National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for 5-year average 2003-2007

  1. Institutional Plan FY 2003 - 2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chartock, Michael; Hansen, Todd

    2003-01-27

    The Fiscal Year (FY) 2003-2007 Institutional Plan describes the strategic directions and key issues that Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory management must address with the Department of Energy (DOE) in charting its future as a multiprogram national laboratory. The Plan provides an overview of the Laboratory's mission, strategic plan, initiatives, and the resources required to fulfill its role in support of national needs in fundamental science and technology, energy resources, and environmental quality. The Plan facilitates the Department of Energy's ongoing efforts to strengthen the Integrated Laboratory System. Preparation and review of the Institutional Plan is one element of the Department of Energy's strategic management planning activities, implemented through an annual planning process. The Plan supports the President's Management Agenda and the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993. The Plan complements the current performance-based contract between the Department of Energy and the Regents of the University of California, and summarizes Best Management Practices for a potential future results-based contract as a basis for achieving DOE goals and the Laboratory's scientific and operations objectives. It identifies technical and administrative directions in the context of national energy policy and research needs and the Department of Energy's program planning initiatives. Preparation of the Plan is coordinated by the Planning and Strategic Development Office from information contributed by Berkeley Lab's scientific and support divisions and DOE comments on prior years' plans. The Laboratory Mission section identifies the specific strengths of Berkeley Lab that contribute to the mission in general and the Integrated Laboratory System in particular. The Laboratory Strategic Plan section identifies the existing activities in support of DOE Office of Science and other sponsors; support for DOE goals; and the Laboratory Scientific Vision and operations goals. The Initiatives section describes some of the specific new research programs representing major long-term opportunities for the Department of Energy and Berkeley Lab. The Operations Strategic Planning section describes our strategic thinking in the areas of human resources; site and cyber security; workforce diversity; communications and trust; integrated safety management; and technology transfer activities. The Infrastructure Strategic Planning section describes Berkeley Lab's facilities planning process and our site and facility needs. The Summary of Major Issues section provides context for discussions at the Institutional Planning On-Site Review. The Resource Projections are estimates of required budgetary authority for Berkeley Lab's research programs.

  2. 2007 CBECS Large Hospital Building FAQs: 2003-2007 Comparison...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    FAQs: 2003-2007 Comparison Graphs Main Report | Methodology | FAQ | List of Tables CBECS 2007 - Release date: August 17, 2012 Jump to: Figure 1 | Figure 2 | Figure 3 | Figure 4 |...

  3. After 5 Years, NERSC's Franklin Retires

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    After 5 Years, NERSC's Franklin Retires After 5 Years, NERSC's Franklin Retires May 4, 2012 Linda Vu, lvu@lbl.gov, +1 510 495 2402 Franklin Cray XT4 supercomputer: Franklin Cray ...

  4. Contract Periods of Performance Exceeding 5 Years

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Acquisition Letter 2010-5 has been revised to update references, make minor editorial changes, and clarify that the Director, Field Assistance and Oversight Division is the approval authority within Department of Energy for acquisition plans that contemplate a period of performance greater than 5 years.

  5. DOE Exercises 5 Year Option on Washington TRU Solutions Contract...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Exercises 5 Year Option on Washington TRU Solutions Contract to Operate WIPP DOE Exercises 5 Year Option on Washington TRU Solutions Contract to Operate WIPP January 18, 2005 - ...

  6. Moab Mill Tailings Removal Project Celebrates 5 Years of Success

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    MOAB, Utah – In the past 5 years, DOE has seen many successes in the Moab Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project.

  7. U.S. Natural Gas Average Consumption per Industrial Consumer...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Industrial Consumer (Thousand Cubic Feet) U.S. Natural Gas Average Consumption per Industrial Consumer (Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

  8. Insertion of Balloon Retained Gastrostomy Buttons: A 5-Year Retrospective Review of 260 Patients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Power, Sarah Kavanagh, Liam N.; Shields, Mary C.; Given, Mark F.; Keeling, Aoife N.; McGrath, Frank P.; Lee, Michael J.

    2013-04-15

    Radiologically inserted gastrostomy (RIG) is an established way of maintaining enteral nutrition in patients who cannot maintain nutrition orally. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of primary placement of a wide bore button gastrostomy in a large, varied patient population through retrospective review. All patients who underwent gastrostomy placement from January 1, 2004 to January 1, 2009 were identified. 18-Fr gastrostomy buttons (MIC-Key G) were inserted in the majority. Follow-up ranged from 6 months to 4.5 years. A total of 260 patients (M:F 140:120, average age 59.2 years) underwent gastrostomy during the study period. Overall success rate for RIG placement was 99.6 %, with success rate of 95.3 % for primary button insertion. Indications included neurological disorders (70 %), esophageal/head and neck malignancy (21 %), and other indications (9 %). Major and minor complication rates were 1.2 and 12.8 %, respectively. Thirty-day mortality rate was 6.8 %. One third of patients underwent gastrostomy reinsertion during the study period, the main indication for which was inadvertent catheter removal. Patency rate was high at 99.5 %. The maximum number of procedures in any patient was 8 (n = 2), and the average tube dwell time was 125 days. Primary radiological insertion of a wide bore button gastrostomy is a safe technique, with high success rate, high patency rate, and low major complication rate. We believe that it is feasible to attempt button gastrostomy placement in all patients, once tract length is within limits of tube length. If difficulty is encountered, then a standard tube may simply be placed instead.

  9. Neutron resonance averaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chrien, R.E.

    1986-10-01

    The principles of resonance averaging as applied to neutron capture reactions are described. Several illustrations of resonance averaging to problems of nuclear structure and the distribution of radiative strength in nuclei are provided. 30 refs., 12 figs.

  10. BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY INSTITUTIONAL PLAN FY2003-2007.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2003-06-10

    This document presents the vision for Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for the next five years, and a roadmap for implementing that vision. Brookhaven is a multidisciplinary science-based laboratory operated for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), supported primarily by programs sponsored by the DOE's Office of Science. As the third-largest funding agency for science in the U.S., one of the DOE's goals is ''to advance basic research and the instruments of science that are the foundations for DOE's applied missions, a base for U.S. technology innovation, and a source of remarkable insights into our physical and biological world, and the nature of matter and energy'' (DOE Office of Science Strategic Plan, 2000 http://www.osti.gov/portfolio/science.htm). BNL shapes its vision according to this plan.

  11. SF424RRBudget5YearPolicy.pdf | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    PDF icon SF424RRBudget5YearPolicy.pdf More Documents & Publications SF-424 Research and Related Budget (R&R) SF424RRBudget3YearPolicy.pdf US China CERC Energy and Water - Funding ...

  12. Moab Project Exceeds 5 Years of Operations Without Lost-Time...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Moab Project Exceeds 5 Years of Operations Without Lost-Time Injury, Illness November 26, 2014 - 12:00pm Addthis Debris from the former mill buildings at the Moab site is excavated ...

  13. Average Residential Price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data Series: Average Residential Price Residential Price - Local Distribution Companies Residential Price - Marketers Residential % Sold by Local Distribution Companies Average Commercial Price Commercial Price - Local Distribution Companies Commerical Price - Marketers Commercial % Sold by Local Distribution Companies Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area 2010 2011

  14. DOE Exercises 5 Year Option on Washington TRU Solutions Contract to Operate

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    WIPP | Department of Energy Exercises 5 Year Option on Washington TRU Solutions Contract to Operate WIPP DOE Exercises 5 Year Option on Washington TRU Solutions Contract to Operate WIPP January 18, 2005 - 9:55am Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) announced today that it has decided to exercise the five year option in the Washington TRU Solutions LLC ("WTS") contract to continue managing and operating the Department's Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP),

  15. Procurement Evaluation & Re-Engineering Team (PERT) and Establishment of a 5-year Cycle with Corresponding Schedule

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Senior Procurement Executive has issued guidance (attached) that endorses the PERT program, establishes the 5-year cycle and PERT review schedule from FY 2014 to FY 2018.

  16. "2014 Average Monthly Bill- Commercial"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (kWh)","Average Price (centskWh)","Average Monthly Bill (Dollar and cents)" "New England",862269,5132.4894,14.699138,754.43169 "Connecticut",155372,6915.4089,15.547557,1075...

  17. "2014 Average Monthly Bill- Residential"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (kWh)","Average Price (centskWh)","Average Monthly Bill (Dollar and cents)" "New England",6243013,630.1915,17.822291,112.31456 "Connecticut",1459239,729.69421,19.748254,144...

  18. "2014 Average Monthly Bill- Industrial"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (kWh)","Average Price (centskWh)","Average Monthly Bill (Dollar and cents)" "New England",28017,56832.854,11.842263,6730.2959 "Connecticut",4648,63016.315,12.915601,8138.93...

  19. PHOTOMETRIC CALIBRATION OF THE FIRST 1.5 YEARS OF THE PAN-STARRS1 SURVEY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schlafly, E. F.; Finkbeiner, D. P.; Stubbs, C. W.; Juric, M.; Magnier, E. A.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Hodapp, K. W.; Kaiser, N.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Morgan, J. S.; Tonry, J. L.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Grav, T.; Martin, N. F.; Rix, H.-W.; Price, P. A.

    2012-09-10

    We present a precise photometric calibration of the first 1.5 years of science imaging from the Pan-STARRS1 survey (PS1), an ongoing optical survey of the entire sky north of declination -30 Degree-Sign in five bands. Building on the techniques employed by Padmanabhan et al. in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), we use repeat PS1 observations of stars to perform the relative calibration of PS1 in each of its five bands, simultaneously solving for the system throughput, the atmospheric transparency, and the large-scale detector flat field. Both internal consistency tests and comparison against the SDSS indicate that we achieve relative precision of <10 mmag in g, r, and i{sub P1}, and {approx}10 mmag in z and y{sub P1}. The spatial structure of the differences with the SDSS indicates that errors in both the PS1 and SDSS photometric calibration contribute similarly to the differences. The analysis suggests that both the PS1 system and the Haleakala site will enable <1% photometry over much of the sky.

  20. Biomass Commercialization Prospects the Next 2 to 5 Years; BIOMASS COLLOQUIES 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hettenhaus, J. R.; Wooley, R.; Wiselogel, A.

    2000-10-12

    A series of four colloquies held in the first quarter of 2000 examined the expected development of biomass commercialization in the next 2 to 5 years. Each colloquy included seven to ten representatives from key industries that can contribute to biomass commercialization and who are in positions to influence the future direction. They represented: Corn Growers, Biomass Suppliers, Plant Science Companies, Process Engineering Companies, Chemical Processors, Agri-pulp Suppliers, Current Ethanol Producers, Agricultural Machinery Manufacturers, and Enzyme Suppliers. Others attending included representatives from the National Renewable Energy Lab., Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Fuels Development, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, environmental groups, grower organizations, and members of the financial and economic development community. The informal discussions resulted in improved awareness of the current state, future possibilit ies, and actions that can accelerate commercialization. Biomass commercialization on a large scale has four common issues: (1) Feedstock availability from growers; (2) Large-scale collection and storage; (3) An economic process; (4) Market demand for the product.

  1. Spacetime averaged null energy condition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urban, Douglas; Olum, Ken D.

    2010-06-15

    The averaged null energy condition has known violations for quantum fields in curved space, even when one considers only achronal geodesics. Many such examples involve rapid variation in the stress-energy tensor in the vicinity of the geodesic under consideration, giving rise to the possibility that averaging in additional dimensions would yield a principle universally obeyed by quantum fields. However, after discussing various procedures for additional averaging, including integrating over all dimensions of the manifold, we give here a class of examples that violate any such averaged condition.

  2. High average power pockels cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daly, Thomas P.

    1991-01-01

    A high average power pockels cell is disclosed which reduces the effect of thermally induced strains in high average power laser technology. The pockels cell includes an elongated, substantially rectangular crystalline structure formed from a KDP-type material to eliminate shear strains. The X- and Y-axes are oriented substantially perpendicular to the edges of the crystal cross-section and to the C-axis direction of propagation to eliminate shear strains.

  3. 2014 Average Monthly Bill- Commercial

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial (Data from forms EIA-861- schedules 4A-D, EIA-861S and EIA-861U) State Number of Customers Average Monthly Consumption (kWh) Average Price (cents/kWh) Average Monthly Bill (Dollar and cents) New England 862,269 5,132 14.70 754.43 Connecticut 155,372 6,915 15.55 1,075.18 Maine 91,541 3,627 12.70 460.77 Massachusetts 398,717 5,450 14.68 799.87 New Hampshire 105,840 3,515 14.34 504.04 Rhode Island 58,346 5,224 14.56 760.66 Vermont 52,453 3,226 14.56 469.78 Middle Atlantic 2,247,455 5,860

  4. 2014 Average Monthly Bill- Industrial

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Industrial (Data from forms EIA-861- schedules 4A-D, EIA-861S and EIA-861U) State Number of Customers Average Monthly Consumption (kWh) Average Price (cents/kWh) Average Monthly Bill (Dollar and cents) New England 28,017 56,833 11.84 6,730.30 Connecticut 4,648 63,016 12.92 8,138.94 Maine 3,023 92,554 8.95 8,281.27 Massachusetts 14,896 44,536 12.74 5,674.13 New Hampshire 3,342 49,099 11.93 5,857.27 Rhode Island 1,884 39,241 12.86 5,047.36 Vermont 224 527,528 10.23 53,984.67 Middle Atlantic 44,397

  5. 2014 Average Monthly Bill- Residential

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Residential (Data from forms EIA-861- schedules 4A-D, EIA-861S and EIA-861U) State Number of Customers Average Monthly Consumption (kWh) Average Price (cents/kWh) Average Monthly Bill (Dollar and cents) New England 6,243,013 630 17.82 112.31 Connecticut 1,459,239 730 19.75 144.10 Maine 706,952 549 15.27 83.91 Massachusetts 2,720,128 615 17.39 106.94 New Hampshire 606,883 619 17.53 108.57 Rhode Island 438,879 583 17.17 100.09 Vermont 310,932 569 17.47 99.34 Middle Atlantic 15,806,914 696 16.39

  6. Variable Average Absolute Percent Differences

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Variable Average Absolute Percent Differences Percent of Projections Over- Estimated Gross Domestic Product Real Gross Domestic Product (Average Cumulative Growth)* (Table 2) 0.9 45.8 Petroleum Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil (Constant $) (Table 3a) 37.7 17.3 Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil (Nominal $) (Table 3b) 36.6 18.7 Total Petroleum Consumption (Table 4) 7.9 70.7 Crude Oil Production (Table 5) 8.1 51.1 Petroleum Net Imports (Table 6) 24.7 73.8 Natural Gas

  7. Improvement of Renal Functions After Embolization of Renal AVF in a Patient Who had been on Dialysis for 5 Years

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ulusoy, Suekrue Oezkan, Guelsuem; Dinc, Hasan; Kaynar, Kuebra; Oeztuerk, Mehmet Halil; Guel, Semih; Kaplan, Safiye Tuba

    2011-02-15

    Recently, ultrasound-guided percutaneous renal biopsy has been used in the diagnosis of renal diseases. Development of an arteriovenous fistula (AVF), which is one of the post-biopsy complications, is not frequently encountered. AVFs are usually asymptomatic; however, they may lead to serious outcomes. We report a 21-year-old patient, who had been on dialysis for 5 years. Due to high blood pressure (230/160 mmHg) and a thrill in the lumbar area detected on physical examination, Doppler examination was performed and a renal AVF was detected. Because the patient had a history of renal biopsy 5 years previously, the fistula was thought to be secondary to the biopsy. After embolization of the AVF, renal functions improved enough to terminate dialysis treatment.

  8. Variation in the annual average radon concentration measured in homes in Mesa County, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rood, A.S.; George, J.L.; Langner, G.H. Jr.

    1990-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the variability in the annual average indoor radon concentration. The TMC has been collecting annual average radon data for the past 5 years in 33 residential structures in Mesa County, Colorado. This report is an interim report that presents the data collected up to the present. Currently, the plans are to continue this study in the future. 62 refs., 3 figs., 12 tabs.

  9. Acquisition Letter/ Financial Assistance Letter (AL/FAL 2010-05)- Contract Periods of Performance Exceeding 5 Years

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    AL/FAL 2010-05 provides guidance and instructions with respect to the Department of Energy's processes and procedures for approving contract periods of performance in excess of five years under the requirements of Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) 17.204(e). This FAR permissive authority is intended to allow agencies the flexibility, consistent with fiscal law, labor law, and other restrictions, to address the requirements of an instant acquisition and seek approval to extend the contract period of performance beyond 5 years as part of the acquisition planning process. Under certain conditions (i.e. when there is a long term requirement, the program office can define with certainty the desired requirements and outcomes and identify clear measures for Government acceptance of work, the requirement can be priced with reasonable certainty; and there is a funding profile consistent with and adequate for contract performance) the Senior Procurement Executive may elect to approve a longer period of performance

  10. Smoking cessation among coal miners as predicted by baseline respiratory function and symptoms: a 5-year prospective study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ames, R.G.; Hall, D.S.

    1985-03-01

    A prospective analysis was used to test whether respiratory impairment or the presence of respiratory symptoms predicts 5-year cigarette smoking cessation in a sample of 1,118 U.S. white, male, underground coal miners. Miners were examined in 1977 and re-examined in 1982 by NIOSH, and all miners with test abnormalities were so informed by letter. Respiratory impairment was measured by an index of airways obstruction combining the spirometric measures of Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) and Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 sec (FEV1). Bronchitis symptoms were measured by an index that combined chronic cough (3+ months/year) and chronic phlegm (3 + months/year). Among these coal miners, the presence of chronic respiratory symptoms initially was inversely associated with cigarette smoking cessation. Respiratory impairment, however, was positively associated with cigarette smoking cessation but did not reach statistical significance.

  11. Valvular Abnormalities Detected by Echocardiography in 5-Year Survivors of Childhood Cancer: A Long-Term Follow-Up Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pal, Helena J. van der; Caron, Huib N.; Kremer, Leontien C.; Dalen, Elvira C. van

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the prevalence of valvular abnormalities after radiation therapy involving the heart region and/or treatment with anthracyclines and to identify associated risk factors in a large cohort of 5-year childhood cancer survivors (CCS). Methods and Materials: The study cohort consisted of all 626 eligible 5-year CCS diagnosed with childhood cancer in the Emma Children's Hospital/Academic Medical Center between 1966 and 1996 and treated with radiation therapy involving the heart region and/or anthracyclines. We determined the presence of valvular abnormalities according to echocardiograms. Physical radiation dose was converted into the equivalent dose in 2-Gy fractions (EQD{sub 2}). Using multivariable logistic regression analyses, we examined the associations between cancer treatment and valvular abnormalities. Results: We identified 225 mainly mild echocardiographic valvular abnormalities in 169 of 545 CCS (31%) with a cardiac assessment (median follow-up time, 14.9 years [range, 5.1-36.8 years]; median attained age 22.0 years [range, 7.0-49.7 years]). Twenty-four CCS (4.4%) had 31 moderate or higher-graded abnormalities. Most common abnormalities were tricuspid valve disorders (n=119; 21.8%) and mitral valve disorders (n=73; 13.4%). The risk of valvular abnormalities was associated with increasing radiation dose (using EQD{sub 2}) involving the heart region (odds ratio 1.33 per 10 Gy) and the presence of congenital heart disease (odds ratio 3.43). We found no statistically significant evidence that anthracyclines increase the risk. Conclusions: Almost one-third of CCS treated with potentially cardiotoxic therapy had 1 or more asymptomatic, mostly mild valvular abnormalities after a median follow-up of nearly 15 years. The most important risk factors are higher EQD{sub 2} to the heart region and congenital heart disease. Studies with longer follow-up are necessary to investigate the clinical course of asymptomatic valvular abnormalities in CCS.

  12. Average and effective Q-values for fission product average (n...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Average and effective Q-values for fission product average (n,2n) and (n,3n) reaction cross sections Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Average and effective Q-values for ...

  13. Dynamic Multiscale Averaging (DMA) of Turbulent Flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard W. Johnson

    2012-09-01

    A new approach called dynamic multiscale averaging (DMA) for computing the effects of turbulent flow is described. The new method encompasses multiple applications of temporal and spatial averaging, that is, multiscale operations. Initially, a direct numerical simulation (DNS) is performed for a relatively short time; it is envisioned that this short time should be long enough to capture several fluctuating time periods of the smallest scales. The flow field variables are subject to running time averaging during the DNS. After the relatively short time, the time-averaged variables are volume averaged onto a coarser grid. Both time and volume averaging of the describing equations generate correlations in the averaged equations. These correlations are computed from the flow field and added as source terms to the computation on the next coarser mesh. They represent coupling between the two adjacent scales. Since they are computed directly from first principles, there is no modeling involved. However, there is approximation involved in the coupling correlations as the flow field has been computed for only a relatively short time. After the time and spatial averaging operations are applied at a given stage, new computations are performed on the next coarser mesh using a larger time step. The process continues until the coarsest scale needed is reached. New correlations are created for each averaging procedure. The number of averaging operations needed is expected to be problem dependent. The new DMA approach is applied to a relatively low Reynolds number flow in a square duct segment. Time-averaged stream-wise velocity and vorticity contours from the DMA approach appear to be very similar to a full DNS for a similar flow reported in the literature. Expected symmetry for the final results is produced for the DMA method. The results obtained indicate that DMA holds significant potential in being able to accurately compute turbulent flow without modeling for practical engineering applications.

  14. Spacetime Average Density (SAD) cosmological measures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Page, Don N.

    2014-11-01

    The measure problem of cosmology is how to obtain normalized probabilities of observations from the quantum state of the universe. This is particularly a problem when eternal inflation leads to a universe of unbounded size so that there are apparently infinitely many realizations or occurrences of observations of each of many different kinds or types, making the ratios ambiguous. There is also the danger of domination by Boltzmann Brains. Here two new Spacetime Average Density (SAD) measures are proposed, Maximal Average Density (MAD) and Biased Average Density (BAD), for getting a finite number of observation occurrences by using properties of the Spacetime Average Density (SAD) of observation occurrences to restrict to finite regions of spacetimes that have a preferred beginning or bounce hypersurface. These measures avoid Boltzmann brain domination and appear to give results consistent with other observations that are problematic for other widely used measures, such as the observation of a positive cosmological constant.

  15. Polarized electron beams at milliampere average current

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poelker, Matthew

    2013-11-01

    This contribution describes some of the challenges associated with developing a polarized electron source capable of uninterrupted days-long operation at milliAmpere average beam current with polarization greater than 80%. Challenges will be presented in the context of assessing the required level of extrapolation beyond the performance of today's CEBAF polarized source operating at ~ 200 uA average current. Estimates of performance at higher current will be based on hours-long demonstrations at 1 and 4 mA. Particular attention will be paid to beam-related lifetime-limiting mechanisms, and strategies to construct a photogun that operate reliably at bias voltage > 350kV.

  16. Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes simulation of the heave performance of a two-body floating-point absorber wave energy system Yi-Hsiang Yu, Ye Li ⇑ National Wind Technology Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO 80401, USA a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 7 September 2011 Received in revised form 5 August 2012 Accepted 9 October 2012 Available online 17 October 2012 Keywords: Wave energy conversion Heave Computational Fluid Dynamics Reynolds-averaged

  17. U.S. Natural Gas Average Consumption per Commercial Consumer (Thousand

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Cubic Feet) Commercial Consumer (Thousand Cubic Feet) U.S. Natural Gas Average Consumption per Commercial Consumer (Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 637 665 699 1970's 737 751 777 779 734 730 789 745 784 811 1980's 739 693 696 625 672 634 587 606 647 652 1990's 619 626 636 641 639 654 669 675 595 608 2000's 635 605 621 617 609 577 537 568 579 586 2010's 585 593 540 613 640 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA =

  18. New applications for high average power beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neau, E.L.; Turman, B.N.; Patterson, E.L.

    1993-08-01

    The technology base formed by the development of high peak power simulators, laser drivers, FEL`s, and ICF drivers from the early 60`s through the late 80`s is being extended to high average power short-pulse machines with the capabilities of supporting new types of manufacturing processes and performing new roles in environmental cleanup applications. This paper discusses a process for identifying and developing possible commercial applications, specifically those requiring very high average power levels of hundreds of kilowatts to perhaps megawatts. The authors discuss specific technology requirements and give examples of application development efforts. The application development work is directed at areas that can possibly benefit from the high specific energies attainable with short pulse machines.

  19. Average and effective Q-values for fission product average (n,2n) and

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (n,3n) reaction cross sections (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Average and effective Q-values for fission product average (n,2n) and (n,3n) reaction cross sections Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Average and effective Q-values for fission product average (n,2n) and (n,3n) reaction cross sections Authors: Kawano, Toshihiko [1] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States) Publication Date: 2015-10-01 OSTI

  20. Table 1. Real Average Transportation and Delivered Costs of Coal...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Real Average Transportation and Delivered Costs of Coal, By Year and Primary Transport Mode" "Year","Average Transportation Cost of Coal (Dollars per Ton)","Average Delivered Cost...

  1. A Green's function quantum average atom model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Starrett, Charles Edward

    2015-05-21

    A quantum average atom model is reformulated using Green's functions. This allows integrals along the real energy axis to be deformed into the complex plane. The advantage being that sharp features such as resonances and bound states are broadened by a Lorentzian with a half-width chosen for numerical convenience. An implementation of this method therefore avoids numerically challenging resonance tracking and the search for weakly bound states, without changing the physical content or results of the model. A straightforward implementation results in up to a factor of 5 speed-up relative to an optimized orbital based code.

  2. Extended (5-year) Outcomes of Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Using MammoSite Balloon Brachytherapy: Patterns of Failure, Patient Selection, and Dosimetric Correlates for Late Toxicity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vargo, John A.; Verma, Vivek; Kim, Hayeon; Kalash, Ronny; Heron, Dwight E.; Johnson, Ronald; Beriwal, Sushil

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) with balloon and catheter-based brachytherapy has gained increasing popularity in recent years and is the subject of ongoing phase III trials. Initial data suggest promising local control and cosmetic results in appropriately selected patients. Long-term data continue to evolve but are limited outside of the context of the American Society of Breast Surgeons Registry Trial. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review of 157 patients completing APBI after breast-conserving surgery and axillary staging via high-dose-rate {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy from June 2002 to December 2007 was made. APBI was delivered with a single-lumen MammoSite balloon-based applicator to a median dose of 34 Gy in 10 fractions over a 5-day period. Tumor coverage and critical organ dosimetry were retrospectively collected on the basis of computed tomography completed for conformance and symmetry. Results: At a median follow-up time of 5.5 years (range, 0-10.0 years), the 5-year and 7-year actuarial incidences of ipsilateral breast control were 98%/98%, of nodal control 99%/98%, and of distant control 99%/99%, respectively. The crude rate of ipsilateral breast recurrence was 2.5% (n=4); of nodal failure, 1.9% (n=3); and of distant failure, 0.6% (n=1). The 5-year and 7-year actuarial overall survival rates were 89%/86%, with breast cancer–specific survival of 100%/99%, respectively. Good to excellent cosmetic outcomes were achieved in 93.4% of patients. Telangiectasia developed in 27% of patients, with 1-year, 3-year, and 5-year actuarial incidence of 7%/24%/33%; skin dose >100% significantly predicted for the development of telangiectasia (50% vs 14%, P<.0001). Conclusions: Long-term single-institution outcomes suggest excellent tumor control, breast cosmesis, and minimal late toxicity. Skin toxicity is a function of skin dose, which may be ameliorated with dosimetric optimization afforded by newer multicatheter brachytherapy applicators and a more rigorous skin dose constraint of ?100%.

  3. 70 Gy Versus 80 Gy in Localized Prostate Cancer: 5-Year Results of GETUG 06 Randomized Trial;Prostate cancer; Dose escalation; Conformal radiotherapy; Randomized trial

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beckendorf, Veronique; Guerif, Stephane; Le Prise, Elisabeth; Cosset, Jean-Marc; Bougnoux, Agnes; Chauvet, Bruno; Salem, Naji; Chapet, Olivier; Bourdain, Sylvain; Bachaud, Jean-Marc; Maingon, Philippe; Hannoun-Levi, Jean-Michel; Malissard, Luc; Simon, Jean-Marc; Pommier, Pascal; Hay, Men; Dubray, Bernard; Lagrange, Jean-Leon; Luporsi, Elisabeth; Bey, Pierre

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: To perform a randomized trial comparing 70 and 80 Gy radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Patients and Methods: A total of 306 patients with localized prostate cancer were randomized. No androgen deprivation was allowed. The primary endpoint was biochemical relapse according to the modified 1997-American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology and Phoenix definitions. Toxicity was graded using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 1991 criteria and the late effects on normal tissues-subjective, objective, management, analytic scales (LENT-SOMA) scales. The patients' quality of life was scored using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire 30-item cancer-specific and 25-item prostate-specific modules. Results: The median follow-up was 61 months. According to the 1997-American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology definition, the 5-year biochemical relapse rate was 39% and 28% in the 70- and 80-Gy arms, respectively (p = .036). Using the Phoenix definition, the 5-year biochemical relapse rate was 32% and 23.5%, respectively (p = .09). The subgroup analysis showed a better biochemical outcome for the higher dose group with an initial prostate-specific antigen level >15 ng/mL. At the last follow-up date, 26 patients had died, 10 of their disease and none of toxicity, with no differences between the two arms. According to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group scale, the Grade 2 or greater rectal toxicity rate was 14% and 19.5% for the 70- and 80-Gy arms (p = .22), respectively. The Grade 2 or greater urinary toxicity was 10% at 70 Gy and 17.5% at 80 Gy (p = .046). Similar results were observed using the LENT-SOMA scale. Bladder toxicity was more frequent at 80 Gy than at 70 Gy (p = .039). The quality-of-life questionnaire results before and 5 years after treatment were available for 103 patients with no differences found between the 70- and 80-Gy arms. Conclusion: High-dose radiotherapy provided a better 5-year biochemical outcome with slightly greater toxicity.

  4. Fact #870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    70: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014 Fact 870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014 The Corporate Average Fuel ...

  5. High Average Brightness Photocathode Development for FEL Applications...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: High Average Brightness Photocathode Development for FEL Applications Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High Average Brightness Photocathode Development for...

  6. ARM: Temperature Profiles from Raman Lidar at 60-min averaging...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ARM: Temperature Profiles from Raman Lidar at 60-min averaging interval Temperature Profiles from Raman Lidar at 60-min averaging ...

  7. ARM: Temperature Profiles from Raman Lidar at 10-min averaging...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Temperature Profiles from Raman Lidar at 10-min averaging interval Title: ARM: Temperature Profiles from Raman Lidar at 10-min averaging interval Temperature Profiles from Raman ...

  8. Fact #744: September 10, 2012 Average New Light Vehicle Price Grows Faster than Average Used Light Vehicle Price

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2011 the average used light vehicle price was 36% higher than in 1990, while the average new light vehicle price was 67% higher than it was in 1990. The average price of a used vehicle had been...

  9. U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Dry Exploratory and

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) and Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Dry Exploratory and Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1940's 3,635 1950's 3,742 3,944 4,132 4,069 4,070 4,101 4,080 4,174 4,118 4,220 1960's 4,213 4,285 4,408 4,405 4,431 4,510 4,478 4,385 4,738 4,881 1970's 4,943 4,858 4,974 5,041 4,662 4,661 4,577 4,708 4,760 4,689

  10. Fact #849: December 1, 2014 Midsize Hybrid Cars Averaged 51%...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    9: December 1, 2014 Midsize Hybrid Cars Averaged 51% Better Fuel Economy than Midsize Non-Hybrid Cars in 2014 Fact 849: December 1, 2014 Midsize Hybrid Cars Averaged 51% Better ...

  11. Fact #615: March 22, 2010 Average Vehicle Trip Length

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    According to the latest National Household Travel Survey, the average trip length grew to over 10 miles in 2009, just slightly over the 9.9 mile average in 2001. Trips to work in 2009 increased to...

  12. Fact #889: September 7, 2015 Average Diesel Price Lower than...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    9: September 7, 2015 Average Diesel Price Lower than Gasoline for the First Time in Six Years Fact 889: September 7, 2015 Average Diesel Price Lower than Gasoline for the First ...

  13. Fact #614: March 15, 2010 Average Age of Household Vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The average age of household vehicles has increased from 6.6 years in 1977 to 9.2 years in 2009. Pickup trucks have the oldest average age in every year listed. Sport utility vehicles (SUVs), first...

  14. Fact #835: August 25, 2014 Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    35: Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2013 File fotw835web.xlsx More Documents & Publications Fact 915: March 7, 2016 Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price, ...

  15. Table 14a. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    a. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected Price in Constant Dollars" " (constant dollars, cents per kilowatt-hour in ""dollar year"" specific to each AEO)" ...

  16. ,"Sulfur Content, Weighted Average Refinery Crude Oil Input Qualities...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Weighted Average Refinery Crude Oil Input Qualities",16,"Monthly","22016","1151985" ,"Release Date:","4292016" ,"Next Release Date:","5312016" ,"Excel File ...

  17. Table 4. Average value of photovoltaic modules, 2003-2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Average value of photovoltaic modules, 2003-2013" "(dollars per peak watt)" ... Administration, Form EIA-63B, 'Annual Photovoltaic CellModule Shipments Report.' Note: ...

  18. Table 2. Value and average value of photovoltaic module shipments...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Value and average value of photovoltaic module shipments, 2013" "Module value, total ... Administration, Form EIA-63B, 'Annual Photovoltaic CellModule Shipments Report' Note: ...

  19. High Average Brightness Photocathode Development for FEL Applications...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: High Average Brightness Photocathode Development for FEL Applications Authors: Rao T. ; Ben-Zvi I. ; Skarita, J. ; Wang, E. Publication Date: 2013-08-26 OSTI Identifier: ...

  20. "Table 2. Real Average Annual Coal Transportation Costs, By Primary...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Real Average Annual Coal Transportation Costs, By Primary Transport Mode and Supply Region" "(2013 dollars per ton)" "Coal Supply Region",2008,2009,2010,2011,2012,2013 "Railroad"...

  1. Turning Bayesian model averaging into Bayesian model combination...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Turning Bayesian model averaging into Bayesian model combination Authors: Carroll, James 1 ; Monteith, Kristine 2 ; Seppi, Kevin 2 ; Martinez, Tony 2 + Show Author ...

  2. Annual average efficiency of a solar thermochemical reactor. (Conference) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Annual average efficiency of a solar thermochemical reactor. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Annual average efficiency of a solar thermochemical reactor. Abstract not provided. Authors: Ermanoski, Ivan ; Siegel, Nathan Phillip Publication Date: 2013-06-01 OSTI Identifier: 1143854 Report Number(s): SAND2013-5257C 456746

  3. Fact #803: November 11, 2013 Average Number of Transmission Gears...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Average Number of Gears for New Light Vehicles, Model Years 1979-2012 Model Year Average Number of Gears 1979 3.3 1980 3.5 1981 3.5 1982 3.6 1983 3.7 1984 3.7 1985 3.8 1986 3.8 ...

  4. ,"Selected National Average Natural Gas Prices"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Selected National Average Natural Gas Prices" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Average Natural Gas Prices",11,"Monthly","3/2016","01/15/1973" ,"Data 2","Annual Average Natural Gas Prices",11,"Annual",2015,"06/30/1922" ,"Release

  5. Table 14b. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    b. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected Price in Nominal Dollars" " (nominal dollars, cents per kilowatt-hour)" ,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,200...

  6. Table 14b. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    b. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual Projected Price in Nominal Dollars (nominal dollars, cents per kilowatt-hour) 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 ...

  7. Average summer electric power bills expected to be lowest in...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    years The average U.S. household is expected to pay 395 for electricity this summer. That's down 2.5% from last year and the lowest residential summer power bill in four years, ...

  8. Fact #693: September 19, 2011 Average Vehicle Footprint for Cars...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fact 693: September 19, 2011 Average Vehicle Footprint for Cars and Light Trucks A vehicle footprint is the area defined by the four points where the tires touch the ground. It is ...

  9. Fact #915: March 7, 2016 Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2015 File fotw915web.xlsx More Documents & Publications Fact 888: August 31, 2015 Historical Gas Prices - Dataset Fact 835: ...

  10. Does anyone have access to 2012 average residential rates by...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Does anyone have access to 2012 average residential rates by utility company? I'm seeing an inconsistency between the OpenEI website and EIA 861 data set. Home > Groups > Utility...

  11. "Table A25 Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources by Census" " Region, Industry Group, and ....015,"W",7.25,2.434,6.685,"W",1.1 33,"Primary Metal Industries",10.178,2.172,5.835,2...

  12. "Table A25. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources by Census" " Region, Industry Group, and ...044,"W",1.006,2.507,0.576,"W",1.1 33,"Primary Metal Industries",0.035,0.325,0.809,2....

  13. Flavor Physics Data from the Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG) was established at the May 2002 Flavor Physics and CP Violation Conference in Philadelphia, and continues the LEP Heavy Flavor Steering Group's tradition of providing regular updates to the world averages of heavy flavor quantities. Data are provided by six subgroups that each focus on a different set of heavy flavor measurements: B lifetimes and oscillation parameters, Semi-leptonic B decays, Rare B decays, Unitarity triangle parameters, B decays to charm final states, and Charm Physics.

  14. Averaged null energy condition violation in a conformally flat spacetime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urban, Douglas; Olum, Ken D.

    2010-01-15

    We show that the averaged null energy condition can be violated by a conformally coupled scalar field in a conformally flat spacetime in 3+1 dimensions. The violation is dependent on the quantum state and can be made as large as desired. It does not arise from the presence of anomalies, although anomalous violations are also possible. Since all geodesics in conformally flat spacetimes are achronal, the achronal averaged null energy condition is likewise violated.

  15. U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil Exploratory Wells Drilled (Feet per Well)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil Exploratory Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1940's 4,232 1950's 4,335 4,609 4,781 4,761 4,740 4,819 4,901 5,036 4,993 5,021 1960's 5,170 5,099 5,124 4,878 5,509 5,672 5,700 5,758 5,914 6,054 1970's 6,247 5,745 5,880 6,243 5,855 5,913 6,010 5,902 6,067 6,011 1980's 5,727 5,853 5,504 5,141 5,565 5,865 6,069 6,104 6,182 6,028 1990's 6,838 6,641 6,930 6,627 6,671

  16. U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil Exploratory and Developmental Wells Drilled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (Feet per Well) and Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil Exploratory and Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1940's 3,720 1950's 3,893 4,103 4,214 4,033 4,028 3,981 3,942 4,021 3,916 3,935 1960's 3,889 3,994 4,070 4,063 4,042 4,059 4,013 3,825 4,153 4,286 1970's 4,385 4,126 4,330 4,369 3,812 3,943 3,895 4,025 4,017 3,966 1980's 3,801 3,923 3,793 3,662 3,791 3,906 3,999

  17. U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Dry Developmental Wells

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Drilled (Feet per Well) Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Dry Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1940's 3,568 1950's 3,691 3,851 3,999 3,880 3,905 3,904 3,880 3,966 3,907 3,999 1960's 4,020 4,064 4,227 4,193 4,179 4,288 4,112 4,004 4,328 4,431 1970's 4,610 4,480 4,590 4,687 4,249 4,285 4,214 4,404 4,421 4,374 1980's 4,166 4,209 4,225 4,004 4,125

  18. U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Dry Exploratory Wells

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Drilled (Feet per Well) Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Dry Exploratory Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1940's 3,842 1950's 3,898 4,197 4,476 4,557 4,550 4,632 4,587 4,702 4,658 4,795 1960's 4,770 4,953 4,966 5,016 5,174 5,198 5,402 5,388 5,739 5,924 1970's 5,885 5,915 6,015 5,955 5,777 5,842 5,825 5,798 5,978 5,916 1980's 5,733 5,793 5,597 5,035 5,369 5,544 5,680 5,563

  19. U.S. Average Depth of Dry Exploratory and Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    per Well) Exploratory and Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Dry Exploratory and Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1940's 3,473 1950's 3,445 3,706 3,983 4,004 4,004 4,161 4,079 4,126 4,110 4,275 1960's 4,248 4,311 4,524 4,552 4,598 4,723 4,573 4,616 5,053 5,195 1970's 5,265 5,305 5,377 5,403 5,191 5,073 5,014 5,120 5,183 5,071 1980's 4,791 4,827 4,691 4,320 4,631 4,733 4,763

  20. U.S. Average Depth of Dry Holes Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Dry Holes Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1940's 3,225 1950's 3,077 3,255 3,520 3,401 3,512 3,699 3,574 3,605 3,631 3,844 1960's 3,889 3,782 4,239 4,143 4,207 4,446 3,900 3,901 4,311 4,437 1970's 4,714 4,633 4,725 4,851 4,599 4,415 4,439 4,662 4,600 4,517 1980's 4,214 4,226 4,184 3,974 4,205 4,306 4,236 4,390 4,704 4,684 1990's 4,755 4,629

  1. U.S. Average Depth of Dry Holes Exploratory Wells Drilled (Feet per Well)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Exploratory Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Dry Holes Exploratory Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1940's 3,658 1950's 3,733 4,059 4,334 4,447 4,408 4,498 4,425 4,488 4,449 4,602 1960's 4,575 4,799 4,790 4,933 4,980 5,007 5,117 5,188 5,589 5,739 1970's 5,700 5,796 5,882 5,808 5,649 5,674 5,607 5,605 5,812 5,716 1980's 5,533 5,582 5,367 4,800 5,178 5,317 5,447 5,294 5,748 5,579 1990's 5,685 5,658 5,480

  2. U.S. Average Depth of Natural Gas Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Well) Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Natural Gas Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1940's 3,412 1950's 3,766 3,837 4,015 4,373 4,365 4,339 4,734 4,950 4,801 5,120 1960's 5,321 5,145 5,186 5,198 5,171 5,337 5,474 5,629 5,716 5,531 1970's 5,644 5,670 5,259 5,286 5,173 5,238 4,960 5,053 5,066 5,082 1980's 5,093 5,149 5,453 5,187 5,158 5,193 5,080 5,112 5,155 5,038 1990's

  3. U.S. Average Depth of Natural Gas Exploratory Wells Drilled (Feet per Well)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Natural Gas Exploratory Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1940's 5,682 1950's 5,466 5,497 6,071 5,654 6,059 5,964 6,301 6,898 6,657 6,613 1960's 6,298 6,457 6,728 6,370 7,547 7,295 8,321 7,478 7,697 8,092 1970's 7,695 7,649 7,400 6,596 6,456 6,748 6,777 6,625 6,662 6,630 1980's 6,604 6,772 6,921 6,395 6,502 6,787 6,777 6,698 6,683 6,606 1990's 7,100 7,122 6,907 6,482 6,564

  4. U.S. Average Depth of Natural Gas Exploratory and Developmental Wells

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Drilled (Feet per Well) and Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Natural Gas Exploratory and Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1940's 3,698 1950's 3,979 4,056 4,342 4,599 4,670 4,672 5,018 5,326 5,106 5,396 1960's 5,486 5,339 5,408 5,368 5,453 5,562 5,928 5,898 5,994 5,918 1970's 5,860 5,890 5,516 5,488 5,387 5,470 5,220 5,254 5,262 5,275 1980's 5,275 5,351 5,617 5,319 5,276

  5. Residual Fuel Oil Prices, Average - Sales to End Users

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Product/Sales Type: Residual Fuel, Average - Sales to End Users Residual Fuel, Average - Sales for Resale Sulfur Less Than or Equal to 1% - Sales to End Users Sulfur Less Than or Equal to 1% - Sales for Resale Sulfur Greater Than 1% - Sales to End Users Sulfur Greater Than 1% - Sales for Resale Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Product/Sales Type Area Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15

  6. High average power scaleable thin-disk laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beach, Raymond J.; Honea, Eric C.; Bibeau, Camille; Payne, Stephen A.; Powell, Howard; Krupke, William F.; Sutton, Steven B.

    2002-01-01

    Using a thin disk laser gain element with an undoped cap layer enables the scaling of lasers to extremely high average output power values. Ordinarily, the power scaling of such thin disk lasers is limited by the deleterious effects of amplified spontaneous emission. By using an undoped cap layer diffusion bonded to the thin disk, the onset of amplified spontaneous emission does not occur as readily as if no cap layer is used, and much larger transverse thin disks can be effectively used as laser gain elements. This invention can be used as a high average power laser for material processing applications as well as for weapon and air defense applications.

  7. Turning Bayesian model averaging into Bayesian model combination

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Turning Bayesian model averaging into Bayesian model combination Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Turning Bayesian model averaging into Bayesian model combination Authors: Carroll, James [1] ; Monteith, Kristine [2] ; Seppi, Kevin [2] ; Martinez, Tony [2] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory BYU Publication Date: 2011-07-28 OSTI Identifier: 1084524 Report Number(s): LA-UR-11-04419; LA-UR-11-4419 DOE Contract Number: AC52-06NA25396

  8. Virginia Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential and

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Consumers by Local Distribution and Market 9.45 15.81 11.72 12.09 9.45 8.76 1989-2016 Commercial Average Price 8.91 8.02 7.57 7.93 6.88 6.67

  9. Maryland Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Local Distribution Companies 12.20 2006-2010 Marketers 13.51 2006-2010 Percent Sold by Local Distribution Companies 81.7 2006-2010 Commercial Average Price 9.87 10.29 10.00 10.06 ...

  10. Florida Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Local Distribution Companies 17.85 2006-2010 Marketers 19.44 2006-2010 Percent Sold by Local Distribution Companies 97.9 2006-2010 Commercial Average Price 10.60 11.14 10.41 10.87 ...

  11. New Jersey Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Local Distribution Companies 12.77 2006-2010 Marketers 14.87 2006-2010 Percent Sold by Local Distribution Companies 96.6 2006-2010 Commercial Average Price 10.11 9.51 8.50 9.55 ...

  12. Michigan Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Average Price 8.95 9.14 8.35 7.82 8.28 7.49 1967-2015 Local Distribution Companies 10.00 2006-2010 Marketers 7.61 2006-2010 Percent Sold by Local Distribution Companies ...

  13. Virginia Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Local Distribution Companies 12.64 2006-2010 Marketers 13.64 2006-2010 Percent Sold by Local Distribution Companies 90.9 2006-2010 Commercial Average Price 9.55 9.69 8.77 8.83 9.17 ...

  14. Pennsylvania Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Local Distribution Companies 12.82 2006-2010 Marketers 13.78 2006-2010 Percent Sold by Local Distribution Companies 91.2 2006-2010 Commercial Average Price 10.47 10.42 10.24 10.11 ...

  15. Speckle averaging system for laser raster-scan image projection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tiszauer, D.H.; Hackel, L.A.

    1998-03-17

    The viewers` perception of laser speckle in a laser-scanned image projection system is modified or eliminated by the addition of an optical deflection system that effectively presents a new speckle realization at each point on the viewing screen to each viewer for every scan across the field. The speckle averaging is accomplished without introduction of spurious imaging artifacts. 5 figs.

  16. Speckle averaging system for laser raster-scan image projection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tiszauer, Detlev H.; Hackel, Lloyd A.

    1998-03-17

    The viewers' perception of laser speckle in a laser-scanned image projection system is modified or eliminated by the addition of an optical deflection system that effectively presents a new speckle realization at each point on the viewing screen to each viewer for every scan across the field. The speckle averaging is accomplished without introduction of spurious imaging artifacts.

  17. Florida Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential and

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Consumers by Local Distribution and Markete 4.41 23.37 21.56 19.15 16.78 16.00 1989-2016 Commercial Average Price 11.15 10.61 10.69 10.89 10.70 10.62

  18. Georgia Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential and

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Consumers by Local Distribution and Markete 5.75 20.43 15.20 14.41 10.79 10.94 1989-2016 Commercial Average Price 9.38 8.65 9.72 7.80 6.57 7.05

  19. Pennsylvania Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential and

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Consumers by Local Distribution and Ma 8.32 NA 10.56 9.85 8.75 8.64 1989-2016 Commercial Average Price 11.10 NA 8.27 8.13 7.19 7.44

  20. Maryland Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential and

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Consumers by Local Distribution and Market 9.39 13.51 12.72 13.12 9.95 9.46 1989-2016 Commercial Average Price 11.11 9.98 9.56 10.44 NA 8.18

  1. Michigan Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential and

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Consumers by Local Distribution and Market 3.21 8.93 7.84 7.55 7.25 7.58 1989-2016 Commercial Average Price 9.05 7.46 6.75 6.59 6.50 6.64

  2. U.S. Refiner Sales to End Users (Average) Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15 Jan-16 Feb-16 View History Conventional, Average 1.785 1.759 1.601 1.472 1.346 1.210 1994-2016 Conventional Regular 1.743 1.721 1.562 1.431 1.305 1.169 ...

  3. Parity-violating anomalies and the stationarity of stochastic averages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reuter, M.

    1988-01-15

    Within the framework of stochastic quantization the parity-violating anomalies in odd space-time dimensions are derived from the asymptotic stationarity of the stochastic average of a certain fermion bilinear. Contrary to earlier attempts, this method yields the correct anomalies for both massive and massless fermions.

  4. Fact #671: April 18, 2011 Average Truck Speeds | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    speed between peak traffic times and non-peak hours can be as much as 1.5 mph (I-45) or as little as 0.2 mph (I-81). Map of the U.S. showing the highway system and the average ...

  5. After 5 Years, NERSC's Franklin Retires

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    After 15 Years, A New Top Earning Patent At Ames Lab After 15 Years, A New Top Earning Patent At Ames Lab January 20, 2012 - 11:32am Addthis Ames Laboratory senior metallurgist Iver Anderson explains the importance of lead-free solder in taking hazardous lead out of the environment by eliminating it from discarded computers and electronics that wind up in landfills. Anderson led a team that developed a tin-silver-copper replacement for traditional lead solder that has been adopted by more than

  6. Modeling an Application's Theoretical Minimum and Average Transactional Response Times

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paiz, Mary Rose

    2015-04-01

    The theoretical minimum transactional response time of an application serves as a ba- sis for the expected response time. The lower threshold for the minimum response time represents the minimum amount of time that the application should take to complete a transaction. Knowing the lower threshold is beneficial in detecting anomalies that are re- sults of unsuccessful transactions. On the converse, when an application's response time falls above an upper threshold, there is likely an anomaly in the application that is causing unusual performance issues in the transaction. This report explains how the non-stationary Generalized Extreme Value distribution is used to estimate the lower threshold of an ap- plication's daily minimum transactional response time. It also explains how the seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average time series model is used to estimate the upper threshold for an application's average transactional response time.

  7. Electric Sales, Revenue, and Average Price 2011 - Energy Information

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Administration Electricity Glossary › FAQS › Overview Data Electricity Data Browser (interactive query tool with charting & mapping) Summary Sales (consumption), revenue, prices & customers Generation and thermal output Electric power plants generating capacity Consumption of fuels used to generate electricity Receipts of fossil-fuels for electricity generation Average cost of fossil-fuels for electricity generation Fossil-fuel stocks for electricity generation Revenue and

  8. Table A44. Average Prices of Purchased Electricity and Steam

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. Average Prices of Purchased Electricity and Steam" " by Type of Supplier, Census Region, Census Division, and" " Economic Characteristics of the Establishment, 1994" " (Estimates in Dollars per Physical Units)" ," Electricity",," Steam" ," (kWh)",," (million Btu)" ,,,,,"RSE" ,"Utility","Nonutility","Utility","Nonutility","Row" "Economic

  9. Average dynamics of a finite set of coupled phase oscillators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dima, Germán C. Mindlin, Gabriel B.

    2014-06-15

    We study the solutions of a dynamical system describing the average activity of an infinitely large set of driven coupled excitable units. We compared their topological organization with that reconstructed from the numerical integration of finite sets. In this way, we present a strategy to establish the pertinence of approximating the dynamics of finite sets of coupled nonlinear units by the dynamics of its infinitely large surrogate.

  10. Averaging cross section data so we can fit it

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, D.

    2014-10-23

    The 56Fe cross section we are interested in have a lot of fluctuations. We would like to fit the average of the cross section with cross sections calculated within EMPIRE. EMPIRE is a Hauser-Feshbach theory based nuclear reaction code, requires cross sections to be smoothed using a Lorentzian profile. The plan is to fit EMPIRE to these cross sections in the fast region (say above 500 keV).

  11. Predictive RANS simulations via Bayesian Model-Scenario Averaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edeling, W.N.; Cinnella, P.; Dwight, R.P.

    2014-10-15

    The turbulence closure model is the dominant source of error in most Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes simulations, yet no reliable estimators for this error component currently exist. Here we develop a stochastic, a posteriori error estimate, calibrated to specific classes of flow. It is based on variability in model closure coefficients across multiple flow scenarios, for multiple closure models. The variability is estimated using Bayesian calibration against experimental data for each scenario, and Bayesian Model-Scenario Averaging (BMSA) is used to collate the resulting posteriors, to obtain a stochastic estimate of a Quantity of Interest (QoI) in an unmeasured (prediction) scenario. The scenario probabilities in BMSA are chosen using a sensor which automatically weights those scenarios in the calibration set which are similar to the prediction scenario. The methodology is applied to the class of turbulent boundary-layers subject to various pressure gradients. For all considered prediction scenarios the standard-deviation of the stochastic estimate is consistent with the measurement ground truth. Furthermore, the mean of the estimate is more consistently accurate than the individual model predictions.

  12. Average System Cost Methodology : Administrator's Record of Decision.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1984-06-01

    Significant features of average system cost (ASC) methodology adopted are: retention of the jurisdictional approach where retail rate orders of regulartory agencies provide primary data for computing the ASC for utilities participating in the residential exchange; inclusion of transmission costs; exclusion of construction work in progress; use of a utility's weighted cost of debt securities; exclusion of income taxes; simplification of separation procedures for subsidized generation and transmission accounts from other accounts; clarification of ASC methodology rules; more generous review timetable for individual filings; phase-in of reformed methodology; and each exchanging utility must file under the new methodology within 20 days of implementation by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission of the ten major participating utilities, the revised ASC will substantially only affect three. (PSB)

  13. U.S. Conventional, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1.785 1.759 1.601 1.472 1.346 1.210 1994-2016 Through Retail Outlets 1.786 1.760 1.602 1.471 1.345 1.209 1994-2016 Sales for Resale, Average 1.553 1.513 1.373 1.290 1.117 0.998 1994-2016 DTW 1.812 1.637 1.591 1.532 1.337 1.161 1994-2016 Rack 1.559 1.519 1.372 1.288 1.109 0.994 1994-2016 Bulk 1.449 1.413 1.326 1.254 1.137 0.991

  14. U.S. Reformulated, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2.155 2.007 1.905 1.840 1.790 1.553 1994-2016 Through Retail Outlets 2.157 2.008 1.907 1.841 1.792 1.554 1994-2016 Sales for Resale, Average 1.728 1.651 1.537 1.497 1.331 1.143 1994-2016 DTW 2.128 1.979 1.864 1.854 1.796 1.471 1994-2016 Rack 1.634 1.577 1.459 1.412 1.221 1.066 1994-2016 Bulk 1.645 1.566 1.524 1.456 1.307 1.074

  15. Gauge and averaging in gravitational self-force

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gralla, Samuel E.

    2011-10-15

    A difficulty with previous treatments of the gravitational self-force is that an explicit formula for the force is available only in a particular gauge (Lorenz gauge), where the force in other gauges must be found through a transformation law once the Lorenz-gauge force is known. For a class of gauges satisfying a 'parity condition' ensuring that the Hamiltonian center of mass of the particle is well-defined, I show that the gravitational self-force is always given by the angle average of the bare gravitational force. To derive this result I replace the computational strategy of previous work with a new approach, wherein the form of the force is first fixed up to a gauge-invariant piece by simple manipulations, and then that piece is determined by working in a gauge designed specifically to simplify the computation. This offers significant computational savings over the Lorenz gauge, since the Hadamard expansion is avoided entirely and the metric perturbation takes a very simple form. I also show that the rest mass of the particle does not evolve due to first-order self-force effects. Finally, I consider the 'mode sum regularization' scheme for computing the self-force in black hole background spacetimes, and use the angle-average form of the force to show that the same mode-by-mode subtraction may be performed in all parity-regular gauges. It appears plausible that suitably modified versions of the Regge-Wheeler and radiation gauges (convenient to Schwarzschild and Kerr, respectively) are in this class.

  16. Early Clinical Outcomes Demonstrate Preserved Cognitive Function in Children With Average-Risk Medulloblastoma When Treated With Hyperfractionated Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, Tejpal; Jalali, Rakesh; Goswami, Savita; Nair, Vimoj; Moiyadi, Aliasgar; Epari, Sridhar; Sarin, Rajiv

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To report on acute toxicity, longitudinal cognitive function, and early clinical outcomes in children with average-risk medulloblastoma. Methods and Materials: Twenty children {>=}5 years of age classified as having average-risk medulloblastoma were accrued on a prospective protocol of hyperfractionated radiation therapy (HFRT) alone. Radiotherapy was delivered with two daily fractions (1 Gy/fraction, 6 to 8 hours apart, 5 days/week), initially to the neuraxis (36 Gy/36 fractions), followed by conformal tumor bed boost (32 Gy/32 fractions) for a total tumor bed dose of 68 Gy/68 fractions over 6 to 7 weeks. Cognitive function was prospectively assessed longitudinally (pretreatment and at specified posttreatment follow-up visits) with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children to give verbal quotient, performance quotient, and full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ). Results: The median age of the study cohort was 8 years (range, 5-14 years), representing a slightly older cohort. Acute hematologic toxicity was mild and self-limiting. Eight (40%) children had subnormal intelligence (FSIQ <85), including 3 (15%) with mild mental retardation (FSIQ 56-70) even before radiotherapy. Cognitive functioning for all tested domains was preserved in children evaluable at 3 months, 1 year, and 2 years after completion of HFRT, with no significant decline over time. Age at diagnosis or baseline FSIQ did not have a significant impact on longitudinal cognitive function. At a median follow-up time of 33 months (range, 16-58 months), 3 patients had died (2 of relapse and 1 of accidental burns), resulting in 3-year relapse-free survival and overall survival of 83.5% and 83.2%, respectively. Conclusion: HFRT without upfront chemotherapy has an acceptable acute toxicity profile, without an unduly increased risk of relapse, with preserved cognitive functioning in children with average-risk medulloblastoma.

  17. Table 14a. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    a. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual Projected Price in Constant Dollars (constant dollars, cents per kilowatt-hour in "dollar year" specific to each AEO) AEO $ Year 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 AEO 1994 1992 6.80 6.80 6.90 6.90 6.90 6.90 7.00 7.00 7.10 7.10 7.20 7.20 7.20 7.30 7.30 7.40 7.50 7.60 AEO 1995 1993 6.80 6.80 6.70 6.70 6.70 6.70 6.70 6.80 6.80 6.90 6.90 6.90 7.00 7.00 7.10 7.10 7.20

  18. Ensemble bayesian model averaging using markov chain Monte Carlo sampling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vrugt, Jasper A; Diks, Cees G H; Clark, Martyn P

    2008-01-01

    Bayesian model averaging (BMA) has recently been proposed as a statistical method to calibrate forecast ensembles from numerical weather models. Successful implementation of BMA however, requires accurate estimates of the weights and variances of the individual competing models in the ensemble. In their seminal paper (Raftery etal. Mon Weather Rev 133: 1155-1174, 2(05)) has recommended the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm for BMA model training, even though global convergence of this algorithm cannot be guaranteed. In this paper, we compare the performance of the EM algorithm and the recently developed Differential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis (DREAM) Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm for estimating the BMA weights and variances. Simulation experiments using 48-hour ensemble data of surface temperature and multi-model stream-flow forecasts show that both methods produce similar results, and that their performance is unaffected by the length of the training data set. However, MCMC simulation with DREAM is capable of efficiently handling a wide variety of BMA predictive distributions, and provides useful information about the uncertainty associated with the estimated BMA weights and variances.

  19. High average power magnetic modulator for copper lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, E.G.; Ball, D.G.; Birx, D.L.; Branum, J.D.; Peluso, S.E.; Langford, M.D.; Speer, R.D.; Sullivan, J.R.; Woods, P.G.

    1991-06-14

    Magnetic compression circuits show the promise of long life for operation at high average powers and high repetition rates. When the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory needed new modulators to drive their higher power copper lasers in the Laser Demonstration Facility (LDF), existing technology using thyratron switched capacitor inversion circuits did not meet the goal for long lifetimes at the required power levels. We have demonstrated that magnetic compression circuits can achieve this goal. Improving thyratron lifetime is achieved by increasing the thyratron conduction time, thereby reducing the effect of cathode depletion. This paper describes a three stage magnetic modulator designed to provide a 60 kV pulse to a copper laser at a 4. 5 kHz repetition rate. This modulator operates at 34 kW input power and has exhibited MTBF of {approx}1000 hours when using thyratrons and even longer MTBFs with a series of stack of SCRs for the main switch. Within this paper, the electrical and mechanical designs for the magnetic compression circuits are discussed as are the important performance parameters of lifetime and jitter. Ancillary circuits such as the charge circuit and reset circuit are shown. 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  20. U.S. diesel prices decrease Â… U.S. average still over $4

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. diesel prices decrease - U.S. average still over 4 The U.S. average retail price for ... Diesel prices were highest in the New England region and Central Atlantic states at 4.31 a ...

  1. The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose this week The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose slightly to 3.90 a gallon on Monday. That's ...

  2. Fact #715: February 20, 2012 The Average Age of Light Vehicles Continues to Rise

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The average age for cars and light trucks continues to rise as consumers hold onto their vehicles longer. Between 1995 and 2011, the average age for cars increased by 32% from 8.4 years to 11.1...

  3. ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0 Average Square Footage of Northeast Homes, by Housing Characteristics, 2009" " Final" ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member" "Housing Characteristics","Millions","Total2","Heated","Cooled","Total2","Heated","Cooled" "Total Northeast",20.8,2121,1663,921,836,656,363 "Northeast Divisions and

  4. ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 Average Square Footage of Midwest Homes, by Housing Characteristics, 2009" " Final" ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member" "Housing Characteristics","Millions","Total2","Heated","Cooled","Total2","Heated","Cooled" "Total Midwest",25.9,2272,1898,1372,912,762,551 "Midwest Divisions and

  5. ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Average Square Footage of South Homes, by Housing Characteristics, 2009" " Final" ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member" "Housing Characteristics","Millions","Total2","Heated","Cooled","Total2","Heated","Cooled" "Total South",42.1,1867,1637,1549,732,642,607 "South Divisions and

  6. ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Average Square Footage of West Homes, by Housing Characteristics, 2009" " Final" ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member" "Housing Characteristics","Millions","Total2","Heated","Cooled","Total2","Heated","Cooled" "Total West",24.8,1708,1374,800,628,506,294 "West Divisions and States"

  7. ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Average Square Footage of Single-Family Homes, by Housing Characteristics, 2009" " Final" ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member" "Housing Characteristics","Millions","Total2","Heated","Cooled","Total2","Heated","Cooled" "Total Single-Family",78.6,2422,2002,1522,880,727,553 "Census

  8. ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Average Square Footage of Multi-Family Homes, by Housing Characteristics, 2009" " Final" ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member" "Housing Characteristics","Millions","Total2","Heated","Cooled","Total2","Heated","Cooled" "Total Multi-Family",28.1,930,807,535,453,393,261 "Census Region"

  9. ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Average Square Footage of Mobile Homes, by Housing Characteristics, 2009" " Final" ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member" "Housing Characteristics","Millions","Total2","Heated","Cooled","Total2","Heated","Cooled" "Total Mobile Homes",6.9,1087,985,746,413,375,283 "Census Region"

  10. ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9 Average Square Footage of U.S. Homes, by Housing Characteristics, 2009" " Final" ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member" "Housing Characteristics","Millions","Total2","Heated","Cooled","Total2","Heated","Cooled" "Total",113.6,1971,1644,1230,766,639,478 "Census Region"

  11. ARM: 1290-MHz Beam-Steered Radar Wind Profiler: Wind and Moment Averages

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Dataset) | Data Explorer 1290-MHz Beam-Steered Radar Wind Profiler: Wind and Moment Averages Title: ARM: 1290-MHz Beam-Steered Radar Wind Profiler: Wind and Moment Averages 1290-MHz Beam-Steered Radar Wind Profiler: Wind and Moment Averages Authors: Timothy Martin ; Paytsar Muradyan ; Richard Coulter Publication Date: 2012-12-06 OSTI Identifier: 1095573 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC05-00OR22725 Resource Type: Dataset Data Type: Numeric Data Research Org: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM)

  12. Time-averaged quantum dynamics and the validity of the effective

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Hamiltonian model (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Time-averaged quantum dynamics and the validity of the effective Hamiltonian model Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Time-averaged quantum dynamics and the validity of the effective Hamiltonian model We develop a technique for finding the dynamical evolution in time of an averaged density matrix. The result is an equation of evolution that includes an effective Hamiltonian, as well as decoherence terms in Lindblad form. Applying

  13. Average U.S. household to spend $710 less on gasoline during 2015

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Average U.S. household to spend $710 less on gasoline during 2015 Even with the recent increases in gasoline prices, the average U.S. household is still expected save $710 in gasoline costs this year compared with what was paid at the pump in 2014. In its new monthly forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said the national average price for regular gasoline is expected to be $2.39 per gallon this year. That's almost $1 less than the $3.36 average in 2014. Lower crude oil prices

  14. Gasoline price to average below $2 in 2016 for first time in 12 years

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gasoline price to average below $2 in 2016 for first time in 12 years The annual average price for U.S. regular-grade gasoline is expected to fall below $2 per gallon this year for the first time since 2004. In its new monthly forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said drivers will pay on average $1.98 per gallon to fill up at the pump with regular-grade gasoline. EIA expects the monthly average price of gasoline to reach a seven-year low of $1.82 per gallon in February, before

  15. Table 7.4 Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: Values of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " ...

  16. Fact #915: March 7, 2016 Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price,

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    1929-2015 - Dataset | Department of Energy 5: March 7, 2016 Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2015 - Dataset Fact #915: March 7, 2016 Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2015 - Dataset Excel file and dataset for Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2015 File fotw#915_web.xlsx More Documents & Publications Fact #835: August 25, 2014 Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2013 - Dataset Fact #888: August 31, 2015 Historical Gas Prices -

  17. Plan averaging for multicriteria navigation of sliding window IMRT and VMAT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craft, David Papp, Dávid; Unkelbach, Jan

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: To describe a method for combining sliding window plans [intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) or volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT)] for use in treatment plan averaging, which is needed for Pareto surface navigation based multicriteria treatment planning. Methods: The authors show that by taking an appropriately defined average of leaf trajectories of sliding window plans, the authors obtain a sliding window plan whose fluence map is the exact average of the fluence maps corresponding to the initial plans. In the case of static-beam IMRT, this also implies that the dose distribution of the averaged plan is the exact dosimetric average of the initial plans. In VMAT delivery, the dose distribution of the averaged plan is a close approximation of the dosimetric average of the initial plans. Results: The authors demonstrate the method on three Pareto optimal VMAT plans created for a demanding paraspinal case, where the tumor surrounds the spinal cord. The results show that the leaf averaged plans yield dose distributions that approximate the dosimetric averages of the precomputed Pareto optimal plans well. Conclusions: The proposed method enables the navigation of deliverable Pareto optimal plans directly, i.e., interactive multicriteria exploration of deliverable sliding window IMRT and VMAT plans, eliminating the need for a sequencing step after navigation and hence the dose degradation that is caused by such a sequencing step.

  18. U.S. diesel prices decrease Â… U.S. average still over $4

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. diesel prices decrease - U.S. average still over 4 The U.S. average retail price for ... Diesel prices were highest in the New England region at 4.39 a gallon, up 3-tenths of a ...

  19. U.S. diesel prices increase Â… U.S. average still over $4

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. diesel prices increase - U.S. average still over 4 The U.S. average retail price for ... Diesel prices were highest in the New England region at 4.36 a gallon, down 2.7 cents from ...

  20. A comparison of spatial averaging and Cadzow's method for array wavenumber estimation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, D.B.; Clark, G.A.

    1989-10-31

    We are concerned with resolving superimposed, correlated seismic waves with small-aperture arrays. The limited time-bandwidth product of transient seismic signals complicates the task. We examine the use of MUSIC and Cadzow's ML estimator with and without subarray averaging for resolution potential. A case study with real data favors the MUSIC algorithm and a multiple event covariance averaging scheme.

  1. Flowmeter for determining average rate of flow of liquid in a conduit

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Patent) | SciTech Connect Patent: Flowmeter for determining average rate of flow of liquid in a conduit Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Flowmeter for determining average rate of flow of liquid in a conduit This invention is a compact, precise, and relatively simple device for use in determining the average rate of flow of a liquid through a conduit. The liquid may be turbulent and contain bubbles of gas. In a preferred embodiment, the flowmeter includes an electrical circuit and

  2. Fact #915: March 7, 2016 Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1929-2015 | Department of Energy 915: March 7, 2016 Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2015 Fact #915: March 7, 2016 Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2015 SUBSCRIBE to the Fact of the Week When adjusted for inflation, the average annual price of gasoline has fluctuated greatly, and has recently experienced sharp increases and decreases. The effect of the U.S. embargo of oil from Iran can be seen in the early 1980's with the price of gasoline peaking in

  3. Average U.S. household to spend $710 less on gasoline during 2015

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    drivers to see big savings at the gasoline pump this summer U.S. consumers are expected to pay the lowest average price for gasoline in six years during this summer's driving season, mostly because of lower crude oil costs. In its new forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said the price for regular gasoline should average $2.45 per gallon this summer. That's down more than a dollar from the $3.59 per gallon seen last summer, and the cheapest average summer pump price since 2009.

  4. Average household expected to save $675 at the pump in 2015

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Average household expected to save $675 at the pump in 2015 Although retail gasoline prices have risen in recent weeks U.S. consumers are still expected to save about $675 per household in motor fuel costs this year. In its new monthly forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration says the average pump price for regular grade gasoline in 2015 will be $2.43 per gallon. That's about 93 cents lower than last year's average. The savings for consumers will be even bigger during the

  5. Diesel prices continue to increase Â… U.S. average over $4

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Diesel prices continue to increase - U.S. average over $4 The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel broke the 4-dollar mark for the first time since last March. The U.S. retail average rose to $4.02 a gallon. That's up 2.8 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Diesel prices were highest in the New England region at 4.39 a gallon, up 1.3 cents from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Gulf Coast states at 3.81 a

  6. Fact #889: September 7, 2015 Average Diesel Price Lower than Gasoline for

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy Historical Gas Prices File fotw#888_web.xlsx More Documents & Publications Fact #915: March 7, 2016 Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2015 - Dataset Fact #835: August 25, 2014 Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2013 - Dataset Response to several FOIA requests - Renewable Energy. the First Time in Six Years - Dataset | Department of Energy

    Average Diesel Price Lower than Gasoline for the First Time in Six Years File fotw#889_web.xlsx More Documents

  7. Fact #728: May 21, 2012 Average Trip Length is Less Than Ten Miles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The average trip length (one-way) is 9.7 miles according to the 2009 Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey. Trip lengths vary by the purpose of the trip. Shopping and family/personal business...

  8. U.S. gasoline price expected to average less than $2 a gallon...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    In its latest monthly forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said low oil prices will keep the average annual price for a gallon of regular-grade gasoline at 1.89 ...

  9. Fact #693: September 19, 2011 Average Vehicle Footprint for Cars and Light Trucks

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A vehicle footprint is the area defined by the four points where the tires touch the ground. It is calculated as the product of the wheelbase and the average track width of the vehicle. The...

  10. U.S. average gasoline and diesel fuel prices expected to be slightly...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    average gasoline and diesel fuel prices expected to be slightly lower in 2013 than in 2012 ... Diesel fuel will continue to cost more than gasoline because of strong global demand for ...

  11. Computation of Domain-Averaged Irradiance with a Simple Two-Stream...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is then assumed that the domain averaged irradiance F at the bottom of two layers is , Fd ) C exp( ) , ; ( P C 1 F 0 0 0 u where P is a gamma distribution expressing the...

  12. Fact #624: May 24, 2010 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards, Model Years 2012-2016

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The final rule for the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards was published in March 2010. Under this rule, each light vehicle model produced for sale in the United States will have a fuel...

  13. Fact #870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) is the sales-weighted harmonic mean fuel economy of a manufacturer’s fleet of new cars or light trucks in a certain model year (MY). First enacted by...

  14. Fact #794: August 26, 2013 How Much Does an Average Vehicle Owner...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    According to the Federal Highway Administration, the average fuel economy for all light vehicles on the road today is 21.4 miles per gallon (mpg). A person owning a gasoline ...

  15. Time-averaged quantum dynamics and the validity of the effective...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    We develop a technique for finding the dynamical evolution in time of an averaged density matrix. The result is an equation of evolution that includes an effective Hamiltonian, as ...

  16. U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Estimated Production from Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Estimated Production from Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) U.S. Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Estimated Production from Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 3,405 1980's 3,405 3,316 3,248 3,355 3,518 3,454 3,443 3,351 3,192 3,099 1990's 2,936 2,968 3,031 2,868 2,907 2,886 2,938 3,022 3,136 3,313 2000's 3,299 3,193 2,988 2,855 2,742

  17. "Table HC1.1.3 Housing Unit Characteristics by Average Floorspace--"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Housing Unit Characteristics by Average Floorspace--" " Single-Family Housing Units and Mobile Homes, 2005" ,,"Single- Family and Mobile Homes (millions)","Average Square Feet per Housing Unit-- Single-Family and Mobile Homes" ," Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Single-Family Detached",,,"Single-Family Attached",,,"Mobile Homes" "Housing Unit

  18. "Table HC1.2.3 Living Space Characteristics by Average Floorspace--"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Living Space Characteristics by Average Floorspace--" " Single-Family Housing Units and Mobile Homes, 2005" ,,"Single- Family and Mobile Homes (millions)","Average Square Feet per Housing Unit" ," Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Single-Family Detached",,,"Single-Family Attached",,,"Mobile Homes" "Housing Unit

  19. Revision of the Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation - 12510

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, Maurice; Kennedy, James E.; Ridge, Christianne; Lowman, Donald [U.S. NRC, Washington, DC, 20555-0001 (United States); Cochran, John [Sandia National Laboratory (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulation governing low-level waste (LLW) disposal, 'Licensing Requirements for Land Disposal of Radioactive Waste', 10 CFR Part 61, establishes a waste classification system based on the concentration of specific radionuclides contained in the waste. The regulation also states, at 10 CFR 61.55(a)(8), that, 'the concentration of a radionuclide (in waste) may be averaged over the volume of the waste, or weight of the waste if the units are expressed as nanocuries per gram'. The NRC's Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation provides guidance on averaging radionuclide concentrations in waste under 10 CFR 61.55(a)(8) when classifying waste for disposal. In 2007, the NRC staff proposed to revise the Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation. The Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation is an NRC guidance document for averaging and classifying wastes under 10 CFR 61. The Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation is used by nuclear power plants (NPPs) licensees and sealed source users, among others. In addition, three of the four U.S. LLW disposal facility operators are required to honor the Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation as a licensing condition. In 2010, the Commission directed the staff to develop guidance regarding large scale blending of similar homogenous waste types, as described in SECY-10-0043 as part of its Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation revision. The Commission is improving the regulatory approach used in the Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation by moving towards a making it more risk-informed and performance-based approach, which is more consistent with the agency's regulatory policies. Among the improvements to the Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation are more risk-informed limits for the sizes of sealed sources for safe disposal. Using more realistic intruder exposure scenarios, the suggested limits for Class B and C waste disposal of sealed sources, particularly Cs-137 and Co-60, have been increased. These suggested changes, and others in the Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation, if adopted by Agreement States, have the potential to eliminate numerous orphan sources (i.e., sources that currently have no disposal pathway) that are now being stored. Permanent disposal of these sources, rather than temporary storage, will help reduce safety and security risks. The revised Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation has an alternative approach section which provides flexibility to generators and processors, while also ensuring that intruder protection will be maintained. Alternative approaches provide flexibility by allowing for consideration of likelihood of intrusion, the possibility of averaging over larger volumes and allowing for disposal of large activity sources. The revision has improved the organization of the Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation, improved its clarity, better documented the bases for positions, and made the positions more risk informed while also maintaining protection for intruder as required by 10 CFR Part 61. (authors)

  20. IEA: Renewable Energy to Grow During the Next 5 Years

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Global renewable power generation is expected to continue its rapid growth over the next five years, according to a new report from the International Energy Agency (IEA). The Medium-Term Renewable Energy Market Report 2012, released on July 5, says that despite economic uncertainties, global power generation from hydropower, solar, wind, and other renewable sources is projected to increase by more than 40% to almost 6,400 terawatt hours by 2017.

  1. 5-Year_OU-1_Remedy.pdf

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

  2. Microsoft PowerPoint - rf_5year_review

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    N 3, I non 100%, I BS 70%, H 89 2.5, for t pulse > t LR . BPX: demonstrate the viability of high performance plasmas, B T 8T, I p 2 MA, P 6 MW, H 89 2, Z eff <...

  3. Microsoft Word - PPPL 5-year plan final.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of the Disruption For the tokamak to succeed as the embodiment of a Fusion Power Plant, we will need a much better understanding of the mechanisms that lead to major...

  4. Influence of wind speed averaging on estimates of dimethylsulfide emission fluxes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chapman, E. G.; Shaw, W. J.; Easter, R. C.; Bian, X.; Ghan, S. J.

    2002-12-03

    The effect of various wind-speed-averaging periods on calculated DMS emission fluxes is quantitatively assessed. Here, a global climate model and an emission flux module were run in stand-alone mode for a full year. Twenty-minute instantaneous surface wind speeds and related variables generated by the climate model were archived, and corresponding 1-hour-, 6-hour-, daily-, and monthly-averaged quantities calculated. These various time-averaged, model-derived quantities were used as inputs in the emission flux module, and DMS emissions were calculated using two expressions for the mass transfer velocity commonly used in atmospheric models. Results indicate that the time period selected for averaging wind speedsmore » can affect the magnitude of calculated DMS emission fluxes. A number of individual marine cells within the global grid show DMS emissions fluxes that are 10-60% higher when emissions are calculated using 20-minute instantaneous model time step winds rather than monthly-averaged wind speeds, and at some locations the differences exceed 200%. Many of these cells are located in the southern hemisphere where anthropogenic sulfur emissions are low and changes in oceanic DMS emissions may significantly affect calculated aerosol concentrations and aerosol radiative forcing.« less

  5. Average M shell fluorescence yields for elements with 70?Z?92

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kahoul, A.; Deghfel, B.; Aylikci, V.; Aylikci, N. K.; Nekkab, M.

    2015-03-30

    The theoretical, experimental and analytical methods for the calculation of average M-shell fluorescence yield (?{sup Ż}{sub M}) of different elements are very important because of the large number of their applications in various areas of physical chemistry and medical research. In this paper, the bulk of the average M-shell fluorescence yield measurements reported in the literature, covering the period 1955 to 2005 are interpolated by using an analytical function to deduce the empirical average M-shell fluorescence yield in the atomic range of 70?Z?92. The results were compared with the theoretical and fitted values reported by other authors. Reasonable agreement was typically obtained between our result and other works.

  6. Reconstruction of ionization probabilities from spatially averaged data in N dimensions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strohaber, J.; Kolomenskii, A. A.; Schuessler, H. A.

    2010-07-15

    We present an analytical inversion technique, which can be used to recover ionization probabilities from spatially averaged data in an N-dimensional detection scheme. The solution is given as a power series in intensity. For this reason, we call this technique a multiphoton expansion (MPE). The MPE formalism was verified with an exactly solvable inversion problem in two dimensions, and probabilities in the postsaturation region, where the intensity-selective scanning approach breaks down, were recovered. In three dimensions, ionization probabilities of Xe were successfully recovered with MPE from simulated (using the Ammosov-Delone-Krainov tunneling theory) ion yields. Finally, we tested our approach with intensity-resolved benzene-ion yields, which show a resonant multiphoton ionization process. By applying MPE to this data (which were artificially averaged), the resonant structure was recovered, which suggests that the resonance in benzene may have been observed in spatially averaged data taken elsewhere.

  7. Comparison of average and point capillary pressure-saturation functions determined by steady-state centrifugation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cropper, Clark; Perfect, Edmund; van den Berg, Dr. Elmer; Mayes, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    The capillary pressure-saturation function can be determined from centrifuge drainage experiments. In soil physics, the data resulting from such experiments are usually analyzed by the 'averaging method.' In this approach, average relative saturation, , is expressed as a function of average capillary pressure, <{psi}>, i.e., (<{psi}>). In contrast, the capillary pressure-saturation function at a physical point, i.e., S({psi}), has been extracted from similar experiments in petrophysics using the 'integral method.' The purpose of this study was to introduce the integral method applied to centrifuge experiments to a soil physics audience and to compare S({psi}) and (<{psi}>) functions, as parameterized by the Brooks-Corey and van Genuchten equations, for 18 samples drawn from a range of porous media (i.e., Berea sandstone, glass beads, and Hanford sediments). Steady-state centrifuge experiments were performed on preconsolidated samples with a URC-628 Ultra-Rock Core centrifuge. The angular velocity and outflow data sets were then analyzed using both the averaging and integral methods. The results show that the averaging method smoothes out the drainage process, yielding less steep capillary pressure-saturation functions relative to the corresponding point-based curves. Maximum deviations in saturation between the two methods ranged from 0.08 to 0.28 and generally occurred at low suctions. These discrepancies can lead to inaccurate predictions of other hydraulic properties such as the relative permeability function. Therefore, we strongly recommend use of the integral method instead of the averaging method when determining the capillary pressure-saturation function by steady-state centrifugation. This method can be successfully implemented using either the van Genuchten or Brooks-Corey functions, although the latter provides a more physically precise description of air entry at a physical point.

  8. Table HC1.1.2 Housing Unit Characteristics by Average Floorspace, 2005

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Housing Unit Characteristics by Average Floorspace, 2005 " ,,"Average Square Feet per--" ," Housing Units (millions)" ,,"Housing Unit",,,"Household Member" "Housing Unit Characteristics",,"Total1","Heated","Cooled","Total","Heated","Cooled" "Total",111.1,2171,1618,1031,845,630,401 "Census Region and Division" "Northeast",20.6,2334,1664,562,911,649,220

  9. Table HC1.1.4 Housing Unit Characteristics by Average Floorspace--Apartments, 2

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Housing Unit Characteristics by Average Floorspace--Apartments, 2005" ,,,"Average Square Feet per Apartment in a --" ," Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"2 to 4 Unit Building",,,"5 or More Unit Building" ,,"Apartments (millions)" "Housing Unit Characteristics",,,"Total","Heated","Cooled","Total","Heated","Cooled" "Total",111.1,24.5,1090,902,341,872,780,441

  10. Table HC1.2.2 Living Space Characteristics by Average Floorspace

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Living Space Characteristics by Average Floorspace, " " Per Housing Unit and Per Household Member, 2005" ,,"Average Square Feet" ," Housing Units (millions)" ,,"Per Housing Unit",,,"Per Household Member" "Living Space Characteristics",,"Total1","Heated","Cooled","Total1","Heated","Cooled" "Total",111.1,2033,1618,1031,791,630,401 "Total Floorspace (Square

  11. Table HC1.2.4 Living Space Characteristics by Average Floorspace--Apartments, 2

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2.4 Living Space Characteristics by Average Floorspace--Apartments, 2005" ,,,"Average Square Feet per Apartment in a --" ," Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"2 to 4 Unit Building",,,"5 or More Unit Building" ,,"Apartments (millions)" "Living Space Characteristics",,,"Total","Heated","Cooled","Total","Heated","Cooled" "Total",111.1,24.5,1090,902,341,872,780,441

  12. Flowmeter for determining average rate of flow of liquid in a conduit

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Patent) | SciTech Connect Patent: Flowmeter for determining average rate of flow of liquid in a conduit Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Flowmeter for determining average rate of flow of liquid in a conduit Ă— You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy

  13. Builds in U.S. natural gas storage running above five-year average

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Builds in U.S. natural gas storage running above five-year average The amount of natural gas put into underground storage since the beginning of the so-called "injection season" in April has been above the five-year average by a wide margin. In its new forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said natural gas inventories, which are running more than 50% above year ago levels, are on track to reach almost 4 trillion cubic feet by the end of October which marks the start of

  14. Performance and production requirements for the optical components in a high-average-power laser system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chow, R.; Doss, F.W.; Taylor, J.R.; Wong, J.N.

    1999-07-02

    Optical components needed for high-average-power lasers, such as those developed for Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS), require high levels of performance and reliability. Over the past two decades, optical component requirements for this purpose have been optimized and performance and reliability have been demonstrated. Many of the optical components that are exposed to the high power laser light affect the quality of the beam as it is transported through the system. The specifications for these optics are described including a few parameters not previously reported and some component manufacturing and testing experience. Key words: High-average-power laser, coating efficiency, absorption, optical components

  15. District of Columbia Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    and Commercial Consumers by Local Distributio Area: District of Columbia Florida Georgia Maryland Michigan New Jersey New York Ohio Pennsylvania Virginia Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 View History Residential Average Price 13.53 13.06 12.10 12.45 13.05 12.52 1980-2015 Commercial Average Price 12.26 12.24 11.19 11.64 12.18

  16. District of Columbia Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    and Commercial Consumers by Local Distributio 18.17 16.21 12.60 10.70 9.96 9.53 1989-2016 Commercial Average Price 11.50 11.68 11.28 10.01 9.50 9.30

  17. Fact #851 December 15, 2014 The Average Number of Gears used...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Average Number of Gears in New Cars and Light Trucks Model Year Gears 1980 3.5 1981 3.5 1982 3.6 1983 3.7 1984 3.7 1985 3.8 1986 3.8 1987 3.9 1988 3.9 1989 3.9 1990 4.0 1991 4.0 ...

  18. New Jersey Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential and

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Consumers by Local Distribution and Mark 2.38 10.30 9.08 7.85 6.55 6.86 1989-2016 Commercial Average Price 8.03 8.10 8.66 8.24 7.76 7.66

  19. New York Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential and

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Consumers by Local Distribution and Market 7.53 14.26 12.27 11.42 10.31 9.45 1989-2016 Commercial Average Price 5.99 6.27 6.33 6.82 6.59 6.58

  20. Ohio Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential and Commercial

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Consumers by Local Distribution and Marketers 24.31 15.36 9.68 7.40 6.48 6.44 1989-2016 Commercial Average Price 7.99 6.79 6.03 5.53 5.32 5.30

  1. Impacts of different data averaging times on statistical analysis of distributed domestic photovoltaic systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widen, Joakim; Waeckelgaard, Ewa; Paatero, Jukka; Lund, Peter

    2010-03-15

    The trend of increasing application of distributed generation with solar photovoltaics (PV-DG) suggests that a widespread integration in existing low-voltage (LV) grids is possible in the future. With massive integration in LV grids, a major concern is the possible negative impacts of excess power injection from on-site generation. For power-flow simulations of such grid impacts, an important consideration is the time resolution of demand and generation data. This paper investigates the impact of time averaging on high-resolution data series of domestic electricity demand and PV-DG output and on voltages in a simulated LV grid. Effects of 10-minutely and hourly averaging on descriptive statistics and duration curves were determined. Although time averaging has a considerable impact on statistical properties of the demand in individual households, the impact is smaller on aggregate demand, already smoothed from random coincidence, and on PV-DG output. Consequently, the statistical distribution of simulated grid voltages was also robust against time averaging. The overall judgement is that statistical investigation of voltage variations in the presence of PV-DG does not require higher resolution than hourly. (author)

  2. Development of a high average current polarized electron source with long cathode operational lifetime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. K. Sinclair; P. A. Adderley; B. M. Dunham; J. C. Hansknecht; P. Hartmann; M. Poelker; J. S. Price; P. M. Rutt; W. J. Schneider; M. Steigerwald

    2007-02-01

    Substantially more than half of the electromagnetic nuclear physics experiments conducted at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Laboratory) require highly polarized electron beams, often at high average current. Spin-polarized electrons are produced by photoemission from various GaAs-based semiconductor photocathodes, using circularly polarized laser light with photon energy slightly larger than the semiconductor band gap. The photocathodes are prepared by activation of the clean semiconductor surface to negative electron affinity using cesium and oxidation. Historically, in many laboratories worldwide, these photocathodes have had short operational lifetimes at high average current, and have often deteriorated fairly quickly in ultrahigh vacuum even without electron beam delivery. At Jefferson Lab, we have developed a polarized electron source in which the photocathodes degrade exceptionally slowly without electron emission, and in which ion back bombardment is the predominant mechanism limiting the operational lifetime of the cathodes during electron emission. We have reproducibly obtained cathode 1/e dark lifetimes over two years, and 1/e charge density and charge lifetimes during electron beam delivery of over 2?105???C/cm2 and 200 C, respectively. This source is able to support uninterrupted high average current polarized beam delivery to three experimental halls simultaneously for many months at a time. Many of the techniques we report here are directly applicable to the development of GaAs photoemission electron guns to deliver high average current, high brightness unpolarized beams.

  3. Table N8.2. Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 1998

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 1998;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " ...,0,0,1.21,0,"W","W",0,0,0,0.46,7.8 331,"Primary Metals",4.17,133.23,3.29,1.42,2.19,1.4,0...

  4. Table 7.1 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2002

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " ...98,0,0,0,0,0,0,"W",0,0,0,"W",0,1.4 331,"Primary Metals",4.94,0.1,72.69,51.26,102.06,50.5,...

  5. Table 7.2 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2002

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " ...88,0,0,0,0,0,0,"W",0,0,0,"W",0,1.4 331,"Primary Metals",4.94,68.32,3.67,1.95,4.17,1.92,"...

  6. Averaged Description of Flow (Steady and Transient) and Nonreactive Solute Transport in Random Porous Media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schvidler, M.; Karasaki, K.

    2011-06-15

    In previous papers (Shvidler and Karasaki, 1999, 2001, 2005, and 2008) we presented and analyzed an approach for finding the general forms of exactly averaged equations of flow and transport in porous media. We studied systems of basic equations for steady flow with sources in unbounded domains with stochastically homogeneous conductivity fields. A brief analysis of exactly averaged equations of nonsteady flow and nonreactive solute transport was also presented. At the core of this approach is the existence of appropriate random Green's functions. For example, we showed that in the case of a 3-dimensional unbounded domain the existence of appropriate random Green's functions is sufficient for finding the exact nonlocal averaged equations for flow velocity using the operator with a unique kernel-vector. Examination of random fields with global symmetry (isotropy, transversal isotropy and orthotropy) makes it possible to describe significantly different types of averaged equations with nonlocal unique operators. It is evident that the existence of random Green's functions for physical linear processes is equivalent to assuming the existence of some linear random operators for appropriate stochastic equations. If we restricted ourselves to this assumption only, as we have done in this paper, we can study the processes in any dimensional bounded or unbounded fields and in addition, cases in which the random fields of conductivity and porosity are stochastically nonhomogeneous, nonglobally symmetrical, etc.. It is clear that examining more general cases involves significant difficulty and constricts the analysis of structural types for the processes being studied. Nevertheless, we show that we obtain the essential information regarding averaged equations for steady and transient flow, as well as for solute transport.

  7. HIGH AVERAGE CURRENT LOW EMITTANCE BEAM EMPLOYING CW NORMAL CONDUCTING GUN.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CHANG,X.; BEN-ZVI, I.; KEWISCH, J.; PAI, C.

    2007-06-25

    CW normal conducting guns usually do not achieve very high field gradient and waste much RF power at high field gradient compared to superconducting cavities. But they have less trapped modes and wakefields compared to the superconducting cavities due to their low Q. The external bucking coil can also be applied very close to the cathode to improve the beam quality. By using a low frequency gun with a recessed cathode and a carefully designed beam line we can get a high average current and a high quality beam with acceptable RF power loss on the cavity wall. This paper shows that the CW normal conducting gun can be a backup solution for those projects which need high peak and average current, low emittance electron beams such as the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) e-cooling project and Energy Recovery Linac (Em) project.

  8. Gatling gun: high average polarized current injector for eRHIC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Litvinenko, V.N.

    2010-01-01

    This idea was originally developed in 2001 for, at that time, an ERL-based (and later recirculating-ring) electron-ion collider at JLab. Naturally the same idea is applicable for any gun requiring current exceeding capability of a single cathode. ERL-based eRHIC is one of such cases. This note related to eRHIC was prepared at Duke University in February 2003. In many case photo-injectors can have a limited average current - it is especially true about polarized photo-guns. It is know that e-RHIC requires average polarized electron current well above currently demonstrated by photo-injectors - hence combining currents from multiple guns is can be useful option for eRHIC.

  9. Coupling of an average-atom model with a collisional-radiative equilibrium model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faussurier, G. Blancard, C.; Cossé, P.

    2014-11-15

    We present a method to combine a collisional-radiative equilibrium model and an average-atom model to calculate bound and free electron wavefunctions in hot dense plasmas by taking into account screening. This approach allows us to calculate electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity as well as pressure in non local thermodynamic equilibrium plasmas. Illustrations of the method are presented for dilute titanium plasma.

  10. Summary Notes from 3 October 2007 Generic Technical Issue Discussion on Concentration Averaging

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    3 October 2007 Generic Technical Issue Discussion on Concentration Averaging Attendees: Representatives from Department of Energy-Headquarters (DOE-HQ) and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) met at the DOE offices in Germantown, Maryland on 3 October 2007. Representatives from Department of Energy-Savannah River (DOE-SR) and the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) participated in the meeting via a teleconference link. Discussion: DOE believes that

  11. Calculation of variable-base degree-days and degree-nights from monthly average temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sonderegger, R.; Cleary, P.; Dickinson, B.

    1985-01-01

    The Computerized Instrumented Residential Audit (CIRA), a micro-computer building energy analysis program developed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, uses a monthly variable-base degree-day method to calculate heating and cooling loads. The method's unique feature is its ability to model thermostat setbacks and storage of solar gain. The program accomplishes this by dividing each day into two periods, ''average day'' (8 a.m. to 8 p.m.) and ''average night'' (8 p.m. to 8 a.m.), with different base temperatures. For each mode (heating or cooling) and for each period (day or night), the program reconstructs degree-days as a function of average monthly day or night temperature using three empirical coefficients specific to the location. A comparison is made between degree-days computed from hourly weather tapes and those predicted using this method. The root mean square error between predicted and actual degree days is typically between 3 and 12 degree-days per month. Tables of the coefficients are given for over 150 locations in the United States, computed from hourly dry-bulb temperatures on TRY and TMY tapes. Seasonal predictions of heating and cooling energy budgets using this method show good correspondence to the DOE-2 hourly simulation method.

  12. Effect of vitrification temperature upon the solar average absorptance properties of Pyromark Series 2500 black paint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, C.; Mahoney, A.R.

    1986-06-01

    A significant drop in production efficiency has occurred over time at the Solar One facility at Barstow, California, primarily as a result of the degradation of the Pyromark Series 2500 black paint used as the absorptive coating on the receiver panels. As part of the investigation of the problem, the solar-averaged adsorptance properties of the paint were determined as a function of vitrification temperature, since it is known that a significant amount of the panel surface area at Solar One was vitrified at temperatures below those recommended by the paint manufacturer (540/sup 0/C, 1000/sup 0/F). Painted samples initially vitrified at 230/sup 0/C (450/sup 0/F), 315/sup 0/C (600/sup 0/F), 371/sup 0/C (700/sup 0/F), and 480/sup 0/C (900/sup 0/F) exhibited significantly lower solar-averaged absorptance values (0.02 absorptance units) compared to samples vitrified at 540/sup 0/C (1000/sup 0/F). Thus, Solar One began its service life below optimal levels. After 140 h of thermal aging at 370/sup 0/C (700/sup 0/F) and 540/sup 0/C (1000/sup 0/F), all samples regardless of their initial vitrification temperatures, attained the same solar-averaged absorptance value (..cap alpha../sub s/ = 0.973). Therefore, both the long-term low-temperature vitrification and the short-term high-temperature vitrification can be used to obtain optimal or near-optimal absorptance of solar flux. Futher thermal aging of vitrified samples did not result in paint degradation, clearly indicating that high solar flux is required to produce this phenomenon. The panels at Solar One never achieved optimal absorptance because their exposure to high solar flux negated the effect of long-term low-temperature vitrification during operation. On future central receiver projects, every effort should be made to properly vitrify the Pyromark coating before its exposure to high flux conditions.

  13. Properties of a new average power Nd-doped phosphate laser glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Payne, S.A.; Marshall, C.D.; Bayramian, A.J.; Wilke, G.D.; Hayden, J.S.

    1995-03-09

    The Nd-doped phosphate laser glass described herein can withstand 2.3 times greater thermal loading without fracture, compared to APG-1 (commercially-available average-power glass from Schott Glass Technologies). The enhanced thermal loading capability is established on the basis of the intrinsic thermomechanical properties and by direct thermally-induced fracture experiments using Ar-ion laser heating of the samples. This Nd-doped phosphate glass (referred to as APG-t) is found to be characterized by a 29% lower gain cross section and a 25% longer low-concentration emission lifetime.

  14. Laser properties of an improved average-power Nd-doped phosphate glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Payne, S.A.; Marshall, C.D.; Bayramian, A.J.

    1995-03-15

    The Nd-doped phosphate laser glass described herein can withstand 2.3 times greater thermal loading without fracture, compared to APG-1 (commercially-available average-power glass from Schott Glass Technologies). The enhanced thermal loading capability is established on the basis of the intrinsic thermomechanical properties (expansion, conduction, fracture toughness, and Young`s modulus), and by direct thermally-induced fracture experiments using Ar-ion laser heating of the samples. This Nd-doped phosphate glass (referred to as APG-t) is found to be characterized by a 29% lower gain cross section and a 25% longer low-concentration emission lifetime.

  15. Average monthly gasoline price to fall to $3.43 by September

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    monthly gasoline price to fall to $3.43 by September The U.S. average monthly retail price of gasoline is expected to decline by about 18 cents per gallon between May and September, according to the new forecast from the U.S. Energy Information Administration. The lower price reflects, in part, slightly lower crude oil prices that account for about two-thirds of the cost at the pump. The largest price drops are expected in the Midwest states as refineries serving that region, which had been down

  16. Method and system for modulation of gain suppression in high average power laser systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bayramian, Andrew James

    2012-07-31

    A high average power laser system with modulated gain suppression includes an input aperture associated with a first laser beam extraction path and an output aperture associated with the first laser beam extraction path. The system also includes a pinhole creation laser having an optical output directed along a pinhole creation path and an absorbing material positioned along both the first laser beam extraction path and the pinhole creation path. The system further includes a mechanism operable to translate the absorbing material in a direction crossing the first laser beam extraction laser path and a controller operable to modulate the second laser beam.

  17. Specification of optical components for a high average-power laser environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, J.R.; Chow, R.; Rinmdahl, K.A.; Willis, J.B.; Wong, J.N.

    1997-06-25

    Optical component specifications for the high-average-power lasers and transport system used in the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) plant must address demanding system performance requirements. The need for high performance optics has to be balanced against the practical desire to reduce the supply risks of cost and schedule. This is addressed in optical system design, careful planning with the optical industry, demonstration of plant quality parts, qualification of optical suppliers and processes, comprehensive procedures for evaluation and test, and a plan for corrective action.

  18. High Average Power Laser Gain Medium With Low Optical Distortion Using A Transverse Flowing Liquid Host

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Comaskey, Brian J.; Ault, Earl R.; Kuklo, Thomas C.

    2005-07-05

    A high average power, low optical distortion laser gain media is based on a flowing liquid media. A diode laser pumping device with tailored irradiance excites the laser active atom, ion or molecule within the liquid media. A laser active component of the liquid media exhibits energy storage times longer than or comparable to the thermal optical response time of the liquid. A circulation system that provides a closed loop for mixing and circulating the lasing liquid into and out of the optical cavity includes a pump, a diffuser, and a heat exchanger. A liquid flow gain cell includes flow straighteners and flow channel compression.

  19. Table 7.1 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: All Energy Sources Collected; Unit: U.S. Dollars per Physical Units. Coal NAICS TOTAL Acetylene Breeze Total Anthracite Code(a) Subsector and Industry (million Btu) (cu ft) (short tons) (short tons) (short tons) Total United States 311 Food 9.12 0.26 0.00 53.43 90.85 3112 Grain and Oilseed Milling 6.30 0.29 0.00 51.34 50.47 311221 Wet Corn Milling 4.87 0.48 0.00 47.74 50.47 31131 Sugar

  20. Table 7.5 Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 2002

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: Values of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: U.S. Dollars per Million Btu." " ",," "," ",," "," ","RSE" "Economic",,"Residual","Distillate","Natural ","LPG and",,"Row"

  1. Average Price (Cents/kilowatthour) by State by Provider, 1990-2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Average Price (Cents/kilowatthour) by State by Provider, 1990-2014" "Year","State","Industry Sector Category","Residential","Commercial","Industrial","Transportation","Other","Total" 2014,"AK","Total Electric Industry",19.14,17.09,15.66,0,"NA",17.46 2014,"AL","Total Electric Industry",11.48,10.79,6.15,0,"NA",9.27

  2. Average intragranular misorientation trends in polycrystalline materials predicted by a viscoplastic self-consistent approach

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lebensohn, Ricardo A.; Zecevic, Miroslav; Knezevic, Marko; McCabe, Rodney J.

    2015-12-15

    Here, this work presents estimations of average intragranular fluctuations of lattice rotation rates in polycrystalline materials, obtained by means of the viscoplastic self-consistent (VPSC) model. These fluctuations give a tensorial measure of the trend of misorientation developing inside each single crystal grain representing a polycrystalline aggregate. We first report details of the algorithm implemented in the VPSC code to estimate these fluctuations, which are then validated by comparison with corresponding full-field calculations. Next, we present predictions of average intragranular fluctuations of lattice rotation rates for cubic aggregates, which are rationalized by comparison with experimental evidence on annealing textures of fccmore » and bcc polycrystals deformed in tension and compression, respectively, as well as with measured intragranular misorientation distributions in a Cu polycrystal deformed in tension. The orientation-dependent and micromechanically-based estimations of intragranular misorientations that can be derived from the present implementation are necessary to formulate sound sub-models for the prediction of quantitatively accurate deformation textures, grain fragmentation, and recrystallization textures using the VPSC approach.« less

  3. The impact of NRC guidance on concentration averaging on low level waste sealed source disposal - 11424

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitworth, Julia; Stewart, Bill; Cuthbertson, Abigail

    2011-01-20

    As part of its ongoing efforts to revise the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) current position on blending to be risk-informed and performance based and its current review of the low-level waste classification codified in 10 CFR 61.55, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has stated that it may review the 1995 'Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation' (BTP), which is still commonly used today. Such a review will have timely advantages, given the lack of commercial disposal availability within the United States for radioactive sealed sources that are in wide beneficial use across the country. The current application of the BTP guidance has resulted in an effective cap on commercial disposal for sources larger than 1.1 TBq (30 Ci). This paper will analyze how the BTP has been implemented with respect to sealed sources, what the implications have been for commercial disposal availability, and whether alternative packaging configurations could be considered for disposal.

  4. United States Wind Resource Map: Annual Average Wind Speed at 30 Meters

    Wind Powering America (EERE)

    30 m 21-FEB-2012 2.1.1 Wind Speed m/s >10.5 10.0 9.5 9.0 8.5 8.0 7.5 7.0 6.5 6.0 5.5 5.0 4.5 4.0 < 4.0 Source: Wind resource estimates developed by AWS Truepower, LLC. Web: http://www.awstruepower.com. Map developed by NREL. Spatial resolution of wind resource data: 2.0 km. Projection: Albers Equal Area WGS84. The average wind speeds indicated on this map are model-derived estimates that may not represent the true wind resource at any given location. Small terrain features, vegetation,

  5. Medium term municipal solid waste generation prediction by autoregressive integrated moving average

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Younes, Mohammad K.; Nopiah, Z. M.; Basri, Noor Ezlin A.; Basri, Hassan

    2014-09-12

    Generally, solid waste handling and management are performed by municipality or local authority. In most of developing countries, local authorities suffer from serious solid waste management (SWM) problems and insufficient data and strategic planning. Thus it is important to develop robust solid waste generation forecasting model. It helps to proper manage the generated solid waste and to develop future plan based on relatively accurate figures. In Malaysia, solid waste generation rate increases rapidly due to the population growth and new consumption trends that characterize the modern life style. This paper aims to develop monthly solid waste forecasting model using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), such model is applicable even though there is lack of data and will help the municipality properly establish the annual service plan. The results show that ARIMA (6,1,0) model predicts monthly municipal solid waste generation with root mean square error equals to 0.0952 and the model forecast residuals are within accepted 95% confident interval.

  6. Measurement of average density and relative volumes in a dispersed two-phase fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sreepada, Sastry R.; Rippel, Robert R.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus and a method are disclosed for measuring the average density and relative volumes in an essentially transparent, dispersed two-phase fluid. A laser beam with a diameter no greater than 1% of the diameter of the bubbles, droplets, or particles of the dispersed phase is directed onto a diffraction grating. A single-order component of the diffracted beam is directed through the two-phase fluid and its refraction is measured. Preferably, the refracted beam exiting the fluid is incident upon a optical filter with linearly varing optical density and the intensity of the filtered beam is measured. The invention can be combined with other laser-based measurement systems, e.g., laser doppler anemometry.

  7. Average Neutron Total Cross Sections in the Unresolved Energy Range From ORELA High Resolutio Transmission Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Derrien, H

    2004-05-27

    Average values of the neutron total cross sections of {sup 233}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, and {sup 239}Pu have been obtained in the unresolved resonance energy range from high-resolution transmission measurements performed at ORELA in the past two decades. The cross sections were generated by correcting the effective total cross sections for the self-shielding effects due to the resonance structure of the data. The self-shielding factors were found by calculating the effective and true cross sections with the computer code SAMMY for the same Doppler and resolution conditions as for the transmission measurements, using an appropriate set of resonance parameters. Our results are compared to results of previous measurements and to the current ENDF/B-VI data.

  8. Angular Averaged Profiling of the Radial Electric Field in Compensated FTICR Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tolmachev, Aleksey V.; Robinson, Errol W.; Wu, Si; Smith, Richard D.; Futrell, Jean H.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana

    2012-05-08

    A recent publication from this laboratory (1) reported a theoretical analysis comparing approaches for creating harmonic ICR cells. We considered two examples of static segmented cells - namely, a seven segment cell developed in this laboratory (2) and one described by Rempel et al (3), along with a recently described dynamically harmonized cell (4). This conceptual design for a dynamically harmonized cell has now been reduced to practice and first experimental results obtained with this cell were recently reported in this journal (5). This publication reports details of cell construction and describes its performance in a 7 Tesla Fourier Transform mass spectrometer. Herein, we describe the extension of theoretical analysis presented in (1) to include angular-averaged radial electric field calculations and a discussion of the influence of trapping plates.

  9. Flowmeter for determining average rate of flow of liquid in a conduit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kennerly, J.M.; Lindner, G.M.; Rowe, J.C.

    1981-04-30

    This invention is a compact, precise, and relatively simple device for use in determining the average rate of flow of a liquid through a conduit. The liquid may be turbulent and contain bubbles of gas. In a preferred embodiment, the flowmeter includes an electrical circuit and a flow vessel which is connected as a segment of the conduit conveying the liquid. The vessel is provided with a valved outlet and is partitioned by a vertical baffle into coaxial chambers whose upper regions are vented to permit the escape of gas. The inner chamber receives turbulent downflowing liquid from the conduit and is sized to operate at a lower pressure than the conduit, thus promoting evolution of gas from the liquid. Lower zones of the two chambers are interconnected so that the downflowing liquid establishes liquid levels in both chambers. The liquid level in the outer chamber is comparatively calm, being to a large extent isolated from the turbulence in the inner chamber once the liquid in the outer chamber has risen above the liquid-introduction zone for that chamber. Lower and upper probes are provided in the outer chamber for sensing the liquid level therein at points above its liquid-introduction zone. An electrical circuit is connected to the probes to display the time required for the liquid level in the outer chamber to successively contact the lower and upper probes. The average rate of flow through the conduit can be determined from the above-mentioned time and the vessel volume filled by the liquid during that time.

  10. Fact #851: December 15, 2014 The Average Number of Gears used in Transmissions Continues to Rise – Dataset

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Excel file with dataset for Fact #851: December 15, 2014 The Average Number of Gears used in Transmissions Continues to Rise

  11. Averages of B-Hadron, C-Hadron, and tau-lepton properties as of early 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amhis, Y.; et al.

    2012-07-01

    This article reports world averages of measurements of b-hadron, c-hadron, and tau-lepton properties obtained by the Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG) using results available through the end of 2011. In some cases results available in the early part of 2012 are included. For the averaging, common input parameters used in the various analyses are adjusted (rescaled) to common values, and known correlations are taken into account. The averages include branching fractions, lifetimes, neutral meson mixing parameters, CP violation parameters, parameters of semileptonic decays and CKM matrix elements.

  12. Comparison of Two Gas Selection Methodologies: An Application of Bayesian Model Averaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renholds, Andrea S.; Thompson, Sandra E.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Chilton, Lawrence K.

    2006-03-31

    One goal of hyperspectral imagery analysis is the detection and characterization of plumes. Characterization includes identifying the gases in the plumes, which is a model selection problem. Two gas selection methods compared in this report are Bayesian model averaging (BMA) and minimum Akaike information criterion (AIC) stepwise regression (SR). Simulated spectral data from a three-layer radiance transfer model were used to compare the two methods. Test gases were chosen to span the types of spectra observed, which exhibit peaks ranging from broad to sharp. The size and complexity of the search libraries were varied. Background materials were chosen to either replicate a remote area of eastern Washington or feature many common background materials. For many cases, BMA and SR performed the detection task comparably in terms of the receiver operating characteristic curves. For some gases, BMA performed better than SR when the size and complexity of the search library increased. This is encouraging because we expect improved BMA performance upon incorporation of prior information on background materials and gases.

  13. 2014 Total Electric Industry- Average Retail Price (cents/kWh)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Average Retail Price (cents/kWh) (Data from forms EIA-861- schedules 4A-D, EIA-861S and EIA-861U) State Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation Total New England 17.82 14.70 11.84 10.38 15.45 Connecticut 19.75 15.55 12.92 13.08 17.05 Maine 15.27 12.70 8.95 0.00 12.65 Massachusetts 17.39 14.68 12.74 8.76 15.35 New Hampshire 17.53 14.34 11.93 0.00 15.22 Rhode Island 17.17 14.56 12.86 14.89 15.41 Vermont 17.47 14.56 10.23 0.00 14.57 Middle Atlantic 16.39 13.65 7.61 12.28 13.41 New Jersey

  14. Dynamical interpretation of average fission-fragment kinetic energy systematics and nuclear scission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nadtochy, P.N. [GSI, Plankstrasse 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Omsk State University, Department of Theoretical Physics, Mira Prospect 55-A, RU-644077 Omsk (Russian Federation); Adeev, G.D. [Omsk State University, Department of Theoretical Physics, Mira Prospect 55-A, RU-644077 Omsk (Russian Federation)

    2005-11-01

    A dynamical interpretation of the well-known systematics for average total kinetic energy of fission fragments over a wide range of the Coulomb parameter (600 on the Coulomb parameter. The results of dynamical calculations of within three-dimensional Langevin dynamics show that the mean distance between the centers of mass of nascent fragments at the scission configuration increases linearly with the parameter Z{sup 2}/A{sup 1/3}. This distance changes approximately from 2.35R{sub 0} for {sup 119}Xe to 2.6R{sub 0} for {sup 256}Fm. In spite of this increase in mean distance between future fragments at scission, the linear dependence of on the parameter Z{sup 2}/A{sup 1/3} remains approximately valid over a wide range of the Coulomb parameter Z{sup 2}/A{sup 1/3}.

  15. Twist-averaged boundary conditions for nuclear pasta Hartree-Fock calculations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Schuetrumpf, B.; Nazarewicz, W.

    2015-10-21

    Nuclear pasta phases, present in the inner crust of neutron stars, are associated with nucleonic matter at subsaturation densities arranged in regular shapes. Those complex phases, residing in a layer which is approximately 100-m thick, impact many features of neutron stars. Theoretical quantum-mechanical simulations of nuclear pasta are usually carried out in finite three-dimensional boxes assuming periodic boundary conditions. The resulting solutions are affected by spurious finite-size effects. To remove spurious finite-size effects, it is convenient to employ twist-averaged boundary conditions (TABC) used in condensed matter, nuclear matter, and lattice quantum chromodynamics applications. In this work, we study the effectivenessmore » of TABC in the context of pasta phase simulations within nuclear density functional theory. We demonstrated that by applying TABC reliable results can be obtained from calculations performed in relatively small volumes. By studying various contributions to the total energy, we gain insights into pasta phases in mid-density range. Future applications will include the TABC extension of the adaptive multiresolution 3D Hartree-Fock solver and Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov TABC applications to superfluid pasta phases and complex nucleonic topologies as in fission.« less

  16. Twist-averaged boundary conditions for nuclear pasta Hartree-Fock calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuetrumpf, B.; Nazarewicz, W.

    2015-10-21

    Nuclear pasta phases, present in the inner crust of neutron stars, are associated with nucleonic matter at subsaturation densities arranged in regular shapes. Those complex phases, residing in a layer which is approximately 100-m thick, impact many features of neutron stars. Theoretical quantum-mechanical simulations of nuclear pasta are usually carried out in finite three-dimensional boxes assuming periodic boundary conditions. The resulting solutions are affected by spurious finite-size effects. To remove spurious finite-size effects, it is convenient to employ twist-averaged boundary conditions (TABC) used in condensed matter, nuclear matter, and lattice quantum chromodynamics applications. In this work, we study the effectiveness of TABC in the context of pasta phase simulations within nuclear density functional theory. We demonstrated that by applying TABC reliable results can be obtained from calculations performed in relatively small volumes. By studying various contributions to the total energy, we gain insights into pasta phases in mid-density range. Future applications will include the TABC extension of the adaptive multiresolution 3D Hartree-Fock solver and Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov TABC applications to superfluid pasta phases and complex nucleonic topologies as in fission.

  17. Use of SPMDs to determine average water concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban stormwater runoff

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeVita, W.; Crunkilton, R.

    1995-12-31

    Semipermeable polymeric membrane devices (SPMDS) were deployed for 30 day periods to monitor polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in an urban stream which receives much of its flow from urban runoff. SPMDs are capable of effectively sampling several liters of water per day for some PAHs. Unlike conventional methods, SPMDs sample only those non-polar organic contaminants which are truly dissolved and available for bioconcentration. Also, SPMDs may concentrate contaminants from episodic events such as stormwater discharge. The State of Wisconsin has established surface water quality criteria based upon human lifetime cancer risk of 23 ppt for benzo(a)pyrene and 23 ppt as the sum of nine other potentially carcinogenic PAHs. Bulk water samples analyzed by conventional methodology were routinely well above this criteria, but contained particulate bound PAHs as well as PAHs bound by dissolved organic carbon (DOC) which are not available for bioconcentration. Average water concentrations of dissolved PAHs determined using SPMDs were also above this criteria. Variables used for determining water concentration included sampling rate at the exposure temperature, length of exposure and estimation of biofouling of SPMD surface.

  18. Cylinder-averaged histories of nitrogen oxide in a D.I. diesel with simulated turbocharging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donahue, R.J.; Borman, G.L.; Bower, G.R.

    1994-10-20

    An experimental study was conducted using the dumping technique (total cylinder sampling) to produce cylinder mass-averaged nitric oxide histories. Data were taken using a four stroke diesel research engine employing a quiescent chamber, high pressure direct ijection fuel system, and simulated turbocharging. Two fuels were used to determine fuel cetane number effects. Two loads were run, one at an equivalence ratio of 0.5 and the other at a ratio of 0.3. The engine speed was held constant at 1500 rpm. Under the turbocharged and retarded timing conditions of this study, nitric oxide was produced up to the point of about 85% mass burned. Two different models were used to simulate the engine mn conditions: the phenomenological Hiroyasu spray-combustion model, and the three dimensional, U.W.-ERO modified KIVA-lI computational fluid dynamic code. Both of the models predicted the correct nitric oxide trend. Although the modified KIVA-lI combustion model using Zeldovich kinetics correctly predicted the shapes of the nitric oxide histories, it did not predict the exhaust concentrations without arbitrary adjustment based on experimental values.

  19. A Comparative Study of the Harmonic and Arithmetic Averaging of Diffusion Coefficients for Non-linear Heat Conduction Problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samet Y. Kadioglu; Robert R. Nourgaliev; Vincent A. Mousseau

    2008-03-01

    We perform a comparative study for the harmonic versus arithmetic averaging of the heat conduction coefficient when solving non-linear heat transfer problems. In literature, the harmonic average is the method of choice, because it is widely believed that the harmonic average is more accurate model. However, our analysis reveals that this is not necessarily true. For instance, we show a case in which the harmonic average is less accurate when a coarser mesh is used. More importantly, we demonstrated that if the boundary layers are finely resolved, then the harmonic and arithmetic averaging techniques are identical in the truncation error sense. Our analysis further reveals that the accuracy of these two techniques depends on how the physical problem is modeled.

  20. A quantitative approach to the characterization of cumulative and average solvent exposure in paint manufacturing plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ford, D.P.; Schwartz, B.S.; Powell, S.; Nelson, T.; Keller, L.; Sides, S.; Agnew, J.; Bolla, K.; Bleecker, M. )

    1991-06-01

    Previous reports have attributed a range of neurobehavioral effects to low-level, occupational solvent exposure. These studies have generally been limited in their exposure assessments and have specifically lacked good estimates of exposure intensity. In the present study, the authors describe the development of two exposure variables that quantitatively integrate industrial hygiene sampling data with estimates of exposure duration--a cumulative exposure (CE) estimate and a lifetime weighted average exposure (LWAE) estimate. Detailed occupational histories were obtained from 187 workers at two paint manufacturing plants. Historic industrial hygiene sampling data for total hydrocarbons (a composite variable of the major neurotoxic solvents present) were grouped according to 20 uniform, temporally stable exposure zones, which had been defined during plant walk-through surveys. Sampling at the time of the study was used to characterize the few zones for which historic data were limited or unavailable. For each participant, the geometric mean total hydrocarbon level for each exposure zone worked in was multiplied by the duration of employment in that zone; the resulting products were summed over the working lifetime to create the CE variable. The CE variable was divided by the total duration of employment in solvent-exposed jobs to create the LWAE variable. The explanatory value of each participant's LWAE estimate in the regression of simple visual reaction time (a neurobehavioral test previously shown to be affected by chronic solvent exposure) on exposure was compared with that of several other exposure variables, including exposure duration and an exposure variable based on an ordinal ranking of the exposure zones.

  1. Does the orbit-averaged theory require a scale separation between periodic orbit size and perturbation correlation length?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Wenlu; Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026; Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 ; Lin, Zhihong; Fusion Simulation Center, Peking University, Beijing 100871

    2013-10-15

    Using the canonical perturbation theory, we show that the orbit-averaged theory only requires a time-scale separation between equilibrium and perturbed motions and verifies the widely accepted notion that orbit averaging effects greatly reduce the microturbulent transport of energetic particles in a tokamak. Therefore, a recent claim [Hauff and Jenko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 075004 (2009); Jenko et al., ibid. 107, 239502 (2011)] stating that the orbit-averaged theory requires a scale separation between equilibrium orbit size and perturbation correlation length is erroneous.

  2. Improved volume-averaged model for steady and pulsed-power electronegative discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Sungjin; Lieberman, M. A.; Lichtenberg, A. J.; Gudmundsson, J. T.

    2006-11-15

    An improved volume-averaged global model is developed for a cylindrical (radius R, length L) electronegative (EN) plasma that is applicable over a wide range of electron densities, electronegativities, and pressures. It is applied to steady and pulsed-power oxygen discharges. The model incorporates effective volume and surface loss factors for positive ions, negative ions, and electrons combining three electronegative discharge regimes: a two-region regime with a parabolic EN core surrounded by an electropositive edge, a one-region parabolic EN plasma, and a one-region flat-topped EN plasma, spanning the plasma parameters and gas pressures of interest for low pressure processing (below a few hundred millitorr). Pressure-dependent effective volume and surface loss factors are also used for the neutral species. A set of reaction rate coefficients, updated from previous model calculations, is developed for oxygen for the species O{sub 2}, O{sub 2}({sup 1}{delta}{sub g}), O, O{sub 2}{sup +}, O{sup +}, and O{sup -}, based on the latest published cross-section sets and measurements. The model solutions yield all of the quantities above together with such important processing quantities such as the neutral/ion flux ratio {gamma}{sub O}/{gamma}{sub i}, with the discharge aspect ratio 2R/L and pulsed-power period and duty ratio (pulse on-time/pulse period) as parameters. The steady discharge results are compared to an experiment, giving good agreement. For steady discharges, increasing 2R/L from 1 to 6 leads to a factor of 0.45 reduction in {gamma}{sub O}/{gamma}{sub i}. For pulsed discharges with a fixed duty ratio, {gamma}{sub O}/{gamma}{sub i} is found to have a minimum with respect to pulse period. A 25% duty ratio pulse reduces {gamma}{sub O}/{gamma}{sub i} by a factor of 0.75 compared to the steady-state case.

  3. Fact #794: August 26, 2013 How Much Does an Average Vehicle Owner Pay in Fuel Taxes Each Year?

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    According to the Federal Highway Administration, the average fuel economy for all light vehicles on the road today is 21.4 miles per gallon (mpg). A person owning a gasoline vehicle with that fuel...

  4. Fact #638: August 30, 2010 Average Expenditure for a New Car Declines in Relation to Family Earnings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Although the average expenditure for a new car has increased from 1967 to 2009, family earnings have also been on the rise. For this period, new car expenditures went from $3,216 to $23,186, while...

  5. "Variable","Average Absolute Percent Differences","Percent of Projections Over- Estimated"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Annual Energy Outlook Retrospective Review, 2014" "Variable","Average Absolute Percent Differences","Percent of Projections Over- Estimated" "Gross Domestic Product" "Real Gross Domestic Product (Average Cumulative Growth)* (Table 2)",0.9204312786,45.77777778 "Petroleum" "Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil (Constant $) (Table 3a)",37.71300779,17.33333333 "Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil

  6. Horizontal-Velocity and Variance Measurements in the Stable Boundary Layer Using Doppler Lidar: Sensitivity to Averaging Procedures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pichugina, Yelena L.; Banta, Robert M.; Kelley, Neil D.; Jonkman, Bonnie J.; Tucker, Sara C.; Newsom, Rob K.; Brewer, W. A.

    2008-08-01

    Quantitative data on turbulence variables aloft--above the region of the atmosphere conveniently measured from towers--has been an important but difficult measurement need for advancing understanding and modeling of the stable boundary layer (SBL). Vertical profiles of streamwise velocity variances obtained from NOAA’s High Resolution Doppler Lidar (HRDL), which have been shown to be numerically equivalent to turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) for stable conditions, are a measure of the turbulence in the SBL. In the present study, the mean horizontal wind component U and variance ?u2 were computed from HRDL measurements of the line-of-sight (LOS) velocity using a technique described in Banta, et al. (2002). The technique was tested on datasets obtained during the Lamar Low-Level Jet Project (LLLJP) carried out in early September 2003, near the town of Lamar in southeastern Colorado. This paper compares U with mean wind speed obtained from sodar and sonic anemometer measurements. It then describes several series of averaging tests that produced the best correlation between TKE calculated from sonic anemometer data at several tower levels and lidar measurements of horizontal velocity variance ?u2. The results show high correlation (0.71-0.97) of the mean U and average wind speed measured by sodar and in-situ instruments, independent of sampling strategies and averaging procedures. Comparison of estimates of variance, on the other hand, proved sensitive to both the spatial and temporal averaging techniques.

  7. Horizontal Velocity and Variance Measurements in the Stable Boundary Layer Using Doppler Lidar: Sensitivity to Averaging Procedures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pichugina, Y. L.; Banta, R. M.; Kelley, N. D.; Jonkman, B. J.; Tucker, S. C.; Newsom, R. K.; Brewer, W. A.

    2008-08-01

    Quantitative data on turbulence variables aloft--above the region of the atmosphere conveniently measured from towers--have been an important but difficult measurement need for advancing understanding and modeling of the stable boundary layer (SBL). Vertical profiles of streamwise velocity variances obtained from NOAA's high-resolution Doppler lidar (HRDL), which have been shown to be approximately equal to turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) for stable conditions, are a measure of the turbulence in the SBL. In the present study, the mean horizontal wind component U and variance {sigma}2u were computed from HRDL measurements of the line-of-sight (LOS) velocity using a method described by Banta et al., which uses an elevation (vertical slice) scanning technique. The method was tested on datasets obtained during the Lamar Low-Level Jet Project (LLLJP) carried out in early September 2003, near the town of Lamar in southeastern Colorado. This paper compares U with mean wind speed obtained from sodar and sonic anemometer measurements. The results for the mean U and mean wind speed measured by sodar and in situ instruments for all nights of LLLJP show high correlation (0.71-0.97), independent of sampling strategies and averaging procedures, and correlation coefficients consistently >0.9 for four high-wind nights, when the low-level jet speeds exceeded 15 m s{sup -1} at some time during the night. Comparison of estimates of variance, on the other hand, proved sensitive to both the spatial and temporal averaging parameters. Several series of averaging tests are described, to find the best correlation between TKE calculated from sonic anemometer data at several tower levels and lidar measurements of horizontal-velocity variance {sigma}{sup 2}{sub u}. Because of the nonstationarity of the SBL data, the best results were obtained when the velocity data were first averaged over intervals of 1 min, and then further averaged over 3-15 consecutive 1-min intervals, with best results for the 10- and 15-min averaging periods. For these cases, correlation coefficients exceeded 0.9. As a part of the analysis, Eulerian integral time scales ({tau}) were estimated for the four high-wind nights. Time series of {tau} through each night indicated erratic behavior consistent with the nonstationarity. Histograms of {tau} showed a mode at 4-5 s, but frequent occurrences of larger {tau} values, mostly between 10 and 100 s.

  8. Average Commercial Price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1.50 11.68 11.28 10.01 9.50 9.30 1989-2016 Florida 11.15 10.61 10.69 10.89 10.70 10.62 1989-2016 Georgia 9.38 8.65 9.72 7.80 6.57 7.05 1989-2016 Maryland 11.11 9.98 9.56 10.44 NA 8.18 1989-2016 Michigan 9.05 7.46 6.75 6.59 6.50 6.64 1989-2016 New Jersey 8.03 8.10 8.66 8.24 7.76 7.66 1989-2016 New York 5.99 6.27 6.33 6.82 6.59 6.58 1989-2016 Ohio 7.99 6.79 6.03 5.53 5.32 5.30 1989-2016 Pennsylvania 11.10 NA 8.27 8.13 7.19 7.44 1989-2016 Virginia 8.91 8.02 7.57 7.93 6.88 6.67

  9. Average Residential Price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8.17 16.21 12.60 10.70 9.96 9.53 1989-2016 Florida 24.41 23.37 21.56 19.15 16.78 16.00 1989-2016 Georgia 25.75 20.43 15.20 14.41 10.79 10.94 1989-2016 Maryland 19.39 13.51 12.72 13.12 9.95 9.46 1989-2016 Michigan 13.21 8.93 7.84 7.55 7.25 7.58 1989-2016 New Jersey 12.38 10.30 9.08 7.85 6.55 6.86 1989-2016 New York 17.53 14.26 12.27 11.42 10.31 9.45 1989-2016 Ohio 24.31 15.36 9.68 7.40 6.48 6.44 1989-2016 Pennsylvania 18.32 NA 10.56 9.85 8.75 8.64 1989-2016 Virginia 19.45 15.81 11.72 12.09 9.45

  10. Average Commercial Price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9.47 8.91 8.10 8.08 8.90 7.89 1967-2015 Alabama 13.34 12.36 12.56 12.35 11.92 11.03 1967-2015 Alaska 8.78 8.09 8.09 8.34 8.30 7.80 1967-2015 Arizona 10.72 9.99 9.35 8.76 10.34 10.53 1967-2015 Arkansas 8.89 8.90 7.99 7.68 7.88 8.08 1967-2015 California 8.30 8.29 7.05 7.81 9.05 7.98 1967-2015 Colorado 7.58 7.84 7.58 7.26 8.15 NA 1967-2015 Connecticut 9.55 8.48 8.40 9.20 10.24 8.56 1967-2015 Delaware 13.26 13.58 13.31 11.78 11.42 10.70 1967-2015 District of Columbia 12.26 12.24 11.19 11.64 12.18

  11. Average Commercial Price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Pipeline and Distribution Use Price Citygate Price Residential Price Commercial Price Industrial Price Vehicle Fuel Price Electric Power Price Proved Reserves as of 12/31 Reserves Adjustments Reserves Revision Increases Reserves Revision Decreases Reserves Sales Reserves Acquisitions Reserves Extensions Reserves New Field Discoveries New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields Estimated Production Number of Producing Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From

  12. Average Commercial Price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Citygate Price Residential Price Commercial Price Industrial Price Electric Power Price Gross Withdrawals Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Oil Wells Gross Withdrawals From Shale Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Coalbed Wells Repressuring Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed Vented and Flared Marketed Production NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Dry Production Imports By Pipeline LNG Imports Exports Exports By Pipeline LNG Exports Underground Storage Capacity Gas in Underground

  13. Average Residential Price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    11.39 11.03 10.65 10.32 10.97 10.38 1967-2015 Alabama 15.79 15.08 16.20 15.47 14.59 13.95 1967-2015 Alaska 8.89 8.77 8.47 8.85 9.11 9.68 1967-2015 Arizona 15.87 15.04 15.75 13.92 17.20 17.04 1967-2015 Arkansas 11.53 11.46 11.82 10.46 10.39 11.20 1967-2015 California 9.92 9.93 9.14 9.92 11.51 11.38 1967-2015 Colorado 8.13 8.25 8.28 7.85 8.89 NA 1967-2015 Connecticut 14.93 13.83 14.17 13.32 14.13 12.47 1967-2015 Delaware 15.12 15.38 15.24 13.65 13.21 NA 1967-2015 District of Columbia 13.53 13.06

  14. Average Residential Price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Pipeline and Distribution Use Price Citygate Price Residential Price Commercial Price Industrial Price Vehicle Fuel Price Electric Power Price Proved Reserves as of 12/31 Reserves Adjustments Reserves Revision Increases Reserves Revision Decreases Reserves Sales Reserves Acquisitions Reserves Extensions Reserves New Field Discoveries New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields Estimated Production Number of Producing Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From

  15. Average Residential Price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Citygate Price Residential Price Commercial Price Industrial Price Electric Power Price Gross Withdrawals Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Oil Wells Gross Withdrawals From Shale Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Coalbed Wells Repressuring Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed Vented and Flared Marketed Production NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Dry Production Imports By Pipeline LNG Imports Exports Exports By Pipeline LNG Exports Underground Storage Capacity Gas in Underground

  16. Average Commercial Price

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 View History District of Columbia 12.26 12.24 11.19 11.64 12.18 11.55 1980-2015 Florida 10.60 11.14 10.41 10.87 11.38 10.74 1967-2015 Georgia 10.95 10.51 9.75 9.38 9.86 8.49 1967-2015 Maryland 9.87 10.29 10.00 10.06 10.52 10.00 1967-2015 Michigan 8.95 9.14 8.35 7.82 8.28 7.49 1967-2015 New Jersey 10.11 9.51

  17. Average Commercial Price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8.37 7.74 7.38 7.21 6.74 6.82 1973-2016 Alabama 11.75 11.40 11.47 10.73 9.81 9.70 1989-2016 Alaska 7.03 7.67 7.43 7.39 7.18 7.24 1989-2016 Arizona 10.40 10.14 9.36 9.17 8.93 9.32 1989-2016 Arkansas 8.00 7.71 7.86 7.29 7.16 6.74 1989-2016 California 7.84 7.69 7.20 8.23 7.98 8.43 1989-2016 Colorado 9.19 7.83 6.49 6.18 5.79 5.94 1989-2016 Connecticut 10.53 9.53 8.48 8.18 NA 7.26 1989-2016 Delaware 13.93 12.54 10.82 9.15 8.75 8.58 1989-2016 District of Columbia 11.50 11.68 11.28 10.01 9.50 9.30

  18. Average Residential Price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    16.37 12.59 10.06 9.29 8.30 8.39 1973-2016 Alabama 20.38 19.12 17.67 14.30 12.00 11.12 1989-2016 Alaska 9.86 9.44 8.89 8.79 8.91 9.03 1989-2016 Arizona 23.01 20.77 14.57 12.75 11.99 13.82 1989-2016 Arkansas 18.15 17.40 13.80 10.34 9.54 9.06 1989-2016 California 11.91 11.53 10.31 11.37 11.45 11.52 1989-2016 Colorado 13.03 9.26 6.88 6.45 6.06 6.44 1989-2016 Connecticut 21.49 15.30 12.50 11.82 10.32 10.65 1989-2016 Delaware 23.22 NA 14.03 11.09 10.09 9.71 1989-2016 District of Columbia 18.17 16.21

  19. Edge-facet pumped, multi-aperture, thin-disk laser geometry for very high average power output scaling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zapata, Luis E.

    2004-12-21

    The average power output of a laser is scaled, to first order, by increasing the transverse dimension of the gain medium while increasing the thickness of an index matched light guide proportionately. Strategic facets cut at the edges of the laminated gain medium provide a method by which the pump light introduced through edges of the composite structure is trapped and passes through the gain medium repeatedly. Spontaneous emission escapes the laser volume via these facets. A multi-faceted disk geometry with grooves cut into the thickness of the gain medium is optimized to passively reject spontaneous emission generated within the laser material, which would otherwise be trapped and amplified within the high index composite disk. Such geometry allows the useful size of the laser aperture to be increased, enabling the average laser output power to be scaled.

  20. Computing the partition function, ensemble averages, and density of states for lattice spin systems by sampling the mean

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gillespie, Dirk

    2013-10-01

    An algorithm to approximately calculate the partition function (and subsequently ensemble averages) and density of states of lattice spin systems through non-Monte-Carlo random sampling is developed. This algorithm (called the sampling-the-mean algorithm) can be applied to models where the up or down spins at lattice nodes interact to change the spin states of other lattice nodes, especially non-Ising-like models with long-range interactions such as the biological model considered here. Because it is based on the Central Limit Theorem of probability, the sampling-the-mean algorithm also gives estimates of the error in the partition function, ensemble averages, and density of states. Easily implemented parallelization strategies and error minimizing sampling strategies are discussed. The sampling-the-mean method works especially well for relatively small systems, systems with a density of energy states that contains sharp spikes or oscillations, or systems with little a priori knowledge of the density of states.

  1. Areal-averaged and Spectrally-resolved Surface Albedo from Ground-based Transmission Data Alone: Toward an Operational Retrieval

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Flynn, Connor J.; Riihimaki, Laura D.; Michalsky, Joseph; Hodges, G. B.

    2014-08-22

    We present here a simple retrieval of the areal-averaged and spectrally resolved surface albedo using only ground-based measurements of atmospheric transmission under fully overcast conditions. Our retrieval is based on a one-line equation and widely accepted assumptions regarding the weak spectral dependence of cloud optical properties in the visible and near-infrared spectral range. The feasibility of our approach for the routine determinations of albedo is demonstrated for different landscapes with various degrees of heterogeneity using three sets of measurements:(1) spectrally resolved atmospheric transmission from Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) at wavelength 415, 500, 615, 673, and 870 nm, (2) tower-based measurements of local surface albedo at the same wavelengths, and (3) areal-averaged surface albedo at four wavelengths (470, 560, 670 and 860 nm) from collocated and coincident Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) observations. These integrated datasets cover both long (2008-2013) and short (April-May, 2010) periods at the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site and the NOAA Table Mountain site, respectively. The calculated root mean square error (RMSE), which is defined here as the root mean squared difference between the MODIS-derived surface albedo and the retrieved area-averaged albedo, is quite small (RMSE?0.01) and comparable with that obtained previously by other investigators for the shortwave broadband albedo. Good agreement between the tower-based daily averages of surface albedo for the completely overcast and non-overcast conditions is also demonstrated. This agreement suggests that our retrieval originally developed for the overcast conditions likely will work for non-overcast conditions as well.

  2. Retrieval of Areal-averaged Spectral Surface Albedo from Transmission Data Alone: Computationally Simple and Fast Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Flynn, Connor J.; Riihimaki, Laura D.; Michalsky, Joseph; Hodges, G. B.

    2014-10-25

    We introduce and evaluate a simple retrieval of areal-averaged surface albedo using ground-based measurements of atmospheric transmission alone at five wavelengths (415, 500, 615, 673 and 870nm), under fully overcast conditions. Our retrieval is based on a one-line semi-analytical equation and widely accepted assumptions regarding the weak spectral dependence of cloud optical properties, such as cloud optical depth and asymmetry parameter, in the visible and near-infrared spectral range. To illustrate the performance of our retrieval, we use as input measurements of spectral atmospheric transmission from Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR). These MFRSR data are collected at two well-established continental sites in the United States supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The areal-averaged albedos obtained from the MFRSR are compared with collocated and coincident Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) white-sky albedo. In particular, these comparisons are made at four MFRSR wavelengths (500, 615, 673 and 870nm) and for four seasons (winter, spring, summer and fall) at the ARM site using multi-year (2008-2013) MFRSR and MODIS data. Good agreement, on average, for these wavelengths results in small values (?0.01) of the corresponding root mean square errors (RMSEs) for these two sites. The obtained RMSEs are comparable with those obtained previously for the shortwave albedos (MODIS-derived versus tower-measured) for these sites during growing seasons. We also demonstrate good agreement between tower-based daily-averaged surface albedos measured for “nearby” overcast and non-overcast days. Thus, our retrieval originally developed for overcast conditions likely can be extended for non-overcast days by interpolating between overcast retrievals.

  3. Fact #849: December 1, 2014 Midsize Hybrid Cars Averaged 51% Better Fuel Economy than Midsize Non-Hybrid Cars in 2014

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    For the 2014 model year, midsize hybrid cars averaged 43.4 miles per gallon (mpg) while midsize non-hybrid cars averaged 28.7 mpg; the difference between the two has narrowed due to the rising...

  4. Determination of the Average Aromatic Cluster Size of Fossil Fuels by Solid-State NMR at High Magnetic Field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mao, Kanmi; Kennedy, Gordon J.; Althaus, Stacey M.; Pruski, Marek

    2013-01-07

    We show that the average aromatic cluster size in complex carbonaceous materials can be accurately determined using fast magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR at a high magnetic field. To accurately quantify the nonprotonated aromatic carbon, we edited the 13C spectra using the recently reported MAS-synchronized spin–echo, which alleviated the problem of rotational recoupling of 1H-13C dipolar interactions associated with traditional dipolar dephasing experiments. The dependability of this approach was demonstrated on selected Argonne Premium coal standards, for which full sets of basic structural parameters were determined with high accuracy.

  5. Application of Maximum Likelihood Bayesian Model Averaging to Groundwater Flow and Transport at the Hanford Site 300 Area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, Philip D.; Ye, Ming; Neuman, Shlomo P.; Rockhold, Mark L.

    2008-06-01

    A methodology to systematically and quantitatively assess model predictive uncertainty was applied to saturated zone uranium transport at the 300 Area of the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site in Washington State, USA. The methodology extends Maximum Likelihood Bayesian Model Averaging (MLBMA) to account jointly for uncertainties due to the conceptual-mathematical basis of models, model parameters, and the scenarios to which the models are applied. Conceptual uncertainty was represented by postulating four alternative models of hydrogeology and uranium adsorption. Parameter uncertainties were represented by estimation covariances resulting from the joint calibration of each model to observed heads and uranium concentration. Posterior model probability was dominated by one model. Results demonstrated the role of model complexity and fidelity to observed system behavior in determining model probabilities, as well as the impact of prior information. Two scenarios representing alternative future behavior of the Columbia River adjacent to the site were considered. Predictive simulations carried out with the calibrated models illustrated the computation of model- and scenario-averaged predictions and how results can be displayed to clearly indicate the individual contributions to predictive uncertainty of the model, parameter, and scenario uncertainties. The application demonstrated the practicability of applying a comprehensive uncertainty assessment to large-scale, detailed groundwater flow and transport modelling.

  6. Technical Note: Measuring contrast- and noise-dependent spatial resolution of an iterative reconstruction method in CT using ensemble averaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Lifeng Vrieze, Thomas J.; Leng, Shuai; Fletcher, Joel G.; McCollough, Cynthia H.

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: The spatial resolution of iterative reconstruction (IR) in computed tomography (CT) is contrast- and noise-dependent because of the nonlinear regularization. Due to the severe noise contamination, it is challenging to perform precise spatial-resolution measurements at very low-contrast levels. The purpose of this study was to measure the spatial resolution of a commercially available IR method using ensemble-averaged images acquired from repeated scans. Methods: A low-contrast phantom containing three rods (7, 14, and 21 HU below background) was scanned on a 128-slice CT scanner at three dose levels (CTDI{sub vol} = 16, 8, and 4 mGy). Images were reconstructed using two filtered-backprojection (FBP) kernels (B40 and B20) and a commercial IR method (sinogram affirmed iterative reconstruction, SAFIRE, Siemens Healthcare) with two strength settings (I40-3 and I40-5). The same scan was repeated 100 times at each dose level. The modulation transfer function (MTF) was calculated based on the edge profile measured on the ensemble-averaged images. Results: The spatial resolution of the two FBP kernels, B40 and B20, remained relatively constant across contrast and dose levels. However, the spatial resolution of the two IR kernels degraded relative to FBP as contrast or dose level decreased. For a given dose level at 16 mGy, the MTF{sub 50%} value normalized to the B40 kernel decreased from 98.4% at 21 HU to 88.5% at 7 HU for I40-3 and from 97.6% to 82.1% for I40-5. At 21 HU, the relative MTF{sub 50%} value decreased from 98.4% at 16 mGy to 90.7% at 4 mGy for I40-3 and from 97.6% to 85.6% for I40-5. Conclusions: A simple technique using ensemble averaging from repeated CT scans can be used to measure the spatial resolution of IR techniques in CT at very low contrast levels. The evaluated IR method degraded the spatial resolution at low contrast and high noise levels.

  7. PySpline: A Modern, Cross-Platform Program for the Processing of Raw Averaged XAS Edge and EXAFS Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tenderholt, A.; Hedman, B.; Hodgson, K.O.

    2007-01-08

    PySpline is a modern computer program for processing raw averaged XAS and EXAFS data using an intuitive approach which allows the user to see the immediate effect of various processing parameters on the resulting k- and R-space data. The Python scripting language and Qt and Qwt widget libraries were chosen to meet the design requirement that it be cross-platform (i.e. versions for Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux). PySpline supports polynomial pre- and post-edge background subtraction, splining of the EXAFS region with a multi-segment polynomial spline, and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of the resulting k{sup 3}-weighted EXAFS data.

  8. Application of a generalized matrix averaging method for the calculation of the effective properties of thin multiferroic layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starkov, A. S.; Starkov, I. A.

    2014-11-15

    It is proposed to use a generalized matrix averaging (GMA) method for calculating the parameters of an effective medium with physical properties equivalent to those of a set of thin multiferroic layers. This approach obviates the need to solve a complex system of magnetoelectroelasticity equations. The required effective characteristics of a system of multiferroic layers are obtained using only operations with matrices, which significantly simplifies calculations and allows multilayer systems to be described. The proposed approach is applicable to thin-layer systems, in which the total thickness is much less than the system length, radius of curvature, and wavelengths of waves that can propagate in the system (long-wave approximation). Using the GMA method, it is also possible to obtain the effective characteristics of a periodic structure with each period comprising a number of thin multiferroic layers.

  9. Fact #849: December 1, 2014 Midsize Hybrid Cars Averaged 51% Better Fuel Economy than Midsize Non-Hybrid Cars in 2014- Dataset

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Excel file with dataset for Fact #849: December 1, 2014 Midsize Hybrid Cars Averaged 51% Better Fuel Economy than Midsize Non-Hybrid Cars in 2014

  10. Combining multi-objective optimization and bayesian model averaging to calibrate forecast ensembles of soil hydraulic models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vrugt, Jasper A; Wohling, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Most studies in vadose zone hydrology use a single conceptual model for predictive inference and analysis. Focusing on the outcome of a single model is prone to statistical bias and underestimation of uncertainty. In this study, we combine multi-objective optimization and Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA) to generate forecast ensembles of soil hydraulic models. To illustrate our method, we use observed tensiometric pressure head data at three different depths in a layered vadose zone of volcanic origin in New Zealand. A set of seven different soil hydraulic models is calibrated using a multi-objective formulation with three different objective functions that each measure the mismatch between observed and predicted soil water pressure head at one specific depth. The Pareto solution space corresponding to these three objectives is estimated with AMALGAM, and used to generate four different model ensembles. These ensembles are post-processed with BMA and used for predictive analysis and uncertainty estimation. Our most important conclusions for the vadose zone under consideration are: (1) the mean BMA forecast exhibits similar predictive capabilities as the best individual performing soil hydraulic model, (2) the size of the BMA uncertainty ranges increase with increasing depth and dryness in the soil profile, (3) the best performing ensemble corresponds to the compromise (or balanced) solution of the three-objective Pareto surface, and (4) the combined multi-objective optimization and BMA framework proposed in this paper is very useful to generate forecast ensembles of soil hydraulic models.

  11. Charge and fluence lifetime measurements of a dc high voltage GaAs photogun at high average current

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Grames, R. Suleiman, P.A. Adderley, J. Clark, J. Hansknecht, D. Machie, M. Poelker, M.L. Stutzman

    2011-04-01

    GaAs-based dc high voltage photoguns used at accelerators with extensive user programs must exhibit long photocathode operating lifetime. Achieving this goal represents a significant challenge for proposed high average current facilities that must operate at tens of milliamperes or more. This paper describes techniques to maintain good vacuum while delivering beam, and techniques that minimize the ill effects of ion bombardment, the dominant mechanism that reduces photocathode yield of a GaAs-based dc high voltage photogun. Experimental results presented here demonstrate enhanced lifetime at high beam currents by: (a) operating with the drive laser beam positioned away from the electrostatic center of the photocathode, (b) limiting the photocathode active area to eliminate photoemission from regions of the photocathode that do not support efficient beam delivery, (c) using a large drive laser beam to distribute ion damage over a larger area, and (d) by applying a relatively low bias voltage to the anode to repel ions created within the downstream beam line. A combination of these techniques provided the best total charge extracted lifetimes in excess of 1000 C at dc beam currents up to 9.5 mA, using green light illumination of bulk GaAs inside a 100 kV photogun.

  12. Insolation data manual: long-term monthly averages of solar radiation, temperature, degree-days and global anti K/sub T/ for 248 national weather service stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knapp, C L; Stoffel, T L; Whitaker, S D

    1980-10-01

    Monthly averaged data is presented which describes the availability of solar radiation at 248 National Weather Service stations. Monthly and annual average daily insolation and temperature values have been computed from a base of 24 to 25 years of data. Average daily maximum, minimum, and monthly temperatures are provided for most locations in both Celsius and Fahrenheit. Heating and cooling degree-days were computed relative to a base of 18.3/sup 0/C (65/sup 0/F). For each station, global anti K/sub T/ (cloudiness index) were calculated on a monthly and annual basis. (MHR)

  13. Moab Project Exceeds 5 Years of Operations Without Lost-Time Injury, Illness

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    GRAND JUNCTION, Colo. – It has been more than five years since workers on the Moab Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project in Utah had a lost-time injury or illness. This represents roughly 2.2 million hours of safe work.

  14. Feedback following the Industry Engagement of the NNSA Unique Identifier and Global Monitoring 5 year plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White-Horton, Jessica L; Whitaker, J Michael; Durbin, Karyn R.

    2013-01-01

    The National Nuclear Security Administration s project for developing a unique identifier and a concept for a global monitoring system for UF6 cylinders made significant progress on developing functional requirements and a concept of operation for such a system. The multi-laboratory team is working to define the functional requirements for both the unique identifier and the global monitoring system and to develop a preliminary concept of operations to discuss with key industry stakeholders. Team members began meeting with industry representatives in January 2013 to discuss the preliminary concept and solicit feedback and suggestions. The team has met with representatives from United States Enrichment Corporation, Cameco, URENCO, Honeywell/ConverDyn, and others. This paper presents an overview of the preliminary concept of operations and shares the feedback obtained from the industry engagement meetings.

  15. Statistical Overview of 5 Years of HCCI Fuel and Engine Data...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Results show single fuel model could not represent all fuels studied but engine performance could be predicted with a grouped approach using cetane with secondary effects from ...

  16. DOE Exercises 5 Year Option on Washington TRU Solutions Contract to Operate WIPP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Capture Processes | Department of Energy Establishes National Carbon Capture Center to Speed Deployment of CO2 Capture Processes DOE Establishes National Carbon Capture Center to Speed Deployment of CO2 Capture Processes May 27, 2009 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy has announced the creation of a new National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) to develop and test technologies to capture carbon dioxide (CO2) from coal-based power plants. Managed and operated by

  17. Microsoft PowerPoint - NEAC CASL @ 3.5 Years Report v4

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    "When you think of the Hubs, think of large, mission-oriented research efforts such as the Manhattan Project at Los Alamos or America's great industrial laboratories in their ...

  18. Statistical Overview of 5 Years of HCCI Fuel and Engine Data from ORNL

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Results show single fuel model could not represent all fuels studied but engine performance could be predicted with a grouped approach using cetane with secondary effects from volatility or heavy fuel components

  19. Transverse flowing liquid Kerr cell for high average power laser Q-switching and for direct modulation of high power laser beams.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Comaskey, Brian J.

    2004-12-07

    A fluid flow concept is applied in an optical apparatus to define a high gain stand-off, fast electro-optical q-switch which is highly impervious to high average power optical loads.

  20. How Well Can We Estimate Areal-Averaged Spectral Surface Albedo from Ground-Based Transmission in an Atlantic Coastal Area?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Flynn, Connor J.; Riihimaki, Laura D.; Marinovici, Maria C.

    2015-10-15

    Areal-averaged albedos are particularly difficult to measure in coastal regions, because the surface is not homogenous, consisting of a sharp demarcation between land and water. With this difficulty in mind, we evaluate a simple retrieval of areal-averaged surface albedo using ground-based measurements of atmospheric transmission alone under fully overcast conditions. To illustrate the performance of our retrieval, we find the areal-averaged albedo using measurements from the Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) at five wavelengths (415, 500, 615, 673, and 870 nm). These MFRSR data are collected at a coastal site in Graciosa Island, Azores supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. The areal-averaged albedos obtained from the MFRSR are compared with collocated and coincident Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) white-sky albedo at four nominal wavelengths (470, 560, 670 and 860 nm). These comparisons are made during a 19-month period (June 2009 - December 2010). We also calculate composite-based spectral values of surface albedo by a weighted-average approach using estimated fractions of major surface types observed in an area surrounding this coastal site. Taken as a whole, these three methods of finding albedo show spectral and temporal similarities, and suggest that our simple, transmission-based technique holds promise, but with estimated errors of about ±0.03. Additional work is needed to reduce this uncertainty in areas with inhomogeneous surfaces.

  1. SU-E-T-174: Evaluation of the Optimal Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Plans Done On the Maximum and Average Intensity Projection CTs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jurkovic, I; Stathakis, S; Li, Y; Patel, A; Vincent, J; Papanikolaou, N; Mavroidis, P

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To determine the difference in coverage between plans done on average intensity projection and maximum intensity projection CT data sets for lung patients and to establish correlations between different factors influencing the coverage. Methods: For six lung cancer patients, 10 phases of equal duration through the respiratory cycle, the maximum and average intensity projections (MIP and AIP) from their 4DCT datasets were obtained. MIP and AIP datasets had three GTVs delineated (GTVaip — delineated on AIP, GTVmip — delineated on MIP and GTVfus — delineated on each of the 10 phases and summed up). From the each GTV, planning target volumes (PTV) were then created by adding additional margins. For each of the PTVs an IMRT plan was developed on the AIP dataset. The plans were then copied to the MIP data set and were recalculated. Results: The effective depths in AIP cases were significantly smaller than in MIP (p < 0.001). The Pearson correlation coefficient of r = 0.839 indicates strong degree of positive linear relationship between the average percentage difference in effective depths and average PTV coverage on the MIP data set. The V2 0 Gy of involved lung depends on the PTV coverage. The relationship between PTVaip mean CT number difference and PTVaip coverage on MIP data set gives r = 0.830. When the plans are produced on MIP and copied to AIP, r equals ?0.756. Conclusion: The correlation between the AIP and MIP data sets indicates that the selection of the data set for developing the treatment plan affects the final outcome (cases with high average percentage difference in effective depths between AIP and MIP should be calculated on AIP). The percentage of the lung volume receiving higher dose depends on how well PTV is covered, regardless of on which set plan is done.

  2. Concentration Averaging | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy Compliance Order, Los Alamos National Security, LLC - July 12, 2007 Compliance Order, Los Alamos National Security, LLC - July 12, 2007 July 12, 2007 Issued to Los Alamos National Security, LLC related to the Unauthorized Reproduction and Removal of Classified Matter from the Los Alamos National Laboratory On July 12, 2007, the Secretary of Energy issued a Compliance Order to Los Alamos National Security, LLC requiring the contractor to implement specific corrective

  3. High-Average Power Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dowell, David H.; Power, John G.; /Argonne

    2012-09-05

    There has been significant progress in the development of high-power facilities in recent years yet major challenges remain. The task of WG4 was to identify which facilities were capable of addressing the outstanding R&D issues presently preventing high-power operation. To this end, information from each of the facilities represented at the workshop was tabulated and the results are presented herein. A brief description of the major challenges is given, but the detailed elaboration can be found in the other three working group summaries.

  4. Measurement of Time-Averaged Particle-Wall Collision Properties Using Particle Tracking Velocimetry, CRADA PC93-006, Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaffer, F.; Massah, H.; Sinclair, J.; Shahnam, M.

    1995-04-30

    This paper describes an experimental facility to measure time-averaged properties of particle-wall collisions. A particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) system measures particle rebound angles and velocities and impact angles and velocities for specific particles. From these measured properties, values of normal and tangential coefficient of restitution are derived. The PTV system rapidly measures thousands of particle-wall collisions enabling determination of time-averaged properties. In this initial work we use 191 {micro}m glass particles colliding with a glass plate at a fixed angle of 17.5{degree} and a velocity of 17.07 m/s. Observations are also made of aspherical particles colliding with gross sliding. In the future, this experimental system will be used with particles and wall materials of industrial significance.

  5. Bounce- and MLT-averaged diffusion coefficients in a physics-based magnetic field geometry obtained from RAM-SCB for the March 17 2013 storm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Lei; Yu, Yiqun; Delzanno, Gian Luca; Jordanova, Vania K.

    2015-04-01

    Local acceleration via whistler wave and particle interaction plays a significant role in particle dynamics in the radiation belt. In this work we explore gyro-resonant wave-particle interaction and quasi-linear diffusion in different magnetic field configurations related to the March 17 2013 storm. We consider the Earth's magnetic dipole field as a reference and compare the results against non-dipole field configurations corresponding to quiet and stormy conditions. The latter are obtained with the ring current-atmosphere interactions model with a self-consistent magnetic field RAM-SCB, a code that models the Earth's ring current and provides a realistic modeling of the Earth's magnetic field. By applying quasi-linear theory, the bounce- and MLT-averaged electron pitch angle, mixed term, and energy diffusion coefficients are calculated for each magnetic field configuration. For radiation belt (~1 MeV) and ring current (~100 keV) electrons, it is shown that at some MLTs the bounce-averaged diffusion coefficients become rather insensitive to the details of the magnetic field configuration, while at other MLTs storm conditions can expand the range of equatorial pitch angles where gyro-resonant diffusion occurs and significantly enhance the diffusion rates. When MLT average is performed at drift shell L = 4.25 (a good approximation to drift average), the diffusion coefficients become quite independent of the magnetic field configuration for relativistic electrons, while the opposite is true for lower energy electrons. These results suggest that, at least for the March 17 2013 storm and for L ? 4.25, the commonly adopted dipole approximation of the Earth's magnetic field can be safely used for radiation belt electrons, while a realistic modeling of the magnetic field configuration is necessary to describe adequately the diffusion rates of ring current electrons.

  6. Bounce- and MLT-averaged diffusion coefficients in a physics-based magnetic field geometry obtained from RAM-SCB for the March 17 2013 storm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Lei; Yu, Yiqun; Delzanno, Gian Luca; Jordanova, Vania K.

    2015-04-01

    Local acceleration via whistler wave and particle interaction plays a significant role in particle dynamics in the radiation belt. In this work we explore gyro-resonant wave-particle interaction and quasi-linear diffusion in different magnetic field configurations related to the March 17 2013 storm. We consider the Earth's magnetic dipole field as a reference and compare the results against non-dipole field configurations corresponding to quiet and stormy conditions. The latter are obtained with the ring current-atmosphere interactions model with a self-consistent magnetic field RAM-SCB, a code that models the Earth's ring current and provides a realistic modeling of the Earth's magnetic field. By applying quasi-linear theory, the bounce- and MLT-averaged electron pitch angle, mixed term, and energy diffusion coefficients are calculated for each magnetic field configuration. For radiation belt (~1 MeV) and ring current (~100 keV) electrons, it is shown that at some MLTs the bounce-averaged diffusion coefficients become rather insensitive to the details of the magnetic field configuration, while at other MLTs storm conditions can expand the range of equatorial pitch angles where gyro-resonant diffusion occurs and significantly enhance the diffusion rates. When MLT average is performed at drift shell L = 4.25 (a good approximation to drift average), the diffusion coefficients become quite independent of the magnetic field configuration for relativistic electrons, while the opposite is true for lower energy electrons. These results suggest that, at least for the March 17 2013 storm and for L ≲ 4.25, the commonly adopted dipole approximation of the Earth's magnetic field can be safely used for radiation belt electrons, while a realistic modeling of the magnetic field configuration is necessary to describe adequately the diffusion rates of ring current electrons.

  7. Bounce- and MLT-averaged diffusion coefficients in a physics-based magnetic field geometry obtained from RAM-SCB for the March 17 2013 storm

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhao, Lei; Yu, Yiqun; Delzanno, Gian Luca; Jordanova, Vania K.

    2015-04-01

    Local acceleration via whistler wave and particle interaction plays a significant role in particle dynamics in the radiation belt. In this work we explore gyro-resonant wave-particle interaction and quasi-linear diffusion in different magnetic field configurations related to the March 17 2013 storm. We consider the Earth's magnetic dipole field as a reference and compare the results against non-dipole field configurations corresponding to quiet and stormy conditions. The latter are obtained with the ring current-atmosphere interactions model with a self-consistent magnetic field RAM-SCB, a code that models the Earth's ring current and provides a realistic modeling of the Earth's magnetic field.more » By applying quasi-linear theory, the bounce- and MLT-averaged electron pitch angle, mixed term, and energy diffusion coefficients are calculated for each magnetic field configuration. For radiation belt (~1 MeV) and ring current (~100 keV) electrons, it is shown that at some MLTs the bounce-averaged diffusion coefficients become rather insensitive to the details of the magnetic field configuration, while at other MLTs storm conditions can expand the range of equatorial pitch angles where gyro-resonant diffusion occurs and significantly enhance the diffusion rates. When MLT average is performed at drift shell L = 4.25 (a good approximation to drift average), the diffusion coefficients become quite independent of the magnetic field configuration for relativistic electrons, while the opposite is true for lower energy electrons. These results suggest that, at least for the March 17 2013 storm and for L ≲ 4.25, the commonly adopted dipole approximation of the Earth's magnetic field can be safely used for radiation belt electrons, while a realistic modeling of the magnetic field configuration is necessary to describe adequately the diffusion rates of ring current electrons.« less

  8. Average and local crystal structures of (Ga1–xZnx)(N1–xOx) solid solution nanoparticles

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Feygenson, Mikhail; Neuefeind, Joerg C.; Tyson, Trevor A.; Schieber, Natalie; Han, Wei -Qiang

    2015-11-06

    We report the comprehensive study of the crystal structure of (Ga1–xZnx)(N1–xOx) solid solution nanoparticles by means of neutron and synchrotron x-ray scattering. In our study we used four different types of (Ga1–xZnx)(N1–xOx) nanoparticles, with diameters of 10–27 nm and x = 0.075–0.51, which show the narrow energy-band gaps from 2.21 to 2.61 eV. The Rietveld analysis of the neutron diffraction data revealed that the average crystal structure is the hexagonal wurtzite (space group P63mc), in agreement with previous reports on similar bulk materials. The pair-distribution function (PDF) analysis of the same data found that the local structure is more disorderedmore » than the average one. It is best described by the model with a lower symmetry space group P1, where atoms are quasirandomly distorted from their nominal positions in the hexagonal wurtzite lattice.« less

  9. Nearest Neighbor Averaging and its Effect on the Critical Level and Minimum Detectable Concentration for Scanning Radiological Survey Instruments that Perform Facility Release Surveys.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fournier, Sean Donovan; Beall, Patrick S; Miller, Mark L.

    2014-08-01

    Through the SNL New Mexico Small Business Assistance (NMSBA) program, several Sandia engineers worked with the Environmental Restoration Group (ERG) Inc. to verify and validate a novel algorithm used to determine the scanning Critical Level (L c ) and Minimum Detectable Concentration (MDC) (or Minimum Detectable Areal Activity) for the 102F scanning system. Through the use of Monte Carlo statistical simulations the algorithm mathematically demonstrates accuracy in determining the L c and MDC when a nearest-neighbor averaging (NNA) technique was used. To empirically validate this approach, SNL prepared several spiked sources and ran a test with the ERG 102F instrument on a bare concrete floor known to have no radiological contamination other than background naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). The tests conclude that the NNA technique increases the sensitivity (decreases the L c and MDC) for high-density data maps that are obtained by scanning radiological survey instruments.

  10. Particle-In-Cell/Monte Carlo Simulation of Ion Back BomBardment in a High Average Current RF Photo-Gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qiang, J.

    2009-10-17

    In this paper, we report on study of ion back bombardment in a high average current radio-frequency (RF) photo-gun using a particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo simulation method. Using this method, we systematically studied effects of gas pressure, RF frequency, RF initial phase, electric field profile, magnetic field, laser repetition rate, different ion species on ion particle line density distribution, kinetic energy spectrum, and ion power line density distribution back bombardment onto the photocathode. Those simulation results suggested that effects of ion back bombardment could increase linearly with the background gas pressure and laser repetition rate. The RF frequency has significantly affected the ion motion inside the gun so that the ion power deposition on the photocathode in an RF gun can be several orders of magnitude lower than that in a DC gun. The ion back bombardment can be minimized by appropriately choosing the electric field profile and the initial phase.

  11. Local and average crystal structure and displacements of La{sup 11}B{sub 6} and EuB{sub 6} as a function of temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Booth, C.H.; Sarrao, J.L.; Hundley, M.F.; Cornelius, A.L.; Kwei, G.H.; Bianchi, A.; Fisk, Z.; Lawrence, J.M.

    2001-01-30

    Measurements of both the average crystal structure from Rietveld refinement of neutron powder diffraction (NPD) data and the local structure from La L{sub III}-edge x-ray-absorption fine-structure (XAFS) are presented for a La{sup 11}B{sub 6} sample as a function of temperature ({approx}10-320 K). These data are compared to XAFS results on a EuB{sub 6} sample. The single-site La and B positional distribution widths and the La-B and La-La bond length distribution widths and their temperature dependence are compared. This comparison allows an estimate of the La and B site displacements, and we find that these sublattices are only slightly correlated with each other. Moreover, while the temperature dependence of the displacement parameters of the average sites from diffraction fit an Einstein model well, the temperature dependence of the La-B bond length distribution width requires at least two vibrational frequencies, corresponding to the La and B frequencies of the individual sites. XAFS data on EuB{sub 6} indicate that the situation is the same in the Eu compound. In addition, comparisons between data taken below and above the ferromagnetic transition temperature for EuB{sub 6} place stringent limits on the lattice involvement in the associated metal-insulator transition and the ensuing large magnetoresistance effect. This lack of lattice involvement in the magnetoresistance transition is in sharp contrast to the strong lattice involvement observed in the colossal magnetoresistance lanthanum manganese perovskites.

  12. Langmuir probe measurements in a time-fluctuating-highly ionized non-equilibrium cutting arc: Analysis of the electron retarding part of the time-averaged current-voltage characteristic of the probe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prevosto, L.; Mancinelli, B.; Kelly, H.; Instituto de Física del Plasma , Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales Ciudad Universitaria Pab. I, 1428 Buenos Aires

    2013-12-15

    This work describes the application of Langmuir probe diagnostics to the measurement of the electron temperature in a time-fluctuating-highly ionized, non-equilibrium cutting arc. The electron retarding part of the time-averaged current-voltage characteristic of the probe was analysed, assuming that the standard exponential expression describing the electron current to the probe in collision-free plasmas can be applied under the investigated conditions. A procedure is described which allows the determination of the errors introduced in time-averaged probe data due to small-amplitude plasma fluctuations. It was found that the experimental points can be gathered into two well defined groups allowing defining two quite different averaged electron temperature values. In the low-current region the averaged characteristic was not significantly disturbed by the fluctuations and can reliably be used to obtain the actual value of the averaged electron temperature. In particular, an averaged electron temperature of 0.98 ± 0.07 eV (= 11400 ± 800 K) was found for the central core of the arc (30 A) at 3.5 mm downstream from the nozzle exit. This average included not only a time-average over the time fluctuations but also a spatial-average along the probe collecting length. The fitting of the high-current region of the characteristic using such electron temperature value together with the corrections given by the fluctuation analysis showed a relevant departure of local thermal equilibrium in the arc core.

  13. Accelerating Monte Carlo molecular simulations by reweighting and reconstructing Markov chains: Extrapolation of canonical ensemble averages and second derivatives to different temperature and density conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kadoura, Ahmad; Sun, Shuyu Salama, Amgad

    2014-08-01

    Accurate determination of thermodynamic properties of petroleum reservoir fluids is of great interest to many applications, especially in petroleum engineering and chemical engineering. Molecular simulation has many appealing features, especially its requirement of fewer tuned parameters but yet better predicting capability; however it is well known that molecular simulation is very CPU expensive, as compared to equation of state approaches. We have recently introduced an efficient thermodynamically consistent technique to regenerate rapidly Monte Carlo Markov Chains (MCMCs) at different thermodynamic conditions from the existing data points that have been pre-computed with expensive classical simulation. This technique can speed up the simulation more than a million times, making the regenerated molecular simulation almost as fast as equation of state approaches. In this paper, this technique is first briefly reviewed and then numerically investigated in its capability of predicting ensemble averages of primary quantities at different neighboring thermodynamic conditions to the original simulated MCMCs. Moreover, this extrapolation technique is extended to predict second derivative properties (e.g. heat capacity and fluid compressibility). The method works by reweighting and reconstructing generated MCMCs in canonical ensemble for Lennard-Jones particles. In this paper, system's potential energy, pressure, isochoric heat capacity and isothermal compressibility along isochors, isotherms and paths of changing temperature and density from the original simulated points were extrapolated. Finally, an optimized set of Lennard-Jones parameters (?, ?) for single site models were proposed for methane, nitrogen and carbon monoxide.

  14. From fluorite to pyrochlore: Characterisation of local and average structure of neodymium zirconate, Nd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Payne, Julia L.; Tucker, Matthew G.; Evans, Ivana Radosavljević

    2013-09-15

    The structural characterisation of Nd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} prepared via a precursor route was performed using a combination of local and average structure probes (neutron total scattering, X-ray and neutron diffraction). We present the first total scattering and reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) modelling study of Nd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7}, which provides compelling evidence for the adoption of a disordered fluorite-type structure by Nd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} prepared by a low-temperature precursor route. Annealing the material at high temperatures leads to a transformation to a pyrochlore-type structure; however, Rietveld refinement using powder neutron diffraction data shows that the oxygen sublattice retains a degree of disorder. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • The first total scattering and RMC modelling study of Nd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7}. • Demonstration that the synthetic route influences the crystal structure adopted. • Insight into the importance of total scattering in studies of complex superstructures, especially for nano-sized materials.

  15. Plasma wakefields driven by an incoherent combination of laser pulses: A path towards high-average power laser-plasma accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benedetti, C.; Schroeder, C. B.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P.

    2014-05-15

    The wakefield generated in a plasma by incoherently combining a large number of low energy laser pulses (i.e., without constraining the pulse phases) is studied analytically and by means of fully self-consistent particle-in-cell simulations. The structure of the wakefield has been characterized and its amplitude compared with the amplitude of the wake generated by a single (coherent) laser pulse. We show that, in spite of the incoherent nature of the wakefield within the volume occupied by the laser pulses, behind this region, the structure of the wakefield can be regular with an amplitude comparable or equal to that obtained from a single pulse with the same energy. Wake generation requires that the incoherent structures in the laser energy density produced by the combined pulses exist on a time scale short compared to the plasma period. Incoherent combination of multiple laser pulses may enable a technologically simpler path to high-repetition rate, high-average power laser-plasma accelerators, and associated applications.

  16. Estimation of average burnup of damaged fuels loaded in Fukushima Dai-ichi reactors by using the {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs ratio method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Endo, T.; Sato, S.; Yamamoto, A.

    2012-07-01

    Average burnup of damaged fuels loaded in Fukushima Dai-ichi reactors is estimated, using the {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs ratio method for measured radioactivities of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs in contaminated soils within the range of 100 km from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plants. As a result, the measured {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs ratio from the contaminated soil is 0.996{+-}0.07 as of March 11, 2011. Based on the {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs ratio method, the estimated burnup of damaged fuels is approximately 17.2{+-}1.5 [GWd/tHM]. It is noted that the numerical results of various calculation codes (SRAC2006/PIJ, SCALE6.0/TRITON, and MVP-BURN) are almost the same evaluation values of {sup 134}Cs/ {sup 137}Cs ratio with same evaluated nuclear data library (ENDF-B/VII.0). The void fraction effect in depletion calculation has a major impact on {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs ratio compared with the differences between JENDL-4.0 and ENDF-B/VII.0. (authors)

  17. Evaluation of a 5-Year Cloud and Radiative Property Dataset Derived from GOES-8 Data over the Southern Great Plains

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oil & Natural Gas Technology DOE Award No.: DE-FC26-01NT41248 Evaluation of Wax Deposition and Its Control During Production of Alaska North Slope Oils Petroleum Development Laboratory Institute of Northern Engineering University of Alaska Fairbanks P.O. Box 755880 Fairbanks, Alaska 99775-5880 Prepared for: United States Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory December 2008 Office of Fossil Energy Evaluation of Wax Deposition and Its Control During Production of Alaskan

  18. Alternative fuel vehicles for the Federal fleet: Results of the 5-year planning process. Executive Order 12759, Section 11

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    This report describes five-year plans for acquisition of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) by the Federal agencies. These plans will be used to encourage Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) to expand the variety of AFVs produced, reduce the incremental cost of AFVs, and to encourage fuel suppliers to expand the alternative fuel infrastructure and alternative fuel availability. This effort supplements and extends the demonstration and testing of AFVs established by the Department of Energy under the alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988.

  19. What We've Learned from 2.5 Years of Early Market Fuel Cell Operation (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, J.; Sprik, S.; Ramsden, T.; Saur, G.; Ainscough, C.

    2013-02-01

    This presentation describes the results of NREL technology assessments for two early market full cell applications, backup power and material handling equipment.

  20. ZPR-3 Assembly 6F : A spherical assembly of highly enriched uranium, depleted uranium, aluminum and steel with an average {sup 235}U enrichment of 47 atom %.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lell, R. M.; McKnight, R. D; Schaefer, R. W.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2010-09-30

    Over a period of 30 years, more than a hundred Zero Power Reactor (ZPR) critical assemblies were constructed at Argonne National Laboratory. The ZPR facilities, ZPR-3, ZPR-6, ZPR-9 and ZPPR, were all fast critical assembly facilities. The ZPR critical assemblies were constructed to support fast reactor development, but data from some of these assemblies are also well suited for nuclear data validation and to form the basis for criticality safety benchmarks. A number of the Argonne ZPR/ZPPR critical assemblies have been evaluated as ICSBEP and IRPhEP benchmarks. Of the three classes of ZPR assemblies, engineering mockups, engineering benchmarks and physics benchmarks, the last group tends to be most useful for criticality safety. Because physics benchmarks were designed to test fast reactor physics data and methods, they were as simple as possible in geometry and composition. The principal fissile species was {sup 235}U or {sup 239}Pu. Fuel enrichments ranged from 9% to 95%. Often there were only one or two main core diluent materials, such as aluminum, graphite, iron, sodium or stainless steel. The cores were reflected (and insulated from room return effects) by one or two layers of materials such as depleted uranium, lead or stainless steel. Despite their more complex nature, a small number of assemblies from the other two classes would make useful criticality safety benchmarks because they have features related to criticality safety issues, such as reflection by soil-like material. ZPR-3 Assembly 6 consisted of six phases, A through F. In each phase a critical configuration was constructed to simulate a very simple shape such as a slab, cylinder or sphere that could be analyzed with the limited analytical tools available in the 1950s. In each case the configuration consisted of a core region of metal plates surrounded by a thick depleted uranium metal reflector. The average compositions of the core configurations were essentially identical in phases A - F. ZPR-3 Assembly 6F (ZPR-3/6F), the final phase of the Assembly 6 program, simulated a spherical core with a thick depleted uranium reflector. ZPR-3/6F was designed as a fast reactor physics benchmark experiment with an average core {sup 235}U enrichment of approximately 47 at.%. Approximately 81.4% of the total fissions in this assembly occur above 100 keV, approximately 18.6% occur below 100 keV, and essentially none below 0.625 eV - thus the classification as a 'fast' assembly. This assembly is Fast Reactor Benchmark No. 7 in the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) Benchmark Specifications and has historically been used as a data validation benchmark assembly. Loading of ZPR-3/6F began in late December 1956, and the experimental measurements were performed in January 1957. The core consisted of highly enriched uranium (HEU) plates, depleted uranium plates, perforated aluminum plates and stainless steel plates loaded into aluminum drawers, which were inserted into the central square stainless steel tubes of a 31 x 31 matrix on a split table machine. The core unit cell consisted of three columns of 0.125 in.-wide (3.175 mm) HEU plates, three columns of 0.125 in.-wide depleted uranium plates, nine columns of 0.125 in.-wide perforated aluminum plates and one column of stainless steel plates. The maximum length of each column of core material in a drawer was 9 in. (228.6 mm). Because of the goal to produce an approximately spherical core, core fuel and diluent column lengths generally varied between adjacent drawers and frequently within an individual drawer. The axial reflector consisted of depleted uranium plates and blocks loaded in the available space in the front (core) drawers, with the remainder loaded into back drawers behind the front drawers. The radial reflector consisted of blocks of depleted uranium loaded directly into the matrix tubes. The assembly geometry approximated a reflected sphere as closely as the square matrix tubes, the drawers and the shapes of fuel and diluent plates allowed. According to the logbook and loading records for ZPR-3/6F, the reference critical configuration was loading 5 which was critical on January 4, 1957. The subsequent loadings were very similar but were less clean for criticality because there were modifications made to accommodate reactor physics measurements other than criticality. Accordingly, ZPR-3/6F loading 5 was selected as the only configuration for this benchmark. As documented below, it was determined to be acceptable as a criticality safety benchmark experiment. A very accurate transformation to a simplified model is needed to make any ZPR assembly a practical criticality-safety benchmark. There is simply too much geometric detail in an exact (as-built) model of a ZPR assembly. This is especially true of ZPR-3/6F because of the complex core loading required to approximate a sphere with rectangular plates in a square matrix.

  1. ZPR-3 Assembly 12 : A cylindrical assembly of highly enriched uranium, depleted uranium and graphite with an average {sup 235}U enrichment of 21 atom %.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lell, R. M.; McKnight, R. D.; Perel, R. L.; Wagschal, J. J.; Nuclear Engineering Division; Racah Inst. of Physics

    2010-09-30

    Over a period of 30 years, more than a hundred Zero Power Reactor (ZPR) critical assemblies were constructed at Argonne National Laboratory. The ZPR facilities, ZPR-3, ZPR-6, ZPR-9 and ZPPR, were all fast critical assembly facilities. The ZPR critical assemblies were constructed to support fast reactor development, but data from some of these assemblies are also well suited for nuclear data validation and to form the basis for criticality safety benchmarks. A number of the Argonne ZPR/ZPPR critical assemblies have been evaluated as ICSBEP and IRPhEP benchmarks. Of the three classes of ZPR assemblies, engineering mockups, engineering benchmarks and physics benchmarks, the last group tends to be most useful for criticality safety. Because physics benchmarks were designed to test fast reactor physics data and methods, they were as simple as possible in geometry and composition. The principal fissile species was {sup 235}U or {sup 239}Pu. Fuel enrichments ranged from 9% to 95%. Often there were only one or two main core diluent materials, such as aluminum, graphite, iron, sodium or stainless steel. The cores were reflected (and insulated from room return effects) by one or two layers of materials such as depleted uranium, lead or stainless steel. Despite their more complex nature, a small number of assemblies from the other two classes would make useful criticality safety benchmarks because they have features related to criticality safety issues, such as reflection by soil-like material. ZPR-3 Assembly 12 (ZPR-3/12) was designed as a fast reactor physics benchmark experiment with an average core {sup 235}U enrichment of approximately 21 at.%. Approximately 68.9% of the total fissions in this assembly occur above 100 keV, approximately 31.1% occur below 100 keV, and essentially none below 0.625 eV - thus the classification as a 'fast' assembly. This assembly is Fast Reactor Benchmark No. 9 in the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) Benchmark Specifications and has historically been used as a data validation benchmark assembly. Loading of ZPR-3 Assembly 12 began in late Jan. 1958, and the Assembly 12 program ended in Feb. 1958. The core consisted of highly enriched uranium (HEU) plates, depleted uranium plates and graphite plates loaded into stainless steel drawers which were inserted into the central square stainless steel tubes of a 31 x 31 matrix on a split table machine. The core unit cell consisted of two columns of 0.125 in.-wide (3.175 mm) HEU plates, seven columns of 0.125 in.-wide depleted uranium plates and seven columns of 0.125 in.-wide graphite plates. The length of each column was 9 in. (228.6 mm) in each half of the core. The graphite plates were included to produce a softer neutron spectrum that would be more characteristic of a large power reactor. The axial blanket consisted of 12 in. (304.8 mm) of depleted uranium behind the core. The thickness of the radial blanket was approximately 12 in. and the length of the radial blanket in each half of the matrix was 21 in. (533.4 mm). The assembly geometry approximated a right circular cylinder as closely as the square matrix tubes allowed. According to the logbook and loading records for ZPR-3/12, the reference critical configuration was loading 10 which was critical on Feb. 5, 1958. The subsequent loadings were very similar but less clean for criticality because there were modifications made to accommodate reactor physics measurements other than criticality. Accordingly, ZPR-3/12 loading 10 was selected as the only configuration for this benchmark. As documented below, it was determined to be acceptable as a criticality safety benchmark experiment. An accurate transformation to a simplified model is needed to make any ZPR assembly a practical criticality-safety benchmark. There is simply too much geometric detail in an exact (as-built) model of a ZPR assembly, even a clean core such as ZPR-3/12 loading 10. The transformation must reduce the detail to a practical level without masking any of the important features of the critical experiment. And it must d

  2. STEO January 2013 - average gasoline prices

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    At the same time, U.S. gasoline demand is expected to change little over the next two years as Americans buy more fuel-efficient vehicles.....and older gas guzzlers are retired

  3. Average Natural Gas Consumption per Commercial Consumer

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    586 585 593 540 613 640 1967-2014 Alabama 359 397 371 320 377 406 1967-2014 Alaska 1,258 1,225 1,489 1,515 1,411 1,338 1967-2014 Arizona 563 564 577 558 581 538 1967-2014 Arkansas...

  4. ARM - Evaluation Product - Areal Average Albedo (AREALAVEALB...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    albedo may be responsible for large uncertainties in these calculations. Moreover, the tower-based measurements of surface albedo are limited to SGP and NSA sites, and the TCAP...

  5. Average Natural Gas Consumption per Commercial Consumer

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1.50 11.68 11.28 10.01 9.50 9.30 1989-2016 Florida 11.15 10.61 10.69 10.89 10.70 10.62 1989-2016 Georgia 9.38 8.65 9.72 7.80 6.57 7.05 1989-2016 Maryland 11.11 9.98 9.56 10.44 NA 8.18 1989-2016 Michigan 9.05 7.46 6.75 6.59 6.50 6.64 1989-2016 New Jersey 8.03 8.10 8.66 8.24 7.76 7.66 1989-2016 New York 5.99 6.27 6.33 6.82 6.59 6.58 1989-2016 Ohio 7.99 6.79 6.03 5.53 5.32 5.30 1989-2016 Pennsylvania 11.10 NA 8.27 8.13 7.19 7.44 1989-2016 Virginia 8.91 8.02 7.57 7.93 6.88 6.67

    586 585 593 540

  6. Average Natural Gas Consumption per Industrial Consumer

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    29,705 35,418 36,947 38,159 38,616 39,680 1973-2014 Alabama 42,927 47,693 51,325 56,397 57,114 57,849 1973-2014 Alaska 2,211,756 2,135,975 1,353,819 2,118,957 1,354,889 4,847,208 1973-2014 Arizona 46,020 52,297 58,554 59,780 57,841 58,262 1973-2014 Arkansas 75,693 76,980 75,408 82,422 85,370 88,005 1973-2014 California 18,225 18,511 18,798 19,528 20,422 21,008 1973-2014 Colorado 22,341 18,340 11,396 10,575 10,734 10,012 1973-2014 Connecticut 7,835 7,874 8,576 8,555 6,728 6,728 1973-2014 Delaware

  7. X-ray microscopy. Beyond ensemble averages

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ice, Gene E.; Budai, John D.

    2015-01-01

    This work exemplifies emerging tools to characterize local materials structure and dynamics, made possible by powerful X-ray synchrotron and transmission electron microscopy methods.

  8. X-ray microscopy. Beyond ensemble averages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ice, Gene E.; Budai, John D.

    2015-06-23

    This work exemplifies emerging tools to characterize local materials structure and dynamics, made possible by powerful X-ray synchrotron and transmission electron microscopy methods.

  9. Spatial filters for high average power lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erlandson, Alvin C

    2012-11-27

    A spatial filter includes a first filter element and a second filter element overlapping with the first filter element. The first filter element includes a first pair of cylindrical lenses separated by a first distance. Each of the first pair of cylindrical lenses has a first focal length. The first filter element also includes a first slit filter positioned between the first pair of cylindrical lenses. The second filter element includes a second pair of cylindrical lenses separated by a second distance. Each of the second pair of cylindrical lenses has a second focal length. The second filter element also includes a second slit filter positioned between the second pair of cylindrical lenses.

  10. Property:SalinityAverage | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    + B Beowawe Hot Springs Geothermal Area + 700 + Blue Mountain Geothermal Area + 4,300 + Brady Hot Springs Geothermal Area + 3,500 + Bruchsal Geothermal Area + 100,000 + C Chena...

  11. Average and local crystal structures of (Ga1–xZnx)(N1–xOx) solid solution nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feygenson, Mikhail; Neuefeind, Joerg C.; Tyson, Trevor A.; Schieber, Natalie; Han, Wei -Qiang

    2015-11-06

    We report the comprehensive study of the crystal structure of (Ga1–xZnx)(N1–xOx) solid solution nanoparticles by means of neutron and synchrotron x-ray scattering. In our study we used four different types of (Ga1–xZnx)(N1–xOx) nanoparticles, with diameters of 10–27 nm and x = 0.075–0.51, which show the narrow energy-band gaps from 2.21 to 2.61 eV. The Rietveld analysis of the neutron diffraction data revealed that the average crystal structure is the hexagonal wurtzite (space group P63mc), in agreement with previous reports on similar bulk materials. The pair-distribution function (PDF) analysis of the same data found that the local structure is more disordered than the average one. It is best described by the model with a lower symmetry space group P1, where atoms are quasirandomly distorted from their nominal positions in the hexagonal wurtzite lattice.

  12. Year Month U.S. Average PAD District I Average CT ME MA NH RI

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1994 January ... 89.6 91.0 90.2 83.8 88.4 80.4 87.3 88.8 92.1 102.5 February ... 92.9 94.6 93.8 90.4 91.3 86.6 91.4 92.3 91.5 105.5...

  13. Year Month U.S. Average PAD District I Average CT ME MA NH RI

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    1993 January ... 94.3 95.7 94.9 85.2 94.0 87.1 91.7 93.4 91.2 105.2 February ... 94.6 95.9 96.2 85.4 94.4 86.9 91.8 93.3 90.8 106.8...

  14. Year Month U.S. Average PAD District I Average CT ME MA NH RI

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1995 January ... 86.9 87.6 86.7 77.8 84.8 78.4 87.3 85.7 88.4 102.4 February ... 87.4 88.2 87.8 77.4 84.9 78.5 87.3 85.9 88.5 103.4...

  15. Year Month U.S. Average PAD District I Average CT ME MA NH RI

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1996 January ... 94.6 96.1 94.5 93.0 92.0 89.1 94.9 92.6 94.7 111.7 February ... 95.9 97.5 96.2 93.2 93.8 90.8 95.6 93.7 94.4 112.9...

  16. Year Month U.S. Average PAD District I Average CT ME MA NH RI

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1997 January ... 107.9 109.0 108.6 105.2 106.5 102.1 107.0 104.4 106.5 130.4 February ... 105.1 106.0 105.2 102.2 103.4 101.0 104.5...

  17. Average and effective Q-values for fission product average (n...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Authors: Kawano, Toshihiko 1 + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States) Publication Date: 2015-10-01 OSTI Identifier: ...

  18. Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation for Distal Rectal Cancer: 5-Year Updated Results of a Randomized Phase 2 Study of Neoadjuvant Combined Modality Chemoradiation for Distal Rectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohiuddin, Mohammed, E-mail: asemuddin@gmail.com [King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)] [King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Paulus, Rebecca [RTOG Statistical Department, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)] [RTOG Statistical Department, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Mitchell, Edith [Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Hanna, Nader [Department of Surgical Oncology, University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)] [Department of Surgical Oncology, University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Yuen, Albert [Reading Hospital and Medical Center, Reading, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Reading Hospital and Medical Center, Reading, Pennsylvania (United States); Nichols, Romaine [University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, Florida (United States)] [University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Yalavarthi, Salochna [Ingalls Memorial Hospital, Harvey, Illinois (United States)] [Ingalls Memorial Hospital, Harvey, Illinois (United States); Hayostek, Cherie [Santa Fe Cancer Center, Santa Fe, New Mexico (United States)] [Santa Fe Cancer Center, Santa Fe, New Mexico (United States); Willett, Christopher [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States)] [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Purpose: To assess the efficacy of 2 different approaches to neoadjuvant chemoradiation for distal rectal cancers. Methods and Materials: One hundred six patients with T3/T4 distal rectal cancers were randomized in a phase 2 study. Patients received either continuous venous infusion (CVI) of 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU), 225 mg/m{sup 2} per day, 7 days per week plus pelvic hyperfractionated radiation (HRT), 45.6 Gy at 1.2 Gy twice daily plus a boost of 9.6 to 14.4 Gy for T3 or T4 cancers (Arm 1), or CVI of 5-FU, 225 mg/m{sup 2} per day, Monday to Friday, plus irinotecan, 50 mg/m{sup 2} once weekly × 4, plus pelvic radiation therapy (RT), 45 Gy at 1.8 Gy per day and a boost of 5.4 Gy for T3 and 9 Gy for T4 cancers (Arm 2). Surgery was performed 4 to 10 weeks later. Results: All eligible patients (n=103) are included in this analysis; 2 ineligible patients were excluded, and 1 patient withdrew consent. Ninety-eight of 103 patients (95%) underwent resection. Four patients did not undergo surgery for either disease progression or patient refusal, and 1 patient died during induction chemotherapy. The median time of follow-up was 6.4 years in Arm 1 and 7.0 years in Arm 2. The pathological complete response (pCR) rates were 30% in Arm 1 and 26% in Arm 2. Locoregional recurrence rates were 16% in Arm 1 and 17% in Arm 2. Five-year survival rates were 61% and 75% and Disease-specific survival rates were 78% and 85% for Arm1 and Arm 2, respectively. Five second primaries occurred in patients on Arm 1, and 1 second primary occurred in Arm 2. Conclusions: High rates of disease-specific survival were seen in each arm. Overall survival appears affected by the development of unrelated second cancers. The high pCR rates with 5-FU and higher dose radiation in T4 cancers provide opportunity for increased R0 resections and improved survival.

  19. Policy Flash 2013-65 Procurement Evaluation & Re-Engineering Team (PERT) and Establishment of a 5-year Cycle with Corresponding Schedule

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Questions concerning this policy flash should be directed to Mike Larson of the Office of Acquisition and Project Management, Strategic Programs Division at (202) 287-1426 or at Michael.Larson@hq...

  20. Contractor for geopressured-geothermal sites: Final contract report, Volume 1, fiscal years 1986--1990 (5 years), testing of wells through October 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    Field tests and studies were conducted to determine the production behavior of geopressured-geothermal reservoirs and their potential as future energy sources. Results are presented for Gladys McCall Site, Pleasant Bayou Site, and Hulin Site.

  1. Thrombin Injection Failure with Subsequent Successful Stent-Graft Placement for the Treatment of an Extracranial Internal Carotid Pseudoaneurysm in a 5-Year-Old Child

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia-Monaco, R. D.; Kohan, A. A.; Martinez-Corvalan, M. P.; Cacchiarelli, N.; Peralta, O.; Wahren, C. G.

    2012-06-15

    Internal carotid artery pseudoaneurysm is a rare life-threatening condition that may develop in different clinical situations. We report the case of an extracranial internal carotid artery pseudoaneurysm secondary to a throat infection in a pediatric patient that was initially treated with percutaneous thrombin injection under ultrasound guidance. However, recanalization occurred at 48 h, and definitive treatment was then performed by endovascular stent-graft placement. We briefly review the clinical characteristics of this uncommon clinical condition as well as the treatment options.

  2. Canonical-ensemble state-averaged complete active space self-consistent field (SA-CASSCF) strategy for problems with more diabatic than adiabatic states: Charge-bond resonance in monomethine cyanines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, Seth

    2015-01-28

    This paper reviews basic results from a theory of the a priori classical probabilities (weights) in state-averaged complete active space self-consistent field (SA-CASSCF) models. It addresses how the classical probabilities limit the invariance of the self-consistency condition to transformations of the complete active space configuration interaction (CAS-CI) problem. Such transformations are of interest for choosing representations of the SA-CASSCF solution that are diabatic with respect to some interaction. I achieve the known result that a SA-CASSCF can be self-consistently transformed only within degenerate subspaces of the CAS-CI ensemble density matrix. For uniformly distributed (“microcanonical”) SA-CASSCF ensembles, self-consistency is invariant to any unitary CAS-CI transformation that acts locally on the ensemble support. Most SA-CASSCF applications in current literature are microcanonical. A problem with microcanonical SA-CASSCF models for problems with “more diabatic than adiabatic” states is described. The problem is that not all diabatic energies and couplings are self-consistently resolvable. A canonical-ensemble SA-CASSCF strategy is proposed to solve the problem. For canonical-ensemble SA-CASSCF, the equilibrated ensemble is a Boltzmann density matrix parametrized by its own CAS-CI Hamiltonian and a Lagrange multiplier acting as an inverse “temperature,” unrelated to the physical temperature. Like the convergence criterion for microcanonical-ensemble SA-CASSCF, the equilibration condition for canonical-ensemble SA-CASSCF is invariant to transformations that act locally on the ensemble CAS-CI density matrix. The advantage of a canonical-ensemble description is that more adiabatic states can be included in the support of the ensemble without running into convergence problems. The constraint on the dimensionality of the problem is relieved by the introduction of an energy constraint. The method is illustrated with a complete active space valence-bond (CASVB) analysis of the charge/bond resonance electronic structure of a monomethine cyanine: Michler’s hydrol blue. The diabatic CASVB representation is shown to vary weakly for “temperatures” corresponding to visible photon energies. Canonical-ensemble SA-CASSCF enables the resolution of energies and couplings for all covalent and ionic CASVB structures contributing to the SA-CASSCF ensemble. The CASVB solution describes resonance of charge- and bond-localized electronic structures interacting via bridge resonance superexchange. The resonance couplings can be separated into channels associated with either covalent charge delocalization or chemical bonding interactions, with the latter significantly stronger than the former.

  3. ZPR-3 Assembly 11 : A cylindrical sssembly of highly enriched uranium and depleted uranium with an average {sup 235}U enrichment of 12 atom % and a depleted uranium reflector.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lell, R. M.; McKnight, R. D.; Tsiboulia, A.; Rozhikhin, Y.; National Security; Inst. of Physics and Power Engineering

    2010-09-30

    Over a period of 30 years, more than a hundred Zero Power Reactor (ZPR) critical assemblies were constructed at Argonne National Laboratory. The ZPR facilities, ZPR-3, ZPR-6, ZPR-9 and ZPPR, were all fast critical assembly facilities. The ZPR critical assemblies were constructed to support fast reactor development, but data from some of these assemblies are also well suited for nuclear data validation and to form the basis for criticality safety benchmarks. A number of the Argonne ZPR/ZPPR critical assemblies have been evaluated as ICSBEP and IRPhEP benchmarks. Of the three classes of ZPR assemblies, engineering mockups, engineering benchmarks and physics benchmarks, the last group tends to be most useful for criticality safety. Because physics benchmarks were designed to test fast reactor physics data and methods, they were as simple as possible in geometry and composition. The principal fissile species was {sup 235}U or {sup 239}Pu. Fuel enrichments ranged from 9% to 95%. Often there were only one or two main core diluent materials, such as aluminum, graphite, iron, sodium or stainless steel. The cores were reflected (and insulated from room return effects) by one or two layers of materials such as depleted uranium, lead or stainless steel. Despite their more complex nature, a small number of assemblies from the other two classes would make useful criticality safety benchmarks because they have features related to criticality safety issues, such as reflection by soil-like material. ZPR-3 Assembly 11 (ZPR-3/11) was designed as a fast reactor physics benchmark experiment with an average core {sup 235}U enrichment of approximately 12 at.% and a depleted uranium reflector. Approximately 79.7% of the total fissions in this assembly occur above 100 keV, approximately 20.3% occur below 100 keV, and essentially none below 0.625 eV - thus the classification as a 'fast' assembly. This assembly is Fast Reactor Benchmark No. 8 in the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) Benchmark Specificationsa and has historically been used as a data validation benchmark assembly. Loading of ZPR-3 Assembly 11 began in early January 1958, and the Assembly 11 program ended in late January 1958. The core consisted of highly enriched uranium (HEU) plates and depleted uranium plates loaded into stainless steel drawers, which were inserted into the central square stainless steel tubes of a 31 x 31 matrix on a split table machine. The core unit cell consisted of two columns of 0.125 in.-wide (3.175 mm) HEU plates, six columns of 0.125 in.-wide (3.175 mm) depleted uranium plates and one column of 1.0 in.-wide (25.4 mm) depleted uranium plates. The length of each column was 10 in. (254.0 mm) in each half of the core. The axial blanket consisted of 12 in. (304.8 mm) of depleted uranium behind the core. The thickness of the depleted uranium radial blanket was approximately 14 in. (355.6 mm), and the length of the radial blanket in each half of the matrix was 22 in. (558.8 mm). The assembly geometry approximated a right circular cylinder as closely as the square matrix tubes allowed. According to the logbook and loading records for ZPR-3/11, the reference critical configuration was loading 10 which was critical on January 21, 1958. Subsequent loadings were very similar but less clean for criticality because there were modifications made to accommodate reactor physics measurements other than criticality. Accordingly, ZPR-3/11 loading 10 was selected as the only configuration for this benchmark. As documented below, it was determined to be acceptable as a criticality safety benchmark experiment. A very accurate transformation to a simplified model is needed to make any ZPR assembly a practical criticality-safety benchmark. There is simply too much geometric detail in an exact (as-built) model of a ZPR assembly, even a clean core such as ZPR-3/11 loading 10. The transformation must reduce the detail to a practical level without masking any of the important features of the critical experiment. And it must do this without increasing the total uncertain

  4. Neutron Thermal Cross Sections, Westcott Factors, Resonance Integrals, Maxwellian Averaged Cross Sections and Astrophysical Reaction Rates Calculated from the ENDF/B-VII.1, JEFF-3.1.2, JENDL-4.0, ROSFOND-2010, CENDL-3.1 and EAF-2010 Evaluated Data Libraries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pritychenko, B.; Mughabghab, S.F.

    2012-12-15

    We present calculations of neutron thermal cross sections, Westcott factors, resonance integrals, Maxwellian-averaged cross sections and astrophysical reaction rates for 843 ENDF materials using data from the major evaluated nuclear libraries and European activation file. Extensive analysis of newly-evaluated neutron reaction cross sections, neutron covariances, and improvements in data processing techniques motivated us to calculate nuclear industry and neutron physics quantities, produce s-process Maxwellian-averaged cross sections and astrophysical reaction rates, systematically calculate uncertainties, and provide additional insights on currently available neutron-induced reaction data. Nuclear reaction calculations are discussed and new results are presented. Due to space limitations, the present paper contains only calculated Maxwellian-averaged cross sections and their uncertainties. The complete data sets for all results are published in the Brookhaven National Laboratory report.

  5. "Table A42. Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    per Million Btu)" ,,,,,"Noncombustible Energy Sources",,,..."Combustible ...,"Electricity","Steam","Steam","Steam","Industrial",," ","Bituminous and"," ",," ...

  6. "Table A42. Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    per Physical Units)" ,,,,,"Noncombustible Energy Sources",,,..."Combustible ...,"Electricity","Steam","Steam","Steam","Industrial",," ","Bituminous and"," ",," ...

  7. High average power laser using a transverse flowing liquid host

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ault, Earl R.; Comaskey, Brian J.; Kuklo, Thomas C.

    2003-07-29

    A laser includes an optical cavity. A diode laser pumping device is located within the optical cavity. An aprotic lasing liquid containing neodymium rare earth ions fills the optical cavity. A circulation system that provides a closed loop for circulating the aprotic lasing liquid into and out of the optical cavity includes a pump and a heat exchanger.

  8. Georgia Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Local Distribution Companies 12.18 11.98 12.47 11.86 12.38 2006-2014 Marketers 15.67 16.38 16.82 15.04 14.79 2006-2014 Percent Sold by Local Distribution Companies 14.3 15.1 13.5 ...

  9. New York Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Local Distribution Companies 13.87 13.52 12.72 12.24 12.15 2006-2014 Marketers 14.55 14.22 13.59 13.07 13.46 2006-2014 Percent Sold by Local Distribution Companies 74.6 72.4 71.2 ...

  10. Ohio Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential and...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Local Distribution Companies 10.28 10.32 8.75 9.20 10.15 2006-2014 Marketers 11.80 11.09 10.42 9.52 10.16 2006-2014 Percent Sold by Local Distribution Companies 43.7 40.8 30.9 19.8 ...

  11. "Table A47. Average Prices of Purchased Electricity, Steam...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...,"W",2.966,3.267,2.649,3.5 3331," Primary Copper",0.048,"--","--","--","W","W",1.847,"NF" ...-","--",3.832,"W",3.44,6.1 3331," Primary Copper","W","--","--","--","W","--","W","NF" ...

  12. Average Structure Evolution of ?-phase Pu-Ga Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Alice Iulia; Page, Katharine L.; Gourdon, Olivier; Siewenie, Joan E.; Richmond, Scott; Saleh, Tarik A.; Ramos, Michael; Schwartz, Daniel S.

    2015-03-30

    [Full Text] Plutonium metal is a highly unusual element, exhibiting six allotropes at ambient pressure, from room temperature to its melting point. Many phases of plutonium metal are unstable with temperature, pressure, chemical additions, and time. This strongly affects structure and properties, and becomes of high importance, particularly when considering effects on structural integrity over long time periods. The fcc ?-phase deserves additional attention, not only in the context of understanding the electronic structure of Pu, but also as one of the few high-symmetry actinide phases that can be stabilized down to ambient pressure and room temperature by alloying it with trivalent elements. We will present results on recent work on aging of Pu-2at.%Ga and Pu-7at.%Ga alloys

  13. Lagrangian-Averaged Scale-Dependent subfilter turbulence model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2011-03-01

    LASD are Fortran 90 modules that compute the stresses and scalar fluxes arising from unrelolved scales of turbulence, required for large-eddy eimulations of fluid flows.

  14. "Table A29. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "," ","RSE" " ","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","Gas(c)","LPG","Coal","Row" "Economic Characteristics(a)","(kWh)","(gallon)","(gallon)","(1000 cu ft)","(gallon)","(short ...

  15. "Table A29. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "," "," "," "," "," ","RSE" " "," ","Residual","Distillate","Natural"," "," ","Row" "Economic Characteristics(a)","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","Gas(c)","LPG","Coal","Fac...

  16. "Table A49. Average Prices of Purchased Electricity, Steam...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    by Type of Supplier, Census Region, and Economic Characteristics of the" " Establishment, ...,"Utility","Transmission","Other","Row" "Economic Characteristics(a)","Supplier(b)","Suppl...

  17. Fact #624: May 24, 2010 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    For more detailed information, see supporting information below. Final MY 2011-2016 Light Truck Fuel Economy Targets Line graph showing the fuel economy targets for light trucks ...

  18. Residual Fuel Oil Prices, Average - Sales to End Users

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 View History U.S. 1.729 - - - - - 1983-2015 East Coast (PADD 1) 1.809 - - - - - 1983-2015 New England (PADD 1A) 1.900 - - - - - 1983-2015 Connecticut ...

  19. ,"U.S. Reformulated, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...www.eia.govdnavpetpetprirefmg2cnusepm0rdpgalm.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information ... Reformulated Gasoline Retail Sales by Refiners (Dollars per ...

  20. ,"U.S. Conventional, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...www.eia.govdnavpetpetprirefmg2cnusepm0udpgalm.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information ... Conventional Gasoline Retail Sales by Refiners (Dollars per ...

  1. Sulfur Content, Weighted Average Refinery Crude Oil Input Qualities

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15 Jan-16 Feb-16 View History U.S. 1.36 1.37 1.44 1.44 1.43 1.38 1985-2016 PADD 1 0.62 0.83 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.63 1985-2016 East Coast 0.51 0.76 0.68 0.67 ...

  2. Haiti - Annual Average Wind Speed at 80 meters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Liberte Hinche 06-JAN-2014 3.5.1 50 0 Port-au-Prince Jacmel Les Cayes Jeremie 50 100 Kilometers DOMINI REPUBL CAN IC The wind resource estimates on this map are from model...

  3. Dominican Republic - Annual Average Wind Speed at 80 meters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Monte Plata Bonao Elias Pina El Seibo Hato Mayor Higuey Santo Domingo La Romana San Pedro Jimani San Cristobal Azua Neiba Bani Barahona Pedernales Wind Speed ms >10.5 10.0 9.5...

  4. U.S. average gasoline price up slightly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    gasoline rose slightly to 3.65 a gallon on Monday. That's up a tenth of a penny from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. ...

  5. Fact #744: September 10, 2012 Average New Light Vehicle Price...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    light trucks. Source: Used vehicles - Ward's Automotive, New cars - Bureau of Economic Analysis, National Income and Product Accounts (NIPA) Underlying Detail Tables, Table 7.2.5S

  6. Hydropower Upgrades to Yield Added Generation at Average Costs...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The expanded hydro generation projects have estimated incremental costs of less than 4 ... Under Secretary Kristina Johnson made the announcement while visiting Voith Hydro Inc.'s ...

  7. Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Download Carribean Islands Central America DNI GIS Mexico NREL GEF SWERA UNEP atmospheric water v... solar Additional Info Field Value Source www.nrel.gov Author National Renewable...

  8. Historical Average Priority Firm Power Rates (rates/previous...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (A to Z) - - - - - - - - - - - - - Account Executives Administrator's RODs Aluminum Industry Study (2000-01) Billing Procedures Customer Service Centers Daily Notice Document...

  9. Turning Bayesian model averaging into Bayesian model combination...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Report Number(s): LA-UR-11-04419; LA-UR-11-4419 DOE Contract Number: AC52-06NA25396 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: International Joint Conference of Neural ...

  10. Table 19. Average Price of U.S. Coal Imports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    - 60.06 295.84 60.25 117.40 -48.7 Africa Total 85.96 - - 86.00 341.78 -74.8 South Africa 85.96 - - 86.00 341.78 -74.8 U.S. Total* 70.48 71.85 85.48 71.61 80.96 -11.5 * U.S. ...

  11. Table 17. Average Price of U.S. Coke Exports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    355.59 643.59 550.76 597.94 546.60 9.4 South America Total - 135.27 919.64 252.87 ... 364.35 295.78 171.67 426.16 175.32 143.1 Africa Total - - 465.66 93.56 92.29 1.4 Other** ...

  12. LOW-HIGH VALUES FOR PETROLEUM AVERAGE INVENTORY RANGES (MILLION...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    PADD 1 Feb 2 12.9 14.9 3 CRUDE OIL (EXCLUDING STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE) PADD 1 Mar 3 13.1 15.0 4 CRUDE OIL (EXCLUDING STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE) PADD 1 Apr 4 14.1 16.1...

  13. "Table A41. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    " 20-49",15.07,2.53,4.9,2.8,5.87,1.81, 2.7 " 50-99",13.85,2.72,5,2.68,6.1,1.78, 2.0 " 100-249",11.4,2.58,4.78,2.48,5.45,1.74, 1.6 " 250-499",11.22,2.42,4.75,2.32,5.26,1.8, 2.2 " ...

  14. "Table A41. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...0-49",0.051,0.38,0.68,2.88,0.54,40.6, 2.7 " 50-99",0.047,0.41,0.69,2.76,0.53,41.4, 2.0 " 100-249",0.039,0.39,0.66,2.55,0.46,41.24, 1.9 " 250-499",0.038,0.36,0.66,2.39,0.45,41.08, 2.2 " ...

  15. Strongly Coupled Data Assimilation Using Leading Averaged Coupled...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Publisher: American Meteorological Society Research Org: Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) Sponsoring Org: National Science Foundation (NSF) - Directorate for Geosciences Division ...

  16. Fact #915: March 7, 2016 Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... 2012 3.64 3.80 2013 3.53 3.62 2014 3.37 3.40 2015 2.45 2.45 Sources: Energy Information Administration, Monthly Energy Review, Table 9.4. U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of ...

  17. Fact #889: September 7, 2015 Average Diesel Price Lower than...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications Fact 859 February 9, 2015 Excess Supply is the Most Recent Event to Affect Crude Oil Prices - Dataset Fact 860 February 16, 2015 Relationship of ...

  18. "Table A40. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... W ",4.36,2.62,6.59," -- ",1.6 33,"Primary Metal Industries",10.11,2.62,4.57,2.72,7,... W ",5.71,3.09,6.39," W ",2.7 3331," Primary Copper",11.15," W ",3.64,2.17,4.54," W ...

  19. "Table A40. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... W ",0.6,2.7,0.57," -- ",1.6 33,"Primary Metal Industries",0.034,0.39,0.63,2.8,0.6... W ",0.79,3.18,0.58," W ",2.7 3331," Primary Copper",0.038," W ",0.51,2.24,0.41," W ...

  20. Table 8. Average Price of U.S. Coal Exports

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Poland 78.40 85.73 94.44 95.89 110.79 -13.4 Portugal - 46.70 62.25 46.70 62.25 -25.0 Romania 71.59 74.22 97.34 97.56 107.59 -9.3 Slovakia 106.14 - - 106.22 110.91 -4.2 Slovenia ...

  1. UWB multi-burst transmit driver for averaging receivers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dallum, Gregory E

    2012-11-20

    A multi-burst transmitter for ultra-wideband (UWB) communication systems generates a sequence of precisely spaced RF bursts from a single trigger event. There are two oscillators in the transmitter circuit, a gated burst rate oscillator and a gated RF burst or RF power output oscillator. The burst rate oscillator produces a relatively low frequency, i.e., MHz, square wave output for a selected transmit cycle, and drives the RF burst oscillator, which produces RF bursts of much higher frequency, i.e., GHz, during the transmit cycle. The frequency of the burst rate oscillator sets the spacing of the RF burst packets. The first oscillator output passes through a bias driver to the second oscillator. The bias driver conditions, e.g., level shifts, the signal from the first oscillator for input into the second oscillator, and also controls the length of each RF burst. A trigger pulse actuates a timing circuit, formed of a flip-flop and associated reset time delay circuit, that controls the operation of the first oscillator, i.e., how long it oscillates (which defines the transmit cycle).

  2. Table 3a. Real Average Annual Coal Transportation Costs from...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    a","W","-","-","-","-","-" "Uinta Basin","Alabama","W","-","-","-","-","-" "Uinta Basin","California","-","W","-","-","-","-" "Uinta Basin","Colorado","W","W","W","W","-","-"...

  3. Table 22. Average Price of U.S. Coke Imports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    - 3,804.00 1,989.11 1,380.80 44.1 Asia Total 357.17 349.12 374.14 347.08 349.36 -0.7 Indonesia 899.50 926.34 802.05 930.28 753.54 23.5 Japan 317.92 317.61 318.21 317.73 317.78 s ...

  4. High average power magnetic modulator for metal vapor lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ball, Don G.; Birx, Daniel L.; Cook, Edward G.; Miller, John L.

    1994-01-01

    A three-stage magnetic modulator utilizing magnetic pulse compression designed to provide a 60 kV pulse to a copper vapor laser at a 4.5 kHz repetition rate is disclosed. This modulator operates at 34 kW input power. The circuit includes a step up auto transformer and utilizes a rod and plate stack construction technique to achieve a high packing factor.

  5. Turning Bayesian model averaging into Bayesian model combination...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: International Joint Conference of Neural Networks 2011 ; July 31, 2011 ; San Jose, CA Research Org: Los Alamos National ...

  6. Average Depth of Crude Oil and Natural Gas Wells

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Administration ‹ Analysis & Projections Annual Energy Outlook Retrospective Review Release Date: March 25, 2015 | Next Release Date: April 2017 | Report Number: DOE/EIA-0640(2014) Evaluation of 2014 and Prior Reference Case Projections The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) produces projections of energy production, consumption and prices each year in the Annual Energy Outlook (AEO). Each year, EIA also produces an AEO Retrospective Review document, which presents a

  7. Average Depth of Crude Oil and Natural Gas Wells

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8.37 7.74 7.38 7.21 6.74 6.82 1973-2016 Alabama 11.75 11.40 11.47 10.73 9.81 9.70 1989-2016 Alaska 7.03 7.67 7.43 7.39 7.18 7.24 1989-2016 Arizona 10.40 10.14 9.36 9.17 8.93 9.32 1989-2016 Arkansas 8.00 7.71 7.86 7.29 7.16 6.74 1989-2016 California 7.84 7.69 7.20 8.23 7.98 8.43 1989-2016 Colorado 9.19 7.83 6.49 6.18 5.79 5.94 1989-2016 Connecticut 10.53 9.53 8.48 8.18 NA 7.26 1989-2016 Delaware 13.93 12.54 10.82 9.15 8.75 8.58 1989-2016 District of Columbia 11.50 11.68 11.28 10.01 9.50 9.30

  8. Turning Bayesian model averaging into Bayesian model combination...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A paper copy of this document is also available for sale to the public from the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA at www.ntis.gov. Authors: Carroll, James 1 ...

  9. Table 7.3 Average Prices of Purchased Electricity, Natural...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...3.89,3.83,4.44,0,4.44,0.9 325193," Ethyl Alcohol ",0.04,0.041,0.031,3.67,3.93,3.55,4.55,5....23,5.05,"W","W",0,"W",0.9 325193," Ethyl Alcohol ",0.109,0.109,0,1.08,1.08,0,0,0,0,0.7 ...

  10. Natural Gas Weekly Update, Printer-Friendly Version

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    levels and 25 percent below the 5-year average. Natural gas prices are likely to stay high as long as above-normal storage injection demand competes with industrial and...

  11. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    levels and 25 percent below the 5-year average. Natural gas prices are likely to stay high as long as above-normal storage injection demand competes with industrial and...

  12. Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    levels and 25 percent below the 5-year average. Natural gas prices are likely to stay high as long as above-normal storage injection demand competes with industrial and...

  13. Natural Gas Weekly Update, Printer-Friendly Version

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Office of Oil and Gas. Storage: Estimated working gas in underground storage was 3,299 Bcf as of November 26, which is 11.2 percent, or 331 Bcf, above the 5-year average...

  14. Short-Term Energy and Winter Fuels Outlook October 2013

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    3 1 October 2013 Short-Term Energy and Winter Fuels Outlook (STEO) Highlights EIA ... 5-year average (see EIA Short-Term Energy and Winter Fuels Outlook slideshow). ...

  15. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Henry Hub increased a moderate 0.023 per MMBtu for the week to 3.877. Natural gas in storage decreased to 3,097 Bcf, which exceeds the 5-year average by 2.4 percent. A general...

  16. Natural Gas Weekly Update, Printer-Friendly Version

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Henry Hub increased a moderate 0.023 per MMBtu for the week to 3.877. Natural gas in storage decreased to 3,097 Bcf, which exceeds the 5-year average by 2.4 percent. A general...

  17. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Bcf, which is 5.7 percent above the 5-year (1999-2003) average. The spot price for West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil increased 2.64 per barrel on the week to 47.36, or...

  18. Natural Gas Weekly Update, Printer-Friendly Version

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    May 7, which is 1.6 percent below the 5-year (1999-2003) average. The spot price for West Texas Intermediate crude oil also rose for a third straight week, moving up 0.61 per...

  19. Natural Gas Weekly Update, Printer-Friendly Version

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    below the previous 5-year (1998-2002) average for the week. The spot price for West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil fell in 4 of 5 trading days, ending the week down by...

  20. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    May 7, which is 1.6 percent below the 5-year (1999-2003) average. The spot price for West Texas Intermediate crude oil also rose for a third straight week, moving up 0.61 per...

  1. Natural Gas Weekly Update, Printer-Friendly Version

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    percent below the 5-year average inventory for the report week. The spot price for West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil rose 0.87 per barrel on the week to yesterday's...

  2. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    below the previous 5-year (1998-2002) average for the week. The spot price for West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil fell in 4 of 5 trading days, ending the week down by...

  3. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    is 13.9 percent below the previous 5-year (1998-2002) average. The spot price for West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil traded in a narrow range between 31.04 and 31.60 per...

  4. Natural Gas Weekly Update, Printer-Friendly Version

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    is 13.9 percent below the previous 5-year (1998-2002) average. The spot price for West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil traded in a narrow range between 31.04 and 31.60 per...

  5. Natural Gas Weekly Update, Printer-Friendly Version

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Bcf, which is 5.7 percent above the 5-year (1999-2003) average. The spot price for West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil increased 2.64 per barrel on the week to 47.36, or...

  6. Derivation of 24-Hour Average SO2, Background for the Update...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Downwash from Mirant's Potomac River PowerPlant: Modeling Unit 1 Emissions in a Cycling ... Downwash from Mirant's Potomac River Power Plant" Letter from Elizabeth Chimento and ...

  7. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Minnesota" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent ...

  8. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Nevada" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent ...

  9. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Maine" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent share ...

  10. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Mississippi" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent ...

  11. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Nebraska" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent ...

  12. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Oklahoma" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent ...

  13. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Michigan" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent ...

  14. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Missouri" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent ...

  15. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Indiana" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent ...

  16. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Georgia" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent ...

  17. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Dakota" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent ...

  18. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Delaware" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent ...

  19. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Pennsylvania" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, ...

  20. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Florida" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent ...

  1. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Texas" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent share ...

  2. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Virginia" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent ...

  3. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Iowa" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent share ...

  4. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Carolina" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent ...

  5. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Oregon" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent ...

  6. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Colorado" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent ...

  7. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vermont" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent ...

  8. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    California" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent ...

  9. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    District of Columbia" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, ...

  10. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    West Virginia" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, ...

  11. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Louisiana" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent ...

  12. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Montana" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent ...

  13. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Illinois" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent ...

  14. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    United States" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, ...

  15. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Utah" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent share ...

  16. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Ohio" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent share ...

  17. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Massachusetts" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, ...

  18. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Maryland" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent ...

  19. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Tennessee" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent ...

  20. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Arizona" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent ...

  1. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Alabama" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent share 2000","Percent share 2010","Percent share 2014" "Retail sales (megawatthours)",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,," "," "," "

  2. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Arkansas" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent share 2000","Percent share 2010","Percent share 2014" "Retail sales (megawatthours)",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,," "," "," "

  3. U.S. summer gasoline price to average 6 cents lower than last...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    price. Gasoline demand this summer is expected to be slightly below last year's level, as more fuel efficient vehicles more than offset the projected increase in highway travel

  4. "Table E8.1. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...esidual","Distillate",,"LPG and",,"RSE" "Economic","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel ...esidual","Distillate",,"LPG and",,"RSE" "Economic","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel ...

  5. "Table E8.2. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Btu." " ",," "," ",," "," ","RSE" "Economic",,"Residual","Distillate",,"LPG ... Btu." " ",," "," ",," "," ","RSE" "Economic",,"Residual","Distillate",,"LPG ...

  6. Table 7.4 Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Residual Distillate LPG and Economic Electricity Fuel Oil Fuel Oil(b) Natural Gas(c) ... Residual Distillate LPG and Economic Electricity Fuel Oil Fuel Oil(b) Natural Gas(c) ...

  7. United States Wind Resource Map: Annual Average Wind Speed at 80 Meters

    Wind Powering America (EERE)

    80 m 01-APR-2011 2.1.1 Wind Speed m/s >10.5 10.0 9.5 9.0 8.5 8.0 7.5 7.0 6.5 6.0 5.5 5.0 4.5 4.0 < 4.0 Source: Wind resource estimates developed by AWS Truepower, LLC for windNavigator . Web: http://www.windnavigator.com | http://www.awstruepower.com. Spatial resolution of wind resource data: 2.5 km. Projection: Albers Equal Area WGS84. ¶

  8. Average U.S. household to spend $710 less on gasoline during 2015

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    power producers using more natural gas in 2015 U.S. electric power producers are increasing their use of natural gas and burning less coal for generating electricity. In its new forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said natural gas-fired generation is expected to produce 30% of U.S. electricity this year. That's up from 27% during 2014. More competitively-priced natural gas is expected to cut coal's share of electricity generation from about 39% last year to just under 36% this

  9. Average U.S. household to spend $710 less on gasoline during 2015

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    natural gas inventories at end of winter higher than last year Despite recent cold temperatures in some parts of the country, U.S. natural gas inventories ended the winter heating season in better shape than last year. In its new forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said natural gas inventories near the end of March were 75% higher compared with the same period in 2014. That sets up adequate supplies for gas-fired power plants this summer to meet electric cooling needs of

  10. Method for optical pumping of thin laser media at high average power

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zapata, Luis E.; Beach, Raymond J.; Honea, Eric C.; Payne, Stephen A.

    2004-07-13

    A thin, planar laser material is bonded to a light guide of an index-matched material forming a composite disk. Diode array or other pump light is introduced into the composite disk through the edges of the disk. Pump light trapped within the composite disk depletes as it multi-passes the laser medium before reaching an opposing edge of the disk. The resulting compound optical structure efficiently delivers concentrated pump light and to a laser medium of minimum thickness. The external face of the laser medium is used for cooling. A high performance cooler attached to the external face of the laser medium rejects heat. Laser beam extraction is parallel to the heat flux to minimize optical distortions.

  11. Fact #638: August 30, 2010 Average Expenditure for a New Car...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    33.6% 1975 4,950 13,719 36.1% 1977 5,814 16,009 36.3% 1979 6,847 19,661 34.8% 1981 8,910 22,388 39.8% 1983 10,606 24,580 43.1% 1985 11,838 27,144 43.6% 1987 13,386 ...

  12. DE/SC-ARM/TR-130 Aerosol Observing System Cloud Condensation Nuclei Average

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    0/2015 000002 3 1 13. THIS ITEM ONLY APPLIES TO MODIFICATION OF CONTRACTS/ORDERS. IT MODIFIES THE CONTRACT/ORDER NO. AS DESCRIBED IN ITEM 14. 12. ACCOUNTING AND APPROPRIATION DATA (If required) is not extended. is extended, Items 8 and 15, and returning Offers must acknowledge receipt of this amendment prior to the hour and date specified in the solicitation or as amended , by one of the following methods: (a) By completing The above numbered solicitation is amended as set forth in Item 14. The

  13. High energy, high average power solid state green or UV laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hackel, Lloyd A.; Norton, Mary; Dane, C. Brent

    2004-03-02

    A system for producing a green or UV output beam for illuminating a large area with relatively high beam fluence. A Nd:glass laser produces a near-infrared output by means of an oscillator that generates a high quality but low power output and then multi-pass through and amplification in a zig-zag slab amplifier and wavefront correction in a phase conjugator at the midway point of the multi-pass amplification. The green or UV output is generated by means of conversion crystals that follow final propagation through the zig-zag slab amplifier.

  14. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Kansas" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent ...

  15. The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    prices were found in the New England region, at 4.18 a gallon, up 2.3 cents from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Rocky Mountain States at 3.74 a gallon, up almost 6 cents....

  16. Fact #851 December 15, 2014 The Average Number of Gears used in Transmissions Continues to Rise

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The number of gears in a transmission affects a vehicle's fuel economy and performance. The more gears a vehicle has, the more time the engine spends within an optimal operating range while the...

  17. Fact #835: August 25, 2014 Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2013

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy 829: July 14, 2014 The Transportation Petroleum Gap Fact #829: July 14, 2014 The Transportation Petroleum Gap In 1989 petroleum consumption in the transportation sector surpassed U.S. petroleum production for the first time, creating a gap that must be met with imports of petroleum. In 2009, however, the U.S. production of petroleum began to increase. The Energy Information Administration expects petroleum production to be nearly equal to transportation consumption by about 2020. When

  18. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Mexico" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, ...,4937074,4649203,4641931,4501977,4328452,4124028,4079696,3884263,3791300,3665112,3565532,2...

  19. Table 7.2 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2010;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Steam from Local Other than and and Hot Water Biomass Agricultural Harvested Directly ... Steam from Local Other than and and Hot Water Biomass Agricultural Harvested Directly ...

  20. United States- Land Based and Offshore Annual Average Wind Speed at 100 Meters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Full-size, high resolution version of the 100-meter land-based and offshore wind speed resource map.

  1. Table 5.6. U.S. Average Vehicle Fuel Consumption by Model Year...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    or More ... 620 752 698 627 491 559 573 Q Q Q 14.5 Below Poverty Line 100 Percent ... 558 Q Q Q 467 472 519 Q Q Q...

  2. Table 5.12. U.S. Average Vehicle-Miles Traveled by Household...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... 30.8 25.1 28.9 42.6 27.1 Q Q Q 25.2 31.8 23.3 13.7 Below Poverty Line 100 Percent ... 16.6 15.4 16.2 19.5 12.8 Q...

  3. Table 5.10. U.S. Average Vehicle Fuel Consumption by Family...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1993 Household Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total 1993 Family Income Below Poverty Line Eli- gible for Fed- eral Assist- ance 1 RSE Row Factor: Less than 5,000 5,000...

  4. Table 5.13. U.S. Average Vehicle-Miles Traveled by Vehicle Fuel

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    More ... 12.3 Q Q 11.4 10.8 12.8 13.9 12.7 Q 10.7 Below Poverty Line 100 Percent ... 10.7 Q Q 8.8 10.2 10.9 12.0...

  5. Table 5.18. U.S. Average Household and Vehicle Energy Expenditures...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... 8.5 3,447 0.3 1,676 8.2 3,519 1,827 1,692 8.6 Below Poverty Line 100 Percent ... 14.7 1,600 5.7 935 9.0 2,022...

  6. Table 5.15. U.S. Average Vehicle-Miles Traveled by Vehicle

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... 12.3 11.8 11.8 12.5 13.5 13.2 Q 13.3 Q 11.9 Below Poverty Line 100 Percent ... 10.7 10.8 10.8 11.9 Q Q Q...

  7. Table 5.9. U.S. Average Vehicle-Miles Traveled by Family Income...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1993 Household Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total 1993 Family Income Below Poverty Line Eli- gible for Fed- eral Assist- ance 1 RSE Row Factor: Less than 5,000 5,000...

  8. Non-Invasive Beam Detection in a High-Average Power Electron Accelerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, J.; Biedron, S.; Harris, J.; Martinez, J.; Milton, S. V.; Van Keuren, J.; Benson, Steve V.; Evtushenko, Pavel; Neil, George R.; Zhang, Shukui

    2013-12-01

    For a free-electron laser (FEL) to work effectively the electron beam quality must meet exceptional standards. In the case of an FEL operating at infrared wavelengths in an amplifier configuration the critical phase space tends to be in the longitudinal direction. Achieving high enough longitudinal phase space density directly from the electron injector system of such an FEL is difficult due to space charge effects, thus one needs to manipulate the longitudinal phase space once the beam energy reaches a sufficiently high value. However, this is fraught with problems. Longitudinal space charge and coherent synchrotron radiation can both disrupt the overall phase space, furthermore, the phase space disruption is exacerbated by the longitudinal phase space manipulation process required to achieve high peak current. To achieve and maintain good FEL performance one needs to investigate the longitudinal emittance and be able to measure it during operation preferably in a non-invasive manner. Using the electro-optical sampling (EOS) method, we plan to measure the bunch longitudinal profile of a high-energy (~120-MeV), high-power (~10kW or more FEL output power) beam.

  9. "2014 Total Electric Industry- Average Retail Price (cents/kWh...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    EIA-861U)" "State","Residential","Commercial","Industrial","Transportation","Total" "New England",17.822291,14.699138,11.842263,10.37511,15.452998 "Connecticut",19.748254,15.547557...

  10. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Alaska" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent share 2000","Percent share 2010","Percent share 2014" "Retail sales (megawatthours)",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,," "," "," "

  11. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Connecticut" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent share 2000","Percent share 2010","Percent share 2014" "Retail sales (megawatthours)",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,," "," "," "

  12. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Hawaii" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent share 2000","Percent share 2010","Percent share 2014" "Retail sales (megawatthours)",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,," "," "," "

  13. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Idaho" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent share 2000","Percent share 2010","Percent share 2014" "Retail sales (megawatthours)",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,," "," "," "

  14. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Kentucky" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent share 2000","Percent share 2010","Percent share 2014" "Retail sales (megawatthours)",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,," "," "," "

  15. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Hampshire" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent share 2000","Percent share 2010","Percent share 2014" "Retail sales (megawatthours)",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,," "," "," "

  16. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Jersey" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent share 2000","Percent share 2010","Percent share 2014" "Retail sales (megawatthours)",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,," "," "," "

  17. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    York" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent share 2000","Percent share 2010","Percent share 2014" "Retail sales (megawatthours)",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,," "," "," "

  18. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Carolina" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent share 2000","Percent share 2010","Percent share 2014" "Retail sales (megawatthours)",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,," "," "," "

  19. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Dakota" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent share 2000","Percent share 2010","Percent share 2014" "Retail sales (megawatthours)",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,," "," "," "

  20. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Rhode Island" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent share 2000","Percent share 2010","Percent share 2014" "Retail sales (megawatthours)",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,," "," "," "

  1. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Washington" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent share 2000","Percent share 2010","Percent share 2014" "Retail sales (megawatthours)",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,," "," "," "

  2. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wisconsin" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent share 2000","Percent share 2010","Percent share 2014" "Retail sales (megawatthours)",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,," "," "," "

  3. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wyoming" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent share 2000","Percent share 2010","Percent share 2014" "Retail sales (megawatthours)",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,," "," "," "

  4. High average power scaling of optical parametric amplification through cascaded difference-frequency generators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jovanovic, Igor; Comaskey, Brian J.

    2004-09-14

    A first pump pulse and a signal pulse are injected into a first optical parametric amplifier. This produces a first amplified signal pulse. At least one additional pump pulse and the first amplified signal pulse are injected into at least one additional optical parametric amplifier producing an increased power coherent optical pulse.

  5. U.S. average gasoline prices falling to near $2 in December

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    In its new forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said high gasoline production, cheaper winter-grade gasoline, and lower gasoline demand following this summer's peak ...

  6. Fact #622: May 10, 2010 Average Length of Light Vehicle Ownership

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Vehicle owners are holding onto their vehicles for a longer period, according to data from R.L. Polk and Company. The vehicle retention trends show that owners held onto a new vehicle for 56.3...

  7. Table 10. Average Price of U.S. Steam Coal Exports

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    - 186.95 218.71 -14.5 Poland - - - - 95.76 - Portugal - 46.70 58.11 46.70 58.11 -19.6 Romania - - - 57.08 - - Slovakia - - - - 1,971.43 - Spain 310.37 314.98 55.33 115.41 54.18 ...

  8. Table 12. Average Price of U.S. Metallurgical Coal Exports

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    158.34 -13.0 Poland 78.40 85.73 94.44 95.89 112.10 -14.5 Portugal - - 69.17 - 69.17 - Romania 71.59 74.22 97.34 100.62 107.59 -6.5 Slovakia 106.14 - - 106.22 110.81 -4.1 Slovenia ...

  9. Measurements of time average series resonance effect in capacitively coupled radio frequency discharge plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bora, B.; Bhuyan, H.; Favre, M.; Wyndham, E.; Chuaqui, H.; Kakati, M.

    2011-10-15

    Self-excited plasma series resonance is observed in low pressure capacitvely coupled radio frequency discharges as high-frequency oscillations superimposed on the normal radio frequency current. This high-frequency contribution to the radio frequency current is generated by a series resonance between the capacitive sheath and the inductive and resistive bulk plasma. In this report, we present an experimental method to measure the plasma series resonance in a capacitively coupled radio frequency argon plasma by modifying the homogeneous discharge model. The homogeneous discharge model is modified by introducing a correction factor to the plasma resistance. Plasma parameters are also calculated by considering the plasma series resonances effect. Experimental measurements show that the self-excitation of the plasma series resonance, which arises in capacitive discharge due to the nonlinear interaction of plasma bulk and sheath, significantly enhances both the Ohmic and stochastic heating. The experimentally measured total dissipation, which is the sum of the Ohmic and stochastic heating, is found to increase significantly with decreasing pressure.

  10. Analysis of Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards for Light Trucks and Increased Alternative Fuel Use

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2002-01-01

    Sen. Frank Murkowski, the Ranking Minority Member of the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources requested an analysis of selected portions of Senate Bill 1766 (S. 1766, the Energy Policy Act of 2002), House Resolution 4 (the Securing America's Future Energy Act of 2001) and Senate Bill 517 (S. 517, the Energy Policy Act of 2002). In response, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) has prepared a series of analyses showing the impacts of each of the selected provisions of the bills on energy supply, demand, and prices, macroeconomic variables where feasible, import dependence, and emissions.

  11. Table N8.3. Average Prices of Purchased Electricity, Natural...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 1998;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Supplier Sources of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, ...

  12. Table 7.3 Average Prices of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Supplier Sources of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and ...

  13. H. R. 1652: A Bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to extend for 5 years the energy investment credit for solar energy and geothermal property and to allow such credit against the entire regular tax and the alternative minimum tax, introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session, March 22, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The amount of the allowable energy tax credit shall not exceed the net chapter 1 tax for any year. The net chapter 1 tax is defined as the sum of the regular tax liability and the tax imposed by section 55 of the Tax Code reduced by the sum of the credits allowable under this new section. The tax credit would apply until December 31, 1996.

  14. Hydropower Upgrades to Yield Added Generation at Average Costs Less Than 4 cents per kWh- Without New Dams

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    $30.6 million Recovery Act investment by the Department of Energy highlights the additional potential of hydro power

  15. Comparison of Average Transport and Dispersion Among a Gaussian, a Two-Dimensional, and a Three-Dimensional Model

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s (NRC’s) code for predicting off-siteconsequences, MACCS2 (Chanin, et al. 1998) (MELCOR Accident Consequence CodeSystem, Version 2), uses a simplified model for...

  16. Monthly average clear-sky broadband irradiance database for worldwide solar heat gain and building cooling load calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gueymard, Christian A.; Thevenard, Didier

    2009-11-15

    This paper establishes the formulation of a new clear-sky solar radiation model appropriate for algorithms calculating cooling loads in buildings. The aim is to replace the ASHRAE clear-sky model of 1967, whose limitations are well known and are reviewed. The new model is derived in two steps. The first step consists of obtaining a reference irradiance dataset from the REST2 model, which uses a high-performance, validated, two-band clear-sky algorithm. REST2 requires detailed inputs about atmospheric conditions such as aerosols, water vapor, ozone, and ground albedo. The development of global atmospheric datasets used as inputs to REST2 is reviewed. For the most part, these datasets are derived from space observations to guarantee universality and accuracy. In the case of aerosols, point-source terrestrial measurements were also used as ground truthing of the satellite data. The second step of the model consists of fits derived from a REST2-based reference irradiance dataset. These fits enable the derivation of compact, but relatively accurate expressions, for beam and diffuse clear-sky irradiance. The fitted expressions require the tabulation of only two pseudo-optical depths for each month of the year. The resulting model, and its tabulated data, are expected to be incorporated in the 2009 edition of the ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals. (author)

  17. Average and local structure of the Pb-free ferroelectric perovskites (Sr,Sn)TiO3 and (Ba,Ca,Sn)TiO3

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Laurita, Geneva; Page, Katharine; Suzuki, Shoichiro; Seshadri, Ram

    2015-12-16

    The characteristic structural off -centering of Pb2+ in oxides, associated with its 6s2 lone pair, allows it to play a dominant role in polar materials, and makes it a somewhat ubiquitous component of ferroelectrics. In this work, we examine the compounds Sr0.9Sn0.1TiO3 and Ba0.79Ca0.16Sn0.05TiO3 using neutron total scattering techniques with data acquired at di erent temperatures. In these compounds, previously reported as ferroelectrics, Sn2+ appears to display some of the characteristics of Pb2+. We compare the local and long-range structures of the Sn2+-substituted compositions to the unsubstituted parent compounds SrTiO3 and BaTiO3. Lastly, we find that even at these smallmore » substitution levels, the Sn2+ lone pairs drive the local ordering behavior, with the local structure of both compounds more similar to the structure of PbTiO3 rather than the parent compounds.« less

  18. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    30 January 2016 Table 24. PAD District 5 - Year-to-Date Daily Average Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, January-February 2016 (Thousand Barrels per Day) Commodity Supply Disposition Field Production Renewable Fuels and Oxygenate Plant Net Production Refinery and Blender Net Production Imports (PADD of Entry) 1 Net Receipts 2 Adjust- ments 3 Stock Change 4 Refinery and Blender Net Inputs Exports Products Supplied 5 Crude Oil

  19. Soil Water Balance and Recharge Monitoring at the Hanford Site – FY 2010 Status Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fayer, Michael J.; Saunders, Danielle L.; Herrington, Ricky S.; Felmy, Diana

    2010-10-27

    This report summarizes the recharge data collected in FY 2010 at five locations on the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Average monthly precipitation and temperature conditions in FY 2010 were near normal and did not present an opportunity for increased recharge. The recharge monitoring data confirmed those conditions, showing normal behavior in water content, matric head, and recharge rates. Also provided in this report is a strategy for recharge estimation for the next 5 years.

  20. South Carolina Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    modules $3,754,813 Total modules $0.75 Table 2. Value and average value of photovoltaic module shipments, 2013 Module value, total shipments (thousand dollars) Module average value (dollars per peak watt) Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63B, 'Annual Photovoltaic Cell/Module Shipments Report' Note: Dollars are not adjusted for inflation. Cubic Foot)

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 1,037 1,034 1,034 2010's 1,026

  1. Microsoft Word - Highlights.doc

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3 1 Short-Term Energy Outlook August 2003 Overview World Oil Markets. Average crude oil prices for July were little changed from June. The West Texas Intermediate (WTI) spot average for July was $30.75 per barrel compared to $30.66 in June. EIA's Outlook is for prices to remain firm through the rest of 2003, or at least until autumn, when OECD oil inventories may rebuild above observed 5-year lows. Once inventories have been rebuilt, WTI oil prices may slide gradually to $26 per barrel during

  2. Slide 1

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Federal Energy Regulatory Commission * Market Oversight @ FERC.gov Short-Term Energy Prices What Drivers Matter Most? Chris Ellsworth Division of Energy Market Oversight April 6, 2010 EIA 2010 Energy Conference Federal Energy Regulatory Commission * Market Oversight @ FERC.gov Henry Hub Natural Gas Daily Spot Prices 2008, 2009 and 2003-2007 Range 2085 Source: Derived from Platts data. $0 $2 $4 $6 $8 $10 $12 $14 $16 $18 $20 J a n F e b M a r A p r M a y J u n J u l A u g S e p O c t N o v D e c

  3. MEASUREMENT OF THE AVERAGE ENERGY AND MULTIPLICITY OF PROMPT-FISSION-NEUTRONS FROM 238U(n,f) AND 237 Np(n,f) FROM 1 TO 200 MeV.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    TAIEB,J.; GRANIER, T.; ETHVIGNOT, T.; DEVLIN, M.; HAIGHT, R.C.; NELSON, R.O.; ODONNELL, J.M.; ROCHMAN, D.

    2007-06-28

    Taking advantage of the neutron source of the LANCSE, it has been possible to obtain a measure of the velocity distribution and the number of prompt-neutrons emitted in the neutron-induced fission of {sup 238}U and {sup 237}Np over a broad incident neutron energy range. The mean kinetic energy was extracted and is shown as the function of the incident-neutron energy. We confirm here the observation, for both reactions, of a dip around the second chance fission which is explained by the lower kinetic energy of the pre-fission neutrons. Such a observation is reproduced by Los Alamos model as implemented at Bruyeres le Chatel and by the Maslov model. As far as the neutron multiplicity is concerned, a similar dip is observed. However, such a behavior is not present in data measured by other groups.

  4. Cost and Quality of Fuels for Electric Plants - Energy Information

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2010's 0 29 85 Administration

    Electricity Glossary › FAQS › Overview Data Electricity Data Browser (interactive query tool with charting & mapping) Summary Sales (consumption), revenue, prices & customers Generation and thermal output Electric power plants generating capacity Consumption of fuels used to generate electricity Receipts of fossil-fuels for electricity generation Average cost of

  5. ASD All Hands Meeting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Support * Service Level Agreements * System Managers * Safety - WPC - Recent Accidents - Lessons Learned * Accelerator Projects - 0-1 year - 1-5 year - > 5 year John Schmerge...

  6. Needs Analysis for Dimethyl Mercury

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmoldt, Michael J.

    2013-02-13

    For this needs analysis, a total of 131 DMHg analytical results were collected and reviewed from the Hanford Tank Farms from 2004 to 2007. Sampling data from the Site Wide Industrial Hygiene Database (SWIHO), the Tank waste inventory System (TWINs), and prior sampling campaigns by CH2M Hill Hanford that were not available in the SWIHD database, were aggregated for analysis. Technical literature used by the Savannah River Site (SRS). Bechtel RPP·WTP, and CH2M Hill Hanford from 2003-2007, were also reviewed to identify potential DMHg exposure concerns applicable to the tank farms. After analyzing the adequacy of lhe data, information gaps were identified and recommendations for corrective actions items were developed.

  7. Working Gas in Underground Storage Figure

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Gas in Underground Storage Figure Working Gas in Underground Storage Compared with 5-Year Range Graph...

  8. Heating Water with Solar Energy Costs Less at the Phoenix Federal Correctional Institution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2004-09-01

    A large solar thermal system installed at the Phoenix Federal Correctional Institution (FCI) in 1998 heats water for the prison and costs less than buying electricity to heat that water. This renewable energy system provides 70% of the facility's annual hot water needs. The Federal Bureau of Prisons did not incur the up-front cost of this system because it was financed through an Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC). The ESPC payments are 10% less than the energy savings so that the prison saves an average of $6,700 per year, providing an immediate payback. The solar hot water system produces up to 50,000 gallons of hot water daily, enough to meet the needs of 1,250 inmates and staff who use the kitchen, shower, and laundry facilities. This publication details specifications of the parabolic trough solar system and highlights 5 years of measured performance data.

  9. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Cold Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Building Industry Research Alliance; Building Science Consortium; Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings; Florida Solar Energy Center; IBACOS; National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    2006-08-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in Cold Climates on a cost-neutral basis.

  10. Development of a dedicated ethanol ultra-low-emissions vehicle (ULEV): Phase 3 report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dodge, L.; Callahan, T.; Leone, D.; Naegeli, D.; Shouse, K.; Smith, L.; Whitney, K.

    1998-04-01

    The objective of the 3.5 year project discussed in this report was to develop a commercially competitive vehicle powered by ethanol (or an ethanol blend) that can meet California`s Ultra Low Emissions Vehicle (ULEV) standards and equivalent Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) energy efficiency for a light duty passenger car application. This particular report summarizes the third phase of the project, which lasted 12 months. Emissions tests were conducted with advanced after-treatment devices on one of the two, almost identical, test vehicles, a 1993 Ford Taurus flexible fuel vehicle. The report also covers tests on the engine removed from the second Taurus vehicle. This engine was modified for an increased compression ratio, fitted with air assist injectors, and included an advanced engine control system with model-based control.

  11. Investigation of fundamental limits to beam brightness available from photoinjectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bazarov, Ivan

    2015-07-09

    The goal of this project was investigation of fundamental limits to beam brightness available from photoinjectors. This basic research in accelerator physics spanned over 5 years aiming to extend the fundamental understanding of high average current, low emittance sources of relativistic electrons based on photoemission guns, a necessary prerequisite for a new generation of coherent X-ray synchrotron radiation facilities based on continuous duty superconducting linacs. The program focused on two areas critical to making advances in the electron source performance: 1) the physics of photocathodes for the production of low emittance electrons and 2) control of space charge forces in the immediate vicinity to the cathode via 3D laser pulse shaping.

  12. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Mixed-Humid Climates; January 2006 - December 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Building America Industrialized Housing Partnership; Building Industry Research Alliance; Building Science Consortium; Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings; Davis Energy Group; IBACOS; National Association of Home Builders Research Center; National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    2006-12-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Mixed-Humid Climate Region on a cost-neutral basis.

  13. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Marine Climates; January 2006 - December 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Building America Industrialized Housing Partnership; Building Industry Research Alliance; Building Science Consortium; Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings; Davis Energy Group; IBACOS; National Association of Home Builders Research Center; National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    2006-12-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Marine Climate Region on a cost neutral basis.

  14. Measured heating system efficiency retrofits in eight manufactured (HUD-code) homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siegel, J.; Davis, B.; Francisco, P.; Palmiter, L.

    1998-07-01

    This report presents the results of field measurements of heating efficiency performed on eight all-electric manufactured homes sited in the Pacific Northwest with forced-air distribution systems. These homes, like more than four million existing manufactured homes in the US, were constructed to thermal specifications that were mandated by the US Department of Housing and Urban Development in 1976. The test protocol compares real-time measurements of furnace energy usage with energy usage during periods when zonal heaters heat the homes to the same internal temperature. By alternating between the furnace and zonal heaters on 2 hour cycles, a short-term coheat test is performed. Additional measurements, including blower door and duct tightness tests, are conducted to measure and characterize the home's tightness and duct leakage so that coheat test results might be linked to other measures of building performance. The testing was done at each home before and after an extensive duct sealing retrofit was performed. The average pre-retrofit system efficiency for these homes was 69%. After the retrofit, the average system efficiency increased to 83%. The average simple payback period for the retrofits ranges from 1 to 5 years in Western Oregon and 1 to 3 years in colder Eastern Oregon.

  15. Residential energy consumption survey: consumption and expenditures, April 1982-March 1983. Part 1, national data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, W.

    1984-11-01

    This report presents data on the US consumption and expenditures for residential use of natural gas, electricity, fuel oil or kerosene, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) from April 1982 through March 1983. Data on the consumption of wood for this period are also presented. The consumption and expenditures data are based on actual household bills, obtained, with the permission of the household. from the companies supplying energy to the household. Data on wood consumption are based on respondent recall of the amount of wood burned during the winter and are subject to memory errors and other reporting errors described in the report. These data come from the 1982 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS), the fifth in a series of comparable surveys beginning in 1978. The 1982 survey is the first survey to include, as part of its sample, a portion of the same households interviewed in the 1980 survey. A separate report is planned to report these longitudinal data. This summary gives the highlights of a comparison of the findings for the 5 years of RECS data. The data cover all types of housing units in the 50 states and the District of Columbia including single-family units, apartments, and mobile homes. For households with indirect energy costs, such as costs that are included in the rent or paid by third parties, the sonsumption and expenditures data are estimated and included in the figures reported here. The average household consumption of natural gas, electricity, fuel oil or kerosene, and LPG dropped in 1982 from the previous year, hitting a 5-year low since the first Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) was conducted in 1978. The average consumption was 103 (+-3) million Btu per household in 1982, down from 114 (+-) million Btu in 1981. The weather was the main contributing factor. 8 figures, 46 tables.

  16. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    5-year historical band and each of the scenarios suggests that working gas levels will stay within the 5-year range. In fact, the relative strength of working gas levels in salt...

  17. Doug McCune

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    scientific objectives for the next 3-5 years. Please list one or two specific goals you hope to reach in 5 years. 3. Current HPC Usage and Methods 3a. Please list your current...

  18. 2015 Uranium Marketing Annual Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    +1 Year","+1 Year" "+2 Years","+2 Years" "+3 Years","+3 Years" "+4 Years","+4 Years" "+5 Years","+5 Years" "+6 Years","+6 Years" "+7 Years","+7 Years" "+8 Years","+8 Years" "+9 ...

  19. Frequently Asked Questions | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    What is the duration of the demonstration project? What happens after 5 years? What is the ... A typical demonstration project has a duration of 5 years. However, the pay-banding ...

  20. JV 38-APPLICATION OF COFIRING AND COGENERATION FOR SOUTH DAKOTA SOYBEAN PROCESSORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darren D. Schmidt

    2002-11-01

    Cogeneration of heat and electricity is being considered by the South Dakota Soybean Processors for its facility in Volga, South Dakota, and a new facility to be located in Brewster, Minnesota. The Energy & Environmental Research Center has completed a feasibility study, with 40% funding provided from the U.S. Department of Energy's Jointly Sponsored Research Program to determine the potential application of firing biomass fuels combined with coal and comparative economics of natural gas-fired turbines. Various biomass fuels are available at each location. The most promising options based on availability are as follows. The economic impact of firing 25% biomass with coal can increase return on investment by 0.5 to 1.5 years when compared to firing natural gas. The results of the comparative economics suggest that a fluidized-bed cogeneration system will have the best economic performance. Installation for the Brewster site is recommended based on natural gas prices not dropping below a $4.00/MMBtu annual average delivered cost. Installation at the Volga site is only recommended if natural gas prices substantially increase to $5.00/MMBtu on average. A 1- to 2-year time frame will be needed for permitting and equipment procurement.

  1. 2008 Solar Technologies Market Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, S.; Margolis, R.; Barbose, G.; Bartlett, J.; Cory, K.; Couture, T.; DeCesaro, J.; Denholm, P.; Drury, E.; Frickel, M.; Hemmeline, C.; Mendelsohn, T.; Ong, S.; Pak, A.; Poole, L.; Peterman, C.; Schwabe, P.; Soni, A.; Speer, B.; Wiser, R.; Zuboy, J.; James, T.

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this report is the U.S. solar electricity market, including photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies. The report is organized into five chapters. Chapter 1 provides an overview of global and U.S. installation trends. Chapter 2 presents production and shipment data, material and supply chain issues, and solar industry employment trends. Chapter 3 presents cost, price, and performance trends. Chapter 4 discusses policy and market drivers such as recently passed federal legislation, state and local policies, and developments in project financing. Chapter 5 provides data on private investment trends and near-term market forecasts. Highlights of this report include: (1) The global PV industry has seen impressive growth rates in cell/module production during the past decade, with a 10-year compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 46% and a 5-year CAGR of 56% through 2008. (2) Thin-film PV technologies have grown faster than crystalline silicon over the past 5 years, with a 10-year CAGR of 47% and a 5-year CAGR of 87% for thin-film shipments through 2008. (3) Global installed PV capacity increased by 6.0 GW in 2008, a 152% increase over 2.4 GW installed in 2007. (4) The United States installed 0.34 GW of PV capacity in 2008, a 63% increase over 0.21 GW in 2007. (5) Global average PV module prices dropped 23% from $4.75/W in 1998 to $3.65/W in 2008. (6) Federal legislation, including the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 (EESA, October 2008) and the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA, February 2009), is providing unprecedented levels of support for the U.S. solar industry. (7) In 2008, global private-sector investment in solar energy technology topped $16 billion, including almost $4 billion invested in the United States. (8) Solar PV market forecasts made in early 2009 anticipate global PV production and demand to increase fourfold between 2008 and 2012, reaching roughly 20 GW of production and demand by 2012. (9) Globally, about 13 GW of CSP was announced or proposed through 2015, based on forecasts made in mid-2009. Regional market shares for the 13 GW are about 51% in the United States, 33% in Spain, 8% in the Middle East and North Africa, and 8% in Australasia, Europe, and South Africa. Of the 6.5-GW project pipeline in the United States, 4.3 GW have power purchase agreements (PPAs). The PPAs comprise 41% parabolic trough, 40% power tower, and 19% dish-engine systems.

  2. Review: Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project Second Five Year Review. Revision 0. DOE/OR/21548-891 review dated August 2001. The results of the five year review indicate that the remedies are functioning as intended in the four operable units. The operable units are Quarry Bulk Waste, Chemical Plant, Quarry Residuals, and Groundwater. Review contents include remedial actions in quarry bulk wastes, chemical plant (vicinity properties, southeast drainage, frog pond drainage, busch lakes, and site remediation), quarry residuals, environmental monitoring (radon gas monitoring, gamma radiation monitoring, radioactive air particulate monitoring, airborne asbestos monitoring, surfact water protection, and groundwater monitoring), applicable or relevant and appriopriate requirements (ARAR) for chemical plant, quarry residuals, and interim groundwater operable units. Figures include location maps, plan layouts, and charts. Tables include contaminant cleanup standards, summary data for uranium, nitroaromatic compound, and analytical, summary results for asbestos air monitoring, annual averages for monitoring locations, averages for uranium concentrations, and summary of detection monitoring data.

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

  3. --No Title--

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ||| 1983 Average...... 24.54 - 23.99 - - 1984 Average...... 24.70 - 25.35 - - 1985 Average...... 23.79 - 24.23 - - 1986 Average.........

  4. --No Title--

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ||| 1983 Average...... - - 25.62 - 25.27 1984 Average...... - - 25.46 - 25.35 1985 Average...... - - 25.42 - 24.38 1986 Average.........

  5. Table 33. Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    - - - - - - - 1997 Average ... - - - - - - - - - - - - Subdistrict IA January ... - - - - - - - - - - - - February...

  6. JMP Applications in Photovoltaic Reliability (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, D.; Gotwalt, C.

    2011-09-01

    The ability to accurately predict power delivery over the course of time is of vital importance to the growth of the photovoltaic (PV) industry. Two key cost drivers are the efficiency with which sunlight is converted into power and secondly how this relationship develops over time. The accurate knowledge of power decline over time, also known as degradation rates, is essential and important to all stakeholders?utility companies, integrators, investors, and scientist alike. Outdoor testing plays a vital part in quantifying degradation rates of different technologies in various climates. Due to seasonal changes, however, several complete cycles (typically 3-5 years) need to be completed traditionally to obtain reasonably accurate degradation rates. In a rapidly evolving industry such a time span is often unacceptable and the need exists to determine degradation rates more accurately in a shorter period of time. Advanced time series modeling such as ARIMA (Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average) modeling can be utilized to decrease the required time span and is compared with some non-linear modeling. In addition, it will be demonstrated how the JMP 9 map feature was used to reveal important technological trends by climate.

  7. Performance of internal covariance estimators for cosmic shear correlation functions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Friedrich, O.; Seitz, S.; Eifler, T. F.; Gruen, D.

    2015-12-31

    Data re-sampling methods such as the delete-one jackknife are a common tool for estimating the covariance of large scale structure probes. In this paper we investigate the concepts of internal covariance estimation in the context of cosmic shear two-point statistics. We demonstrate how to use log-normal simulations of the convergence field and the corresponding shear field to carry out realistic tests of internal covariance estimators and find that most estimators such as jackknife or sub-sample covariance can reach a satisfactory compromise between bias and variance of the estimated covariance. In a forecast for the complete, 5-year DES survey we show that internally estimated covariance matrices can provide a large fraction of the true uncertainties on cosmological parameters in a 2D cosmic shear analysis. The volume inside contours of constant likelihood in themore » $$\\Omega_m$$-$$\\sigma_8$$ plane as measured with internally estimated covariance matrices is on average $$\\gtrsim 85\\%$$ of the volume derived from the true covariance matrix. The uncertainty on the parameter combination $$\\Sigma_8 \\sim \\sigma_8 \\Omega_m^{0.5}$$ derived from internally estimated covariances is $$\\sim 90\\%$$ of the true uncertainty.« less

  8. Effectiveness of duct sealing and duct insulation in multi-family buildings. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karins, N.H.; Tuluca, A.; Modera, M.

    1997-07-01

    This research investigated the cost-effectiveness of sealing and insulating the accessible portions of duct systems exposed to unconditioned areas in multifamily housing. Airflow and temperature measurements were performed in 25 apartments served by 10 systems a 9 multi-family properties. The measurements were performed before and after each retrofit, and included apartment airflow (supply and return), duct system temperatures, system fan flow and duct leakage area. The costs for each retrofit were recorded. The data were analyzed and used to develop a prototypical multifamily house. This prototype was used in energy simulations (DOE-2.1E) and air infiltration simulations (COMIS 2.1). The simulations were performed for two climates: New York City and Albany. In each climate, one simulation was performed assuming the basement was tight, and another assuming the basement was leaky. Simulation results and average retrofit costs were used to calculate cost-effectiveness. The results of the analysis indicate that sealing leaks of the accessible ductwork is cost-effective under all conditions simulated (simple payback was between 3 and 4 years). Insulating the accessible ductwork, however, is only cost-effective for buildings with leaky basement, in both climates (simple paybacks were less than 5 years). The simple payback period for insulating the ducts in buildings with tight basements was greater than 10 years, the threshold of cost-effectiveness for this research. 13 refs., 5 figs., 27 tabs.

  9. 1986 wet deposition temporal and spatial patterns in North America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, A.R.

    1989-07-01

    The focus of this report is on North American wet deposition temporal patterns from 1979 to 1986 and spatial patterns for 1986. The report provides statistical distribution summaries of annual precipitation-weighted average concentration and annual deposition for nine ion species: hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, calcium, chloride, sodium, potassium, and magnesium. The data in the report are from the Acid Depositing System (ADS) for the statistical reporting of North American deposition data. Isopleth maps, based on surface estimation using kriging, display concentration and deposition spatial patterns of pH, hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and calcium ion species for 1986 annual, winter, and summer periods. The temporal pattern analyses use a subset of 30 sites over an 8-year (1979-1986) period and an expanded subset of 137 sites with greater spatial coverage over a 5-year (1982-1986) period. The 8-year period represents the longest period with wet deposition monitoring data unavailable that has a sufficient number of sites with data of known quality to allow a descriptive summary of annual temporal patterns. 19 refs., 105 figs., 29 tabs.

  10. Development of an Enhanced Payback Function for the Superior Energy Performance Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Therkelsen, Peter; Rao, Prakash; McKane, Aimee; Sabouni, Ridah; Sheihing, Paul

    2015-08-03

    The U.S. DOE Superior Energy Performance (SEP) program provides recognition to industrial and commercial facilities that achieve certification to the ISO 50001 energy management system standard and third party verification of energy performance improvements. Over 50 industrial facilities are participating and 28 facilities have been certified in the SEP program. These facilities find value in the robust, data driven energy performance improvement result that the SEP program delivers. Previous analysis of SEP certified facility data demonstrated the cost effectiveness of SEP and identified internal staff time to be the largest cost component related to SEP implementation and certification. This paper analyzes previously reported and newly collected data of costs and benefits associated with the implementation of an ISO 50001 and SEP certification. By disaggregating “sunk energy management system (EnMS) labor costs”, this analysis results in a more accurate and detailed understanding of the costs and benefits of SEP participation. SEP is shown to significantly improve and sustain energy performance and energy cost savings, resulting in a highly attractive return on investment. To illustrate these results, a payback function has been developed and is presented. On average facilities with annual energy spend greater than $2M can expect to implement SEP with a payback of less than 1.5 years. Finally, this paper also observes and details decreasing facility costs associated with implementing ISO 50001 and certifying to the SEP program, as the program has improved from pilot, to demonstration, to full launch.

  11. Thorium: Issues and prospects in Malaysia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    AL-Areqi, Wadeeah M.; Majid, Amran Ab.; Sarmani, Sukiman; Bahri, Che Nor Aniza Che Zainul

    2015-04-29

    In Malaysia, thorium exists in minerals and rare earth elements production residue. The average range of thorium content in Malaysian monazite and xenotime minerals was found about 70,000 and 15,000 ppm respectively. About 2,636 tonnes of Malaysian monazite was produced for a period of 5 years (2006-2010) and based on the above data, it can be estimated that Malaysian monazite contains about 184.5 tonnes of thorium. Although thorium can become a major radiological problem to our environment, but with the significant deposit of thorium in Malaysian monazite, it has a prospect as a future alternative fuel in nuclear technology. This paper will discuss the thorium issues in Malaysia especially its long term radiological risks to public health and environment at storage and disposal stages, the prospect of exploring and producing high purity thorium from our rare earth elements minerals for future thorium based reactor. This paper also highlights the holistic approach in thorium recovery from Malaysian rare earth element production residue to reduce its radioactivity and extraction of thorium and rare earth elements from the minerals with minimum radiological impact to health and environment.

  12. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in the Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Building Industry Research Alliance; Building Science Consortium; Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings; Davis Energy Group; Florida Solar Energy Center; IBACOS; National Association of Home Builders Research Center; National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    2006-01-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Hot-Dry/Mixed-Dry Climate Region on a cost neutral basis.

  13. Sasabe, AZ Natural Gas Pipeline Exports to Mexico (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2010's 0 180 28,250

  14. EIS-0225-SA-04: Supplement Analysis | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4: Supplement Analysis EIS-0225-SA-04: Supplement Analysis Continued Operation of the Pantex Plant and Associated Storage of Nuclear Weapon Components This second 5-Year update SA...

  15. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Barron Electric Cooperative- Residential Energy Resource Conservation Loan Program A 5-year weatherization and energy-efficient heating and cooling equipment loan for up to 5,000...

  16. EV Everywhere Challenge Kick-Off

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    technical targets for these vehicles. BEV100 BEV300 Levelized Cost of Driving (LCD) vehicle purchase price + fuel expenditure over 5 years, expressed per mile traveled...

  17. EV Everywhere Consumer/Charging Workshop: Target-Setting Framework...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    setting EV Everywhere technical targets for these vehicles. Levelized Cost of Driving (LCD) vehicle purchase price + fuel expenditure over 5 years, expressed per mile traveled...

  18. Price Liquefied Sabine Pass, LA Natural Gas Exports Price to...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2010's -- 12.07 -- --...

  19. FINDING OF MD SIGNIFICANT IMPACT FORMERLY UTILIZED HED/AEC SITES...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... Prepared for Safety Director. Los Alamos Sclcntltlc Laboratory (now Los Alamos ... Health Physics 2 years experience In nuclear power plant computer eng4nccrlng 5 years ...

  20. Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products Supported...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    within the next 3 to 5 years) hydrogen and fuel cell technologies and products ... Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 08 HYDROGEN ...