecular weight and also variations based on its origin and the method of separation from cellulose. In this study, alkali solutions of organosolv lignin with less than 1 wt/v% of poly (ethylene oxide) and two types of lignin (hardwood and softwood) were electrospun followed by carbonization. Different heating programs for carbonization were tested. The carbonized fibers had a smooth surface with an average diameter of less than 5?m and the diameter could be controlled by the carbonization process and lignin type. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to study morphology of the fibers before and after carbonization. Thermal conductivity of a sample with amorphous carbon was 2.31?W/m.K. The electrospun lignin carbon fibers potentially have a large range of application such as in energy storage devices and water or gas purification systems.

  14. Carbon fibers from SRC pitch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greskovich, Eugene J. (Allentown, PA); Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA)

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved method of manufacturing carbon fibers from a coal derived pitch. The improvement resides in the use of a solvent refined coal which has been hydrotreated and subjected to solvent extraction whereby the hetero atom content in the resulting product is less than 4.0% by weight and the softening point is between about 100.degree.-250.degree. F.

  15. Supercapacitors based on carbon foams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaschmitter, J.L.; Mayer, S.T.; Pekala, R.W.

    1993-11-09

    A high energy density capacitor incorporating a variety of carbon foam electrodes is described. The foams, derived from the pyrolysis of resorcinol-formaldehyde and related polymers, are high density (0.1 g/cc-1.0 g/cc) electrically conductive and have high surface areas (400 m[sup 2]/g-1000 m[sup 2]/g). Capacitances on the order of several tens of farad per gram of electrode are achieved. 9 figures.

  16. Supercapacitors based on carbon foams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaschmitter, James L.; Mayer, Steven T.; Pekala, Richard W.

    1993-01-01

    A high energy density capacitor incorporating a variety of carbon foam electrodes is described. The foams, derived from the pyrolysis of resorcinol-formaldehyde and related polymers, are high density (0.1 g/cc-1.0 g/cc) electrically conductive and have high surface areas (400 m.sup.2 /g-1000 m.sup.2 /g). Capacitances on the order of several tens of farad per gram of electrode are achieved.

  17. Molten carbonate fuel cell matrices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogel, Wolfgang M.; Smith, Stanley W.

    1985-04-16

    A molten carbonate fuel cell including a cathode electrode of electrically conducting or semiconducting lanthanum containing material and an electrolyte containing matrix of an electrically insulating lanthanum perovskite. In addition, in an embodiment where the cathode electrode is LaMnO.sub.3, the matrix may include LaAlO.sub.3 or a lithium containing material such as LiAlO.sub.2 or Li.sub.2 TiO.sub.3.

  18. Fabricating solid carbon porous electrodes from powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaschmitter, J.L.; Tran, T.D.; Feikert, J.H.; Mayer, S.T.

    1997-06-10

    Fabrication is described for conductive solid porous carbon electrodes for use in batteries, double layer capacitors, fuel cells, capacitive deionization, and waste treatment. Electrodes fabricated from low surface area (<50 m{sup 2}/gm) graphite and cokes exhibit excellent reversible lithium intercalation characteristics, making them ideal for use as anodes in high voltage lithium insertion (lithium-ion) batteries. Electrodes having a higher surface area, fabricated from powdered carbon blacks, such as carbon aerogel powder, carbon aerogel microspheres, activated carbons, etc. yield high conductivity carbon composites with excellent double layer capacity, and can be used in double layer capacitors, or for capacitive deionization and/or waste treatment of liquid streams. By adding metallic catalysts to high surface area carbons, fuel cell electrodes can be produced. 1 fig.

  19. Fabricating solid carbon porous electrodes from powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaschmitter, James L.; Tran, Tri D.; Feikert, John H.; Mayer, Steven T.

    1997-01-01

    Fabrication of conductive solid porous carbon electrodes for use in batteries, double layer capacitors, fuel cells, capacitive dionization, and waste treatment. Electrodes fabricated from low surface area (<50 m.sup.2 /gm) graphite and cokes exhibit excellent reversible lithium intercalation characteristics, making them ideal for use as anodes in high voltage lithium insertion (lithium-ion) batteries. Electrodes having a higher surface area, fabricated from powdered carbon blacks, such as carbon aerogel powder, carbon aerogel microspheres, activated carbons, etc. yield high conductivity carbon compositives with excellent double layer capacity, and can be used in double layer capacitors, or for capacitive deionization and/or waste treatment of liquid streams. By adding metallic catalysts to be high surface area carbons, fuel cell electrodes can be produced.

  20. Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Susan Capalbo

    2005-12-31

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership in Phase I are organized into four areas: (1) Evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks that will be used to determine the location of pilot demonstrations in Phase II; (2) Development of GIS-based reporting framework that links with national networks; (3) Design of an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies, market-based opportunities for carbon management, and an economic/risk assessment framework; (referred to below as the Advanced Concepts component of the Phase I efforts) and (4) Initiation of a comprehensive education and outreach program. As a result of the Phase I activities, the groundwork is in place to provide an assessment of storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that complements the ongoing DOE research agenda in Carbon Sequestration. The geology of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership Region is favorable for the potential sequestration of enormous volume of CO{sub 2}. The United States Geological Survey (USGS 1995) identified 10 geologic provinces and 111 plays in the region. These provinces and plays include both sedimentary rock types characteristic of oil, gas, and coal productions as well as large areas of mafic volcanic rocks. Of the 10 provinces and 111 plays, 1 province and 4 plays are located within Idaho. The remaining 9 provinces and 107 plays are dominated by sedimentary rocks and located in the states of Montana and Wyoming. The potential sequestration capacity of the 9 sedimentary provinces within the region ranges from 25,000 to almost 900,000 million metric tons of CO{sub 2}. Overall every sedimentary formation investigated has significant potential to sequester large amounts of CO{sub 2}. Simulations conducted to evaluate mineral trapping potential of mafic volcanic rock formations located in the Idaho province suggest that supercritical CO{sub 2} is converted to solid carbonate mineral within a few hundred years and permanently entombs the carbon. Although MMV for this rock type may be challenging, a carefully chosen combination of geophysical and geochemical techniques should allow assessment of the fate of CO{sub 2} in deep basalt hosted aquifers. Terrestrial carbon sequestration relies on land management practices and technologies to remove atmospheric CO{sub 2} where it is stored in trees, plants, and soil. This indirect sequestration can be implemented today and is on the front line of voluntary, market-based approaches to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. Initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil Carbon (C) on rangelands, and forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Rangelands can store up to an additional 0.05 mt C/ha/yr, while the croplands are on average four times that amount. Estimates of technical potential for soil sequestration within the region in cropland are in the range of 2.0 M mt C/yr over 20 year time horizon. This is equivalent to approximately 7.0 M mt CO{sub 2}e/yr. The forestry sinks are well documented, and the potential in the Big Sky region ranges from 9-15 M mt CO{sub 2} equivalent per year. Value-added benefits include enhanced yields, reduced erosion, and increased wildlife habitat. Thus the terrestrial sinks provide a viable, environmentally beneficial, and relatively low cost sink that is available to sequester C in the current time frame. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but all policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological and terrestrial sequestration reflect this concern. Research in Phase I has identified and validated best management practices for soil C in the Partnership region, and outlined a risk/cost effectiveness framework to make comparative assessments of each viable sink, taking into account economic costs, offsetting benefits, scale of sequestration opportunities, spatial and time dimensions, environmental risks, and long-term viability. This is the basis for the integrative analysis that will be undertaken in Phase II to work with industry, state and local governments and with the pilot demonstration projects to quantify the economic costs and risks associated with all opportunities for carbon storage in the Big Sky region. Scientifically sound MMV is critical for public acceptance of these technologies.

  1. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2004-01-04

    The Big Sky Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts during the first performance period fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks; development of GIS-based reporting framework; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. At the first Partnership meeting the groundwork was put in place to provide an assessment of capture and storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Complementary to the efforts on evaluation of sources and sinks is the development of the Big Sky Partnership Carbon Cyberinfrastructure (BSP-CC) and a GIS Road Map for the Partnership. These efforts will put in place a map-based integrated information management system for our Partnership, with transferability to the national carbon sequestration effort. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but other policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts begun in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is also underway to identify and validate best management practices for soil C in the partnership region, and to design a risk/cost effectiveness framework to make comparative assessments of each viable sink, taking into account economic costs, offsetting benefits, scale of sequestration opportunities, spatial and time dimensions, environmental risks, and long term viability. A series of meetings held in November and December, 2003, have laid the foundations for assessing the issues surrounding the implementation of a market-based setting for soil C credits. These include the impact of existing local, state, and federal permitting issues for terrestrial based carbon sequestration projects, consistency of final protocols and planning standards with national requirements, and alignments of carbon sequestration projects with existing federal and state cost-share programs. Finally, the education and outreach efforts during this performance period have resulted in a comprehensive plan which serves as a guide for implementing the outreach activities under Phase I. The primary goal of this plan is to increase awareness, understanding, and public acceptance of sequestration efforts and build support for a constituent based network which includes the initial Big Sky Partnership and other local and regional businesses and entities.

  2. Transition metal-catalyzed process for addition of amines to carbon-carbon double bonds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hartwig, John F.; Kawatsura, Motoi; Loeber, Oliver

    2002-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a process for addition of amines to carbon-carbon double bonds in a substrate, comprising: reacting an amine with a compound containing at least one carbon-carbon double bond in the presence a transition metal catalyst under reaction conditions effective to form a product having a covalent bond between the amine and a carbon atom of the former carbon-carbon double bond. The transition metal catalyst comprises a Group 8 metal and a ligand containing one or more 2-electron donor atoms. The present invention is also directed to enantioselective reactions of amine compounds with compounds containing carbon-carbon double bonds, and a calorimetric assay to evaluate potential catalysts in these reactions.

  3. Nonaqueous method for dissolving lanthanide and actinide metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crisler, L.R.

    1975-11-11

    Lanthanide and actinide beta-diketonate complex molecular compounds are produced by reacting a beta-diketone compound with a lanthanide or actinide element in the elemental metallic state in a mixture of carbon tetrachloride and methanol.

  4. Nonaqueous actinide hydride dissolution and production of actinide $beta$- diketonates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crisler, L.R.

    1975-11-11

    Actinide beta-diketonate complex molecular compounds are produced by reacting a beta-diketone compound with a hydride of the actinide material in a mixture of carbon tetrachloride and methanol. (auth)

  5. DOE-HDBK-1081-94; DOE Handbook Primer on Spontanious Heating...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ... of a self-heating material coming in contact with a combustible with a low ignition temperature. ... in nitric acid, and also during treatment with carbon tetrachloride or other ...

  6. The future of carbon sequestration. 2nd ed.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-04-15

    The report is an overview of the opportunities for carbon sequestration to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. It provides a concise look at what is driving interest in carbon sequestration, the challenges faced in implementing carbon sequestration projects, and the current and future state of carbon sequestration. Topics covered in the report include: Overview of the climate change debate; Explanation of the global carbon cycle; Discussion of the concept of carbon sequestration; Review of current efforts to implement carbon sequestration; Analysis and comparison of carbon sequestration component technologies; Review of the economic drivers of carbon sequestration project success; and Discussion of the key government and industry initiatives supporting carbon sequestration.

  7. Black carbon contribution to global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chylek, P.; Johnson, B.; Kou, L.; Wong, J.

    1996-12-31

    Before the onset of industrial revolution the only important source of black carbon in the atmosphere was biomass burning. Today, black carbon production is divided between the biomass and fossil fuel burning. Black carbon is a major agent responsible for absorption of solar radiation by atmospheric aerosols. Thus black carbon makes other aerosols less efficient in their role of reflecting solar radiation and cooling the earth-atmosphere system. Black carbon also contributes to the absorption of solar radiation by clouds and snow cover. The authors present the results of black carbon concentrations measurements in the atmosphere, in cloud water, in rain and snow melt water collected during the 1992--1996 time period over the southern Nova Scotia. Their results are put into the global and historical perspective by comparing them with the compilation of past measurements at diverse locations and with their measurements of black carbon concentrations in the Greenland and Antarctic ice cores. Black carbon contribution to the global warming is estimated, and compared to the carbon dioxide warming, using the radiative forcing caused by the black carbon at the top of the atmosphere.

  8. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2004-10-31

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks; development of GIS-based reporting framework; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. At the first two Partnership meetings the groundwork was put in place to provide an assessment of capture and storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. During the third quarter, planning efforts are underway for the next Partnership meeting which will showcase the architecture of the GIS framework and initial results for sources and sinks, discuss the methods and analysis underway for assessing geological and terrestrial sequestration potentials. The meeting will conclude with an ASME workshop. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other western DOE partnerships. Efforts are also being made to find funding to include Wyoming in the coverage areas for both geological and terrestrial sinks and sources. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but all policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts begun in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is also underway to identify and validate best management practices for soil C in the Partnership region, and to design a risk/cost effectiveness framework to make comparative assessments of each viable sink, taking into account economic costs, offsetting benefits, scale of sequestration opportunities, spatial and time dimensions, environmental risks, and long-term viability. Scientifically sound information on MMV is critical for public acceptance of these technologies. Two key deliverables were completed in the second quarter--a literature review/database to assess the soil carbon on rangelands, and the draft protocols, contracting options for soil carbon trading. The protocols developed for soil carbon trading are unique and provide a key component of the mechanisms that might be used to efficiently sequester GHG and reduce CO{sub 2} concentrations. While no key deliverables were due during the third quarter, progress on other deliverables is noted in the PowerPoint presentations and in this report. A series of meetings held during the second and third quarters have laid the foundations for assessing the issues surrounding carbon sequestration in this region, the need for a holistic approach to meeting energy demands and economic development potential, and the implementation of government programs or a market-based setting for soil C credits. These meetings provide a connection to stakeholders in the region and a basis on which to draw for the DOE PEIS hearings. In the fourth quarter, three deliverables have been completed, some in draft form to be revised and updated to include Wyoming. This is due primarily to some delays in funding to LANL and INEEL and the approval of a supplemental proposal to include Wyoming in much of the GIS data sets, analysis, and related materials. The deliverables are discussed in the following sections and greater details are provided in the materials that are attached to this report. In August 2004, a presentation was made to Pioneer Hi-Bred, discussing the Partnership and the synergies with terrestrial sequestration, agricultural industries, and ongoing, complimentary USDA efforts. The Partnership organized a Carbon session at the INRA 2004 Environmental and Subsurface Science Symposium in September 2004; also in September, a presentation was made to the Wyoming Carbon Sequestration Advisory Committee, followed up with a roundtable discussion.

  9. Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2005-11-01

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership in Phase I fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks that will be used to determine the location of pilot demonstrations in Phase II; development of GIS-based reporting framework that links with national networks; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies and assessment frameworks; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. The groundwork is in place to provide an assessment of storage capabilities for CO2 utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research agenda in Carbon Sequestration. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other DOE regional partnerships. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but all policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is also underway to identify and validate best management practices for soil C in the Partnership region, and to design a risk/cost effectiveness framework to make comparative assessments of each viable sink, taking into account economic costs, offsetting benefits, scale of sequestration opportunities, spatial and time dimensions, environmental risks, and long-term viability. Scientifically sound MMV is critical for public acceptance of these technologies. Deliverables for the 7th Quarter reporting period include (1) for the geological efforts: Reports on Technology Needs and Action Plan on the Evaluation of Geological Sinks and Pilot Project Deployment (Deliverables 2 and 3), and Report on the Feasibility of Mineralization Trapping in the Snake River Plain Basin (Deliverable 14); (2) for the terrestrial efforts: Report on the Evaluation of Terrestrial Sinks and a Report of the Best Production Practices for Soil C Sequestration (Deliverables 8 and 15). In addition, the 7th Quarter activities for the Partnership included further development of the proposed activities for the deployment and demonstration phase of the carbon sequestration pilots including geological and terrestrial pilots, expansion of the Partnership to encompass regions and institutions that are complimentary to the steps we have identified, building greater collaborations with industry and stakeholders in the region, contributed to outreach efforts that spanned all partnerships, co-authorship on the Carbon Capture and Separation report, and developed a regional basis to address future energy opportunities in the region. The deliverables and activities are discussed in the following sections and appended to this report. The education and outreach efforts have resulted in a comprehensive plan which serves as a guide for implementing the outreach activities under Phase I. The public website has been expanded and integrated with the GIS carbon atlas. We have made presentations to stakeholders and policy makers including two tribal sequestration workshops, and made connections to other federal and state agencies concerned with GHG emissions, climate change, and efficient and environmentally-friendly energy production. In addition, the Partnership has plans for integration of our outreach efforts with students, especially at the tribal colleges and at the universities involved in our Partnership. This includes collaboration with MSU and with the U.S.-Norway Summer School, extended outreach efforts at LANL and INEEL, and with the student section of the ASME. Finally, the Big Sky Partnership was involved in key meetings and symposium in the 7th quarter including the USDOE Wye Institute Conference on Carbon Sequestration and Capture (April, 2005); the DOE/NETL Fourth Annual Conference on Carbon Capture and Sequestration (May 2005); Coal Power Development Conference (Denver, June 2005) and meetings with our Phase II industry partners and Governor's staff.

  10. file://L:\DOE-hanford.gov\public\boards\hab\advice\advice10.htm

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    RE: Carbon Tetrachloride Pump and Treat Project (200-ZP Interim Action) Consensus Advice Adopted December 2, 1994 Dear Messrs. Clarke and Wagoner, and Ms. Riveland: As Acting Chair of the Hanford Advisory Board (HAB), I am forwarding to you the following advice on the Carbon Tetrachloride Pump and Treat Project (200-ZP Interim Action), which was adopted by consensus by the Board at its December meeting in Portland, Oregon: The Board's Environmental Restoration Committee examined the proposed

  11. Mr. John Kieling, Acting Chief Hazardous Waste Bureau

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    P O. Box 3090 Carlsbad, New Mexico 88221 JUl 2 0 2011 New Mexico Environment Department 2905 Rodeo Park Drive East, Building 1 Santa Fe, NM 87505-6303 Subject: Notification of Exceedance of a Disposal Room Volatile Organic Compound Monitoring Action Level for Carbon Tetrachloride Dear Mr. Kieling: The purpose of this letter is to notify you of the receipt of validated analytical results for a volatile organic compound (VOC), carbon tetrachloride, which exceeded the 50 percent action level listed

  12. Departm

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Kieling, Acting Chief Hazardous Waste Bureau New Mexico Environment Department 2905 Rodeo Park Drive East, Building 1 Santa Fe, NM 87505-6303 JUN 1 6 2011 SUBJECT: Notification of Exceedence of a Disposal Room Volatile Organic Compound Monitoring Action Level for Carbon Tetrachloride Dear Mr. Kieling: The purpose of this letter is to notify you of the receipt of validated analytical results for a volatile organic compound, carbon tetrachloride , which exceeded the 50% action level listed in Part

  13. Coated carbon nanotube array electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ren, Zhifeng; Wen, Jian; Chen, Jinghua; Huang, Zhongping; Wang, Dezhi

    2006-12-12

    The present invention provides conductive carbon nanotube (CNT) electrode materials comprising aligned CNT substrates coated with an electrically conducting polymer, and the fabrication of electrodes for use in high performance electrical energy storage devices. In particular, the present invention provides conductive CNTs electrode material whose electrical properties render them especially suitable for use in high efficiency rechargeable batteries. The present invention also provides methods for obtaining surface modified conductive CNT electrode materials comprising an array of individual linear, aligned CNTs having a uniform surface coating of an electrically conductive polymer such as polypyrrole, and their use in electrical energy storage devices.

  14. Coated carbon nanotube array electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ren, Zhifeng; Wen, Jian; Chen, Jinghua; Huang, Zhongping; Wang, Dezhi

    2008-10-28

    The present invention provides conductive carbon nanotube (CNT) electrode materials comprising aligned CNT substrates coated with an electrically conducting polymer, and the fabrication of electrodes for use in high performance electrical energy storage devices. In particular, the present invention provides conductive CNTs electrode material whose electrical properties render them especially suitable for use in high efficiency rechargeable batteries. The present invention also provides methods for obtaining surface modified conductive CNT electrode materials comprising an array of individual linear, aligned CNTs having a uniform surface coating of an electrically conductive polymer such as polypyrrole, and their use in electrical energy storage devices.

  15. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2005-01-31

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership in Phase I fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks that will be used to determine the location of pilot demonstrations in Phase II; development of GIS-based reporting framework that links with national networks; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies and assessment frameworks; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. The groundwork is in place to provide an assessment of storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. Efforts are underway to showcase the architecture of the GIS framework and initial results for sources and sinks. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other western DOE partnerships. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but all policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is also underway to identify and validate best management practices for soil C in the Partnership region, and to design a risk/cost effectiveness framework to make comparative assessments of each viable sink, taking into account economic costs, offsetting benefits, scale of sequestration opportunities, spatial and time dimensions, environmental risks, and long-term viability. Scientifically sound information on MMV is critical for public acceptance of these technologies.

  16. Method for making thin carbon foam electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pekala, R.W.; Mayer, S.T.; Kaschmitter, J.L.; Morrison, R.L.

    1999-08-03

    A method for fabricating thin, flat carbon electrodes by infiltrating highly porous carbon papers, membranes, felts, metal fibers/powders, or fabrics with an appropriate carbon foam precursor material is disclosed. The infiltrated carbon paper, for example, is then cured to form a gel-saturated carbon paper, which is subsequently dried and pyrolyzed to form a thin sheet of porous carbon. The material readily stays flat and flexible during curing and pyrolyzing to form thin sheets. Precursor materials include polyacrylonitrile (PAN), polymethylacrylonitrile (PMAN), resorcinol/formaldehyde, catechol/formaldehyde, phenol/formaldehyde, etc., or mixtures thereof. These thin films are ideal for use as high power and energy electrodes in batteries, capacitors, and fuel cells, and are potentially useful for capacitive deionization, filtration and catalysis.

  17. Method for making thin carbon foam electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pekala, Richard W.; Mayer, Steven T.; Kaschmitter, James L.; Morrison, Robert L.

    1999-01-01

    A method for fabricating thin, flat carbon electrodes by infiltrating highly porous carbon papers, membranes, felts, metal fibers/powders, or fabrics with an appropriate carbon foam precursor material. The infiltrated carbon paper, for example, is then cured to form a gel-saturated carbon paper, which is subsequently dried and pyrolyzed to form a thin sheet of porous carbon. The material readily stays flat and flexible during curing and pyrolyzing to form thin sheets. Precursor materials include polyacrylonitrile (PAN), polymethylacrylonitrile (PMAN), resorcinol/formaldehyde, catechol/formaldehyde, phenol/formaldehyde, etc., or mixtures thereof. These thin films are ideal for use as high power and energy electrodes in batteries, capacitors, and fuel cells, and are potentially useful for capacitive deionization, filtration and catalysis.

  18. Carbon Capture and Storage | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Storage Carbon Capture and Storage Through Office of Fossil Energy R&D the United States has become a world leader in carbon capture and storage science and technology. PDF icon Fossil Energy Research Benefits - Carbon Capture and Storage More Documents & Publications Microsoft Word - PSRP Updates 6-25-10_v2 A Legacy of Benefit Fossil Energy FY 2013 Budget-in-Brief

  19. Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery The simulation provides an important approach to estimate the potential of storing carbon dioxide in depleted oil fields while simultaneously maximizing oil production. January 8, 2014 Schematic of a water-alternating-with-gas flood for CO2 sequestration and enhanced oil recovery. Schematic of a water-alternating-with-gas flood for CO2 sequestration and enhanced oil recovery.

  20. carbon storage | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 Conference Proceedings Carbon Storage R&D Project Review Meeting August 20-22, 2013 Table of Contents Disclaimer Presentations PRESENTATIONS Tuesday, August 20, 2013 Welcome and Introduction Traci Rodosta, Carbon Storage Technology Manager, U.S. DOE NETL PLENARY SESSION - KEYNOTE PRESENTATIONS Moderator: Bruce Brown, Infrastructure Coordinator, U.S. DOE NETL Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships Overview Bruce Brown, Infrastructure Coordinator, U.S. DOE NETL A Decade of CCS

  1. Electrocatalysts on Carbon Nanoparticles - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electrocatalysts on Carbon Nanoparticles Brookhaven National Laboratory Contact BNL About This Technology A transmission electron micrograph showing a plurality of low-height Pt platelets formed on an underlying carbon substrate. The carbon substrate is shown as an amorphous, lighter-colored grey background whereas the regions of the surface coated with Pt are comparatively darker and exhibit lattice fringes, indicating some degree of crystalline order. The Pt platelets have an average diameter

  2. Electrolyte reservoir for carbonate fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Iacovangelo, Charles D. (Schenectady, NY); Shores, David A. (Minneapolis, MN)

    1985-01-01

    An electrode for a carbonate fuel cell and method of making same wherein a substantially uniform mixture of an electrode-active powder and porous ceramic particles suitable for a carbonate fuel cell are formed into an electrode with the porous ceramic particles having pores in the range of from about 1 micron to about 3 microns, and a carbonate electrolyte is in the pores of the ceramic particles.

  3. Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery The simulation provides an important approach to estimate the potential of storing carbon dioxide in depleted oil fields while simultaneously maximizing oil production. January 8, 2014 Schematic of a water-alternating-with-gas flood for CO2 sequestration and enhanced oil recovery. Schematic of a water-alternating-with-gas flood for CO2 sequestration and enhanced oil recovery.

  4. Enhanced carbon monoxide utilization in methanation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elek, Louis F.; Frost, Albert C.

    1984-01-01

    Carbon monoxide - containing gas streams are passed over a catalyst to deposit a surface layer of active surface carbon thereon essentially without the formation of inactive coke. The active carbon is subsequently reacted with steam or hydrogen to form methane. Surprisingly, hydrogen and water vapor present in the feed gas do not adversely affect CO utilization significantly, and such hydrogen actually results in a significant increase in CO utilization.

  5. Method of making carbon nanotube composite materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Bryan, Gregory; Skinner, Jack L; Vance, Andrew; Yang, Elaine Lai; Zifer, Thomas

    2014-05-20

    The present invention is a method of making a composite polymeric material by dissolving a vinyl thermoplastic polymer, un-functionalized carbon nanotubes and hydroxylated carbon nanotubes and optionally additives in a solvent to make a solution and removing at least a portion of the solvent after casting onto a substrate to make thin films. The material has enhanced conductivity properties due to the blending of the un-functionalized and hydroxylated carbon nanotubes.

  6. Carbon Nanofiber Supercapacitor - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Electricity Transmission Electricity Transmission Find More Like This Return to Search Carbon Nanofiber Supercapacitor Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Carbon nanofiber supercapacitors with large areal capacitances (292 KB) PDF Document Publication Shape-engineerable and highly densely packed single-walled carbon nanotubes and their application as super-capacitor electrodes (814

  7. Carbon nanostructures-elixir or poison?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Carbon nanostructures-elixir or poison? Carbon nanostructures-elixir or poison? A LANL toxicologist and a team of researchers have documented potential cellular damage from "fullerenes"-soccer-ball-shaped, cage-like molecules composed of 60 carbon atoms. March 31, 2010 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy

  8. Healthy habits: reducing our carbon footprint

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Healthy habits: reducing our carbon footprint Healthy habits: reducing our carbon footprint We're dedicated to cutting greenhouse gas emissions by 30 percent across the Lab, from facilities to transportation. January 30, 2014 Healthy habits: reducing our carbon footprint From monitoring storm water run-off in Los Alamos Canyon to riding their bikes to work, employees in the field all over the Lab's 36 square miles see the landscape around them as an inspiration and reminder to go green at work

  9. Carbon Fiber Technology Facility | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon lm003_warren_2012_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Carbon Fiber Technology Facility Carbon Fiber Pilot Plant and Research Facilities Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Carbon Fiber Technology Facility

    1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon lm003_warren_2011_o .pdf

  10. 2014 Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprints: Scope

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Scope The energy and carbon footprint analysis examines fifteen individual manufacturing sectors that together consume 95% of U.S. manufacturing primary energy consumption and ...

  11. Porous templated pyrolytic carbons as electrocatalyst components...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Porous templated pyrolytic carbons as electrocatalyst components. Citation Details In-Document Search ... Publication Date: 2008-03-01 OSTI Identifier: 1146178 Report ...

  12. vacuum-carbonate | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Development and Evaluation of a Novel Integrated Vacuum Carbonate Absorption Process Project No.: DE-NT0005498 ISGS solvent cartoon. ISGS solvent cartoon. The Illinois State...

  13. INFOGRAPHIC: Carbon Capture 101 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Carbon Capture 101 INFOGRAPHIC: Carbon Capture 101 January 7, 2016 - 11:34am Addthis Carbon capture is an important part of the Energy Department's Fossil Energy research and development efforts, but it can be hard to understand. This infographic breaks it down for you. | Infographic by <a href="/node/1332956">Carly Wilkins</a>, Energy Department. Carbon capture is an important part of the Energy Department's Fossil Energy research and development efforts, but it can be

  14. Carbon aerogel electrodes for direct energy conversion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, Steven T. (San Leandro, CA); Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA); Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA)

    1997-01-01

    A direct energy conversion device, such as a fuel cell, using carbon aerogel electrodes, wherein the carbon aerogel is loaded with a noble catalyst, such as platinum or rhodium and soaked with phosphoric acid, for example. A separator is located between the electrodes, which are placed in a cylinder having plate current collectors positioned adjacent the electrodes and connected to a power supply, and a pair of gas manifolds, containing hydrogen and oxygen positioned adjacent the current collectors. Due to the high surface area and excellent electrical conductivity of carbon aerogels, the problems relative to high polarization resistance of carbon composite electrodes conventionally used in fuel cells are overcome.

  15. Carbon aerogel electrodes for direct energy conversion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, S.T.; Kaschmitter, J.L.; Pekala, R.W.

    1997-02-11

    A direct energy conversion device, such as a fuel cell, using carbon aerogel electrodes is described, wherein the carbon aerogel is loaded with a noble catalyst, such as platinum or rhodium and soaked with phosphoric acid, for example. A separator is located between the electrodes, which are placed in a cylinder having plate current collectors positioned adjacent the electrodes and connected to a power supply, and a pair of gas manifolds, containing hydrogen and oxygen positioned adjacent the current collectors. Due to the high surface area and excellent electrical conductivity of carbon aerogels, the problems relative to high polarization resistance of carbon composite electrodes conventionally used in fuel cells are overcome. 1 fig.

  16. Interferometric Lithography Patterned Pyrolytic Carbon. (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Interferometric Lithography Patterned Pyrolytic Carbon. Abstract not provided. Authors: Burckel, David Bruce ; Polsky, Ronen ; Washburn, Cody M. ; Wheeler, David Roger ; ...

  17. From carbon nanobells to nickel nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, S.; Srikanth, V. V. S. S.; Maik, D.; Zhang, G. Y.; Staedler, T.; Jiang, X.

    2009-01-05

    A generic strategy is proposed to prepare one dimensional (1D) metallic nanotubes by using 1D carbon nanostructures as the initial templates. Following the strategy, nickel (Ni) nanotubes are prepared by using carbon nanobells (CNBs) as the initial templates. CNBs are first prepared by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique. Carbon/nickel core/shell structures are then prepared by electroplating the CNBs in a nickel-Watts electrolytic cell. In the final step, the carbon core is selectively removed by employing hydrogen plasma etching to obtain Ni nanotubes. The mechanism leading to Ni nanotubes is briefly discussed.

  18. GROWTH AND ELECTROCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF CARBON NANOSPIKE...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: GROWTH AND ELECTROCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF CARBON NANOSPIKE THIN FILM ELECTRODES Authors: Sheridan, Leah B 1 ; Hensley, Dale K 1 ; Lavrik, Nickolay V 1 ; Smith, ...

  19. Carbon film electrodes for super capacitor applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tan, Ming X.

    1999-01-01

    A microporous carbon film for use as electrodes in energy strorage devices is disclosed, which is made by the process comprising the steps of: (1) heating a polymer film material consisting essentially of a copolymer of polyvinylidene chloride and polyvinyl chloride in an inert atmosphere to form a carbon film; and (2) activating said carbon film to form said microporous carbon film having a density between about 0.7 g/cm.sup.2 and 1 g/cm.sup.2 and a gravimetric capacitance of about between 120 F/g and 315 F/g.

  20. Carbon nanohoops and methods of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jasti, Ramesh; Bertozzi, Carolyn

    2013-06-11

    The present invention provides cycloparaphenylene compounds, their macrocyclic precursors, and methods for making the compounds. The cycloparaphenylene compounds can be used to prepare armchair carbon nanotubes.

  1. Process Integration and Carbon Efficiency Workshop Agenda

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Process Integration and Carbon Efficiency Workshop Agenda, June 11-12, 2014, Lakewood, Colorado, from the U.S. Department of Energy's Bioenergy Technologies Office.

  2. Carbon nanohoops and methods of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jasti, Ramesh; Bertozzi, Carolyn

    2015-10-20

    The present invention provides cycloparaphenylene compounds, their macrocyclic precursors, and methods for making the compounds. The cycloparaphenylene compounds can be used to prepare armchair carbon nanotubes.

  3. Carbon Free Developments | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Free Developments Jump to: navigation, search Name: Carbon Free Developments Place: United Kingdom Zip: W11 3NF Sector: Wind energy Product: UK-based onshore wind project...

  4. Financing Residential Energy Efficiency with Carbon Offsets

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (WAP) funding * Existing need for low-income weatherization funding was greater than ... job creation, and local economic growth o Attract non-carbon financing from ...

  5. The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Calvin, M.; Benson, A. A.

    1948-03-08

    The dark fixation of carbon dioxide by green algae has been investigated and found to be closely related to photosynthesis fixation. By illumination in the absence of carbon dioxide followed by treatment with radioactive carbon dioxide in the dark, the amount fixed has been increased ten to twenty fold. This rate of maximum fixation approaches photosynthesis maximum rates. The majority of the radioactive products formed under these conditions have been identified and isolated and the distribution of labeled carbon determined. From these results a tentative scheme for the mechanism of photosynthesis is set forth.

  6. Global Impacts (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Gadgil, Ashok [EETD and UC Berkeley

    2011-06-08

    Ashok Gadgil, Faculty Senior Scientist and Acting Director, EETD, also Professor of Environmental Engineering, UC Berkeley, speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  7. High performance carbon nanocomposites for ultracapacitors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Wen

    2012-10-02

    The present invention relates to composite electrodes for electrochemical devices, particularly to carbon nanotube composite electrodes for high performance electrochemical devices, such as ultracapacitors.

  8. China Carbon Finance | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Finance Jump to: navigation, search Name: China Carbon Finance Place: Auburn, Washington State Zip: 98002 Product: Project developer focused on CDM projects in China References:...

  9. New Species of Cyanobacteria Forms Intracellular Carbonates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Species of Cyanobacteria Forms Intracellular Carbonates Print A new species of cyanobacteria-photosynthetic bacteria that occupy a wide array of habitats-was discovered in the...

  10. Carbon nanohoops and methods of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jasti, Ramesh; Bertozzi, Carolyn

    2015-03-24

    The present invention provides cycloparaphenylene compounds, their macrocyclic precursors, and methods for making the compounds. The cycloparaphenylene compounds can be used to prepare armchair carbon nanotubes.

  11. BrasCarbon Consulting | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    consultancy specialising in greenhouse gas reduction projects, particularly methane recovery. References: BrasCarbon Consulting1 This article is a stub. You can help...

  12. Mobility of organic carbon from incineration residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ecke, Holger Svensson, Malin

    2008-07-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) may affect the transport of pollutants from incineration residues when landfilled or used in geotechnical construction. The leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash and air pollution control residue (APC) from the incineration of waste wood was investigated. Factors affecting the mobility of DOC were studied in a reduced 2{sup 6-1} experimental design. Controlled factors were treatment with ultrasonic radiation, full carbonation (addition of CO{sub 2} until the pH was stable for 2.5 h), liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratio, pH, leaching temperature and time. Full carbonation, pH and the L/S ratio were the main factors controlling the mobility of DOC in the bottom ash. Approximately 60 weight-% of the total organic carbon (TOC) in the bottom ash was available for leaching in aqueous solutions. The L/S ratio and pH mainly controlled the mobilization of DOC from the APC residue. About 93 weight-% of TOC in the APC residue was, however, not mobilized at all, which might be due to a high content of elemental carbon. Using the European standard EN 13 137 for determination of total organic carbon (TOC) in MSWI residues is inappropriate. The results might be biased due to elemental carbon. It is recommended to develop a TOC method distinguishing between organic and elemental carbon.

  13. Diffusion through Carbon Nanotube Semipermeable membranes (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    carbon nanotubes, which is consistent with the predictions of the simulation. The enabling experimental platform that we are developing is a semipermeable membrane made out ...

  14. 2014 Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprints: Definitions...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Definitions and Assumptions A number of key terms are used to interpret the manufacturing energy and carbon footprints. The terms associated with the energy footprint analysis are ...

  15. Understanding Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprints, October...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Documents & Publications Understanding the 2010 Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprints U.S. Manufacturing Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis MECS 2006 - Cement

  16. Carbon film electrodes for super capacitor applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan, M.X.

    1999-11-30

    A microporous carbon film for use as electrodes in energy storage devices is disclosed, which is made by the process comprising the steps of: (1) heating a polymer film material consisting essentially of a copolymer of polyvinylidene chloride and polyvinyl chloride in an inert atmosphere to form a carbon film; and (2) activating said carbon film to form said microporous carbon film having a density between about 0.7 g/cm{sup 2} and 1 g/cm{sup 2} and a gravimetric capacitance of about between 120 F/g and 315 F/g.

  17. CarbonSolve | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Type: Softwaremodeling tools User Interface: Website Website: www.carbonsolve.com Web Application Link: www.carbonsolve.com Cost: Paid CarbonSolve Screenshot References:...

  18. How the Carbon Emissions Were Estimated

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    dioxide emissions are the main component of greenhouse gas emissions caused by human activity. Carbon dioxide is emitted mostly as a byproduct of the combustion of fossil fuels...

  19. Surface modifications for carbon lithium intercalation anodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tran, Tri D. (Livermore, CA); Kinoshita, Kimio (Cupertino, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A prefabricated carbon anode containing predetermined amounts of passivating film components is assembled into a lithium-ion rechargeable battery. The modified carbon anode enhances the reduction of the irreversible capacity loss during the first discharge of a cathode-loaded cell. The passivating film components, such as Li.sub.2 O and Li.sub.2 CO.sub.3, of a predetermined amount effective for optimal passivation of carbon, are incorporated into carbon anode materials to produce dry anodes that are essentially free of battery electrolyte prior to battery assembly.

  20. Carbon Cycle Engineering | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Cycle Engineering Jump to: navigation, search Name: Carbon Cycle Engineering Address: 13725 Dutch Creek Road Place: Athens, Ohio Zip: 45701 Sector: Biofuels, Biomass, Efficiency,...

  1. First Carbon Solutions | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solutions Jump to: navigation, search Name: First Carbon Solutions Place: Bethesda, Maryland Product: To be completed... Coordinates: 40.020185, -81.073819 Show Map Loading...

  2. Carbon Power & Light, Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Power & Light, Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Carbon Power & Light, Inc Place: Wyoming Phone Number: 307-326-5206 Website: www.carbonpower.com Facebook: https:...

  3. Carbon, Iowa: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Carbon, Iowa: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 40.8964065, -92.421852 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"...

  4. Carbon and Energy Reporter | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Energy Reporter Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Carbon and Energy Reporter AgencyCompany Organization: Johnson Controls Sector: Energy User...

  5. Low Carbon Transition Unit | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Transition Unit Jump to: navigation, search Name Low Carbon Transition Unit AgencyCompany Organization Danish Government Partner Danish Ministry of Climate, Energy and Buildings;...

  6. Carbon Markets Global Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Markets Global Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Carbon Markets Global Ltd Place: London, United Kingdom Zip: NW4 2HT Product: Assist project originators develop and finance...

  7. CarbonPlan Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    as a consultant advising on renewable energy technologies, energy efficiency, & corporate social responsibility. References: CarbonPlan Limited1 This article is a stub. You can...

  8. Worldwide organic soil carbon and nitrogen data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zinke, P.J.; Stangenberger, A.G.; Post, W.M.; Emanual, W.R.; Olson, J.S.

    1986-09-01

    The objective of the research presented in this package was to identify data that could be used to estimate the size of the soil organic carbon pool under relatively undisturbed soil conditions. A subset of the data can be used to estimate amounts of soil carbon storage at equilibrium with natural soil-forming factors. The magnitude of soil properties so defined is a resulting nonequilibrium values for carbon storage. Variation in these values is due to differences in local and geographic soil-forming factors. Therefore, information is included on location, soil nitrogen content, climate, and vegetation along with carbon density and variation.

  9. Characterization of Carbon Epoxy-Filled Composite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mason, Thomas Albert; Liu, Cheng; Lovato, Manuel L.; Valdez, James Anthony; Cady, Carl Mcelhinney; Walker, Emily Kristine; Livescu, Veronica

    2015-11-25

    Please find attached a summary of the characterization work performed at Los Alamos between 2014 and 2015 on epoxy-filled carbon composite material.

  10. How Carbon Capture Works | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    How Carbon Capture Works Nearly 70 percent of America's electricity is generated from fossil fuels like coal, oil and natural gas. And fossil fuels also account for almost...

  11. Greening up fossil fuels with carbon sequestration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Greening up fossil fuels with carbon sequestration 1663 Los Alamos science and technology magazine Latest Issue:October 2015 past issues All Issues submit Greening up fossil...

  12. Forest Carbon Portal | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Forest Trends Sector: Land Focus Area: Forestry Topics: GHG inventory Resource Type: Lessons learnedbest practices Website: www.forestcarbonportal.com Forest Carbon Portal...

  13. Probing the Surprising Secrets of Carbonic Acid

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    carbonic acid with important implications for both geological and biological concerns. ... mixing technology in which two aqueous samples rapidly mix and flow through a finely ...

  14. Combustion with reduced carbon in the ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kobayashi, Hisashi; Bool, III, Lawrence E.

    2005-12-27

    Combustion of coal in which oxygen is injected into the coal as it emerges from burner produces ash having reduced amounts of carbon.

  15. Regeneration of sulfated metal oxides and carbonates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hubble, Bill R.; Siegel, Stanley; Cunningham, Paul T.

    1978-03-28

    Alkali metal or alkaline earth metal carbonates such as calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate found in dolomite or limestone are employed for removal of sulfur dioxide from combustion exhaust gases. The sulfated carbonates are regenerated to oxides through use of a solid-solid reaction, particularly calcium sulfide with calcium sulfate to form calcium oxide and sulfur dioxide gas. The regeneration is performed by contacting the sulfated material with a reductant gas such as hydrogen within an inert diluent to produce calcium sulfide in mixture with the sulfate under process conditions selected to permit the sulfide-sulfate, solid-state reaction to occur.

  16. Combustion and Carbon Cycle 2.0 and Computation in CC 2.0 (Carbon...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    www.ntis.gov. Robert Cheng and Juan Meza provide two presentations in one session at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 3, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere...

  17. Carbon Absorber Retrofit Equipment (CARE)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, Eric

    2015-12-23

    During Project DE-FE0007528, CARE (Carbon Absorber Retrofit Equipment), Neumann Systems Group (NSG) designed, installed and tested a 0.5MW NeuStream® carbon dioxide (CO2) capture system using the patented NeuStream® absorber equipment and concentrated (6 molal) piperazine (PZ) as the solvent at Colorado Springs Utilities’ (CSU’s) Martin Drake pulverized coal (PC) power plant. The 36 month project included design, build and test phases. The 0.5MW NeuStream® CO2 capture system was successfully tested on flue gas from both coal and natural gas combustion sources and was shown to meet project objectives. Ninety percent CO2 removal was achieved with greater than 95% CO2product purity. The absorbers tested support a 90% reduction in absorber volume compared to packed towers and with an absorber parasitic power of less than 1% when configured for operation with a 550MW coal plant. The preliminary techno-economic analysis (TEA) performed by the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) predicted an over-the-fence cost of $25.73/tonne of CO2 captured from a sub-critical PC plant.

  18. Molten carbonate fuel cell separator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nickols, Richard C.

    1986-09-02

    In a stacked array of molten carbonate fuel cells, a fuel cell separator is positioned between adjacent fuel cells to provide isolation as well as a conductive path therebetween. The center portion of the fuel cell separator includes a generally rectangular, flat, electrical conductor. Around the periphery of the flat portion of the separator are positioned a plurality of elongated resilient flanges which form a gas-tight seal around the edges of the fuel cell. With one elongated flange resiliently engaging a respective edge of the center portion of the separator, the sealing flanges, which are preferably comprised of a noncorrosive material such as an alloy of yttrium, iron, aluminum or chromium, form a tight-fitting wet seal for confining the corrosive elements of the fuel cell therein. This arrangement permits a good conductive material which may be highly subject to corrosion and dissolution to be used in combination with a corrosion-resistant material in the fuel cell separator of a molten carbonate fuel cell for improved fuel cell conductivity and a gas-tight wet seal.

  19. Molten carbonate fuel cell separator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nickols, R.C.

    1984-10-17

    In a stacked array of molten carbonate fuel cells, a fuel cell separator is positioned between adjacent fuel cells to provide isolation as well as a conductive path therebetween. The center portion of the fuel cell separator includes a generally rectangular, flat, electrical conductor. Around the periphery of the flat portion of the separator are positioned a plurality of elongated resilient flanges which form a gas-tight seal around the edges of the fuel cell. With one elongated flange resiliently engaging a respective edge of the center portion of the separator, the sealing flanges, which are preferably comprised of a noncorrosive material such as an alloy of yttrium, iron, aluminum or chromium, form a tight-fitting wet seal for confining the corrosive elements of the fuel cell therein. This arrangement permits a good conductive material which may be highly subject to corrosion and dissolution to be used in combination with a corrosion-resistant material in the fuel cell separator of a molten carbonate fuel cell for improved fuel cell conductivity and a gas-tight wet seal.

  20. Solar Fuels and Carbon Cycle 2.0 (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Alivisatos, Paul

    2011-06-03

    Paul Alivisatos, LBNL Director speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 4, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  1. NATCARB Interactive Maps and the National Carbon Explorer: a National Look at Carbon Sequestration

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    NATCARB is a national look at carbon sequestration. The NATCARB home page, National Carbon Explorer (http://www.natcarb.org/) provides access to information and interactive maps on a national scale about climate change, DOE's carbon sequestration program and its partnerships, CO2 emissions, and sinks. This portal provides access to interactive maps based on the Carbon Sequestration Atlas of the United States and Canada.

  2. Realistic costs of carbon capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al Juaied, Mohammed . Belfer Center for Science and International Affiaris); Whitmore, Adam )

    2009-07-01

    There is a growing interest in carbon capture and storage (CCS) as a means of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. However there are substantial uncertainties about the costs of CCS. Costs for pre-combustion capture with compression (i.e. excluding costs of transport and storage and any revenue from EOR associated with storage) are examined in this discussion paper for First-of-a-Kind (FOAK) plant and for more mature technologies, or Nth-of-a-Kind plant (NOAK). For FOAK plant using solid fuels the levelised cost of electricity on a 2008 basis is approximately 10 cents/kWh higher with capture than for conventional plants (with a range of 8-12 cents/kWh). Costs of abatement are found typically to be approximately US$150/tCO2 avoided (with a range of US$120-180/tCO2 avoided). For NOAK plants the additional cost of electricity with capture is approximately 2-5 cents/kWh, with costs of the range of US$35-70/tCO2 avoided. Costs of abatement with carbon capture for other fuels and technologies are also estimated for NOAK plants. The costs of abatement are calculated with reference to conventional SCPC plant for both emissions and costs of electricity. Estimates for both FOAK and NOAK are mainly based on cost data from 2008, which was at the end of a period of sustained escalation in the costs of power generation plant and other large capital projects. There are now indications of costs falling from these levels. This may reduce the costs of abatement and costs presented here may be 'peak of the market' estimates. If general cost levels return, for example, to those prevailing in 2005 to 2006 (by which time significant cost escalation had already occurred from previous levels), then costs of capture and compression for FOAK plants are expected to be US$110/tCO2 avoided (with a range of US$90-135/tCO2 avoided). For NOAK plants costs are expected to be US$25-50/tCO2. Based on these considerations a likely representative range of costs of abatement from CCS excluding transport and storage costs appears to be US$100-150/tCO2 for first-of-a-kind plants and perhaps US$30-50/tCO2 for nth-of-a-kind plants.The estimates for FOAK and NOAK costs appear to be broadly consistent in the light of estimates of the potential for cost reductions with increased experience. Cost reductions are expected from increasing scale, learning on individual components, and technological innovation including improved plant integration. Innovation and integration can both lower costs and increase net output with a given cost base. These factors are expected to reduce abatement costs by approximately 65% by 2030. The range of estimated costs for NOAK plants is within the range of plausible future carbon prices, implying that mature technology would be competitive with conventional fossil fuel plants at prevailing carbon prices.

  3. Collector surface for a microwave tube comprising a carbon-bonded carbon-fiber composite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Johnson, A.C.; Moorhead, A.J.

    1998-07-28

    In a microwave tube, an improved collector surface coating comprises a porous carbon composite material, preferably a carbon-bonded carbon fiber composite having a bulk density less than about 2 g/cc. Installation of the coating is readily adaptable as part of the tube manufacturing process. 4 figs.

  4. Collector surface for a microwave tube comprising a carbon-bonded carbon-fiber composite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, Robert J.; McMillan, April D.; Johnson, Arvid C.; Moorhead, Arthur J.

    1998-01-01

    In a microwave tube, an improved collector surface coating comprises a porous carbon composite material, preferably a carbon-bonded carbon fiber composite having a bulk density less than about 2 g/cc. Installation of the coating is readily adaptable as part of the tube manufacturing process.

  5. High performance ultracapacitors with carbon nanomaterials and ionic liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Wen; Henry, Kent Douglas

    2012-10-09

    The present invention is directed to the use of carbon nanotubes and/or electrolyte structures in various electrochemical devices, such as ultracapacitors having an ionic liquid electrolyte. The carbon nanotubes are preferably aligned carbon nanotubes. Compared to randomly entangled carbon nanotubes, aligned carbon nanotubes can have better defined pore structures and higher specific surface areas.

  6. On carbon footprints and growing energy use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oldenburg, C.M.

    2011-06-01

    Could fractional reductions in the carbon footprint of a growing organization lead to a corresponding real reduction in atmospheric CO{sub 2} emissions in the next ten years? Curtis M. Oldenburg, head of the Geologic Carbon Sequestration Program of LBNLs Earth Sciences Division, considers his own organization's carbon footprint and answers this critical question? In addressing the problem of energy-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and climate change, it is essential that we understand which activities are producing GHGs and the scale of emission for each activity, so that reduction efforts can be efficiently targeted. The GHG emissions to the atmosphere of an individual or group are referred to as the carbon footprint. This terminology is entirely appropriate, because 85% of the global marketed energy supply comes from carbon-rich fossil fuel sources whose combustion produces CO{sub 2}, the main GHG causing global climate change. Furthermore, the direct relation between CO2 emissions and fossil fuels as they are used today makes energy consumption a useful proxy for carbon footprint. It would seem to be a simple matter to reduce energy consumption across the board, both individually and collectively, to help reduce our carbon footprints and therefore solve the energyclimate crisis. But just how much can we reduce carbon footprints when broader forces, such as growth in energy use, cause the total footprint to simultaneously expand? In this feature, I present a calculation of the carbon footprint of the Earth Sciences Division (ESD), the division in which I work at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), and discuss the potential for reducing this carbon footprint. It will be apparent that in terms of potential future carbon footprint reductions under projections of expected growth, ESD may be thought of as a microcosm of the situation of the world as a whole, in which alternatives to the business-as-usual use of fossil fuels are needed if absolute GHG emission reductions are to be achieved.

  7. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2004-06-01

    The Big Sky Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts during the second performance period fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks; development of GIS-based reporting framework; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. At the first two Partnership meetings the groundwork was put in place to provide an assessment of capture and storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other western DOE partnerships. Efforts are also being made to find funding to include Wyoming in the coverage areas for both geological and terrestrial sinks and sources. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but all policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts begun in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is also underway to identify and validate best management practices for soil C in the partnership region, and to design a risk/cost effectiveness framework to make comparative assessments of each viable sink, taking into account economic costs, offsetting benefits, scale of sequestration opportunities, spatial and time dimensions, environmental risks, and long term viability. Scientifically sound information on MMV is critical for public acceptance of these technologies. Two key deliverables were completed this quarter--a literature review/database to assess the soil carbon on rangelands, and the draft protocols, contracting options for soil carbon trading. To date, there has been little research on soil carbon on rangelands, and since rangeland constitutes a major land use in the Big Sky region, this is important in achieving a better understanding of terrestrial sinks. The protocols developed for soil carbon trading are unique and provide a key component of the mechanisms that might be used to efficiently sequester GHG and reduce CO{sub 2} concentrations. Progress on other deliverables is noted in the PowerPoint presentations. A series of meetings held during the second quarter have laid the foundations for assessing the issues surrounding the implementation of a market-based setting for soil C credits. These meetings provide a connection to stakeholders in the region and a basis on which to draw for the DOE PEIS hearings. Finally, the education and outreach efforts have resulted in a comprehensive plan and process which serves as a guide for implementing the outreach activities under Phase I. While we are still working on the public website, we have made many presentations to stakeholders and policy makers, connections to other federal and state agencies concerned with GHG emissions, climate change, and efficient and environmentally-friendly energy production. In addition, we have laid plans for integration of our outreach efforts with the students, especially at the tribal colleges and at the universities involved in our partnership. This includes collaboration with the film and media arts departments at MSU, with outreach efforts at LANL, and with student section of the ASME. Finally, both Pam Tomski, outreach coordinator, and Susan Capalbo, PI for the Big Sky Partnership will be involved in future U.S.-Norway bilaterals in an effort to provide for an exchange of research and students/faculty.

  8. Process for removing carbon from uranium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Powell, George L.; Holcombe, Jr., Cressie E.

    1976-01-01

    Carbon contamination is removed from uranium and uranium alloys by heating in inert atmosphere to 700.degree.-1900.degree.C in effective contact with yttrium to cause carbon in the uranium to react with the yttrium. The yttrium is either in direct contact with the contaminated uranium or in indirect contact by means of an intermediate transport medium.

  9. ASSESSMENT OF HOUSEHOLD CARBON FOOTPRINT REDUCTION POTENTIALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kramer, Klaas Jan; Homan, Greg; Brown, Rich; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

    2009-04-15

    The term ?household carbon footprint? refers to the total annual carbon emissions associated with household consumption of energy, goods, and services. In this project, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory developed a carbon footprint modeling framework that characterizes the key underlying technologies and processes that contribute to household carbon footprints in California and the United States. The approach breaks down the carbon footprint by 35 different household fuel end uses and 32 different supply chain fuel end uses. This level of end use detail allows energy and policy analysts to better understand the underlying technologies and processes contributing to the carbon footprint of California households. The modeling framework was applied to estimate the annual home energy and supply chain carbon footprints of a prototypical California household. A preliminary assessment of parameter uncertainty associated with key model input data was also conducted. To illustrate the policy-relevance of this modeling framework, a case study was conducted that analyzed the achievable carbon footprint reductions associated with the adoption of energy efficient household and supply chain technologies.

  10. Highly stable beta-class carbonic anhydrases useful in carbon capture systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alvizo, Oscar; Benoit, Michael R; Novick, Scott J

    2013-08-20

    The present disclosure relates to .beta.-class carbonic anhydrase polypeptides having improved properties including increased thermostability and/or stability in the presence of amine compounds, ammonia, or carbonate ion. The present disclosure also provides formulations and uses of the polypeptides for accelerating the absorption of carbon dioxide from a gas stream into a solution as well as for the release of the absorbed carbon dioxide for further treatment and/or sequestering. Also provided are polynucleotides encoding the carbonic anhydrase polypeptides and host cells capable of expressing them.

  11. Highly stable beta-class carbonic anhydrases useful in carbon capture systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alvizo, Oscar; Benoit, Mike; Novick, Scott

    2013-04-16

    The present disclosure relates to .beta.-class carbonic anhydrase polypeptides having improved properties including increased thermostability and/or stability in the presence of amine compounds, ammonia, or carbonate ion. The present disclosure also provides formulations and uses of the polypeptides for accelerating the absorption of carbon dioxide from a gas stream into a solution as well as for the release of the absorbed carbon dioxide for further treatment and/or sequestering. Also provided are polynucleotides encoding the carbonic anhydrase polypeptides and host cells capable of expressing them.

  12. Tunable Graphitic Carbon Nano-Onions Development in Carbon Nanofibers for Multivalent Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwarz, Haiqing L.

    2016-01-01

    We developed a novel porous graphitic carbon nanofiber material using a synthesis strategy combining electrospinning and catalytic graphitization. RF hydrogel was used as carbon precursors, transition metal ions were successfully introduced into the carbon matrix by binding to the carboxylate groups of a resorcinol derivative. Transition metal particles were homogeneously distributed throughout the carbon matrix, which are used as in-situ catalysts to produce graphitic fullerene-like nanostructures surrounding the metals. The success design of graphitic carbons with enlarged interlayer spacing will enable the multivalent ion intercalation for the development of multivalent rechargeable batteries.

  13. Carbon ion pump for removal of carbon dioxide from combustion gas and other gas mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.

    2014-08-19

    A novel method and system of separating carbon dioxide from flue gas is introduced. Instead of relying on large temperature or pressure changes to remove carbon dioxide from a solvent used to absorb it from flue gas, the ion pump method, as disclosed herein, dramatically increases the concentration of dissolved carbonate ion in solution. This increases the overlying vapor pressure of carbon dioxide gas, permitting carbon dioxide to be removed from the downstream side of the ion pump as a pure gas. The ion pumping may be obtained from reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, thermal desalination methods, or an ion pump system having an oscillating flow in synchronization with an induced electric field.

  14. Carbon ion pump for removal of carbon dioxide from combustion gas and other gas mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.

    2010-11-09

    A novel method and system of separating carbon dioxide from flue gas is introduced. Instead of relying on large temperature or pressure changes to remove carbon dioxide from a solvent used to absorb it from flue gas, the ion pump method, as disclosed herein, dramatically increases the concentration of dissolved carbonate ion in solution. This increases the overlying vapor pressure of carbon dioxide gas, permitting carbon dioxide to be removed from the downstream side of the ion pump as a pure gas. The ion pumping may be obtained from reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, thermal desalination methods, or an ion pump system having an oscillating flow in synchronization with an induced electric field.

  15. Manufactured caverns in carbonate rock

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bruce, David A.; Falta, Ronald W.; Castle, James W.; Murdoch, Lawrence C.

    2007-01-02

    Disclosed is a process for manufacturing underground caverns suitable in one embodiment for storage of large volumes of gaseous or liquid materials. The method is an acid dissolution process that can be utilized to form caverns in carbonate rock formations. The caverns can be used to store large quantities of materials near transportation facilities or destination markets. The caverns can be used for storage of materials including fossil fuels, such as natural gas, refined products formed from fossil fuels, or waste materials, such as hazardous waste materials. The caverns can also be utilized for applications involving human access such as recreation or research. The method can also be utilized to form calcium chloride as a by-product of the cavern formation process.

  16. Electrocatalysts for carbon dioxide conversion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Masel, Richard I; Salehi-Khojin, Amin

    2015-04-21

    Electrocatalysts for carbon dioxide conversion include at least one catalytically active element with a particle size above 0.6 nm. The electrocatalysts can also include a Helper Catalyst. The catalysts can be used to increase the rate, modify the selectivity or lower the overpotential of electrochemical conversion of CO.sub.2. Chemical processes and devices using the catalysts also include processes to produce CO, HCO.sup.-, H.sub.2CO, (HCO.sub.2).sup.-, H.sub.2CO.sub.2, CH.sub.3OH, CH.sub.4, C.sub.2H.sub.4, CH.sub.3CH.sub.2OH, CH.sub.3COO.sup.-, CH.sub.3COOH, C.sub.2H.sub.6, (COOH).sub.2, or (COO.sup.-).sub.2, and a specific device, namely, a CO.sub.2 sensor.

  17. Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenneth J. Nemeth

    2006-08-30

    The Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership's (SECARB) Phase I program focused on promoting the development of a framework and infrastructure necessary for the validation and commercial deployment of carbon sequestration technologies. The SECARB program, and its subsequent phases, directly support the Global Climate Change Initiative's goal of reducing greenhouse gas intensity by 18 percent by the year 2012. Work during the project's two-year period was conducted within a ''Task Responsibility Matrix''. The SECARB team was successful in accomplishing its tasks to define the geographic boundaries of the region; characterize the region; identify and address issues for technology deployment; develop public involvement and education mechanisms; identify the most promising capture, sequestration, and transport options; and prepare action plans for implementation and technology validation activity. Milestones accomplished during Phase I of the project are listed below: (1) Completed preliminary identification of geographic boundaries for the study (FY04, Quarter 1); (2) Completed initial inventory of major sources and sinks for the region (FY04, Quarter 2); (3) Completed initial development of plans for GIS (FY04, Quarter 3); (4) Completed preliminary action plan and assessment for overcoming public perception issues (FY04, Quarter 4); (5) Assessed safety, regulatory and permitting issues (FY05, Quarter 1); (6) Finalized inventory of major sources/sinks and refined GIS algorithms (FY05, Quarter 2); (7) Refined public involvement and education mechanisms in support of technology development options (FY05, Quarter 3); and (8) Identified the most promising capture, sequestration and transport options and prepared action plans (FY05, Quarter 4).

  18. Field Emission and Nanostructure of Carbon Films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merkulov, V.I.; Lowndes, D.H.; Baylor, L.R.

    1999-11-29

    The results of field emission measurements of various forms of carbon films are reported. It is shown that the films nanostructure is a crucial factor determining the field emission properties. In particular, smooth, pulsed-laser deposited amorphous carbon films with both high and low sp3 contents are poor field emitters. This is similar to the results obtained for smooth nanocrystalline, sp2-bonded carbon films. In contrast, carbon films prepared by hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (HE-CVD) exhibit very good field emission properties, including low emission turn-on fields, high emission site density, and excellent durability. HF-CVD carbon films were found to be predominantly sp2-bonded. However, surface morphology studies show that these films are thoroughly nanostructured, which is believed to be responsible for their promising field emission properties.

  19. Distributed Energy Resources for Carbon Emissions Mitigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

    2007-05-01

    The era of publicly mandated GHG emissions restrictions inthe United States has begun with recent legislation in California andseven northeastern states. Commercial and industrial buildings canimprove the carbon-efficiency of end-use energy consumption by installingtechnologies such as on-site cogeneration of electricity and useful heatin combined heat and power systems, thermally-activated cooling, solarelectric and thermal equipment, and energy storage -- collectively termeddistributed energy resources (DER). This research examines a collectionof buildings in California, the Northeast, and the southern United Statesto demonstrate the effects of regional characteristics such as the carbonintensity of central electricity grid, the climate-driven demand forspace heating and cooling, and the availability of solar insolation. Theresults illustrate that the magnitude of a realistic carbon tax ($100/tC)is too small to incent significant carbon-reducing effects oneconomically optimal DER adoption. In large part, this is because costreduction and carbon reduction objectives are roughly aligned, even inthe absence of a carbon tax.

  20. Patterned functional carbon fibers from polyethylene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, Marcus A; Saito, Tomonori; Brown, Rebecca H; Kumbhar, Amar S; Naskar, Amit K

    2012-01-01

    Patterned, continuous carbon fibers with controlled surface geometry were produced from a novel melt-processible carbon precursor. This portends the use of a unique technique to produce such technologically innovative fibers in large volume for important applications. The novelties of this technique include ease of designing and fabricating fibers with customized surface contour, the ability to manipulate filament diameter from submicron scale to a couple of orders of magnitude larger scale, and the amenable porosity gradient across the carbon wall by diffusion controlled functionalization of precursor. The geometry of fiber cross-section was tailored by using bicomponent melt-spinning with shaped dies and controlling the melt-processing of the precursor polymer. Circular, trilobal, gear-shaped hollow fibers, and solid star-shaped carbon fibers of 0.5 - 20 um diameters, either in self-assembled bundle form, or non-bonded loose filament form, were produced by carbonizing functionalized-polyethylene fibers. Prior to carbonization, melt-spun fibers were converted to a char-forming mass by optimizing the sulfonation on polyethylene macromolecules. The fibers exhibited distinctly ordered carbon morphologies at the outside skin compared to the inner surface or fiber core. Such order in carbon microstructure can be further tuned by altering processing parameters. Partially sulfonated polyethylene-derived hollow carbon fibers exhibit 2-10 fold surface area (50-500 m2/g) compared to the solid fibers (10-25 m2/g) with pore sizes closer to the inside diameter of the filaments larger than the sizes on the outer layer. These specially functionalized carbon fibers hold promise for extraordinary performance improvements when used, for example, as composite reinforcements, catalyst support media, membranes for gas separation, CO2 sorbents, and active electrodes and current collectors for energy storage applications.

  1. China-Low Carbon Development Zones | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    China-Low Carbon Development Zones (Redirected from E3G-China-Low Carbon Development Zones) Jump to: navigation, search Name China-Low Carbon Development Zones AgencyCompany...

  2. Renewable Low-Cost Carbon Fiber Workshop Agenda | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low-Cost Carbon Fiber Workshop Agenda Renewable Low-Cost Carbon Fiber Workshop Agenda Renewable Low-Cost Carbon Fiber Workshop Agenda PDF icon carbonfiberworkshopagenda.pdf More ...

  3. Hard carbon nitride and method for preparing same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haller, Eugene E.; Cohen, Marvin L.; Hansen, William L.

    1992-01-01

    Novel crystalline .alpha. (silicon nitride-like)-carbon nitride and .beta. (silicon nitride-like)-carbon nitride are formed by sputtering carbon in the presence of a nitrogen atmosphere onto a single crystal germanium or silicon, respectively, substrate.

  4. Time-Resolved Study of Bonding in Liquid Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Time-Resolved Study of Bonding in Liquid Carbon Print We are accustomed to observing carbon in its elemental form as a solid, ranging from the soft "lead" in pencils to the precious gemstone in diamond rings. While considerable attention has been focused on solid forms of carbon, the properties of liquid carbon are much more difficult to measure accurately. The very strong bonding between carbon atoms that gives diamonds their hardness also makes carbon very difficult to melt,

  5. Time-Resolved Study of Bonding in Liquid Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Time-Resolved Study of Bonding in Liquid Carbon Print We are accustomed to observing carbon in its elemental form as a solid, ranging from the soft "lead" in pencils to the precious gemstone in diamond rings. While considerable attention has been focused on solid forms of carbon, the properties of liquid carbon are much more difficult to measure accurately. The very strong bonding between carbon atoms that gives diamonds their hardness also makes carbon very difficult to melt,

  6. Time-Resolved Study of Bonding in Liquid Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Time-Resolved Study of Bonding in Liquid Carbon Print We are accustomed to observing carbon in its elemental form as a solid, ranging from the soft "lead" in pencils to the precious gemstone in diamond rings. While considerable attention has been focused on solid forms of carbon, the properties of liquid carbon are much more difficult to measure accurately. The very strong bonding between carbon atoms that gives diamonds their hardness also makes carbon very difficult to melt,

  7. Beneficial Use of Carbon Dioxide in Precast Concrete Production (Technical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Report) | SciTech Connect Beneficial Use of Carbon Dioxide in Precast Concrete Production Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Beneficial Use of Carbon Dioxide in Precast Concrete Production The feasibility of using carbon dioxide as feedstock in precast concrete production is studied. Carbon dioxide reacts with calcium compounds in concrete, producing solid calcium carbonates in binding matrix. Two typical precast products are examined for their capacity to store carbon dioxide during

  8. Time-Resolved Study of Bonding in Liquid Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Time-Resolved Study of Bonding in Liquid Carbon Print We are accustomed to observing carbon in its elemental form as a solid, ranging from the soft "lead" in pencils to the precious gemstone in diamond rings. While considerable attention has been focused on solid forms of carbon, the properties of liquid carbon are much more difficult to measure accurately. The very strong bonding between carbon atoms that gives diamonds their hardness also makes carbon very difficult to melt,

  9. Time-Resolved Study of Bonding in Liquid Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Time-Resolved Study of Bonding in Liquid Carbon Print We are accustomed to observing carbon in its elemental form as a solid, ranging from the soft "lead" in pencils to the precious gemstone in diamond rings. While considerable attention has been focused on solid forms of carbon, the properties of liquid carbon are much more difficult to measure accurately. The very strong bonding between carbon atoms that gives diamonds their hardness also makes carbon very difficult to melt,

  10. Time-Resolved Study of Bonding in Liquid Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Time-Resolved Study of Bonding in Liquid Carbon Print We are accustomed to observing carbon in its elemental form as a solid, ranging from the soft "lead" in pencils to the precious gemstone in diamond rings. While considerable attention has been focused on solid forms of carbon, the properties of liquid carbon are much more difficult to measure accurately. The very strong bonding between carbon atoms that gives diamonds their hardness also makes carbon very difficult to melt,

  11. A Carbon Flux Super Site. New Insights and Innovative

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Atmosphere-Terrestrial Carbon Exchange Measurements and Modeling (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect A Carbon Flux Super Site. New Insights and Innovative Atmosphere-Terrestrial Carbon Exchange Measurements and Modeling Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Carbon Flux Super Site. New Insights and Innovative Atmosphere-Terrestrial Carbon Exchange Measurements and Modeling This final report presents the main activities and results of the project "A Carbon Flux Super Site: New

  12. Overview of Carbon Storage Research | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Overview of Carbon Storage Research Overview of Carbon Storage Research The Carbon Storage Program is focused on ensuring the safe and permanent storage and/or utilization of CO2 captured from point sources. The Carbon Storage Program is focused on ensuring the safe and permanent storage and/or utilization of CO2 captured from point sources. Roughly one third of the United States' carbon emissions come from power plants and other large point sources, such as industrial facilities. The Carbon

  13. India-Low Carbon and Climate Resilience Development Planning...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    India-Low Carbon and Climate Resilience Development Planning Jump to: navigation, search Name CDKN-India-Low Carbon and Climate Resilience Development Planning AgencyCompany...

  14. India-Low Carbon and Climate Resilience Development Planning...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    India-Low Carbon and Climate Resilience Development Planning (Redirected from CDKN-India-Low Carbon and Climate Resilience Development Planning) Jump to: navigation, search Name...

  15. Indonesia-Low Carbon Development Options Study | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Indonesia-Low Carbon Development Options Study Jump to: navigation, search Name Indonesia-ESMAP Low Carbon Country Studies Program AgencyCompany Organization Energy Sector...

  16. CO (Carbon Monoxide Mixing Ratio System) Handbook (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: CO (Carbon Monoxide Mixing Ratio System) Handbook Citation Details In-Document Search Title: CO (Carbon Monoxide Mixing Ratio System) Handbook The main function of ...

  17. CO (Carbon Monoxide Mixing Ratio System) Handbook (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    CO (Carbon Monoxide Mixing Ratio System) Handbook Citation Details In-Document Search Title: CO (Carbon Monoxide Mixing Ratio System) Handbook You are accessing a document from the ...

  18. Influence of drought on growing season carbon and water cycling...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Influence of drought on growing season carbon and water cycling with changing land cover ... Title: Influence of drought on growing season carbon and water cycling with changing land ...

  19. The two-electron reduction mechanism of ethylene carbonate: a...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of ethylene carbonate: a quantum chemistry study. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The two-electron reduction mechanism of ethylene carbonate: a quantum chemistry study. ...

  20. Chapter 4: Advancing Clean Electric Power Technologies | Carbon...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technologies Carbon Dioxide Storage Technologies Crosscutting Technologies in Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Fast-spectrum Reactors Geothermal Power High Temperature Reactors ...

  1. Renewable, Low-Cost Carbon Fiber for Lightweight Vehicles: Summary...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Renewable, Low-Cost Carbon Fiber for Lightweight Vehicles: Summary Report Renewable, Low-Cost Carbon Fiber for Lightweight Vehicles: Summary Report This report outlines the final...

  2. Low Carbon Growth: a Potential Path for Mexico - GHG Abatement...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    "ESMAP Low Carbon Growth Country Studies Program" Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleLowCarbonGrowth:aPotentialPathforMexico-GHGAbatementCostCurve&...

  3. Jefferson Lab's Free-Electron Laser explores promise of carbon...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Free-Electron Laser explores promise of carbon nanotubes Webs of nanotubes on collector ... Jefferson Lab's Free-Electron Laser explores promise of carbon nanotubes By James Schultz ...

  4. Study of Caustic Corrosion of Carbon Steel Waste Tanks (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Study of Caustic Corrosion of Carbon Steel Waste Tanks Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Study of Caustic Corrosion of Carbon Steel Waste Tanks You are ...

  5. Novel PEMFC Stack Using Patterned Aligned Carbon Nanotubes as...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PEMFC Stack Using Patterned Aligned Carbon Nanotubes as Electrodes in MEA Novel PEMFC Stack Using Patterned Aligned Carbon Nanotubes as Electrodes in MEA This project received DOE ...

  6. Low-Carbon Energy: A Roadmap | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Resource Type: Publications Website: www.worldwatch.orgnode7069summary Cost: Free, Paid Low-Carbon Energy: A Roadmap Screenshot References: Low-Carbon Energy: A...

  7. Self-Assembled, Nanostructured Carbon for Energy Storage and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Top right: Mesoporous carbons in different forms: rod, film, membrane, fiber, and paper. Bottom right: Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image of mesoporous carbon ...

  8. Carbon Compliance Acquisition 5 Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Compliance Acquisition 5 Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Carbon Compliance Acquisition 5 Limited Place: Greater London, United Kingdom Zip: EC2M 2TD Sector: Carbon...

  9. Forestry-based Carbon Sequestration Projects in Africa: Potential...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Abstract "Carbon sequestration through forestry and agroforestry can help mitigate global warming. For Africa, carbon sequestration also represents an opportunity to fund...

  10. Low-Carbon Growth Country Studies: Getting Started Experience...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    as improved fiscal incentives in forestry, are also considered. Mexico's study provides a body of knowledge about prospective low carbon "wedges," specific low carbon projects, and...

  11. Nitrogen-Doped Mesoporous Carbon Promoted Chemical Adsorption...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nitrogen-Doped Mesoporous Carbon Promoted Chemical Adsorption of Sulfur and Fabrication of ... Title: Nitrogen-Doped Mesoporous Carbon Promoted Chemical Adsorption of Sulfur and ...

  12. Q1Report for CADWR Project: Desalination Using Carbon NAnotube...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Project: Desalination Using Carbon NAnotube Membranes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Q1Report for CADWR Project: Desalination Using Carbon NAnotube Membranes In this ...

  13. Carbon Emissions Reduction Potential in the US Chemicals and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Carbon Emissions Reduction Potential in the US Chemicals and Pulp and Paper Industries by Applying CHP Technologies, June 1999 Carbon Emissions Reduction Potential in the US ...

  14. Planarized arrays of aligned untangled multiwall carbon nanotubes...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    untangled multiwall carbon nanotubes with Ohmic back contacts. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Planarized arrays of aligned untangled multiwall carbon nanotubes with ...

  15. Forest Carbon and Biomass Energy - LCA Issues and Challenges...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Forest Carbon and Biomass Energy - LCA Issues and Challenges Forest Carbon and Biomass Energy - LCA Issues and Challenges Breakout Session 2D-Building Market Confidence and ...

  16. Advanced fire-resistant forms of activated carbon and methods...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    activated carbon and methods of adsorbing and separating gases using same Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Advanced fire-resistant forms of activated carbon and methods ...

  17. Mapping Soil Carbon from Cradle to Grave: Identifying the Microbial...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Mapping Soil Carbon from Cradle to Grave: Identifying the Microbial Blueprint for Root-carbon Transformations in Soil Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Mapping...

  18. Mapping Soil Carbon from Cradle to Grave: Identifying the Microbial...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    In-Document Search Title: Mapping Soil Carbon from Cradle to Grave: Identifying the Microbial Blueprint for Root-carbon Transformations in Soil Erin Nuccio, Lawrence...

  19. China and a Sustainable Future: Towards a Low Carbon Economy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Carbon Economy and Society Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: China and a Sustainable Future: Towards a Low Carbon Economy and Society AgencyCompany...

  20. China-ClimateWorks Low Carbon Growth Planning Support | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ClimateWorks Low Carbon Growth Planning Support Jump to: navigation, search Name China-Low Carbon Growth Planning Support AgencyCompany Organization ClimateWorks, Project...