National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for 3d laser imaging

  1. Imaging atoms in 3-D

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Ercius, Peter

    2014-06-27

    Berkeley Lab's Peter Ercius discusses "Imaging atoms in 3-D" in this Oct. 28, 2013 talk, which is part of a Science at the Theater event entitled Eight Big Ideas

  2. Advanced 3D Geophysical Imaging Technologies for Geothermal Resource...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3D Geophysical Imaging Technologies for Geothermal Resource Characterization Advanced 3D Geophysical Imaging Technologies for Geothermal Resource Characterization Advanced 3D ...

  3. Characterization and Modeling via 3D Reconstructions of Laser...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Characterization and Modeling via 3D Reconstructions of Laser Welds in Stainless Steel. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Characterization and Modeling via 3D...

  4. Ames Lab 101: Real-Time 3D Imaging

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Zhang, Song

    2012-08-29

    Ames Laboratory scientist Song Zhang explains his real-time 3-D imaging technology. The technique can be used to create high-resolution, real-time, precise, 3-D images for use in healthcare, security, and entertainment applications.

  5. Advanced 3D Geophysical Imaging Technologies for Geothermal Resource Characterization

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Advanced 3D Geophysical Imaging Technologies for Geothermal Resource Characterization presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado.

  6. 3D Imaging with Structured Illumination for Advanced Security Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birch, Gabriel Carisle; Dagel, Amber Lynn; Kast, Brian A.; Smith, Collin S.

    2015-09-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) information in a physical security system is a highly useful dis- criminator. The two-dimensional data from an imaging systems fails to provide target dis- tance and three-dimensional motion vector, which can be used to reduce nuisance alarm rates and increase system effectiveness. However, 3D imaging devices designed primarily for use in physical security systems are uncommon. This report discusses an architecture favorable to physical security systems; an inexpensive snapshot 3D imaging system utilizing a simple illumination system. The method of acquiring 3D data, tests to understand illumination de- sign, and software modifications possible to maximize information gathering capability are discussed.

  7. 3-D laser patterning process utilizing horizontal and vertical patterning

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Malba, Vincent; Bernhardt, Anthony F.

    2000-01-01

    A process which vastly improves the 3-D patterning capability of laser pantography (computer controlled laser direct-write patterning). The process uses commercially available electrodeposited photoresist (EDPR) to pattern 3-D surfaces. The EDPR covers the surface of a metal layer conformally, coating the vertical as well as horizontal surfaces. A laser pantograph then patterns the EDPR, which is subsequently developed in a standard, commercially available developer, leaving patterned trench areas in the EDPR. The metal layer thereunder is now exposed in the trench areas and masked in others, and thereafter can be etched to form the desired pattern (subtractive process), or can be plated with metal (additive process), followed by a resist stripping, and removal of the remaining field metal (additive process). This improved laser pantograph process is simpler, faster, move manufacturable, and requires no micro-machining.

  8. 3-D capacitance density imaging system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fasching, G.E.

    1988-03-18

    A three-dimensional capacitance density imaging of a gasified bed or the like in a containment vessel is achieved using a plurality of electrodes provided circumferentially about the bed in levels and along the bed in channels. The electrodes are individually and selectively excited electrically at each level to produce a plurality of current flux field patterns generated in the bed at each level. The current flux field patterns are suitably sensed and a density pattern of the bed at each level determined. By combining the determined density patterns at each level, a three-dimensional density image of the bed is achieved. 7 figs.

  9. Image Appraisal for 2D and 3D Electromagnetic Inversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alumbaugh, D.L.; Newman, G.A.

    1999-01-28

    Linearized methods are presented for appraising image resolution and parameter accuracy in images generated with two and three dimensional non-linear electromagnetic inversion schemes. When direct matrix inversion is employed, the model resolution and posterior model covariance matrices can be directly calculated. A method to examine how the horizontal and vertical resolution varies spatially within the electromagnetic property image is developed by examining the columns of the model resolution matrix. Plotting the square root of the diagonal of the model covariance matrix yields an estimate of how errors in the inversion process such as data noise and incorrect a priori assumptions about the imaged model map into parameter error. This type of image is shown to be useful in analyzing spatial variations in the image sensitivity to the data. A method is analyzed for statistically estimating the model covariance matrix when the conjugate gradient method is employed rather than a direct inversion technique (for example in 3D inversion). A method for calculating individual columns of the model resolution matrix using the conjugate gradient method is also developed. Examples of the image analysis techniques are provided on 2D and 3D synthetic cross well EM data sets, as well as a field data set collected at the Lost Hills Oil Field in Central California.

  10. Photo 3D-Printer, Image Credit, Ames Lab | OSTI, US Dept of Energy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Photo 3D-Printer, Image Credit, Ames Lab Critical Materials Institute speed metals research with 3D printer. Default Caption and Credits Read More: Critical Materials Institute ...

  11. 3D imaging of semiconductor components by discrete laminography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Batenburg, K. J.; Palenstijn, W. J.; Sijbers, J.

    2014-06-19

    X-ray laminography is a powerful technique for quality control of semiconductor components. Despite the advantages of nondestructive 3D imaging over 2D techniques based on sectioning, the acquisition time is still a major obstacle for practical use of the technique. In this paper, we consider the application of Discrete Tomography to laminography data, which can potentially reduce the scanning time while still maintaining a high reconstruction quality. By incorporating prior knowledge in the reconstruction algorithm about the materials present in the scanned object, far more accurate reconstructions can be obtained from the same measured data compared to classical reconstruction methods. We present a series of simulation experiments that illustrate the potential of the approach.

  12. GPU-accelerated denoising of 3D magnetic resonance images

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howison, Mark; Wes Bethel, E.

    2014-05-29

    The raw computational power of GPU accelerators enables fast denoising of 3D MR images using bilateral filtering, anisotropic diffusion, and non-local means. In practice, applying these filtering operations requires setting multiple parameters. This study was designed to provide better guidance to practitioners for choosing the most appropriate parameters by answering two questions: what parameters yield the best denoising results in practice? And what tuning is necessary to achieve optimal performance on a modern GPU? To answer the first question, we use two different metrics, mean squared error (MSE) and mean structural similarity (MSSIM), to compare denoising quality against a reference image. Surprisingly, the best improvement in structural similarity with the bilateral filter is achieved with a small stencil size that lies within the range of real-time execution on an NVIDIA Tesla M2050 GPU. Moreover, inappropriate choices for parameters, especially scaling parameters, can yield very poor denoising performance. To answer the second question, we perform an autotuning study to empirically determine optimal memory tiling on the GPU. The variation in these results suggests that such tuning is an essential step in achieving real-time performance. These results have important implications for the real-time application of denoising to MR images in clinical settings that require fast turn-around times.

  13. SU-E-T-154: Establishment and Implement of 3D Image Guided Brachytherapy Planning System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, S; Zhao, S; Chen, Y; Li, Z; Li, P; Huang, Z; Yang, Z; Zhang, X

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Cannot observe the dose intuitionally is a limitation of the existing 2D pre-implantation dose planning. Meanwhile, a navigation module is essential to improve the accuracy and efficiency of the implantation. Hence a 3D Image Guided Brachytherapy Planning System conducting dose planning and intra-operative navigation based on 3D multi-organs reconstruction is developed. Methods: Multi-organs including the tumor are reconstructed in one sweep of all the segmented images using the multiorgans reconstruction method. The reconstructed organs group establishs a three-dimensional visualized operative environment. The 3D dose maps of the three-dimentional conformal localized dose planning are calculated with Monte Carlo method while the corresponding isodose lines and isodose surfaces are displayed in a stereo view. The real-time intra-operative navigation is based on an electromagnetic tracking system (ETS) and the fusion between MRI and ultrasound images. Applying Least Square Method, the coordinate registration between 3D models and patient is realized by the ETS which is calibrated by a laser tracker. The system is validated by working on eight patients with prostate cancer. The navigation has passed the precision measurement in the laboratory. Results: The traditional marching cubes (MC) method reconstructs one organ at one time and assembles them together. Compared to MC, presented multi-organs reconstruction method has superiorities in reserving the integrality and connectivity of reconstructed organs. The 3D conformal localized dose planning, realizing the 'exfoliation display' of different isodose surfaces, helps make sure the dose distribution has encompassed the nidus and avoid the injury of healthy tissues. During the navigation, surgeons could observe the coordinate of instruments real-timely employing the ETS. After the calibration, accuracy error of the needle position is less than 2.5mm according to the experiments. Conclusion: The speed and quality of 3D reconstruction, the efficiency in dose planning and accuracy in navigation all can be improved simultaneously.

  14. Final report: high resolution lensless 3D imaging of nanostructures with coherent x-rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobsen, Chris

    2014-12-07

    Final report on the project "High resolution lensless 3D imaging of nanostructures with coherent x-rays"

  15. 3D View Inside the Skeleton with X-ray Microscopy: Imaging Bone at the

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale 3D View Inside the Skeleton with X-ray Microscopy: Imaging Bone at the Nanoscale Scientists studying osteoporosis and other skeletal diseases are interested in the 3D structure of bone and its responses to conditions such as weightlessness, radiation (of particular interest to astronauts) and vitamin D deficiency. The current gold standard, micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), provides 3D images of trabeculae, the small interior struts of bone tissue, and electron microscopy can

  16. 3D Mt Resistivity Imaging For Geothermal Resource Assessment...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mt Resistivity Imaging For Geothermal Resource Assessment And Environmental Mitigation At The Glass Mountain Kgra, California Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference...

  17. Advanced 3D Geophysical Imaging Technologies for Geothermal Resource Characterization

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE Geothermal Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. This project aims to develop improved geophysical imaging method for characterizing subsurface structure, identify fluid locations, and characterize fractures.

  18. An Efficient Algorithm for Mapping Imaging Data to 3D Unstructured Grids in

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Computational Biomechanics (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect An Efficient Algorithm for Mapping Imaging Data to 3D Unstructured Grids in Computational Biomechanics Citation Details In-Document Search Title: An Efficient Algorithm for Mapping Imaging Data to 3D Unstructured Grids in Computational Biomechanics Geometries for organ scale and multiscale simulations of organ function are now routinely derived from imaging data. However, medical images may also contain spatially heterogeneous

  19. Radar Imaging of Spheres in 3D using MUSIC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chambers, D H; Berryman, J G

    2003-01-21

    We have shown that multiple spheres can be imaged by linear and planar EM arrays using only one component of polarization. The imaging approach involves calculating the SVD of the scattering response matrix, selecting a subset of singular values that represents noise, and evaluating the MUSIC functional. The noise threshold applied to the spectrum of singular values for optimal performance is typically around 1%. The resulting signal subspace includes more than one singular value per sphere. The presence of reflections from the ground improves height localization, even for a linear array parallel to the ground. However, the interference between direct and reflected energy modulates the field, creating periodic nulls that can obscure targets in typical images. These nulls are largely eliminated by normalizing the MUSIC functional with the broadside beam pattern of the array. The resulting images show excellent localization for 1 and 2 spheres. The performance for the 3 sphere configurations are complicated by shadowing effects and the greater range of the 3rd sphere in case 2. Two of the three spheres are easily located by MUSIC but the third is difficult to distinguish from other local maxima of the complex imaging functional. Improvement is seen when the linear array is replace with a planar array, which increases the effective aperture height. Further analysis of the singular values and their relationship to modes of scattering from the spheres, as well as better ways to exploit polarization, should improve performance. Work along these lines is currently being pursued by the authors.

  20. 3-D capacitance density imaging of fluidized bed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fasching, George E.

    1990-01-01

    A three-dimensional capacitance density imaging of a gasified bed or the like in a containment vessel is achieved using a plurality of electrodes provided circumferentially about the bed in levels and along the bed in channels. The electrodes are individually and selectively excited electrically at each level to produce a plurality of current flux field patterns generated in the bed at each level. The current flux field patterns are suitably sensed and a density pattern of the bed at each level determined. By combining the determined density patterns at each level, a three-dimensional density image of the bed is achieved.

  1. Beyond 3-D X-ray Imaging: Methodology Development and Applications...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Beyond 3-D X-ray Imaging: Methodology Development and Applications in Material Science Thursday, September 6, 2012 - 10:45am SLAC, Bldg. 137, Room 226 Yijin Liu Seminar There was a...

  2. Evaluating quantitative 3-D image analysis as a design tool for low

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    enriched uranium fuel compacts for the transient reactor test facility: A preliminary study (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Evaluating quantitative 3-D image analysis as a design tool for low enriched uranium fuel compacts for the transient reactor test facility: A preliminary study Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on February 5, 2017 Title: Evaluating quantitative 3-D image analysis as a design tool for low enriched uranium

  3. Scanning cross-correlator for monitoring uniform 3D ellipsoidal laser beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zelenogorskii, V V; Andrianov, A V; Gacheva, E I; Gelikonov, G V; Mironov, S Yu; Potemkin, A K; Khazanov, E A; Krasilnikov, M; Stephan, F; Mart'yanov, M A; Syresin, E M

    2014-01-31

    The specific features of experimental implementation of a cross-correlator with a scan rate above 1600 cm s{sup -1} and a spatial delay amplitude of more than 15 mm are considered. The possibility of measuring the width of femtosecond pulses propagating in a train 300 ?s in duration with a repetition rate of 1 MHz is demonstrated. A time resolution of 300 fs for the maximum time window of 50 ps is attained. The cross-correlator is aimed at testing 3D pulses of a laser driver of an electron photo-injector. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  4. 3D and 4D magnetic susceptibility tomography based on complex MR images

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Zikuan; Calhoun, Vince D

    2014-11-11

    Magnetic susceptibility is the physical property for T2*-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (T2*MRI). The invention relates to methods for reconstructing an internal distribution (3D map) of magnetic susceptibility values, .chi. (x,y,z), of an object, from 3D T2*MRI phase images, by using Computed Inverse Magnetic Resonance Imaging (CIMRI) tomography. The CIMRI technique solves the inverse problem of the 3D convolution by executing a 3D Total Variation (TV) regularized iterative convolution scheme, using a split Bregman iteration algorithm. The reconstruction of .chi. (x,y,z) can be designed for low-pass, band-pass, and high-pass features by using a convolution kernel that is modified from the standard dipole kernel. Multiple reconstructions can be implemented in parallel, and averaging the reconstructions can suppress noise. 4D dynamic magnetic susceptibility tomography can be implemented by reconstructing a 3D susceptibility volume from a 3D phase volume by performing 3D CIMRI magnetic susceptibility tomography at each snapshot time.

  5. F3D Image Processing and Analysis for Many - and Multi-core Platforms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-10-01

    F3D is written in OpenCL, so it achieve[sic] platform-portable parallelism on modern mutli-core CPUs and many-core GPUs. The interface and mechanims to access F3D core are written in Java as a plugin for Fiji/ImageJ to deliver several key image-processing algorithms necessary to remove artifacts from micro-tomography data. The algorithms consist of data parallel aware filters that can efficiently utilizes[sic] resources and can work on out of core datasets and scale efficiently across multiple accelerators. Optimizing for data parallel filters, streaming out of core datasets, and efficient resource and memory and data managements over complex execution sequence of filters greatly expedites any scientific workflow with image processing requirements. F3D performs several different types of 3D image processing operations, such as non-linear filtering using bilateral filtering and/or median filtering and/or morphological operators (MM). F3D gray-level MM operators are one-pass constant time methods that can perform morphological transformations with a line-structuring element oriented in discrete directions. Additionally, MM operators can be applied to gray-scale images, and consist of two parts: (a) a reference shape or structuring element, which is translated over the image, and (b) a mechanism, or operation, that defines the comparisons to be performed between the image and the structuring element. This tool provides a critical component within many complex pipelines such as those for performing automated segmentation of image stacks. F3D is also called a "descendent" of Quant-CT, another software we developed in the past. These two modules are to be integrated in a next version. Further details were reported in: D.M. Ushizima, T. Perciano, H. Krishnan, B. Loring, H. Bale, D. Parkinson, and J. Sethian. Structure recognition from high-resolution images of ceramic composites. IEEE International Conference on Big Data, October 2014.

  6. Dual FIB-SEM 3D imaging and lattice boltzmann modeling of porosimetry and multiphase flow in chalk.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rinehart, Alex; Petrusak, Robin (Advanced Resources International, Inc., Arlington, VA); Heath, Jason E.; Dewers, Thomas A.; Yoon, Hongkyu

    2010-12-01

    Mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) is an often-applied technique for determining pore throat distributions and seal analysis of fine-grained rocks. Due to closure effects, potential pore collapse, and complex pore network topologies, MIP data interpretation can be ambiguous, and often biased toward smaller pores in the distribution. We apply 3D imaging techniques and lattice-Boltzmann modeling in interpreting MIP data for samples of the Cretaceous Selma Group Chalk. In the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, the Selma Chalk is the apparent seal for oil and gas fields in the underlying Eutaw Fm., and, where unfractured, the Selma Chalk is one of the regional-scale seals identified by the Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership for CO2 injection sites. Dual focused ion - scanning electron beam and laser scanning confocal microscopy methods are used for 3D imaging of nanometer-to-micron scale microcrack and pore distributions in the Selma Chalk. A combination of image analysis software is used to obtain geometric pore body and throat distributions and other topological properties, which are compared to MIP results. 3D data sets of pore-microfracture networks are used in Lattice Boltzmann simulations of drainage (wetting fluid displaced by non-wetting fluid via the Shan-Chen algorithm), which in turn are used to model MIP procedures. Results are used in interpreting MIP results, understanding microfracture-matrix interaction during multiphase flow, and seal analysis for underground CO2 storage.

  7. Documentation and Instructions for Running Two Python Scripts that Aid in Setting up 3D Measurements using the Polytec 3D Scanning Laser Doppler Vibrometer.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohe, Daniel Peter

    2015-08-24

    Sandia National Laboratories has recently purchased a Polytec 3D Scanning Laser Doppler Vibrometer for vibration measurement. This device has proven to be a very nice tool for making vibration measurements, and has a number of advantages over traditional sensors such as accelerometers. The non-contact nature of the laser vibrometer means there is no mass loading due to measuring the response. Additionally, the laser scanning heads can position the laser spot much more quickly and accurately than placing an accelerometer or performing a roving hammer impact. The disadvantage of the system is that a significant amount of time must be invested to align the lasers with each other and the part so that the laser spots can be accurately positioned. The Polytec software includes a number of nice tools to aid in this procedure; however, certain portions are still tedious. Luckily, the Polytec software is readily extensible by programming macros for the system, so tedious portions of the procedure can be made easier by automating the process. The Polytec Software includes a WinWrap (similar to Visual Basic) editor and interface to run macros written in that programming language. The author, however, is much more proficient in Python, and the latter also has a much larger set of libraries that can be used to create very complex macros, while taking advantage of Python’s inherent readability and maintainability.

  8. F3D Image Processing and Analysis for Many - and Multi-core Platforms

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-10-01

    F3D is written in OpenCL, so it achieve[sic] platform-portable parallelism on modern mutli-core CPUs and many-core GPUs. The interface and mechanims to access F3D core are written in Java as a plugin for Fiji/ImageJ to deliver several key image-processing algorithms necessary to remove artifacts from micro-tomography data. The algorithms consist of data parallel aware filters that can efficiently utilizes[sic] resources and can work on out of core datasets and scale efficiently across multiple accelerators. Optimizingmore » for data parallel filters, streaming out of core datasets, and efficient resource and memory and data managements over complex execution sequence of filters greatly expedites any scientific workflow with image processing requirements. F3D performs several different types of 3D image processing operations, such as non-linear filtering using bilateral filtering and/or median filtering and/or morphological operators (MM). F3D gray-level MM operators are one-pass constant time methods that can perform morphological transformations with a line-structuring element oriented in discrete directions. Additionally, MM operators can be applied to gray-scale images, and consist of two parts: (a) a reference shape or structuring element, which is translated over the image, and (b) a mechanism, or operation, that defines the comparisons to be performed between the image and the structuring element. This tool provides a critical component within many complex pipelines such as those for performing automated segmentation of image stacks. F3D is also called a "descendent" of Quant-CT, another software we developed in the past. These two modules are to be integrated in a next version. Further details were reported in: D.M. Ushizima, T. Perciano, H. Krishnan, B. Loring, H. Bale, D. Parkinson, and J. Sethian. Structure recognition from high-resolution images of ceramic composites. IEEE International Conference on Big Data, October 2014.« less

  9. Beyond 3-D X-ray Imaging: Methodology Development and Applications in

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Material Science | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Beyond 3-D X-ray Imaging: Methodology Development and Applications in Material Science Thursday, September 6, 2012 - 10:45am SLAC, Bldg. 137, Room 226 Yijin Liu Seminar There was a revolutionary development of X-ray imaging over the past few decades. The most substantial advancements in this field are closely related to the availability of the new generation of X-ray sources and the advanced X-ray optics. The advanced X-ray Optics

  10. Noise analysis for near field 3-D FM-CW radar imaging systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheen, David M.

    2015-06-19

    Near field radar imaging systems are used for several applications including concealed weapon detection in airports and other high-security venues. Despite the near-field operation, phase noise and thermal noise can limit the performance in several ways including reduction in system sensitivity and reduction of image dynamic range. In this paper, the effects of thermal noise, phase noise, and processing gain are analyzed in the context of a near field 3-D FM-CW imaging radar as might be used for concealed weapon detection. In addition to traditional frequency domain analysis, a time-domain simulation is employed to graphically demonstrate the effect of these noise sources on a fast-chirping FM-CW system.

  11. In Situ Casting and Imaging of the Rat Airway Tree for Accurate 3D Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacob, Rick E.; Colby, Sean M.; Kabilan, Senthil; Einstein, Daniel R.; Carson, James P.

    2013-08-01

    The use of anatomically accurate, animal-specific airway geometries is important for understanding and modeling the physiology of the respiratory system. One approach for acquiring detailed airway architecture is to create a bronchial cast of the conducting airways. However, typical casting procedures either do not faithfully preserve the in vivo branching angles, or produce rigid casts that when removed for imaging are fragile and thus easily damaged. We address these problems by creating an in situ bronchial cast of the conducting airways in rats that can be subsequently imaged in situ using 3D micro-CT imaging. We also demonstrate that deformations in airway branch angles resulting from the casting procedure are small, and that these angle deformations can be reversed through an interactive adjustment of the segmented cast geometry. Animal work was approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  12. Development and Calibration of New 3-D Vector VSP Imaging Technology: Vinton Salt Dome, LA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurt J. Marfurt; Hua-Wei Zhou; E. Charlotte Sullivan

    2004-09-01

    Vinton salt dome is located in Southwestern Louisiana, in Calcasieu Parish. Tectonically, the piercement dome is within the salt dome minibasin province. The field has been in production since 1901, with most of the production coming from Miocene and Oligocene sands. The goal of our project was to develop and calibrate new processing and interpretation technology to fully exploit the information available from a simultaneous 3-D surface seismic survey and 3-C, 3-D vertical seismic profile (VSP) survey over the dome. More specifically the goal was to better image salt dome flanks and small, reservoir-compartmentalizing faults. This new technology has application to mature salt-related fields across the Gulf Coast. The primary focus of our effort was to develop, apply, and assess the limitations of new 3-C, 3-D wavefield separation and imaging technology that could be used to image aliased, limited-aperture, vector VSP data. Through 2-D and 3-D full elastic modeling, we verified that salt flank reflections exist in the horizontally-traveling portion of the wavefield rather than up- and down-going portions of the wavefield, thereby explaining why many commercial VSP processing flow failed. Since the P-wave reflections from the salt flank are measured primarily on the horizontal components while P-wave reflections from deeper sedimentary horizons are measured primarily on the vertical component, a true vector VSP analysis was needed. We developed an antialiased discrete Radon transform filter to accurately model P- and S-wave data components measured by the vector VSP. On-the-fly polarization filtering embedded in our Kirchhoff imaging algorithm was effective in separating PP from PS wave images. By the novel application of semblance-weighted filters, we were able to suppress many of the migration artifacts associated with low fold, sparse VSP acquisition geometries. To provide a better velocity/depth model, we applied 3-D prestack depth migration to the surface data. The reflector dip calculated from these images were used to further constrain the depth images from the less well sampled VSP data. In spite of the above technical success, we were less than pleased with our final VSP images. Since no extra sources are used, simultaneous recording of the surface and VSP data were believed to provide a cost-effective means to acquire 3-D VSP data. However, the subsurface sampling associated with the VSP is quite different from that associated with the surface seismic data. After our analysis, we find that considerable shot infill would result in a better, unaliased subsurface image. We were able to ascertain that the subsurface illuminated by the VSP was extremely small, with the PS image being even smaller than the PP image. One-way wave equation extrapolators do not work well for the VSP geometry, where we wish to extrapolate energy sideways (from the VSP well towards and away from the salt dome) as well as vertically (away from the shots on the earth surface). Merging separately-generated images proved to be both cumbersome and error-prone. Alternative, advanced multiarrival traveltime calculations that we obtained from research colleagues at other institutions could not be easily modified to image rays that had an upgoing component. In the end, we used a simpler first-arrival Eikonal-based traveltime algorithm with its well-known limitations. While the surface acquisition using radial receiver lines and concentric shot lines provided good illumination of the salt dome, this unconventional geometry proved to be particularly difficult to process using commercial software, where the lack of ''shot lines'' and ''receiver lines'' necessary for dip filtering, residual statics, and residual velocity analysis proved to be nearly intractable. We also learned that while commercial software available at UH works well for a bootstrapped velocity model computed from the seismic data alone, it was severely limited in its ability to include the dense well control available at Vinton Dome. To more accurately estimate velocities, we develope

  13. Calculation of grain boundary normals directly from 3D microstructure images

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lieberman, E. J.; Rollett, A. D.; Lebensohn, R. A.; Kober, E. M.

    2015-03-11

    The determination of grain boundary normals is an integral part of the characterization of grain boundaries in polycrystalline materials. These normal vectors are difficult to quantify due to the discretized nature of available microstructure characterization techniques. The most common method to determine grain boundary normals is by generating a surface mesh from an image of the microstructure, but this process can be slow, and is subject to smoothing issues. A new technique is proposed, utilizing first order Cartesian moments of binary indicator functions, to determine grain boundary normals directly from a voxelized microstructure image. In order to validate the accuracymore » of this technique, the surface normals obtained by the proposed method are compared to those generated by a surface meshing algorithm. Specifically, the local divergence between the surface normals obtained by different variants of the proposed technique and those generated from a surface mesh of a synthetic microstructure constructed using a marching cubes algorithm followed by Laplacian smoothing is quantified. Next, surface normals obtained with the proposed method from a measured 3D microstructure image of a Ni polycrystal are used to generate grain boundary character distributions (GBCD) for Σ3 and Σ9 boundaries, and compared to the GBCD generated using a surface mesh obtained from the same image. Finally, the results show that the proposed technique is an efficient and accurate method to determine voxelized fields of grain boundary normals.« less

  14. Calculation of grain boundary normals directly from 3D microstructure images

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lieberman, E. J.; Rollett, A. D.; Lebensohn, R. A.; Kober, E. M.

    2015-03-11

    The determination of grain boundary normals is an integral part of the characterization of grain boundaries in polycrystalline materials. These normal vectors are difficult to quantify due to the discretized nature of available microstructure characterization techniques. The most common method to determine grain boundary normals is by generating a surface mesh from an image of the microstructure, but this process can be slow, and is subject to smoothing issues. A new technique is proposed, utilizing first order Cartesian moments of binary indicator functions, to determine grain boundary normals directly from a voxelized microstructure image. In order to validate the accuracy of this technique, the surface normals obtained by the proposed method are compared to those generated by a surface meshing algorithm. Specifically, the local divergence between the surface normals obtained by different variants of the proposed technique and those generated from a surface mesh of a synthetic microstructure constructed using a marching cubes algorithm followed by Laplacian smoothing is quantified. Next, surface normals obtained with the proposed method from a measured 3D microstructure image of a Ni polycrystal are used to generate grain boundary character distributions (GBCD) for Σ3 and Σ9 boundaries, and compared to the GBCD generated using a surface mesh obtained from the same image. Finally, the results show that the proposed technique is an efficient and accurate method to determine voxelized fields of grain boundary normals.

  15. A simulation technique for 3D MR-guided acoustic radiation force imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Payne, Allison; Bever, Josh de; Farrer, Alexis; Coats, Brittany; Parker, Dennis L.; Christensen, Douglas A.

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: In magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) therapies, the in situ characterization of the focal spot location and quality is critical. MR acoustic radiation force imaging (MR-ARFI) is a technique that measures the tissue displacement caused by the radiation force exerted by the ultrasound beam. This work presents a new technique to model the displacements caused by the radiation force of an ultrasound beam in a homogeneous tissue model. Methods: When a steady-state point-source force acts internally in an infinite homogeneous medium, the displacement of the material in all directions is given by the Somigliana elastostatic tensor. The radiation force field, which is caused by absorption and reflection of the incident ultrasound intensity pattern, will be spatially distributed, and the tensor formulation takes the form of a convolution of a 3D Green’s function with the force field. The dynamic accumulation of MR phase during the ultrasound pulse can be theoretically accounted for through a time-of-arrival weighting of the Green’s function. This theoretical model was evaluated experimentally in gelatin phantoms of varied stiffness (125-, 175-, and 250-bloom). The acoustic and mechanical properties of the phantoms used as parameters of the model were measured using independent techniques. Displacements at focal depths of 30- and 45-mm in the phantoms were measured by a 3D spin echo MR-ARFI segmented-EPI sequence. Results: The simulated displacements agreed with the MR-ARFI measured displacements for all bloom values and focal depths with a normalized RMS difference of 0.055 (range 0.028–0.12). The displacement magnitude decreased and the displacement pattern broadened with increased bloom value for both focal depths, as predicted by the theory. Conclusions: A new technique that models the displacements caused by the radiation force of an ultrasound beam in a homogeneous tissue model theory has been rigorously validated through comparison with experimentally obtained 3D displacement data in homogeneous gelatin phantoms using a 3D MR-ARFI sequence. The agreement of the experimentally measured and simulated results demonstrates the potential to use MR-ARFI displacement data in MRgFUS therapies.

  16. 3-D readout-electronics packaging for high-bandwidth massively paralleled imager

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kwiatkowski, Kris; Lyke, James

    2007-12-18

    Dense, massively parallel signal processing electronics are co-packaged behind associated sensor pixels. Microchips containing a linear or bilinear arrangement of photo-sensors, together with associated complex electronics, are integrated into a simple 3-D structure (a "mirror cube"). An array of photo-sensitive cells are disposed on a stacked CMOS chip's surface at a 45.degree. angle from light reflecting mirror surfaces formed on a neighboring CMOS chip surface. Image processing electronics are held within the stacked CMOS chip layers. Electrical connections couple each of said stacked CMOS chip layers and a distribution grid, the connections for distributing power and signals to components associated with each stacked CSMO chip layer.

  17. Three Dimensional Speckle Imaging Employing a Frequency-Locked Tunable Diode Laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cannon, Bret D.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Schiffern, John T.; Mendoza, Albert

    2015-09-01

    We describe a high accuracy frequency stepping method for a tunable diode laser to improve a three dimensional (3D) imaging approach based upon interferometric speckle imaging. The approach, modeled after Takeda, exploits tuning an illumination laser in frequency as speckle interferograms of the object (specklegrams) are acquired at each frequency in a Michelson interferometer. The resulting 3D hypercube of specklegrams encode spatial information in the x-y plane of each image with laser tuning arrayed along its z-axis. We present laboratory data of before and after results showing enhanced 3D imaging resulting from precise laser frequency control.

  18. 3D Imaging of Microbial Biofilms: Integration of Synchrotron Imaging and an Interactive Visualization Interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, Mathew; Marshall, Matthew J.; Miller, Erin A.; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Kleese van Dam, Kerstin; Carson, James P.

    2014-08-26

    Understanding the interactions of structured communities known as “biofilms” and other complex matrixes is possible through the X-ray micro tomography imaging of the biofilms. Feature detection and image processing for this type of data focuses on efficiently identifying and segmenting biofilms and bacteria in the datasets. The datasets are very large and often require manual interventions due to low contrast between objects and high noise levels. Thus new software is required for the effectual interpretation and analysis of the data. This work specifies the evolution and application of the ability to analyze and visualize high resolution X-ray micro tomography datasets.

  19. An Efficient Algorithm for Mapping Imaging Data to 3D Unstructured...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    3D Unstructured Grids in Computational Biomechanics Citation Details In-Document Search ... DOE Contract Number: AC05-76RL01830 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: ...

  20. 3D parallel-detection microwave tomography for clinical breast imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Epstein, N. R.; Meaney, P. M.; Paulsen, K. D.

    2014-12-15

    A biomedical microwave tomography system with 3D-imaging capabilities has been constructed and translated to the clinic. Updates to the hardware and reconfiguration of the electronic-network layouts in a more compartmentalized construct have streamlined system packaging. Upgrades to the data acquisition and microwave components have increased data-acquisition speeds and improved system performance. By incorporating analog-to-digital boards that accommodate the linear amplification and dynamic-range coverage our system requires, a complete set of data (for a fixed array position at a single frequency) is now acquired in 5.8 s. Replacement of key components (e.g., switches and power dividers) by devices with improved operational bandwidths has enhanced system response over a wider frequency range. High-integrity, low-power signals are routinely measured down to −130 dBm for frequencies ranging from 500 to 2300 MHz. Adequate inter-channel isolation has been maintained, and a dynamic range >110 dB has been achieved for the full operating frequency range (500–2900 MHz). For our primary band of interest, the associated measurement deviations are less than 0.33% and 0.5° for signal amplitude and phase values, respectively. A modified monopole antenna array (composed of two interwoven eight-element sub-arrays), in conjunction with an updated motion-control system capable of independently moving the sub-arrays to various in-plane and cross-plane positions within the illumination chamber, has been configured in the new design for full volumetric data acquisition. Signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) are more than adequate for all transmit/receive antenna pairs over the full frequency range and for the variety of in-plane and cross-plane configurations. For proximal receivers, in-plane SNRs greater than 80 dB are observed up to 2900 MHz, while cross-plane SNRs greater than 80 dB are seen for 6 cm sub-array spacing (for frequencies up to 1500 MHz). We demonstrate accurate recovery of 3D dielectric property distributions for breast-like phantoms with tumor inclusions utilizing both the in-plane and new cross-plane data.

  1. F3D

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    003188MLTPL00 F3D Image Processing and Analysis for Many - and Multi-core Platforms http://camera.lbl.gov/software

  2. SU-E-T-376: 3-D Commissioning for An Image-Guided Small Animal Micro- Irradiation Platform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qian, X; Wuu, C; Admovics, J

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: A 3-D radiochromic plastic dosimeter has been used to cross-test the isocentricity of a high resolution image-guided small animal microirradiation platform. In this platform, the mouse stage rotating for cone beam CT imaging is perpendicular to the gantry rotation for sub-millimeter radiation delivery. A 3-D dosimeter can be used to verify both imaging and irradiation coordinates. Methods: A 3-D dosimeter and optical CT scanner were used in this study. In the platform, both mouse stage and gantry can rotate 360 with rotation axis perpendicular to each other. Isocentricity and coincidence of mouse stage and gantry rotations were evaluated using star patterns. A 3-D dosimeter was placed on mouse stage with center at platform isocenter approximately. For CBCT isocentricity, with gantry moved to 90, the mouse stage rotated horizontally while the x-ray was delivered to the dosimeter at certain angles. For irradiation isocentricity, the gantry rotated 360 to deliver beams to the dosimeter at certain angles for star patterns. The uncertainties and agreement of both CBCT and irradiation isocenters can be determined from the star patterns. Both procedures were repeated 3 times using 3 dosimeters to determine short-term reproducibility. Finally, dosimeters were scanned using optical CT scanner to obtain the results. Results: The gantry isocentricity is 0.9 0.1 mm and mouse stage rotation isocentricity is about 0.91 0.11 mm. Agreement between the measured isocenters of irradiation and imaging coordinates was determined. The short-term reproducibility test yielded 0.5 0.1 mm between the imaging isocenter and the irradiation isocenter, with a maximum displacement of 0.7 0.1 mm. Conclusion: The 3-D dosimeter can be very useful in precise verification of targeting for a small animal irradiation research. In addition, a single 3-D dosimeter can provide information in both geometric and dosimetric uncertainty, which is crucial for translational studies.

  3. Laser scanner data processing and 3D modeling using a free and open source software

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gabriele, Fatuzzo; Michele, Mangiameli Giuseppe, Mussumeci; Salvatore, Zito

    2015-03-10

    The laser scanning is a technology that allows in a short time to run the relief geometric objects with a high level of detail and completeness, based on the signal emitted by the laser and the corresponding return signal. When the incident laser radiation hits the object to detect, then the radiation is reflected. The purpose is to build a three-dimensional digital model that allows to reconstruct the reality of the object and to conduct studies regarding the design, restoration and/or conservation. When the laser scanner is equipped with a digital camera, the result of the measurement process is a set of points in XYZ coordinates showing a high density and accuracy with radiometric and RGB tones. In this case, the set of measured points is called point cloud and allows the reconstruction of the Digital Surface Model. Even the post-processing is usually performed by closed source software, which is characterized by Copyright restricting the free use, free and open source software can increase the performance by far. Indeed, this latter can be freely used providing the possibility to display and even custom the source code. The experience started at the Faculty of Engineering in Catania is aimed at finding a valuable free and open source tool, MeshLab (Italian Software for data processing), to be compared with a reference closed source software for data processing, i.e. RapidForm. In this work, we compare the results obtained with MeshLab and Rapidform through the planning of the survey and the acquisition of the point cloud of a morphologically complex statue.

  4. SU-E-J-01: 3D Fluoroscopic Image Estimation From Patient-Specific 4DCBCT-Based Motion Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dhou, S; Hurwitz, M; Lewis, J; Mishra, P

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: 3D motion modeling derived from 4DCT images, taken days or weeks before treatment, cannot reliably represent patient anatomy on the day of treatment. We develop a method to generate motion models based on 4DCBCT acquired at the time of treatment, and apply the model to estimate 3D time-varying images (referred to as 3D fluoroscopic images). Methods: Motion models are derived through deformable registration between each 4DCBCT phase, and principal component analysis (PCA) on the resulting displacement vector fields. 3D fluoroscopic images are estimated based on cone-beam projections simulating kV treatment imaging. PCA coefficients are optimized iteratively through comparison of these cone-beam projections and projections estimated based on the motion model. Digital phantoms reproducing ten patient motion trajectories, and a physical phantom with regular and irregular motion derived from measured patient trajectories, are used to evaluate the method in terms of tumor localization, and the global voxel intensity difference compared to ground truth. Results: Experiments included: 1) assuming no anatomic or positioning changes between 4DCT and treatment time; and 2) simulating positioning and tumor baseline shifts at the time of treatment compared to 4DCT acquisition. 4DCBCT were reconstructed from the anatomy as seen at treatment time. In case 1) the tumor localization error and the intensity differences in ten patient were smaller using 4DCT-based motion model, possible due to superior image quality. In case 2) the tumor localization error and intensity differences were 2.85 and 0.15 respectively, using 4DCT-based motion models, and 1.17 and 0.10 using 4DCBCT-based models. 4DCBCT performed better due to its ability to reproduce daily anatomical changes. Conclusion: The study showed an advantage of 4DCBCT-based motion models in the context of 3D fluoroscopic images estimation. Positioning and tumor baseline shift uncertainties were mitigated by the 4DCBCT-based motion models, while they caused errors when using 4DCT-based motion models. Partially funded by Varian research grant.

  5. WE-D-18A-05: Construction of Realistic Liver Phantoms From Patient Images and a Commercial 3D Printer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leng, S; Vrieze, T; Kuhlmann, J; Yu, L; Matsumoto, J; Morris, J; McCollough, C

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To assess image quality and radiation dose reduction in abdominal CT imaging, physical phantoms having realistic background textures and lesions are highly desirable. The purpose of this work was to construct a liver phantom with realistic background and lesions using patient CT images and a 3D printer. Methods: Patient CT images containing liver lesions were segmented into liver tissue, contrast-enhanced vessels, and liver lesions using commercial software (Mimics, Materialise, Belgium). Stereolithography (STL) files of each segmented object were created and imported to a 3D printer (Object350 Connex, Stratasys, MN). After test scans were performed to map the eight available printing materials into CT numbers, printing materials were assigned to each object and a physical liver phantom printed. The printed phantom was scanned on a clinical CT scanner and resulting images were compared with the original patient CT images. Results: The eight available materials used to print the liver phantom had CT number ranging from 62 to 117 HU. In scans of the liver phantom, the liver lesions and veins represented in the STL files were all visible. Although the absolute value of the CT number in the background liver material (approx. 85 HU) was higher than in patients (approx. 40 HU), the difference in CT numbers between lesions and background were representative of the low contrast values needed for optimization tasks. Future work will investigate materials with contrast sufficient to emulate contrast-enhanced arteries. Conclusion: Realistic liver phantoms can be constructed from patient CT images using a commercial 3D printer. This technique may provide phantoms able to determine the effect of radiation dose reduction and noise reduction techniques on the ability to detect subtle liver lesions in the context of realistic background textures.

  6. Involved-Site Image-Guided Intensity Modulated Versus 3D Conformal Radiation Therapy in Early Stage Supradiaphragmatic Hodgkin Lymphoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Filippi, Andrea Riccardo; Ciammella, Patrizia; Piva, Cristina; Ragona, Riccardo; Botto, Barbara; Gavarotti, Paolo; Merli, Francesco; Vitolo, Umberto; Iotti, Cinzia; Ricardi, Umberto

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Image-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy (IG-IMRT) allows for margin reduction and highly conformal dose distribution, with consistent advantages in sparing of normal tissues. The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare involved-site IG-IMRT with involved-site 3D conformal RT (3D-CRT) in the treatment of early stage Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) involving the mediastinum, with efficacy and toxicity as primary clinical endpoints. Methods and Materials: We analyzed 90 stage IIA HL patients treated with either involved-site 3D-CRT or IG-IMRT between 2005 and 2012 in 2 different institutions. Inclusion criteria were favorable or unfavorable disease (according to European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer criteria), complete response after 3 to 4 cycles of an adriamycin- bleomycin-vinblastine-dacarbazine (ABVD) regimen plus 30 Gy as total radiation dose. Exclusion criteria were chemotherapy other than ABVD, partial response after ABVD, total radiation dose other than 30 Gy. Clinical endpoints were relapse-free survival (RFS) and acute toxicity. Results: Forty-nine patients were treated with 3D-CRT (54.4%) and 41 with IG-IMRT (45.6%). Median follow-up time was 54.2 months for 3D-CRT and 24.1 months for IG-IMRT. No differences in RFS were observed between the 2 groups, with 1 relapse each. Three-year RFS was 98.7% for 3D-CRT and 100% for IG-IMRT. Grade 2 toxicity events, mainly mucositis, were recorded in 32.7% of 3D-CRT patients (16 of 49) and in 9.8% of IG-IMRT patients (4 of 41). IG-IMRT was significantly associated with a lower incidence of grade 2 acute toxicity (P=.043). Conclusions: RFS rates at 3 years were extremely high in both groups, albeit the median follow-up time is different. Acute tolerance profiles were better for IG-IMRT than for 3D-CRT. Our preliminary results support the clinical safety and efficacy of advanced RT planning and delivery techniques in patients affected with early stage HL, achieving complete response after ABVD-based chemotherapy.

  7. SU-E-QI-17: Dependence of 3D/4D PET Quantitative Image Features On Noise

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oliver, J; Budzevich, M; Zhang, G; Latifi, K; Dilling, T; Balagurunathan, Y; Gu, Y; Grove, O; Feygelman, V; Gillies, R; Moros, E; Lee, H.

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Quantitative imaging is a fast evolving discipline where a large number of features are extracted from images; i.e., radiomics. Some features have been shown to have diagnostic, prognostic and predictive value. However, they are sensitive to acquisition and processing factors; e.g., noise. In this study noise was added to positron emission tomography (PET) images to determine how features were affected by noise. Methods: Three levels of Gaussian noise were added to 8 lung cancer patients PET images acquired in 3D mode (static) and using respiratory tracking (4D); for the latter images from one of 10 phases were used. A total of 62 features: 14 shape, 19 intensity (1stO), 18 GLCM textures (2ndO; from grey level co-occurrence matrices) and 11 RLM textures (2ndO; from run-length matrices) features were extracted from segmented tumors. Dimensions of GLCM were 256256, calculated using 3D images with a step size of 1 voxel in 13 directions. Grey levels were binned into 256 levels for RLM and features were calculated in all 13 directions. Results: Feature variation generally increased with noise. Shape features were the most stable while RLM were the most unstable. Intensity and GLCM features performed well; the latter being more robust. The most stable 1stO features were compactness, maximum and minimum length, standard deviation, root-mean-squared, I30, V10-V90, and entropy. The most stable 2ndO features were entropy, sum-average, sum-entropy, difference-average, difference-variance, difference-entropy, information-correlation-2, short-run-emphasis, long-run-emphasis, and run-percentage. In general, features computed from images from one of the phases of 4D scans were more stable than from 3D scans. Conclusion: This study shows the need to characterize image features carefully before they are used in research and medical applications. It also shows that the performance of features, and thereby feature selection, may be assessed in part by noise analysis.

  8. 3D cloud detection and tracking system for solar forecast using multiple sky imagers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peng, Zhenzhou; Yu, Dantong; Huang, Dong; Heiser, John; Yoo, Shinjae; Kalb, Paul

    2015-06-23

    We propose a system for forecasting short-term solar irradiance based on multiple total sky imagers (TSIs). The system utilizes a novel method of identifying and tracking clouds in three-dimensional space and an innovative pipeline for forecasting surface solar irradiance based on the image features of clouds. First, we develop a supervised classifier to detect clouds at the pixel level and output cloud mask. In the next step, we design intelligent algorithms to estimate the block-wise base height and motion of each cloud layer based on images from multiple TSIs. Thus, this information is then applied to stitch images together into larger views, which are then used for solar forecasting. We examine the system’s ability to track clouds under various cloud conditions and investigate different irradiance forecast models at various sites. We confirm that this system can 1) robustly detect clouds and track layers, and 2) extract the significant global and local features for obtaining stable irradiance forecasts with short forecast horizons from the obtained images. Finally, we vet our forecasting system at the 32-megawatt Long Island Solar Farm (LISF). Compared with the persistent model, our system achieves at least a 26% improvement for all irradiance forecasts between one and fifteen minutes.

  9. 3D cloud detection and tracking system for solar forecast using multiple sky imagers

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Peng, Zhenzhou; Yu, Dantong; Huang, Dong; Heiser, John; Yoo, Shinjae; Kalb, Paul

    2015-06-23

    We propose a system for forecasting short-term solar irradiance based on multiple total sky imagers (TSIs). The system utilizes a novel method of identifying and tracking clouds in three-dimensional space and an innovative pipeline for forecasting surface solar irradiance based on the image features of clouds. First, we develop a supervised classifier to detect clouds at the pixel level and output cloud mask. In the next step, we design intelligent algorithms to estimate the block-wise base height and motion of each cloud layer based on images from multiple TSIs. Thus, this information is then applied to stitch images together intomore » larger views, which are then used for solar forecasting. We examine the system’s ability to track clouds under various cloud conditions and investigate different irradiance forecast models at various sites. We confirm that this system can 1) robustly detect clouds and track layers, and 2) extract the significant global and local features for obtaining stable irradiance forecasts with short forecast horizons from the obtained images. Finally, we vet our forecasting system at the 32-megawatt Long Island Solar Farm (LISF). Compared with the persistent model, our system achieves at least a 26% improvement for all irradiance forecasts between one and fifteen minutes.« less

  10. An Efficient Algorithm for Mapping Imaging Data to 3D Unstructured Grids in Computational Biomechanics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Einstein, Daniel R.; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Jiao, Xiangmin; Carson, James P.; Einstein, David M.; Corley, Richard A.; Jacob, Rick E.

    2013-01-01

    Geometries for organ scale and multiscale simulations of organ function are now routinely derived from imaging data. However, medical images may also contain spatially heterogeneous information other than geometry that are relevant to such simulations either as initial conditions or in the form of model parameters. In this manuscript, we present an algorithm for the efficient and robust mapping of such data to imaging based unstructured polyhedral grids in parallel. We then illustrate the application of our mapping algorithm to three different mapping problems: 1) the mapping of MRI diffusion tensor data to an unstuctured ventricular grid; 2) the mapping of serial cyro-section histology data to an unstructured mouse brain grid; and 3) the mapping of CT-derived volumetric strain data to an unstructured multiscale lung grid. Execution times and parallel performance are reported for each case.

  11. Range imaging laser radar

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, Marion W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1990-01-01

    A laser source is operated continuously and modulated periodically (typicy sinusoidally). A receiver imposes another periodic modulation on the received optical signal, the modulated signal being detected by an array of detectors of the integrating type. Range to the target determined by measuring the phase shift of the intensity modulation on the received optical beam relative to a reference. The receiver comprises a photoemitter for converting the reflected, periodically modulated, return beam to an accordingly modulated electron stream. The electron stream is modulated by a local demodulation signal source and subsequently converted back to a photon stream by a detector. A charge coupled device (CCD) array then averages and samples the photon stream to provide an electrical signal in accordance with the photon stream.

  12. Position tracking of moving liver lesion based on real-time registration between 2D ultrasound and 3D preoperative images

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weon, Chijun; Hyun Nam, Woo; Lee, Duhgoon; Ra, Jong Beom; Lee, Jae Young

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: Registration between 2D ultrasound (US) and 3D preoperative magnetic resonance (MR) (or computed tomography, CT) images has been studied recently for US-guided intervention. However, the existing techniques have some limits, either in the registration speed or the performance. The purpose of this work is to develop a real-time and fully automatic registration system between two intermodal images of the liver, and subsequently an indirect lesion positioning/tracking algorithm based on the registration result, for image-guided interventions. Methods: The proposed position tracking system consists of three stages. In the preoperative stage, the authors acquire several 3D preoperative MR (or CT) images at different respiratory phases. Based on the transformations obtained from nonrigid registration of the acquired 3D images, they then generate a 4D preoperative image along the respiratory phase. In the intraoperative preparatory stage, they properly attach a 3D US transducer to the patient’s body and fix its pose using a holding mechanism. They then acquire a couple of respiratory-controlled 3D US images. Via the rigid registration of these US images to the 3D preoperative images in the 4D image, the pose information of the fixed-pose 3D US transducer is determined with respect to the preoperative image coordinates. As feature(s) to use for the rigid registration, they may choose either internal liver vessels or the inferior vena cava. Since the latter is especially useful in patients with a diffuse liver disease, the authors newly propose using it. In the intraoperative real-time stage, they acquire 2D US images in real-time from the fixed-pose transducer. For each US image, they select candidates for its corresponding 2D preoperative slice from the 4D preoperative MR (or CT) image, based on the predetermined pose information of the transducer. The correct corresponding image is then found among those candidates via real-time 2D registration based on a gradient-based similarity measure. Finally, if needed, they obtain the position information of the liver lesion using the 3D preoperative image to which the registered 2D preoperative slice belongs. Results: The proposed method was applied to 23 clinical datasets and quantitative evaluations were conducted. With the exception of one clinical dataset that included US images of extremely low quality, 22 datasets of various liver status were successfully applied in the evaluation. Experimental results showed that the registration error between the anatomical features of US and preoperative MR images is less than 3 mm on average. The lesion tracking error was also found to be less than 5 mm at maximum. Conclusions: A new system has been proposed for real-time registration between 2D US and successive multiple 3D preoperative MR/CT images of the liver and was applied for indirect lesion tracking for image-guided intervention. The system is fully automatic and robust even with images that had low quality due to patient status. Through visual examinations and quantitative evaluations, it was verified that the proposed system can provide high lesion tracking accuracy as well as high registration accuracy, at performance levels which were acceptable for various clinical applications.

  13. Scannerless laser range imaging using loss modulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sandusky, John V.

    2011-08-09

    A scannerless 3-D imaging apparatus is disclosed which utilizes an amplitude modulated cw light source to illuminate a field of view containing a target of interest. Backscattered light from the target is passed through one or more loss modulators which are modulated at the same frequency as the light source, but with a phase delay .delta. which can be fixed or variable. The backscattered light is demodulated by the loss modulator and detected with a CCD, CMOS or focal plane array (FPA) detector to construct a 3-D image of the target. The scannerless 3-D imaging apparatus, which can operate in the eye-safe wavelength region 1.4-1.7 .mu.m and which can be constructed as a flash LADAR, has applications for vehicle collision avoidance, autonomous rendezvous and docking, robotic vision, industrial inspection and measurement, 3-D cameras, and facial recognition.

  14. Nonlinear automatic landing control of unmanned aerial vehicles on moving platforms via a 3D laser radar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hervas, Jaime Rubio; Tang, Hui; Reyhanoglu, Mahmut

    2014-12-10

    This paper presents a motion tracking and control system for automatically landing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) on an oscillating platform using Laser Radar (LADAR) observations. The system itself is assumed to be mounted on a ship deck. A full nonlinear mathematical model is first introduced for the UAV. The ship motion is characterized by a Fourier transform based method which includes a realistic characterization of the sea waves. LADAR observation models are introduced and an algorithm to process those observations for yielding the relative state between the vessel and the UAV is presented, from which the UAV's state relative to an inertial frame can be obtained and used for feedback purposes. A sliding mode control algorithm is derived for tracking a landing trajectory defined by a set of desired waypoints. An extended Kalman filter (EKF) is proposed to account for process and observation noises in the design of a state estimator. The effectiveness of the control algorithm is illustrated through a simulation example.

  15. Development of a 400 Level 3C Clamped Downhole Seismic Receiver Array for 3D Borehole Seismic Imaging of Gas Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bjorn N. P. Paulsson

    2006-09-30

    Borehole seismology is the highest resolution geophysical imaging technique available today to the oil and gas industry for characterization and monitoring of oil and gas reservoirs. However, the industry's ability to perform high resolution 3D imaging of deep and complex gas reservoirs using borehole seismology has been hampered by the lack of acquisition technology necessary to record large volumes of high frequency, high signal-to-noise-ratio borehole seismic data. This project took aim at this shortcoming by developing a 400 level 3C clamped downhole seismic receiver array, and accompanying software, for borehole seismic 3D imaging. This large borehole seismic array has removed the technical acquisition barrier for recording the data volumes necessary to do high resolution 3D VSP and 3D cross-well seismic imaging. Massive 3D VSP{reg_sign} and long range Cross-Well Seismology (CWS) are two of the borehole seismic techniques that promise to take the gas industry to the next level in their quest for higher resolution images of deep and complex oil and gas reservoirs. Today only a fraction of the oil or gas in place is produced when reservoirs are considered depleted. This is primarily due to our lack of understanding of detailed compartmentalization of oil and gas reservoirs. In this project, we developed a 400 level 3C borehole seismic receiver array that allows for economic use of 3D borehole seismic imaging for reservoir characterization and monitoring. This new array has significantly increased the efficiency of recording large data volumes at sufficiently dense spatial sampling to resolve reservoir complexities. The receiver pods have been fabricated and tested to withstand high temperature (200 C/400 F) and high pressure (25,000 psi), so that they can operate in wells up to 7,620 meters (25,000 feet) deep. The receiver array is deployed on standard production or drill tubing. In combination with 3C surface seismic or 3C borehole seismic sources, the 400 level receiver array can be used to obtain 3D 9C data. These 9C borehole seismic data provide both compressional wave and shear wave information that can be used for quantitative prediction of rock and pore fluid types. The 400-level borehole receiver array has been deployed successfully in a number of oil and gas wells during the course of this project, and each survey has resulted in marked improvements in imaging of geologic features that are critical for oil or gas production but were previously considered to be below the limits of seismic resolution. This added level of reservoir detail has resulted in improved well placement in the oil and gas fields that have been drilled using the Massive 3D VSP{reg_sign} images. In the future, the 400-level downhole seismic receiver array is expected to continue to improve reservoir characterization and drilling success in deep and complex oil and gas reservoirs.

  16. Laser focus compensating sensing and imaging device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vann, Charles S.

    1993-01-01

    A laser focus compensating sensing and imaging device permits the focus of a single focal point of different frequency laser beams emanating from the same source point. In particular it allows the focusing of laser beam originating from the same laser device but having differing intensities so that a low intensity beam will not convert to a higher frequency when passing through a conversion crystal associated with the laser generating device. The laser focus compensating sensing and imaging device uses a cassegrain system to fold the lower frequency, low intensity beam back upon itself so that it will focus at the same focal point as a high intensity beam. An angular tilt compensating lens is mounted about the secondary mirror of the cassegrain system to assist in alignment. In addition cameras or CCD's are mounted with the primary mirror to sense the focused image. A convex lens is positioned co-axial with the cassegrain system on the side of the primary mirror distal of the secondary for use in aligning a target with the laser beam. A first alternate embodiment includes a cassegrain system using a series of shutters and an internally mounted dichroic mirror. A second alternate embodiment uses two laser focus compensating sensing and imaging devices for aligning a moving tool with a work piece.

  17. Laser focus compensating sensing and imaging device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vann, C.S.

    1993-08-31

    A laser focus compensating sensing and imaging device permits the focus of a single focal point of different frequency laser beams emanating from the same source point. In particular it allows the focusing of laser beam originating from the same laser device but having differing intensities so that a low intensity beam will not convert to a higher frequency when passing through a conversion crystal associated with the laser generating device. The laser focus compensating sensing and imaging device uses a Cassegrain system to fold the lower frequency, low intensity beam back upon itself so that it will focus at the same focal point as a high intensity beam. An angular tilt compensating lens is mounted about the secondary mirror of the Cassegrain system to assist in alignment. In addition cameras or CCD's are mounted with the primary mirror to sense the focused image. A convex lens is positioned co-axial with the Cassegrain system on the side of the primary mirror distal of the secondary for use in aligning a target with the laser beam. A first alternate embodiment includes a Cassegrain system using a series of shutters and an internally mounted dichroic mirror. A second alternate embodiment uses two laser focus compensating sensing and imaging devices for aligning a moving tool with a work piece.

  18. LLNL researchers outline what happens during metal 3D printing...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    - examine a 3D-printed part manufactured using the selective laser melting process. ... The powder bed fusion process, also known as selective laser melting (SLM), requires thin ...

  19. 3D NUCLEAR SEGMENTAT

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    003029WKSTN00 Delineation of nuclear structures in 3D multicellular systems https://vision.lbl.gov/Software/3DMorphometry/

  20. Development of Gamma-Ray Compton Imager Using Room-Temperature 3-D Position Sensitive Semiconductor Detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhong He; David Whe; Glenn Knoll

    2003-05-14

    During the three years of this project, two 3-dimensional position sensitive CdZnTe spectrometers were upgraded in collaboration with Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. A prototype Compton-scattering gamma-ray imager was assembled using the two upgraded CdZnTe detectors. The performance of both gamma-ray spectrometers were individually tested. The angular resolution and detection sensitivity of the imaging system were measured using both a point and a line-shaped 137 Cs radiation source. The measurement results are consistent with that obtained from Monte-Carlo simulations performed during the early phase of the project.

  1. 3D mapping of water in oolithic limestone at atmospheric and vacuum saturation using X-ray micro-CT differential imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boone, M.A.; De Kock, T.; Bultreys, T.; De Schutter, G.; Vontobel, P.; Van Hoorebeke, L.; Cnudde, V.

    2014-11-15

    Determining the distribution of fluids in porous sedimentary rocks is of great importance in many geological fields. However, this is not straightforward, especially in the case of complex sedimentary rocks like limestone, where a multidisciplinary approach is often needed to capture its broad, multimodal pore size distribution and complex pore geometries. This paper focuses on the porosity and fluid distribution in two varieties of Massangis limestone, a widely used natural building stone from the southeast part of the Paris basin (France). The Massangis limestone shows locally varying post-depositional alterations, resulting in different types of pore networks and very different water distributions within the limestone. Traditional techniques for characterizing the porosity and pore size distribution are compared with state-of-the-art neutron radiography and X-ray computed microtomography to visualize the distribution of water inside the limestone at different imbibition conditions. X-ray computed microtomography images have the great advantage to non-destructively visualize and analyze the pore space inside of a rock, but are often limited to the larger macropores in the rock due to resolution limitations. In this paper, differential imaging is successfully applied to the X-ray computed microtomography images to obtain sub-resolution information about fluid occupancy and to map the fluid distribution in three dimensions inside the scanned limestone samples. The detailed study of the pore space with differential imaging allows understanding the difference in the water uptake behavior of the limestone, a primary factor that affects the weathering of the rock. - Highlights: • The water distribution in a limestone was visualized in 3D with micro-CT. • Differential imaging allowed to map both macro and microporous zones in the rock. • The 3D study of the pore space clarified the difference in water uptake behavior. • Trapped air is visualized in the moldic macropores at atmospheric saturation.

  2. 3D Imaging of Nickel Oxidation States using Full Field X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure Nanotomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, George; Harris, William; Izzo, John; Grew, Kyle N.

    2012-01-20

    Reduction-oxidation (redox) cycling of the nickel electrocatalyst phase in the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anode can lead to performance degradation and cell failure. A greater understanding of nickel redox mechanisms at the microstructural level is vital to future SOFC development. Transmission x-ray microscopy (TXM) provides several key techniques for exploring oxidation states within SOFC electrode microstructure. Specifically, x-ray nanotomography and x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy have been applied to study samples of varying nickel (Ni) and nickel oxide (NiO) compositions. The imaged samples are treated as mock SOFC anodes containing distinct regions of the materials in question. XANES spectra presented for the individual materials provide a basis for the further processing and analysis of mixed samples. Images of composite samples obtained are segmented, and the distinct nickel and nickel oxide phases are uniquely identified using full field XANES spectroscopy. Applications to SOFC analysis are discussed.

  3. Laser image recording on detonation nanodiamond films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mikheev, G M; Mikheev, K G; Mogileva, T N; Puzyr, A P; Bondar, V S

    2014-01-31

    A focused He Ne laser beam is shown to cause local blackening of semitransparent detonation nanodiamond (DND) films at incident power densities above 600 W cm{sup -2}. Data obtained with a Raman spectrometer and low-power 632.8-nm laser source indicate that the blackening is accompanied by a decrease in broadband background luminescence and emergence of sharp Raman peaks corresponding to the structures of nanodiamond and sp{sup 2} carbon. The feasibility of image recording on DND films by a focused He Ne laser beam is demonstrated. (letters)

  4. Evaluating quantitative 3-D image analysis as a design tool for low enriched uranium fuel compacts for the transient reactor test facility: A preliminary study

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kane, J. J.; van Rooyen, I. J.; Craft, A. E.; Roney, T. J.; Morrell, S. R.

    2016-02-05

    In this study, 3-D image analysis when combined with a non-destructive examination technique such as X-ray computed tomography (CT) provides a highly quantitative tool for the investigation of a material’s structure. In this investigation 3-D image analysis and X-ray CT were combined to analyze the microstructure of a preliminary subsized fuel compact for the Transient Reactor Test Facility’s low enriched uranium conversion program to assess the feasibility of the combined techniques for use in the optimization of the fuel compact fabrication process. The quantitative image analysis focused on determining the size and spatial distribution of the surrogate fuel particles andmore » the size, shape, and orientation of voids within the compact. Additionally, the maximum effect of microstructural features on heat transfer through the carbonaceous matrix of the preliminary compact was estimated. The surrogate fuel particles occupied 0.8% of the compact by volume with a log-normal distribution of particle sizes with a mean diameter of 39 μm and a standard deviation of 16 μm. Roughly 39% of the particles had a diameter greater than the specified maximum particle size of 44 μm suggesting that the particles agglomerate during fabrication. The local volume fraction of particles also varies significantly within the compact although uniformities appear to be evenly dispersed throughout the analysed volume. The voids produced during fabrication were on average plate-like in nature with their major axis oriented perpendicular to the compaction direction of the compact. Finally, the microstructure, mainly the large preferentially oriented voids, may cause a small degree of anisotropy in the thermal diffusivity within the compact. α∥/α⊥, the ratio of thermal diffusivities parallel to and perpendicular to the compaction direction are expected to be no less than 0.95 with an upper bound of 1.« less

  5. ShowMe3D

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-01-05

    ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from themore » displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.« less

  6. 3D inpatient dose reconstruction from the PET-CT imaging of {sup 90}Y microspheres for metastatic cancer to the liver: Feasibility study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fourkal, E.; Veltchev, I.; Lin, M.; Meyer, J.; Koren, S.; Doss, M.; Yu, J. Q.

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: The introduction of radioembolization with microspheres represents a significant step forward in the treatment of patients with metastatic disease to the liver. This technique uses semiempirical formulae based on body surface area or liver and target volumes to calculate the required total activity for a given patient. However, this treatment modality lacks extremely important information, which is the three-dimensional (3D) dose delivered by microspheres to different organs after their administration. The absence of this information dramatically limits the clinical efficacy of this modality, specifically the predictive power of the treatment. Therefore, the aim of this study is to develop a 3D dose calculation technique that is based on the PET imaging of the infused microspheres.Methods: The Fluka Monte Carlo code was used to calculate the voxel dose kernel for {sup 90}Y source with voxel size equal to that of the PET scan. The measured PET activity distribution was converted to total activity distribution for the subsequent convolution with the voxel dose kernel to obtain the 3D dose distribution. In addition, dose-volume histograms were generated to analyze the dose to the tumor and critical structures.Results: The 3D inpatient dose distribution can be reconstructed from the PET data of a patient scanned after the infusion of microspheres. A total of seven patients have been analyzed so far using the proposed reconstruction method. Four patients underwent treatment with SIR-Spheres for liver metastases from colorectal cancer and three patients were treated with Therasphere for hepatocellular cancer. A total of 14 target tumors were contoured on post-treatment PET-CT scans for dosimetric evaluation. Mean prescription activity was 1.7 GBq (range: 0.583.8 GBq). The resulting mean maximum measured dose to targets was 167 Gy (range: 71311 Gy). Mean minimum dose to 70% of target (D70) was 68 Gy (range: 25155 Gy). Mean minimum dose to 90% of target (D90) was 53 Gy (range: 13125 Gy).Conclusions: A three-dimensional inpatient dose reconstruction method has been developed that is based on the PET/CT data of a patient treated with {sup 90}Y microspheres. It allows for a complete description of the absorbed dose by the tumor and critical structures. It represents the first step in building predictive models for treatment outcomes for patients receiving this therapeutic modality as well as it allows for better analysis of patients' dose response and will ultimately improve future treatment administration.

  7. Laser speckle contrast imaging of skin blood perfusion responses...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    We report application of laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI), i.e., a fast imaging technique utilising backscattered light to distinguish such moving objects as red blood cells ...

  8. Graphene's 3D Counterpart

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Graphene's 3D Counterpart Graphene's 3D Counterpart Print Monday, 21 July 2014 08:59 ALS researchers have discovered a material that is essentially a 3D version of graphene-the 2D sheets of carbon through which electrons race at many times the speed at which they move through silicon. The discovery promises exciting new things to come for the high--tech industry, including much faster transistors and far more compact hard drives. Researchers discovered that sodium bismuthide can exist as a form

  9. Laser spectroscopy of the 4s4p {sup 3}P{sub 2} - 4s3d {sup 1}D{sub 2} transition on magnetically trapped calcium atoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dammalapati, U.; Norris, I.; Burrows, C.; Riis, E.

    2011-06-15

    Laser excitation of the 4s4p {sup 3}P{sub 2} - 4s3d {sup 1}D{sub 2} transition in atomic calcium has been observed and the wavelength determined to 1530.5298(6) nm. The metastable 4s4p {sup 3}P{sub 2} atoms were magnetically trapped in the quadrupole magnetic field of a magneto-optical trap. This state represents the only ''loss'' channel for the calcium atoms when laser cooled on the 4s{sup 2} {sup 1}S{sub 0} - 4s4p {sup 1}P{sub 1} transition. A rate equation model shows that an order of magnitude more atoms are trapped in this state compared with those taking part in the main cooling cycle. Excitation of the {sup 3}P{sub 2} atoms back up to the 4s3d {sup 1}D{sub 2} state provides a means of accessing these atoms. Efficient repumping is achieved if the 1530-nm laser is used in conjunction with a 672-nm laser driving the 4s3d {sup 1}D{sub 2} - 4s5p {sup 1}P{sub 1} transition. In the present experiment, we detected about 4.5x10{sup 4} trapped {sup 3}P{sub 2} atoms, a relatively low atom density, and measured a lifetime of approximately 1 s, which is limited by background collisions.

  10. Graphene's 3D Counterpart

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    can exist as a form of quantum matter called a three--dimensional topological Dirac semi--metal (3DTDS). This is the first experimental confirmation of 3D Dirac fermions...

  11. Graphene's 3D Counterpart

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Print ALS researchers have discovered a material that is essentially a 3D version of graphene-the 2D sheets of carbon through which electrons race at many times the speed at which...

  12. Laser Roadshow

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    outreach Laser Roadshow The NIF Laser Roadshow includes a number of interactive laser demonstrations (Laser Light Fountain, Laser DJ, and NIF "3D ride") that have traveled across ...

  13. GPU-Accelerated Denoising in 3D (GD3D)

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2013-10-01

    The raw computational power GPU Accelerators enables fast denoising of 3D MR images using bilateral filtering, anisotropic diffusion, and non-local means. This software addresses two facets of this promising application: what tuning is necessary to achieve optimal performance on a modern GPU? And what parameters yield the best denoising results in practice? To answer the first question, the software performs an autotuning step to empirically determine optimal memory blocking on the GPU. To answer themore » second, it performs a sweep of algorithm parameters to determine the combination that best reduces the mean squared error relative to a noiseless reference image.« less

  14. SNL3dFace

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2007-07-20

    This software distribution contains MATLAB and C++ code to enable identity verification using 3D images that may or may not contain a texture component. The code is organized to support system performance testing and system capability demonstration through the proper configuration of the available user interface. Using specific algorithm parameters the face recognition system has been demonstrated to achieve a 96.6% verification rate (Pd) at 0.001 false alarm rate. The system computes robust facial featuresmore » of a 3D normalized face using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA). A 3D normalized face is obtained by alighning each face, represented by a set of XYZ coordinated, to a scaled reference face using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The scaled reference face is then deformed to the input face using an iterative framework with parameters that control the deformed surface regulation an rate of deformation. A variety of options are available to control the information that is encoded by the PCA. Such options include the XYZ coordinates, the difference of each XYZ coordinates from the reference, the Z coordinate, the intensity/texture values, etc. In addition to PCA/FLDA feature projection this software supports feature matching to obtain similarity matrices for performance analysis. In addition, this software supports visualization of the STL, MRD, 2D normalized, and PCA synthetic representations in a 3D environment.« less

  15. Graphene's 3D Counterpart

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Graphene's 3D Counterpart Print ALS researchers have discovered a material that is essentially a 3D version of graphene-the 2D sheets of carbon through which electrons race at many times the speed at which they move through silicon. The discovery promises exciting new things to come for the high--tech industry, including much faster transistors and far more compact hard drives. Researchers discovered that sodium bismuthide can exist as a form of quantum matter called a three--dimensional

  16. Graphene's 3D Counterpart

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Graphene's 3D Counterpart Print ALS researchers have discovered a material that is essentially a 3D version of graphene-the 2D sheets of carbon through which electrons race at many times the speed at which they move through silicon. The discovery promises exciting new things to come for the high--tech industry, including much faster transistors and far more compact hard drives. Researchers discovered that sodium bismuthide can exist as a form of quantum matter called a three--dimensional

  17. Graphene's 3D Counterpart

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Graphene's 3D Counterpart Print ALS researchers have discovered a material that is essentially a 3D version of graphene-the 2D sheets of carbon through which electrons race at many times the speed at which they move through silicon. The discovery promises exciting new things to come for the high--tech industry, including much faster transistors and far more compact hard drives. Researchers discovered that sodium bismuthide can exist as a form of quantum matter called a three--dimensional

  18. Graphene's 3D Counterpart

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Graphene's 3D Counterpart Print ALS researchers have discovered a material that is essentially a 3D version of graphene-the 2D sheets of carbon through which electrons race at many times the speed at which they move through silicon. The discovery promises exciting new things to come for the high--tech industry, including much faster transistors and far more compact hard drives. Researchers discovered that sodium bismuthide can exist as a form of quantum matter called a three--dimensional

  19. Graphene's 3D Counterpart

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Graphene's 3D Counterpart Print ALS researchers have discovered a material that is essentially a 3D version of graphene-the 2D sheets of carbon through which electrons race at many times the speed at which they move through silicon. The discovery promises exciting new things to come for the high--tech industry, including much faster transistors and far more compact hard drives. Researchers discovered that sodium bismuthide can exist as a form of quantum matter called a three--dimensional

  20. Synchrotron X-ray 2D and 3D Elemental Imaging of CdSe/ZnS Quantum dot Nanoparticles in Daphnia Magna

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, B.; Pace, H; Lanzirotti, A; Smith, R; Ranville, J

    2009-01-01

    The potential toxicity of nanoparticles to aquatic organisms is of interest given that increased commercialization will inevitably lead to some instances of inadvertent environmental exposures. Cadmium selenide quantum dots (QDs) capped with zinc sulfide are used in the semiconductor industry and in cellular imaging. Their small size (<10 nm) suggests that they may be readily assimilated by exposed organisms. We exposed Daphnia magna to both red and green QDs and used synchrotron X-ray fluorescence to study the distribution of Zn and Se in the organism over a time period of 36 h. The QDs appeared to be confined to the gut, and there was no evidence of further assimilation into the organism. Zinc and Se fluorescence signals were highly correlated, suggesting that the QDs had not dissolved to any extent. There was no apparent difference between red or green QDs, i.e., there was no effect of QD size. 3D tomography confirmed that the QDs were exclusively in the gut area of the organism. It is possible that the QDs aggregated and were therefore too large to cross the gut wall.

  1. DYNA3D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennedy, T. )

    1989-05-01

    DYNA3D is an explicit, three-dimensional, finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic response of inelastic solids and structures. DYNA3D contains 30 material models and 10 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, Blatz-Ko rubber, high explosive burn, hydrodynamic without deviatoric stresses, elastoplastic hydrodynamic, temperature-dependent elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic with failure, soil and crushable foam with failure, Johnson/Cook plasticity model, pseudo TENSOR geological model, elastoplastic with fracture, power law isotropic plasticity, strain rate dependent plasticity, rigid, thermal orthotropic, composite damage model, thermal orthotropic with 12 curves, piecewise linear isotropic plasticity, inviscid two invariant geologic cap, orthotropic crushable model, Moonsy-Rivlin rubber, and resultant plasticity. The hydrodynamic material models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 10 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack 'Tuesday' high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, tabulated, and TENSOR pore collapse. DYNA3D generates three binary output databases. One contains information for complete states at infrequent intervals; 50 to 100 states is typical. The second contains information for a subset of nodes and elements at frequent intervals; 1,000 to 10,000 states is typical. The last contains interface data for contact surfaces.

  2. 3-D MAPPING TECHNOLOGIES FOR HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marzolf, A.; Folsom, M.

    2010-08-31

    This research investigated four techniques that could be applicable for mapping of solids remaining in radioactive waste tanks at the Savannah River Site: stereo vision, LIDAR, flash LIDAR, and Structure from Motion (SfM). Stereo vision is the least appropriate technique for the solids mapping application. Although the equipment cost is low and repackaging would be fairly simple, the algorithms to create a 3D image from stereo vision would require significant further development and may not even be applicable since stereo vision works by finding disparity in feature point locations from the images taken by the cameras. When minimal variation in visual texture exists for an area of interest, it becomes difficult for the software to detect correspondences for that object. SfM appears to be appropriate for solids mapping in waste tanks. However, equipment development would be required for positioning and movement of the camera in the tank space to enable capturing a sequence of images of the scene. Since SfM requires the identification of distinctive features and associates those features to their corresponding instantiations in the other image frames, mockup testing would be required to determine the applicability of SfM technology for mapping of waste in tanks. There may be too few features to track between image frame sequences to employ the SfM technology since uniform appearance may exist when viewing the remaining solids in the interior of the waste tanks. Although scanning LIDAR appears to be an adequate solution, the expense of the equipment ($80,000-$120,000) and the need for further development to allow tank deployment may prohibit utilizing this technology. The development would include repackaging of equipment to permit deployment through the 4-inch access ports and to keep the equipment relatively uncontaminated to allow use in additional tanks. 3D flash LIDAR has a number of advantages over stereo vision, scanning LIDAR, and SfM, including full frame time-of-flight data (3D image) collected with a single laser pulse, high frame rates, direct calculation of range, blur-free images without motion distortion, no need for precision scanning mechanisms, ability to combine 3D flash LIDAR with 2D cameras for 2D texture over 3D depth, and no moving parts. The major disadvantage of the 3D flash LIDAR camera is the cost of approximately $150,000, not including the software development time and repackaging of the camera for deployment in the waste tanks.

  3. Speckle averaging system for laser raster-scan image projection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tiszauer, D.H.; Hackel, L.A.

    1998-03-17

    The viewers` perception of laser speckle in a laser-scanned image projection system is modified or eliminated by the addition of an optical deflection system that effectively presents a new speckle realization at each point on the viewing screen to each viewer for every scan across the field. The speckle averaging is accomplished without introduction of spurious imaging artifacts. 5 figs.

  4. Speckle averaging system for laser raster-scan image projection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tiszauer, Detlev H.; Hackel, Lloyd A.

    1998-03-17

    The viewers' perception of laser speckle in a laser-scanned image projection system is modified or eliminated by the addition of an optical deflection system that effectively presents a new speckle realization at each point on the viewing screen to each viewer for every scan across the field. The speckle averaging is accomplished without introduction of spurious imaging artifacts.

  5. Laser radiography forming bremsstrahlung radiation to image an object

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perry, Michael D.; Sefcik, Joseph A.

    2004-01-13

    A method of imaging an object by generating laser pulses with a short-pulse, high-power laser. When the laser pulse strikes a conductive target, bremsstrahlung radiation is generated such that hard ballistic high-energy electrons are formed to penetrate an object. A detector on the opposite side of the object detects these electrons. Since laser pulses are used to form the hard x-rays, multiple pulses can be used to image an object in motion, such as an exploding or compressing object, by using time gated detectors. Furthermore, the laser pulses can be directed down different tubes using mirrors and filters so that each laser pulse will image a different portion of the object.

  6. Imaging System With Confocally Self-Detecting Laser.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Webb, Robert H.; Rogomentich, Fran J.

    1996-10-08

    The invention relates to a confocal laser imaging system and method. The system includes a laser source, a beam splitter, focusing elements, and a photosensitive detector. The laser source projects a laser beam along a first optical path at an object to be imaged, and modulates the intensity of the projected laser beam in response to light reflected from the object. A beam splitter directs a portion of the projected laser beam onto a photodetector. The photodetector monitors the intensity of laser output. The laser source can be an electrically scannable array, with a lens or objective assembly for focusing light generated by the array onto the object of interest. As the array is energized, its laser beams scan over the object, and light reflected at each point is returned by the lens to the element of the array from which it originated. A single photosensitive detector element can generate an intensity-representative signal for all lasers of the array. The intensity-representative signal from the photosensitive detector can be processed to provide an image of the object of interest.

  7. Pulsed laser linescanner for a backscatter absorption gas imaging system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulp, Thomas J.; Reichardt, Thomas A.; Schmitt, Randal L.; Bambha, Ray P.

    2004-02-10

    An active (laser-illuminated) imaging system is described that is suitable for use in backscatter absorption gas imaging (BAGI). A BAGI imager operates by imaging a scene as it is illuminated with radiation that is absorbed by the gas to be detected. Gases become "visible" in the image when they attenuate the illumination creating a shadow in the image. This disclosure describes a BAGI imager that operates in a linescanned manner using a high repetition rate pulsed laser as its illumination source. The format of this system allows differential imaging, in which the scene is illuminated with light at least 2 wavelengths--one or more absorbed by the gas and one or more not absorbed. The system is designed to accomplish imaging in a manner that is insensitive to motion of the camera, so that it can be held in the hand of an operator or operated from a moving vehicle.

  8. Method for identifying subsurface fluid migration and drainage pathways in and among oil and gas reservoirs using 3-D and 4-D seismic imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Roger N.; Boulanger, Albert; Bagdonas, Edward P.; Xu, Liqing; He, Wei

    1996-01-01

    The invention utilizes 3-D and 4-D seismic surveys as a means of deriving information useful in petroleum exploration and reservoir management. The methods use both single seismic surveys (3-D) and multiple seismic surveys separated in time (4-D) of a region of interest to determine large scale migration pathways within sedimentary basins, and fine scale drainage structure and oil-water-gas regions within individual petroleum producing reservoirs. Such structure is identified using pattern recognition tools which define the regions of interest. The 4-D seismic data sets may be used for data completion for large scale structure where time intervals between surveys do not allow for dynamic evolution. The 4-D seismic data sets also may be used to find variations over time of small scale structure within individual reservoirs which may be used to identify petroleum drainage pathways, oil-water-gas regions and, hence, attractive drilling targets. After spatial orientation, and amplitude and frequency matching of the multiple seismic data sets, High Amplitude Event (HAE) regions consistent with the presence of petroleum are identified using seismic attribute analysis. High Amplitude Regions are grown and interconnected to establish plumbing networks on the large scale and reservoir structure on the small scale. Small scale variations over time between seismic surveys within individual reservoirs are identified and used to identify drainage patterns and bypassed petroleum to be recovered. The location of such drainage patterns and bypassed petroleum may be used to site wells.

  9. Method for identifying subsurface fluid migration and drainage pathways in and among oil and gas reservoirs using 3-D and 4-D seismic imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, R.N.; Boulanger, A.; Bagdonas, E.P.; Xu, L.; He, W.

    1996-12-17

    The invention utilizes 3-D and 4-D seismic surveys as a means of deriving information useful in petroleum exploration and reservoir management. The methods use both single seismic surveys (3-D) and multiple seismic surveys separated in time (4-D) of a region of interest to determine large scale migration pathways within sedimentary basins, and fine scale drainage structure and oil-water-gas regions within individual petroleum producing reservoirs. Such structure is identified using pattern recognition tools which define the regions of interest. The 4-D seismic data sets may be used for data completion for large scale structure where time intervals between surveys do not allow for dynamic evolution. The 4-D seismic data sets also may be used to find variations over time of small scale structure within individual reservoirs which may be used to identify petroleum drainage pathways, oil-water-gas regions and, hence, attractive drilling targets. After spatial orientation, and amplitude and frequency matching of the multiple seismic data sets, High Amplitude Event (HAE) regions consistent with the presence of petroleum are identified using seismic attribute analysis. High Amplitude Regions are grown and interconnected to establish plumbing networks on the large scale and reservoir structure on the small scale. Small scale variations over time between seismic surveys within individual reservoirs are identified and used to identify drainage patterns and bypassed petroleum to be recovered. The location of such drainage patterns and bypassed petroleum may be used to site wells. 22 figs.

  10. Comparison of 2D and 3D Imaging and Treatment Planning for Postoperative Vaginal Apex High-Dose Rate Brachytherapy for Endometrial Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russo, James K.; Armeson, Kent E.; Richardson, Susan

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate bladder and rectal doses using two-dimensional (2D) and 3D treatment planning for vaginal cuff high-dose rate (HDR) in endometrial cancer. Methods and Materials: Ninety-one consecutive patients treated between 2000 and 2007 were evaluated. Seventy-one and 20 patients underwent 2D and 3D planning, respectively. Each patient received six fractions prescribed at 0.5 cm to the superior 3 cm of the vagina. International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) doses were calculated for 2D patients. Maximum and 2-cc doses were calculated for 3D patients. Organ doses were normalized to prescription dose. Results: Bladder maximum doses were 178% of ICRU doses (p < 0.0001). Two-cubic centimeter doses were no different than ICRU doses (p = 0.22). Two-cubic centimeter doses were 59% of maximum doses (p < 0.0001). Rectal maximum doses were 137% of ICRU doses (p < 0.0001). Two-cubic centimeter doses were 87% of ICRU doses (p < 0.0001). Two-cubic centimeter doses were 64% of maximum doses (p < 0.0001). Using the first 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 fractions, we predicted the final bladder dose to within 10% for 44%, 59%, 83%, 82%, and 89% of patients by using the ICRU dose, and for 45%, 55%, 80%, 85%, and 85% of patients by using the maximum dose, and for 37%, 68%, 79%, 79%, and 84% of patients by using the 2-cc dose. Using the first 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 fractions, we predicted the final rectal dose to within 10% for 100%, 100%, 100%, 100%, and 100% of patients by using the ICRU dose, and for 60%, 65%, 70%, 75%, and 75% of patients by using the maximum dose, and for 68%, 95%, 84%, 84%, and 84% of patients by using the 2-cc dose. Conclusions: Doses to organs at risk vary depending on the calculation method. In some cases, final dose accuracy appears to plateau after the third fraction, indicating that simulation and planning may not be necessary in all fractions. A clinically relevant level of accuracy should be determined and further research conducted to address this issue.

  11. Laser speckle contrast imaging of skin blood perfusion responses induced by

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    laser coagulation (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Laser speckle contrast imaging of skin blood perfusion responses induced by laser coagulation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Laser speckle contrast imaging of skin blood perfusion responses induced by laser coagulation We report application of laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI), i.e., a fast imaging technique utilising backscattered light to distinguish such moving objects as red blood cells from such stationary objects as

  12. Azimuthally Anisotropic 3D Velocity Continuation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Burnett, William; Fomel, Sergey

    2011-01-01

    We extend time-domain velocity continuation to the zero-offset 3D azimuthally anisotropic case. Velocity continuation describes how a seismic image changes given a change in migration velocity. This description turns out to be of a wave propagation process, in which images change along a velocity axis. In the anisotropic case, the velocity model is multiparameter. Therefore, anisotropic image propagation is multidimensional. We use a three-parameter slowness model, which is related to azimuthal variations in velocity, as well as their principal directions. This information is useful for fracture and reservoir characterization from seismic data. We provide synthetic diffraction imaging examples to illustratemore » the concept and potential applications of azimuthal velocity continuation and to analyze the impulse response of the 3D velocity continuation operator.« less

  13. Design of 3D eye-safe middle range vibrometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polulyakh, Valeriy; Poutivski, Iouri

    2014-05-27

    Laser Doppler Vibrometer and Range Meter (3D-MRV) is designed for middle range distances [1100 meters]. 3D-MRV combines more than one laser in one device for a simultaneous real time measuring the distance and movement of the targets. The first laser has a short pulse (t?30psec) and low energy (E?200nJ) for distance measurement and the second one is a CW (continuous wave) single frequency laser for the velocity measurement with output power (P?30mW). Both lasers perform on the eye-safe wavelength 1.5 ?m. 3D-MRV uses the same mono-static optical transmitting and receiving channel for both lasers including an output telescope and a scanning angular system. 3D-MRV has an optical polarization switch to combine linear polarized laser beams from two lasers into one optical channel. The laser beams from both lasers by turns illuminate the target and the scattered laser radiation is collected by the telescope on a photo detector. The electrical signal from photo detector is used for measuring the distance to the target and its movement. For distance measurement the time of flight method is employed. For targets movement the optical heterodyne method is employed. The received CW laser radiation is mixed on a photo detector with the frequency-shifted laser radiation that is taken from CW laser and passed through an acousto-optic cell. The electrical signal from a photo detector on the difference frequency and phase has information about movement of the scattered targets. 3D-MVR may be used for the real time picturing of vibration of the extensive targets like bridges or aircrafts.

  14. 3D World Building System

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-02-26

    This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

  15. LLNL-Earth3D

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2013-10-01

    Earth3D is a computer code designed to allow fast calculation of seismic rays and travel times through a 3D model of the Earth. LLNL is using this for earthquake location and global tomography efforts and such codes are of great interest to the Earth Science community.

  16. 3D Wavelet-Based Filter and Method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moss, William C.; Haase, Sebastian; Sedat, John W.

    2008-08-12

    A 3D wavelet-based filter for visualizing and locating structural features of a user-specified linear size in 2D or 3D image data. The only input parameter is a characteristic linear size of the feature of interest, and the filter output contains only those regions that are correlated with the characteristic size, thus denoising the image.

  17. DYNA3D96. Explicit 3-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, J.

    1993-11-01

    DYNA3D is a nonlinear explicit finite element code for analyzing 3-D structures and solid continuum. The code is vectorized and available on several computer platforms. The element library includes continuum, shell, beam, truss and spring/damper elements to allow maximum flexibility in modeling physical problems. Many materials are available to represent a wide range of material behavior, including elasticity, plasticity, composites, thermal effects and rate dependence. In addition, DYNA3D has a sophisticated contact interface capability, including frictional sliding, single surface contact and automatic contact generation.

  18. A Novel Approach for Introducing 3D Cloud Spatial Structure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Novel Approach for Introducing 3D Cloud Spatial Structure Into 1D Radiative Transfer For original submission and image(s), see ARM Research Highlights http:www.arm.govscience...

  19. D&D Toolbox Robotic Deployment of High Resolution Laser Imaging...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    PBS SR-0040 The robotically deployed laser surveying system was demonstrated in the ... Robotic Deployment of High Resolution Laser Imaging for Characterization Challenge The ...

  20. Laser ultrasonic multi-component imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williams, Thomas K.; Telschow, Kenneth

    2011-01-25

    Techniques for ultrasonic determination of the interfacial relationship of multi-component systems are discussed. In implementations, a laser energy source may be used to excite a multi-component system including a first component and a second component at least in partial contact with the first component. Vibrations resulting from the excitation may be detected for correlation with a resonance pattern indicating if discontinuity exists at the interface of the first and second components.

  1. Process for 3D chip stacking

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Malba, Vincent

    1998-01-01

    A manufacturable process for fabricating electrical interconnects which extend from a top surface of an integrated circuit chip to a sidewall of the chip using laser pantography to pattern three dimensional interconnects. The electrical interconnects may be of an L-connect or L-shaped type. The process implements three dimensional (3D) stacking by moving the conventional bond or interface pads on a chip to the sidewall of the chip. Implementation of the process includes: 1) holding individual chips for batch processing, 2) depositing a dielectric passivation layer on the top and sidewalls of the chips, 3) opening vias in the dielectric, 4) forming the interconnects by laser pantography, and 5) removing the chips from the holding means. The process enables low cost manufacturing of chips with bond pads on the sidewalls, which enables stacking for increased performance, reduced space, and higher functional per unit volume.

  2. Process for 3D chip stacking

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Malba, V.

    1998-11-10

    A manufacturable process for fabricating electrical interconnects which extend from a top surface of an integrated circuit chip to a sidewall of the chip using laser pantography to pattern three dimensional interconnects. The electrical interconnects may be of an L-connect or L-shaped type. The process implements three dimensional (3D) stacking by moving the conventional bond or interface pads on a chip to the sidewall of the chip. Implementation of the process includes: (1) holding individual chips for batch processing, (2) depositing a dielectric passivation layer on the top and sidewalls of the chips, (3) opening vias in the dielectric, (4) forming the interconnects by laser pantography, and (5) removing the chips from the holding means. The process enables low cost manufacturing of chips with bond pads on the sidewalls, which enables stacking for increased performance, reduced space, and higher functional per unit volume. 3 figs.

  3. Development of an x-ray imaging system for the Laser Megajoule...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Development of an x-ray imaging system for the Laser Megajoule (LMJ) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Development of an x-ray imaging system for the Laser Megajoule (LMJ) ...

  4. Direct laser additive fabrication system with image feedback control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Griffith, Michelle L.; Hofmeister, William H.; Knorovsky, Gerald A.; MacCallum, Danny O.; Schlienger, M. Eric; Smugeresky, John E.

    2002-01-01

    A closed-loop, feedback-controlled direct laser fabrication system is disclosed. The feedback refers to the actual growth conditions obtained by real-time analysis of thermal radiation images. The resulting system can fabricate components with severalfold improvement in dimensional tolerances and surface finish.

  5. DYNA3D. Explicit 3-d Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chu, R.; Amakai, M.; Lung, H.C.; Ishigai, T.

    1989-05-01

    DYNA3D is an explicit, three-dimensional, finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic response of inelastic solids and structures. DYNA3D contains 30 material models and 10 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, Blatz-Ko rubber, high explosive burn, hydrodynamic without deviatoric stresses, elastoplastic hydrodynamic, temperature-dependent elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic with failure, soil and crushable foam with failure, Johnson/Cook plasticity model, pseudo TENSOR geological model, elastoplastic with fracture, power law isotropic plasticity, strain rate dependent plasticity, rigid, thermal orthotropic, composite damage model, thermal orthotropic with 12 curves, piecewise linear isotropic plasticity, inviscid two invariant geologic cap, orthotropic crushable model, Moonsy-Rivlin rubber, resultant plasticity. The hydrodynamic material models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 10 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack Tuesday high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, tabulated, and TENSOR pore collapse. DYNA3D generates three binary output databases. One contains information for complete states at infrequent intervals; 50 to 100 states is typical. The second contains information for a subset of nodes and elements at frequent intervals; 1,000 to 10,000 states is typical. The last contains interface data for contact surfaces.

  6. DYNA3D. Explicit 3-d Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennedy, T.

    1989-05-01

    DYNA3D is an explicit, three-dimensional, finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic response of inelastic solids and structures. DYNA3D contains 30 material models and 10 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, Blatz-Ko rubber, high explosive burn, hydrodynamic without deviatoric stresses, elastoplastic hydrodynamic, temperature-dependent elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic with failure, soil and crushable foam with failure, Johnson/Cook plasticity model, pseudo TENSOR geological model, elastoplastic with fracture, power law isotropic plasticity, strain rate dependent plasticity, rigid, thermal orthotropic, composite damage model, thermal orthotropic with 12 curves, piecewise linear isotropic plasticity, inviscid two invariant geologic cap, orthotropic crushable model, Moonsy-Rivlin rubber, and resultant plasticity. The hydrodynamic material models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 10 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack `Tuesday` high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, tabulated, and TENSOR pore collapse. DYNA3D generates three binary output databases. One contains information for complete states at infrequent intervals; 50 to 100 states is typical. The second contains information for a subset of nodes and elements at frequent intervals; 1,000 to 10,000 states is typical. The last contains interface data for contact surfaces.

  7. DYNA3D. Explicit 3-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whirley, R.G.; Englemann, B.E.

    1993-11-01

    DYNA3D is an explicit, three-dimensional, finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic response of inelastic solids and structures. DYNA3D contains 30 material models and 10 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, Blatz-Ko rubber, high explosive burn, hydrodynamic without deviatoric stresses, elastoplastic hydrodynamic, temperature-dependent elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic with failure, soil and crushable foam with failure, Johnson/Cook plasticity model, pseudo TENSOR geological model, elastoplastic with fracture, power law isotropic plasticity, strain rate dependent plasticity, rigid, thermal orthotropic, composite damage model, thermal orthotropic with 12 curves, piecewise linear isotropic plasticity, inviscid two invariant geologic cap, orthotropic crushable model, Moonsy-Rivlin rubber, resultant plasticity, closed form update shell plasticity, and Frazer-Nash rubber model. The hydrodynamic material models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 10 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack `Tuesday` high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, tabulated, and TENSOR pore collapse. DYNA3D generates three binary output databases. One contains information for complete states at infrequent intervals; 50 to 100 states is typical. The second contains information for a subset of nodes and elements at frequent intervals; 1,000 to 10,000 states is typical. The last contains interface data for contact surfaces.

  8. DYNA3D. Explicit 3-d Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whirley, R.G.; Englemann, B.E.

    1993-11-01

    DYNA3D is an explicit, three-dimensional, finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic response of inelastic solids and structures. DYNA3D contains 30 material models and 10 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, Blatz-Ko rubber, high explosive burn, hydrodynamic without deviatoric stresses, elastoplastic hydrodynamic, temperature-dependent elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic with failure, soil and crushable foam with failure, Johnson/Cook plasticity model, pseudo TENSOR geological model, elastoplastic with fracture, power law isotropic plasticity, strain rate dependent plasticity, rigid, thermal orthotropic, composite damage model, thermal orthotropic with 12 curves, piecewise linear isotropic plasticity, inviscid two invariant geologic cap, orthotropic crushable model, Moonsy-Rivlin rubber, resultant plasticity, closed form update shell plasticity, and Frazer-Nash rubber model. The hydrodynamic material models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 10 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack Tuesday high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, tabulated, and TENSOR pore collapse. DYNA3D generates three binary output databases. One contains information for complete states at infrequent intervals; 50 to 100 states is typical. The second contains information for a subset of nodes and elements at frequent intervals; 1,000 to 10,000 states is typical. The last contains interface data for contact surfaces.

  9. DYNA3D. Explicit 3-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whirley, R.G.

    1989-05-01

    DYNA3D is an explicit, three-dimensional, finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic response of inelastic solids and structures. DYNA3D contains 30 material models and 10 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, Blatz-Ko rubber, high explosive burn, hydrodynamic without deviatoric stresses, elastoplastic hydrodynamic, temperature-dependent elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic with failure, soil and crushable foam with failure, Johnson/Cook plasticity model, pseudo TENSOR geological model, elastoplastic with fracture, power law isotropic plasticity, strain rate dependent plasticity, rigid, thermal orthotropic, composite damage model, thermal orthotropic with 12 curves, piecewise linear isotropic plasticity, inviscid two invariant geologic cap, orthotropic crushable model, Moonsy-Rivlin rubber, resultant plasticity, closed form update shell plasticity, and Frazer-Nash rubber model. The hydrodynamic material models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 10 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack `Tuesday` high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, tabulated, and TENSOR pore collapse. DYNA3D generates three binary output databases. One contains information for complete states at infrequent intervals; 50 to 100 states is typical. The second contains information for a subset of nodes and elements at frequent intervals; 1,000 to 10,000 states is typical. The last contains interface data for contact surfaces.

  10. DYNA3D; Explicit 3-d Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whirley, R.G.

    1989-05-01

    DYNA3D is an explicit, three-dimensional, finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic response of inelastic solids and structures. DYNA3D contains 30 material models and 10 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, Blatz-Ko rubber, high explosive burn, hydrodynamic without deviatoric stresses, elastoplastic hydrodynamic, temperature-dependent elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic with failure, soil and crushable foam with failure, Johnson/Cook plasticity model, pseudo TENSOR geological model, elastoplastic with fracture, power law isotropic plasticity, strain rate dependent plasticity, rigid, thermal orthotropic, composite damage model, thermal orthotropic with 12 curves, piecewise linear isotropic plasticity, inviscid two invariant geologic cap, orthotropic crushable model, Moonsy-Rivlin rubber, resultant plasticity, closed form update shell plasticity, and Frazer-Nash rubber model. The hydrodynamic material models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 10 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack Tuesday high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, tabulated, and TENSOR pore collapse. DYNA3D generates three binary output databases. One contains information for complete states at infrequent intervals; 50 to 100 states is typical. The second contains information for a subset of nodes and elements at frequent intervals; 1,000 to 10,000 states is typical. The last contains interface data for contact surfaces.

  11. DYNA3D. Explicit 3-d Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whirley, R.G.; Englemann, B.E. )

    1993-11-30

    DYNA3D is an explicit, three-dimensional, finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic response of inelastic solids and structures. DYNA3D contains 30 material models and 10 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, Blatz-Ko rubber, high explosive burn, hydrodynamic without deviatoric stresses, elastoplastic hydrodynamic, temperature-dependent elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic with failure, soil and crushable foam with failure, Johnson/Cook plasticity model, pseudo TENSOR geological model, elastoplastic with fracture, power law isotropic plasticity, strain rate dependent plasticity, rigid, thermal orthotropic, composite damage model, thermal orthotropic with 12 curves, piecewise linear isotropic plasticity, inviscid two invariant geologic cap, orthotropic crushable model, Moonsy-Rivlin rubber, resultant plasticity, closed form update shell plasticity, and Frazer-Nash rubber model. The hydrodynamic material models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 10 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack Tuesday high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, tabulated, and TENSOR pore collapse. DYNA3D generates three binary output databases. One contains information for complete states at infrequent intervals; 50 to 100 states is typical. The second contains information for a subset of nodes and elements at frequent intervals; 1,000 to 10,000 states is typical. The last contains interface data for contact surfaces.

  12. DYNA3D. Explicit 3-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whirley, R.G.

    1989-05-01

    DYNA3D is an explicit, three-dimensional, finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic response of inelastic solids and structures. DYNA3D contains 30 material models and 10 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, Blatz-Ko rubber, high explosive burn, hydrodynamic without deviatoric stresses, elastoplastic hydrodynamic, temperature-dependent elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic with failure, soil and crushable foam with failure, Johnson/Cook plasticity model, pseudo TENSOR geological model, elastoplastic with fracture, power law isotropic plasticity, strain rate dependent plasticity, rigid, thermal orthotropic, composite damage model, thermal orthotropic with 12 curves, piecewise linear isotropic plasticity, inviscid two invariant geologic cap, orthotropic crushable model, Moonsy-Rivlin rubber, resultant plasticity, closed form update shell plasticity, and Frazer-Nash rubber model. The hydrodynamic material models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 10 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack Tuesday high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, tabulated, and TENSOR pore collapse. DYNA3D generates three binary output databases. One contains information for complete states at infrequent intervals; 50 to 100 states is typical. The second contains information for a subset of nodes and elements at frequent intervals; 1,000 to 10,000 states is typical. The last contains interface data for contact surfaces.

  13. SciTech Connect: "3d printing"

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    3d printing" Find + Advanced Search Term Search Semantic Search Advanced Search All Fields: "3d printing" Semantic Semantic Term Title: Full Text: Bibliographic Data: Creator ...

  14. 3D RoboMET Characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madison, Jonathan D.; Susan, Donald F.; Kilgo, Alice C.

    2015-10-01

    The goal of this project is to generate 3D microstructural data by destructive and non-destructive means and provide accompanying characterization and quantitative analysis of such data. This work is a continuing part of a larger effort to relate material performance variability to microstructural variability. That larger effort is called “Predicting Performance Margins” or PPM. In conjunction with that overarching initiative, the RoboMET.3D™ is a specific asset of Center 1800 and is an automated serialsectioning system for destructive analysis of microstructure, which is called upon to provide direct customer support to 1800 and non-1800 customers. To that end, data collection, 3d reconstruction and analysis of typical and atypical microstructures have been pursued for the purposes of qualitative and quantitative characterization with a goal toward linking microstructural defects and/or microstructural features with mechanical response. Material systems examined in FY15 include precipitation hardened 17-4 steel, laser-welds of 304L stainless steel, thermal spray coatings of 304L and geological samples of sandstone.

  15. SU-E-T-157: Evaluation and Comparison of Doses to Pelvic Lymph Nodes and to Point B with 3D Image Guided Treatment Planning for High Dose Brachytherapy for Treatment of Cervical Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhandare, N.

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To estimate and compare the doses received by the obturator, external and internal iliac lymph nodes and point Methods: CT-MR fused image sets of 15 patients obtained for each of 5 fractions of HDR brachytherapy using tandem and ring applicator, were used to generate treatment plans optimized to deliver a prescription dose to HRCTV-D90 and to minimize the doses to organs at risk (OARs). For each set of image, target volume (GTV, HRCTV) OARs (Bladder, Rectum, Sigmoid), and both left and right pelvic lymph nodes (obturator, external and internal iliac lymph nodes) were delineated. Dose-volume histograms (DVH) were generated for pelvic nodal groups (left and right obturator group, internal and external iliac chains) Per fraction DVH parameters used for dose comparison included dose to 100% volume (D100), and dose received by 2cc (D2cc), 1cc (D1cc) and 0.1 cc (D0.1cc) of nodal volume. Dose to point B was compared with each DVH parameter using 2 sided t-test. Pearson correlation were determined to examine relationship of point B dose with nodal DVH parameters. Results: FIGO clinical stage varied from 1B1 to IIIB. The median pretreatment tumor diameter measured on MRI was 4.5 cm (2.7 6.4cm).The median dose to bilateral point B was 1.20 Gy 0.12 or 20% of the prescription dose. The correlation coefficients were all <0.60 for all nodal DVH parameters indicating low degree of correlation. Only 2 cc of obturator nodes was not significantly different from point B dose on t-test. Conclusion: Dose to point B does not adequately represent the dose to any specific pelvic nodal group. When using image guided 3D dose-volume optimized treatment nodal groups should be individually identified and delineated to obtain the doses received by pelvic nodes.

  16. DOE Science Showcase - 3D Printing | OSTI, US Dept of Energy, Office of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Scientific and Technical Information 3D Printing The Critical Materials Institute speeds metals research with 3D printer. Image Credit: Ames Laboratory (Ames Lab). 3D printing is an additive manufacturing process that creates 3D objects directly from a computer model, depositing material layer by layer only where required. This technique, while still evolving, is projected to profoundly impact manufacturing. 3D printing can give industry new design flexibility, reduce energy use, and shorten

  17. 3D reconstruction of tensors and vectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Defrise, Michel; Gullberg, Grant T.

    2005-02-17

    Here we have developed formulations for the reconstruction of 3D tensor fields from planar (Radon) and line-integral (X-ray) projections of 3D vector and tensor fields. Much of the motivation for this work is the potential application of MRI to perform diffusion tensor tomography. The goal is to develop a theory for the reconstruction of both Radon planar and X-ray or line-integral projections because of the flexibility of MRI to obtain both of these type of projections in 3D. The development presented here for the linear tensor tomography problem provides insight into the structure of the nonlinear MRI diffusion tensor inverse problem. A particular application of tensor imaging in MRI is the potential application of cardiac diffusion tensor tomography for determining in vivo cardiac fiber structure. One difficulty in the cardiac application is the motion of the heart. This presents a need for developing future theory for tensor tomography in a motion field. This means developing a better understanding of the MRI signal for diffusion processes in a deforming media. The techniques developed may allow the application of MRI tensor tomography for the study of structure of fiber tracts in the brain, atherosclerotic plaque, and spine in addition to fiber structure in the heart. However, the relations presented are also applicable to other fields in medical imaging such as diffraction tomography using ultrasound. The mathematics presented can also be extended to exponential Radon transform of tensor fields and to other geometric acquisitions such as cone beam tomography of tensor fields.

  18. 3D Diagnostic Of Complex Plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, Edward; Samsonov, Dmitry

    2011-11-29

    This paper reports the development of a three-dimensional(3D) dust particle position diagnostic for complex plasmas. A beam produce by Light Emitting Diodes(LEDs) is formed into horizontal sheet, for the illumination of the particles. The light sheet has a vertical colour gradient across its width, from two opposing colours. The light scattered from the particles is imaged with the camera from above. The horizontal coordinates are measured from the positions on the image. The third coordinate is determined from the colour which represents a position on the gradient of the light sheet. The use of LEDs as a light source reduces a variation in Mie scattered intensity from the particles due to the particle size distribution. The variation would induce a large vertical positional error.

  19. 3D Structures of Biomolecules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    crystals. Overcoming the crystallization difficulty requires the development of the new methodologies. One approach is to use NMR to image protein molecules in solvent....

  20. Metasurface skin invisibility cloak makes 3D objects disappear

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Metasurface skin invisibility cloak makes 3D objects disappear Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window) Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window) Click to share on Pinterest (Opens in new window) Invisibility skin cloaks on the microscopic scale might prove valuable for hiding the detailed layout of microelectronic components or for security encryption purposes. This image is a A 3-D illustration of a metasurface skin cloak made from

  1. Holographic Imaging of Evolving Laser-Plasma Structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Downer, Michael; Shvets, G.

    2014-07-31

    In the 1870s, English photographer Eadweard Muybridge captured motion pictures within one cycle of a horses gallop, which settled a hotly debated question of his time by showing that the horse became temporarily airborne. In the 1940s, Manhattan project photographer Berlin Brixner captured a nuclear blast at a million frames per second, and resolved a dispute about the explosions shape and speed. In this project, we developed methods to capture detailed motion pictures of evolving, light-velocity objects created by a laser pulse propagating through matter. These objects include electron density waves used to accelerate charged particles, laser-induced refractive index changes used for micromachining, and ionization tracks used for atmospheric chemical analysis, guide star creation and ranging. Our movies, like Muybridges and Brixners, are obtained in one shot, since the laser-created objects of interest are insufficiently repeatable for accurate stroboscopic imaging. Our high-speed photographs have begun to resolve controversies about how laser-created objects form and evolve, questions that previously could be addressed only by intensive computer simulations based on estimated initial conditions. Resolving such questions helps develop better tabletop particle accelerators, atmospheric ranging devices and many other applications of laser-matter interactions. Our photographic methods all begin by splitting one or more probe pulses from the laser pulse that creates the light-speed object. A probe illuminates the object and obtains information about its structure without altering it. We developed three single-shot visualization methods that differ in how the probes interact with the object of interest or are recorded. (1) Frequency-Domain Holography (FDH). In FDH, there are 2 probes, like object and reference beams in conventional holography. Our object probe surrounds the light-speed object, like a fleas swarming around a sprinting animal. The object modifies the probe, imprinting information about its structure. Meanwhile, our reference probe co-propagates ahead of the object, free of its influence. After the interaction, object and reference combine to record a hologram. For technical reasons, our recording device is a spectrometer (a frequency-measuring device), hence the name frequency-domain holography. We read the hologram electronically to obtain a snapshot of the objects average structure as it transits the medium. Our published work shows numerous snapshots of electron density waves (laser wakes) in ionized gas (plasma), analogous to a water wake behind a boat. Such waves are the basis of tabletop particle accelerators, in which charged particles surf on the light-speed wave, gaining energy. Comparing our snapshots to computer simulations deepens understanding of laser wakes. FDH takes snapshots of objects that are quasi-static --- i.e. like Muybridges horse standing still on a treadmill. If the object changes shape, FDH images blur, as when a subject moves while a camera shutter is open. Many laser-generated objects of interest do evolve as they propagate. To overcome this limit of FDH, we developed .... (2) Frequency-Domain Tomography (FDT). In FDT, 5 to 10 probe pulses are fired simultaneously across the objects path at different angles, like a crossfire of bullets. The object imprints a streaked record of its evolution on each probe, which we record as in FDH, then recover a multi-frame movie of the objects evolving structure using algorithms of computerized tomography. When propagation distance exceeds a few millimeters, reconstructed FDT images distort. This is because the lenses that image probes to detector have limited depth of field, like cameras that cannot focus simultaneously on both nearby and distant objects. But some laser-generated objects of interest propagate over meters. For these applications we developed (3) Multi-Object-Plane Phase-Contrast Imaging (MOP-PCI). In MOP-PCI, we image FDT-like probes to the detector from multiple object planes --- like recording an event simultaneously with several cameras, some focused on nearby, others on distant, objects. To increase sensitivity, we exploit a phase-contrast imaging technique developed by Dutch Nobel laureate Fritz Zernike in the 1930s. Using MOP-PCI we recorded single-shot movies of laser pulse tracks through more than 10 cm of air. We plan to record images of meter-long tracks of electron bunches propagating through plasma in an experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). This will help SLAC scientists understand, optimize and scale small plasma-based particle accelerators that have applications in medicine, industry, materials science and high-energy physics.

  2. 3-D Metals | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Metals Jump to: navigation, search Name 3-D Metals Facility 3-D Metals Sector Wind energy Facility Type Small Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Location Valley City OH...

  3. 3D Elastic Seismic Wave Propagation Code

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1998-09-23

    E3D is capable of simulating seismic wave propagation in a 3D heterogeneous earth. Seismic waves are initiated by earthquake, explosive, and/or other sources. These waves propagate through a 3D geologic model, and are simulated as synthetic seismograms or other graphical output.

  4. Picture of the Week: An explosion of 3D printing technology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    An explosion of 3D printing technology Scientists in Los Alamos National Laboratory's Chemistry and Explosive Science and Shock Physics divisions are exploring new methods for 3D printing that allow for the function of materials to be controlled by their internal structure. May 24, 2015 An explosion of 3D printing technology x View image on Flickr » Additive Manufacturing, known also as 3D printing, allows for the rapid production of parts with complex shapes that would be impossible to

  5. Metrology of 3D nanostructures.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barsic, Anthony; Piestun, Rafael; Boye, Robert R.

    2012-10-01

    We propose a superresolution technique to resolve dense clusters of blinking emitters. The method relies on two basic assumptions: the emitters are statistically independent, and a model of the imaging system is known. We numerically analyze the performance limits of the method as a function of the emitter density and the noise level. Numerical simulations show that five closely packed emitters can be resolved and localized to a precision of 17nm. The experimental resolution of five quantum dots located within a diffraction limited spot confirms the applicability of this approach.

  6. RT3D tutorials for GMS users

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clement, T.P.; Jones, N.L.

    1998-02-01

    RT3D (Reactive Transport in 3-Dimensions) is a computer code that solves coupled partial differential equations that describe reactive-flow and transport of multiple mobile and/or immobile species in a three dimensional saturated porous media. RT3D was developed from the single-species transport code, MT3D (DoD-1.5, 1997 version). As with MT3D, RT3D also uses the USGS groundwater flow model MODFLOW for computing spatial and temporal variations in groundwater head distribution. This report presents a set of tutorial problems that are designed to illustrate how RT3D simulations can be performed within the Department of Defense Groundwater Modeling System (GMS). GMS serves as a pre- and post-processing interface for RT3D. GMS can be used to define all the input files needed by RT3D code, and later the code can be launched from within GMS and run as a separate application. Once the RT3D simulation is completed, the solution can be imported to GMS for graphical post-processing. RT3D v1.0 supports several reaction packages that can be used for simulating different types of reactive contaminants. Each of the tutorials, described below, provides training on a different RT3D reaction package. Each reaction package has different input requirements, and the tutorials are designed to describe these differences. Furthermore, the tutorials illustrate the various options available in GMS for graphical post-processing of RT3D results. Users are strongly encouraged to complete the tutorials before attempting to use RT3D and GMS on a routine basis.

  7. A prototype fan-beam optical CT scanner for 3D dosimetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, Warren G.; Rudko, D. A.; Braam, Nicolas A.; Jirasek, Andrew [University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia V8P 5C2 (Canada); Wells, Derek M. [British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver Island Centre, Victoria, British Columbia V8R 6V5 (Canada)

    2013-06-15

    Purpose: The objective of this work is to introduce a prototype fan-beam optical computed tomography scanner for three-dimensional (3D) radiation dosimetry. Methods: Two techniques of fan-beam creation were evaluated: a helium-neon laser (HeNe, {lambda} = 543 nm) with line-generating lens, and a laser diode module (LDM, {lambda} = 635 nm) with line-creating head module. Two physical collimator designs were assessed: a single-slot collimator and a multihole collimator. Optimal collimator depth was determined by observing the signal of a single photodiode with varying collimator depths. A method of extending the dynamic range of the system is presented. Two sample types were used for evaluations: nondosimetric absorbent solutions and irradiated polymer gel dosimeters, each housed in 1 liter cylindrical plastic flasks. Imaging protocol investigations were performed to address ring artefacts and image noise. Two image artefact removal techniques were performed in sinogram space. Collimator efficacy was evaluated by imaging highly opaque samples of scatter-based and absorption-based solutions. A noise-based flask registration technique was developed. Two protocols for gel manufacture were examined. Results: The LDM proved advantageous over the HeNe laser due to its reduced noise. Also, the LDM uses a wavelength more suitable for the PRESAGE{sup TM} dosimeter. Collimator depth of 1.5 cm was found to be an optimal balance between scatter rejection, signal strength, and manufacture ease. The multihole collimator is capable of maintaining accurate scatter-rejection to high levels of opacity with scatter-based solutions (T < 0.015%). Imaging protocol investigations support the need for preirradiation and postirradiation scanning to reduce reflection-based ring artefacts and to accommodate flask imperfections and gel inhomogeneities. Artefact removal techniques in sinogram space eliminate streaking artefacts and reduce ring artefacts of up to {approx}40% in magnitude. The flask registration technique was shown to achieve submillimetre and subdegree placement accuracy. Dosimetry protocol investigations emphasize the need to allow gel dosimeters to cool gradually and to be scanned while at room temperature. Preliminary tests show that considerable noise reduction can be achieved with sinogram filtering and by binning image pixels into more clinically relevant grid sizes. Conclusions: This paper describes a new optical CT scanner for 3D radiation dosimetry. Tests demonstrate that it is capable of imaging both absorption-based and scatter-based samples of high opacities. Imaging protocol and gel dosimeter manufacture techniques have been adapted to produce optimal reconstruction results. These optimal results will require suitable filtering and binning techniques for noise reduction purposes.

  8. TAURUS. 3-d Finite Element Code Postprocessor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whirley, R.G.

    1991-05-01

    TAURUS reads the binary plot files generated by the LLNL three-dimensional finite element analysis codes, NIKE3D (ESTSC 139), DYNA3D (ESTSC 138), TACO3D (ESTSC 287), TOPAZ3D (ESTSC 231), and GEMINI (ESTSC 455) and plots contours, time histories,and deformed shapes. Contours of a large number of quantities may be plotted on meshes consisting of plate, shell, and solid type elements. TAURUS can compute a variety of strain measures, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. TAURUS has three phases: initialization, geometry display with contouring, and time history processing.

  9. TAURUS. 3-d Finite Element Code Postprocessor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whirley, R.G.

    1992-03-03

    TAURUS reads the binary plot files generated by the LLNL three-dimensional finite element analysis codes, NIKE3D (ESTSC 139), DYNA3D (ESTSC 138), TACO3D (ESTSC 287), TOPAZ3D (ESTSC 231), and GEMINI (ESTSC 455) and plots contours, time histories,and deformed shapes. Contours of a large number of quantities may be plotted on meshes consisting of plate, shell, and solid type elements. TAURUS can compute a variety of strain measures, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. TAURUS has three phases: initialization, geometry display with contouring, and time history processing.

  10. TAURUS. 3-D Finite Element Code Postprocessor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whirley, R.G.

    1984-05-01

    TAURUS reads the binary plot files generated by the LLNL three-dimensional finite element analysis codes, NIKE3D, DYNA3D, TACO3D, TOPAZ3D, and GEMINI and plots contours, time histories,and deformed shapes. Contours of a large number of quantities may be plotted on meshes consisting of plate, shell, and solid type elements. TAURUS can compute a variety of strain measures, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. TAURUS has three phases: initialization, geometry display with contouring, and time history processing.

  11. TAURUS. 3-D Finite Element Code Postprocessor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whirley, R.G.

    1993-11-30

    TAURUS reads the binary plot files generated by the LLNL three-dimensional finite element analysis codes, NIKE3D, DYNA3D, TACO3D, TOPAZ3D, and GEMINI and plots contours, time histories,and deformed shapes. Contours of a large number of quantities may be plotted on meshes consisting of plate, shell, and solid type elements. TAURUS can compute a variety of strain measures, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. TAURUS has three phases: initialization, geometry display with contouring, and time history processing.

  12. TAURUS. 3-D Finite Element Code Postprocessor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whirley, R.G.

    1992-03-03

    TAURUS reads the binary plot files generated by the LLNL three-dimensional finite element analysis codes, NIKE3D, DYNA3D, TACO3D, TOPAZ3D, and GEMINI and plots contours, time histories,and deformed shapes. Contours of a large number of quantities may be plotted on meshes consisting of plate, shell, and solid type elements. TAURUS can compute a variety of strain measures, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. TAURUS has three phases: initialization, geometry display with contouring, and time history processing.

  13. TAURUS. 3-D Finite Element Code Postprocessor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennedy, T.

    1992-03-03

    TAURUS reads the binary plot files generated by the LLNL three-dimensional finite element analysis codes, NIKE3D, DYNA3D, TACO3D, TOPAZ3D, and GEMINI and plots contours, time histories, and deformed shapes. Contours of a large number of quantities may be plotted on meshes consisting of plate, shell, and solid type elements. TAURUS can compute a variety of strain measures, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. TAURUS has three phases: initialization, geometry display with contouring, and time history processing.

  14. 3D Site Response using NLSSI

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    3D Site Response using NLSSI Justin Coleman, P.E. Bob Spears Nuclear Science and Technology Idaho National Laboratory October 22, 2014

  15. Full aperture backscatter station imager diagnostics system for far-field imaging of laser plasma instabilities on Nova

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilke, M.D.; Fernandez, J.C.; Berggren, R.R.; Horton, R.F.; Montgomery, D.S.; Faulkner, J.A.; Looney, L.D.; Jimerson, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    In ICF, the understanding of laser plasma scattering processes is essential for laser target coupling and for controlling the symmetry of indirect drive implosions. The existing Nova full aperture backscatter station has been useful in understanding laser plasma instabilities occurring in hohlraums by measuring the quantity, spectral distribution, and near-field spatial distributions of Brillouin and more recently Raman backscatter. Equally important is an understanding of the far-field spatial intensity distribution which could help in understanding filamentation, threshold and saturation processes. This article describes a broadband, color-corrected far-field imager and associated diagnostics capable of imaging the source of scattered light to better than 25 {mu}m resolution. Brillouin and Raman backscatter can be imaged through the Nova beam-7 focusing lens or the imager can be used like a microscope to image side scatter from other beams. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  16. 'Erratic' Lasers Pave Way for Tabletop Accelerators

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lasers Pave Way for Tabletop Accelerators 'Erratic' Lasers Pave Way for Tabletop Accelerators Simulations at NERSC help researchers simplify design of mini particle accelerators June 9, 2014 Kate Green, KGreene@lbl.gov, 510-486-4404 laserplasmaaccelerator 3D map of the longitudinal wakefield generated by the incoherent combination of 208 low-energy laser beamlets. In the region behind the driver, the wakefield is regular. Image: Carlo Benedetti, Berkeley Lab Making a tabletop particle

  17. 3-D seismology in the Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Husseini, M.; Chimblo, R.

    1995-08-01

    Since 1977 when Aramco and GSI (Geophysical Services International) pioneered the first 3-D seismic survey in the Arabian Gulf, under the guidance of Aramco`s Chief Geophysicist John Hoke, 3-D seismology has been effectively used to map many complex subsurface geological phenomena. By the mid-1990s extensive 3-D surveys were acquired in Abu Dhabi, Oman, Qatar and Saudi Arabia. Also in the mid-1990`s Bahrain, Kuwait and Dubai were preparing to record surveys over their fields. On the structural side 3-D has refined seismic maps, focused faults and fractures systems, as well as outlined the distribution of facies, porosity and fluid saturation. In field development, 3D has not only reduced drilling costs significantly, but has also improved the understanding of fluid behavior in the reservoir. In Oman, Petroleum Development Oman (PDO) has now acquired the first Gulf 4-D seismic survey (time-lapse 3D survey) over the Yibal Field. The 4-D survey will allow PDO to directly monitor water encroachment in the highly-faulted Cretaceous Shu`aiba reservoir. In exploration, 3-D seismology has resolved complex prospects with structural and stratigraphic complications and reduced the risk in the selection of drilling locations. The many case studies from Saudi Arabia, Oman, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates, which are reviewed in this paper, attest to the effectiveness of 3D seismology in exploration and producing, in clastics and carbonates reservoirs, and in the Mesozoic and Paleozoic.

  18. A 3D Geostatistical Mapping Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1999-02-09

    This software provides accurate 3D reservoir modeling tools and high quality 3D graphics for PC platforms enabling engineers and geologists to better comprehend reservoirs and consequently improve their decisions. The mapping algorithms are fractals, kriging, sequential guassian simulation, and three nearest neighbor methods.

  19. Static & Dynamic Response of 3D Solids

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1996-07-15

    NIKE3D is a large deformations 3D finite element code used to obtain the resulting displacements and stresses from multi-body static and dynamic structural thermo-mechanics problems with sliding interfaces. Many nonlinear and temperature dependent constitutive models are available.

  20. SU-E-T-455: Characterization of 3D Printed Materials for Proton Beam Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zou, W; Siderits, R; McKenna, M; Khan, A; Yue, N [Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); McDonough, J; Yin, L; Teo, B [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Fisher, T [Memorial Medical Center, Modesto, CA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The widespread availability of low cost 3D printing technologies provides an alternative fabrication method for customized proton range modifying accessories such as compensators and boluses. However the material properties of the printed object are dependent on the printing technology used. In order to facilitate the application of 3D printing in proton therapy, this study investigated the stopping power of several printed materials using both proton pencil beam measurements and Monte Carlo simulations. Methods: Five 34 cm cubes fabricated using three 3D printing technologies (selective laser sintering, fused-deposition modeling and stereolithography) from five printers were investigated. The cubes were scanned on a CT scanner and the depth dose curves for a mono-energetic pencil beam passing through the material were measured using a large parallel plate ion chamber in a water tank. Each cube was measured from two directions (perpendicular and parallel to printing plane) to evaluate the effects of the anisotropic material layout. The results were compared with GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulation using the manufacturer specified material density and chemical composition data. Results: Compared with water, the differences from the range pull back by the printed blocks varied and corresponded well with the material CT Hounsfield unit. The measurement results were in agreement with Monte Carlo simulation. However, depending on the technology, inhomogeneity existed in the printed cubes evidenced from CT images. The effect of such inhomogeneity on the proton beam is to be investigated. Conclusion: Printed blocks by three different 3D printing technologies were characterized for proton beam with measurements and Monte Carlo simulation. The effects of the printing technologies in proton range and stopping power were studied. The derived results can be applied when specific devices are used in proton radiotherapy.

  1. Fabrication of 3D Silicon Sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kok, A.; Hansen, T.E.; Hansen, T.A.; Lietaer, N.; Summanwar, A.; Kenney, C.; Hasi, J.; Da Via, C.; Parker, S.I.; /Hawaii U.

    2012-06-06

    Silicon sensors with a three-dimensional (3-D) architecture, in which the n and p electrodes penetrate through the entire substrate, have many advantages over planar silicon sensors including radiation hardness, fast time response, active edge and dual readout capabilities. The fabrication of 3D sensors is however rather complex. In recent years, there have been worldwide activities on 3D fabrication. SINTEF in collaboration with Stanford Nanofabrication Facility have successfully fabricated the original (single sided double column type) 3D detectors in two prototype runs and the third run is now on-going. This paper reports the status of this fabrication work and the resulted yield. The work of other groups such as the development of double sided 3D detectors is also briefly reported.

  2. Extra Dimensions: 3D and Time in PDF Documentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graf, N.A.; /SLAC

    2012-04-11

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide, non-technical audience. We discuss how the field of radiation imaging could benefit from incorporating full 3D information about not only the detectors, but also the results of the experimental analyses, in its electronic publications. In this article, we present examples drawn from high-energy physics, mathematics and molecular biology which take advantage of this functionality. We demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input.

  3. High-throughput imaging of heterogeneous cell organelles with an X-ray laser

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Hantke, Max, F.

    2014-11-17

    Preprocessed detector images that were used for the paper "High-throughput imaging of heterogeneous cell organelles with an X-ray laser". The CXI file contains the entire recorded data - including both hits and blanks. It also includes down-sampled images and LCLS machine parameters. Additionally, the Cheetah configuration file is attached that was used to create the pre-processed data.

  4. How We 3D-Print Aerogel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-04-23

    A new type of graphene aerogel will make for better energy storage, sensors, nanoelectronics, catalysis and separations. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory researchers have made graphene aerogel microlattices with an engineered architecture via a 3D printing technique known as direct ink writing. The research appears in the April 22 edition of the journal, Nature Communications. The 3D printed graphene aerogels have high surface area, excellent electrical conductivity, are lightweight, have mechanical stiffness and exhibit supercompressibility (up to 90 percent compressive strain). In addition, the 3D printed graphene aerogel microlattices show an order of magnitude improvement over bulk graphene materials and much better mass transport.

  5. Explicit 3-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2000-11-07

    DYNA3D is a nonlinear explicit finite element code for analyzing 3-D structures and solid continuum. The code is vectorized and available on several computer platforms. The element library includes continuum, shell, beam, truss and spring/damper elements to allow maximum flexibility in modeling physical problems. Many materials are available to represent a wide range of material behavior, including elasticity, plasticity, composites, thermal effects and rate dependence. In addition, DYNA3D has a sophisticated contact interface capability, includingmore » frictional sliding, single surface contact and automatic contact generation.« less

  6. Explicit 3-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2000-11-07

    DYNA3D is a nonlinear explicit finite element code for analyzing 3-D structures and solid continuum. The code is vectorized and available on several computer platforms. The element library includes continuum, shell, beam, truss and spring/damper elements to allow maximum flexibility in modeling physical problems. Many materials are available to represent a wide range of material behavior, including elasticity, plasticity, composites, thermal effects and rate dependence. In addition, DYNA3D has a sophisticated contact interface capability, including frictional sliding, single surface contact and automatic contact generation.

  7. Climate Change Capacity Development (C3D+) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Capacity Development (C3D+) Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Climate Change Capacity Development (C3D+) Name Climate Change Capacity Development (C3D+) AgencyCompany...

  8. A Versatile High-Resolution X-Ray Imager (HRXI) for Laser-Plasma...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: A Versatile High-Resolution X-Ray Imager (HRXI) for Laser-Plasma Experiments on OMEGA Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Versatile High-Resolution X-Ray ...

  9. Evaluation of Laser Stabilization and Imaging Systems for LCLS-II - Oral Presentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barry, Matthew

    2015-08-19

    This presentation covers data collected on two commercial laser stabilization systems, Guidestar-II and MRC, and two optical imaging systems. Additionally, general information about LCLS-II and how to go about continuing-testing is covered.

  10. A versatile high-resolution x-ray imager (HRXI) for laser-plasma...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    x-ray imager (HRXI) devoted to laser-plasma experiments combines two state-of-the-art technologies developed in France: a high-resolution x-ray microscope and a high-speed...

  11. 3D TORUS V1.0

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    002440MLTPL00 3D Torus Routing Engine Module for OFA OpenSM v. 1.0 http://www.openfabrics.org/git?p=sashak/management.git;a=sum

  12. A high-resolution imaging X-ray crystal spectrometer for intense laser

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    plasma interaction experiments (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: A high-resolution imaging X-ray crystal spectrometer for intense laser plasma interaction experiments Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A high-resolution imaging X-ray crystal spectrometer for intense laser plasma interaction experiments Authors: Chen, H ; Bitter, M ; Hazi, A ; Hill, K ; Kerr, S ; Magee, E ; Nagel, S ; Park, J ; Schneider, M ; Stone, G ; Williams, G ; Beiersdorfer, P Publication Date:

  13. DYNA3D example problem manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lovejoy, S.C.; Whirley, R.G.

    1990-10-10

    This manual describes in detail the solution of ten example problems using the explicit nonlinear finite element code DYNA3D. The sample problems include solid, shell, and beam element types, and a variety of linear and nonlinear material models. For each example, there is first an engineering description of the physical problem to be studied. Next, the analytical techniques incorporated in the model are discussed and key features of DYNA3D are highlighted. INGRID commands used to generate the mesh are listed, and sample plots from the DYNA3D analysis are given. Finally, there is a description of the TAURUS post-processing commands used to generate the plots of the solution. This set of example problems is useful in verifying the installation of DYNA3D on a new computer system. In addition, these documented analyses illustrate the application of DYNA3D to a variety of engineering problems, and thus this manual should be helpful to new analysts getting started with DYNA3D. 7 refs., 56 figs., 9 tabs.

  14. Measurements of 3D slip velocities and plasma column lengths of a gliding arc discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Jiajian; Gao, Jinlong; Ehn, Andreas; Aldn, Marcus; Li, Zhongshan E-mail: alpers@ma.tum.de; Moseev, Dmitry; Kusano, Yukihiro; Salewski, Mirko; Alpers, Andreas E-mail: alpers@ma.tum.de; Gritzmann, Peter; Schwenk, Martin

    2015-01-26

    A non-thermal gliding arc discharge was generated at atmospheric pressure in an air flow. The dynamics of the plasma column and tracer particles were recorded using two synchronized high-speed cameras. Whereas the data analysis for such systems has previously been performed in 2D (analyzing the single camera image), we provide here a 3D data analysis that includes 3D reconstructions of the plasma column and 3D particle tracking velocimetry based on discrete tomography methods. The 3D analysis, in particular, the determination of the 3D slip velocity between the plasma column and the gas flow, gives more realistic insight into the convection cooling process. Additionally, with the determination of the 3D slip velocity and the 3D length of the plasma column, we give more accurate estimates for the drag force, the electric field strength, the power per unit length, and the radius of the conducting zone of the plasma column.

  15. Team develops 3-D sensor array for detection of neural responses

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3-D sensor array for detection of neural responses Team develops 3-D sensor array for detection of neural responses Los Alamos researchers and collaborators have demonstrated a prototype neural interface device of a novel 3-D device architecture. December 2, 2014 Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) images of the 60-electrode device with three-dimensional pillar electrodes (Inset A & B) connected by platinum metal traces terminating at bond pads on the outside edge of the device (Inset C).

  16. RAG-3D: A search tool for RNA 3D substructures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zahran, Mai; Sevim Bayrak, Cigdem; Elmetwaly, Shereef; Schlick, Tamar

    2015-08-24

    In this study, to address many challenges in RNA structure/function prediction, the characterization of RNA's modular architectural units is required. Using the RNA-As-Graphs (RAG) database, we have previously explored the existence of secondary structure (2D) submotifs within larger RNA structures. Here we present RAG-3D—a dataset of RNA tertiary (3D) structures and substructures plus a web-based search tool—designed to exploit graph representations of RNAs for the goal of searching for similar 3D structural fragments. The objects in RAG-3D consist of 3D structures translated into 3D graphs, cataloged based on the connectivity between their secondary structure elements. Each graph is additionally describedmore » in terms of its subgraph building blocks. The RAG-3D search tool then compares a query RNA 3D structure to those in the database to obtain structurally similar structures and substructures. This comparison reveals conserved 3D RNA features and thus may suggest functional connections. Though RNA search programs based on similarity in sequence, 2D, and/or 3D structural elements are available, our graph-based search tool may be advantageous for illuminating similarities that are not obvious; using motifs rather than sequence space also reduces search times considerably. Ultimately, such substructuring could be useful for RNA 3D structure prediction, structure/function inference and inverse folding.« less

  17. RAG-3D: A search tool for RNA 3D substructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zahran, Mai; Sevim Bayrak, Cigdem; Elmetwaly, Shereef; Schlick, Tamar

    2015-08-24

    In this study, to address many challenges in RNA structure/function prediction, the characterization of RNA's modular architectural units is required. Using the RNA-As-Graphs (RAG) database, we have previously explored the existence of secondary structure (2D) submotifs within larger RNA structures. Here we present RAG-3D—a dataset of RNA tertiary (3D) structures and substructures plus a web-based search tool—designed to exploit graph representations of RNAs for the goal of searching for similar 3D structural fragments. The objects in RAG-3D consist of 3D structures translated into 3D graphs, cataloged based on the connectivity between their secondary structure elements. Each graph is additionally described in terms of its subgraph building blocks. The RAG-3D search tool then compares a query RNA 3D structure to those in the database to obtain structurally similar structures and substructures. This comparison reveals conserved 3D RNA features and thus may suggest functional connections. Though RNA search programs based on similarity in sequence, 2D, and/or 3D structural elements are available, our graph-based search tool may be advantageous for illuminating similarities that are not obvious; using motifs rather than sequence space also reduces search times considerably. Ultimately, such substructuring could be useful for RNA 3D structure prediction, structure/function inference and inverse folding.

  18. Shim3d Helmholtz Solution Package

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2009-01-29

    This suite of codes solves the Helmholtz Equation for the steady-state propagation of single-frequency electromagnetic radiation in an arbitrary 2D or 3D dielectric medium. Materials can be either transparent or absorptive (including metals) and are described entirely by their shape and complex dielectric constant. Dielectric boundaries are assumed to always fall on grid boundaries and the material within a single grid cell is considered to be uniform. Input to the problem is in the formmore » of a Dirichlet boundary condition on a single boundary, and may be either analytic (Gaussian) in shape, or a mode shape computed using a separate code (such as the included eigenmode solver vwave20), and written to a file. Solution is via the finite difference method using Jacobi iteration for 3D problems or direct matrix inversion for 2D problems. Note that 3D problems that include metals will require different iteration parameters than described in the above reference. For structures with curved boundaries not easily modeled on a rectangular grid, the auxillary codes helmholtz11(2D), helm3d (semivectoral), and helmv3d (full vectoral) are provided. For these codes the finite difference equations are specified on a topological regular triangular grid and solved using Jacobi iteration or direct matrix inversion as before. An automatic grid generator is supplied.« less

  19. DYNA3D Code Practices and Developments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, L.; Zywicz, E.; Raboin, P.

    2000-04-21

    DYNA3D is an explicit, finite element code developed to solve high rate dynamic simulations for problems of interest to the engineering mechanics community. The DYNA3D code has been under continuous development since 1976[1] by the Methods Development Group in the Mechanical Engineering Department of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The pace of code development activities has substantially increased in the past five years, growing from one to between four and six code developers. This has necessitated the use of software tools such as CVS (Concurrent Versions System) to help manage multiple version updates. While on-line documentation with an Adobe PDF manual helps to communicate software developments, periodically a summary document describing recent changes and improvements in DYNA3D software is needed. The first part of this report describes issues surrounding software versions and source control. The remainder of this report details the major capability improvements since the last publicly released version of DYNA3D in 1996. Not included here are the many hundreds of bug corrections and minor enhancements, nor the development in DYNA3D between the manual release in 1993[2] and the public code release in 1996.

  20. Some remarks on shell element analysis with DYNA3D and NIKE3D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whirley, R.G.; Engelmann, B.E.; Maker, B.N.; Spelce, T.E.

    1992-03-24

    There has been some confusion in the user community recently regarding the various shell element formulations now available in DYNA3D (Whirley and Hadlquist, 1991) and NIKE3D (Maker, Ferencz, and Hallquist, 1991). In particular, questions have been raised about the behavior of these elements under large strain, and the display of meaningful results from such problems using TAURUS (Spelce and Hallquist, 1991). This brief report is intended to aid the DYNA/NIKE user community by elaborating on the formulation of the DYNA3D/NIKE3D shell elements and on the display of shell data using TAURUS. In the following discussion no attempt is made to give a complete description of the theoretical development or implementation of any of the elements. Readers interested in a more complete discussion of the shell elements in DYNA3D and NIKE3D are directed to the published papers cited in the code User Manuals.

  1. Ames Lab 101: 3D Metals Printer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ott, Ryan

    2014-02-13

    To meet one of the biggest energy challenges of the 21st century - finding alternatives to rare-earth elements and other critical materials - scientists will need new and advanced tools. The Critical Materials Institute at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory has a new one: a 3D printer for metals research. 3D printing technology, which has captured the imagination of both industry and consumers, enables ideas to move quickly from the initial design phase to final form using materials including polymers, ceramics, paper and even food. But the Critical Materials Institute (CMI) will apply the advantages of the 3D printing process in a unique way: for materials discovery.

  2. 3-D Finite Element Heat Transfer

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-02-01

    TOPAZ3D is a three-dimensional implicit finite element computer code for heat transfer analysis. TOPAZ3D can be used to solve for the steady-state or transient temperature field on three-dimensional geometries. Material properties may be temperature-dependent and either isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time-dependent and temperature-dependent boundary conditions can be specified including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation. By implementing the user subroutine feature, users can model chemical reaction kinetics and allow for any type of functionalmore » representation of boundary conditions and internal heat generation. TOPAZ3D can solve problems of diffuse and specular band radiation in an enclosure coupled with conduction in the material surrounding the enclosure. Additional features include thermal contact resistance across an interface, bulk fluids, phase change, and energy balances.« less

  3. INGRID; 3-D Mesh Generation Nonlinear Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stillman, D.W.; Rainsberger, R.

    1985-07-01

    INGRID is a general-purpose, three-dimensional mesh generator developed for use with finite element, nonlinear, structural dynamics codes. INGRID generates the large and complex input data files for DYNA3D, NIKE3D, FACET, and TOPAZ3D. One of the greatest advantages of INGRID is that virtually any shape can be described without resorting to wedge elements, tetrahedrons, triangular elements or highly distorted quadrilateral or hexahedral elements. Other capabilities available are in the areas of geometry and graphics. Exact surface equations and surface intersections considerably improve the ability to deal with accurate models, and a hidden line graphics algorithm is included which is efficient on the most complicated meshes. The primary new capability is associated with the boundary conditions, loads, and material properties required by nonlinear mechanics programs. Commands have been designed for each case to minimize user effort. This is particularly important since special processing is almost always required for each load or boundary condition.

  4. INGRID. 3-D Mesh Generation Nonlinear Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christon, M.A.; Dovey, D.; Stillman, D.W.; Hallquist, J.O.; Rainsberger, R.B.

    1992-09-01

    INGRID is a general-purpose, three-dimensional mesh generator developed for use with finite element, nonlinear, structural dynamics codes. INGRID generates the large and complex input data files for DYNA3D, NIKE3D, FACET, and TOPAZ3D. One of the greatest advantages of INGRID is that virtually any shape can be described without resorting to wedge elements, tetrahedrons, triangular elements or highly distorted quadrilateral or hexahedral elements. Other capabilities available are in the areas of geometry and graphics. Exact surface equations and surface intersections considerably improve the ability to deal with accurate models, and a hidden line graphics algorithm is included which is efficient on the most complicated meshes. The primary new capability is associated with the boundary conditions, loads, and material properties required by nonlinear mechanics programs. Commands have been designed for each case to minimize user effort. This is particularly important since special processing is almost always required for each load or boundary condition.

  5. INGRID. 3-D Mesh Generation Nonlinear Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stillman, D.W.; Rainsberger, R.

    1985-07-01

    INGRID is a general-purpose, three-dimensional mesh generator developed for use with finite element, nonlinear, structural dynamics codes. INGRID generates the large and complex input data files for DYNA3D, NIKE3D, FACET, and TOPAZ3D (ESTSC. One of the greatest advantages of INGRID is that virtually any shape can be described without resorting to wedge elements, tetrahedrons, triangular elements or highly distorted quadrilateral or hexahedral elements. Other capabilities available are in the areas of geometry and graphics. Exact surface equations and surface intersections considerably improve the ability to deal with accurate models, and a hidden line graphics algorithm is included which is efficient on the most complicated meshes. The primary new capability is associated with the boundary conditions, loads, and material properties required by nonlinear mechanics programs. Commands have been designed for each case to minimize user effort. This is particularly important since special processing is almost always required for each load or boundary condition.

  6. INGRID. 3-D Mesh Generation Nonlinear Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stillman, D.W.; Rainsberger, R.

    1985-07-01

    INGRID is a general-purpose, three-dimensional mesh generator developed for use with finite element, nonlinear, structural dynamics codes. INGRID generates the large and complex input data files for DYNA3D, NIKE3D, FACET, and TOPAZ3D. One of the greatest advantages of INGRID is that virtually any shape can be described without resorting to wedge elements, tetrahedrons, triangular elements or highly distorted quadrilateral or hexahedral elements. Other capabilities available are in the areas of geometry and graphics. Exact surface equations and surface intersections considerably improve the ability to deal with accurate models, and a hidden line graphics algorithm is included which is efficient on the most complicated meshes. The primary new capability is associated with the boundary conditions, loads, and material properties required by nonlinear mechanics programs. Commands have been designed for each case to minimize user effort. This is particularly important since special processing is almost always required for each load or boundary condition.

  7. 3-D Mesh Generation Nonlinear Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-04-07

    INGRID is a general-purpose, three-dimensional mesh generator developed for use with finite element, nonlinear, structural dynamics codes. INGRID generates the large and complex input data files for DYNA3D, NIKE3D, FACET, and TOPAZ3D. One of the greatest advantages of INGRID is that virtually any shape can be described without resorting to wedge elements, tetrahedrons, triangular elements or highly distorted quadrilateral or hexahedral elements. Other capabilities available are in the areas of geometry and graphics. Exact surface equations and surface intersections considerably improve the ability to deal with accurate models, and a hidden line graphics algorithm is included which is efficient on the most complicated meshes. The primary new capability is associated with the boundary conditions, loads, and material properties required by nonlinear mechanics programs. Commands have been designed for each case to minimize user effort. This is particularly important since special processing is almost always required for each load or boundary condition.

  8. Ames Lab 101: 3D Metals Printer

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Ott, Ryan

    2014-06-04

    To meet one of the biggest energy challenges of the 21st century - finding alternatives to rare-earth elements and other critical materials - scientists will need new and advanced tools. The Critical Materials Institute at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory has a new one: a 3D printer for metals research. 3D printing technology, which has captured the imagination of both industry and consumers, enables ideas to move quickly from the initial design phase to final form using materials including polymers, ceramics, paper and even food. But the Critical Materials Institute (CMI) will apply the advantages of the 3D printing process in a unique way: for materials discovery.

  9. Single mimivirus particles intercepted and imaged with an X-ray laser (CXIDB ID 1)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Seibert, M. Marvin; Ekeberg, Tomas; Maia, Filipe R.N.C.

    2011-02-02

    These are the files used to reconstruct the images in the paper "Single Mimivirus particles intercepted and imaged with an X-ray laser". Besides the diffracted intensities, the Hawk configuration files used for the reconstructions are also provided. The files from CXIDB ID 1 are the pattern and configuration files for the pattern showed in Figure 2a in the paper.

  10. Single mimivirus particles intercepted and imaged with an X-ray laser (CXIDB ID 2)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Seibert, M. Marvin; Ekeberg, Tomas

    2011-02-02

    These are the files used to reconstruct the images in the paper "Single Mimivirus particles intercepted and imaged with an X-ray laser". Besides the diffracted intensities, the Hawk configuration files used for the reconstructions are also provided. The files from CXIDB ID 2 are the pattern and configuration files for the pattern showed in Figure 2b in the paper.

  11. Single mimivirus particles intercepted and imaged with an X-ray laser (CXIDB ID 1)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Seibert, M. Marvin; Ekeberg, Tomas; Maia, Filipe R.N.C.

    These are the files used to reconstruct the images in the paper "Single Mimivirus particles intercepted and imaged with an X-ray laser". Besides the diffracted intensities, the Hawk configuration files used for the reconstructions are also provided. The files from CXIDB ID 1 are the pattern and configuration files for the pattern showed in Figure 2a in the paper.

  12. 3D target array for pulsed multi-sourced radiography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Le Galloudec, Nathalie Joelle

    2016-02-23

    The various technologies presented herein relate to the generation of x-rays and other charged particles. A plurality of disparate source materials can be combined on an array to facilitate fabrication of co-located mixed tips (point sources) which can be utilized to form a polychromatic cloud, e.g., a plurality of x-rays having a range of energies and or wavelengths, etc. The tips can be formed such that the x-rays are emitted in a direction different to other charged particles to facilitate clean x-ray sourcing. Particles, such as protons, can be directionally emitted to facilitate generation of neutrons at a secondary target. The various particles can be generated by interaction of a laser irradiating the array of tips. The tips can be incorporated into a plurality of 3D conical targets, the conical target sidewall(s) can be utilized to microfocus a portion of a laser beam onto the tip material.

  13. 3D Modeling Engine Representation Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven Prescott; Ramprasad Sampath; Curtis Smith; Timothy Yang

    2014-09-01

    Computers have been used for 3D modeling and simulation, but only recently have computational resources been able to give realistic results in a reasonable time frame for large complex models. This summary report addressed the methods, techniques, and resources used to develop a 3D modeling engine to represent risk analysis simulation for advanced small modular reactor structures and components. The simulations done for this evaluation were focused on external events, specifically tsunami floods, for a hypothetical nuclear power facility on a coastline.

  14. SAND contact in DYNA3D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whirley, R.G.; Engelmann, B.E.

    1992-08-25

    This paper describes some recent developments in adaptive contact algorithms for the transient analysis of penetration and material failure in DYNA3D. A failure criterion is defined for volumes of potentially failing material on each side of a contact surface. As material within an element fails, the element is deleted from the calculation and the contact surface is adaptively redefined to include the newly exposed outer material boundary. This algorithm admits arbitrary combinations of shell and solid elements to allow modeling of composite or honeycomb structures. The algorithms and their efficiency are illustrated with several DYNA3D simulations and results are compared with experimental data.

  15. Theoretical manual for DYNA3D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hallquist, J.O.

    1983-03-01

    This report provides a theoretical manual for DYNA3D, a vectorized explicit three-dimensional finite element code for analyzing the large deformation dynamic response of inelastic solids. A contact-impact algorithm that permits gaps and sliding along material interfaces is described. By a specialization of this algorithm, such interfaces can be rigidly tied to admit variable zoning without the need of transition regions. Spatial discretization is achieved by the use of 8-node solid elements, and the equations-of-motion are integrated by the central difference method. DYNA3D is operational on the CRAY-1 and CDC7600 computers.

  16. 3D-Printed Car by Local Motors - The Strati | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    D-Printed Car by Local Motors - The Strati 3D-Printed Car by Local Motors - The Strati Local Motors 3D-Printed Car Timelapse Text Version The video starts with an image of the completed Strati and the Local Motors logo flashing on the screen. The process to create the 3D-printed car is shown high speed, with fast music. Again, the Local Motors logo flashes on the screen, along with the words "#3DPrintedCar." The video continues to show the 3D printing process high speed, interspersed

  17. Laser radar VI; Proceedings of the Meeting, Los Angeles, CA, Jan. 23-25, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Becherer, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    Topics presented include lidar wind shear detection for commercial aircraft, centroid tracking of range-Doppler images, an analytic approach to centroid performance analysis, simultaneous active/passive IR vehicle detection, and resolution limits for high-resolution imaging lidar. Also presented are laser velocimetry applications, the application of laser radar to autonomous spacecraft landing, 3D laser radar simulation for autonomous spacecraft landing, and ground based CW atmospheric Doppler lidar performamce modeling.

  18. 3D deformation field throughout the interior of materials.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, Huiqing; Lu, Wei-Yang

    2013-09-01

    This report contains the one-year feasibility study for our three-year LDRD proposal that is aimed to develop an experimental technique to measure the 3D deformation fields inside a material body. In this feasibility study, we first apply Digital Volume Correlation (DVC) algorithm to pre-existing in-situ Xray Computed Tomography (XCT) image sets with pure rigid body translation. The calculated displacement field has very large random errors and low precision that are unacceptable. Then we enhance these tomography images by setting threshold of the intensity of each slice. DVC algorithm is able to obtain accurate deformation fields from these enhanced image sets and the deformation fields are consistent with the global mechanical loading that is applied to the specimen. Through this study, we prove that the internal markers inside the pre-existing tomography images of aluminum alloy can be enhanced and are suitable for DVC to calculate the deformation field throughout the material body.

  19. Molecular Predictors of 3D Morphogenesis by Breast Cancer Cell Lines in 3D Culture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Ju; Chang, Hang; Giricz, Orsi; Lee, Genee; Baehner, Frederick; Gray, Joe; Bissell, Mina; Kenny, Paraic; Parvin, Bahram

    2010-02-01

    Correlative analysis of molecular markers with phenotypic signatures is the simplest model for hypothesis generation. In this paper, a panel of 24 breast cell lines was grown in 3D culture, their morphology was imaged through phase contrast microscopy, and computational methods were developed to segment and represent each colony at multiple dimensions. Subsequently, subpopulations from these morphological responses were identified through consensus clustering to reveal three clusters of round, grape-like, and stellate phenotypes. In some cases, cell lines with particular pathobiological phenotypes clustered together (e.g., ERBB2 amplified cell lines sharing the same morphometric properties as the grape-like phenotype). Next, associations with molecular features were realized through (i) differential analysis within each morphological cluster, and (ii) regression analysis across the entire panel of cell lines. In both cases, the dominant genes that are predictive of the morphological signatures were identified. Specifically, PPAR? has been associated with the invasive stellate morphological phenotype, which corresponds to triple-negative pathobiology. PPAR? has been validated through two supporting biological assays.

  20. Full aperture backscatter station imager (FABSI) diagnostics system for far-field imaging of laser plasma instabilities on Nova

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilke, M.D.; Fernandez, J.C.; Berggren, R.R.; Montgomery, D.; Faulkner, J.; Looney, L.; Jimerson, J.; Horton, R.F.

    1996-06-01

    In ICF, the understanding of laser plasma scattering processes is essential for laser target coupling and in controlling the symmetry of indirect drive implosions. The existing Nova Full Aperture Backscatter Station (FABS) has been useful in understanding laser plasma instabilities occurring in hohlraums by measuring the quantity, spectral distribution and near-field spatial distributions of Brillouin and more recently Raman backscatter. Equally important is an understanding of the farfield spatial intensity distribution which provides information on density, temperature and velocity gradient distributions, and which affect capsule implosion symmetry in hohlraums. Such information could potentially help in understanding processes such as filamentation and saturation mechanism. This paper describes a broad-band, color-corrected far-field imager and associated diagnostics capable of imaging the source of scattered light to better than 25 {micro}m resolution. The imager can either image Brillouin or Raman backscatter through the Nova beam 7 focusing lens or be used like a microscope to image side scatter from other beams.

  1. System and method for investigating sub-surface features and 3D imaging of non-linear property, compressional velocity VP, shear velocity VS and velocity ratio VP/VS of a rock formation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vu, Cung Khac; Skelt, Christopher; Nihei, Kurt; Johnson, Paul A.; Guyer, Robert; Ten Cate, James A.; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves; Larmat, Carene S.

    2015-06-02

    A system and a method for generating a three-dimensional image of a rock formation, compressional velocity VP, shear velocity VS and velocity ratio VP/VS of a rock formation are provided. A first acoustic signal includes a first plurality of pulses. A second acoustic signal from a second source includes a second plurality of pulses. A detected signal returning to the borehole includes a signal generated by a non-linear mixing process from the first and second acoustic signals in a non-linear mixing zone within an intersection volume. The received signal is processed to extract the signal over noise and/or signals resulting from linear interaction and the three dimensional image of is generated.

  2. Laser scattered images observed from carbon plasma stagnation and following molecular formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nishimura, K.; Shibata, R.; Yabuuchi, T.; Tanaka, K. A.; Sunahara, A.

    2014-06-16

    Two carbon targets were irradiated to create plasma plumes to collide at right angle with two UV laser pulses each other at 10?J/cm{sup 2}/pulse. The collision results in carbon plasma stagnation. Laser scattered imaging indicates that the carbon large molecular formation takes place much later in time after the laser irradiation and stagnation. Compared with the temporal history of electron density (n{sub e}), ion density (n{sub i}), and plasma self-emission dominated by carbon Swan band, it is estimated that the carbon large molecular formation has been initiated with the ion collision followed by the C{sub 2} formation.

  3. 3D Technology for intelligent trackers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lipton, Ronald; /Fermilab

    2010-09-01

    At Super-LHC luminosity it is expected that the standard suite of level 1 triggers for CMS will saturate. Information from the tracker will be needed to reduce trigger rates to satisfy the level 1 bandwidth. Tracking trigger modules which correlate information from closely-spaced sensor layers to form an on-detector momentum filter are being developed by several groups. We report on a trigger module design which utilizes three dimensional integrated circuit technology incorporating chips which are connected both to the top and bottom sensor, providing the ability to filter information locally. A demonstration chip, the VICTR, has been submitted to the Chartered/Tezzaron two-tier 3D run coordinated by Fermilab. We report on the 3D design concept, the status of the VICTR chip and associated sensor integration utilizing oxide bonding.

  4. Crashworthiness simulations with DYNA3D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schauer, D.A.; Hoover, C.G.; Kay, G.J.; Lee, A.S.; De Groot, A.J.

    1996-04-01

    Current progress in parallel algorithm research and applications in vehicle crash simulation is described for the explicit, finite element algorithms in DYNA3D. Problem partitioning methods and parallel algorithms for contact at material interfaces are the two challenging algorithm research problems that are addressed. Two prototype parallel contact algorithms have been developed for treating the cases of local and arbitrary contact. Demonstration problems for local contact are crashworthiness simulations with 222 locally defined contact surfaces and a vehicle/barrier collision modeled with arbitrary contact. A simulation of crash tests conducted for a vehicle impacting a U-channel small sign post embedded in soil has been run on both the serial and parallel versions of DYNA3D. A significant reduction in computational time has been observed when running these problems on the parallel version. However, to achieve maximum efficiency, complex problems must be appropriately partitioned, especially when contact dominates the computation.

  5. Phase-contrast imaging using ultrafast x-rays in laser-shocked materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Workman, Jonathan B; Cobble, James A; Flippo, Kirk; Gautier, Donald C; Montgomery, David S; Offermann, Dustin T

    2010-01-01

    High-energy x-rays, > 10-keV, can be efficiently produced from ultrafast laser target interactions with many applications to dense target materials in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) and High-Energy Density Physics (HEDP). These same x-rays can also be applied to measurements of low-density materials inside high-density hohlraum environments. In the experiments presented, high-energy x-ray images of laser-shocked polystyrene are produced through phase contrast imaging. The plastic targets are nominally transparent to traditional x-ray absorption but show detailed features in regions of high density gradients due to refractive effects often called phase contrast imaging. The 200-TW Trident laser is used both to produce the x-ray source and to shock the polystyrene target. X-rays at 17-keV produced from 2-ps, 100-J laser interactions with a 12-micron molybdenum wire are used to produce a small source size, required for optimizing refractive effects. Shocks are driven in the 1-mm thick polystyrene target using 2-ns, 250-J, 532-nm laser drive with phase plates. X-ray images of shocks compare well to 1-D hydro calculations, HELIOS-CR.

  6. Sandia Modifies Delft3D Turbine Model

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Modifies Delft3D Turbine Model - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs

  7. 3-D Mesh Generation Nonlinear Systems

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1994-04-07

    INGRID is a general-purpose, three-dimensional mesh generator developed for use with finite element, nonlinear, structural dynamics codes. INGRID generates the large and complex input data files for DYNA3D, NIKE3D, FACET, and TOPAZ3D. One of the greatest advantages of INGRID is that virtually any shape can be described without resorting to wedge elements, tetrahedrons, triangular elements or highly distorted quadrilateral or hexahedral elements. Other capabilities available are in the areas of geometry and graphics. Exact surfacemore » equations and surface intersections considerably improve the ability to deal with accurate models, and a hidden line graphics algorithm is included which is efficient on the most complicated meshes. The primary new capability is associated with the boundary conditions, loads, and material properties required by nonlinear mechanics programs. Commands have been designed for each case to minimize user effort. This is particularly important since special processing is almost always required for each load or boundary condition.« less

  8. GEN3D Ver. 1.37

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-01-04

    GEN3D is a three-dimensional mesh generation program. The three-dimensional mesh is generated by mapping a two-dimensional mesh into threedimensions according to one of four types of transformations: translating, rotating, mapping onto a spherical surface, and mapping onto a cylindrical surface. The generated three-dimensional mesh can then be reoriented by offsetting, reflecting about an axis, and revolving about an axis. GEN3D can be used to mesh geometries that are axisymmetric or planar, but, due to three-dimensionalmore » loading or boundary conditions, require a three-dimensional finite element mesh and analysis. More importantly, it can be used to mesh complex three-dimensional geometries composed of several sections when the sections can be defined in terms of transformations of two dimensional geometries. The code GJOIN is then used to join the separate sections into a single body. GEN3D reads and writes twodimensional and threedimensional mesh databases in the GENESIS database format; therefore, it is compatible with the preprocessing, postprocessing, and analysis codes used by the Engineering Analysis Department at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM.« less

  9. Quantitative planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging of multi-component

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    fuel/air mixing in a firing gasoline-direct-injection engine: Effects of residual exhaust gas on quantitative PLIF (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Quantitative planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging of multi-component fuel/air mixing in a firing gasoline-direct-injection engine: Effects of residual exhaust gas on quantitative PLIF Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Quantitative planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging of multi-component fuel/air mixing in a

  10. Note: Design and construction of a multi-scale, high-resolution, tube-generated X-Ray computed-tomography system for three-dimensional (3D) imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mertens, J. C. E.; Williams, J. J.; Chawla, Nikhilesh

    2014-01-15

    The design and construction of a high resolution modular x-ray computed tomography (XCT) system is described. The approach for meeting a specified set of performance goals tailored toward experimental versatility is highlighted. The instrument is unique in its detector and x-ray source configuration, both of which enable elevated optimization of spatial and temporal resolution. The process for component selection is provided. The selected components are specified, the custom component design discussed, and the integration of both into a fully functional XCT instrument is outlined. The novelty of this design is a new lab-scale detector and imaging optimization through x-ray source and detector modularity.

  11. Visualization and Analysis of 3D Gene Expression Data (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Visualization and Analysis of 3D Gene Expression Data Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Visualization and Analysis of 3D Gene Expression Data Recent...

  12. PSTD Simulations of Multiple Light Scattering in 3-D Macrocsopic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    PSTD Simulations of Multiple Light Scattering in 3-D Macrocsopic Random Media Citation Details In-Document Search Title: PSTD Simulations of Multiple Light Scattering in 3-D ...

  13. Numerical integration of structural elements in NIKE3D and DYNA3D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maker, B.N.; Whirley, R.G.; Engelmann, B.E.

    1992-08-05

    The beam and shell elements found in many linear elastic finite element codes accept integrated cross sectional properties as input, and produce solutions using classical beam and shell theory. These theories are built upon the equation of resultant forces and moments with integrals of assumed stress distributions over the cross section. In contrast, the structural elements in NIKE3D and DYNA3D are formulated to represent nonlinear geometric and material behavior. Thus stress distributions may not necessarily be representable by simple functions of cross section variables. In NIKE3D and DYNA3D, the Hughes-Liu beam element and all shell elements accommodate these more general stress distributions by computing stresses at various points in the cross section. The integration of stresses within each element is then performed numerically, using a variety of methods. This report describes these numerical integration procedures in detail, and highlights their application to engineering problems. Several other features of the structural elements are also described, including force and moment resultants, user-defined reference surfaces, and user-defined integration rules. Finally, the shear correction factor is described in a section which relates results from NIKE3D and DYNA3D to those obtained from classical beam theory.

  14. Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging of Electron Heated Targets in Petawatt Laser Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, T; MacPhee, A; Key, M; Akli, K; Mackinnon, A; Chen, C; Barbee, T; Freeman, R; King, J; Link, A; Offermann, D; Ovchinnikov, V; Patel, P; Stephens, R; VanWoerkom, L; Zhang, B; Beg, F

    2007-11-29

    The study of the transport of electrons, and the flow of energy into a solid target or dense plasma, is instrumental in the development of fast ignition inertial confinement fusion. An extreme ultraviolet (XUV) imaging diagnostic at 256 eV and 68 eV provides information about heating and energy deposition within petawatt laser-irradiated targets. XUV images of several irradiated solid targets are presented.

  15. 3-d-interactive-scouring-methodology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Methodology Sixty percent of bridge failures are the result of riverbed erosion (scour) at bridge support structures, and about 1 in 20 bridges are classified as scour critical, meaning that they are in danger of failure during a major flood event. Working to improve scour analysis, researchers at TRACC have developed and tested a 3-D method of predicting the shape and depth of a scour hole that forms under a flooded bridge deck. The 2 figures below represent the surface of a stream bed with a

  16. Elastoplastic shell analysis in DYNA3D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whirley, R.G. )

    1991-01-01

    Computer simulation of the elastoplastic behavior of thin shell structures under transient dynamic loads play an important role in many programs at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, Calif. Often the loads are severe and the structure undergoes plastic (or permanent) deformation. These simulations are effectively performed using DYNA3D, an explicit nonlinear finite element code developed at LLNL for simulating and analyzing the large-deformation dynamic response of solids and structures. It is generally applicable to problems where the loading and response are of short duration and contain significant high-frequency components. Typical problems of this type include the contact of two impacting bodies and the resulting elastoplastic structural behavior. The objective of this investigation was to examine and improve upon the elastoplastic shell modeling capability in DYNA3D. This article summarizes the development of a new four-node quadrilateral finite element shell formulation, the YASE shell, and compares two basic methods (the stress-resultant and the thickness-resultant methods) employed in elastoplastic constitutive algorithms for shell structure modeling.

  17. THE THOMSON SURFACE. III. TRACKING FEATURES IN 3D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howard, T. A.; DeForest, C. E.; Tappin, S. J.; Odstrcil, D.

    2013-03-01

    In this, the final installment in a three-part series on the Thomson surface, we present simulated observations of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) observed by a hypothetical polarizing white light heliospheric imager. Thomson scattering yields a polarization signal that can be exploited to locate observed features in three dimensions relative to the Thomson surface. We consider how the appearance of the CME changes with the direction of trajectory, using simulations of a simple geometrical shape and also of a more realistic CME generated using the ENLIL model. We compare the appearance in both unpolarized B and polarized pB light, and show that there is a quantifiable difference in the measured brightness of a CME between unpolarized and polarized observations. We demonstrate a technique for using this difference to extract the three-dimensional (3D) trajectory of large objects such as CMEs. We conclude with a discussion on how a polarizing heliospheric imager could be used to extract 3D trajectory information about CMEs or other observed features.

  18. fdm3d_sndV1.0

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2001-06-06

    FORTRAN90 software computes synthetic induction log responses in fully 3D anistropic geoelectric media.

  19. Laser speckle-imaging of blood microcirculation in the brain cortex of laboratory rats in stress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vilensky, M A; Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, Oxana V; Timoshina, P A; Kuznetsova, Jana V; Semyachkin-Glushkovskii, I A; Agafonov, Dmitry N; Tuchin, Valerii V

    2012-06-30

    The results of experimental approbation of the method of laser full-field speckle-imaging for monitoring the changes in blood microcirculation state of the brain cortex of laboratory rats under the conditions of developing stroke and administration of vasodilating and vasoconstrictive agents are presented. The studies aimed at the choice of the optimal conditions of speckle-image formation and recording were performed and the software implementing an adaptive algorithm for processing the data of measurements was created. The transfer of laser radiation to the probed region of the biotissue was implemented by means of a silica-polymer optical fibre. The problems and prospects of speckle-imaging of cerebral microcirculation of blood in laboratory and clinical conditions are discussed.

  20. Systems and methods for imaging using radiation from laser produced plasmas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Renard-Le Galloudec, Nathalie; Cowan, Thomas E.; Sentoku, Yasuhiko; Rassuchine, Jennifer

    2009-06-30

    In particular embodiments, the present disclosure provides systems and methods for imaging a subject using radiation emitted from a laser produced plasma generating by irradiating a target with a laser. In particular examples, the target includes at least one radiation enhancing component, such as a fluor, cap, or wire. In further examples, the target has a metal layer and an internal surface defining an internal apex, the internal apex of less than about 15 .mu.m, such as less than about 1 .mu.m. The targets may take a variety of shapes, including cones, pyramids, and hemispheres. Certain aspects of the present disclosure provide improved imaging of a subject, such as improved medical images of a radiation dose than typical conventional methods and systems.

  1. Near Field Intensity Trends of Main Laser Alignment Images in the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leach, R R; Beltsar, I; Burkhart, S; Lowe-Webb, R; Kamm, V M; Salmon, T; Wilhelmsen, K

    2015-01-22

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) utilizes 192 high-energy laser beams focused with enough power and precision on a hydrogen-filled spherical, cryogenic target to potentially initiate a fusion reaction. NIF has been operational for six years; during that time, thousands of successful laser firings or shots have been executed. Critical instrument measurements and camera images are carefully recorded for each shot. The result is a massive and complex database or ‘big data’ archive that can be used to investigate the state of the laser system at any point in its history or to locate and track trends in the laser operation over time. In this study, the optical light throughput for more than 1600 NIF shots for each of the 192 main laser beams and 48 quads was measured over a three year period from January 2009 to October 2012. The purpose was to verify that the variation in the transmission of light through the optics over time performed within design expectations during this time period. Differences between average or integrated intensity from images recorded by the input sensor package (ISP) and by the output sensor package (OSP) in the NIF beam-line were examined. A metric is described for quantifying changes in the integrated intensity measurements and was used to view potential trends. Results are presented for the NIF input and output sensor package trends and changes over the three year time-frame.

  2. 3D Multigroup Sn Neutron Transport Code

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2001-02-14

    ATTILA is a 3D multigroup transport code with arbitrary order ansotropic scatter. The transport equation is solved in first order form using a tri-linear discontinuous spatial differencing on an arbitrary tetrahedral mesh. The overall solution technique is source iteration with DSA acceleration of the scattering source. Anisotropic boundary and internal sources may be entered in the form of spherical harmonics moments. Alpha and k eigenvalue problems are allowed, as well as fixed source problems. Forwardmore » and adjoint solutions are available. Reflective, vacumn, and source boundary conditions are available. ATTILA can perform charged particle transport calculations using slowing down (CSD) terms. ATTILA can also be used to peform infra-red steady-state calculations for radiative transfer purposes.« less

  3. Interactive initialization of 2D/3D rigid registration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gong, Ren Hui; Gler, zgr; Krkloglu, Mustafa; Lovejoy, John; Yaniv, Ziv

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: Registration is one of the key technical components in an image-guided navigation system. A large number of 2D/3D registration algorithms have been previously proposed, but have not been able to transition into clinical practice. The authors identify the primary reason for the lack of adoption with the prerequisite for a sufficiently accurate initial transformation, mean target registration error of about 10 mm or less. In this paper, the authors present two interactive initialization approaches that provide the desired accuracy for x-ray/MR and x-ray/CT registration in the operating room setting. Methods: The authors have developed two interactive registration methods based on visual alignment of a preoperative image, MR, or CT to intraoperative x-rays. In the first approach, the operator uses a gesture based interface to align a volume rendering of the preoperative image to multiple x-rays. The second approach uses a tracked tool available as part of a navigation system. Preoperatively, a virtual replica of the tool is positioned next to the anatomical structures visible in the volumetric data. Intraoperatively, the physical tool is positioned in a similar manner and subsequently used to align a volume rendering to the x-ray images using an augmented reality (AR) approach. Both methods were assessed using three publicly available reference data sets for 2D/3D registration evaluation. Results: In the authors' experiments, the authors show that for x-ray/MR registration, the gesture based method resulted in a mean target registration error (mTRE) of 9.3 5.0 mm with an average interaction time of 146.3 73.0 s, and the AR-based method had mTREs of 7.2 3.2 mm with interaction times of 44 32 s. For x-ray/CT registration, the gesture based method resulted in a mTRE of 7.4 5.0 mm with an average interaction time of 132.1 66.4 s, and the AR-based method had mTREs of 8.3 5.0 mm with interaction times of 58 52 s. Conclusions: Based on the authors' evaluation, the authors conclude that the registration approaches are sufficiently accurate for initializing 2D/3D registration in the OR setting, both when a tracking system is not in use (gesture based approach), and when a tracking system is already in use (AR based approach)

  4. MOSSFRAC: An anisotropic 3D fracture model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moss, W C; Levatin, J L

    2006-08-14

    Despite the intense effort for nearly half a century to construct detailed numerical models of plastic flow and plastic damage accumulation, models for describing fracture, an equally important damage mechanism still cannot describe basic fracture phenomena. Typical fracture models set the stress tensor to zero for tensile fracture and set the deviatoric stress tensor to zero for compressive fracture. One consequence is that the simple case of the tensile fracture of a cylinder under combined compressive radial and tensile axial loads is not modeled correctly. The experimental result is a cylinder that can support compressive radial loads, but no axial load, whereas, the typical numerical result is a cylinder with all stresses equal to zero. This incorrect modeling of fracture locally also has a global effect, because material that is fracturing produces stress release waves, which propagate from the fracture and influence the surrounding material. Consequently, it would be useful to have a model that can describe the stress relief and the resulting anisotropy due to fracture. MOSSFRAC is a material model that simulates three-dimensional tensile and shear fracture in initially isotropic elastic-plastic materials, although its framework is also amenable to initially anisotropic materials. It differs from other models by accounting for the effects of cracks on the constitutive response of the material, so that the previously described experiment, as well as complicated fracture scenarios are simulated more accurately. The model is implemented currently in the LLNL hydrocodes DYNA3D, PARADYN, and ALE3D. The purpose of this technical note is to present a complete qualitative description of the model and quantitative descriptions of salient features.

  5. EERE Success Story-3D Printing Enables New Generation of Heat Exchangers

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy 3D Printing Enables New Generation of Heat Exchangers EERE Success Story-3D Printing Enables New Generation of Heat Exchangers March 17, 2016 - 10:32am Addthis The University of Maryland used direct metal printing—a 3D printing technology—to manufacture a unique miniaturized air-to-refrigerant heat exchanger as a single, continuous piece. Image: University of Maryland, Center for Environmental Energy Engineering. The University of Maryland used direct metal

  6. Ultrahigh-spatial-resolution chemical and magnetic imaging by laser-based photoemission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taniuchi, Toshiyuki Kotani, Yoshinori; Shin, Shik

    2015-02-15

    We report the first experiments carried out on a new chemical and magnetic imaging system, which combines the high spatial resolution of a photoemission electron microscope (PEEM) with a continuous-wave deep-ultraviolet laser. Threshold photoemission is sensitive to the chemical and magnetic structures of the surface of materials. The spatial resolution of PEEM is limited by space charging when using pulsed photon sources as well as aberrations in the electron optics. We show that the use of a continuous-wave laser enabled us to overcome such a limit by suppressing the space-charge effect, allowing us to obtain a resolution of approximately 2.6 nm. With this system, we demonstrated the imaging of surface reconstruction domains on Si(001) by linear dichroism with normal incidence of the laser beam. We also succeeded in magnetic imaging of thin films with the use of magnetic circular dichroism near the Fermi level. The unique features of the ultraviolet laser will give us fast switching of the incident angles and polarizations of the photon source, which will be useful for the characterization of antiferromagnetic materials as well as ferromagnetic materials.

  7. Imaging of free carriers in semiconductors via optical feedback in terahertz quantum cascade lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mezzapesa, F. P. Brambilla, M.; Dabbicco, M.; Scamarcio, G.; Columbo, L. L.; Vitiello, M. S.

    2014-01-27

    To monitor the density of photo-generated charge carriers on a semiconductor surface, we demonstrate a detectorless imaging system based on the analysis of the optical feedback in terahertz quantum cascade lasers. Photo-excited free electron carriers are created in high resistivity n-type silicon wafers via low power (?40 mW/cm{sup 2}) continuous wave pump laser in the near infrared spectral range. A spatial light modulator allows to directly reconfigure and control the photo-patterned intensity and the associated free-carrier density distribution. The experimental results are in good agreement with the numerical simulations.

  8. Fluid Imaging of Enhanced Geothermal Systems through Joint 3D...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    reservoirs that have been created to extract economical amounts of heat from low permeability andor porosity geothermal resources. Critical to the success of EGS is the...

  9. Multi-crosswell profile 3D imaging and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Washbourne, John K.; Rector, III, James W.; Bube, Kenneth P.

    2002-01-01

    Characterizing the value of a particular property, for example, seismic velocity, of a subsurface region of ground is described. In one aspect, the value of the particular property is represented using at least one continuous analytic function such as a Chebychev polynomial. The seismic data may include data derived from at least one crosswell dataset for the subsurface region of interest and may also include other data. In either instance, data may simultaneously be used from a first crosswell dataset in conjunction with one or more other crosswell datasets and/or with the other data. In another aspect, the value of the property is characterized in three dimensions throughout the region of interest using crosswell and/or other data. In still another aspect, crosswell datasets for highly deviated or horizontal boreholes are inherently useful. The method is performed, in part, by fitting a set of vertically spaced layer boundaries, represented by an analytic function such as a Chebychev polynomial, within and across the region encompassing the boreholes such that a series of layers is defined between the layer boundaries. Initial values of the particular property are then established between the layer boundaries and across the subterranean region using a series of continuous analytic functions. The continuous analytic functions are then adjusted to more closely match the value of the particular property across the subterranean region of ground to determine the value of the particular property for any selected point within the region.

  10. 2D/3D registration algorithm for lung brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zvonarev, P. S.; Farrell, T. J.; Hunter, R.; Wierzbicki, M.; Hayward, J. E.; Sur, R. K.

    2013-02-15

    Purpose: A 2D/3D registration algorithm is proposed for registering orthogonal x-ray images with a diagnostic CT volume for high dose rate (HDR) lung brachytherapy. Methods: The algorithm utilizes a rigid registration model based on a pixel/voxel intensity matching approach. To achieve accurate registration, a robust similarity measure combining normalized mutual information, image gradient, and intensity difference was developed. The algorithm was validated using a simple body and anthropomorphic phantoms. Transfer catheters were placed inside the phantoms to simulate the unique image features observed during treatment. The algorithm sensitivity to various degrees of initial misregistration and to the presence of foreign objects, such as ECG leads, was evaluated. Results: The mean registration error was 2.2 and 1.9 mm for the simple body and anthropomorphic phantoms, respectively. The error was comparable to the interoperator catheter digitization error of 1.6 mm. Preliminary analysis of data acquired from four patients indicated a mean registration error of 4.2 mm. Conclusions: Results obtained using the proposed algorithm are clinically acceptable especially considering the complications normally encountered when imaging during lung HDR brachytherapy.

  11. Laser

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... currently being devel- oped and tested which will employ a three-wave far-infrared laser. ... Laser polarimetry has been used previously to investi- gate magnetic fluctuations ...

  12. RELAP5-3D Compressor Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James E. Fisher; Cliff B. Davis; Walter L. Weaver

    2005-06-01

    A compressor model has been implemented in the RELAP5-3D code. The model is similar to that of the existing pump model, and performs the same function on a gas as the pump performs on a single-phase or two-phase fluid. The compressor component consists of an inlet junction and a control volume, and optionally, an outlet junction. This feature permits cascading compressor components in series. The equations describing the physics of the compressor are derived from first principles. These equations are used to obtain the head, the torque, and the energy dissipation. Compressor performance is specified using a map, specific to the design of the machine, in terms of the ratio of outlet-to-inlet total (or stagnation) pressure and adiabatic efficiency as functions of rotational velocity and flow rate. The input quantities are specified in terms of dimensionless variables, which are corrected to stagnation density and stagnation sound speed. A small correction was formulated for the input of efficiency to account for the error introduced by assumption of constant density when integrating the momentum equation. Comparison of the results of steady-state operation of the compressor model to those of the MIT design calculation showed excellent agreement for both pressure ratio and power.

  13. JAS3D v. 2.4

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2009-06-29

    JAS3D is a three-dimensional finite element program originally designed to solve Lagrangian quasistatic non-linear mechanics problems, and subsequently extended to include both implicit and explicit dynamics. A set of continuum equations describes the nonlinear mechanics involving large rotation and strain. Innovative multilevel nonlinear iterative methods are used to solve the equations. A wide variety of material constitutive models are available, and contact interface logic is implemented. Two Lagrangian uniform-strain elements are available: an eighth-node hexahedronmore » for solids and a four-node quadrilateral for shells. Both use hourglass stiffness to control zero-energy modes. In addition, a version of the hexahedron is available with uniform pressure and a deviatoric response scalable from the mean response of the original element up to a fully-integrated response. Bodies under analysis may be loaded by surface pressures and concentrated forces, specified displacements, or body forces from gravity, steady-state transport, or thermal expansion.« less

  14. 3-D simulations of multiple beam klystrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smithe, David N.; Bettenhausen, Mike; Ludeking, Larry; Caryotakis, G.; Sprehn, Daryl; Scheitrum, Glenn [Mission Research Corporation, 8560 Cinderbed Rd., Suite 700, Newington, Virginia 22122 (United States); Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, 2575 Sand Hill Rd., Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States)

    1999-05-07

    The MAGIC3D simulation code is being used to assess the multi-dimensional physics issues relating to the design and operation of multiple beam klystrons. Investigations, to date, include a detailed study of the mode structure of the cavities in the 19-beam hexagonally packed geometry and a study of the velocity spread caused by the cavity mode's field profile. Some attempts to minimize this effect are investigated. Additional simulations have provided quantification of the beam loading Q in a dual input cavity, and optimization of a dual output cavity. An important goal of the simulations is an accurate picture of beam transport along the length of the MBK. We have quantified the magnitude and spatial variation of the beam-line space charge interactions within a cavity gap. Present simulations have demonstrated the transport of the beam through three cavities (the present limits of our simulation size) without difficulty; additional length simulations are expected. We have also examined unbalanced beam-line scenarios, e.g., one beam-line suppressed, and find little disturbance to the transport in individual cavity tests, with results for multiple cavity transport expected.

  15. Visualization and Analysis of 3D Gene Expression Data (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Visualization and Analysis of 3D Gene Expression Data Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Visualization and Analysis of 3D Gene Expression Data You are...

  16. FMI Borehole Geology, Geomechanics and 3D Reservoir Modeling...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    FMI Borehole Geology, Geomechanics and 3D Reservoir Modeling Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: FMI Borehole Geology, Geomechanics and 3D...

  17. Novel 3-D Printed Inverters for Electric Vehicles Can Improve...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Novel 3-D Printed Inverters for Electric Vehicles Can Improve EV Power and Efficiency Novel 3-D Printed Inverters for Electric Vehicles Can Improve EV Power and Efficiency April...

  18. Validation and Application of the 3D Neutron Transport MPACT...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Validation and Application of the 3D Neutron Transport MPACT within CASL VERA-CS Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Validation and Application of the 3D Neutron Transport ...

  19. 3D Visualization of Water Transport in Ferns

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3D Visualization of Water Transport in Ferns 3D Visualization of Water Transport in Ferns Print Monday, 08 April 2013 00:00 Plants transport water through elongated cells called...

  20. World's First 3-D Printed Car | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    World's First 3-D Printed Car World's First 3-D Printed Car Addthis Description The video is about a partnership between Local Motors and Oak Ridge National Laboratory to print the world's first 3-D printed car-the Strati-at the 2014 International Manufacturing Technology Show

  1. 3D Printing Medical Devices | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3D Printed and Semiconductor Technology 'Mash-up' 3D Printed and Semiconductor Technology 'Mash-up' May 7, 2015 - 4:11pm Addthis 3D Printed and Semiconductor Technology 'Mash-up' What will you get if you put a 3D-printed inverter package with wide bandgap materials, together with the 3D-printed EV version of the Shelby Cobra "plug and play" laboratory-on-wheels? You'll get innovation - innovation that will define even lighter, more powerful, and more efficient vehicles. Oak Ridge

  2. laser | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    laser

  3. Imaging of the surface resistance of an SRF cavity by low-temperature laser scanning microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Ciovati, S.M. Anlage, A.V. Gurevich

    2013-06-01

    Temperature mapping of the outer surface of a superconducting radio-frequency cavity is a technique that is often used to identify lossy areas on the cavity surface. In this contribution, we present 2-D images of the superconducting state surface resistance R{sub s} of the inner surface of a superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavity obtained by low-temperature laser scanning microscopy. This technique, which is applied for the first time to study lossy regions in an operating SRF cavity, allows identifying 'hotspots' with about one order of magnitude better spatial resolution ( ~2 mm) than by thermometry. The R{sub s}-resolution is of the order of 1 {micro}{Ohm} at 3.3 GHz. Surface resistance maps with different laser power and optical images of the cavity surface are discussed in this contribution. It is also shown that the thermal gradient on the niobium surface created by the laser beam can move some of the hotspots, which are identified as locations of trapped bundle of fluxoids. The prospects for this microscope to identify defects that limit the performance of SRF cavities will also be discussed.

  4. Spectroscopic characterization and imaging of laser- and unipolar arc-induced plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aussems, Damien U. B.; Nishijima, Daisuke; Brandt, Christian; Doerner, Russell P.; Cardozo, Niek J. Lopes

    2014-08-14

    Tungsten plasmas induced by unipolar arcs were investigated using optical emission spectroscopy and imaging, and compared with laser-induced tungsten plasmas. The unipolar arcs were initiated in the linear-plasma simulator PISCES-A at UCSD under fusion relevant conditions. The electron temperature and density of the unipolar arc plasmas were in the range 0.50.7?eV and 0.72.0??10{sup 20?}m{sup ?3}, respectively, and increased with increasing negative bias voltage, but did not correlate with the surface temperature. In comparison, the electron temperature and density of the laser-induced plasmas were in the range 0.61.4?eV and 7??10{sup 19}1??10{sup 22?}m{sup ?3}, respectively.

  5. 3-D Model for Deactivation & Decommissioning | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    -D Model for Deactivation & Decommissioning 3-D Model for Deactivation & Decommissioning The design and production of 3-D scale models that replicate the highly contaminated structures within the nuclear facility would provide a significant improvement in visualization of the work space, which would give managers and supervisors a more powerful tool for planning and communicating safety issues and work sequences to personnel executing the physical D&D tasks. PDF icon 3-D Model for

  6. 3D Printed Car at the International Manufacturing Technology Show |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 3D Printed Car at the International Manufacturing Technology Show 3D Printed Car at the International Manufacturing Technology Show Addthis WORLD&#039;S FIRST 1 of 6 WORLD'S FIRST The world's first 3D-printed car on display at the International Manufacturing Technology Show in Chicago last week. Arizona-based Local Motors, and Cincinnati Incorporated teamed with Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Manufacturing Demonstration Facility-with funding support from the Energy

  7. 3D Printing a Classic | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3D Printing a Classic 3D Printing a Classic January 15, 2015 - 4:02pm Addthis The team from the Oak Ridge Manufacturing Demonstration Facility is at the Detroit Auto Show this week to display their latest accomplishment: a 3D-printed, electric-motor driven, Shelby Cobra. In just six weeks, the team went from designing the car in digital models, to 3D printing the frame and other parts with fiber-reinforced composite material, to assembling, finishing, and painting the final product. President

  8. How 3D Printers Work | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3D Printers Work How 3D Printers Work June 19, 2014 - 9:28am Addthis How does 3D printing work? Watch a 3D printing timelapse video and read on below to learn everything you need to know about this game-changing innovation that is capturing the imagination of major manufacturers and hobbyists alike. | Video by Matty Greene, Energy Department. Rebecca Matulka Rebecca Matulka Former Digital Communications Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Matty Greene Matty Greene Former Videographer What are

  9. RELAP5-3D V. 4.X.X

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    000191MLTPL01 NON-NRC FUNDED RELAP5-3D VERSION 4.x.x SOFTWARE REACTOR EXCURSION AND LEAK ANALYSIS PACKAGE - THREE DIMENSIONAL

  10. 3D MAGNETOTELLURIC CHARACTERIZATION OF THE COSO GEOTHERMAL FIELD...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    3D MAGNETOTELLURIC CHARACTERIZATION OF THE COSO GEOTHERMAL FIELD Abstract Knowledge of the subsurface electrical resistivityconductivity can contribute to a better...

  11. DOE AVESTAR Center Deploys 3-D Virtual Training System | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... AVESTAR's new immersive training system and existing IGCC dynamic simulator were developed using Invensys Operations Management's EYESIM 3-D virtual reality technology and DYNSIM ...

  12. MPSalsa 3D Simulations of Chemically Reacting Flows

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Many important scientific and engineering applications require a detailed analysis of complex systems with coupled fluid flow, thermal energy transfer, mass transfer and nonequilibrium chemical reactions. Currently, computer simulations of these complex reacting flow problems are limited to idealized systems in one or two spatial dimensions when coupled with a detailed, fundamental chemistry model. The goal of our research is to develop, analyze and implement advanced MP numerical algorithms that will allow high resolution 3D simulations with an equal emphasis on fluid flow and chemical kinetics modeling. In our research, we focus on the development of new, fully coupled, implicit solution strategies that are based on robust MP iterative solution methods (copied from http://www.cs.sandia.gov/CRF/MPSalsa/). These simulations are needed for scientific and technical areas such as: combustion research for transportation, atmospheric chemistry modeling for pollution studies, chemically reacting flow models for analysis and control of manufacturing processes, surface catalytic reactors for methane to methanol conversion and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process modeling for production of advanced semiconductor materials (http://www.cs.sandia.gov/CRF/MPSalsa/).

    This project website provides six QuickTime videos of these simulations, along with a small image gallery and slideshow animations. A list of related publications and conference presentations is also made available.

  13. 3D Printed and Semiconductor Technology 'Mash-up'

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    What will you get if you put a 3D-printed inverter package with wide bandgap materials, together with the 3D-printed EV version of the Shelby Cobra “plug and play” laboratory-on-wheels? You’ll get...

  14. Emerging Technologies in the Built Environment: Geographic Information Science (GIS), 3D Printing, and Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    New, Joshua Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract 1: Geographic information systems emerged as a computer application in the late 1960s, led in part by projects at ORNL. The concept of a GIS has shifted through time in response to new applications and new technologies, and is now part of a much larger world of geospatial technology. This presentation discusses the relationship of GIS and estimating hourly and seasonal energy consumption profiles in the building sector at spatial scales down to the individual parcel. The method combines annual building energy simulations for city-specific prototypical buildings and commonly available geospatial data in a GIS framework. Abstract 2: This presentation focuses on 3D printing technologies and how they have rapidly evolved over the past couple of years. At a basic level, 3D printing produces physical models quickly and easily from 3D CAD, BIM (Building Information Models), and other digital data. Many AEC firms have adopted 3D printing as part of commercial building design development and project delivery. This presentation includes an overview of 3D printing, discusses its current use in building design, and talks about its future in relation to the HVAC industry. Abstract 3: This presentation discusses additive manufacturing and how it is revolutionizing the design of commercial and residential facilities. Additive manufacturing utilizes a broad range of direct manufacturing technologies, including electron beam melting, ultrasonic, extrusion, and laser metal deposition for rapid prototyping. While there is some overlap with the 3D printing talk, this presentation focuses on the materials aspect of additive manufacturing and also some of the more advanced technologies involved with rapid prototyping. These technologies include design of carbon fiber composites, lightweight metals processing, transient field processing, and more.

  15. 3D electromagnetic inversion for environmental site characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alumbaugh, D.L.; Newman, G.A.

    1997-04-01

    A 3-D non-linear electromagnetic inversion scheme has been developed to produce images of subsurface conductivity structure from electromagnetic geophysical data. The solution is obtained by successive linearized model updates where full forward modeling is employed at each iteration to compute model sensitivities and predicted data. Regularization is applied to the problem to provide stability. Because the inverse part of the problem requires the solution of 10`s to 100`s of thousands of unknowns, and because each inverse iteration requires many forward models to be computed, the code has been implemented on massively parallel computer platforms. The use of the inversion code to image environmental sites is demonstrated on a data set collected with the Apex Parametrics {open_quote}MaxMin I-8S{close_quote} over a section of stacked barrels and metal filled boxes at the Idaho National Laboratory`s {open_quote}Cold Test Pit{close_quote}. The MaxMin is a loop-loop frequency domain system which operates from 440 Hz up to 56 kHz using various coil separations; for this survey coil separations of 15, 30 and 60 feet were employed. The out-of phase data are shown to be of very good quality while the in-phase are rather noisy due to slight mispositioning errors, which cause improper cancellation of the primary free space field in the receiver. Weighting the data appropriately by the estimated noise and applying the inversion scheme is demonstrated to better define the structure of the pit. In addition, comparisons are given for single coil separations and multiple separations to show the benefits of using multiple offset data.

  16. Parallel phase-sensitive three-dimensional imaging camera

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smithpeter, Colin L.; Hoover, Eddie R.; Pain, Bedabrata; Hancock, Bruce R.; Nellums, Robert O.

    2007-09-25

    An apparatus is disclosed for generating a three-dimensional (3-D) image of a scene illuminated by a pulsed light source (e.g. a laser or light-emitting diode). The apparatus, referred to as a phase-sensitive 3-D imaging camera utilizes a two-dimensional (2-D) array of photodetectors to receive light that is reflected or scattered from the scene and processes an electrical output signal from each photodetector in the 2-D array in parallel using multiple modulators, each having inputs of the photodetector output signal and a reference signal, with the reference signal provided to each modulator having a different phase delay. The output from each modulator is provided to a computational unit which can be used to generate intensity and range information for use in generating a 3-D image of the scene. The 3-D camera is capable of generating a 3-D image using a single pulse of light, or alternately can be used to generate subsequent 3-D images with each additional pulse of light.

  17. 3D Printing a Classic Shelby Cobra | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3D Printing a Classic Shelby Cobra 3D Printing a Classic Shelby Cobra Addthis Zero to 60 in under five seconds. Concept to reality in just six weeks. 1 of 22 Zero to 60 in under five seconds. Concept to reality in just six weeks. The classic Shelby Cobra roadster turns 50 in 2015. To celebrate, a team of engineers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory set out to create a replica of this iconic car using a massive 3D printer, advanced composite materials, and exciting new

  18. 3D Printed Shelby Cobra | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3D Printed Shelby Cobra 3D Printed Shelby Cobra Description ORNL's newly printed 3D car will be showcased at the 2015 NAIAS in Detroit. This "laboratory on wheels" uses the Shelby Cobra design, celebrating the 50th anniversary of this model and honoring the first vehicle to be voted a national monument. The Shelby was printed at the Department of Energy's Manufacturing Demonstration Facility at ORNL using the BAAM (Big Area Additive Manufacturing) machine and is intended as a

  19. Comparison of 2D and 3D gamma analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pulliam, Kiley B.; Huang, Jessie Y.; Howell, Rebecca M.; Followill, David; Kry, Stephen F.; Bosca, Ryan; ODaniel, Jennifer

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: As clinics begin to use 3D metrics for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) quality assurance, it must be noted that these metrics will often produce results different from those produced by their 2D counterparts. 3D and 2D gamma analyses would be expected to produce different values, in part because of the different search space available. In the present investigation, the authors compared the results of 2D and 3D gamma analysis (where both datasets were generated in the same manner) for clinical treatment plans. Methods: Fifty IMRT plans were selected from the authors clinical database, and recalculated using Monte Carlo. Treatment planning system-calculated (evaluated dose distributions) and Monte Carlo-recalculated (reference dose distributions) dose distributions were compared using 2D and 3D gamma analysis. This analysis was performed using a variety of dose-difference (5%, 3%, 2%, and 1%) and distance-to-agreement (5, 3, 2, and 1 mm) acceptance criteria, low-dose thresholds (5%, 10%, and 15% of the prescription dose), and data grid sizes (1.0, 1.5, and 3.0 mm). Each comparison was evaluated to determine the average 2D and 3D gamma, lower 95th percentile gamma value, and percentage of pixels passing gamma. Results: The average gamma, lower 95th percentile gamma value, and percentage of passing pixels for each acceptance criterion demonstrated better agreement for 3D than for 2D analysis for every plan comparison. The average difference in the percentage of passing pixels between the 2D and 3D analyses with no low-dose threshold ranged from 0.9% to 2.1%. Similarly, using a low-dose threshold resulted in a difference between the mean 2D and 3D results, ranging from 0.8% to 1.5%. The authors observed no appreciable differences in gamma with changes in the data density (constant difference: 0.8% for 2D vs 3D). Conclusions: The authors found that 3D gamma analysis resulted in up to 2.9% more pixels passing than 2D analysis. It must be noted that clinical 2D versus 3D datasets may have additional differencesfor example, if 2D measurements are made with a different dosimeter than 3D measurements. Factors such as inherent dosimeter differences may be an important additional consideration to the extra dimension of available data that was evaluated in this study.

  20. Suitability for 3D Printed Parts for Laboratory Use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zwicker, Andrew P.; Bloom, Josh; Albertson, Robert; Gershman, Sophia

    2014-08-01

    3D printing has become popular for a variety of users, from industrial to the home hobbyist, to scientists and engineers interested in producing their own laboratory equipment. In order to determine the suitability of 3D printed parts for our plasma physics laboratory, we measured the accuracy, strength, vacuum compatibility, and electrical properties of pieces printed in plastic. The flexibility of rapidly creating custom parts has led to the 3D printer becoming an invaluable resource in our laboratory and is equally suitable for producing equipment for advanced undergraduate laboratories.

  1. The Development and Application of SCDAP-3D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coryell, E.W.; Harvego, E.A.; Siefken, L.J.

    2002-03-05

    The SCDAP-3D computer code (Coryell 2001) has been developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the analysis of severe reactor accidents. A prominent feature of SCDAP-3D relative to other versions of the code is its linkage to the state-of-the-art thermal/hydraulic analysis capabilities of RELAP5-3D. Enhancements to the severe accident models include the ability to simulate high burnup and alternative fuel, as well as modifications to support advanced reactor analyses, such as those described by the Department of Energy's Generation IV (GenIV) initiative. Initial development of SCDAP-3D is complete and two widely varying but successful applications of the code are summarized. The first application is to large break loss of coolant accident analysis performed for a reactor with alternative fuel, and the second is a calculation of International Standard Problem 45 (ISP-45) or the QUENCH 6 experiment.

  2. Development and Application of RELAP5-3D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coryell, Eric Wesley; Harvego, Edwin Allan; Siefken, Larry James

    2002-04-01

    The SCDAP-3D computer code (Coryell 2001) has been developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the analysis of severe reactor accidents. A prominent feature of SCDAP-3D relative to other versions of the code is its linkage to the state-of-the-art thermal/hydraulic analysis capabilities of RELAP5-3D. Enhancements to the severe accident models include the ability to simulate high burnup and alternative fuel, as well as modifications to support advanced reactor analyses, such as those described by the Department of Energy's Generation IV (GenIV) initiative. Initial development of SCDAP-3D is complete and two widely varying but successful applications of the code are summarized. The first application is to large break loss of coolant accident analysis performed for a reactor with alternative fuel, and the second is a calculation of International Standard Problem 45 (ISP-45) or the QUENCH 6 experiment.

  3. 3D Printed Microscope for Mobile Devices that Cost Pennies

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Erikson, Rebecca; Baird, Cheryl; Hutchinson, Janine

    2015-06-23

    Scientists at PNNL have designed a 3D-printable microscope for mobile devices using pennies worth of plastic and glass materials. The microscope has a wide range of uses, from education to in-the-field science.

  4. Future of 3D Printing | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    In 2016, GE will enter a new jet engine into service called the CFM LEAP-the first in GE's line to incorporate 3D-printed parts. Specifically, it will be a combustion component ...

  5. Printing 3D Catalytic Devices | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Printing 3D Catalytic Devices An error occurred. Try watching this video on www.youtube.com, or enable JavaScript if it is disabled in your browser. Ames Laboratory scientist Igor...

  6. 3D Printed Microscope for Mobile Devices that Cost Pennies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erikson, Rebecca; Baird, Cheryl; Hutchinson, Janine

    2014-09-15

    Scientists at PNNL have designed a 3D-printable microscope for mobile devices using pennies worth of plastic and glass materials. The microscope has a wide range of uses, from education to in-the-field science.

  7. Metasurface skin invisibility cloak makes 3D objects disappear

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Metasurface skin invisibility cloak makes 3D objects disappear Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window) Click to share on ...

  8. Microseismicity and 3-D Mapping of an Active Geothermal Field...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    suggests an intersecting network of fractures with both NE and approximately NW trends. 3-D tomographic analyses of P-wave velocity, S-wave velocity, and the VpVs ratio are...

  9. Laser Doppler field sensor for high resolution flow velocity imaging without camera

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voigt, Andreas; Bayer, Christian; Shirai, Katsuaki; Buettner, Lars; Czarske, Juergen

    2008-09-20

    In this paper we present a laser sensor for highly spatially resolved flow imaging without using a camera. The sensor is an extension of the principle of laser Doppler anemometry (LDA). Instead of a parallel fringe system, diverging and converging fringes are employed. This method facilitates the determination of the tracer particle position within the measurement volume and leads to an increased spatial and velocity resolution compared to conventional LDA. Using a total number of four fringe systems the flow is resolved in two spatial dimensions and the orthogonal velocity component. Since no camera is used, the resolution of the sensor is not influenced by pixel size effects. A spatial resolution of 4 {mu}m in the x direction and 16 {mu}m in the y direction and a relative velocity resolution of 1x10{sup -3} have been demonstrated up to now. As a first application we present the velocity measurement of an injection nozzle flow. The sensor is also highly suitable for applications in nano- and microfluidics, e.g., for the measurement of flow rates.

  10. Isotopic imaging via nuclear resonance fluorescence with laser-based Thomson radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barty, Christopher P. J.; Hartemann, Frederic V.; McNabb, Dennis P.; Pruet, Jason A.

    2009-07-21

    The present invention utilizes novel laser-based, high-brightness, high-spatial-resolution, pencil-beam sources of spectrally pure hard x-ray and gamma-ray radiation to induce resonant scattering in specific nuclei, i.e., nuclear resonance fluorescence. By monitoring such fluorescence as a function of beam position, it is possible to image in either two dimensions or three dimensions, the position and concentration of individual isotopes in a specific material configuration. Such methods of the present invention material identification, spatial resolution of material location and ability to locate and identify materials shielded by other materials, such as, for example, behind a lead wall. The foundation of the present invention is the generation of quasimonochromatic high-energy x-ray (100's of keV) and gamma-ray (greater than about 1 MeV) radiation via the collision of intense laser pulses from relativistic electrons. Such a process as utilized herein, i.e., Thomson scattering or inverse-Compton scattering, produces beams having diameters from about 1 micron to about 100 microns of high-energy photons with a bandwidth of .DELTA.E/E of approximately 10E.sup.-3.

  11. Interferometrically Defined 3D Pyrolyzed-Carbon Sensors. (Conference) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Conference: Interferometrically Defined 3D Pyrolyzed-Carbon Sensors. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Interferometrically Defined 3D Pyrolyzed-Carbon Sensors. Abstract not provided. Authors: Polsky, Ronen ; Beechem Iii, Thomas Edwin ; Wheeler, David Roger ; Xiao, Xiaoyin ; Burckel, David Bruce ; Xiao, Xiaoyin Publication Date: 2012-01-01 OSTI Identifier: 1118308 Report Number(s): SAND2012-0150C 481454 DOE Contract Number: AC04-94AL85000 Resource Type: Conference

  12. Texture splats for 3D vector and scalar field visualization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawfis, R.A.; Max, N.

    1993-04-06

    Volume Visualization is becoming an important tool for understanding large 3D datasets. A popular technique for volume rendering is known as splatting. With new hardware architectures offering substantial improvements in the performance of rendering texture mapped objects, we present textured splats. An ideal reconstruction function for 3D signals is developed which can be used as a texture map for a splat. Extensions to the basic splatting technique are then developed to additionally represent vector fields.

  13. Performance Modeling for 3D Visualization in a Heterogeneous Computing

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Environment (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Performance Modeling for 3D Visualization in a Heterogeneous Computing Environment Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Performance Modeling for 3D Visualization in a Heterogeneous Computing Environment The visualization of large, remotely located data sets necessitates the development of a distributed computing pipeline in order to reduce the data, in stages, to a manageable size. The required baseline infrastructure for launching such

  14. Collaborative Project. 3D Radiative Transfer Parameterization Over

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Mountains/Snow for High-Resolution Climate Models. Fast physics and Applications (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Collaborative Project. 3D Radiative Transfer Parameterization Over Mountains/Snow for High-Resolution Climate Models. Fast physics and Applications Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Collaborative Project. 3D Radiative Transfer Parameterization Over Mountains/Snow for High-Resolution Climate Models. Fast physics and Applications Under the support of the aforementioned

  15. Hanford Site - 100-HR-3-D | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    D Hanford Site - 100-HR-3-D July 1, 2014 - 12:00pm Addthis US Department of Energy Groundwater Database Groundwater Master Report InstallationName, State: Hanford Site, WA Responsible DOE Office: Office of Environmental Management Plume Name: 100-HR-3-D Remediation Contractor: CHPRC PBS Number: 30 Report Last Updated: July 2014 with CY2013 data Contaminants Halogenated VOCs/SVOCs Present?: No Fuel Present? No Metals Present? Yes Isotopes Present? Yes Explosives Present? No Other Contaminants? No

  16. DNA origami with Complex Curvatures in 3D

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    with Complex Curvatures in 3D 15 Apr 2011 Center researchers have developed a new DNA origami design strategy for engineering complex, arbitrarily shaped 3D DNA nanostructures that have substantial intrinsic curvatures. This strategy has been presented in a paper by Professors Hao Yan, Yan Liu and coworkers that was featured on the cover of Science for April 15, 2011. Use of DNA as a structural material is in the basis of the DNA nanotechnology searching for ways to assemble nanoscale structures

  17. Electromagnetic Response Inversion for a 3D Distribution of Conductivity/Dielect

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2001-10-24

    NLCGCS inverts electromagnetic responses for a 3D distribution of electrical conductivity and dielectric permittivity within the earth for geophysical applications using single processor computers. The software comes bundled with a graphical user interface to aid in model construction and analysis and viewing of earth images. The solution employs both dipole and finite size source configurations for harmonic oscillatory sources. A new nonlinear preconditioner is included in the solution to speed up solution convergence.

  18. Nondestructive volumetric 3-D chemical mapping of nickel-sulfur compounds at the nanoscale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris W. M.; Chu Y.; Nelson, G.J.; Kiss, A.M.; Izzo Jr, J.R.; Liu, Y.; Liu, M.; Wang, S.; Chiu W.K.S.

    2012-04-04

    Nano-structures of nickel (Ni) and nickel subsulfide (Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2}) materials were studied and mapped in 3D with high-resolution x-ray nanotomography combined with full field XANES spectroscopy. This method for characterizing these phases in complex microstructures is an important new analytical imaging technique, applicable to a wide range of nanoscale and mesoscale electrochemical systems.

  19. 2D?3D polycatenated and 3D?3D interpenetrated metalorganic frameworks constructed from thiophene-2,5-dicarboxylate and rigid bis(imidazole) ligands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erer, Hakan; Ye?ilel, Okan Zafer; Ar?c?, Mrsel; Keskin, Seda; Bykgngr, Orhan

    2014-02-15

    Hydrothermal reactions of rigid 1,4-bis(imidazol-1-yl)benzene (dib) and 1,4-bis(imidazol-1-yl)-2,5-dimethylbenzene (dimb) with deprotonated thiophene-2,5-dicarboxylic acid (H{sub 2}tdc) in the presence of Zn(II) and Cd(II) salts in H{sub 2}O produced three new metalorganic frameworks, namely, [Zn(-tdc)(H{sub 2}O)(-dib)]{sub n} (1), [Cd(-tdc)(H{sub 2}O)(-dib)]{sub n} (2), and ([Cd{sub 2}({sub 3}-tdc){sub 2}(-dimb){sub 2}](H{sub 2}O)){sub n}(3). These MOFs were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, elemental, thermal (TG, DTA, DTG and DSC), and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. Isomorphous complexes 1 and 2 reveal polycatenated 2D+2D?3D framework based on an undulated (4,4)-sql layer. Complex 3 exhibits a new 4-fold interpenetrating 3D framework with the point symbol of 6{sup 6}. Molecular simulations were used to assess the potentials of the complexes for H{sub 2} storage application. Moreover, these coordination polymers exhibit blue fluorescent emission bands in the solid state at room temperature. - Graphical abstract: In this study, hydrothermal reactions of rigid 1,4-bis(imidazol-1-yl)benzene (dib) and 1,4-bis(imidazol-1-yl)-2,5-dimethylbenzene (dimb) with deprotonated thiophene-2,5-dicarboxylic acid (H{sub 2}tdc) in the presence of Zn(II) and Cd(II) salts in H{sub 2}O produced three new metalorganic frameworks. Isomorphous complexes 1 and 2 reveal polycatenated 2D+2D?3D framework based on an undulated (4,4)-sql layer. Complex 3 exhibits a new 4-fold interpenetrating 3D framework with the point symbol of 6{sup 6}. Molecular simulations were used to assess the potentials of the complexes for H{sub 2} storage application. These coordination polymers exhibit blue fluorescent emission bands in the solid state at room temperature. Display Omitted - Highlights: Complexes 1 and 2 display polycatenated 2D+2D?3D framework. Complex 3 exhibits a new 4-fold interpenetrating 3D framework. Complex 1 adsorbs the highest amount of H{sub 2} at 100 bar and 298 K. Complexes display blue fluorescent emission bands.

  20. SU-E-J-128: 3D Surface Reconstruction of a Patient Using Epipolar Geometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kotoku, J; Nakabayashi, S; Kumagai, S; Ishibashi, T; Kobayashi, T; Haga, A; Saotome, N; Arai, N

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To obtain a 3D surface data of a patient in a non-invasive way can substantially reduce the effort for the registration of patient in radiation therapy. To achieve this goal, we introduced the multiple view stereo technique, which is known to be used in a 'photo tourism' on the internet. Methods: 70 Images were taken with a digital single-lens reflex camera from different angles and positions. The camera positions and angles were inferred later in the reconstruction step. A sparse 3D reconstruction model was locating by SIFT features, which is robust for rotation and shift variance, in each image. We then found a set of correspondences between pairs of images by computing the fundamental matrix using the eight-point algorithm with RANSAC. After the pair matching, we optimized the parameter including camera positions to minimize the reprojection error by use of bundle adjustment technique (non-linear optimization). As a final step, we performed dense reconstruction and associate a color with each point using the library of PMVS. Results: Surface data were reconstructed well by visual inspection. The human skin is reconstructed well, althogh the reconstruction was time-consuming for direct use in daily clinical practice. Conclusion: 3D reconstruction using multi view stereo geometry is a promising tool for reducing the effort of patient setup. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI(25861128)

  1. Near infrared spectral imaging of explosives using a tunable laser source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klunder, G L; Margalith, E; Nguyen, L K

    2010-03-26

    Diffuse reflectance near infrared hyperspectral imaging is an important analytical tool for a wide variety of industries, including agriculture consumer products, chemical and pharmaceutical development and production. Using this technique as a method for the standoff detection of explosive particles is presented and discussed. The detection of the particles is based on the diffuse reflectance of light from the particle in the near infrared wavelength range where CH, NH, OH vibrational overtones and combination bands are prominent. The imaging system is a NIR focal plane array camera with a tunable OPO/laser system as the illumination source. The OPO is programmed to scan over a wide spectral range in the NIR and the camera is synchronized to record the light reflected from the target for each wavelength. The spectral resolution of this system is significantly higher than that of hyperspectral systems that incorporate filters or dispersive elements. The data acquisition is very fast and the entire hyperspectral cube can be collected in seconds. A comparison of data collected with the OPO system to data obtained with a broadband light source with LCTF filters is presented.

  2. Lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-01-01

    The scope of our research in laser and related technologies has grown over the years and has attracted a broad user base for applications within DOE, DOD, and private industry. Within the next few years, we expect to begin constructing the National Ignition Facility, to make substantial progress in deploying AVLIS technology for uranium and gadolinium enrichment, and to develop new radar sensing techniques to detect underwater objects. Further, we expect to translate LLNL patent ideas in microlithography into useful industrial products and to successfully apply high-power, diode-based laser technology to industrial and government applications.

  3. Advanced 3D Sensing and Visualization System for Unattended Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlson, J.J.; Little, C.Q.; Nelson, C.L.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to create a reliable, 3D sensing and visualization system for unattended monitoring. The system provides benefits for several of Sandia's initiatives including nonproliferation, treaty verification, national security and critical infrastructure surety. The robust qualities of the system make it suitable for both interior and exterior monitoring applications. The 3D sensing system combines two existing sensor technologies in a new way to continuously maintain accurate 3D models of both static and dynamic components of monitored areas (e.g., portions of buildings, roads, and secured perimeters in addition to real-time estimates of the shape, location, and motion of humans and moving objects). A key strength of this system is the ability to monitor simultaneous activities on a continuous basis, such as several humans working independently within a controlled workspace, while also detecting unauthorized entry into the workspace. Data from the sensing system is used to identi~ activities or conditions that can signi~ potential surety (safety, security, and reliability) threats. The system could alert a security operator of potential threats or could be used to cue other detection, inspection or warning systems. An interactive, Web-based, 3D visualization capability was also developed using the Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML). The intex%ace allows remote, interactive inspection of a monitored area (via the Internet or Satellite Links) using a 3D computer model of the area that is rendered from actual sensor data.

  4. 3D structural fluctuation of IgG1 antibody revealed by individual particle electron tomography

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Xing; Zhang, Lei; Tong, Huimin; Peng, Bo; Rames, Matthew J.; Zhang, Shengli; Ren, Gang

    2015-05-05

    Commonly used methods for determining protein structure, including X-ray crystallography and single-particle reconstruction, often provide a single and unique three-dimensional (3D) structure. However, in these methods, the protein dynamics and flexibility/fluctuation remain mostly unknown. Here, we utilized advances in electron tomography (ET) to study the antibody flexibility and fluctuation through structural determination of individual antibody particles rather than averaging multiple antibody particles together. Through individual-particle electron tomography (IPET) 3D reconstruction from negatively-stained ET images, we obtained 120 ab-initio 3D density maps at an intermediate resolution (~1–3 nm) from 120 individual IgG1 antibody particles. Using these maps as a constraint, wemore » derived 120 conformations of the antibody via structural flexible docking of the crystal structure to these maps by targeted molecular dynamics simulations. Statistical analysis of the various conformations disclosed the antibody 3D conformational flexibility through the distribution of its domain distances and orientations. This blueprint approach, if extended to other flexible proteins, may serve as a useful methodology towards understanding protein dynamics and functions.« less

  5. Multiparticle imaging technique for two-phase fluid flows using pulsed laser speckle velocimetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hassan, T.A.

    1992-12-01

    The practical use of Pulsed Laser Velocimetry (PLV) requires the use of fast, reliable computer-based methods for tracking numerous particles suspended in a fluid flow. Two methods for performing tracking are presented. One method tracks a particle through multiple sequential images (minimum of four required) by prediction and verification of particle displacement and direction. The other method, requiring only two sequential images uses a dynamic, binary, spatial, cross-correlation technique. The algorithms are tested on computer-generated synthetic data and experimental data which was obtained with traditional PLV methods. This allowed error analysis and testing of the algorithms on real engineering flows. A novel method is proposed which eliminates tedious, undersirable, manual, operator assistance in removing erroneous vectors. This method uses an iterative process involving an interpolated field produced from the most reliable vectors. Methods are developed to allow fast analysis and presentation of sets of PLV image data. Experimental investigation of a two-phase, horizontal, stratified, flow regime was performed to determine the interface drag force, and correspondingly, the drag coefficient. A horizontal, stratified flow test facility using water and air was constructed to allow interface shear measurements with PLV techniques. The experimentally obtained local drag measurements were compared with theoretical results given by conventional interfacial drag theory. Close agreement was shown when local conditions near the interface were similar to space-averaged conditions. However, theory based on macroscopic, space-averaged flow behavior was shown to give incorrect results if the local gas velocity near the interface as unstable, transient, and dissimilar from the average gas velocity through the test facility.

  6. The 3D-Printed Shelby Cobra: Defining Rapid Innovation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The 3D-Printed Shelby Cobra: Defining Rapid Innovation It’s been hard to miss in the media and on its almost non-stop road tour, but AMO wanted you to know that our 3D-printed EV version of the 50th anniversary Shelby Cobra just left the Forrestal building lobby after visiting for two weeks. Secretary Moniz dropped in for a quick tour around the car with Mark Johnson, AMO’s Director and David Danielson, EERE’s Assistant Secretary on Tuesday April 7th.

  7. 3D circuit integration for Vertex and other detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yarema, Ray; /Fermilab

    2007-09-01

    High Energy Physics continues to push the technical boundaries for electronics. There is no area where this is truer than for vertex detectors. Lower mass and power along with higher resolution and radiation tolerance are driving forces. New technologies such as SOI CMOS detectors and three dimensional (3D) integrated circuits offer new opportunities to meet these challenges. The fundamentals for SOI CMOS detectors and 3D integrated circuits are discussed. Examples of each approach for physics applications are presented. Cost issues and ways to reduce development costs are discussed.

  8. Characterization of 3D Cirrus Cloud and Radiation Fields Using

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ARS/AIRS/MODIS data and its Application to Climate Model (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Characterization of 3D Cirrus Cloud and Radiation Fields Using ARS/AIRS/MODIS data and its Application to Climate Model Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Characterization of 3D Cirrus Cloud and Radiation Fields Using ARS/AIRS/MODIS data and its Application to Climate Model During the report period, we have made the following research accomplishments. First, we performed analysis for a

  9. Supercomputer Helps Model 3D Map of Adolescent Universe

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Supercomputer Helps Model 3D Map of Adolescent Universe Supercomputer Helps Model 3D Map of Adolescent Universe Researchers Demonstrate Novel Technique for High-Resolution Universe Maps October 17, 2014 Contact: Kate Greene, kgreene@lbl.gov, 510-486-4404 Using extremely faint light from galaxies 10.8 billion light years away, scientists have created one of the most complete, three-dimensional maps of a slice of the adolescent universe-just 3 billion years after the Big Bang. The map shows a web

  10. SURFACE MORPHOLOGY OF CARBON FIBER POLYMER COMPOSITES AFTER LASER STRUCTURING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabau, Adrian S; Chen, Jian; Jones, Jonaaron F.; Alexandra, Hackett; Jellison Jr, Gerald Earle; Daniel, Claus; Warren, Charles David; Rehkopf, Jackie D.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing use of Carbon Fiber Polymer Composite (CFPC) as a lightweight material in automotive and aerospace industries requires the control of surface morphology. In this study, the composites surface was prepared by ablating the resin in the top fiber layer of the composite using an Nd:YAG laser. The CFPC specimens with T700S carbon fiber and Prepreg - T83 resin (epoxy) were supplied by Plasan Carbon Composites, Inc. as 4 ply thick, 0/90o plaques. The effect of laser fluence, scanning speed, and wavelength was investigated to remove resin without an excessive damage of the fibers. In addition, resin ablation due to the power variation created by a laser interference technique is presented. Optical property measurements, optical micrographs, 3D imaging, and high-resolution optical profiler images were used to study the effect of the laser processing on the surface morphology.

  11. The 3D-Printed Shelby Cobra: Defining Rapid Innovation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    It’s been hard to miss in the media and on its almost non-stop road tour, but AMO wanted you to know that our 3D-printed EV version of the 50th anniversary Shelby Cobra just left the Forrestal...

  12. Extra Dimensions: 3D and Time in PDF Documentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graf, Norman A.; /SLAC

    2011-11-10

    High energy physics is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide audience. In this talk, we present examples of HEP applications which take advantage of this functionality. We demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input. Using this technique, higher dimensional data, such as LEGO plots or time-dependent information can be included in PDF files. In principle, a complete event display, with full interactivity, can be incorporated into a PDF file. This would allow the end user not only to customize the view and representation of the data, but to access the underlying data itself.

  13. Application of DYNA3D in large scale crashworthiness calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benson, D.J.; Hallquist, J.O.; Igarashi, M.; Shimomaki, K.; Mizuno, M.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents an example of an automobile crashworthiness calculation. Based on our experiences with the example calculation, we make recommendations to those interested in performing crashworthiness calculations. The example presented in this paper was supplied by Suzuki Motor Co., Ltd., and provided a significant shakedown for the new large deformation shell capability of the DYNA3D code. 15 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Q3dComms Version 0.9

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-01-05

    Q3dComms provides an interface to the commercial package Quest30 . Quest30 connectors called "channels" can be directly mapped to Umbra connectors using this tool. Furthermore, virtual 30 worlds created in Quest30 can be connected to Umbra with this tool.

  15. Test of 3D CT reconstructions by EM + TV algorithm from undersampled data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evseev, Ivan; Ahmann, Francielle; Silva, Hamilton P. da

    2013-05-06

    Computerized tomography (CT) plays an important role in medical imaging for diagnosis and therapy. However, CT imaging is connected with ionization radiation exposure of patients. Therefore, the dose reduction is an essential issue in CT. In 2011, the Expectation Maximization and Total Variation Based Model for CT Reconstruction (EM+TV) was proposed. This method can reconstruct a better image using less CT projections in comparison with the usual filtered back projection (FBP) technique. Thus, it could significantly reduce the overall dose of radiation in CT. This work reports the results of an independent numerical simulation for cone beam CT geometry with alternative virtual phantoms. As in the original report, the 3D CT images of 128 Multiplication-Sign 128 Multiplication-Sign 128 virtual phantoms were reconstructed. It was not possible to implement phantoms with lager dimensions because of the slowness of code execution even by the CORE i7 CPU.

  16. RELAP5-3D Developer Guidelines and Programming Practices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. George L Mesina

    2014-03-01

    Our ultimate goal is to create and maintain RELAP5-3D as the best software tool available to analyze nuclear power plants. This begins with writing excellent programming and requires thorough testing. This document covers development of RELAP5-3D software, the behavior of the RELAP5-3D program that must be maintained, and code testing. RELAP5-3D must perform in a manner consistent with previous code versions with backward compatibility for the sake of the users. Thus file operations, code termination, input and output must remain consistent in form and content while adding appropriate new files, input and output as new features are developed. As computer hardware, operating systems, and other software change, RELAP5-3D must adapt and maintain performance. The code must be thoroughly tested to ensure that it continues to perform robustly on the supported platforms. The coding must be written in a consistent manner that makes the program easy to read to reduce the time and cost of development, maintenance and error resolution. The programming guidelines presented her are intended to institutionalize a consistent way of writing FORTRAN code for the RELAP5-3D computer program that will minimize errors and rework. A common format and organization of program units creates a unifying look and feel to the code. This in turn increases readability and reduces time required for maintenance, development and debugging. It also aids new programmers in reading and understanding the program. Therefore, when undertaking development of the RELAP5-3D computer program, the programmer must write computer code that follows these guidelines. This set of programming guidelines creates a framework of good programming practices, such as initialization, structured programming, and vector-friendly coding. It sets out formatting rules for lines of code, such as indentation, capitalization, spacing, etc. It creates limits on program units, such as subprograms, functions, and modules. It establishes documentation guidance on internal comments. The guidelines apply to both existing and new subprograms. They are written for both FORTRAN 77 and FORTRAN 95. The guidelines are not so rigorous as to inhibit a programmer’s unique style, but do restrict the variations in acceptable coding to create sufficient commonality that new readers will find the coding in each new subroutine familiar. It is recognized that this is a “living” document and must be updated as languages, compilers, and computer hardware and software evolve.

  17. Untangling the contributions of image charge and laser profile for optimal photoemission of high-brightness electron beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Portman, J.; Zhang, H.; Makino, K.; Ruan, C. Y.; Berz, M.; Duxbury, P. M.

    2014-11-07

    Using our model for the simulation of photoemission of high brightness electron beams, we investigate the virtual cathode physics and the limits to spatio-temporal and spectroscopic resolution originating from the image charge on the surface and from the profile of the exciting laser pulse. By contrasting the effect of varying surface properties (leading to expanding or pinned image charge), laser profiles (Gaussian, uniform, and elliptical), and aspect ratios (pancake- and cigar-like) under different extraction field strengths and numbers of generated electrons, we quantify the effect of these experimental parameters on macroscopic pulse properties such as emittance, brightness (4D and 6D), coherence length, and energy spread. Based on our results, we outline optimal conditions of pulse generation for ultrafast electron microscope systems that take into account constraints on the number of generated electrons and on the required time resolution.

  18. Electron-Heated Target Temperature Measurements in Petawatt Laser Experiments Based on Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging and Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, T; Beg, F; Macphee, A; Chung, H; Key, M; Mackinnon, A; Patel, P; Hatchett, S; Akli, K; Stephens, R; Chen, C; Freeman, R; Link, A; Offermann, D; Ovchinnikov, V; VanWoerkom, L; Zhang, B

    2008-05-02

    Three independent methods (XUV spectroscopy, imaging at 68 eV and 256 eV) have been used to measure planar target rear surface plasma temperature due to heating by hot electrons. The hot electrons are produced by ultra-intense laser plasma interactions using the 150 J, 0.5 ps Titan laser. Soft x-ray spectroscopy in the 50-400 eV region and imaging at the 68 eV and 256 eV photon energies were used to determine the rear surface temperature of planar CD targets. Temperatures were found to be in the 60-150 eV range, with good agreement between the three diagnostics.

  19. Mapping the Ionization State of Laser-Irradiated Ar Gas Jets With Multi-Wavelength Monochromatic X-Ray Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kugland, N L; Doppner, T; Kemp, A; Schaeffer, D; Glenzer, S H; Niemann, C

    2010-04-08

    Two-dimensional monochromatic images of fast-electron stimulated Ar K{alpha} and He-{alpha} x-ray self-emission have recorded a time-integrated map of the extent of Ar{sup {approx}6+} and Ar{sup 16+} ions, respectively, within a high density (10{sup 20} cm{sup -3} atomic density) Ar plasma. This plasma was produced by irradiating a 2 mm wide clustering Ar gas jet with an ultra-high intensity (10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}, 200 fs) Ti:Sapphire laser operating at 800 nm. Spherically bent quartz crystals in the 200 (for K{alpha}) and 201 (for He-{alpha}) planes were used as near-normal incidence reflective x-ray optics. We see that a large (830 {micro}m long) region of plasma emits K{alpha} primarily along the laser axis, while the He-{alpha} emission is confined to smaller hot spot (230 {micro}m long) region that likely corresponds to the focal volume of the f/8 laser beam. X-ray spectra from a Bragg spectrometer operating in the von Hamos geometry, which images in one dimension, indicate that the centroids of the K{alpha} and He-{alpha} emission regions are separated by approximately 330 {micro}m along the laser axis.

  20. Effects of repetitive pulsing on multi-kHz planar laser-induced incandescence imaging in laminar and turbulent flames

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Michael, James B.; Venkateswaran, Prabhakar; Shaddix, Christopher R.; Meyer, Terrence R.

    2015-04-08

    Planar laser-induced incandescence (LII) imaging is reported at repetition rates up to 100 kHz using a burst-mode laser system to enable studies of soot formation dynamics in highly turbulent flames. Furthermore, to quantify the accuracy and uncertainty of relative soot volume fraction measurements, the temporal evolution of the LII field in laminar and turbulent flames is examined at various laser operating conditions. Under high-speed repetitive probing, it is found that LII signals are sensitive to changes in soot physical characteristics when operating at high laser fluences within the soot vaporization regime. For these laser conditions, strong planar LII signals aremore » observed at measurement rates up to 100 kHz but are primarily useful for qualitative tracking of soot structure dynamics. However, LII signals collected at lower fluences allow sequential planar measurements of the relative soot volume fraction with a sufficient signal-to-noise ratio at repetition rates of 10–50 kHz. Finally, guidelines for identifying and avoiding the onset of repetitive probe effects in the LII signals are discussed, along with other potential sources of measurement error and uncertainty.« less

  1. NORTH HILL CREEK 3-D SEISMIC EXPLORATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marc T. Eckels; David H. Suek; Denise H. Harrison; Paul J. Harrison

    2004-05-06

    Wind River Resources Corporation (WRRC) received a DOE grant in support of its proposal to acquire, process and interpret fifteen square miles of high-quality 3-D seismic data on non-allotted trust lands of the Uintah and Ouray (Ute) Indian Reservation, northeastern Utah, in 2000. Subsequent to receiving notice that its proposal would be funded, WRRC was able to add ten square miles of adjacent state and federal mineral acreage underlying tribal surface lands by arrangement with the operator of the Flat Rock Field. The twenty-five square mile 3-D seismic survey was conducted during the fall of 2000. The data were processed through the winter of 2000-2001, and initial interpretation took place during the spring of 2001. The initial interpretation identified multiple attractive drilling prospects, two of which were staked and permitted during the summer of 2001. The two initial wells were drilled in September and October of 2001. A deeper test was drilled in June of 2002. Subsequently a ten-well deep drilling evaluation program was conducted from October of 2002 through March 2004. The present report discusses the background of the project; design and execution of the 3-D seismic survey; processing and interpretation of the data; and drilling, completion and production results of a sample of the wells drilled on the basis of the interpreted survey. Fifteen wells have been drilled to test targets identified on the North Hill Creek 3-D Seismic Survey. None of these wildcat exploratory wells has been a dry hole, and several are among the best gas producers in Utah. The quality of the data produced by this first significant exploratory 3-D survey in the Uinta Basin has encouraged other operators to employ this technology. At least two additional 3-D seismic surveys have been completed in the vicinity of the North Hill Creek Survey, and five additional surveys are being planned for the 2004 field season. This project was successful in finding commercial oil, natural gas and natural gas liquids production on a remote part of the Uintah & Ouray Reservation. Much of the natural gas and natural gas liquids are being produced from the Wingate Formation, which to our knowledge has never produced commercially anywhere. Another large percentage of the natural gas is being produced from the Entrada Formation which has not previously produced in this part of the Uinta Basin. In all, at least nine geologic formations are contributing hydrocarbons to these wells. This survey has clearly established the fact that high-quality data can be obtained in this area, despite the known obstacles.

  2. Computerized fluid movement mapping and 3-D visualization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Awami, A.A.; Poore, J.W.; Sizer, J.P.

    1995-11-01

    Most of the fieldwide fluid movement monitoring techniques under utilize available computer resources. This paper discusses an approach reservoir management engineers use to monitor fluid movement in reservoirs with a multitude of wells. This approach allows the engineer to maintain up-to-date fluid movement studies and incorporate the latest information from data acquisition programs into the day to day decision-making process. The approach uses several in-house database applications and makes extensive use of commercially available software products to generate and visualize cross-sections, maps, and 3-d models. This paper reviews the computerized procedures to create cross-sections that display the current fluid contacts overlaying the lithology. It also reviews the mapping procedures nd presents examples of water encroachment maps by layer at specific time periods. 3-D geologic modeling software greatly enhances the visualization of the reservoir. This software can also be used to interpret and model fluid movement, given the appropriate engineering constraints.

  3. Nano-Composite Material Development for 3-D Printers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Satches, Michael Randolph

    2015-12-01

    Graphene possesses excellent mechanical properties with a tensile strength that may exceed 130 GPa, excellent electrical conductivity, and good thermal properties. Future nano-composites can leverage many of these material properties in an attempt to build designer materials for a broad range of applications. 3-D printing has also seen vast improvements in recent years that have allowed many companies and individuals to realize rapid prototyping for relatively low capital investment. This research sought to create a graphene reinforced, polymer matrix nano-composite that is viable in commercial 3D printer technology, study the effects of ultra-high loading percentages of graphene in polymer matrices and determine the functional upper limit for loading. Loadings varied from 5 wt. % to 50 wt. % graphene nanopowder loaded in Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) matrices. Loaded sample were characterized for their mechanical properties using three point bending, tensile tests, as well as dynamic mechanical analysis.

  4. DYNA3D Non-reflecting Boundary Conditions - Test Problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zywicz, E

    2006-09-28

    Two verification problems were developed to test non-reflecting boundary segments in DYNA3D (Whirley and Engelmann, 1993). The problems simulate 1-D wave propagation in a semi-infinite rod using a finite length rod and non-reflecting boundary conditions. One problem examines pure pressure wave propagation, and the other problem explores pure shear wave propagation. In both problems the non-reflecting boundary segments yield results that differ only slightly (less than 6%) during a short duration from their corresponding theoretical solutions. The errors appear to be due to the inability to generate a true step-function compressive wave in the pressure wave propagation problem and due to segment integration inaccuracies in the shear wave propagation problem. These problems serve as verification problems and as regression test problems for DYNA3D.

  5. A new automatic contact formulation in DYNA3D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whirley, R.G.; Engelmann, B.E.

    1993-08-01

    This paper presents a new approach for the automatic definition and treatment of mechanical contact in DYNA3D. Automatic contact offers the benefits of significantly reduced model construction time and fewer opportunities for user error, but must maintain high reliability and acceptable computational costs. The major features of the proposed new method include automatic identification of potentially contacting surfaces during the initialization phase, a new high-performance contact search procedure, and the use of a well-defined surface normal which allows a consistent treatment of shell intersection and corner contact conditions without ad-hoc rules. Three examples are presented which illustrate the performance of newly proposed algorithm in the public DYNA3D code.

  6. Homogeneous and Interfacial Catalysis in 3D Controlled Environment | The

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ames Laboratory Homogeneous and Interfacial Catalysis in 3D Controlled Environment FWP/Project Description: Project Leader(s): Marek Pruski Principal Investigators: Marek Pruski, Aaron Sadow, Igor Slowing Key Scientific Personnel: Takeshi Kobayashi This collaborative research effort is geared toward bringing together the best features of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis for developing new catalytic principles. Novel silica-based, single-site mesoporous catalysts with controlled,

  7. DREAM3D simulations of inner-belt dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cunningham, Gregory Scott

    2015-05-26

    A 1973 paper by Lyons and Thorne explains the two-belt structure for electrons in the inner magnetosphere as a balance between inward radial diffusion and loss to the atmosphere, where the loss to the atmosphere is enabled by pitch-angle scattering from Coulomb and wave-particle interactions. In the 1973 paper, equilibrium solutions to a decoupled set of 1D radial diffusion equations, one for each value of the first invariant of motion, ?, were computed to produce the equilibrium two-belt structure. Each 1D radial diffusion equation incorporated an L-and ?-dependent `lifetime' due to the Coulomb and wave-particle interactions. This decoupling of the problem is appropriate under the assumption that radial diffusion is slow in comparison to pitch-angle scattering. However, for some values of ? and L the lifetime associated with pitch-angle scattering is comparable to the timescale associated with radial diffusion, suggesting that the true equilibrium solutions might reflect `coupled modes' involving pitch-angle scattering and radial diffusion and thus requiring a 3D diffusion model. In the work we show here, we have computed the equilibrium solutions using our 3D diffusion model, DREAM3D, that allows for such coupling. We find that the 3D equilibrium solutions are quite similar to the solutions shown in the 1973 paper when we use the same physical models for radial diffusion and pitch-angle scattering from hiss. However, we show that the equilibrium solutions are quite sensitive to various aspects of the physics model employed in the 1973 paper that can be improved, suggesting that additional work needs to be done to understand the two-belt structure.

  8. A material model driver for DYNA3D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hallquist, J.O.; Whirley, R.G.

    1990-02-22

    This report describes a material model driver which has recently been implemented in the DYNA3D code. The material model driver allows plotting of the constitutive response predicted by a material model under a given load path. This capability is particularly useful when fitting complex material models to experimental data. The plotting capability of the material model driver facilitates comparison of the simulated material stress-strain behavior with actual material test results. 1 ref., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. 3D, Flash, Induced Current Readout for Silicon Sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, Sherwood I.

    2014-06-07

    A new method for silicon microstrip and pixel detector readout using (1) 65 nm-technology current amplifers which can, for the first time with silicon microstrop and pixel detectors, have response times far shorter than the charge collection time (2) 3D trench electrodes large enough to subtend a reasonable solid angle at most track locations and so have adequate sensitivity over a substantial volume of pixel, (3) induced signals in addition to, or in place of, collected charge

  10. Three-dimensional molecular imaging by infrared laser ablation electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vertes, Akos; Nemes, Peter

    2011-06-21

    The field of the invention is atmospheric pressure mass spectrometry (MS), and more specifically a process and apparatus which combine infrared laser ablation with electrospray ionization (ESI).

  11. Three-dimensional molecular imaging by infrared laser ablation electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vertes, Akos; Nemes, Peter

    2013-07-16

    The field of the invention is atmospheric pressure mass spectrometry (MS), and more specifically a process and apparatus which combine infrared laser ablation with electrospray ionization (ESI).

  12. Laser ablation electrospray ionization (LAESI) for atmospheric pressure, in vivo, and imaging mass spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vertes, Akos; Nemes, Peter

    2013-07-16

    The field of the invention is atmospheric pressure mass spectrometry (MS), and more specifically a process and apparatus which combine infrared laser ablation with electrospray ionization (ESI).

  13. Laser ablation electrospray ionization (LAESI) for atmospheric pressure, In vivo, and imaging mass spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vertes, Akos; Nemes, Peter

    2011-11-29

    The field of the invention is atmospheric pressure mass spectrometry (MS), and more specifically a process and apparatus which combine infrared laser ablation (LA) with electrospray ionization (ESI).

  14. Laser ablation electrospray ionization (LAESI) for atmospheric pressure, in vivo, and imaging mass spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vertes, Akos; Nemes, Peter

    2014-08-19

    The field of the invention is atmospheric pressure mass spectrometry (MS), and more specifically a process and apparatus which combine infrared laser ablation with electrospray ionization (ESI).

  15. Three-dimensional molecular imaging by infrared laser ablation electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vertes, Akos; Nemes, Peter

    2012-10-30

    The field of the invention is atmospheric pressure mass spectrometry (MS), and more specifically a process and apparatus which combine infrared laser ablation with electrospray ionization (ESI).

  16. Beam and Truss Finite Element Verification for DYNA3D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rathbun, H J

    2007-07-16

    The explicit finite element (FE) software program DYNA3D has been developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to simulate the dynamic behavior of structures, systems, and components. This report focuses on verification of beam and truss element formulations in DYNA3D. An efficient protocol has been developed to verify the accuracy of these structural elements by generating a set of representative problems for which closed-form quasi-static steady-state analytical reference solutions exist. To provide as complete coverage as practically achievable, problem sets are developed for each beam and truss element formulation (and their variants) in all modes of loading and physical orientation. Analyses with loading in the elastic and elastic-plastic regimes are performed. For elastic loading, the FE results are within 1% of the reference solutions for all cases. For beam element bending and torsion loading in the plastic regime, the response is heavily dependent on the numerical integration rule chosen, with higher refinement yielding greater accuracy (agreement to within 1%). Axial loading in the plastic regime produces accurate results (agreement to within 0.01%) for all integration rules and element formulations. Truss elements are also verified to provide accurate results (within 0.01%) for elastic and elastic-plastic loading. A sample problem to verify beam element response in ParaDyn, the parallel version DYNA3D, is also presented.

  17. Parallel 3-D method of characteristics in MPACT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kochunas, B.; Dovvnar, T. J.; Liu, Z.

    2013-07-01

    A new parallel 3-D MOC kernel has been developed and implemented in MPACT which makes use of the modular ray tracing technique to reduce computational requirements and to facilitate parallel decomposition. The parallel model makes use of both distributed and shared memory parallelism which are implemented with the MPI and OpenMP standards, respectively. The kernel is capable of parallel decomposition of problems in space, angle, and by characteristic rays up to 0(104) processors. Initial verification of the parallel 3-D MOC kernel was performed using the Takeda 3-D transport benchmark problems. The eigenvalues computed by MPACT are within the statistical uncertainty of the benchmark reference and agree well with the averages of other participants. The MPACT k{sub eff} differs from the benchmark results for rodded and un-rodded cases by 11 and -40 pcm, respectively. The calculations were performed for various numbers of processors and parallel decompositions up to 15625 processors; all producing the same result at convergence. The parallel efficiency of the worst case was 60%, while very good efficiency (>95%) was observed for cases using 500 processors. The overall run time for the 500 processor case was 231 seconds and 19 seconds for the case with 15625 processors. Ongoing work is focused on developing theoretical performance models and the implementation of acceleration techniques to minimize the number of iterations to converge. (authors)

  18. 3-D Seismic Exploration Project, Ute Indian Tribe, Uintah and Ouray Reservation, Uintah County, Utah

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eckels, Marc T.

    2002-09-09

    The objectives of this North Hill Creek 3-D seismic survey were to: (1) cover as large an area as possible with available budget; (2) obtain high quality data throughout the depth range of the prospective geologic formations of 2,000' to 12,000' to image both gross structures and more subtle structural and stratigraphic elements; (3) overcome the challenges posed by a hard, reflective sandstone that cropped out or was buried just a few feet below the surface under most of the survey area; and (4) run a safe survey.

  19. Final Report - Study of Shortwave Spectra in Fully 3D Environment...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    3D Environment. Synergy Between Scanning Radars and Spectral Radiation Measurements Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Final Report - Study of Shortwave Spectra in Fully 3D ...

  20. Lasers '90: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Lasers and Applications, San Diego, CA, Dec. 10-14, 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, D.G.; Herbelin, J. Aerospace Corp., Los Angeles, CA )

    1991-01-01

    The general topics considered are: x-ray lasers; FELs; solid state lasers; techniques and phenomena of ultrafast lasers; optical filters and free space laser communications; discharge lasers; tunable lasers; applications of lasers in medicine and surgery; lasers in materials processing; high power lasers; dynamics gratings, wave mixing, and holography; up-conversion lasers; lidar and laser radar; laser resonators; excimer lasers; laser propagation; nonlinear and quantum optics; blue-green technology; imaging; laser spectroscopy; chemical lasers; dye lasers; and lasers in chemistry.

  1. Time-Resolved Imaging of Material Response Following Laser-Induced Breakdown in the Bulk and Surface of Fused Silica

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raman, R N; Negres, R A; DeMange, P; Demos, S G

    2010-02-04

    Optical components within high energy laser systems are susceptible to laser-induced material modification when the breakdown threshold is exceeded or damage is initiated by pre-existing impurities or defects. These modifications are the result of exposure to extreme conditions involving the generation of high temperatures and pressures and occur on a volumetric scale of the order of a few cubic microns. The response of the material following localized energy deposition, including the timeline of events and the individual processes involved during this timeline, is still largely unknown. In this work, we investigate the events taking place during the entire timeline in both bulk and surface damage in fused silica using a set of time-resolved microscopy systems. These microscope systems offer up to 1 micron spatial resolution when imaging static or dynamic effects, allowing for imaging of the entire process with adequate temporal and spatial resolution. These systems incorporate various pump-probe geometries designed to optimize the sensitivity for detecting individual aspects of the process such as the propagation of shock waves, near-surface material motion, the speed of ejecta, and material transformations. The experimental results indicate that the material response can be separated into distinct phases, some terminating within a few tens of nanoseconds but some extending up to about 100 microseconds. Overall the results demonstrate that the final characteristics of the modified region depend on the material response to the energy deposition and not on the laser parameters.

  2. Mapping the ionization state of laser-irradiated Ar gas jets with multiwavelength monochromatic x-ray imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kugland, N. L.; Niemann, C.; Doeppner, T.; Kemp, A.; Glenzer, S. H.; Schaeffer, D.

    2010-10-15

    Two-dimensional monochromatic images of fast-electron stimulated Ar K{alpha} and He-{alpha} x-ray self-emission have recorded a time-integrated map of the extent of Ar{sup {approx_equal}6+} and Ar{sup 16+} ions, respectively, within a high density (10{sup 20} cm{sup -3} atomic density) Ar plasma. This plasma was produced by irradiating a 2 mm wide clustering Ar gas jet with an ultrahigh intensity (10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}, 50 TW) Ti:sapphire laser operating at 800 nm. Spherically bent quartz crystals in the 200 (for K{alpha}) and 201 (for He-{alpha}) planes were used as near-normal incidence reflective x-ray optics. We see that a large (830 {mu}m long) region of plasma emits K{alpha} primarily along the laser axis, while the He-{alpha} emission is confined to smaller hot spot (230 {mu}m long) region that likely corresponds to the focal volume of the f/8 laser beam. X-ray spectra from a Bragg spectrometer operating in the von Hamos geometry indicate that the centroids of the K{alpha} and He-{alpha} emission regions are separated by approximately 330 {mu}m along the laser axis.

  3. Streamlining of the RELAP5-3D Code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mesina, George L; Hykes, Joshua; Guillen, Donna Post

    2007-11-01

    RELAP5-3D is widely used by the nuclear community to simulate general thermal hydraulic systems and has proven to be so versatile that the spectrum of transient two-phase problems that can be analyzed has increased substantially over time. To accommodate the many new types of problems that are analyzed by RELAP5-3D, both the physics and numerical methods of the code have been continuously improved. In the area of computational methods and mathematical techniques, many upgrades and improvements have been made decrease code run time and increase solution accuracy. These include vectorization, parallelization, use of improved equation solvers for thermal hydraulics and neutron kinetics, and incorporation of improved library utilities. In the area of applied nuclear engineering, expanded capabilities include boron and level tracking models, radiation/conduction enclosure model, feedwater heater and compressor components, fluids and corresponding correlations for modeling Generation IV reactor designs, and coupling to computational fluid dynamics solvers. Ongoing and proposed future developments include improvements to the two-phase pump model, conversion to FORTRAN 90, and coupling to more computer programs. This paper summarizes the general improvements made to RELAP5-3D, with an emphasis on streamlining the code infrastructure for improved maintenance and development. With all these past, present and planned developments, it is necessary to modify the code infrastructure to incorporate modifications in a consistent and maintainable manner. Modifying a complex code such as RELAP5-3D to incorporate new models, upgrade numerics, and optimize existing code becomes more difficult as the code grows larger. The difficulty of this as well as the chance of introducing errors is significantly reduced when the code is structured. To streamline the code into a structured program, a commercial restructuring tool, FOR_STRUCT, was applied to the RELAP5-3D source files. The methodology employed follows Dijkstra's structured programming paradigm, which is based on splitting programs into sub-sections, each with single points of entry and exit and in which control is passed downward through the structure with no unconditional branches to higher levels. GO TO commands are typically avoided, since they alter the flow and control of a programs execution by allowing a jump from one place in the routine to another. The restructuring of RELAP5-3D subroutines is complicated by several issues. The first is use of code other than standard FORTRAN77. The second is restructuring limitations of FOR_STRUCT. The third is existence of pre-compiler directives and the complication of nested directives. Techniques were developed to overcome all these difficulties and more and these are reported. By implementing these developments, all subroutines of RELAP were restructured. Measures of code improvement relative to maintenance and development are presented.

  4. 3D J-Integral Capability in Grizzly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benjamin Spencer; Marie Backman; Pritam Chakraborty; William Hoffman

    2014-09-01

    This report summarizes work done to develop a capability to evaluate fracture contour J-Integrals in 3D in the Grizzly code. In the current fiscal year, a previously-developed 2D implementation of a J-Integral evaluation capability has been extended to work in 3D, and to include terms due both to mechanically-induced strains and due to gradients in thermal strains. This capability has been verified against a benchmark solution on a model of a curved crack front in 3D. The thermal term in this integral has been verified against a benchmark problem with a thermal gradient. These developments are part of a larger effort to develop Grizzly as a tool that can be used to predict the evolution of aging processes in nuclear power plant systems, structures, and components, and assess their capacity after being subjected to those aging processes. The capabilities described here have been developed to enable evaluations of Mode- stress intensity factors on axis-aligned flaws in reactor pressure vessels. These can be compared with the fracture toughness of the material to determine whether a pre-existing flaw would begin to propagate during a pos- tulated pressurized thermal shock accident. This report includes a demonstration calculation to show how Grizzly is used to perform a deterministic assessment of such a flaw propagation in a degraded reactor pressure vessel under pressurized thermal shock conditions. The stress intensity is calculated from J, and the toughness is computed using the fracture master curve and the degraded ductile to brittle transition temperature.

  5. Uncertainty Analysis of RELAP5-3D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alexandra E Gertman; Dr. George L Mesina

    2012-07-01

    As world-wide energy consumption continues to increase, so does the demand for the use of alternative energy sources, such as Nuclear Energy. Nuclear Power Plants currently supply over 370 gigawatts of electricity, and more than 60 new nuclear reactors have been commissioned by 15 different countries. The primary concern for Nuclear Power Plant operation and lisencing has been safety. The safety of the operation of Nuclear Power Plants is no simple matter- it involves the training of operators, design of the reactor, as well as equipment and design upgrades throughout the lifetime of the reactor, etc. To safely design, operate, and understand nuclear power plants, industry and government alike have relied upon the use of best-estimate simulation codes, which allow for an accurate model of any given plant to be created with well-defined margins of safety. The most widely used of these best-estimate simulation codes in the Nuclear Power industry is RELAP5-3D. Our project focused on improving the modeling capabilities of RELAP5-3D by developing uncertainty estimates for its calculations. This work involved analyzing high, medium, and low ranked phenomena from an INL PIRT on a small break Loss-Of-Coolant Accident as wall as an analysis of a large break Loss-Of- Coolant Accident. Statistical analyses were performed using correlation coefficients. To perform the studies, computer programs were written that modify a template RELAP5 input deck to produce one deck for each combination of key input parameters. Python scripting enabled the running of the generated input files with RELAP5-3D on INL’s massively parallel cluster system. Data from the studies was collected and analyzed with SAS. A summary of the results of our studies are presented.

  6. A non-conforming 3D spherical harmonic transport solver

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Criekingen, S.

    2006-07-01

    A new 3D transport solver for the time-independent Boltzmann transport equation has been developed. This solver is based on the second-order even-parity form of the transport equation. The angular discretization is performed through the expansion of the angular neutron flux in spherical harmonics (PN method). The novelty of this solver is the use of non-conforming finite elements for the spatial discretization. Such elements lead to a discontinuous flux approximation. This interface continuity requirement relaxation property is shared with mixed-dual formulations such as the ones based on Raviart-Thomas finite elements. Encouraging numerical results are presented. (authors)

  7. 3D Tracking at the Nanoscale | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3D Tracking at the Nanoscale A new theory shows that reactivity at catalytic sites inside narrow pores is controlled by how molecules move at the pore openings. Like cars approaching a single lane tunnel from which other cars are emerging, the movement of molecules depends on their distance into the pore; near the ends of the pores, exchange is rapid compared to further into the pores. Dynamics at the openings of these pores controls the penetration of reactants and thus overall conversion to

  8. DYNA3D: a finite element program for supercomputers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benson, D.J.; Hallquist, J.O.

    1986-01-01

    DYNA3D is an explicit three-dimensional finite element code for analyzing the large deformation dynamic response of inelastic solids and structures. A contact-impact algorithm permits gaps and sliding along material interfaces with friction. By a specialization of this algorithm, such interfaces can be rigidly tied to admit variable zoning without the need of transition regions. Spatial discretization is achieved by the use of 8-node solid elements, 2-node beam elements, 4-node shell elements, 8-node solid shell elements, and rigid bodies. The equations-of-motion are integrated in time by the central difference method. 8 refs., 15 figs.

  9. A new elastoplastic shell element formulation for DYNA3D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engelmann, B.E.; Whirley, R.G.

    1990-08-01

    The analysis of shell structures undergoing dynamic elastoplastic deformation is an important capability of DYNA3D. This paper presents an improved formulation for a 4-node quadrilateral shell element for explicit dynamic analysis. The proposed element is derived from a three-field weak form, and incorporates recently developed assumed strain methods for improved accuracy. In addition, the element is formulated in a large-displacement small-strain setting for minimum cost. Complex nonlinear constitutive models are easily incorporated into this formulation. Numerical examples illustrating the accuracy, robustness, and speed of the new element are shown. 13 refs., 3 tabs.

  10. System and method for 3D printing of aerogels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Worsley, Marcus A.; Duoss, Eric; Kuntz, Joshua; Spadaccini, Christopher; Zhu, Cheng

    2016-03-08

    A method of forming an aerogel. The method may involve providing a graphene oxide powder and mixing the graphene oxide powder with a solution to form an ink. A 3D printing technique may be used to write the ink into a catalytic solution that is contained in a fluid containment member to form a wet part. The wet part may then be cured in a sealed container for a predetermined period of time at a predetermined temperature. The cured wet part may then be dried to form a finished aerogel part.

  11. Correlated electron pseudopotentials for 3d-transition metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trail, J. R. Needs, R. J.

    2015-02-14

    A recently published correlated electron pseudopotentials (CEPPs) method has been adapted for application to the 3d-transition metals, and to include relativistic effects. New CEPPs are reported for the atoms Sc ? Fe, constructed from atomic quantum chemical calculations that include an accurate description of correlated electrons. Dissociation energies, molecular geometries, and zero-point vibrational energies of small molecules are compared with all electron results, with all quantities evaluated using coupled cluster singles doubles and triples calculations. The CEPPs give better results in the correlated-electron calculations than Hartree-Fock-based pseudopotentials available in the literature.

  12. 3-D HYDRODYNAMIC MODELING IN A GEOSPATIAL FRAMEWORK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bollinger, J; Alfred Garrett, A; Larry Koffman, L; David Hayes, D

    2006-08-24

    3-D hydrodynamic models are used by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to simulate the transport of thermal and radionuclide discharges in coastal estuary systems. Development of such models requires accurate bathymetry, coastline, and boundary condition data in conjunction with the ability to rapidly discretize model domains and interpolate the required geospatial data onto the domain. To facilitate rapid and accurate hydrodynamic model development, SRNL has developed a pre- and post-processor application in a geospatial framework to automate the creation of models using existing data. This automated capability allows development of very detailed models to maximize exploitation of available surface water radionuclide sample data and thermal imagery.

  13. AUTOMATED, HIGHLY ACCURATE VERIFICATION OF RELAP5-3D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George L Mesina; David Aumiller; Francis Buschman

    2014-07-01

    Computer programs that analyze light water reactor safety solve complex systems of governing, closure and special process equations to model the underlying physics. In addition, these programs incorporate many other features and are quite large. RELAP5-3D[1] has over 300,000 lines of coding for physics, input, output, data management, user-interaction, and post-processing. For software quality assurance, the code must be verified and validated before being released to users. Verification ensures that a program is built right by checking that it meets its design specifications. Recently, there has been an increased importance on the development of automated verification processes that compare coding against its documented algorithms and equations and compares its calculations against analytical solutions and the method of manufactured solutions[2]. For the first time, the ability exists to ensure that the data transfer operations associated with timestep advancement/repeating and writing/reading a solution to a file have no unintended consequences. To ensure that the code performs as intended over its extensive list of applications, an automated and highly accurate verification method has been modified and applied to RELAP5-3D. Furthermore, mathematical analysis of the adequacy of the checks used in the comparisons is provided.

  14. DYNA3D Material Model 71 - Solid Element Test Problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zywicz, E

    2008-01-24

    A general phenomenological-based elasto-plastic nonlinear isotropic strain hardening material model was implemented in DYNA3D for use in solid, beam, truss, and shell elements. The constitutive model, Model 71, is based upon conventional J2 plasticity and affords optional temperature and rate dependence (visco-plasticity). The expressions for strain hardening, temperature dependence, and rate dependence allow it to represent a wide variety of material responses. Options to capture temperature changes due to adiabatic heating and thermal straining are incorporated into the constitutive framework as well. The verification problem developed for this constitutive model consists of four uni-axial right cylinders subject to constant true strain-rate boundary conditions. Three of the specimens have different constant strain rates imposed, while the fourth specimen is subjected to several strain rate jumps. The material parameters developed by Fehlmann (2005) for 21-6-9 Nitronic steel are utilized. As demonstrated below, the finite element (FE) simulations are in excellent agreement with the theoretical responses and indicated the model is functioning as desired. Consequently, this problem serves as both a verification problem and regression test problem for DYNA3D.

  15. ASIC for High Rate 3D Position Sensitive Detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vernon, E.; De Geronimo, G.; Ackley, K.; Fried, J.; He, Z.; Herman, C.; Zhang, F.

    2010-06-16

    We report on the development of an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) for 3D position sensitive detectors (3D PSD). The ASIC is designed to operate with pixelated wide bandgap sensors like Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride (CZT), Mercuric Iodide (Hgl2) and Thallium Bromide (TIBr). It measures the amplitudes and timings associated with an ionizing event on 128 anodes, the anode grid, and the cathode. Each channel provides low-noise charge amplification, high-order shaping with peaking time adjustable from 250 ns to 12 {micro}s, gain adjustable to 20 mV/fC or 120 mV/fC (for a dynamic range of 3.2 MeV and 530 keV in CZT), amplitude discrimination with 5-bit trimming, and positive and negative peak and timing detections. The readout can be full or sparse, based on a flag and single- or multi-cycle token passing. All channels, triggered channels only, or triggered with neighbors can be read out thus increasing the rate capability of the system to more than 10 kcps. The ASIC dissipates 330 mW which corresponds to about 2.5 mW per channel.

  16. SU-E-T-04: 3D Printed Patient-Specific Surface Mould Applicators for Brachytherapy Treatment of Superficial Lesions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cumming, I; Lasso, A; Rankin, A; Fichtinger, G [Laboratory for Percutaneous Surgery, School of Computing, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Joshi, C P; Falkson, C; Schreiner, L John [CCSEO, Kingston General Hospital and Department of Oncology, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Evaluate the feasibility of constructing 3D-printed patient-specific surface mould applicators for HDR brachytherapy treatment of superficial lesions. Methods: We propose using computer-aided design software to create 3D printed surface mould applicators for brachytherapy. A mould generation module was developed in the open-source 3D Slicer ( http://www.slicer.org ) medical image analysis platform. The system extracts the skin surface from CT images, and generates smooth catheter paths over the region of interest based on user-defined start and end points at a specified stand-off distance from the skin surface. The catheter paths are radially extended to create catheter channels that are sufficiently wide to ensure smooth insertion of catheters for a safe source travel. An outer mould surface is generated to encompass the channels. The mould is also equipped with fiducial markers to ensure its reproducible placement. A surface mould applicator with eight parallel catheter channels of 4mm diameters was fabricated for the nose region of a head phantom; flexible plastic catheters of 2mm diameter were threaded through these channels maintaining 10mm catheter separations and a 5mm stand-off distance from the skin surface. The apparatus yielded 3mm thickness of mould material between channels and the skin. The mould design was exported as a stereolithography file to a Dimension SST1200es 3D printer and printed using ABS Plus plastic material. Results: The applicator closely matched its design and was found to be sufficiently rigid without deformation during repeated application on the head phantom. Catheters were easily threaded into channels carved along catheter paths. Further tests are required to evaluate feasibility of channel diameters smaller than 4mm. Conclusion: Construction of 3D-printed mould applicators show promise for use in patient specific brachytherapy of superficial lesions. Further evaluation of 3D printing techniques and materials is required for constructing sufficiently thin, rigid and durable surface moulds suitable for clinical deployment.

  17. RELAP5-3D Restart and Backup Verification Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. George L Mesina

    2013-09-01

    Existing testing methodology for RELAP5-3D employs a set of test cases collected over two decades to test a variety of code features and run on a Linux or Windows platform. However, this set has numerous deficiencies in terms of code coverage, detail of comparison, running time, and testing fidelity of RELAP5-3D restart and backup capabilities. The test suite covers less than three quarters of the lines of code in the relap directory and just over half those in the environmental library. Even in terms of code features, many are not covered. Moreover, the test set runs many problems long past the point necessary to test the relevant features. It requires standard problems to run to completion. This is unnecessary for features can be tested in a short-running problem. For example, many trips and controls can be tested in the first few time steps, as can a number of fluid flow options. The testing system is also inaccurate. For the past decade, the diffem script has been the primary tool for checking that printouts from two different RELAP5-3D executables agree. This tool compares two output files to verify that all characters are the same except for those relating to date, time and a few other excluded items. The variable values printed on the output file are accurate to no more than eight decimal places. Therefore, calculations with errors in decimal places beyond those printed remain undetected. Finally, fidelity of restart is not tested except in the PVM sub-suite and backup is not specifically tested at all. When a restart is made from any midway point of the base-case transient, the restart must produce the same values. When a backup condition occurs, the code repeats advancements with the same time step. A perfect backup can be tested by forcing RELAP5 to perform a backup by falsely setting a backup condition flag at a user-specified-time. Comparison of the calculations of that run and those produced by the same input w/o the spurious condition should be identical. Backup testing is more difficult the other kinds of testing described above because it requires additional coding to implement. The testing system constructed and described in this document resolves all of these issues. A matrix of test features and short-running cases that exercise them is presented. A small information file that contains sufficient data to verify calculations to the last decimal place and bit is produced. This testing system is used to test base cases (called null testing) as well as restart and backup cases. The programming that implements these new capabilities is presented.

  18. 3-D Seismic Methods For Geothermal Reservoir Exploration And...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of fractures on seismic wave propagation are now being applied to image fractures in gas and oil environments. It now may be appropriate to apply these methods, with...

  19. Automating the determination of 3D protein structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rayl, K.D.

    1993-12-31

    The creation of an automated method for determining 3D protein structure would be invaluable to the field of biology and presents an interesting challenge to computer science. Unfortunately, given the current level of protein knowledge, a completely automated solution method is not yet feasible, therefore, our group has decided to integrate existing databases and theories to create a software system that assists X-ray crystallographers in specifying a particular protein structure. By breaking the problem of determining overall protein structure into small subproblems, we hope to come closer to solving a novel structure by solving each component. By generating necessary information for structure determination, this method provides the first step toward designing a program to determine protein conformation automatically.

  20. 3D Model of the Neal Hot Springs Geothermal Area

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Faulds, James E.

    The Neal Hot Springs geothermal system lies in a left-step in a north-striking, west-dipping normal fault system, consisting of the Neal Fault to the south and the Sugarloaf Butte Fault to the north (Edwards, 2013). The Neal Hot Springs 3D geologic model consists of 104 faults and 13 stratigraphic units. The stratigraphy is sub-horizontal to dipping <10 degrees and there is no predominant dip-direction. Geothermal production is exclusively from the Neal Fault south of, and within the step-over, while geothermal injection is into both the Neal Fault to the south of the step-over and faults within the step-over.

  1. Visualizing 3D velocity fields near contour surfaces. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Max, N.; Crawfis, R.; Grant, C.

    1994-08-08

    Vector field rendering is difficult in 3D because the vector icons overlap and hide each other. We propose four different techniques for visualizing vector fields only near surfaces. The first uses motion blurred particles in a thickened region around the surface. The second uses a voxel grid to contain integral curves of the vector field. The third uses many antialiased lines through the surface, and the fourth uses hairs sprouting from the surface and then bending in the direction of the vector field. All the methods use the graphics pipeline, allowing real time rotation and interaction, and the first two methods can animate the texture to move in the flow determined by the velocity field.

  2. 3D Model of the Neal Hot Springs Geothermal Area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faulds, James E.

    2013-12-31

    The Neal Hot Springs geothermal system lies in a left-step in a north-striking, west-dipping normal fault system, consisting of the Neal Fault to the south and the Sugarloaf Butte Fault to the north (Edwards, 2013). The Neal Hot Springs 3D geologic model consists of 104 faults and 13 stratigraphic units. The stratigraphy is sub-horizontal to dipping <10 degrees and there is no predominant dip-direction. Geothermal production is exclusively from the Neal Fault south of, and within the step-over, while geothermal injection is into both the Neal Fault to the south of the step-over and faults within the step-over.

  3. TRACE3D. Interactive Beam-Dynamics Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singleton, L.; Yao, C.Y.

    1993-12-01

    TRACE3D is an interactive program that calculates the envelopes of a bunched beam, including linear space-charge forces, through a user-defined system. The transport system may consist of the following elements: drift, thin lens, quadrupole, permanent magnet quadrupole, solenoid, doublet, triplet, bending magnet, edge angle (for bend), RF gap, radio-frequency-quadrupole cell, RF cavity, coupled-cavity tank, user-desired element, coordinate rotation, and identical element. The beam is represented by a 6X6 matrix defining a hyper-ellipsoid in six-dimensional phase space. The projection of this hyperellipsoid on any two-dimensional plane is an ellipse that defines the boundary of the beam in that plane.

  4. 3D Model of the San Emidio Geothermal Area

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    James E. Faulds

    The San Emidio geothermal system is characterized by a left-step in a west-dipping normal fault system that bounds the western side of the Lake Range. The 3D geologic model consists of 5 geologic units and 55 faults. Overlying Jurrassic-Triassic metasedimentary basement is a ~500 m-1000 m thick section of the Miocene lower Pyramid sequence, pre- syn-extensional Quaternary sedimentary rocks and post-extensional Quaternary rocks. 15-30 eastward dip of the stratigraphy is controlled by the predominant west-dipping fault set. Both geothermal production and injection are concentrated north of the step over in an area of closely spaced west dipping normal faults.

  5. Modeling the GFR with RELAP5-3D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cliff B. Davis; Theron D. Marshall; K. D. Weaver

    2005-09-01

    Significant improvements have been made to the RELAP5-3D computer code for analysis of the Gas Fast Reactor (GFR). These improvements consisted of adding carbon dioxide as a working fluid, improving the turbine component, developing a compressor model, and adding the Gnielinski heat transfer correlation. The code improvements were validated, generally through comparisons with independent design calculations. A model of the power conversion unit of the GFR was developed. The model of the power conversion unit was coupled to a reactor model to develop a complete model of the GFR system. The RELAP5 model of the GFR was used to simulate two transients, one initiated by a reactor trip and the other initiated by a loss of load.

  6. Automatic contact in DYNA3D for vehicle crashworthiness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whirley, R.G.; Engelmann, B.E.

    1993-07-15

    This paper presents a new formulation for the automatic definition and treatment of mechanical contact in explicit nonlinear finite element analysis. Automatic contact offers the benefits of significantly reduced model construction time and fewer opportunities for user error, but faces significant challenges in reliability and computational costs. This paper discusses in detail a new four-step automatic contact algorithm. Key aspects of the proposed method include automatic identification of adjacent and opposite surfaces in the global search phase, and the use of a smoothly varying surface normal which allows a consistent treatment of shell intersection and corner contact conditions without ad-hoc rules. The paper concludes with three examples which illustrate the performance of the newly proposed algorithm in the public DYNA3D code.

  7. Shell Element Verification & Regression Problems for DYNA3D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zywicz, E

    2008-02-01

    A series of quasi-static regression/verification problems were developed for the triangular and quadrilateral shell element formulations contained in Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's explicit finite element program DYNA3D. Each regression problem imposes both displacement- and force-type boundary conditions to probe the five independent nodal degrees of freedom employed in the targeted formulation. When applicable, the finite element results are compared with small-strain linear-elastic closed-form reference solutions to verify select aspects of the formulations implementation. Although all problems in the suite depict the same geometry, material behavior, and loading conditions, each problem represents a unique combination of shell formulation, stabilization method, and integration rule. Collectively, the thirty-six new regression problems in the test suite cover nine different shell formulations, three hourglass stabilization methods, and three families of through-thickness integration rules.

  8. DYNA3D: A computer code for crashworthiness engineering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hallquist, J.O.; Benson, D.J.

    1986-09-01

    A finite element program with crashworthiness applications has been developed at LLNL. DYNA3D, an explicit, fully vectorized, finite deformation structural dynamics program, has four capabilities that are critical for the efficient and realistic modeling crash phenomena: (1) fully optimized nonlinear solid, shell, and beam elements for representing a structure; (2) a broad range of constitutive models for simulating material behavior; (3) sophisticated contact algorithms for impact interactions; (4) a rigid body capability to represent the bodies away from the impact region at a greatly reduced cost without sacrificing accuracy in the momentum calculations. Basic methodologies of the program are briefly presented along with several crashworthiness calculations. Efficiencies of the Hughes-Liu and Belytschko-Tsay shell formulations are considered.

  9. 3D Model of the San Emidio Geothermal Area

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    James E. Faulds

    2013-12-31

    The San Emidio geothermal system is characterized by a left-step in a west-dipping normal fault system that bounds the western side of the Lake Range. The 3D geologic model consists of 5 geologic units and 55 faults. Overlying Jurrassic-Triassic metasedimentary basement is a ~500 m-1000 m thick section of the Miocene lower Pyramid sequence, pre- syn-extensional Quaternary sedimentary rocks and post-extensional Quaternary rocks. 15-30 eastward dip of the stratigraphy is controlled by the predominant west-dipping fault set. Both geothermal production and injection are concentrated north of the step over in an area of closely spaced west dipping normal faults.

  10. 3D Model of the San Emidio Geothermal Area

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    James E. Faulds

    2013-12-31

    The San Emidio geothermal system is characterized by a left-step in a west-dipping normal fault system that bounds the western side of the Lake Range. The 3D geologic model consists of 5 geologic units and 55 faults. Overlying Jurrassic-Triassic metasedimentary basement is a ~500 m-1000 m thick section of the Miocene lower Pyramid sequence, pre- syn-extensional Quaternary sedimentary rocks and post-extensional Quaternary rocks. 15-30º eastward dip of the stratigraphy is controlled by the predominant west-dipping fault set. Both geothermal production and injection are concentrated north of the step over in an area of closely spaced west dipping normal faults.

  11. Exploration 3-D Seismic Field Test/Native Tribes Initiative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carroll, Herbert B.; Chen, K.C.; Guo, Genliang; Johnson, W.I.; Reeves,T.K.; Sharma,Bijon

    1999-04-27

    To determine current acquisition procedures and costs and to further the goals of the President's Initiative for Native Tribes, a seismic-survey project is to be conducted on Osage tribal lands. The goals of the program are to demonstrate the capabilities, costs, and effectiveness of 3-D seismic work in a small-operator setting and to determine the economics of such a survey. For these purposes, typical small-scale independent-operator practices are being followed and a shallow target chose in an area with a high concentration of independent operators. The results will be analyzed in detail to determine if there are improvements and/or innovations which can be easily introduced in field-acquisition procedures, in processing, or in data manipulation and interpretation to further reduce operating costs and to make the system still more active to the small-scale operator.

  12. Implementing inverted master-slave 3D semiconductor stack

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coteus, Paul W.; Hall, Shawn A.; Takken, Todd E.

    2016-03-08

    A method and apparatus are provided for implementing an enhanced three dimensional (3D) semiconductor stack. A chip carrier has an aperture of a first length and first width. A first chip has at least one of a second length greater than the first length or a second width greater than the first width; a second chip attached to the first chip, the second chip having at least one of a third length less than the first length or a third width less than the first width; the first chip attached to the chip carrier by connections in an overlap region defined by at least one of the first and second lengths or the first and second widths; the second chip extending into the aperture; and a heat spreader attached to the chip carrier and in thermal contact with the first chip for dissipating heat from both the first chip and second chip.

  13. 3D model generation using an airborne swarm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, R. A.; Punzo, G.; Macdonald, M.; Dobie, G.; MacLeod, C. N.; Summan, R.; Pierce, G.; Bolton, G.

    2015-03-31

    Using an artificial kinematic field to provide co-ordination between multiple inspection UAVs, the authors herein demonstrate full 3D modelling capability based on a photogrammetric system. The operation of the system is demonstrated by generating a full 3D surface model of an intermediate level nuclear waste storage drum. Such drums require periodic inspection to ensure that drum distortion or corrosion is carefully monitored. Performing this inspection with multiple airborne platforms enables rapid inspection of structures that are inaccessible to on-surface remote vehicles and are in human-hazardous environments. A three-dimensional surface-meshed model of the target can then be constructed in post-processing through photogrammetry analysis of the visual inspection data. The inspection environment uses a tracking system to precisely monitor the position of each aerial vehicle within the enclosure. The vehicles used are commercially available Parrot AR. Drone quadcopters, controlled through a computer interface connected over an IEEE 802.11n (WiFi) network, implementing a distributed controller for each vehicle. This enables the autonomous and distributed elements of the control scheme to be retained, while alleviating the vehicles of the control algorithms computational load. The control scheme relies on a kinematic field defined with the target at its centre. This field defines the trajectory for all the drones in the volume relative to the central target, enabling the drones to circle the target at a set radius while avoiding drone collisions. This function enables complete coverage along the height of the object, which is assured by transitioning to another inspection band only after completing circumferential coverage. Using a swarm of vehicles, the time until complete coverage can be significantly reduced.

  14. Simulation of underwater explosion benchmark experiments with ALE3D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Couch, R.; Faux, D.

    1997-05-19

    Some code improvements have been made during the course of this study. One immediately obvious need was for more flexibility in the constitutive representation for materials in shell elements. To remedy this situation, a model with a tabular representation of stress versus strain and rate dependent effects was implemented. This was required in order to obtain reasonable results in the IED cylinder simulation. Another deficiency was in the ability to extract and plot variables associated with shell elements. The pipe whip analysis required the development of a scheme to tally and plot time dependent shell quantities such as stresses and strains. This capability had previously existed only for solid elements. Work was initiated to provide the same range of plotting capability for structural elements that exist with the DYNA3D/TAURUS tools. One of the characteristics of these problems is the disparity in zoning required in the vicinity of the charge and bubble compared to that needed in the far field. This disparity can cause the equipotential relaxation logic to provide a less than optimal solution. Various approaches were utilized to bias the relaxation to obtain more optimal meshing during relaxation. Extensions of these techniques have been developed to provide more powerful options, but more work still needs to be done. The results presented here are representative of what can be produced with an ALE code structured like ALE3D. They are not necessarily the best results that could have been obtained. More experience in assessing sensitivities to meshing and boundary conditions would be very useful. A number of code deficiencies discovered in the course of this work have been corrected and are available for any future investigations.

  15. Highly lead-loaded red plastic scintillators as an X-ray imaging system for the Laser Mega Joule

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamel, M.; Normand, S.; Turk, G.; Darbon, S.

    2011-07-01

    The scope of this project intends to record spatially resolved images of core shape and size of a DT micro-balloon during Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiments at Laser Mega Joule facility (LMJ). We need to develop an X-ray imaging system which can operate in the radiative background generated by an ignition shot of ICF. The scintillator is a part of the imaging system and has to gather a compromise of scintillating properties (scintillating efficiency, decay time, emission wavelength) so as to both operate in the hard radiative environment and to allow the acquisition of spatially resolved images. Inorganic scintillators cannot be used because no compromise can be found regarding the expected scintillating properties, most of them are not fast enough and emit blue light. Organic scintillators are generally fast, but present low X-ray absorption in the 10 to 40 keV range, that does not permit the acquisition of spatially resolved images. To this aim, we have developed highly lead-loaded and red-fluorescent fast plastic scintillators. Such a combination is not currently available via scintillator suppliers, since they propose only blue-fluorescent plastic scintillators doped with up to 12%w Pb. Thus, incorporation ratio up to 27%w Pb has been reached in our laboratory, which can afford a plastic scintillator with an outstanding Z{sub eff} close to 50. X-rays in the 10 to 40 keV range can thus be detected with a higher probability of photoelectric effect than for classic organic scintillators, such as NE102. The strong orange-red fluorescence can be filtered, so that we can eliminate residual Cerenkov light, generated by {gamma}-ray absorption in glass parts of the imaging system. Decay times of our scintillators evaluated under UV excitation were estimated to be in the range 10 to 13 ns. (authors)

  16. Imaging single cells in a beam of live cyanobacteria with an X-ray laser

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Schot, Gijs, vander

    2015-02-10

    This entry contains ten diffraction patterns, and reconstructions images, of individual living Cyanobium gracile cells, imaged using 517 eV X-rays from the LCLS XFEL. The Hawk software package was used for phasing. The Uppsala aerosol injector was used for sample injection, assuring very low noise levels. The cells come from various stages of the cell cycle, and were imaged in random orientations.

  17. 3D Model of the Tuscarora Geothermal Area

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Faulds, James E.

    The Tuscarora geothermal system sits within a ~15 km wide left-step in a major west-dipping range-bounding normal fault system. The step over is defined by the Independence Mountains fault zone and the Bull Runs Mountains fault zone which overlap along strike. Strain is transferred between these major fault segments via and array of northerly striking normal faults with offsets of 10s to 100s of meters and strike lengths of less than 5 km. These faults within the step over are one to two orders of magnitude smaller than the range-bounding fault zones between which they reside. Faults within the broad step define an anticlinal accommodation zone wherein east-dipping faults mainly occupy western half of the accommodation zone and west-dipping faults lie in the eastern half of the accommodation zone. The 3D model of Tuscarora encompasses 70 small-offset normal faults that define the accommodation zone and a portion of the Independence Mountains fault zone, which dips beneath the geothermal field. The geothermal system resides in the axial part of the accommodation, straddling the two fault dip domains. The Tuscarora 3D geologic model consists of 10 stratigraphic units. Unconsolidated Quaternary alluvium has eroded down into bedrock units, the youngest and stratigraphically highest bedrock units are middle Miocene rhyolite and dacite flows regionally correlated with the Jarbidge Rhyolite and modeled with uniform cumulative thickness of ~350 m. Underlying these lava flows are Eocene volcanic rocks of the Big Cottonwood Canyon caldera. These units are modeled as intracaldera deposits, including domes, flows, and thick ash deposits that change in thickness and locally pinch out. The Paleozoic basement of consists metasedimenary and metavolcanic rocks, dominated by argillite, siltstone, limestone, quartzite, and metabasalt of the Schoonover and Snow Canyon Formations. Paleozoic formations are lumped in a single basement unit in the model. Fault blocks in the eastern portion of the model are tilted 5-30 degrees toward the Independence Mountains fault zone. Fault blocks in the western portion of the model are tilted toward steeply east-dipping normal faults. These opposing fault block dips define a shallow extensional anticline. Geothermal production is from 4 closely-spaced wells, that exploit a west-dipping, NNE-striking fault zone near the axial part of the accommodation zone.

  18. 3D Model of the Tuscarora Geothermal Area

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Faulds, James E.

    2013-12-31

    The Tuscarora geothermal system sits within a ~15 km wide left-step in a major west-dipping range-bounding normal fault system. The step over is defined by the Independence Mountains fault zone and the Bull Runs Mountains fault zone which overlap along strike. Strain is transferred between these major fault segments via and array of northerly striking normal faults with offsets of 10s to 100s of meters and strike lengths of less than 5 km. These faults within the step over are one to two orders of magnitude smaller than the range-bounding fault zones between which they reside. Faults within the broad step define an anticlinal accommodation zone wherein east-dipping faults mainly occupy western half of the accommodation zone and west-dipping faults lie in the eastern half of the accommodation zone. The 3D model of Tuscarora encompasses 70 small-offset normal faults that define the accommodation zone and a portion of the Independence Mountains fault zone, which dips beneath the geothermal field. The geothermal system resides in the axial part of the accommodation, straddling the two fault dip domains. The Tuscarora 3D geologic model consists of 10 stratigraphic units. Unconsolidated Quaternary alluvium has eroded down into bedrock units, the youngest and stratigraphically highest bedrock units are middle Miocene rhyolite and dacite flows regionally correlated with the Jarbidge Rhyolite and modeled with uniform cumulative thickness of ~350 m. Underlying these lava flows are Eocene volcanic rocks of the Big Cottonwood Canyon caldera. These units are modeled as intracaldera deposits, including domes, flows, and thick ash deposits that change in thickness and locally pinch out. The Paleozoic basement of consists metasedimenary and metavolcanic rocks, dominated by argillite, siltstone, limestone, quartzite, and metabasalt of the Schoonover and Snow Canyon Formations. Paleozoic formations are lumped in a single basement unit in the model. Fault blocks in the eastern portion of the model are tilted 5-30 degrees toward the Independence Mountains fault zone. Fault blocks in the western portion of the model are tilted toward steeply east-dipping normal faults. These opposing fault block dips define a shallow extensional anticline. Geothermal production is from 4 closely-spaced wells, that exploit a west-dipping, NNE-striking fault zone near the axial part of the accommodation zone.

  19. Integrating 3D seismic curvature and curvature gradient attributes for fracture characterization: Methodologies and interpretational implications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Dengliang

    2013-03-01

    In 3D seismic interpretation, curvature is a popular attribute that depicts the geometry of seismic reflectors and has been widely used to detect faults in the subsurface; however, it provides only part of the solutions to subsurface structure analysis. This study extends the curvature algorithm to a new curvature gradient algorithm, and integrates both algorithms for fracture detection using a 3D seismic test data set over Teapot Dome (Wyoming). In fractured reservoirs at Teapot Dome known to be formed by tectonic folding and faulting, curvature helps define the crestal portion of the reservoirs that is associated with strong seismic amplitude and high oil productivity. In contrast, curvature gradient helps better define the regional northwest-trending and the cross-regional northeast-trending lineaments that are associated with weak seismic amplitude and low oil productivity. In concert with previous reports from image logs, cores, and outcrops, the current study based on an integrated seismic curvature and curvature gradient analysis suggests that curvature might help define areas of enhanced potential to form tensile fractures, whereas curvature gradient might help define zones of enhanced potential to develop shear fractures. In certain fractured reservoirs such as at Teapot Dome where faulting and fault-related folding contribute dominantly to the formation and evolution of fractures, curvature and curvature gradient attributes can be potentially applied to differentiate fracture mode, to predict fracture intensity and orientation, to detect fracture volume and connectivity, and to model fracture networks.

  20. Airport Viz - a 3D Tool to Enhance Security Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koch, Daniel B

    2006-01-01

    In the summer of 2000, the National Safe Skies Alliance (NSSA) awarded a project to the Applied Visualization Center (AVC) at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) to develop a 3D computer tool to assist the Federal Aviation Administration security group, now the Transportation Security Administration (TSA), in evaluating new equipment and procedures to improve airport checkpoint security. A preliminary tool was demonstrated at the 2001 International Aviation Security Technology Symposium. Since then, the AVC went on to construct numerous detection equipment models as well as models of several airports. Airport Viz has been distributed by the NSSA to a number of airports around the country which are able to incorporate their own CAD models into the software due to its unique open architecture. It provides a checkpoint design and passenger flow simulation function, a layout design and simulation tool for checked baggage and cargo screening, and a means to assist in the vulnerability assessment of airport access points for pedestrians and vehicles.

  1. Crashworthiness analysis using advanced material models in DYNA3D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Logan, R.W.; Burger, M.J.; McMichael, L.D.; Parkinson, R.D.

    1993-10-22

    As part of an electric vehicle consortium, LLNL and Kaiser Aluminum are conducting experimental and numerical studies on crashworthy aluminum spaceframe designs. They have jointly explored the effect of heat treat on crush behavior and duplicated the experimental behavior with finite-element simulations. The major technical contributions to the state of the art in numerical simulation arise from the development and use of advanced material model descriptions for LLNL`s DYNA3D code. Constitutive model enhancements in both flow and failure have been employed for conventional materials such as low-carbon steels, and also for lighter weight materials such as aluminum and fiber composites being considered for future vehicles. The constitutive model enhancements are developed as extensions from LLNL`s work in anisotropic flow and multiaxial failure modeling. Analysis quality as a function of level of simplification of material behavior and mesh is explored, as well as the penalty in computation cost that must be paid for using more complex models and meshes. The lightweight material modeling technology is being used at the vehicle component level to explore the safety implications of small neighborhood electric vehicles manufactured almost exclusively from these materials.

  2. DYNA3D/ParaDyn Regression Test Suite Inventory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, J I

    2011-01-25

    The following table constitutes an initial assessment of feature coverage across the regression test suite used for DYNA3D and ParaDyn. It documents the regression test suite at the time of production release 10.1 in September 2010. The columns of the table represent groupings of functionalities, e.g., material models. Each problem in the test suite is represented by a row in the table. All features exercised by the problem are denoted by a check mark in the corresponding column. The definition of ''feature'' has not been subdivided to its smallest unit of user input, e.g., algorithmic parameters specific to a particular type of contact surface. This represents a judgment to provide code developers and users a reasonable impression of feature coverage without expanding the width of the table by several multiples. All regression testing is run in parallel, typically with eight processors. Many are strictly regression tests acting as a check that the codes continue to produce adequately repeatable results as development unfolds, compilers change and platforms are replaced. A subset of the tests represents true verification problems that have been checked against analytical or other benchmark solutions. Users are welcomed to submit documented problems for inclusion in the test suite, especially if they are heavily exercising, and dependent upon, features that are currently underrepresented.

  3. DYNA3D analysis of the DT-20 shipping container

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Logan, R.W.; Lovejoy, S.C.

    1991-08-22

    A DYNA3D model of the DT-20 shipping container was constructed. Impact onto a rigid steel surface at a velocity of 44 ft/sec (30 foot gravity drop) was studied. The orientation of most interest was a side-drop, but end and corner drops were also studied briefly. The assembly for the baseline side impact contained a 150 lb. payload. During this drop, the outer drum sustains plastic strains of up to 0.15, with most the deformation near the rim. The plywood/Celotex packing is crushed about 3 inches. The inner sealed can sees significant stresses, but barely reaches the onset of yielding in some local areas. Based on hand calculations, the bolts joining the can halves could see stresses near 50 ksi. It is felt that overall, the container should survive this drop. However, detailed modeling of the rim closure and the center bolted joint was not possible due to time constraints. Furthermore, better material models and properties are needed for the Celotex, plywood, and honeycomb in particular. 39 figs., 1 tab.

  4. On the feasibility of comprehensive high-resolution 3D remote dosimetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Juang, Titania; Grant, Ryan; Adamovics, John; Ibbott, Geoffrey; Oldham, Mark

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: This study investigates the feasibility of remote high-resolution 3D dosimetry with the PRESAGE/Optical-CT system. In remote dosimetry, dosimeters are shipped out from a central base institution to a remote institution for irradiation, then shipped back to the base institution for subsequent readout and analysis. Methods: Two nominally identical optical-CT scanners for 3D dosimetry were constructed and placed at the base (Duke University) and remote (Radiological Physics Center) institutions. Two formulations of PRESAGE (SS1, SS2) radiochromic dosimeters were investigated. Higher sensitivity was expected in SS1, which had higher initiator content (0.25% bromotrichloromethane), while greater temporal stability was expected in SS2. Four unirradiated PRESAGE dosimeters (two per formulation, cylindrical dimensions 11 cm diameter, 8.59.5 cm length) were imaged at the base institution, then shipped to the remote institution for planning and irradiation. Each dosimeter was irradiated with the same simple treatment plan: an isocentric 3-field cross arrangement of 4 4 cm open 6 MV beams configured as parallel opposed laterals with an anterior beam. This simple plan was amenable to accurate and repeatable setup, as well as accurate dose modeling by a commissioned treatment planning system (Pinnacle). After irradiation and subsequent (within 1 h) optical-CT readout at the remote institution, the dosimeters were shipped back to the base institution for remote dosimetry readout 3 days postirradiation. Measured on-site and remote relative 3D dose distributions were registered to the Pinnacle dose calculation, which served as the reference distribution for 3D gamma calculations with passing criteria of 5%/2 mm, 3%/3 mm, and 3%/2 mm with a 10% dose threshold. Gamma passing rates, dose profiles, and color-maps were all used to assess and compare the performance of both PRESAGE formulations for remote dosimetry. Results: The best agreements between the Pinnacle plan and dosimeter readout were observed in PRESAGE formulation SS2. Under 3%/3 mm 3D gamma passing criteria, passing rates were 91.5% 3.6% (SS1) and 97.4% 2.2% (SS2) for immediate on-site dosimetry, 96.7% 2.4% (SS1) and 97.6% 0.6% (SS2) for remote dosimetry. These passing rates are well within TG119 recommendations (88%90% passing). Under the more stringent criteria of 3%/2 mm, there is a pronounced difference [8.0 percentage points (pp)] between SS1 formulation passing rates for immediate and remote dosimetry while the SS2 formulation maintains both higher passing rates and consistency between immediate and remote results (differences ? 1.2 pp) at all metrics. Both PRESAGE formulations under study maintained high linearity of dose response (R{sup 2} > 0.996) for 18 Gy over 14 days with response slope consistency within 4.9% (SS1) and 6.6% (SS2), and a relative dose distribution that remained stable over time was demonstrated in the SS2 dosimeters. Conclusions: Remote 3D dosimetry was shown to be feasible with a PRESAGE dosimeter formulation (SS2) that exhibited relative temporal stability and high accuracy when read off-site 3 days postirradiation. Characterization of the SS2 dose response demonstrated linearity (R{sup 2} > 0.998) over 14 days and suggests accurate readout over longer periods of time would be possible. This result provides a foundation for future investigations using remote dosimetry to study the accuracy of advanced radiation treatments. Further work is planned to characterize dosimeter reproducibility and dose response over longer periods of time.

  5. Detecting Distance between Injected Microspheres and Target Tumor via 3D Reconstruction of Tissue Sections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carson, James P.; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Colby, Sean M.; Davis, Cassi A.; Basciano, Christopher; Greene, Kevin; Feo, John T.; Kennedy, Andrew

    2012-08-28

    One treatment increasing in use for solid tumors in the liver is radioembolization via the delivery of 90Y microspheres to the vascular bed within or near the location of the tumor. It is desirable as part of the treatment for the microspheres to embed preferentially in or near the tumor. This work details an approach for analyzing the deposition of microspheres with respect to the location of the tumor. The approach used is based upon thin-slice serial sectioning of the tissue sample, followed by high resolution imaging, microsphere detection, and 3-D reconstruction of the tumor surface. Distance from the microspheres to the tumor was calculated using a fast deterministic point inclusion method.

  6. The linac coherent light source single particle imaging road map

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aquila, A.; Barty, A.; Bostedt, C.; Boutet, S.; Carini, G.; dePonte, D.; Drell, P.; Doniach, S.; Downing, K. H.; Earnest, T.; et al

    2015-07-01

    Intense femtosecond x-ray pulses from free-electron laser sources allow the imaging of individual particles in a single shot. Early experiments at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) have led to rapid progress in the field and, so far, coherent diffractive images have been recorded from biological specimens, aerosols, and quantum systems with a few-tens-of-nanometers resolution. In March 2014, LCLS held a workshop to discuss the scientific and technical challenges for reaching the ultimate goal of atomic resolution with single-shot coherent diffractive imaging. This paper summarizes the workshop findings and presents the roadmap toward reaching atomic resolution, 3D imaging at free-electronmore » laser sources.« less

  7. Application Of 3D Inversion To Magnetotelluric Data In The Ogiri...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    3D Inversion To Magnetotelluric Data In The Ogiri Geothermal Area, Japan Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper: Application Of 3D...

  8. Programmers Manual for the PVM Coupling Interface in RELAP5-3D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walter L Weaver III

    2005-03-01

    This report describes the implementation of the PVM API in the RELAP5-3D computer code. The information in the report is intended for programmers wanting to correct or extend RELAP5-3D.

  9. In Operando Soft X-ray Spectroscopy of 3D Graphene Supercapacitor...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    In Operando Soft X-ray Spectroscopy of 3D Graphene Supercapacitor Electrodes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: In Operando Soft X-ray Spectroscopy of 3D Graphene ...

  10. 3D Model of the San Emidio Geothermal Area (Dataset) | Data Explorer

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    3D Model of the San Emidio Geothermal Area Title: 3D Model of the San Emidio Geothermal Area The San Emidio geothermal system is characterized by a left-step in a west-dipping ...

  11. EERE Success Story-Novel 3-D Printed Inverters for Electric Vehicles...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Novel 3-D Printed Inverters for Electric Vehicles Can Improve EV Power and Efficiency EERE Success Story-Novel 3-D Printed Inverters for Electric Vehicles Can Improve EV Power and ...

  12. SWTC v. Arizona Corp. Comn, 142 P3d 1240 (2006) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    SWTC v. Arizona Corp. Comn, 142 P3d 1240 (2006) Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal CaseHearing: SWTC v. Arizona Corp. Comn, 142 P3d 1240...

  13. A 3D-3C Reflection Seismic Survey and Data Integration to Identify...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A 3D-3C Reflection Seismic Survey and Data Integration to Identify the Seismic Response of ... A 3D-3C Reflection Seismic Survey and Data Integration to Identify the Seismic Response of ...

  14. Seeing A Factory As Never Before With 3D Laser Technology | GE Global

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Administration for Radioactive Sources: Fact Sheet March 23, 2012 Radioactive materials are a critical and beneficial component of global medical, industrial, and academic efforts. The possibility that these materials could be used by terrorists is a national security concern. The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), along with international and domestic partners, addresses radiological material security as part of its nuclear nonproliferation mission. US Radioactive Material

  15. Matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) for direct visualization of plant metabolites in situ

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sturtevant, Drew; Lee, Young -Jin; Chapman, Kent D.

    2015-11-22

    Direct visualization of plant tissues by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) has revealed key insights into the localization of metabolites in situ. Recent efforts have determined the spatial distribution of primary and secondary metabolites in plant tissues and cells. Strategies have been applied in many areas of metabolism including isotope flux analyses, plant interactions, and transcriptional regulation of metabolite accumulation. Technological advances have pushed achievable spatial resolution to subcellular levels and increased instrument sensitivity by several orders of magnitude. Furthermore, it is anticipated that MALDI-MSI and other MSI approaches will bring a new level of understanding tomore » metabolomics as scientists will be encouraged to consider spatial heterogeneity of metabolites in descriptions of metabolic pathway regulation.« less

  16. EERE Success Story-Novel 3-D Printed Inverters for Electric Vehicles Can

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Improve EV Power and Efficiency | Department of Energy Novel 3-D Printed Inverters for Electric Vehicles Can Improve EV Power and Efficiency EERE Success Story-Novel 3-D Printed Inverters for Electric Vehicles Can Improve EV Power and Efficiency April 28, 2015 - 2:02pm Addthis 3-D Printed Inverter 3-D Printed Inverter Plug-in electric vehicle technologies are on their way to being even lighter, more powerful and more efficient with the advent of power inverters created by 3-D printing and

  17. User's manual. SPIN, a program for 3-D axisymmetric geometry generation. [In FORTRAN for CDC 7600 and CRAY-1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, B.E.

    1980-08-01

    SPIN is designed to take two-dimensional quadrilateral input, rotate the data about an axis, and produce three-dimensional bricks. The two-dimensional database is discussed in this manual (it is the same as the output of the ZONE program (UCID-17139)). The output of SPIN is in the format for the DYNA3D/NIKE3D programs (UCID-17268). Both the input and output files are card images, not binary, so the files may be easily edited with a text editor for any other program. Additionally, the slide-planes between various layers may also be generated. The program is available on both CDC7600 and CRAY-1 computers.

  18. 3D two-photon lithographic microfabrication system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Daekeun; So, Peter T. C.

    2011-03-08

    An imaging system is provided that includes a optical pulse generator for providing an optical pulse having a spectral bandwidth and includes monochromatic waves having different wavelengths. A dispersive element receives a second optical pulse associated with the optical pulse and disperses the second optical pulse at different angles on the surface of the dispersive element depending on wavelength. One or more focal elements receives the dispersed second optical pulse produced on the dispersive element. The one or more focal element recombine the dispersed second optical pulse at a focal plane on a specimen where the width of the optical pulse is restored at the focal plane.

  19. Multiparticle imaging technique for two-phase fluid flows using pulsed laser speckle velocimetry. Final report, September 1988--November 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hassan, T.A.

    1992-12-01

    The practical use of Pulsed Laser Velocimetry (PLV) requires the use of fast, reliable computer-based methods for tracking numerous particles suspended in a fluid flow. Two methods for performing tracking are presented. One method tracks a particle through multiple sequential images (minimum of four required) by prediction and verification of particle displacement and direction. The other method, requiring only two sequential images uses a dynamic, binary, spatial, cross-correlation technique. The algorithms are tested on computer-generated synthetic data and experimental data which was obtained with traditional PLV methods. This allowed error analysis and testing of the algorithms on real engineering flows. A novel method is proposed which eliminates tedious, undersirable, manual, operator assistance in removing erroneous vectors. This method uses an iterative process involving an interpolated field produced from the most reliable vectors. Methods are developed to allow fast analysis and presentation of sets of PLV image data. Experimental investigation of a two-phase, horizontal, stratified, flow regime was performed to determine the interface drag force, and correspondingly, the drag coefficient. A horizontal, stratified flow test facility using water and air was constructed to allow interface shear measurements with PLV techniques. The experimentally obtained local drag measurements were compared with theoretical results given by conventional interfacial drag theory. Close agreement was shown when local conditions near the interface were similar to space-averaged conditions. However, theory based on macroscopic, space-averaged flow behavior was shown to give incorrect results if the local gas velocity near the interface as unstable, transient, and dissimilar from the average gas velocity through the test facility.

  20. SciSat AM: Stereo 01: 3D Pre-treatment Dose Verification for Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Patients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asuni, G; Beek, T van; Van Utyven, E; McCowan, P; McCurdy, B.M.C.

    2014-08-15

    Radical treatment techniques such as stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) are becoming popular and they involve delivery of large doses in fewer fractions. Due to this feature of SBRT, a high-resolution, pre-treatment dose verification method that makes use of a 3D patient representation would be appropriate. Such a technique will provide additional information about dose delivered to the target volume(s) and organs-at-risk (OARs) in the patient volume compared to 2D verification methods. In this work, we investigate an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) based pre-treatment QA method which provides an accurate reconstruction of the 3D-dose distribution in the patient model. Customized patient plans are delivered in air and the portal images are collected using the EPID in cine mode. The images are then analysed to determine an estimate of the incident energy fluence. This is then passed to a collapsed-cone convolution dose algorithm which reconstructs a 3D patient dose estimate on the CT imaging dataset. To date, the method has been applied to 5 SBRT patient plans. Reconstructed doses were compared to those calculated by the TPS. Reconstructed mean doses were mostly within 3% of those in the TPS. DVHs of target volumes and OARs compared well. The Chi pass rates using 3%/3mm in the high dose region are greater than 97% in all cases. These initial results demonstrate clinical feasibility and utility of a robust, efficient, effective and convenient pre-treatment QA method using EPID. Research sponsored in part by Varian Medical Systems.

  1. Imaging single cells in a beam of live cyanobacteria with an X-ray laser

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Schot, Gijs, vander

    2015-02-10

    Diffraction pattern of a micron-sized S. elongatus cell at 1,100 eV photon energy (1.13 nm wavelength) with ~10^11 photons per square micron on the sample in ~70 fs. The signal to noise ratio at 4 nm resolution is 3.7 with 0.24 photons per Nyquist pixel. The cell was alive at the time of the exposure. The central region of the pattern (dark red) is saturated and this prevented reliable image reconstruction.

  2. Imaging single cells in a beam of live cyanobacteria with an X-ray laser

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Schot, Gijs, vander

    Diffraction pattern of a micron-sized S. elongatus cell at 1,100 eV photon energy (1.13 nm wavelength) with ~10^11 photons per square micron on the sample in ~70 fs. The signal to noise ratio at 4 nm resolution is 3.7 with 0.24 photons per Nyquist pixel. The cell was alive at the time of the exposure. The central region of the pattern (dark red) is saturated and this prevented reliable image reconstruction.

  3. 3D simulation studies of tokamak plasmas using MHD and extended-MHD models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, W.; Chang, Z.; Fredrickson, E.; Fu, G.Y.; Pomphrey, N.; Strauss, H.R.; Sugiyama, L.E.

    1997-01-01

    The M3D (Multi-level 3D) tokamak simulation project aims at the simulation of tokamak plasmas using a multi-level tokamak code package. Several current applications using MHD and Extended-MHD models are presented; high-{beta} disruption studies in reversed shear plasmas using the MHD level MH3D code, {omega}{sub *i} stabilization and nonlinear island rotation studies using the two-fluid level MH3D-T code, studies of nonlinear saturation of TAE modes using the hybrid particle/MHD level MH3D-K code, and unstructured mesh MH3D{sup ++} code studies. In particular, three internal mode disruption mechanisms are identified from simulation results which agree well with experimental data.

  4. TU-C-BRE-11: 3D EPID-Based in Vivo Dosimetry: A Major Step Forward Towards Optimal Quality and Safety in Radiation Oncology Practice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mijnheer, B; Mans, A; Olaciregui-Ruiz, I; Rozendaal, R; Spreeuw, H; Herk, M van

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a 3D in vivo dosimetry method that is able to substitute pre-treatment verification in an efficient way, and to terminate treatment delivery if the online measured 3D dose distribution deviates too much from the predicted dose distribution. Methods: A back-projection algorithm has been further developed and implemented to enable automatic 3D in vivo dose verification of IMRT/VMAT treatments using a-Si EPIDs. New software tools were clinically introduced to allow automated image acquisition, to periodically inspect the record-and-verify database, and to automatically run the EPID dosimetry software. The comparison of the EPID-reconstructed and planned dose distribution is done offline to raise automatically alerts and to schedule actions when deviations are detected. Furthermore, a software package for online dose reconstruction was also developed. The RMS of the difference between the cumulative planned and reconstructed 3D dose distributions was used for triggering a halt of a linac. Results: The implementation of fully automated 3D EPID-based in vivo dosimetry was able to replace pre-treatment verification for more than 90% of the patient treatments. The process has been fully automated and integrated in our clinical workflow where over 3,500 IMRT/VMAT treatments are verified each year. By optimizing the dose reconstruction algorithm and the I/O performance, the delivered 3D dose distribution is verified in less than 200 ms per portal image, which includes the comparison between the reconstructed and planned dose distribution. In this way it was possible to generate a trigger that can stop the irradiation at less than 20 cGy after introducing large delivery errors. Conclusion: The automatic offline solution facilitated the large scale clinical implementation of 3D EPID-based in vivo dose verification of IMRT/VMAT treatments; the online approach has been successfully tested for various severe delivery errors.

  5. Time-resolved x-ray imaging of high-power laser-irradiated under-dense silica aerogels and agar foams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koch, J.A.; Estabrook, K.G.; Bauer, J.D. [and others

    1995-08-01

    This paper presents the results of experiments in which a high-power laser was used to irradiate low density (4 - 9 mg/cm{sup 3}) silica aerogel and agar foam targets. The laser-solid interaction and energy transport through the material were monitored with time-resolved imaging diagnostics, and the data show the production and propagation of an x-ray emission front in the plasma. The emission-front trajectory data are found to be in significant disagreement with detailed simulations, which predict a much more rapid heating of the cold material, and the data suggest that this discrepancy is not explainable by target inhomogeneities. Evidence suggests that energy transport into the cold material may be dominated by thermal conduction; however, no completely satisfactory explanation for the discrepancies is identified, and further experimental and theoretical research is necessary in order to resolve this important problem in laser-plasma interaction physics.

  6. Simultaneous near-field and far-field imaging of the 11.9-nm Ni-like Sn soft-x-ray laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staub, F.; Braud, M.; Balmer, J.E.; Nilsen, J.; Bajt, S.

    2004-07-01

    We report on two-dimensional near-field imaging experiments of the 11.9-nm Sn x-ray laser that were performed with a set of Mo/Y multilayer mirrors having reflectivities of up to {approx}45% at normal and at 45 deg. incidence. Second-moment analysis of the x-ray laser emission was used to determine values of the x-ray beam propagation factor M{sup 2} for a range of irradiation parameters. The results reveal a reduction of M{sup 2} with increasing prepulse amplitude. The spatial size of the output is a factor of {approx}2 smaller than previously measured for the 14.7-nm Pd x-ray laser, while the distance of the x-ray emission with respect to the target surface remains roughly the same.

  7. Why 3D Printers Might Create the Next Robotic Champion | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Why 3D Printers Might Create the Next Robotic Champion Why 3D Printers Might Create the Next Robotic Champion December 11, 2013 - 4:18pm Addthis As the nation's premier research laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory is one of the world's most capable resources for transforming the next generation of scientific discovery into solutions for rebuilding and revitalizing America's manufacturing industries, with tools like 3D printers. Dot Harris Dot Harris Director, Office of Economic

  8. Next Generation Lunch: Revealing the World's First 3D Printed Car (text

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    version) | Department of Energy Next Generation Lunch: Revealing the World's First 3D Printed Car (text version) Next Generation Lunch: Revealing the World's First 3D Printed Car (text version) Below is the text version for the Next Generation Lunch: Revealing the World's First 3D Printed Car Video. FILE NAME: AEMC_09172014_luncheonaddress_nextgeneration SPEAKER: Ladies and gentleman, welcome and good afternoon. Please give a warm welcome to Dr. Mark Johnson, U.S. Department of Energy.

  9. 3D-Printed Foam Outperforms Standard Materials | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3D-Printed Foam Outperforms Standard Materials 3D-Printed Foam Outperforms Standard Materials April 27, 2016 - 5:58pm Addthis News release from Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, April 27, 2016. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) material scientists have found that 3D-printed foam works better than standard cellular materials in terms of durability and long-term mechanical performance. Foams, also known as cellular solids, are an important class of materials with applications ranging from

  10. Energy Department Unveils 3D-Printed Building; New Initiatives During

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Industry Day | Department of Energy Unveils 3D-Printed Building; New Initiatives During Industry Day Energy Department Unveils 3D-Printed Building; New Initiatives During Industry Day October 1, 2015 - 12:25pm Addthis The Energy Department announced several new and exciting innovations and programs during Industry Day held at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Tennessee Sept. 23-24. This included unveiling a 3-D printed building with integrated energy storage via bidirectional wireless

  11. Researchers find 3-D printed parts to provide low-cost, custom alternatives

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for laboratory equipment | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Researchers find 3-D printed parts to provide low-cost, custom alternatives for laboratory equipment By Raphael Rosen February 26, 2015 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook 3-D printed parts provide the stands for the aluminum globes in PPPL's Planeterrella, a device that simulates Northern Lights. (Photo by Elle Starkman/PPPL Office of Communications) 3-D printed parts provide the stands for the aluminum globes in PPPL's

  12. Researchers find 3-D printed parts to provide low-cost, custom alternatives

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for laboratory equipment | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Researchers find 3-D printed parts to provide low-cost, custom alternatives for laboratory equipment By Raphael Rosen February 26, 2015 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook 3-D printed parts provide the stands for the aluminum globes in PPPL's Planeterrella, a device that simulates Northern Lights. (Photo by Elle Starkman/PPPL Office of Communications) 3-D printed parts provide the stands for the aluminum globes in PPPL's

  13. Synthesis and structure of a 2D → 3D framework with coexistence...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of hydrogen bonds and polythreading character Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Synthesis and structure of a 2D 3D framework with coexistence of hydrogen bonds ...

  14. 3D Geological Modelling In Bavaria - State-Of-The-Art At A State...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    variety of applications. Initially many 3D tools were designed for the exploitation of digital seismic mass data existing in hydrocarbon exploration industry. Accordingly, GSOs...

  15. ORNL Unveils 3D-Printed Home and Vehicle with the Unique Ability...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    efforts of the the lab's Additive Manufacturing Integrated Energy (AMIE) demonstration. ... by natural gas, were both printed using additive manufacturing via a large-scale 3D ...

  16. Low-cost, Efficient, Flexible Solar Cells with 3D Nanopillar...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fan at Berkeley Lab have invented a method for growing highly regular, single-crystalline nanopillar arrays of optically active semiconductors to produce efficient, 3D solar...

  17. Anodization control for barrier-oxide thinning and 3D interconnected...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Anodization control for barrier-oxide thinning and 3D interconnected pores and direct electrodeposition of nanowire networks on native aluminium substrates Citation Details...

  18. Determination of 3-D Cloud Ice Water Contents by Combining Multiple...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Determination of 3-D Cloud Ice Water Contents by Combining Multiple Data Sources from Satellite, Ground Radar, and a Numerical Model Liu, Guosheng Florida State University Seo,...

  19. EERE Success Story-3D Printing Enables New Generation of Heat...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... University of Maryland, College Park Oak Ridge National Laboratory 3D Systems Burr Oak Tool Luvata International Copper Association Wieland Heat Transfer Technologies Applications ...

  20. EERE Success Story—Just Plain Cool, the 3D Printed Shelby Cobra

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Indistinguishable from conventional production vehicles on display, the 3D printed Shelby Cobra celebrated its 50th anniversary at the Detroit Auto Show in early January.

  1. Secretary Moniz Tours the 3D-Printed Shelby Cobra | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Also, engineers used BAAM to make the vehicle safer by developing lightweight, ultra-strong 3D-mesh structures for multidirectional crash zones. Combined, these advanced composite ...

  2. SU-E-T-532: Validation and Implementation of Model-Based Patient Specific Quality Assurance Using Mobius3D and MobiusFX in a Clinical Setting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galavis, P; Osterman, K; Jozsef, G; Becker, S; Dewyngaert, K

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: This work carries out the commissioning and validation of the Mobius3D and MobiusFX software tools, which can replace the time-consuming measurement-based patient specific quality assurance (PSQA). Methods: The beam model supplied by Mobius3D was validated against a 21EX linac's beam measured data. Complex patient (VMAT) plans using Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS) was used to test the consistency between Mobius3D (calculates dose using patient image and field data) and MobiusFx (calculates dose using treatment dynalog files). Dose difference and gamma analysis (3%/3mm) between Mobius3D and MobiusFx were used to assess treatment plan and treatment delivery consistency. An end-to-end test was performed to validate Mobius3D and MobiusFx against ion chamber measurements. Effect of the dosimetric leaf gap (DLG) on Mobius3D dose calculation was additionally investigated. Results: Mobius3D beam model parameters matched within 1%-3% with our beam measured data. A comparison of Mobius3D and MobiusFx dose matrices for VMAT planned prostate cases showed (0.330.07)% mean dose difference with gamma values above 95%. The end-to-end test showed dose differences of 1% between Mobius3D and MobiusFx. Dependence of Mobius3D dose calculation upon DLG was explored by introducing a 0.5 mm change in the default value for DLG. This change resulted in agreement differences above 2% Conclusion: Use of reference beam data would appear to speed up commissioning process for the clinical implementation of Mobius3D. However, careful consideration is required when comparing the information provided by the software, since large dose variations can be seen when the proper parameters are not optimized. The plan and delivered dose were in good agreement; hence MobiusFx has the potential to significantly speed up the PSQA process and at the same time helps to verify treatment parameters that are not possible with measurement-based PSQA.

  3. SU-D-9A-06: 3D Localization of Neurovascular Bundles Through MR-TRUS Registration in Prostate Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, X; Rossi, P; Ogunleye, T; Jani, A; Curran, W; Liu, T

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Erectile dysfunction (ED) is the most common complication of prostate-cancer radiotherapy (RT) and the major mechanism is radiation-induced neurovascular bundle (NVB) damage. However, the localization of the NVB remains challenging. This study's purpose is to accurately localize 3D NVB by integrating MR and transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) images through MR-TRUS fusion. Methods: T1 and T2-weighted MR prostate images were acquired using a Philips 1.5T MR scanner and a pelvic phase-array coil. The 3D TRUS images were captured with a clinical scanner and a 7.5 MHz biplane probe. The TRUS probe was attached to a stepper; the B-mode images were captured from the prostate base to apex at a 1-mm step and the Doppler images were acquired in a 5-mm step. The registration method modeled the prostate tissue as an elastic material, and jointly estimated the boundary condition (surface deformation) and the volumetric deformations under elastic constraint. This technique was validated with a clinical study of 7 patients undergoing RT treatment for prostate cancer. The accuracy of our approach was assessed through the locations of landmarks, as well as previous ultrasound Doppler images of patients. Results: MR-TRUS registration was successfully performed for all patients. The mean displacement of the landmarks between the post-registration MR and TRUS images was 1.370.42 mm, which demonstrated the precision of the registration based on the biomechanical model; and the NVB volume Dice Overlap Coefficient was 92.13.2%, which demonstrated the accuracy of the NVB localization. Conclusion: We have developed a novel approach to improve 3D NVB localization through MR-TRUS fusion for prostate RT, demonstrated its clinical feasibility, and validated its accuracy with ultrasound Doppler data. This technique could be a useful tool as we try to spare the NVB in prostate RT, monitor NBV response to RT, and potentially improve post-RT potency outcomes.

  4. 3-D Deep Penetration Neutron Imaging of Thick Absorgin and Diffusive Objects Using Transport Theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ragusa, Jean; Bangerth, Wolfgang

    2011-08-01

    A current area of research interest in national security is to effectively and efficiently determine the contents of the many shipping containers that enter ports in the United States. This interest comes as a result of the 9/11 Commission Act passed by Congress in 2007 that requires 100% of inbound cargo to be scanned by 2012. It appears that this requirement will be achieved by 2012, but as of February of 2009 eighty percent of the 11.5 million inbound cargo containers were being scanned. The systems used today in all major U.S. ports to determine the presence of radioactive material within cargo containers are Radiation Portal Monitors (RPM). These devices generally exist in the form of a gate or series of gates that the containers can be driven through and scanned. The monitors are effective for determining the presence of radiation, but offer little more information about the particular source. This simple pass-fail system leads to many false alarms as many everyday items emit radiation including smoke detectors due to the Americium-241 source contained inside, bananas, milk, cocoa powder and lean beef due to the trace amounts of Potassium-40, and fire brick and kitty litter due to their high clay content which often contains traces of uranium and thorium. In addition, if an illuminating source is imposed on the boundary of the container, the contents of the container may become activated. These materials include steel, aluminum and many agricultural products. Current portal monitors also have not proven to be that effective at identifying natural or highly enriched uranium (HEU). In fact, the best available Advanced Spectroscopic Portal Monitors (ASP) are only capable of identifying bare HEU 70-88% of the time and masked HEU and depleted uranium (DU) only 53 percent of the time. Therefore, a better algorithm that uses more information collected from better detectors about the specific material distribution within the container is desired. The work reported here explores the inverse problem of optical tomography applied to heterogeneous domains. The neutral particle transport equation was used as the forward model for how neutral particles stream through and interact within these heterogeneous domains. A constrained optimization technique that uses Newtons method served as the basis of the inverse problem. Optical tomography aims at reconstructing the material properties using (a) illuminating sources and (b) detector readings. However, accurate simulations for radiation transport require that the particle (gamma and/or neutron) energy be appropriate discretize in the multigroup approximation. This, in turns, yields optical tomography problems where the number of unknowns grows (1) about quadratically with respect to the number of energy groups, G, (notably to reconstruct the scattering matrix) and (2) linearly with respect to the number of unknown material regions. As pointed out, a promising approach could rely on algorithms to appropriately select a material type per material zone rather than G2 values. This approach, though promising, still requires further investigation: (a) when switching from cross-section values unknowns to material type indices (discrete integer unknowns), integer programming techniques are needed since derivative information is no longer available; and (b) the issue of selecting the initial material zoning remains. The work reported here proposes an approach to solve the latter item, whereby a material zoning is proposed using one-group or few-groups transport approximations. The capabilities and limitations of the presented method were explored; they are briefly summarized next and later described in fuller details in the Appendices. The major factors that influenced the ability of the optimization method to reconstruct the cross sections of these domains included the locations of the sources used to illuminate the domains, the number of separate experiments used in the reconstruction, the locations where measurements were collected, the optical thickness of the domain, the amount of sign

  5. Evaluating quantitative 3-D image analysis as a design tool for...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Additionally, the maximum effect of microstructural features on heat transfer through the carbonaceous matrix of the preliminary compact was estimated. The surrogate fuel particles ...

  6. 3D Tomographic Imaging Of The Southern Apennines (Italy)- A Statistica...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of all the realizations is adopted as the best-fit solution and the uncertainty of the model parameters is studied using a statistical approach based on a Monte Carlo-type...

  7. A comprehensive simulation framework for imaging single particles and biomolecules at the European X-ray Free-Electron Laser

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yoon, Chun Hong; Yurkov, Mikhail V.; Schneidmiller, Evgeny A.; Samoylova, Liubov; Buzmakov, Alexey; Jurek, Zoltan; Ziaja, Beata; Santra, Robin; Loh, N. Duane; Tschentscher, Thomas; et al

    2016-04-25

    The advent of newer, brighter, and more coherent X-ray sources, such as X-ray Free-Electron Lasers (XFELs), represents a tremendous growth in the potential to apply coherent X-rays to determine the structure of materials from the micron-scale down to the Angstrom-scale. There is a significant need for a multi-physics simulation framework to perform source-to-detector simulations for a single particle imaging experiment, including (i) the multidimensional simulation of the X-ray source; (ii) simulation of the wave-optics propagation of the coherent XFEL beams; (iii) atomistic modelling of photon-material interactions; (iv) simulation of the time-dependent diffraction process, including incoherent scattering; (v) assembling noisy andmore » incomplete diffraction intensities into a three-dimensional data set using the Expansion-Maximisation-Compression (EMC) algorithm and (vi) phase retrieval to obtain structural information. Furthermore, we demonstrate the framework by simulating a single-particle experiment for a nitrogenase iron protein using parameters of the SPB/SFX instrument of the European XFEL. This exercise demonstrably yields interpretable consequences for structure determination that are crucial yet currently unavailable for experiment design.« less

  8. Fully 3D-Integrated Pixel Detectors for X-Rays

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Deptuch, Grzegorz W.; Gabriella, Carini; Enquist, Paul; Grybos, Pawel; Holm, Scott; Lipton, Ronald; Maj, Piotr; Patti, Robert; Siddons, David Peter; Szczygiel, Robert; et al

    2016-01-01

    The vertically integrated photon imaging chip (VIPIC1) pixel detector is a stack consisting of a 500-?m-thick silicon sensor, a two-tier 34-?m-thick integrated circuit, and a host printed circuit board (PCB). The integrated circuit tiers were bonded using the direct bonding technology with copper, and each tier features 1-?m-diameter throughsilicon vias that were used for connections to the sensor on one side, and to the host PCB on the other side. The 80-?m-pixel-pitch sensor was the direct bonding technology with nickel bonded to the integrated circuit. The stack was mounted on the board using SnPb balls placed on a 320-?m pitch,moreyielding an entirely wire-bond-less structure. The analog front-end features a pulse response peaking at below 250 ns, and the power consumption per pixel is 25 ?W. We successful completed the 3-D integration and have reported here. Additionally, all pixels in the matrix of 64 64 pixels were responding on well-bonded devices. Correct operation of the sparsified readout, allowing a single 153-ns bunch timing resolution, was confirmed in the tests on a synchrotron beam of 10-keV X-rays. An equivalent noise charge of 36.2 e- rms and a conversion gain of 69.5 ?V/e- with 2.6 e- rms and 2.7 ?V/e- rms pixel-to-pixel variations, respectively, were measured.less

  9. 3D reconstruction of nuclear reactions using GEM TPC with planar readout

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bihałowicz, Jan Stefan

    2015-02-24

    The research program of the Extreme Light Infrastructure – Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP) laboratory under construction in Magurele, Romania facilities the need of developing a gaseous active-target detector providing 3D reconstruction of charged products of nuclear reactions induced by gamma beam. The monoenergetic, high-energy (E{sub γ} > 19 MeV) gamma beam of intensity 10{sup 13}γ/s allows studying nuclear reactions in astrophysics. A Time Projection Chamber with crossed strip readout (eTPC) is proposed as one of the imaging detectors. The special feature of the readout electrode structure is a 2D reconstruction based on the information read out simultaneously from three arrays of strips that form virtual pixels. It is expected to reach similar spatial resolution as for pixel readout at largely reduced cost of electronics. The paper presents the current progress and first results of the small scale prototype TPC which is a one of implementation steps towards eTPC detector proposed in the Technical Design Report of Charged Particles Detection at ELI-NP.

  10. Electric-dipole allowed and intercombination transitions among the 3d{sup 5}, 3d{sup 4}4s and 3d{sup 4}4p levels of Fe IV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deb, Narayan C.; Hibbert, Alan

    2010-07-15

    Oscillator strengths and transition rates for the electric-dipole (E1) allowed and intercombination transitions among 3d{sup 5}, 3d{sup 4}4s and 3d{sup 4}4p levels of Fe IV are calculated using the CIV3 code of Hibbert and coworkers. Using the Hartree-Fock functions up to 3d orbitals we have also optimized 4s, 4p, 4d, 4f, 5s, 5p and 5d orbitals of which 4s and 4p are taken to be spectroscopic and the remaining orbitals represent corrections to the spectroscopic orbitals or the correlation effects. The J-dependent levels of 108 LS states are included in the calculation and the relativistic effects are accounted for via the Breit-Pauli operator. Configurations are chosen in two steps: (a) two promotions were allowed from the 3p, 3d, 4s and 4p subshells, using all the orbitals; and (b) selective promotions from the 3s subshell are included, but only to the 3s and 4s orbitals. The ab initio fine-structure levels are then fine tuned to reproduce observed energy levels as closely as possible, and the resulting wavefunctions are used to calculate oscillator strengths and transition rates for all possible E1 transitions. For many of these transitions, the present results show good agreement between the length and velocity forms while for some transitions, some large disagreements are found with other available results. The complete list of weighted oscillator strengths, transition rates, and line strengths for transitions among the fine structure levels of the three lowest configurations are presented in ascending order of wavelength.

  11. A compact single-camera system for high-speed, simultaneous 3-D velocity and temperature measurements.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Louise; Sick, Volker; Frank, Jonathan H.

    2013-09-01

    The University of Michigan and Sandia National Laboratories collaborated on the initial development of a compact single-camera approach for simultaneously measuring 3-D gasphase velocity and temperature fields at high frame rates. A compact diagnostic tool is desired to enable investigations of flows with limited optical access, such as near-wall flows in an internal combustion engine. These in-cylinder flows play a crucial role in improving engine performance. Thermographic phosphors were proposed as flow and temperature tracers to extend the capabilities of a novel, compact 3D velocimetry diagnostic to include high-speed thermometry. Ratiometric measurements were performed using two spectral bands of laser-induced phosphorescence emission from BaMg2Al10O17:Eu (BAM) phosphors in a heated air flow to determine the optimal optical configuration for accurate temperature measurements. The originally planned multi-year research project ended prematurely after the first year due to the Sandia-sponsored student leaving the research group at the University of Michigan.

  12. Visualizing nanoscale 3D compositional fluctuation of lithium in advanced lithium-ion battery cathodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devaraj, Arun; Gu, Meng; Colby, Robert J.; Yan, Pengfei; Wang, Chong M.; Zheng, Jianming; Xiao, Jie; Genc, Arda; Zhang, Jiguang; Belharouak, Ilias; Wang, Dapeng; Amine, Khalil; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai

    2015-08-14

    The distribution and concentration of lithium in Li-ion battery cathodes at different stages of cycling is a pivotal factor in determining battery performance. Non-uniform distribution of the transition metal cations has been shown to affect cathode performance; however, the Li is notoriously challenging to characterize with typical high-spatial-resolution imaging techniques. Here, for the first time, laser–assisted atom probe tomography is applied to two advanced Li-ion battery oxide cathode materials—layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 and spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4—to unambiguously map the three dimensional (3D) distribution of Li at sub-nanometer spatial resolution and correlate it with the distribution of the transition metal cations (M) and the oxygen. The as-fabricated layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 is shown to have Li-rich Li2MO3 phase regions and Li-depleted Li(Ni0.5Mn0.5)O2 regions while in the cycled layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 an overall loss of Li and presence of Ni rich regions, Mn rich regions and Li rich regions are shown in addition to providing the first direct evidence for Li loss on cycling of layered LNMO cathodes. The spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode is shown to have a uniform distribution of all cations. These results were additionally validated by correlating with energy dispersive spectroscopy mapping of these nanoparticles in a scanning transmission electron microscope. Thus, we have opened the door for probing the nanoscale compositional fluctuations in crucial Li-ion battery cathode materials at an unprecedented spatial resolution of sub-nanometer scale in 3D which can provide critical information for understanding capacity decay mechanisms in these advanced cathode materials.

  13. Visualizing nanoscale 3D compositional fluctuation of lithium in advanced lithium-ion battery cathodes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Devaraj, Arun; Gu, Meng; Colby, Robert J.; Yan, Pengfei; Wang, Chong M.; Zheng, Jianming; Xiao, Jie; Genc, Arda; Zhang, Jiguang; Belharouak, Ilias; et al

    2015-08-14

    The distribution and concentration of lithium in Li-ion battery cathodes at different stages of cycling is a pivotal factor in determining battery performance. Non-uniform distribution of the transition metal cations has been shown to affect cathode performance; however, the Li is notoriously challenging to characterize with typical high-spatial-resolution imaging techniques. Here, for the first time, laser–assisted atom probe tomography is applied to two advanced Li-ion battery oxide cathode materials—layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 and spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4—to unambiguously map the three dimensional (3D) distribution of Li at sub-nanometer spatial resolution and correlate it with the distribution of the transition metal cations (M) and themore » oxygen. The as-fabricated layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 is shown to have Li-rich Li2MO3 phase regions and Li-depleted Li(Ni0.5Mn0.5)O2 regions while in the cycled layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 an overall loss of Li and presence of Ni rich regions, Mn rich regions and Li rich regions are shown in addition to providing the first direct evidence for Li loss on cycling of layered LNMO cathodes. The spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode is shown to have a uniform distribution of all cations. These results were additionally validated by correlating with energy dispersive spectroscopy mapping of these nanoparticles in a scanning transmission electron microscope. Thus, we have opened the door for probing the nanoscale compositional fluctuations in crucial Li-ion battery cathode materials at an unprecedented spatial resolution of sub-nanometer scale in 3D which can provide critical information for understanding capacity decay mechanisms in these advanced cathode materials.« less

  14. SU-E-CAMPUS-T-05: Validation of High-Resolution 3D Patient QA for Proton Pencil Beam Scanning and IMPT by Polymer Gel Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cardin, A; Avery, S; Ding, X; Kassaee, A; Lin, L; Maryanski, M

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Validation of high-resolution 3D patient QA for proton pencil beam scanning and IMPT by polymer gel dosimetry. Methods: Four BANG3Pro polymer gel dosimeters (manufactured by MGS Research Inc, Madison, CT) were used for patient QA at the Robert's Proton Therapy Center (RPTC, Philadelphia, PA). All dosimeters were sealed in identical thin-wall Pyrex glass spheres. Each dosimeter contained a set of markers for 3D registration purposes. The dosimeters were mounted in a consistent and reproducible manner using a custom build holder. Two proton pencil beam scanning plans were designed using Varian Eclipse treatment planning system: 1) A two-field intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) plan and 2) one single field uniform dose (SFUD) plan. The IMPT fields were evaluated as a composite plan and individual fields, the SFUD plan was delivered as a single field plan.Laser CT scanning was performed using the manufacturer's OCTOPUS-IQ axial transmission laser CT scanner using a 1 mm slice thickness. 3D registration, analysis, and OD/cm to absorbed dose calibrations were perfomed using DICOM RT-Dose and CT files, and software developed by the manufacturer. 3D delta index, a metric equivalent to the gamma tool, was used for dose comparison. Results: Very good agreement with single IMPT fields and with SFUD was obtained. Composite IMPT fields had a less satisfactory agreement. The single fields had 3D delta index passing rates (3% dose difference, 3 mm DTA) of 98.98% and 94.91%. The composite 3D delta index passing rate was 80.80%. The SFUD passing rate was 93.77%. Required shifts of the dose distributions were less than 4 mm. Conclusion: A formulation of the BANG3Pro polymer gel dosimeter, suitable for 3D QA of proton patient plans is established and validated. Likewise, the mailed QA analysis service provided by the manufacturer is a practical option when required resources are unavailable. We fully disclose that the subject of this research regards a production of MGS Research, Inc.

  15. PowerPoint Presentation

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Detectors and Arrays * Eye-safe Pulsed Laser Transmitters * Rangefinders, 3D Imaging, ... Vertically-integrated 3D Imaging Eye-safe Laser Rangefinders Avalanche Photodiodes & APD ...

  16. The 3D-architecture of individual free silver nanoparticles captured by X-ray scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barke, Ingo; Hartmann, Hannes; Rupp, Daniela; Flckiger, Leonie; Sauppe, Mario; Adolph, Marcus; Schorb, Sebastian; Bostedt, Christoph; Treusch, Rolf; Peltz, Christian; Bartling, Stephan; Fennel, Thomas; Meiwes-Broer, Karl-Heinz; Mller, Thomas

    2015-02-04

    The diversity of nanoparticle shapes generated by condensation from gaseous matter reflects the fundamental competition between thermodynamic equilibration and the persistence of metastable configurations during growth. In the kinetically limited regime, intermediate geometries that are favoured only in early formation stages can be imprinted in the finally observed ensemble of differently structured specimens. Here we demonstrate that single-shot wide-angle scattering of femtosecond soft X-ray free-electron laser pulses allows three-dimensional characterization of the resulting metastable nanoparticle structures. For individual free silver particles, which can be considered frozen in space for the duration of photon exposure, both shape and orientation are uncovered from measured scattering images. We identify regular shapes, including species with fivefold symmetry and surprisingly large aspect ratio up to particle radii of the order of 100 nm. Our approach includes scattering effects beyond Borns approximation and is remarkably efficientopening up new routes in ultrafast nanophysics and free-electron laser science

  17. The 3D-architecture of individual free silver nanoparticles captured by X-ray scattering

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Barke, Ingo; Hartmann, Hannes; Rupp, Daniela; Flückiger, Leonie; Sauppe, Mario; Adolph, Marcus; Schorb, Sebastian; Bostedt, Christoph; Treusch, Rolf; Peltz, Christian; et al

    2015-02-04

    The diversity of nanoparticle shapes generated by condensation from gaseous matter reflects the fundamental competition between thermodynamic equilibration and the persistence of metastable configurations during growth. In the kinetically limited regime, intermediate geometries that are favoured only in early formation stages can be imprinted in the finally observed ensemble of differently structured specimens. Here we demonstrate that single-shot wide-angle scattering of femtosecond soft X-ray free-electron laser pulses allows three-dimensional characterization of the resulting metastable nanoparticle structures. For individual free silver particles, which can be considered frozen in space for the duration of photon exposure, both shape and orientation are uncoveredmore » from measured scattering images. We identify regular shapes, including species with fivefold symmetry and surprisingly large aspect ratio up to particle radii of the order of 100 nm. Our approach includes scattering effects beyond Born’s approximation and is remarkably efficient—opening up new routes in ultrafast nanophysics and free-electron laser science« less

  18. Bob Ellis designs a PPPL first: A 3D printed mirror for microwave launchers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Bob Ellis designs a PPPL first: A 3D printed mirror for microwave launchers By John Greenwald October 28, 2014 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook Bob Ellis with a 3D-printed plastic prototype for a non-mirror part of the launcher. (Photo by Elle Starkman/PPPL Office of Communications) Bob Ellis with a 3D-printed plastic prototype for a non-mirror part of the launcher. Gallery: Completed stainless steel and copper mirror system. (Photo by Elle

  19. EERE Success Story-ORNL Unveils 3D-Printed Home and Vehicle with the

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Unique Ability to Power One Another | Department of Energy ORNL Unveils 3D-Printed Home and Vehicle with the Unique Ability to Power One Another EERE Success Story-ORNL Unveils 3D-Printed Home and Vehicle with the Unique Ability to Power One Another November 17, 2015 - 10:42am Addthis EERE Success Story—ORNL Unveils 3D-Printed Home and Vehicle with the Unique Ability to Power One Another In September, the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) announced successful

  20. Parallel 3D Fast Fourier Transform Functions () | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Software: Parallel 3D Fast Fourier Transform Functions Citation Details Software Request Title: Parallel 3D Fast Fourier Transform Functions BigFFT is a scalable implementation of a three dimensional Fast Fourier Transform operation. Functions are included for forward and backward real-to-complex 3D transforms. Authors: Draeger, E. W. Publication Date: 2008-12-19 OSTI Identifier: 1253287 Report Number(s): BIGFFT; 002516WKSTN00 LLNL-CODE-432558 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC52-07NA27344 Software

  1. The Future of Manufacturing Takes Shape: 3D Printed Car on Display at

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Manufacturing Summit | Department of Energy The Future of Manufacturing Takes Shape: 3D Printed Car on Display at Manufacturing Summit The Future of Manufacturing Takes Shape: 3D Printed Car on Display at Manufacturing Summit September 17, 2014 - 9:50am Addthis WORLD&#039;S FIRST 1 of 6 WORLD'S FIRST The world's first 3D-printed car on display at the International Manufacturing Technology Show in Chicago last week. Arizona-based Local Motors, and Cincinnati Incorporated teamed with Oak

  2. Feasibility of RACT for 3D dose measurement and range verification in a water phantom

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alsanea, Fahed; Moskvin, Vadim; Stantz, Keith M.

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: The objective of this study is to establish the feasibility of using radiation-induced acoustics to measure the range and Bragg peak dose from a pulsed proton beam. Simulation studies implementing a prototype scanner design based on computed tomographic methods were performed to investigate the sensitivity to proton range and integral dose. Methods: Derived from thermodynamic wave equation, the pressure signals generated from the dose deposited from a pulsed proton beam with a 1 cm lateral beam width and a range of 16, 20, and 27 cm in water using Monte Carlo methods were simulated. The resulting dosimetric images were reconstructed implementing a 3D filtered backprojection algorithm and the pressure signals acquired from a 71-transducer array with a cylindrical geometry (30 40 cm) rotated over 2? about its central axis. Dependencies on the detector bandwidth and proton beam pulse width were performed, after which, different noise levels were added to the detector signals (using 1 ?s pulse width and a 0.5 MHz cutoff frequency/hydrophone) to investigate the statistical and systematic errors in the proton range (at 20 cm) and Bragg peak dose (of 1 cGy). Results: The reconstructed radioacoustic computed tomographic image intensity was shown to be linearly correlated to the dose within the Bragg peak. And, based on noise dependent studies, a detector sensitivity of 38 mPa was necessary to determine the proton range to within 1.0 mm (full-width at half-maximum) (systematic error < 150 ?m) for a 1 cGy Bragg peak dose, where the integral dose within the Bragg peak was measured to within 2%. For existing hydrophone detector sensitivities, a Bragg peak dose of 1.6 cGy is possible. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that computed tomographic scanner based on ionizing radiation-induced acoustics can be used to verify dose distribution and proton range with centi-Gray sensitivity. Realizing this technology into the clinic has the potential to significantly impact beam commissioning, treatment verification during particle beam therapy and image guided techniques.

  3. Characterisation of deuterium spectra from laser driven multi-species sources by employing differentially filtered image plate detectors in Thomson spectrometers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alejo, A.; Kar, S. Ahmed, H.; Doria, D.; Green, A.; Jung, D.; Lewis, C. L. S.; Nersisyan, G.; Krygier, A. G.; Freeman, R. R.; Clarke, R.; Green, J. S.; Notley, M.; Fernandez, J.; Fuchs, J.; Kleinschmidt, A.; Roth, M.; Morrison, J. T.; Najmudin, Z.; Nakamura, H.; and others

    2014-09-15

    A novel method for characterising the full spectrum of deuteron ions emitted by laser driven multi-species ion sources is discussed. The procedure is based on using differential filtering over the detector of a Thompson parabola ion spectrometer, which enables discrimination of deuterium ions from heavier ion species with the same charge-to-mass ratio (such as C{sup 6+}, O{sup 8+}, etc.). Commonly used Fuji Image plates were used as detectors in the spectrometer, whose absolute response to deuterium ions over a wide range of energies was calibrated by using slotted CR-39 nuclear track detectors. A typical deuterium ion spectrum diagnosed in a recent experimental campaign is presented, which was produced from a thin deuterated plastic foil target irradiated by a high power laser.

  4. Intense X-rays expose tiny flaws in 3-D printed titanium that...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Intense X-rays expose tiny flaws in 3-D printed titanium that can lead to breakage over time By Katie Elyce Jones * March 4, 2016 Tweet EmailPrint Titanium is strong but light - a ...

  5. 3D Atmospheric Radiative Transfer for Cloud System-Resolving Models: Forward Modelling and Observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howard Barker; Jason Cole

    2012-05-17

    Utilization of cloud-resolving models and multi-dimensional radiative transfer models to investigate the importance of 3D radiation effects on the numerical simulation of cloud fields and their properties.

  6. Guide for 3D WARP simulations of hollow electron beam lenses...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    test stand Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Guide for 3D WARP simulations of hollow electron beam lenses. Practical explanation on basis of Tevatron electron lens test ...

  7. Novel 3-D Printed Inverters for Electric Vehicles Can Improve EV Power and Efficiency

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Plug-in electric vehicle technologies are on their way to being even lighter, more powerful and more efficient with the advent of power inverters created by 3-D printing and novel semiconductors.

  8. Why 3D Printers Might Create the Next Robotic Champion | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    a free Cube 3D printer, an innovative additive manufacturing tool that can aid them in ... I saw the innovation power of Oak Ridge's use of additive manufacturing when I toured its ...

  9. 3-D Inversion Of Borehole-To-Surface Electrical Data Using A...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Inversion Of Borehole-To-Surface Electrical Data Using A Back-Propagation Neural Network Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: 3-D...

  10. Using 3D Printing to Redesign Santa's Sleigh | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    In the past, we've utilized GE technology to redesign Santa's Sleigh and have asked our additive manufacturing researchers to design and print 3D printed Christmas tree...

  11. Researchers find 3-D printed parts to provide low-cost, custom...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Researchers find 3-D printed parts to provide low-cost, custom alternatives for laboratory equipment By Raphael Rosen February 26, 2015 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on...

  12. 3-D Density Model Of Mt Etna Volcano (Southern Italy) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Density Model Of Mt Etna Volcano (Southern Italy) Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: 3-D Density Model Of Mt Etna Volcano (Southern...

  13. Pore-Controlled Formation of 0D Metal Complexes in Anionic 3D...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pore-Controlled Formation of 0D Metal Complexes in Anionic 3D Metal-Organic Frameworks Previous Next List Muwei Zhang, Mathieu Boscha and Hong-Cai Zhou, Cryst. Eng. Comm, 17,...

  14. EIA Energy Efficiency-Table 3d. Value Added by Selected Industries...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    d Page Last Modified: May 2010 Table 3d. Value Added1 by Selected Industries, 1998, 2002, and 2006 (Current Brillion Dollars) MECS Survey Years NAICS Subsector and Industry 1998...

  15. Low Temperature Assembly of Functional 3D DNA-PNA-Protein Complexes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Low Temperature Assembly of Functional 3D DNA-PNA-Protein Complexes Authors: Flory, J. D., Simmons, C. R., Lin, S., Johnson, T., Andreoni, A., Zook, J., Ghirlanda, G., Liu, Y.,...

  16. EERE Success Story-Just Plain Cool, the 3D Printed Shelby Cobra...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This innovative 3D printing process took just six weeks, and the final result was a glistening roadster fitted with a 100-kilowatt electric motor that can still go zero to 60 mph ...

  17. Local Motors Begins Their Six Day Quest to 3D Print the 'Strati...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PDF icon Local Motors Begins Their Six Day Quest to 3D Print the 'Strati' Car Live at IMTS More Documents & Publications Printing a Car: A Team Effort in Innovation Printing a Car: ...

  18. Fabrication and applications of sub-micron 2D and 3D periodic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    In-Document Search Title: Fabrication and applications of sub-micron 2D and 3D periodic carbon structures. Abstract not provided. Authors: Burckel, David Bruce ; Polsky, Ronen ;...

  19. Status of ParaDyn: DYNA3D for parallel computing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goudreau, G.L.; Hoover, C.G.; DeGrout, A.J.; Raboin, P.J.

    1996-04-17

    The evolution of DYNA3D from a vector supercomputer code into a parallel code is reviewed. Current status and target applications, especially those of interest to the Department of Defense.

  20. Models Ion Trajectories in 2D and 3D Electrostatic and Magnetic Fields

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2000-02-21

    SIMION3D7.0REV is a C based ion optics simulation program that can model complex problems using Laplace equation solutions for potential fields. The program uses an ion optics workbench that can hold up to 200 2D and/or 3D electrostatic/magnetic potential arrays. Arrays can have up to 50,000,000 points. SIMION3D7.0''s 32 bit virtual Graphics User Interface provides a highly interactive advanced user environment. All potential arrays are visualized as 3D objects that the user can cut awaymore » to inspect ion trajectories and potential energy surfaces. User programs allow the user to customize the program for specific simulations. A geometry file option supports the definition of highly complex array geometry. Algorithm modifications have improved this version''s computational speed and accuracy.« less

  1. Real-time Process Monitoring and Temperature Mapping of the 3D...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Real-time Process Monitoring and Temperature Mapping of the 3D Polymer Printing Process Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Real-time Process Monitoring and Temperature Mapping ...

  2. The 3D-Printed Shelby Cobra: Defining Rapid Innovation | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    It's been hard to miss in the media and on its almost non-stop road tour, but AMO wanted you to know that our 3D-printed EV version of the 50th anniversary Shelby Cobra just left ...

  3. Bob Ellis designs a PPPL first: A 3D printed mirror for microwave...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    "Now 3D is beginning to drift down into real-world metal products." Ellis created a CAD-CAM model of the shoebox-size mirror system and delivered it to Imperial Machine & Tool...

  4. California Trout, Inc. v. FERC, 313 F.3d 1131,1134, 1136 (9th...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal CaseHearing: California Trout, Inc. v. FERC, 313 F.3d 1131,1134, 1136 (9th Cir. 2002)Legal Abstract Ninth Circuit case that...

  5. California Trout, Inc. v. FERC, 313 F.3d 1131,1134,1136 (9th...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal CaseHearing: California Trout, Inc. v. FERC, 313 F.3d 1131,1134,1136 (9th Cir. 2002)Legal Hearing California Trout, Inc. v....

  6. Poly 3D fault modeling scripts/data for permeability potential of Washington State geothermal prospects

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Michael Swyer

    2015-02-05

    Matlab scripts/functions and data used to build Poly3D models and create permeability potential GIS layers for 1) Mount St Helen's, 2) Wind River Valley, and 3) Mount Baker geothermal prospect areas located in Washington state.

  7. A 3D Magnetic Structure Of Izu-Oshima Volcano And Their Changes...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    data show that the volcanic edifice of Izu-Oshima Volcano has a mean magnetization intensity ranging from 10.4 to 12.1 Am. The derived 3D magnetic structure shows low...

  8. Fully 3D-Integrated Pixel Detectors for X-Rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deptuch, Grzegorz W.; Gabriella, Carini; Enquist, Paul; Grybos, Pawel; Holm, Scott; Lipton, Ronald; Maj, Piotr; Patti, Robert; Siddons, David Peter; Szczygiel, Robert; Yarema, Raymond

    2016-01-01

    The vertically integrated photon imaging chip (VIPIC1) pixel detector is a stack consisting of a 500-μm-thick silicon sensor, a two-tier 34-μm-thick integrated circuit, and a host printed circuit board (PCB). The integrated circuit tiers were bonded using the direct bonding technology with copper, and each tier features 1-μm-diameter through-silicon vias that were used for connections to the sensor on one side, and to the host PCB on the other side. The 80-μm-pixel-pitch sensor was the direct bonding technology with nickel bonded to the integrated circuit. The stack was mounted on the board using Sn–Pb balls placed on a 320-μm pitch, yielding an entirely wire-bond-less structure. The analog front-end features a pulse response peaking at below 250 ns, and the power consumption per pixel is 25 μW. We successful completed the 3-D integration and have reported here. Additionally, all pixels in the matrix of 64 × 64 pixels were responding on well-bonded devices. Correct operation of the sparsified readout, allowing a single 153-ns bunch timing resolution, was confirmed in the tests on a synchrotron beam of 10-keV X-rays. An equivalent noise charge of 36.2 e- rms and a conversion gain of 69.5 μV/e- with 2.6 e- rms and 2.7 μV/e- rms pixel-to-pixel variations, respectively, were measured.

  9. Bulge growth and quenching since z = 2.5 in CANDELS/3D-HST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lang, Philipp; Wuyts, Stijn; Schreiber, Natascha M. Förster; Genzel, Reinhard; Lutz, Dieter; Rosario, David J.; Somerville, Rachel S.; Bell, Eric F.; Brammer, Gabe; Dekel, Avishai; Faber, Sandra M.; Momcheva, Ivelina; Kocevski, Dale D.; McGrath, Elizabeth J.; Nelson, Erica J.; Primack, Joel R.; Skelton, Rosalind E.; and others

    2014-06-10

    Exploiting the deep high-resolution imaging of all five CANDELS fields, and accurate redshift information provided by 3D-HST, we investigate the relation between structure and stellar populations for a mass-selected sample of 6764 galaxies above 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}, spanning the redshift range 0.5 < z < 2.5. For the first time, we fit two-dimensional models comprising a single Sérsic fit and two-component (i.e., bulge + disk) decompositions not only to the H-band light distributions, but also to the stellar mass maps reconstructed from resolved stellar population modeling. We confirm that the increased bulge prominence among quiescent galaxies, as reported previously based on rest-optical observations, remains in place when considering the distributions of stellar mass. Moreover, we observe an increase of the typical Sérsic index and bulge-to-total ratio (with median B/T reaching 40%-50%) among star-forming galaxies above 10{sup 11} M {sub ☉}. Given that quenching for these most massive systems is likely to be imminent, our findings suggest that significant bulge growth precedes a departure from the star-forming main sequence. We demonstrate that the bulge mass (and ideally knowledge of the bulge and total mass) is a more reliable predictor of the star-forming versus quiescent state of a galaxy than the total stellar mass. The same trends are predicted by the state-of-the-art, semi-analytic model by Somerville et al. In this model, bulges and black holes grow hand in hand through merging and/or disk instabilities, and feedback from active galactic nuclei shuts off star formation. Further observations will be required to pin down star formation quenching mechanisms, but our results imply that they must be internal to the galaxies and closely associated with bulge growth.

  10. Secretary Moniz Test Drives the 3D-Printed Shelby Cobra | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Secretary Moniz Test Drives the 3D-Printed Shelby Cobra Secretary Moniz Test Drives the 3D-Printed Shelby Cobra Addthis Topic Manufacturing Alternative Fuel Vehicles The 50th anniversary Shelby Cobra was printed at the Department of Energy's Manufacturing Demonstration Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory using the BAAM (Big Area Additive Manufacturing) machine and is intended as a "plug-and-play" laboratory on wheels. The vehicle will allow research and development of

  11. Final Report - Study of Shortwave Spectra in Fully 3D Environment.

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Synergy Between Scanning Radars and Spectral Radiation Measurements (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Report - Study of Shortwave Spectra in Fully 3D Environment. Synergy Between Scanning Radars and Spectral Radiation Measurements Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Final Report - Study of Shortwave Spectra in Fully 3D Environment. Synergy Between Scanning Radars and Spectral Radiation Measurements ARM set out 20 years ago to "close" the radiation problem, that is, to

  12. Linking Advanced Visualization and MATLAB for the Analysis of 3D Gene

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Expression Data (Conference) | SciTech Connect Linking Advanced Visualization and MATLAB for the Analysis of 3D Gene Expression Data Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Linking Advanced Visualization and MATLAB for the Analysis of 3D Gene Expression Data Three-dimensional gene expression PointCloud data generated by the Berkeley Drosophila Transcription Network Project (BDTNP) provides quantitative information about the spatial and temporal expression of genes in early Drosophila

  13. ORISE: Wounded veteran finds new way to serve by training for career in 3D

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    printing Wounded veteran finds new way to serve by training for career in 3D printing New training program prepares veterans, others to enter advanced manufacturing workforce FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE Aug. 4, 2014 FY14-56 Joseph Grabianowski OAK RIDGE, Tenn.-While 26-year-old wounded veteran Joseph Grabianowski has inspired Americans with his harrowing war story, someday he may be nationally known for building highly efficient exhaust systems for cars and trucks using 3D printing technology.

  14. 3D Covalent Organic Framework Materials database (Dataset) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Connect Dataset: 3D Covalent Organic Framework Materials database Citation Details In-Document Search Title: 3D Covalent Organic Framework Materials database Authors: Haranczyk, Maciej [1] + Show Author Affiliations Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Publication Date: 2014-09-11 OSTI Identifier: 1155071 Report Number(s): 1 DOE Contract Number: AC02-05CH11231 Resource Type: Dataset Data Type: Numeric Data Resource Relation: Related Information: R.L. Martin et al Journal of Physical

  15. 3D Equilibrium Effects Due to RMP Application on DIII-D (Technical Report)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    | SciTech Connect Technical Report: 3D Equilibrium Effects Due to RMP Application on DIII-D Citation Details In-Document Search Title: 3D Equilibrium Effects Due to RMP Application on DIII-D The mitigation and suppression of edge localized modes (ELMs) through application of resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) in Tokamak plasmas is a well documented phenomenon. Vacuum calculations suggest the formation of edge islands and stochastic regions when RMPs are applied to the axisymmetric

  16. Numerical Study of Velocity Shear Stabilization of 3D and Theoretical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Considerations for Centrifugally Confined Plasmas and Other Interchange-Limited Fusion Concepts (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Numerical Study of Velocity Shear Stabilization of 3D and Theoretical Considerations for Centrifugally Confined Plasmas and Other Interchange-Limited Fusion Concepts Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Numerical Study of Velocity Shear Stabilization of 3D and Theoretical Considerations for Centrifugally Confined Plasmas and Other Interchange-Limited

  17. Real-time Process Monitoring and Temperature Mapping of the 3D Polymer

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Printing Process (Conference) | SciTech Connect Real-time Process Monitoring and Temperature Mapping of the 3D Polymer Printing Process Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Real-time Process Monitoring and Temperature Mapping of the 3D Polymer Printing Process An extended range IR camera was used to make temperature measurements of samples as they are being manufactured. The objective is to quantify the temperature variation inside the system as parts are being fabricated, as well as

  18. GEO3D - Three-Dimensional Computer Model of a Ground Source Heat Pump System

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    James Menart

    2013-06-07

    This file is the setup file for the computer program GEO3D. GEO3D is a computer program written by Jim Menart to simulate vertical wells in conjunction with a heat pump for ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems. This is a very detailed three-dimensional computer model. This program produces detailed heat transfer and temperature field information for a vertical GSHP system.

  19. Examination of 1D Solar Cell Model Limitations Using 3D SPICE Modeling: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMahon, W. E.; Olson, J. M.; Geisz, J. F.; Friedman, D. J.

    2012-06-01

    To examine the limitations of one-dimensional (1D) solar cell modeling, 3D SPICE-based modeling is used to examine in detail the validity of the 1D assumptions as a function of sheet resistance for a model cell. The internal voltages and current densities produced by this modeling give additional insight into the differences between the 1D and 3D models.

  20. High-Performance Computation of Distributed-Memory Parallel 3D Voronoi and

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Delaunay Tessellation (Conference) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Conference: High-Performance Computation of Distributed-Memory Parallel 3D Voronoi and Delaunay Tessellation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High-Performance Computation of Distributed-Memory Parallel 3D Voronoi and Delaunay Tessellation Computing a Voronoi or Delaunay tessellation from a set of points is a core part of the analysis of many simulated and measured datasets: N-body simulations,

  1. Catalyst Cartography: 3D Super-Resolution Mapping of Catalytic Activity |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Ames Laboratory Catalyst Cartography: 3D Super-Resolution Mapping of Catalytic Activity Thanks to a groundbreaking new method, scientists have created the first 3D super-resolution maps of catalytic activity on an individual catalytic nanoparticle while reactions are occurring. Catalysts are used in manufacturing everything from stain remover to rocket fuel; they make production more efficient by facilitating chemical reactions. Each catalyst being studied is only about 200 nanometers in

  2. Accurate Band-Structure Calculations for the 3d Transition Metal Oxides

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    has developed a method to calculate accurate band structures and bandgap energies for 3d transition metal oxides using an augmented GW formalism. Significance and Impact This approach provides a computationally viable route for high-throughput prediction of band structures and optical properties in transition metal compounds. Accurate Band-Structure Calculations for the 3d Transition Metal Oxides S. Lany, Phys. Rev. B 87, 085112 (2013). Density of states (DOS) and absorption spectrum, shown for

  3. New local potential useful for genome annotation and 3D modeling (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: New local potential useful for genome annotation and 3D modeling Citation Details In-Document Search Title: New local potential useful for genome annotation and 3D modeling A new potential energy function representing the conformational preferences of sequentially local regions of a protein backbone is presented. This potential is derived from secondary structure probabilities such as those produced by neural network-based prediction methods. The

  4. Conducting a 3D Converted Shear Wave Project to Reduce Exploration Risk at Wister, CA

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE Geothermal Technologies Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. The primary objective of this project is to conduct a 3C 3D (converted shear wave) seismic survey to reduce exploration risk by characterizing fault and fracture geometrics at Wister, CA.The intent of the proposed program is to use a 3D seismic survey with converted shear waves combined with other available data to site and drill production wells at Wister, a blind geothermal resource.

  5. Image

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2007-08-31

    The computer side of the IMAGE project consists of a collection of Perl scripts that perform a variety of tasks; scripts are available to insert, update and delete data from the underlying Oracle database, download data from NCBI's Genbank and other sources, and generate data files for download by interested parties. Web scripts make up the tracking interface, and various tools available on the project web-site (image.llnl.gov) that provide a search interface to the database.

  6. Imaging

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Imaging Print The wavelengths of soft x-ray photons (1-15 nm) are very well matched to the creation of "nanoscopes" capable of probing the interior structure of biological cells and inorganic mesoscopic systems.Topics addressed by soft x-ray imaging techniques include cell biology, nanomagnetism, environmental science, and polymers. The tunability of synchrotron radiation is absolutely essential for the creation of contrast mechanisms. Cell biology CAT scans are performed in the

  7. Imaging

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Imaging Print The wavelengths of soft x-ray photons (1-15 nm) are very well matched to the creation of "nanoscopes" capable of probing the interior structure of biological cells and inorganic mesoscopic systems.Topics addressed by soft x-ray imaging techniques include cell biology, nanomagnetism, environmental science, and polymers. The tunability of synchrotron radiation is absolutely essential for the creation of contrast mechanisms. Cell biology CAT scans are performed in the

  8. A Detailed Study of FDIRC Prototype with Waveform Digitizing Electronics in Cosmic Ray Telescope Using 3D Tracks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nishimura, K.; Dey, B.; Aston, D.; Leith, D.W.G.S.; Ratcliff, B.; Roberts, D.; Ruckman, L.; Shtol, D.; Varner, G.S.; Va'vra, J.; Vavra, Jerry; ,

    2012-07-30

    We present a detailed study of a novel Cherenkov imaging detector called the Focusing DIRC (FDIRC) with waveform digitizing electronics. In this test study, the FDIRC prototype has been instrumented with seven Hamamatsu H-8500 MaPMTs. Waveforms from {approx}450 pixels are digitized with waveform sampling electronics based on the BLAB2 ASIC, operating at a sampling speed of {approx}2.5 GSa/s. The FDIRC prototype was tested in a large cosmic ray telescope (CRT) providing 3D muon tracks with {approx}1.5 mrad angular resolution and muon energy of E{sub muon} > 1.6 GeV. In this study we provide a detailed analysis of the tails in the Cherenkov angle distribution as a function of various variables, compare experimental results with simulation, and identify the major contributions to the tails. We demonstrate that to see the full impact of these tails on the Cherenkov angle resolution, it is crucial to use 3D tracks, and have a full understanding of the role of ambiguities. These issues could not be fully explored in previous FDIRC studies where the beam was perpendicular to the quartz radiator bars. This work is relevant for the final FDIRC prototype of the PID detector at SuperB, which will be tested this year in the CRT setup.

  9. Optical cone beam tomography of Cherenkov-mediated signals for fast 3D dosimetry of x-ray photon beams in water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glaser, Adam K. E-mail: Brian.W.Pogue@dartmouth.edu; Andreozzi, Jacqueline M.; Zhang, Rongxiao; Pogue, Brian W. E-mail: Brian.W.Pogue@dartmouth.edu; Gladstone, David J.

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: To test the use of a three-dimensional (3D) optical cone beam computed tomography reconstruction algorithm, for estimation of the imparted 3D dose distribution from megavoltage photon beams in a water tank for quality assurance, by imaging the induced Cherenkov-excited fluorescence (CEF). Methods: An intensified charge-coupled device coupled to a standard nontelecentric camera lens was used to tomographically acquire two-dimensional (2D) projection images of CEF from a complex multileaf collimator (MLC) shaped 6 MV linear accelerator x-ray photon beam operating at a dose rate of 600 MU/min. The resulting projections were used to reconstruct the 3D CEF light distribution, a potential surrogate of imparted dose, using a Feldkamp–Davis–Kress cone beam back reconstruction algorithm. Finally, the reconstructed light distributions were compared to the expected dose values from one-dimensional diode scans, 2D film measurements, and the 3D distribution generated from the clinical Varian ECLIPSE treatment planning system using a gamma index analysis. A Monte Carlo derived correction was applied to the Cherenkov reconstructions to account for beam hardening artifacts. Results: 3D light volumes were successfully reconstructed over a 400 × 400 × 350 mm{sup 3} volume at a resolution of 1 mm. The Cherenkov reconstructions showed agreement with all comparative methods and were also able to recover both inter- and intra-MLC leaf leakage. Based upon a 3%/3 mm criterion, the experimental Cherenkov light measurements showed an 83%–99% pass fraction depending on the chosen threshold dose. Conclusions: The results from this study demonstrate the use of optical cone beam computed tomography using CEF for the profiling of the imparted dose distribution from large area megavoltage photon beams in water.

  10. Twisted 3D N=4 supersymmetric YM on deformed A{sub 3}{sup *} lattice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saidi, El Hassan

    2014-01-15

    We study a class of twisted 3D N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory on particular 3-dimensional lattice L{sub 3D} formally denoted as L{sub 3D}{sup su{sub 3}×u{sub 1}} and given by non-trivial fibration L{sub 1D}{sup u{sub 1}}×L{sub 2D}{sup su{sub 3}} with base L{sub 2D}{sup su{sub 3}}=A{sub 2}{sup *}, the weight lattice of SU(3). We first, develop the twisted 3D N=4 SYM in continuum by using superspace method where the scalar supercharge Q is manifestly exhibited. Then, we show how to engineer the 3D lattice L{sub 3D}{sup su{sub 3}×u{sub 1}} that host this theory. After that we build the lattice action S{sub latt} invariant under the following three points: (i) U(N) gauge invariance, (ii) BRST symmetry, (iii) the S{sub 3} point group symmetry of L{sub 3D}{sup su{sub 3}×u{sub 1}}. Other features such as reduction to twisted 2D supersymmetry with 8 supercharges living on L{sub 2D}≡L{sub 2D}{sup su{sub 2}×u{sub 1}}, the extension to twisted maximal 5D SYM with 16 supercharges on lattice L{sub 5D}≡L{sub 5D}{sup su{sub 4}×u{sub 1}} as well as the relation with known results are also given.

  11. Two-color X-rays Give Scientists 3-D View of the Unknown | U...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    with a pair of precisely tuned X-ray laser pulses of different colors, or photon energies. ... photocathode with a train of two laser pulses separated in time by a few picoseconds. ...

  12. Individualized 3D Reconstruction of Normal Tissue Dose for Patients With Long-term Follow-up: A Step Toward Understanding Dose Risk for Late Toxicity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ng, Angela; Brock, Kristy K.; Sharpe, Michael B.; Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario ; Moseley, Joanne L.; Craig, Tim; Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario ; Hodgson, David C.

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: Understanding the relationship between normal tissue dose and delayed radiation toxicity is an important component of developing more effective radiation therapy. Late outcome data are generally available only for patients who have undergone 2-dimensional (2D) treatment plans. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of 3D normal tissue dosimetry derived from reconstructed 2D treatment plans in Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) patients. Methods and Materials: Three-dimensional lung, heart, and breast volumes were reconstructed from 2D planning radiographs for HL patients who received mediastinal radiation therapy. For each organ, a reference 3D organ was modified with patient-specific structural information, using deformable image processing software. Radiation therapy plans were reconstructed by applying treatment parameters obtained from patient records to the reconstructed 3D volumes. For each reconstructed organ mean dose (D{sub mean}) and volumes covered by at least 5 Gy (V{sub 5}) and 20Gy (V{sub 20}) were calculated. This process was performed for 15 patients who had both 2D and 3D planning data available to compare the reconstructed normal tissue doses with those derived from the primary CT planning data and also for 10 historically treated patients with only 2D imaging available. Results: For patients with 3D planning data, the normal tissue doses could be reconstructed accurately using 2D planning data. Median differences in D{sub mean} between reconstructed and actual plans were 0.18 Gy (lungs), -0.15 Gy (heart), and 0.30 Gy (breasts). Median difference in V{sub 5} and V{sub 20} were less than 2% for each organ. Reconstructed 3D dosimetry was substantially higher in historical mantle-field treatments than contemporary involved-field mediastinal treatments: average D{sub mean} values were 15.2 Gy vs 10.6 Gy (lungs), 27.0 Gy vs 14.3 Gy (heart), and 8.0 Gy vs 3.2 Gy (breasts). Conclusions: Three-dimensional reconstruction of absorbed dose to organs at risk can be estimated accurately many years after exposure by using limited 2D data. Compared to contemporary involved-field treatments, normal tissue doses were significantly higher in historical mantle-field treatments. These methods build capacity to quantify the relationship between 3D normal tissue dose and observed late effects.

  13. Implementation of DOWTHERM A Properties into RELAP5-3D/ATHENA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard L. Moore

    2010-04-01

    DOWTHERM A oil is being considered for use as a heat transfer fluid in experiments to help in the design of heat transfer components for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). In conjection with the experiments RELAP5-3D/ATHENA will be used to help design and analyzed the data generated by the experiments. Inorder to use RELAP5-3D the thermophysical properties of DOWTHERM A were implemented into the fluids package of the RELAP5-3D/ATHENA computer propgram. DOWTHERM A properties were implemented in RELAP5-3D/ATHENA using thermophysical property data obtain from a Dow Chemical Company brochure. The data were curve fit and the polynomial equations developed for each required property were input into a fluid property generator. The generated data was then compared to the orginal DOWTHERM A data to verify that the fluid property data generated by the RELAP5-3D/ATHENA code was representitive of the original input data to the generator.

  14. Tailorable 3D microfabrication for photonic applications: two-polymer microtransfer molding (proceedings paper)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Jae-Hwang; kim, Chang-Hwan; Constant, Kristen; Ho, Kai-Ming

    2006-02-28

    For photonic devices, extending beyond the planar regime to the third dimension can allow a higher degree of integration and novel functionalities for applications such as photonic crystals and integrated optical circuits. Although conventional photolithography can achieve both high quality and structural control, it is still costly and slow for three-dimensional (3D) fabrication. Moreover, as diverse functional polymers emerge, there is potential to develop new techniques for quick and economical fabrication of 3D structures. We present a 3D microfabrication technique based on the soft lithographic technique, called two-polymer microtransfer molding (2P-{micro}TM) to accomplish low cost, high structural fidelity and tailorable 3D microfabrication for polymers. Using 2P-{micro}TM, highly layered polymeric microstructures are achievable by stacking planar structures layer by layer. For increased processing control, the surface chemistry of the polymers is characterized as a function of changing ultraviolet dosage to optimize yield in layer transfer. We discuss the application of the 2P-{micro}TM to build polymer templates for woodpile photonic crystals, and demonstrate methods for converting the polymer templates to dielectric and metallic photonic crystal structures. Finally, we will show that 2P-{micro}TM is promising for fabricating 3D polymeric optical waveguides.

  15. LayTracks3D: A new approach for meshing general solids using medial axis transform

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Quadros, William Roshan

    2015-08-22

    This study presents an extension of the all-quad meshing algorithm called LayTracks to generate high quality hex-dominant meshes of general solids. LayTracks3D uses the mapping between the Medial Axis (MA) and the boundary of the 3D domain to decompose complex 3D domains into simpler domains called Tracks. Tracks in 3D have no branches and are symmetric, non-intersecting, orthogonal to the boundary, and the shortest path from the MA to the boundary. These properties of tracks result in desired meshes with near cube shape elements at the boundary, structured mesh along the boundary normal with any irregular nodes restricted to themore » MA, and sharp boundary feature preservation. The algorithm has been tested on a few industrial CAD models and hex-dominant meshes are shown in the Results section. Work is underway to extend LayTracks3D to generate all-hex meshes.« less

  16. Enhancement of neurite outgrowth in neuron cancer stem cells by growth on 3-D collagen scaffolds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Chih-Hao; Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan, ROC; Department of Biomedical Engineering, I-Shou University, Taiwan, ROC ; Kuo, Shyh Ming; Liu, Guei-Sheung; Chen, Wan-Nan U.; Chuang, Chin-Wen; Liu, Li-Feng

    2012-11-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Neuron cancer stem cells (NCSCs) behave high multiply of growth on collagen scaffold. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enhancement of NCSCs neurite outgrowth on porous collagen scaffold. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 3-D collagen culture of NCSCs shows an advance differentiation than 2-D culture. -- Abstract: Collagen is one component of the extracellular matrix that has been widely used for constructive remodeling to facilitate cell growth and differentiation. The 3-D distribution and growth of cells within the porous scaffold suggest a clinical significance for nerve tissue engineering. In the current study, we investigated proliferation and differentiation of neuron cancer stem cells (NCSCs) on a 3-D porous collagen scaffold that mimics the natural extracellular matrix. We first generated green fluorescence protein (GFP) expressing NCSCs using a lentiviral system to instantly monitor the transitions of morphological changes during growth on the 3-D scaffold. We found that proliferation of GFP-NCSCs increased, and a single cell mass rapidly grew with unrestricted expansion between days 3 and 9 in culture. Moreover, immunostaining with neuronal nuclei (NeuN) revealed that NCSCs grown on the 3-D collagen scaffold significantly enhanced neurite outgrowth. Our findings confirmed that the 80 {mu}m porous collagen scaffold could enhance attachment, viability and differentiation of the cancer neural stem cells. This result could provide a new application for nerve tissue engineering and nerve regeneration.

  17. Evolution, Interaction, and Intrinsic Properties of Dislocations in Intermetallics: Anisotropic 3D Dislocation Dynamics Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qian Chen

    2008-08-18

    The generation, motion, and interaction of dislocations play key roles during the plastic deformation process of crystalline solids. 3D Dislocation Dynamics has been employed as a mesoscale simulation algorithm to investigate the collective and cooperative behavior of dislocations. Most current research on 3D Dislocation Dynamics is based on the solutions available in the framework of classical isotropic elasticity. However, due to some degree of elastic anisotropy in almost all crystalline solids, it is very necessary to extend 3D Dislocation Dynamics into anisotropic elasticity. In this study, first, the details of efficient and accurate incorporation of the fully anisotropic elasticity into 3D discrete Dislocation Dynamics by numerically evaluating the derivatives of Green's functions are described. Then the intrinsic properties of perfect dislocations, including their stability, their core properties and disassociation characteristics, in newly discovered rare earth-based intermetallics and in conventional intermetallics are investigated, within the framework of fully anisotropic elasticity supplemented with the atomistic information obtained from the ab initio calculations. Moreover, the evolution and interaction of dislocations in these intermetallics as well as the role of solute segregation are presented by utilizing fully anisotropic 3D dislocation dynamics. The results from this work clearly indicate the role and the importance of elastic anisotropy on the evolution of dislocation microstructures, the overall ductility and the hardening behavior in these systems.

  18. RELAP5-3D Code Includes Athena Features and Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard A. Riemke; Cliff B. Davis; Richard R. Schultz

    2006-07-01

    Version 2.3 of the RELAP5-3D computer program includes all features and models previously available only in the ATHENA version of the code. These include the addition of new working fluids (i.e., ammonia, blood, carbon dioxide, glycerol, helium, hydrogen, lead-bismuth, lithium, lithium-lead, nitrogen, potassium, sodium, and sodium-potassium) and a magnetohydrodynamic model that expands the capability of the code to model many more thermal-hydraulic systems. In addition to the new working fluids along with the standard working fluid water, one or more noncondensable gases (e.g., air, argon, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, helium, hydrogen, krypton, nitrogen, oxygen, sf6, xenon) can be specified as part of the vapor/gas phase of the working fluid. These noncondensable gases were in previous versions of RELAP5- 3D. Recently four molten salts have been added as working fluids to RELAP5-3D Version 2.4, which has had limited release. These molten salts will be in RELAP5-3D Version 2.5, which will have a general release like RELAP5-3D Version 2.3. Applications that use these new features and models are discussed in this paper.

  19. Local Motors Begins Their Six Day Quest to 3D Print the ‘Strati’ Car Live at IMTS

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    An article detailing Local Motors' preparation to 3D print a car at the September 2014 International Manufacturing Technology Show.

  20. Equation-of-State Test Suite for the DYNA3D Code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benjamin, Russell D.

    2015-11-05

    This document describes the creation and implementation of a test suite for the Equationof- State models in the DYNA3D code. A customized input deck has been created for each model, as well as a script that extracts the relevant data from the high-speed edit file created by DYNA3D. Each equation-of-state model is broken apart and individual elements of the model are tested, as well as testing the entire model. The input deck for each model is described and the results of the tests are discussed. The intent of this work is to add this test suite to the validation suite presently used for DYNA3D.

  1. 3-D seismic velocity and attenuation structures in the geothermal field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nugraha, Andri Dian [Global Geophysics Research Group, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institute of Technology Bandung, Jalan Ganesha No. 10 Bandung, 40132 (Indonesia)] [Global Geophysics Research Group, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institute of Technology Bandung, Jalan Ganesha No. 10 Bandung, 40132 (Indonesia); Syahputra, Ahmad [Geophyisical Engineering, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institute of Technology Bandung, Jalan Ganesha No. 10 Bandung, 40132 (Indonesia)] [Geophyisical Engineering, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institute of Technology Bandung, Jalan Ganesha No. 10 Bandung, 40132 (Indonesia); Fatkhan,; Sule, Rachmat [Applied Geophysics Research Group, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institute of Technology Bandung, Jalan Ganesha No. 10 Bandung, 40132 (Indonesia)] [Applied Geophysics Research Group, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institute of Technology Bandung, Jalan Ganesha No. 10 Bandung, 40132 (Indonesia)

    2013-09-09

    We conducted delay time tomography to determine 3-D seismic velocity structures (Vp, Vs, and Vp/Vs ratio) using micro-seismic events in the geothermal field. The P-and S-wave arrival times of these micro-seismic events have been used as input for the tomographic inversion. Our preliminary seismic velocity results show that the subsurface condition of geothermal field can be fairly delineated the characteristic of reservoir. We then extended our understanding of the subsurface physical properties through determining of attenuation structures (Qp, Qs, and Qs/Qp ratio) using micro-seismic waveform. We combined seismic velocities and attenuation structures to get much better interpretation of the reservoir characteristic. Our preliminary attanuation structures results show reservoir characterization can be more clearly by using the 3-D attenuation model of Qp, Qs, and Qs/Qp ratio combined with 3-D seismic velocity model of Vp, Vs, and Vp/Vs ratio.

  2. 3D calculation of Tucson-Melbourne 3NF effect in triton binding energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadizadeh, M. R.; Tomio, L.; Bayegan, S.

    2010-08-04

    As an application of the new realistic three-dimensional (3D) formalism reported recently for three-nucleon (3N) bound states, an attempt is made to study the effect of three-nucleon forces (3NFs) in triton binding energy in a non partial wave (PW) approach. The spin-isospin dependent 3N Faddeev integral equations with the inclusion of 3NFs, which are formulated as function of vector Jacobi momenta, specifically the magnitudes of the momenta and the angle between them, are solved with Bonn-B and Tucson-Melbourne NN and 3N forces in operator forms which can be incorporated in our 3D formalism. The comparison with numerical results in both, novel 3D and standard PW schemes, shows that non PW calculations avoid the very involved angular momentum algebra occurring for the permutations and transformations and it is more efficient and less cumbersome for considering the 3NF.

  3. Three-Dimensional Integrated Characterization and Archiving System (3D-ICAS). Phase 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-07-01

    3D-ICAS is being developed to support Decontamination and Decommissioning operations for DOE addressing Research Area 6 (characterization) of the Program Research and Development Announcement. 3D-ICAS provides in-situ 3-dimensional characterization of contaminated DOE facilities. Its multisensor probe contains a GC/MS (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry using noncontact infrared heating) sensor for organics, a molecular vibrational sensor for base material identification, and a radionuclide sensor for radioactive contaminants. It will provide real-time quantitative measurements of volatile organics and radionuclides on bare materials (concrete, asbestos, transite); it will provide 3-D display of the fusion of all measurements; and it will archive the measurements for regulatory documentation. It consists of two robotic mobile platforms that operate in hazardous environments linked to an integrated workstation in a safe environment.

  4. Models the Electromagnetic Response of a 3D Distribution using MP COMPUTERS

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1999-05-01

    EM3D models the electromagnetic response of a 3D distribution of conductivity, dielectric permittivity and magnetic permeability within the earth for geophysical applications using massively parallel computers. The simulations are carried out in the frequency domain for either electric or magnetic sources for either scattered or total filed formulations of Maxwell''s equations. The solution is based on the method of finite differences and includes absorbing boundary conditions so that responses can be modeled up into themore » radar range where wave propagation is dominant. Recent upgrades in the software include the incorporation of finite size sources, that in addition to dipolar source fields, and a low induction number preconditioner that can significantly reduce computational run times. A graphical user interface (GUI) is bundled with the software so that complicated 3D models can be easily constructed and simulated with the software. The GUI also allows for plotting of the output.« less

  5. Injection-controlled laser resonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, J.J.

    1995-07-18

    A new injection-controlled laser resonator incorporates self-filtering and self-imaging characteristics with an efficient injection scheme. A low-divergence laser signal is injected into the resonator, which enables the injection signal to be converted to the desired resonator modes before the main laser pulse starts. This injection technique and resonator design enable the laser cavity to improve the quality of the injection signal through self-filtering before the main laser pulse starts. The self-imaging property of the present resonator reduces the cavity induced diffraction effects and, in turn, improves the laser beam quality. 5 figs.

  6. Injection-controlled laser resonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Jim J.

    1995-07-18

    A new injection-controlled laser resonator incorporates self-filtering and self-imaging characteristics with an efficient injection scheme. A low-divergence laser signal is injected into the resonator, which enables the injection signal to be converted to the desired resonator modes before the main laser pulse starts. This injection technique and resonator design enable the laser cavity to improve the quality of the injection signal through self-filtering before the main laser pulse starts. The self-imaging property of the present resonator reduces the cavity induced diffraction effects and, in turn, improves the laser beam quality.

  7. Modeling Three-Dimensional Shock Initiation of PBX 9501 in ALE3D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leininger, L; Springer, H K; Mace, J; Mas, E

    2008-07-08

    A recent SMIS (Specific Munitions Impact Scenario) experimental series performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory has provided 3-dimensional shock initiation behavior of the HMX-based heterogeneous high explosive, PBX 9501. A series of finite element impact calculations have been performed in the ALE3D [1] hydrodynamic code and compared to the SMIS results to validate and study code predictions. These SMIS tests used a powder gun to shoot scaled NATO standard fragments into a cylinder of PBX 9501, which has a PMMA case and a steel impact cover. This SMIS real-world shot scenario creates a unique test-bed because (1) SMIS tests facilitate the investigation of 3D Shock to Detonation Transition (SDT) within the context of a considerable suite of diagnostics, and (2) many of the fragments arrive at the impact plate off-center and at an angle of impact. A particular goal of these model validation experiments is to demonstrate the predictive capability of the ALE3D implementation of the Tarver-Lee Ignition and Growth reactive flow model [2] within a fully 3-dimensional regime of SDT. The 3-dimensional Arbitrary Lagrange Eulerian (ALE) hydrodynamic model in ALE3D applies the Ignition and Growth (I&G) reactive flow model with PBX 9501 parameters derived from historical 1-dimensional experimental data. The model includes the off-center and angle of impact variations seen in the experiments. Qualitatively, the ALE3D I&G calculations reproduce observed 'Go/No-Go' 3D Shock to Detonation Transition (SDT) reaction in the explosive, as well as the case expansion recorded by a high-speed optical camera. Quantitatively, the calculations show good agreement with the shock time of arrival at internal and external diagnostic pins. This exercise demonstrates the utility of the Ignition and Growth model applied for the response of heterogeneous high explosives in the SDT regime.

  8. Prototype Development Capabilities of 3D Spatial Interactions and Failures During Scenario Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven Prescott; Ramprasad Sampath; Curtis Smith; Tony Koonce

    2014-09-01

    Computers have been used for 3D modeling and simulation, but only recently have computational resources been able to give realistic results in a reasonable time frame for large complex models. This report addressed the methods, techniques, and resources used to develop a prototype for using 3D modeling and simulation engine to improve risk analysis and evaluate reactor structures and components for a given scenario. The simulations done for this evaluation were focused on external events, specifically tsunami floods, for a hypothetical nuclear power facility on a coastline.

  9. 3D Cobra, Renewable Energy, and Green Button at the National Maker Faire |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 3D Cobra, Renewable Energy, and Green Button at the National Maker Faire 3D Cobra, Renewable Energy, and Green Button at the National Maker Faire June 12, 2015 - 9:15am Addthis The National Maker Faire aims to celebrate all things science, technology, engineering, art, and math through do-it-yourself and do-it-with-others projects and fun. The National Maker Faire aims to celebrate all things science, technology, engineering, art, and math through do-it-yourself and

  10. PNA-peptide Assembly in a 3D DNA Nanocage at Room Temperature

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PNA-peptide Assembly in a 3D DNA Nanocage at Room Temperature Authors: Flory, J.D., Shinde, S., Lin, S., Liu, Y., Yan, H., Ghirlanda, G., and Fromme, P. Title: PNA-peptide Assembly in a 3D DNA Nanocage at Room Temperature Source: J. Am. Chem. Soc. Year: 2013 Volume: 135 (18) Pages: 6985-6993 ABSTRACT: Proteins and peptides fold into dynamic structures that access a broad functional landscape, however, designing artificial polypeptide systems is still a great challenge. Conversely, DNA

  11. New Multi-group Transport Neutronics (PHISICS) Capabilities for RELAP5-3D

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and its Application to Phase I of the OECD/NEA MHTGR-350 MW Benchmark (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: New Multi-group Transport Neutronics (PHISICS) Capabilities for RELAP5-3D and its Application to Phase I of the OECD/NEA MHTGR-350 MW Benchmark Citation Details In-Document Search Title: New Multi-group Transport Neutronics (PHISICS) Capabilities for RELAP5-3D and its Application to Phase I of the OECD/NEA MHTGR-350 MW Benchmark PHISICS is a neutronics code system currently under

  12. Photo Gallery: 3D Printing Brings Classic Shelby Cobra to Life | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy 3D Printing Brings Classic Shelby Cobra to Life Photo Gallery: 3D Printing Brings Classic Shelby Cobra to Life April 15, 2015 - 4:02pm Addthis Zero to 60 in under five seconds. Concept to reality in just six weeks. 1 of 22 Zero to 60 in under five seconds. Concept to reality in just six weeks. The classic Shelby Cobra roadster turns 50 in 2015. To celebrate, a team of engineers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory set out to create a replica of this iconic

  13. DYNA3D user's manual (nonlinear dynamic analysis of solids in three-dimensions)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hallquist, J.O.

    1982-11-01

    This report provides an updated user's manual for DYNA3D, an explicit three-dimensional finite-element code for analyzing the large-deformation dynamic response of inelastic solids. A contact-impact algorithm permits gaps and sliding along material interfaces. By a specialization of this algorithm, such interfaces can be rigidly tied to admit variable zoning without the need of transition regions. Spatial discretization is achieved by the use of 8-node solid elements, and the equations-of-motion are integrated by the central difference method. DYNA3D contains fifteen material models and nine equations of state to cover a wide range of material behavior.

  14. DYNA3D user's manual (nonlinear dynamic analysis of solids in three dimensions)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hallquist, J.O.

    1984-04-01

    This report provides an updated user's manual for DYNA3D, an explicit three-dimensional finite element code for analyzing the large deformation dynamic response of inelastic solids. A contact-impact algorithm permits gaps and sliding along material interfaces. By a specialization of this algorithm, such interfaces can be rigidly tied to admit variable zoning without the need of transition regions. Spatial discretization is achieved by the use of 8-node solid elements, and the equations-of-motion are integrated by the central difference method. DYNA3D contains fifteen material models and nine equations of state to cover a wide range of material behavior.

  15. KIVA: a comprehensive model for 2D and 3D engine simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amsden, A.A.; Butler, T.D.; O'Rourke, P.J.; Ramshaw, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    This paper summarizes a comprehensive numerical model that represents the spray dynamics, fluid flow, species transport, mixing, chemical reactions, and accompanying heat release that occur inside the cylinder of an internal combustion engine. The model is embodied in the KIVA computer code. The code calculates both two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) situations. It is an outgrowth of the earlier 2D CONCHAS-SPRAY computer program. Sample numerical calculations are presented to indicate the level of detail that is available from these simulations. These calculations are for a direct injection stratified charge engine with swirl. Both a 2D and a 3D example are shown.

  16. GE Uses 3D Printers to Make Jet Parts | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Uses 3D Printers to Make Jet Parts Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) GE Uses 3D Printers to Make Jet Parts GE Global Research 2013.12.05 Christine Furstoss, Technology Director for Manufacturing and Materials Technologies, was interviewed on Bloomberg Television's "Bloomberg West" by Emily Chang.

  17. The Benefits of 3D vs. 2D Analysis | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Benefits of 3D vs. 2D Analysis Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) The Benefits of 3D vs. 2D Analysis Vin Smentkowski 2015.05.20 I am a research chemist and my field of research is surface characterization using a technique called Time of Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). About a decade ago,

  18. Synthesis and structure of a 2D → 3D framework with coexistence of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    hydrogen bonds and polythreading character (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Synthesis and structure of a 2D → 3D framework with coexistence of hydrogen bonds and polythreading character Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Synthesis and structure of a 2D → 3D framework with coexistence of hydrogen bonds and polythreading character The title complex, ([Co(BPPA)(5-OH-bdc)] * (H{sub 2}O)){sub n} was prepared under hydrothermal conditions based on two ligands, namely,

  19. Validation and Application of the 3D Neutron Transport MPACT within CASL

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    VERA-CS (Conference) | SciTech Connect Validation and Application of the 3D Neutron Transport MPACT within CASL VERA-CS Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Validation and Application of the 3D Neutron Transport MPACT within CASL VERA-CS This paper is Included in the session on multiscale multiphysics applications in thermal hydraulics. Authors: Kouchunas, Brendan [1] ; Jabaay, Dan [1] ; Downar, Thomas [1] ; Collins, Benjamin S [2] ; Stimpson, Shane G [2] ; Godfrey, Andrew T [2] ; Kim,

  20. Local-global alignment for finding 3D similarities in protein structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zemla, Adam T.

    2011-09-20

    A method of finding 3D similarities in protein structures of a first molecule and a second molecule. The method comprises providing preselected information regarding the first molecule and the second molecule. Comparing the first molecule and the second molecule using Longest Continuous Segments (LCS) analysis. Comparing the first molecule and the second molecule using Global Distance Test (GDT) analysis. Comparing the first molecule and the second molecule using Local Global Alignment Scoring function (LGA_S) analysis. Verifying constructed alignment and repeating the steps to find the regions of 3D similarities in protein structures.

  1. Laser programs highlights 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-06-01

    Over the last two decades, the scope of our laser research has grown immensely. The small, low-power laser systems of our early days have given way to laser systems of record-breaking size and power. Now we are focusing our activities within the target physics and laser science programs to support the ignition and gain goals of the proposed glass-laser National Ignition Facility. In our laser isotope separation work, we completed the most important set of experiments in the history of the AVLIS Program in 1993, which culminated in a spectacularly successful run that met or exceeded all our objectives. We are also developing lasers and laser-related technologies for a variety of energy, commercial, and defense uses. On the horizon are transfers of important technologies for waste treatment, x-ray lithography, communications and security, optical imaging, and remote sensing, among others.

  2. Opacity of iron, nickel, and copper plasmas in the x-ray wavelength range: Theoretical interpretation of 2p-3d absorption spectra

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blenski, T.; Loisel, G.; Poirier, M.; Thais, F.; Arnault, P.; Caillaud, T.; Fariaut, J.; Gilleron, F.; Pain, J.-C.; Porcherot, Q.; Reverdin, C.; Silvert, V.; Villette, B.; Bastiani-Ceccotti, S.; Turck-Chieze, S.; Foelsner, W.; Gaufridy de Dortan, F. de

    2011-09-15

    This paper deals with theoretical studies on the 2p-3d absorption in iron, nickel, and copper plasmas related to LULI2000 (Laboratoire pour l'Utilisation des Lasers Intenses, 2000J facility) measurements in which target temperatures were of the order of 20 eV and plasma densities were in the range 0.004-0.01 g/cm{sup 3}. The radiatively heated targets were close to local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). The structure of 2p-3d transitions has been studied with the help of the statistical superconfiguration opacity code sco and with the fine-structure atomic physics codes hullac and fac. A new mixed version of the sco code allowing one to treat part of the configurations by detailed calculation based on the Cowan's code rcg has been also used in these comparisons. Special attention was paid to comparisons between theory and experiment concerning the term features which cannot be reproduced by sco. The differences in the spin-orbit splitting and the statistical (thermal) broadening of the 2p-3d transitions have been investigated as a function of the atomic number Z. It appears that at the conditions of the experiment the role of the term and configuration broadening was different in the three analyzed elements, this broadening being sensitive to the atomic number. Some effects of the temperature gradients and possible non-LTE effects have been studied with the help of the radiative-collisional code scric. The sensitivity of the 2p-3d structures with respect to temperature and density in medium-Z plasmas may be helpful for diagnostics of LTE plasmas especially in future experiments on the {Delta}n=0 absorption in medium-Z plasmas for astrophysical applications.

  3. Comparing GPU Implementations of Bilateral and Anisotropic Diffusion Filters for 3D Biomedical Datasets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howison, Mark

    2010-05-06

    We compare the performance of hand-tuned CUDA implementations of bilateral and anisotropic diffusion filters for denoising 3D MRI datasets. Our tests sweep comparable parameters for the two filters and measure total runtime, memory bandwidth, computational throughput, and mean squared errors relative to a noiseless reference dataset.

  4. Finite Element Code For 3D-Hydraulic Fracture Propagation Equations (3-layer).

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-03-24

    HYFRACP3D is a finite element program for simulation of a pseudo three-dimensional fracture geometries with a two-dimensional planar solution. The model predicts the height, width and winglength over time for a hydraulic fracture propagating in a three-layered system of rocks with variable rock mechanics properties.

  5. 3D Direct Simulation Monte Carlo Code Which Solves for Geometrics

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1998-01-13

    Pegasus is a 3D Direct Simulation Monte Carlo Code which solves for geometries which can be represented by bodies of revolution. Included are all the surface chemistry enhancements in the 2D code Icarus as well as a real vacuum pump model. The code includes multiple species transport.

  6. Recent Hydrodynamics Improvements to the RELAP5-3D Code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard A. Riemke; Cliff B. Davis; Richard.R. Schultz

    2009-07-01

    The hydrodynamics section of the RELAP5-3D computer program has been recently improved. Changes were made as follows: (1) improved turbine model, (2) spray model for the pressurizer model, (3) feedwater heater model, (4) radiological transport model, (5) improved pump model, and (6) compressor model.

  7. Development and Optimization of Viable Human Platforms through 3D Printing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, Paul R.; Moya, Monica L.; Wheeler, Elizabeth K.

    2015-08-21

    3D printing technology offers a unique method for creating cell cultures in a manner far more conducive to accurate representation of human tissues and systems. Here we print cellular structures capable of forming vascular networks and exhibiting qualities of natural tissues and human systems. This allows for cheaper and readily available sources for further study of biological and pharmaceutical agents.

  8. Scanning Cloud Radar Observations at Azores: Preliminary 3D Cloud Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kollias, P.; Johnson, K.; Jo, I.; Tatarevic, A.; Giangrande, S.; Widener, K.; Bharadwaj, N.; Mead, J.

    2010-03-15

    The deployment of the Scanning W-Band ARM Cloud Radar (SWACR) during the AMF campaign at Azores signals the first deployment of an ARM Facility-owned scanning cloud radar and offers a prelude for the type of 3D cloud observations that ARM will have the capability to provide at all the ARM Climate Research Facility sites by the end of 2010. The primary objective of the deployment of Scanning ARM Cloud Radars (SACRs) at the ARM Facility sites is to map continuously (operationally) the 3D structure of clouds and shallow precipitation and to provide 3D microphysical and dynamical retrievals for cloud life cycle and cloud-scale process studies. This is a challenging task, never attempted before, and requires significant research and development efforts in order to understand the radar's capabilities and limitations. At the same time, we need to look beyond the radar meteorology aspects of the challenge and ensure that the hardware and software capabilities of the new systems are utilized for the development of 3D data products that address the scientific needs of the new Atmospheric System Research (ASR) program. The SWACR observations at Azores provide a first look at such observations and the challenges associated with their analysis and interpretation. The set of scan strategies applied during the SWACR deployment and their merit is discussed. The scan strategies were adjusted for the detection of marine stratocumulus and shallow cumulus that were frequently observed at the Azores deployment. Quality control procedures for the radar reflectivity and Doppler products are presented. Finally, preliminary 3D-Active Remote Sensing of Cloud Locations (3D-ARSCL) products on a regular grid will be presented, and the challenges associated with their development discussed. In addition to data from the Azores deployment, limited data from the follow-up deployment of the SWACR at the ARM SGP site will be presented. This effort provides a blueprint for the effort required for the development of 3D cloud products from all new SACRs that the program will deploy at all fixed and mobile sites by the end of 2010.

  9. Experimental observation of 3-D, impulsive reconnection events in a laboratory plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dorfman, S.; Ji, H.; Yamada, M.; Yoo, J.; Lawrence, E.; Myers, C.; Tharp, T. D.

    2014-01-15

    Fast, impulsive reconnection is commonly observed in laboratory, space, and astrophysical plasmas. In this work, impulsive, local, 3-D reconnection is identified for the first time in a laboratory current sheet. The two-fluid, impulsive reconnection events observed on the Magnetic Reconnection Experiment (MRX) [Yamada et al., Phys Plasmas 4, 1936 (1997)] cannot be explained by 2-D models and are therefore fundamentally three-dimensional. Several signatures of flux ropes are identified with these events; 3-D high current density regions with O-point structure form during a slow buildup period that precedes a fast disruption of the reconnecting current layer. The observed drop in the reconnection current and spike in the reconnection rate during the disruption are due to ejection of these flux ropes from the layer. Underscoring the 3-D nature of the events, strong out-of-plane gradients in both the density and reconnecting magnetic field are found to play a key role in this process. Electromagnetic fluctuations in the lower hybrid frequency range are observed to peak at the disruption time; however, they are not the key physics responsible for the impulsive phenomena observed. Important features of the disruption dynamics cannot be explained by an anomalous resistivity model. An important discrepancy in the layer width and force balance between the collisionless regime of MRX and kinetic simulations is also revisited. The wider layers observed in MRX may be due to the formation of flux ropes with a wide range of sizes; consistent with this hypothesis, flux rope signatures are observed down to the smallest scales resolved by the diagnostics. Finally, a 3-D two-fluid model is proposed to explain how the observed out-of-plane variation may lead to a localized region of enhanced reconnection that spreads in the direction of the out-of-plane electron flow, ejecting flux ropes from the layer in a 3-D manner.

  10. Translation, Enhancement, Filtering, and Visualization of Large 3D Triangle Mesh

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1997-04-21

    The runthru system consists of five programs: workcell filter, just do it, transl8g, decim8, and runthru. The workcell filter program is useful if the source of your 3D triangle mesh model is IGRIP. It will traverse a directory structure of Deneb IGRIP files and filter out any IGRIP part files that are not referenced by an accompanying IGRIP work cell file. The just do it program automates translating and/or filtering of large numbers of partsmore » that are organized in hierarchical directory structures. The transl8g program facilitates the interchange, topology generation, error checking, and enhancement of large 3D triangle meshes. Such data is frequently used to represent conceptual designs, scientific visualization volume modeling, or discrete sample data. Interchange is provided between several popular commercial and defacto standard geometry formats. Error checking is included to identify duplicate and zero area triangles. Model engancement features include common vertex joining, consistent triangle vertex ordering, vertex noemal vector averaging, and triangle strip generation. Many of the traditional O(n2) algorithms required to provide the above features have been recast and are o(nlog(n)) which support large mesh sizes. The decim8 program is based on a data filter algorithm that significantly reduces the number of triangles required to represent 3D models of geometry, scientific visualization results, and discretely sampled data. It eliminates local patches of triangles whose geometries are not appreciably different and replaces them with fewer, larger triangles. The algorithm has been used to reduce triangles in large conceptual design models to facilitate virtual walk throughs and to enable interactive viewing of large 3D iso-surface volume visualizations. The runthru program provides high performance interactive display and manipulation of 3D triangle mesh models.« less

  11. Fiji Is Just ImageJ

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    be described as a "batteries-included" distribution of ImageJ (and ImageJ2), bundling Java, Java3D and a lot of plugins organized into a coherent structure. Availability Fiji's...

  12. 3D Scanner to Help Boost Worker Safety in Hanford Tank Farms

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    RICHLAND, Wash. – A laser scanner is being tested in the Hanford tank farms as a mapping tool to help conduct virtual walk-downs.

  13. MO-G-BRF-07: Anomalously Fast Diffusion of Carbon Nanotubes Carriers in 3D Tissue Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Y; Bahng, J; Kotov, N

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: We aim to investigate and understand diffusion process of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and other nanoscale particles in tissue and organs. Methods: In this research, we utilized a 3D model tissue of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)cultured in inverted colloidal crystal (ICC) scaffolds to compare the diffusivity of CNTs with small molecules such as Rhodamine and FITC in vitro, and further investigated the transportation of CNTs with and without targeting ligand, TGFβ1. The real-time permeation profiles of CNTs in HCC tissue model with high temporal and spatial resolution was demonstrated by using standard confocal microscopy. Quantitative analysis of the diffusion process in 3D was carried out using luminescence intensity in a series of Z-stack images obtained for different time points of the diffusion process after initial addition of CNTs or small molecules to the cell culture and the image data was analyzed by software ImageJ and Mathematica. Results: CNTs display diffusion rate in model tissues substantially faster than small molecules of the similar charge such as FITC, and the diffusion rate of CNTs are significantly enhanced with targeting ligand, TGFβ1. Conclusion: In terms of the advantages of in-vitro model, we were able to have access to measuring the rate of CNT penetration at designed conditions with variable parameters. And the findings by using this model, changed our understanding about advantages of CNTs as nanoscale drug carriers and provides design principles for making new drug carriers for both treatment and diagnostics. Additionally the fast diffusion opens the discussion of the best possible drug carriers to reach deep parts of cancerous tissues, which is often a prerequisite for successful cancer treatment. This work was supported by the Center for Photonic and Multiscale Nanomaterials funded by National Science Foundation Materials Research Science and Engineering Center program DMR 1120923. The work was also partially supported by NSF grant ECS-0601345; EFRI-BSBA 0938019; CBET 0933384; CBET 0932823; CBET 1036672, AFOSR MURI 444286-P061716 and NIH 1R21CA121841-01A2.

  14. Development of a lab-scale, high-resolution, tube-generated X-ray computed-tomography system for three-dimensional (3D) materials characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mertens, J.C.E. Williams, J.J. Chawla, Nikhilesh

    2014-06-01

    The design and construction of a modular high resolution X-ray computed tomography (XCT) system is highlighted in this paper. The design approach is detailed for meeting a specified set of instrument performance goals tailored towards experimental versatility and high resolution imaging. The XCT tool is unique in the detector and X-ray source design configuration, enabling control in the balance between detection efficiency and spatial resolution. The system package is also unique: The sample manipulation approach implemented enables a wide gamut of in situ experimentation to analyze structure evolution under applied stimulus, by optimizing scan conditions through a high degree of controllability. The component selection and design process is detailed: Incorporated components are specified, custom designs are shared, and the approach for their integration into a fully functional XCT scanner is provided. Custom designs discussed include the dual-target X-ray source cradle which maintains position and trajectory of the beam between the two X-ray target configurations with respect to a scintillator mounting and positioning assembly and the imaging sensor, as well as a novel large-format X-ray detector with enhanced adaptability. The instrument is discussed from an operational point of view, including the details of data acquisition and processing implemented for 3D imaging via micro-CT. The performance of the instrument is demonstrated on a silica-glass particle/hydroxyl-terminated-polybutadiene (HTPB) matrix binder PBX simulant. Post-scan data processing, specifically segmentation of the sample's relevant microstructure from the 3D reconstruction, is provided to demonstrate the utility of the instrument. - Highlights: Custom built X-ray tomography system for microstructural characterization Detector design for maximizing polychromatic X-ray detection efficiency X-ray design offered for maximizing X-ray flux with respect to imaging resolution Novel lab-scale XCT data acquisition and data processing methods 3D characterization of glass-bead mock plastic-bonded-explosive stimulant.

  15. Matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) for direct visualization of plant metabolites in situ

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sturtevant, Drew; Lee, Young -Jin; Chapman, Kent D.

    2015-11-22

    Direct visualization of plant tissues by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) has revealed key insights into the localization of metabolites in situ. Recent efforts have determined the spatial distribution of primary and secondary metabolites in plant tissues and cells. Strategies have been applied in many areas of metabolism including isotope flux analyses, plant interactions, and transcriptional regulation of metabolite accumulation. Technological advances have pushed achievable spatial resolution to subcellular levels and increased instrument sensitivity by several orders of magnitude. Furthermore, it is anticipated that MALDI-MSI and other MSI approaches will bring a new level of understanding to metabolomics as scientists will be encouraged to consider spatial heterogeneity of metabolites in descriptions of metabolic pathway regulation.

  16. 3D Torus Routing Engine Module for OFA OpenSM v. 1.0

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2009-11-12

    This OpenFabrics Alliance (OFA) OpenSM routing engine module provides credit-loop-free routing while supporting two quality of service (QoS) levels for an InfiniBand fabric with a 3D torus topology. In addition it is able to route around multiple failed fabric links or a single failed fabric switch without introducing credit loops, and without changing path Service Level (SL) values granted before the failure.This OFA OpenSM routing engine module improves the operational characteristics of a parallel computermore » built using an InfiniBand fabric with a 3D torus topology. By providing two QoS levels, it allows system administrators to prevent application interprocess communication and file system communication from impacting each other. By providing the capability to route traffic around failed fabric components, it enables repair of failed components without impacting jobs running on the computer system.« less

  17. Identifying High Potential Well Targets with 3D Seismic and Mineralogy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mellors, R. J.

    2015-10-30

    Seismic reflection the primary tool used in petroleum exploration and production, but use in geothermal exploration is less standard, in part due to cost but also due to the challenges in identifying the highly-permeable zones essential for economic hydrothermal systems [e.g. Louie et al., 2011; Majer, 2003]. Newer technology, such as wireless sensors and low-cost high performance computing, has helped reduce the cost and effort needed to conduct 3D surveys. The second difficulty, identifying permeable zones, has been less tractable so far. Here we report on the use of seismic attributes from a 3D seismic survey to identify and map permeable zones in a hydrothermal area.

  18. Radial electric field 3D modeling for wire arrays driving dynamic hohlraums on Z.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mock, Raymond Cecil

    2007-06-01

    The anode-cathode structure of the Z-machine wire array results in a higher negative radial electric field (Er) on the wires near the cathode relative to the anode. The magnitude of this field has been shown to anti-correlate with the axial radiation top/bottom symmetry in the DH (Dynamic Hohlraum). Using 3D modeling, the structure of this field is revealed for different wire-array configurations and for progressive mechanical alterations, providing insight for minimizing the negative Er on the wire array in the anode-to-cathode region of the DH. Also, the 3D model is compared to Sasorov's approximation, which describes Er at the surface of the wire in terms of wire-array parameters.

  19. DYNA3D (Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis of Structures in Three Dimensions) user's manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hallquist, J.O.

    1988-04-01

    This report provides an updated user's manual for DYNA3D, an explicit three-dimensional finite element code for analyzing the large deformation dynamic response of inelastic solids and structures. A contact-impact algorithm permits gaps and sliding along material interfaces with friction. By a specialization of this algorithm, such interfaces can be rigidly tied to admit variable zoning without the need of transition regions. Spatial discretization is achieved by the use of 8-node solid elements, 2-node beam elements, 4-node shell elements, 8-node solid shell elements, and rigid bodies. The equations-of-motion are integrated in time by the central difference method. DYNA3D contains twenty-eight material models and eleven equations of state to cover a wide range of material behavior. 56 refs., 46 figs.

  20. User's manuals for DYNA3D and DYNAP: nonlinear dynamic analysis of solids in three dimensions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hallquist, J.O.

    1981-07-01

    This report provides a user's manual for DYNA3D, an explicit three-dimensional finite element code for analyzing the large deformation dynamic response of inelastic solids. A contact-impact algorithm permits gaps and sliding along material interfaces. By a specialization of this algorithm, such interfaces can be rigidly tied to admit variable zoning without the need of transition regions. Spatial discretization is achieved by the use of 8-node solid elements, and the equations-of-motion are integrated by the central difference method. Post-processors for DYNA3D include GRAPE for plotting deformed shapes and stress contours and DYNAP for plotting time histories. A user's manual for DYNAP is also provided in this report.