National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for 3d laser imaging

  1. Nonlaser-based 3D surface imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Shin-yee; Johnson, R.K.; Sherwood, R.J.

    1994-11-15

    3D surface imaging refers to methods that generate a 3D surface representation of objects of a scene under viewing. Laser-based 3D surface imaging systems are commonly used in manufacturing, robotics and biomedical research. Although laser-based systems provide satisfactory solutions for most applications, there are situations where non laser-based approaches are preferred. The issues that make alternative methods sometimes more attractive are: (1) real-time data capturing, (2) eye-safety, (3) portability, and (4) work distance. The focus of this presentation is on generating a 3D surface from multiple 2D projected images using CCD cameras, without a laser light source. Two methods are presented: stereo vision and depth-from-focus. Their applications are described.

  2. Imaging atoms in 3-D

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Ercius, Peter

    2014-06-27

    Berkeley Lab's Peter Ercius discusses "Imaging atoms in 3-D" in this Oct. 28, 2013 talk, which is part of a Science at the Theater event entitled Eight Big Ideas

  3. Advanced 3D Geophysical Imaging Technologies for Geothermal Resource...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3D Geophysical Imaging Technologies for Geothermal Resource Characterization Advanced 3D Geophysical Imaging Technologies for Geothermal Resource Characterization Advanced 3D ...

  4. Characterization and Modeling via 3D Reconstructions of Laser...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Characterization and Modeling via 3D Reconstructions of Laser Welds in Stainless Steel. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Characterization and Modeling via 3D...

  5. Ames Lab 101: Real-Time 3D Imaging

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Zhang, Song

    2012-08-29

    Ames Laboratory scientist Song Zhang explains his real-time 3-D imaging technology. The technique can be used to create high-resolution, real-time, precise, 3-D images for use in healthcare, security, and entertainment applications.

  6. Advanced 3D Geophysical Imaging Technologies for Geothermal Resource Characterization

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Advanced 3D Geophysical Imaging Technologies for Geothermal Resource Characterization presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado.

  7. 3D Imaging with Structured Illumination for Advanced Security Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birch, Gabriel Carisle; Dagel, Amber Lynn; Kast, Brian A.; Smith, Collin S.

    2015-09-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) information in a physical security system is a highly useful dis- criminator. The two-dimensional data from an imaging systems fails to provide target dis- tance and three-dimensional motion vector, which can be used to reduce nuisance alarm rates and increase system effectiveness. However, 3D imaging devices designed primarily for use in physical security systems are uncommon. This report discusses an architecture favorable to physical security systems; an inexpensive snapshot 3D imaging system utilizing a simple illumination system. The method of acquiring 3D data, tests to understand illumination de- sign, and software modifications possible to maximize information gathering capability are discussed.

  8. 3-D laser patterning process utilizing horizontal and vertical patterning

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Malba, Vincent; Bernhardt, Anthony F.

    2000-01-01

    A process which vastly improves the 3-D patterning capability of laser pantography (computer controlled laser direct-write patterning). The process uses commercially available electrodeposited photoresist (EDPR) to pattern 3-D surfaces. The EDPR covers the surface of a metal layer conformally, coating the vertical as well as horizontal surfaces. A laser pantograph then patterns the EDPR, which is subsequently developed in a standard, commercially available developer, leaving patterned trench areas in the EDPR. The metal layer thereunder is now exposed in the trench areas and masked in others, and thereafter can be etched to form the desired pattern (subtractive process), or can be plated with metal (additive process), followed by a resist stripping, and removal of the remaining field metal (additive process). This improved laser pantograph process is simpler, faster, move manufacturable, and requires no micro-machining.

  9. 3-D capacitance density imaging system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fasching, G.E.

    1988-03-18

    A three-dimensional capacitance density imaging of a gasified bed or the like in a containment vessel is achieved using a plurality of electrodes provided circumferentially about the bed in levels and along the bed in channels. The electrodes are individually and selectively excited electrically at each level to produce a plurality of current flux field patterns generated in the bed at each level. The current flux field patterns are suitably sensed and a density pattern of the bed at each level determined. By combining the determined density patterns at each level, a three-dimensional density image of the bed is achieved. 7 figs.

  10. 3D/3D registration of coronary CTA and biplane XA reconstructions for improved image guidance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dibildox, Gerardo Baka, Nora; Walsum, Theo van; Punt, Mark; Aben, Jean-Paul; Schultz, Carl; Niessen, Wiro

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: The authors aim to improve image guidance during percutaneous coronary interventions of chronic total occlusions (CTO) by providing information obtained from computed tomography angiography (CTA) to the cardiac interventionist. To this end, the authors investigate a method to register a 3D CTA model to biplane reconstructions. Methods: The authors developed a method for registering preoperative coronary CTA with intraoperative biplane x-ray angiography (XA) images via 3D models of the coronary arteries. The models are extracted from the CTA and biplane XA images, and are temporally aligned based on CTA reconstruction phase and XA ECG signals. Rigid spatial alignment is achieved with a robust probabilistic point set registration approach using Gaussian mixture models (GMMs). This approach is extended by including orientation in the Gaussian mixtures and by weighting bifurcation points. The method is evaluated on retrospectively acquired coronary CTA datasets of 23 CTO patients for which biplane XA images are available. Results: The Gaussian mixture model approach achieved a median registration accuracy of 1.7 mm. The extended GMM approach including orientation was not significantly different (P > 0.1) but did improve robustness with regards to the initialization of the 3D models. Conclusions: The authors demonstrated that the GMM approach can effectively be applied to register CTA to biplane XA images for the purpose of improving image guidance in percutaneous coronary interventions.

  11. Image Appraisal for 2D and 3D Electromagnetic Inversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alumbaugh, D.L.; Newman, G.A.

    1999-01-28

    Linearized methods are presented for appraising image resolution and parameter accuracy in images generated with two and three dimensional non-linear electromagnetic inversion schemes. When direct matrix inversion is employed, the model resolution and posterior model covariance matrices can be directly calculated. A method to examine how the horizontal and vertical resolution varies spatially within the electromagnetic property image is developed by examining the columns of the model resolution matrix. Plotting the square root of the diagonal of the model covariance matrix yields an estimate of how errors in the inversion process such as data noise and incorrect a priori assumptions about the imaged model map into parameter error. This type of image is shown to be useful in analyzing spatial variations in the image sensitivity to the data. A method is analyzed for statistically estimating the model covariance matrix when the conjugate gradient method is employed rather than a direct inversion technique (for example in 3D inversion). A method for calculating individual columns of the model resolution matrix using the conjugate gradient method is also developed. Examples of the image analysis techniques are provided on 2D and 3D synthetic cross well EM data sets, as well as a field data set collected at the Lost Hills Oil Field in Central California.

  12. Photo 3D-Printer, Image Credit, Ames Lab | OSTI, US Dept of Energy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Photo 3D-Printer, Image Credit, Ames Lab Critical Materials Institute speed metals research with 3D printer. Default Caption and Credits Read More: Critical Materials Institute ...

  13. Recent progress in 3-D imaging of sea freight containers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuchs, Theobald Schön, Tobias Sukowski, Frank; Dittmann, Jonas; Hanke, Randolf

    2015-03-31

    The inspection of very large objects like sea freight containers with X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) is an emerging technology. A complete 3-D CT scan of a see-freight container takes several hours. Of course, this is too slow to apply it to a large number of containers. However, the benefits of a 3-D CT for sealed freight are obvious: detection of potential threats or illicit cargo without being confronted with legal complications or high time consumption and risks for the security personnel during a manual inspection. Recently distinct progress was made in the field of reconstruction of projections with only a relatively low number of angular positions. Instead of today’s 500 to 1000 rotational steps, as needed for conventional CT reconstruction techniques, this new class of algorithms provides the potential to reduce the number of projection angles approximately by a factor of 10. The main drawback of these advanced iterative methods is the high consumption for numerical processing. But as computational power is getting steadily cheaper, there will be practical applications of these complex algorithms in a foreseeable future. In this paper, we discuss the properties of iterative image reconstruction algorithms and show results of their application to CT of extremely large objects scanning a sea-freight container. A specific test specimen is used to quantitatively evaluate the image quality in terms of spatial and contrast resolution and depending on different number of projections.

  14. 3D imaging of semiconductor components by discrete laminography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Batenburg, K. J.; Palenstijn, W. J.; Sijbers, J.

    2014-06-19

    X-ray laminography is a powerful technique for quality control of semiconductor components. Despite the advantages of nondestructive 3D imaging over 2D techniques based on sectioning, the acquisition time is still a major obstacle for practical use of the technique. In this paper, we consider the application of Discrete Tomography to laminography data, which can potentially reduce the scanning time while still maintaining a high reconstruction quality. By incorporating prior knowledge in the reconstruction algorithm about the materials present in the scanned object, far more accurate reconstructions can be obtained from the same measured data compared to classical reconstruction methods. We present a series of simulation experiments that illustrate the potential of the approach.

  15. GPU-accelerated denoising of 3D magnetic resonance images

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howison, Mark; Wes Bethel, E.

    2014-05-29

    The raw computational power of GPU accelerators enables fast denoising of 3D MR images using bilateral filtering, anisotropic diffusion, and non-local means. In practice, applying these filtering operations requires setting multiple parameters. This study was designed to provide better guidance to practitioners for choosing the most appropriate parameters by answering two questions: what parameters yield the best denoising results in practice? And what tuning is necessary to achieve optimal performance on a modern GPU? To answer the first question, we use two different metrics, mean squared error (MSE) and mean structural similarity (MSSIM), to compare denoising quality against a reference image. Surprisingly, the best improvement in structural similarity with the bilateral filter is achieved with a small stencil size that lies within the range of real-time execution on an NVIDIA Tesla M2050 GPU. Moreover, inappropriate choices for parameters, especially scaling parameters, can yield very poor denoising performance. To answer the second question, we perform an autotuning study to empirically determine optimal memory tiling on the GPU. The variation in these results suggests that such tuning is an essential step in achieving real-time performance. These results have important implications for the real-time application of denoising to MR images in clinical settings that require fast turn-around times.

  16. Innovative Device Allows 3D Imaging of the Breast with Less Radiation...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Innovative Device Allows 3D Imaging of the Breast with Less Radiation Innovative Device Allows 3D Imaging of the Breast with Less Radiation June 17, 2016 - 11:38am Addthis News ...

  17. SU-E-T-154: Establishment and Implement of 3D Image Guided Brachytherapy Planning System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, S; Zhao, S; Chen, Y; Li, Z; Li, P; Huang, Z; Yang, Z; Zhang, X

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Cannot observe the dose intuitionally is a limitation of the existing 2D pre-implantation dose planning. Meanwhile, a navigation module is essential to improve the accuracy and efficiency of the implantation. Hence a 3D Image Guided Brachytherapy Planning System conducting dose planning and intra-operative navigation based on 3D multi-organs reconstruction is developed. Methods: Multi-organs including the tumor are reconstructed in one sweep of all the segmented images using the multiorgans reconstruction method. The reconstructed organs group establishs a three-dimensional visualized operative environment. The 3D dose maps of the three-dimentional conformal localized dose planning are calculated with Monte Carlo method while the corresponding isodose lines and isodose surfaces are displayed in a stereo view. The real-time intra-operative navigation is based on an electromagnetic tracking system (ETS) and the fusion between MRI and ultrasound images. Applying Least Square Method, the coordinate registration between 3D models and patient is realized by the ETS which is calibrated by a laser tracker. The system is validated by working on eight patients with prostate cancer. The navigation has passed the precision measurement in the laboratory. Results: The traditional marching cubes (MC) method reconstructs one organ at one time and assembles them together. Compared to MC, presented multi-organs reconstruction method has superiorities in reserving the integrality and connectivity of reconstructed organs. The 3D conformal localized dose planning, realizing the 'exfoliation display' of different isodose surfaces, helps make sure the dose distribution has encompassed the nidus and avoid the injury of healthy tissues. During the navigation, surgeons could observe the coordinate of instruments real-timely employing the ETS. After the calibration, accuracy error of the needle position is less than 2.5mm according to the experiments. Conclusion: The speed and

  18. Final report: high resolution lensless 3D imaging of nanostructures with coherent x-rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobsen, Chris

    2014-12-07

    Final report on the project "High resolution lensless 3D imaging of nanostructures with coherent x-rays"

  19. Advanced 3D Geophysical Imaging Technologies for Geothermal Resource Characterization

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE Geothermal Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. This project aims to develop improved geophysical imaging method for characterizing subsurface structure, identify fluid locations, and characterize fractures.

  20. 3D Mt Resistivity Imaging For Geothermal Resource Assessment...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mt Resistivity Imaging For Geothermal Resource Assessment And Environmental Mitigation At The Glass Mountain Kgra, California Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference...

  1. Radar Imaging of Spheres in 3D using MUSIC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chambers, D H; Berryman, J G

    2003-01-21

    We have shown that multiple spheres can be imaged by linear and planar EM arrays using only one component of polarization. The imaging approach involves calculating the SVD of the scattering response matrix, selecting a subset of singular values that represents noise, and evaluating the MUSIC functional. The noise threshold applied to the spectrum of singular values for optimal performance is typically around 1%. The resulting signal subspace includes more than one singular value per sphere. The presence of reflections from the ground improves height localization, even for a linear array parallel to the ground. However, the interference between direct and reflected energy modulates the field, creating periodic nulls that can obscure targets in typical images. These nulls are largely eliminated by normalizing the MUSIC functional with the broadside beam pattern of the array. The resulting images show excellent localization for 1 and 2 spheres. The performance for the 3 sphere configurations are complicated by shadowing effects and the greater range of the 3rd sphere in case 2. Two of the three spheres are easily located by MUSIC but the third is difficult to distinguish from other local maxima of the complex imaging functional. Improvement is seen when the linear array is replace with a planar array, which increases the effective aperture height. Further analysis of the singular values and their relationship to modes of scattering from the spheres, as well as better ways to exploit polarization, should improve performance. Work along these lines is currently being pursued by the authors.

  2. 3-D capacitance density imaging of fluidized bed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fasching, George E.

    1990-01-01

    A three-dimensional capacitance density imaging of a gasified bed or the like in a containment vessel is achieved using a plurality of electrodes provided circumferentially about the bed in levels and along the bed in channels. The electrodes are individually and selectively excited electrically at each level to produce a plurality of current flux field patterns generated in the bed at each level. The current flux field patterns are suitably sensed and a density pattern of the bed at each level determined. By combining the determined density patterns at each level, a three-dimensional density image of the bed is achieved.

  3. Beyond 3-D X-ray Imaging: Methodology Development and Applications...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Beyond 3-D X-ray Imaging: Methodology Development and Applications in Material Science Thursday, September 6, 2012 - 10:45am SLAC, Bldg. 137, Room 226 Yijin Liu Seminar There was a...

  4. Scanning cross-correlator for monitoring uniform 3D ellipsoidal laser beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zelenogorskii, V V; Andrianov, A V; Gacheva, E I; Gelikonov, G V; Mironov, S Yu; Potemkin, A K; Khazanov, E A; Krasilnikov, M; Stephan, F; Mart'yanov, M A; Syresin, E M

    2014-01-31

    The specific features of experimental implementation of a cross-correlator with a scan rate above 1600 cm s{sup -1} and a spatial delay amplitude of more than 15 mm are considered. The possibility of measuring the width of femtosecond pulses propagating in a train 300 ?s in duration with a repetition rate of 1 MHz is demonstrated. A time resolution of 300 fs for the maximum time window of 50 ps is attained. The cross-correlator is aimed at testing 3D pulses of a laser driver of an electron photo-injector. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  5. Innovative device allows 3D imaging of the breast with less radiation |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jefferson Lab Innovative device allows 3D imaging of the breast with less radiation vash_collimator Adding this variable angle slant hole collimator to an existing breast molecular imaging system allows the system to get six times better contrast of cancer lesions in the breast, providing the same or better image quality while also potentially reducing the radiation dose to the patient by half. Innovative device allows 3D imaging of the breast with less radiation NEWPORT NEWS, VA, June 16,

  6. 3D and 4D magnetic susceptibility tomography based on complex MR images

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Zikuan; Calhoun, Vince D

    2014-11-11

    Magnetic susceptibility is the physical property for T2*-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (T2*MRI). The invention relates to methods for reconstructing an internal distribution (3D map) of magnetic susceptibility values, .chi. (x,y,z), of an object, from 3D T2*MRI phase images, by using Computed Inverse Magnetic Resonance Imaging (CIMRI) tomography. The CIMRI technique solves the inverse problem of the 3D convolution by executing a 3D Total Variation (TV) regularized iterative convolution scheme, using a split Bregman iteration algorithm. The reconstruction of .chi. (x,y,z) can be designed for low-pass, band-pass, and high-pass features by using a convolution kernel that is modified from the standard dipole kernel. Multiple reconstructions can be implemented in parallel, and averaging the reconstructions can suppress noise. 4D dynamic magnetic susceptibility tomography can be implemented by reconstructing a 3D susceptibility volume from a 3D phase volume by performing 3D CIMRI magnetic susceptibility tomography at each snapshot time.

  7. Technical Note: Characterization of custom 3D printed multimodality imaging phantoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bieniosek, Matthew F.; Lee, Brian J.; Levin, Craig S.

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: Imaging phantoms are important tools for researchers and technicians, but they can be costly and difficult to customize. Three dimensional (3D) printing is a widely available rapid prototyping technique that enables the fabrication of objects with 3D computer generated geometries. It is ideal for quickly producing customized, low cost, multimodal, reusable imaging phantoms. This work validates the use of 3D printed phantoms by comparing CT and PET scans of a 3D printed phantom and a commercial “Micro Deluxe” phantom. This report also presents results from a customized 3D printed PET/MRI phantom, and a customized high resolution imaging phantom with sub-mm features. Methods: CT and PET scans of a 3D printed phantom and a commercial Micro Deluxe (Data Spectrum Corporation, USA) phantom with 1.2, 1.6, 2.4, 3.2, 4.0, and 4.8 mm diameter hot rods were acquired. The measured PET and CT rod sizes, activities, and attenuation coefficients were compared. A PET/MRI scan of a custom 3D printed phantom with hot and cold rods was performed, with photon attenuation and normalization measurements performed with a separate 3D printed normalization phantom. X-ray transmission scans of a customized two level high resolution 3D printed phantom with sub-mm features were also performed. Results: Results show very good agreement between commercial and 3D printed micro deluxe phantoms with less than 3% difference in CT measured rod diameter, less than 5% difference in PET measured rod diameter, and a maximum of 6.2% difference in average rod activity from a 10 min, 333 kBq/ml (9 μCi/ml) Siemens Inveon (Siemens Healthcare, Germany) PET scan. In all cases, these differences were within the measurement uncertainties of our setups. PET/MRI scans successfully identified 3D printed hot and cold rods on PET and MRI modalities. X-ray projection images of a 3D printed high resolution phantom identified features as small as 350 μm wide. Conclusions: This work shows that 3D printed

  8. F3D Image Processing and Analysis for Many - and Multi-core Platforms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-10-01

    F3D is written in OpenCL, so it achieve[sic] platform-portable parallelism on modern mutli-core CPUs and many-core GPUs. The interface and mechanims to access F3D core are written in Java as a plugin for Fiji/ImageJ to deliver several key image-processing algorithms necessary to remove artifacts from micro-tomography data. The algorithms consist of data parallel aware filters that can efficiently utilizes[sic] resources and can work on out of core datasets and scale efficiently across multiple accelerators. Optimizing for data parallel filters, streaming out of core datasets, and efficient resource and memory and data managements over complex execution sequence of filters greatly expedites any scientific workflow with image processing requirements. F3D performs several different types of 3D image processing operations, such as non-linear filtering using bilateral filtering and/or median filtering and/or morphological operators (MM). F3D gray-level MM operators are one-pass constant time methods that can perform morphological transformations with a line-structuring element oriented in discrete directions. Additionally, MM operators can be applied to gray-scale images, and consist of two parts: (a) a reference shape or structuring element, which is translated over the image, and (b) a mechanism, or operation, that defines the comparisons to be performed between the image and the structuring element. This tool provides a critical component within many complex pipelines such as those for performing automated segmentation of image stacks. F3D is also called a "descendent" of Quant-CT, another software we developed in the past. These two modules are to be integrated in a next version. Further details were reported in: D.M. Ushizima, T. Perciano, H. Krishnan, B. Loring, H. Bale, D. Parkinson, and J. Sethian. Structure recognition from high-resolution images of ceramic composites. IEEE International Conference on Big Data, October 2014.

  9. Innovative Device Allows 3D Imaging of the Breast with Less Radiation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Preliminary tests have demonstrated that a new device may enable existing breast cancer imagers to provide up to six times better contrast of tumors in the breast, while maintaining the same or better image quality and halving the radiation dose to patients. The advance is made possible by a new device developed for 3D imaging of the breast by researchers at the Department of Energy's Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Dilon Technologies and the University of Florida Department of Biomedical Engineering.

  10. Dual FIB-SEM 3D imaging and lattice boltzmann modeling of porosimetry and multiphase flow in chalk.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rinehart, Alex; Petrusak, Robin (Advanced Resources International, Inc., Arlington, VA); Heath, Jason E.; Dewers, Thomas A.; Yoon, Hongkyu

    2010-12-01

    Mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) is an often-applied technique for determining pore throat distributions and seal analysis of fine-grained rocks. Due to closure effects, potential pore collapse, and complex pore network topologies, MIP data interpretation can be ambiguous, and often biased toward smaller pores in the distribution. We apply 3D imaging techniques and lattice-Boltzmann modeling in interpreting MIP data for samples of the Cretaceous Selma Group Chalk. In the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, the Selma Chalk is the apparent seal for oil and gas fields in the underlying Eutaw Fm., and, where unfractured, the Selma Chalk is one of the regional-scale seals identified by the Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership for CO2 injection sites. Dual focused ion - scanning electron beam and laser scanning confocal microscopy methods are used for 3D imaging of nanometer-to-micron scale microcrack and pore distributions in the Selma Chalk. A combination of image analysis software is used to obtain geometric pore body and throat distributions and other topological properties, which are compared to MIP results. 3D data sets of pore-microfracture networks are used in Lattice Boltzmann simulations of drainage (wetting fluid displaced by non-wetting fluid via the Shan-Chen algorithm), which in turn are used to model MIP procedures. Results are used in interpreting MIP results, understanding microfracture-matrix interaction during multiphase flow, and seal analysis for underground CO2 storage.

  11. 3D optical sectioning with a new hyperspectral confocal fluorescence imaging system.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nieman, Linda T.; Sinclair, Michael B.; Davidson, George S.; Van Benthem, Mark Hilary; Haaland, David Michael; Timlin, Jerilyn Ann; Sasaki, Darryl Yoshio; Bachand, George David; Jones, Howland D. T.

    2007-02-01

    A novel hyperspectral fluorescence microscope for high-resolution 3D optical sectioning of cells and other structures has been designed, constructed, and used to investigate a number of different problems. We have significantly extended new multivariate curve resolution (MCR) data analysis methods to deconvolve the hyperspectral image data and to rapidly extract quantitative 3D concentration distribution maps of all emitting species. The imaging system has many advantages over current confocal imaging systems including simultaneous monitoring of numerous highly overlapped fluorophores, immunity to autofluorescence or impurity fluorescence, enhanced sensitivity, and dramatically improved accuracy, reliability, and dynamic range. Efficient data compression in the spectral dimension has allowed personal computers to perform quantitative analysis of hyperspectral images of large size without loss of image quality. We have also developed and tested software to perform analysis of time resolved hyperspectral images using trilinear multivariate analysis methods. The new imaging system is an enabling technology for numerous applications including (1) 3D composition mapping analysis of multicomponent processes occurring during host-pathogen interactions, (2) monitoring microfluidic processes, (3) imaging of molecular motors and (4) understanding photosynthetic processes in wild type and mutant Synechocystis cyanobacteria.

  12. Documentation and Instructions for Running Two Python Scripts that Aid in Setting up 3D Measurements using the Polytec 3D Scanning Laser Doppler Vibrometer.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohe, Daniel Peter

    2015-08-24

    Sandia National Laboratories has recently purchased a Polytec 3D Scanning Laser Doppler Vibrometer for vibration measurement. This device has proven to be a very nice tool for making vibration measurements, and has a number of advantages over traditional sensors such as accelerometers. The non-contact nature of the laser vibrometer means there is no mass loading due to measuring the response. Additionally, the laser scanning heads can position the laser spot much more quickly and accurately than placing an accelerometer or performing a roving hammer impact. The disadvantage of the system is that a significant amount of time must be invested to align the lasers with each other and the part so that the laser spots can be accurately positioned. The Polytec software includes a number of nice tools to aid in this procedure; however, certain portions are still tedious. Luckily, the Polytec software is readily extensible by programming macros for the system, so tedious portions of the procedure can be made easier by automating the process. The Polytec Software includes a WinWrap (similar to Visual Basic) editor and interface to run macros written in that programming language. The author, however, is much more proficient in Python, and the latter also has a much larger set of libraries that can be used to create very complex macros, while taking advantage of Python’s inherent readability and maintainability.

  13. The development of laser-plasma interaction program LAP3D on thousands of processors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Xiaoyan Hao, Liang; Liu, Zhanjun; Zheng, Chunyang; Li, Bin Guo, Hong

    2015-08-15

    Modeling laser-plasma interaction (LPI) processes in real-size experiments scale is recognized as a challenging task. For explorering the influence of various instabilities in LPI processes, a three-dimensional laser and plasma code (LAP3D) has been developed, which includes filamentation, stimulated Brillouin backscattering (SBS), stimulated Raman backscattering (SRS), non-local heat transport and plasmas flow computation modules. In this program, a second-order upwind scheme is applied to solve the plasma equations which are represented by an Euler fluid model. Operator splitting method is used for solving the equations of the light wave propagation, where the Fast Fourier translation (FFT) is applied to compute the diffraction operator and the coordinate translations is used to solve the acoustic wave equation. The coupled terms of the different physics processes are computed by the second-order interpolations algorithm. In order to simulate the LPI processes in massively parallel computers well, several parallel techniques are used, such as the coupled parallel algorithm of FFT and fluid numerical computation, the load balance algorithm, and the data transfer algorithm. Now the phenomena of filamentation, SBS and SRS have been studied in low-density plasma successfully with LAP3D. Scalability of the program is demonstrated with a parallel efficiency above 50% on about ten thousand of processors.

  14. F3D Image Processing and Analysis for Many - and Multi-core Platforms

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-10-01

    F3D is written in OpenCL, so it achieve[sic] platform-portable parallelism on modern mutli-core CPUs and many-core GPUs. The interface and mechanims to access F3D core are written in Java as a plugin for Fiji/ImageJ to deliver several key image-processing algorithms necessary to remove artifacts from micro-tomography data. The algorithms consist of data parallel aware filters that can efficiently utilizes[sic] resources and can work on out of core datasets and scale efficiently across multiple accelerators. Optimizingmore » for data parallel filters, streaming out of core datasets, and efficient resource and memory and data managements over complex execution sequence of filters greatly expedites any scientific workflow with image processing requirements. F3D performs several different types of 3D image processing operations, such as non-linear filtering using bilateral filtering and/or median filtering and/or morphological operators (MM). F3D gray-level MM operators are one-pass constant time methods that can perform morphological transformations with a line-structuring element oriented in discrete directions. Additionally, MM operators can be applied to gray-scale images, and consist of two parts: (a) a reference shape or structuring element, which is translated over the image, and (b) a mechanism, or operation, that defines the comparisons to be performed between the image and the structuring element. This tool provides a critical component within many complex pipelines such as those for performing automated segmentation of image stacks. F3D is also called a "descendent" of Quant-CT, another software we developed in the past. These two modules are to be integrated in a next version. Further details were reported in: D.M. Ushizima, T. Perciano, H. Krishnan, B. Loring, H. Bale, D. Parkinson, and J. Sethian. Structure recognition from high-resolution images of ceramic composites. IEEE International Conference on Big Data, October 2014.« less

  15. Beyond 3-D X-ray Imaging: Methodology Development and Applications in

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Material Science | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Beyond 3-D X-ray Imaging: Methodology Development and Applications in Material Science Thursday, September 6, 2012 - 10:45am SLAC, Bldg. 137, Room 226 Yijin Liu Seminar There was a revolutionary development of X-ray imaging over the past few decades. The most substantial advancements in this field are closely related to the availability of the new generation of X-ray sources and the advanced X-ray optics. The advanced X-ray Optics

  16. Noise analysis for near field 3-D FM-CW radar imaging systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheen, David M.

    2015-06-19

    Near field radar imaging systems are used for several applications including concealed weapon detection in airports and other high-security venues. Despite the near-field operation, phase noise and thermal noise can limit the performance in several ways including reduction in system sensitivity and reduction of image dynamic range. In this paper, the effects of thermal noise, phase noise, and processing gain are analyzed in the context of a near field 3-D FM-CW imaging radar as might be used for concealed weapon detection. In addition to traditional frequency domain analysis, a time-domain simulation is employed to graphically demonstrate the effect of these noise sources on a fast-chirping FM-CW system.

  17. In Situ Casting and Imaging of the Rat Airway Tree for Accurate 3D Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacob, Rick E.; Colby, Sean M.; Kabilan, Senthil; Einstein, Daniel R.; Carson, James P.

    2013-08-01

    The use of anatomically accurate, animal-specific airway geometries is important for understanding and modeling the physiology of the respiratory system. One approach for acquiring detailed airway architecture is to create a bronchial cast of the conducting airways. However, typical casting procedures either do not faithfully preserve the in vivo branching angles, or produce rigid casts that when removed for imaging are fragile and thus easily damaged. We address these problems by creating an in situ bronchial cast of the conducting airways in rats that can be subsequently imaged in situ using 3D micro-CT imaging. We also demonstrate that deformations in airway branch angles resulting from the casting procedure are small, and that these angle deformations can be reversed through an interactive adjustment of the segmented cast geometry. Animal work was approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  18. Development and Calibration of New 3-D Vector VSP Imaging Technology: Vinton Salt Dome, LA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurt J. Marfurt; Hua-Wei Zhou; E. Charlotte Sullivan

    2004-09-01

    Vinton salt dome is located in Southwestern Louisiana, in Calcasieu Parish. Tectonically, the piercement dome is within the salt dome minibasin province. The field has been in production since 1901, with most of the production coming from Miocene and Oligocene sands. The goal of our project was to develop and calibrate new processing and interpretation technology to fully exploit the information available from a simultaneous 3-D surface seismic survey and 3-C, 3-D vertical seismic profile (VSP) survey over the dome. More specifically the goal was to better image salt dome flanks and small, reservoir-compartmentalizing faults. This new technology has application to mature salt-related fields across the Gulf Coast. The primary focus of our effort was to develop, apply, and assess the limitations of new 3-C, 3-D wavefield separation and imaging technology that could be used to image aliased, limited-aperture, vector VSP data. Through 2-D and 3-D full elastic modeling, we verified that salt flank reflections exist in the horizontally-traveling portion of the wavefield rather than up- and down-going portions of the wavefield, thereby explaining why many commercial VSP processing flow failed. Since the P-wave reflections from the salt flank are measured primarily on the horizontal components while P-wave reflections from deeper sedimentary horizons are measured primarily on the vertical component, a true vector VSP analysis was needed. We developed an antialiased discrete Radon transform filter to accurately model P- and S-wave data components measured by the vector VSP. On-the-fly polarization filtering embedded in our Kirchhoff imaging algorithm was effective in separating PP from PS wave images. By the novel application of semblance-weighted filters, we were able to suppress many of the migration artifacts associated with low fold, sparse VSP acquisition geometries. To provide a better velocity/depth model, we applied 3-D prestack depth migration to the surface data

  19. X-ray imaging and 3D reconstruction of in-flight exploding foil initiator flyers

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Willey, T. M.; Champley, K.; Hodgin, R.; Lauderbach, L.; Bagge-Hansen, M.; May, C.; Sanchez, N.; Jensen, B. J.; Iverson, A.; van Buuren, T.

    2016-06-17

    Exploding foil initiators (EFIs), also known as slapper initiators or detonators, offer clear safety and timing advantages over other means of initiating detonation in high explosives. The work described here outlines a new capability for imaging and reconstructing three-dimensional images of operating EFIs. Flyer size and intended velocity were chosen based on parameters of the imaging system. The EFI metal plasma and plastic flyer traveling at 2.5 km/s were imaged with short ~80 ps pulses spaced 153.4 ns apart. A four-camera system acquired 4 images from successive x-ray pulses from each shot. The first frame was prior to bridge burst,more » the 2nd images the flyer about 0.16 mm above the surface but edges of the foil and/or flyer are still attached to the substrate. The 3rd frame captures the flyer in flight, while the 4th shows a completely detached flyer in a position that is typically beyond where slappers strike initiating explosives. Multiple acquisitions at different incident angles and advanced computed tomography reconstruction algorithms were used to produce a 3-dimensional image of the flyer at 0.16 and 0.53 mm above the surface. Both the x-ray images and the 3D reconstruction show a strong anisotropy in the shape of the flyer and underlying foil parallel vs. perpendicular to the initiating current and electrical contacts. These results provide detailed flyer morphology during the operation of the EFI.« less

  20. Calculation of grain boundary normals directly from 3D microstructure images

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lieberman, E. J.; Rollett, A. D.; Lebensohn, R. A.; Kober, E. M.

    2015-03-11

    The determination of grain boundary normals is an integral part of the characterization of grain boundaries in polycrystalline materials. These normal vectors are difficult to quantify due to the discretized nature of available microstructure characterization techniques. The most common method to determine grain boundary normals is by generating a surface mesh from an image of the microstructure, but this process can be slow, and is subject to smoothing issues. A new technique is proposed, utilizing first order Cartesian moments of binary indicator functions, to determine grain boundary normals directly from a voxelized microstructure image. In order to validate the accuracy of this technique, the surface normals obtained by the proposed method are compared to those generated by a surface meshing algorithm. Specifically, the local divergence between the surface normals obtained by different variants of the proposed technique and those generated from a surface mesh of a synthetic microstructure constructed using a marching cubes algorithm followed by Laplacian smoothing is quantified. Next, surface normals obtained with the proposed method from a measured 3D microstructure image of a Ni polycrystal are used to generate grain boundary character distributions (GBCD) for Σ3 and Σ9 boundaries, and compared to the GBCD generated using a surface mesh obtained from the same image. Finally, the results show that the proposed technique is an efficient and accurate method to determine voxelized fields of grain boundary normals.

  1. Calculation of grain boundary normals directly from 3D microstructure images

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lieberman, E. J.; Rollett, A. D.; Lebensohn, R. A.; Kober, E. M.

    2015-03-11

    The determination of grain boundary normals is an integral part of the characterization of grain boundaries in polycrystalline materials. These normal vectors are difficult to quantify due to the discretized nature of available microstructure characterization techniques. The most common method to determine grain boundary normals is by generating a surface mesh from an image of the microstructure, but this process can be slow, and is subject to smoothing issues. A new technique is proposed, utilizing first order Cartesian moments of binary indicator functions, to determine grain boundary normals directly from a voxelized microstructure image. In order to validate the accuracymore » of this technique, the surface normals obtained by the proposed method are compared to those generated by a surface meshing algorithm. Specifically, the local divergence between the surface normals obtained by different variants of the proposed technique and those generated from a surface mesh of a synthetic microstructure constructed using a marching cubes algorithm followed by Laplacian smoothing is quantified. Next, surface normals obtained with the proposed method from a measured 3D microstructure image of a Ni polycrystal are used to generate grain boundary character distributions (GBCD) for Σ3 and Σ9 boundaries, and compared to the GBCD generated using a surface mesh obtained from the same image. Finally, the results show that the proposed technique is an efficient and accurate method to determine voxelized fields of grain boundary normals.« less

  2. A simulation technique for 3D MR-guided acoustic radiation force imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Payne, Allison; Bever, Josh de; Farrer, Alexis; Coats, Brittany; Parker, Dennis L.; Christensen, Douglas A.

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: In magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) therapies, the in situ characterization of the focal spot location and quality is critical. MR acoustic radiation force imaging (MR-ARFI) is a technique that measures the tissue displacement caused by the radiation force exerted by the ultrasound beam. This work presents a new technique to model the displacements caused by the radiation force of an ultrasound beam in a homogeneous tissue model. Methods: When a steady-state point-source force acts internally in an infinite homogeneous medium, the displacement of the material in all directions is given by the Somigliana elastostatic tensor. The radiation force field, which is caused by absorption and reflection of the incident ultrasound intensity pattern, will be spatially distributed, and the tensor formulation takes the form of a convolution of a 3D Green’s function with the force field. The dynamic accumulation of MR phase during the ultrasound pulse can be theoretically accounted for through a time-of-arrival weighting of the Green’s function. This theoretical model was evaluated experimentally in gelatin phantoms of varied stiffness (125-, 175-, and 250-bloom). The acoustic and mechanical properties of the phantoms used as parameters of the model were measured using independent techniques. Displacements at focal depths of 30- and 45-mm in the phantoms were measured by a 3D spin echo MR-ARFI segmented-EPI sequence. Results: The simulated displacements agreed with the MR-ARFI measured displacements for all bloom values and focal depths with a normalized RMS difference of 0.055 (range 0.028–0.12). The displacement magnitude decreased and the displacement pattern broadened with increased bloom value for both focal depths, as predicted by the theory. Conclusions: A new technique that models the displacements caused by the radiation force of an ultrasound beam in a homogeneous tissue model theory has been rigorously validated through comparison

  3. 3-D readout-electronics packaging for high-bandwidth massively paralleled imager

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kwiatkowski, Kris; Lyke, James

    2007-12-18

    Dense, massively parallel signal processing electronics are co-packaged behind associated sensor pixels. Microchips containing a linear or bilinear arrangement of photo-sensors, together with associated complex electronics, are integrated into a simple 3-D structure (a "mirror cube"). An array of photo-sensitive cells are disposed on a stacked CMOS chip's surface at a 45.degree. angle from light reflecting mirror surfaces formed on a neighboring CMOS chip surface. Image processing electronics are held within the stacked CMOS chip layers. Electrical connections couple each of said stacked CMOS chip layers and a distribution grid, the connections for distributing power and signals to components associated with each stacked CSMO chip layer.

  4. Three Dimensional Speckle Imaging Employing a Frequency-Locked Tunable Diode Laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cannon, Bret D.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Schiffern, John T.; Mendoza, Albert

    2015-09-01

    We describe a high accuracy frequency stepping method for a tunable diode laser to improve a three dimensional (3D) imaging approach based upon interferometric speckle imaging. The approach, modeled after Takeda, exploits tuning an illumination laser in frequency as speckle interferograms of the object (specklegrams) are acquired at each frequency in a Michelson interferometer. The resulting 3D hypercube of specklegrams encode spatial information in the x-y plane of each image with laser tuning arrayed along its z-axis. We present laboratory data of before and after results showing enhanced 3D imaging resulting from precise laser frequency control.

  5. 3D Imaging of Microbial Biofilms: Integration of Synchrotron Imaging and an Interactive Visualization Interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, Mathew; Marshall, Matthew J.; Miller, Erin A.; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Kleese van Dam, Kerstin; Carson, James P.

    2014-08-26

    Understanding the interactions of structured communities known as “biofilms” and other complex matrixes is possible through the X-ray micro tomography imaging of the biofilms. Feature detection and image processing for this type of data focuses on efficiently identifying and segmenting biofilms and bacteria in the datasets. The datasets are very large and often require manual interventions due to low contrast between objects and high noise levels. Thus new software is required for the effectual interpretation and analysis of the data. This work specifies the evolution and application of the ability to analyze and visualize high resolution X-ray micro tomography datasets.

  6. Multi-contrast 3D X-ray imaging of porous and composite materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarapata, Adrian; Herzen, Julia; Ruiz-Yaniz, Maite; Zanette, Irene; Rack, Alexander; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2015-04-13

    Grating-based X-ray computed tomography allows for simultaneous and nondestructive determination of the full X-ray complex index of refraction and the scattering coefficient distribution inside an object in three dimensions. Its multi-contrast capabilities combined with a high resolution of a few micrometers make it a suitable tool for assessing multiple phases inside porous and composite materials such as concrete. Here, we present quantitative results of a proof-of-principle experiment performed on a concrete sample. Thanks to the complementarity of the contrast channels, more concrete phases could be distinguished than in conventional attenuation-based imaging. The phase-contrast reconstruction shows high contrast between the hardened cement paste and the aggregates and thus allows easy 3D segmentation. Thanks to the dark-field image, micro-cracks inside the coarse aggregates are visible. We believe that these results are extremely interesting in the field of porous and composite materials studies because of unique information provided by grating interferometry in a non-destructive way.

  7. 3D parallel-detection microwave tomography for clinical breast imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Epstein, N. R.; Meaney, P. M.; Paulsen, K. D.

    2014-12-15

    A biomedical microwave tomography system with 3D-imaging capabilities has been constructed and translated to the clinic. Updates to the hardware and reconfiguration of the electronic-network layouts in a more compartmentalized construct have streamlined system packaging. Upgrades to the data acquisition and microwave components have increased data-acquisition speeds and improved system performance. By incorporating analog-to-digital boards that accommodate the linear amplification and dynamic-range coverage our system requires, a complete set of data (for a fixed array position at a single frequency) is now acquired in 5.8 s. Replacement of key components (e.g., switches and power dividers) by devices with improved operational bandwidths has enhanced system response over a wider frequency range. High-integrity, low-power signals are routinely measured down to −130 dBm for frequencies ranging from 500 to 2300 MHz. Adequate inter-channel isolation has been maintained, and a dynamic range >110 dB has been achieved for the full operating frequency range (500–2900 MHz). For our primary band of interest, the associated measurement deviations are less than 0.33% and 0.5° for signal amplitude and phase values, respectively. A modified monopole antenna array (composed of two interwoven eight-element sub-arrays), in conjunction with an updated motion-control system capable of independently moving the sub-arrays to various in-plane and cross-plane positions within the illumination chamber, has been configured in the new design for full volumetric data acquisition. Signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) are more than adequate for all transmit/receive antenna pairs over the full frequency range and for the variety of in-plane and cross-plane configurations. For proximal receivers, in-plane SNRs greater than 80 dB are observed up to 2900 MHz, while cross-plane SNRs greater than 80 dB are seen for 6 cm sub-array spacing (for frequencies up to 1500 MHz). We demonstrate accurate

  8. Deformable segmentation of 3D MR prostate images via distributed discriminative dictionary and ensemble learning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Yanrong; Shao, Yeqin; Gao, Yaozong; Price, True; Oto, Aytekin; Shen, Dinggang

    2014-07-15

    patches of the prostate surface and trained to adaptively capture the appearance in different prostate zones, thus achieving better local tissue differentiation. For each local region, multiple classifiers are trained based on the randomly selected samples and finally assembled by a specific fusion method. In addition to this nonparametric appearance model, a prostate shape model is learned from the shape statistics using a novel approach, sparse shape composition, which can model nonGaussian distributions of shape variation and regularize the 3D mesh deformation by constraining it within the observed shape subspace. Results: The proposed method has been evaluated on two datasets consisting of T2-weighted MR prostate images. For the first (internal) dataset, the classification effectiveness of the authors' improved dictionary learning has been validated by comparing it with three other variants of traditional dictionary learning methods. The experimental results show that the authors' method yields a Dice Ratio of 89.1% compared to the manual segmentation, which is more accurate than the three state-of-the-art MR prostate segmentation methods under comparison. For the second dataset, the MICCAI 2012 challenge dataset, the authors' proposed method yields a Dice Ratio of 87.4%, which also achieves better segmentation accuracy than other methods under comparison. Conclusions: A new magnetic resonance image prostate segmentation method is proposed based on the combination of deformable model and dictionary learning methods, which achieves more accurate segmentation performance on prostate T2 MR images.

  9. F3D

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    003188MLTPL00 F3D Image Processing and Analysis for Many - and Multi-core Platforms http://camera.lbl.gov/software

  10. SU-E-T-376: 3-D Commissioning for An Image-Guided Small Animal Micro- Irradiation Platform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qian, X; Wuu, C; Admovics, J

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: A 3-D radiochromic plastic dosimeter has been used to cross-test the isocentricity of a high resolution image-guided small animal microirradiation platform. In this platform, the mouse stage rotating for cone beam CT imaging is perpendicular to the gantry rotation for sub-millimeter radiation delivery. A 3-D dosimeter can be used to verify both imaging and irradiation coordinates. Methods: A 3-D dosimeter and optical CT scanner were used in this study. In the platform, both mouse stage and gantry can rotate 360 with rotation axis perpendicular to each other. Isocentricity and coincidence of mouse stage and gantry rotations were evaluated using star patterns. A 3-D dosimeter was placed on mouse stage with center at platform isocenter approximately. For CBCT isocentricity, with gantry moved to 90, the mouse stage rotated horizontally while the x-ray was delivered to the dosimeter at certain angles. For irradiation isocentricity, the gantry rotated 360 to deliver beams to the dosimeter at certain angles for star patterns. The uncertainties and agreement of both CBCT and irradiation isocenters can be determined from the star patterns. Both procedures were repeated 3 times using 3 dosimeters to determine short-term reproducibility. Finally, dosimeters were scanned using optical CT scanner to obtain the results. Results: The gantry isocentricity is 0.9 0.1 mm and mouse stage rotation isocentricity is about 0.91 0.11 mm. Agreement between the measured isocenters of irradiation and imaging coordinates was determined. The short-term reproducibility test yielded 0.5 0.1 mm between the imaging isocenter and the irradiation isocenter, with a maximum displacement of 0.7 0.1 mm. Conclusion: The 3-D dosimeter can be very useful in precise verification of targeting for a small animal irradiation research. In addition, a single 3-D dosimeter can provide information in both geometric and dosimetric uncertainty, which is crucial for translational studies.

  11. Laser scanner data processing and 3D modeling using a free and open source software

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gabriele, Fatuzzo; Michele, Mangiameli Giuseppe, Mussumeci; Salvatore, Zito

    2015-03-10

    The laser scanning is a technology that allows in a short time to run the relief geometric objects with a high level of detail and completeness, based on the signal emitted by the laser and the corresponding return signal. When the incident laser radiation hits the object to detect, then the radiation is reflected. The purpose is to build a three-dimensional digital model that allows to reconstruct the reality of the object and to conduct studies regarding the design, restoration and/or conservation. When the laser scanner is equipped with a digital camera, the result of the measurement process is a set of points in XYZ coordinates showing a high density and accuracy with radiometric and RGB tones. In this case, the set of measured points is called “point cloud” and allows the reconstruction of the Digital Surface Model. Even the post-processing is usually performed by closed source software, which is characterized by Copyright restricting the free use, free and open source software can increase the performance by far. Indeed, this latter can be freely used providing the possibility to display and even custom the source code. The experience started at the Faculty of Engineering in Catania is aimed at finding a valuable free and open source tool, MeshLab (Italian Software for data processing), to be compared with a reference closed source software for data processing, i.e. RapidForm. In this work, we compare the results obtained with MeshLab and Rapidform through the planning of the survey and the acquisition of the point cloud of a morphologically complex statue.

  12. Distribution of local void ratio in porous media systems from 3D X-ray microtomography images

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Raoush, R.; Alshibli, K.A.

    2008-09-04

    We present in this paper a methodology to calculate the distribution of local void ratio in porous media systems from high-resolution three-dimensional images. We introduce an algorithm to calculate the distribution of local void ratio from 3D images based on distance and watershed transforms. The watershed transform is used to segment touched or overlapped particles in an efficient way and the distance transform is used to calculate the boundaries of local void regions. The algorithm is validated using computer simulated 3D images of regular packing, irregular (non-spherical particles) packing, and random uniform spherical packing. Results show that the algorithm is robust, accurate and can be used to calculate local void ratio distribution of 3D systems regardless of irregularity in shapes, sizes, or arrangement of particles. X-ray microtomography images of different glass bead systems are used to calculate distributions of local void ratio. Parameters of distributions are function of porosity and particle-size distribution. The maximum local void ratio in each system is less than 3.0 and the minimum is greater than 0.2.

  13. SU-E-J-01: 3D Fluoroscopic Image Estimation From Patient-Specific 4DCBCT-Based Motion Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dhou, S; Hurwitz, M; Lewis, J; Mishra, P

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: 3D motion modeling derived from 4DCT images, taken days or weeks before treatment, cannot reliably represent patient anatomy on the day of treatment. We develop a method to generate motion models based on 4DCBCT acquired at the time of treatment, and apply the model to estimate 3D time-varying images (referred to as 3D fluoroscopic images). Methods: Motion models are derived through deformable registration between each 4DCBCT phase, and principal component analysis (PCA) on the resulting displacement vector fields. 3D fluoroscopic images are estimated based on cone-beam projections simulating kV treatment imaging. PCA coefficients are optimized iteratively through comparison of these cone-beam projections and projections estimated based on the motion model. Digital phantoms reproducing ten patient motion trajectories, and a physical phantom with regular and irregular motion derived from measured patient trajectories, are used to evaluate the method in terms of tumor localization, and the global voxel intensity difference compared to ground truth. Results: Experiments included: 1) assuming no anatomic or positioning changes between 4DCT and treatment time; and 2) simulating positioning and tumor baseline shifts at the time of treatment compared to 4DCT acquisition. 4DCBCT were reconstructed from the anatomy as seen at treatment time. In case 1) the tumor localization error and the intensity differences in ten patient were smaller using 4DCT-based motion model, possible due to superior image quality. In case 2) the tumor localization error and intensity differences were 2.85 and 0.15 respectively, using 4DCT-based motion models, and 1.17 and 0.10 using 4DCBCT-based models. 4DCBCT performed better due to its ability to reproduce daily anatomical changes. Conclusion: The study showed an advantage of 4DCBCT-based motion models in the context of 3D fluoroscopic images estimation. Positioning and tumor baseline shift uncertainties were mitigated by the 4DCBCT

  14. WE-D-18A-05: Construction of Realistic Liver Phantoms From Patient Images and a Commercial 3D Printer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leng, S; Vrieze, T; Kuhlmann, J; Yu, L; Matsumoto, J; Morris, J; McCollough, C

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To assess image quality and radiation dose reduction in abdominal CT imaging, physical phantoms having realistic background textures and lesions are highly desirable. The purpose of this work was to construct a liver phantom with realistic background and lesions using patient CT images and a 3D printer. Methods: Patient CT images containing liver lesions were segmented into liver tissue, contrast-enhanced vessels, and liver lesions using commercial software (Mimics, Materialise, Belgium). Stereolithography (STL) files of each segmented object were created and imported to a 3D printer (Object350 Connex, Stratasys, MN). After test scans were performed to map the eight available printing materials into CT numbers, printing materials were assigned to each object and a physical liver phantom printed. The printed phantom was scanned on a clinical CT scanner and resulting images were compared with the original patient CT images. Results: The eight available materials used to print the liver phantom had CT number ranging from 62 to 117 HU. In scans of the liver phantom, the liver lesions and veins represented in the STL files were all visible. Although the absolute value of the CT number in the background liver material (approx. 85 HU) was higher than in patients (approx. 40 HU), the difference in CT numbers between lesions and background were representative of the low contrast values needed for optimization tasks. Future work will investigate materials with contrast sufficient to emulate contrast-enhanced arteries. Conclusion: Realistic liver phantoms can be constructed from patient CT images using a commercial 3D printer. This technique may provide phantoms able to determine the effect of radiation dose reduction and noise reduction techniques on the ability to detect subtle liver lesions in the context of realistic background textures.

  15. Involved-Site Image-Guided Intensity Modulated Versus 3D Conformal Radiation Therapy in Early Stage Supradiaphragmatic Hodgkin Lymphoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Filippi, Andrea Riccardo; Ciammella, Patrizia; Piva, Cristina; Ragona, Riccardo; Botto, Barbara; Gavarotti, Paolo; Merli, Francesco; Vitolo, Umberto; Iotti, Cinzia; Ricardi, Umberto

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Image-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy (IG-IMRT) allows for margin reduction and highly conformal dose distribution, with consistent advantages in sparing of normal tissues. The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare involved-site IG-IMRT with involved-site 3D conformal RT (3D-CRT) in the treatment of early stage Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) involving the mediastinum, with efficacy and toxicity as primary clinical endpoints. Methods and Materials: We analyzed 90 stage IIA HL patients treated with either involved-site 3D-CRT or IG-IMRT between 2005 and 2012 in 2 different institutions. Inclusion criteria were favorable or unfavorable disease (according to European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer criteria), complete response after 3 to 4 cycles of an adriamycin- bleomycin-vinblastine-dacarbazine (ABVD) regimen plus 30 Gy as total radiation dose. Exclusion criteria were chemotherapy other than ABVD, partial response after ABVD, total radiation dose other than 30 Gy. Clinical endpoints were relapse-free survival (RFS) and acute toxicity. Results: Forty-nine patients were treated with 3D-CRT (54.4%) and 41 with IG-IMRT (45.6%). Median follow-up time was 54.2 months for 3D-CRT and 24.1 months for IG-IMRT. No differences in RFS were observed between the 2 groups, with 1 relapse each. Three-year RFS was 98.7% for 3D-CRT and 100% for IG-IMRT. Grade 2 toxicity events, mainly mucositis, were recorded in 32.7% of 3D-CRT patients (16 of 49) and in 9.8% of IG-IMRT patients (4 of 41). IG-IMRT was significantly associated with a lower incidence of grade 2 acute toxicity (P=.043). Conclusions: RFS rates at 3 years were extremely high in both groups, albeit the median follow-up time is different. Acute tolerance profiles were better for IG-IMRT than for 3D-CRT. Our preliminary results support the clinical safety and efficacy of advanced RT planning and delivery techniques in patients affected with early stage HL, achieving complete

  16. The effect of spatial micro-CT image resolution and surface complexity on the morphological 3D analysis of open porous structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pyka, Grzegorz; Kerckhofs, Greet

    2014-01-15

    In material science microfocus X-ray computed tomography (micro-CT) is one of the most popular non-destructive techniques to visualise and quantify the internal structure of materials in 3D. Despite constant system improvements, state-of-the-art micro-CT images can still hold several artefacts typical for X-ray CT imaging that hinder further image-based processing, structural and quantitative analysis. For example spatial resolution is crucial for an appropriate characterisation as the voxel size essentially influences the partial volume effect. However, defining the adequate image resolution is not a trivial aspect and understanding the correlation between scan parameters like voxel size and the structural properties is crucial for comprehensive material characterisation using micro-CT. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of the spatial image resolution on the micro-CT based morphological analysis of three-dimensional (3D) open porous structures with a high surface complexity. In particular the correlation between the local surface properties and the accuracy of the micro-CT-based macro-morphology of 3D open porous Ti6Al4V structures produced by selective laser melting (SLM) was targeted and revealed for rough surfaces a strong dependence of the resulting structure characteristics on the scan resolution. Reducing the surface complexity by chemical etching decreased the sensitivity of the overall morphological analysis to the spatial image resolution and increased the detection limit. This study showed that scan settings and image processing parameters need to be customized to the material properties, morphological parameters under investigation and the desired final characteristics (in relation to the intended functional use). Customization of the scan resolution can increase the reliability of the micro-CT based analysis and at the same time reduce its operating costs. - Highlights: • We examine influence of the image resolution

  17. 3D View Inside the Skeleton with X-ray Microscopy: Imaging Bone...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    understanding of healthy bone tissue and the changes that occur with aging and disease. ... imaging experiments of bone using the transmission x-ray microscope (TXM) on SSRL beam ...

  18. SU-E-QI-17: Dependence of 3D/4D PET Quantitative Image Features On Noise

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oliver, J; Budzevich, M; Zhang, G; Latifi, K; Dilling, T; Balagurunathan, Y; Gu, Y; Grove, O; Feygelman, V; Gillies, R; Moros, E; Lee, H.

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Quantitative imaging is a fast evolving discipline where a large number of features are extracted from images; i.e., radiomics. Some features have been shown to have diagnostic, prognostic and predictive value. However, they are sensitive to acquisition and processing factors; e.g., noise. In this study noise was added to positron emission tomography (PET) images to determine how features were affected by noise. Methods: Three levels of Gaussian noise were added to 8 lung cancer patients PET images acquired in 3D mode (static) and using respiratory tracking (4D); for the latter images from one of 10 phases were used. A total of 62 features: 14 shape, 19 intensity (1stO), 18 GLCM textures (2ndO; from grey level co-occurrence matrices) and 11 RLM textures (2ndO; from run-length matrices) features were extracted from segmented tumors. Dimensions of GLCM were 256256, calculated using 3D images with a step size of 1 voxel in 13 directions. Grey levels were binned into 256 levels for RLM and features were calculated in all 13 directions. Results: Feature variation generally increased with noise. Shape features were the most stable while RLM were the most unstable. Intensity and GLCM features performed well; the latter being more robust. The most stable 1stO features were compactness, maximum and minimum length, standard deviation, root-mean-squared, I30, V10-V90, and entropy. The most stable 2ndO features were entropy, sum-average, sum-entropy, difference-average, difference-variance, difference-entropy, information-correlation-2, short-run-emphasis, long-run-emphasis, and run-percentage. In general, features computed from images from one of the phases of 4D scans were more stable than from 3D scans. Conclusion: This study shows the need to characterize image features carefully before they are used in research and medical applications. It also shows that the performance of features, and thereby feature selection, may be assessed in part by noise analysis.

  19. 3D cloud detection and tracking system for solar forecast using multiple sky imagers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peng, Zhenzhou; Yu, Dantong; Huang, Dong; Heiser, John; Yoo, Shinjae; Kalb, Paul

    2015-06-23

    We propose a system for forecasting short-term solar irradiance based on multiple total sky imagers (TSIs). The system utilizes a novel method of identifying and tracking clouds in three-dimensional space and an innovative pipeline for forecasting surface solar irradiance based on the image features of clouds. First, we develop a supervised classifier to detect clouds at the pixel level and output cloud mask. In the next step, we design intelligent algorithms to estimate the block-wise base height and motion of each cloud layer based on images from multiple TSIs. Thus, this information is then applied to stitch images together into larger views, which are then used for solar forecasting. We examine the systems ability to track clouds under various cloud conditions and investigate different irradiance forecast models at various sites. We confirm that this system can 1) robustly detect clouds and track layers, and 2) extract the significant global and local features for obtaining stable irradiance forecasts with short forecast horizons from the obtained images. Finally, we vet our forecasting system at the 32-megawatt Long Island Solar Farm (LISF). Compared with the persistent model, our system achieves at least a 26% improvement for all irradiance forecasts between one and fifteen minutes.

  20. 3D cloud detection and tracking system for solar forecast using multiple sky imagers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peng, Zhenzhou; Yu, Dantong; Huang, Dong; Heiser, John; Yoo, Shinjae; Kalb, Paul

    2015-06-23

    We propose a system for forecasting short-term solar irradiance based on multiple total sky imagers (TSIs). The system utilizes a novel method of identifying and tracking clouds in three-dimensional space and an innovative pipeline for forecasting surface solar irradiance based on the image features of clouds. First, we develop a supervised classifier to detect clouds at the pixel level and output cloud mask. In the next step, we design intelligent algorithms to estimate the block-wise base height and motion of each cloud layer based on images from multiple TSIs. Thus, this information is then applied to stitch images together into larger views, which are then used for solar forecasting. We examine the system’s ability to track clouds under various cloud conditions and investigate different irradiance forecast models at various sites. We confirm that this system can 1) robustly detect clouds and track layers, and 2) extract the significant global and local features for obtaining stable irradiance forecasts with short forecast horizons from the obtained images. Finally, we vet our forecasting system at the 32-megawatt Long Island Solar Farm (LISF). Compared with the persistent model, our system achieves at least a 26% improvement for all irradiance forecasts between one and fifteen minutes.

  1. 3D cloud detection and tracking system for solar forecast using multiple sky imagers

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Peng, Zhenzhou; Yu, Dantong; Huang, Dong; Heiser, John; Yoo, Shinjae; Kalb, Paul

    2015-06-23

    We propose a system for forecasting short-term solar irradiance based on multiple total sky imagers (TSIs). The system utilizes a novel method of identifying and tracking clouds in three-dimensional space and an innovative pipeline for forecasting surface solar irradiance based on the image features of clouds. First, we develop a supervised classifier to detect clouds at the pixel level and output cloud mask. In the next step, we design intelligent algorithms to estimate the block-wise base height and motion of each cloud layer based on images from multiple TSIs. Thus, this information is then applied to stitch images together intomore » larger views, which are then used for solar forecasting. We examine the system’s ability to track clouds under various cloud conditions and investigate different irradiance forecast models at various sites. We confirm that this system can 1) robustly detect clouds and track layers, and 2) extract the significant global and local features for obtaining stable irradiance forecasts with short forecast horizons from the obtained images. Finally, we vet our forecasting system at the 32-megawatt Long Island Solar Farm (LISF). Compared with the persistent model, our system achieves at least a 26% improvement for all irradiance forecasts between one and fifteen minutes.« less

  2. An Efficient Algorithm for Mapping Imaging Data to 3D Unstructured Grids in Computational Biomechanics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Einstein, Daniel R.; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Jiao, Xiangmin; Carson, James P.; Einstein, David M.; Corley, Richard A.; Jacob, Rick E.

    2013-01-01

    Geometries for organ scale and multiscale simulations of organ function are now routinely derived from imaging data. However, medical images may also contain spatially heterogeneous information other than geometry that are relevant to such simulations either as initial conditions or in the form of model parameters. In this manuscript, we present an algorithm for the efficient and robust mapping of such data to imaging based unstructured polyhedral grids in parallel. We then illustrate the application of our mapping algorithm to three different mapping problems: 1) the mapping of MRI diffusion tensor data to an unstuctured ventricular grid; 2) the mapping of serial cyro-section histology data to an unstructured mouse brain grid; and 3) the mapping of CT-derived volumetric strain data to an unstructured multiscale lung grid. Execution times and parallel performance are reported for each case.

  3. Simulation of STM images of 3D objects and comparison with experimental data: carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark, Geza I.; Biro, Laszlo P.; Gyulai, Jozsef

    1998-08-11

    Tunneling through a nanotube is a much more complex phenomenon than STM imaging of an atomically flat surface. Besides geometric convolution effects, and resonant tunneling through the two tunneling gaps: STM tip-nanotube, and nanotube-substrate, differences in electronic properties of the nanotube and of the support play a role. We used wave packet dynamical calculation of tunnel current density in the STM tip-nanotube-support system in order to separate the distortion in the STM image formation process in pure geometric and electronic effects. Simulated line cuts for the case of a nanotube on supports with similar and different electronic structures are coincident with experimental data.

  4. Underwater laser imaging system (UWLIS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeLong, M.

    1994-11-15

    Practical limitations with underwater imaging systems area reached when the noise in the back scattered radiation generated in the water between the imaging system and the target obscures the spatial contrast and resolution necessary for target discovery and identification. The advent of high power lasers operating in the blue-green portion of the visible spectrum (oceanic transmission window) has led to improved experimental illumination systems for underwater imaging. Range-gated and synchronously scanned devices take advantage of the unique temporal and spatial coherence properties of laser radiation, respectively, to overcome the deleterious effects of common volume back scatter.

  5. SIMS of organics—Advances in 2D and 3D imaging and future outlook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilmore, Ian S.

    2013-09-15

    Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) has become a powerful technique for the label-free analysis of organics from cells to electronic devices. The development of cluster ion sources has revolutionized the field, increasing the sensitivity for organics by two or three orders of magnitude and for large clusters, such as C{sub 60} and argon clusters, allowing depth profiling of organics. The latter has provided the capability to generate stunning three dimensional images with depth resolutions of around 5 nm, simply unavailable by other techniques. Current state-of-the-art allows molecular images with a spatial resolution of around 500 nm to be achieved and future developments are likely to progress into the sub-100 nm regime. This review is intended to bring those with some familiarity with SIMS up-to-date with the latest developments for organics, the fundamental principles that underpin this and define the future progress. State-of-the-art examples are showcased and signposts to more in-depth reviews about specific topics given for the specialist.

  6. Range imaging laser radar

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, M.W.

    1990-06-19

    A laser source is operated continuously and modulated periodically (typically sinusoidally). A receiver imposes another periodic modulation on the received optical signal, the modulated signal being detected by an array of detectors of the integrating type. Range to the target determined by measuring the phase shift of the intensity modulation on the received optical beam relative to a reference. The receiver comprises a photoemitter for converting the reflected, periodically modulated, return beam to an accordingly modulated electron stream. The electron stream is modulated by a local demodulation signal source and subsequently converted back to a photon stream by a detector. A charge coupled device (CCD) array then averages and samples the photon stream to provide an electrical signal in accordance with the photon stream. 2 figs.

  7. Range imaging laser radar

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, Marion W.

    1990-01-01

    A laser source is operated continuously and modulated periodically (typicy sinusoidally). A receiver imposes another periodic modulation on the received optical signal, the modulated signal being detected by an array of detectors of the integrating type. Range to the target determined by measuring the phase shift of the intensity modulation on the received optical beam relative to a reference. The receiver comprises a photoemitter for converting the reflected, periodically modulated, return beam to an accordingly modulated electron stream. The electron stream is modulated by a local demodulation signal source and subsequently converted back to a photon stream by a detector. A charge coupled device (CCD) array then averages and samples the photon stream to provide an electrical signal in accordance with the photon stream.

  8. Laser speckle contrast imaging of skin blood perfusion responses...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Laser speckle contrast imaging of skin blood perfusion responses induced by laser coagulation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Laser speckle contrast imaging of skin ...

  9. Position tracking of moving liver lesion based on real-time registration between 2D ultrasound and 3D preoperative images

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weon, Chijun; Hyun Nam, Woo; Lee, Duhgoon; Ra, Jong Beom; Lee, Jae Young

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: Registration between 2D ultrasound (US) and 3D preoperative magnetic resonance (MR) (or computed tomography, CT) images has been studied recently for US-guided intervention. However, the existing techniques have some limits, either in the registration speed or the performance. The purpose of this work is to develop a real-time and fully automatic registration system between two intermodal images of the liver, and subsequently an indirect lesion positioning/tracking algorithm based on the registration result, for image-guided interventions. Methods: The proposed position tracking system consists of three stages. In the preoperative stage, the authors acquire several 3D preoperative MR (or CT) images at different respiratory phases. Based on the transformations obtained from nonrigid registration of the acquired 3D images, they then generate a 4D preoperative image along the respiratory phase. In the intraoperative preparatory stage, they properly attach a 3D US transducer to the patient’s body and fix its pose using a holding mechanism. They then acquire a couple of respiratory-controlled 3D US images. Via the rigid registration of these US images to the 3D preoperative images in the 4D image, the pose information of the fixed-pose 3D US transducer is determined with respect to the preoperative image coordinates. As feature(s) to use for the rigid registration, they may choose either internal liver vessels or the inferior vena cava. Since the latter is especially useful in patients with a diffuse liver disease, the authors newly propose using it. In the intraoperative real-time stage, they acquire 2D US images in real-time from the fixed-pose transducer. For each US image, they select candidates for its corresponding 2D preoperative slice from the 4D preoperative MR (or CT) image, based on the predetermined pose information of the transducer. The correct corresponding image is then found among those candidates via real-time 2D registration based on a

  10. Scannerless laser range imaging using loss modulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sandusky, John V.

    2011-08-09

    A scannerless 3-D imaging apparatus is disclosed which utilizes an amplitude modulated cw light source to illuminate a field of view containing a target of interest. Backscattered light from the target is passed through one or more loss modulators which are modulated at the same frequency as the light source, but with a phase delay .delta. which can be fixed or variable. The backscattered light is demodulated by the loss modulator and detected with a CCD, CMOS or focal plane array (FPA) detector to construct a 3-D image of the target. The scannerless 3-D imaging apparatus, which can operate in the eye-safe wavelength region 1.4-1.7 .mu.m and which can be constructed as a flash LADAR, has applications for vehicle collision avoidance, autonomous rendezvous and docking, robotic vision, industrial inspection and measurement, 3-D cameras, and facial recognition.

  11. SU-E-J-13: Six Degree of Freedom Image Fusion Accuracy for Cranial Target Localization On the Varian Edge Stereotactic Radiosurgery System: Comparison Between 2D/3D and KV CBCT Image Registration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, H; Song, K; Chetty, I; Kim, J; Wen, N

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To determine the 6 degree of freedom systematic deviations between 2D/3D and CBCT image registration with various imaging setups and fusion algorithms on the Varian Edge Linac. Methods: An anthropomorphic head phantom with radio opaque targets embedded was scanned with CT slice thicknesses of 0.8, 1, 2, and 3mm. The 6 DOF systematic errors were assessed by comparing 2D/3D (kV/MV with CT) with 3D/3D (CBCT with CT) image registrations with different offset positions, similarity measures, image filters, and CBCT slice thicknesses (1 and 2 mm). The 2D/3D registration accuracy of 51 fractions for 26 cranial SRS patients was also evaluated by analyzing 2D/3D pre-treatment verification taken after 3D/3D image registrations. Results: The systematic deviations of 2D/3D image registration using kV- kV, MV-kV and MV-MV image pairs were within ±0.3mm and ±0.3° for translations and rotations with 95% confidence interval (CI) for a reference CT with 0.8 mm slice thickness. No significant difference (P>0.05) on target localization was observed between 0.8mm, 1mm, and 2mm CT slice thicknesses with CBCT slice thicknesses of 1mm and 2mm. With 3mm CT slice thickness, both 2D/3D and 3D/3D registrations performed less accurately in longitudinal direction than thinner CT slice thickness (0.60±0.12mm and 0.63±0.07mm off, respectively). Using content filter and using similarity measure of pattern intensity instead of mutual information, improved the 2D/3D registration accuracy significantly (P=0.02 and P=0.01, respectively). For the patient study, means and standard deviations of residual errors were 0.09±0.32mm, −0.22±0.51mm and −0.07±0.32mm in VRT, LNG and LAT directions, respectively, and 0.12°±0.46°, −0.12°±0.39° and 0.06°±0.28° in RTN, PITCH, and ROLL directions, respectively. 95% CI of translational and rotational deviations were comparable to those in phantom study. Conclusion: 2D/3D image registration provided on the Varian Edge radiosurgery, 6 DOF

  12. Nonlinear automatic landing control of unmanned aerial vehicles on moving platforms via a 3D laser radar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hervas, Jaime Rubio; Tang, Hui; Reyhanoglu, Mahmut

    2014-12-10

    This paper presents a motion tracking and control system for automatically landing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) on an oscillating platform using Laser Radar (LADAR) observations. The system itself is assumed to be mounted on a ship deck. A full nonlinear mathematical model is first introduced for the UAV. The ship motion is characterized by a Fourier transform based method which includes a realistic characterization of the sea waves. LADAR observation models are introduced and an algorithm to process those observations for yielding the relative state between the vessel and the UAV is presented, from which the UAV's state relative to an inertial frame can be obtained and used for feedback purposes. A sliding mode control algorithm is derived for tracking a landing trajectory defined by a set of desired waypoints. An extended Kalman filter (EKF) is proposed to account for process and observation noises in the design of a state estimator. The effectiveness of the control algorithm is illustrated through a simulation example.

  13. Development of a 400 Level 3C Clamped Downhole Seismic Receiver Array for 3D Borehole Seismic Imaging of Gas Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bjorn N. P. Paulsson

    2006-09-30

    Borehole seismology is the highest resolution geophysical imaging technique available today to the oil and gas industry for characterization and monitoring of oil and gas reservoirs. However, the industry's ability to perform high resolution 3D imaging of deep and complex gas reservoirs using borehole seismology has been hampered by the lack of acquisition technology necessary to record large volumes of high frequency, high signal-to-noise-ratio borehole seismic data. This project took aim at this shortcoming by developing a 400 level 3C clamped downhole seismic receiver array, and accompanying software, for borehole seismic 3D imaging. This large borehole seismic array has removed the technical acquisition barrier for recording the data volumes necessary to do high resolution 3D VSP and 3D cross-well seismic imaging. Massive 3D VSP{reg_sign} and long range Cross-Well Seismology (CWS) are two of the borehole seismic techniques that promise to take the gas industry to the next level in their quest for higher resolution images of deep and complex oil and gas reservoirs. Today only a fraction of the oil or gas in place is produced when reservoirs are considered depleted. This is primarily due to our lack of understanding of detailed compartmentalization of oil and gas reservoirs. In this project, we developed a 400 level 3C borehole seismic receiver array that allows for economic use of 3D borehole seismic imaging for reservoir characterization and monitoring. This new array has significantly increased the efficiency of recording large data volumes at sufficiently dense spatial sampling to resolve reservoir complexities. The receiver pods have been fabricated and tested to withstand high temperature (200 C/400 F) and high pressure (25,000 psi), so that they can operate in wells up to 7,620 meters (25,000 feet) deep. The receiver array is deployed on standard production or drill tubing. In combination with 3C surface seismic or 3C borehole seismic sources, the 400

  14. Laser focus compensating sensing and imaging device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vann, Charles S.

    1993-01-01

    A laser focus compensating sensing and imaging device permits the focus of a single focal point of different frequency laser beams emanating from the same source point. In particular it allows the focusing of laser beam originating from the same laser device but having differing intensities so that a low intensity beam will not convert to a higher frequency when passing through a conversion crystal associated with the laser generating device. The laser focus compensating sensing and imaging device uses a cassegrain system to fold the lower frequency, low intensity beam back upon itself so that it will focus at the same focal point as a high intensity beam. An angular tilt compensating lens is mounted about the secondary mirror of the cassegrain system to assist in alignment. In addition cameras or CCD's are mounted with the primary mirror to sense the focused image. A convex lens is positioned co-axial with the cassegrain system on the side of the primary mirror distal of the secondary for use in aligning a target with the laser beam. A first alternate embodiment includes a cassegrain system using a series of shutters and an internally mounted dichroic mirror. A second alternate embodiment uses two laser focus compensating sensing and imaging devices for aligning a moving tool with a work piece.

  15. Laser focus compensating sensing and imaging device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vann, C.S.

    1993-08-31

    A laser focus compensating sensing and imaging device permits the focus of a single focal point of different frequency laser beams emanating from the same source point. In particular it allows the focusing of laser beam originating from the same laser device but having differing intensities so that a low intensity beam will not convert to a higher frequency when passing through a conversion crystal associated with the laser generating device. The laser focus compensating sensing and imaging device uses a Cassegrain system to fold the lower frequency, low intensity beam back upon itself so that it will focus at the same focal point as a high intensity beam. An angular tilt compensating lens is mounted about the secondary mirror of the Cassegrain system to assist in alignment. In addition cameras or CCD's are mounted with the primary mirror to sense the focused image. A convex lens is positioned co-axial with the Cassegrain system on the side of the primary mirror distal of the secondary for use in aligning a target with the laser beam. A first alternate embodiment includes a Cassegrain system using a series of shutters and an internally mounted dichroic mirror. A second alternate embodiment uses two laser focus compensating sensing and imaging devices for aligning a moving tool with a work piece.

  16. SU-C-201-06: Utility of Quantitative 3D SPECT/CT Imaging in Patient Specific Internal Dosimetry of 153-Samarium with GATE Monte Carlo Package

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fallahpoor, M; Abbasi, M; Sen, A; Parach, A; Kalantari, F

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Patient-specific 3-dimensional (3D) internal dosimetry in targeted radionuclide therapy is essential for efficient treatment. Two major steps to achieve reliable results are: 1) generating quantitative 3D images of radionuclide distribution and attenuation coefficients and 2) using a reliable method for dose calculation based on activity and attenuation map. In this research, internal dosimetry for 153-Samarium (153-Sm) was done by SPECT-CT images coupled GATE Monte Carlo package for internal dosimetry. Methods: A 50 years old woman with bone metastases from breast cancer was prescribed 153-Sm treatment (Gamma: 103keV and beta: 0.81MeV). A SPECT/CT scan was performed with the Siemens Simbia-T scanner. SPECT and CT images were registered using default registration software. SPECT quantification was achieved by compensating for all image degrading factors including body attenuation, Compton scattering and collimator-detector response (CDR). Triple energy window method was used to estimate and eliminate the scattered photons. Iterative ordered-subsets expectation maximization (OSEM) with correction for attenuation and distance-dependent CDR was used for image reconstruction. Bilinear energy mapping is used to convert Hounsfield units in CT image to attenuation map. Organ borders were defined by the itk-SNAP toolkit segmentation on CT image. GATE was then used for internal dose calculation. The Specific Absorbed Fractions (SAFs) and S-values were reported as MIRD schema. Results: The results showed that the largest SAFs and S-values are in osseous organs as expected. S-value for lung is the highest after spine that can be important in 153-Sm therapy. Conclusion: We presented the utility of SPECT-CT images and Monte Carlo for patient-specific dosimetry as a reliable and accurate method. It has several advantages over template-based methods or simplified dose estimation methods. With advent of high speed computers, Monte Carlo can be used for treatment planning

  17. 3D NUCLEAR SEGMENTAT

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    003029WKSTN00 Delineation of nuclear structures in 3D multicellular systems https://vision.lbl.gov/Software/3DMorphometry/

  18. Development of Gamma-Ray Compton Imager Using Room-Temperature 3-D Position Sensitive Semiconductor Detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhong He; David Whe; Glenn Knoll

    2003-05-14

    During the three years of this project, two 3-dimensional position sensitive CdZnTe spectrometers were upgraded in collaboration with Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. A prototype Compton-scattering gamma-ray imager was assembled using the two upgraded CdZnTe detectors. The performance of both gamma-ray spectrometers were individually tested. The angular resolution and detection sensitivity of the imaging system were measured using both a point and a line-shaped 137 Cs radiation source. The measurement results are consistent with that obtained from Monte-Carlo simulations performed during the early phase of the project.

  19. 3D Rotation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    | Department of Energy 3D Printed Tool for Building Aircraft Achieves Guinness World Records Title 3D Printed Tool for Building Aircraft Achieves Guinness World Records Title August 30, 2016 - 2:07pm Addthis Official measurement of the 3D printed trim tool co-developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and The Boeing Company exceeded the required minimum size to achieve the Guinness World Records title of largest solid 3D printed item. Official measurement of the 3D printed trim tool

  20. 3D mapping of water in oolithic limestone at atmospheric and vacuum saturation using X-ray micro-CT differential imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boone, M.A.; De Kock, T.; Bultreys, T.; De Schutter, G.; Vontobel, P.; Van Hoorebeke, L.; Cnudde, V.

    2014-11-15

    Determining the distribution of fluids in porous sedimentary rocks is of great importance in many geological fields. However, this is not straightforward, especially in the case of complex sedimentary rocks like limestone, where a multidisciplinary approach is often needed to capture its broad, multimodal pore size distribution and complex pore geometries. This paper focuses on the porosity and fluid distribution in two varieties of Massangis limestone, a widely used natural building stone from the southeast part of the Paris basin (France). The Massangis limestone shows locally varying post-depositional alterations, resulting in different types of pore networks and very different water distributions within the limestone. Traditional techniques for characterizing the porosity and pore size distribution are compared with state-of-the-art neutron radiography and X-ray computed microtomography to visualize the distribution of water inside the limestone at different imbibition conditions. X-ray computed microtomography images have the great advantage to non-destructively visualize and analyze the pore space inside of a rock, but are often limited to the larger macropores in the rock due to resolution limitations. In this paper, differential imaging is successfully applied to the X-ray computed microtomography images to obtain sub-resolution information about fluid occupancy and to map the fluid distribution in three dimensions inside the scanned limestone samples. The detailed study of the pore space with differential imaging allows understanding the difference in the water uptake behavior of the limestone, a primary factor that affects the weathering of the rock. - Highlights: • The water distribution in a limestone was visualized in 3D with micro-CT. • Differential imaging allowed to map both macro and microporous zones in the rock. • The 3D study of the pore space clarified the difference in water uptake behavior. • Trapped air is visualized in the moldic

  1. 3D Imaging of Nickel Oxidation States using Full Field X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure Nanotomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, George; Harris, William; Izzo, John; Grew, Kyle N.

    2012-01-20

    Reduction-oxidation (redox) cycling of the nickel electrocatalyst phase in the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anode can lead to performance degradation and cell failure. A greater understanding of nickel redox mechanisms at the microstructural level is vital to future SOFC development. Transmission x-ray microscopy (TXM) provides several key techniques for exploring oxidation states within SOFC electrode microstructure. Specifically, x-ray nanotomography and x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy have been applied to study samples of varying nickel (Ni) and nickel oxide (NiO) compositions. The imaged samples are treated as mock SOFC anodes containing distinct regions of the materials in question. XANES spectra presented for the individual materials provide a basis for the further processing and analysis of mixed samples. Images of composite samples obtained are segmented, and the distinct nickel and nickel oxide phases are uniquely identified using full field XANES spectroscopy. Applications to SOFC analysis are discussed.

  2. Laser image recording on detonation nanodiamond films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mikheev, G M; Mikheev, K G; Mogileva, T N; Puzyr, A P; Bondar, V S

    2014-01-31

    A focused He Ne laser beam is shown to cause local blackening of semitransparent detonation nanodiamond (DND) films at incident power densities above 600 W cm{sup -2}. Data obtained with a Raman spectrometer and low-power 632.8-nm laser source indicate that the blackening is accompanied by a decrease in broadband background luminescence and emergence of sharp Raman peaks corresponding to the structures of nanodiamond and sp{sup 2} carbon. The feasibility of image recording on DND films by a focused He Ne laser beam is demonstrated. (letters)

  3. Evaluating quantitative 3-D image analysis as a design tool for low enriched uranium fuel compacts for the transient reactor test facility: A preliminary study

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kane, J. J.; van Rooyen, I. J.; Craft, A. E.; Roney, T. J.; Morrell, S. R.

    2016-02-05

    In this study, 3-D image analysis when combined with a non-destructive examination technique such as X-ray computed tomography (CT) provides a highly quantitative tool for the investigation of a material’s structure. In this investigation 3-D image analysis and X-ray CT were combined to analyze the microstructure of a preliminary subsized fuel compact for the Transient Reactor Test Facility’s low enriched uranium conversion program to assess the feasibility of the combined techniques for use in the optimization of the fuel compact fabrication process. The quantitative image analysis focused on determining the size and spatial distribution of the surrogate fuel particles andmore » the size, shape, and orientation of voids within the compact. Additionally, the maximum effect of microstructural features on heat transfer through the carbonaceous matrix of the preliminary compact was estimated. The surrogate fuel particles occupied 0.8% of the compact by volume with a log-normal distribution of particle sizes with a mean diameter of 39 μm and a standard deviation of 16 μm. Roughly 39% of the particles had a diameter greater than the specified maximum particle size of 44 μm suggesting that the particles agglomerate during fabrication. The local volume fraction of particles also varies significantly within the compact although uniformities appear to be evenly dispersed throughout the analysed volume. The voids produced during fabrication were on average plate-like in nature with their major axis oriented perpendicular to the compaction direction of the compact. Finally, the microstructure, mainly the large preferentially oriented voids, may cause a small degree of anisotropy in the thermal diffusivity within the compact. α∥/α⊥, the ratio of thermal diffusivities parallel to and perpendicular to the compaction direction are expected to be no less than 0.95 with an upper bound of 1.« less

  4. ShowMe3D

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-01-05

    ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from themore » displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.« less

  5. 3D inpatient dose reconstruction from the PET-CT imaging of {sup 90}Y microspheres for metastatic cancer to the liver: Feasibility study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fourkal, E.; Veltchev, I.; Lin, M.; Meyer, J.; Koren, S.; Doss, M.; Yu, J. Q.

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: The introduction of radioembolization with microspheres represents a significant step forward in the treatment of patients with metastatic disease to the liver. This technique uses semiempirical formulae based on body surface area or liver and target volumes to calculate the required total activity for a given patient. However, this treatment modality lacks extremely important information, which is the three-dimensional (3D) dose delivered by microspheres to different organs after their administration. The absence of this information dramatically limits the clinical efficacy of this modality, specifically the predictive power of the treatment. Therefore, the aim of this study is to develop a 3D dose calculation technique that is based on the PET imaging of the infused microspheres.Methods: The Fluka Monte Carlo code was used to calculate the voxel dose kernel for {sup 90}Y source with voxel size equal to that of the PET scan. The measured PET activity distribution was converted to total activity distribution for the subsequent convolution with the voxel dose kernel to obtain the 3D dose distribution. In addition, dose-volume histograms were generated to analyze the dose to the tumor and critical structures.Results: The 3D inpatient dose distribution can be reconstructed from the PET data of a patient scanned after the infusion of microspheres. A total of seven patients have been analyzed so far using the proposed reconstruction method. Four patients underwent treatment with SIR-Spheres for liver metastases from colorectal cancer and three patients were treated with Therasphere for hepatocellular cancer. A total of 14 target tumors were contoured on post-treatment PET-CT scans for dosimetric evaluation. Mean prescription activity was 1.7 GBq (range: 0.583.8 GBq). The resulting mean maximum measured dose to targets was 167 Gy (range: 71311 Gy). Mean minimum dose to 70% of target (D70) was 68 Gy (range: 25155 Gy). Mean minimum dose to 90% of target (D90

  6. Automatic Segmentation of the Eye in 3D Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Novel Statistical Shape Model for Treatment Planning of Retinoblastoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ciller, Carlos; De Zanet, Sandro I.; Rüegsegger, Michael B.; Pica, Alessia; Sznitman, Raphael; Thiran, Jean-Philippe; Maeder, Philippe; Munier, Francis L.; Kowal, Jens H.; and others

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Proper delineation of ocular anatomy in 3-dimensional (3D) imaging is a big challenge, particularly when developing treatment plans for ocular diseases. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is presently used in clinical practice for diagnosis confirmation and treatment planning for treatment of retinoblastoma in infants, where it serves as a source of information, complementary to the fundus or ultrasonographic imaging. Here we present a framework to fully automatically segment the eye anatomy for MRI based on 3D active shape models (ASM), and we validate the results and present a proof of concept to automatically segment pathological eyes. Methods and Materials: Manual and automatic segmentation were performed in 24 images of healthy children's eyes (3.29 ± 2.15 years of age). Imaging was performed using a 3-T MRI scanner. The ASM consists of the lens, the vitreous humor, the sclera, and the cornea. The model was fitted by first automatically detecting the position of the eye center, the lens, and the optic nerve, and then aligning the model and fitting it to the patient. We validated our segmentation method by using a leave-one-out cross-validation. The segmentation results were evaluated by measuring the overlap, using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and the mean distance error. Results: We obtained a DSC of 94.90 ± 2.12% for the sclera and the cornea, 94.72 ± 1.89% for the vitreous humor, and 85.16 ± 4.91% for the lens. The mean distance error was 0.26 ± 0.09 mm. The entire process took 14 seconds on average per eye. Conclusion: We provide a reliable and accurate tool that enables clinicians to automatically segment the sclera, the cornea, the vitreous humor, and the lens, using MRI. We additionally present a proof of concept for fully automatically segmenting eye pathology. This tool reduces the time needed for eye shape delineation and thus can help clinicians when planning eye treatment and confirming the extent of the tumor.

  7. Graphene's 3D Counterpart

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Graphene's 3D Counterpart Graphene's 3D Counterpart Print Monday, 21 July 2014 08:59 ALS researchers have discovered a material that is essentially a 3D version of graphene-the 2D sheets of carbon through which electrons race at many times the speed at which they move through silicon. The discovery promises exciting new things to come for the high--tech industry, including much faster transistors and far more compact hard drives. Researchers discovered that sodium bismuthide can exist as a form

  8. Laser spectroscopy of the 4s4p {sup 3}P{sub 2} - 4s3d {sup 1}D{sub 2} transition on magnetically trapped calcium atoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dammalapati, U.; Norris, I.; Burrows, C.; Riis, E.

    2011-06-15

    Laser excitation of the 4s4p {sup 3}P{sub 2} - 4s3d {sup 1}D{sub 2} transition in atomic calcium has been observed and the wavelength determined to 1530.5298(6) nm. The metastable 4s4p {sup 3}P{sub 2} atoms were magnetically trapped in the quadrupole magnetic field of a magneto-optical trap. This state represents the only ''loss'' channel for the calcium atoms when laser cooled on the 4s{sup 2} {sup 1}S{sub 0} - 4s4p {sup 1}P{sub 1} transition. A rate equation model shows that an order of magnitude more atoms are trapped in this state compared with those taking part in the main cooling cycle. Excitation of the {sup 3}P{sub 2} atoms back up to the 4s3d {sup 1}D{sub 2} state provides a means of accessing these atoms. Efficient repumping is achieved if the 1530-nm laser is used in conjunction with a 672-nm laser driving the 4s3d {sup 1}D{sub 2} - 4s5p {sup 1}P{sub 1} transition. In the present experiment, we detected about 4.5x10{sup 4} trapped {sup 3}P{sub 2} atoms, a relatively low atom density, and measured a lifetime of approximately 1 s, which is limited by background collisions.

  9. Graphene's 3D Counterpart

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Print ALS researchers have discovered a material that is essentially a 3D version of graphene-the 2D sheets of carbon through which electrons race at many times the speed at which...

  10. Graphene's 3D Counterpart

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    some exciting phenomena and applications of graphene in 3D materials-it also gives rise to many unusual properties. In addition to these unusual properties, the 3DTDS is the...

  11. Graphene's 3D Counterpart

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    can exist as a form of quantum matter called a three--dimensional topological Dirac semi--metal (3DTDS). This is the first experimental confirmation of 3D Dirac fermions...

  12. GPU-Accelerated Denoising in 3D (GD3D)

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2013-10-01

    The raw computational power GPU Accelerators enables fast denoising of 3D MR images using bilateral filtering, anisotropic diffusion, and non-local means. This software addresses two facets of this promising application: what tuning is necessary to achieve optimal performance on a modern GPU? And what parameters yield the best denoising results in practice? To answer the first question, the software performs an autotuning step to empirically determine optimal memory blocking on the GPU. To answer themore » second, it performs a sweep of algorithm parameters to determine the combination that best reduces the mean squared error relative to a noiseless reference image.« less

  13. SNL3dFace

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2007-07-20

    This software distribution contains MATLAB and C++ code to enable identity verification using 3D images that may or may not contain a texture component. The code is organized to support system performance testing and system capability demonstration through the proper configuration of the available user interface. Using specific algorithm parameters the face recognition system has been demonstrated to achieve a 96.6% verification rate (Pd) at 0.001 false alarm rate. The system computes robust facial featuresmore » of a 3D normalized face using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA). A 3D normalized face is obtained by alighning each face, represented by a set of XYZ coordinated, to a scaled reference face using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The scaled reference face is then deformed to the input face using an iterative framework with parameters that control the deformed surface regulation an rate of deformation. A variety of options are available to control the information that is encoded by the PCA. Such options include the XYZ coordinates, the difference of each XYZ coordinates from the reference, the Z coordinate, the intensity/texture values, etc. In addition to PCA/FLDA feature projection this software supports feature matching to obtain similarity matrices for performance analysis. In addition, this software supports visualization of the STL, MRD, 2D normalized, and PCA synthetic representations in a 3D environment.« less

  14. Graphene's 3D Counterpart

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Graphene's 3D Counterpart Print ALS researchers have discovered a material that is essentially a 3D version of graphene-the 2D sheets of carbon through which electrons race at many times the speed at which they move through silicon. The discovery promises exciting new things to come for the high--tech industry, including much faster transistors and far more compact hard drives. Researchers discovered that sodium bismuthide can exist as a form of quantum matter called a three--dimensional

  15. Graphene's 3D Counterpart

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Graphene's 3D Counterpart Print ALS researchers have discovered a material that is essentially a 3D version of graphene-the 2D sheets of carbon through which electrons race at many times the speed at which they move through silicon. The discovery promises exciting new things to come for the high--tech industry, including much faster transistors and far more compact hard drives. Researchers discovered that sodium bismuthide can exist as a form of quantum matter called a three--dimensional

  16. Graphene's 3D Counterpart

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Graphene's 3D Counterpart Print ALS researchers have discovered a material that is essentially a 3D version of graphene-the 2D sheets of carbon through which electrons race at many times the speed at which they move through silicon. The discovery promises exciting new things to come for the high--tech industry, including much faster transistors and far more compact hard drives. Researchers discovered that sodium bismuthide can exist as a form of quantum matter called a three--dimensional

  17. Graphene's 3D Counterpart

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Graphene's 3D Counterpart Print ALS researchers have discovered a material that is essentially a 3D version of graphene-the 2D sheets of carbon through which electrons race at many times the speed at which they move through silicon. The discovery promises exciting new things to come for the high--tech industry, including much faster transistors and far more compact hard drives. Researchers discovered that sodium bismuthide can exist as a form of quantum matter called a three--dimensional

  18. Synchrotron X-ray 2D and 3D Elemental Imaging of CdSe/ZnS Quantum dot Nanoparticles in Daphnia Magna

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, B.; Pace, H; Lanzirotti, A; Smith, R; Ranville, J

    2009-01-01

    The potential toxicity of nanoparticles to aquatic organisms is of interest given that increased commercialization will inevitably lead to some instances of inadvertent environmental exposures. Cadmium selenide quantum dots (QDs) capped with zinc sulfide are used in the semiconductor industry and in cellular imaging. Their small size (<10 nm) suggests that they may be readily assimilated by exposed organisms. We exposed Daphnia magna to both red and green QDs and used synchrotron X-ray fluorescence to study the distribution of Zn and Se in the organism over a time period of 36 h. The QDs appeared to be confined to the gut, and there was no evidence of further assimilation into the organism. Zinc and Se fluorescence signals were highly correlated, suggesting that the QDs had not dissolved to any extent. There was no apparent difference between red or green QDs, i.e., there was no effect of QD size. 3D tomography confirmed that the QDs were exclusively in the gut area of the organism. It is possible that the QDs aggregated and were therefore too large to cross the gut wall.

  19. Acute Toxicity After Image-Guided Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Compared to 3D Conformal Radiation Therapy in Prostate Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wortel, Ruud C.; Incrocci, Luca; Pos, Floris J.; Lebesque, Joos V.; Witte, Marnix G.; Heide, Uulke A. van der; Herk, Marcel van; Heemsbergen, Wilma D.

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Image-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy (IG-IMRT) allows significant dose reductions to organs at risk in prostate cancer patients. However, clinical data identifying the benefits of IG-IMRT in daily practice are scarce. The purpose of this study was to compare dose distributions to organs at risk and acute gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity levels of patients treated to 78 Gy with either IG-IMRT or 3D-CRT. Methods and Materials: Patients treated with 3D-CRT (n=215) and IG-IMRT (n=260) receiving 78 Gy in 39 fractions within 2 randomized trials were selected. Dose surface histograms of anorectum, anal canal, and bladder were calculated. Identical toxicity questionnaires were distributed at baseline, prior to fraction 20 and 30 and at 90 days after treatment. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) grade ≥1, ≥2, and ≥3 endpoints were derived directly from questionnaires. Univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression analyses were applied. Results: The median volumes receiving 5 to 75 Gy were significantly lower (all P<.001) with IG-IMRT for anorectum, anal canal, and bladder. The mean dose to the anorectum was 34.4 Gy versus 47.3 Gy (P<.001), 23.6 Gy versus 44.6 Gy for the anal canal (P<.001), and 33.1 Gy versus 43.2 Gy for the bladder (P<.001). Significantly lower grade ≥2 toxicity was observed for proctitis, stool frequency ≥6/day, and urinary frequency ≥12/day. IG-IMRT resulted in significantly lower overall RTOG grade ≥2 GI toxicity (29% vs 49%, respectively, P=.002) and overall GU grade ≥2 toxicity (38% vs 48%, respectively, P=.009). Conclusions: A clinically meaningful reduction in dose to organs at risk and acute toxicity levels was observed in IG-IMRT patients, as a result of improved technique and tighter margins. Therefore reduced late toxicity levels can be expected as well; additional research is needed to quantify such reductions.

  20. DYNA3D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennedy, T. )

    1989-05-01

    DYNA3D is an explicit, three-dimensional, finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic response of inelastic solids and structures. DYNA3D contains 30 material models and 10 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, Blatz-Ko rubber, high explosive burn, hydrodynamic without deviatoric stresses, elastoplastic hydrodynamic, temperature-dependent elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic with failure, soil and crushable foam with failure, Johnson/Cook plasticity model, pseudo TENSOR geological model, elastoplastic with fracture, power law isotropic plasticity, strain rate dependent plasticity, rigid, thermal orthotropic, composite damage model, thermal orthotropic with 12 curves, piecewise linear isotropic plasticity, inviscid two invariant geologic cap, orthotropic crushable model, Moonsy-Rivlin rubber, and resultant plasticity. The hydrodynamic material models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 10 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack 'Tuesday' high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, tabulated, and TENSOR pore collapse. DYNA3D generates three binary output databases. One contains information for complete states at infrequent intervals; 50 to 100 states is typical. The second contains information for a subset of nodes and elements at frequent intervals; 1,000 to 10,000 states is typical. The last contains interface data for contact surfaces.

  1. 3-D MAPPING TECHNOLOGIES FOR HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marzolf, A.; Folsom, M.

    2010-08-31

    time-of-flight data (3D image) collected with a single laser pulse, high frame rates, direct calculation of range, blur-free images without motion distortion, no need for precision scanning mechanisms, ability to combine 3D flash LIDAR with 2D cameras for 2D texture over 3D depth, and no moving parts. The major disadvantage of the 3D flash LIDAR camera is the cost of approximately $150,000, not including the software development time and repackaging of the camera for deployment in the waste tanks.

  2. Speckle averaging system for laser raster-scan image projection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tiszauer, Detlev H.; Hackel, Lloyd A.

    1998-03-17

    The viewers' perception of laser speckle in a laser-scanned image projection system is modified or eliminated by the addition of an optical deflection system that effectively presents a new speckle realization at each point on the viewing screen to each viewer for every scan across the field. The speckle averaging is accomplished without introduction of spurious imaging artifacts.

  3. Speckle averaging system for laser raster-scan image projection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tiszauer, D.H.; Hackel, L.A.

    1998-03-17

    The viewers` perception of laser speckle in a laser-scanned image projection system is modified or eliminated by the addition of an optical deflection system that effectively presents a new speckle realization at each point on the viewing screen to each viewer for every scan across the field. The speckle averaging is accomplished without introduction of spurious imaging artifacts. 5 figs.

  4. Laser radiography forming bremsstrahlung radiation to image an object

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perry, Michael D.; Sefcik, Joseph A.

    2004-01-13

    A method of imaging an object by generating laser pulses with a short-pulse, high-power laser. When the laser pulse strikes a conductive target, bremsstrahlung radiation is generated such that hard ballistic high-energy electrons are formed to penetrate an object. A detector on the opposite side of the object detects these electrons. Since laser pulses are used to form the hard x-rays, multiple pulses can be used to image an object in motion, such as an exploding or compressing object, by using time gated detectors. Furthermore, the laser pulses can be directed down different tubes using mirrors and filters so that each laser pulse will image a different portion of the object.

  5. Imaging System With Confocally Self-Detecting Laser.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Webb, Robert H.; Rogomentich, Fran J.

    1996-10-08

    The invention relates to a confocal laser imaging system and method. The system includes a laser source, a beam splitter, focusing elements, and a photosensitive detector. The laser source projects a laser beam along a first optical path at an object to be imaged, and modulates the intensity of the projected laser beam in response to light reflected from the object. A beam splitter directs a portion of the projected laser beam onto a photodetector. The photodetector monitors the intensity of laser output. The laser source can be an electrically scannable array, with a lens or objective assembly for focusing light generated by the array onto the object of interest. As the array is energized, its laser beams scan over the object, and light reflected at each point is returned by the lens to the element of the array from which it originated. A single photosensitive detector element can generate an intensity-representative signal for all lasers of the array. The intensity-representative signal from the photosensitive detector can be processed to provide an image of the object of interest.

  6. Pulsed laser linescanner for a backscatter absorption gas imaging system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulp, Thomas J.; Reichardt, Thomas A.; Schmitt, Randal L.; Bambha, Ray P.

    2004-02-10

    An active (laser-illuminated) imaging system is described that is suitable for use in backscatter absorption gas imaging (BAGI). A BAGI imager operates by imaging a scene as it is illuminated with radiation that is absorbed by the gas to be detected. Gases become "visible" in the image when they attenuate the illumination creating a shadow in the image. This disclosure describes a BAGI imager that operates in a linescanned manner using a high repetition rate pulsed laser as its illumination source. The format of this system allows differential imaging, in which the scene is illuminated with light at least 2 wavelengths--one or more absorbed by the gas and one or more not absorbed. The system is designed to accomplish imaging in a manner that is insensitive to motion of the camera, so that it can be held in the hand of an operator or operated from a moving vehicle.

  7. Imaging, Characterizing, and Modeling of Fracture Networks and Fluid Flow in EGS Reservoirs; II: Full-Waveform Inversion of 3D-9C VSP data from Bradys EGS Site and Update of the Brady Reservoir Scale Model

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    I: Imaging, Characterizing, and Modeling of Fracture Networks and Fluid Flow in EGS Reservoirs; II: Full-Waveform Inversion of 3D-9C VSP data from Brady's EGS Site and Update of the Brady Reservoir Scale Model Lianjie Huang Los Alamos National Laboratory Fluid Imaging Project Officer: Lauren Boyd Total Project Funding: Part I: $855,430 (LANL), $1M (NETL); Part II: $250,000 (LANL) April 22-25, 2013 This presentation does not contain any proprietary confidential, or otherwise restricted

  8. Method for identifying subsurface fluid migration and drainage pathways in and among oil and gas reservoirs using 3-D and 4-D seismic imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Roger N.; Boulanger, Albert; Bagdonas, Edward P.; Xu, Liqing; He, Wei

    1996-01-01

    The invention utilizes 3-D and 4-D seismic surveys as a means of deriving information useful in petroleum exploration and reservoir management. The methods use both single seismic surveys (3-D) and multiple seismic surveys separated in time (4-D) of a region of interest to determine large scale migration pathways within sedimentary basins, and fine scale drainage structure and oil-water-gas regions within individual petroleum producing reservoirs. Such structure is identified using pattern recognition tools which define the regions of interest. The 4-D seismic data sets may be used for data completion for large scale structure where time intervals between surveys do not allow for dynamic evolution. The 4-D seismic data sets also may be used to find variations over time of small scale structure within individual reservoirs which may be used to identify petroleum drainage pathways, oil-water-gas regions and, hence, attractive drilling targets. After spatial orientation, and amplitude and frequency matching of the multiple seismic data sets, High Amplitude Event (HAE) regions consistent with the presence of petroleum are identified using seismic attribute analysis. High Amplitude Regions are grown and interconnected to establish plumbing networks on the large scale and reservoir structure on the small scale. Small scale variations over time between seismic surveys within individual reservoirs are identified and used to identify drainage patterns and bypassed petroleum to be recovered. The location of such drainage patterns and bypassed petroleum may be used to site wells.

  9. Method for identifying subsurface fluid migration and drainage pathways in and among oil and gas reservoirs using 3-D and 4-D seismic imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, R.N.; Boulanger, A.; Bagdonas, E.P.; Xu, L.; He, W.

    1996-12-17

    The invention utilizes 3-D and 4-D seismic surveys as a means of deriving information useful in petroleum exploration and reservoir management. The methods use both single seismic surveys (3-D) and multiple seismic surveys separated in time (4-D) of a region of interest to determine large scale migration pathways within sedimentary basins, and fine scale drainage structure and oil-water-gas regions within individual petroleum producing reservoirs. Such structure is identified using pattern recognition tools which define the regions of interest. The 4-D seismic data sets may be used for data completion for large scale structure where time intervals between surveys do not allow for dynamic evolution. The 4-D seismic data sets also may be used to find variations over time of small scale structure within individual reservoirs which may be used to identify petroleum drainage pathways, oil-water-gas regions and, hence, attractive drilling targets. After spatial orientation, and amplitude and frequency matching of the multiple seismic data sets, High Amplitude Event (HAE) regions consistent with the presence of petroleum are identified using seismic attribute analysis. High Amplitude Regions are grown and interconnected to establish plumbing networks on the large scale and reservoir structure on the small scale. Small scale variations over time between seismic surveys within individual reservoirs are identified and used to identify drainage patterns and bypassed petroleum to be recovered. The location of such drainage patterns and bypassed petroleum may be used to site wells. 22 figs.

  10. Comparison of 2D and 3D Imaging and Treatment Planning for Postoperative Vaginal Apex High-Dose Rate Brachytherapy for Endometrial Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russo, James K.; Armeson, Kent E.; Richardson, Susan

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate bladder and rectal doses using two-dimensional (2D) and 3D treatment planning for vaginal cuff high-dose rate (HDR) in endometrial cancer. Methods and Materials: Ninety-one consecutive patients treated between 2000 and 2007 were evaluated. Seventy-one and 20 patients underwent 2D and 3D planning, respectively. Each patient received six fractions prescribed at 0.5 cm to the superior 3 cm of the vagina. International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) doses were calculated for 2D patients. Maximum and 2-cc doses were calculated for 3D patients. Organ doses were normalized to prescription dose. Results: Bladder maximum doses were 178% of ICRU doses (p < 0.0001). Two-cubic centimeter doses were no different than ICRU doses (p = 0.22). Two-cubic centimeter doses were 59% of maximum doses (p < 0.0001). Rectal maximum doses were 137% of ICRU doses (p < 0.0001). Two-cubic centimeter doses were 87% of ICRU doses (p < 0.0001). Two-cubic centimeter doses were 64% of maximum doses (p < 0.0001). Using the first 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 fractions, we predicted the final bladder dose to within 10% for 44%, 59%, 83%, 82%, and 89% of patients by using the ICRU dose, and for 45%, 55%, 80%, 85%, and 85% of patients by using the maximum dose, and for 37%, 68%, 79%, 79%, and 84% of patients by using the 2-cc dose. Using the first 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 fractions, we predicted the final rectal dose to within 10% for 100%, 100%, 100%, 100%, and 100% of patients by using the ICRU dose, and for 60%, 65%, 70%, 75%, and 75% of patients by using the maximum dose, and for 68%, 95%, 84%, 84%, and 84% of patients by using the 2-cc dose. Conclusions: Doses to organs at risk vary depending on the calculation method. In some cases, final dose accuracy appears to plateau after the third fraction, indicating that simulation and planning may not be necessary in all fractions. A clinically relevant level of accuracy should be determined and further research conducted to address

  11. Azimuthally Anisotropic 3D Velocity Continuation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Burnett, William; Fomel, Sergey

    2011-01-01

    We extend time-domain velocity continuation to the zero-offset 3D azimuthally anisotropic case. Velocity continuation describes how a seismic image changes given a change in migration velocity. This description turns out to be of a wave propagation process, in which images change along a velocity axis. In the anisotropic case, the velocity model is multiparameter. Therefore, anisotropic image propagation is multidimensional. We use a three-parameter slowness model, which is related to azimuthal variations in velocity, as well as their principal directions. This information is useful for fracture and reservoir characterization from seismic data. We provide synthetic diffraction imaging examples to illustratemore » the concept and potential applications of azimuthal velocity continuation and to analyze the impulse response of the 3D velocity continuation operator.« less

  12. LLNL researchers outline what happens during metal 3D printing...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    are fused by a laser or electron beam based on a 3D computer-aided design (CAD) model. ... NNSA's systems administrators keep the computers running Meet a Machine: Explosive science ...

  13. SU-C-BRB-06: Utilizing 3D Scanner and Printer for Dummy Eye-Shield: Artifact-Free CT Images of Tungsten Eye-Shield for Accurate Dose Calculation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, J; Lee, J; Kim, H; Kim, I; Ye, S

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of a tungsten eye-shield on the dose distribution of a patient. Methods: A 3D scanner was used to extract the dimension and shape of a tungsten eye-shield in the STL format. Scanned data was transferred into a 3D printer. A dummy eye shield was then produced using bio-resin (3D systems, VisiJet M3 Proplast). For a patient with mucinous carcinoma, the planning CT was obtained with the dummy eye-shield placed on the patient’s right eye. Field shaping of 6 MeV was performed using a patient-specific cerrobend block on the 15 x 15 cm{sup 2} applicator. The gantry angle was 330° to cover the planning target volume near by the lens. EGS4/BEAMnrc was commissioned from our measurement data from a Varian 21EX. For the CT-based dose calculation using EGS4/DOSXYZnrc, the CT images were converted to a phantom file through the ctcreate program. The phantom file had the same resolution as the planning CT images. By assigning the CT numbers of the dummy eye-shield region to 17000, the real dose distributions below the tungsten eye-shield were calculated in EGS4/DOSXYZnrc. In the TPS, the CT number of the dummy eye-shield region was assigned to the maximum allowable CT number (3000). Results: As compared to the maximum dose, the MC dose on the right lens or below the eye shield area was less than 2%, while the corresponding RTP calculated dose was an unrealistic value of approximately 50%. Conclusion: Utilizing a 3D scanner and a 3D printer, a dummy eye-shield for electron treatment can be easily produced. The artifact-free CT images were successfully incorporated into the CT-based Monte Carlo simulations. The developed method was useful in predicting the realistic dose distributions around the lens blocked with the tungsten shield.

  14. Design of 3D eye-safe middle range vibrometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polulyakh, Valeriy; Poutivski, Iouri

    2014-05-27

    Laser Doppler Vibrometer and Range Meter (3D-MRV) is designed for middle range distances [1100 meters]. 3D-MRV combines more than one laser in one device for a simultaneous real time measuring the distance and movement of the targets. The first laser has a short pulse (t?30psec) and low energy (E?200nJ) for distance measurement and the second one is a CW (continuous wave) single frequency laser for the velocity measurement with output power (P?30mW). Both lasers perform on the eye-safe wavelength 1.5 ?m. 3D-MRV uses the same mono-static optical transmitting and receiving channel for both lasers including an output telescope and a scanning angular system. 3D-MRV has an optical polarization switch to combine linear polarized laser beams from two lasers into one optical channel. The laser beams from both lasers by turns illuminate the target and the scattered laser radiation is collected by the telescope on a photo detector. The electrical signal from photo detector is used for measuring the distance to the target and its movement. For distance measurement the time of flight method is employed. For targets movement the optical heterodyne method is employed. The received CW laser radiation is mixed on a photo detector with the frequency-shifted laser radiation that is taken from CW laser and passed through an acousto-optic cell. The electrical signal from a photo detector on the difference frequency and phase has information about movement of the scattered targets. 3D-MVR may be used for the real time picturing of vibration of the extensive targets like bridges or aircrafts.

  15. LLNL-Earth3D

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2013-10-01

    Earth3D is a computer code designed to allow fast calculation of seismic rays and travel times through a 3D model of the Earth. LLNL is using this for earthquake location and global tomography efforts and such codes are of great interest to the Earth Science community.

  16. 3D World Building System

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-02-26

    This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

  17. 3D Wavelet-Based Filter and Method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moss, William C.; Haase, Sebastian; Sedat, John W.

    2008-08-12

    A 3D wavelet-based filter for visualizing and locating structural features of a user-specified linear size in 2D or 3D image data. The only input parameter is a characteristic linear size of the feature of interest, and the filter output contains only those regions that are correlated with the characteristic size, thus denoising the image.

  18. DYNA3D96. Explicit 3-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, J.

    1993-11-01

    DYNA3D is a nonlinear explicit finite element code for analyzing 3-D structures and solid continuum. The code is vectorized and available on several computer platforms. The element library includes continuum, shell, beam, truss and spring/damper elements to allow maximum flexibility in modeling physical problems. Many materials are available to represent a wide range of material behavior, including elasticity, plasticity, composites, thermal effects and rate dependence. In addition, DYNA3D has a sophisticated contact interface capability, including frictional sliding, single surface contact and automatic contact generation.

  19. 3D face analysis for demographic biometrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tokola, Ryan A; Mikkilineni, Aravind K; Boehnen, Chris Bensing

    2015-01-01

    Despite being increasingly easy to acquire, 3D data is rarely used for face-based biometrics applications beyond identification. Recent work in image-based demographic biometrics has enjoyed much success, but these approaches suffer from the well-known limitations of 2D representations, particularly variations in illumination, texture, and pose, as well as a fundamental inability to describe 3D shape. This paper shows that simple 3D shape features in a face-based coordinate system are capable of representing many biometric attributes without problem-specific models or specialized domain knowledge. The same feature vector achieves impressive results for problems as diverse as age estimation, gender classification, and race classification.

  20. A Novel Approach for Introducing 3D Cloud Spatial Structure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Novel Approach for Introducing 3D Cloud Spatial Structure Into 1D Radiative Transfer For original submission and image(s), see ARM Research Highlights http:www.arm.govscience...

  1. Needle segmentation using 3D Hough transform in 3D TRUS guided prostate transperineal therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qiu Wu; Yuchi Ming; Ding Mingyue; Tessier, David; Fenster, Aaron

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: Prostate adenocarcinoma is the most common noncutaneous malignancy in American men with over 200 000 new cases diagnosed each year. Prostate interventional therapy, such as cryotherapy and brachytherapy, is an effective treatment for prostate cancer. Its success relies on the correct needle implant position. This paper proposes a robust and efficient needle segmentation method, which acts as an aid to localize the needle in three-dimensional (3D) transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guided prostate therapy. Methods: The procedure of locating the needle in a 3D TRUS image is a three-step process. First, the original 3D ultrasound image containing a needle is cropped; the cropped image is then converted to a binary format based on its histogram. Second, a 3D Hough transform based needle segmentation method is applied to the 3D binary image in order to locate the needle axis. The position of the needle endpoint is finally determined by an optimal threshold based analysis of the intensity probability distribution. The overall efficiency is improved through implementing a coarse-fine searching strategy. The proposed method was validated in tissue-mimicking agar phantoms, chicken breast phantoms, and 3D TRUS patient images from prostate brachytherapy and cryotherapy procedures by comparison to the manual segmentation. The robustness of the proposed approach was tested by means of varying parameters such as needle insertion angle, needle insertion length, binarization threshold level, and cropping size. Results: The validation results indicate that the proposed Hough transform based method is accurate and robust, with an achieved endpoint localization accuracy of 0.5 mm for agar phantom images, 0.7 mm for chicken breast phantom images, and 1 mm for in vivo patient cryotherapy and brachytherapy images. The mean execution time of needle segmentation algorithm was 2 s for a 3D TRUS image with size of 264 Multiplication-Sign 376 Multiplication-Sign 630 voxels. Conclusions

  2. System and method for generating 3D images of non-linear properties of rock formation using surface seismic or surface to borehole seismic or both

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vu, Cung Khac; Nihei, Kurt Toshimi; Johnson, Paul A.; Guyer, Robert A.; Ten Cate, James A.; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves; Larmat, Carene S.

    2016-06-07

    A system and method of characterizing properties of a medium from a non-linear interaction are include generating, by first and second acoustic sources disposed on a surface of the medium on a first line, first and second acoustic waves. The first and second acoustic sources are controllable such that trajectories of the first and second acoustic waves intersect in a mixing zone within the medium. The method further includes receiving, by a receiver positioned in a plane containing the first and second acoustic sources, a third acoustic wave generated by a non-linear mixing process from the first and second acoustic waves in the mixing zone; and creating a first two-dimensional image of non-linear properties or a first ratio of compressional velocity and shear velocity, or both, of the medium in a first plane generally perpendicular to the surface and containing the first line, based on the received third acoustic wave.

  3. Laser ultrasonic multi-component imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Thomas K.; Telschow, Kenneth

    2011-01-25

    Techniques for ultrasonic determination of the interfacial relationship of multi-component systems are discussed. In implementations, a laser energy source may be used to excite a multi-component system including a first component and a second component at least in partial contact with the first component. Vibrations resulting from the excitation may be detected for correlation with a resonance pattern indicating if discontinuity exists at the interface of the first and second components.

  4. Development of an x-ray imaging system for the Laser Megajoule...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Development of an x-ray imaging system for the Laser Megajoule (LMJ) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Development of an x-ray imaging system for the Laser Megajoule (LMJ) ...

  5. Process for 3D chip stacking

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Malba, Vincent

    1998-01-01

    A manufacturable process for fabricating electrical interconnects which extend from a top surface of an integrated circuit chip to a sidewall of the chip using laser pantography to pattern three dimensional interconnects. The electrical interconnects may be of an L-connect or L-shaped type. The process implements three dimensional (3D) stacking by moving the conventional bond or interface pads on a chip to the sidewall of the chip. Implementation of the process includes: 1) holding individual chips for batch processing, 2) depositing a dielectric passivation layer on the top and sidewalls of the chips, 3) opening vias in the dielectric, 4) forming the interconnects by laser pantography, and 5) removing the chips from the holding means. The process enables low cost manufacturing of chips with bond pads on the sidewalls, which enables stacking for increased performance, reduced space, and higher functional per unit volume.

  6. Process for 3D chip stacking

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Malba, V.

    1998-11-10

    A manufacturable process for fabricating electrical interconnects which extend from a top surface of an integrated circuit chip to a sidewall of the chip using laser pantography to pattern three dimensional interconnects. The electrical interconnects may be of an L-connect or L-shaped type. The process implements three dimensional (3D) stacking by moving the conventional bond or interface pads on a chip to the sidewall of the chip. Implementation of the process includes: (1) holding individual chips for batch processing, (2) depositing a dielectric passivation layer on the top and sidewalls of the chips, (3) opening vias in the dielectric, (4) forming the interconnects by laser pantography, and (5) removing the chips from the holding means. The process enables low cost manufacturing of chips with bond pads on the sidewalls, which enables stacking for increased performance, reduced space, and higher functional per unit volume. 3 figs.

  7. Direct laser additive fabrication system with image feedback control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Griffith, Michelle L.; Hofmeister, William H.; Knorovsky, Gerald A.; MacCallum, Danny O.; Schlienger, M. Eric; Smugeresky, John E.

    2002-01-01

    A closed-loop, feedback-controlled direct laser fabrication system is disclosed. The feedback refers to the actual growth conditions obtained by real-time analysis of thermal radiation images. The resulting system can fabricate components with severalfold improvement in dimensional tolerances and surface finish.

  8. GE Uses 3D Printers to Make Jet Parts | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The discussion centered around using 3D print technology for making jet engine parts. Check ... Paradigm of Manufacturing 2-7-7-v-laser-additive-manufacturing Revolutionizing ...

  9. Image processing applied to laser cladding process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meriaudeau, F.; Truchetet, F.

    1996-12-31

    The laser cladding process, which consists of adding a melt powder to a substrate in order to improve or change the behavior of the material against corrosion, fatigue and so on, involves a lot of parameters. In order to perform good tracks some parameters need to be controlled during the process. The authors present here a low cost performance system using two CCD matrix cameras. One camera provides surface temperature measurements while the other gives information relative to the powder distribution or geometric characteristics of the tracks. The surface temperature (thanks to Beer Lambert`s law) enables one to detect variations in the mass feed rate. Using such a system the authors are able to detect fluctuation of 2 to 3g/min in the mass flow rate. The other camera gives them information related to the powder distribution, a simple algorithm applied to the data acquired from the CCD matrix camera allows them to see very weak fluctuations within both gaz flux (carriage or protection gaz). During the process, this camera is also used to perform geometric measurements. The height and the width of the track are obtained in real time and enable the operator to find information related to the process parameters such as the speed processing, the mass flow rate. The authors display the result provided by their system in order to enhance the efficiency of the laser cladding process. The conclusion is dedicated to a summary of the presented works and the expectations for the future.

  10. DYNA3D. Explicit 3-d Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chu, R.; Amakai, M.; Lung, H.C.; Ishigai, T.

    1989-05-01

    DYNA3D is an explicit, three-dimensional, finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic response of inelastic solids and structures. DYNA3D contains 30 material models and 10 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, Blatz-Ko rubber, high explosive burn, hydrodynamic without deviatoric stresses, elastoplastic hydrodynamic, temperature-dependent elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic with failure, soil and crushable foam with failure, Johnson/Cook plasticity model, pseudo TENSOR geological model, elastoplastic with fracture, power law isotropic plasticity, strain rate dependent plasticity, rigid, thermal orthotropic, composite damage model, thermal orthotropic with 12 curves, piecewise linear isotropic plasticity, inviscid two invariant geologic cap, orthotropic crushable model, Moonsy-Rivlin rubber, resultant plasticity. The hydrodynamic material models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 10 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack Tuesday high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, tabulated, and TENSOR pore collapse. DYNA3D generates three binary output databases. One contains information for complete states at infrequent intervals; 50 to 100 states is typical. The second contains information for a subset of nodes and elements at frequent intervals; 1,000 to 10,000 states is typical. The last contains interface data for contact surfaces.

  11. DYNA3D. Explicit 3-d Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennedy, T.

    1989-05-01

    DYNA3D is an explicit, three-dimensional, finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic response of inelastic solids and structures. DYNA3D contains 30 material models and 10 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, Blatz-Ko rubber, high explosive burn, hydrodynamic without deviatoric stresses, elastoplastic hydrodynamic, temperature-dependent elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic with failure, soil and crushable foam with failure, Johnson/Cook plasticity model, pseudo TENSOR geological model, elastoplastic with fracture, power law isotropic plasticity, strain rate dependent plasticity, rigid, thermal orthotropic, composite damage model, thermal orthotropic with 12 curves, piecewise linear isotropic plasticity, inviscid two invariant geologic cap, orthotropic crushable model, Moonsy-Rivlin rubber, and resultant plasticity. The hydrodynamic material models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 10 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack `Tuesday` high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, tabulated, and TENSOR pore collapse. DYNA3D generates three binary output databases. One contains information for complete states at infrequent intervals; 50 to 100 states is typical. The second contains information for a subset of nodes and elements at frequent intervals; 1,000 to 10,000 states is typical. The last contains interface data for contact surfaces.

  12. 3D Printed Car at the International Manufacturing Technology...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Image: Courtesy of Local Motors Carbon Fiber Pellets 4 of 6 Carbon Fiber Pellets Pellets of plastic mixed with carbon fiber were used in the production process of the 3D-printed ...

  13. Lasers As Particle Accelerators In Medicine: From Laser-Driven Protons To Imaging With Thomson Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pogorelsky, I. V.; Babzien, M.; Polyanskiy, M. N.; Yakimenko, V.; Dover, N. P.; Palmer, C. A. J.; Najmudin, Z.; Shkolnikov, P.; Williams, O.; Rosenzweig, J.; Oliva, P.; Carpinelli, M.; Golosio, B.; Delogu, P.; Stefanini, A.; Endrizzi, M.

    2011-06-01

    We report our recent progress using a high-power, picosecond CO{sub 2} laser for Thomson scattering and ion acceleration experiments. These experiments capitalize on certain advantages of long-wavelength CO{sub 2} lasers, such as their high number of photons per energy unit and beneficial wavelength- scaling of the electrons' ponderomotive energy and critical plasma frequency. High X-ray fluxes produced in the interactions of the counter-propagating laser- and electron-beams for obtaining single-shot, high-contrast images of biological objects. The laser, focused on a hydrogen jet, generated a monoenergetic proton beam via the radiation-pressure mechanism. The energy of protons produced by this method scales linearly with the laser's intensity. We present a plan for scaling the process into the range of 100-MeV proton energy via upgrading the CO{sub 2} laser. This development will enable an advance to the laser-driven proton cancer therapy.

  14. Real time 3D and heterogeneous data fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Little, C.Q.; Small, D.E.

    1998-03-01

    This project visualizes characterization data in a 3D setting, in real time. Real time in this sense means collecting the data and presenting it before it delays the user, and processing faster than the acquisition systems so no bottlenecks occur. The goals have been to build a volumetric viewer to display 3D data, demonstrate projecting other data, such as images, onto the 3D data, and display both the 3D and projected images as fast as the data became available. The authors have examined several ways to display 3D surface data. The most effective was generating polygonal surface meshes. They have created surface maps form a continuous stream of 3D range data, fused image data onto the geometry, and displayed the data with a standard 3D rendering package. In parallel with this, they have developed a method to project real-time images onto the surface created. A key component is mapping the data on the correct surfaces, which requires a-priori positional information along with accurate calibration of the camera and lens system.

  15. DYNA3D. Explicit 3-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whirley, R.G.; Englemann, B.E.

    1993-11-01

    DYNA3D is an explicit, three-dimensional, finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic response of inelastic solids and structures. DYNA3D contains 30 material models and 10 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, Blatz-Ko rubber, high explosive burn, hydrodynamic without deviatoric stresses, elastoplastic hydrodynamic, temperature-dependent elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic with failure, soil and crushable foam with failure, Johnson/Cook plasticity model, pseudo TENSOR geological model, elastoplastic with fracture, power law isotropic plasticity, strain rate dependent plasticity, rigid, thermal orthotropic, composite damage model, thermal orthotropic with 12 curves, piecewise linear isotropic plasticity, inviscid two invariant geologic cap, orthotropic crushable model, Moonsy-Rivlin rubber, resultant plasticity, closed form update shell plasticity, and Frazer-Nash rubber model. The hydrodynamic material models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 10 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack `Tuesday` high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, tabulated, and TENSOR pore collapse. DYNA3D generates three binary output databases. One contains information for complete states at infrequent intervals; 50 to 100 states is typical. The second contains information for a subset of nodes and elements at frequent intervals; 1,000 to 10,000 states is typical. The last contains interface data for contact surfaces.

  16. DYNA3D. Explicit 3-d Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whirley, R.G.; Englemann, B.E.

    1993-11-01

    DYNA3D is an explicit, three-dimensional, finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic response of inelastic solids and structures. DYNA3D contains 30 material models and 10 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, Blatz-Ko rubber, high explosive burn, hydrodynamic without deviatoric stresses, elastoplastic hydrodynamic, temperature-dependent elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic with failure, soil and crushable foam with failure, Johnson/Cook plasticity model, pseudo TENSOR geological model, elastoplastic with fracture, power law isotropic plasticity, strain rate dependent plasticity, rigid, thermal orthotropic, composite damage model, thermal orthotropic with 12 curves, piecewise linear isotropic plasticity, inviscid two invariant geologic cap, orthotropic crushable model, Moonsy-Rivlin rubber, resultant plasticity, closed form update shell plasticity, and Frazer-Nash rubber model. The hydrodynamic material models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 10 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack Tuesday high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, tabulated, and TENSOR pore collapse. DYNA3D generates three binary output databases. One contains information for complete states at infrequent intervals; 50 to 100 states is typical. The second contains information for a subset of nodes and elements at frequent intervals; 1,000 to 10,000 states is typical. The last contains interface data for contact surfaces.

  17. DYNA3D. Explicit 3-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whirley, R.G.

    1989-05-01

    DYNA3D is an explicit, three-dimensional, finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic response of inelastic solids and structures. DYNA3D contains 30 material models and 10 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, Blatz-Ko rubber, high explosive burn, hydrodynamic without deviatoric stresses, elastoplastic hydrodynamic, temperature-dependent elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic with failure, soil and crushable foam with failure, Johnson/Cook plasticity model, pseudo TENSOR geological model, elastoplastic with fracture, power law isotropic plasticity, strain rate dependent plasticity, rigid, thermal orthotropic, composite damage model, thermal orthotropic with 12 curves, piecewise linear isotropic plasticity, inviscid two invariant geologic cap, orthotropic crushable model, Moonsy-Rivlin rubber, resultant plasticity, closed form update shell plasticity, and Frazer-Nash rubber model. The hydrodynamic material models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 10 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack `Tuesday` high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, tabulated, and TENSOR pore collapse. DYNA3D generates three binary output databases. One contains information for complete states at infrequent intervals; 50 to 100 states is typical. The second contains information for a subset of nodes and elements at frequent intervals; 1,000 to 10,000 states is typical. The last contains interface data for contact surfaces.

  18. DYNA3D; Explicit 3-d Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whirley, R.G.

    1989-05-01

    DYNA3D is an explicit, three-dimensional, finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic response of inelastic solids and structures. DYNA3D contains 30 material models and 10 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, Blatz-Ko rubber, high explosive burn, hydrodynamic without deviatoric stresses, elastoplastic hydrodynamic, temperature-dependent elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic with failure, soil and crushable foam with failure, Johnson/Cook plasticity model, pseudo TENSOR geological model, elastoplastic with fracture, power law isotropic plasticity, strain rate dependent plasticity, rigid, thermal orthotropic, composite damage model, thermal orthotropic with 12 curves, piecewise linear isotropic plasticity, inviscid two invariant geologic cap, orthotropic crushable model, Moonsy-Rivlin rubber, resultant plasticity, closed form update shell plasticity, and Frazer-Nash rubber model. The hydrodynamic material models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 10 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack Tuesday high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, tabulated, and TENSOR pore collapse. DYNA3D generates three binary output databases. One contains information for complete states at infrequent intervals; 50 to 100 states is typical. The second contains information for a subset of nodes and elements at frequent intervals; 1,000 to 10,000 states is typical. The last contains interface data for contact surfaces.

  19. DYNA3D. Explicit 3-d Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whirley, R.G.; Englemann, B.E. )

    1993-11-30

    DYNA3D is an explicit, three-dimensional, finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic response of inelastic solids and structures. DYNA3D contains 30 material models and 10 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, Blatz-Ko rubber, high explosive burn, hydrodynamic without deviatoric stresses, elastoplastic hydrodynamic, temperature-dependent elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic with failure, soil and crushable foam with failure, Johnson/Cook plasticity model, pseudo TENSOR geological model, elastoplastic with fracture, power law isotropic plasticity, strain rate dependent plasticity, rigid, thermal orthotropic, composite damage model, thermal orthotropic with 12 curves, piecewise linear isotropic plasticity, inviscid two invariant geologic cap, orthotropic crushable model, Moonsy-Rivlin rubber, resultant plasticity, closed form update shell plasticity, and Frazer-Nash rubber model. The hydrodynamic material models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 10 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack Tuesday high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, tabulated, and TENSOR pore collapse. DYNA3D generates three binary output databases. One contains information for complete states at infrequent intervals; 50 to 100 states is typical. The second contains information for a subset of nodes and elements at frequent intervals; 1,000 to 10,000 states is typical. The last contains interface data for contact surfaces.

  20. DYNA3D. Explicit 3-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whirley, R.G.

    1989-05-01

    DYNA3D is an explicit, three-dimensional, finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic response of inelastic solids and structures. DYNA3D contains 30 material models and 10 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, Blatz-Ko rubber, high explosive burn, hydrodynamic without deviatoric stresses, elastoplastic hydrodynamic, temperature-dependent elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic with failure, soil and crushable foam with failure, Johnson/Cook plasticity model, pseudo TENSOR geological model, elastoplastic with fracture, power law isotropic plasticity, strain rate dependent plasticity, rigid, thermal orthotropic, composite damage model, thermal orthotropic with 12 curves, piecewise linear isotropic plasticity, inviscid two invariant geologic cap, orthotropic crushable model, Moonsy-Rivlin rubber, resultant plasticity, closed form update shell plasticity, and Frazer-Nash rubber model. The hydrodynamic material models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 10 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack Tuesday high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, tabulated, and TENSOR pore collapse. DYNA3D generates three binary output databases. One contains information for complete states at infrequent intervals; 50 to 100 states is typical. The second contains information for a subset of nodes and elements at frequent intervals; 1,000 to 10,000 states is typical. The last contains interface data for contact surfaces.

  1. SciTech Connect: "3d printing"

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    3d printing" Find + Advanced Search Term Search Semantic Search Advanced Search All Fields: "3d printing" Semantic Semantic Term Title: Full Text: Bibliographic Data: Creator ...

  2. 3D Structures of Biomolecules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    However, it is only applicable primarily to macromolecules in the lower molecular weight ... With the prospects of X-ray free electron lasers (X-FEL) (5, 6), the radiation damage ...

  3. 3D RoboMET Characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madison, Jonathan D.; Susan, Donald F.; Kilgo, Alice C.

    2015-10-01

    The goal of this project is to generate 3D microstructural data by destructive and non-destructive means and provide accompanying characterization and quantitative analysis of such data. This work is a continuing part of a larger effort to relate material performance variability to microstructural variability. That larger effort is called “Predicting Performance Margins” or PPM. In conjunction with that overarching initiative, the RoboMET.3D™ is a specific asset of Center 1800 and is an automated serialsectioning system for destructive analysis of microstructure, which is called upon to provide direct customer support to 1800 and non-1800 customers. To that end, data collection, 3d reconstruction and analysis of typical and atypical microstructures have been pursued for the purposes of qualitative and quantitative characterization with a goal toward linking microstructural defects and/or microstructural features with mechanical response. Material systems examined in FY15 include precipitation hardened 17-4 steel, laser-welds of 304L stainless steel, thermal spray coatings of 304L and geological samples of sandstone.

  4. SU-E-T-157: Evaluation and Comparison of Doses to Pelvic Lymph Nodes and to Point B with 3D Image Guided Treatment Planning for High Dose Brachytherapy for Treatment of Cervical Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhandare, N.

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To estimate and compare the doses received by the obturator, external and internal iliac lymph nodes and point Methods: CT-MR fused image sets of 15 patients obtained for each of 5 fractions of HDR brachytherapy using tandem and ring applicator, were used to generate treatment plans optimized to deliver a prescription dose to HRCTV-D90 and to minimize the doses to organs at risk (OARs). For each set of image, target volume (GTV, HRCTV) OARs (Bladder, Rectum, Sigmoid), and both left and right pelvic lymph nodes (obturator, external and internal iliac lymph nodes) were delineated. Dose-volume histograms (DVH) were generated for pelvic nodal groups (left and right obturator group, internal and external iliac chains) Per fraction DVH parameters used for dose comparison included dose to 100% volume (D100), and dose received by 2cc (D2cc), 1cc (D1cc) and 0.1 cc (D0.1cc) of nodal volume. Dose to point B was compared with each DVH parameter using 2 sided t-test. Pearson correlation were determined to examine relationship of point B dose with nodal DVH parameters. Results: FIGO clinical stage varied from 1B1 to IIIB. The median pretreatment tumor diameter measured on MRI was 4.5 cm (2.7 6.4cm).The median dose to bilateral point B was 1.20 Gy 0.12 or 20% of the prescription dose. The correlation coefficients were all <0.60 for all nodal DVH parameters indicating low degree of correlation. Only 2 cc of obturator nodes was not significantly different from point B dose on t-test. Conclusion: Dose to point B does not adequately represent the dose to any specific pelvic nodal group. When using image guided 3D dose-volume optimized treatment nodal groups should be individually identified and delineated to obtain the doses received by pelvic nodes.

  5. 3D reconstruction of tensors and vectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Defrise, Michel; Gullberg, Grant T.

    2005-02-17

    Here we have developed formulations for the reconstruction of 3D tensor fields from planar (Radon) and line-integral (X-ray) projections of 3D vector and tensor fields. Much of the motivation for this work is the potential application of MRI to perform diffusion tensor tomography. The goal is to develop a theory for the reconstruction of both Radon planar and X-ray or line-integral projections because of the flexibility of MRI to obtain both of these type of projections in 3D. The development presented here for the linear tensor tomography problem provides insight into the structure of the nonlinear MRI diffusion tensor inverse problem. A particular application of tensor imaging in MRI is the potential application of cardiac diffusion tensor tomography for determining in vivo cardiac fiber structure. One difficulty in the cardiac application is the motion of the heart. This presents a need for developing future theory for tensor tomography in a motion field. This means developing a better understanding of the MRI signal for diffusion processes in a deforming media. The techniques developed may allow the application of MRI tensor tomography for the study of structure of fiber tracts in the brain, atherosclerotic plaque, and spine in addition to fiber structure in the heart. However, the relations presented are also applicable to other fields in medical imaging such as diffraction tomography using ultrasound. The mathematics presented can also be extended to exponential Radon transform of tensor fields and to other geometric acquisitions such as cone beam tomography of tensor fields.

  6. 3D Diagnostic Of Complex Plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, Edward; Samsonov, Dmitry

    2011-11-29

    This paper reports the development of a three-dimensional(3D) dust particle position diagnostic for complex plasmas. A beam produce by Light Emitting Diodes(LEDs) is formed into horizontal sheet, for the illumination of the particles. The light sheet has a vertical colour gradient across its width, from two opposing colours. The light scattered from the particles is imaged with the camera from above. The horizontal coordinates are measured from the positions on the image. The third coordinate is determined from the colour which represents a position on the gradient of the light sheet. The use of LEDs as a light source reduces a variation in Mie scattered intensity from the particles due to the particle size distribution. The variation would induce a large vertical positional error.

  7. Picture of the Week: An explosion of 3D printing technology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    structure. May 24, 2015 An explosion of 3D printing technology x View image on Flickr Additive Manufacturing, known also as 3D printing, allows for the rapid production of...

  8. Metasurface skin invisibility cloak makes 3D objects disappear

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Metasurface skin invisibility cloak makes 3D objects disappear Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window) Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window) Click to share on Pinterest (Opens in new window) Invisibility skin cloaks on the microscopic scale might prove valuable for hiding the detailed layout of microelectronic components or for security encryption purposes. This image is a A 3-D illustration of a metasurface skin cloak made from

  9. Holographic Imaging of Evolving Laser-Plasma Structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Downer, Michael; Shvets, G.

    2014-07-31

    In the 1870s, English photographer Eadweard Muybridge captured motion pictures within one cycle of a horses gallop, which settled a hotly debated question of his time by showing that the horse became temporarily airborne. In the 1940s, Manhattan project photographer Berlin Brixner captured a nuclear blast at a million frames per second, and resolved a dispute about the explosions shape and speed. In this project, we developed methods to capture detailed motion pictures of evolving, light-velocity objects created by a laser pulse propagating through matter. These objects include electron density waves used to accelerate charged particles, laser-induced refractive index changes used for micromachining, and ionization tracks used for atmospheric chemical analysis, guide star creation and ranging. Our movies, like Muybridges and Brixners, are obtained in one shot, since the laser-created objects of interest are insufficiently repeatable for accurate stroboscopic imaging. Our high-speed photographs have begun to resolve controversies about how laser-created objects form and evolve, questions that previously could be addressed only by intensive computer simulations based on estimated initial conditions. Resolving such questions helps develop better tabletop particle accelerators, atmospheric ranging devices and many other applications of laser-matter interactions. Our photographic methods all begin by splitting one or more probe pulses from the laser pulse that creates the light-speed object. A probe illuminates the object and obtains information about its structure without altering it. We developed three single-shot visualization methods that differ in how the probes interact with the object of interest or are recorded. (1) Frequency-Domain Holography (FDH). In FDH, there are 2 probes, like object and reference beams in conventional holography. Our object probe surrounds the light-speed object, like a fleas swarming around a sprinting animal. The object

  10. 3-D Metals | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Metals Jump to: navigation, search Name 3-D Metals Facility 3-D Metals Sector Wind energy Facility Type Small Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Location Valley City OH...

  11. Building the 3-D jugsaw puzzle: Applications of sequence stratigraphy to 3-D reservoir characterization, Permian basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tinker, S.W.

    1996-04-01

    Reservoir characterization involves the quantification, integration, reduction, and analysis of geological, petrophysical, seismic, and engineering data. This is no small task. A principal goal of reservoir characterization is to derive a spatial understanding of interwell heterogeneity. Traditionally, geologic attempts to characterize interwell heterogeneity have been done using hand-drawn or computer-generated two-dimensional (2-D) maps and cross sections. Results can be improved dramatically using three-dimensional (3-D) interpretation and analysis techniques. Three-dimensional reservoir characterization requires the same input data used in 2-D approaches, and the cost is equal to, and commonly lower than, traditional 2-D methods. The product of 3-D reservoir characterization is a 3-D reservoir model. The language used to communicate the results of a 3-D reservoir model is visualization; i.e., visual images of numerical data. All of the available log and core data in a model area are incorporated in a 3-D model, but the data are depicted as colored cells rather than as log traces. The integrity of the 3-D reservoir model is largely a function of the stratigraphic framework. Interpreting the correct stratigraphic framework for a subsurface reservoir is the most difficult and creative part of the 3-D modeling process. Sequence and seismic stratigraphic interpretation provide the best stratigraphic framework for 3-D reservoir modeling. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the pro- cess of 3-D deterministic reservoir modeling and to illustrate the advantages of using a sequence stratigraphic framework in 3-D modeling. Mixed carbonate and siliciclastic sediment outcrop and subsurface examples from the Permian basin of west Texas and New Mexico will be used as examples, but the concepts and techniques can be applied to reservoirs of any age.

  12. 3D Elastic Seismic Wave Propagation Code

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1998-09-23

    E3D is capable of simulating seismic wave propagation in a 3D heterogeneous earth. Seismic waves are initiated by earthquake, explosive, and/or other sources. These waves propagate through a 3D geologic model, and are simulated as synthetic seismograms or other graphical output.

  13. RELAP5-3D User Problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riemke, Richard Allan

    2001-09-01

    The Reactor Excursion and Leak Analysis Program with 3D capability1 (RELAP5-3D) is a reactor system analysis code that has been developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). The 3D capability in RELAP5-3D includes 3D hydrodynamics2 and 3D neutron kinetics3,4. Assessment, verification, and validation of the 3D capability in RELAP5-3D is discussed in the literature5,6,7,8,9. Additional assessment, verification, and validation of the 3D capability of RELAP5-3D will be presented in other papers in this users seminar. As with any software, user problems occur. User problems usually fall into the categories of input processing failure, code execution failure, restart/renodalization failure, unphysical result, and installation. This presentation will discuss some of the more generic user problems that have been reported on RELAP5-3D as well as their resolution.

  14. RELAP5-3D User Problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riemke, Richard Allan

    2002-09-01

    The Reactor Excursion and Leak Analysis Program with 3D capability1 (RELAP5-3D) is a reactor system analysis code that has been developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). The 3D capability in RELAP5-3D includes 3D hydrodynamics2 and 3D neutron kinetics3,4. Assessment, verification, and validation of the 3D capability in RELAP5-3D is discussed in the literature5,6,7,8,9,10. Additional assessment, verification, and validation of the 3D capability of RELAP5-3D will be presented in other papers in this users seminar. As with any software, user problems occur. User problems usually fall into the categories of input processing failure, code execution failure, restart/renodalization failure, unphysical result, and installation. This presentation will discuss some of the more generic user problems that have been reported on RELAP5-3D as well as their resolution.

  15. DOE Science Showcase - 3D Printing | OSTI, US Dept of Energy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    flexibility, reduce energy use, and shorten time from the initial design phase to market. ... Hubble Images Become Tactile 3-D Experience for the Blind, NASA Green light reflection ...

  16. Metrology of 3D nanostructures.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barsic, Anthony; Piestun, Rafael; Boye, Robert R.

    2012-10-01

    We propose a superresolution technique to resolve dense clusters of blinking emitters. The method relies on two basic assumptions: the emitters are statistically independent, and a model of the imaging system is known. We numerically analyze the performance limits of the method as a function of the emitter density and the noise level. Numerical simulations show that five closely packed emitters can be resolved and localized to a precision of 17nm. The experimental resolution of five quantum dots located within a diffraction limited spot confirms the applicability of this approach.

  17. RT3D tutorials for GMS users

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clement, T.P.; Jones, N.L.

    1998-02-01

    RT3D (Reactive Transport in 3-Dimensions) is a computer code that solves coupled partial differential equations that describe reactive-flow and transport of multiple mobile and/or immobile species in a three dimensional saturated porous media. RT3D was developed from the single-species transport code, MT3D (DoD-1.5, 1997 version). As with MT3D, RT3D also uses the USGS groundwater flow model MODFLOW for computing spatial and temporal variations in groundwater head distribution. This report presents a set of tutorial problems that are designed to illustrate how RT3D simulations can be performed within the Department of Defense Groundwater Modeling System (GMS). GMS serves as a pre- and post-processing interface for RT3D. GMS can be used to define all the input files needed by RT3D code, and later the code can be launched from within GMS and run as a separate application. Once the RT3D simulation is completed, the solution can be imported to GMS for graphical post-processing. RT3D v1.0 supports several reaction packages that can be used for simulating different types of reactive contaminants. Each of the tutorials, described below, provides training on a different RT3D reaction package. Each reaction package has different input requirements, and the tutorials are designed to describe these differences. Furthermore, the tutorials illustrate the various options available in GMS for graphical post-processing of RT3D results. Users are strongly encouraged to complete the tutorials before attempting to use RT3D and GMS on a routine basis.

  18. A prototype fan-beam optical CT scanner for 3D dosimetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, Warren G.; Rudko, D. A.; Braam, Nicolas A.; Jirasek, Andrew [University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia V8P 5C2 (Canada); Wells, Derek M. [British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver Island Centre, Victoria, British Columbia V8R 6V5 (Canada)

    2013-06-15

    Purpose: The objective of this work is to introduce a prototype fan-beam optical computed tomography scanner for three-dimensional (3D) radiation dosimetry. Methods: Two techniques of fan-beam creation were evaluated: a helium-neon laser (HeNe, {lambda} = 543 nm) with line-generating lens, and a laser diode module (LDM, {lambda} = 635 nm) with line-creating head module. Two physical collimator designs were assessed: a single-slot collimator and a multihole collimator. Optimal collimator depth was determined by observing the signal of a single photodiode with varying collimator depths. A method of extending the dynamic range of the system is presented. Two sample types were used for evaluations: nondosimetric absorbent solutions and irradiated polymer gel dosimeters, each housed in 1 liter cylindrical plastic flasks. Imaging protocol investigations were performed to address ring artefacts and image noise. Two image artefact removal techniques were performed in sinogram space. Collimator efficacy was evaluated by imaging highly opaque samples of scatter-based and absorption-based solutions. A noise-based flask registration technique was developed. Two protocols for gel manufacture were examined. Results: The LDM proved advantageous over the HeNe laser due to its reduced noise. Also, the LDM uses a wavelength more suitable for the PRESAGE{sup TM} dosimeter. Collimator depth of 1.5 cm was found to be an optimal balance between scatter rejection, signal strength, and manufacture ease. The multihole collimator is capable of maintaining accurate scatter-rejection to high levels of opacity with scatter-based solutions (T < 0.015%). Imaging protocol investigations support the need for preirradiation and postirradiation scanning to reduce reflection-based ring artefacts and to accommodate flask imperfections and gel inhomogeneities. Artefact removal techniques in sinogram space eliminate streaking artefacts and reduce ring artefacts of up to {approx}40% in magnitude. The

  19. A collinear self-emission and laser-backlighting imaging diagnostic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bott, S. C.; Collins, G. IV; Gunasekera, K.; Mariscal, D.; Beg, F. N.; Haas, D. M.; Veloso, F.; Blesener, I. C.; Cahill, A. D.; Hoyt, C. L.; Kusse, B. R.; Hammer, D. A.

    2012-08-15

    In this work we demonstrate a design for obtaining laser backlighting (e.g., interferometry) and time-resolved extreme ultraviolet self-emission images along the same line-of-sight. This is achieved by modifying a single optical component in the laser collection optics with apertures and pinhole arrangements suitable for single or multiple frame imaging onto a gated detector, such as a microchannel plate. Test results for exploding wire experiments show that machining of the optic does not affect the overall quality of the recovered laser images, and that, even with a multiple frame system, the area sacrificed to achieve collinear imaging is relatively small. The diagnostics can therefore allow direct correlation of laser and self-emission images and their derived quantities, such as electron density in the case of interferometry. Simple methods of image correlation are also demonstrated.

  20. TAURUS. 3-d Finite Element Code Postprocessor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whirley, R.G.

    1991-05-01

    TAURUS reads the binary plot files generated by the LLNL three-dimensional finite element analysis codes, NIKE3D (ESTSC 139), DYNA3D (ESTSC 138), TACO3D (ESTSC 287), TOPAZ3D (ESTSC 231), and GEMINI (ESTSC 455) and plots contours, time histories,and deformed shapes. Contours of a large number of quantities may be plotted on meshes consisting of plate, shell, and solid type elements. TAURUS can compute a variety of strain measures, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. TAURUS has three phases: initialization, geometry display with contouring, and time history processing.

  1. TAURUS. 3-d Finite Element Code Postprocessor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whirley, R.G.

    1992-03-03

    TAURUS reads the binary plot files generated by the LLNL three-dimensional finite element analysis codes, NIKE3D (ESTSC 139), DYNA3D (ESTSC 138), TACO3D (ESTSC 287), TOPAZ3D (ESTSC 231), and GEMINI (ESTSC 455) and plots contours, time histories,and deformed shapes. Contours of a large number of quantities may be plotted on meshes consisting of plate, shell, and solid type elements. TAURUS can compute a variety of strain measures, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. TAURUS has three phases: initialization, geometry display with contouring, and time history processing.

  2. TAURUS. 3-D Finite Element Code Postprocessor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whirley, R.G.

    1984-05-01

    TAURUS reads the binary plot files generated by the LLNL three-dimensional finite element analysis codes, NIKE3D, DYNA3D, TACO3D, TOPAZ3D, and GEMINI and plots contours, time histories,and deformed shapes. Contours of a large number of quantities may be plotted on meshes consisting of plate, shell, and solid type elements. TAURUS can compute a variety of strain measures, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. TAURUS has three phases: initialization, geometry display with contouring, and time history processing.

  3. TAURUS. 3-D Finite Element Code Postprocessor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whirley, R.G.

    1993-11-30

    TAURUS reads the binary plot files generated by the LLNL three-dimensional finite element analysis codes, NIKE3D, DYNA3D, TACO3D, TOPAZ3D, and GEMINI and plots contours, time histories,and deformed shapes. Contours of a large number of quantities may be plotted on meshes consisting of plate, shell, and solid type elements. TAURUS can compute a variety of strain measures, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. TAURUS has three phases: initialization, geometry display with contouring, and time history processing.

  4. TAURUS. 3-D Finite Element Code Postprocessor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whirley, R.G.

    1992-03-03

    TAURUS reads the binary plot files generated by the LLNL three-dimensional finite element analysis codes, NIKE3D, DYNA3D, TACO3D, TOPAZ3D, and GEMINI and plots contours, time histories,and deformed shapes. Contours of a large number of quantities may be plotted on meshes consisting of plate, shell, and solid type elements. TAURUS can compute a variety of strain measures, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. TAURUS has three phases: initialization, geometry display with contouring, and time history processing.

  5. TAURUS. 3-D Finite Element Code Postprocessor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennedy, T.

    1992-03-03

    TAURUS reads the binary plot files generated by the LLNL three-dimensional finite element analysis codes, NIKE3D, DYNA3D, TACO3D, TOPAZ3D, and GEMINI and plots contours, time histories, and deformed shapes. Contours of a large number of quantities may be plotted on meshes consisting of plate, shell, and solid type elements. TAURUS can compute a variety of strain measures, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. TAURUS has three phases: initialization, geometry display with contouring, and time history processing.

  6. Full aperture backscatter station imager diagnostics system for far-field imaging of laser plasma instabilities on Nova

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilke, M.D.; Fernandez, J.C.; Berggren, R.R.; Horton, R.F.; Montgomery, D.S.; Faulkner, J.A.; Looney, L.D.; Jimerson, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    In ICF, the understanding of laser plasma scattering processes is essential for laser target coupling and for controlling the symmetry of indirect drive implosions. The existing Nova full aperture backscatter station has been useful in understanding laser plasma instabilities occurring in hohlraums by measuring the quantity, spectral distribution, and near-field spatial distributions of Brillouin and more recently Raman backscatter. Equally important is an understanding of the far-field spatial intensity distribution which could help in understanding filamentation, threshold and saturation processes. This article describes a broadband, color-corrected far-field imager and associated diagnostics capable of imaging the source of scattered light to better than 25 {mu}m resolution. Brillouin and Raman backscatter can be imaged through the Nova beam-7 focusing lens or the imager can be used like a microscope to image side scatter from other beams. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. 'Erratic' Lasers Pave Way for Tabletop Accelerators

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lasers Pave Way for Tabletop Accelerators 'Erratic' Lasers Pave Way for Tabletop Accelerators Simulations at NERSC help researchers simplify design of mini particle accelerators June 9, 2014 Kate Green, KGreene@lbl.gov, 510-486-4404 laserplasmaaccelerator 3D map of the longitudinal wakefield generated by the incoherent combination of 208 low-energy laser beamlets. In the region behind the driver, the wakefield is regular. Image: Carlo Benedetti, Berkeley Lab Making a tabletop particle

  8. A 3D Geostatistical Mapping Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1999-02-09

    This software provides accurate 3D reservoir modeling tools and high quality 3D graphics for PC platforms enabling engineers and geologists to better comprehend reservoirs and consequently improve their decisions. The mapping algorithms are fractals, kriging, sequential guassian simulation, and three nearest neighbor methods.

  9. Static & Dynamic Response of 3D Solids

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1996-07-15

    NIKE3D is a large deformations 3D finite element code used to obtain the resulting displacements and stresses from multi-body static and dynamic structural thermo-mechanics problems with sliding interfaces. Many nonlinear and temperature dependent constitutive models are available.

  10. 3-D seismology in the Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Husseini, M.; Chimblo, R.

    1995-08-01

    Since 1977 when Aramco and GSI (Geophysical Services International) pioneered the first 3-D seismic survey in the Arabian Gulf, under the guidance of Aramco`s Chief Geophysicist John Hoke, 3-D seismology has been effectively used to map many complex subsurface geological phenomena. By the mid-1990s extensive 3-D surveys were acquired in Abu Dhabi, Oman, Qatar and Saudi Arabia. Also in the mid-1990`s Bahrain, Kuwait and Dubai were preparing to record surveys over their fields. On the structural side 3-D has refined seismic maps, focused faults and fractures systems, as well as outlined the distribution of facies, porosity and fluid saturation. In field development, 3D has not only reduced drilling costs significantly, but has also improved the understanding of fluid behavior in the reservoir. In Oman, Petroleum Development Oman (PDO) has now acquired the first Gulf 4-D seismic survey (time-lapse 3D survey) over the Yibal Field. The 4-D survey will allow PDO to directly monitor water encroachment in the highly-faulted Cretaceous Shu`aiba reservoir. In exploration, 3-D seismology has resolved complex prospects with structural and stratigraphic complications and reduced the risk in the selection of drilling locations. The many case studies from Saudi Arabia, Oman, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates, which are reviewed in this paper, attest to the effectiveness of 3D seismology in exploration and producing, in clastics and carbonates reservoirs, and in the Mesozoic and Paleozoic.

  11. SU-E-T-455: Characterization of 3D Printed Materials for Proton Beam Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zou, W; Siderits, R; McKenna, M; Khan, A; Yue, N [Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); McDonough, J; Yin, L; Teo, B [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Fisher, T [Memorial Medical Center, Modesto, CA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The widespread availability of low cost 3D printing technologies provides an alternative fabrication method for customized proton range modifying accessories such as compensators and boluses. However the material properties of the printed object are dependent on the printing technology used. In order to facilitate the application of 3D printing in proton therapy, this study investigated the stopping power of several printed materials using both proton pencil beam measurements and Monte Carlo simulations. Methods: Five 34 cm cubes fabricated using three 3D printing technologies (selective laser sintering, fused-deposition modeling and stereolithography) from five printers were investigated. The cubes were scanned on a CT scanner and the depth dose curves for a mono-energetic pencil beam passing through the material were measured using a large parallel plate ion chamber in a water tank. Each cube was measured from two directions (perpendicular and parallel to printing plane) to evaluate the effects of the anisotropic material layout. The results were compared with GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulation using the manufacturer specified material density and chemical composition data. Results: Compared with water, the differences from the range pull back by the printed blocks varied and corresponded well with the material CT Hounsfield unit. The measurement results were in agreement with Monte Carlo simulation. However, depending on the technology, inhomogeneity existed in the printed cubes evidenced from CT images. The effect of such inhomogeneity on the proton beam is to be investigated. Conclusion: Printed blocks by three different 3D printing technologies were characterized for proton beam with measurements and Monte Carlo simulation. The effects of the printing technologies in proton range and stopping power were studied. The derived results can be applied when specific devices are used in proton radiotherapy.

  12. Fabrication of 3D Silicon Sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kok, A.; Hansen, T.E.; Hansen, T.A.; Lietaer, N.; Summanwar, A.; Kenney, C.; Hasi, J.; Da Via, C.; Parker, S.I.; /Hawaii U.

    2012-06-06

    Silicon sensors with a three-dimensional (3-D) architecture, in which the n and p electrodes penetrate through the entire substrate, have many advantages over planar silicon sensors including radiation hardness, fast time response, active edge and dual readout capabilities. The fabrication of 3D sensors is however rather complex. In recent years, there have been worldwide activities on 3D fabrication. SINTEF in collaboration with Stanford Nanofabrication Facility have successfully fabricated the original (single sided double column type) 3D detectors in two prototype runs and the third run is now on-going. This paper reports the status of this fabrication work and the resulted yield. The work of other groups such as the development of double sided 3D detectors is also briefly reported.

  13. High-throughput imaging of heterogeneous cell organelles with an X-ray laser

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Hantke, Max, F.

    2014-11-17

    Preprocessed detector images that were used for the paper "High-throughput imaging of heterogeneous cell organelles with an X-ray laser". The CXI file contains the entire recorded data - including both hits and blanks. It also includes down-sampled images and LCLS machine parameters. Additionally, the Cheetah configuration file is attached that was used to create the pre-processed data.

  14. Extra Dimensions: 3D and Time in PDF Documentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graf, N.A.; /SLAC

    2012-04-11

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide, non-technical audience. We discuss how the field of radiation imaging could benefit from incorporating full 3D information about not only the detectors, but also the results of the experimental analyses, in its electronic publications. In this article, we present examples drawn from high-energy physics, mathematics and molecular biology which take advantage of this functionality. We demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input.

  15. Explicit 3-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2000-11-07

    DYNA3D is a nonlinear explicit finite element code for analyzing 3-D structures and solid continuum. The code is vectorized and available on several computer platforms. The element library includes continuum, shell, beam, truss and spring/damper elements to allow maximum flexibility in modeling physical problems. Many materials are available to represent a wide range of material behavior, including elasticity, plasticity, composites, thermal effects and rate dependence. In addition, DYNA3D has a sophisticated contact interface capability, including frictional sliding, single surface contact and automatic contact generation.

  16. How We 3D-Print Aerogel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-04-23

    A new type of graphene aerogel will make for better energy storage, sensors, nanoelectronics, catalysis and separations. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory researchers have made graphene aerogel microlattices with an engineered architecture via a 3D printing technique known as direct ink writing. The research appears in the April 22 edition of the journal, Nature Communications. The 3D printed graphene aerogels have high surface area, excellent electrical conductivity, are lightweight, have mechanical stiffness and exhibit supercompressibility (up to 90 percent compressive strain). In addition, the 3D printed graphene aerogel microlattices show an order of magnitude improvement over bulk graphene materials and much better mass transport.

  17. Explicit 3-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2000-11-07

    DYNA3D is a nonlinear explicit finite element code for analyzing 3-D structures and solid continuum. The code is vectorized and available on several computer platforms. The element library includes continuum, shell, beam, truss and spring/damper elements to allow maximum flexibility in modeling physical problems. Many materials are available to represent a wide range of material behavior, including elasticity, plasticity, composites, thermal effects and rate dependence. In addition, DYNA3D has a sophisticated contact interface capability, includingmore » frictional sliding, single surface contact and automatic contact generation.« less

  18. Climate Change Capacity Development (C3D+) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Capacity Development (C3D+) Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Climate Change Capacity Development (C3D+) Name Climate Change Capacity Development (C3D+) AgencyCompany...

  19. A versatile high-resolution x-ray imager (HRXI) for laser-plasma...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    x-ray imager (HRXI) devoted to laser-plasma experiments combines two state-of-the-art technologies developed in France: a high-resolution x-ray microscope and a high-speed...

  20. A Versatile High-Resolution X-Ray Imager (HRXI) for Laser-Plasma...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: A Versatile High-Resolution X-Ray Imager (HRXI) for Laser-Plasma Experiments on OMEGA Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Versatile High-Resolution X-Ray ...

  1. Evaluation of Laser Stabilization and Imaging Systems for LCLS-II - Oral Presentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barry, Matthew

    2015-08-19

    This presentation covers data collected on two commercial laser stabilization systems, Guidestar-II and MRC, and two optical imaging systems. Additionally, general information about LCLS-II and how to go about continuing-testing is covered.

  2. Laser Roadshow

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    outreach / laser roadshow Laser Roadshow The NIF Laser Roadshow includes a number of interactive laser demonstrations (Laser Light Fountain, Laser DJ, and NIF "3D ride") that have traveled across the country to museums and science fairs to bring awareness and education to students and the general public about lasers and how they function. These demonstrations have been presented at the Lawrence Hall of Science, the National Boy Scout Jamboree, meetings of the American Association for

  3. 3D TORUS V1.0

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    002440MLTPL00 3D Torus Routing Engine Module for OFA OpenSM v. 1.0 http://www.openfabrics.org/git?p=sashak/management.git;a=sum

  4. Parallel 3D Fast Fourier Transform Functions

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2008-12-19

    BigFFT is a scalable implementation of a three dimensional Fast Fourier Transform operation. Functions are included for forward and backward real-to-complex 3D transforms.

  5. 3-D Model for Deactivation & Decommissioning

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The design and production of 3-D scale models that replicate the highly contaminated structures within the nuclear facility would provide a significant improvement in visualization of the work...

  6. 3D Charge Order Found in Superconductor

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3D Charge Order Found in Superconductor 3D Charge Order Found in Superconductor Print Wednesday, 08 June 2016 00:00 Despite 30 years of intense study, the explanation behind the zero-resistance current displayed by high-temperature superconductors (HTSCs) is still shrouded in complexity. HTSCs tend to be heterogeneous materials with multiple phases, and disentangling their various electronic behaviors for analysis can be difficult. At the ALS, researchers used resonant soft x-ray diffraction

  7. Coherent laser vision system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sebastion, R.L.

    1995-10-01

    The Coherent Laser Vision System (CLVS) is being developed to provide precision real-time 3D world views to support site characterization and robotic operations and during facilities Decontamination and Decommissioning. Autonomous or semiautonomous robotic operations requires an accurate, up-to-date 3D world view. Existing technologies for real-time 3D imaging, such as AM laser radar, have limited accuracy at significant ranges and have variability in range estimates caused by lighting or surface shading. Recent advances in fiber optic component technology and digital processing components have enabled the development of a new 3D vision system based upon a fiber optic FMCW coherent laser radar. The approach includes a compact scanner with no-moving parts capable of randomly addressing all pixels. The system maintains the immunity to lighting and surface shading conditions which is characteristic to coherent laser radar. The random pixel addressability allows concentration of scanning and processing on the active areas of a scene, as is done by the human eye-brain system.

  8. DYNA3D example problem manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lovejoy, S.C.; Whirley, R.G.

    1990-10-10

    This manual describes in detail the solution of ten example problems using the explicit nonlinear finite element code DYNA3D. The sample problems include solid, shell, and beam element types, and a variety of linear and nonlinear material models. For each example, there is first an engineering description of the physical problem to be studied. Next, the analytical techniques incorporated in the model are discussed and key features of DYNA3D are highlighted. INGRID commands used to generate the mesh are listed, and sample plots from the DYNA3D analysis are given. Finally, there is a description of the TAURUS post-processing commands used to generate the plots of the solution. This set of example problems is useful in verifying the installation of DYNA3D on a new computer system. In addition, these documented analyses illustrate the application of DYNA3D to a variety of engineering problems, and thus this manual should be helpful to new analysts getting started with DYNA3D. 7 refs., 56 figs., 9 tabs.

  9. Measurements of 3D slip velocities and plasma column lengths of a gliding arc discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Jiajian; Gao, Jinlong; Ehn, Andreas; Aldn, Marcus; Li, Zhongshan E-mail: alpers@ma.tum.de; Moseev, Dmitry; Kusano, Yukihiro; Salewski, Mirko; Alpers, Andreas E-mail: alpers@ma.tum.de; Gritzmann, Peter; Schwenk, Martin

    2015-01-26

    A non-thermal gliding arc discharge was generated at atmospheric pressure in an air flow. The dynamics of the plasma column and tracer particles were recorded using two synchronized high-speed cameras. Whereas the data analysis for such systems has previously been performed in 2D (analyzing the single camera image), we provide here a 3D data analysis that includes 3D reconstructions of the plasma column and 3D particle tracking velocimetry based on discrete tomography methods. The 3D analysis, in particular, the determination of the 3D slip velocity between the plasma column and the gas flow, gives more realistic insight into the convection cooling process. Additionally, with the determination of the 3D slip velocity and the 3D length of the plasma column, we give more accurate estimates for the drag force, the electric field strength, the power per unit length, and the radius of the conducting zone of the plasma column.

  10. RAG-3D: A search tool for RNA 3D substructures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zahran, Mai; Sevim Bayrak, Cigdem; Elmetwaly, Shereef; Schlick, Tamar

    2015-08-24

    In this study, to address many challenges in RNA structure/function prediction, the characterization of RNA's modular architectural units is required. Using the RNA-As-Graphs (RAG) database, we have previously explored the existence of secondary structure (2D) submotifs within larger RNA structures. Here we present RAG-3D—a dataset of RNA tertiary (3D) structures and substructures plus a web-based search tool—designed to exploit graph representations of RNAs for the goal of searching for similar 3D structural fragments. The objects in RAG-3D consist of 3D structures translated into 3D graphs, cataloged based on the connectivity between their secondary structure elements. Each graph is additionally describedmore » in terms of its subgraph building blocks. The RAG-3D search tool then compares a query RNA 3D structure to those in the database to obtain structurally similar structures and substructures. This comparison reveals conserved 3D RNA features and thus may suggest functional connections. Though RNA search programs based on similarity in sequence, 2D, and/or 3D structural elements are available, our graph-based search tool may be advantageous for illuminating similarities that are not obvious; using motifs rather than sequence space also reduces search times considerably. Ultimately, such substructuring could be useful for RNA 3D structure prediction, structure/function inference and inverse folding.« less

  11. RAG-3D: A search tool for RNA 3D substructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zahran, Mai; Sevim Bayrak, Cigdem; Elmetwaly, Shereef; Schlick, Tamar

    2015-08-24

    In this study, to address many challenges in RNA structure/function prediction, the characterization of RNA's modular architectural units is required. Using the RNA-As-Graphs (RAG) database, we have previously explored the existence of secondary structure (2D) submotifs within larger RNA structures. Here we present RAG-3D—a dataset of RNA tertiary (3D) structures and substructures plus a web-based search tool—designed to exploit graph representations of RNAs for the goal of searching for similar 3D structural fragments. The objects in RAG-3D consist of 3D structures translated into 3D graphs, cataloged based on the connectivity between their secondary structure elements. Each graph is additionally described in terms of its subgraph building blocks. The RAG-3D search tool then compares a query RNA 3D structure to those in the database to obtain structurally similar structures and substructures. This comparison reveals conserved 3D RNA features and thus may suggest functional connections. Though RNA search programs based on similarity in sequence, 2D, and/or 3D structural elements are available, our graph-based search tool may be advantageous for illuminating similarities that are not obvious; using motifs rather than sequence space also reduces search times considerably. Ultimately, such substructuring could be useful for RNA 3D structure prediction, structure/function inference and inverse folding.

  12. DYNA3D Code Practices and Developments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, L.; Zywicz, E.; Raboin, P.

    2000-04-21

    DYNA3D is an explicit, finite element code developed to solve high rate dynamic simulations for problems of interest to the engineering mechanics community. The DYNA3D code has been under continuous development since 1976[1] by the Methods Development Group in the Mechanical Engineering Department of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The pace of code development activities has substantially increased in the past five years, growing from one to between four and six code developers. This has necessitated the use of software tools such as CVS (Concurrent Versions System) to help manage multiple version updates. While on-line documentation with an Adobe PDF manual helps to communicate software developments, periodically a summary document describing recent changes and improvements in DYNA3D software is needed. The first part of this report describes issues surrounding software versions and source control. The remainder of this report details the major capability improvements since the last publicly released version of DYNA3D in 1996. Not included here are the many hundreds of bug corrections and minor enhancements, nor the development in DYNA3D between the manual release in 1993[2] and the public code release in 1996.

  13. Shim3d Helmholtz Solution Package

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2009-01-29

    This suite of codes solves the Helmholtz Equation for the steady-state propagation of single-frequency electromagnetic radiation in an arbitrary 2D or 3D dielectric medium. Materials can be either transparent or absorptive (including metals) and are described entirely by their shape and complex dielectric constant. Dielectric boundaries are assumed to always fall on grid boundaries and the material within a single grid cell is considered to be uniform. Input to the problem is in the formmore » of a Dirichlet boundary condition on a single boundary, and may be either analytic (Gaussian) in shape, or a mode shape computed using a separate code (such as the included eigenmode solver vwave20), and written to a file. Solution is via the finite difference method using Jacobi iteration for 3D problems or direct matrix inversion for 2D problems. Note that 3D problems that include metals will require different iteration parameters than described in the above reference. For structures with curved boundaries not easily modeled on a rectangular grid, the auxillary codes helmholtz11(2D), helm3d (semivectoral), and helmv3d (full vectoral) are provided. For these codes the finite difference equations are specified on a topological regular triangular grid and solved using Jacobi iteration or direct matrix inversion as before. An automatic grid generator is supplied.« less

  14. Single mimivirus particles intercepted and imaged with an X-ray laser (CXIDB ID 1)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Seibert, M. Marvin; Ekeberg, Tomas; Maia, Filipe R.N.C.

    2011-02-02

    These are the files used to reconstruct the images in the paper "Single Mimivirus particles intercepted and imaged with an X-ray laser". Besides the diffracted intensities, the Hawk configuration files used for the reconstructions are also provided. The files from CXIDB ID 1 are the pattern and configuration files for the pattern showed in Figure 2a in the paper.

  15. Single mimivirus particles intercepted and imaged with an X-ray laser (CXIDB ID 1)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Seibert, M. Marvin; Ekeberg, Tomas; Maia, Filipe R.N.C.

    These are the files used to reconstruct the images in the paper "Single Mimivirus particles intercepted and imaged with an X-ray laser". Besides the diffracted intensities, the Hawk configuration files used for the reconstructions are also provided. The files from CXIDB ID 1 are the pattern and configuration files for the pattern showed in Figure 2a in the paper.

  16. Single mimivirus particles intercepted and imaged with an X-ray laser (CXIDB ID 2)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Seibert, M. Marvin; Ekeberg, Tomas

    2011-02-02

    These are the files used to reconstruct the images in the paper "Single Mimivirus particles intercepted and imaged with an X-ray laser". Besides the diffracted intensities, the Hawk configuration files used for the reconstructions are also provided. The files from CXIDB ID 2 are the pattern and configuration files for the pattern showed in Figure 2b in the paper.

  17. Preliminary 3d depth migration of a network of 2d seismic lines for fault

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    imaging at a Pyramid Lake, Nevada geothermal prospect (Conference) | SciTech Connect Preliminary 3d depth migration of a network of 2d seismic lines for fault imaging at a Pyramid Lake, Nevada geothermal prospect Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Preliminary 3d depth migration of a network of 2d seismic lines for fault imaging at a Pyramid Lake, Nevada geothermal prospect Roxanna Frary, John N. Louie, Sathish Pullammanappallil, Amy Eisses, 2011, Preliminary 3d depth migration of a

  18. Some remarks on shell element analysis with DYNA3D and NIKE3D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whirley, R.G.; Engelmann, B.E.; Maker, B.N.; Spelce, T.E.

    1992-03-24

    There has been some confusion in the user community recently regarding the various shell element formulations now available in DYNA3D (Whirley and Hadlquist, 1991) and NIKE3D (Maker, Ferencz, and Hallquist, 1991). In particular, questions have been raised about the behavior of these elements under large strain, and the display of meaningful results from such problems using TAURUS (Spelce and Hallquist, 1991). This brief report is intended to aid the DYNA/NIKE user community by elaborating on the formulation of the DYNA3D/NIKE3D shell elements and on the display of shell data using TAURUS. In the following discussion no attempt is made to give a complete description of the theoretical development or implementation of any of the elements. Readers interested in a more complete discussion of the shell elements in DYNA3D and NIKE3D are directed to the published papers cited in the code User Manuals.

  19. INGRID; 3-D Mesh Generation Nonlinear Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stillman, D.W.; Rainsberger, R.

    1985-07-01

    INGRID is a general-purpose, three-dimensional mesh generator developed for use with finite element, nonlinear, structural dynamics codes. INGRID generates the large and complex input data files for DYNA3D, NIKE3D, FACET, and TOPAZ3D. One of the greatest advantages of INGRID is that virtually any shape can be described without resorting to wedge elements, tetrahedrons, triangular elements or highly distorted quadrilateral or hexahedral elements. Other capabilities available are in the areas of geometry and graphics. Exact surface equations and surface intersections considerably improve the ability to deal with accurate models, and a hidden line graphics algorithm is included which is efficient on the most complicated meshes. The primary new capability is associated with the boundary conditions, loads, and material properties required by nonlinear mechanics programs. Commands have been designed for each case to minimize user effort. This is particularly important since special processing is almost always required for each load or boundary condition.

  20. INGRID. 3-D Mesh Generation Nonlinear Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christon, M.A.; Dovey, D.; Stillman, D.W.; Hallquist, J.O.; Rainsberger, R.B.

    1992-09-01

    INGRID is a general-purpose, three-dimensional mesh generator developed for use with finite element, nonlinear, structural dynamics codes. INGRID generates the large and complex input data files for DYNA3D, NIKE3D, FACET, and TOPAZ3D. One of the greatest advantages of INGRID is that virtually any shape can be described without resorting to wedge elements, tetrahedrons, triangular elements or highly distorted quadrilateral or hexahedral elements. Other capabilities available are in the areas of geometry and graphics. Exact surface equations and surface intersections considerably improve the ability to deal with accurate models, and a hidden line graphics algorithm is included which is efficient on the most complicated meshes. The primary new capability is associated with the boundary conditions, loads, and material properties required by nonlinear mechanics programs. Commands have been designed for each case to minimize user effort. This is particularly important since special processing is almost always required for each load or boundary condition.

  1. INGRID. 3-D Mesh Generation Nonlinear Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stillman, D.W.; Rainsberger, R.

    1985-07-01

    INGRID is a general-purpose, three-dimensional mesh generator developed for use with finite element, nonlinear, structural dynamics codes. INGRID generates the large and complex input data files for DYNA3D, NIKE3D, FACET, and TOPAZ3D (ESTSC. One of the greatest advantages of INGRID is that virtually any shape can be described without resorting to wedge elements, tetrahedrons, triangular elements or highly distorted quadrilateral or hexahedral elements. Other capabilities available are in the areas of geometry and graphics. Exact surface equations and surface intersections considerably improve the ability to deal with accurate models, and a hidden line graphics algorithm is included which is efficient on the most complicated meshes. The primary new capability is associated with the boundary conditions, loads, and material properties required by nonlinear mechanics programs. Commands have been designed for each case to minimize user effort. This is particularly important since special processing is almost always required for each load or boundary condition.

  2. INGRID. 3-D Mesh Generation Nonlinear Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stillman, D.W.; Rainsberger, R.

    1985-07-01

    INGRID is a general-purpose, three-dimensional mesh generator developed for use with finite element, nonlinear, structural dynamics codes. INGRID generates the large and complex input data files for DYNA3D, NIKE3D, FACET, and TOPAZ3D. One of the greatest advantages of INGRID is that virtually any shape can be described without resorting to wedge elements, tetrahedrons, triangular elements or highly distorted quadrilateral or hexahedral elements. Other capabilities available are in the areas of geometry and graphics. Exact surface equations and surface intersections considerably improve the ability to deal with accurate models, and a hidden line graphics algorithm is included which is efficient on the most complicated meshes. The primary new capability is associated with the boundary conditions, loads, and material properties required by nonlinear mechanics programs. Commands have been designed for each case to minimize user effort. This is particularly important since special processing is almost always required for each load or boundary condition.

  3. 3-D Mesh Generation Nonlinear Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-04-07

    INGRID is a general-purpose, three-dimensional mesh generator developed for use with finite element, nonlinear, structural dynamics codes. INGRID generates the large and complex input data files for DYNA3D, NIKE3D, FACET, and TOPAZ3D. One of the greatest advantages of INGRID is that virtually any shape can be described without resorting to wedge elements, tetrahedrons, triangular elements or highly distorted quadrilateral or hexahedral elements. Other capabilities available are in the areas of geometry and graphics. Exact surface equations and surface intersections considerably improve the ability to deal with accurate models, and a hidden line graphics algorithm is included which is efficient on the most complicated meshes. The primary new capability is associated with the boundary conditions, loads, and material properties required by nonlinear mechanics programs. Commands have been designed for each case to minimize user effort. This is particularly important since special processing is almost always required for each load or boundary condition.

  4. Ames Lab 101: 3D Metals Printer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ott, Ryan

    2014-02-13

    To meet one of the biggest energy challenges of the 21st century - finding alternatives to rare-earth elements and other critical materials - scientists will need new and advanced tools. The Critical Materials Institute at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory has a new one: a 3D printer for metals research. 3D printing technology, which has captured the imagination of both industry and consumers, enables ideas to move quickly from the initial design phase to final form using materials including polymers, ceramics, paper and even food. But the Critical Materials Institute (CMI) will apply the advantages of the 3D printing process in a unique way: for materials discovery.

  5. Further improvements on TRACE 3-D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rusthoi, D.P.; Lysenko, W.P.; Crandall, K.R.

    1997-08-01

    TRACE 3-D, an interactive beam-dynamics program that calculates the envelopes of a bunched beam (including linear space-charge forces) through a user-defined transport system, has undergone several upgrades in physics, coding, and capabilities. Recent modifications include centroid tracking (and misalignment capabilities) and an improved beam description that allows study of some nonlinear effects such as wakefields. The Fortran code has been made portable and runs on numerous platforms. It can be used with a variety of graphics packages. The additional beamline elements, new commands, expanded fitting capabilities, improved beam description, and coding modifications have extended TRACE 3-D`s usefulness and applicability to the accelerator community. These changes are documented in the third edition of TRACE 3-D Documentation.

  6. 3-D Finite Element Heat Transfer

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-02-01

    TOPAZ3D is a three-dimensional implicit finite element computer code for heat transfer analysis. TOPAZ3D can be used to solve for the steady-state or transient temperature field on three-dimensional geometries. Material properties may be temperature-dependent and either isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time-dependent and temperature-dependent boundary conditions can be specified including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation. By implementing the user subroutine feature, users can model chemical reaction kinetics and allow for any type of functionalmore » representation of boundary conditions and internal heat generation. TOPAZ3D can solve problems of diffuse and specular band radiation in an enclosure coupled with conduction in the material surrounding the enclosure. Additional features include thermal contact resistance across an interface, bulk fluids, phase change, and energy balances.« less

  7. Ames Lab 101: 3D Metals Printer

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Ott, Ryan

    2014-06-04

    To meet one of the biggest energy challenges of the 21st century - finding alternatives to rare-earth elements and other critical materials - scientists will need new and advanced tools. The Critical Materials Institute at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory has a new one: a 3D printer for metals research. 3D printing technology, which has captured the imagination of both industry and consumers, enables ideas to move quickly from the initial design phase to final form using materials including polymers, ceramics, paper and even food. But the Critical Materials Institute (CMI) will apply the advantages of the 3D printing process in a unique way: for materials discovery.

  8. 3D target array for pulsed multi-sourced radiography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Le Galloudec, Nathalie Joelle

    2016-02-23

    The various technologies presented herein relate to the generation of x-rays and other charged particles. A plurality of disparate source materials can be combined on an array to facilitate fabrication of co-located mixed tips (point sources) which can be utilized to form a polychromatic cloud, e.g., a plurality of x-rays having a range of energies and or wavelengths, etc. The tips can be formed such that the x-rays are emitted in a direction different to other charged particles to facilitate clean x-ray sourcing. Particles, such as protons, can be directionally emitted to facilitate generation of neutrons at a secondary target. The various particles can be generated by interaction of a laser irradiating the array of tips. The tips can be incorporated into a plurality of 3D conical targets, the conical target sidewall(s) can be utilized to microfocus a portion of a laser beam onto the tip material.

  9. SAND contact in DYNA3D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whirley, R.G.; Engelmann, B.E.

    1992-08-25

    This paper describes some recent developments in adaptive contact algorithms for the transient analysis of penetration and material failure in DYNA3D. A failure criterion is defined for volumes of potentially failing material on each side of a contact surface. As material within an element fails, the element is deleted from the calculation and the contact surface is adaptively redefined to include the newly exposed outer material boundary. This algorithm admits arbitrary combinations of shell and solid elements to allow modeling of composite or honeycomb structures. The algorithms and their efficiency are illustrated with several DYNA3D simulations and results are compared with experimental data.

  10. Theoretical manual for DYNA3D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hallquist, J.O.

    1983-03-01

    This report provides a theoretical manual for DYNA3D, a vectorized explicit three-dimensional finite element code for analyzing the large deformation dynamic response of inelastic solids. A contact-impact algorithm that permits gaps and sliding along material interfaces is described. By a specialization of this algorithm, such interfaces can be rigidly tied to admit variable zoning without the need of transition regions. Spatial discretization is achieved by the use of 8-node solid elements, and the equations-of-motion are integrated by the central difference method. DYNA3D is operational on the CRAY-1 and CDC7600 computers.

  11. VisIt - 3D Scientific Visualization

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    VisIt VisIt - 3D Scientific Visualization Description and Overview VisIt is a point-and-click 3D scientific visualization application that supports most common visualization techniques (e.g., iso-contouring and volume rendering) on structured and unstructured grids. Due to its distributed and parallel architecture, VisIt is able to handle very large datasets interactively. In addition, VisIt is extensible, allowing users to add data loaders or additional analysis tools to VisIt. The NERSC

  12. 3D Modeling Engine Representation Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven Prescott; Ramprasad Sampath; Curtis Smith; Timothy Yang

    2014-09-01

    Computers have been used for 3D modeling and simulation, but only recently have computational resources been able to give realistic results in a reasonable time frame for large complex models. This summary report addressed the methods, techniques, and resources used to develop a 3D modeling engine to represent risk analysis simulation for advanced small modular reactor structures and components. The simulations done for this evaluation were focused on external events, specifically tsunami floods, for a hypothetical nuclear power facility on a coastline.

  13. Laser radar VI; Proceedings of the Meeting, Los Angeles, CA, Jan. 23-25, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Becherer, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    Topics presented include lidar wind shear detection for commercial aircraft, centroid tracking of range-Doppler images, an analytic approach to centroid performance analysis, simultaneous active/passive IR vehicle detection, and resolution limits for high-resolution imaging lidar. Also presented are laser velocimetry applications, the application of laser radar to autonomous spacecraft landing, 3D laser radar simulation for autonomous spacecraft landing, and ground based CW atmospheric Doppler lidar performamce modeling.

  14. 3D deformation field throughout the interior of materials.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, Huiqing; Lu, Wei-Yang

    2013-09-01

    This report contains the one-year feasibility study for our three-year LDRD proposal that is aimed to develop an experimental technique to measure the 3D deformation fields inside a material body. In this feasibility study, we first apply Digital Volume Correlation (DVC) algorithm to pre-existing in-situ Xray Computed Tomography (XCT) image sets with pure rigid body translation. The calculated displacement field has very large random errors and low precision that are unacceptable. Then we enhance these tomography images by setting threshold of the intensity of each slice. DVC algorithm is able to obtain accurate deformation fields from these enhanced image sets and the deformation fields are consistent with the global mechanical loading that is applied to the specimen. Through this study, we prove that the internal markers inside the pre-existing tomography images of aluminum alloy can be enhanced and are suitable for DVC to calculate the deformation field throughout the material body.

  15. Molecular Predictors of 3D Morphogenesis by Breast Cancer Cell Lines in 3D Culture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Ju; Chang, Hang; Giricz, Orsi; Lee, Genee; Baehner, Frederick; Gray, Joe; Bissell, Mina; Kenny, Paraic; Parvin, Bahram

    2010-02-01

    Correlative analysis of molecular markers with phenotypic signatures is the simplest model for hypothesis generation. In this paper, a panel of 24 breast cell lines was grown in 3D culture, their morphology was imaged through phase contrast microscopy, and computational methods were developed to segment and represent each colony at multiple dimensions. Subsequently, subpopulations from these morphological responses were identified through consensus clustering to reveal three clusters of round, grape-like, and stellate phenotypes. In some cases, cell lines with particular pathobiological phenotypes clustered together (e.g., ERBB2 amplified cell lines sharing the same morphometric properties as the grape-like phenotype). Next, associations with molecular features were realized through (i) differential analysis within each morphological cluster, and (ii) regression analysis across the entire panel of cell lines. In both cases, the dominant genes that are predictive of the morphological signatures were identified. Specifically, PPAR? has been associated with the invasive stellate morphological phenotype, which corresponds to triple-negative pathobiology. PPAR? has been validated through two supporting biological assays.

  16. The Future of Manufacturing Takes Shape: 3D Printed Car on Display...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Image: Courtesy of Local Motors Carbon Fiber Pellets 4 of 6 Carbon Fiber Pellets Pellets of plastic mixed with carbon fiber were used in the production process of the 3D-printed ...

  17. Full aperture backscatter station imager (FABSI) diagnostics system for far-field imaging of laser plasma instabilities on Nova

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilke, M.D.; Fernandez, J.C.; Berggren, R.R.; Montgomery, D.; Faulkner, J.; Looney, L.; Jimerson, J.; Horton, R.F.

    1996-06-01

    In ICF, the understanding of laser plasma scattering processes is essential for laser target coupling and in controlling the symmetry of indirect drive implosions. The existing Nova Full Aperture Backscatter Station (FABS) has been useful in understanding laser plasma instabilities occurring in hohlraums by measuring the quantity, spectral distribution and near-field spatial distributions of Brillouin and more recently Raman backscatter. Equally important is an understanding of the farfield spatial intensity distribution which provides information on density, temperature and velocity gradient distributions, and which affect capsule implosion symmetry in hohlraums. Such information could potentially help in understanding processes such as filamentation and saturation mechanism. This paper describes a broad-band, color-corrected far-field imager and associated diagnostics capable of imaging the source of scattered light to better than 25 {micro}m resolution. The imager can either image Brillouin or Raman backscatter through the Nova beam 7 focusing lens or be used like a microscope to image side scatter from other beams.

  18. Laser scattered images observed from carbon plasma stagnation and following molecular formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nishimura, K.; Shibata, R.; Yabuuchi, T.; Tanaka, K. A.; Sunahara, A.

    2014-06-16

    Two carbon targets were irradiated to create plasma plumes to collide at right angle with two UV laser pulses each other at 10 J/cm{sup 2}/pulse. The collision results in carbon plasma stagnation. Laser scattered imaging indicates that the carbon large molecular formation takes place much later in time after the laser irradiation and stagnation. Compared with the temporal history of electron density (n{sub e}), ion density (n{sub i}), and plasma self-emission dominated by carbon Swan band, it is estimated that the carbon large molecular formation has been initiated with the ion collision followed by the C{sub 2} formation.

  19. System and method for investigating sub-surface features and 3D imaging of non-linear property, compressional velocity VP, shear velocity VS and velocity ratio VP/VS of a rock formation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vu, Cung Khac; Skelt, Christopher; Nihei, Kurt; Johnson, Paul A.; Guyer, Robert; Ten Cate, James A.; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves; Larmat, Carene S.

    2015-06-02

    A system and a method for generating a three-dimensional image of a rock formation, compressional velocity VP, shear velocity VS and velocity ratio VP/VS of a rock formation are provided. A first acoustic signal includes a first plurality of pulses. A second acoustic signal from a second source includes a second plurality of pulses. A detected signal returning to the borehole includes a signal generated by a non-linear mixing process from the first and second acoustic signals in a non-linear mixing zone within an intersection volume. The received signal is processed to extract the signal over noise and/or signals resulting from linear interaction and the three dimensional image of is generated.

  20. Phase-contrast imaging using ultrafast x-rays in laser-shocked materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Workman, Jonathan B; Cobble, James A; Flippo, Kirk; Gautier, Donald C; Montgomery, David S; Offermann, Dustin T

    2010-01-01

    High-energy x-rays, > 10-keV, can be efficiently produced from ultrafast laser target interactions with many applications to dense target materials in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) and High-Energy Density Physics (HEDP). These same x-rays can also be applied to measurements of low-density materials inside high-density hohlraum environments. In the experiments presented, high-energy x-ray images of laser-shocked polystyrene are produced through phase contrast imaging. The plastic targets are nominally transparent to traditional x-ray absorption but show detailed features in regions of high density gradients due to refractive effects often called phase contrast imaging. The 200-TW Trident laser is used both to produce the x-ray source and to shock the polystyrene target. X-rays at 17-keV produced from 2-ps, 100-J laser interactions with a 12-micron molybdenum wire are used to produce a small source size, required for optimizing refractive effects. Shocks are driven in the 1-mm thick polystyrene target using 2-ns, 250-J, 532-nm laser drive with phase plates. X-ray images of shocks compare well to 1-D hydro calculations, HELIOS-CR.

  1. Crashworthiness simulations with DYNA3D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schauer, D.A.; Hoover, C.G.; Kay, G.J.; Lee, A.S.; De Groot, A.J.

    1996-04-01

    Current progress in parallel algorithm research and applications in vehicle crash simulation is described for the explicit, finite element algorithms in DYNA3D. Problem partitioning methods and parallel algorithms for contact at material interfaces are the two challenging algorithm research problems that are addressed. Two prototype parallel contact algorithms have been developed for treating the cases of local and arbitrary contact. Demonstration problems for local contact are crashworthiness simulations with 222 locally defined contact surfaces and a vehicle/barrier collision modeled with arbitrary contact. A simulation of crash tests conducted for a vehicle impacting a U-channel small sign post embedded in soil has been run on both the serial and parallel versions of DYNA3D. A significant reduction in computational time has been observed when running these problems on the parallel version. However, to achieve maximum efficiency, complex problems must be appropriately partitioned, especially when contact dominates the computation.

  2. 3D Technology for intelligent trackers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lipton, Ronald; /Fermilab

    2010-09-01

    At Super-LHC luminosity it is expected that the standard suite of level 1 triggers for CMS will saturate. Information from the tracker will be needed to reduce trigger rates to satisfy the level 1 bandwidth. Tracking trigger modules which correlate information from closely-spaced sensor layers to form an on-detector momentum filter are being developed by several groups. We report on a trigger module design which utilizes three dimensional integrated circuit technology incorporating chips which are connected both to the top and bottom sensor, providing the ability to filter information locally. A demonstration chip, the VICTR, has been submitted to the Chartered/Tezzaron two-tier 3D run coordinated by Fermilab. We report on the 3D design concept, the status of the VICTR chip and associated sensor integration utilizing oxide bonding.

  3. 3D Charge Order Found in Superconductor

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3D Charge Order Found in Superconductor Print Despite 30 years of intense study, the explanation behind the zero-resistance current displayed by high-temperature superconductors (HTSCs) is still shrouded in complexity. HTSCs tend to be heterogeneous materials with multiple phases, and disentangling their various electronic behaviors for analysis can be difficult. At the ALS, researchers used resonant soft x-ray diffraction (RSXD), a technique sensitive to both structure and electronic state at

  4. 3D Charge Order Found in Superconductor

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3D Charge Order Found in Superconductor Print Despite 30 years of intense study, the explanation behind the zero-resistance current displayed by high-temperature superconductors (HTSCs) is still shrouded in complexity. HTSCs tend to be heterogeneous materials with multiple phases, and disentangling their various electronic behaviors for analysis can be difficult. At the ALS, researchers used resonant soft x-ray diffraction (RSXD), a technique sensitive to both structure and electronic state at

  5. 3D Charge Order Found in Superconductor

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3D Charge Order Found in Superconductor Print Despite 30 years of intense study, the explanation behind the zero-resistance current displayed by high-temperature superconductors (HTSCs) is still shrouded in complexity. HTSCs tend to be heterogeneous materials with multiple phases, and disentangling their various electronic behaviors for analysis can be difficult. At the ALS, researchers used resonant soft x-ray diffraction (RSXD), a technique sensitive to both structure and electronic state at

  6. 3D Charge Order Found in Superconductor

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3D Charge Order Found in Superconductor Print Despite 30 years of intense study, the explanation behind the zero-resistance current displayed by high-temperature superconductors (HTSCs) is still shrouded in complexity. HTSCs tend to be heterogeneous materials with multiple phases, and disentangling their various electronic behaviors for analysis can be difficult. At the ALS, researchers used resonant soft x-ray diffraction (RSXD), a technique sensitive to both structure and electronic state at

  7. 3D Charge Order Found in Superconductor

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3D Charge Order Found in Superconductor Print Despite 30 years of intense study, the explanation behind the zero-resistance current displayed by high-temperature superconductors (HTSCs) is still shrouded in complexity. HTSCs tend to be heterogeneous materials with multiple phases, and disentangling their various electronic behaviors for analysis can be difficult. At the ALS, researchers used resonant soft x-ray diffraction (RSXD), a technique sensitive to both structure and electronic state at

  8. 3D Charge Order Found in Superconductor

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3D Charge Order Found in Superconductor Print Despite 30 years of intense study, the explanation behind the zero-resistance current displayed by high-temperature superconductors (HTSCs) is still shrouded in complexity. HTSCs tend to be heterogeneous materials with multiple phases, and disentangling their various electronic behaviors for analysis can be difficult. At the ALS, researchers used resonant soft x-ray diffraction (RSXD), a technique sensitive to both structure and electronic state at

  9. Sandia Modifies Delft3D Turbine Model

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Modifies Delft3D Turbine Model - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs

  10. GEN3D Ver. 1.37

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-01-04

    GEN3D is a three-dimensional mesh generation program. The three-dimensional mesh is generated by mapping a two-dimensional mesh into threedimensions according to one of four types of transformations: translating, rotating, mapping onto a spherical surface, and mapping onto a cylindrical surface. The generated three-dimensional mesh can then be reoriented by offsetting, reflecting about an axis, and revolving about an axis. GEN3D can be used to mesh geometries that are axisymmetric or planar, but, due to three-dimensionalmore » loading or boundary conditions, require a three-dimensional finite element mesh and analysis. More importantly, it can be used to mesh complex three-dimensional geometries composed of several sections when the sections can be defined in terms of transformations of two dimensional geometries. The code GJOIN is then used to join the separate sections into a single body. GEN3D reads and writes twodimensional and threedimensional mesh databases in the GENESIS database format; therefore, it is compatible with the preprocessing, postprocessing, and analysis codes used by the Engineering Analysis Department at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM.« less

  11. 3-D Mesh Generation Nonlinear Systems

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1994-04-07

    INGRID is a general-purpose, three-dimensional mesh generator developed for use with finite element, nonlinear, structural dynamics codes. INGRID generates the large and complex input data files for DYNA3D, NIKE3D, FACET, and TOPAZ3D. One of the greatest advantages of INGRID is that virtually any shape can be described without resorting to wedge elements, tetrahedrons, triangular elements or highly distorted quadrilateral or hexahedral elements. Other capabilities available are in the areas of geometry and graphics. Exact surfacemore » equations and surface intersections considerably improve the ability to deal with accurate models, and a hidden line graphics algorithm is included which is efficient on the most complicated meshes. The primary new capability is associated with the boundary conditions, loads, and material properties required by nonlinear mechanics programs. Commands have been designed for each case to minimize user effort. This is particularly important since special processing is almost always required for each load or boundary condition.« less

  12. Transforming Wind Turbine Blade Mold Manufacturing with 3D Printing...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transforming Wind Turbine Blade Mold Manufacturing with 3D Printing Transforming Wind Turbine Blade Mold Manufacturing with 3D Printing A screenshot of the cover of the 3D blade ...

  13. Note: Design and construction of a multi-scale, high-resolution, tube-generated X-Ray computed-tomography system for three-dimensional (3D) imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mertens, J. C. E.; Williams, J. J.; Chawla, Nikhilesh

    2014-01-15

    The design and construction of a high resolution modular x-ray computed tomography (XCT) system is described. The approach for meeting a specified set of performance goals tailored toward experimental versatility is highlighted. The instrument is unique in its detector and x-ray source configuration, both of which enable elevated optimization of spatial and temporal resolution. The process for component selection is provided. The selected components are specified, the custom component design discussed, and the integration of both into a fully functional XCT instrument is outlined. The novelty of this design is a new lab-scale detector and imaging optimization through x-ray source and detector modularity.

  14. Restructuring of RELAP5-3D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George Mesina; Joshua Hykes

    2005-09-01

    The RELAP5-3D source code is unstructured with many interwoven logic flow paths. By restructuring the code, it becomes easier to read and understand, which reduces the time and money required for code development, debugging, and maintenance. A structured program is comprised of blocks of code with one entry and exit point and downward logic flow. IF tests and DO loops inherently create structured code, while GOTO statements are the main cause of unstructured code. FOR_STRUCT is a commercial software package that converts unstructured FORTRAN into structured programming; it was used to restructure individual subroutines. Primarily it transforms GOTO statements, ARITHMETIC IF statements, and COMPUTED GOTO statements into IF-ELSEIF-ELSE tests and DO loops. The complexity of RELAP5-3D complicated the task. First, FOR_STRUCT cannot completely restructure all the complex coding contained in RELAP5-3D. An iterative approach of multiple FOR_STRUCT applications gave some additional improvements. Second, FOR_STRUCT cannot restructure FORTRAN 90 coding, and RELAP5-3D is partially written in FORTRAN 90. Unix scripts for pre-processing subroutines into coding that FOR_STRUCT could handle and post-processing it back into FORTRAN 90 were written. Finally, FOR_STRUCT does not have the ability to restructure the RELAP5-3D code which contains pre-compiler directives. Variations of a file were processed with different pre-compiler options switched on or off, ensuring that every block of code was restructured. Then the variations were recombined to create a completely restructured source file. Unix scripts were written to perform these tasks, as well as to make some minor formatting improvements. In total, 447 files comprising some 180,000 lines of FORTRAN code were restructured. These showed significant reduction in the number of logic jumps contained as measured by reduction in the number of GOTO statements and line labels. The average number of GOTO statements per subroutine

  15. PSTD Simulations of Multiple Light Scattering in 3-D Macrocsopic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    PSTD Simulations of Multiple Light Scattering in 3-D Macrocsopic Random Media Citation Details In-Document Search Title: PSTD Simulations of Multiple Light Scattering in 3-D ...

  16. Interferometrically Defined 3D Pyrolyzed-Carbon Sensors. (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Interferometrically Defined 3D Pyrolyzed-Carbon Sensors. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Interferometrically Defined 3D Pyrolyzed-Carbon Sensors. Abstract ...

  17. Transforming Wind Turbine Blade Mold Manufacturing with 3D Printing...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transforming Wind Turbine Blade Mold Manufacturing with 3D Printing Transforming Wind Turbine Blade Mold Manufacturing with 3D Printing Addthis Description Innovation in the design ...

  18. Visualization and Analysis of 3D Gene Expression Data (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Visualization and Analysis of 3D Gene Expression Data Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Visualization and Analysis of 3D Gene Expression Data Recent...

  19. Directing Matter: Toward Atomic-Scale 3D Nanofabrication

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jesse, Stephen; Borisevich, Albina Y.; Fowlkes, Jason D.; Lupini, Andrew R.; Rack, Philip D.; Unocic, Raymond R.; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Belianinov, Alex; Ovchinnikova, Olga S.

    2016-05-16

    Here we report that enabling memristive, neuromorphic, and quantum based computing as well as efficient mainstream energy storage and conversion technologies requires next generation of materials customized at the atomic scale. This requires full control of atomic arrangement and bonding in three dimensions. The last two decades witnessed substantial industrial, academic, and government research efforts directed towards this goal through various lithographies and scanning probe based methods. These technologies emphasize 2D surface structures, with some limited 3D capability. Recently, a range of focused electron and ion based methods have demonstrated compelling alternative pathways to achieving atomically precise manufacturing of 3Dmore » structures in solids, liquids, and at interfaces. Electron and ion microscopies offer a platform that can simultaneously observe dynamic and static structures at the nano and atomic scales, and also induce structural rearrangements and chemical transformation. The addition of predictive modeling or rapid image analytics and feedback enables guiding these in a controlled manner. Here, we review the recent results that used focused electron and ion beams to create free-standing nanoscale 3D structures, radiolysis and the fabrication potential with liquid precursors, epitaxial crystallization of amorphous oxides with atomic layer precision, as well as visualization and control of individual dopant motion within a 3D crystal lattice. These works lay the foundation for new approaches to directing nanoscale level architectures and offer a potential roadmap to full 3D atomic control in materials. Lastly, in this perspective we lay out the gaps that currently constrain the processing range of these platforms, reflect on indirect requirements, such as the integration of large scale data analysis with theory, and discuss future prospects of these technologies.« less

  20. Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging of Electron Heated Targets in Petawatt Laser Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, T; MacPhee, A; Key, M; Akli, K; Mackinnon, A; Chen, C; Barbee, T; Freeman, R; King, J; Link, A; Offermann, D; Ovchinnikov, V; Patel, P; Stephens, R; VanWoerkom, L; Zhang, B; Beg, F

    2007-11-29

    The study of the transport of electrons, and the flow of energy into a solid target or dense plasma, is instrumental in the development of fast ignition inertial confinement fusion. An extreme ultraviolet (XUV) imaging diagnostic at 256 eV and 68 eV provides information about heating and energy deposition within petawatt laser-irradiated targets. XUV images of several irradiated solid targets are presented.

  1. Numerical integration of structural elements in NIKE3D and DYNA3D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maker, B.N.; Whirley, R.G.; Engelmann, B.E.

    1992-08-05

    The beam and shell elements found in many linear elastic finite element codes accept integrated cross sectional properties as input, and produce solutions using classical beam and shell theory. These theories are built upon the equation of resultant forces and moments with integrals of assumed stress distributions over the cross section. In contrast, the structural elements in NIKE3D and DYNA3D are formulated to represent nonlinear geometric and material behavior. Thus stress distributions may not necessarily be representable by simple functions of cross section variables. In NIKE3D and DYNA3D, the Hughes-Liu beam element and all shell elements accommodate these more general stress distributions by computing stresses at various points in the cross section. The integration of stresses within each element is then performed numerically, using a variety of methods. This report describes these numerical integration procedures in detail, and highlights their application to engineering problems. Several other features of the structural elements are also described, including force and moment resultants, user-defined reference surfaces, and user-defined integration rules. Finally, the shear correction factor is described in a section which relates results from NIKE3D and DYNA3D to those obtained from classical beam theory.

  2. Elastoplastic shell analysis in DYNA3D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whirley, R.G. )

    1991-01-01

    Computer simulation of the elastoplastic behavior of thin shell structures under transient dynamic loads play an important role in many programs at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, Calif. Often the loads are severe and the structure undergoes plastic (or permanent) deformation. These simulations are effectively performed using DYNA3D, an explicit nonlinear finite element code developed at LLNL for simulating and analyzing the large-deformation dynamic response of solids and structures. It is generally applicable to problems where the loading and response are of short duration and contain significant high-frequency components. Typical problems of this type include the contact of two impacting bodies and the resulting elastoplastic structural behavior. The objective of this investigation was to examine and improve upon the elastoplastic shell modeling capability in DYNA3D. This article summarizes the development of a new four-node quadrilateral finite element shell formulation, the YASE shell, and compares two basic methods (the stress-resultant and the thickness-resultant methods) employed in elastoplastic constitutive algorithms for shell structure modeling.

  3. THE THOMSON SURFACE. III. TRACKING FEATURES IN 3D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howard, T. A.; DeForest, C. E.; Tappin, S. J.; Odstrcil, D.

    2013-03-01

    In this, the final installment in a three-part series on the Thomson surface, we present simulated observations of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) observed by a hypothetical polarizing white light heliospheric imager. Thomson scattering yields a polarization signal that can be exploited to locate observed features in three dimensions relative to the Thomson surface. We consider how the appearance of the CME changes with the direction of trajectory, using simulations of a simple geometrical shape and also of a more realistic CME generated using the ENLIL model. We compare the appearance in both unpolarized B and polarized pB light, and show that there is a quantifiable difference in the measured brightness of a CME between unpolarized and polarized observations. We demonstrate a technique for using this difference to extract the three-dimensional (3D) trajectory of large objects such as CMEs. We conclude with a discussion on how a polarizing heliospheric imager could be used to extract 3D trajectory information about CMEs or other observed features.

  4. fdm3d_sndV1.0

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2001-06-06

    FORTRAN90 software computes synthetic induction log responses in fully 3D anistropic geoelectric media.

  5. Systems and methods for imaging using radiation from laser produced plasmas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Renard-Le Galloudec, Nathalie; Cowan, Thomas E.; Sentoku, Yasuhiko; Rassuchine, Jennifer

    2009-06-30

    In particular embodiments, the present disclosure provides systems and methods for imaging a subject using radiation emitted from a laser produced plasma generating by irradiating a target with a laser. In particular examples, the target includes at least one radiation enhancing component, such as a fluor, cap, or wire. In further examples, the target has a metal layer and an internal surface defining an internal apex, the internal apex of less than about 15 .mu.m, such as less than about 1 .mu.m. The targets may take a variety of shapes, including cones, pyramids, and hemispheres. Certain aspects of the present disclosure provide improved imaging of a subject, such as improved medical images of a radiation dose than typical conventional methods and systems.

  6. Laser speckle-imaging of blood microcirculation in the brain cortex of laboratory rats in stress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vilensky, M A; Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, Oxana V; Timoshina, P A; Kuznetsova, Jana V; Semyachkin-Glushkovskii, I A; Agafonov, Dmitry N; Tuchin, Valerii V

    2012-06-30

    The results of experimental approbation of the method of laser full-field speckle-imaging for monitoring the changes in blood microcirculation state of the brain cortex of laboratory rats under the conditions of developing stroke and administration of vasodilating and vasoconstrictive agents are presented. The studies aimed at the choice of the optimal conditions of speckle-image formation and recording were performed and the software implementing an adaptive algorithm for processing the data of measurements was created. The transfer of laser radiation to the probed region of the biotissue was implemented by means of a silica-polymer optical fibre. The problems and prospects of speckle-imaging of cerebral microcirculation of blood in laboratory and clinical conditions are discussed.

  7. Near Field Intensity Trends of Main Laser Alignment Images in the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leach, R R; Beltsar, I; Burkhart, S; Lowe-Webb, R; Kamm, V M; Salmon, T; Wilhelmsen, K

    2015-01-22

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) utilizes 192 high-energy laser beams focused with enough power and precision on a hydrogen-filled spherical, cryogenic target to potentially initiate a fusion reaction. NIF has been operational for six years; during that time, thousands of successful laser firings or shots have been executed. Critical instrument measurements and camera images are carefully recorded for each shot. The result is a massive and complex database or ‘big data’ archive that can be used to investigate the state of the laser system at any point in its history or to locate and track trends in the laser operation over time. In this study, the optical light throughput for more than 1600 NIF shots for each of the 192 main laser beams and 48 quads was measured over a three year period from January 2009 to October 2012. The purpose was to verify that the variation in the transmission of light through the optics over time performed within design expectations during this time period. Differences between average or integrated intensity from images recorded by the input sensor package (ISP) and by the output sensor package (OSP) in the NIF beam-line were examined. A metric is described for quantifying changes in the integrated intensity measurements and was used to view potential trends. Results are presented for the NIF input and output sensor package trends and changes over the three year time-frame.

  8. Ultrahigh-spatial-resolution chemical and magnetic imaging by laser-based photoemission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taniuchi, Toshiyuki Kotani, Yoshinori; Shin, Shik

    2015-02-15

    We report the first experiments carried out on a new chemical and magnetic imaging system, which combines the high spatial resolution of a photoemission electron microscope (PEEM) with a continuous-wave deep-ultraviolet laser. Threshold photoemission is sensitive to the chemical and magnetic structures of the surface of materials. The spatial resolution of PEEM is limited by space charging when using pulsed photon sources as well as aberrations in the electron optics. We show that the use of a continuous-wave laser enabled us to overcome such a limit by suppressing the space-charge effect, allowing us to obtain a resolution of approximately 2.6 nm. With this system, we demonstrated the imaging of surface reconstruction domains on Si(001) by linear dichroism with normal incidence of the laser beam. We also succeeded in magnetic imaging of thin films with the use of magnetic circular dichroism near the Fermi level. The unique features of the ultraviolet laser will give us fast switching of the incident angles and polarizations of the photon source, which will be useful for the characterization of antiferromagnetic materials as well as ferromagnetic materials.

  9. Interactive initialization of 2D/3D rigid registration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gong, Ren Hui; Gler, zgr; Krkloglu, Mustafa; Lovejoy, John; Yaniv, Ziv

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: Registration is one of the key technical components in an image-guided navigation system. A large number of 2D/3D registration algorithms have been previously proposed, but have not been able to transition into clinical practice. The authors identify the primary reason for the lack of adoption with the prerequisite for a sufficiently accurate initial transformation, mean target registration error of about 10 mm or less. In this paper, the authors present two interactive initialization approaches that provide the desired accuracy for x-ray/MR and x-ray/CT registration in the operating room setting. Methods: The authors have developed two interactive registration methods based on visual alignment of a preoperative image, MR, or CT to intraoperative x-rays. In the first approach, the operator uses a gesture based interface to align a volume rendering of the preoperative image to multiple x-rays. The second approach uses a tracked tool available as part of a navigation system. Preoperatively, a virtual replica of the tool is positioned next to the anatomical structures visible in the volumetric data. Intraoperatively, the physical tool is positioned in a similar manner and subsequently used to align a volume rendering to the x-ray images using an augmented reality (AR) approach. Both methods were assessed using three publicly available reference data sets for 2D/3D registration evaluation. Results: In the authors' experiments, the authors show that for x-ray/MR registration, the gesture based method resulted in a mean target registration error (mTRE) of 9.3 5.0 mm with an average interaction time of 146.3 73.0 s, and the AR-based method had mTREs of 7.2 3.2 mm with interaction times of 44 32 s. For x-ray/CT registration, the gesture based method resulted in a mTRE of 7.4 5.0 mm with an average interaction time of 132.1 66.4 s, and the AR-based method had mTREs of 8.3 5.0 mm with interaction times of 58 52 s. Conclusions: Based on the authors

  10. 3D Multigroup Sn Neutron Transport Code

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2001-02-14

    ATTILA is a 3D multigroup transport code with arbitrary order ansotropic scatter. The transport equation is solved in first order form using a tri-linear discontinuous spatial differencing on an arbitrary tetrahedral mesh. The overall solution technique is source iteration with DSA acceleration of the scattering source. Anisotropic boundary and internal sources may be entered in the form of spherical harmonics moments. Alpha and k eigenvalue problems are allowed, as well as fixed source problems. Forwardmore » and adjoint solutions are available. Reflective, vacumn, and source boundary conditions are available. ATTILA can perform charged particle transport calculations using slowing down (CSD) terms. ATTILA can also be used to peform infra-red steady-state calculations for radiative transfer purposes.« less