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1

30 days to a more powerful memory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With phones ringing off the hook, constantly changing to-do lists, and increasingly complicated schedules, having a good memory has become more important than ever. Drawing on the latest research from cognitive experts and psychologists, 30 Days to a ...

Gini Scott

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

30-Day Federal Register Notice - Proposed  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

30-Day Federal Register Notice - Proposed 30-Day Federal Register Notice - Proposed [6450-01-P] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Proposed Agency Information Collection AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice and Request for OMB Review and Comment SUMMARY: The Department of Energy (DOE) has submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for clearance, a proposal for collection of information under the provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. The proposed collection will {enter a brief description of the collection that highlights the major questions being asked; suggested length is 2 to 5 sentences}. DATES: Comments regarding this collection must be received on or before [INSERT DATE 30 DAYS AFTER DATE OF PUBLICATION IN THE FEDERAL REGISTER]. If you anticipate that you will be submitting comments, but find it difficult

3

30-Day Federal Register Notice - Proposed  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

30-Day Federal Register Notice - Proposed 30-Day Federal Register Notice - Proposed [6450-01-P] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Proposed Agency Information Collection AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice and Request for OMB Review and Comment SUMMARY: The Department of Energy (DOE) has submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for clearance, a proposal for collection of information under the provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. The proposed collection will {enter a brief description of the collection that highlights the major questions being asked; suggested length is 2 to 5 sentences}. DATES: Comments regarding this collection must be received on or before [INSERT DATE 30 DAYS AFTER DATE OF PUBLICATION IN THE FEDERAL REGISTER]. If you anticipate that you will be submitting comments, but find it difficult

4

30-Day Federal Register Notice - Extension  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

30-Day Federal Register Notice - Extension [6450-01-P] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Agency Information Collection Extension AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy. ACTION: Submission for Office of Management and Budget (OMB) review; comment request SUMMARY: The Department of Energy (DOE) has submitted an information collection request to the OMB for extension under the provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. The information collection requests a three-year extension of its {enter the Title of the collection from question number 7 on OMB Form 83-I}}, OMB Control Number 1910-{enter 4-digit control number}. The proposed collection will {enter a brief description of the collection that highlights the major questions being asked; suggested length is 2 to 5 sentences}..

5

30-Day Federal Register Notice - Extension  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

30-Day Federal Register Notice - Extension [6450-01-P] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Agency Information Collection Extension AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy. ACTION: Submission for Office of Management and Budget (OMB) review; comment request SUMMARY: The Department of Energy (DOE) has submitted an information collection request to the OMB for extension under the provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. The information collection requests a three-year extension of its {enter the Title of the collection from question number 7 on OMB Form 83-I}}, OMB Control Number 1910-{enter 4-digit control number}. The proposed collection will {enter a brief description of the collection that highlights the major questions being asked; suggested length is 2 to 5 sentences}..

6

Sensitivity of 30-Day Dynamical Forecasts to Continental Snow cover  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Several series of 30-day simulations with a global simulation model are used to evaluate the sensitivities to continental snow cover over North America and Eurasia. The model is initialized with National Meteorological Center analyses for ...

John E. Walsh; Becky Ross

1988-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Improving 30-Day Great Lakes Ice Cover Outlooks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Prediction of Great Lakes ice cover is important for winter operations and planning activities. Current 30-day forecasts use accumulated freezing degree-days (AFDDs) to identify similar historical events and associated ice cover. The authors ...

Raymond Assel; Sheldon Drobot; Thomas E. Croley II

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

The Leading Modes of 10–30 Day Variability in the Extratropics of the Northern Hemisphere during the Cold Season  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The 10–30 day variability of extratropical, cold season (November–March) 700 mb geopotential height data of the Northern Hemisphere was studied through the use of rotated complex principal component (RCPC) analysis. The intramonthly modes (IMMs), ...

John R. Lanzante

1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Generation and Propagation of 30-Day Waves in a Numerical Model of the Pacific  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A multilevel numerical model is applied to the equatorial Pacific Ocean, driven by long-term averaged, monthly varying winds. In agreement with satellite-observed sea surface temperatures, the solution is unstable at certain times of year and ...

Michael D. Cox

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Prediction of Monsoon Rainfall and River Discharge on 15–30-Day Time Scales  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Most attempts at predicting south Asian monsoon variability have concentrated on seasonally averaged rainfall over the Indian subcontinent some months in advance using regional and remote boundary effects as predictors. Overall, about 30% of the ...

Peter J. Webster; Carlos Hoyos

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Department of Energy Announces Decision to Consolidate Surplus Plutonium in  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Decision to Consolidate Surplus Decision to Consolidate Surplus Plutonium in South Carolina Department of Energy Announces Decision to Consolidate Surplus Plutonium in South Carolina September 5, 2007 - 3:16pm Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today announced its decision to consolidate surplus, non-pit plutonium at its Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina, greatly reducing storage costs and significantly enhancing security across the nation's weapons complex. DOE will begin shipping the surplus, non-pit plutonium no sooner than 30 days from today and under the plan this surplus plutonium is expected to be shipped to SRS by 2010. "Consolidation is a key part of the Department's efforts to properly manage surplus plutonium and follows our dedication to non-proliferation,

12

Department of Energy Announces Decision to Consolidate Surplus Plutonium in  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Department of Energy Announces Decision to Consolidate Surplus Department of Energy Announces Decision to Consolidate Surplus Plutonium in South Carolina Department of Energy Announces Decision to Consolidate Surplus Plutonium in South Carolina September 5, 2007 - 3:16pm Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today announced its decision to consolidate surplus, non-pit plutonium at its Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina, greatly reducing storage costs and significantly enhancing security across the nation's weapons complex. DOE will begin shipping the surplus, non-pit plutonium no sooner than 30 days from today and under the plan this surplus plutonium is expected to be shipped to SRS by 2010. "Consolidation is a key part of the Department's efforts to properly manage surplus plutonium and follows our dedication to non-proliferation,

13

CONVERSION OF PLUTONIUM TRIFLUORIDE TO PLUTONIUM TETRAFLUORIDE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A large proportion of the trifluoride of plutonium can be converted, in the absence of hydrogen fluoride, to the tetrafiuoride of plutonium. This is done by heating plutonium trifluoride with oxygen at temperatures between 250 and 900 deg C. The trifiuoride of plutonium reacts with oxygen to form plutonium tetrafluoride and plutonium oxide, in a ratio of about 3 to 1. In the presence of moisture, plutonium tetrafluoride tends to hydrolyze at elevated temperatures and therefore it is desirable to have the process take place under anhydrous conditions.

Fried, S.; Davidson, N.R.

1957-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

14

THE PLUTONIUM STORY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Soc. , The occurrence of plutonium in nature. Mastick, D. F.positive oxidation state of plutonium. G. T. Seaborg, J. J.The first isolation of plutonium J. Am. Chem. Soc. , Fermi,

Seaborg, G.T.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

PLUTONIUM ALLOYS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The preparation of low-melting-point plutonium alloys is described. In a MgO crucible Pu is placed on top of the lighter alloying metal (Fe, Co, or Ni) and the temperature raised to 1000 or 1200 deg C. Upon cooling, the alloy slug is broke out of the crucible. With 14 at. % Ni the m.p. is 465 deg C; with 9.5 at. % Fe the m.p. is 410 deg C; and with 12.0 at. % Co the m.p. is 405 deg C. (T.R.H.) l6262 l6263 ((((((((Abstract unscannable))))))))

Chynoweth, W.

1959-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

16

PRODUCTION OF PLUTONIUM METAL  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is given for producing plutonium metal by the reduction of plutonium chloride, dissolved in alkali metal chloride plus or minus aluminum chloride, with magnesium or a magnesium-aluminum alloy at between 700 and 800 deg C and separating the plutonium or plutonium-aluminum alloy formed from the salt.

Lyon, W.L.; Moore, R.H.

1961-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

17

SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for separating plutonium from uranium and fission products by treating a nitrate solution of fission products, uranium, and hexavalent plutonium with a relatively water-insoluble fluoride to adsorb fission products on the fluoride, treating the residual solution with a reducing agent for plutonium to reduce its valence to four and less, treating the reduced plutonium solution with a relatively insoluble fluoride to adsorb the plutonium on the fluoride, removing the solution, and subsequently treating the fluoride with its adsorbed plutonium with a concentrated aqueous solution of at least one of a group consisting of aluminum nitrate, ferric nitrate, and manganous nitrate to remove the plutonium from the fluoride.

Maddock, A.G.; Smith, F.

1959-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

18

STRIPPING PROCESS FOR PLUTONIUM  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for removing silver, nickel, cadmium, zinc, and indium coatings from plutonium objects while simultaneously rendering the plutonium object passive is described. The coated plutonium object is immersed as the anode in an electrolyte in which the plutonium is passive and the coating metal is not passive, using as a cathode a metal which does not dissolve rapidly in the electrolyte. and passing an electrical current through the electrolyte until the coating metal is removed from the plutonium body.

Kolodney, M.

1959-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Strong Lines of Plutonium ( Pu )  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Plutonium (Pu) Homepage - Introduction Finding list Select element by name. Select element by atomic number. ... Strong Lines of Plutonium ( Pu ). ...

20

Atomic Data for Plutonium (Pu)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Plutonium (Pu) Homepage - Introduction Finding list Select element by name. Select element by atomic number. ... Atomic Data for Plutonium (Pu). ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "30-day average plutonium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

METHOD OF SEPARATING PLUTONIUM  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Plutonium hexafluoride is a satisfactory fluorinating agent and may be reacted with various materials capable of forming fluorides, such as copper, iron, zinc, etc., with consequent formation of the metal fluoride and reduction of the plutonium to the form of a lower fluoride. In accordance with the present invention, it has been found that the reactivity of plutonium hexafluoride with other fluoridizable materials is so great that the process may be used as a method of separating plutonium from mixures containing plutonium hexafluoride and other vaporized fluorides even though the plutonium is present in but minute quantities. This process may be carried out by treating a mixture of fluoride vapors comprising plutonium hexafluoride and fluoride of uranium to selectively reduce the plutonium hexafluoride and convert it to a less volatile fluoride, and then recovering said less volatile fluoride from the vapor by condensation.

Brown, H.S.; Hill, O.F.

1958-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

PREPARATION OF PLUTONIUM TRIFLUORIDE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process of producing plutonium trifluoride by reacting dry plutonium(IV) oxalate with chlorofluorinated methane or ethane at 400 to 450 deg C and cooling the product in the absence of oxygen is described.

Burger, L.L.; Roake, W.E.

1961-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

23

PROCESS FOR PURIFYING PLUTONIUM  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described of separating plutonium from small amounts of uranium and other contaminants. An acidic aqueous solution of higher valent plutonium and hexavalent uranium is treated with a soluble iodide to obtain the plutonium in the plus three oxidation state while leaving the uranium in the hexavalent state, adding a soluble oxalate such as oxalic acid, and then separating the insoluble plus the plutonium trioxalate from the solution.

Mastick, D.F.; Wigner, E.P.

1958-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Plutonium Disposition Program | National Nuclear Security Administrati...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Plutonium Disposition Program Home > About Us > Our Programs > Nonproliferation > Fissile Materials Disposition > Plutonium Disposition Program Plutonium Disposition Program The...

25

PLUTONIUM CLEANING PROCESS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for rapidly removing iron, nickel, and zinc coatings from plutonium objects while simultaneously rendering the plutonium object passive. The method consists of immersing the coated plutonium object in an aqueous acid solution containing a substantial concentration of nitrate ions, such as fuming nitric acid.

Kolodney, M.

1959-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

PLUTONIUM-THORIUM ALLOYS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

New plutonium-base binary alloys useful as liquid reactor fuel are described. The alloys consist of 50 to 98 at.% thorium with the remainder plutonium. The stated advantages of these alloys over unalloyed plutonium for reactor fuel use are easy fabrication, phase stability, and the accompanying advantuge of providing a means for converting Th/sup 232/ into U/sup 233/.

Schonfeld, F.W.

1959-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

27

Demolition Begins on Hanford's Historic Plutonium Vaults - Plutonium...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

workers used chemical processing and furnaces to fabricate plutonium metal, primarily hockey puck-shaped pieces called buttons. The plutonium buttons were stored in high-security...

28

PREPARATION OF PLUTONIUM HALIDES  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process ls presented for the preparation of plutonium trihalides. Plutonium oxide or a compound which may be readily converted to plutonlum oxide, for example, a plutonium hydroxide or plutonlum oxalate is contacted with a suitable halogenating agent. Speciflc agents mentioned are carbon tetrachloride, carbon tetrabromide, sulfur dioxide, and phosphorus pentachloride. The reaction is carried out under superatmospberic pressure at about 300 icient laborato C.

Davidson, N.R.; Katz, J.J.

1958-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

PLUTONIUM-ZIRCONIUM ALLOYS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A series of nuclear reactor fuel alloys consisting of from about 5 to about 50 at.% zirconium (or higher zirconium alloys such as Zircaloy), balance plutonium, and having the structural composition of a plutonium are described. Zirconium is a satisfactory diluent because it alloys readily with plutonium and has desirable nuclear properties. Additional advantages are corrosion resistance, excellent fabrication propenties, an isotropie structure, and initial softness.

Schonfeld, F.W.; Waber, J.T.

1960-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

30

Continuous plutonium dissolution apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is concerned with continuous dissolution of metals such as plutonium. A high normality acid mixture is fed into a boiler vessel, vaporized, and subsequently condensed as a low normality acid mixture. The mixture is then conveyed to a dissolution vessel and contacted with the plutonium metal to dissolve the plutonium in the dissolution vessel, reacting therewith forming plutonium nitrate. The reaction products are then conveyed to the mixing vessel and maintained soluble by the high normality acid, with separation and removal of the desired constituent. (Official Gazette)

Meyer, F.G.; Tesitor, C.N.

1974-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

31

THE PLUTONIUM STORY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

vast processing plants at Hanford, Washington, in Decemberconsideration for use at Hanford. The various parts of thewere tested c u the Hanford concentration:, of plutonium in

Seaborg, G.T.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

PREPARATION OF PLUTONIUM  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods are presented for the electro-deposition of plutonium from fused mixtures of plutonium halides and halides of the alkali metals and alkaline earth metals. Th salts, preferably chlorides and with the plutonium prefer ably in the trivalent state, are placed in a refractory crucible such as tantalum or molybdenam and heated in a non-oxidizing atmosphere to 600 to 850 deg C, the higher temperatatures being used to obtain massive plutonium and the lower for the powder form. Electrodes of graphite or non reactive refractory metals are used, the crucible serving the cathode in one apparatus described in the patent.

Kolodney, M.

1959-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Method for dissolving plutonium dioxide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for dissolving plutonium dioxide comprises adding silver ions to a nitric acid-hydrofluoric acid solution to significantly speed up dissolution of difficultly soluble plutonium dioxide.

Tallent, Othar K. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

It's Elemental - The Element Plutonium  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Next Element (Americium) Americium The Element Plutonium Click for Isotope Data 94 Pu Plutonium 244 Atomic Number: 94 Atomic Weight: 244 Melting Point: 913 K (640C or...

35

Geomorphology of plutonium in the Northern Rio Grande  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nearly all of the plutonium in the natural environment of the Northern Rio Grande is associated with soils and sediment, and river processes account for most of the mobility of these materials. A composite regional budget for plutonium based on multi-decadal averages for sediment and plutonium movement shows that 90 percent of the plutonium moving into the system is from atmospheric fallout. The remaining 10 percent is from releases at Los Alamos. Annual variation in plutonium flux and storage exceeds 100 percent. The contribution to the plutonium budget from Los Alamos is associated with relatively coarse sediment which often behaves as bedload in the Rio Grande. Infusion of these materials into the main stream were largest in 1951, 1952, 1957, and 1968. Because of the schedule of delivery of plutonium to Los Alamos for experimentation and weapons manufacturing, the latter two years are probably the most important. Although the Los Alamos contribution to the entire plutonium budget was relatively small, in these four critical years it constituted 71--86 percent of the plutonium in bedload immediately downstream from Otowi.

Graf, W.L. [Arizona Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States). Dept., of Geography] Arizona Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States). Dept., of Geography

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

DELTA PHASE PLUTONIUM ALLOYS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Delta-phase plutonium alloys were developed suitable for use as reactor fuels. The alloys consist of from 1 to 4 at.% zinc and the balance plutonium. The alloys have good neutronic, corrosion, and fabrication characteristics snd possess good dimensional characteristics throughout an operating temperature range from 300 to 490 deg C.

Cramer, E.M.; Ellinger, F.H.; Land. C.C.

1960-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

37

PLUTONIUM-CERIUM ALLOY  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An alloy is presented for use as a reactor fuel. The binary alloy consists essentially of from about 5 to 90 atomic per cent cerium and the balance being plutonium. A complete phase diagram for the cerium--plutonium system is given.

Coffinberry, A.S.

1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

PLUTONIUM-CERIUM-COBALT AND PLUTONIUM-CERIUM-NICKEL ALLOYS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

>New plutonium-base teroary alloys useful as liquid reactor fuels are described. The alloys consist of 10 to 20 atomic percent cobalt with the remainder plutonium and cerium in any desired proportion, with the plutonium not in excess of 88 atomic percent; or, of from 10 to 25 atomic percent nickel (or mixture of nickel and cobalt) with the remainder plutonium and cerium in any desired proportion, with the plutonium not in excess of 86 atomic percent. The stated advantages of these alloys over unalloyed plutonium for reactor fuel use are a lower melting point and a wide range of permissible plutonium dilution.

Coffinberry, A.S.

1959-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

39

Method for dissolving plutonium dioxide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The fluoride-catalyzed, non-oxidative dissolution of plutonium dioxide in HNO.sub.3 is significantly enhanced in rate by oxidizing dissolved plutonium ions. It is believed that the oxidation of dissolved plutonium releases fluoride ions from a soluble plutonium-fluoride complex for further catalytic action.

Tallent, Othar K. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

TECHNIQUES FOR MONITORING PLUTONIUM IN THE ENVIRONMENT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Environmental Plutonium and its Related Nuclides," IEEEJ. Koch, and C. T. Schmidt, "Plutonium Survey with an X-RayDetermination of Plutonium," Talanta!! , 215 (1967). C. E.

Nero Jr., A.V.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "30-day average plutonium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Plutonium radiation surrogate  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A self-contained source of gamma-ray and neutron radiation suitable for use as a radiation surrogate for weapons-grade plutonium is described. The source generates a radiation spectrum similar to that of weapons-grade plutonium at 5% energy resolution between 59 and 2614 keV, but contains no special nuclear material and emits little .alpha.-particle radiation. The weapons-grade plutonium radiation surrogate also emits neutrons having fluxes commensurate with the gamma-radiation intensities employed.

Frank, Michael I. (Dublin, CA)

2010-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

42

Plutonium Vulnerability Management Plan  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This Plutonium Vulnerability Management Plan describes the Department of Energy`s response to the vulnerabilities identified in the Plutonium Working Group Report which are a result of the cessation of nuclear weapons production. The responses contained in this document are only part of an overall, coordinated approach designed to enable the Department to accelerate conversion of all nuclear materials, including plutonium, to forms suitable for safe, interim storage. The overall actions being taken are discussed in detail in the Department`s Implementation Plan in response to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 94-1. This is included as Attachment B.

NONE

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

PLUTONIUM ELECTROREFINING CELLS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Electrorefining cells for obtaining 99.98% plutonium are described. The cells consist of an impure liquid plutonium anode, a molten PuCl/sub 3/-- alkali or alkaline earth metal chloanode, a molten PuCl/sub 3/-alkali or alkaline earth metal chloride electrolyte, and a nonreactive cathode, all being contained in nonreactive ceramic containers which separate anode from cathode by a short distance and define a gap for the collection of the purified liquid plutonium deposited on the cathode. Important features of these cells are the addition of stirrer blades on the anode lead and a large cathode surface to insure a low current density. (AEC)

Mullins, L.J. Jr.; Leary, J.A.; Bjorklund, C.W.; Maraman, W.J.

1963-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

44

THE PLUTONIUM STORY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

chemical symbols would be Np and Pu. The names "eka-rhenium"DEMONSTRATION OF FISSIONABILITY OF Pu The plutonium isotopeneutron fission cross section of Pu compared to that of ' U.

Seaborg, G.T.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Plutonium dissolution process  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A two-step process for dissolving plutonium metal, which two steps can be carried out sequentially or simultaneously. Plutonium metal is exposed to a first mixture containing approximately 1.0M-1.67M sulfamic acid and 0.0025M-0.1M fluoride, the mixture having been heated to a temperature between 45.degree. C. and 70.degree. C. The mixture will dissolve a first portion of the plutonium metal but leave a portion of the plutonium in an oxide residue. Then, a mineral acid and additional fluoride are added to dissolve the residue. Alteratively, nitric acid in a concentration between approximately 0.05M and 0.067M is added to the first mixture to dissolve the residue as it is produced. Hydrogen released during the dissolution process is diluted with nitrogen.

Vest, Michael A. (Oak Park, IL); Fink, Samuel D. (Aiken, SC); Karraker, David G. (Aiken, SC); Moore, Edwin N. (Aiken, SC); Holcomb, H. Perry (North Augusta, SC)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Calorimetric Assay Of Plutonium  

SciTech Connect

This report describes procedures for applying calorimetry for the control and accounting of plutonium. These procedures will be useful in establishing a measurement program to fulfill the regulatory requirements.

Rodenburg, W. W.

1977-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Plutonium Disposition Now!  

SciTech Connect

A means for use of existing processing facilities and reactors for plutonium disposition is described which requires a minimum capital investment and allows rapid implementation. The scenario includes interim storage and processing under IAEA control, and fabrication into MOX fuel in existing or planned facilities in Europe for use in operating reactors in the two home countries. Conceptual studies indicate that existing Westinghouse four-loop designs can safety dispose of 0.94 MT of plutonium per calendar year. Thus, it would be possible to consume the expected US excess stockpile of about 50 MT in two to three units of this type, and it is highly likely that a comparable amount of the FSU excess plutonium could be deposed of in a few VVER-1000`s. The only major capital project for this mode of plutonium disposition would be the weapons-grade plutonium processing which could be done in a dedicated international facility or using existing facilities in the US and FSU under IAEA control. This option offers the potential for quick implementation at a very low cost to the governments of the two countries.

Buckner, M.R.

1995-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

48

METHOD OF PRODUCING PLUTONIUM TETRAFLUORIDE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is presented for preparing plutonium tetrafluoride from plutonium(IV) oxalate. The oxalate is dried and decomposed at about 300 deg C to the dioxide, mixed with ammonium bifluoride, and the mixture is heated to between 50 and 150 deg C whereby ammonium plutonium fluoride is formed. The ammonium plutonium fluoride is then heated to about 300 deg C for volatilization of ammonium fluoride. Both heating steps are preferably carried out in an inert atmosphere.

Tolley, W.B.; Smith, R.C.

1959-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

49

METHOD OF MAKING PLUTONIUM DIOXIDE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is presented For converting both trivalent and tetravalent plutonium oxalate to substantially pure plutonium dioxide. The plutonium oxalate is carefully dried in the temperature range of 130 to300DEC by raising the temperature gnadually throughout this range. The temperature is then raised to 600 C in the period of about 0.3 of an hour and held at this level for about the same length of time to obtain the plutonium dioxide.

Garner, C.S.

1959-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

50

Plutonium isotope ratio variations in North America  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Historically, approximately 12,000 TBq of plutonium was distributed throughout the global biosphere by thermo nuclear weapons testing. The resultant global plutonium fallout is a complex mixture whose {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio is a function of the design and yield of the devices tested. The average {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio in global fallout is 0.176 + 014. However, the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio at any location may differ significantly from 0.176. Plutonium has also been released by discharges and accidents associated with the commercial and weapons related nuclear industries. At many locations contributions from this plutonium significantly alters the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios from those observed in global fallout. We have measured the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios in environmental samples collected from many locations in North America. This presentation will summarize the analytical results from these measurements. Special emphasis will be placed on interpretation of the significance of the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios measured in environmental samples collected in the Arctic and in the western portions of the United States.

Steiner, Robert E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; La Mont, Stephen P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Eisele, William F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fresquez, Philip R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mc Naughton, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Whicker, Jeffrey J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

51

Studies on persons exposed to plutonium  

SciTech Connect

The results of four studies of persons exposed, or potentially exposed, to plutonium are summarized. The studies are: a five-year update on clinical examinations and health experience of 26 Manhattan District workers heavily exposed at Los Alamos in 1944 to 1945; a 30-year mortality follow-up of 224 white male workers with plutonium body burdens of 10 nCi or more; a review of cancer mortality rates between 1950 and 1969 among Los Alamos County, New Mexico, male residents, all of whom have worked in or have lived within a few kilometers of a major plutonium plant and other nuclear facilities; and a review of cancer incidence rates between 1969 and 1974 in male residents of Los Alamos County. No excess of mortality due to any cause was observed in the 224 male subjects with the highest plutonium exposures at Los Alamos. Clinical examinations of the Manhattan District workers, whose average age in 1976 was 56 years, show them to be active persons with diseases that are not unusual for their ages. The two deaths in this group over the past 30 years have not been due to cancer. Mortality and incidence data indicate no excess of lung cancer in Los Alamos County males.

Voelz, G.L.; Stebbings, J.H.; Hempelmann, L.H.; Haxton, L.K.; York, D.A.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Supplement Analysis Plutonium Consolidation  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

9-SA-4 9-SA-4 SUPPLEMENT ANALYSIS STORAGE OF SURPLUS PLUTONIUM MATERIALS AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE INTRODUCTION AND PURPOSE In April 2002, DOE decided to immediately consolidate long-term storage at the Savannah River Site (SRS) of surplus, non-pit weapons-usable plutonium then stored at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) (DOE, 2002a). That 2002 decision did not affect an earlier DOE decision made in the January 21, 1997, Record of Decision (ROD, DOE, 1997) for the Storage and Disposition of Weapons-Usable Fissile Materials Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (Storage and Disposition PEIS, DOE, 1996) to continue storage of non-pit surplus plutonium at Hanford, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), and the Los Alamos

53

Lithium metal reduction of plutonium oxide to produce plutonium metal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for the chemical reduction of plutonium oxides to plutonium metal by the use of pure lithium metal. Lithium metal is used to reduce plutonium oxide to alpha plutonium metal (alpha-Pu). The lithium oxide by-product is reclaimed by sublimation and converted to the chloride salt, and after electrolysis, is removed as lithium metal. Zinc may be used as a solvent metal to improve thermodynamics of the reduction reaction at lower temperatures. Lithium metal reduction enables plutonium oxide reduction without the production of huge quantities of CaO--CaCl.sub.2 residues normally produced in conventional direct oxide reduction processes.

Coops, Melvin S. (Livermore, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Plutonium 239 Equivalency Calculations  

SciTech Connect

This document provides the basis for converting actual weapons grade plutonium mass to a plutonium equivalency (PuE) mass of Plutonium 239. The conversion can be accomplished by performing calculations utilizing either: (1) Isotopic conversions factors (CF{sub isotope}), or (2) 30-year-old weapons grade conversion factor (CF{sub 30 yr}) Both of these methods are provided in this document. Material mass and isotopic data are needed to calculate PuE using the isotopic conversion factors, which will provide the actual PuE value at the time of calculation. PuE is the summation of the isotopic masses times their associated isotopic conversion factors for plutonium 239. Isotopic conversion factors are calculated by a normalized equation, relative to Plutonium 239, of specific activity (SA) and cumulated dose inhalation affects based on 50-yr committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE). The isotopic conversion factors for converting weapons grade plutonium to PuE are provided in Table-1. The unit for specific activity (SA) is curies per gram (Ci/g) and the isotopic SA values come from reference [1]. The cumulated dose inhalation effect values in units of rem/Ci are based on 50-yr committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE). A person irradiated by gamma radiation outside the body will receive a dose only during the period of irradiation. However, following an intake by inhalation, some radionuclides persist in the body and irradiate the various tissues for many years. There are three groups CEDE data representing lengths of time of 0.5 (D), 50 (W) and 500 (Y) days, which are in reference [2]. The CEDE values in the (W) group demonstrates the highest dose equivalent value; therefore they are used for the calculation.

Wen, J

2011-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

55

Plutonium microstructures. Part 1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report is the first of three parts in which Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory metallographers exhibit a consolidated set of illustrations of inclusions that are seen in plutonium metal as a consequence of inherent and tramp impurities, alloy additions, and thermal or mechanical treatments. This part includes illustrations of nonmetallic and intermetallic inclusions characteristic of major impurity elements as an aid to identifying unknowns. It also describes historical aspects of the increased purity of laboratory plutonium samples, and it gives the composition of the etchant solutions and describes the etching procedure used in the preparation of each illustrated sample. 25 figures.

Cramer, E.M.; Bergin, J.B.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Demolition Begins on Hanford's Historic Plutonium Vaults - Plutonium  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Demolition Begins on Hanford's Historic Plutonium Vaults - Demolition Begins on Hanford's Historic Plutonium Vaults - Plutonium Finishing Plant on track to meet regulatory milestone Demolition Begins on Hanford's Historic Plutonium Vaults - Plutonium Finishing Plant on track to meet regulatory milestone November 18, 2011 - 12:00pm Addthis Media Contacts Geoff Tyree Department of Energy Geoffrey.Tyree@rl.doe.gov 509-376-4171 Dee Millikin CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company Dee_Millikin@rl.gov 509-376-1297 RICHLAND, WASH. - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and contractor CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CH2M HILL) began demolishing a vault complex that once held stores of plutonium for the U.S. nuclear weapons program at the Hanford Site in southeast Washington State. The vault complex is part of Hanford's Plutonium Finishing Plant, which

57

Plutonium: An introduction  

SciTech Connect

This report is a summary of the history and properties of plutonium. It presents information on the atoms, comparing chemical and nuclear properties. It looks at the history of the atom, including its discovery and production methods. It summarizes the metallurgy and chemistry of the element. It also describes means of detecting and measuring the presence and quantity of the element.

Condit, R.H.

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Probing phonons in plutonium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Plutonium (Pu) is well known to have complex and unique physico-chemical properties [1]. Notably, the pure metal exhibits six solid-state phase transformations with large volume expansions and contractions along the way to the liquid state: {alpha} {yields} {beta} {yields} {gamma} {yields} {delta} {yields} {delta}' {yields} {var_epsilon} {yields} liquid. Unalloyed Pu melts at a relatively low temperature {approx}640 C to yield a higher density liquid than that of the solid from which it melts. Detailed understanding of the properties of plutonium and plutonium-based alloys is critical for the safe handling, utilization, and long-term storage of these important, but highly toxic materials. However, both technical and safety issues have made experimental observations extremely difficult. Phonon dispersion curves (PDCs) are key experimental data to the understanding of the basic properties of Pu materials such as: force constants, sound velocities, elastic constants, thermodynamics, phase stability, electron-phonon coupling, structural relaxation, etc. However, phonon dispersion curves (PDCs) in plutonium (Pu) and its alloys have defied measurement for the past few decades since the discovery of this element in 1941. This is due to a combination of the high thermal-neutron absorption cross section of plutonium and the inability to grow the large single crystals (with dimensions of a few millimeters) necessary for inelastic neutron scattering. Theoretical simulations of the Pu PDC continue to be hampered by the lack of suitable inter-atomic potentials. Thus, until recently the PDCs for Pu and its alloys have remained unknown experimentally and theoretically. The experimental limitations have recently been overcome by using a tightly focused undulator x-ray micro-beam scattered from single-grain domains in polycrystalline specimens. This experimental approach has been applied successfully to map the complete PDCs of an fcc {delta}-Pu-Ga alloy using the high resolution inelastic x-ray scattering (HRIXS) capability on ID28 [2].

Farber, D; Chiang, T; Krisch, M; Occelli, F; Schwartz, A; Wall, M; Xu, R; Boro, C

2003-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

59

Plutonium Finishing Plant. Interim plutonium stabilization engineering study  

SciTech Connect

This report provides the results of an engineering study that evaluated the available technologies for stabilizing the plutonium stored at the Plutonium Finishing Plant located at the hanford Site in southeastern Washington. Further processing of the plutonium may be required to prepare the plutonium for interim (<50 years) storage. Specifically this document provides the current plutonium inventory and characterization, the initial screening process, and the process descriptions and flowsheets of the technologies that passed the initial screening. The conclusions and recommendations also are provided. The information contained in this report will be used to assist in the preparation of the environmental impact statement and to help decision makers determine which is the preferred technology to process the plutonium for interim storage.

Sevigny, G.J.; Gallucci, R.H.; Garrett, S.M.K.; Geeting, J.G.H.; Goheen, R.S.; Molton, P.M.; Templeton, K.J.; Villegas, A.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Nass, R. [Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc. (United States)

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Plutonium Consolidation Amended ROD  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

6450-01-P] 6450-01-P] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Amended Record of Decision: Storage of Surplus Plutonium Materials at the Savannah River Site AGENCY: Department of Energy ACTION: Amended Record of Decision SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is amending the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Storage and Disposition of Weapons-Usable Fissile Materials Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (DOE/EIS-0229, 1996; Storage and Disposition PEIS). Specifically, DOE has decided to take the actions necessary to transfer approximately 2,511 additional 3013-compliant packages 1 containing surplus non-pit weapons-usable plutonium metals and oxides to the Savannah River Site (SRS), near Aiken, South Carolina. Approximately 2,300 containers will be transferred from the Hanford Site (Hanford) near

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "30-day average plutonium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

MOLDS FOR CASTING PLUTONIUM  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A coated mold for casting plutonium comprises a mold base portion of a material which remains solid and stable at temperatures as high as the pouring temperature of the metal to be cast and having a thin coating of the order of 0.005 inch thick on the interior thereof. The coating is composed of finely divided calcium fluoride having a particle size of about 149 microns. (AEC)

Anderson, J.W.; Miley, F.; Pritchard, W.C.

1962-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

62

PLUTONIUM-URANIUM ALLOY  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Pu-U-Fe and Pu-U-Co alloys suitable for use as fuel elements tn fast breeder reactors are described. The advantages of these alloys are ease of fabrication without microcracks, good corrosion restatance, and good resistance to radiation damage. These advantages are secured by limitation of the zeta phase of plutonium in favor of a tetragonal crystal structure of the U/sub 6/Mn type.

Coffinberry, A.S.; Schonfeld, F.W.

1959-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Manufacturing of Plutonium Tensile Specimens  

SciTech Connect

Details workflow conducted to manufacture high density alpha Plutonium tensile specimens to support Los Alamos National Laboratory's science campaigns. Introduces topics including the metallurgical challenge of Plutonium and the use of high performance super-computing to drive design. Addresses the utilization of Abaqus finite element analysis, programmable computer numerical controlled (CNC) machining, as well as glove box ergonomics and safety in order to design a process that will yield high quality Plutonium tensile specimens.

Knapp, Cameron M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

PROCESS OF PRODUCING SHAPED PLUTONIUM  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is presented for producing and casting high purity plutonium metal in one step from plutonium tetrafluoride. The process comprises heating a mixture of the plutonium tetrafluoride with calcium while the mixture is in contact with and defined as to shape by a material obtained by firing a mixture consisting of calcium oxide and from 2 to 10% by its weight of calcium fluoride at from 1260 to 1370 deg C.

Anicetti, R.J.

1959-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

65

Fluid Flow and Solidification Simulation of Plutonium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Unalloyed plutonium, which passes through six solid-solid phase transitions as it cools ... Additional complications are the expansion of molten plutonium upon ...

66

METHOD FOR OBTAINING PLUTONIUM METAL AND ALLOYS OF PLUTONIUM FROM PLUTONIUM TRICHLORIDE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is given for both reducing plutonium trichloride to plutonium metal using cerium as the reductant and simultaneously alloying such plutonium metal with an excess of cerium or cerium and cobalt sufficient to yield the desired nuclear reactor fuel composition. The process is conducted at a temperature from about 550 to 775 deg C, at atmospheric pressure, without the use of booster reactants, and a substantial decontamination is effected in the product alloy of any rare earths which may be associated with the source of the plutonium. (AEC)

Reavis, J.G.; Leary, J.A.; Maraman, W.J.

1962-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

67

METHOD OF REDUCING PLUTONIUM COMPOUNDS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for reducing plutonium compounds in aqueous solution from a higher to a lower valence state. This reduction of valence is achieved by treating the aqueous solution of higher valence plutonium compounds with hydrogen in contact with an activated platinum catalyst.

Johns, I.B.

1958-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Photochemical preparation of plutonium pentafluoride  

SciTech Connect

The novel compound plutonium pentafluoride may be prepared by the photodissociation of gaseous plutonium hexafluoride. It is a white solid of low vapor pressure, which consists predominantly of a face-centered cubic structure with a.sub.o =4.2709.+-.0.0005 .ANG..

Rabideau, Sherman W. (Los Alamos, NM); Campbell, George M. (Los Alamos, NM)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

PREPARATION OF HALIDES OF PLUTONIUM  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A dry chemical method is described for preparing plutonium halides, which consists in contacting plutonyl nitrate with dry gaseous HCl or HF at an elevated temperature. The addition to the reaction gas of a small quantity of an oxidizing gas or a reducing gas will cause formation of the tetra- or tri-halide of plutonium as desired.

Garner, C.S.; Johns, I.B.

1958-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

PLUTONIUM-CERIUM-COPPER ALLOYS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A low melting point plutonium alloy useful as fuel is a homogeneous liquid metal fueled nuclear reactor is described. Vessels of tungsten or tantalum are useful to contain the alloy which consists essentially of from 10 to 30 atomic per cent copper and the balance plutonium and cerium. with the plutontum not in excess of 50 atomic per cent.

Coffinberry, A.S.

1959-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

71

Average Commercial Price  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Residential Price Average Commercial Price Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes...

72

AVERAGE SHIFTED HISTOGRAM  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... LET YPPF = XCDF LET XPPF = YCDF. Default: None Synonyms: ASH is a synonym for the AVERAGE SHIFTED HISTOGRAM command. ...

2010-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

73

LANL | Physics | Dynamic Plutonium Experiments  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dynamic plutonium experiments Dynamic plutonium experiments Since the end of nuclear testing the nation has had to rely on sophisticated computer models to ensure the safety and reliability of the nuclear weapons stockpile. This program is known as science-based stockpile stewardship. Despite possessing the world's fastest computers and most advanced modeling capability, the behavior of materials under dynamic loads that occur in a nuclear weapon are difficult to accurately model. The Dynamic Plutonium experimental program carries out experiments at the Nevada National Security Site on plutonium driven by high explosives. These experiments are needed to measure and understand the behavior of plutonium under extreme conditions. Physics Division has unique capabilities in high-speed x-ray imaging and velocimetry (measuring the

74

Complexation of Plutonium (IV) with Fluoride at Variable Tempeartures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Neptunium and Plutonium. Edited by OECD Nuclear EnergyComplexation of Plutonium(IV) with Fluoride at Variablehigher temperatures. Key Words: Plutonium (IV) / Fluoride /

Moore, Dean A.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Probing phonons in plutonium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Plutonium (Pu) is well known to have complex and unique physico-chemical properties. Notably, the pure metal exhibits six solid-state phase transformations with large volume expansions and contractions along the way to the liquid state: {alpha} {yields} {beta} {yields} {gamma} {yields} {delta} {yields} {delta}{prime} {yields} {var_epsilon} {yields} liquid. Unalloyed Pu melts at a relatively low temperature {approx}640 C to yield a higher density liquid than that of the solid from which it melts, (Figure 1). Detailed understanding of the properties of plutonium and plutonium-based alloys is critical for the safe handling, utilization, and long-term storage of these important, but highly toxic materials. However, both technical and and safety issues have made experimental observations extremely difficult. Phonon dispersion curves (PDCs) are key experimenta l data to the understanding of the basic properties of Pu materials such as: force constants, sound velocities, elastic constants, thermodynamics, phase stability, electron-phonon coupling, structural relaxation, etc. However, phonon dispersion curves (PDCs) in plutonium (Pu) and its alloys have defied measurement for the past few decades since the discovery of this element in 1941. This is due to a combination of the high thermal-neutron absorption cross section of plutonium and the inability to grow the large single crystals (with dimensions of a few millimeters) necessary for inelastic neutron scattering. Theoretical simulations of the Pu PDC continue to be hampered by the lack of suitable inter -atomic potentials. Thus, until recently the PDCs for Pu and its alloys have remained unknown experimentally and theoretically. The experimental limitations have recently been overcome by using a tightly focused undulator x-ray micro-beam scattered from single -grain domains in polycrystalline specimens. This experimental approach has been applied successfully to map the complete PDCs of an fcc d-Pu-Ga alloy using the high resolution inelastic x-ray scattering (HRIXS) capability on ID28. The complete PDCs for an fcc Pu-0.6 wt% Ga alloy are plotted in Figure 2, and represent the first full set of phonon dispersions ever determined for any Pu-bearing materials. The solid curves (red) are calculated using a standard Born-von Karman (B-vK) force constant model. An adequate fit to the experimental data is obtained if interactions up to the fourth-nearest neighbours are included. The dashed curves (blue) are recent dynamical mean field theory (DMFT) results by Dai et al. The elastic moduli calculated from the slopes of the experimental phonon dispersion curves near the {Lambda} point are: C{sub 11} = 35.3 {+-} 1.4 GPa, C{sub 12} = 25.5 {+-} 1.5 GPa and C{sub 44} = 30.53 {+-} 1.1 GPa. These values are in excellent agreement with those of the only other measurement on a similar alloy (1 wt % Ga) using ultrasonic techniques as well as with those recently calculated from a combined DMFT and linear response theory for pure {delta}-Pu. Several unusual features, including a large elastic anisotropy, a small shear elastic modulus C{prime}, a Kohn-like anomaly in the T{sub 1}[011] branch, and a pronounced softening of the [111] transverse modes are found. These features can be related to the phase transitions of plutonium and to strong coupling between the lattice structure and the 5f valence instabilities. The HRIXS results also provide a critical test for theoretical treatments of highly correlated 5f electron systems as exemplified by recent dynamical mean field theory (DMFT) calculations for {delta}-plutonium. The experimental-theoretical agreements shown in Figure 2 in terms of a low shear elastic modulus C{prime}, a Kohn-like anomaly in the T{sub 1}[011] branch, and a large softening of the T[111] modes give credence to the DMFT approach for the theoretical treatment of 5f electron systems of which {delta}-Pu is a classic example. However, quantitative differences remain. These are the position of the Kohn anomaly along the T{sub 1}[011] branch, the energy maximum of the T[111] mode s

Wong, Joe; Krisch, M.; Farber, D.; Occelli, F.; Schwartz, A.; Chiang, T.C.; Wall, M.; Boro, C.; Xu, Ruqing (UIUC); (LLNL); (ESRF); (LANL)

2010-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

76

PLUTONIUM-HYDROGEN REACTION PRODUCT, METHOD OF PREPARING SAME AND PLUTONIUM POWDER THEREFROM  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for forming plutonlum hydride powder by reacting hydrogen with massive plutonium metal at room temperature and the product obtained. The plutonium hydride powder can be converted to plutonium powder by heating to above 200 deg C.

Fried, S.; Baumbach, H.L.

1959-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Pyrochemical separations chemistry of plutonium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The recovery and purification of plutonium involves interesting chemistry. Currently in use are several high temperature processes based on redox reactions. These processes include direct oxide reduction which uses calcium to reduce the oxide to the free metal and electrorefining which is used as a final purification step. The chemical research group at Rocky Flats is currently investigating the use of an aluminum/magnesium alloy to remove the ionic plutonium from the salts used in the above named processes. The results of this study along with an overview of pyrochemical plutonium processing chemistry will be presented.

Bynum, R.V.; Navratil, J.D.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR PLUTONIUM  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The separation of plutonium from aqueous inorganic acid solutions by the use of a water immiscible organic extractant liquid is described. The plutonium must be in the oxidized state, and the solvents covered by the patent include nitromethane, nitroethane, nitropropane, and nitrobenzene. The use of a salting out agents such as ammonium nitrate in the case of an aqueous nitric acid solution is advantageous. After contacting the aqueous solution with the organic extractant, the resulting extract and raffinate phases are separated. The plutonium may be recovered by any suitable method.

Seaborg, G.T.

1959-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

79

TERNARY ALLOY-CONTAINING PLUTONIUM  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Ternary alloys of uranium and plutonium containing as the third element either molybdenum or zirconium are reported. Such alloys are particularly useful as reactor fuels in fast breeder reactors. The alloy contains from 2 to 25 at.% of molybdenum or zirconium, the balance being a combination of uranium and plutonium in the ratio of from 1 to 9 atoms of uranlum for each atom of plutonium. These alloys are prepared by melting the constituent elements, treating them at an elevated temperature for homogenization, and cooling them to room temperature, the rate of cooling varying with the oomposition and the desired phase structure. The preferred embodiment contains 12 to 25 at.% of molybdenum and is treated by quenching to obtain a body centered cubic crystal structure. The most important advantage of these alloys over prior binary alloys of both plutonium and uranium is the lack of cracking during casting and their ready machinability.

Waber, J.T.

1960-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

80

Chloride removal from plutonium alloy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

SRP is evaluating a program to recover plutonium from a metallic alloy that will contain chloride salt impurities. Removal of chloride to sufficiently low levels to prevent damaging corrosion to canyon equipment is feasible as a head-end step following dissolution. Silver nitrate and mercurous nitrate were each successfully used in laboratory tests to remove chloride from simulated alloy dissolver solution containing plutonium. Levels less than 10 ppM chloride were achieved in the supernates over the precipitated and centrifuged insoluble salts. Also, less than 0.05% loss of plutonium in the +3, +4, or +6 oxidation states was incurred via precipitate carrying. These results provide impetus for further study and development of a plant-scale process to recover plutonium from metal alloy at SRP.

Holcomb, H.P.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "30-day average plutonium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

METHOD OF PREPARING PLUTONIUM TETRAFLUORIDE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

C rystalline plutonium tetrafluoride is precipitated from aqueous up to 1.6 N mineral acid solutions of a plutorium (IV) salt with fluosilicic acid anions, preferably at room temperature. Hydrogen fluoride naay be added after precipitation to convert any plutonium fluosilicate to the tetrafluoride and any silica to fluosilicic acid. This process results in a purer product, especially as to iron and aluminum, than does the precipitation by the addition of hydrogen fluoride.

Beede, R.L.; Hopkins, H.H. Jr.

1959-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

82

IODATE METHOD FOR PURIFYING PLUTONIUM  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is presented for removing radioactive fission products from aqueous solutions containing such fission products together with plutonium. This is accomplished by incorporating into such solutions a metal iodate precipitate to remove fission products which form insoluble iodates. Suitable metal iodates are those of thorium and cerium. The plutonium must be in the hexavalent state and the pH of the solution must be manintained at less than 2.

Stoughton, R.W.; Duffield, R.B.

1958-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

83

Plutonium Disposition Program | National Nuclear Security Administration  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Plutonium Disposition Program Plutonium Disposition Program Home > About Us > Our Programs > Nonproliferation > Fissile Materials Disposition > Plutonium Disposition Program Plutonium Disposition Program The U.S.-Russia Plutonium Management and Disposition Agreement (PMDA), which entered into force on July 13, 2011, commits each country to dispose of at least 34 metric tons (MT) of weapon-grade plutonium withdrawn from their respective nuclear weapon programs. The U.S. remains firmly committed to its PMDA obligation to dispose of excess weapons plutonium. U.S. Plutonium Disposition The current U.S. plan to dispose of 34 MT of weapon-grade plutonium is to fabricate it into Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel and irradiate it in existing light water reactors. This approach requires construction of new facilities

84

TA-55: LANL Plutonium-Processing Facilities  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

TA-55: LANL Plutonium-Processing Facilities TA-55: LANL Plutonium-Processing Facilities TA-55: LANL Plutonium-Processing Facilities TA-55 supports a wide range of national security programs that involve stockpile stewardship, plutonium processing, nuclear materials stabilization, materials disposition, nuclear forensics, nuclear counter-terrorism, and nuclear energy. ...the only fully operational, full capability plutonium facility in the nation. National Security At the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), virtually all plutonium operations occur within the Plutonium Facility at Technical Area 55 (TA-55). TA-55 is the nation's most modern plutonium science and manufacturing facility, and it is the only fully operational, full capability plutonium facility in the nation. Thus, TA-55 supports a wide

85

METATHESIS OF PLUTONIUM CARRIER LANTHANUM FLUORIDE PRECIPITATE WITH AN ALKALI  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A plutonium fluoride precipitate is converted to plutonium hydroxide by digesting the precipitate with an aqueous alkali metal hydroxide solution.

Duffield, R.B.

1960-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

average | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

average average Dataset Summary Description This dataset is part of a larger internal dataset at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) that explores various characteristics of large solar electric (both PV and CSP) facilities around the United States. This dataset focuses on the land use characteristics for solar facilities that are either under construction or currently in operation. Source Land-Use Requirements for Solar Power Plants in the United States Date Released June 25th, 2013 (7 months ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords acres area average concentrating solar power csp Density electric hectares km2 land land requirements land use land-use mean photovoltaic photovoltaics PV solar statistics Data application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.spreadsheetml.sheet icon Master Solar Land Use Spreadsheet (xlsx, 1.5 MiB)

87

Plutonium and americium separation from salts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Salts or materials containing plutonium and americium are dissolved in hydrochloric acid, heated, and contacted with an alkali metal carbonate solution to precipitate plutonium and americium carbonates which are thereafter readily separable from the solution.

Hagan, Paul G. (Northglenn, CO); Miner, Frend J. (Boulder, CO)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

The United States Plutonium Balance, 1944 - 2009  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

ii Preface This report updates Plutonium: The first 50 years which was released by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in 1996. The topic of both reports is plutonium, sometimes...

89

Zone refining of plutonium metal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this study was to investigate zone refining techniques for the purification of plutonium metal. The redistribution of 10 impurity elements from zone melting was examined. Four tantalum boats were loaded with plutonium impurity alloy, placed in a vacuum furnace, heated to 700{degrees}C, and held at temperature for one hour. Ten passes were made with each boat. Metallographic and chemical analyses performed on the plutonium rods showed that, after 10 passes, moderate movement of certain elements were achieved. Molten zone speeds of 1 or 2 inches per hour had no effect on impurity element movement. Likewise, the application of constant or variable power had no effect on impurity movement. The study implies that development of a zone refining process to purify plutonium is feasible. Development of a process will be hampered by two factors: (1) the effect on impurity element redistribution of the oxide layer formed on the exposed surface of the material is not understood, and (2) the tantalum container material is not inert in the presence of plutonium. Cold boat studies are planned, with higher temperature and vacuum levels, to determine the effect on these factors. 5 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

NONE

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Seversk Plutonium Production Elimination Project (SPPEP) | National...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Seversk Plutonium Production Elimination Project (SPPEP) | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear...

91

Design and fabrication of SGS plutonium standards  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes our experience of fabricating four sets of plutonium segmented gamma scanner (SGS) can standards. The fabrication involves careful planning, meticulous execution in weighing the plutonium oxide while minimizing contamination, chemical analyses by three different national laboratories to get accurate and independent plutonium concentrations, vertical scanning to assure mixing of the plutonium and the diluent, and finally the nondestructive verification measurement. By following these steps, we successfully fabricated 4 sets or 20 SGS can standards. 4 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Hsue, S.T.; Simmonds, S.M.; Longmire, V.L.; Long, S.M.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

PROCESS OF SEPARATING PLUTONIUM FROM URANIUM  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is presented for recovering plutonium values from aqueous solutions. It comprises forming a uranous hydroxide precipitate in such a plutonium bearing solution, at a pH of at least 5. The plutonium values are precipitated with and carried by the uranium hydroxide. The carrier precipitate is then redissolved in acid solution and the pH is adjusted to about 2.5, causing precipitation of the uranous hydroxide but leaving the still soluble plutonium values in solution.

Brown, H.S.; Hill, O.F.

1958-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Zheleznogorsk Plutonium Production Elimination Project (ZPPEP...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Zheleznogorsk Plutonium Production Elimination Project (ZPPEP) | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the...

94

PLUTONIUM FUEL PROCESSING AND FABRICATION FOR FAST CERAMIC REACTORS  

SciTech Connect

>A study was made of the processes available for fabrication of plutonium-containing fuel from a fast ceramic reacter, and for chemical reprocessing of irradiated fuel. Radiations from recycled plutonium are evaluated. Adaptation of conventional glove-box handling procedures to the fabrication of recycle plutonium appears practical. It is concluded that acceptable costs are obtainable using moderate extensions of conventional glove- box fabrication methods and wet processing techniques, provided a significant volume of production is available. The minimum economic scale for the preferred chemical reprocessing method, anion exchange, is about 500 Mw(e) of reactor capacity. The minimum scale of economic operation for the fuel refabrication facility corresponds to three 500 Mw(e) reactors, if only steady-state refueling provides the fabrication load. The minimum volume required falls to one 500 Mw(e) reactor, if the continued growth of capacity provides fabrication volume equal to that for refueling. The chemical reprocessing costs obtained range from 0.27 mills/kwh for 1500 Mw(e) of reactor capacity, to 0.10 mills/kwh for 3000 Mw(e) of capacity. The estimated fuel fabrication cost is l/kg of uranium and plutonium in the core region (excluding axial and radial blankets) or .06/ g of plutonium content, When axial blankets, fabricated in the same rods, are included; the combined average is 34/kg of uranium and plutonium. Radial blanket fabrication cost is /kg of uranium. The overall average of all fuel and blankets is /kg of uranium and plutonium. The fabrication cost is 0.29 mills/kwh for a production rate corresponding to 3000 Mw(e) of capacity (or 1500 Mw(e) of capacity plus growth equivalent to one additional reactor core per year). For one 525 Mw(e) reactor, (plus equivalent growth volume) the fabrication cost becomes 0.42 mills/ kwh. (All fuel throughputs are based on fuel life of 100,000 MWD/T.) Using the estimates developed, the total fuel cycle cost for a typical fast reactor design using PuO/sub 2/UO/sub 2/ fuel is estimated to be about 0.9 mills/kwh. (auth)

Zebroski, E.L.; Alter, H.W.; Collins, G.D.

1962-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Plutonium-the element of surprise  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

plutonium c6n never be very large becauserheinsolubilityol Pu(OH)lsels Lrnls on the concentrallonof evenPlutonium-the element of surprise G.R.ChoppinandB.E.Stout This year marked the soth annivrsary ol the original isolation o{ plutonium, making ita relativenewcomerto the PeriodicTable.Ovrthe past 50 years

Short, Daniel

96

The occurrence of plutonium in nature  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nuclear Energy S e r i e s , Plutonium P r o j e c t Record,Nuclear Energy S e r i e s , Plutonium P r o j e c t Record,Laboratory THE OCCURRENCE OF PLUTONIUM IN NATUIRE Charles A.

Levine, Charles A.; Seaborg, Glenn T.

1950-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Dehydration of plutonium trichloride hydrate  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process of preparing anhydrous actinide metal trichlorides of plutonium or neptunium by reacting an aqueous solution of an actinide metal trichloride selected from the group consisting of plutonium trichloride or neptunium trichloride with a reducing agent capable of converting the actinide metal from an oxidation state of +4 to +3 in a resultant solution, evaporating essentially all the solvent from the resultant solution to yield an actinide trichloride hydrate material, dehydrating the actinide trichloride hydrate material by heating the material in admixture with excess thionyl chloride, and recovering anhydrous actinide trichloride is provided.

Foropoulos, J. Jr.; Avens, L.R.; Trujillo, E.A.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

98

Plutonium stabilization and packaging system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document describes the functional design of the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (Pu SPS). The objective of this system is to stabilize and package plutonium metals and oxides of greater than 50% wt, as well as other selected isotopes, in accordance with the requirements of the DOE standard for safe storage of these materials for 50 years. This system will support completion of stabilization and packaging campaigns of the inventory at a number of affected sites before the year 2002. The package will be standard for all sites and will provide a minimum of two uncontaminated, organics free confinement barriers for the packaged material.

NONE

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

PROCESS FOR SEPARATING PLUTONIUM FROM IMPURITIES  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for separating plutonium from aqueous solutions containing uranium. It has been found that if the plutonium is reduced to its 3+ valence state, and the uranium present is left in its higher valence state, then the differences in solubility between certain salts (e.g., oxalates) of the trivalent plutonium and the hexavalent uranium can be used to separate the metals. This selective reduction of plutonium is accomplished by adding iodide ion to the solution, since iodide possesses an oxidation potential sufficient to reduce plutonium but not sufficient to reduce uranium.

Wahl, A.C.

1957-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

100

PLUTONIUM COMPOUNDS AND PROCESS FOR THEIR PREPARATION  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This patent relates to certain new compounds of plutonium, and to the utilization of these compounds to effect purification or separation of the plutonium. The compounds are organic chelate compounds consisting of tetravalent plutonium together with a di(salicylal) alkylenediimine. These chelates are soluble in various organic solvents, but not in water. Use is made of this property in extracting the plutonium by contacting an aqueous solution thereof with an organic solution of the diimine. The plutonium is chelated, extracted and effectively separated from any impurities accompaying it in the aqueous phase.

Wolter, F.J.; Diehl, H.C. Jr.

1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "30-day average plutonium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Method of separating thorium from plutonium  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of chemically separating plutonium from thorium. Plutonium and thorium to be separated are dissolved in an aqueous feed solution, preferably as the nitrate salts. The feed solution is acidified and sodium nitrite is added to the solution to adjust the valence of the plutonium to the +4 state. A chloride salt, preferably sodium chloride, is then added to the solution to induce formation of an anionic plutonium chloride complex. The anionic plutonium chloride complex and the thorium in solution are then separated by ion exchange on a strong base anion exchange column.

Clifton, David G. (Los Alamos, NM); Blum, Thomas W. (Los Alamos, NM)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Method of separating thorium from plutonium  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for chemically separating plutonium from thorium. Plutonium and thorium to be separated are dissolved in an aqueous feed solution, preferably as the nitrate salts. The feed solution is acidified and sodium nitrite is added to the solution to adjust the valence of the plutonium to the +4 state. A chloride salt, preferably sodium chloride, is then added to the solution to induce formation of an anionic plutonium chloride complex. The anionic plutonium chloride complex and the thorium in solution are then separated by ion exchange on a strong base anion exchange column.

Clifton, D.G.; Blum, T.W.

1984-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

103

DOE Average Results  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DOE DOE Average Results FY 12 DOE Target FY 12 Customer Perspective: Customer Satisfaction: -Timeliness 92 88 -Quality 94 92 Effective Service Partnership: -Extent of Customer Satisfaction with the responsiveness, etc. 90 92 Internal Business Perspective: Acquisition Excellence: -Extent to which internal quality control systems are effective 90 88 Most Effective Use of Contracting Approaches to Maximize Efficiency and Cost Effectiveness: Use of Competition: -% of total $'s obligated on competitive acquisitions >$3000 (Agency Level Only) 94 85 -% of acquisition actions competed for actions > $3000 (Agency Level Only) 65 68 Performance Based Acquisition: - % PBA actions relative to total eligible new acquisition actions (applicable to new actions > $25K) 82

104

Census Division Number of Average Monthly Average Retail Price...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Average Monthly Average Retail Price Average Monthly Bill State Consumers Consumption (kWh) (Cents per Kilowatthour) (Dollar and cents) New England 34,271 67,907 12.55 8,520.25...

105

DOE/EA-1538: Finding of No Significant Impact for the Safeguards and Security Upgrades for Storage of Plutonium Materials at the Savannah River Site (12/16/2005)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Safeguards and Security Upgrades for Storage of Plutonium Materials Safeguards and Security Upgrades for Storage of Plutonium Materials at the Savannah River Site Agency: U.S. Department of Energy Action: Finding of No Significant Impact Summary: The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1538) to evaluate the potential environmental impacts associated with the implementation of proposed and alternative actions to enhance the safe and secure storage of plutonium-bearing materials at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to meet the enhanced terrorist threat. The draft EA was made available to the States of South Carolina and Georgia, and to the public, for a 30-day comment period. Based on the analyses in the EA, and after careful consideration of comments received, DOE has

106

Multi-generational stewardship of plutonium  

SciTech Connect

The post-cold war era has greatly enhanced the interest in the long-term stewardship of plutonium. The management of excess plutonium from proposed nuclear weapons dismantlement has been the subject of numerous intellectual discussions during the past several years. In this context, issues relevant to long-term management of all plutonium as a valuable energy resource are also being examined. While there are differing views about the future role of plutonium in the economy, there is a recognition of the environmental and health related problems and proliferation potentials of weapons-grade plutonium. The long-term management of plutonium as an energy resource will require a new strategy to maintain stewardship for many generations to come.

Pillay, K.K.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Nuclear Materials Technology Div.

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM HYDROXIDE FROM BISMUTH HYDROXIDE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An tmproved method is described for separating plutonium hydroxide from bismuth hydroxide. The end product of the bismuth phosphate processes for the separation amd concentration of plutonium is a inixture of bismuth hydroxide amd plutonium hydroxide. It has been found that these compounds can be advantageously separated by treatment with a reducing agent having a potential sufficient to reduce bismuth hydroxide to metalltc bisinuth but not sufficient to reduce the plutonium present. The resulting mixture of metallic bismuth and plutonium hydroxide can then be separated by treatment with a material which will dissolve plutonium hydroxide but not metallic bismuth. Sodiunn stannite is mentioned as a preferred reducing agent, and dilute nitric acid may be used as the separatory solvent.

Watt, G.W.

1958-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

108

Air transport of plutonium metal : content expansion initiative for the Plutonium Air Transportable (PAT-1) packaging.  

SciTech Connect

The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has submitted an application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the air shipment of plutonium metal within the Plutonium Air Transportable (PAT-1) packaging. The PAT-1 packaging is currently authorized for the air transport of plutonium oxide in solid form only. The INMM presentation will provide a limited overview of the scope of the plutonium metal initiative and provide a status of the NNSA application to the NRC.

Mann, Paul T. (National Nuclear Security Administration); Caviness, Michael L. (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Yoshimura, Richard Hiroyuki

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Air transport of plutonium metal: content expansion initiative for the plutonium air transportable (PAT01) packaging  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has submitted an application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the air shipment of plutonium metal within the Plutonium Air Transportable (PAT-1) packaging. The PAT-1 packaging is currently authorized for the air transport of plutonium oxide in solid form only. The INMM presentation will provide a limited overview of the scope of the plutonium metal initiative and provide a status of the NNSA application to the NRC.

Caviness, Michael L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mann, Paul T [NNSA/ALBUQUERQUE; Yoshimura, Richard H [SNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

What is Plutonium? - Fact Sheet  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

a critical step toward solving the nation's nuclear waste disposal problem a critical step toward solving the nation's nuclear waste disposal problem What Is Plutonium? Plu-to-ni-um n. Symbol Pu (plÇÇ-tÇ'n‘-bm) A radioactive, silvery, metallic transuranic element, produced artificially by neutron bombardment of uranium, having 15 isotopes with masses ranging from 232 to 246 and half- lives from 20 minutes to 76 million years. It is a radiological poison, specifically absorbed by bone marrow, and is used, especially the highly fissionable isotope Pu239, as a reactor fuel and in nuclear weapons. The American Heritage Dictionary, Second College Edition The U.S. Department of Energy's Carlsbad Field Office is responsible for the management, transportation, and permanent disposal of large amounts of the transuranic wastes left over from both World War II and the

111

METHOD FOR THE PREPARATION OF PLUTONIUM HALIDES AND OXYHALIDES  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Plutonium trihalide or plutonium(III) oxyhalide is prepared by reacting plutonium dioxide with hydrogen halide at 300 to 1000 deg C in the presence of hydrogen, ammonium iodide, or ammonium bromide.

Davidson, N.R.; Katz, J.J.

1960-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

112

Determination of Plutonium Content in Spent Fuel with Nondestructive Assay  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LBNL- Determination of Plutonium Content in Spent Fuel withSwinhoe. “Determination of Plutonium Content in Spent FuelS. Tobin, “Measurement of Plutonium in Spent Nuclear Fuel by

Tobin, S. J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

PRECIPITATION METHOD FOR THE SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM AND RARE EARTHS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of purifying plutonium is given. Tetravalent plutonium is precipitated with thorium pyrophosphate, the plutonium is oxidized to the tetravalent state, and then impurities are precipitated with thorium pyrophosphate.

Thompson, S.G.

1960-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

114

WET METHOD OF PREPARING PLUTONIUM TRIBROMIDE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

S> The preparation of anhydrous plutonium tribromide from an aqueous acid solution of plutonium tetrabromide is described, consisting of adding a water-soluble volatile bromide to the tetrabromide to provide additional bromide ions sufficient to furnish an oxidation-reduction potential substantially more positive than --0.966 volt, evaporating the resultant plutonium tribromides to dryness in the presence of HBr, and dehydrating at an elevated temperature also in the presence of HBr.

Davidson, N.R.; Hyde, E.K.

1958-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

115

Addressing mixed waste in plutonium processing  

SciTech Connect

The overall goal is the minimization of all waste generated in actinide processing facilities. Current emphasis is directed toward reducing and managing mixed waste in plutonium processing facilities. More specifically, the focus is on prioritizing plutonium processing technologies for development that will address major problems in mixed waste management. A five step methodological approach to identify, analyze, solve, and initiate corrective action for mixed waste problems in plutonium processing facilities has been developed.

Christensen, D.C.; Sohn, C.L. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Reid, R.A. (New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Anderson Schools of Management)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF PLUTONIUM  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for the separation of plutonium from uranlum and other associated radioactlve fission products ls descrlbed conslstlng of contacting an acid solution containing plutonium in the tetravalent state and uranium in the hexavalent state with enough ammonium carbonate to form an alkaline solution, adding cupferron to selectlvely form plutonlum cupferrlde, then recoverlng the plutonium cupferride by extraction with a water lmmiscible organic solvent such as chloroform.

Potratz, H.A.

1958-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

117

PLUTONIUM-CUPFERRON COMPLEX AND METHOD OF REMOVING PLUTONIUM FROM SOLUTION  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is presented for separating plutonium from fission products present in solutions of neutronirradiated uranium. The process consists in treating such acidic solutions with cupferron so that the cupferron reacts with the plutonium present to form an insoluble complex. This plutonium cupferride precipitates and may then be separated from the solution.

Potratz, H.A.

1959-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

118

Zone refining of plutonium metal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The zone refining process was applied to Pu metal containing known amounts of impurities. Rod specimens of plutonium metal were melted into and contained in tantalum boats, each of which was passed horizontally through a three-turn, high-frequency coil in such a manner as to cause a narrow molten zone to pass through the Pu metal rod 10 times. The impurity elements Co, Cr, Fe, Ni, Np, U were found to move in the same direction as the molten zone as predicted by binary phase diagrams. The elements Al, Am, and Ga moved in the opposite direction of the molten zone as predicted by binary phase diagrams. As the impurity alloy was zone refined, {delta}-phase plutonium metal crystals were produced. The first few zone refining passes were more effective than each later pass because an oxide layer formed on the rod surface. There was no clear evidence of better impurity movement at the slower zone refining speed. Also, constant or variable coil power appeared to have no effect on impurity movement during a single run (10 passes). This experiment was the first step to developing a zone refining process for plutonium metal.

Blau, M.S.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Processing and Mechanical Behavior of Unalloyed Plutonium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Unalloyed plutonium presents a wide variety of challenges to the ... AlMnCrCuFeNi Multicomponent Alloy with Superior Hardness and Corrosion ...

120

OXIDATIVE METHOD OF SEPARATING PLUTONIUM FROM NEPTUNIUM  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described of separating neptunium from plutonium in an aqueous solution containing neptunium and plutonium in valence states not greater than +4. This may be accomplished by contacting the solution with dichromate ions, thus oxidizing the neptunium to a valence state greater than +4 without oxidizing any substantial amount of plutonium, and then forming a carrier precipitate which carries the plutonium from solution, leaving the neptunium behind. A preferred embodiment of this invention covers the use of lanthanum fluoride as the carrier precipitate.

Beaufait, L.J. Jr.

1958-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "30-day average plutonium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

METHOD OF REDUCING PLUTONIUM WITH FERROUS IONS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is presented for separating hexavalent plutonium from fission product values. To a nitric acid solution containing the values, ferrous ions are added and the solution is heated and held at elevated temperature to convert the plutonium to the tetravalent state via the trivalent state and the plutonium is then selectively precipitated on a BiPO/sub 4/ or LaF/sub 3/ carrier. The tetravalent plutonium formed is optionally complexed with fluoride, oxalate, or phosphate anion prior to carrier precipitation.

Dreher, J.L.; Koshland, D.E.; Thompson, S.G.; Willard, J.E.

1959-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

NON-AQUEOUS DISSOLUTION OF MASSIVE PLUTONIUM  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is presented for obtaining non-aqueous solutions or plutonium from massive forms of the metal. In the present invention massive plutonium is added to a salt melt consisting of 10 to 40 weight per cent of sodium chloride and the balance zinc chloride. The plutonium reacts at about 800 deg C with the zinc chloride to form a salt bath of plutonium trichloride, sodium chloride, and metallic zinc. The zinc is separated from the salt melt by forcing the molten mixture through a Pyrex filter.

Reavis, J.G.; Leary, J.A.; Walsh, K.A.

1959-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

123

EA-0841: Import of Russian Plutonium-238  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to purchase plutonium-238 from the Russian Federation (Russia) for use in the Nation's space program.

124

ION EXCHANGE ADSORPTION PROCESS FOR PLUTONIUM SEPARATION  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Ion exchange processes for the separation of plutonium from fission products are described. In accordance with these processes an aqueous solution containing plutonium and fission products is contacted with a cation exchange resin under conditions favoring adsorption of plutonium and fission products on the resin. A portion of the fission product is then eluted with a solution containing 0.05 to 1% by weight of a carboxylic acid. Plutonium is next eluted with a solution containing 2 to 8 per cent by weight of the same carboxylic acid, and the remaining fission products on the resin are eluted with an aqueous solution containing over 10 per cent by weight of sodium bisulfate.

Boyd, G.E.; Russell, E.R.; Taylor, M.D.

1961-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

125

Accident Investigation Report Plutonium Contamination in the...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Accident Investigation Report Plutonium Contamination in the Zero Power Physics Reactor Facility at the Idaho National Laboratory, November 8, 2011 January 2012 Disclaimer...

126

EIS-0277: Management of Certain Plutonium Residues and Scrub...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

77: Management of Certain Plutonium Residues and Scrub Alloy Stored at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site EIS-0277: Management of Certain Plutonium Residues and Scrub...

127

U.S. and Russia Sign Plutonium Disposition Agreement | National...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Agreement U.S. and Russia Sign Plutonium Disposition Agreement September 01, 2000 Washington, DC U.S. and Russia Sign Plutonium Disposition Agreement After two years of...

128

Consolidation of Surplus Plutonium at Savannah River Site | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Waste Management Nuclear Materials & Waste Consolidation of Surplus Plutonium at Savannah River Site Consolidation of Surplus Plutonium at Savannah River Site Waste...

129

Savannah River Site: Plutonium Preparation Project (PuPP) at...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Site: Plutonium Preparation Project (PuPP) at Savannah River Site Savannah River Site: Plutonium Preparation Project (PuPP) at Savannah River Site Full Document and Summary...

130

Additional public meeting on plutonium disposition on September...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

produce an oxide form of plutonium suitable for disposition and the use of mixed oxide (MOX) fuel fabricated from surplus plutonium in domestic commercial nuclear power reactors...

131

EIS-0219: F-Canyon Plutonium Solutions | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

of Plutonium Solutions Stored in the F-Canyon Facility, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC December 1, 1994 EIS-0219: Final Environmental Impact Statement F-Canyon Plutonium...

132

Properties of Liquid Plutonium  

SciTech Connect

Unalloyed polycrystalline Pu displays extreme thermal expansion behavior, i.e., {alpha} {yields} {beta} {yields} {gamma} {yields} {delta} increases by 25% in volume and {delta} {yields} {var_epsilon} {yields} liquid decreases by 4.5% in volume. Thus, making it difficult to measure density into the liquid state. Dilatometer outfitted with CaF molten metal cell offers a proven capability to measure thermal expansion in molten metals, but has yet to be proven for Pu. Historic data from the liquid nuclear fuels program will prove extremely useful as a guide to future measurements. 3.3at% Ga changes Pu molten metal properties: 50% increase in viscosity and {approx}3% decrease in density. Fe may decrease the density by a small amount assuming an averaging of densities for Pu-Ga and Pu-Fe liquids. More recent Boivineau (2009) work needs some interpretation, but technique is being employed in (U,Pu)O{sub 2} nuclear fuels program (Pu Futures, 2012).

Freibert, Franz J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mitchell, Jeremy N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schwartz, Daniel S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Saleh, Tarik A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Migliori, Albert [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

133

Thermodynamics of the conversion of plutonium dioxide to plutonium monocarbide  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The present study contains an equilibrium thermodynamic analysis of the Pu--C--O system and a discussion from an equilibrium thermodynamic point of view of the direct carbothermic reduction and two-step carbothermic-hydrogen reduction of PuO/sub 2/ to PuC/sub 1-x/. Included are considerations of the partial pressures of the various species in the Pu--C--O and Pu--C--H systems, the process parameters required for conversion of the oxide to the carbide, and the loss of plutonium due to vapor species.

Besmann, T.M.; Lindemer, T.B.

1976-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from an electrolyte salt  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from a plutonium-bearing salt is disclosed. The process is particularly useful in the recovery of plutonium from electrolyte salts which are left over from the electrorefining of plutonium. In accordance with the process, the plutonium-bearing salt is melted and mixed with metallic calcium. The calcium reduces ionized plutonium in the salt to plutonium metal, and also causes metallic plutonium in the salt, which is typically present as finely dispersed metallic shot, to coalesce. The reduced and coalesced plutonium separates out on the bottom of the reaction vessel as a separate metallic phase which is readily separable from the overlying salt upon cooling of the mixture. Yields of plutonium are typically on the order of 95%. The stripped salt is virtually free of plutonium and may be discarded to low-level waste storage.

Mullins, Lawrence J. (Los Alamos, NM); Christensen, Dana C. (Los Alamos, NM)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from an electrolyte salt  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from a plutonium-bearing salt is disclosed. The process is particularly useful in the recovery of plutonium for electrolyte salts which are left over from the electrorefining of plutonium. In accordance with the process, the plutonium-bearing salt is melted and mixed with metallic calcium. The calcium reduces ionized plutonium in the salt to plutonium metal, and also causes metallic plutonium in the salt, which is typically present as finely dispersed metallic shot, to coalesce. The reduced and coalesced plutonium separates out on the bottom of the reaction vessel as a separate metallic phase which is readily separable from the overlying salt upon cooling of the mixture. Yields of plutonium are typically on the order of 95%. The stripped salt is virtually free of plutonium and may be discarded to low-level waste storage.

Mullins, L.J.; Christensen, D.C.

1982-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

136

Siegfried S. Hecker, Plutonium, and Nonproliferation  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Siegfried S. Hecker, Plutonium Siegfried S. Hecker, Plutonium and Nuclear Nonproliferation Resources with Additional Information · Awards Siegfried S. Hecker Photo Credit: Courtesy of Los Alamos National Laboratory LeRoy Sanchez On September 17, 2009, U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu named Siegfried S. Hecker as a winner of the Enrico Fermi Award 'in recognition for his contributions to plutonium metallurgy, his broad scientific leadership and for his energetic and continuing efforts to reduce the danger of nuclear weapons around the globe. Dr. Hecker is credited with resolving a long-standing controversy involving the stability of certain structures (or phases) in plutonium alloys near equilibrium that arose from significant discrepancies between U.S. and former USSR research on plutonium metallurgy.'1

137

Plutonium Disposition Program | National Nuclear Security Administration  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Home > Media Room > Fact Sheets > Plutonium Disposition Program Home > Media Room > Fact Sheets > Plutonium Disposition Program Fact Sheet Plutonium Disposition Program Jun 26, 2013 SUPPORTING NUCLEAR NONPROLIFERATION Weapon-grade plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU) are the critical ingredients for making a nuclear weapon. With the end of the Cold War, hundreds of tons of these materials were determined to be surplus to U.S. and Russian defense needs. Denying access to plutonium and HEU is the best way to prevent nuclear proliferation to rogue states and terrorist organizations. The most certain method to prevent these materials from falling into the wrong hands is to dispose of them. During the April 2010 Nuclear Security Summit, Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton and Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov signed a protocol

138

Manhattan Project: F Reactor Plutonium Production Complex  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

F REACTOR PLUTONIUM PRODUCTION COMPLEX F REACTOR PLUTONIUM PRODUCTION COMPLEX Hanford Engineer Works, 1945 Resources > Photo Gallery Plutonium production area, Hanford, ca. 1945 The F Reactor plutonium production complex at Hanford. The "boxy" building between the two water towers on the right is the plutonium production reactor; the long building in the center of the photograph is the water treatment plant. The photograph was reproduced from Henry DeWolf Smyth, Atomic Energy for Military Purposes: The Official Report on the Development of the Atomic Bomb under the Auspices of the United States Government, 1940-1945 (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1945). The Smyth Report was commissioned by Leslie Groves and originally issued by the Manhattan Engineer District. Princeton University Press reprinted it in book form as a "public service" with "reproduction in whole or in part authorized and permitted."

139

Cleanup of plutonium oxide reduction black salts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This work describes pyrochemical processes employed to convert direc oxide reduction (DOR) black salts into discardable white salt and plutonium metal. The DOR process utilizes calcium metal as the reductant in a molten calcium chloride solvent salt to convert plutonium oxide to plutonium metal. An insoluble plutonium-rich dispersion called black salt sometimes forms between the metal phase and the salt phase. Black salts accumulated for processing were treated by one of two methods. One method utilized a scrub alloy of 70 wt % magnesium/30 wt % zinc. The other method utilized a pool of plutonium metal to agglomerate the metal phase. The two processes were similar in that calcium metal reductant and calcium chloride solvent salt were used in both cases. Four runs were performed by each method, and each method produced greater than 93% conversion of the black salt.

Giebel, R.E.; Wing, R.O.

1986-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

140

EIS-0283: Surplus Plutonium Disposition Environmental Impact Statement  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This EIS analyzes the potential environmental impacts associated with alternatives for the disposition of surplus plutonium.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "30-day average plutonium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

ADSORPTION-BISMUTH PHOSPHATE METHOD FOR SEPARATING PLUTONIUM  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is given for separating plutonium from uranium and fission products. Plutonium and uranium are adsorbed by a cation exchange resin, plutonium is eluted from the adsorbent, and then, after oxidation to the hexavalent state, the plutonium is contacted with a bismuth phosphate carrier precipitate.

Russell, E.R.; Adamson, A.W.; Boyd, G.E.

1960-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

142

Characterization of plutonium-bearing wastes by chemical analysis and analytical electron microscopy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes the results of characterization studies of plutonium-bearing wastes produced at the US Department of Energy weapons production facilities. Several different solid wastes were characterized, including incinerator ash and ash heels from Rocky Flats Plant and Los Alamos National Laboratory; sand, stag, and crucible waste from Hanford; and LECO crucibles from the Savannah River Site. These materials were characterized by chemical analysis and analytical electron microscopy. The results showed the presence of discrete PuO{sub 2}PuO{sub 2{minus}x}, and Pu{sub 4}O{sub 7} phases, of about 1{mu}m or less in size, in all of the samples examined. In addition, a number of amorphous phases were present that contained plutonium. In all the ash and ash heel samples examined, plutonium phases were found that were completely surrounded by silicate matrices. Consequently, to achieve optimum plutonium recovery in any chemical extraction process, extraction would have to be coupled with ultrafine grinding to average particle sizes of less than 1 {mu}m to liberate the plutonium from the surrounding inert matrix.

Behrens, R.G. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Buck, E.C.; Dietz, N.L.; Bates, J.K.; Van Deventer, E.; Chaiko, D.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Excess Plutonium: Weapons Legacy or National Asset?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Nuclear Materials Stewardship Initiative was established in January, 2000, to accelerate the work of achieving integration and cutting long-term costs associated with the management of nuclear materials. As part of that initiative, the Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Management (EM), has established Nuclear Material Management Groups for the management of excess nuclear materials. As one of these groups, the Plutonium Material Management Group (PMMG) has been chartered to serve as DOE's complex wide resource and point of contact for technical coordination and program planning support in the safe and efficient disposition of the nations excess Plutonium 239. This paper will explain the mission, goals, and objectives of the PMMG. In addition, the paper will provide a broad overview of the status of the plutonium inventories throughout the DOE complex. The DOE currently manages approximately 99.5 MT of plutonium isotopes. Details of the various categories of plutonium, from material designated for national security needs through material that has been declared excess, will be explained. For the plutonium that has been declared excess, the various pathways to disposition (including reuse, recycling, sale, transfer, treatment, consumption, and disposal) will be discussed. At this time 52.5 MT of plutonium has been declared excess and the method of disposition for that material is the subject of study and evaluation within DOE. The role of the PMMG in those evaluations will be outlined.

Klipa, G.; Boeke, S.; Hottel, R.

2002-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

144

VOLATILE FLUORIDE PROCESS FOR SEPARATING PLUTONIUM FROM OTHER MATERIALS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The separation of plutonium from uranium and/or fission products by formation of the higher fluorides off uranium and/or plutonium is described. Neutronirradiated uranium metal is first converted to the hydride. This hydrided product is then treated with fluorine at about 315 deg C to form and volatilize UF/sub 6/ leaving plutonium behind. Thc plutonium may then be separated by reacting the residue with fluorine at about 5004DEC and collecting the volatile plutonium fluoride thus formed.

Spedding, F.H.; Newton, A.S.

1959-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

145

VOLATILE FLUORIDE PROCESS FOR SEPARATING PLUTONIUM FROM OTHER MATERIALS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The separation of plutonium from uranium and/or tission products by formation of the higher fluorides of uranium and/or plutonium is discussed. Neutronirradiated uranium metal is first convcrted to the hydride. This hydrided product is then treatced with fluorine at about 315 deg C to form and volatilize UF/sup 6/ leaving plutonium behind. The plutonium may then be separated by reacting the residue with fluorine at about 500 deg C and collecting the volatile plutonium fluoride thus formed.

Spedding, F.H.; Newton, A.S.

1959-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

146

Molecular Interactions of Plutonium(VI) with Synthetic Manganese-Substituted Goethite  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

E. , Thesis, Reactions of Plutonium(VI) with the Iron Oxideof Uranium, Neptunium, Plutonium, Americium and Technetium;Molecular Interactions of Plutonium(VI) with Synthetic

Hu, Yung-Jin

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Quantifying structural damage from self-irradiation in a plutonium superconductor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

was presented as part of Plutonium Futures - The Science: Atopical Confer- ence on Plutonium and Actinide, Asilomar,in loading one of the plutonium samples. This work was

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Reaction of Plutonium(VI) with the Manganese-Substituted Iron Oxide Mineral Goethite  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Plutonium(VI) Sorption on Manganese-SubstitutedX-ray Beam-Induced Chemistry on Plutonium Sorbed on Variousof Plutonium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .159 v E Anion

Hu, Yung-Jin Hu

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Structural Characterization of and Plutonium Sorption on Mesoporous and Nanoparticulate Ferrihydrite  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2.2.1 Plutonium Redox Chemistry . . . . . . . . .2.5 Plutonium Measurement with Liquid Scintillation CountingChemistry . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.9.4 Plutonium Uptake

Brogan, Luna Kestrel Schwaiger

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

SEPARATION OF URANIUM, PLUTONIUM AND FISSION PRODUCTS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The separation of uranium and plutonium from neutronirradiated uranium is described. The neutron-irradiated uranium is dissolved in nitric acid to provide an aqueous solution 3N in nitric acid. The fission products of the solution are extruded by treating the solution with dibutyl carbitol substantially 1.8N in nitric acid. The organic solvent phase is separated and neutralized with ammonium hydroxide and the plutonium reduced with hydroxylamine base to the trivalent state. Treatment of the mixture with saturated ammonium nitrate extracts the reduced plutonium and leaves the uranium in the organic solvent.

Nicholls, C.M.; Wells, I.; Spence, R.

1959-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

151

Weapons-grade plutonium dispositioning. Volume 4. Plutonium dispositioning in light water reactors  

SciTech Connect

This study is in response to a request by the Reactor Panel Subcommittee of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Committee on International Security and Arms Control (CISAC) to evaluate the feasibility of using plutonium fuels (without uranium) for disposal in existing conventional or advanced light water reactor (LWR) designs and in low temperature/pressure LWR designs that might be developed for plutonium disposal. Three plutonium-based fuel forms (oxides, aluminum metallics, and carbides) are evaluated for neutronic performance, fabrication technology, and material and compatibility issues. For the carbides, only the fabrication technologies are addressed. Viable plutonium oxide fuels for conventional or advanced LWRs include plutonium-zirconium-calcium oxide (PuO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2}-CaO) with the addition of thorium oxide (ThO{sub 2}) or a burnable poison such as erbium oxide (Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}) or europium oxide (Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3}) to achieve acceptable neutronic performance. Thorium will breed fissile uranium that may be unacceptable from a proliferation standpoint. Fabrication of uranium and mixed uranium-plutonium oxide fuels is well established; however, fabrication of plutonium-based oxide fuels will require further development. Viable aluminum-plutonium metallic fuels for a low temperature/pressure LWR include plutonium aluminide in an aluminum matrix (PuAl{sub 4}-Al) with the addition of a burnable poison such as erbium (Er) or europium (Eu). Fabrication of low-enriched plutonium in aluminum-plutonium metallic fuel rods was initially established 30 years ago and will require development to recapture and adapt the technology to meet current environmental and safety regulations. Fabrication of high-enriched uranium plate fuel by the picture-frame process is a well established process, but the use of plutonium would require the process to be upgraded in the United States to conform with current regulations and minimize the waste streams.

Sterbentz, J.W.; Olsen, C.S.; Sinha, U.P.

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

EIA Average Energy Consumption 2005  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table US8. Average Consumption by Fuels Used, 2005 Physical Units per Household Fuels Used (physical units of consumption per household using the fuel)

153

PRODUCTION OF PLUTONIUM FLUORIDE FROM BISMUTH PHOSPHATE PRECIPITATE CONTAINING PLUTONIUM VALUES  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is given for separating plutonium from fission products present on a bismuth phosphate carrier. The dried carrier is first treated with hydrogen fluoride at between 500 and 600 deg C whereby some fission product fluorides volatilize away from plutonium tetrafluoride, and nonvolatile fission product fluorides are formed then with anhydrous fluorine at between 400 and 500 deg C. Bismuth and plutonium distill in the form of volatile fluorides away from the nonvolatile fission product fluorides. The bismuth and plutonium fluorides are condensed at below 290 deg C.

Brown, H.S.; Bohlmann, E.G.

1961-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Plutonium Processing Plant Deactivated | National Nuclear Security  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Processing Plant Deactivated | National Nuclear Security Processing Plant Deactivated | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Continuing Management Reform Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Us Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Media Room Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Speeches Events Social Media Video Gallery Photo Gallery NNSA Archive Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home > About Us > Our History > NNSA Timeline > Plutonium Processing Plant Deactivated Plutonium Processing Plant Deactivated June 20, 1997 Hanford, WA Plutonium Processing Plant Deactivated The Plutonium Uranium Extraction Facility (PUREX), the largest of the

155

Plutonium Processing Plant Deactivated | National Nuclear Security  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Processing Plant Deactivated | National Nuclear Security Processing Plant Deactivated | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Continuing Management Reform Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Us Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Media Room Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Speeches Events Social Media Video Gallery Photo Gallery NNSA Archive Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home > About Us > Our History > NNSA Timeline > Plutonium Processing Plant Deactivated Plutonium Processing Plant Deactivated June 20, 1997 Hanford, WA Plutonium Processing Plant Deactivated The Plutonium Uranium Extraction Facility (PUREX), the largest of the

156

Sweden Plutonium Removal | National Nuclear Security Administration  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Sweden Plutonium Removal | National Nuclear Security Administration Sweden Plutonium Removal | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Continuing Management Reform Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Us Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Media Room Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Speeches Events Social Media Video Gallery Photo Gallery NNSA Archive Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home > content > Four-Year Plan > Sweden Plutonium Removal Sweden Plutonium Removal Location Sweden United States 62° 24' 4.4136" N, 15° 22' 51.096" E See map: Google Maps Printer-friendly version Printer-friendly version

157

Plutonium less mysterious with nuclear magnetic resonance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Plutonium less mysterious with nuclear magnetic resonance Plutonium less mysterious with nuclear magnetic resonance Plutonium less mysterious with nuclear magnetic resonance For more than 50 years, chemists and physicists have been searching for the plutonium-239 magnetic resonance signal. May 21, 2012 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma physics and new materials. Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma physics and new materials.

158

Determination of plutonium in human urine  

SciTech Connect

Report is made of chemical procedures for determination of plutonium in human urine. The procedures are provided in outline form and statistical methods are provided for interpretation of the results.

Langham, W.H.

1947-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

159

Radiological Safety Training for Plutonium Facilities  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Change Notice No. 1. and Reaffirmation January 2007 DOE HANDBOOK Radiological Safety Training for Plutonium Facilities U.S. Department of Energy AREA TRNG Washington, D.C. 20585...

160

Radiological Safety Training for Plutonium Facilities  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

MEASUREMENT SENSITIVE DOE-HDBK-1145-2013 March 2013 DOE HANDBOOK Radiological Safety Training for Plutonium Facilities U.S. Department of Energy TRNG-0061 Washington, D.C. 20585...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "30-day average plutonium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Plutonium: The first 50 years. United States plutonium production, acquisition, and utilization from 1944 through 1994  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The report contains important newly declassified information regarding the US production, acquisition, and removals of plutonium. This new information, when combined with previously declassified data, has allowed the DOE to issue, for the first time, a truly comprehensive report on the total DOE plutonium inventory. At the December 7, 1993, Openness Press Conference, the DOE declassified the plutonium inventories at eight locations totaling 33.5 metric tons (MT). This report declassifies the remainder of the DOE plutonium inventory. Newly declassified in this report is the quantity of plutonium at the Pantex Site, near Amarillo, Texas, and in the US nuclear weapons stockpile of 66.1 MT, which, when added to the previously released inventory of 33.5 MT, yields a total plutonium inventory of 99.5 MT. This report will document the sources which built up the plutonium inventory as well as the transactions which have removed plutonium from that inventory. This report identifies four sources that add plutonium to the DOE/DoD inventory, and seven types of transactions which remove plutonium from the DOE/DoD inventory. This report also discusses the nuclear material control and accountability system which records all nuclear material transactions, compares records with inventory and calculates material balances, and analyzes differences to verify that nuclear materials are in quantities as reported. The DOE believes that this report will aid in discussions in plutonium storage, safety, and security with stakeholders as well as encourage other nations to declassify and release similar data. These data will also be available for formulating policies with respect to disposition of excess nuclear materials. The information in this report is based on the evaluation of available records. The information contained in this report may be updated or revised in the future should additional or more detailed data become available.

NONE

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Reclamation of plutonium from pyrochemical processing residues  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Savannah River Laboratory (SRL), Savannah River Plant (SRP), and Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) have jointly developed a process to recover plutonium from molten salt extraction residues. These NaCl, KCL, and MgCl/sub 2/ residues, which are generated in the pyrochemical extraction of /sup 241/Am from aged plutonium metal, contain up to 25 wt % dissolved plutonium and up to 2 wt % americium. The overall objective was to develop a process to convert these residues to a pure plutonium metal product and discardable waste. To meet this objective a combination of pyrochemical and aqueous unit operations was used. The first step was to scrub the salt residue with a molten metal (aluminum and magnesium) to form a heterogeneous ''scrub alloy'' containing nominally 25 wt % plutonium. This unit operation, performed at RFP, effectively separated the actinides from the bulk of the chloride salts. After packaging in aluminum cans, the ''scrub alloy'' was then dissolved in a nitric acid - hydrofluoric acid - mercuric nitrate solution at SRP. Residual chloride was separated from the dissolver solution by precipitation with Hg/sub 2/(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/ followed by centrifuging. Plutonium was then separated from the aluminum, americium and magnesium using the Purex solvent extraction system. The /sup 241/Am was diverted to the waste tank farm, but could be recovered if desired.

Gray, L.W.; Gray, J.H.; Holcomb, H.P.; Chostner, D.F.

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Plutonium Finishing Plant safety evaluation report  

SciTech Connect

The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) previously known as the Plutonium Process and Storage Facility, or Z-Plant, was built and put into operation in 1949. Since 1949 PFP has been used for various processing missions, including plutonium purification, oxide production, metal production, parts fabrication, plutonium recovery, and the recovery of americium (Am-241). The PFP has also been used for receipt and large scale storage of plutonium scrap and product materials. The PFP Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) was prepared by WHC to document the hazards associated with the facility, present safety analyses of potential accident scenarios, and demonstrate the adequacy of safety class structures, systems, and components (SSCs) and operational safety requirements (OSRs) necessary to eliminate, control, or mitigate the identified hazards. Documented in this Safety Evaluation Report (SER) is DOE`s independent review and evaluation of the PFP FSAR and the basis for approval of the PFP FSAR. The evaluation is presented in a format that parallels the format of the PFP FSAR. As an aid to the reactor, a list of acronyms has been included at the beginning of this report. The DOE review concluded that the risks associated with conducting plutonium handling, processing, and storage operations within PFP facilities, as described in the PFP FSAR, are acceptable, since the accident safety analyses associated with these activities meet the WHC risk acceptance guidelines and DOE safety goals in SEN-35-91.

Not Available

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Grid-Averaged Surface Fluxes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study examines the inadequacies of formulations for surface fluxes for use in numerical models of atmospheric flow. The difficulty is that numerical models imply spatial averaging over each grid area. Existing formulations am based on the ...

L. Mahrt

1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

PROCESS OF FORMING PLUOTONIUM SALTS FROM PLUTONIUM EXALATES  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is presented for converting plutonium oxalate to other plutonium compounds by a dry conversion method. According to the process, lower valence plutonium oxalate is heated in the presence of a vapor of a volatile non- oxygenated monobasic acid, such as HCl or HF. For example, in order to produce plutonium chloride, the pure plutonium oxalate is heated to about 700 deg C in a slow stream of hydrogen plus HCl. By the proper selection of an oxidizing or reducing atmosphere, the plutonium halide product can be obtained in either the plus 3 or plus 4 valence state.

Garner, C.S.

1959-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

166

SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM FROM URANIUM AND FISSION PRODUCTS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A chromatographic adsorption process is presented for the separation of plutonium from other fission products formed by the irradiation of uranium. The plutonium and the lighter element fission products are adsorbed on a sulfonated phenol-formaldehyde resin bed from a nitric acid solution containing the dissolved uranium. Successive washes of sulfuric, phosphoric, and nitric acids remove the bulk of the fission products, then an eluate of dilute phosphoric and nitric acids removes the remaining plutonium and fission products. The plutonium is selectively removed by passing this solution through zirconium phosphate, from which the plutonium is dissolved with nitric acid. This process provides a convenient and efficient means for isolating plutonium.

Boyd, G.E.; Adamson, A.W.; Schubert, J.; Russell, E.R.

1958-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

High average power pockels cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high average power pockels cell is disclosed which reduces the effect of thermally induced strains in high average power laser technology. The pockels cell includes an elongated, substantially rectangular crystalline structure formed from a KDP-type material to eliminate shear strains. The X- and Y-axes are oriented substantially perpendicular to the edges of the crystal cross-section and to the C-axis direction of propagation to eliminate shear strains.

Daly, Thomas P. (Pleasanton, CA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Destruction of plutonium using non-uranium fuels in pressurized water reactor peripheral assemblies  

SciTech Connect

This thesis examines and confirms the feasibility of using non-uranium fuel in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) radial blanket to eliminate plutonium of both weapons and civilian origin. In the equilibrium cycle, the periphery of the PWR is loaded with alternating fresh and once burned non-uranium fuel assemblies, with the interior of the core comprised of conventional three batch UO{sub 2} assemblies. Plutonium throughput is such that there is no net plutonium production: production in the interior is offset by destruction in the periphery. Using this approach a 50 MT WGPu inventory could be eliminated in approximately 400 reactor years of operation. Assuming all other existing constraints were removed, the 72 operating US PWRs could disposition 50 MT of WGPu in 5.6 years. Use of a low fissile loading plutonium-erbium inert-oxide-matrix composition in the peripheral assemblies essentially destroys 100% of the {sup 239}Pu and {ge}90% {sub total}Pu over two 18 month fuel cycles. Core radial power peaking, reactivity vs EFPD profiles and core average reactivity coefficients were found to be comparable to standard PWR values. Hence, minimal impact on reload licensing is anticipated. Examination of potential candidate fuel matrices based on the existing experience base and thermo-physical properties resulted in the recommendation of three inert fuel matrix compositions for further study: zirconia, alumina and TRISO particle fuels. Objective metrics for quantifying the inherent proliferation resistance of plutonium host waste and fuel forms are proposed and were applied to compare the proposed spent WGPu non-uranium fuel to spent WGPu MOX fuels and WGPu borosilicate glass logs. The elimination disposition option spent non-uranium fuel product was found to present significantly greater barriers to proliferation than other plutonium disposal products.

Chodak, P. III

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Method for Plutonium-Gallium Separation by Anodic Dissolution of a Solid Plutonium-Gallium Alloy  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Purified plutonium and gallium are efficiently recovered from a solid plutonium-gallium (Pu-Ga) alloy by using an electrorefining process. The solid Pu-Ga alloy is the cell anode, preferably placed in a moving basket within the electrolyte. As the surface of the Pu-Ga anode is depleted in plutonium by the electrotransport of the plutonium to a cathode, the temperature of the electrolyte is sufficient to liquify the surface, preferably at about 500 C, resulting in a liquid anode layer substantially comprised of gallium. The gallium drips from the liquified surface and is collected below the anode within the electrochemical cell. The transported plutonium is collected on the cathode surface and is recovered.

Miller, William E.; Tomczuk, Zygmunt

1998-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

170

January 29, 2004, Board letter establishing a 30-day reporting...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

by law (42 U.S.C. 6 2286a(a)( 1)) to review and evaluate the content of all applicable DOE Orders, regulations, and requirements. The Board has conducted a detailed review of...

171

Disposition of weapons-grade plutonium in Westinghouse reactors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have studied the feasibility of using weapons-grade plutonium in the form of mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel in existing Westinghouse reactors. We have designed three transition cycles from an all LEU core to a partial MOX core. We found that four-loop Westinghouse reactors such as the Vogtle power plant are capable of handling up to 45 percent weapons-grade MOX loading without any modifications. We have also designed two kinds of weapons-grade MOX assemblies with three enrichments per assembly and four enrichments total. Wet annular burnable absorber (WABA) rods were used in all the feed and some burned MOX assemblies and some LEU feed assemblies. Integral fuel burnable absorber (IFBA) was used in the rest of the LEU feed assemblies. The average discharge burnup of MOX assemblies was over 47,000 MWD/MTM, which is more than enough to meet the "spent fuel standard." One unit is capable of consuming 0.462 MT of weapons-grade plutonium a year. Preliminary analyses showed that important reactor physics parameters for the three transitions cycles are comparable to those of LEU cores including boron levels, reactivity coefficients, peaking factors, and shutdown margins. Further transient analyses need to be performed.

Alsaed, Abdelhalim Ali

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Disposition of Weapons-Grade Plutonium in Westinghouse Reactors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Disposition of Weapons-Grade Plutonium in Westinghouse Reactors Abdelhalim Ali Alsaed and Marvin Adams We have studied the feasibility of using weapons-grade plutonium in the form of mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel in existing Westinghouse reactors. We have designed three transition cycles from an all LEU core to a partial MOX core. We found that four-loop Westinghouse reactors such as the Vogtle power plant are capable of handling up to 45 percent weapons-grade MOX loading without any modifications. We have also designed two kinds of weapons-grade MOX assemblies with three enrichments per assembly and four total enrichments. Wet annular burnable absorber (WABA) rods were used in all the MOX feed assemblies, some burned MOX assemblies, and some LEU feed assemblies. Integral fuel burnable absorber (IFBA) was used in the rest of the LEU feed assemblies. The average discharge burnup of MOX assemblies was over 47,000 MWD/MTM, which is more than enough to meet the "spent fuel standard." One unit is ...

No. De-fc-al; Abdelhalim Ali Alsaed; Abdelhalim Ali Alsaed; Marvin Adams; Marvin Adams

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Core Measure Average KTR Results  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Measure Measure Average KTR Results FY 12 Target FY 12 DOE M&O CONTRACTOR (KTR) BSC RESULTS FY 2012 Customer Perspective and level of communication provided by the procurement office 95 92 Internal Business Perspective: Assessment (%) of the degree to which the purchasing system is in compliance with stakeholder requirements 97 Local Goals % Delivery on-time (includes JIT, excludes Purchase Cards) 88 84 % of total dollars obligated, on actions > $150K , that were awarded using effective competition 73 Local Goals Rapid Purchasing Techniques: -% of transactions placed by users 77 Local Goals -% of transactions placed through electronic commerce 62 Local Goals Average Cycle Time: -Average cycle time for <= $150K 8 6 to 9 days

174

A Supplement Analysis on Plutonium Consolidation at Savannah River Site  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

DOE’s April 2002 decision to consolidate surplus, non-pit weapons-usable plutonium at Savannah River Site did not affect a 1997 DOE decision to continue storage of non-pit surplus plutonium at...

175

Associate Directorate of Plutonium Science and Manufacturing Workforce Development Program  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Associate Directorate of Plutonium Science and Manufacturing Workforce Development Program Issue No elements address workforce challenges faced by a Pu Enterprise Environment with a focus on Pu Sustainment. The Plutonium Science & Manufacturing Summer Student Program (PSMSSP) supports the Laboratory's need

176

NNSA's Global Threat Reduction Initiative Completes First Plutonium...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

was the first shipment of plutonium to the United States under this program. Over 3 kilograms of plutonium was removed and included Swedish, UK, and U.S. origin material stemming...

177

The design and evaluation of an international plutonium storage system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

To address the proliferation risk of separated plutonium, a technical and institutional design of an international plutonium storage system (IPSS) is presented. The IPSS is evaluated from two perspectives: its ability to ...

Bae, Eugene

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

The United States Plutonium Balance, 1944-2009 | National Nuclear...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

The United States Plutonium Balance, 1944-2009 The United States has released an inventory of its plutonium balances from 1944 through 2009. The document serves as an update...

179

Preserving Plutonium-244 as a National Asset  

SciTech Connect

Plutonium-244 (244 Pu) is an extremely rare and long-lived isotope of plutonium with a half-life of 80 million years. Measureable amounts of 244 Pu are found in neither reactor-grade nor weapons-grade plutonium. Production of this isotope requires a very high thermal flux to permit the two successive neutron captures that convert 242 Pu to 243 Pu to 244 Pu, particularly given the short (about 5 hour) half-life of 243 Pu. Such conditions simply do not exist in plutonium production processes. Therefore, 244 Pu is ideal for precise radiochemical analyses measuring plutonium material properties and isotopic concentrations in items containing plutonium. Isotope dilution mass spectrometry is about ten times more sensitive when using 244 Pu rather than 242 Pu for determining plutonium isotopic content. The isotope can also be irradiated in small quantities to produce superheavy elements. The majority of the existing global inventory of 244 Pu is contained in the outer housing of Mark-18A targets at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The total inventory is about 20 grams of 244 Pu in about 400 grams of plutonium distributed among the 65 targets. Currently, there are no specific plans to preserve these targets. Although the cost of separating and preserving this material would be considerable, it is trivial in comparison to new production costs. For all practical purposes, the material is irreplaceable, because new production would cost billions of dollars and require a series of irradiation and chemical separation cycles spanning up to 50 years. This paper will discuss a set of options for overcoming the significant challenges to preserve the 244 Pu as a National Asset: (1) the need to relocate the material from SRS in a timely manner, (2) the need to reduce the volume of material to the extent possible for storage, and (3) the need to establish an operational capability to enrich the 244 Pu in significant quantities. This paper suggests that if all the Mark-18A plutonium is separated, it would occupy a small volume and would be inexpensive to store while an enrichment capability is developed. Very small quantities could be enriched in existing mass separators to support critical needs.

Patton, Bradley D [ORNL; Alexander, Charles W [ORNL; Benker, Dennis [ORNL; Collins, Emory D [ORNL; Romano, Catherine E [ORNL; Wham, Robert M [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Plutonium Chemistry in the UREX+ Separation Processes  

SciTech Connect

The project "Plutonium Chemistry in the UREX+ Separation Processes” is led by Dr. Alena Paulenova of Oregon State University under collaboration with Dr. George Vandegrift of ANL and Dr. Ken Czerwinski of the University of Nevada at Las Vegas. The objective of the project is to examine the chemical speciation of plutonium in UREX+ (uranium/tributylphosphate) extraction processes for advanced fuel technology. Researchers will analyze the change in speciation using existing thermodynamics and kinetic computer codes to examine the speciation of plutonium in aqueous and organic phases. They will examine the different oxidation states of plutonium to find the relative distribution between the aqueous and organic phases under various conditions such as different concentrations of nitric acid, total nitrates, or actinide ions. They will also utilize techniques such as X-ray absorbance spectroscopy and small-angle neutron scattering for determining plutonium and uranium speciation in all separation stages. The project started in April 2005 and is scheduled for completion in March 2008.

ALena Paulenova; George F. Vandegrift, III; Kenneth R. Czerwinski

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "30-day average plutonium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Design features for decontamination in new plutonium facilities  

SciTech Connect

Specific features for preventing, containing, controlling, and removing contamination in the Plutonium Recovery and Waste Treatment Facility are outlined. (LK)

Freiberg, K.J.; Haynes, C.G.

1975-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Plutonium metal and alloy preparation by molten chloride reduction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Satisfactory reduction of molten plutonium trichloride (pure and in combination with 20 wt % sodium chloride) by calcium, lanthanum, and cerium has been demonstrated on the 10-g scale. The yields were satisfactory for this scale of operation, and it is indicated that these reductions may be useful for large-scale operations. Significant separations of plutonium from rare earth impurities was demonstrated for lanthanum and cerium reductions. Preparation of plutonium-cerium and plutonium-cerium-cobalt alloys during reduction was also demonstrated.

Reavis, J.G.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

COLUMBIC OXIDE ADSORPTION PROCESS FOR SEPARATING URANIUM AND PLUTONIUM IONS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for separating plutonium ions from a solution of neutron irradiated uranium in which columbic oxide is used as an adsorbert. According to the invention the plutonium ion is selectively adsorbed by Passing a solution containing the plutonium in a valence state not higher than 4 through a porous bed or column of granules of hydrated columbic oxide. The adsorbed plutonium is then desorbed by elution with 3 N nitric acid.

Beaton, R.H.

1959-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

184

U.S. and Russia Sign Plutonium Disposition Agreement | National...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Plutonium Disposition Agreement | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response...

185

PROCESS OF ELIMINATING HYDROGEN PEROXIDE IN SOLUTIONS CONTAINING PLUTONIUM VALUES  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A procedure is given for peroxide precipitation processes for separating and recovering plutonium values contained in an aqueous solution. When plutonium peroxide is precipitated from an aqueous solution, the supernatant contains appreciable quantities of plutonium and peroxide. It is desirable to process this solution further to recover plutonium contained therein, but the presence of the peroxide introduces difficulties; residual hydrogen peroxide contained in the supernatant solution is eliminated by adding a nitrite or a sulfite to this solution.

Barrick, J.G.; Fries, B.A.

1960-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

186

Independent Activity Report, Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant- May 2012  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Criticality Safety Information Meeting for the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant [HIAR-RL-2012-05-14

187

West Texas Intermediate Spot Average ............................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Crude Oil (dollars per barrel) Crude Oil (dollars per barrel) West Texas Intermediate Spot Average ............................ 102.88 93.42 92.24 87.96 94.34 94.10 105.84 96.30 95.67 95.33 95.67 93.33 94.12 97.64 95.00 Brent Spot Average ........................................................... 118.49 108.42 109.61 110.09 112.49 102.58 110.27 108.29 106.33 105.00 103.00 102.00 111.65 108.41 104.08 Imported Average .............................................................. 108.14 101.18 97.18 97.64 98.71 97.39 103.07 100.03 99.64 99.33 99.69 97.35 101.09 99.85 99.04 Refiner Average Acquisition Cost ...................................... 107.61 101.44 97.38 97.27 101.14 99.45 105.24 100.44 100.15 99.82 100.18 97.83 100.83 101.61 99.50 Liquid Fuels (cents per gallon) Refiner Prices for Resale Gasoline .........................................................................

188

Plutonium Isotopic Measurements by Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

The nondestructive assay of plutonium is important as a safeguard tool in accounting for stategic nuclear material. Several nondestructive assay techniques, e.g., calorimetry and spontaneous fission assay detectors, require a knowledge of plutonium and americium isotopic ratios to convert their raw data to total grams of plutonium. This paper describes a nondestructive technique for calculating plutonium-238, plutonium-240, plutonium-241 and americium-241 relative to plutonium-239 from measured peak areas in the high resolution gamma-ray spectra of solid plutonium samples. Gamma-ray attenuation effects have been minimized by selecting sets of neighboring peaks in the spectrum whose components are due to the different isotopes. Since the detector efficiencies are approximately the same for adjacent peaks, the accuracy of the isotopic ratios are dependent on the half-lives, branching intensities and measured peak areas. The data presented describes the results obtained by analyzing gamma-ray spectra in the energy region from 120 to 700 keV. The majority of the data analyzed was obtained from plutonium material containing 6% plutonium-240. Sample weights varied from 0.25 g to approximately 1.2 kg. The methods have also been applied to plutonium samples containing up to 23% plutonium-240 with weights of 0.25 to 200g. Results obtained by gamma-ray spectroscopy are compared to chemical analyses of aliquots taken from the bulk samples.

Haas, Francis X.; Lemming, John F.

1976-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Excess plutonium disposition: The deep borehole option  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews the current status of technologies required for the disposition of plutonium in Very Deep Holes (VDH). It is in response to a recent National Academy of Sciences (NAS) report which addressed the management of excess weapons plutonium and recommended three approaches to the ultimate disposition of excess plutonium: (1) fabrication and use as a fuel in existing or modified reactors in a once-through cycle, (2) vitrification with high-level radioactive waste for repository disposition, (3) burial in deep boreholes. As indicated in the NAS report, substantial effort would be required to address the broad range of issues related to deep bore-hole emplacement. Subjects reviewed in this report include geology and hydrology, design and engineering, safety and licensing, policy decisions that can impact the viability of the concept, and applicable international programs. Key technical areas that would require attention should decisions be made to further develop the borehole emplacement option are identified.

Ferguson, K.L.

1994-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

190

Method for dissolving delta-phase plutonium  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for dissolving plutonium, and in particular, delta-phase plutonium. The process includes heating a mixture of nitric acid, hydroxylammonium nitrate and potassium fluoride (HAN) to a temperature between 40 and 70 C, then immersing the metal in the mixture. Preferably, the nitric acid has a concentration of not ore than 2M, the HAN approximately 0.66M, and the potassium fluoride 1M. Additionally, a small amount of sulfamic acid, such as 0.1M can be added to assure stability of the HAN in the presence of nitric acid. The oxide layer that forms on plutonium metal may be removed with a non-oxidizing acid as a pre-treatment step.

Karraker, D.G.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

191

ESTIMATING IMPURITIES IN SURPLUS PLUTONIUM FOR DISPOSITION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The United States holds at least 61.5 metric tons (MT) of plutonium that is permanently excess to use in nuclear weapons programs, including 47.2 MT of weapons-grade plutonium. Surplus inventories will be stored safely by the Department of Energy (DOE) and then transferred to facilities that will prepare the plutonium for permanent disposition. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) operates a Feed Characterization program for the Office of Fissile Materials Disposition of the National Nuclear Security Administration and the DOE Office of Environmental Management. Many of the items that require disposition are only partially characterized, and SRNL uses a variety of techniques to predict the isotopic and chemical properties that are important for processing through the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility and alternative disposition paths. Recent advances in laboratory tools, including Prompt Gamma Analysis and Peroxide Fusion treatment, provide data on the existing inventories that will enable disposition without additional, costly sampling and destructive analysis.

Allender, J.; Moore, E.

2013-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

192

REVIEW OF PLUTONIUM OXIDATION LITERATURE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A brief review of plutonium oxidation literature was conducted. The purpose of the review was to ascertain the effect of oxidation conditions on oxide morphology to support the design and operation of the PDCF direct metal oxidation (DMO) furnace. The interest in the review was due to a new furnace design that resulted in oxide characteristics that are different than those of the original furnace. Very little of the published literature is directly relevant to the DMO furnace operation, which makes assimilation of the literature data with operating conditions and data a convoluted task. The oxidation behavior can be distilled into three regimes, a low temperature regime (RT to 350 C) with a relatively slow oxidation rate that is influenced by moisture, a moderate temperature regime (350-450 C) that is temperature dependent and relies on more or less conventional oxidation growth of a partially protective oxide scale, and high temperature oxidation (> 500 C) where the metal autocatalytically combusts and oxidizes. The particle sizes obtained from these three regimes vary with the finest being from the lowest temperature. It is surmised that the slow growth rate permits significant stress levels to be achieved that help break up the oxides. The intermediate temperatures result in a fairly compact scale that is partially protective and that grows to critical thickness prior to fracturing. The growth rate in this regime may be parabolic or paralinear, depending on the oxidation time and consequently the oxide thickness. The high temperature oxidation is invariant in quiescent or nearly quiescent conditions due to gas blanketing while it accelerates with temperature under flowing conditions. The oxide morphology will generally consist of fine particles ( 250 {micro}m). The particle size ratio is expected to be < 5%, 25%, and 70% for fine, medium and large particles, respectively, for metal temperatures in the 500-600 C range.

Korinko, P.

2009-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

193

REVIEW OF PLUTONIUM OXIDATION LITERATURE  

SciTech Connect

A brief review of plutonium oxidation literature was conducted. The purpose of the review was to ascertain the effect of oxidation conditions on oxide morphology to support the design and operation of the PDCF direct metal oxidation (DMO) furnace. The interest in the review was due to a new furnace design that resulted in oxide characteristics that are different than those of the original furnace. Very little of the published literature is directly relevant to the DMO furnace operation, which makes assimilation of the literature data with operating conditions and data a convoluted task. The oxidation behavior can be distilled into three regimes, a low temperature regime (RT to 350 C) with a relatively slow oxidation rate that is influenced by moisture, a moderate temperature regime (350-450 C) that is temperature dependent and relies on more or less conventional oxidation growth of a partially protective oxide scale, and high temperature oxidation (> 500 C) where the metal autocatalytically combusts and oxidizes. The particle sizes obtained from these three regimes vary with the finest being from the lowest temperature. It is surmised that the slow growth rate permits significant stress levels to be achieved that help break up the oxides. The intermediate temperatures result in a fairly compact scale that is partially protective and that grows to critical thickness prior to fracturing. The growth rate in this regime may be parabolic or paralinear, depending on the oxidation time and consequently the oxide thickness. The high temperature oxidation is invariant in quiescent or nearly quiescent conditions due to gas blanketing while it accelerates with temperature under flowing conditions. The oxide morphology will generally consist of fine particles (<15 {micro}m), moderately sized particles (15 < x < 250 {micro}m) and large particles (> 250 {micro}m). The particle size ratio is expected to be < 5%, 25%, and 70% for fine, medium and large particles, respectively, for metal temperatures in the 500-600 C range.

Korinko, P.

2009-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

194

Alternating layers of plutonium and lead or indium as surrogate for plutonium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Elemental plutonium (Pu) assumes more crystal structures than other elements, plausibly due to bonding f electrons becoming non-bonding. Complex geometries hamper understanding of the transition in Pu, but calculations predict this transition in a system with simpler geometry: alternating layers either of plutonium and lead or of plutonium and indium. Here the transition occurs via a pairing-up of atoms within Pu layers. Calculations stepping through this pairing-up reveal valuable details of the transition, for example that the transition from bonding to non-bonding proceeds smoothly.

Rudin, Sven Peter [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

CHARACTERIZATION OF SURPLUS PLUTONIUM FOR DISPOSITION OPTIONS  

SciTech Connect

The United States (U.S.) has identified 61.5 metric tons (MT) of plutonium that is permanently excess to use in nuclear weapons programs, including 47.2 MT of weapons-grade plutonium. Except for materials that remain in use for programs outside of national defense, including programs for nuclear-energy development, the surplus inventories will be stored safely by the Department of Energy (DOE) and then transferred to facilities that will prepare the plutonium for permanent disposition. Some items will be disposed as transuranic waste, low-level waste, or spent fuel. The remaining surplus plutonium will be managed through: (1) the Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility (FFF), to be constructed at the Savannah River Site (SRS), where the plutonium will be converted to fuel that will be irradiated in civilian power reactors and later disposed to a high-level waste (HLW) repository as spent fuel; (2) the SRS H-Area facilities, by dissolving and transfer to HLW systems, also for disposal to the repository; or (3) alternative immobilization techniques that would provide durable and secure disposal. From the beginning of the U.S. program for surplus plutonium disposition, DOE has sponsored research to characterize the surplus materials and to judge their suitability for planned disposition options. Because many of the items are stored without extensive analyses of their current chemical content, the characterization involves three interacting components: laboratory sample analysis, if available; non-destructive assay data; and rigorous evaluation of records for the processing history for items and inventory groups. This information is collected from subject-matter experts at inventory sites and from materials stabilization and surveillance programs, in cooperation with the design agencies for the disposition facilities. This report describes the operation and status of the characterization program.

Allender, J; Edwin Moore, E; Scott Davies, S

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

196

Dehydration of plutonium or neptunium trichloride hydrate  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for preparing anhydrous actinide metal trichlorides of plutonium or neptunium by reacting an aqueous solution of an actinide metal trichloride selected from the group consisting of plutonium trichloride or neptunium trichloride with a reducing agent capable of converting the actinide metal from an oxidation state of +4 to +3 in a resultant solution, evaporating essentially all the solvent from the resultant solution to yield an actinide trichloride hydrate material, dehydrating the actinide trichloride hydrate material by heating the material in admixture with excess thionyl chloride, and recovering anhydrous actinide trichloride.

Foropoulos, J. Jr.; Avens, L.R.; Trujillo, E.A.

1992-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

197

First Plutonium Bomb Successfully Tested | National Nuclear Security  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Plutonium Bomb Successfully Tested | National Nuclear Security Plutonium Bomb Successfully Tested | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Continuing Management Reform Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Us Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Media Room Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Speeches Events Social Media Video Gallery Photo Gallery NNSA Archive Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home > About Us > Our History > NNSA Timeline > First Plutonium Bomb Successfully Tested First Plutonium Bomb Successfully Tested July 16, 1945 Los Alamos, NM First Plutonium Bomb Successfully Tested

198

First Plutonium Bomb Successfully Tested | National Nuclear Security  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Plutonium Bomb Successfully Tested | National Nuclear Security Plutonium Bomb Successfully Tested | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Continuing Management Reform Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Us Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Media Room Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Speeches Events Social Media Video Gallery Photo Gallery NNSA Archive Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home > About Us > Our History > NNSA Timeline > First Plutonium Bomb Successfully Tested First Plutonium Bomb Successfully Tested July 16, 1945 Los Alamos, NM First Plutonium Bomb Successfully Tested

199

SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM FROM LANTHANUM BY CHELATION-EXTRACTION  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Plutonium can be separated from a mixture of plutonlum and lanthanum in which the lanthanum to plutonium molal ratio ls at least five by adding the ammonium salt of N-nitrosoarylhydroxylamine to an aqueous solution having a pH between about 3 and 0.2 and containing the plutonium in a valence state of at least +3, to form a plutonium chelate compound of N-nitrosoarylhydroxylamine. The plutonium chelate compound may be recovered from the solution by extracting with an immiscible organic solvent such as chloroform.

James, R.A.; Thompson, S.G.

1958-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Assessment of the risk of transporting plutonium oxide and liquid plutonium nitrate by truck  

SciTech Connect

A methodology for assessing the risk in transporting radioactive materials and the results of the initial application of the methodology to shipment of plutonium by truck are presented. (LK)

1975-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "30-day average plutonium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Excess Weapons Plutonium Disposition: Plutonium Packaging, Storage and Transportation and Waste Treatment, Storage and Disposal Activities  

SciTech Connect

A fifth annual Excess Weapons Plutonium Disposition meeting organized by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was held February 16-18, 2004, at the State Education Center (SEC), 4 Aerodromnya Drive, St. Petersburg, Russia. The meeting discussed Excess Weapons Plutonium Disposition topics for which LLNL has the US Technical Lead Organization responsibilities. The technical areas discussed included Radioactive Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal, Plutonium Oxide and Plutonium Metal Packaging, Storage and Transportation and Spent Fuel Packaging, Storage and Transportation. The meeting was conducted with a conference format using technical presentations of papers with simultaneous translation into English and Russian. There were 46 Russian attendees from 14 different Russian organizations and six non-Russian attendees, four from the US and two from France. Forty technical presentations were made. The meeting agenda is given in Appendix B and the attendance list is in Appendix C.

Jardine, L J; Borisov, G B

2004-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

202

Weapons-grade plutonium dispositioning. Volume 2: Comparison of plutonium disposition options  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Secretary of Energy requested the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Committee on International Security and Arms Control to evaluate disposition options for weapons-grade plutonium. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) offered to assist the NAS in this evaluation by investigating the technical aspects of the disposition options and their capability for achieving plutonium annihilation levels greater than 90%. This report was prepared for the NAS to document the gathered information and results from the requested option evaluations. Evaluations were performed for 12 plutonium disposition options involving five reactor and one accelerator-based systems. Each option was evaluated in four technical areas: (1) fuel status, (2) reactor or accelerator-based system status, (3) waste-processing status, and (4) waste disposal status. Based on these evaluations, each concept was rated on its operational capability and time to deployment. A third rating category of option costs could not be performed because of the unavailability of adequate information from the concept sponsors. The four options achieving the highest rating, in alphabetical order, are the Advanced Light Water Reactor with plutonium-based ternary fuel, the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor with plutonium-based fuel, the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor with uranium-plutonium-based fuel, and the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor with plutonium-based fuel. Of these four options, the Advanced Light Water Reactor and the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor do not propose reprocessing of their irradiated fuel. Time constraints and lack of detailed information did not allow for any further ratings among these four options. The INEL recommends these four options be investigated further to determine the optimum reactor design for plutonium disposition.

Brownson, D.A.; Hanson, D.J.; Blackman, H.S. [and others

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Manhattan Project: More Piles and Plutonium, 1942  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

"Met Lab" alumni at the University of Chicago -- Fermi is on the far left of the front row; Zinn is on Fermi's left; Anderson is on the far right of the front row; and Szilard is over Anderson's right shoulder. MORE PILES AND PLUTONIUM "Met Lab" alumni at the University of Chicago -- Fermi is on the far left of the front row; Zinn is on Fermi's left; Anderson is on the far right of the front row; and Szilard is over Anderson's right shoulder. MORE PILES AND PLUTONIUM (1942) Events > Difficult Choices, 1942 More Uranium Research, 1942 More Piles and Plutonium, 1942 Enter the Army, 1942 Groves and the MED, 1942 Picking Horses, November 1942 Final Approval to Build the Bomb, December 1942 At the University of Chicago, meanwhile, Arthur Compton had consolidated most fission research at his new Metallurgical Laboratory(Met Lab). Compton decided to combine all pile research by stages. He continued to fund Enrico Fermi's pile research at Columbia University, while Fermi began preparations to move his work to Chicago. Funding continued as well for the theoretical work of Eugene Wigner at Princeton and of J. Robert Oppenheimer at the University of California, Berkeley. Compton also appointed Leo Szilard head of materials acquisition and arranged for Glenn T. Seaborg to move his plutonium work from Berkeley to Chicago in April 1942.

204

Development of the plutonium oxide vitrification system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Repository disposal of plutonium in a suitable, immobilized form is being considered as one option for the disposition of surplus weapons-usable plutonium. Accelerated development efforts were completed in 1997 on two potential immobilization forms to facilitate downselection to one form for continued development. The two forms studied were a crystalline ceramic based on Synroc technology and a lanthanide borosilicate (LaBS) glass. As part of the glass development program, melter design activities and component testing were completed to demonstrate the feasibility of using glass as an immobilization medium. A prototypical melter was designed and built in 1997. The melter vessel and drain tube were constructed of a Pt/Rh alloy. Separate induction systems were used to heat the vessel and drain tube. A Pt/Rh stirrer was incorporated into the design to facilitate homogenization of the melt. Integrated powder feeding and off-gas systems completed the overall design. Concurrent with the design efforts, testing was conducted using a plutonium surrogate LaBS composition in an existing (near-scale) melter to demonstrate the feasibility of processing the LaBS glass on a production scale. Additionally, the drain tube configuration was successfully tested using a plutonium surrogate LaBS glass.

Marshall, K.M.; Marra, J.C.; Coughlin, J.T.; Calloway, T.B.; Schumacher, R.F.; Zamecnik, J.R.; Pareizs, J.M.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Plutonium Management in the Medium Term  

SciTech Connect

For many years various countries with access to commercial reprocessing services have been routinely recycling plutonium as UO{sub 2}/PuO{sub 2} mixed oxide (MOX) fuel in light water reactors (LWRs). This LWR MOX recycle strategy is still widely regarded as an interim step leading to the eventual establishment of sustainable fast reactor fuel cycles. The OECD/NEA Working Party on the Physics of Plutonium Fuels and Innovative Fuel Cycles (WPPR) has recently completed a review of the technical options for plutonium management in what it refers to as the 'medium term'. For the purpose of the review, the WPPR considers the medium term to cover the period from now up to the point at which fast reactor fuel cycles are established on a commercial scale. The review identified a number of different designs of innovative plutonium fuel assemblies intended to be used in current LWR cores, in LWRs with significantly different moderation properties, as well as in high-temperature gas reactors. The full review report describes these various options and highlights their respective advantages and disadvantages. This paper briefly summarizes the main findings of the review.

Hesketh, Kevin [BNFL Nuclear Sciences and Technology Services (United Kingdom); Schlosser, Gerhard; Porsch, Dieter F. [Framatome ANP (France); Wolf, Timm [Framatome ANP (France); Koeberl, Oliver [CEA Cadarache (France); Lance, Benoit [Belgonucleaire (Belgium); Chawla, Rakesh [Paul Scherrer Institut (Switzerland); Gehin, Jess C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (United States); Ellis, Ron [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (United States); Uchikawa, Sadao [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (Japan); Sato, Osamu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (Japan); Okubo, Tsutomu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (Japan); Mineo, Hideaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (Japan); Yamamoto, Toru [Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (Japan); Sagayama, Yutaka [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (Japan); Sartori, Enrico [Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (France)

2004-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

206

RECOVERY OF PLUTONIUM BY CARRIER PRECIPITATION  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The recovery of plutonium from an aqueous nitric acid Zr-containing solution of 0.2 to 1N acidity is accomplished by adding fluoride anions (1.5 to 5 mg/l), and precipitating the Pu with an excess of H/sub 2/0/sub 2/ at 53 to 65 deg C. (AEC)

Goeckermann, R.H.

1961-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

NNSS Soils Monitoring: Plutonium Valley (CAU366)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Nevada Site Office (NSO), Environmental Restoration Soils Activity has authorized the Desert Research Institute (DRI) to conduct field assessments of potential sediment transport of contaminated soil from Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 366, Area 11 Plutonium Valley Dispersion Sites Contamination Area (CA) during precipitation runoff events.

Miller Julianne J.,Mizell Steve A.,Nikolich George, Campbell Scott

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

PLUTONIUM PURIFICATION PROCESS EMPLOYING THORIUM PYROPHOSPHATE CARRIER  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The separation and purification of plutonium from the radioactive elements of lower atomic weight is described. The process of this invention comprises forming a 0.5 to 2 M aqueous acidffc solution containing plutonium fons in the tetravalent state and elements with which it is normally contaminated in neutron irradiated uranium, treating the solution with a double thorium compound and a soluble pyrophosphate compound (Na/sub 4/P/sub 2/O/sub 7/) whereby a carrier precipitate of thorium A method is presented of reducing neptunium and - trite is advantageous since it destroys any hydrazine f so that they can be removed from solutions in which they are contained is described. In the carrier precipitation process for the separation of plutonium from uranium and fission products including zirconium and columbium, the precipitated blsmuth phosphate carries some zirconium, columbium, and uranium impurities. According to the invention such impurities can be complexed and removed by dissolving the contaminated carrier precipitate in 10M nitric acid, followed by addition of fluosilicic acid to about 1M, diluting the solution to about 1M in nitric acid, and then adding phosphoric acid to re-precipitate bismuth phosphate carrying plutonium.

King, E.L.

1959-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

209

Variable Average Absolute Percent Differences  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Variable Variable Average Absolute Percent Differences Percent of Projections Over- Estimated Gross Domestic Product Real Gross Domestic Product (Average Cumulative Growth)* (Table 2) 1.0 42.6 Petroleum Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil (Constant $) (Table 3a) 35.2 18.6 Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil (Nominal $) (Table 3b) 34.7 19.7 Total Petroleum Consumption (Table 4) 6.2 66.5 Crude Oil Production (Table 5) 6.0 59.6 Petroleum Net Imports (Table 6) 13.3 67.0 Natural Gas Natural Gas Wellhead Prices (Constant $) (Table 7a) 30.7 26.1 Natural Gas Wellhead Prices (Nominal $) (Table 7b) 30.0 27.1 Total Natural Gas Consumption (Table 8) 7.8 70.2 Natural Gas Production (Table 9) 7.1 66.0 Natural Gas Net Imports (Table 10) 29.3 69.7 Coal Coal Prices to Electric Generating Plants (Constant $)** (Table 11a)

210

Determining Plutonium Mass in Spent Fuel with Nondestructive Assay Techniques -- Preliminary Modeling Results Emphasizing Integration among Techniques  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LBNL- Determining Plutonium Mass in Spent Fuel withSwinhoe. “Determination of Plutonium Content in Spent FuelS. Tobin, “Measurement of Plutonium in Spent Nuclear Fuel by

Tobin, S. J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Low-level detection and quantification of Plutonium(III, IV, V, and VI) using a liquid core waveguide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

R. , Determination of Plutonium Oxidation States at TraceThe Absorption Spectra of Plutonium Ions in Perchloric Acidor company? Yes/No Plutonium Futures – The Science

Wilson, Richard E.; Hu, Yung-Jin; Nitsche, Heino

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Achronal averaged null energy condition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The averaged null energy condition (ANEC) requires that the integral over a complete null geodesic of the stress-energy tensor projected onto the geodesic tangent vector is never negative. This condition is sufficient to prove many important theorems in general relativity, but it is violated by quantum fields in curved spacetime. However there is a weaker condition, which is free of known violations, requiring only that there is no self-consistent spacetime in semiclassical gravity in which ANEC is violated on a complete, achronal null geodesic. We indicate why such a condition might be expected to hold and show that it is sufficient to rule out closed timelike curves and wormholes connecting different asymptotically flat regions.

Graham, Noah; Olum, Ken D. [Department of Physics, Middlebury College, Middlebury, Vermont 05753 (United States) and Center for Theoretical Physics, Laboratory for Nuclear Science, and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts 02155 (United States)

2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

213

Achronal averaged null energy condition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The averaged null energy condition (ANEC) requires that the integral over a complete null geodesic of the stress-energy tensor projected onto the geodesic tangent vector is never negative. This condition is sufficient to prove many important theorems in general relativity, but it is violated by quantum fields in curved spacetime. However there is a weaker condition, which is free of known violations, requiring only that there is no self-consistent space-time in semiclassical gravity in which ANEC is violated on a complete, {\\em achronal} null geodesic. We indicate why such a condition might be expected to hold and show that it is sufficient to rule out wormholes and closed timelike curves.

Noah Graham; Ken D. Olum

2007-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

214

A Note on the Reaction of Hydrogen and Plutonium  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Plutonium hydride has many practical and experimental purposes. The reaction of plutonium and hydrogen has interesting characteristics, which will be explored in the following analysis. Plutonium is a radioactive actinide metal that emits alpha particles. When plutonium metal is exposed to air, the plutonium oxides and hydrides, and the volume increases. PuH{sub 2} and Pu{sub 2}O{sub 3} are the products. Hydrogen is a catalyst for plutonium's corrosion in air. The reaction can take place at room temperature because it is fairly insensitive to temperature. Plutonium hydride, or PuH{sub 2}, is black and metallic. After PuH{sub 2} is formed, it quickly flakes off and burns. The reaction of hydrogen and plutonium is described as pyrophoric because the product will spontaneously ignite when oxygen is present. This tendency must be considered in the storage of metal plutonium. The reaction is characterized as reversible and nonstoichiometric. The reaction goes as such: Pu + H{sub 2} {yields} PuH{sub 2}. When PuH{sub 2} is formed, the hydrogen/plutonium ratio is between 2 and 2.75 (approximately). As more hydrogen is added to the system, the ratio increases. When the ratio exceeds 2.75, PuH{sub 3} begins to form along with PuH{sub 2}. Once the ratio surpasses 2.9, only PuH{sub 3} remains. The volume of the plutonium sample increases because of the added hydrogen and the change in crystal structure which the sample undergoes. As more hydrogen is added to a system of metal plutonium, the crystal structure evolves. Plutonium has a crystal structure classified as monoclinic. A monoclinic crystal structure appears to be a rectangular prism. When plutonium reacts with hydrogen, the product PuH{sub 2}, becomes a fluorite structure. It can also be described as a face centered cubic structure. PuH{sub 3} forms a hexagonal crystal structure. As plutonium evolves from metal plutonium to plutonium hydride to plutonium trihydride, the crystal structure evolves from monoclinic to fluorite to hexagonal. This change in crystal structure as a result of adding hydrogen is a shared characteristic with other actinide elements. Americium is isostructural with plutonium because they both form cubic dihyrides and hexagonal trihydrides. Reacting hydrogen with plutonium has the practical application of separating plutonium from other materials that don't react as well with hydrogen. When plutonium is placed in a chamber where there is very little oxygen, it can react with hydrogen without igniting. The hydrogen plutonium reaction can then be reversed, thus regaining the separated plutonium. Another application of this reaction is that it can be used to predict how plutonium reacts with other substances. Deuterium and tritium are two isotopes of hydrogen that are of interest. They are known to react likewise to hydrogen because they have similar properties. The reaction of plutonium and isotopes of hydrogen can prove to be very informative.

Noone, Bailey C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

215

Lymph node clearance of plutonium from subcutaneous wounds in beagles  

SciTech Connect

The lymph node clearance of /sup 239/Pu O/sub 2/ administered as insoluble particles from subcutaneous implants was studied in adult beagles to simulate accidental contamination of hand wounds. External scintillation data were collected from the popliteal lymph nodes of each dog after 9.2 to 39.4 mu Ci of plutonium oxide was subcutaneously implanted into the left or right hind paws. The left hind paw was armputated 4 weeks after implantation to prevent continued deposition of plutonium oxide particles in the left popliteal lymph node. Groups of 3 dogs were sacrificed 4, 8, 16, and 32 weeks after plutonium implantation for histopathologic, electron microscopic, and radiochemical analysis of regional lymph nodes. An additional group of dogs received treatment with the chelating agent diethyenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). Plutonium rapidly accumulated in the popliteal lymph nodes after subcutaneous injection into the hind paw, and 1 to 10% of the implant dose was present in the popliteal lymph nodes at the time of necropsy. Histopathologic changes in the popliteal lymph nodes with plutonium particles were characterized primarily by reticular cell hyperplasia, increased numbers of macrophages, necrosis, and fibroplasia. Eventually, the plutonium particles became sequestered by scar tissue that often replaced the entire architecture of the lymph node. Light microscopic autoradiographs of the popliteal lymph nodes showed a time-related increase in number of alpha tracks per plutonium source. Electron microscopy showed that the plutonium particles were aggregated in phagolysosomes of macrophages. There was slight clearance of plutonium from the popliteal lymph nodes of dogs monitored for 32 weeks. The clearance of plutonium particles from the popliteal lymph nodes was associated with necrosis of macrophages. The external iliac lymph nodes contained fewer plutonium particles than the popliteal lymph nodes and histopathologic changes were less severe. The superficial inguinal lymph nodes of one dog contained appreciable amounts of plutonium. Treatment with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) did not have a measurable effect on the clearance of plutonium from the popliteal lymph nodes. (60 references) (auth)

Dagle, G.E.

1973-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Plutonium process control using an advanced on-line gamma monitor for uranium, plutonium, and americium  

SciTech Connect

An on-line gamma monitor has been developed to profile uranium, plutonium, and americium in waste and product streams of the anion exchange process used to recover and purify plutonium at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility. The gamma monitor employs passive gamma spectrometry to measure /sup 241/Am and /sup 239/Pu, based on their 59.5-keV and 129-keV gamma rays, respectively. Because natural and depleted uranium present in typical process streams have no gamma rays suitable for measurement by such passive methods, uranium measurement requires a novel and less direct technique. Plutonium-241, which is always present in plutonium processed at Los Alamos, decays primarily by beta emission to form /sup 241/Am. However, a small fraction of /sup 241/Pu decays by alpha emission to 6.8-day /sup 237/U. The short half-life and 208-keV gamma energy of /sup 237/U make it an ideal radiotracer to mark the position of macro amounts of uranium impurity in the separation process. The real-time data obtained from an operating process allow operators to optimize many process parameters. The gamma monitor also provides a permanent record of the daily performance of each ion exchange system. 2 refs., 12 figs.

Marsh, S.F.; Miller, M.C.

1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Process modeling of plutonium conversion and MOX fabrication for plutonium disposition  

SciTech Connect

Two processes are currently under consideration for the disposition of 35 MT of surplus plutonium through its conversion into fuel for power production. These processes are the ARIES process, by which plutonium metal is converted into a powdered oxide form, and MOX fuel fabrication, where the oxide powder is combined with uranium oxide powder to form ceramic fuel. This study was undertaken to determine the optimal size for both facilities, whereby the 35 MT of plutonium metal will be converted into fuel and burned for power. The bounding conditions used were a plutonium concentration of 3--7%, a burnup of 20,000--40,000 MWd/MTHM, a core fraction of 0.1 to 0.4, and the number of reactors ranging from 2--6. Using these boundary conditions, the optimal cost was found with a plutonium concentration of 7%. This resulted in an optimal throughput ranging from 2,000 to 5,000 kg Pu/year. The data showed minimal costs, resulting from throughputs in this range, at 3,840, 2,779, and 3,497 kg Pu/year, which results in a facility lifetime of 9.1, 12.6, and 10.0 years, respectively.

Schwartz, K.L. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Special Nuclear Materials: EM Manages Plutonium, Highly Enriched Uranium  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Nuclear Materials & Waste » Nuclear Materials & Waste » Special Nuclear Materials: EM Manages Plutonium, Highly Enriched Uranium and Uranium-233 Special Nuclear Materials: EM Manages Plutonium, Highly Enriched Uranium and Uranium-233 105-K building houses the K-Area Material Storage (KAMS) facility, designated for the consolidated storage of surplus plutonium at Savannah River Site pending disposition. The plutonium shipped to KAMS is sealed inside a welded 3013 containers that are nested in 9975 shipping containers. 105-K building houses the K-Area Material Storage (KAMS) facility, designated for the consolidated storage of surplus plutonium at Savannah River Site pending disposition. The plutonium shipped to KAMS is sealed inside a welded 3013 containers that are nested in 9975 shipping

219

Plutonium disposition via immobilization in ceramic or glass  

SciTech Connect

The management of surplus weapons plutonium is an important and urgent task with profound environmental, national, and international security implications. In the aftermath of the Cold War, Presidential Policy Directive 13, and various analyses by renown scientific, technical, and international policy organizations have brought about a focused effort within the Department of Energy to identify and implement paths for the long term disposition of surplus weapons- usable plutonium. The central goal of this effort is to render surplus weapons plutonium as inaccessible and unattractive for reuse in nuclear weapons as the much larger and growing stock of plutonium contained in spent fuel from civilian reactors. One disposition option being considered for surplus plutonium is immobilization, in which the plutonium would be incorporated into a glass or ceramic material that would ultimately be entombed permanently in a geologic repository for high-level waste.

Gray, L.W.; Kan, T.; Shaw, H.F.; Armantrout, A.

1997-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

220

EIS-0283-S2: Surplus Plutonium Disposition Supplemental Environmental  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

3-S2: Surplus Plutonium Disposition Supplemental 3-S2: Surplus Plutonium Disposition Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement EIS-0283-S2: Surplus Plutonium Disposition Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement Summary This EIS analyzes the potential environmental impacts associated with changes to the surplus plutonium disposition program, including changes to the inventory of surplus plutonium and proposed new alternatives. The original EIS is available here. For more information, see: www.nnsa.energy.gov/nepa/spdsupplementaleis Public Comment Opportunities None available at this time. Documents Available for Download April 25, 2013 EIS-0283-S2: Interim Action Determination Surplus Plutonium Disposition Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (K-Area Materials Storage (KAMS) Area Expansion at the Savannah River Site)

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "30-day average plutonium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Radiological Safety Training for Plutonium Facilities  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

145-2008 145-2008 April 2008 DOE HANDBOOK Radiological Safety Training for Plutonium Facilities U.S. Department of Energy AREA TRNG Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. NOT MEASUREMENT SENSITIVE This document has been reproduced directly from the best available copy. Available to DOE and DOE contractors from ES&H Technical Information Services, U.S. Department of Energy, (800) 473-4375, fax (301) 903-9823. Available to the public from the U.S. Department of Commerce, Technology Administration, National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161; (703) 605-6000. Radiological Safety Training for Plutonium Facilities DOE-HDBK-1145-2008 Program Management Guide

222

The Plutonium-Copper Phase Diagram  

SciTech Connect

The constitution of the plutonium-copper binary alloy as determined by differential thermal analysis is presented. The system is characterized by two congruent melting compounds, PuCu2 (m.p. 865 degrees C.) and Pu4Cu17 (m.p. 954 degrees C.); two incongruent melting compounds, PuCu4 (m.p. 906 degrees C.) and Pu2Cu11 (m.p. 926 degrees C.); three eutectics, 96 atom per cent copper (m.p. 626 degrees), 70.5 atom per cent copper (m.p. 849 degrees C.), and 91 atom per cent copper (m.p. 881 degrees C.); and two peritectics at 75 atom per cent (m.p. 906 degrees C.) and 85.5 atom per cent (m.p. 926 degrees C.). Solid solution was found above 97 atom per cent plutonium. The apparatus, the method of investigation, and the binary alloy phase diagram is discussed.

Rhinehammer, T. B.; Etter, D. E.; Jones, L. V.

1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

CRITICALITY CURVES FOR PLUTONIUM HYDRAULIC FLUID MIXTURES  

SciTech Connect

This Calculation Note performs and documents MCNP criticality calculations for plutonium (100% {sup 239}Pu) hydraulic fluid mixtures. Spherical geometry was used for these generalized criticality safety calculations and three geometries of neutron reflection are: {sm_bullet}bare, {sm_bullet}1 inch of hydraulic fluid, or {sm_bullet}12 inches of hydraulic fluid. This document shows the critical volume and critical mass for various concentrations of plutonium in hydraulic fluid. Between 1 and 2 gallons of hydraulic fluid were discovered in the bottom of HA-23S. This HA-23S hydraulic fluid was reported by engineering to be Fyrquel 220. The hydraulic fluid in GLovebox HA-23S is Fyrquel 220 which contains phosphorus. Critical spherical geometry in air is calculated with 0 in., 1 in., or 12 inches hydraulic fluid reflection.

WITTEKIND WD

2007-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

224

Concentration and purification of plutonium or thorium  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In this invention a first solution obtained from such as a plutonium/thorium purification process or the like, containing plutonium (Pu) and/or thorium (Th) in such as a low nitric acid (HNO.sub.3) concentration may have the Pu and/or Th separated and concentrated by passing an electrical current from a first solution having disposed therein an anode to a second solution having disposed therein a cathode and separated from the first solution by a cation permeable membrane, the Pu or Th cation permeating the cation membrane and forming an anionic complex within the second solution, and electrical current passage affecting the complex formed to permeate an anion membrane separating the second solution from an adjoining third solution containing disposed therein an anode, thereby effecting separation and concentration of the Pu and/or Th in the third solution.

Hayden, John A. (Arvada, CO); Plock, Carl E. (Golden, CO)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

REMOTE CONTROL EQUIPMENT FOR PLUTONIUM METAL PRODUCTION  

SciTech Connect

Design and construction of remote control equipment for plutonium metal production are described. Criteria for the design of the equipment included the following: rubber gloves were to be completely eliminated; all mechanisms were to be built as integral units to facilitate replacement through use of the plastic- bag technique; no accessory equipment such as switches, valves, piping, or cylinders were to be inside the contaminated enclosure unless required to handle the plutonium; and all units were to be tested in mockups before final design. The chemical process, general layout, and operating function are outlined. Descriptions are given of all mechanical units, electrical systems, hydroxide slurry systems, ventilation systems, and chemical tanks and manifolds. (W.L.H.)

Hazen, W.C.

1951-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Radiological Safety Training for Plutonium Facilities  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

NOT MEASUREMENT NOT MEASUREMENT SENSITIVE DOE-HDBK-1145-2013 March 2013 DOE HANDBOOK Radiological Safety Training for Plutonium Facilities U.S. Department of Energy TRNG-0061 Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This document has been reproduced directly from the best available copy. Available to DOE and DOE contractors from ES&H Technical Information Services, U.S. Department of Energy, (800) 473-4375, fax (301) 903-9823. Available to the public from the U.S. Department of Commerce, Technology Administration, National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161; (703) 605-6000. ii Radiological Safety Training for Plutonium Facilities DOE-HDBK-1145-2013 Program Management Foreword

227

Plutonium stabilization and handling (PuSH)  

SciTech Connect

This Functional Design Criteria (FDC) addresses construction of a Stabilization and Packaging System (SPS) to oxidize and package for long term storage remaining plutonium-bearing special nuclear materials currently in inventory at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP), and modification of vault equipment to allow storage of resulting packages of stabilized SNM for up to fifty years. The major sections of the project are: site preparation; SPS Procurement, Installation, and Testing; storage vault modification; and characterization equipment additions. The SPS will be procured as part of a Department of Energy nationwide common procurement. Specific design crit1460eria for the SPS have been extracted from that contract and are contained in an appendix to this document.

Weiss, E.V.

1997-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

228

STUDIES IN THE NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY OF PLUTONIUM, AMERICIUM, AND CURIUM AND MASSES OF THE HEAVIEST ELEMENTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nuclear Energy Series, Plutonium Project Record, Vol. 14B,Nuclear Energy Series, Plutonium Project Record, Vol. 9, p.Nuclear Energy Series, Plutonium Project Record, Vol. l4B,

Glass, Richard Alois

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

METHOD FOR RECOVERING PLUTONIUM VALUES FROM SOLUTION USING A BISMUTH HYDROXIDE CARRIER PRECIPITATE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Carrier precipitation processes for separating plutonium values from aqueous solutions are described. In accordance with the invention a bismuth hydroxide precipitate is formed in the plutonium-containing solution, thereby carrying plutonium values from the solution.

Faris, B.F.

1961-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

230

Complexation and redox interactions between aqueous plutonium and manganese oxide interfaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Chemistry of Plutonium (American Nuclear Society,XAS studies with sorbed plutonium on tuff,” J. Synch. Rad.state determination of plutonium aquo ions using x-ray

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence to Measure Plutonium Mass in Spent Nuclear Fuel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and S.J. Thompson,“Determining Plutonium in Spent Fuel withTobin, “Determination of Plutonium Content in Spent FuelFluorescence to Measure Plutonium Mass in Spent Nuclear Fuel

Ludewigt, Bernhard A

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

PLUTONIUM RELEASE INCIDENT OF NOVEMBER 20, 1959  

SciTech Connect

A nonnuclear explosion involving an evaporator occurred in a shielded cell in the Radiochemical Processing Pilot Plant at Oak Ridge National Laboratory on Nov. 20, 1959. Plutonium was released from the processing cell, probably as an aerosol of fine particles of plutonium oxide. It is probable that this evaporator system had accumulated -1100 g of nitric acid-insoluble plutonium in the steam stripper packing; the explosion released an estimated 150 g inside Cell 6, with about 135 g in the evaporator subcell, and about 15 g in the larger main cell. No radioactive material was released from the ventilation stacks; no contamination of grounds and facilities occurred outside of a relatively small area of OaK Ridge National Laboratory immediately adjacent to the explosion. No one was injured by the explosion, and no one received more than 2% of a lifetime body burden of plutonium or an overexposure to sources of ionizing radiation either at the time of the incident or daring subsequent cleanup operations. The explosion is considerdd to be the result of rapid reaction of nitrated organic compounds formed by the inadvertent nitration of about 14 liters of a proprietary decontaminating reagent. In cleanup the contamination was bonded to the nearby street and building surfaces with tar, paint, roofing compound, or masonry sealer, as appropriate to the surface. Decontamination of the interior of the pilot-plant building, except the processing cells, was 95% complete on Sept. 1, 1960. Decontamination of the processing cells was delayed 8 months until building modifications could be made to improve containment. Modifications to the pilot plant have been proposed which will preclude dischanges into the laboratory area and its environment of concentrations or amounts of radioactive materials that would be injurious to health or interfere with other laboratory programs. (auth)

King, L.J.; McCarley, W.T.

1961-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

233

Surplus Plutonium Disposition (SPD) Environmental Data Summary  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document provides an overview of existing environmental and ecological information at areas identified as potential locations of the Savannah River Site's (SRS) Surplus Plutonium Disposition (SPD) facilities. This information is required to document existing environmental and baseline conditions from which SPD construction and operation impacts can be defined. It will be used in developing the required preoperational monitoring plan to be used at specific SPD facilities construction sites.

Fledderman, P.D.

2000-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

234

Paper: Safeguards design for a plutonium concentrator  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper we consider the design of a nonlinear estimator to be used in conjunction with on-line detectors for a plutonium nitrate concentrator. Using a complex state-of-the-art process model to simulate 'realistic' data, we show that the estimator ... Keywords: (diversion detection), (nuclear safeguards), Kalman filter, decision theory, nonlinear filtering, nuclear plants, on-line operation, optimal filtering, state estimation

J. V. Candy; R. B. Rozsa

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Dose estimates of alternative plutonium pyrochemical processes.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have coupled our dose calculation tool Pandemonium with a discrete-event, object-oriented, process-modeling system ProMosO to analyze a set of alternatives for plutonium purification operations. The results follow expected trends and indicate, from a dose perspective, that an experimental flowsheet may warrant further research to see if it can be scaled to industrial levels. Flowsheets that include fluoride processes resulted in the largest doses.

Kornreich, D. E. (Drew E.); Jackson, J. W. (Joseph W.); Boerigter, S. T. (Stephen T.); Averill, W. A. (William A.); Fasel, J. H. (Joseph H.)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

MEANS FOR PRODUCING PLUTONIUM CHAIN REACTIONS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A neutronic reactor is described with an active portion capable of operating at an energy level of 0.5 to 1000 ev comprising discrete bodies of Pu/ sup 239/ disposed in a body of water which contains not more than 5 molecules of water to one atom of plutonium, the total amount of Pu/sup 239/ being sufficient to sustain a chain reaction. (auth)

Wigner, E.P.; Weinberg, A.M.

1961-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

237

SUSCEPTIBILIT MAGNTIQUE DE QUELQUES SULFURES ET OXYDES DE PLUTONIUM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

susceptibilite magnétique des sulfures de plutonium : PuS, Pu3S4, PU2S3CXI PuS2. Ces composes non conduc- teurs, semble-t-il, aussi pu3+. II. Prdparation des produits. - II.1. PURET� DES PRODUITS. - Le plutonium que'appuyant sur des mesures cristallographiques, que dans PuS2 et Pu2s3(x le plutonium ait la valence trois. Il

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

238

PLUTONIUM ISOTOPES I N THE NORTH ATLANTIC KEN 0. BUESSELER  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The a r t i f i c i a l radionuclide Plutonium (Pu) has been introduced i n t o the environment p r i m ~ : Dbis Recalculated from Core E Pu Data f o r D i f f e r e n t Input Years . 165 #12;CHAPTER 1 Plutonium environment. The main source of t h i s plutonium (Pu) i s atmospheric nuclear weapons t e s t i n g during

Buesseler, Ken

239

Spectral and Parametric Averaging for Integrable Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We analyze two theoretical approaches to ensemble averaging for integrable systems in quantum chaos - spectral averaging and parametric averaging. For spectral averaging, we introduce a new procedure - rescaled spectral averaging. Unlike traditional spectral averaging, it can describe the correlation function of spectral staircase and produce persistent oscillations of the interval level number variance. Parametric averaging, while not as accurate as rescaled spectral averaging for the correlation function of spectral staircase and interval level number variance, can also produce persistent oscillations of the global level number variance and better describes saturation level rigidity as a function of the running energy. Overall, it is the most reliable method for a wide range of statistics.

Tao Ma; R. A. Serota

2013-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

240

PLUTONIUM METALLIC FUELS FOR FAST REACTORS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Early interest in metallic plutonium fuels for fast reactors led to much research on plutonium alloy systems including binary solid solutions with the addition of aluminum, gallium, or zirconium and low-melting eutectic alloys with iron and nickel or cobalt. There was also interest in ternaries of these elements with plutonium and cerium. The solid solution and eutectic alloys have most unusual properties, including negative thermal expansion in some solid-solution alloys and the highest viscosity known for liquid metals in the Pu-Fe system. Although metallic fuels have many potential advantages over ceramic fuels, the early attempts were unsuccessful because these fuels suffered from high swelling rates during burn up and high smearing densities. The liquid metal fuels experienced excessive corrosion. Subsequent work on higher-melting U-PuZr metallic fuels was much more promising. In light of the recent rebirth of interest in fast reactors, we review some of the key properties of the early fuels and discuss the challenges presented by the ternary alloys.

STAN, MARIUS [Los Alamos National Laboratory; HECKER, SIEGFRIED S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2007-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "30-day average plutonium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

TRACKING SURPLUS PLUTONIUM FROM WEAPONS TO DISPOSITION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Supporting nuclear nonproliferation and global security principles, beginning in 1994 the United States has withdrawn more than 50 metric tons (MT) of government-controlled plutonium from potential use in nuclear weapons. The Department of Energy (DOE), including the National Nuclear Security Administration, established protocols for the tracking of this "excess" and "surplus" plutonium, and for reconciling the current storage and utilization of the plutonium to show that its management is consistent with the withdrawal policies. Programs are underway to ensure the safe and secure disposition of the materials that formed a major part of the weapons stockpile during the Cold War, and growing quantities have been disposed as waste, after which they are not included in traditional nuclear material control and accountability (NMC&A) data systems. A combination of resources is used to perform the reconciliations that form the basis for annual reporting to DOE, to U.S. Department of State, and to international partners including the International Atomic Energy Agency.

Allender, J.; Beams, J.; Sanders, K.; Myers, L.

2013-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

242

Ion exchange separation and mass spectrometric analysis of uranium for solutions containing plutonium  

SciTech Connect

An ion exchange technique separates plutonium from uranium using Dowex-1 resin and a methanol--HCl plutonium elutriant. The method is applicable to both trace uranium determination and uranium isotopic distribution analysis by mass spectrometry. Distribution coefficients for plutonium, and elution curves for uranium and plutonium are shown. For uranium analysis the percent relative standard deviation is 0.8 at 120-2400 micrograms uranium per gram plutonium and 5.0 at 5 micrograms uranium per gram plutonium. (auth)

McBride, K.C.

1975-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

METHOD OF OXIDIZING PLUTONIUM ION WITH BISMUTHATE ION  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is presented for oxidizing plutonium from the tetravalent state to the hexavalent state by means of bismuthate oxidizing agents.

Garner, C.S.

1959-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

244

President Truman Increases Production of Uranium and Plutonium | National  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Increases Production of Uranium and Plutonium | National Increases Production of Uranium and Plutonium | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Continuing Management Reform Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Us Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Media Room Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Speeches Events Social Media Video Gallery Photo Gallery NNSA Archive Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home > About Us > Our History > NNSA Timeline > President Truman Increases Production of Uranium and Plutonium President Truman Increases Production of Uranium and Plutonium October 09, 1950

245

K2: Microstructural Development of Plutonium Alloys via Cooling ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, K2: Microstructural Development of Plutonium Alloys via Cooling Curve ... to gain a better understanding of Pu microstructural development.

246

A Model Ceramic System for Plutonium Disposition - Programmaster ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As-Cast Microstructures in Alloys of U, Pu, and Zr with Minor Actinides (Np, Am) ... Irradiation Effects in Ceramics for Inert Matrix Fuel and Plutonium Disposition.

247

President Truman Increases Production of Uranium and Plutonium...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

content Facebook Flickr RSS Twitter YouTube President Truman Increases Production of Uranium and Plutonium | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the...

248

Characteristics and Stability of Oxide Films on Plutonium Surfaces.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The oxidation of plutonium (Pu) metal continues to be an area of considerable activity. The reaction characteristics have significant implications for production use, storage, and… (more)

García Flores, Harry Guillermo

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Determination of Plutonium Content in Spent Fuel with Nondestructive Assay  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Down Spectroscopy for Direct Pu Mass Measurements,” 8thof reasons for quantifying plutonium (Pu) in spent fuel suchas independently verifying the Pu content declared by a

Tobin, S. J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

President Truman Increases Production of Uranium and Plutonium...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Increases Production of Uranium and Plutonium | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy...

251

Hot Isostatic Pressing of Chlorine-Containing Plutonium Residues ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Some of the plutonium residues wastes at Sellafield contain ... Effect of Alloy Composition on the Environmental cracking of Nickel Alloys in ...

252

134 Process Development for the Immobilisation of Surplus Plutonium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using cerium as a plutonium surrogate, a systematic study of processing conditions has ... 001 A Tem Study of Cobalt-Base Alloy Prototypes with Controlled ...

253

Plutonium Certified Reference Materials Price List | U.S. DOE...  

Office of Science (SC) Website

Plutonium Certified Reference Materials Price List New Brunswick Laboratory (NBL) NBL Home About Programs Certified Reference Materials Prices and Certificates Ordering Information...

254

Criticality Safety Information Meeting for the Hanford Plutonium...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Evaluations Activity Report for Criticality Safety Information Meeting for the Plutonium Finishing Plant Dates of Activity : May 14, 2012 Report Preparer: Ivon Fergus...

255

Chapter 5 -- Experiments with Plutonium, Uranium, and Polonium  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

5: Experiments With Plutonium, Uranium, and Polonium Introduction The Manhattan District Experiments The AEC's Reaction: Preserving Secrecy while Requiring Disclosure Human...

256

Supplement Analysis For Disposal of Certain Rocky Flats Plutonium...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of plutonium that will actually be repackaged at RFETS. With regard to the most severe accident scenario, an earthquake, the impacts would be greater than predicted in the...

257

Magnetic separation as a plutonium residue enrichment process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have subjected several plutonium contaminated residues to Open Gradient Magnetic Separation (OGMS) on an experimental scale. Separation of graphite, bomb reduction sand, and bomb reduction sand, and bomb reduction sand, slag, and crucible, resulted in a plutonium rich fraction and a plutonium lean fraction. The lean fraction varied between about 20% to 85% of the feed bulk. The plutonium content of the lean fraction can be reduced from about 2% in the feed to the 0.1% to 0.5% range dependent on the portion of the feed rejected to this lean fraction. These values are low enough in plutonium to meet economic discard limits and be considered for direct discard. Magnetic separation of direct oxide reduction and electrorefining pyrochemical salts gave less favorable results. While a fraction very rich in plutonium could be obtained, the plutonium content of the lean fraction was to high for direct discard. This may still have chemical processing applications. OGMS experiments at low magnetic field strength on incinerator ash did give two fractions but the plutonium content of each fraction was essentially identical. Thus, no chemical processing advantage was identified for magnetic separation of this residue. The detailed results of these experiments and the implications for OGMS use in recycle plutonium processing are discussed. 4 refs., 3 figs., 9 tabs.

Avens, L.R.; McFarlan, J.T.; Gallegos, U.F.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Rare Earth and Plutonium Doping of Apatite - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Rare Earth and Plutonium Doping of Apatite ... Influence of Cation Composition and Temperature on the Solubility and Oxidation State of Ce  ...

259

Elimination of Weapons-Grade Plutonium Production | National...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Elimination of Weapons-Grade Plutonium Production | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy...

260

Evaluation of Plutonium Hemisphere Critical Experiments Partially Reflected by Steel and Oil  

SciTech Connect

A series of 15 critical experiments performed at the Rocky Flats Critical Mass Laboratory in the late 1960s were evaluated and then determined to represent acceptable benchmark experiments for the validation of calculational methods. This series of experiments was part of a larger set of experiments performed to evaluate operational safety margins at the Rocky Flats Plant. The experiments consisted of bare plutonium metal hemishells reflected by steel hemishells of increasing thickness and motor oil. The hemishell assembly was suspended within dual aluminum tanks. Criticality was achieved by pumping oil into the tanks such that effectively infinite reflection was achieved in all directions except directly above the assembly; then the critical oil height was recorded. The results of these experiments had been initially ignored because early computational methods had been inadequate to analyze partially-reflected configurations. The dominant uncertainties include the uncertainty in the average plutonium density and the composition of materials in the gaps between the plutonium hemishells. Simple and detailed benchmark models were developed. Eigenvalue calculations using MCNP5 and ENDF/B-VII.0 were within 2s of the benchmark values. This benchmark evaluation has been added to the ICSBEP Handbook.

John D. Bess

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "30-day average plutonium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

THE PLUTONIUM AEROSOL MONITORING PROGRAM AT ANL-IDAHO FACILITIES  

SciTech Connect

The physical and radiation characteristics of plutonium aerosols are reviewed briefly. A number of detecting and sampling devices and techniques are discussed for application to plutonium aerosols under conditions of reactor operations. The monitoring program and the Pu-fueled reactors at ANL-Idaho are described. (D.L.C.)

Stoddart, P.G.

1963-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

COMPLEX FLUORIDES OF PLUTONIUM AND AN ALKALI METAL  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is given for precipitating alkali metal plutonium fluorides. such as KPuF/sub 5/, KPu/sub 2/F/sub 9/, NaPuF/sub 5/, and RbPuF/sub 5/, from an aqueous plutonium(IV) solution by adding hydrogen fluoride and alkali-metal- fluoride.

Seaborg, G.T.

1960-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Processing of Non-PFP Plutonium Oxide in Hanford Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Processing of non-irradiated plutonium oxide, PuO2, scrap for recovery of plutonium values occurred routinely at Hanford’s Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) in glovebox line operations. Plutonium oxide is difficult to dissolve, particularly if it has been high-fired; i.e., calcined to temperatures above about 400°C and much of it was. Dissolution of the PuO2 in the scrap typically was performed in PFP’s Miscellaneous Treatment line using nitric acid (HNO3) containing some source of fluoride ion, F-, such as hydrofluoric acid (HF), sodium fluoride (NaF), or calcium fluoride (CaF2). The HNO3 concentration generally was 6 M or higher whereas the fluoride concentration was ~0.5 M or lower. At higher fluoride concentrations, plutonium fluoride (PuF4) would precipitate, thus limiting the plutonium dissolution. Some plutonium-bearing scrap also contained PuF4 and thus required no added fluoride. Once the plutonium scrap was dissolved, the excess fluoride was complexed with aluminum ion, Al3+, added as aluminum nitrate, Al(NO3)3•9H2O, to limit collateral damage to the process equipment by the corrosive fluoride. Aluminum nitrate also was added in low quantities in processing PuF4.

Jones, Susan A.; Delegard, Calvin H.

2011-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

264

PRECIPITATION METHOD OF SEPARATING PLUTONIUM FROM CONTAMINATING ELEMENTS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

S>A method is described for separating plutonium, in a valence state of less than five, from an aqueous solution in which it is dissolved. The niethod consists in adding potassium and sulfate ions to such a solution while maintaining the solution at a pH of less than 7.1, and isolating the precipitate of potassium plutonium sulfate thus formed.

Duffield, R.B.

1959-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

265

Recommended plutonium release fractions from postulated fires. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report was written at the request of EG&G Rocky Flats, Inc. in support of joint emergency planning for the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) by EG&G and the State of Colorado. The intent of the report is to provide the State of Colorado with an independent assessment of any respirable plutonium releases that might occur in the event of a severe fire at the plant. Fire releases of plutonium are of interest because they have been used by EG&G to determine the RFP emergency planning zones. These zones are based on the maximum credible accident (MCA) described in the RFP Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) of 1980, that MCA is assumed to be a large airplane crashing into a RFP plutonium building.The objective of this report was first, to perform a worldwide literature review of relevant release experiments from 1960 to the present and to summarize those findings, and second, to provide recommendations for application of the experimental data to fire release analyses at Rocky Flats. The latter step requires translation between experimental and expected RFP accident parameters, or ``scaling.`` The parameters of particular concern are: quantities of material, environmental parameters such as the intensity of a fire, and the physico-chemical forms of the plutonium. The latter include plutonium metal, bulk plutonium oxide powder, combustible and noncombustible wastes contaminated with plutonium oxide powder, and residues from plutonium extraction processes.

Kogan, V.; Schumacher, P.M.

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

METHOD FOR OBTAINING PLUTONIUM METAL FROM ITS TRICHLORIDE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method was developed for obtaining plutonium metal by direct reduction of plutonium chloride, without the use of a booster, using calcium and lanthamum as a reductant, the said reduction being carried out at temperature in the range of 700 to 850 deg C and at about atmospheric pressure. (AEC)

Reavis, J.G.; Leary, J.A.; Maraman, W.J.

1962-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

267

Fuel bundle design for enhanced usage of plutonium fuel  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A nuclear fuel bundle includes a square array of fuel rods each having a concentration of enriched uranium and plutonium. Each rod of an interior array of the rods also has a concentration of gadolinium. The interior array of rods is surrounded by an exterior array of rods void of gadolinium. By this design, usage of plutonium in the nuclear reactor is enhanced.

Reese, Anthony P. (San Jose, CA); Stachowski, Russell E. (Fremont, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM FROM URANIUM AND FISSION PRODUCTS BY ADSORPTION  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is presented for the separation of plutonium from solutions containing that element in a valence state not higher than 41 together with uranium ions and fission products. This separation is accomplished by contacting the solutions with diatomaceous earth which preferentially adsorbs the plutonium present. Also mentioned as effective for this adsorbtive separation are silica gel, filler's earth and alumina.

Seaborg, G.T.; Willard, J.E.

1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Removal of plutonium and americium from alkaline waste solutions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

High salt content, alkaline waste solutions containing plutonium and americium are contacted with a sodium titanate compound to effect removal of the plutonium and americium from the alkaline waste solution onto the sodium titanate and provide an effluent having a radiation level of less than 10 nCi per gram alpha emitters.

Schulz, Wallace W. (Richland, WA)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Final Environmental Impact Statement - Plutonium Finishing Plant Stabilization, May 1996  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

- Plutonium Finishing Plant Stabilization, May 1996 - Plutonium Finishing Plant Stabilization, May 1996 file:///I|/Data%20Migration%20Task/EIS-0244-FEIS-1996/eis0244f_1.html[6/27/2011 2:33:34 PM] 1.0 INTRODUCTION This Introduction contains the following information: Background of the Plutonium Finishing Plant Facility Scope of this Environmental Impact Statement Contents of this Environmental Impact Statement The presence of significant quantities of plutonium-bearing materials in the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Facility, Hanford Site, Washington, poses unacceptable risks to workers, the public, and the environment. On October 24, 1994, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) announced, in an initial mailing to 1,500 interested parties, its intent to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) pursuant to the National

271

Plutonium isotopic analysis of highly enriched mixed oxides  

SciTech Connect

We investigated the analysis method used by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to determine the plutonium isotopic composition of highly enriched mixed oxides (MOX). The IAEA currently uses the Cicero multichannel analyzer and the IAEAPU algorithm for its analysis. In our investigation the plutonium isotopic measurements were found to be good for PuO/sub 2/ powder or low-enriched MOX, but acceptable for highly enriched MOX in IAEA special nuclear material (SNM) accountability applications. The gamma-ray interferences from /sup 235/U resulted in underestimation of the isotopic composition of /sup 239/Pu and overestimation of all other plutonium isotopes. Samples with high /sup 240/Pu content were found to have significantly higher error in plutonium isotopic analyses of highly enriched MOX. Code modifications or use of calibration curves are necessary for plutonium isotopic analyses of highly enriched MOX in IAEA SNM accountability applications.

Clement, S.D.; Augustson, R.H.

1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Independent Activity Report, Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant - May 2012 |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant - Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant - May 2012 Independent Activity Report, Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant - May 2012 May 2012 Criticality Safety Information Meeting for the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant [HIAR-RL-2012-05-14] The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Enforcement and Oversight, within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS), conducted a criticality safety information meeting with Hanford site criticality safety engineers on May 14, 2012, to discuss criticality safety issues and experiences principally with respect to the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) activities at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). These discussions also included aspects of Non-Destructive Assay (NDA) in support of criticality safety evaluations.

273

SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM VALUES FROM URANIUM AND FISSION PRODUCT VALUES  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Separation of plutonium present in small amounts from neutron irradiated uranium by making use of the phenomenon of chemisorption is described. Plutonium in the tetravalent state is chemically absorbed on a fluoride in solid form. The steps for the separation comprise dissolving the irradiated uranium in nitric acid, oxidizing the plutonium in the resulting solution to the hexavalent state, adding to the solution a soluble calcium salt which by the common ion effect inhibits dissolution of the fluoride by the solution, passing the solution through a bed or column of subdivided calcium fluoride which has been sintered to about 8OO deg C to remove the chemisorbable fission products, reducing the plutonium in the solution thus obtained to the tetravalent state, and again passing the solution through a similar bed or column of calcium fluoride to selectively absorb the plutonium, which may then be recovered by treating the calcium fluoride with a solution of ammonium oxalate.

Maddock, A.G.; Booth, A.H.

1960-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

274

Matrix Effects on Radiolytic Gas Generation in Plutonium Residues  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Transportation of plutonium bearing materials requires a shipping package that has been rigorously tested to withstand normal and accident conditions. Plutonium bearing materials can contribute to package internal pressure by producing heat and gases from chemical and radiochemical reactions. Of particular concern is the production of hydrogen gas from the radiolysis of moisture, which can result in flammable gas mixtures within the shipping package. Estimating the gas generation rates for plutonium residues is complicated by the large variability of material composition and process origin. In February 1999, the Savannah River Technology Center established a gas generation test program to support transportation of plutonium residue materials. The initial efforts of this program have focused on evaluation of residues identified as Sand, Slag, and Crucible (SS and C) generated as a byproduct of plutonium metal production.

Livingston, R.

1999-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

275

BASIC PEROXIDE PRECIPITATION METHOD OF SEPARATING PLUTONIUM FROM CONTAMINANTS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for the separation from each other of uranyl values, tetravalent plutonium values and fission products contained in an aqueous acidic solution. First the pH of the solution is adjusted to between 2.5 and 8 and hydrogen peroxide is then added to the solution causing precipitation of uranium peroxide which carries any plutonium values present, while the fission products remain in solution. Separation of the uranium and plutonium values is then effected by dissolving the peroxide precipitate in an acidic solution and incorporating a second carrier precipitate, selective for plutonium. The plutonium values are thus carried from the solution while the uranium remains flissolved. The second carrier precipitate may be selected from among the group consisting of rare earth fluorides, and oxalates, zirconium phosphate, and bismuth lihosphate.

Seaborg, G.T.; Perlman, I.

1959-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

276

PROCESS FOR PRODUCTION OF PLUTONIUM FROM ITS OXIDES  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for obtaining a carbide of plutonium and two methods for obtaining plutonium metal from its oxides. One of the latter involves heating the oxide, in particular PuO/sub 2/, to a temperature of 1200 to 1500 deg C with the stoichiometrical amount of carbon to fornn CO in a hard vacuum (3 to 10 microns Hg), the reduced and vaporized plutonium being collected on a condensing surface above the reaction crucible. When an excess of carbon is used with the PuO/sub 2/, a carbide of plutonium is formed at a crucible temperature of 1400 to 1500 deg C. The process may be halted and the carbide removed, or the reaction temperature can be increased to 1900 to 2100 deg C at the same low pressure to dissociate the carbide, in which case the plutonium is distilled out and collected on the same condensing surface.

Weissman, S.I.; Perlman, M.L.; Lipkin, D.

1959-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

277

Applications of molten salts in plutonium processing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Plutonium is efficiently recovered from scrap at Los Alamos by a series of chemical reactions and separations conducted at temperatures ranging from 700 to 900/sup 0/C. These processes usually employ a molten salt or salt eutectic as a heat sink and/or reaction medium. Salts for these operations were selected early in the development cycle. The selection criteria are being reevaluated. In this article we describe the processes now in use at Los Alamos and our studies of alternate salts and eutectics.

Bowersox, D.F.; Christensen, D.C.; Williams, J.D.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Plutonium Oxication State Transformations and Their Consequence on Plutonium Transport through Sediment During an 11-year Field Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Savannah River Site (SRS) contains a large inventory of plutonium (Pu), some of it in the form of Low-Level Waste (LLW). Much of this LLW has been or will be disposed at the E Area LLW Facility. As part of the permitting of LLW on-site disposal, SRS is required to periodically update the Performance Assessment calculations used in part to establish the facility specific amount of waste that can be safely disposed (or establish the Waste Acceptance Criteria). The objective of this project was to determine if a recent discovered change in plutonium chemistry (i.e., oxidation of PuO2, a common form of Pu waste, may form plutonium in the more mobile hexavalent form) was within the assumptions, parameters, and bases of the approved Performance Assessment WSRC (2000) and Composite Assessment, WSRC (1997). This project was initiated in 2001, and this is the final report describing laboratory and lysimeter (field) studies. Results from this year's work provided additional technical support f or the conceptual Pu geochemical model proposed for future risk-based calculations. When lysimeters containing Pu(III) or Pu(IV) were left exposed to the natural environment for 11 years, essentially all of the sediment-bound Pu existed as Pu(IV) and possibly Pu(III), the least mobile forms of Pu. This result was confirmed by two independent measurements, a very sensitive, indirect wet-chemistry method and a less-sensitive, direct spectroscopic technique, micro-X-ray adsorption near-edge structure (micro-XANES) spectroscopy. In these lysimeters, Pu sediment concentrations decreased on average an order-of-magnitude per centimeter for the first 5 cm below the source, an astounding rate of contaminant retardation. When Pu(VI), the more mobile form, may form from PuO2, was added to the lysimeters, the Pu moved faster than it had in the other lysimeters: Pu moving on average 12.5 cm/yr in the Pu(VI) lysimeter, compared to 0.9 cm/yr in the Pu(III) and Pu(IV) lysimeters. Importantly, transport modeling of the data clearly suggested that reduction of the original Pu(VI) occurred,thus most of the transport of the Pu in the lysimeter must have progressed during the early portion of the study, prior to the sediment-induced reduction of Pu(VI). When Pu(V) was added to the lysimeter sediment in a laboratory study, the Pu(V) quickly reduced to Pu(IV) within a couple days. These data together with those from previous reports for this project conclusively show that Pu, irrespective of the form it is introduced into SRS sediments, tends to convert rapidly to the plus 4, and possible plus 3, oxidation state, the least mobile form of Pu.

KAPLAN, DANIEL

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

279

Thermal Stability Studies of Candidate Decontamination Agents for Hanford’s Plutonium Finishing Plant Plutonium-Contaminated Gloveboxes  

SciTech Connect

This report provides the results of PNNL's and Fluor's studies of the thermal stabilities of potential wastes arising from decontamination of Hanford's Plutonium Finishing Plant's plutonium contaminated gloveboxes. The candidate wastes arising from the decontamination technologies ceric nitrate/nitric acid, RadPro, Glygel, and Aspigel.

Scheele, Randall D.; Cooper, Thurman D.; Jones, Susan A.; Ewalt, John R.; Compton, James A.; Trent, Donald S.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; Scott, Paul A.; Minette, Michael J.

2005-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

280

Management of disused plutonium sealed sources  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Global Threat Reduction Initiative's (GTRI) Offsite Source Recovery Project (OSRP) has been recovering excess and unwanted radioactive sealed sources since 1999, including more than 2,400 Plutonium (Pu)-238 sealed sources and 653 Pu-239-bearing sources that represent more than 10% of the total sources recovered by GTRI/OSRP to date. These sources have been recovered from hundreds of sites within the United States (US) and around the world. OSRP grew out of early efforts at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to recover and disposition excess Plutonium-239 (Pu-239) sealed sources that were distributed in the 1960s and 1970s under the Atoms for Peace Program, a loan-lease program that serviced 31 countries, as well as domestic users. In the conduct of these recovery operations, GTRI/OSRP has been required to solve problems related to knowledge-of-inventory, packaging and transportation of fissile and heat-source materials, transfer of ownership, storage of special nuclear material (SNM) both at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities and commercially, and disposal. Unique issues associated with repatriation from foreign countries, including end user agreements required by some European countries and denials of shipment, will also be discussed.

Whitworth, Julia Rose [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pearson, Michael W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Abeyta, Cristy [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "30-day average plutonium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Co-Design: Fabrication of Unalloyed Plutonium  

SciTech Connect

The successful induction casting of plutonium is a challenge which requires technical expertise in areas including physical metallurgy, surface and corrosion chemistry, materials science, electromagnetic engineering and a host of other technologies all which must be applied in concert. Here at LANL, we are employing a combined experimental and computational approach to design molds and develop process parameters needed to produce desired temperature profiles and improved castings. Computer simulations are performed using the commercial code FLOW-3D and the LANL ASC computer code TRUCHAS to reproduce the entire casting process starting with electromagnetic or radiative heating of the mold and metal and continuing through pouring with coupled fluid flow, heat transfer and non-isothermal solidification. This approach greatly reduces the time required to develop a new casting designs and also increases our understanding of the casting process, leading to a more homogeneous, consistent product and better process control. We will discuss recent casting development results in support of unalloyed plutonium rods for mechanical testing.

Korzekwa, Deniece R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Knapp, Cameron M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Korzekwa, David A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gibbs, John W [Northwestern University

2012-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

282

Global estimation of potential unreported plutonium in thermal research reactors  

SciTech Connect

As of November, 1993, 303 research reactors (research, test, training, prototype, and electricity producing) were operational worldwide; 155 of these were in non-nuclear weapon states. Of these 155 research reactors, 80 are thermal reactors that have a power rating of 1 MW(th) or greater and could be utilized to produce plutonium. A previously published study on the unreported plutonium production of six research reactors indicates that a minimum reactor power of 40 MW (th) is required to make a significant quantity (SQ), 8 kg, of fissile plutonium per year by unreported irradiations. As part of the Global Nuclear Material Control Model effort, we determined an upper bound on the maximum possible quantity of plutonium that could be produced by the 80 thermal research reactors in the non-nuclear weapon states (NNWS). We estimate that in one year a maximum of roughly one quarter of a metric ton (250 kg) of plutonium could be produced in these 80 NNWS thermal research reactors based on their reported power output. We have calculated the quantity of plutonium and the number of years that would be required to produce an SQ of plutonium in the 80 thermal research reactors and aggregated by NNWS. A safeguards approach for multiple thermal research reactors that can produce less than 1 SQ per year should be conducted in association with further developing a safeguards and design information reverification approach for states that have multiple research reactors.

Dreicer, J.S.; Rutherford, D.A.

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Plutonium recovery from spent reactor fuel by uranium displacement  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for separating uranium values and transuranic values from fission products containing rare earth values when the values are contained together in a molten chloride salt electrolyte. A molten chloride salt electrolyte with a first ratio of plutonium chloride to uranium chloride is contacted with both a solid cathode and an anode having values of uranium and fission products including plutonium. A voltage is applied across the anode and cathode electrolytically to transfer uranium and plutonium from the anode to the electrolyte while uranium values in the electrolyte electrolytically deposit as uranium metal on the solid cathode in an amount equal to the uranium and plutonium transferred from the anode causing the electrolyte to have a second ratio of plutonium chloride to uranium chloride. Then the solid cathode with the uranium metal deposited thereon is removed and molten cadmium having uranium dissolved therein is brought into contact with the electrolyte resulting in chemical transfer of plutonium values from the electrolyte to the molten cadmium and transfer of uranium values from the molten cadmium to the electrolyte until the first ratio of plutonium chloride to uranium chloride is reestablished.

Ackerman, John P. (Downers Grove, IL)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Plutonium recovery from spent reactor fuel by uranium displacement  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This report discusses a process for separating uranium values and transuranic values from fission products containing rare earth values when the values which are contained together in a molten chloride salt electrolyte. A molten chloride salt electrolyte with a first ratio of plutonium chloride to uranium chloride is contacted with both a solid cathode and an anode having values of uranium and fission products including plutonium. A voltage is applied across the anode and cathode electrolytically to transfer uranium and plutonium from the anode to the electrolyte while uranium values in the electrolyte electrolytically deposit as uranium metal on the solid cathode in an amount equal to the uranium and plutonium transferred from the anode causing the electrolyte to have a second ratio of plutonium chloride to uranium chloride. Then the solid cathode with the uranium metal deposited thereon is removed and molten cadmium having uranium dissolved therein is brought into contact with the electrolyte resulting in chemical transfer of plutonium values from the electrolyte to the molten cadmium and transfer of uranium values from the molten cadmium to the electrolyte until the first ratio of plutonium chloride to uranium chloride is re-established.

Ackerman, J.P.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

How much plutonium does North Korea really have?  

SciTech Connect

In a previous study, as part of the Global Nuclear Material Control Model effort, the author estimated the maximum quantity of plutonium that could be produced in thermal research reactors in the potential nuclear weapon states (including North Korea), based on their declared power level. D. Albright has estimated the amount of plutonium the North Koreans may have produced since 1986 in the 5-megawatt-electric power reactor at Yongbon. Albright provided an upper-bound estimate of 53 kilograms of weapon-grade plutonium produced cumulatively if the gas-graphite (magnox) reactor had achieved a load factor of 0.80. This cumulative estimate of 53 kilograms ignores the potential plutonium production in the 8-megawatt-thermal research reactor, IRT-DPRK. To better quantify the cumulative North Korean production, the author conducted a study to estimate the amount of plutonium that could have been produced in the IRT-DPRK research reactor operating at the declared power level during the entire period it has operated, including a period it was not safeguarded. The author estimates that, at most, an additional 6 to 33 kilograms of plutonium could have been produced cumulatively in the research reactor operating at the declared power level during the entire period it has operated, including a 12-year period it was not safeguarded, resulting in a total of 13 to 47 kilograms of plutonium possibly produced in both the research and power reactors.

Dreicer, J.S.

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Plutonium immobilization plant using glass in existing facilities at the Savannah River Site  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP) accepts plutonium (Pu) from pit conversion and from non-pit sources and, through a glass immobilization process, converts the plutonium into an immobilized form that can be disposed of in a high level waste (HLW) repository. The objective is to make an immobilized form, suitable for geologic disposal, in which the plutonium is as inherently unattractive and inaccessible as the plutonium in spent fuel from commercial reactors.

DiSabatino, A., LLNL

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Description and procedures for synchrotron radiation, small molecule, single crystal crystallography of plutonium complexes at ALS beamline 11.3.1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Crystallography of Plutonium Complexes at ALS Beamlineof the Structural Parameters of Plutonium Complexes by Smallpreparation and growth of the plutonium complexes (crystals)

Gorden, A.E.V.; Raymond, K.N.; Shuh, D.K.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Plutonium and tritium produced in the Hanford Site production reactors  

SciTech Connect

In a news release on December 7, 1993, the Secretary of Energy announced declassification action that included totals for plutonium and tritium production in the Hanford Site production reactors. This information was reported as being preliminary because it was not fully supported by documentation. Subsequently, production data were made available from the US Department of Energy-Headquarters (DOE-HQ) records that indicated an increase of about one and one-half metric tons in total plutonium production. The Westinghouse Hanford Company was tasked by the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office to substantiate production figures and DOE-HQ data and to provide a defensible report of weapons- (6 wt% {sup 240}Pu) and nonweapons- (fuels-)grade (nominally 9 wt% or higher {sup 240}Pu) plutonium and tritium production in the Hanford Site production reactors. The task was divided into three parts. The first part was to determine plutonium and tritium production based on available reported accountability records. The second part was to determine plutonium production independently by calculational checks based on reactor thermal power generation and plutonium conversion factors representing the various reactor fuels. The third part was to resolve differences, if they occurred, in the reported and calculational results. In summary, the DOE-HQ-reported accountability records of plutonium and tritium production were determined to be the most defensible record of Hanford Site reactor production. The DOE-HQ records were consistently supported by the independent calculational checks and the records of operational data. Total production quantities are 67.4 MT total plutonium, which includes 12.9 MT of nonweapons-grade plutonium. The total tritium production was 10.6 kg.

Roblyer, S.P.

1994-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

289

Plutonium dissolution from Rocky Flats Plant incinerator ash  

SciTech Connect

Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell) soon will commence recovery of plutonium from Rocky Flats Plant incinerator ash. In preparation for this processing, Rockwell undertook literature and laboratory studies to identify, select and optimize plutonium dissolution methods for treating the ash. Ash reburning, followed by dissolution in nitric acid containing calcium fluoride, was selected as the processing method for the ash. Recommended values of process parameters were identified. Using the selected process, 99.5% plutonium recovery was achieved, leaving about 12.7 wt % heel residue for an equal weight composite of the three ashes tested. 15 refs., 26 figs.

Delegard, C.H.

1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Theory of Antineutrino Monitoring of Burning MOX Plutonium Fuels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This letter presents the physics and feasibility of reactor antineutrino monitoring to verify the burnup of plutonium loaded in the reactor as a Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel. It examines the magnitude and temporal variation in the antineutrino signals expected for different MOX fuels, for the purposes of nuclear accountability and safeguards. The antineutrino signals from reactor-grade and weapons-grade MOX are shown to be distinct from those from burning low enriched uranium. Thus, antineutrino monitoring could be used to verify the destruction of plutonium in reactors, though verifying the grade of the plutonium being burned is found to be more challenging.

Hayes, A C; Nieto, Michael Martin; WIlson, W B

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Safety aspects of Particle Bed Reactor plutonium burner system  

SciTech Connect

An assessment is made of the safety aspects peculiar to using the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) as the burner in a plutonium disposal system. It is found that a combination of the graphitic fuel, high power density possible with the PBR and engineered design features results in an attractive concept. The high power density potentially makes it possible to complete the plutonium burning without requiring reprocessing and remanufacturing fuel. This possibility removes two hazardous steps from a plutonium burning complex. Finally, two backup cooling systems depending on thermo-electric converters and heat pipes act as ultimate heat removal sinks in the event of accident scenarios which result in loss of fuel cooling.

Powell, J.R.; Ludewig, H.; Todosow, M.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Decision model for evaluating reactor disposition of excess plutonium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy is currently considering a range of technologies for disposition of excess weapon plutonium. Use of plutonium fuel in fission reactors to generate spent fuel is one class of technology options. This report describes the inputs and results of decision analyses conducted to evaluate four evolutionary/advanced and three existing fission reactor designs for plutonium disposition. The evaluation incorporates multiple objectives or decision criteria, and accounts for uncertainty. The purpose of the study is to identify important and discriminating decision criteria, and to identify combinations of value judgments and assumptions that tend to favor one reactor design over another.

Edmunds, T.

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Spiked Alloy Production for Accelerated Aging of Plutonium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The accelerated aging effects on weapons grade plutonium alloys are being studied using {sup 238}Pu-enriched plutonium metal to increase the rate of formation of defect structures. Pyrochemical processing methods have been used to produce two {sup 238}Pu-spiked plutonium alloys with nominal compositions of 7.5 wt% {sup 238}Pu. Processes used in the preparation of the alloys include direct oxide reduction of PuO{sub 2} with calcium and electrorefining. Rolled disks were prepared from the spiked alloys for sampling. Test specimens were cut out of the disks for physical property measurements.

Wilk, P A; McNeese, J A; Dodson, K E; Williams, W L; Krikorian, O H; Blau, M S; Schmitz, J E; Bajao, F G; Mew, D A; Matz, T E; Torres, R A; Holck, D M; Moody, K J; Kenneally, J M

2009-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

294

METHOD AND MEANS FOR ELECTROLYTIC PURIFICATION OF PLUTONIUM  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The technique of electrodepositing pure plutonium from a fused salt electrolyte of PuCl/sub 3/ and aixati metal halides is described. When an iron cathode is used, the plutonium deposit alloys therewith in the liquid state at the 400 to 600 deg C operating temperature, such liquid being allowed to drip through holes in the cathode and collect in a massive state in a tantallum cup. The process is adaptable to continuous processing by the use of depleted plutonium fuel as the anode: good to excellent separation from fission products is obtained with a Pu--Fe "fission" anode containing representative fractions of Ce, Ru, Zr, La, Mo, and Nb.

Bjorklund, C.W.; Benz, R.; Maraman, W.J.; Leary, J.A.; Walsh, K.A.

1960-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Strategies for denaturing the weapons-grade plutonium stockpile  

SciTech Connect

In the next few years, approximately 50 metric tons of weapons-grade plutonium and 150 metric tons of highly-enriched uranium (HEU) may be removed from nuclear weapons in the US and declared excess. These materials represent a significant energy resource that could substantially contribute to our national energy requirements. HEU can be used as fuel in naval reactors, or diluted with depleted uranium for use as fuel in commercial reactors. This paper proposes to use the weapons-grade plutonium as fuel in light water reactors. The first such reactor would demonstrate the dual objectives of producing electrical power and denaturing the plutonium to prevent use in nuclear weapons.

Buckner, M.R.; Parks, P.B.

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Theory of Antineutrino Monitoring of Burning MOX Plutonium Fuels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This letter presents the physics and feasibility of reactor antineutrino monitoring to verify the burnup of plutonium loaded in the reactor as a Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel. It examines the magnitude and temporal variation in the antineutrino signals expected for different MOX fuels, for the purposes of nuclear accountability and safeguards. The antineutrino signals from reactor-grade and weapons-grade MOX are shown to be distinct from those from burning low enriched uranium. Thus, antineutrino monitoring could be used to verify the destruction of plutonium in reactors, though verifying the grade of the plutonium being burned is found to be more challenging.

A. C. Hayes; H. R. Trellue; Michael Martin Nieto; W. B. WIlson

2011-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

297

Optimization Online - String-Averaging Projected Subgradient ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Aug 29, 2013 ... Optimization Online. String-Averaging Projected Subgradient Methods for Constrained Minimization. Yair Censor(yair ***at*** math.haifa.ac.il)

298

Average Stock Levels: Crude Market & Propane  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

This graph shows that propane was not alone in experiencing excess supply in 1998 and extraordinary stock builds. Note that the graph shows average stock levels ...

299

Gas Generation Testing of Plutonium Dioxide  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrogen and oxygen gas generation rates were measured for purified plutonium oxide (PuO2) powder as a function of water content, specific surface area (SSA), dose rate, and initial fill gas composition. Gas generation rates were found to increase with water content and dose rate and to decrease with specific surface area for given water content. Hydrogen generation rates were similar in air, nitrogen and argon, but oxygen generation rates were greater in nitrogen and argon than in air. The potential for reaching a steady state container pressure for PuO2 of given calcination temperature (i.e., SSA) and water content was evaluated by adding hydrogen to some test vessels and monitoring the effect on container pressure over time

Duffey, J.M.

2002-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

300

Dynamic Multiscale Averaging (DMA) of Turbulent Flow  

SciTech Connect

A new approach called dynamic multiscale averaging (DMA) for computing the effects of turbulent flow is described. The new method encompasses multiple applications of temporal and spatial averaging, that is, multiscale operations. Initially, a direct numerical simulation (DNS) is performed for a relatively short time; it is envisioned that this short time should be long enough to capture several fluctuating time periods of the smallest scales. The flow field variables are subject to running time averaging during the DNS. After the relatively short time, the time-averaged variables are volume averaged onto a coarser grid. Both time and volume averaging of the describing equations generate correlations in the averaged equations. These correlations are computed from the flow field and added as source terms to the computation on the next coarser mesh. They represent coupling between the two adjacent scales. Since they are computed directly from first principles, there is no modeling involved. However, there is approximation involved in the coupling correlations as the flow field has been computed for only a relatively short time. After the time and spatial averaging operations are applied at a given stage, new computations are performed on the next coarser mesh using a larger time step. The process continues until the coarsest scale needed is reached. New correlations are created for each averaging procedure. The number of averaging operations needed is expected to be problem dependent. The new DMA approach is applied to a relatively low Reynolds number flow in a square duct segment. Time-averaged stream-wise velocity and vorticity contours from the DMA approach appear to be very similar to a full DNS for a similar flow reported in the literature. Expected symmetry for the final results is produced for the DMA method. The results obtained indicate that DMA holds significant potential in being able to accurately compute turbulent flow without modeling for practical engineering applications.

Richard W. Johnson

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "30-day average plutonium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Hanford, WA Selected as Plutonium Production Facility | National Nuclear  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Hanford, WA Selected as Plutonium Production Facility | National Nuclear Hanford, WA Selected as Plutonium Production Facility | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Continuing Management Reform Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Us Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Media Room Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Speeches Events Social Media Video Gallery Photo Gallery NNSA Archive Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home > About Us > Our History > NNSA Timeline > Hanford, WA Selected as Plutonium Production Facility Hanford, WA Selected as Plutonium Production Facility January 16, 1943 Hanford, WA

302

Workers Complete Demolition of Hanford's Historic Plutonium Vaults |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Workers Complete Demolition of Hanford's Historic Plutonium Workers Complete Demolition of Hanford's Historic Plutonium Vaults Workers Complete Demolition of Hanford's Historic Plutonium Vaults April 1, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis RICHLAND, Wash. - The Richland Operations Office and contractor CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company this month completed demolition of a large plutonium vault complex, formerly one of the highest security facilities at the Hanford site. "This project was a joint safety success between our workers who spent months cleaning out the facilities, the demolition crews who tore the buildings down and the crews who helped remove the waste for disposal. It took teamwork and cooperation to remove the complex safely and efficiently," said Ty Blackford, CH2M HILL Vice President of Decommissioning, Waste, Fuels and Remediation Services.

303

Los Alamos National Laboratory to work on nuclear design, plutonium  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Lab to work on nuclear design, plutonium research Lab to work on nuclear design, plutonium research Los Alamos National Laboratory to work on nuclear design, plutonium research and development, and supercomputing LANL selected as preferred alternative site for plutonium research, development, and limited manufacturing, along with nuclear weapons design and engineering, and supercomputing. December 18, 2007 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma physics and new materials. Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and

304

Stailization, Packaging, and Storage of Plutonium-Bearing Materials  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DOE-STD-3013-2012 MARCH 2012 DOE STANDARD STABILIZATION, PACKAGING, AND STORAGE OF PLUTONIUM-BEARING MATERIALS U.S. Department of Energy AREA PACK Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. TS Available on the Department of Energy Technical Standards Program Web site at http://www.hss.energy.gov/NuclearSafety/ns/techstds/ DOE-STD-3013-2012 iii ABSTRACT This Standard provides guidance for the stabilization, packaging, and safe storage of plutonium- bearing metals and oxides containing at least 30 wt% plutonium plus uranium. It supersedes DOE-STD-3013-2004, "Stabilization, Packaging, and Storage of Plutonium-Bearing Materials," and is approved for use by all DOE organizations and their contractors. Metals are stabilized by

305

Summary - Plutonium Preparation Project at the Savannah River Site  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Site Site EM Project: PuPP ETR Report Date: October 2008 ETR-17 United States Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) External Technical Review of the Plutonium Preparation Project at the Savannah River Site Why DOE-EM Did This Review The purpose of the Plutonium Preparation Project (PuPP) is to prepare for disposition of plutonium materials; for examination, re-stabilization, and disassembly of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) unirradiated fuel; and for repackaging of Pu stored in 3013 containers. Of ~12.8 MT of plutonium, ~4.1 MT will be directly transferred to the MOX Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF); ~3.7 MT will require processing prior to transfer to the MFFF; and ~5 MT was proposed to be processed in H-Canyon with the

306

Plutonium and Americium Geochemistry at Hanford: A Site Wide Review  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report was produced to provide a systematic review of the state-of-knowledge of plutonium and americium geochemistry at the Hanford Site. The report integrates existing knowledge of the subsurface migration behavior of plutonium and americium at the Hanford Site with available information in the scientific literature regarding the geochemistry of plutonium and americium in systems that are environmentally relevant to the Hanford Site. As a part of the report, key research needs are identified and prioritized, with the ultimate goal of developing a science-based capability to quantitatively assess risk at sites contaminated with plutonium and americium at the Hanford Site and the impact of remediation technologies and closure strategies.

Cantrell, Kirk J.; Felmy, Andrew R.

2012-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

307

Crystalline ceramics: Waste forms for the disposal of weapons plutonium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

At present, there are three seriously considered options for the disposition of excess weapons plutonium: (i) incorporation, partial burn-up and direct disposal of MOX-fuel; (ii) vitrification with defense waste and disposal as glass ``logs``; (iii) deep borehole disposal (National Academy of Sciences Report, 1994). The first two options provide a safeguard due to the high activity of fission products in the irradiated fuel and the defense waste. The latter option has only been examined in a preliminary manner, and the exact form of the plutonium has not been identified. In this paper, we review the potential for the immobilization of plutonium in highly durable crystalline ceramics apatite, pyrochlore, monazite and zircon. Based on available data, we propose zircon as the preferred crystalline ceramic for the permanent disposition of excess weapons plutonium.

Ewing, R.C.; Lutze, W. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Weber, W.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Process for immobilizing plutonium into vitreous ceramic waste forms  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a method for converting spent nuclear fuel and surplus plutonium into a vitreous ceramic final waste form wherein spent nuclear fuel is bound in a crystalline matrix which is in turn bound within glass.

Feng, Xiangdong (Richland, WA); Einziger, Robert E. (Richland, WA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

PRESSURIZATION OF CONTAINMENT VESSELS FROM PLUTONIUM OXIDE CONTENTS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Transportation and storage of plutonium oxide is typically done using a convenience container to hold the oxide powder which is then placed inside a containment vessel. Intermediate containers which act as uncredited confinement barriers may also be used. The containment vessel is subject to an internal pressure due to several sources including; (1) plutonium oxide provides a heat source which raises the temperature of the gas space, (2) helium generation due to alpha decay of the plutonium, (3) hydrogen generation due to radiolysis of the water which has been adsorbed onto the plutonium oxide, and (4) degradation of plastic bags which may be used to bag out the convenience can from a glove box. The contributions of these sources are evaluated in a reasonably conservative manner.

Hensel, S.

2012-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

310

Summary - Plutonium Preparation Project at the Savannah River...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) unirradiated fuel; and for repackaging of Pu stored in 3013 containers. Of 12.8 MT of plutonium, 4.1 MT will be directly...

311

Determination of Plutonium Content in Spent Fuel with Nondestructive Assay  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Plutonium in Spent Nuclear Fuel by Self-Induced X-ray,”Requirements for Spent Nuclear Fuel Recycling Facility –Content in PWR Spent Nuclear Fuel,” European Safeguards R&D

Tobin, S. J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

PRECIPITATION METHOD OF SEPARATING PLUTONIUM FROM CONTAMINATING ELEMENTS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This patent relates to an improved method for the decontamination of plutonium. The process consists broadly in an improvement in a method for recovering plutonium from radioactive uranium fission products in aqueous solutions by decontamination steps including byproduct carrier precipitation comprising the step of introducing a preformed aqueous slurry of a hydroxide of a metal of group IV B into any aqueous acidic solution which contains the plutonium in the hexavalent state, radioactive uranium fission products contaminant and a by-product carrier precipitate and separating the metal hydroxide and by-product precipitate from the solution. The process of this invention is especially useful in the separation of plutonium from radioactive zirconium and columbium fission products.

Sutton, J.B.

1958-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

313

Bayesian curve estimation by model averaging  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Bayesian approach is used to estimate a nonparametric regression model. The main features of the procedure are, first, the functional form of the curve is approximated by a mixture of local polynomials by Bayesian model averaging (BMA), second, the ... Keywords: BIC criterion, Bayesian model averaging, Local polynomial regression, Nonparametric curve fitting, Robustness

Daniel Peña; Dolores Redondas

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Property:SalinityAverage | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

SalinityAverage SalinityAverage Jump to: navigation, search Property Name SalinityAverage Property Type Number Description Mean average of the low and high end measurements of the salinity [ppm] of the fluid. This is a property of type Page. Subproperties This property has the following 1 subproperty: C Coso Geothermal Area Pages using the property "SalinityAverage" Showing 19 pages using this property. A Amedee Geothermal Area + 975 + B Beowawe Hot Springs Geothermal Area + 700 + Blue Mountain Geothermal Area + 4300 + Brady Hot Springs Geothermal Area + 3500 + C Chena Geothermal Area + 325 + D Desert Peak Geothermal Area + 6700 + Dixie Valley Geothermal Area + 2295 + E East Mesa Geothermal Area + 3750 + G Geysers Geothermal Area + 217 + K Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area + 18750 +

315

Bulging of cans containing plutonium residues. Summary report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In 1994, two cans in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Plutonium Facility were found to be bulging as a result of the generation of gases form the plutonium ash residues contained in the cans. This report describes the chronology of this discovery, the response actions that revealed other pressurized cans, the analysis of the causes, the short-term remedial action, a followup inspection of the short-term storage packages, and a review of proposed long-term remedial options.

Van Konynenburg, R.A.; Wood, D.H.; Condit, R.H.; Shikany, S.D.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

METHOD FOR DISSOLVING LANTHANUM FLUORIDE CARRIER FOR PLUTONIUM  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for dissolving lanthanum fluoride precipitates which is applicable to lanthanum fluoride carrier precipitation processes for recovery of plutonium values from aqueous solutions. The lanthanum fluoride precipitate is contacted with an aqueous acidic solution containing dissolved zirconium in the tetravalent oxidation state. The presence of the zirconium increases the lanthanum fluoride dissolved and makes any tetravalent plutonium present more readily oxidizable to the hexavalent state. (AEC)

Koshland, D.E. Jr.; Willard, J.E.

1961-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Plutonium Immobilization Project System Design Description for Can Loading System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this System Design Description (SDD) is to specify the system and component functions and requirements for the Can Loading System and provide a complete description of the system (design features, boundaries, and interfaces), principles of operation (including upsets and recovery), and the system maintenance approach. The Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP) will immobilize up to 13 metric tons (MT) of U.S. surplus weapons usable plutonium materials.

Kriikku, E.

2001-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

318

PLUTONIUM PROCESSING OPTIMIZATION IN SUPPORT OF THE MOX FUEL PROGRAM  

SciTech Connect

After Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) personnel completed polishing 125 Kg of plutonium as highly purified PuO{sub 2} from surplus nuclear weapons, Duke, COGEMA, Stone, and Webster (DCS) required as the next process stage, the validation and optimization of all phases of the plutonium polishing flow sheet. Personnel will develop the optimized parameters for use in the upcoming 330 kg production mission.

GRAY, DEVIN W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; COSTA, DAVID A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2007-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

319

Chinese strategic weapons and the plutonium option (U)  

SciTech Connect

In their article "Chinese Strategic Weapons and the Plutonium Option," John W. Lewis and Xue Litai of the Center for International Security and Arms Control at Stanford University's International Strategic Institute present an unclassified look at plutonium processing in the PRC. The article draws heavily on unclassified PRC sources for its short look at this important subject. Interested readers will find more detailed information in the recently available works referenced in the article.

Lewis, John W.; Xui Litai

1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Fuel bundle design for enhanced usage of plutonium fuel  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A nuclear fuel bundle includes a square array of fuel rods each having a concentration of enriched uranium and plutonium. Each rod of an interior array of the rods also has a concentration of gadolinium. The interior array of rods is surrounded by an exterior array of rods void of gadolinium. By this design, usage of plutonium in the nuclear reactor is enhanced. 10 figs.

Reese, A.P.; Stachowski, R.E.

1995-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "30-day average plutonium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

X-ray diffraction data for plutonium compounds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This work is a compilation of x-ray diffraction information relating to powder photographs of plutonium compounds. The information is presented in a format and style substantially as recommended by the International Centre for Diffraction Data. The Los Alamos National Laboratory has been very much involved in the study of the properties of plutonium and its compounds. During the past 45 years the Powder Diffraction File of the Laboratory has grown to more than 20,000 films. F.H. Ellinger and his coworkers have used this data to establish a large number of plutonium binary phase diagrams. A phase diagram, however, should never be regarded as really complete as new techniques of alloy preparation or x-ray and optical metallography continually discover new phases that must be incorporated in the diagram. In addition to the phase diagrams, the crystal structure of a number of plutonium intermetallic compounds have been determined at Los Alamos. Due to the importance of plutonium as a representative of the actinide series of elements, it is deemed advisable to have available information on the x-ray diffraction of plutonium and its compounds for the purpose of identification of these materials. It is hoped that the information presented here will be of value in this regard.

Roof, R.B.

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Recovery of plutonium from molten salt extraction residues  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Savannah River Laboratory (SRL), Savannah River Plant (SRP), and Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) are jointly developing a process to recover plutonium from molten salt extraction residues. These NaCl, KCl, MgCl/sub 2/ residues, which are generated in the pyrochemical extraction of /sup 241/Am from aged plutonium metal, contain up to 25 wt % dissolved PUCl/sub 3/ and up to 2 wt % AmCl/sub 3/. The objective is to develop a process to convert these residues to plutonium metal product and discardable waste. The first step of the conceptual process is to convert the actinides to a heterogenous scrub alloy with aluminum and magnesium. This step, performed at RFP, effectively separates the actinides from the bulk of the chloride. This scrub alloy will then be dissolved in a HNO/sub 3/-HF solution at SRP. Residual chloride will be removed by precipitation with Hg/sub 2/(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/ followed by centrifugation. Plutonium and americium will be separated using the Purex solvent extraction process. The /sup 241/Am will be diverted to the solvent extraction waste stream where it can either be discarded to the waste farm or recovered. The plutonium will be finished via PuF/sub 3/ precipitation, oxidation to a mixture of PUF/sub 4/ and PuO/sub 2/, followed by reduction to plutonium metal with calcium.

Gray, L.W.; Holcomb, H.P.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Plutonium and Americium from Soil  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of plutonium and americium from soil was successfully demonstrated using supercritical fluid carbon dioxide solvent augmented with organophosphorus and beta-diketone complexants. Spiked Idaho soils were chemically and radiologically characterized, then extracted with supercritical fluid carbon dioxide at 2,900 psi and 65°C containing varying concentrations of tributyl phosphate (TBP) and thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA). A single 45 minute SFE with 2.7 mol% TBP and 3.2 mol% TTA provided as much as 88% ± 6.0 extraction of americium and 69% ± 5.0 extraction of plutonium. Use of 5.3 mol% TBP with 6.8 mol% of the more acidic beta-diketone hexafluoroacetylacetone (HFA) provided 95% ± 3.0 extraction of americium and 83% ± 5.0 extraction of plutonium in a single 45 minute SFE at 3,750 psi and 95°C. Sequential chemical extraction techniques were used to chemically characterize soil partitioning of plutonium and americium in pre-SFE soil samples. Sequential chemical extraction techniques demonstrated that spiked plutonium resides primarily (76.6%) in the sesquioxide fraction with minor amounts being absorbed by the oxidizable fraction (10.6%) and residual fractions (12.8%). Post-SFE soils subjected to sequential chemical extraction characterization demonstrated that 97% of the oxidizable, 78% of the sesquioxide and 80% of the residual plutonium could be removed using SFE. These preliminary results show that SFE may be an effective solvent extraction technique for removal of actinide contaminants from soil.

Fox, Robert Vincent; Mincher, Bruce Jay

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Plutonium and Americium from Soil  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of plutonium and americium from soil was successfully demonstrated using supercritical fluid carbon dioxide solvent augmented with organophosphorus and beta-diketone complexants. Spiked Idaho soils were chemically and radiologically characterized, then extracted with supercritical fluid carbon dioxide at 2,900 psi and 65 C containing varying concentrations of tributyl phosphate (TBP) and thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA). A single 45 minute SFE with 2.7 mol% TBP and 3.2 mol% TTA provided as much as 88% {+-} 6.0 extraction of americium and 69% {+-} 5.0 extraction of plutonium. Use of 5.3 mol% TBP with 6.8 mol% of the more acidic beta-diketone hexafluoroacetylacetone (HFA) provided 95% {+-} 3.0 extraction of americium and 83% {+-} 5.0 extraction of plutonium in a single 45 minute SFE at 3,750 psi and 95 C. Sequential chemical extraction techniques were used to chemically characterize soil partitioning of plutonium and americium in pre-SFE soil samples. Sequential chemical extraction techniques demonstrated that spiked plutonium resides primarily (76.6%) in the sesquioxide fraction with minor amounts being absorbed by the oxidizable fraction (10.6%) and residual fractions (12.8%). Post-SFE soils subjected to sequential chemical extraction characterization demonstrated that 97% of the oxidizable, 78% of the sesquioxide and 80% of the residual plutonium could be removed using SFE. These preliminary results show that SFE may be an effective solvent extraction technique for removal of actinide contaminants from soil.

Fox, R.V.; Mincher, B.J.

2002-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

325

Determining Plutonium Mass in Spent Fuel with Nondestructive Assay Techniques NGSI Research Overview and Update on NDA Techniques  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Determining Plutonium Mass in Spent Fuel with Non-CN-184/137 Determining Plutonium Mass in Spent Fuel withthe Direct Measurement of Plutonium in Spent LWR Fuels by

A., V. Mozin, S.J. Tobin, L.W. Cambell, J.R. Cheatham, C.R. Freeman, C.J. Gesh,

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Lagged Average Predictions in a Predictability Experiment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lagged average predictions are examined here within the context of an idealized predictability experiment. Lagged predictions contribute to making better forecasts than the forecasts obtained from using only the latest initial state. Analytic ...

John O. Roads

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Probabilistic Visibility Forecasting Using Bayesian Model Averaging  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bayesian model averaging (BMA) is a statistical postprocessing technique that has been used in probabilistic weather forecasting to calibrate forecast ensembles and generate predictive probability density functions (PDFs) for weather quantities. ...

Richard M. Chmielecki; Adrian E. Raftery

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

average air temperature | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

average air temperature average air temperature Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Air Temperature at 10 m Above The Surface Of The Earth (deg C)NASA Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Release 6.0 Data Set (Nov 2007)22-year Monthly & Annual Average (July 1983 - June 2005)Parameter: Air Temperature at 10 m Above The Surface Of The Earth (deg C)Internet: http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/sse/Note 1: SSE Methodology & Accuracy sections onlineNote 2: Lat/Lon values indicate the lower left corner of a 1x1 degree region. Negative values are south and west; Source U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Date Released March 31st, 2009 (5 years ago) Date Updated April 01st, 2009 (5 years ago) Keywords average air temperature

329

The Shape of Averaged Drop Size Distributions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The shape of averaged drop size distributions (DSD) is studied from a large sample of data (892 h) collected at several sites of various latitudes. The results show that neither the hypothesis of an exponential distribution to represent rainfall ...

Henri Sauvageot; Jean-Pierre Lacaux

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Average Data for Each Choke Setting (before 24-May 2010 06:00), 6-hour average (  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Average Data for Each Choke Setting (before 24-May 2010 06:00), 6-hour average (after 24-May 2010 06:00):" Average Data for Each Choke Setting (before 24-May 2010 06:00), 6-hour average (after 24-May 2010 06:00):" ,,"Choke","Average","Average","Fluid","Methanol","Water","Oil","Gas","Hyd. Eq.","Gas" ,"Choke","Setting","Upstream","Upstream","Recovery","Recovery","Recovery","Recovery","Recovery","Recovery","Recovery" "Date and Time","Setting","Duration","Pressure","Temp.","Rate","Rate","Rate","Rate","Rate","Rate","Portion" "dd-mmm-yy","(64ths)","(hours)","(psia)","(degF)","(bfpd)","(bfpd)","(bwpd)","(bopd)","(mmcfpd)","(boepd)","(%)"

331

A high average power pockels cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high average power pockels cell is disclosed which reduced the effect of thermally induced strains in high average power laser technology. The pockels cell includes an elongated, substantially rectangular crystalline structure formed from a KDP-type material to eliminate shear strains. The X- and Y-axes are oriented substantially perpendicular to the edges of the crystal cross-section and to the C-axis direction of propagation to eliminate shear strains.

Daly, T.P.

1986-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

332

Average transmission probability of a random stack  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The transmission through a stack of identical slabs that are separated by gaps with random widths is usually treated by calculating the average of the logarithm of the transmission probability. We show how to calculate the average of the transmission probability itself with the aid of a recurrence relation and derive analytical upper and lower bounds. The upper bound, when used as an approximation for the transmission probability, is unreasonably good and we conjecture that it is asymptotically exact.

Yin Lu; Christian Miniatura; Berthold-Georg Englert

2009-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

333

Benchmark Evaluation of Plutonium Nitrate Solution Arrays  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In October and November of 1981 thirteen approach-to-critical experiments were performed on a remote split table machine (RSTM) in the Critical Mass Laboratory of Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in Richland, Washington, using planar arrays of polyethylene bottles filled with plutonium (Pu) nitrate solution. Arrays of up to sixteen bottles were used to measure the critical number of bottles and critical array spacing with a tight fitting Plexiglas{reg_sign} reflector on all sides of the arrays except the top. Some experiments used Plexiglas shells fitted around each bottles to determine the effect of moderation on criticality. Each bottle contained approximately 2.4 L of Pu(NO3)4 solution with a Pu content of 105 g Pu/L and a free acid molarity H+ of 5.1. The plutonium was of low 240Pu (2.9 wt.%) content. These experiments were performed to fill a gap in experimental data regarding criticality limits for storing and handling arrays of Pu solution in reprocessing facilities. Of the thirteen approach-to-critical experiments eleven resulted in extrapolations to critical configurations. Four of the approaches were extrapolated to the critical number of bottles; these were not evaluated further due to the large uncertainty associated with the modeling of a fraction of a bottle. The remaining seven approaches were extrapolated to critical array spacing of 3-4 and 4-4 arrays; these seven critical configurations were evaluation for inclusion as acceptable benchmark experiments in the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) Handbook. Detailed and simple models of these configurations were created and the associated bias of these simplifications was determined to range from 0.00116 and 0.00162 {+-} 0.00006 ?keff. Monte Carlo analysis of all models was completed using MCNP5 with ENDF/BVII.0 neutron cross section libraries. A thorough uncertainty analysis of all critical, geometric, and material parameters was performed using parameter perturbation methods. It was found that uncertainty in the impurities in the polyethylene bottles, reflector position, bottle outer diameter, and critical array spacing had the largest effect. The total uncertainty ranged from 0.00651 to 0.00920 ?keff. Evaluation methods and results will be presented and discussed in greater detail in the full paper.

M. A. Marshall; J. D. Bess

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Information on the cost of plutonium needed to operate the Clinch River Breeder Reactor for its 5-year demonstration  

SciTech Connect

Requested information is presented concerning the background on the CRBR Project and its plutonium requirements, and analysis of sources and cost of acquiring plutonium for CRBR fuel.

Not Available

1982-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

335

Estimating Averaging Times for Point and Path-Averaged Measurements of Turbulence Spectra  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Uncertainty over how long to average turbulence variables to achieve some desired level of statistical stability is a common concern in boundary-layer meteorology. Several models exist that predict averaging times for measurements of variances ...

Edgar L. Andreas

1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Density Changes in Plutonium Observed from Accelerated Aging Using Pu-238 Enrichment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In support of Stockpile Stewardship activities, accelerated aging tests on a plutonium alloy enriched with 7.3 atomic percentage of {sup 238}Pu is underway using dilatometry at 35, 50, and 65 C and immersion density measurements of material stored at 50 C. Changes in density are expected from radiation damage in the lattice and helium in-growth. After twenty-five equivalent years of aging, the dilatometry data shows that the alloys at 35 C have expanded in volume by 0.11% to 0.12% and have started to exhibit a near linear expansion behavior primarily caused by the helium accumulation. The average He-to-vacancy ratio from tested specimens was determined to be around 2.3. The model for the lattice damage and helium in-growth accurately represents the volume swelling at 35 C. The density converted from the dilatometry corresponds well to the decreasing density trend of reference plutonium alloys as a function of time.

Chung, B W; Thompson, S R; Woods, C H; Hopkins, D J; Gourdin, W H; Ebbinghaus, B B

2005-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

337

THE PLUTONIUM FEEDBACK APPROACH TO NUCLEAR POWER  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear parameter variations are presented for sodium graphite reactors using Pu-spiked natural U as fuel. The fuel feed is assumed to be natural U, and the important variables are the initial amount of excess reactivity, lattice spacing, and alpha , the ratio of Pu/sup 239/ to U/sup 235/ in the feed material. The system is called "steady state" in that the ratios, N/sub 40/N/sub 49/ = sigma /sub c(49)// sigma /sub a(40)/ and N/sub 41//N/sub 4 9/ = sigma /sub c(49)/ / sigma /sub a(41)/, obtained from setting the build-up equations to zero are assumed for the feed concentrations, and the feed material to the reactor is always the same. During irradiation, the U/sup 235/ and U/sup 238/ concentrations steadily decline while the Pu isotope concentrations initially increase, then decline. To ensure sufficient plutonium for feed material, it is necessary to remove the fuel from the reactor before the Pu content drops below its initial value. Although the reactivity variations presented were calculated specifically for sodium graphite reactors, they may be applied to any thermal reactor using Pu-spiked natural U as fuel. The reactivity changes are determined primarily by the fuel characteristics and are only slightly dependent on the other material in the reactor core. An analysis which estimates the effect of Pu feedback opcration fuel costs is given. (auth) in terms of nuclear power cost reduction are discussed (auth)

Roderick, C.

1955-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

338

PLUTONIUM LOADING CAPACITY OF REILLEX HPQ ANION EXCHANGE COLUMN - AFS-2 PLUTONIUM FLOWSHEET FOR MOX  

SciTech Connect

Radioactive plutonium (Pu) anion exchange column experiments using scaled HB-Line designs were performed to investigate the dependence of column loading performance on the feed composition in the H-Canyon dissolution process for plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) product shipped to the Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). These loading experiments show that a representative feed solution containing {approx}5 g Pu/L can be loaded onto Reillex{trademark} HPQ resin from solutions containing 8 M total nitrate and 0.1 M KF provided that the F is complexed with Al to an [Al]/[F] molar ratio range of 1.5-2.0. Lower concentrations of total nitrate and [Al]/[F] molar ratios may still have acceptable performance but were not tested in this study. Loading and washing Pu losses should be relatively low (<1%) for resin loading of up to 60 g Pu/L. Loading above 60 g Pu/L resin is possible, but Pu wash losses will increase such that 10-20% of the additional Pu fed may not be retained by the resin as the resin loading approaches 80 g Pu/L resin.

Kyser, E.; King, W.; O'Rourke, P.

2012-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

339

DOE Will Dispose of 34 Metric Tons of Plutonium by Turning it...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Metric Tons of Plutonium by Turning it into Fuel for Civilian Reactors January 23, 2002 Washington, DC DOE Will Dispose of 34 Metric Tons of Plutonium by Turning it into Fuel for...

340

Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium. Quarterly technical progress report, February 1, 1998--April 30, 1998  

SciTech Connect

Activities from the Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium are described. Areas of work include materials science of nuclear and explosive materials, plutonium processing and handling, robotics, and storage.

NONE

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "30-day average plutonium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

EXTRACTION OF TETRAVALENT PLUTONIUM VALUES WITH METHYL ETHYL KETONE, METHYL ISOBUTYL KETONE ACETOPHENONE OR MENTHONE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for extracting tetravalent plutonium from an aqueous acid solution with methyl ethyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone, or acetophenone and with the extraction of either tetravalent or hexavalent plutonium into menthone. (AEC)

Seaborg, G.T.

1961-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Electron backscatter diffraction of plutonium-gallium alloys  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

At Los Alamos National Laboratory a recent experimental technique has been developed to characterize reactive metals, including plutonium arid cerium, using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). Microstructural characterization of plutonium and its alloys by EBSD had been previously elusive primarily because of the extreme toxicity and rapid surface oxidation rate associated with plutonium metal. The experimental techniques, which included ion-sputtering the metal surface using a scanning auger microprobe (SAM) followed by vacuum transfer of the sample from the SAM to the scanning electron microscope (SEM), used to obtain electron backscatter diffraction Kikuchi patterns (EBSPs) and orientation maps for plutonium-gallium alloys are described and the initial microstructural observations based on the analysis are discussed. Combining the SEM and EBSD observations, the phase transformation behavior between the {delta} and {var_epsilon} structures was explained. This demonstrated sample preparation and characterization technique is expected to be a powerful means to further understand phase transformation behavior, orientation relationships, and texlure in the complicated plutonium alloy systems.

Boehlert, C. J. (Carl J.); Zocco, T. G. (Thomas G.); Schulze, R. K. (Roland K.); Mitchell, J. N. (Jeremy N.); Pereyra, R. A. (Ramiro A.)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

X-ray diffraction data for plutonium compounds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This work is a compilation of x-ray diffraction information relating to powder photographs of plutonium compounds. The information is presented in a format and style substantially as recommended by the International Center for Diffraction Data. Los Alamos National Laboratory has been involved in the study of the properties of plutonium and its compounds. During the past 45 years, the Powder Diffraction File of the Laboratory has grown to more than 20,000 films. F.H. Ellinger and his coworkers have used this data to establish a large number of plutonium binary phase diagrams. These phase diagrams have been published in a special report of the Laboratory, LA-3870, Constitution of Plutonium Alloys,'' authored by F.H. Ellinger, W.N. Miner, D.R. O'Boyle, and F.W. Schonfeld. A phase diagram, however, should never be regarded as really complete as new techniques of alloy preparation or x-ray and optical metallography continually discover new phases that must be incorporated in the diagram. In addition to the phase diagrams, the crystal structures of a number of plutonium intermetallic compounds have been determined at Los Alamos and published in the general literature by D.T. Cromer, A.C. Larson, and R.B. Roof over the last 35 years.

Roof, R.B.

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

PRESSURE DEVELOPMENT IN SEALED CONTAINERS WITH PLUTONIUM BEARING MATERIALS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Gas generation by plutonium-bearing materials in sealed containers has been studied. The gas composition and pressure are determined over periods from months to years. The Pu-bearing materials studied represent those produced by all of the major processes used by DOE in the processing of plutonium and include the maximum amount of water (0.5% by weight) allowed by DOE's 3013 Standard. Hydrogen generation is of high interest and the Pu-bearing materials can be classed according to how much hydrogen is generated. Hydrogen generation by high-purity plutonium oxides packaged under conditions typical for actual 3013 materials is minimal, with very low generation rates and low equilibrium pressures. Materials with chloride salt impurities have much higher hydrogen gas generation rates and result in the highest observed equilibrium hydrogen pressures. Other materials such as those with high metal oxide impurities generate hydrogen at rates in between these extremes. The fraction of water that is converted to hydrogen gas as equilibrium is approached ranges from 0% to 25% under conditions typical of materials packaged to the 3013 Standard. Generation of both hydrogen and oxygen occurs when liquid water is present. The material and moisture conditions that result in hydrogen and oxygen generation for high-purity plutonium oxide and chloride salt-bearing plutonium oxide materials have been characterized. Other gases that are observed include nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and methane.

Duffey, J.; Livingston, R.

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Plutonium metal preparation and purification at Los Alamos, 1984  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Plutonium metal preparation and purification are well established at Los Alamos. Metal is prepared by calcothermic reduction of both PuF/sub 4/ and PuO/sub 2/. Metal is purified by halide slagging, casting, and electrorefining. The product from the production sequence is ultrapure plutonium metal. All of the processes involve high temperature operation and all but casting involve molten salt media. Development efforts are fourfold: (1) recover plutonium values from residues; (2) reduce residue generation through process improvements and changes; (3) recycle of reagents, and (4) optimize and integrate all processes into a close-loop system. Plutonium residues are comprised of oxides, chlorides, colloidal metal suspensions, and impure metal heels. Pyrochemical recovery techniques are under development to address each residue. In addition, we are looking back at each residue generation step and are making process changes to reduce plutonium content in each residue. Reagent salt is the principle media used in pyrochemical processing. The regeneration and recycle of these reagents will both reduce our waste handling and operating expense. The fourth area, process optimization, involves both existing processes and new process developments. A status of efforts in all four of these areas will be summarized.

Christensen, D.C.; Williams, J.D.; McNeese, J.A.; Fife, K.W.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Plutonium disposition study phase 1b final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides the results of the Westinghouse activities performed as part of the Plutonium Disposition Study Phase 1b. These activities, which took place from May 16, 1993 to September 15, 1993, build upon the work completed in Phase 1a, which concluded on May 15, 1993. In Phase 1a, three Plutonium Disposal Reactor (PDR) options were developed for the disposal of excess weapons grade plutonium from returned and dismantled nuclear weapons. This report documents the results of several tasks that were performed to further knowledge in specific areas leading up to Phase 2 of the PDR Study. The Westinghouse activities for Phase 1b are summarized as follows: (1) resolved technical issues concerning reactor physics including equilibrium cycle calculations, use of gadolinium, moderator temperature coefficient, and others as documented in Section 2.0; (2) analyzed large Westinghouse commercial plants for plutonium disposal; (3) reactor safety issues including the steam line break were resolved, and are included in Section 2.0; (4) several tasks related to the PDR Fuel Cycle were examined; (5) cost and deployment options were examined to determine optimal configuration for both plutonium disposal and tritium production; (6) response to questions from DOE and National Academy of Scientists (NAS) reviewers concerning the PDR Phase 1a report are included in Appendix A.

NONE

1993-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

347

Plutonium scrap processing at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory currently has the newest plutonium handling facility in the nation. Los Alamos has been active in the processing of plutonium almost since the discovery of this man-made element in 1941. One of the functions of the new facility is the processing of plutonium scrap generated at LASL and other sites. The feed for the scrap processing program is extremely varied, and a wide variety of contaminants are often encountered. Depending upon the scrap matrix and contaminants present, the majority of material receives a nitric acid/hydrofluoric acid or nitric acid/calcium fluoride leach. The plutonium nitrate solutions are then loaded onto an anion exchange column charged with DOWEX 1 x 4, 50 to 100 mesh, nitrate form resin. The column is eluted with 0.48 M hydroxyl amine nitrate. The Pu(NO/sub 3/)/sub 3/ is then precipitated as plutonium III oxalate which is calcined at 450 to 500/sup 0/C to yield a purified PuO/sub 2/ product.

Nixon, A.E.; McKerley, B.J.; Christensen, E.L.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Low-Level Plutonium Sample Involved in NIST-Boulder Lab ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Low-Level Plutonium Sample Involved in NIST-Boulder Lab Incident. For Immediate Release: June 10, 2008. ...

2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

349

A probabilistic risk assessment of the LLNL Plutonium facility`s evaluation basis fire operational accident  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Plutonium Facility conducts numerous involving plutonium to include device fabrication, development of fabrication techniques, metallurgy research, and laser isotope separation. A Safety Analysis Report (SAR) for the building 332 Plutonium Facility was completed rational safety and acceptable risk to employees, the public, government property, and the environment. This paper outlines the PRA analysis of the Evaluation Basis Fire (EDF) operational accident. The EBF postulates the worst-case programmatic impact event for the Plutonium Facility.

Brumburgh, G.

1994-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

350

World average top-quark mass  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes a talk given at the Top2008 Workshop at La Biodola, Isola d Elba, Italy. The status of the world average top-quark mass is discussed. Some comments about the challanges facing the experiments in order to further improve the precision are offered.

Glenzinski, D.; /Fermilab

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

STAFF FORECAST: AVERAGE RETAIL ELECTRICITY PRICES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION STAFF FORECAST: AVERAGE RETAIL ELECTRICITY PRICES 2005 TO 2018 report, Staff Forecast: Retail Electricity Prices, 2005 to 2018, was prepared with contributions from the technical assistance provided by Greg Broeking of R.W. Beck, Inc. in preparing retail price forecasts

352

Exact bounds for average pairwise network reliability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Several methods for finding exact bounds of average pairwise network connectivity (APNC) are proposed. These methods allows faster decision making about if a network is reliable for its purpose. Previous results on cumulitive updating of all-terminal ... Keywords: algorithm, network reliability, pairwise connectivity

Alexey Rodionov; Olga Rodionova

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

CSER 96-027: storage of cemented plutonium residue containers in 55 gallon drums  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A nuclear criticality safety analysis has been performed for the storage of residual plutonium cementation containers, produced at the Plutonium Finishing Plant, in 55 gallon drums. This CSER increases the limit of total plutonium stored in each 55 gallon drum from 100 to 200 grams.

Watson, W.T.

1997-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

354

Development of an Automatic Method for Americium and Plutonium Separation and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

hydrochloric acid, and then plutonium is separated via on-column Pu- (IV) reduction to Pu(III) with titanium, and Elution of Pu. Plutonium in nitric medium presents a distribution relationship much higher thanDevelopment of an Automatic Method for Americium and Plutonium Separation and Preconcentration

Sánchez, David

355

j . Phycol. 17, 346-352 (1981) SORPTION OF PLUTONIUM-237 BY TWO SPECIES OF  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

plutonium (Edgington et al. 1978). However, the mechanism of Pu-sorption by phyto- plankton has not been plutonium (Vaughan and Strand 1972). The adsorption kinetics of--'^Pu by phytoplankton were very similar to plutonium. De- creased availability could be due to low levels of Pu left in solution after initial algal

Yen, Jeannette

356

Standard practice for preparation and dissolution of plutonium materials for analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1.1 This practice is a compilation of dissolution techniques for plutonium materials that are applicable to the test methods used for characterizing these materials. Dissolution treatments for the major plutonium materials assayed for plutonium or analyzed for other components are listed. Aliquants of the dissolved samples are dispensed on a weight basis when one of the analyses must be highly reliable, such as plutonium assay; otherwise they are dispensed on a volume basis. 1.2 The treatments, in order of presentation, are as follows: Procedure Title Section Dissolution of Plutonium Metal with Hydrochloric Acid 9.1 Dissolution of Plutonium Metal with Sulfuric Acid 9.2 Dissolution of Plutonium Oxide and Uranium-Plutonium Mixed Oxide by the Sealed-Reflux Technique 9.3 Dissolution of Plutonium Oxide and Uranium-Plutonium Mixed Oxides by Sodium Bisulfate Fusion 9.4 Dissolution of Uranium-Plutonium Mixed Oxides and Low-Fired Plutonium Oxide in Beakers 9.5 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be re...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Spectral Properties of -Plutonium: Sensitivity to 5f Occupancy Jian-Xin Zhu,1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Spectral Properties of -Plutonium: Sensitivity to 5f Occupancy Jian-Xin Zhu,1 A. K. McMahan,2 M. D a systematic analysis of the spectral properties of -plutonium with varying 5f occupancy. The LDA Hamiltonian properties, crystal structure, and metallurgy, plutonium is probably the most complicated element

358

Modelling the lattice parameter of plutonium -aluminium solid solution Richard Darby Modelling the Lattice Parameter of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the ability of alloying to stabilise high temperature phases of plutonium, in particular the phase at room of these plutonium alloys' lattice parameters with both temperature and solute addition is complicated changes could compromise structural stability where plutonium alloys are contained by another material

Cambridge, University of

359

Spallation-Fission Competition in Heaviest Elements; Helium Ion Induced Reactions in Plutonium Isotopes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nuclear Energy Series, Plutonium Project Record, Vol. 1 4Nuclear Energy S e r i e s , Plutonium P r o j e c t RecordNuclear Energy S e r i e s , Plutonium P r o j e c t Record,

Glass, Richard A.; Carr, Robert J.; Cobble, James W.; Seaborg, Glenn T.

1956-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

METHOD FOR SEPARATING PLUTONIUM AND FISSION PRODUCTS EMPLOYING AN OXIDE AS A CARRIER FOR FISSION PRODUCTS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Carrier precipitation processes for separating plutonium values from uranium fission products are described. Silicon dioxide or titanium dioxide in a finely divided state is added to an acidic aqueous solution containing hexavalent plutonium ions together with ions of uranium fission products. The supernatant solution containing plutonium ions is then separated from the oxide and the fission products associated therewith.

Davies, T.H.

1961-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "30-day average plutonium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

NNSA's Global Threat Reduction Initiative Completes First Plutonium  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Completes First Plutonium Completes First Plutonium Shipment | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Continuing Management Reform Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Us Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Media Room Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Speeches Events Social Media Video Gallery Photo Gallery NNSA Archive Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home > NNSA Blog > NNSA's Global Threat Reduction Initiative Completes First ... NNSA's Global Threat Reduction Initiative Completes First Plutonium Shipment Posted By NNSA Public Affairs NNSA Blog The United States and Sweden announced today at the 2012 Nuclear Security

362

PROCESS OF REDUCING PLUTONIUM TO TETRAVALENT TRIVALENT STATE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The reduction of hexavalent and tetravalert plutonium ions to the trivalent state in strong nitric acid can be accomplished with hydrogen peroxide. The trivalent state may be stabilized as a precipitate by including oxalate or fluoride ions in the solution. The acid should be strong to encourage the reduction from the plutonyl to the trivalent state (and discourage the opposed oxidation reaction) and prevent the precipitation of plutonium peroxide, although the latter may be digested by increasing the acid concentration. Although excess hydrogen peroxide will oxidize plutonlum to the plutonyl state, complete reduction is insured by gently warming the solution to break down such excess H/ sub 2/O/sub 2/. The particular advantage of hydrogen peroxide as a reductant lies in the precipitation technique, where it introduces no contaminating ions. The process is adaptable to separate plutonium from uranium and impurities by proper adjustment of the sequence of insoluble anion additions and the hydrogen peroxide addition.

Mastick, D.F.

1960-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

363

Thermal Cycling on Fatigue Failure of the Plutonium Vitrification Melter  

SciTech Connect

One method for disposition of excess plutonium is vitrification into cylindrical wasteforms. Due to the hazards of working with plutonium, the vitrification process must be carried out remotely in a shielded environment. Thus, the equipment must be easily maintained. With their simple design, induction melters satisfy this criterion, making them ideal candidates for plutonium vitrification. However, due to repeated heating and cooling cycles and differences in coefficients of thermal expansion of contacting materials fatigue failure of the induction melter is of concern. Due to the cost of the melter, the number of cycles to failure is critical. This paper presents a method for determining the cycles to failure for an induction melter by using the results from thermal and structural analyses as input to a fatigue failure model.

Jordan, Jeffrey; Gorczyca, Jennifer

2009-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

364

MECHANICAL PROPERTY AND FORMABILITY STUDIES ON UNALLOYED PLUTONIUM  

SciTech Connect

The effect of temperature and testing speed on the tension and compression properties of unalloyed plutouium was studied in the alpha , beta , gamma , and delta phases. Compressive formability data were obtained for a load of 100,000 lbs in the aforementioned phases. In addition, preliminary creep, tension impact, and torsion data for alpha -phase plutonium are reported. Extrusion constants and pressures for the beta , gamma , and delta phases were obtained. The roomtemperature tension and compression properties of the beta - and #gg-extruded plutonium were determined. Metallo graphic studies were made to determine the effect of tension, compression, and extrusion, in the indicated phases, on the microstructure of as-cast plutonium. (auth)

Gardner, H.R.; Mann, I.B.

1959-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

NNSA's Global Threat Reduction Initiative Completes First Plutonium  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Completes First Plutonium Completes First Plutonium Shipment | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Continuing Management Reform Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Us Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Media Room Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Speeches Events Social Media Video Gallery Photo Gallery NNSA Archive Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home > NNSA Blog > NNSA's Global Threat Reduction Initiative Completes First ... NNSA's Global Threat Reduction Initiative Completes First Plutonium Shipment Posted By NNSA Public Affairs NNSA Blog The United States and Sweden announced today at the 2012 Nuclear Security

366

MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATIONS OF PLUTONIUM AND IMPLICATIONS FOR ITS MOBILITY.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The current state of knowledge of the effect of plutonium on microorganisms and microbial activity is reviewed, and also the microbial processes affecting its mobilization and immobilization. The dissolution of plutonium is predominantly due to their production of extracellular metabolic products, organic acids, such as citric acid, and sequestering agents, such as siderophores. Plutonium may be immobilized by the indirect actions of microorganisms resulting in changes in Eh and its reduction from a higher to lower oxidation state, with the precipitation of Pu, its bioaccumulation by biomass, and bioprecipitation reactions. In addition, the abundance of microorganisms in Pu-contaminated soils, wastes, natural analog sites, and backfill materials that will be used for isolating the waste and role of microbes as biocolloids in the transport of Pu is discussed.

FRANCIS, A.J.

2000-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

367

Density and Tensile Properties Changed by Aging Plutonium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present volume, density, and tensile property change observed from both naturally and accelerated aged plutonium alloys. Accelerated alloys are plutonium alloys with a fraction of Pu-238 to accelerate the aging process by approximately 18 times the rate of unaged weapons-grade plutonium. After thirty-five equivalent years of aging on accelerated alloys, the dilatometry shows the samples at 35 C have swelled in volume by 0.12 to 0.14% and now exhibit a near linear volume increase due to helium in-growth while showing possible surface effects on samples at 50 C and 65 C. The engineering stress of the accelerated alloy at 18 equivalent years increased significantly compared to at 4.5 equivalent years.

Chung, B W; Choi, B W; Thompson, S R; Woods, C H; Hopkins, D J; Ebbinghaus, B B

2005-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

368

SELECTION OF SURPLUS PLUTONIUM MATERIALS FOR DISPOSITION TO WIPP  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is preparing a Surplus Plutonium Disposition (SPD) Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS). Included in the evaluation are up to 6 metric tons (MT) of plutonium in the form of impure oxides and metals for which a disposition plan has not been decided, among options that include preparation as feed for the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility; disposing to high-level waste through the Savannah River Site (SRS) HB Line and H Canyon; can-in-canister disposal using the SRS Defense Waste Processing Facility; and preparation for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). DOE and SRS have identified at least 0.5 MT of plutonium that, because of high levels of chemical and isotopic impurities, is impractical for disposition by methods other than the WIPP pathway. Characteristics of these items and the disposition strategy are discussed.

Allender, J.; Mcclard, J.; Christopher, J.

2012-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

369

Stability of plutonium(VI) in WIPP brine  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The redox stability of plutonium (VI) in WIPP brine was investigated by monitoring the oxidation state as a function of time using a combination of absorption spectrometry, radiochemical counting and filtration. Studies were performed with Pu-239 and Pu-238 in four WIPP brines at concentrations between 10{sup {minus}3} and 10{sup {minus}8} M for durations as long as two years. Two synthetic brines, Brine A and ERDA-6, and two underground collected brines, DH-36 and G-Seep, were used. The stability of Pu(VI) depended on the brine composition and the speciation of the plutonium in that brine. When carbonate was present, a Pu(VI)-carbonate complex was observed that was stable. In the absence of carbonate, Pu(VI) hydrolytic species predominated which had a wide range of stability in the brines investigated. The results reported will help define the speciation of plutonium in WIPP brine and hence its potential for migration.

Reed, D.T.; Okajima, S.

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Plutonium-238 Transuranic Waste Decision Analysis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Five transuranic (TRU) waste sites in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, collectively, have more than 2,100 cubic meters of Plutonium-238 (Pu-238) TRU waste that exceed the wattage restrictions of the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-11). The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is being developed by the DOE as a repository for TRU waste. With the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) opening in 1999, these sites are faced with a need to develop waste management practices that will enable the transportation of Pu-238 TRU waste to WIPP for disposal. This paper describes a decision analysis that provided a logical framework for addressing the Pu-238 TRU waste issue. The insights that can be gained by performing a formalized decision analysis are multifold. First and foremost, the very process. of formulating a decision tree forces the decision maker into structured, logical thinking where alternatives can be evaluated one against the other using a uniform set of criteria. In the process of developing the decision tree for transportation of Pu-238 TRU waste, several alternatives were eliminated and the logical order for decision making was discovered. Moreover, the key areas of uncertainty for proposed alternatives were identified and quantified. The decision analysis showed that the DOE can employ a combination approach where they will (1) use headspace gas analyses to show that a fraction of the Pu-238 TRU waste drums are no longer generating hydrogen gas and can be shipped to WIPP ''as-is'', (2) use drums and bags with advanced filter systems to repackage Pu-238 TRU waste drums that are still generating hydrogen, and (3) add hydrogen getter materials to the inner containment vessel of the TRUPACT-11to relieve the build-up of hydrogen gas during transportation of the Pu-238 TRU waste drums.

Brown, Mike; Lechel, David J.; Leigh, C.D.

1999-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

371

Assessment of Plutonium-238 (Pu-238) Production Alternatives  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Plutonium-238 Plutonium-238 Production Alternatives Briefing for Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee April 21, 2008 Dennis Miotla Deputy Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Power Deployment Miotla - April 2008 NEAC Mtg - DM183874 (2) Statement of Work Desired end state: - Reliable, sustainable, affordable supply of Pu-238 suitable for NASA applications Assumptions: - NASA obtains funding for planned missions - Russia is out of material to sell to US - DOE maintains balance of radioisotope power source infrastructure during period of depleted supply Independently evaluate the Pu-238 heat source requirements for NASA's mission projections and assess Pu-238 production assumptions, strategy and alternatives for meeting those requirements Miotla - April 2008 NEAC Mtg - DM183874 (3)

372

XANES Identification of Plutonium Speciation in RFETS Samples  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using primarily X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) with standards run in tandem with samples, probable plutonium speciation was determined for 13 samples from contaminated soil, acid-splash or fire-deposition building interior surfaces, or asphalt pads from the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). Save for extreme oxidizing situations, all other samples were found to be of Pu(IV) speciation, supporting the supposition that such contamination is less likely to show mobility off site. EXAFS analysis conducted on two of the 13 samples supported the validity of the XANES features employed as determinants of the plutonium valence.

LoPresti, V.; Conradson, S.D.; Clark, D.L.

2009-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

373

Gas Analysis of Plutonium Materials Tested in a Bell Jar  

SciTech Connect

Seventy cans containing plutonium bearing materials have been tested for gas generation in bell jars at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Gas samples from five of the tests were taken and analyzed for hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, methane, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and nitrous oxide. Gas samples from all five cans showed significant oxygen consumption. Hydrogen and carbon dioxide were found in non-negligible quantities in all gas samples. Hydrogen and carbon dioxide generation rates are presented along with oxygen depletion rates. A description of the plutonium bearing materials is also provided.

Kies, J.

2003-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

374

Sources Of Average Individual Radiation Exposure  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Of Average Individual Radiation Exposure Of Average Individual Radiation Exposure Natural background Medical Consumer products Industrial, security, educational and research Occupational 0.311 rem 0.300 rem 0.013 rem 0.0003 rem 0.0005 rem Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, LLC, provides radiological protection services and oversight at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These services include radiation dose measurements for persons who enter areas where they may be exposed to radiation or radioactive material. The results are periodically reported to monitored individuals. The results listed are based on a radiation dose system developed by the International Commission on Radiation Protection. The system uses the terms "effective dose," "equivalent dose" and units of rem. You may be more familiar with the term "millirem" (mrem), which is 1/1000 of a rem.

375

Fat turnover in obese slower than average  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

9-04 9-04 For immediate release: 09/23/2011 | NR-11-09-04 Fat turnover in obese slower than average Anne M Stark, LLNL, (925) 422-9799, stark8@llnl.gov Printer-friendly This scanning electron micrograph image shows part of a lobule of adipose tissue (body fat). Adipose tissue is specialized connective tissue that functions as the major storage site for fat. Photo courtesy of David Gregory & Debbie Marshall/Wellcome Images LIVERMORE, Calif. -- It may be more difficult for obese people to lose fat because the "turnover" rate is much slower for those overweight than average weight individuals. New research in the Sept. 25 online edition of the journal Nature shows that the turnover (storage and loss rate) of fat in the human body is about 1 1/2 years compared to fat cells, which turnover about every 10 years,

376

Natural Gas Prices: Well Above Recent Averages  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5 5 Notes: The recent surge in spot prices at the Henry Hub are well above a typical range for 1998-1999 (in this context, defined as the average, +/- 2 standard deviations). Past price surges have been of short duration. The possibility of a downward price adjustment before the end of next winter is a source of considerable risk for storage operators who acquire gas at recent elevated prices. Storage levels in the Lower 48 States were 7.5 percent below the 5-year average (1995-1999) by mid-August (August 11), although the differential is only 6.4 percent in the East, which depends most heavily on storage to meet peak demand. Low storage levels are attributable, at least in part, to poor price incentives: high current prices combined with only small price

377

HIGH AVERAGE POWER OPTICAL FEL AMPLIFIERS.  

SciTech Connect

Historically, the first demonstration of the optical FEL was in an amplifier configuration at Stanford University [l]. There were other notable instances of amplifying a seed laser, such as the LLNL PALADIN amplifier [2] and the BNL ATF High-Gain Harmonic Generation FEL [3]. However, for the most part FELs are operated as oscillators or self amplified spontaneous emission devices. Yet, in wavelength regimes where a conventional laser seed can be used, the FEL can be used as an amplifier. One promising application is for very high average power generation, for instance FEL's with average power of 100 kW or more. The high electron beam power, high brightness and high efficiency that can be achieved with photoinjectors and superconducting Energy Recovery Linacs (ERL) combine well with the high-gain FEL amplifier to produce unprecedented average power FELs. This combination has a number of advantages. In particular, we show that for a given FEL power, an FEL amplifier can introduce lower energy spread in the beam as compared to a traditional oscillator. This properly gives the ERL based FEL amplifier a great wall-plug to optical power efficiency advantage. The optics for an amplifier is simple and compact. In addition to the general features of the high average power FEL amplifier, we will look at a 100 kW class FEL amplifier is being designed to operate on the 0.5 ampere Energy Recovery Linac which is under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory's Collider-Accelerator Department.

BEN-ZVI, ILAN, DAYRAN, D.; LITVINENKO, V.

2005-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

378

Proceedings of the Plutonium Futures ? The Science 2006 Conference  

SciTech Connect

Plutonium Futures--The Science 2006 provided opportunities to examine present knowledge of the chemical and physical properties of plutonium and other actinides in complex media and materials; to discuss the current and emerging science (chemistry, physics, materials science, nuclear science, and environmental effects) of plutonium and actinides relevant to enhancing global nuclear security; and to exchange ideas. This international conference also provided a forum for illustrating and enhancing capabilities and interests, and assessing issues in these areas. U.S. and international scientists, engineers, faculty, and students from universities, national laboratories, and DOE's nuclear complex were encouraged to participate and make technical contributions. The Conference ran from Sunday, July 9th through Thursday, July 13th. A popular aspect of the conference was the opening tutorial session on Sunday afternoon intended for students and scientists new to the area of plutonium research. The tutorial was well attended by novices and veterans alike, and featured such diverse topics as; plutonium metallurgy, plutonium in the environment, and international arms control and nonproliferation. Two plenary lectures began each morning and each afternoon session and highlighted the breakout sessions on coordination/organometallic chemistry, solid-state physics, environmental chemistry, materials science, separations and reprocessing, advanced fuels and waste forms, phase transformations, solution and gas-phase chemistry, compounds and complexes, electronic structure and physical properties, and more. Chemistry Highlights--Among the many chemistry highlights presented in this proceedings are the overview of concepts and philosophies on inert nuclear fuel matrices and concerns about the ever-increasing amounts of minor actinides and plutonium generated in the fuel cycle. The various ideas involve multiple reduction schemes for these materials, suggesting fuels for 'burning' or 'cradle-to-grave' accountability for various reactor types. Related work is presented on identification of the unique reaction mechanisms and identification of the intermediate products, including Pu(III), at the end of the PUREX process. In the important area of nuclear forensics, actual scenarios of nuclear materials confiscation and the successes of applying forensics protocols to determine attribution and possible intention are provided. In the area of reactor incidents, there is no other place on Earth like the Chernobyl Site Object Shelter and radioactive aerosol particle characterization studies reflect an important effort described herein. An additional report from another unique environmental site presents results on radionuclide monitoring, fate, and transport in the ecosystem of the Yenisei River in the Krasoyarsk region. In the area of nuclear waste disposal, a study of the ion irradiation damage to pyrochlore compounds with varying amounts of host elements and actinide dopants is presented. Papers on both the aqueous and nonaqueous chemistry of plutonium and other actinides are presented including anhydrous coordination chemistry and redox behavior in the presence of humic materials and the their sorption on common minerals in the environment. Also published herein are reports on the field of anhydrous coordination chemistry of the transuranic elements where there is scarce information. Solid-State and Materials Highlights--Plutonium solid-state and materials research is represented in these proceedings by a wealth of leading edge discovery class research. The breadth of this research is reflected in the topics covered: solid-state; materials science; superconductivity; phase changes, phonons, and entropy; electronic structure and physical properties; surface science and corrosion; and radiation effects, defects, impurities, and property changes. Indeed the scientific challenge and excitement of plutonium can best be highlighted by quoting the tutorial prospectus of Drs. Sarrao and Schwartz. 'Plutonium has long been re

Fluss, M; Hobart, D; Allan, P; Jarvinen, G

2007-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

379

Plutonium immobilization plant using glass in new facilities at the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

The Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP) accepts plutonium (Pu) from pit conversion and from non-pit sources and, through a glass immobilization process, converts the plutonium into an immobilized form that can be disposed of in a high level waste (HLW) repository. This immobilization process is shown conceptually in Figure 1-1. The objective is to make an immobilized form, suitable for geologic disposal, in which the plutonium is as inherently unattractive and inaccessible as the plutonium in spent fuel from commercial reactors.

DiSabatino, A.

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Impact Ionization Model Using Average Energy and Average Square Energy of Distribution Function  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Impact Ionization Model Using Average Energy and Average Square Energy of Distribution Function Ken relaxation length, v sat ø h''i (¸ 0:05¯m), the energy distribution function is not well described calculation of impact ionization coefficient requires the use of a high energy distribution function because

Dunham, Scott

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381

Determination of Plutonium Activity Concentrations and 240Pu/239Pu Atom Ratios in Brown Algae (Fucus distichus) Collected from Amchitka Island, Alaska.  

SciTech Connect

Plutonium-239 ({sup 239}Pu) and plutonium-240 ({sup 240}Pu) activity concentrations and {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios are reported for Brown Algae (Fucus distichus) collected from the littoral zone of Amchitka Island (Alaska) and at a control site on the Alaskan peninsula. Plutonium isotope measurements were performed in replicate using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). The average {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio observed in dried Fucus d. collected from Amchitka Island was 0.227 {+-} 0.007 (n=5) and compares with the expected {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio in integrated worldwide fallout deposition in the Northern Hemisphere of 0.1805 {+-} 0.0057 (Cooper et al., 2000). In general, the characteristically high {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu content of Fucus d. analyzed in this study appear to indicate the presence of a discernible basin-wide secondary source of plutonium entering the marine environment. Of interest to the study of plutonium source terms within the Pacific basin are reports of elevated {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios in fallout debris from high-yield atmospheric nuclear tests conducted in the Marshall Islands during the 1950s (Diamond et al., 1960), the wide range of {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio values (0.19 to 0.34) observed in sea water, sediments, coral and other environmental media from the North Pacific Ocean (Hirose et al., 1992; Buesseler, 1997) and updated estimates of the relative contributions of close-in and intermediate fallout deposition on oceanic inventories of radionuclidies, especially in the Northern Pacific Ocean (Hamilton, 2004).

Hamilton, T F; Brown, T A; Marchetti, A A; Martinelli, R E; Kehl, S R

2005-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

382

The Human Plutonium Injection Experiments William Moss and Roger Eckhardt  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

atomic bombs. The idea was to remove a worker from the job if and when it was determined that the he had Need for Plutonium In planning the development of the atomic bomb, scientists considered using two (and further reports appeared in the seventies), the names of the subjects were not dis- closed

Massey, Thomas N.

383

Plutonium in surface soil in the Hanford plant environs  

SciTech Connect

Analyses for plutonium in air, water, and foodstuffs have long been part of the routine surveillance program at Hanford. In addition, the ground and other surfaces have been surveyed for plutonium where there was possible deposition from stack emissions, waste spills, etc., using direct instrument measurements. Detectable plutonium deposition from the few such incidents has been confined to restricted areas. The surface contamination level that can be detected with the portable instruments is approximately 0.007 mu g Pu per 100 cm/ sup 2/. The desire to obtain additional information regarding any spread of Pu beyond the restricted areas, as well as to distinguish between any Pu in soil resulting from plant activities and that resulting from fallout led to a screening survey for plutonium in surface soils both on and off-site in February 1970. The results to date and the procedures followed are discussed. The limited amount of subsequent data has given resuits within the same range of Pu concentrations. (auth)

Corley, J.P.; Robertson, D.M.; Brauer, F.P.

1972-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

METHOD OF IMPROVING THE CARRIER PRECIPITATION OF PLUTONIUM  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Plutonium values can be recovered from acidic solutlons by adding lead nitrate, hydrogen fluoride, lantha num nitrate, and sulfurlc acid to the solution to form a carrler preclpitate. The lead sulfate formed improves the separatlon characteristics of the lanthanum fluoride carrier precipitate,

Kamack, H.J.; Balthis, J.H.

1958-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Plutonium Focus Area research and development plan. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) committed to a research and development program to support the technology needs for converting and stabilizing its nuclear materials for safe storage. The R and D Plan addresses five of the six material categories from the 94-1 Implementation Plan: plutonium (Pu) solutions, plutonium metals and oxides, plutonium residues, highly enriched uranium, and special isotopes. R and D efforts related to spent nuclear fuel (SNF) stabilization were specifically excluded from this plan. This updated plan has narrowed the focus to more effectively target specific problem areas by incorporating results form trade studies. Specifically, the trade studies involved salt; ash; sand, slag, and crucible (SS and C); combustibles; and scrub alloy. The plan anticipates possible disposition paths for nuclear materials and identifies resulting research requirements. These requirements may change as disposition paths become more certain. Thus, this plan represents a snapshot of the current progress and will continue to be updated on a regular basis. The paper discusses progress in safeguards and security, plutonium stabilization, special isotopes stabilization, highly-enriched uranium stabilization--MSRE remediation project, storage technologies, engineered systems, core technology, and proposed DOE/Russian technology exchange projects.

NONE

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Experience making mixed oxide fuel with plutonium from dismantled weapons  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mixed depleted UO{sub 2} and PuO{sub 2} (MOX) pellets prototypic of fuel proposed for use in commercial power reactors were made with plutonium recovered from dismantled weapons. We characterized plutonium dioxide powders that were produced at the Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (LANL and LLNL) using various methods to recover the plutonium from weapons parts and to convert It to oxide. The gallium content of the PUO{sub 2} prepared at LANL was the same as in the weapon alloy while the content of that prepared at LLNL was less. The MOX was prepared with a five weight percent plutonium content. We tested various MOX powders milling methods to improve homogeneity and found vibratory milling superior to ball milling. The sintering behavior of pellets made with the PuO{sub 2} from the two laboratories was similar. We evaluated the effects of gallium and of erbium and gadolinium, that are added to the MOX fuel as deplorable neutron absorbers, on the pellet fabrication process and an the sintered pellets. The gallium content of the sintered pellets was <10 ppm, suggesting that the gallium will not be an issue in the reactor, but that it will be an Issue in the operation of the fuel fabrication processing equipment unless it is removed from the PuO{sub 2} before it is blended with the UO{sub 2}.

Blair, H.T.; Ramsey, K.B.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

387

Conversion of mixed plutonium-uranium oxides. [COPRECAL  

SciTech Connect

Coprocessing is among the several reprocessing schemes being considered to improve the proliferation resistance of the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle. Coconversion of mixed oxides has been developed but not demonstrated on a production scale. AGNS developed a preliminary conceptual design for a production scale facility to convert mixed plutonium-uranium nitrate to the mixed oxide.

Thomas, L.L.

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Plutonium Consumption Program, CANDU Reactor Project final report  

SciTech Connect

DOE is investigating methods for long term dispositioning of weapons grade plutonium. One such method would be to utilize the plutonium in Mixed OXide (MOX) fuel assemblies in existing CANDU reactors. CANDU (Canadian Deuterium Uranium) reactors are designed, licensed, built, and supported by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), and currently use natural uranium oxide as fuel. The MOX spent fuel assemblies removed from the reactor would be similar to the spent fuel currently produced using natural uranium fuel, thus rendering the plutonium as unattractive as that in the stockpiles of commercial spent fuel. This report presents the results of a study sponsored by the DOE for dispositioning the plutonium using CANDU technology. Ontario Hydro`s Bruce A was used as reference. The fuel design study defined the optimum parameters to disposition 50 tons of Pu in 25 years (or 100 tons). Two alternate fuel designs were studied. Safeguards, security, environment, safety, health, economics, etc. were considered. Options for complete destruction of the Pu were also studied briefly; CANDU has a superior ability for this. Alternative deployment options were explored and the potential impact on Pu dispositioning in the former Soviet Union was studied. An integrated system can be ready to begin Pu consumption in 4 years, with no changes required to the reactors other than for safe, secure storage of new fuel.

Not Available

1994-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

389

Dissolution of plutonium metal in sulfamic acid at elevated temperatures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The kinetics of the dissolution of plutonium metal in sulfamic acid at varying temperatures was determined. Hydrogen off-gas rates and plutonium concentrations were determined as functions of time for different dissolving conditions. Nominal 2.2 kg Pu buttons (surface area, 171 cm/sup 2/) should yield solutions containing 190 to 260 g Pu/L and 3.3M sulfamate ion after a one-hour dissolving time at 70/sup 0/C. Hydrogen off-gas rates were calculated to vary from a high of 2.7L of gaseous hydrogen per minute (STP) at the beginning of a dissolving cycle to 50 mL of hydrogen gas per minute at the end of a one-hour dissolving time. Sludge formation, which is a problem at ambient temperatures, does not occur at dissolving temperatures of 60 to 80/sup 0/C. Dissolution curves suggest that the mechanism of dissolution changes at about 50 to 55/sup 0/C. Below this temperature, a surface coating of plutonium hydride may form; above this temperature, plutonium metal appears to be converted directly to Pu/sup 3 +/. 13 figures, 1 table.

Gray, L.W.

1979-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM VALUES FROM LIGHT ELEMENT VALUES  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for removing light element impurities from plutonium. It has been found that plutonium contaminated with impurities may be purified by converting the plutonium to a halide and purifying the halide by a fractional distillation whereby impurities may be distilled from the plutonium halide. A particularly effective method includes the step of forming a lower halide such as the trior tetrahalide and distilling the halide under conditions such that no decomposition of the halide occurs. Molecular distillation methods are particularly suitable for this process. The apparatus may comprise an evaporation plate with means for heating it and a condenser surface with means for cooling it. The condenser surface is placed at a distance from the evaporating surface less than the mean free path of molecular travel of the material being distilled at the pressure and temperature used. The entire evaporating system is evacuated until the pressure is about 10/sup -4/ millimeters of mercury. A high temperuture method is presented for sealing porous materials such as carbon or graphite that may be used as a support or a moderator in a nuclear reactor. The carbon body is subjected to two surface heats simultaneously in an inert atmosphere; the surface to be sealed is heated to 1500 degrees centigrade; and another surface is heated to 300 degrees centigrade, whereupon the carbon vaporizes and flows to the cooler surface where it is deposited to seal that surface. This method may be used to seal a nuclear fuel in the carbon structure.

Cunningham, B.B.

1957-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

391

Radiolytic gas generation in plutonium contaminated waste materials  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Many plutonium contaminated waste materials decompose into gaseous products because of exposure to alpha radiation. The gases generated (usually hydrogen) over long-storage periods may create hazardous conditions. To determine the extent of such hazards, knowing the gas generation yields is necessary. These yields were measured by contacting some common Rocky Flats Plant waste materials with plutonium and monitoring the enclosed atmospheres for extensive periods of time. The materials were Plexiglas, polyvinyl chloride, glove-box gloves, machining oil, carbon tetrachloride, chlorothene VG solvent, Kimwipes (dry and wet), polyethylene, Dowex-1 resin, and surgeon's gloves. Both /sup 239/Pu oxide and /sup 238/Pu oxide were used as radiation sources. The gas analyses were made by mass spectrometry and the results obtained were the total gas generation, the hydrogen generation, the oxygen consumption rate, and the gas composition over the entire storage period. Hydrogen was the major gas produced in most of the materials. The total gas yields varied from 0.71 to 16 cm/sup 3/ (standard temperature pressure) per day per curie of plutonium. The oxygen consumption rates varied from 0.0088 to 0.070 millimoles per day per gram of plutonium oxide-239 and from 0.0014 to 0.0051 millimoles per day per milligram /sup 238/Pu.

Kazanjian, A.R.

1976-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

392

Dissolution Behavior of Plutonium Containing Zirconia-Magnesia Ceramics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study explores the dissolution properties of zirconia-magnesia ceramics containing plutonium as the basis of an inert atrix nuclear fuel. The magnesium oxide phase remains pure MgO, while the zirconia incorporates a small amount of magnesium oxide along with all of the plutonium oxide and erbium oxide. The performance of the material under reactor and repository environments was examined. Reactor conditions are examined using a pressure vessel to expose the material to 300 degrees C water. To assess the performance of the material as a waste form it was submerged in 90 degrees C water for 1000 h. In both aqueous dissolution studies there was minimal release of less than 0.8 wt.% of plutonium from the material. To examine the potential for recycling, the dissolution behavior of the fuel matrix was examined in acidic solutions: pure nitric acid and a nitric acid-hydrofluoric acid-peroxide solution. Both acidic media exhibit potential for dissolving plutonium from the zirconia matrix. The experiments performed in this study are meant to lay a foundation for the chemical performance of zirconia-magnesia inert matrix fuel containing fissile material and burnable poison.

Kiel Holliday; Thomas Hartmann; Gary Cerefice; Ken Czerwinski

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

System specification for the plutonium stabilization and packaging system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document describes functional design requirements for the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (Pu SPS), as required by DOE contract DE-AC03-96SF20948 through contract modification 9 for equipment in Building 707 at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS).

NONE

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

TRUEX processing of plutonium analytical solutions at Argonne National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The TRUEX (TRansUranic EXtraction) solvent extraction process was developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for the Department of Energy. A TRUEX demonstration completed at ANL involved the processing of analytical and experimental waste generated there and at the New Brunswick Laboratory. A 20-stage centrifugal contactor was used to recover plutonium, americium, and uranium from the waste. Approximately 84 g of plutonium, 18 g of uranium, and 0.2 g of americium were recovered from about 118 liters of solution during four process runs. Alpha decontamination factors as high as 65,000 were attained, which was especially important because it allowed the disposal of the process raffinate as a low-level waste. The recovered plutonium and uranium were converted to oxide; the recovered americium solution was concentrated by evaporation to approximately 100 ml. The flowsheet and operational procedures were modified to overcome process difficulties. These difficulties included the presence of complexants in the feed, solvent degradation, plutonium precipitation, and inadequate decontamination factors during startup. This paper will discuss details of the experimental effort.

Chamberlain, D.B.; Conner, C.; Hutter, J.C.; Leonard, R.A.; Wygmans, D.G.; Vandegrift, G.F. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemical Technology Div.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

395

SEPARATION OF FISSION PRODUCTS FROM PLUTONIUM BY PRECIPITATION  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Fission product separation from hexavalent plutonium by bismuth phosphate precipitation of the fission products is described. The precipitation, according to this invention, is improved by coprecipitating ceric and zirconium phosphates (0.05 to 2.5 grams/liter) with the bismuth phosphate.

Seaborg, G.T.; Thompson, S.G.; Davidson, N.R.

1959-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Plutonium distribution: Summary of public and governmental support issues  

SciTech Connect

Obtaining strong public and governmental support for the plutonium disposition program and for the projects comprising the selected disposition options will be essential to the success of the program in meeting non-proliferation goals established as national policy. This paper summarizes issues related to public and governmental support for plutonium disposition. Recommendations are offered which rest on two fundamental assumptions: (1) public and political support derive from public trust and confidence, and (2) despite widespread support for U.S. non-proliferation goals, establishing and operating facilities to carry out the program will entail controversy. Documentation for the Administration`s policy on non-proliferation as it relates to plutonium disposition is cited and summarized as background for ongoing planning efforts by the Department of Energy (DOE). Consensus is a reasonable goal for efforts to secure public and governmental support for the plutonium disposition program and its elements; unanimity is very unlikely. The program will be aided by the popular recognition of the importance of the nation`s non-proliferation goals, the potential for an energy dividend if an energy production option is selected ({open_quotes}Swords to Plowshares{close_quotes} metaphor), the possibility of influencing disposition decisions in other countries, and the clear need to do something with the excess material ({open_quotes}the no action alternative{close_quotes} will not suffice).

Pasternak, A.

1995-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

397

Average Price of Natural Gas Production  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

. . Quantity and Average Price of Natural Gas Production in the United States, 1930-1996 (Volumes in Million Cubic Feet, Prices in Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Table Year Gross Withdrawals Used for Repressuring Nonhydro- carbon Gases Removed Vented and Flared Marketed Production Extraction Loss Dry Production Average Wellhead Price of Marketed Production 1930 ....................... NA NA NA NA 1,978,911 75,140 1,903,771 0.08 1931 ....................... NA NA NA NA 1,721,902 62,288 1,659,614 0.07 1932 ....................... NA NA NA NA 1,593,798 51,816 1,541,982 0.06 1933 ....................... NA NA NA NA 1,596,673 48,280 1,548,393 0.06 1934 ....................... NA NA NA NA 1,815,796 52,190 1,763,606 0.06 1935 ....................... NA NA NA NA 1,968,963 55,488 1,913,475 0.06 1936 ....................... 2,691,512 73,507 NA 392,528 2,225,477

398

Average values and dispersion (in parentheses)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Average values and dispersion (in parentheses) Average values and dispersion (in parentheses) Base-pair Parameters --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Shear Stretch Stagger Buckle Propeller Opening 3DNA A 0.01(0.23) -0.18(0.10) 0.02(0.25) -0.13(7.77) -11.79(4.14) 0.57(2.80) B 0.00(0.21) -0.15(0.12) 0.09(0.19) 0.53(6.74) -11.35(5.26) 0.63(3.05) CEHS A 0.01(0.23) -0.18(0.10) 0.02(0.25) -0.13(7.75) -11.82(4.14) 0.56(2.78) B 0.00(0.21) -0.14(0.12) 0.09(0.19) 0.53(6.73) -11.37(5.27) 0.62(3.03) CompDNA A 0.01(0.23) -0.18(0.10) 0.02(0.25) -0.12(7.70) -11.81(4.14) 0.56(2.79) B 0.00(0.21) -0.15(0.12) 0.09(0.19) 0.53(6.70) -11.37(5.26) 0.62(3.03) Curves A 0.01(0.23) -0.18(0.10) 0.02(0.25) -0.13(7.85) -11.76(4.12) 0.57(2.80)

399

LITERATURE REVIEW FOR OXALATE OXIDATION PROCESSES AND PLUTONIUM OXALATE SOLUBILITY  

SciTech Connect

A literature review of oxalate oxidation processes finds that manganese(II)-catalyzed nitric acid oxidation of oxalate in precipitate filtrate is a viable and well-documented process. The process has been operated on the large scale at Savannah River in the past, including oxidation of 20 tons of oxalic acid in F-Canyon. Research data under a variety of conditions show the process to be robust. This process is recommended for oxalate destruction in H-Canyon in the upcoming program to produce feed for the MOX facility. Prevention of plutonium oxalate precipitation in filtrate can be achieved by concentrated nitric acid/ferric nitrate sequestration of oxalate. Organic complexants do not appear practical to sequester plutonium. Testing is proposed to confirm the literature and calculation findings of this review at projected operating conditions for the upcoming campaign. H Canyon plans to commence conversion of plutonium metal to low-fired plutonium oxide in 2012 for eventual use in the Mixed Oxide Fuel (MOX) Facility. The flowsheet includes sequential operations of metal dissolution, ion exchange, elution, oxalate precipitation, filtration, and calcination. All processes beyond dissolution will occur in HB-Line. The filtration step produces an aqueous filtrate that may have as much as 4 M nitric acid and 0.15 M oxalate. The oxalate needs to be removed from the stream to prevent possible downstream precipitation of residual plutonium when the solution is processed in H Canyon. In addition, sending the oxalate to the waste tank farm is undesirable. This report addresses the processing options for destroying the oxalate in existing H Canyon equipment.

Nash, C.

2012-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

400

Locally Calibrated Probabilistic Temperature Forecasting Using Geostatistical Model Averaging and Local Bayesian Model Averaging  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors introduce two ways to produce locally calibrated grid-based probabilistic forecasts of temperature. Both start from the Global Bayesian model averaging (Global BMA) statistical postprocessing method, which has constant predictive bias ...

William Kleiber; Adrian E. Raftery; Jeffrey Baars; Tilmann Gneiting; Clifford F. Mass; Eric Grimit

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "30-day average plutonium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Geographic Gossip: Efficient Averaging for Sensor Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gossip algorithms for distributed computation are attractive due to their simplicity, distributed nature, and robustness in noisy and uncertain environments. However, using standard gossip algorithms can lead to a significant waste in energy by repeatedly recirculating redundant information. For realistic sensor network model topologies like grids and random geometric graphs, the inefficiency of gossip schemes is related to the slow mixing times of random walks on the communication graph. We propose and analyze an alternative gossiping scheme that exploits geographic information. By utilizing geographic routing combined with a simple resampling method, we demonstrate substantial gains over previously proposed gossip protocols. For regular graphs such as the ring or grid, our algorithm improves standard gossip by factors of $n$ and $\\sqrt{n}$ respectively. For the more challenging case of random geometric graphs, our algorithm computes the true average to accuracy $\\epsilon$ using $O(\\frac{n^{1.5}}{\\sqrt{\\log ...

Dimakis, Alexandros G; Wainwright, Martin J

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Manhattan Project: Seaborg and Plutonium Chemistry, Met Lab, 1942-1944  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Glenn T. Seaborg looks through a microscope at the world's first sample of pure plutonium, Met Lab, August 20, 1942. SEABORG AND PLUTONIUM CHEMISTRY Glenn T. Seaborg looks through a microscope at the world's first sample of pure plutonium, Met Lab, August 20, 1942. SEABORG AND PLUTONIUM CHEMISTRY (Met Lab, 1942-1944) Events > The Plutonium Path to the Bomb, 1942-1944 Production Reactor (Pile) Design, 1942 DuPont and Hanford, 1942 CP-1 Goes Critical, December 2, 1942 Seaborg and Plutonium Chemistry, 1942-1944 Final Reactor Design and X-10, 1942-1943 Hanford Becomes Operational, 1943-1944 While the Met Lab labored to make headway on pile (reactor) design, Glenn T. Seaborg (right) and his coworkers were trying to learn enough about transuranium chemistry to ensure that plutonium could be chemically separated from the uranium that would be irradiated in a production pile. Using lanthanum fluoride as a carrier, Seaborg isolated a weighable sample of plutonium in August 1942. At the same time, Isadore Perlman and William J. Knox explored the peroxide method of separation; John E. Willard studied various materials to determine which best adsorbed (gathered on its surface) plutonium; Theodore T. Magel and Daniel K. Koshland, Jr., researched solvent-extraction processes; and Harrison S. Brown and Orville F. Hill performed experiments into volatility reactions. Basic research on plutonium's chemistry continued as did work on radiation and fission products.

403

EXAFS and XANES analysis of plutonium and cerium edges from titanate ceramics for fissile materials disposal.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectra from the plutonium L{sub III} edge and XANES from the cerium L{sub II} edge in prototype titanate ceramic hosts. The titanate ceramics studied are based upon the hafnium-pyrochlore and zirconolite mineral structures and will serve as an immobilization host for surplus fissile materials, containing as much as 10 weight % fissile plutonium and 20 weight % (natural or depleted) uranium. Three ceramic formulations were studied: one employed cerium as a ''surrogate'' element, replacing both plutonium and uranium in the ceramic matrix, another formulation contained plutonium in a ''baseline'' ceramic formulation, and a third contained plutonium in a formulation representing a high-impurity plutonium stream. The cerium XANES from the surrogate ceramic clearly indicates a mixed III-IV oxidation state for the cerium. In contrast, XANES analysis of the two plutonium-bearing ceramics shows that the plutonium is present almost entirely as Pu(IV) and occupies the calcium site in the zirconolite and pyrochlore phases. The plutonium EXAFS real-space structure shows a strong second-shell peak, clearly distinct from that of PuO{sub 2}, with remarkably little difference in the plutonium crystal chemistry indicated between the baseline and high-impurity formulations.

Fortner, J. A.; Kropf, A. J.; Bakel, A. J.; Hash, M. C.; Aase, S. B.; Buck, E. C.; Chamerlain, D. B.

1999-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

404

Plutonium immobilization plant using ceramic in existing facilities at the Savannah River site  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP) accepts plutonium (Pu) from pit conversion and from non-pit sources, and through a ceramic immobilization process converts the plutonium into an immobilized form that can be disposed of in a high level waste (HLW) repository. This immobilization process is shown conceptually in Figure 1-1. The objective is to make an immobilized form, suitable for geologic disposal, in which the plutonium is as inherently unattractive and inaccessible as the plutonium in spent fuel from commercial reactors. The ceramic immobilization alternative presented in this report consists of first converting the surplus material to an oxide, followed by incorporating the plutonium oxide into a titanate-based ceramic material that is placed in metal cans.

DiSabatino, A., LLNL

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

U.S. and Russia Sign Plan for Russian Plutonium Disposition | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Sign Plan for Russian Plutonium Disposition Sign Plan for Russian Plutonium Disposition U.S. and Russia Sign Plan for Russian Plutonium Disposition November 19, 2007 - 4:31pm Addthis Will Eliminate Enough Russian Plutonium for Thousands of Nuclear Weapons WASHINGTON, DC -U.S. Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman and Russian Federal Atomic Energy Agency Director Sergey Kiriyenko have signed a joint statement outlining a plan to dispose of 34 metric tons of surplus plutonium from Russia's weapons program. Under the new plan, the United States will cooperate with Russia to convert Russian weapon-grade plutonium into mixed oxide fuel (MOX) and irradiate the MOX fuel in the BN-600 fast reactor, currently operating at the Beloyarsk nuclear power plant, and in the BN-800 fast reactor, currently under construction at the same site. The United States and Russia also

406

The United States Plutonium Balance, 1944-2009 | National Nuclear Security  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

United States Plutonium Balance, 1944-2009 | National Nuclear Security United States Plutonium Balance, 1944-2009 | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Continuing Management Reform Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Us Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Media Room Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Speeches Events Social Media Video Gallery Photo Gallery NNSA Archive Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog The United States Plutonium Balance, 1944-2009 Home > Our Mission > Managing the Stockpile > Plutonium Pits > The United States Plutonium Balance, 1944-2009 The United States Plutonium Balance, 1944-2009

407

Radioactive air emissions notice of construction for vertical calciner operation at the plutonium finishing plant  

SciTech Connect

This document serves as a notice of construction (NOC) for construction, installation, and operation of a vertical calciner to stabilize plutonium at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP)Complex, pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247-060. The PFP Complex activities are focused on the cleanout and stabilization of plutonium residue left from plutonium weapons material processing activities. The prime purpose of the vertical calciner is to convert plutonium acid solutions to a more stable plutonium oxide. A test calciner has been developed and put in place in the 234-5Z Building. Development testing of this vertical calciner is ongoing. A new vertical calciner will be assembled for actual stabilization operation in Room 230C of the 234-5Z Building. The test calciner may be upgraded or replaced as an alternative to building a new calciner in Room 230C.

Hays, C.B., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

408

PROCESS USING BISMUTH PHOSPHATE AS A CARRIER PRECIPITATE FOR FISSION PRODUCTS AND PLUTONIUM VALUES  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for separating plutonium from fission products carried therewith when plutonium in the reduced oxidation state is removed from a nitric acid solution of irradiated uranium by means of bismuth phosphate as a carrier precipitate. The bismuth phosphate carrier precipitate is dissolved by treatment with nitric acid and the plutonium therein is oxidized to the hexavalent oxidation state by means of potassium dichromate. Separation of the plutonium from the fission products is accomplished by again precipitating bismuth phosphate and removing the precipitate which now carries the fission products and a small percentage of the plutonium present. The amount of plutonium carried in this last step may be minimized by addition of sodium fluoride, so as to make the solution 0.03N in NaF, prior to the oxidation and prccipitation step.

Finzel, T.G.

1959-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

409

Plutonium Removal from Sweden: Fact Sheet | National Nuclear Security  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Removal from Sweden: Fact Sheet | National Nuclear Security Removal from Sweden: Fact Sheet | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Continuing Management Reform Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Us Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Media Room Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Speeches Events Social Media Video Gallery Photo Gallery NNSA Archive Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home > Media Room > Fact Sheets > Plutonium Removal from Sweden: Fact Sheet Fact Sheet Plutonium Removal from Sweden: Fact Sheet Mar 27, 2012 Sweden has been a global leader on nonproliferation, and was one of the

410

Good Practices for Ocupational Radiological Protection in Plutonium Facilities  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Not Measurement Not Measurement Sensitive DOE- STD-1128-2013 April 2013 DOE STANDARD GOOD PRACTICES FOR OCCUPATIONAL RADIOLOGICAL PROTECTION IN PLUTONIUM FACILITIES U.S. Department of Energy AREA SAFT Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. DOE-STD-1128-2013 This document is available on the Department of Energy Technical Standards Program Web Site at http://www.hss.energy.gov/nuclearsafety/techstds/ ii DOE-STD-1128-2013 Foreword This Technical Standard does not contain any new requirements. Its purpose is to provide information on good practices, update existing reference material, and discuss practical lessons learned relevant to the safe handling of plutonium. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) health

411

Stabilization, Packaging, and Storage of Plutonium-Bearing Materials  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DOE-STD-3013-2000 September 2000 Superseding DOE-STD-3013-99 November 1999 DOE STANDARD STABILIZATION, PACKAGING, AND STORAGE OF PLUTONIUM-BEARING MATERIALS U.S. Department of Energy AREA PACK Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. TS This document has been reproduced from the best available copy. Available to DOE and DOE contractors from ES&H Technical Information Services, U.S. Department of Energy, (800) 473-4375, fax: (301) 903-9823. Available to the public from the U.S. Department of Commerce, Technology Administration, National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161; (703) 605-6000. DOE-STD-3013-2000 iii ABSTRACT This Standard provides guidance for the stabilization, packaging and safe storage of plutonium-

412

Liquid-metal embrittlement of refractory metals by molten plutonium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Embrittlement by molten plutonium of the refractory metals and alloys W-25 wt % Re, tantalum, molybdenum, and Ta-10 wt % W was studied. At 900/sup 0/C and a strain rate of 10/sup -4/ s/sup -1/, the materials tested may be ranked in order of decreasing susceptibility to liquid-plutonium embrittlement as follows: molybdenum, W-25 wt % Re, Ta-10 wt % W, and tantalum. These materials exhibited a wide range in susceptibility. Embrittlement was found to exhibit a high degree of temperature and strain-rate dependence, and we present arguments that strongly support a stress-assisted, intergranular, liquid-metal corrosion mechanism. We also believe microstructure plays a key role in the extent of embrittlement. In the case of W-25 wt % Re, we have determined that a dealloying corrosion takes place in which rhenium is selectively withdrawn from the alloy.

Lesuer, D.R.; Bergin, J.B.; McInturff, S.A.; Kuhn, B.A.

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

STAINLESS STEEL INTERACTIONS WITH SALT CONTAINING PLUTONIUM OXIDES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Salt containing plutonium oxide materials are treated, packaged and stored within nested, stainless steel containers based on requirements established in the DOE 3013 Standard. The moisture limit for the stored materials is less than 0.5 weight %. Surveillance activities which are conducted to assess the condition of the containers and assure continuing 3013 container integrity include the destructive examination of a select number of containers to determine whether corrosion attack has occurred as a result of stainless steel interactions with salt containing plutonium oxides. To date, some corrosion has been observed on the innermost containers, however, no corrosion has been noted on the outer containers and the integrity of the 3013 container systems is not expected to be compromised over a 50 year storage lifetime.

Nelson, Z.; Chandler, G.; Dunn, K.; Stefek, T.; Summer, M.

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Deep burn strategy for the optimized incineration of reactor waste plutonium in pebble bed high temperature gas–cooled reactors / Serfontein D.E.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In this thesis advanced fuel cycles for the incineration, i.e. deep–burn, of weapons–grade plutonium, reactor–grade plutonium from pressurised light water reactors and reactor–grade plutonium +… (more)

Serfontein, Dawid Eduard.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

SEPARATION OF NEPTUNIUM FROM PLUTONIUM BY CHLORINATION AND SUBLIMATION  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for separating neptunium from plutonium. The method consists in chlorinating a mixture of the oxides of Np and Pu by contacting the mixture with carbon tetrachloride at about 500 icient laborato C. ln this manner the Np is converted to the tetrachlorlde and the Pu converted to the trichloride. Since NpCl/sub 4/ is more latile than PuCl/sub 3/, the separation ls effected by vaporing sad subsequently condenslng the NpCl/sub 4/.

Fried, S.M.

1958-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

416

Alternative Evaluation for the REDOX (202-S) Plutonium Loadout Hood  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Located in the 200 Areas is the inactive 202-S Reduction Oxidation (REDOX) Facility, which is managed by the Bechtel Hanford, Inc. Surveillance/Maintenance and Transition project. This facility is contaminated from nuclear material processes related to nuclear material separation from Hanford Site facility operations. This alternative evaluation report describes the alternatives and selection criteria based on the necessary protective requirements to maintain the REDOX Plutonium Loadout Hood in a safe and stable condition awaiting a final waste response action.

N. R. Kerr

1999-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

417

Clean Critical Experiment Benchmarks for Plutonium Recycle in LWRs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Government laboratories and private industry in the U.S. and in other countries have carried out or initiated programs to study and evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of recycling plutonium. The experimental measurements program provides benchmark neutronics data for use in assessing the accuracy of neutronics analysis methods for slightly enriched uranium lattices and for mixed oxide lattices. The lattice pitches were selected to provide configurations that were undermoderated, near optimum...

1978-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

System design document for the plutonium stabilization and packaging system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this system is to stabilize and package plutonium metals and oxides of greater than 50% wt, as well as other selected isotopes, in accordance with the requirements for DOE standards for safe storage of these materials for 50 years. This document describes the highest level design information and user characteristics from an operational perspective. It provides guidance for developing procurement and installation specifications, interface requirements, and test plans.

NONE

1996-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

419

Actinoid sorption from nitric acid onto stainless steel. 1. Plutonium sorption and deposition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Data are given on the sorption of plutonium from nitric acid onto 12Kh18N10T stainless steel. This is determined by the contact time, the temperature, the plutonium and nitric acid concentrations, and the element state. The uptake varies in the following sequence: Pu/sub h/>> Pu/sup (IV)/ > Pu/sup (VI)/ > Pu/sup (III)/. The plutonium deposition on reference specimens has been determined with periodic drying.

Sokhina, L.P.; Goncharuk, L.V.; Rovnyi, S.I.

1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Dose Rates from Plutonium Metal and Beryllium Metal in a 9975 Shipping Container  

SciTech Connect

A parametric study was performed of the radiation dose rates that might be produced if plutonium metal and beryllium metal were shipped in the 9975 shipping package. These materials consist of heterogeneous combinations plutonium metal and beryllium. The plutonium metal content varies up to 4.4 kilograms while the beryllium metal varies up to 4 kilograms. This paper presents the results of that study.

Nathan, S.J.

2002-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "30-day average plutonium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Anticipated Radiological Dose to Worker for Plutonium Stabilization and Handling at PFP - Project W-460  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This report provides estimates of the expected whole body and extremity radiological dose, expressed as dose equivalent (DE), to workers conducting planned plutonium (Pu) stabilization processes at the Hanford Site Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The report is based on a time and motion dose study commissioned for Project W-460, Plutonium Stabilization and Handling, to provide personnel exposure estimates for construction work in the PFP storage vault area plus operation of stabilization and packaging equipment at PFP.

Weiss, E V

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

PLATINUM HEXAFLUORIDE AND METHOD OF FLUORINATING PLUTONIUM CONTAINING MIXTURES THERE-WITH  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The preparation of platinum hexafluoride and its use as a fluorinating agent in a process for separating plutonium from fission products is presented. According to the invention, platinum is reacted with fluorine gas at from 900 to 1100 deg C to form platinum hexafluoride. The platinum hexafluoride is then contacted with the plutonium containing mixture at room temperature to form plutonium hexafluoride which is more volatile than the fission products fluorides and therefore can be isolated by distillation.

Malm, J.G.; Weinstock, B.; Claassen, H.H.

1959-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Manhattan Project: Piles and Plutonium, 1939-1942  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Enrico Fermi PILES AND PLUTONIUM Enrico Fermi PILES AND PLUTONIUM (1939-1942) Events > Early Government Support, 1939-1942 Einstein's Letter, 1939 Early Uranium Research, 1939-1941 Piles and Plutonium, 1939-1941 Reorganization and Acceleration, 1940-1941 The MAUD Report, 1941 A Tentative Decision to Build the Bomb, 1941-1942 The Uranium Committee's first report, issued on November 1, 1939, recommended that, despite the uncertainty of success, the government should immediately obtain four tons of graphite and fifty tons of uranium oxide. This recommendation led to the first outlay of government funds -- $6,000 in February 1940 -- and reflected the importance attached to the Fermi-Szilard pile (reactor) experiments already underway at Columbia University. Building upon the Fission chain reaction work performed in 1934 demonstrating the value of moderators in producing slow neutrons, Enrico Fermi thought that a mixture of the right moderator and natural uranium could produce a self-sustaining fission chain reaction. Fermi and Leo Szilard increasingly focused their attention on carbon in the form of graphite. Perhaps graphite could slow down, or moderate, the neutrons coming from the fission reaction, increasing the probability of their causing additional fissions in sustaining the chain reaction. A pile containing a large amount of natural uranium could then produce enough secondary neutrons to keep a reaction going.

424

Aqueous recovery of plutonium from pyrochemical processing residues  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pyrochemical processes provide rapid methods to reclaim plutonium from scrap residues. Frequently, however, these processes yield an impure plutonium product and waste residues that are contaminated with actinides and are therefore nondiscardable. The Savannah River Laboratory and Plant and the Rocky Flats Plant are jointly developing new processes using both pyrochemistry and aqueous chemistry to generate pure product and discardable waste. An example of residue being treated is that from the molten salt extraction (MSE), a mixture of NaCl, KCl, MgCl/sub 2/, PuCl/sub 3/, AmCl/sub 3/, PuO/sub 2/, and Pu/sup 0/. This mixture is scrubbed with molten aluminum containing a small amount of magnesium to produce a nonhomogeneous Al-Pu-Am-Mg alloy. This process, which rejects most of the NaCl-KCl-MgCl/sub 2/ salts, results in a product easily dissolved in 6M HNO/sub 3/ -0.1M HF. Any residual chloride in the product is removed by precipitation with Hg(I) followed by centrifuging. Plutonium and americium are then separated by the standard Purex process. The americium, initially diverted to the solvent extraction waste stream, can either be recovered or sent to waste.

Gray, L.W.; Gray, J.H.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Authorization basis supporting documentation for plutonium finishing plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The identification and definition of the authorization basis for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) facility and operations are essential for compliance to DOE Order 5480.21, Unreviewed Safety Questions. The authorization basis, as defined in the Order, consists of those aspects of the facility design basis, i.e., the structures, systems and components (SSCS) and the operational requirements that are considered to be important to the safety of operations and are relied upon by DOE to authorize operation of the facility. These facility design features and their function in various accident scenarios are described in WHC-SD-CP-SAR-021, Plutonium Finishing Plant Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR), Chapter 9, `Accident Analysis.` Figure 1 depicts the relationship of the Authorization Basis to its components and other information contained in safety documentation supporting the Authorization Basis. The PFP SSCs that are important to safety, collectively referred to as the `Safety Envelope` are discussed in various chapters of the FSAR and in WHC-SD-CP-OSR-010, Plutonium Finishing Plant Operational Safety Requirements. Other documents such as Criticality Safety Evaluation Reports (CSERS) address and support some portions of the Authorization Basis and Safety Envelope.

King, J.P., Fluor Daniel Hanford

1997-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

426

EVALUATION OF REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR PLUTONIUM CONTAMINATED SOIL  

SciTech Connect

Soils contaminated with radionuclides are an environmental concern at most Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Clean up efforts at many of these sites are ongoing using conventional remediation techniques. These remediation techniques are often expensive and may not achieve desired soil volume reduction. Several studies using alternative remediation techniques have been performed on plutonium-contaminated soils from the Nevada Test Site. Results to date exhibit less than encouraging results, but these processes were often not fully optimized, and other approaches are possible. Clemson University and teaming partner Waste Policy Institute, through a cooperative agreement with the National Environmental Technologies Laboratory, are assisting the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in re-evaluating technologies that have the potential of reducing the volume of plutonium contaminated soil. This efforts includes (1) a through literature review and summary of (a) NTS soil characterization and (b) volume reduction treatment technologies applied to plutonium-contaminated NTS soils, (2) an interactive workshop for vendors, representatives from DOE sites and end-users, and (3) bench scale demonstration of applicable vendor technologies at the Clemson Environmental Technologies Laboratory.

Hoeffner, S. L.; Navratil, J. D.; Torrao, G.; Smalley, R.

2002-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

427

Performance assessment of DOE spent nuclear fuel and surplus plutonium  

SciTech Connect

Yucca Mountain, in southern Nevada, is under consideration by the US Department of Energy (DOE) as a potential site for the disposal of the nation`s radioactive wastes in a geologic repository. The wastes consist of commercial spent fuel, DOE spent nuclear fuel (SNF), high level waste (HLW), and surplus plutonium. The DOE was mandated by Congress in the fiscal 1997 Energy and Water Appropriations Act to complete a viability assessment (VA) of the repository in September of 1998. The assessment consists of a preliminary design concept for the critical elements of the repository, a total system performance assessment (TSPA), a plan and cost estimate for completion of the license application, and an estimate of the cost to construct and operate the repository. This paper presents the results of the sensitivity analyses that were conducted to examine the behavior of DOE SNF and plutonium waste forms in the environment of the base case repository that was modeled for the TSPA-VA. Fifteen categories of DOE SNF and two Plutonium waste forms were examined and their contribution to radiation dose to humans was evaluated.

Duguid, J.O.; Vallikat, V.; McNeish, J.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

SMALL-SCALE TESTING OF PLUTONIUM (IV) OXALATE PRECIPITATION AND CALCINATION TO PLUTONIUM OXIDE TO SUPPORT THE MOX FEED MISSION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The H-Canyon facility will be used to dissolve Pu metal for subsequent purification and conversion to plutonium dioxide (PuO{sub 2}) using Phase II of HB-Line. To support the new mission, SRNL conducted a series of experiments to produce calcined plutonium (Pu) oxide and measure the physical properties and water adsorption of that material. This data will help define the process operating conditions and material handling steps for HB-Line. An anion exchange column experiment produced 1.4 L of a purified 52.6 g/L Pu solution. Over the next nine weeks, seven Pu(IV) oxalate precipitations were performed using the same stock Pu solution, with precipitator feed acidities ranging from 0.77 M to 3.0 M nitric acid and digestion times ranging from 5 to 30 minutes. Analysis of precipitator filtrate solutions showed Pu losses below 1% for all precipitations. The four larger precipitation batches matched the target oxalic acid addition time of 44 minutes within 4 minutes. The three smaller precipitation batches focused on evaluation of digestion time and the oxalic acid addition step ranged from 25-34 minutes because of pump limitations in the low flow range. Following the precipitations, 22 calcinations were performed in the range of 610-690 C, with the largest number of samples calcined at either 650 or 635 C. Characterization of the resulting PuO{sub 2} batches showed specific surface areas in the range of 5-14 m{sup 2}/g, with 16 of the 22 samples in the range of 5-10 m2/g. For samples analyzed with typical handling (exposed to ambient air for 15-45 minutes with relative humidities of 20-55%), the moisture content as measured by Mass Spectrometry ranged from 0.15 to 0.45 wt % and the total mass loss at 1000 C, as measured by TGA, ranged from 0.21 to 0.58 wt %. For the samples calcined between 635 and 650 C, the moisture content without extended exposure ranged from 0.20 to 0.38 wt %, and the TGA mass loss ranged from 0.26 to 0.46 wt %. Of these latter samples, the samples calcined at 650 C generally had lower specific surface areas and lower moisture contents than the samples calcined at 635 C, which matches expectations from the literature. Taken together, the TGA-MS results for samples handled at nominally 20-50% RH, without extended exposure, indicate that the Pu(IV) oxalate precipitation process followed by calcination at 635-650 C appears capable of producing PuO{sub 2} with moisture content < 0.5 wt% as required by the 3013 Standard. Exposures of PuO{sub 2} samples to ambient air for 3 or more hours generally showed modest mass gains that were primarily gains in moisture content. These results point to the need for a better understanding of the moisture absorption of PuO{sub 2} and serve as a warning that extended exposure times, particularly above the 50% RH level observed in this study will make the production of PuO{sub 2} with less than 0.5 wt % moisture more challenging. Samples analyzed in this study generally contained approximately 2 monolayer equivalents of moisture. In this study, the bulk of the moisture released from samples below 300 C, as did a significant portion of the CO{sub 2}. Samples in this study consistently released a minor amount of NO in the 40-300 C range, but no samples released CO or SO{sub 2}. TGA-MS results also showed that MS moisture content accounted for 80 {+-} 8% of the total mass loss at 1000 C measured by the TGA. The PuO{sub 2} samples produced had particles sizes that typically ranged from 0.2-88 {micro}m, with the mean particle size ranging from 6.4-9.3 {micro}m. The carbon content of ten different calcination batches ranged from 190-480 {micro}g C/g Pu, with an average value of 290 {micro}g C/g Pu. A statistical review of the calcination conditions and resulting SSA values showed that in both cases tested, calcination temperature had a significant effect on SSA, as expected from literature data. The statistical review also showed that batch size had a significant effect on SSA, but the narrow range of batch sizes tested is a compelling reason to set aside that result until tests

Crowder, M.; Pierce, R.; Scogin, J.; Daniel, G.; King, W.

2012-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

429

SMALL-SCALE TESTING OF PLUTONIUM (IV) OXALATE PRECIPITATION AND CALCINATION TO PLUTONIUM OXIDE TO SUPPORT THE MOX FEED MISSION  

SciTech Connect

The H-Canyon facility will be used to dissolve Pu metal for subsequent purification and conversion to plutonium dioxide (PuO{sub 2}) using Phase II of HB-Line. To support the new mission, SRNL conducted a series of experiments to produce calcined plutonium (Pu) oxide and measure the physical properties and water adsorption of that material. This data will help define the process operating conditions and material handling steps for HB-Line. An anion exchange column experiment produced 1.4 L of a purified 52.6 g/L Pu solution. Over the next nine weeks, seven Pu(IV) oxalate precipitations were performed using the same stock Pu solution, with precipitator feed acidities ranging from 0.77 M to 3.0 M nitric acid and digestion times ranging from 5 to 30 minutes. Analysis of precipitator filtrate solutions showed Pu losses below 1% for all precipitations. The four larger precipitation batches matched the target oxalic acid addition time of 44 minutes within 4 minutes. The three smaller precipitation batches focused on evaluation of digestion time and the oxalic acid addition step ranged from 25-34 minutes because of pump limitations in the low flow range. Following the precipitations, 22 calcinations were performed in the range of 610-690 C, with the largest number of samples calcined at either 650 or 635 C. Characterization of the resulting PuO{sub 2} batches showed specific surface areas in the range of 5-14 m{sup 2}/g, with 16 of the 22 samples in the range of 5-10 m2/g. For samples analyzed with typical handling (exposed to ambient air for 15-45 minutes with relative humidities of 20-55%), the moisture content as measured by Mass Spectrometry ranged from 0.15 to 0.45 wt % and the total mass loss at 1000 C, as measured by TGA, ranged from 0.21 to 0.58 wt %. For the samples calcined between 635 and 650 C, the moisture content without extended exposure ranged from 0.20 to 0.38 wt %, and the TGA mass loss ranged from 0.26 to 0.46 wt %. Of these latter samples, the samples calcined at 650 C generally had lower specific surface areas and lower moisture contents than the samples calcined at 635 C, which matches expectations from the literature. Taken together, the TGA-MS results for samples handled at nominally 20-50% RH, without extended exposure, indicate that the Pu(IV) oxalate precipitation process followed by calcination at 635-650 C appears capable of producing PuO{sub 2} with moisture content < 0.5 wt% as required by the 3013 Standard. Exposures of PuO{sub 2} samples to ambient air for 3 or more hours generally showed modest mass gains that were primarily gains in moisture content. These results point to the need for a better understanding of the moisture absorption of PuO{sub 2} and serve as a warning that extended exposure times, particularly above the 50% RH level observed in this study will make the production of PuO{sub 2} with less than 0.5 wt % moisture more challenging. Samples analyzed in this study generally contained approximately 2 monolayer equivalents of moisture. In this study, the bulk of the moisture released from samples below 300 C, as did a significant portion of the CO{sub 2}. Samples in this study consistently released a minor amount of NO in the 40-300 C range, but no samples released CO or SO{sub 2}. TGA-MS results also showed that MS moisture content accounted for 80 {+-} 8% of the total mass loss at 1000 C measured by the TGA. The PuO{sub 2} samples produced had particles sizes that typically ranged from 0.2-88 {micro}m, with the mean particle size ranging from 6.4-9.3 {micro}m. The carbon content of ten different calcination batches ranged from 190-480 {micro}g C/g Pu, with an average value of 290 {micro}g C/g Pu. A statistical review of the calcination conditions and resulting SSA values showed that in both cases tested, calcination temperature had a significant effect on SSA, as expected from literature data. The statistical review also showed that batch size had a significant effect on SSA, but the narrow range of batch sizes tested is a compelling reason to set aside that result until tests

Crowder, M.; Pierce, R.; Scogin, J.; Daniel, G.; King, W.

2012-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

430

Table 5B. Commercial Average Monthly Bill by Census Division ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Home > Electricity > Electric Sales, Revenue, and Price > Commercial Average Monthly Bill by Census Division, and State: Table 5B. Commercial Average Monthly Bill by ...

431

On the String Averaging Method for Sparse Common Fixed Points ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Jul 10, 2008 ... gate a string-averaging algorithmic scheme that favorably handles the ... are special cases of the string-averaging and of the BIP algorithmic ...

432

Table 5A. Residential Average Monthly Bill by Census Division ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table 5A. Residential Average Monthly Bill by Census Division, and State, 2009: Census Division State Number of Consumers Average Monthly Consumption ...

433

Average summer gasoline prices expected to be slightly lower ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

The retail price for regular gasoline is expected to average $3.63 per gallon during this summer driving season, slightly below average prices over ...

434

Table 5B. Commercial average monthly bill by census division...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

" Census Division " " State ","Number of Consumers "," Average Monthly Consumption (kWh)","Price (Cents per Kilowatthour)","Average Monthly Bill (Dollar and cents)" "New...

435

PROCESS OF SECURING PLUTONIUM IN NITRIC ACID SOLUTIONS IN ITS TRIVALENT OXIDATION STATE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

>Various processes for the recovery of plutonium require that the plutonium be obtalned and maintained in the reduced or trivalent state in solution. Ferrous ions are commonly used as the reducing agent for this purpose, but it is difficult to maintain the plutonium in a reduced state in nitric acid solutions due to the oxidizing effects of the acid. It has been found that the addition of a stabilizing or holding reductant to such solution prevents reoxidation of the plutonium. Sulfamate ions have been found to be ideally suitable as such a stabilizer even in the presence of nitric acid.

Thomas, J.R.

1958-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

436

DOE Will Dispose of 34 Metric Tons of Plutonium by Turning it...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

in nuclear reactors. The decision follows an exhaustive Administration review of non-proliferation programs, including alternative technologies to dispose of surplus plutonium to...

437

DISSOLUTION OF A CERIUM-TYPE PLUTONIUM-CONTAINING FLUORIDE CARRIER  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The dissolution of a plutonium-containing lanthanum or cerous fluoride carrier precipitate by means of an aqueous, preferably acid, solution of ferric ions is described. (AEC)

Wahl, A.C.

1961-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

GENII dose calculations for offsite maximum individual and populations from Plutonium Finishing Plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Document describes the potential dose consequences to the offsite maximum individual and population for ground and stack level releases at the offsite receptors from the Plutonium Finishing Plant.

Nguyen, L.V.

1995-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

439

Slurry calcination process for conversion of aqueous uranium and plutonium to a mixed oxide powder  

SciTech Connect

Pilot plant studies indicate that a slurry calcination process for conversion of uranium and plutonium solutions to a mixed oxide powder can be operated at a plant scale.

Jones, M K; Jenkins, W J

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Site Selection for Surplus Plutonium Disposition Facilities at the Savannah River Site  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this study is to identify, assess, and rank potential sites for the proposed Surplus Plutonium Disposition Facilities complex at the Savannah River Site.

Wike, L.D.

2000-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "30-day average plutonium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

METHOD OF SEPARATING TETRAVALENT PLUTONIUM VALUES FROM CERIUM SUB-GROUP RARE EARTH VALUES  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is presented for separating plutonium from the cerium sub-group of rare earths when both are present in an aqueous solution. The method consists in adding an excess of alkali metal carbonate to the solution, which causes the formation of a soluble plutonium carbonate precipitate and at the same time forms an insoluble cerium-group rare earth carbonate. The pH value must be adjusted to bctween 5.5 and 7.5, and prior to the precipitation step the plutonium must be reduced to the tetravalent state since only tetravalent plutonium will form the soluble carbonate complex.

Duffield, R.B.; Stoughton, R.W.

1959-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

A Major Advance in Understanding Plutonium | U.S. DOE Office...  

Office of Science (SC) Website

Laboratory, with collaborating scientists from the Japan Atomic Energy Agency, has led to the discovery of the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signature for plutonium, the...

443

SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM FROM FISSION PRODUCTS BY A COLLOID REMOVAL PROCESS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is given for separating plutonium from uranium fission products. An acidic aqueous solution containing plutonium and uranium fission products is subjected to a process for separating ionic values from colloidal matter suspended therein while the pH of the solution is maintained between 0 and 4. Certain of the fission products, and in particular, zirconium, niobium, lanthanum, and barium are in a colloidal state within this pH range, while plutonium remains in an ionic form, Dialysis, ultracontrifugation, and ultrafiltration are suitable methods of separating plutonium ions from the colloids.

Schubert, J.

1960-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

444

Texas Gulf Coast Refinery District API Gravity (Weighted Average ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Texas Gulf Coast Refinery District API Gravity (Weighted Average) of Crude Oil Input to Refineries (Degree)

445

Plutonium working group report on environmental, safety and health vulnerabilities associated with the Department`s plutonium storage. Volume II, part 7: Mound working group assessment team report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This is the report of a visit to the Mound site by the Working Group Assessment Team (WGAT) to assess plutonium vulnerabilities. Purposes of the visit were: to review results of the site`s self assessment of current practices for handling and storing plutonium; to conduct an independent assessment of these practices; to reconcile differences and assemble a final list of vulnerabilities; to calculate consequences and probability for each vulnerability; and to issue a report to the Working Group. This report, representing completion of the Mound visit, will be compiled along with those from all other sites with plutonium inventories as part of a final report to the Secretary of Energy.

NONE

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Comparison of 30-Day Integrations with and without Cloud-Radiation Interaction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A parameterization package for cloud-radiation interaction is incorporated into a spectral general circulation model (GCM). Fractional cloud amount is predicted quasi-empirically; cloud optical depth is specified for warm clouds and anvil cirrus, ...

C. T. Gordon

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

LOS ALAMOS SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY MAGAZINE OCTOBER 2012 Plutonium's Magic Frequency  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the primordial gas cloud that gave rise to our solar system, all versions of plutonium's nucleus (all isotopes fission and nuclear fusion, the latter being when two light nuclei merge into one. For fusion to happen light-water nuclear reactor comes from plutonium. The isotope Pu-238 is used as a power and heat source

448

Measurement of plutonium in spent nuclear fuel by self-induced x-ray fluorescence  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Direct measurement of the plutonium content in spent nuclear fuel is a challenging problem in non-destructive assay. The very high gamma-ray flux from fission product isotopes overwhelms the weaker gamma-ray emissions from plutonium and uranium, making passive gamma-ray measurements impossible. However, the intense fission product radiation is effective at exciting plutonium and uranium atoms, resulting in subsequent fluorescence X-ray emission. K-shell X-rays in the 100 keV energy range can escape the fuel and cladding, providing a direct signal from uranium and plutonium that can be measured with a standard germanium detector. The measured plutonium to uranium elemental ratio can be used to compute the plutonium content of the fuel. The technique can potentially provide a passive, non-destructive assay tool for determining plutonium content in spent fuel. In this paper, we discuss recent non-destructive measurements of plutonium X-ray fluorescence (XRF) signatures from pressurized water reactor spent fuel rods. We also discuss how emerging new technologies, like very high energy resolution microcalorimeter detectors, might be applied to XRF measurements.

Hoover, Andrew S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rudy, Cliff R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tobin, Steve J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Charlton, William S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stafford, A [TEXAS A& M; Strohmeyer, D [TEXAS A& M; Saavadra, S [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

A Preponderance of Elastic Properties of Alpha Plutonium Measured Via Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Samples of {alpha} plutonium were fabricated at the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Plutonium Facility. Cylindrical samples were machined from cast pucks. Precision immersion density and resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS) measurements were completed on 27 new samples, yielding elastic moduli measurements. Mechanical tests were performed in compression yielding stress-strain curves as a function of rate, temperature and phase.

Saleh, Tarik A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Farrow, Adam M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Freibert, Franz J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

450

Conversion of plutonium scrap and residue to boroilicate glass using the GMODS process  

SciTech Connect

Plutonium scrap and residue represent major national and international concerns because (1) significant environmental, safety, and health (ES&H) problems have been identified with their storage; (2) all plutonium recovered from the black market in Europe has been from this category; (3) storage costs are high; and (4) safeguards are difficult. It is proposed to address these problems by conversion of plutonium scrap and residue to a CRACHIP (CRiticality, Aerosol, and CHemically Inert Plutonium) glass using the Glass Material Oxidation and Dissolution System (GMODS). CRACHIP refers to a set of requirements for plutonium storage forms that minimize ES&H concerns. The concept is several decades old. Conversion of plutonium from complex chemical mixtures and variable geometries into a certified, qualified, homogeneous CRACHIP glass creates a stable chemical form that minimizes ES&H risks, simplifies safeguards and security, provides an easy-to-store form, decreases storage costs, and allows for future disposition options. GMODS is a new process to directly convert metals, ceramics, and amorphous solids to glass; oxidize organics with the residue converted to glass; and convert chlorides to borosilicate glass and a secondary sodium chloride stream. Laboratory work has demonstrated the conversion of cerium (a plutonium surrogate), uranium (a plutonium surrogate), Zircaloy, stainless steel, and other materials to glass. GMODS is an enabling technology that creates new options. Conventional glassmaking processes require conversion of feeds to oxide-like forms before final conversion to glass. Such chemical conversion and separation processes are often complex and expensive.

Forsberg, C.W.; Beahm, E.C.; Parker, G.W.; Rudolph, J.; Elam, K.R.; Ferrada, J.J.

1995-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

451

Safety issues in fabricating mixed oxide fuel using surplus weapons plutonium  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents an assessment of the safety issues and implications of fabricating mixed oxide (MOX) fuel using surplus weapons plutonium. The basis for this assessment is the research done at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in identifying and resolving the technical issues surrounding the production of PuO{sub 2} feed, removal of gallium from the PuO{sub 2} feed, the fabrication of test fuel, and the work done at the LANL plutonium processing facility. The use of plutonium in MOX fuel has been successfully demonstrated in Europe, where the experience has been almost exclusively with plutonium separated from commercial spent nuclear fuel. This experience in safely operating MOX fuel fabrication facilities directly applies to the fabrication and irradiation of MOX fuel made from surplus weapons plutonium. Consequently, this paper focuses on the technical difference between plutonium from surplus weapons, and light-water reactor recycled plutonium. Preliminary assessments and research lead to the conclusion that no new process or product safety concerns will arise from using surplus weapons plutonium in MOX fuel.

Buksa, J.; Badwan, F.; Barr, M.; Motley, F.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Clean Critical Experiment Benchmarks for Plutonium Recycle in LWRs (Foil Activation Studies)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to provide benchmark information for testing fuel-cycle analysis methods and nuclear data libraries, EPRI supported a series of critical lattice experiments at Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories' plutonium recycle critical facility. These experiments involved water-moderated uniform uranium oxide and mixed (uranium-plutonium) oxide critical lattices. This volume presents the foil activation data obtained from this experimental program.

1978-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

EIS-0283-S2: Surplus Plutonium Disposition Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This EIS analyzes the potential environmental impacts associated with changes to the surplus plutonium disposition program, including changes to the inventory of surplus plutonium and proposed new alternatives. The original EIS is available at http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/eis-0283-final-environmental-impact-sta....

454

SEPARATION OF FISSION PRODUCT VALUES FROM THE HEXAVALENT PLUTONIUM BY CARRIER PRECIPITATION  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved precipitation of fission products on bismuth phosphate from an aqueous mineral acid solution also containing hexavalent plutonium by incorporating, prior to bismuth phosphate precipitation, from 0.05 to 2.5 grams/ liter of zirconium phosphate, niobium oxide. and/or lanthanum fluoride is described. The plutonium remains in solution.

Davies, T.H.

1959-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

455

History and stabilization of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) complex, Hanford Site  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The 231-Z Isolation Building or Plutonium Metallurgy Building is located in the Hanford Site`s 200 West Area, approximately 300 yards north of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) (234-5 Building). When the Hanford Engineer Works (HEW) built it in 1944 to contain the final step for processing plutonium, it was called the Isolation Building. At that time, HEW used a bismuth phosphate radiochemical separations process to make `AT solution,` which was then dried and shipped to Los Alamos, New Mexico. (AT solution is a code name used during World War II for the final HEW product.) The process was carried out first in T Plant and the 224-T Bulk Reduction Building and B Plant and the 224-B Bulk Reduction Building. The 224-T and -B processes produced a concentrated plutonium nitrate stream, which then was sent in 8-gallon batches to the 231-Z Building for final purification. In the 231-Z Building, the plutonium nitrate solution underwent peroxide `strikes` (additions of hydrogen peroxide to further separate the plutonium from its carrier solutions), to form the AT solution. The AT solution was dried and shipped to the Los Alamos Site, where it was made into metallic plutonium and then into weapons hemispheres.` The 231-Z Building began `hot` operations (operations using radioactive materials) with regular runs of plutonium nitrate on January 16, 1945.

Gerber, M.S., Fluor Daniel Hanford

1997-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

456

Functional Design Criteria plutonium stabilization and handling (PUSH) project W-460  

SciTech Connect

This Functional Design Criteria (FDC) contains information to guide the design of the Stabilization and Packaging Equipment necessary to oxidize and package the remaining plutonium-bearing Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) currently in the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) inventory. The FDC also guides the design of vault modifications to allow storage of 3013 packages of stabilized SNM for up to 50 years.

NELSON, D.W.

1999-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

457

A HOST PHASE FOR THE DISPOSAL OF WEAPONS PLUTONIUM  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Research was conducted into the possible use of zircon (ZrSiO{sub 4}) as a host phase for storage or disposal of excess weapons plutonium. Zircon is one of the most chemically durable minerals. Its structure can accommodate a variety of elements, including plutonium and uranium. Natural zircon contains uranium and thorium together in different quantities, usually in the range of less than one weight percent up to several weight percent. Zircon occurs in nature as a crystalline or a partially to fully metamict mineral, depending on age and actinide element concentration, i.e., on radiation damage. These zircon samples have been studied extensively and the results are documented in the literature in terms of radiation damage to the crystal structure and related property changes, e.g., density, hardness, loss of uranium and lead, etc. Thus, a unique suite of natural analogues are available to describe the effect of decay of {sup 239}Pu on zircon's structure and how zircon's physical and chemical properties will be affected over very long periods of time. Actually, the oldest zircon samples known are over 3 billion years old. This period covers the time for decay of {sup 239}Pu (half-life 24,300 yr.) and most of its daughter {sup 235}U (half-life 700 million yr.). Because of its chemical durability, even under extreme geological conditions, zircon is the most widely used mineral for geochronological dating (7,000 publications). It is the oldest dated mineral on earth and in the universe. Zircon has already been doped with about 10 weight percent of plutonium. Pure PuSiO{sub 4} has also been synthesized and has the same crystal structure as zircon. However, use of zircon as a storage medium or waste form for plutonium requires further materials characterization. Experiments can either be conducted in laboratories where plutonium can be handled or plutonium can be simulated by other elements, and experiments can be done under less restricted conditions. The authors conducted work with zircon doped with thorium, uranium and cerium, respectively. They synthesized various zircon compositions and studied the solid solution properties of mixed (Zr,X)SiO{sub 4} [X represents Th, U, Ce, respectively]. They measured the dissolution rate of pure crystalline zircon at elevated temperatures and of an amorphous hydrated zircon. This final report together with two previous annual reports summarize the accomplishments made in two areas: (1) synthesis of zircon solid solutions with Th, U, and Ce; and (2) measurement of the chemical durability of zircon. The focus of the final report is on the measurement of zircon's dissolution rate in water and on the determination of volubility limits of Th, U, and Ce in zircon.

WERNER LUTZE; K. B. HELEAN; W. L. GONG - UNIVERSITY OF NEW MEXICO RODNEY C. EWING - UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Passive NMIS Measurements to Estimate the Shape of Plutonium Assemblies  

SciTech Connect

A new technique to estimate the shape attribute of plutonium assemblies using the Nuclear Materials Identification System (NMIS) is described. The proposed method possesses a number of advantages. It is passive no external radiation source is required to estimate the shape of plutonium assemblies. Instead, inherent gamma and neutron emissions from spontaneous fission of {sup 240}Pu and subsequent induced fission of {sup 239}Pu are detected to estimate the shape attribute. The technique is also stationary: shape is estimated without scanning the assembly by moving the detectors relative to the assembly. The proposed method measures third order correlations between triplets of gamma/neutron-sensitive detectors. The real coincidence of a pair of gammas is used as a ''trigger'' to approximately identify the time of a spontaneous or induced fission event. The spatial location of this fission event is inferred from the real coincidence of a subsequent neutron with the initial pair of correlated gammas by using the neutron's time-of-flight (approximately the delay between the gamma pair and the neutron) and the fission neutron spectra of {sup 240}Pu and {sup 239}Pu. The spatial distribution of fission sites and hence the approximate shape of the plutonium assembly is thereby inferred by measuring the distribution of a large number of these correlated triplets. Proof-of-principle measurements were performed using {sup 252}Cf as a surrogate for {sup 240}Pu to demonstrate that the technique is feasible. For the simple shapes approximated with {sup 252}Cf sources, the measurements showed that the proposed method is capable of correctly identifying the shape and accurately estimating its size to within a few percent of actual.

Mattingly, J.K.; Chiang, L.G.; March-Leuba, J.A.; Mihalczo, J.T.; Mullens, J.A.; Perez, R.B.; Valentine, T.E.

1999-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

459

Investigation into the feasibility of alternative plutonium shipping forms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), operated for the Department of Energy by the Battelle Memorial Institute, is conducting a study for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission on the feasibility of altering current plutonium shipping forms to reduce or eliminate the airborne dispersibility of PuO/sub 2/ which might occur during a shipping accident. Plutonium used for fuel fabrication is currently shipped as a PuO/sub 2/ powder with a significant fraction in the respirable size range. If the high-strength container is breached due to stresses imposed during a transportation accident, the PuO/sub 2/ powder could be subject to airborne dispersion. The available information indicated that a potential accident involving fire accompanied by crush/impact forces would lead to failure of current surface shipping containers (no assumptions were made on the possibility of such a severe accident). Criteria were defined for an alternate shipping form to mitigate the effects of such an accident. Candidate techniques and materials were evaluated as alternate shipping forms by a task team consisting of personnel from PNL and Rockwell Hanford Operations (RHO). At this time, the most promising candidate for an alternate plutonium shipping form appears to be pressing PuO/sub 2/ into unsintered (green) pellets. These green pellets satisfy the criteria for a less dispersible form without requiring significant process changes. Discussions of all candidates considered are contained in a series of appendices. Recommendations for further investigations of the applicability of green pellets as an alternate shipping form are given, including the need for a cost-benefit study.

Mishima, J.; Lindsey, C.G.

1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Waste reduction process improvements in the analysis of plutonium by x-ray fluorescence: results from multiple data sets  

SciTech Connect

To minimize waste, improve process safety, and minimize costs, modifications were implemented to a method for quantifying gallium in plutonium metal using wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence. These changes included reducing sample sizes, reducing ion exchange process volumes, using cheaper reagent grade acids, eliminating the use of HF acid, and using more robust containment film for sample analysis. Relative precision and accuracy achieved from analyzing multiple aliquots from a single parent sample were {approx}0.2% and {approx}0.1% respectively. The same precision was obtained from analyzing a total of four parent materials, and the average relative accuracy from all the samples was 0.4%, which is within programmatic uncertainty requirements.

Worley, Christopher G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Soderberg, Constance B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Townsend, Lisa E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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461

LANL Produces First Plutonium Pit in 14 Years | National Nuclear Security  

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Produces First Plutonium Pit in 14 Years | National Nuclear Security Produces First Plutonium Pit in 14 Years | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Continuing Management Reform Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Us Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Media Room Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Speeches Events Social Media Video Gallery Photo Gallery NNSA Archive Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home > About Us > Our History > NNSA Timeline > LANL Produces First Plutonium Pit in 14 Years LANL Produces First Plutonium Pit in 14 Years April 22, 2003 Los Alamos, NM LANL Produces First Plutonium Pit in 14 Years

462

U.S. Removes Nine Metric Tons of Plutonium From Nuclear Weapons Stockpile |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

U.S. Removes Nine Metric Tons of Plutonium From Nuclear Weapons U.S. Removes Nine Metric Tons of Plutonium From Nuclear Weapons Stockpile U.S. Removes Nine Metric Tons of Plutonium From Nuclear Weapons Stockpile September 17, 2007 - 2:41pm Addthis Declaration Reinforces U.S. Commitment to Nonproliferation VIENNA, AUSTRIA - Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman today announced that the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) will remove nine metric tons of plutonium from further use as fissile material in U.S. nuclear weapons, signifying the Bush Administration's ongoing commitment to nonproliferation. Nine metric tons of plutonium is enough material to make over 1,000 nuclear weapons. The Secretary made today's announcement while speaking before the International Atomic Energy Agency's annual general conference.

463

U.S. Removes Nine Metric Tons of Plutonium From Nuclear Weapons Stockpile |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Removes Nine Metric Tons of Plutonium From Nuclear Weapons Removes Nine Metric Tons of Plutonium From Nuclear Weapons Stockpile U.S. Removes Nine Metric Tons of Plutonium From Nuclear Weapons Stockpile September 17, 2007 - 2:41pm Addthis Declaration Reinforces U.S. Commitment to Nonproliferation VIENNA, AUSTRIA - Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman today announced that the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) will remove nine metric tons of plutonium from further use as fissile material in U.S. nuclear weapons, signifying the Bush Administration's ongoing commitment to nonproliferation. Nine metric tons of plutonium is enough material to make over 1,000 nuclear weapons. The Secretary made today's announcement while speaking before the International Atomic Energy Agency's annual general conference.

464

CARBONATE METHOD OF SEPARATION OF TETRAVALENT PLUTONIUM FROM FISSION PRODUCT VALUES  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

It has been found that plutonium forms an insoluble precipitate with carbonate ion when the carbonate ion is present in stoichiometric proportions, while an excess of the carbonate ion complexes plutonium and renders it soluble. A method for separating tetravalent plutonium from lanthanum-group rare earths has been based on this discovery, since these rare earths form insoluble carbonates in approximately neutral solutions. According to the process the pH is adjusted to between 5 and 7, and approximately stoichiometric amounts of carbonate ion are added to the solution causing the formation of a precipitate of plutonium carbonate and the lanthanum-group rare earth carbonates. The precipitate is then separated from the solution and contacted with a carbonate solution of a concentration between 1 M and 3 M to complex and redissolve the plutonium precipitate, and thus separate it from the insoluble rare earth precipitate.

Duffield, R.B.; Stoughton, R.W.

1959-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Plutonium microstructures. Part 2. Binary and ternary alloys  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report is the second of three parts that exhibit illustrations of inclusions in plutonium metal from inherent and tramp impurities, of intermetallic and nonmetallic constituents from alloy additions, and of the effects of thermal and mechanical treatments. This part includes illustrations of the microstructures in binary cast alloys and a few selected ternary alloys that result from measured additions of diluent elements, and of the microconstituents that are characteristic of phase fields in extended alloy systems. Microhardness data are given and the etchant used in the preparation of each sample is described.

Cramer, E.M.; Bergin, J.B.

1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Influence of Iron Redox Transformations on Plutonium Sorption to Sediments  

SciTech Connect

Plutonium subsurface mobility is primarily controlled by its oxidation state, which in turn is loosely coupled to the oxidation state of iron in the system. Experiments were conducted to examine the effect of sediment iron mineral composition and oxidation state on plutonium sorption and oxidation state. A pH 6.3 vadose zone sediment containing iron oxides and iron-containing phyllosilicates was treated with various complexants (ammonium oxalate) and reductants (dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate) to selectively leach and/or reduce iron oxide and phyllosilicate phases. Mössbauer spectroscopy was used to identify initial iron mineral composition of the sediment and monitor dissolution and reduction of iron oxides. Sorption of Pu(V) was monitored over one week for each of six treated sediment fractions. Plutonium oxidation state speciation in the aqueous and solid phases was monitored using solvent extraction, coprecipitation, and XANES. Mössbauer spectroscopy showed that the sediment contained 25-30% hematite, 60-65% Al-goethite, and <10%Fe(III) in phyllosilicate; there was no detectable Fe(II). Upon reduction with a strong chemical reductant (dithionite-citrate buffer, DCB), much of the hematite and goethite disappeared and the Fe in the phyllosilicate reduced to Fe(II). The rate of sorption was found to correlate with the 1 fraction of Fe(II) remaining within each treated sediment phase. Pu(V) was the only oxidation state measured in the aqueous phase, irrespective of treatment, whereas Pu(IV) and much smaller amounts of Pu(V) and Pu(VI) were measured in the solid phase. Surface-mediated reduction of Pu(V) to Pu(IV) occurred in treated and untreated sediment samples; Pu(V) remained on untreated sediment surface for two days before reducing to Pu(IV). Similar to the sorption kinetics, the reduction rate was correlated with sediment Fe(II) concentration. The correlation between Fe(II) concentrations and Pu(V) reduction demonstrates the potential impact of changing iron mineralogy on plutonium subsurface transport through redox transition areas. These findings should influence the conceptual models of long-term stewardship of Pu contaminated sites that have fluctuating redox conditions, such as vadose zones or riparian zones.

Hixon, Amy E.; Hu, Yung-Jin; Kaplan, Daniel I.; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Nitsche, Heino; Qafoku, Odeta; Powell, Brian A.

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

LOS ALAMOS MOLTEN PLUTONIUM REACTOR EXPERIMENT (LAMPRE) HAZARD REPORT  

SciTech Connect

This report supersedes K-1-3425 and LA-2327(Prelim). The first experiment (LAMPRE I) in a program to develop molten plutonium fuels for fast reactors is described and the hazards associated with reactor operation are discussed and evaluated. The reactor desc=iption includes fuel element design, core configuration, sodium coolant system control, safety systems, fuel capsule charger, cover gas system, and shielding. Information of the site comprises population in surrounding areas, meteorological data, geology, and details of the reactor building. The hazmalfunction of the several elements comprising the reactor system. A calculation on the effect of fuel element bowiing appears in an appendix. (auth)

Swickard, E.O. comp.

1959-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Plutonium contamination in soils in open space and residential areas near Rocky Flats, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

Spatial analysis of the {sup 240}Pu:{sup 239}Pu isotopic ratio of 42 soil samples collected around Rocky Flats Plant near Golden, Colorado, was conducted to assess the effect of Rocky Flats Plant activity on the soil environment. Two probability maps that quantified the uncertainty of the spatial distribution of plutonium isotopic ratios were constructed using the sequential Gaussian simulation technique (sGs). Assuming a plutonium isotopic ratio range of 0.152 {+-} 0.003 to 0.169 {+-} 0.009 is characteristic to global fallout in Colorado, and a mean value of 0.155 is representative for the Rocky Flats Plant area, the main findings of the current work were (1) the areas northwest and southwest of Rocky Flats Plant exhibited a plutonium ratio {ge}0.155, this were minimally impacted by the plant activity; (2) he study area east of Rocky Flats Plant exhibited a plutonium isotopic ratio {le}0.155, which is a definitive indicator of Rocky Flats Plant-derived plutonium; and (3) inventory calculations across the study area exhibited large standard error of estimates. These errors were originated from the high variability in plutonium activity over a small sampling scale and the uncertainty in the global fallout isotopic ratio. Using the mean simulated estimates of plutonium isotopic ratio, coupled with plutonium activity measured at 11 soil pits and additional plutonium information published elsewhere, the plutonium loading on the open space and residential areas amounted to 111.2 GBq, with a standard error of estimate of 50.8 GBq.

Litaor, M.I. [Tel-Hai Rodman Coll., Upper Galilee (Israel). Dept. of Biotechnology and Environmental Sciences

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Plutonium destruction in a non-fertile, ZrO{sub 2}-based fuel: A reactor option for disposition of surplus plutonium  

SciTech Connect

The United States and Russia are assessing options for disposition of surplus weapon-grade plutonium. This paper reviews the options under consideration by the US Department of Energy and suggests an additional option that fits within the framework of the environmental analysis provided in the draft PEIS (Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement). In addition to the burning of Pu in mixed U-Pu oxide fuel, we recommend consideration of a non-fertile fuel based on zirconia with inclusion of rare earth elements for phase stabilization and control of reactivity. The zirconia based fuel could also be used to burn plutonium generated in commercial reactor fuels, which represent a larger inventory of plutonium than the weapon-grade material. The increasing inventories of civilian plutonium potentially represent a larger threat with respect to diversion weapons usable material than the stocks of weapon-grade material considered for disposition by the US and Russia. We discuss the use of zirconia-based fuel and pyrochemical processing of spent commercial reactor fuels as a means of decreasing world-wide plutonium inventories. The experience gained in burning weapon-grade plutonium in the new non-fertile fuel would shorten the time required to gain acceptance of the fuel for commercial reactor use.

Oversby, V.M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); McPheeters, C.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

THE DEACTIVATION DECONTAMINATION & DECOMMISSIONING OF THE PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP) A FORMER PLUTONIUM PROCESSING FACILITY AT DOE HANFORD SITE  

SciTech Connect

The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) was constructed as part of the Manhattan Project during World War II. The Manhattan Project was developed to usher in the use of nuclear weapons to end the war. The primary mission of the PFP was to provide plutonium used as special nuclear material (SNM) for fabrication of nuclear devices for the war effort. Subsequent to the end of World War II, the PFP's mission expanded to support the Cold War effort through plutonium production during the nuclear arms race and later the processing of fuel grade mixed plutonium-uranium oxide to support DOE's breeder reactor program. In October 1990, at the close of the production mission for PFP, a shutdown order was prepared by the Department of Energy (DOE) in Washington, DC and issued to the Richland DOE field office. Subsequent to the shutdown order, a team from the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) analyzed the hazards at PFP associated with the continued storage of certain forms of plutonium solutions and solids. The assessment identified many discrete actions that were required to stabilize the different plutonium forms into stable form and repackage the material in high integrity containers. These actions were technically complicated and completed as part of the PFP nuclear material stabilization project between 1995 and early 2005. The completion of the stabilization project was a necessary first step in deactivating PFP. During stabilization, DOE entered into negotiations with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the State of Washington and established milestones for the Deactivation and Decommissioning (D&D) of the PFP. The DOE and its contractor, Fluor Hanford (Fluor), have made great progress in deactivating, decontaminating and decommissioning the PFP at the Hanford Site as detailed in this paper. Background information covering the PFP D&D effort includes descriptions of negotiations with the State of Washington concerning consent-order milestones, milestones completed to date, and the vision of bringing PFP to slab-on-grade. Innovative approaches in planning and regulatory strategies, as well new technologies from within the United States and from other countries and field decontamination techniques developed by workforce personnel, such as the ''turkey roaster'' and the ''lazy Susan'' are covered in detail in the paper. Critical information on issues and opportunities during the performance of the work such as concerns regarding the handling and storage of special nuclear material, concerns regarding criticality safety and the impact of SNM de-inventory at PFP are also provided. The continued success of the PFP D&D effort is due to the detailed, yet flexible, approach to planning that applied innovative techniques and tools, involved a team of experienced independent reviewers, and incorporated previous lessons learned at the Hanford site, Rocky Flats, and commercial nuclear D&D projects. Multi-disciplined worker involvement in the planning and the execution of the work has produced a committed workforce that has developed innovative techniques, resulting in safer and more efficient work evolutions.

CHARBONEAU, S.L.

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

THE DEACTIVATION DECONTAMINATION & DECOMMISSIONING OF THE PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP) A FORMER PLUTONIUM PROCESSING FACILITY AT DOE HANFORD SITE  

SciTech Connect

The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) was constructed as part of the Manhattan Project during World War II. The Manhattan Project was developed to usher in the use of nuclear weapons to end the war. The primary mission of the PFP was to provide plutonium used as special nuclear material (SNM) for fabrication of nuclear devices for the war effort. Subsequent to the end of World War II, the PFP's mission expanded to support the Cold War effort through plutonium production during the nuclear arms race and later the processing of fuel grade mixed plutonium-uranium oxide to support DOE's breeder reactor program. In October 1990, at the close of the production mission for PFP, a shutdown order was prepared by the Department of Energy (DOE) in Washington, DC and issued to the Richland DOE field office. Subsequent to the shutdown order, a team from the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) analyzed the hazards at PFP associated with the continued storage of certain forms of plutonium solutions and solids. The assessment identified many discrete actions that were required to stabilize the different plutonium forms into stable form and repackage the material in high integrity containers. These actions were technically complicated and completed as part of the PFP nuclear material stabilization project between 1995 and early 2005. The completion of the stabilization project was a necessary first step in deactivating PFP. During stabilization, DOE entered into negotiations with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the State of Washington and established milestones for the Deactivation and Decommissioning (D&D) of the PFP. The DOE and its contractor, Fluor Hanford (Fluor), have made great progress in deactivating, decontaminating and decommissioning the PFP at the Hanford Site as detailed in this paper. Background information covering the PFP D&D effort includes descriptions of negotiations with the State of Washington concerning consent-order milestones, milestones completed to date, and the vision of bringing PFP to slab-on-grade. Innovative approaches in planning and regulatory strategies, as well new technologies from within the United States and from other countries and field decontamination techniques developed by workforce personnel, such as the ''turkey roaster'' and the ''lazy Susan'' are covered in detail in the paper. Critical information on issues and opportunities during the performance of the work such as concerns regarding the handling and storage of special nuclear material, concerns regarding criticality safety and the impact of SNM de-inventory at PFP are also provided. The continued success of the PFP D&D effort is due to the detailed, yet flexible, approach to planning that applied innovative techniques and tools, involved a team of experienced independent reviewers, and incorporated previous lessons learned at the Hanford site, Rocky Flats, and commercial nuclear D&D projects. Multi-disciplined worker involvement in the planning and the execution of the work has produced a committed workforce that has developed innovative techniques, resulting in safer and more efficient work evolutions.

CHARBONEAU, S.L.

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #328: July 12, 2004 Expected Average  

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8: July 12, 2004 8: July 12, 2004 Expected Average Annual Miles to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #328: July 12, 2004 Expected Average Annual Miles on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #328: July 12, 2004 Expected Average Annual Miles on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #328: July 12, 2004 Expected Average Annual Miles on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #328: July 12, 2004 Expected Average Annual Miles on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #328: July 12, 2004 Expected Average Annual Miles on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #328: July 12, 2004 Expected Average Annual Miles on AddThis.com... Fact #328: July 12, 2004 Expected Average Annual Miles Twenty-five percent of the respondents to a nationwide survey said that

473

Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #536: September 15, 2008 Average...  

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6: September 15, 2008 Average Used Car Prices Up and Used Light Truck Prices Down to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact 536: September 15, 2008 Average Used...

474

Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #517: May 5, 2008 State Average...  

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7: May 5, 2008 State Average Gasoline Prices, April 18, 2008 to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact 517: May 5, 2008 State Average Gasoline Prices, April 18,...

475

Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #87: May 4, 1999 Average Annual...  

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7: May 4, 1999 Average Annual Miles per Vehicle by Vehicle Type and Age to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact 87: May 4, 1999 Average Annual Miles per...

476

Probabilistic Quantitative Precipitation Forecasting Using Bayesian Model Averaging  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bayesian model averaging (BMA) is a statistical way of postprocessing forecast