National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for 2f evaporator feed

  1. Mixed feed evaporator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vakil, Himanshu B. (Schenectady, NY); Kosky, Philip G. (Ballston Lake, NY)

    1982-01-01

    In the preparation of the gaseous reactant feed to undergo a chemical reaction requiring the presence of steam, the efficiency of overall power utilization is improved by premixing the gaseous reactant feed with water and then heating to evaporate the water in the presence of the gaseous reactant feed, the heating fluid utilized being at a temperature below the boiling point of water at the pressure in the volume where the evaporation occurs.

  2. Tank 26F-2F Evaporator Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adu-Wusu, K.

    2012-12-19

    Tank 26F supernate sample was sent by Savannah River Remediation to Savannah River National Laboratory for evaporation test to help understand the underlying cause of the recent gravity drain line (GDL) pluggage during operation of the 2F Evaporator system. The supernate sample was characterized prior to the evaporation test. The evaporation test involved boiling the supernate in an open beaker until the density of the concentrate (evaporation product) was between 1.4 to 1.5 g/mL. It was followed by filtering and washing of the precipitated solids with deionized water. The concentrate supernate (or concentrate filtrate), the damp unwashed precipitated solids, and the wash filtrates were characterized. All the precipitated solids dissolved during water washing. A semi-quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis on the unwashed precipitated solids revealed their composition. All the compounds with the exception of silica (silicon oxide) are known to be readily soluble in water. Hence, their dissolution during water washing is not unexpected. Even though silica is a sparingly water-soluble compound, its dissolution is also not surprising. This stems from its small fraction in the solids as a whole and also its relative freshness. Assuming similar supernate characteristics, flushing the GDL with water (preferably warm) should facilitate dissolution and removal of future pluggage events as long as build up/aging of the sparingly soluble constituent (silica) is limited. On the other hand, since the amount of silica formed is relatively small, it is quite possible dissolution of the more soluble larger fraction will cause disintegration or fragmentation of the sparingly soluble smaller fraction (that may be embedded in the larger soluble solid mass) and allow its removal via suspension in the flushing water.

  3. Tank 26 Evaporator Feed Pump Transfer Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tamburello, David; Dimenna, Richard; Lee, Si

    2009-02-11

    The transfer of liquid salt solution from Tank 26 to an evaporator is to be accomplished by activating the evaporator feed pump, located approximately 72 inches above the sludge layer, while simultaneously turning on the downcomer. Previously, activation of the evaporator feed pump was an isolated event without any other components running at the same time. An analysis of the dissolved solution transfer has been performed using computational fluid dynamics methods to determine the amount of entrained sludge solids pumped out of the tank to the evaporator with the downcomer turned on. The analysis results showed that, for the maximum and minimum supernate levels in Tank 26 (252.5 and 72 inches above the sludge layer, respectively), the evaporator feed pump will entrain between 0.03 and 0.1 wt% sludge undissolved solids weight fraction into the eductor, respectively, and therefore are an order of magnitude less than the 1.0 wt% undissolved solids loading criteria to feed the evaporator. Lower tank liquid levels, with respect to the sludge layer, result in higher amounts of sludge entrainment due to the increased velocity of the plunging jets from the downcomer and evaporator feed pump bypass as well as decreased dissipation depth. Revision 1 clarifies the analysis presented in Revision 0 and corrects a mathematical error in the calculations for Table 4.1 in Revision 0. However, the conclusions and recommendations of the analysis do not change for Revision 1.

  4. TANK 26 EVAPORATOR FEED PUMP TRANSFER ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tamburello, D; Si Lee, S; Richard Dimenna, R

    2008-09-30

    The transfer of liquid salt solution from Tank 26 to an evaporator is to be accomplished by activating the evaporator feed pump, located approximately 72 inches above the sludge layer, while simultaneously turning on the downcomer. Previously, activation of the evaporator feed pump was an isolated event without any other components running at the same time. An analysis of the dissolved solution transfer has been performed using computational fluid dynamics methods to determine the amount of entrained sludge solids pumped out of the tank to the evaporator with the downcomer turned on. The analysis results showed that, for the maximum and minimum supernate levels in Tank 26 (252.5 and 72 inches above the sludge layer, respectively), the evaporator feed pump will entrain between 0.05 and 0.1 wt% sludge solids weight fraction into the eductor, respectively. Lower tank liquid levels, with respect to the sludge layer, result in higher amounts of sludge entrainment due to the increased velocity of the plunging jets from the downcomer and evaporator feed pump bypass as well as decreased dissipation depth.

  5. TANK 32 EVAPORATOR FEED PUMP TRANSFER ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tamburello, D; Richard Dimenna, R; Si Lee, S

    2009-01-27

    The transfer of liquid salt solution from Tank 32 to an evaporator is to be accomplished by activating the evaporator feed pump, with the supernate surface at a minimum height of approximately 74.4 inches above the sludge layer, while simultaneously turning on the downcomer with a flow rate of 110 gpm. Previously, activation of the evaporator feed pump was an isolated event without any other components running at the same time. An analysis of the dissolved solution transfer has been performed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods to determine the amount of entrained sludge solids pumped out of the tank toward the evaporator with the downcomer turned on. The analysis results shows that, for the minimum tank liquid level of 105 inches above the tank bottom (which corresponds to a liquid depth of 74.4 inches above the sludge layer), the evaporator feed pump will contain less than 0.1 wt% sludge solids in the discharge stream, which is an order of magnitude less than the 1.0 wt% undissolved solids (UDS) loading criteria to feed the evaporator. Lower liquid levels with respect to the sludge layer will result in higher amounts of sludge entrainment due to the increased plunging jet velocity from the downcomer disturbing the sludge layer.

  6. TANK 26F SUPERNATANT AND 2F EVAPORATOR EDUCTOR PUMP SAMPLE CHARACTERIZATION RESULTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, W.; Hay, M.; Coleman, C.

    2011-08-23

    In an effort to understand the reasons for system plugging problems in the SRS 2F evaporator, supernatant samples were retrieved from the evaporator feed tank (Tank 26F) and solids were collected from the evaporator eductor feed pump for characterization. The variable depth supernatant samples were retrieved from Tank 26F in early December of 2010 and samples were provided to SRNL and the F/H Area laboratories for analysis. Inspection and analysis of the samples at SRNL was initiated in early March of 2011. During the interim period, samples were frequently exposed to temperatures as low as 12 C with daily temperature fluctuations as high as 10 C. The temperature at the time of sample collection from the waste tank was 51 C. Upon opening the supernatant bottles at SRNL, many brown solids were observed in both of the Tank 26F supernatant samples. In contrast, no solids were observed in the supernatant samples sent to the F/H Area laboratories, where the analysis was completed within a few days after receipt. Based on these results, it is believed that the original Tank 26F supernatant samples did not contain solids, but solids formed during the interim period while samples were stored at ambient temperature in the SRNL shielded cells without direct climate control. Many insoluble solids (>11 wt. % for one sample) were observed in the Tank 26F supernatant samples after three months of storage at SRNL which would not dissolve in the supernatant solution in two days at 51 C. Characterization of these solids along with the eductor pump solids revealed the presence of sodium oxalate and clarkeite (uranyl oxyhydroxide) as major crystalline phases. Sodium nitrate was the dominant crystalline phase present in the unwashed Eductor Pump solids. Crystalline sodium nitrate may have formed during the drying of the solids after filtration or may have been formed in the Tank 26F supernatant during storage since the solution was found to be very concentrated (9-12 M Na{sup +}). Concentrated mineral acids and elevated temperature were required to dissolve all of these solids. The refractory nature of some of the solids is consistent with the presence of metal oxides such as aluminosilicates (observed as a minor phase by XRD). Characterization of the water wash solutions and the digested solids confirmed the presence of oxalate salts in both solid samples. Sulfate enrichment was also observed in the Tank 26F solids wash solution, indicating the presence of sulfate precipitates such as burkeite. OLI modeling of the Tank 26F filtered supernatant composition revealed that sodium oxalate has a very low solubility in this solution. The model predicts that the sodium oxalate solubility in the Tank 26F supernatant is only 0.0011 M at 50 C. The results indicate that the highly concentrated nature of the evaporator feed solution and the addition of oxalate anion to the waste stream each contribute to the formation of insoluble solids in the 2F evaporator system.

  7. Ball feeder for replenishing evaporator feed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Felde, David K. (Oak Ridge, TN); McKoon, Robert H. (San Ramon, CA)

    1993-01-01

    Vapor source material such as uranium, which is to be dropped into a melt in an evaporator, is made into many balls of identical diameters and placed inside a container. An elongated sloping pipe is connected to the container and leads to the evaporator such that these balls can travel sequentially therealong by gravity. A metering valve in this pipe for passing these balls one at a time is opened in response to a signal when it is ascertained by a detector that there is a ball ready to be passed. A gate in the pipe near the evaporator momentarily stops the motion of the traveling ball and is then opened to allow the ball drop into the melt at a reduced speed.

  8. Ball feeder for replenishing evaporator feed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Felde, D.K.; McKoon, R.H.

    1993-03-23

    Vapor source material such as uranium, which is to be dropped into a melt in an evaporator, is made into many balls of identical diameters and placed inside a container. An elongated sloping pipe is connected to the container and leads to the evaporator such that these balls can travel sequentially therealong by gravity. A metering valve in this pipe for passing these balls one at a time is opened in response to a signal when it is ascertained by a detector that there is a ball ready to be passed. A gate in the pipe near the evaporator momentarily stops the motion of the traveling ball and is then opened to allow the ball drop into the melt at a reduced speed.

  9. Tank 30 and 37 Supernatant Sample Cross-Check and Evaporator Feed Qualification Analysis-2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oji, L. N.

    2013-03-07

    This report summarizes the analytical data reported by the F/H and Savannah River National Laboratories for the 2012 cross-check analysis for high level waste supernatant liquid samples from SRS Tanks 30 and 37. The intent of this Tank 30 and 37 sample analyses was to perform cross-checks against routine F/H Laboratory analyses (corrosion and evaporator feed qualification programs) using samples collected at the same time from both tanks as well as split samples from the tanks.

  10. Analysis of tank 4 (FTF-4-15-22, 23) surface and subsurface supernatant samples in support of enrichment control, corrosion control and evaporator feed qualification programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oji, L. N.

    2015-09-09

    This report provides the results of analyses on Savannah River Site Tank 4 surface and subsurface supernatant liquid samples in support of the Enrichment Control Program (ECP), the Corrosion Control Program (CCP) and the Evaporator Feed Qualification (EFQ) Program. The purpose of the ECP sample taken from Tank 4 in August 2015 was to determine if the supernatant liquid would be “acceptable feed” to the 2H and 3H evaporator systems.

  11. Feeding

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submitKansasCommunitiesofExtransScientificEnergy EfficiencyFeed-PumpSharing

  12. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    15] O. A. Hamed, "THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF MULTISTAGE FLASHdesa4.aspx. [18] Encon, "Thermal Evaporators," June 2013. [http://www.evaporator.com/thermal-evaporator. [19] Y. Tian

  13. 242-A Evaporator quality assurance plan. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basra, T.S.

    1995-05-04

    The purpose of this quality assurance project plan (Plan) is to provide requirements for activities pertaining to sampling, shipping, and analyses associated with candidate feed tank samples for the 242-A Evaporator project. The purpose of the 242-A Evaporator project is to reduce the volume of aqueous waste in the Double Shell Tank (DST) System and will result in considerable savings to the disposal of mixed waste. The 242-A Evaporator feed stream originates from DSTs identified as candidate feed tanks. The 242-A Evaporator reduces the volume of aqueous waste contained in DSTs by boiling off water and sending the condensate (called process condensate) to the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LEPF) storage basin where it is stored prior to treatment in the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). The objective of this quality assurance project plan is to provide the planning, implementation, and assessment of sample collection and analysis, data issuance, and validation activities for the candidate feed tanks.

  14. Effect of surfactant on evaporative heat transfer coefficients in vertical film forced convection 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shah, Basit Husain

    1972-01-01

    to the present design conditions in desalination evaporators. A commercial surfactant, procter and Gamble 'Joy ' (Ammon1um Lauryl Sulphate + Cl2-C)&-diethanoiamine, 3:1) was used in the present study. The evaporative coefficients were observed to increase... encountered in de- salinationn evaporators (36). The evaporative coeffici ents were determined under the above conditions for pure water as well as for solutions containing 15, 30, and 50 ppm of surfactant (Procter and Gamble 'Joy'). The feed to the boi...

  15. Measure Guideline: Evaporative Condensers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    German, A; Dakin, B.; Hoeschele, M.

    2012-03-01

    This measure guideline on evaporative condensers provides information on properly designing, installing, and maintaining evaporative condenser systems as well as understanding the benefits, costs, and tradeoffs. This is a prescriptive approach that outlines selection criteria, design and installation procedures, and operation and maintenance best practices.

  16. Method for fluorination of actinide fluorides and oxyfluorides using O/sub 2/F/sub 2/

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eller, P.G.; Malm, J.G.; Penneman, R.A.

    1984-08-01

    The present invention relates generally to methods of fluorination and more particularly to the use of O/sub 2/F/sub 2/ for the preparation of actinide hexafluorides, and for the extraction of deposited actinides and fluorides and oxyfluorides thereof from reaction vessels. The experiments set forth hereinabove demonstrate that the room temperature or below use of O/sub 2/F/sub 2/ will be highly beneficial for the preparation of pure actinide hexafluorides from their respective tetrafluorides without traces of HF being present as occurs using other fluorinating agents: and decontamination of equipment previously exposed to actinides: e.g., walls, feed lines, etc.

  17. Evaporative Coolers | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    an evaporative cooler adds fresh air to your home. < In low-humidity areas, evaporating water into the air provides a natural and energy-efficient means of cooling. Evaporative...

  18. Liquid over-feeding air conditioning system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.

    1993-09-21

    A refrigeration air conditioning system utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation is described. A liquid refrigerant accumulator-heat exchanger is placed in the system to provide a heat exchange relationship between hot liquid refrigerant discharged from condenser and a relatively cool mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant discharged from the evaporator. This heat exchange relationship substantially sub-cools the hot liquid refrigerant which undergoes little or no evaporation across the expansion device and provides a liquid over-feeding operation through the evaporator for effectively using 100 percent of evaporator for cooling purposes and for providing the aforementioned mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant. 1 figure.

  19. Liquid over-feeding air conditioning system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mei, Viung C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Chen, Fang C. (Knoxville, TN)

    1993-01-01

    A refrigeration air conditioning system utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation is described. A liquid refrigerant accumulator-heat exchanger is placed in the system to provide a heat exchange relationship between hot liquid refrigerant discharged from condenser and a relatively cool mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant discharged from the evaporator. This heat exchange relationship substantially sub-cools the hot liquid refrigerant which undergoes little or no evaporation across the expansion device and provides a liquid over-feeding operation through the evaporator for effectively using 100 percent of evaporator for cooling purposes and for providing the aforementioned mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant.

  20. Evaporation/ Solution Droplet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suslick, Kenneth S.

    Solvent Evaporation/ Reactions Precursor Solution Droplet Product Densification Product Collection Production of Nano-Materials microporous shell internal macropores Hierarchically Porous Carbons Brandon Ito (20 ppm) Formaldehyde (20 ppm) Control (50% RH) Maryam SayyahKaty Filson Wei Jiang Mechanoluminescence

  1. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    required to evaporate water to the energy needed to overcomeproduce fresh water at the cost of energy and produce afrom sea water requires 3.5 kJ of energy per kilogram of

  2. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    Evaporator Powered By Solar Thermal Energy 10:00 AM 10:00 AMaided or powered by solar thermal energy. A section is alsoexhaustive review of solar thermal energy systems has been

  3. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    and thermal energy storage in solar thermal applications,"Solar infrastructure should include analysis of thermal storage.storage equipment, the evaporator can be integrated into the current solar

  4. Measure Guideline: Evaporative Condensers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    German, A.; Dakin, B.; Hoeschele, M.

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this measure guideline on evaporative condensers is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for energy and demand savings in homes with cooling loads. This is a prescriptive approach that outlines selection criteria, design and installation procedures, and operation and maintenance best practices. This document has been prepared to provide a process for properly designing, installing, and maintaining evaporative condenser systems as well as understanding the benefits, costs, and tradeoffs.

  5. Treatment of evaporator condensates by pervaporation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blume, Ingo (Hengelq, NL); Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA)

    1990-01-01

    A pervaporation process for separating organic contaminants from evaporator condensate streams is disclosed. The process employs a permselective membrane that is selectively permeable to an organic component of the condensate. The process involves contacting the feed side of the membrane with a liquid condensate stream, and withdrawing from the permeate side a vapor enriched in the organic component. The driving force for the process is the in vapor pressure across the membrane. This difference may be provided for instance by maintaining a vacuum on the permeate side, or by condensing the permeate. The process offers a simple, economic alternative to other separation techniques.

  6. Thermocapillary transport of energy during water evaporation V. K. Badam,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ward, Charles A.

    Thermocapillary transport of energy during water evaporation Fei Duan,1 V. K. Badam,2 F. Durst,2-vapor interface maintained at the circular mouth of a small funnel, studies of the energy transport have indicated 3.5 °C and Marangoni number Ma in the range 100 Ma 22,000, it was found that if energy transport

  7. Evaporation of extrasolar planets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Ehrenreich

    2008-07-11

    Atomic hydrogen escaping from the extrasolar giant planet HD209458b provides the largest observational signature ever detected for an extrasolar planet atmosphere. In fact, the upper atmosphere of this planet is evaporating. Observational evidences and interpretations coming from various models are reviewed. Implications for exoplanetology are discussed.

  8. Feeding Experiment 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gulley, F. A. (Frank Arthur)

    1889-01-01

    considerable portion of the State cotton seed is one of our cheapest feed stuffs. We have also made use of silage largely, notwithstanding the fact that it is practically unknown in the State. That silage is one of the most economical and desirable feeding... materials, where corn and sorghum thrive, has been conclusively demonstrated in every state east of the Mississippi river and several west. While there is much to learn in regard to the kind of crops to grow for silage, how to handle and how to feed them...

  9. Vertical counterflow evaporative cooler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourne, Richard C.; Lee, Brian Eric; Callaway, Duncan

    2005-01-25

    An evaporative heat exchanger having parallel plates that define alternating dry and wet passages. A water reservoir is located below the plates and is connected to a water distribution system. Water from the water distribution system flows through the wet passages and wets the surfaces of the plates that form the wet passages. Air flows through the dry passages, mixes with air below the plates, and flows into the wet passages before exiting through the top of the wet passages.

  10. Vacuum flash evaporated polymer composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Affinito, J.D.; Gross, M.E.

    1997-10-28

    A method for fabrication of polymer composite layers in a vacuum is disclosed. More specifically, the method of dissolving salts in a monomer solution, vacuum flash evaporating the solution, condensing the flash evaporated solution as a liquid film, and forming the condensed liquid film into a polymer composite layer on a substrate is disclosed.

  11. Vacuum flash evaporated polymer composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Affinito, John D. (Kennewick, WA); Gross, Mark E. (Pasco, WA)

    1997-01-01

    A method for fabrication of polymer composite layers in a vacuum is disclosed. More specifically, the method of dissolving salts in a monomer solution, vacuum flash evaporating the solution, condensing the flash evaporated solution as a liquid film, and forming the condensed liquid film into a polymer composite layer on a substrate is disclosed.

  12. NWCF Evaporator Tank System 2001 Offgas Emissions Inventory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boardman, R.D.; Lamb, K.M.; Matejka, L.A.; Nenni, J.A.

    2002-02-27

    An offgas emissions inventory and liquid stream characterization of the Idaho New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) Evaporator Tank System (ETS), formerly known as the High Level Liquid Waste Evaporator (HLLWE), has been completed. The emissions rates of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds, multiple metals, particulate, and hydrochloric acid were measured in accordance with an approved Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) and Test Plan that invoked U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard sample collection and analysis procedures. Offgas samples were collected during the start up and at the end of evaporator batches when it was hypothesized the emissions would be at peak rates. Corresponding collection of samples from the evaporator feed overhead condensate, and bottoms was made at approximately the same time as the emissions inventory to support material balance determinations for the evaporator process. The data indicate that organic compound emissions are slightly higher at the beginning of the batch while metals emissions, including mercury, are slightly higher at the end of the evaporator batch. The maximum emissions concentrations are low for all constituents of primary concern. Mercury emissions were less than 5 ppbv, while the sum of HCl and Cl2 emissions was less than 1 ppmv. The sum of all organic emissions also was less than 1 ppmv. The estimated hazardous quotient (HQ) for the evaporator was 6.2e-6 as compared to 0.25 for the EPA target criteria. The cancer risk was 1.3e-10 compared to an EPA target of le-5.

  13. NWCF Evaporator Tank System 2001 Offgas Emissions Inventory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boardman, Richard Doin; Lamb, Kenneth Mitchel; Matejka, Leon Anthony; Nenni, Joseph A

    2002-02-01

    An offgas emissions inventory and liquid stream characterization of the Idaho New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) Evaporator Tank System (ETS), formerly known as the High Level Liquid Waste Evaporator (HLLWE), has been completed. The emissions rates of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds, multiple metals, particulate, and hydrochloric acid were measured in accordance with an approved Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) and Test Plan that invoked U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard sample collection and analysis procedures. Offgas samples were collected during the start up and at the end of evaporator batches when it was hypothesized the emissions would be at peak rates. Corresponding collection of samples from the evaporator feed overhead condensate, and bottoms was made at approximately the same time as the emissions inventory to support material balance determinations for the evaporator process. The data indicate that organic compound emissions are slightly higher at the beginning of the batch while metals emissions, including mercury, are slightly higher at the end of the evaporator batch. The maximum emissions concentrations are low for all constituents of primary concern. Mercury emissions were less than 5 ppbv, while the sum of HCl and Cl2 emissions was less than 1 ppmv. The sum of all organic emissions also was less than 1 ppmv. The estimated hazardous quotient (HQ) for the evaporator was 6.2e-6 as compared to 0.25 for the EPA target criteria. The cancer risk was 1.3e-10 compared to an EPA target of le-5.

  14. Evaporative Cooling Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    16, 2013 - 1:53pm Addthis Evaporative cooling uses evaporated water to naturally and energy-efficiently cool. An illustration of an evaporative cooler. In this example of an...

  15. LITERATURE REVIEW ON IMPACT OF GLYCOLATE ON THE 2H EVAPORATOR AND THE EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adu-Wusu, K.

    2012-05-10

    Glycolic acid (GA) is being studied as an alternate reductant in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed preparation process. It will either be a total or partial replacement for the formic acid that is currently used. A literature review has been conducted on the impact of glycolate on two post-DWPF downstream systems - the 2H Evaporator system and the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). The DWPF recycle stream serves as a portion of the feed to the 2H Evaporator. Glycolate enters the evaporator system from the glycolate in the recycle stream. The overhead (i.e., condensed phase) from the 2H Evaporator serves as a portion of the feed to the ETF. The literature search revealed that virtually no impact is anticipated for the 2H Evaporator. Glycolate may help reduce scale formation in the evaporator due to its high complexing ability. The drawback of the solubilizing ability is the potential impact on the criticality analysis of the 2H Evaporator system. It is recommended that at least a theoretical evaluation to confirm the finding that no self-propagating violent reactions with nitrate/nitrites will occur should be performed. Similarly, identification of sources of ignition relevant to glycolate and/or update of the composite flammability analysis to reflect the effects from the glycolate additions for the 2H Evaporator system are in order. An evaluation of the 2H Evaporator criticality analysis is also needed. A determination of the amount or fraction of the glycolate in the evaporator overhead is critical to more accurately assess its impact on the ETF. Hence, use of predictive models like OLI Environmental Simulation Package Software (OLI/ESP) and/or testing are recommended for the determination of the glycolate concentration in the overhead. The impact on the ETF depends on the concentration of glycolate in the ETF feed. The impact is classified as minor for feed glycolate concentrations {le} 33 mg/L or 0.44 mM. The ETF unit operations that will have minor/major impacts are chlorination, pH adjustment, 1st mercury removal, organics removal, 2nd mercury removal, and ion exchange. For minor impacts, the general approach is to use historical process operations data/modeling software like OLI/ESP and/or monitoring/compiled process operations data to resolve any uncertainties with testing as a last resort. For major impacts (i.e., glycolate concentrations > 33 mg/L or 0.44 mM), testing is recommended. No impact is envisaged for the following ETF unit operations regardless of the glycolate concentration - filtration, reverse osmosis, ion exchange resin regeneration, and evaporation.

  16. Steer Feeding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Connel, J. H.; Carson, J. W.

    1896-01-01

    STATIONS. BULLETIN No. 41. DECEMBER, 1896. STEER FEEDING. POSTOFFICE: COLLEGE STATION, BRAZOS CO., TEXAS. All .Reports from this Station are sent free to farmers of the State on application to J. H. CONNELL, T E X A S G R X I P. O. College Station... to the solution of those problems that affect the welfare of the cattle interests, because it is agreed that this is now the primary livestock investment of the State. Economy in method of beef production lends value and shows a profit finally to the breeder...

  17. Steer Feeding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burns, John C,

    1913-01-01

    they were fed, it is nevertheless,, a point of much importance from the fact that it very likely had much to do with the somewhat greater gains they made as well as the much- greater shrinkage they sustained in shipment to market. Weather conditions were... :30 a. m., March 6th. In order to ascertain the shrinkage that had occurred since the final weights at College Station, each lot was weighed before receiving water or feed, the weighing being done at 11 a. m. The shrinkage is shown in the following...

  18. RSS Feed

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-RichProton Delivery andInnovationsRSS Feed Los Alamos National

  19. Dual manifold heat pipe evaporator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adkins, Douglas R. (Albuquerque, NM); Rawlinson, K. Scott (Albuquerque, NM)

    1994-01-01

    An improved evaporator section for a dual manifold heat pipe. Both the upper and lower manifolds can have surfaces exposed to the heat source which evaporate the working fluid. The tubes in the tube bank between the manifolds have openings in their lower extensions into the lower manifold to provide for the transport of evaporated working fluid from the lower manifold into the tubes and from there on into the upper manifold and on to the condenser portion of the heat pipe. A wick structure lining the inner walls of the evaporator tubes extends into both the upper and lower manifolds. At least some of the tubes also have overflow tubes contained within them to carry condensed working fluid from the upper manifold to pass to the lower without spilling down the inside walls of the tubes.

  20. Dual manifold heat pipe evaporator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adkins, D.R.; Rawlinson, K.S.

    1994-01-04

    An improved evaporator section is described for a dual manifold heat pipe. Both the upper and lower manifolds can have surfaces exposed to the heat source which evaporate the working fluid. The tubes in the tube bank between the manifolds have openings in their lower extensions into the lower manifold to provide for the transport of evaporated working fluid from the lower manifold into the tubes and from there on into the upper manifold and on to the condenser portion of the heat pipe. A wick structure lining the inner walls of the evaporator tubes extends into both the upper and lower manifolds. At least some of the tubes also have overflow tubes contained within them to carry condensed working fluid from the upper manifold to pass to the lower without spilling down the inside walls of the tubes. 1 figure.

  1. Solar Roof Cooling by Evaporation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patterson, G. V.

    1981-01-01

    dampened. A presentation was made at the 1940 semi-annual meeting of the American Society of Heating and Ventilating Engineers entitled 'Summer Cooling Load as Affected by Heat Gain Through Dry, Sprinkled and Water Covered Roofs.' Solar evaporative roof...

  2. Evaporative Cooling for Energy Conservation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyer, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    The evaporative cooling principle applies to all equipment that exchanges sensible heat for latent heat. Equipment of this type falls into two general categories: (1) equipment for heat rejection, such as cooling towers and (2) equipment for air...

  3. Evaporation of multicomponent drop arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Annamalai, K.; Ryan, W.; Chandra, S. (Texas A M Univ., College Station, TX (United States))

    1993-08-01

    The present paper deals with the evaporation of multicomponent fuel droplets in an array using the recently developed point source method (PSM). First, the quasisteady (QS) evaporation of an isolated, multicomponent droplet is briefly analyzed. The resultant governing equations, along with Raoult's law and the Cox-Antoine relation, constitute the set of equations needed to arrive at the solutions for: (1) the droplet surface temperature, (2) the evaporation rate of each species, and (3) the vapor mass fraction of each species at the droplet surface. The PSM, which treats the droplet as a point mass source and heat sink, is then adopted to obtain an analytic expression for the evaporation rate of a multicomponent droplet in an array of liquid droplets. Defining the correction factor ([eta]) as a ratio of the evaporation of a drop in an array to the evaporation rate of a similar isolated multicomponent drop, an expression for the correction factor is obtained. The results of the point source method (PSM) are then compared with those obtained elsewhere for a three-drop array that uses the method of images (MOI). Excellent agreement is obtained. The treatment is then extended to a binary drop array to study the effect of interdrop spacing on vaporization. 20 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Waste feed delivery planning at Hanford

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Certa, Paul J.; West, Elizha B.; Rodriguez, Juissepp S.; Hohl, Ted M.; Larsen, Douglas C.; Ritari, Jaakob S.; Kelly, James W.

    2013-01-10

    The Integrated Waste Feed Delivery Plan (IWFDP) describes how waste feed will be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) to safely and efficiently accomplish the River Protection Project (RPP) mission. The IWFDP, which is integrated with the Baseline Case operating scenario, is comprised of three volumes. Volume 1 - Process Strategy provides an overview of waste feed delivery (WFD) and describes how the WFD system will be used to prepare and deliver feed to the WTP based on the equipment configuration and functional capabilities of the WFD system. Volume 2 - Campaign Plan describes the plans for the first eight campaigns for delivery to the WTP, evaluates projected feed for systematic issues, projects 242-A Evaporator campaigns, and evaluates double-shell tank (DST) space and availability of contingency feed. Volume 3 - Project Plan identifies the scope and timing of the DST and infrastructure upgrade projects necessary to feed the WTP, and coordinates over 30 projectized projects and operational activities that comprise the needed WFD upgrades.

  5. Approved Module Information for ME2F19, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Mechatronics Module Code: ME2F19

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rebollo-Neira, Laura

    Approved Module Information for ME2F19, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Mechatronics Module Code: ME2F19 and evaluate a range of sensors and actuators used in mechatronic systems * Evaluate and explain the operation behaviour in mechatronic systems * Use system models to represent elements of a mechatronic system

  6. Approved Module Information for LT2F04, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Inventory Module Code: LT2F04

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rebollo-Neira, Laura

    Approved Module Information for LT2F04, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Inventory Module Code: LT2F04 School: Engineering and Applied Science Module Type: Foundation New Module? No Module Credits: 20 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Constant Iannacci Email Address c.iannacci@aston.ac.uk Telephone

  7. Approved Module Information for ME2F33, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Elements of Gas Engineering Module Code: ME2F33

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rebollo-Neira, Laura

    Approved Module Information for ME2F33, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Elements of Gas Engineering Module Code: ME2F33 School: Engineering and Applied Science Module Type: Foundation New Module? No Module Credits: 20 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Lee Jenkins Email Address jenkinl1@aston

  8. Approved Module Information for ME2F66, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Mathematical Methods in Engineering Module Code: ME2F66

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rebollo-Neira, Laura

    Approved Module Information for ME2F66, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Mathematical Methods in Engineering Module Code: ME2F66 School: Engineering and Applied Science Module Type: Foundation New Module? No Module Credits: 10 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Lee Jenkins Email Address jenkinl1

  9. Approved Module Information for LT2F09, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Data Analysis Module Code: LT2F09

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rebollo-Neira, Laura

    Approved Module Information for LT2F09, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Data Analysis Module Code: LT2F09 School: Engineering and Applied Science Module Type: Standard Module New Module? No Module Credits: 10 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Constant Iannacci Email Address c

  10. Approved Module Information for LT2F05, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Sourcing and Procurement Module Code: LT2F05

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rebollo-Neira, Laura

    Approved Module Information for LT2F05, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Sourcing and Procurement Module Code: LT2F05 School: Engineering and Applied Science Module Type: Foundation New Module? No Module Credits: 20 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Constant Iannacci Email Address c

  11. Approved Module Information for LT2F06, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Retail Logistics Module Code: LT2F06

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rebollo-Neira, Laura

    Approved Module Information for LT2F06, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Retail Logistics Module Code: LT2F06 School: Engineering and Applied Science Module Type: Foundation New Module? No Module Credits: 20 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Constant Iannacci Email Address c

  12. Approved Module Information for LT2F08, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Management Accounting Module Code: LT2F08

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rebollo-Neira, Laura

    Approved Module Information for LT2F08, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Management Accounting Module Code: LT2F08 School: Engineering and Applied Science Module Type: Standard Module New Module? No Module Credits: 10 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Constant Iannacci Email Address c

  13. Transcriptional regulation of human RANK ligand gene expression by E2F1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu Yan [Department of Stress Biology, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263 (United States); Sun Meng [Department of Urology and Cancer Center, University of California at Davis, School of Medicine, 4860 Y Street, Suite 3500, Sacramento, CA 95817 (United States); Graduate Program of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of California at Davis, Sacramento, CA 95817 (United States); Nadiminty, Nagalakshmi; Lou Wei [Department of Urology and Cancer Center, University of California at Davis, School of Medicine, 4860 Y Street, Suite 3500, Sacramento, CA 95817 (United States); Pinder, Elaine [Department of Urology and Cancer Center, University of California at Davis, School of Medicine, 4860 Y Street, Suite 3500, Sacramento, CA 95817 (United States); Graduate Program of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of California at Davis, Sacramento, CA 95817 (United States); Gao, Allen C. [Department of Urology and Cancer Center, University of California at Davis, School of Medicine, 4860 Y Street, Suite 3500, Sacramento, CA 95817 (United States); Graduate Program of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of California at Davis, Sacramento, CA 95817 (United States)], E-mail: acgao@ucdavis.edu

    2008-06-06

    Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) is a critical osteoclastogenic factor involved in the regulation of bone resorption, immune function, the development of mammary gland and cardiovascular system. To understand the transcriptional regulation of RANKL, we amplified and characterized a 1890 bp 5'-flanking sequence of human RANKL gene (-1782 bp to +108 bp relative to the transcription start site). Using a series of deletion mutations of the 1890 bp RANKL promoter, we identified a 72 bp region (-172 to -100 bp) mediating RANKL basal transcriptional activity. Sequence analysis revealed a putative E2F binding site within this 72 bp region in the human RANKL promoter. Overexpression of E2F1 increased RANKL promoter activity, while down-regulation of E2F1 expression by small interfering RNA decreased RANKL promoter activity. RT-PCR and enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) further demonstrated that E2F1 induced the expression of RANKL. Electrophoretic gel mobility shift assays (EMSA) and antibody competition assays confirmed that E2F1 proteins bind to the consensus E2F binding site in the RANKL promoter. Mutation of the E2F consensus binding site in the RANKL promoter profoundly reduced the basal promoter activity and abolished the transcriptional modulation of RANKL by E2F1. These results suggest that E2F1 plays an important role in regulating RANKL transcription through binding to the E2F consensus binding site.

  14. Solar Roof Cooling by Evaporation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patterson, G. V.

    1982-01-01

    Evaporation is nature's way of cooling. By the application of a thin film of water, in the form of a mist, on the roof of the building, roof temperatures can be reduced from as high as 165o to a cool 86oF. Thus, under-roof ...

  15. Solar Roof Cooling by Evaporation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patterson, G. V.

    1980-01-01

    payback of 18 to 24 months. As one prominence in recent years, due to the energy plant manager said, "I pay more than that shortage and the increased cost of electricity each year, just to sweep my floors." -- Solar Roof Cooling by Evaporation....

  16. Simulated Waste Testing Of Glycolate Impacts On The 2H-Evaporator System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martino, C. J.

    2013-08-13

    Glycolic acid is being studied as a total or partial replacement for formic acid in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed preparation process. After implementation, the recycle stream from DWPF back to the high-level waste tank farm will contain soluble sodium glycolate. Most of the potential impacts of glycolate in the tank farm were addressed via a literature review, but several outstanding issues remained. This report documents the non-radioactive simulant tests impacts of glycolate on storage and evaporation of Savannah River Site high-level waste. The testing for which non-radioactive simulants could be used involved the following: the partitioning of glycolate into the evaporator condensate, the impacts of glycolate on metal solubility, and the impacts of glycolate on the formation and dissolution of sodium aluminosilicate scale within the evaporator. The following are among the conclusions from this work: Evaporator condensate did not contain appreciable amounts of glycolate anion. Of all tests, the highest glycolate concentration in the evaporator condensate was 0.38 mg/L. A significant portion of the tests had glycolate concentration in the condensate at less than the limit of quantification (0.1 mg/L). At ambient conditions, evaporator testing did not show significant effects of glycolate on the soluble components in the evaporator concentrates. Testing with sodalite solids and silicon containing solutions did not show significant effects of glycolate on sodium aluminosilicate formation or dissolution.

  17. OPERATING PLAN TAILINGS CELLS AND EVAPORATION PONDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OPERATING PLAN TAILINGS CELLS AND EVAPORATION PONDS PIÑON RIDGE MILL Energy Fuels Resources Appendix A Tailings and Evaporation Pond Delivery and Return Piping Conceptual Plan AC..........................................................................................................1 2.0 TAILINGS CELL DESIGN

  18. Can Photo-Evaporation Trigger Planetesimal Formation?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Throop, Henry

    Can Photo-Evaporation Trigger Planetesimal Formation? Henry Throop John Bally SWRI Univ.Colorado / CASA DPS 12-Oct-2004 #12;Orion Nebula Photo-evaporation by extr 4 O/B stars, UV-bright, 105 solar luminosities 2000 solar-type stars with disks Photo-evaporation (PE) by external O/B stars removes disks on 105

  19. Diffusion-Controlled Evaporating Completely Wetting Meniscus in a Channel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Njante, Jean-Pierre

    2012-01-01

    coefficient of grooved heat pipe evaporator walls. ’ Int. J.ranging from micro heat pipes to grooved evaporators. In

  20. Introduction to Black Hole Evaporation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierre-Henry Lambert

    2014-01-16

    These lecture notes are an elementary and pedagogical introduction to the black hole evaporation, based on a lecture given by the author at the Ninth Modave Summer School in Mathematical Physics and are intended for PhD students. First, quantum field theory in curved spacetime is studied and tools needed for the remaining of the course are introduced. Then, quantum field theory in Rindler spacetime in 1+1 dimensions and in the spacetime of a spherically collapsing star are considered, leading to Unruh and Hawking effects, respectively. Finally, some consequences such as thermodynamics of black holes and information loss paradox are discussed.

  1. Water Evaporation Studies in Texas. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patterson, R. E. (Raleigh Elwood); Bloodgood, Dean W.; Smith, R. L.

    1954-01-01

    AN Dimamnion * . brood width of a 2 x 4 lopprox. 3 M-) A standard installation of the Weather Bureau type of evaporation pan at one of the cooperating stations. The anemometer is supported on a wooden platform in the northwest corner and the center... Beeville Bee 225 28' 27' 97' 42' 5 mi. E of Beeville Big Spring Howard 2,528 32' 15' 101' 27' 1 mi. N of Big Spring Blacklands Expt. Watershed McLennan 450 31' 2Y 96' 53' 1 mi. E of Riesel Buchanan Dam (1) Travis 1,025 30' 44' 98' 25' 10 mi. W of Burnet...

  2. Evaporative Coolers | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTIONRobertsdale, AlabamaETEC GmbH JumpEllenville,PowerEvaporative Coolers Jump to: navigation, search

  3. Evaporative Cooling | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTIONRobertsdale, AlabamaETEC GmbH JumpEllenville,PowerEvaporative Coolers Jump to: navigation,

  4. Experiments in Steer Feeding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Craig, John A. (John Alexander); Marshall, F. R. (Frederick Rupert)

    1904-01-01

    as to the relative value of these two very characteristic rations for steer feeding. Cotton? seed meal and hulls is the ration that is most generally used throughout the cotton belt, while corn and alfalfa will likely be conceded to be the ration which is most... STATIONS. BULLETIN NO. 76. Animal Husbandry Section. T E X A S G R S I C 1904. EXPERIMENTS IN STEER FEEDING I. RICE BY-PRODUCTS FOR STEER FEEDING. II. FODDERS FOR FEEDING STEERS WITH COTTONSEED MEAL. III. MOLASSES FOR STEER FEEDING. IV. COMPARISON...

  5. Portable brine evaporator unit, process, and system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hart, Paul John (Indiana, PA); Miller, Bruce G. (State College, PA); Wincek, Ronald T. (State College, PA); Decker, Glenn E. (Bellefonte, PA); Johnson, David K. (Port Matilda, PA)

    2009-04-07

    The present invention discloses a comprehensive, efficient, and cost effective portable evaporator unit, method, and system for the treatment of brine. The evaporator unit, method, and system require a pretreatment process that removes heavy metals, crude oil, and other contaminates in preparation for the evaporator unit. The pretreatment and the evaporator unit, method, and system process metals and brine at the site where they are generated (the well site). Thus, saving significant money to producers who can avoid present and future increases in transportation costs.

  6. Apparatus and method for evaporator defrosting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mei, Viung C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Chen, Fang C. (Knoxville, TN); Domitrovic, Ronald E. (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-01-01

    An apparatus and method for warm-liquid defrosting of the evaporator of a refrigeration system. The apparatus includes a first refrigerant expansion device that selectively expands refrigerant for cooling the evaporator, a second refrigerant expansion device that selectively expands the refrigerant after the refrigerant has passed through the evaporator, and a defrosting control for the first refrigerant expansion device and second refrigerant expansion device to selectively defrost the evaporator by causing warm refrigerant to flow through the evaporator. The apparatus is alternately embodied with a first refrigerant bypass and/or a second refrigerant bypass for selectively directing refrigerant to respectively bypass the first refrigerant expansion device and the second refrigerant expansion device, and with the defrosting control connected to the first refrigerant bypass and/or the second refrigerant bypass to selectively activate and deactivate the bypasses depending upon the current cycle of the refrigeration system. The apparatus alternately includes an accumulator for accumulating liquid and/or gaseous refrigerant that is then pumped either to a refrigerant receiver or the first refrigerant expansion device for enhanced evaporator defrosting capability. The inventive method of defrosting an evaporator in a refrigeration system includes the steps of compressing refrigerant in a compressor and cooling the refrigerant in the condenser such that the refrigerant is substantially in liquid form, passing the refrigerant substantially in liquid form through the evaporator, and expanding the refrigerant with a refrigerant expansion device after the refrigerant substantially passes through the evaporator.

  7. Approved Module Information for BD2F3F, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Management Accounting Module Code: BD2F3F

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for BD2F3F, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Management Accounting Module Code with the background skills and knowledge to understand management accounting concepts at managerial level within accounting and the business environment in which it works. 2. Demonstrate an understanding of the basic cost

  8. The role of E2f4 in cell cycle exit and bone development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Emily S. (Emily Sun Young)

    2009-01-01

    Members of the E2F family of transcription factors are critical downstream effectors of the pocket protein family and mediate the regulation of genes required for cellular proliferation. The repressive E2Fs act in association ...

  9. History-dependent thermal expansion in NbO{sub 2}F

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilkinson, Angus P.; Josefsberg, Ryan E.; Gallington, Leighanne C.; Morelock, Cody R.; Monaco, Christopher M.

    2014-05-01

    Materials with cubic ReO{sub 3}-type structures are of interest for their low or negative thermal expansion characteristics. TaO{sub 2}F is known to display almost zero thermal expansion over a wide temperature range. On heating NbO{sub 2}F, its volume coefficient of thermal expansion decreases from ?+45 ppm K{sup ?1} at 100 K to almost zero at 400 K. NbO{sub 2}F is cubic between 100 and 500 K. Samples of “NbO{sub 2}F” prepared by the digestion of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} in aqueous HF followed by mild drying contain hydroxyl defects and metal vacancies. On heating, they can undergo irreversible chemical changes while maintaining a cubic ReO{sub 3}-type structure. The possibility of hydroxyl defect incorporation should be considered when preparing oxyfluorides for evaluation as battery materials. - Graphical abstract: “NbO{sub 2}F” prepared by the digestion of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} in HF contains cation vacancies and hydroxyl groups. It undergoes irreversible changes on heating to low temperatures, unlike NbO{sub 2}F prepared by the solid state reaction of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} and NbF{sub 5}. - Highlights: • The digestion of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} in aqueous HF followed by mild drying does not produce NbO{sub 2}F. • The ReO{sub 3}-type product from the HF digestion of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} contains metal vacancies and hydroxyl. • The thermal expansion coefficient of NbO{sub 2}F decreases on heating and approaches zero at ?400 K.

  10. TimeVariable Photo-Evaporation of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Throop, Henry

    TimeVariable Photo-Evaporation of Protoplanetary Disks Henry Throop (SwRI) John Bally (U. Colorado) #12;Takeaway: Photo-evaporation alters the disk structure in essentially unpredictable ways, because for disks formed at the same time in the same cluster. #12;30 Doradus: 100+ O/B stars Photo

  11. TimeVariable Photo-Evaporation of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Throop, Henry

    TimeVariable Photo-Evaporation of Protoplanetary Disks Henry Throop (PSI) DDA Meeting Mt. Hood clusters. #12;Work we have done involves ... ­ UV photo-evaporation from massive stars ­ Interaction; Moeckel & Throop 2009; Throop & Bally 2010; Pichardo et al 2010; Throop 2011. #12;Photo

  12. Water Evaporation: A Transition Path Sampling Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patrick Varilly; David Chandler

    2012-12-12

    We use transition path sampling to study evaporation in the SPC/E model of liquid water. Based on thousands of evaporation trajectories, we characterize the members of the transition state ensemble (TSE), which exhibit a liquid-vapor interface with predominantly negative mean curvature at the site of evaporation. We also find that after evaporation is complete, the distributions of translational and angular momenta of the evaporated water are Maxwellian with a temperature equal to that of the liquid. To characterize the evaporation trajectories in their entirety, we find that it suffices to project them onto just two coordinates: the distance of the evaporating molecule to the instantaneous liquid-vapor interface, and the velocity of the water along the average interface normal. In this projected space, we find that the TSE is well-captured by a simple model of ballistic escape from a deep potential well, with no additional barrier to evaporation beyond the cohesive strength of the liquid. Equivalently, they are consistent with a near-unity probability for a water molecule impinging upon a liquid droplet to condense. These results agree with previous simulations and with some, but not all, recent experiments.

  13. Biomass Feed and Gasification

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    conventional oil refining. Activities support research for handling and processing of coal-biomass mixtures, ensuring those mixtures are compatible with feed delivery systems,...

  14. Commercial Feedings Stuffs 1913: Feed Law. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Youngblood, B.

    1914-01-01

    EXPERIMENT STATION B u l l e t in Bul eti A p r i l , 1914 FEED CONTROL SERVICE Commercial Feeding Stuffs 1913 FEED LAW nAprA,,E.Hs .uLLJaJ pRTRSuWm KyTouP .uCWRhm rJgTPl 3AB KA0.0OMBBIFABHp .Alm ndEBrHdpm MfprEBm rH1Mp AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL... COLLEGE OF TEXAS . 9 T y L J P n C y h J T y m President Pro Tern. rH1Mp M4dE.fxrfdMx H1nHdEOHBr prMrEAB BOARD OF DIRECTORS Hl Kl . CP9SWam Presidentm GuCPRuWllll lllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll r...

  15. Feeding Values of Certain Feeding Stuffs. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1919-01-01

    , average (16) ...................... Peanut hulls, some meat, average (4). ..................... Table 2.-Composition and feeding value-Continued. Lab. No. .......................... Peanut ha), no nuts, D. E. 87 ......................... Peanut hay... no nuts average g) ................... Peanut mezh 5 per 'cknt fiber, . E. 96. ................................. Prairie hay D. E 85-86. .......................... Prairie hal: exa as average (10). ................................... R!ce bran, D...

  16. 242-A evaporator safety analysis report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CAMPBELL, T.A.

    1999-05-17

    This report provides a revised safety analysis for the upgraded 242-A Evaporator (the Evaporator). This safety analysis report (SAR) supports the operation of the Evaporator following life extension upgrades and other facility and operations upgrades (e.g., Project B-534) that were undertaken to enhance the capabilities of the Evaporator. The Evaporator has been classified as a moderate-hazard facility (Johnson 1990). The information contained in this SAR is based on information provided by 242-A Evaporator Operations, Westinghouse Hanford Company, site maintenance and operations contractor from June 1987 to October 1996, and the existing operating contractor, Waste Management Hanford (WMH) policies. Where appropriate, a discussion address the US Department of Energy (DOE) Orders applicable to a topic is provided. Operation of the facility will be compared to the operating contractor procedures using appropriate audits and appraisals. The following subsections provide introductory and background information, including a general description of the Evaporator facility and process, a description of the scope of this SAR revision,a nd a description of the basic changes made to the original SAR.

  17. Addressing Water Consumption of Evaporative Coolers with Greywater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sahai, Rashmi

    2013-01-01

    Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inc. 2009.1999. Evaporative Air-Conditioning: Applications forDirect Evaporative Air Conditioning, Final Report . Davis,

  18. Regulation of E2F-1 gene expression in human breast cancer cells 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ngwenya, Sharon Khethiwe

    2005-08-29

    Breast Cancer Cells. (May 2005) Sharon Khethiwe Ngwenya, B.S., Oakwood College Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Stephen Safe 17beta-Estradiol induces E2F-1 gene expression in ZR-75 and MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Analysis of the E2F-1 gene... region. This promoter region was also E2-responsive in ERalpha-positive ZR-75 cells; however, further analysis of the promoter showed that cooperative ERalpha/Sp1/NFY interactions were not necessary for hormone-induced transactivation in ZR-75 cells...

  19. Conductive Thermal Interaction in Evaporative Cooling Process 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, B. S.; Degelman, L. O.

    1990-01-01

    between water and entering air for thermal comfort. This hybrid system outperforms the two-stage evaporative cooler without employing a complicated heat exchanger (indirect system), if the temperature of underground water is lower than the ambient wet...

  20. Coal feed lock

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pinkel, I. Irving (Fairview Park, OH)

    1978-01-01

    A coal feed lock is provided for dispensing coal to a high pressure gas producer with nominal loss of high pressure gas. The coal feed lock comprises a rotor member with a diametral bore therethrough. A hydraulically activated piston is slidably mounted in the bore. With the feed lock in a charging position, coal is delivered to the bore and then the rotor member is rotated to a discharging position so as to communicate with the gas producer. The piston pushes the coal into the gas producer. The rotor member is then rotated to the charging position to receive the next load of coal.

  1. Feed-in-Tariff

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Note: In August of 2013 the Hawaii Public Utility Commission (PUC) initiated an investigation into the Feed-In-Tariff Program in Docket No. 2013-0194. On December 5th, 2014 the Hawaii PUC issued...

  2. Subscribe to RSS Feeds

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Building Technologies Office RSS (real simple syndication) feed tracks news from the Department of Energy (DOE) and other sources, making it convenient and easy to stay up-to-date with the...

  3. Liquid over-feeding refrigeration system and method with integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mei, Viung C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Chen, Fang C. (Knoxville, TN)

    1997-01-01

    A refrigeration system having a vapor compression cycle utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation with an integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger. Hot, high-pressure liquid refrigerant from the condenser passes through one or more lengths of capillary tubing substantially immersed in a pool liquid refrigerant in the accumulator-expander-heat exchanger for simultaneously sub-cooling and expanding the liquid refrigerant while vaporizing liquid refrigerant from the pool for the return thereof to the compressor as saturated vapor. The sub-cooling of the expanded liquid provides for the flow of liquid refrigerant into the evaporator for liquid over-feeding the evaporator and thereby increasing the efficiency of the evaporation cycle.

  4. Liquid over-feeding refrigeration system and method with integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.

    1997-04-22

    A refrigeration system is described having a vapor compression cycle utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation with an integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger. Hot, high-pressure liquid refrigerant from the condenser passes through one or more lengths of capillary tubing substantially immersed in a pool liquid refrigerant in the accumulator-expander-heat exchanger for simultaneously sub-cooling and expanding the liquid refrigerant while vaporizing liquid refrigerant from the pool for the return thereof to the compressor as saturated vapor. The sub-cooling of the expanded liquid provides for the flow of liquid refrigerant into the evaporator for liquid over-feeding the evaporator and thereby increasing the efficiency of the evaporation cycle. 4 figs.

  5. Vibrational-Rotational Energy Distributions in the Reaction O-+ D2 f OD + D-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrar, James M.

    Vibrational-Rotational Energy Distributions in the Reaction O- + D2 f OD + D- Yue Li, Li Liu with a bimodal rotational energy distribution. At the higher collision energy, both V ) 0 and 1 products energy range up to 10 eV. By measuring the kinetic energy distribution of the detached electrons

  6. New findings about the complementary relationship-based evaporation estimation methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Szilagyi, Jozsef

    KEYWORDS Complementary relationship; Advection­Aridity model; Areal evaporation; Potential evaporation; Apparent potential evaporation; Wet environment evaporation; Evapotranspiration Summary A novel approach of long- term mean evaporation (E) estimation of the Advection­Aridity (AA) model when vali- dated

  7. Recycling nickel electroplating rinse waters by low temperature evaporation and reverse osmosis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindsey, T.C.; Randall, P.M.

    1993-08-01

    Low temperature evaporation and reverse osmosis systems were each evaluated (on a pilot scale) on their respective ability to process rinse water collected from a nickel electroplating operation. Each system offered advantages under specific operating conditions. The low temperature evaporation system was best suited to processing solutions with relatively high (greater than 4,000 to 5,000 mg/L) nickel concentrations. The reverse osmosis system was best adapted to conditions where the feed solution had a relatively low (less than4,000 to 5,000 mg/L) nickel concentration. In electroplating operations where relatively dilute rinse water solutions must be concentrated to levels acceptable for replacement in the plating bath, a combination of the two technologies might provide the best process alternative.

  8. Numerical Analysis of Black Hole Evaporation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsvi Piran; Andrew Strominger

    1993-04-28

    Black hole formation/evaporation in two-dimensional dilaton gravity can be described, in the limit where the number $N$ of matter fields becomes large, by a set of second-order partial differential equations. In this paper we solve these equations numerically. It is shown that, contrary to some previous suggestions, black holes evaporate completely a finite time after formation. A boundary condition is required to evolve the system beyond the naked singularity at the evaporation endpoint. It is argued that this may be naturally chosen so as to restore the system to the vacuum. The analysis also applies to the low-energy scattering of $S$-wave fermions by four-dimensional extremal, magnetic, dilatonic black holes.

  9. Commercial Feedings Stuffs. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyett, W. L.; Fraps; G. S.

    1912-01-01

    . . . . . . . . 16.21 2.10 26.54 38.40 7.22 9.29 1 Sarley Chops _______ ._ . . _ . 11.25 2.01 5.92 64.93 13.24 2.65 245 OOrn Chops - - - - - - - - 9.23 3.S5 2.32 70.97 12.82 1.37 13 Corn Bran - - _____ _ _______ 9.35 6.09 8.44 63.85 12.46 1.97 4 Corn Feed... D airy Feed?Guarantee---------------- M anu facturer ? s Sample ------- -------- 16.50 18.56 3.50 5.07 12.00 11.76 46.00 44.65 123 W . Inspection Sample ------- ---------------- 16.09 4.10 11.27 49.9: Am co Chick Feed...

  10. Hot air drum evaporator. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Black, R.L.

    1980-11-12

    An evaporation system for aqueous radioactive waste uses standard 30 and 55 gallon drums. Waste solutions form cascading water sprays as they pass over a number of trays arranged in a vertical stack within a drum. Hot dry air is circulated radially of the drum through the water sprays thereby removing water vapor. The system is encased in concrete to prevent exposure to radioactivity. The use of standard 30 and 55 gallon drums permits an inexpensive compact modular design that is readily disposable, thus eliminating maintenance and radiation build-up problems encountered with conventional evaporation systems.

  11. Rate of Water Evaporation in Texas. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karper, R. E. (Robert Earl)

    1933-01-01

    are available Length 1 re, Jan. 1 I?. March 1 April 1 May 1 June 1 July Aug. I Sept. Oct. ) No.. 1 Dec. Annual years I Nacogdoches Evaporation, inches I 18 Precipitation, inches 20 Mean max. temp. Mean min. temp. Mean mean temp. Av. rel. humidity.... Mean mean temp. Av. rel. humidity Wind run, miles Iowa Park: Evaporation, inches Precipitation, inches Mean max. temp. Mean min. temp. Mean mean temp. Av. rel. humidity Wind run, miles March April 1 May 1 June July / Aug. / Sept. Oct. I Nov...

  12. Breakthrough Video: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) invented a breakthrough technology that improves air conditioning in a novel way—with heat. NREL combined desiccant materials, which remove moisture from the air using heat, and advanced evaporative technologies to develop a cooling unit that uses 90% less electricity and up to 80% less total energy than traditional air conditioning (AC). This solution, called the desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVAP), also controls humidity more effectively to improve the comfort of people in buildings.

  13. Evaporative cooling enhanced cold storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carr, P.

    1991-10-15

    The invention provides an evaporatively enhanced cold storage system wherein a warm air stream is cooled and the cooled air stream is thereafter passed into contact with a cold storage unit. Moisture is added to the cooled air stream prior to or during contact of the cooled air stream with the cold storage unit to effect enhanced cooling of the cold storage unit due to evaporation of all or a portion of the added moisture. Preferably at least a portion of the added moisture comprises water condensed during the cooling of the warm air stream. 3 figures.

  14. Direct Evaporative Precooling Model and Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Bo [ORNL; Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL; Rice, C Keith [ORNL; Craddick, William G [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Evaporative condenser pre-cooling expands the availability of energy saving, cost-effective technology options (market engagement) and serves to expedite the range of options in upcoming codes and equipment standards (impacting regulation). Commercially available evaporative pre-coolers provide a low cost retrofit for existing packaged rooftop units, commercial unitary split systems, and air cooled chillers. We map the impact of energy savings and peak energy reduction in the 3 building types (medium office, secondary school, and supermarket) in 16 locations for three building types with four pad effectivenesses and show the effect for HVAC systems using either refrigerants R22 or R410A

  15. Evaporative cooling enhanced cold storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carr, Peter (Cary, NC)

    1991-01-01

    The invention provides an evaporatively enhanced cold storage system wherein a warm air stream is cooled and the cooled air stream is thereafter passed into contact with a cold storage unit. Moisture is added to the cooled air stream prior to or during contact of the cooled air stream with the cold storage unit to effect enhanced cooling of the cold storage unit due to evaporation of all or a portion of the added moisture. Preferably at least a portion of the added moisture comprises water condensed during the cooling of the warm air stream.

  16. Effects of the local structure dependence of evaporation fields on field evaporation behavior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, Lan; Restrepo, Oscar D; Windl, Wolfgang; Marquis, Emmanuelle A

    2015-01-01

    Accurate three dimensional reconstructions of atomic positions, and full quantification of the information contained in atom probe tomography data relies on understanding the physical processes taking place during field evaporation of atoms from needle-shaped specimens. However, the modeling framework for atom probe tomography has remained qualitative at best. Building on the continuum field models previously developed, we introduce a more physical approach with the selection of evaporation events based on density functional theory calculations. This new model reproduces key features observed experimentally in terms of sequence of evaporation, desorption maps, and depth resolution, and provides insights into the physical limit for spatial resolution.

  17. Hog Feeding Experiments. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burns, John C.

    1910-01-01

    ................................................................................. ~eriment,s Nos. 111 and IV 17 I ...................................................................................... ,,,,proved Hogs vs. Scrubs 19 I Corn vs. Rice Bran vs. Spanish Peanuts ........................................................... 22... 1 ! .................................................................................................................. Summary. 33 I I [Blank Page in Original Bulletin] HOG FEEDING EXPERIMENTS. BY JOHN C. BURNS, DEPARTMENT OF ANIMAL...

  18. Web Feeds and Repositories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Downing, Jim

    2008-12-09

    ="http://example.org/2003/12/13/atom03"/> urn:uuid:1225c695-cfb8-4ebb-aaaa-80da344efa6a 2003-12-13T18:30:02Z Some text. Subscription Feed

  19. Feeding & Risering Guidelines for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    radiographically sound to ASTM shrinkage x-ray level 5. Casting conditions (alloy composition, mold materialFeeding & Risering Guidelines for Steel Castings Steel Founders' Society of America 2001 #12;Index..................................................................................................................................10 4 Casting soundness in terms of riser and end zones

  20. Feeding mechanisms & foraging ecology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dever, Jennifer A.

    . Terrestrial ­ air less dense, must support food items l Akinetic skull l Kinetic skull II. Prey Capture in an aquatic environment v. a terrestrial one... A. Aquatic ­ lack of need for supporting food items due Snapping turtle - Chelydra serpentina combination of chewing and sucking B. Terrestrial Feeding Biting

  1. Laboratory Evaporation Testing Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adamson, Duane J.; Nash, Charles A.; McCabe, Daniel J.; Crawford, Charles L.; Wilmarth, William R.

    2014-01-27

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream, LAW Off-Gas Condensate, from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of canistered glass waste forms. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to be within acceptable concentration ranges in the LAW glass. Diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task examines the impact of potential future disposition of this stream in the Hanford tank farms, and investigates auxiliary evaporation to enable another disposition path. Unless an auxiliary evaporator is used, returning the stream to the tank farms would require evaporation in the 242-A evaporator. This stream is expected to be unusual because it will be very high in corrosive species that are volatile in the melter (chloride, fluoride, sulfur), will have high ammonia, and will contain carryover particulates of glass-former chemicals. These species have potential to cause corrosion of tanks and equipment, precipitation of solids, release of ammonia gas vapors, and scale in the tank farm evaporator. Routing this stream to the tank farms does not permanently divert it from recycling into the WTP, only temporarily stores it prior to reprocessing. Testing is normally performed to demonstrate acceptable conditions and limits for these compounds in wastes sent to the tank farms. The primary parameter of this phase of the test program was measuring the formation of solids during evaporation in order to assess the compatibility of the stream with the evaporator and transfer and storage equipment. The origin of this LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream will be the liquids from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW facility melter offgas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover. The soluble components are expected to be mostly sodium and ammonium salts of nitrate, chloride, and fluoride. This stream has not been generated yet, and, thus, the composition will not be available until the WTP begins operation, but a simulant has been produced based on models, calculations, and comparison with pilot-scale tests. This report discusses results of evaporation testing of the simulant. Two conditions were tested, one with the simulant at near neutral pH, and a second at alkaline pH. The neutral pH test is comparable to the conditions in the Hanford Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) evaporator, although that evaporator operates at near atmospheric pressure and tests were done under vacuum. For the alkaline test, the target pH was based on the tank farm corrosion control program requirements, and the test protocol and equipment was comparable to that used for routine evaluation of feed compatibility studies for the 242-A evaporator. One of the

  2. Water Management for Evaporatively Cooled Condensers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    Water Management for Evaporatively Cooled Condensers Theresa Pistochini May 23rd, 2012 ResearchAirCapacity,tons Gallons of Water Continuous Test - Outdoor Air 110-115 Deg F Cyclic Test - Outdoor Air 110-115 Deg F #12 AverageWaterHardness(ppm) Cooling Degree Days (60°F Reference) 20% Population 70% Population 10

  3. Computer controlled feed delivery system for feed trucks 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holt, Gregory Alan

    1989-01-01

    COMPUTER CONTROLLED FEED DELIVERY SYSTEM FOR FEED TRUCKS A Thesis by GREGORY ALAN HOLT Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ABM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August... 1989 Major Subject: Agricultural Engineering COMPIJIER CONTROLLED FEED DELIVERY SYSTEM FOR FEED TRUCKS A Thesis by GREGORY ALAN HOLT Approved as to style and content by: Calvin B. Parnell (Chair of Committee) ayne LePori (Member) Charlie G...

  4. Evaporation Duct Estimation from Clutter Using Meteorological Statistics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerstoft, Peter

    Evaporation Duct Estimation from Clutter Using Meteorological Statistics Caglar Yardim*, Peter under duct- ing conditions. Electromagnetic ducts result in non-standard electromagnetic prop- agation addresses how to incorporate meteo- rological statistics into evaporative duct estimation within a Bayesian

  5. Rain on the Roof-Evaporative Spray Roof Cooling 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bachman, L. R.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes evaporative spray roof cooling systems, their components, performance and applications in various climates and building types. The evolution of this indirect evaporative cooling technique is discussed. Psychrometric and sol...

  6. Handleiding Import & Export RSS Feeds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galis, Frietson

    Handleiding Import & Export RSS Feeds Version: 1.0 RSS Feeds Date: 17-04-2013 #12;2 Exporteren RSS bestand. 1) Selecteer "Import and export.." 2) Selecteer "Export to a file" en vervolgens "Next" #12;3 3) Selecteer "Feeds" en vervolgens "Next" 4) Selecteer "Export" Wanneer u geen locatie opgeeft, zal Internet

  7. Chemical Potential Jump during Evaporation of a Quantum Bose Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. A. Bedrikova; A. V. Latyshev

    2013-01-07

    The dependence of the chemical potential jump coefficient on the evaporation coefficient is analyzed for the case in which the evaporating component is a Bose gas. The concentration of the evaporating component is assumed to be much lower than the concentration of the carrier gas. The expression for the chemical potential jump is derived from the analytic solution of the problem for the case in which the collision frequency of molecules of the evaporating component is constant.

  8. Evaporative Hydrochloric Acid Recovery: Something Old, Something New... 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cullivan, B.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the new application of an old teclmology, evaporative recovery, to recover spent hydrochloric acid.

  9. Commercial Feeding Stuffs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carson, J.W.; Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1911-01-01

    , protein is, on the average, about as cheap as f at-producing power. TABLE IV. Relative Cost of Nutrients. Selling Price Per Ton. Cotton Seed Meal ............................................... Wheat Shorts... on the tag. ,This bula letin contains a discussion of these matters. Other informatian wili be cheerfully furnished when requested. The consumer of feeding stuffs should learn to utilize them to the greatest advantage and in the most economical manner...

  10. Evaporation Cooling Concept, EVOLVE APEX Interim Report November, 1999

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Los Angeles, University of

    Evaporation Cooling Concept, EVOLVE APEX Interim Report November, 1999 10-1 CHAPTER 10: EVAPORATION COOLING CONCEPT, EVOLVE Contributors Lead Author: Rich Mattas S. Malang H. Khater S. Majumdar E. Mogahed B. Nelson M. Sawan D.K. Sze #12;Evaporation Cooling Concept, EVOLVE APEX Interim Report November, 1999 10

  11. The Analysis of a Coating Flow with Evaporation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Analysis of a Coating Flow with Evaporation Jurgen Socolowsky Abstract. This work is concerned with a plane steady-state coating ow problem including evaporation e ects. The motion is governed by a free-Stokes equations. Key Words. Coating ow, evaporation, free boundary problems, Navier- Stokes equations, Stefan

  12. Flash evaporation of liquid monomer particle mixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Affinito, J.D.; Darab, J.G.; Gross, M.E.

    1999-05-11

    The present invention is a method of making a first solid composite polymer layer. The method has the steps of (a) mixing a liquid monomer with particles substantially insoluble in the liquid monomer forming a monomer particle mixture; (b) flash evaporating the particle mixture and forming a composite vapor; and (c) continuously cryocondensing said composite vapor on a cool substrate and cross-linking the cryocondensed film thereby forming the polymer layer. 3 figs.

  13. Nuclear evaporation process with simultaneous multiparticle emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leonardo P. G. De Assis; Sergio B. Duarte; Bianca M. Santos

    2012-08-07

    The nuclear evaporation process is reformulated by taking into account simultaneous multiparticle emission from a hot compound nucleus appearing as an intermediate state in many nuclear reaction mechanisms. The simultaneous emission of many particles is particularly relevant for high excitation energy of the compound nucleus.These channels are effectively open in competition with the single particle emissions and fission in this energy regime. Indeed, the inclusion of these channels along the decay evaporating chain shows that the yield of charged particles and occurrence of fission are affected by these multiparticle emission processes of the compounded nucleus, when compared to the single sequential emission results. The effect also shows a qualitative change in the neutron multiplicity of different heavy compound nucleus considered. This should be an important aspect for the study of spallation reaction in Acceleration Driven System (ADS) reactors. The majority of neutrons generated in these reactions come from the evaporation stage of the reaction, the source of neutron for the system. A Monte Carlo simulation is employed to determine the effect of these channels on the particle yield and fission process. The relevance of the simultaneous particle emission with the increasing of excitation energy of the compound nucleus is explicitly shown.

  14. The roles of Rb, p107, and E2f4 in bone formation and embryonic development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berman, Seth D

    2007-01-01

    The pocket proteins, through their interaction with the E2F transcription factors, ensure the proper regulation of cell proliferation. By doing so, these protein complexes affect other fundamental processes such as ...

  15. Disk-Evaporation Fed Corona: Structure and Evaporation Feature with Magnetic Field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lei Qian; B. F. Liu; Xue-Bing Wu

    2007-07-03

    The disk-corona evaporation model naturally interprets many observational phenomena in black hole X-ray binaries, such as the truncation of an accretion disk and the spectral state transitions. On the other hand, magnetic field is known to play an important role in transporting angular momentum and producing viscosity in accretion flows. In this work, we explicitly take the magnetic field in the accretion disk corona into account and numerically calculate the coronal structure on the basis of our two-temperature evaporation code. We show that the magnetic field influences the coronal structure by its contribution to the pressure, energy and radiative cooling in the corona and by decreasing the vertical heat conduction. We found that the maximal evaporation rate keeps more or less constant ($\\sim 0.03$ Eddington rate) while the strength of magnetic fields changes, but that the radius corresponding to the maximal evaporation rate decreases with increasing magnetic field. This predicts that the spectral state transition always occurs at a few percent of Eddington accretion rate, while the inner edge of thin disk can be at $\\sim 100 R_{\\rm S} $ or even less in the hard state before the transition to the soft state. These results alleviate the problem that previous evaporation models predict too large a truncation radius, and are in better agreement with the observational results of several black hole X-ray binaries, though discrepancies remain.

  16. Farm Feed Processing. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, W. S.; Sorenson, J. W.; McCune, W. E.

    1961-01-01

    PLANNING- A DESI-N , s ~IiABY mUMENTS DNISfOH A & M COUEGE Of TOW CWfGE STATN)N, ; l- \\.~i - MECHANIZATION OF FEED processing and handling oper- ations should be approached with caution. Mechanization is justified for one or more of the following..../hr. 'peed from HP per 10 Trn horizontal, o ft. length Wheat Oats Cornlneal Angle Approximate Maximum capacit!., Speed from HPper10 bu. / hr. 1 rpm horizontal, O ft. length Wheat Oats Cornmeal I Capacities are interpolated from several sources...

  17. Feeding Baby Beeves. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burns, John C.

    1916-01-01

    of calves for the market, or, in other words, the procluction of %aby beef." 2. To compare cotton seed meal, cold-pressed cotton seed, and peanut meal for supplementing a ration composed of ground milo, corn or- . I sorghum silage, and Sudan hap... seed, ground milo, corn silage, and Sudan hajr. There was no trouble whatever in getting then1 on feed. ifter the first few days they were fed a11 the roughage (silage and hay) hev wo~~lil eat, hut the amount of concentrates (cake and milo) wac ~ept...

  18. Feeding experiment no. 2 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gulley, F. A. (Frank Arthur); Carson, J. W.

    1890-01-01

    raw and cooked, cotton seed hulls, cotton geed meal, and silage. The results showed that range steers may be dehorned and fed loose under a shed, crowded together like sheep, successfully, and that cost of certain food consumed is much less than... increased value of steers from gains made in weight at selling prices of food and steers. In regard to comparative results from different feed-stuffs, silage and cot- ton seed hulls for ro'ughness, and cooked cotton seed and cotton meal, with or without...

  19. NETL: Feed Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines light on771/6/14 Contact: Janet Lambert4 FLCNETL-ORD4 NETL ORD -CloselyFeed

  20. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant full-scale feed preparation testing with water and process simulant slurries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaskill, J.R.; Larson, D.E.; Abrigo, G.P. [and others] [and others

    1996-03-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant was intended to convert selected, pretreated defense high-level waste and transuranic waste from the Hanford Site into a borosilicate glass. A full-scale testing program was conducted with nonradioactive waste simulants to develop information for process and equipment design of the feed-preparation system. The equipment systems tested included the Slurry Receipt and Adjustment Tank, Slurry Mix Evaporator, and Melter-Feed Tank. The areas of data generation included heat transfer (boiling, heating, and cooling), slurry mixing, slurry pumping and transport, slurry sampling, and process chemistry. 13 refs., 129 figs., 68 tabs.

  1. Optical properties of Pr-doped BaY{sub 2}F{sub 8}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrade, Adriano B. Mello, Ana C. S. de; Valerio, Mário E. G.; Rezende, Marcos V. dos S.; Baldochi, Sonia L.

    2014-08-07

    Crystalline samples of Pr-doped BaY{sub 2}F{sub 8} (BaYF) were prepared by zone melting technique. The pure phase obtained was identified by X-ray diffraction measurement. Optical absorption result was evaluated and it showed that the formation of the absorption bands can be connected to color centers generated by radiation in the matrix. Radioluminescence emission measurements after excitation by X-ray showed that the material exhibited components responsible for long lasting phosphorescence. Short decay times were also evaluated, the measurements showed a fast component around 70?ns associated to the 4f{sup 1}5d{sup 1} ? 4f{sup 2} transition of the Pr{sup 3+} ion. The Thermoluminescence (TL) results indicate the presence of two trapping centers.

  2. Radion clouds around evaporating black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. R. Morris

    2009-09-03

    A Kaluza-Klein model, with a matter source associated with Hawking radiation from an evaporating black hole, is used to obtain a simple form for the radion effective potential. The environmental effect generally causes a matter-induced shift of the radion vacuum, resulting in the formation of a radion cloud around the hole. There is an albedo due to the radion cloud, with an energy dependent reflection coefficient that depends upon the size of the extra dimensions and the temperature of the hole.

  3. Two stage indirect evaporative cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourne, Richard C.; Lee, Brian E.; Callaway, Duncan

    2005-08-23

    A two stage indirect evaporative cooler that moves air from a blower mounted above the unit, vertically downward into dry air passages in an indirect stage and turns the air flow horizontally before leaving the indirect stage. After leaving the dry passages, a major air portion travels into the direct stage and the remainder of the air is induced by a pressure drop in the direct stage to turn 180.degree. and returns horizontally through wet passages in the indirect stage and out of the unit as exhaust air.

  4. Evaporative Cooling Basics | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann JacksonDepartment ofOffice ofofWind ProjectsEfficiencyPreparedKYAQuarterEvaporative

  5. Regulation of a senescence checkpoint response by the E2F1 transcription factor and p14ARF tumor suppressor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dimri, Goberdhan P.; Itahana, Koji; Acosta, Meileen; Campisi, Judith

    1999-11-05

    Normal cells do not divide indefinitely due to a process known as replicative senescence. Human cells arrest growth with a senescent phenotype when they acquire one or more critically short telomere as a consequence of cell division. Recent evidence suggests that certain types of DNA damage, chromatin remodeling, or oncogenic forms of Rasor Raf can also elicit a senescence response. We show here that E2F1, a multifunctional transcription factor that binds the retinoblastoma (pRb) tumor suppressor and can either promote or suppress tumorigenesis, induces a senescent phenotype when overexpressed in normal human fibroblasts. Normal human cells stably arrested proliferation and expressed several markers of replicative senescence in response to E2F1. This activity of E2F1 was independent of its pRb binding activity, but dependent on its ability to stimulate gene expression. The E2F1 target gene critical for the senescence response appeared to be the p14ARF tumor suppressor. Replicatively senescent human fibroblasts overexpressed p14ARF, and ectopic expression of p14ARF in presenescent cells induced a phenotype similar to that induced by E2F1. Consistent with a critical role for p14ARF, cells with compromised p53 function were immune to senescence induction by E2F1, as were cells deficient in p14ARF. Our findings support the idea that the senescence response is a critical tumor suppressive mechanism, provide an explanation for the apparently paradoxical roles of E2F1 in oncogenesis, and identify p14ARF as a potentially important mediator of the senescent phenotype.

  6. Nutrient Composition of Feeds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gill, Ronald J.; Herd, Dennis B.

    1986-01-01

    .88-0.96 Figure 2. Variation In energy content of various forages relative to the requirements of various classes of caHie (values given on a dry maHer basis). D.E. Mcal./lba DDM%b 1.61 80 1.50 75 1.40 70 1.29 65 Weaned Heiler... Ingredient Ana~sls Tables (Adapted from NR , 1984). Forages (Dry MaHer Basis) Vit.A ME TDN CP Ca p Equiv./lb Feed Name Description* (Mcal/lb) (%) (%) (%) (%) 1000 IU Alfalfa SC- EB .98 60 18.0 1.41 .22 25.5 SC- MB .95 58 17.0 1.41 .24 6.0 SC- LB .85 52...

  7. Multiple feed powder splitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, Gary K. (Los Alamos, NM); Less, Richard M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A device for providing uniform powder flow to the nozzles when creating solid structures using a solid fabrication system such as the directed light fabrication (DLF) process. In the DLF process, gas entrained powders are passed through the focal point of a moving high-power laser light which fuses the particles in the powder to a surface being built up in layers. The invention is a device providing uniform flow of gas entrained powders to the nozzles of the DLF system. The device comprises a series of modular splitters which are slidably interconnected and contain an integral flow control mechanism. The device can take the gas entrained powder from between one to four hoppers and split the flow into eight tubular lines which feed the powder delivery nozzles of the DLF system.

  8. Multiple feed powder splitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, Gary K. (Los Alamos, NM); Less, Richard M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2001-01-01

    A device for providing uniform powder flow to the nozzles when creating solid structures using a solid fabrication system such as the directed light fabrication (DLF) process. In the DLF process, gas entrained powders are passed through the focal point of a moving high-power laser light which fuses the particles in the powder to a surface being built up in layers. The invention is a device providing uniform flow of gas entrained powders to the nozzles of the DLF system. The device comprises a series of modular splitters which are slidably interconnected and contain an integral flow control mechanism. The device can take the gas entrained powder from between one to four hoppers and split the flow into eight tubular lines which feed the powder delivery nozzles of the DLF system.

  9. Optimal Electron Energies for Driving Chromospheric Evaporation in Solar Flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reep, Jeffrey; Alexander, David

    2015-01-01

    In the standard model of solar flares, energy deposition by a beam of electrons drives strong chromospheric evaporation leading to a significantly denser corona and much brighter emission across the spectrum. Chromospheric evaporation was examined in great detail by Fisher, Canfield, & McClymont (1985a,b,c), who described a distinction between two different regimes, termed explosive and gentle evaporation. In this work, we examine the importance of electron energy and stopping depths on the two regimes and on the atmospheric response. We find that with explosive evaporation, the atmospheric response does not depend strongly on electron energy. In the case of gentle evaporation, lower energy electrons are significantly more efficient at heating the atmosphere and driving up-flows sooner than higher energy electrons. We also find that the threshold between explosive and gentle evaporation is not fixed at a given beam energy flux, but also depends strongly on the electron energy and duration of heating. Furt...

  10. Simple flash evaporator for making thin films of compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hemanadhan, M.; Bapanayya, Ch.; Agarwal, S. C. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208016 (India)

    2010-07-15

    A simple and compact arrangement for flash evaporation is described. It uses a cell phone vibrator for powder dispensing that can be incorporated into a vacuum deposition chamber without any major alterations. The performance of the flash evaporation system is checked by making thin films of the optical memory chalcogenide glass Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} (GST). Energy dispersive x-ray analysis shows that the flash evaporation preserves the stoichiometry in thin films.

  11. Quantum Cooling Evaporation Process in Regular Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yun Soo Myung; Yong-Wan Kim; Young-Jai Park

    2007-09-28

    We investigate a universal behavior of thermodynamics and evaporation process for the regular black holes. We newly observe an important point where the temperature is maximum, the heat capacity is changed from negative infinity to positive infinity, and the free energy is minimum. Furthermore, this point separates the evaporation process into the early stage with negative heat capacity and the late stage with positive heat capacity. The latter represents the quantum cooling evaporation process. As a result, the whole evaporation process could be regarded as the inverse Hawking-Page phase transition.

  12. Soft ionization of thermally evaporated hypergolic ionic liquid aerosols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koh, Christine J.

    2013-01-01

    thermal energy from evaporation and the energy imparted by the ionization process.energy imparted into the isolated ion pair upon thermal vaporization and minimizes reactive processes.

  13. Simulation of radiant cooling performance with evaporative cooling sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    ft/min), the pressure drop for the heat exchanger is just 50pressure drop associated with the counter-flow indirect-evaporative heat exchanger

  14. Addressing Water Consumption of Evaporative Coolers with Greywater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sahai, Rashmi

    2013-01-01

    Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inc. 2009.a novel dew point air conditioning system for China building1999. Evaporative Air-Conditioning: Applications for

  15. Free fall onto evaporating black holes at the quantum limit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maurice H. P. M. van Putten

    2015-11-11

    Black hole space times evaporate in discrete steps due to remarkably slow Hawking radiation. We here identify evaporation with essentially extremal states at the limit of quantum computation, performing $2.7\\times 10^{79}$ bit calculations per photon emission in a one solar mass black hole. During evaporation, particles in free fall co-evolve satisfying $EM=$constant, where $E$ and $M$ denote the total mass energy-at-infinity of the particle and, respectively, black hole. Particles are hereby increasingly entangled with the black hole space-time over the course of its evaporation.

  16. Commercial Feeding Stuffs, 1916-17: Texas feed law. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Youngblood, B. (Bonney)

    1917-01-01

    ; (b) to refuse registration of I ny feeding stuff under a name which would be misleading as to the I aaterials of which it is made up, or which does not conform to the I tandards, names and definitions aforesaid, and (c) after ten days' lotice... on the tap: (1) Yumber of net pounds of feeding stuff the packacc; contains. (2 X;~me of feecling tuff, exactly as shown in regi~trat;~l~. (3) Namcc: of material of which such feed is composecl, where the contents are of a ri~jxecl nature. (4...

  17. Synthesis, structural and magnetic characterisation of the fully fluorinated compound 6H-BaFeO{sub 2}F

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clemens, Oliver; Wright, Adrian J.; Berry, Frank J.; Smith, Ronald I.; Slater, Peter R.

    2013-02-15

    The compound 6H-BaFeO{sub 2}F (P6{sub 3}/mmc) was synthesised by the low temperature fluorination of 6H-BaFeO{sub 3-d} using polyvinylidenedifluoride (PVDF) as a fluorination agent. Structural characterisation by XRD and NPD suggests that the local positions of the oxygen and fluorine atoms vary with no evidence for ordering on the anion sites. This compound shows antiferromagnetic ordering at room temperature with antiparallel alignment of the magnetic moments along the c-axis. The use of PVDF also allows the possibility of tuning the fluorine content in materials of composition 6H-BaFeO{sub 3-d}F{sub y} to any value of 02}F. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The crystal structure of the hexagonal perovskite phase 6H-BaFeO{sub 2}F. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H-BaFeO{sub 2}F and 6H-BaFeO{sub 3-d}F{sub y} were prepared via low temperature fluorination using PVDF. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A structural investigation of the compounds BaFeO{sub 2}F is presented in detail. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This analysis suggests differences for the local coordination of O{sup 2-} and F{sup -} anions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H-BaFeO{sub 2}F shows antiferromagnetic ordering at 300 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The magnetic moments align parallel to the a-axis.

  18. Synthesis, structural and magnetic characterisation of the fluorinated compound 15R-BaFeO{sub 2}F

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clemens, Oliver; Berry, Frank J.; Bauer, Jessica; Wright, Adrian J.; Knight, Kevin S.; Slater, Peter R.

    2013-07-15

    The compounds 15R-BaFeO{sub 2}F and 15R-BaFeO{sub 2.27}F{sub 0.5} have been synthesised by the low temperature fluorination of 15R-BaFeO{sub 3?d}F{sub 0.2} using polyvinylidenedifluoride (PVDF) as a fluorination agent. The materials have been structurally characterised by Rietveld analysis of the X-ray- and HRPD-powder neutron diffraction data. A detailed analysis of bond valence sums suggests that the oxide and fluoride ions order on the different anion sites. A reinvestigation of our recently published structure (Clemens et al., 2013) [34] of 6H-BaFeO{sub 2}F is also reported and incorporation of fluoride in h-type layers is also confirmed in this compound. The magnetic moments for 15R-BaFeO{sub 2}F and 15R-BaFeO{sub 2.25}F{sub 0.5} align in the a/b-plane with antiferromagnetic alignment of the moments between adjacent layers, and are flipped by 90° as compared to the precursor compound. 15R-BaFeO{sub 2}F exhibits very robust antiferromagnetism with a Néel temperature between 300 and 400 °C. - Graphical abstract: The crystal and magnetic structure of the perovskite phase 15R-BaFeO{sub 2}F. - Highlights: • 15R-BaFeO{sub 2}F and 15R-BaFeO{sub 2.27}F{sub 0.5}were prepared via low temperature fluorination using PVDF. • A structural investigation of the compounds BaFeO{sub 2}F is presented in detail. • This analysis suggests ordering of O{sup 2?} and F{sup ?} anions between different layers. • 15R-BaFeO{sub 2}F shows antiferromagnetic ordering at 300 K with T{sub N} ?300–400 °C. • The magnetic moments align in the a/b-plane.

  19. Method for fluorination of actinide fluorides and oxyfluorides thereof using O.sub.2 F.sub.2

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eller, Phillip G. (Los Alamos, NM); Malm, John G. (Naperville, IL); Penneman, Robert A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1988-01-01

    Method for fluorination of actinides and fluorides and oxyfluorides thereof using O.sub.2 F.sub.2 which generates actinide hexafluorides, and for removal of actinides and compounds thereof from surfaces upon which they appear as unwanted deposits. The fluorinating agent, O.sub.2 F.sub.2, has been observed to readily perform the above-described tasks at sufficiently low temperatures that there is virtually no damage to the containment vessels. Moreover, the resulting actinide hexafluorides are thereby not destroyed by high temperature reactions with the walls of the reaction vessel. Dioxygen difluoride is easily prepared, stored and transferred to the desired place of reaction.

  20. Method for fluorination of actinide fluorides and oxyfluorides thereof using O[sub 2]F[sub 2

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eller, P.G.; Malm, J.G.; Penneman, R.A.

    1988-11-08

    Method is described for fluorination of actinides and fluorides and oxyfluorides thereof using O[sub 2]F[sub 2] which generates actinide hexafluorides, and for removal of actinides and compounds thereof from surfaces upon which they appear as unwanted deposits. The fluorinating agent, O[sub 2]F[sub 2], has been observed to readily perform the above-described tasks at sufficiently low temperatures that there is virtually no damage to the containment vessels. Moreover, the resulting actinide hexafluorides are thereby not destroyed by high temperature reactions with the walls of the reaction vessel. Dioxygen difluoride is easily prepared, stored and transferred to the desired place of reaction.

  1. Indirect evaporative coolers with enhanced heat transfer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kozubal, Eric; Woods, Jason; Judkoff, Ron

    2015-09-22

    A separator plate assembly for use in an indirect evaporative cooler (IEC) with an air-to-air heat exchanger. The assembly includes a separator plate with a first surface defining a dry channel and a second surface defining a wet channel. The assembly includes heat transfer enhancements provided on the first surface for increasing heat transfer rates. The heat transfer enhancements may include slit fins with bodies extending outward from the first surface of separator plate or may take other forms including vortex generators, offset strip fins, and wavy fins. In slit fin implementations, the separator plate has holes proximate to each of the slit fins, and the separator plate assembly may include a sealing layer applied to the second surface of the separator plate to block air flow through the holes. The sealing layer can be a thickness of adhesive, and a layer of wicking material is applied to the adhesive.

  2. Chalcogenide nanowires by evaporation-condensation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Bradley R.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Sundaram, S. K.

    2005-02-02

    Chalcogenide (arsenic sulfide) nanowires have been successfully synthesized from As2S3 under near-equilibrium conditions via evaporation-condensation process in evacuated glass ampoules. The as-synthesized nanowires were pure, nearly stoichiometric, and amorphous. The nanowires had diameters ranging from 40 to 140 nm and lengths up to a few millimeters. Distinct joints of the crisscrossing nanowires indicate potential for forming structural networks. They have been characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to determine their structure, composition, and morphology. Selected area diffraction (SAD) in the TEM and XRD confirmed their amorphous nature. The As-S nanowires could make an ideal system for understanding the carrier transport and photonic properties in nanoscale for this family of materials (IV-V compounds). Chalcogenide nanowires show promise for integrated nanoelectronics and biophotonics.

  3. Monitoring Feed Efficiency in Dairy Herds 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stokes, Sandra R.

    1999-04-26

    is preferred). Otherwise, the particle size of what the cows are actually con- suming will be reduced. Feed inventory: Even though feed is the single largest operating expense on dairies, few produc- ers track feed inventory closely to determine shrinkage... feeding management. Thus, although the ration may be fine ?on paper,? the ration the cows actually consume may be in- adequate. Tracking inventory can also aid in feed pricing. Feeds with high shrinkage should be discounted when determining their value...

  4. Clutter-Based Evaporation Duct Estimation Performance Using Meteorological Statistics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerstoft, Peter

    Clutter-Based Evaporation Duct Estimation Performance Using Meteorological Statistics Caglar Yardim in different regions of the world with varying duct strengths and statistics. The performance of evaporation duct estimation is investigated in littoral zones such as the North Sea, Wallops Island, Coast

  5. Chapter [6.14] Edwards EB3 Electron Beam Evaporator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Healy, Kevin Edward

    , wafer holder, crystal monitor and heat lamp. The door has a magnetic bearing and users should gently-inch wafer. A crystal monitor enables direct read-out in Å/sec resolution for deposition rate and in nm on the metals you are going to evaporate. 4.8 Crystal monitor: monitors the evaporation rate by correlating

  6. Maintenance Guide for Greenhouse Ventilation, Evaporative Cooling Heating Systems1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Jeffrey E.

    AE26 Maintenance Guide for Greenhouse Ventilation, Evaporative Cooling Heating Systems1 D. E and preventive maintenance procedures for ventilation, evaporative cooling and heating systems. Ventilation a ventilation system is not operating properly, the results can be pockets of stagnant air, inadequate cooling

  7. Proximity effects in superconducting triplet spin-valve F2/F1/S R.G. Deminov a,n

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fominov, Yakov

    Proximity effects in superconducting triplet spin-valve F2/F1/S R.G. Deminov a,n , L.R. Tagirov a effect Superconducting Ferromagnetic Triplet spin-valve Magnetization Transition temperature Interface of the spin-valve effect mode selection (standard switching effect, the triplet spin-valve effect or reentrant

  8. Thermoacoustic instabilities in non zero Mach number mean flow configurations. K. Wieczorek1,2, F. Nicoud2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicoud, Franck

    Thermoacoustic instabilities in non zero Mach number mean flow configurations. K. Wieczorek1,2, F In the calculation of thermoacoustic instabilities, a common assumption is that the mean flow velocity is small differences in the evaluation of the thermoacoustic modes present in the domain, especially for cases with non

  9. Perspective on the reactions between F and CH3CH2F: The free energy landscape of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nielsen, Steven O.

    Perspective on the reactions between F and CH3CH2F: The free energy landscape of the E2 and SN2, 2004) Recently, we computed the 3D free energy surface of the base- induced elimination reaction by the exploration of the six-dimensional free energy landscape, sampling, and mapping out the eight stable states

  10. NIPSCO- Feed-In Tariff

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

     NIPSCO is offering a feed-in tariff program for customers who generate electricity from solar, wind, biomass, or new hydroelectric facilities. All NIPSCO electric customers in good standing are...

  11. LOW ACTIVITY WASTE FEED SOLIDS CARACTERIZATION AND FILTERABILITY TESTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCabe, D.; Crawford, C.; Duignan, M.; Williams, M.; Burket, P.

    2014-04-03

    The primary treatment of the tank waste at the DOE Hanford site will be done in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) that is currently under construction. The baseline plan for the WTP Pretreatment facility is to treat the waste, splitting it into High Level Waste (HLW) feed and Low Activity Waste (LAW) feed. Both waste streams are then separately vitrified as glass and sealed in canisters. The LAW glass will be disposed onsite in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). There are currently no plans to treat the waste to remove technetium in the WTP Pretreatment facility, so its disposition path is the LAW glass. Options are being explored to immobilize the LAW portion of the tank waste, i.e., the LAW feed from the WTP Pretreatment facility. Removal of {sup 99}Tc from the LAW Feed, followed by off-site disposal of the {sup 99}Tc, would eliminate a key risk contributor for the IDF Performance Assessment (PA) for supplemental waste forms, and has potential to reduce treatment and disposal costs. Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) is developing some conceptual flow sheets for LAW treatment and disposal that could benefit from technetium removal. One of these flowsheets will specifically examine removing {sup 99}Tc from the LAW feed stream to supplemental immobilization. The conceptual flow sheet of the {sup 99}Tc removal process includes a filter to remove insoluble solids prior to processing the stream in an ion exchange column, but the characteristics and behavior of the liquid and solid phases has not previously been investigated. This report contains results of testing of a simulant that represents the projected composition of the feed to the Supplemental LAW process. This feed composition is not identical to the aqueous tank waste fed to the Waste Treatment Plant because it has been processed through WTP Pretreatment facility and therefore contains internal changes and recycle streams that will be generated within the WTP process. Although a Supplemental LAW feed simulant has previously been prepared, this feed composition differs from that simulant because those tests examined only the fully soluble aqueous solution at room temperature, not the composition formed after evaporation, including the insoluble solids that precipitate after it cools. The conceptual flow sheet for Supplemental LAW immobilization has an option for removal of {sup 99}Tc from the feed stream, if needed. Elutable ion exchange has been selected for that process. If implemented, the stream would need filtration to remove the insoluble solids prior to processing in an ion exchange column. The characteristics, chemical speciation, physical properties, and filterability of the solids are important to judge the feasibility of the concept, and to estimate the size and cost of a facility. The insoluble solids formed during these tests were primarily natrophosphate, natroxalate, and a sodium aluminosilicate compound. At the elevated temperature and 8 M [Na+], appreciable insoluble solids (1.39 wt%) were present. Cooling to room temperature and dilution of the slurry from 8 M to 5 M [Na+] resulted in a slurry containing 0.8 wt% insoluble solids. The solids (natrophosphate, natroxalate, sodium aluminum silicate, and a hydrated sodium phosphate) were relatively stable and settled quickly. Filtration rates were in the range of those observed with iron-based simulated Hanford tank sludge simulants, e.g., 6 M [Na+] Hanford tank 241-AN-102, even though their chemical speciation is considerably different. Chemical cleaning of the crossflow filter was readily accomplished with acid. As this simulant formulation was based on an average composition of a wide range of feeds using an integrated computer model, this exact composition may never be observed. But the test conditions were selected to enable comparison to the model to enable improving its chemical prediction capability.

  12. Accumulation of Toxic Trace Elements in Evaporites in Agricultural Evaporation Ponds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tanji, Kenneth K; Dahlgren, Randy A; Ong, Colin; Herbel, Mitchell; Quek, Ann; Gao, Suduan

    1994-01-01

    1988. Investigation of Evaporation Ponds for the Disposal ofAgricultural Evaporation Ponds. P h . D . diss. U n i v e rfor Agricultural Evaporation Ponds and Other Hyper saline

  13. Sign up (/users/sign_up) Sign in (/users/sign_in?redirect_to=http%3A%2F%2Ftodayeco.com%2Fpages%2F22037994-these-windmills-are-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chiao, Jung-Chih

    Fpages%2F22037994-these-windmills-are- so-tiny-you-could-fit-10-of-them-on-a) Follow 972 follow ers18 Tweet 1 0 Archives (/pages/2014-01-13) » These windmills are so tiny, you could fit 10 of them on a grain of rice | Grist (http://todayeco.com/pages/22037994- these-windmills-are-so-tiny-you- could-fit-10

  14. Commercial Feeding Stuffs, 1915-16: Texas Feed Law. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Youngblood, B. (Bonney)

    1916-01-01

    !ation): College Station, Brazos A. H. LEIDIGH, B. S., Agronomist County Lours M7~~~~~~~~~~~~~, B. S.. Agrorio- T. M. REDDELL, Superinfendent mist G. F. JORDAN, I3. S., Scientific Assistant DIVISION OF PLANT PATHOLO(= y AND SUBSTATION NO- 11 : Nacogdoches... source of fat in case of a deficierlcy in carbohydrates and fat accom- paniecl bp excess of protein. It is,. however, a costly source of heat and fat. T7aPue of Protein: Protein is the most expensive portion of a feeding stuff, and feeding stuffs rich...

  15. Self-excited hydrothermal waves in evaporating sessile drops 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sefiane K.; Moffat J.R.; Matar O.K.; Craster R.V.

    2008-08-01

    Pattern formation driven by the spontaneous evaporation of sessile drops of methanol, ethanol, and FC-72 using infrared thermography is observed and, in certain cases, interpreted in terms of hydrothermal waves. Both ...

  16. EVAPORATION OF ICY PLANETESIMALS DUE TO BOW SHOCKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanaka, Kyoko K.; Yamamoto, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Hidekazu [Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0819 (Japan)] [Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0819 (Japan); Miura, Hitoshi [Department of Earth Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan)] [Department of Earth Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Nagasawa, Makiko; Nakamoto, Taishi [Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)] [Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)

    2013-02-20

    We present the novel concept of evaporation of planetesimals as a result of bow shocks associated with planetesimals orbiting with supersonic velocities relative to the gas in a protoplanetary disk. We evaluate the evaporation rates of the planetesimals based on a simple model describing planetesimal heating and evaporation by the bow shock. We find that icy planetesimals with radius {approx}>100 km evaporate efficiently even outside the snow line in the stage of planetary oligarchic growth, where strong bow shocks are produced by gravitational perturbations from protoplanets. The obtained results suggest that the formation of gas giant planets is suppressed owing to insufficient accretion of icy planetesimals onto the protoplanet within the {approx}<5 AU disk region.

  17. Potential of Evaporative Cooling Systems for Buildings in India 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maiya, M. P.; Vijay, S.

    2010-01-01

    psychrometric chart for different cities in India like Ahmadabad, Jodhpur, Nagpur and New Delhi representing different climatic conditions of India. While satisfactorily comfort can be achieved at cool and dry weather conditions by evaporative cooling system...

  18. Analysis of the diurnal behavior of Evaporative Fraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gentine, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis, the diurnal behavior of Evaporative Fraction (EF) was examined. EF was shown to exhibit a typical concave-up shape, with a minimum usually reached in the middle of the day. The influence of the vegetation ...

  19. Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning: Parametric Analysis and Design; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woods, J.; Kozubal, E.

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents a parametric analysis using a numerical model of a new concept in desiccant and evaporative air conditioning. The concept consists of two stages: a liquid desiccant dehumidifier and a dew-point evaporative cooler. Each stage consists of stacked air channel pairs separated by a plastic sheet. In the first stage, a liquid desiccant film removes moisture from the process (supply-side) air through a membrane. An evaporatively-cooled exhaust airstream on the other side of the plastic sheet cools the desiccant. The second-stage indirect evaporative cooler sensibly cools the dried process air. We analyze the tradeoff between device size and energy efficiency. This tradeoff depends strongly on process air channel thicknesses, the ratio of first-stage to second-stage area, and the second-stage exhaust air flow rate. A sensitivity analysis reiterates the importance of the process air boundary layers and suggests a need for increasing airside heat and mass transfer enhancements.

  20. Salt-Bridge Transition State for the Charge Separation 2+ f CoOH(H2O)2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Metz, Ricardo B.

    Salt-Bridge Transition State for the Charge Separation Co(H2O)4 2+ f CoOH(H2O)2 + + H3O+ Martin K centers form a Co2+ -OH- -H3O+ salt bridge, lowering the barrier for the reaction. The transition state that this reaction proceeds via a salt-bridge transition state.11 The barrier height is directly determined

  1. Thermodynamics and evaporation of the noncommutative black hole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yun Soo Myung; Yong-Wan Kim; Young-Jai Park

    2007-01-21

    We investigate the thermodynamics of the noncommutative black hole whose static picture is similar to that of the nonsingular black hole known as the de Sitter-Schwarzschild black hole. It turns out that the final remnant of extremal black hole is a thermodynamically stable object. We describe the evaporation process of this black hole by using the noncommutativity-corrected Vaidya metric. It is found that there exists a close relationship between thermodynamic approach and evaporation process.

  2. Superhydrophobic coated apparatus for liquid purification by evaporative condensation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, John T; McNeany, Steve R; Dinsmore, Thomas V; Hunter, Scott R; Ivanov, Ilia N

    2014-03-11

    Disclosed are examples of apparatuses for evaporative purification of a contaminated liquid. In each example, there is a first vessel for storing the contaminated fluid. The first vessel includes a surface coated with a layer of superhydrophobic material and the surface is at least partially in contact with the contaminated liquid. The contaminants do not adhere to the surface as the purified liquid evaporates, thus simplifying maintenance of the apparatus.

  3. RSS Feeds | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center HomeVehicle Replacement U.S.Job&EnergyProjectFeeds RSS Feeds The

  4. Method and apparatus for flash evaporation of liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bharathan, D.

    1984-01-01

    A vertical tube flash evaporator for introducing a super-heated liquid into a flash evaporation chamber includes a vertical inlet tube with a flared diffuser portion at its upper outlet end. A plurality of annular screens are positioned in axially spaced-apart relation to each other around the periphery of the vertical tube and below the diffuser portion thereof. The screens are preferably curved upward in a cup-shaped configuration. These flash evaporators are shown in an ocean thermal energy conversion unit designed for generating electric power from differential temperature gradients in ocean water. The method of use of the flash evaporators of this invention includes flowing liquid upwardly through the vertical tube into the diffuser where initial expansion and boiling occurs quite violently and explosively. Unvaporized liquid sheets and drops collide with each other to enhance surface renewal and evaporation properties, and liquid flowing over the outlet end of the diffuser falls onto the curved screens for further surface renewal and evaporation.

  5. Method and apparatus for flash evaporation of liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bharathan, Desikan (Lakewood, CO)

    1984-01-01

    A vertical tube flash evaporator for introducing a superheated liquid into a flash evaporation chamber includes a vertical inlet tube with a flared diffuser portion at its upper outlet end. A plurality of annular screens are positioned in axially spaced-apart relation to each other around the periphery of the vertical tube and below the diffuser portion thereof. The screens are preferably curved upward in a cup-shaped configuration. These flash evaporators are shown in an ocean thermal energy conversion unit designed for generating electric power from differential temperature gradients in ocean water. The method of use of the flash evaporators of this invention includes flowing liquid upwardly through the vertical tube into the diffuser where initial expansion and boiling occurs quite violently and explosively. Unvaporized liquid sheets and drops collide with each other to enhance surface renewal and evaporation properties, and liquid flowing over the outlet end of the diffuser falls onto the curved screens for further surface renewal and evaporation.

  6. Progress in year 1994 1. An analytical model for evaporative cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Progress in year 1994 1. An analytical model for evaporative cooling We have developed an analytical model for evaporative cooling [1]. By simulating evaporation as a sequence of discrete steps, we the cloud rethermalizes and ensures efficient evaporative cooling. 2. Elastic collision cross section

  7. On the inherent asymmetric nature of the complementary relationship of evaporation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Szilagyi, Jozsef

    ] in their Advection Aridity (AA) model. [3] The definition of potential evaporation is ambiguous due to what estimations. The parameters of the proposed practical evaporation estimation model are from the Priestley) and potential evaporation rates (LEp) to wet environment evaporation (LEw) LE þ LEp ¼ kLEw ð1Þ where k

  8. Effect of Solvent Evaporation on Fiber Morphology in Rotary Jet Holly McIlwee Golecki,,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, Kevin Kit

    and solvent evaporation enables production of nanoscale polymer fibers. RJS surpasses the electrospinning

  9. Feed mechanism and method for feeding minute items

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stringer, Timothy Kent; Yerganian, Simon Scott

    2012-11-06

    A feeding mechanism and method for feeding minute items, such as capacitors, resistors, or solder preforms. The mechanism is adapted to receive a plurality of the randomly-positioned and randomly-oriented extremely small or minute items, and to isolate, orient, and position the items in a specific repeatable pickup location wherefrom they may be removed for use by, for example, a computer-controlled automated assembly machine. The mechanism comprises a sliding shelf adapted to receive and support the items; a wiper arm adapted to achieve a single even layer of the items; and a pushing arm adapted to push the items into the pickup location. The mechanism can be adapted for providing the items with a more exact orientation, and can also be adapted for use in a liquid environment.

  10. Feed mechanism and method for feeding minute items

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stringer, Timothy Kent (Bucyrus, KS); Yerganian, Simon Scott (Lee's Summit, MO)

    2009-10-20

    A feeding mechanism and method for feeding minute items, such as capacitors, resistors, or solder preforms. The mechanism is adapted to receive a plurality of the randomly-positioned and randomly-oriented extremely small or minute items, and to isolate, orient, and position one or more of the items in a specific repeatable pickup location wherefrom they may be removed for use by, for example, a computer-controlled automated assembly machine. The mechanism comprises a sliding shelf adapted to receive and support the items; a wiper arm adapted to achieve a single even layer of the items; and a pushing arm adapted to push the items into the pickup location. The mechanism can be adapted for providing the items with a more exact orientation, and can also be adapted for use in a liquid environment.

  11. Effect of Bubbles and Silica Dissolution on Melter Feed Rheology...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Bubbles and Silica Dissolution on Melter Feed Rheology during Conversion to Glass As the nuclear waste glass melter feed is converted to molten glass, the feed becomes a...

  12. Mycotoxins in Feed and Food Crops. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Armstrong, James M.; Herb, Dennis B.; Bremer, John E.; Horne, C. Wendell; Thomas, William B.; Thornberry, Fred D.; Tripp, Leland D.; White, Thomas H.; Withers, Richard E.

    1981-01-01

    . The ancient Greeks, for example, cooked with mushrooms. This resulted in some people getting sick and others dying from the poisonous species of the mushrooms or fleshy fungi. The development of the science of . mycology (study of fungi) has permitted... and clean up program to keep bins, delivery trucks and other equipment free of adhering or caked feed ingredients. -Minimize dust accumulation in milling areas. -Cool pelleted feed before storage or delivery. -Keep all feed equipment free of caked feed...

  13. A diagram for the evaporation status of extrasolar planets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Etangs, A L

    2006-01-01

    To describe the evaporation status of the extrasolar planets, we propose to consider an energy diagram in which the potential energy of the planets is plotted versus the energy received by the upper atmosphere. Here we present a basic method to estimate these quantities. For the potential energy, we include the modification of the gravity field by the tidal forces from the parent stars. This description allows a quick estimate of both the escape rate of the atmospheric gas and the lifetime of a planet against the evaporation process. In the energy diagram, we find an evaporation-forbidden region in which a gaseous planet would evaporate in less than 5 billion years. With their observed characteristics, all extrasolar planets are found outside this evaporation-forbidden region. The escape rates are estimated to be in the range 10^5 g/s to 10^{12} g/s, with few cases above 10^{11} g/s. The estimated escape rate for HD209458b is found to be consistent with the lower limit of 10^{10} g/s obtained from interpretat...

  14. TINS -July 1978 l Neurophysiology of feeding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rolls, Edmund T.

    as to the separate roles of these differen" neurones. Lesions of the lateral hypothalamus reduce or abolish feeding, and of the ventro- medial hypothalamus lead to hyperpt gia and obesity. Conversely, electrical stimula- tion of the lateral hypothalamus can induce feeding, and of the ventromedial hypothalamus can stop feeding

  15. Feeding Waste Milk to Dairy Calves 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stokes, Sandra R.; Looper, Mike; Waldner, Dan; Jordan, Ellen R.

    2002-02-14

    to Dairy Calves Sandra A. Stokes, Michael L. Looper, Dan N. Waldner and Ellen R. Jordan* Dairy producers feed a variety of liquid feeds to young calves after the initial colostrum. These feeds include whole milk, surplus colostrum, transition milk, waste...

  16. Internal combustion engine fuel feed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cochard, P.; Guicherd, C.

    1980-02-19

    In a method and apparatus for controlling the fuel feed to a stratified-charge internal combustion engine, from idle up to the position corresponding with the maximum flow of air, the overall richness (Rg) of the combustible mixture is reduced by acting simultaneously upon the flow of fuel feeding the main chamber and upon the flow of fuel injected into the auxiliary chamber. For higher loads the maximum flow of air is kept constant and rg is increased by continuing to act upon both fuel flows. By keeping the richness of the mixture in the auxiliary chamber substantially constant, it is possible to obtain the best compromise between the performance of the engine and the emission of pollutant gases.

  17. Magnetized color superconducting cold quark matter within the SU(2)$_f$ NJL model: a novel regularization scheme

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, Pablo G; Scoccola, Norberto N

    2015-01-01

    The influence of intense magnetic fields on the behavior of color superconducting cold quark matter is investigated using an SU(2)$_f$ NJL-type model for which a novel regulation scheme is introduced. In such a scheme the contributions which are explicitly dependent on the magnetic field turn out to be finite and, thus, do not require to be regularized. As a result of this, nonphysical oscillations that might arise in the alternative regularization schemes previously used in the literature are naturally removed. The sensitivity of our results to the model parametrization is analyzed.

  18. Magnetized color superconducting cold quark matter within the SU(2)$_f$ NJL model: a novel regularization scheme

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pablo G. Allen; Ana G. Grunfeld; Norberto N. Scoccola

    2015-10-08

    The influence of intense magnetic fields on the behavior of color superconducting cold quark matter is investigated using an SU(2)$_f$ NJL-type model for which a novel regulation scheme is introduced. In such a scheme the contributions which are explicitly dependent on the magnetic field turn out to be finite and, thus, do not require to be regularized. As a result of this, nonphysical oscillations that might arise in the alternative regularization schemes previously used in the literature are naturally removed. The sensitivity of our results to the model parametrization is analyzed.

  19. Farm Feed Processing & Handling Systems. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, W. S.; Sorenson, J. W.; McCune, W. E.

    1970-01-01

    mixers. Either will do a satisfactory mixing job for farm use, providing care is used in proportioning. Mixing time should exceed 5 minutes. Vertical mixers. These use an upright inverted cone tank with a vertical auger in the center to mix the feed... horizontal U-shaped tank. A horizontal shaft equipped with paddles or spiral ribbons provides the mixing action. Some horizontal mixers use three large augers mounted hori- zontally parallel. Because they require less head room, the larger mixers...

  20. Fluidized bed boiler feed system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Brian C. (Windsor, CT)

    1981-01-01

    A fluidized bed boiler feed system for the combustion of pulverized coal. Coal is first screened to separate large from small particles. Large particles of coal are fed directly to the top of the fluidized bed while fine particles are first mixed with recycled char, preheated, and then fed into the interior of the fluidized bed to promote char burnout and to avoid elutriation and carryover.

  1. Control methods and systems for indirect evaporative coolers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woods, Jason; Kozubal, Erik

    2015-09-22

    A control method for operating an indirect evaporative cooler to control temperature and humidity. The method includes operating an airflow control device to provide supply air at a flow rate to a liquid desiccant dehumidifier. The supply air flows through the dehumidifier and an indirect evaporative cooler prior to exiting an outlet into a space. The method includes operating a pump to provide liquid desiccant to the liquid desiccant dehumidifier and sensing a temperature of an airstream at the outlet of the indirect evaporative cooler. The method includes comparing the temperature of the airstream at the outlet to a setpoint temperature at the outlet and controlling the pump to set the flow rate of the liquid desiccant. The method includes sensing space temperature, comparing the space temperature with a setpoint temperature, and controlling the airflow control device to set the flow rate of the supply air based on the comparison.

  2. Surfactant-driven flow transitions in evaporating droplets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marin, Alvaro; Rossi, Massimiliano; Kähler, Christian J

    2015-01-01

    An evaporating droplet is a dynamic system in which flow is spontaneously generated to minimize the surface energy, dragging particles to the borders and ultimately resulting in the so-called "coffee-stain effect". The situation becomes more complex at the droplet's surface, where surface tension gradients of different nature can compete with each other yielding different scenarios. With careful experiments and with the aid of 3D particle tracking techniques, we are able to show that different types of surfactants turn the droplet's surface either rigid or elastic, which alters the evaporating fluid flow, either enhancing the classical coffee-stain effect or leading to a total flow inversion. Our measurements lead to unprecedented and detailed measurements of the surface tension difference along an evaporating droplet's surface with good temporal and spatial resolution.

  3. Black hole evaporation in a noncommutative charged Vaidya model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharif, M. Javed, W.

    2012-06-15

    We study the black hole evaporation and Hawking radiation for a noncommutative charged Vaidya black hole. For this purpose, we determine a spherically symmetric charged Vaidya model and then formulate a noncommutative Reissner-Nordstroem-like solution of this model, which leads to an exact (t - r)-dependent metric. The behavior of the temporal component of this metric and the corresponding Hawking temperature are investigated. The results are shown in the form of graphs. Further, we examine the tunneling process of charged massive particles through the quantum horizon. We find that the tunneling amplitude is modified due to noncommutativity. Also, it turns out that the black hole evaporates completely in the limits of large time and horizon radius. The effect of charge is to reduce the temperature from a maximum value to zero. We note that the final stage of black hole evaporation is a naked singularity.

  4. Development of a Direct Evaporator for the Organic Rankine Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donna Post Guillen; Helge Klockow; Matthew Lehar; Sebastian Freund; Jennifer Jackson

    2011-02-01

    This paper describes research and development currently underway to place the evaporator of an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) system directly in the path of a hot exhaust stream produced by a gas turbine engine. The main goal of this research effort is to improve cycle efficiency and cost by eliminating the usual secondary heat transfer loop. The project’s technical objective is to eliminate the pumps, heat exchangers and all other added cost and complexity of the secondary loop by developing an evaporator that resides in the waste heat stream, yet virtually eliminates the risk of a working fluid leakage into the gaseous exhaust stream. The research team comprised of Idaho National Laboratory and General Electric Company engineers leverages previous research in advanced ORC technology to develop a new direct evaporator design that will reduce the ORC system cost by up to 15%, enabling the rapid adoption of ORCs for waste heat recovery.

  5. Exploring the Fuel Flexibility of Microbial Fuel Cells O. Bretschger1,2, F. Viva3, Y. Gorby4, D. Kennedy4, K.H.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Southern California, University of

    Exploring the Fuel Flexibility of Microbial Fuel Cells O. Bretschger1,2, F. Viva3, Y. Gorby4, D National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99354 A microbial fuel cell (MFC) utilizes the catalytic action

  6. Evaporator Feed Qualification Analysis Of Tank 38H And 43H Samples: January 2010 Through April 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martino, C. J.; Coleman, C. J.

    2013-08-21

    This report provides the results of analyses that focused on the chemical species that pertain to the sodium aluminosilicate formation potential for archived Tank 38H and 43H subsurface samples from January 2010 through April 2013. Analyses included warm acid strike preparation followed by analysis of silicon, aluminum, and sodium and water dilution preparation followed by analysis for anions. The Tank 43H and 38H supernatant liquid silicon measurements for the January 2010 through April 2013 time period exhibit a slight increasing trend. Over this time period, the silicon concentration in the Tank 43H and Tank 38H samples averaged 179 mg/L and 235 mg/L, respectively. Comparison of Tank 43H sample results from 2005 through April 2013 to the previously developed process control models indicates that the current formation of sodium aluminosilicate in the 2H system is due to the seeded direct precipitation of cancrinite and sodalite.

  7. Evaporation of iodine-containing off-gas scrubber solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Partridge, J.A.; Bosuego, G.P.

    1980-07-14

    Mercuric nitrate-nitric acid scrub solutions containing radioiodine may be reduced in volume without excessive loss of volatile iodine. The use of concentrated nitric acid during an evaporation process oxidizes the mercury-iodide complex to a less volatile mercuric iodate precipitate.

  8. Analysis of design tradeoffs for diplay case evaporators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bullard, CLARK

    2004-08-11

    A model for simulating a display case evaporator under frosting conditions has been developed, using a quasi-steady and finite-volume approach and a Newton-Raphson based solution algorithm. It is capable of simulating evaporators with multiple modules having different geometries, e.g. tube and fin thicknesses and pitch. The model was validated against data taken at two-minute intervals from a well-instrumented medium-temperature vertical display case, for two evaporators having very different configurations. The data from these experiments provided both the input data for the model and also the data to compare the modeling results. The validated model has been used to generate some general guidelines for coil design. Effects of various geometrical parameters were quantified, and compressor performance data were used to express the results in terms of total power consumption. Using these general guidelines, a new prototype evaporator was designed for the subject display case, keeping in mind the current packaging restrictions, tube and fin availabilities. It is an optimum coil for the given external load conditions. Subsequently, the validated model was used in a more extensive analysis to design prototype coils with some of the current tube and fin spacing restrictions removed. A new microchannel based suction line heat exchanger was installed in the display case system. The performance of this suction line heat exchanger is reported.

  9. Evaporatively Driven Convection in a Draining Soap Film

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bush, John W.M.

    Evaporatively Driven Convection in a Draining Soap Film Submitted by Jan M. Skotheim and John W. M. Bush, MIT A soap film was created by dipping a rectangular wire frame of height 3.5 cm and width 15 cm was mounted in a vertical po- sition, and the film drained under the influence of gravity in an unsaturated

  10. Probing Light Dark Matter via Evaporation from the Sun

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chris Kouvaris

    2015-06-13

    Dark matter particles can be captured by the sun with rates that depend on the dark matter mass and the DM-nucleon cross section. However, for masses below $\\sim 3.3$ GeV, the captured dark matter particles evaporate, leading to an equilibrium where the rate of captured particles is equal to the rate of evaporating ones. Unlike dark matter particles from the halo, the evaporating dark matter particles have velocities that are not limited to values below the escape velocity of the galaxy. Despite the fact that high velocities are exponentially suppressed, I demonstrate here that current underground detectors have the possibility to probe/constrain low dark matter parameter space by (not)-observing the high energy tail of the evaporating dark matter particles from the sun. I also show that the functional form of the differential rate of counts with respect to the recoil energy in earth based detectors can identify precisely the mass and the cross section of the dark matter particle in this case.

  11. Usage Policies Notebook for CHA Thermal Metal Evaporator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mease, Kenneth D.

    ;2 Emergency Plan for CHA Thermal Metal Evaporator Standard Operating Procedures for Emergencies Contact voltage Electrical shock, ignition source Isopropyl alcohol Flammable solvent N2 (nitrogen) gas Asphyxiant smell Shutdown machine at once Contact staff and lab manager. #12;3 Emergency shutdown plan #1

  12. Usage Policies Notebook for Mark 50 Evaporation Revision date

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mease, Kenneth D.

    Usage Policies Notebook for Mark 50 Evaporation Revision date March 2015 #12;Emergency Plan for CHA source N2 (nitrogen) gas Asphyxiant Alarms or indications of danger Alarm type Condition and response Shutdown the machine at once. Contact the staff and the lab manager. Emergency shutdown plan #1

  13. Usage Policies Notebook for CHA Electron Beam One Metal Evaporator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mease, Kenneth D.

    ;2 Emergency Plan for CHA Electron Beam One Metal Evaporator Standard Operating Procedures for Emergencies (nitrogen) gas Asphyxiant Alarms or indications of danger Alarm type Condition and response Alarm and the lab manager. #12;3 Emergency shutdown plan #1 In the event of an emergency, when there is very little

  14. Nanotube Boiler 1 Abstract--Controlled copper evaporation at attogram

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Nanotube Boiler 1 Abstract-- Controlled copper evaporation at attogram level from individual carbon nanotube (CNT) vessels, which we call nanotube boilers, is investigated experimentally, and ionization in these CNT boilers, which can serve as sources for mass transport and deposition in nanofluidic

  15. Micro loop heat pipe evaporator coherent pore structures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexseev, Alexandre Viktorovich

    2005-02-17

    ) delta Liquid film thickness (m) zeta Tabulated coefficient theta Contact angle * 0theta1 Dimensionless centerline temperature ? Absolute viscosity (Pa s) ?v Vapor chemical potential (J/kg molecule) or vapor viscosity (Pa s) nul... difference ..................................................................... 67 4.9. Evaporation rate ratio as a function of the post bottom width ......................... 68 x FIGURE Page 4.10 Pore wall temperature distribution...

  16. ENDA Feed | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar2-0057-EA Jump to:of the NationalDynetek Europe GmbHED FETVEELOEMeterENDA Feed

  17. Final characterization and safety screen report of double shell tank 241-AP-105 for evaporator campaign 97-1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, G.L.

    1997-01-20

    Evaporator candidate feed from tank 241-AP-105 (hereafter referred to as AP-105) was characterized for physical, inorganic, organic and radiochemical parameters by the 222-S Laboratory as directed by the Tank Sample and Analysis Plan (TSAP), References 1 through 4, and Engineering Change Notice, number 635332, Reference 5. This data package satisfies the requirement for a format IV, final report as described in Reference 1. This data package is also a follow-up to the 45-Day safety screen results for tank AP-105, Reference 8, which was issued on November 5, 1996, and is attached as Section II to this report. Preliminary data in the form of summary analytical tables were provided to the project in advance of this final report to enable early estimation of evaporator operational parameters, using the Predict modeling program. Analyses were performed at the 222-S Laboratory as defined and specified in the TSAP and the Laboratory's Quality Assurance P1an, References 6 and 7. Any deviations from the instructions documented in the TSAP are discussed in this narrative and are supported with additional documentation.

  18. Water-evaporation reduction by duplex films: Application to the human tear film

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cerretani, Colin F; Ho, Nghia H; Radke, C.J.

    2013-01-01

    38:408-17. Langmuir I. Oil lenses on water and the nature ofHVA. The evaporation of water through unimolecular films. JRates of evaporation of water through compressed monolayers

  19. Mathematical modeling of evaporative cooling of moisture bearing epoxy composite plates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Payette, Gregory Steven

    2006-08-16

    Research is performed to assess the potential of surface moisture evaporative cooling from composite plates as a means of reducing the external temperature of military aircraft. To assess the feasibility of evaporative ...

  20. Digestibility and Production Coefficients of Hog Feeds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1932-01-01

    , 1932. **In cooveration with U. S. Department of Agriculture, The value of a pig feed depends chiefly upon its content of digestible protein and productive energy. The average compos- ition, productive energy and digestible pro- tein are given.... They can be used to calculate the productive energy of pig feeds. CONTENTS Page Introduction 3 Digestion experiments with pigs 5 Method of work 5 Feeds used in the Texas digestion experiments _-------.~.__.____-----------------------.. 6 Digestion...

  1. Metabolizable Energy of Some Chicken Feeds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fudge, J. F. (Joseph Franklin); Carlyle, E. C. (Elmer Cardinal); Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1940-01-01

    PUS TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION A. B. CONNER. DIRECTOR COLLEGE STATION. BRAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS BULLETIN NO. 589 AUGUST 1940 * DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY Metabolizable Energy of Some Chicken Feeds -- AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS T... is one of a series dealing with the utilization of the T of animal feeds and of human foods. The metabolizable energy is ergy in the feed eaten less that excreted and is the maximum amount :rgy that can be utilized by the animals. No allowances...

  2. Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors Effects on Feeding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Charles Cano, Jonathan Rene

    2015-01-01

    acid in the rodent hypothalamus: a reverse microdialysisreceptors in the rat hypothalamus and pituitary. Endocrinol.in key neurons of the hypothalamus that regulate feeding

  3. Novel Feed System for Pressurised Gasification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering The University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK *james. Current feeding systems can be split into six key categories: Rotary valves Lock hoppers Plug

  4. Commercial Feeding Stuffs, September 1, 1938, to August 31, 1939. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuller, F. D. (Frederick Driggs); Sullivan, James

    1939-01-01

    standards for various by-product feeds and special- purpose mixed feeds are shown, and definitions of and standards for commercial unmixed feeds are given, together with additional information on the requirements of the Texas Feed Law and the composition... of lime and salt in mixed feeds 13 Suggestions to purchasers of feed ................................. 15 .................................. Definitions and standards adopted 15 ................................... Special-purpose mixed feeds 16...

  5. Source term evaluation for UF{sub 6} release event in feed facility at gaseous diffusion plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, S.H.; Taleyarkhan, R.P.

    1997-01-30

    An assessment of UF{sub 6} release accidents was conducted for the feed facility of a gaseous diffusion plant (GDP). Release rates from pig-tail connections were estimated from CYLIND code predictions, whereas, MELCOR was utilized for simulating reactions of UF{sub 6} with moisture and consequent transport of UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} aerosols and HF vapor through the building and to the environment. Two wind speeds were utilized. At the high end (Case 1) a wind speed of {approximately} 1 m/s (200 fpm) was assumed to flow parallel to the building length. At the low end (Case 2) to represent stagnant conditions a corresponding wind speed of 1 cm/s (2 fpm) was utilized. A further conservative assumption was made to specify no closure of crane and train doors at either end of the building. Relaxation of this assumption should provide for additional margins. Results indicated that, for the high (200 fpm) wind speed, close to 66% of the UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} aerosols and 100% of the HF gas get released to the environment over a 10-minute period. However, for the low (2 fpm) wind speed, negligible amount ({approximately} 1% UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}) of aerosols get released even over a 2 hour period.

  6. Consecutive Solvent Evaporation and Co-Rolling Techniques for Polymer Multilayer Hollow Fiber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skorobogatiy, Maksim

    Consecutive Solvent Evaporation and Co-Rolling Techniques for Polymer Multilayer Hollow Fiber, "Consecutive solvent evaporation and co-rolling techniques for polymer multilayer hollow fiber preform Layer-by-Layer Solvent Evaporation Process Polymer tube (cladding) Polymer 1 Polymer 2 Drawing Fiber #12

  7. Surface excess properties from energy transport measurements during water evaporation Fei Duan and C. A. Ward*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ward, Charles A.

    Surface excess properties from energy transport measurements during water evaporation Fei Duan condi- tions, accounts for as little as 50% of the energy required to evaporate water at the measured 2004; revised manuscript received 21 March 2005; published 2 November 2005 When water evaporates

  8. Prepayments of feed in cattle feeding operations: An emphasis on tax aspects. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wheat, Gary Don

    1972-01-01

    PREPAYMENTS OF FEED IN CATTLE FEEDING OPERATIONS: AN EMPHASIS ON TAX ASPECTS A Thesis by Gary Don Wheat Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&K University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... December 1972 Major Subject: Accounting PREPAYMENTS OF FEED IN CATTLE FEEDING OPERATIONS: AN EMPHASIS ON TAX ASPECTS A Thesis by Gary Don Wheat Approved as to style and content by: (Cha rman of o ttee) (Head of Department) (Member) Ql (Member...

  9. The relationship between residual feed intake and feeding behavior in growing heifers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bingham, Glenda Marie

    2009-05-15

    analyzed for the focal animals. All occurrences of feeding were timed and counted per day, and the eight 24-h periods averaged to derive the overall feeding event (FE) and meal duration and frequency for each focal heifer. Total feeding event duration...

  10. Primordial Black Holes: Observational Characteristics of The Final Evaporation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ukwatta, T N; Linnemann, J T; MacGibbon, J H; Marinelli, S S; Yapici, T; Tollefson, K

    2015-01-01

    Many early universe theories predict the creation of Primordial Black Holes (PBHs). PBHs could have masses ranging from the Planck mass to $10^5$ solar masses or higher depending on the size of the universe at formation. A Black Hole (BH) has a Hawking temperature which is inversely proportional to its mass. Hence a sufficiently small BH will quasi-thermally radiate particles at an ever-increasing rate as emission lowers its mass and raises its temperature. The final moments of this evaporation phase should be explosive and its description dependent on the particle physics model. In this work we investigate the final few seconds of BH evaporation using the Standard Model of particle physics incorporating the most recent LHC results and calculate energy dependent PBH burst light curves in the GeV/TeV energy range. Moreover, we explore PBH burst search methods and potential observational PBH burst signatures relevant to very high energy gamma-ray observatories.

  11. Summary of evaporative cooling system for the SSC silicon tracker

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woloshun, K.; Barber, R.L.; Christensen, W.; Hanlon, J.A.; Keddy, M.D.; Miller, W.O.; Reid, R.S.; Ziock, H.J.

    1994-10-01

    An evaporative cooling system has been developed for the Superconducting Supercollider (SSC) Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC) and the Gamma, Electron and Muon Detector (GEM) silicon tracker electronics. The system operated on the principles of the heat pipe; specifically, evaporation at near vapor-liquid equilibrium without the presence of noncondensible gases, and with a capillary media used to distribute the working fluid. The system used butane as a working fluid for operation at O{degrees}C and 1 atm. pressure. This paper summarizes the evolution of the system design, emphasizing key developments that may be useful for further work. Results of the system performance as of the close-of-effort are presented. A brief summary of results of experiments using a pumped single-phase cooling system are also presented.

  12. Evaporation-based Ge/.sup.68 Ga Separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mirzadeh, Saed (Albuquerque, NM); Whipple, Richard E. (Los Alamos, NM); Grant, Patrick M. (Los Alamos, NM); O'Brien, Jr., Harold A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1981-01-01

    Micro concentrations of .sup.68 Ga in secular equilibrium with .sup.68 Ge in strong aqueous HCl solution may readily be separated in ionic form from the .sup.68 Ge for biomedical use by evaporating the solution to dryness and then leaching the .sup.68 Ga from the container walls with dilute aqueous solutions of HCl or NaCl. The chloro-germanide produced during the evaporation may be quantitatively recovered to be used again as a source of .sup.68 Ga. If the solution is distilled to remove any oxidizing agents which may be present as impurities, the separation factor may easily exceed 10.sup.5. The separation is easily completed and the .sup.68 Ga made available in ionic form in 30 minutes or less.

  13. Axially Tapered And Bilayer Microchannels For Evaporative Cooling Devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nilson, Robert (Cardiff, CA); Griffiths, Stewart (Livermore, CA)

    2005-10-04

    The invention consists of an evaporative cooling device comprising one or more microchannels whose cross section is axially reduced to control the maximum capillary pressure differential between liquid and vapor phases. In one embodiment, the evaporation channels have a rectangular cross section that is reduced in width along a flow path. In another embodiment, channels of fixed width are patterned with an array of microfabricated post-like features such that the feature size and spacing are gradually reduced along the flow path. Other embodiments incorporate bilayer channels consisting of an upper cover plate having a pattern of slots or holes of axially decreasing size and a lower fluid flow layer having channel widths substantially greater than the characteristic microscale dimensions of the patterned cover plate. The small dimensions of the cover plate holes afford large capillary pressure differentials while the larger dimensions of the lower region reduce viscous flow resistance.

  14. Mesoporous-silica films, fibers, and powders by evaporation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bruinsma, Paul J.; Baskaran, Suresh; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Liu, Jun

    2008-05-06

    This invention pertains to surfactant-templated nanometer-scale porosity of a silica precursor solution and forming a mesoporous material by first forming the silica precursor solution into a preform having a high surface area to volume ratio, then rapid drying or evaporating a solvent from the silica precursor solution. The mesoporous material may be in any geometric form, but is preferably in the form of a film, fiber, powder or combinations thereof. The rapid drying or evaporation of solvent from the solution is accomplished by layer thinning, for example spin casting, liquid drawing, and liquid spraying respectively. Production of a film is by layer thinning, wherein a layer of the silica precursor solution is formed on a surface followed by removal of an amount of the silica precursor solution and leaving a geometrically thinner layer of the silica precursor solution from which the solvent quickly escapes via evaporation. Layer thinning may be by any method including but not limited to squeegeeing and/or spin casting. In powder formation by spray drying, the same conditions of fast drying exists as in spin-casting (as well as in fiber spinning) because of the high surface-area to volume ratio of the product. When a powder is produced by liquid spraying, the particles or micro-bubbles within the powder are hollow spheres with walls composed of mesoporous silica. Mesoporous fiber formation starts with a similar silica precursor solution but with an added pre-polymer making a pituitous mixture that is drawn into a thin strand from which solvent is evaporated leaving the mesoporous fiber(s).

  15. Mesoporous-silica films, fibers, and powders by evaporation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bruinsma, Paul J. (Kennewick, WA); Baskaran, Suresh (Kennewick, WA); Bontha, Jagannadha R. (Richland, WA); Liu, Jun (West Richland, WA)

    1999-01-01

    This invention pertains to surfactant-templated nanometer-scale porosity of a silica precursor solution and forming a mesoporous material by first forming the silica precursor solution into a preform having a high surface area to volume ratio, then rapid drying or evaporating a solvent from the silica precursor solution. The mesoporous material may be in any geometric form, but is preferably in the form of a film, fiber, powder or combinations thereof. The rapid drying or evaporation of solvent from the solution is accomplished by layer thinning, for example spin casting, liquid drawing, and liquid spraying respectively. Production of a film is by layer thinning, wherein a layer of the silica precursor solution is formed on a surface followed by removal of an amount of the silica precursor solution and leaving a geometrically thinner layer of the silica precursor solution from which the solvent quickly escapes via evaporation. Layer thinning may be by any method including but not limited to squeegeeing and/or spin casting. In powder formation by spray drying, the same conditions of fast drying exists as in spin-casting (as well as in fiber spinning) because of the high surface-area to volume ratio of the product. When a powder is produced by liquid spraying, the particles or micro-bubbles within the powder are hollow spheres with walls composed of mesoporous silica. Mesoporous fiber formation starts with a similar silica precursor solution but with an added pre-polymer making a pituitous mixture that is drawn into a thin strand from which solvent is evaporated leaving the mesoporous fiber(s).

  16. Chapter 6.16 Technical Engineering Services Thermal Evaporator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Healy, Kevin Edward

    evaporation. Magnetic metals are allowed. No materials with vapor pressure curves lower than silver resonant frequency monitoring #12;tescal Chapter 6.16 5.0 Safety 5.1 Heat 5.1.1 The tescal system heats 26 28 23 Ramp Time 2 mm:ss 1:00 1:30 1:06 1:30 Soak Time 2 mm:ss 0:10 0:10 0:10 1:20 Target Rate A

  17. Theory vs. Practice in Direct Evaporative Roof Spray Cooling 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, J. L.; Smith, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    mechanical air conditioning, roof spray cooling applies it directly to the largest source of external heat on a typical 1-2 story commercial/ industrial facility by spraying the roof with a fine mist of water and allowing the water to evaporate.../O SPRAY ROCCI Y/ SPRAY DIFFERUlCE (-0 ('0 (OF) ELECTRICAL CONPONENTS NANUFACTURING PLAKT, RIO PIEDRAS, PR This test was performed by company employees in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the roof spray cooling system recently installed...

  18. Development and Analysis of Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioner Prototype

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozubal, E.; Woods, J.; Judkoff, R.

    2012-04-01

    This report documents the design of a desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVAP AC) prototype and the testing to prove its performance. Previous numerical modeling and building energy simulations indicate a DEVAP AC can save significant energy compared to a conventional vapor compression AC (Kozubal et al. 2011). The purposes of this research were to build DEVAP prototypes, test them to validate the numerical model, and identify potential commercialization barriers.

  19. Mesoporous-silica films, fibers, and powders by evaporation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bruinsma, P.J.; Baskaran, S.; Bontha, J.R.; Liu, J.

    1999-07-13

    This invention pertains to surfactant-templated nanometer-scale porosity of a silica precursor solution and forming a mesoporous material by first forming the silica precursor solution into a preform having a high surface area to volume ratio, then rapid drying or evaporating a solvent from the silica precursor solution. The mesoporous material may be in any geometric form, but is preferably in the form of a film, fiber, powder or combinations thereof. The rapid drying or evaporation of solvent from the solution is accomplished by layer thinning, for example spin casting, liquid drawing, and liquid spraying respectively. Production of a film is by layer thinning, wherein a layer of the silica precursor solution is formed on a surface followed by removal of an amount of the silica precursor solution and leaving a geometrically thinner layer of the silica precursor solution from which the solvent quickly escapes via evaporation. Layer thinning may be by any method including but not limited to squeegeeing and/or spin casting. In powder formation by spray drying, the same conditions of fast drying exists as in spin-casting (as well as in fiber spinning) because of the high surface-area to volume ratio of the product. When a powder is produced by liquid spraying, the particles or micro-bubbles within the powder are hollow spheres with walls composed of mesoporous silica. Mesoporous fiber formation starts with a similar silica precursor solution but with an added pre-polymer making a pituitous mixture that is drawn into a thin strand from which solvent is evaporated leaving the mesoporous fiber(s). 24 figs.

  20. Moduli Vacuum Bubbles Produced by Evaporating Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. R. Morris

    2007-08-14

    We consider a model with a toroidally compactified extra dimension giving rise to a temperature-dependent 4d effective potential with one-loop contributions due to the Casimir effect, along with a 5d cosmological constant. The forms of the effective potential at low and high temperatures indicates a possibility for the formation of a domain wall bubble, formed by the modulus scalar field, surrounding an evaporating black hole. This is viewed as an example of a recently proposed black hole vacuum bubble arising from matter-sourced moduli fields in the vicinity of an evaporating black hole [D. Green, E. Silverstein, and D. Starr, Phys. Rev. D74, 024004 (2006), arXiv:hep-th/0605047]. The black hole bubble can be highly opaque to lower energy particles and photons, and thereby entrap them within. For high temperature black holes, there may also be a symmetry-breaking black hole bubble of false vacuum of the type previously conjectured by Moss [I.G. Moss, Phys. Rev. D32,1333 (1985)], tending to reflect low energy particles from its wall. A double bubble composed of these two different types of bubble may form around the black hole, altering the hole's emission spectrum that reaches outside observers. Smaller mass black holes that have already evaporated away could have left vacuum bubbles behind that contribute to the dark matter.

  1. Torque on an exoplanet from an anisotropic evaporative wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teyssandier, Jean; Adams, Fred C; Quillen, Alice C

    2015-01-01

    Winds from short-period Earth and Neptune mass exoplanets, driven by high energy radiation from a young star, may evaporate a significant fraction of a planet's mass. If the momentum flux from the evaporative wind is not aligned with the planet/star axis, then it can exert a torque on the planet's orbit. Using steady-state one-dimensional evaporative wind models we estimate this torque using a lag angle that depends on the product of the speed of the planet's upper atmosphere and a flow timescale for the wind to reach its sonic radius. We also estimate the momentum flux from time-dependent one-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations. We find that only in a very narrow regime in planet radius, mass and stellar radiation flux is a wind capable of exerting a significant torque on the planet's orbit. Similar to the Yarkovsky effect, the wind causes the planet to drift outward if atmospheric circulation is prograde (super-rotating) and in the opposite direction if the circulation is retrograde. A close-in super Ear...

  2. Proceedings of the 3rd Nordic Feed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Proceedings of the 3rd Nordic Feed Science Conference, Uppsala, Sweden Institutionen för husdjurens of Animal Nutrition and Management ISSN 0347-9838 ISRN SLU-HUV-R-280-SE #12;#12;Proceedings of the 3rd committee of the 3rd Nordic Feed Science Conference Department of Animal Nutrition and Management Swedish

  3. Feeding Young Horses For Sound Development 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gibbs, Pete G.; Potter, Gary D.

    2005-05-25

    Feeding Young Horses for Sound Development B-5043 05-05 Feeding Young Horses for Sound Development Pete G. Gibbs Professor and Extension Horse Specialist Department Of Animal Science Equine Sciences Program The Texas A&M University System Gary D...

  4. Commercial Feeding Stuffs, September 1, 1937 to August 31, 1938. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuller, F. D. (Frederick Driggs); Sullivan, James

    1938-01-01

    and does not include whole grains. Chemical standards for various by-product feeds and special- purpose mixed feeds are shown, and definitions of and standards for commercial unmixed feeds are given, together with additional information... cake 12 ................................................. Cottonseed hulls 13 .......................... Carbonate of lime and salt in mixed feeds 14 Suggestions to purchasers of feed .................................. 15 Definitions and standards...

  5. Feed rate measuring method and system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Novak, J.L.; Wiczer, J.J.

    1995-12-05

    A system and method are provided for establishing the feed rate of a workpiece along a feed path with respect to a machine device. First and second sensors each having first and second sensing electrodes which are electrically isolated from the workpiece are positioned above, and in proximity to the desired surfaces of the workpiece along a feed path. An electric field is developed between the first and second sensing electrodes of each sensor and capacitance signals are developed which are indicative of the contour of the workpiece. First and second image signals representative of the contour of the workpiece along the feed path are developed by an image processor. The time delay between corresponding portions of the first and second image signals are then used to determine the feed rate based upon the separation of the first and second sensors and the amount of time between corresponding portions of the first and second image signals. 18 figs.

  6. Evaporation of tiny water aggregation on solid surfaces of different wetting properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen Wang; Yusong Tu; Rongzheng Wan; Haiping Fang

    2012-03-08

    The evaporation of a tiny amount of water on the solid surface with different wettability has been studied by molecular dynamics simulations. We found that, as the surface changed from hydrophobicity to hydrophility, the evaporation speed did not show a monotonically decrease from intuition, but increased first, and then decreased after reached a maximum value. The competition between the number of the water molecules on the water-gas surface from where the water molecules can evaporate and the potential barrier to prevent those water molecules from evaporating results in the unexpected behavior of the evaporation. A theoretical model based on those two factors can fit the simulation data very well. This finding is helpful in understanding the evaporation on the biological surfaces, designing artificial surface of ultra fast water evaporating or preserving water in soil.

  7. Method for recovery of actinides from actinide-bearing scrap and waste nuclear material using O/sub 2/F/sub 2/

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Asprey, L.B.; Eller, P.G.

    1984-09-12

    Method for recovery of actinides from nuclear waste material containing sintered and other oxides thereof and from scrap materials containing the metal actinides using O/sub 2/F/sub 2/ to generate the hexafluorides of the actinides present therein. The fluorinating agent, O/sub 2/F/sub 2/, has been observed to perform the above-described tasks at sufficiently low temperatures that there is virtually no damage to the containment vessels. Moreover, the resulting actinide hexafluorides are not detroyed by high temperature reactions with the walls of the reaction vessel. Dioxygen difluoride is readily prepared, stored and transferred to the place of reaction.

  8. For Continuous Feeding with Pump Using the CORFLO Anti-IV Feeding Tube and Extension SetFor Continuous Feeding with Pump Using the CORFLO Anti-IV Feeding Tube and Extension Set For Gravity Feeding Using the CORFLO Anti-IV Enteral Feeding TubeFor Gravity F

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kay, Mark A.

    1. 3. 4. 5. 2. 5. 6. 7. 6. 7. 3. 4. For Continuous Feeding with Pump Using the CORFLO Anti-IV Feeding Tube and Extension SetFor Continuous Feeding with Pump Using the CORFLO Anti-IV Feeding Tube the instructions above for Continuous Feeding. Simply hang the syringe rather than putting it in a syringe pump

  9. Effects of Residual Feed Intake Classification on Temperament, Carcass Composition, and Feeding Behavior Traits in Growing Santa Gertrudis Heifers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramirez, Justin A

    2014-04-16

    Objectives of this study were to evaluate the associations of feed intake, feeding behavior, temperament, and carcass composition with performance and feed efficiency traits in growing heifers. Santa Gertrudis heifers (n ...

  10. OIL & UPML: A Unifying Framework for the Knowledge Web D. Fensel1, M. Crubezy2, F. van Harmelen1,3, and I. Horrocks4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Harmelen, Frank

    OIL & UPML: A Unifying Framework for the Knowledge Web D. Fensel1, M. Crubezy2, F. van Harmelen1. First, we discuss the Ontology Inference Layer (OIL) that is being proposed as a description language of these approaches. We achieve this comparison by discussing several ways of combining OIL and UPML. We assess

  11. OIL & UPML: A Unifying Framework for the Knowledge Web D. Fensel1, M. Crubezy2, F. van Harmelen1, and M. I. Horrocks3,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murawski, Andrzej

    .42 1.43 1.44 OIL & UPML: A Unifying Framework for the Knowledge Web D. Fensel1, M. Crubezy2, F. van,frankh}@cs.vu.nl 2 Knowledge Modeling Group at Stanford Medical Informatics, Stanford University USA, crubezy. First, we discuss OIL that is proposed as description language for ontology interchange. That is

  12. Data:85f4a2f7-fc00-491f-9550-006c82a148f1 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    f4a2f7-fc00-491f-9550-006c82a148f1 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading......

  13. OIL in a Nutshell D. Fensel1, I. Horrocks2, F. Van Harmelen1,3, S. Decker4, M. Erdmann4, and M. Klein1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murawski, Andrzej

    OIL in a Nutshell D. Fensel1, I. Horrocks2, F. Van Harmelen1,3, S. Decker4, M. Erdmann4, and M is precisely concerned with this necessity. We will present OIL, which is a proposal for such a standard for expressing ontologies. The paper sketches the main ideas of OIL. 1. Introduction Currently, we

  14. Localized Parameter Shifts from GONG+ data R. Howe1, J. Bolding1, T. Corbard2, F. Hill1, R. Komm1, C. Toner1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corbard, Thierry

    Localized Parameter Shifts from GONG+ data R. Howe1, J. Bolding1, T. Corbard2, F. Hill1, R. Komm1. 2002). Upgraded cameras now allow similar data to be taken year-round from the six stations of the GONG of preliminary analysis of the mode frequencies, widths and amplitudes obtained from GONG for Carrington Rotation

  15. 4.2 COOL SEASON SIGNIFICANT (F2-F5) TORNADOES IN THE GULF COAST STATES Jared L. Guyer and David A. Imy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) found that 68% of all December through February tornadoes in the United States occur in the Gulf Coast4.2 COOL SEASON SIGNIFICANT (F2-F5) TORNADOES IN THE GULF COAST STATES Jared L. Guyer and David A, Wisconsin Kar'retta Venable Jackson State University, Jackson, Mississippi 1. INTRODUCTION Tornadoes pose

  16. Chang, Tsai-Lin Rm. 205, 2F., No.48, Ln. 245, Sec. 4, Bade Rd., Taipei City 105, Taiwan (R.O.C.)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ouhyoung, Ming

    Chang, Tsai-Lin Rm. 205, 2F., No.48, Ln. 245, Sec. 4, Bade Rd., Taipei City 105, Taiwan (R.O.C.) tsailing_chang@hotmail.com | +886-912-152-868 EDUCATION 2005 - 2009 NATIONAL TAIWAN UNIVERSITY (NTU) Taipei, Taiwan Bachelor, Department of Finance · Overall GPA ­ 3.8/4.0; Major GPA ­ 3.9/4.0 · President Award

  17. Epigenetic involvement of Alien/ESET complex in thyroid hormone-mediated repression of E2F1 gene expression and cell proliferation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong, Wei, E-mail: hongwei@tijmu.edu.cn [Department of Immunology, Tianjin Medical University, 300070 Tianjin (China) [Department of Immunology, Tianjin Medical University, 300070 Tianjin (China); College of Basic Medicine, Tianjin Medical University, 300070 Tianjin (China); Li, Jinru; Wang, Bo [College of Basic Medicine, Tianjin Medical University, 300070 Tianjin (China)] [College of Basic Medicine, Tianjin Medical University, 300070 Tianjin (China); Chen, Linfeng [Department of Medical Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, 02115 MA (United States)] [Department of Medical Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, 02115 MA (United States); Niu, Wenyan; Yao, Zhi [Department of Immunology, Tianjin Medical University, 300070 Tianjin (China)] [Department of Immunology, Tianjin Medical University, 300070 Tianjin (China); Baniahmad, Aria, E-mail: aban@mti.uni-jena.de [Institute for Human Genetics, Jena University Hospital, 07740 Jena (Germany)] [Institute for Human Genetics, Jena University Hospital, 07740 Jena (Germany)

    2011-12-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Corepressor Alien interacts with histone methyltransferase ESET in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alien/ESET complex is recruited to nTRE of T3-responsive gene by liganded TR{beta}1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ESET-mediated H3K9 methylation is required for liganded TR{beta}1-repressed transcription. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ESET is involved in T3-repressed G1/S phase transition and proliferation. -- Abstract: The ligand-bound thyroid hormone receptor (TR) is known to repress via a negative TRE (nTRE) the expression of E2F1, a key transcription factor that controls the G1/S phase transition. Alien has been identified as a novel interacting factor of E2F1 and acts as a corepressor of E2F1. The detailed molecular mechanism by which Alien inhibits E2F1 gene expression remains unclear. Here, we report that the histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) methyltransferase (HMT) ESET is an integral component of the corepressor Alien complex and the Alien/ESET complex is recruited to both sites, the E2F1 and the nTRE site of the E2F1 gene while the recruitment to the negative thyroid hormone response element (nTRE) is induced by the ligand-bound TR{beta}1 within the E2F1 gene promoter. We show that, overexpression of ESET promotes, whereas knockdown of ESET releases, the inhibition of TR{beta}1-regulated gene transcription upon T3 stimulation; and H3K9 methylation is required for TR{beta}1-repressed transcription. Furthermore, depletion of ESET impairs thyroid hormone-repressed proliferation as well as the G1/S transition of the cell cycle. Taken together, our data indicate that ESET is involved in TR{beta}1-mediated transcription repression and provide a molecular basis of thyroid hormone-induced repression of proliferation.

  18. Applications of Mechanical Vapor Recompression to Evaporation and Crystallization 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Outland, J. S.

    1995-01-01

    is accomplished using centrifugal, axial-flow, or positive displacement compressors and these compressors can be powered by electricity, steam turbine or a gas turbine. The use of an MVR Evapo rator/Crystallizer provides a comparatively low cost means... Process Equipment Harvey,IL Here it can be seen that the economy or the pounds of water evaporated per pound of heating element is slightly less than 1.0. The vapors leaving the evapo rator flow to a condenser when their latent heat is absorbed...

  19. Evaluation of a Direct Evaporative Roof-Spray Cooling System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carrasco, A.; Pittard, R.; Kondepudi, S. N.; Somasundaram, S.

    1987-01-01

    of Evaporative Cooling of Roofs", Project Report, I (1986). JULY 29 * EXP-Wcr + EXP-DRY --- MOO-WET -- MOD-DRY TIME OF DAY IN DECIMAL HOURS Figure 3. Heat Flux Through the Roof - July 29 TIME OF DAY IN DECIMAL HOURS 150- v, W W 140- CC Z: P 130... gunny bags on the temperatures and heat flux at the ceiling surface of thick roofs. They concluded that, in the tropics, for the effect of reduced indoor temper- atures to be more effective, the roofs needed to be treated. They further confirmed...

  20. Plasma arc torch with coaxial wire feed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hooper, Frederick M (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A plasma arc welding apparatus having a coaxial wire feed. The apparatus includes a plasma arc welding torch, a wire guide disposed coaxially inside of the plasma arc welding torch, and a hollow non-consumable electrode. The coaxial wire guide feeds non-electrified filler wire through the tip of the hollow non-consumable electrode during plasma arc welding. Non-electrified filler wires as small as 0.010 inches can be used. This invention allows precision control of the positioning and feeding of the filler wire during plasma arc welding. Since the non-electrified filler wire is fed coaxially through the center of the plasma arc torch's electrode and nozzle, the wire is automatically aimed at the optimum point in the weld zone. Therefore, there is no need for additional equipment to position and feed the filler wire from the side before or during welding.

  1. Proceedings of the 5th Nordic Feed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feed Science conferences are indexed and archived in CAB Abstracts since 2010 #12;Foreword This year we of silages 10 L. Kung Jr. Aerobic exposure of silages ­ effects on chemical composition and preference

  2. Feeding Biomechanics & Craniodental Morphology in Otters (Lutrinae) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Timm, Lori L

    2013-07-23

    raptorial capture of prey (mouth-oriented) and capture of prey by hand (hand-oriented), which likely correspond to craniodental morphology and bite performance. However, feeding biomechanics and performance data for otters, aquatic mustelids that consume...

  3. Process for mild hydrocracking of hydrocarbon feeds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nevitt, T.D.; Hopkins, P.D.; Tait, A.M.

    1984-02-14

    A process for mild hydrocracking of hydrocarbon feeds comprising contacting the feed with hydrogen under mild hydrocracking conditions in the presence of a catalytic composition comprising an active metallic component comprising at least one metal having hydrogenation activity and at least one oxygenated phosphorus component, and a support component comprising at least one non-zeolitic, porous refractory inorganic oxide matrix component and at least one shape selective crystalline molecular sieve zeolite component.

  4. Feeding Race Prospects and Racehorses in Training 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gibbs, Pete G.; Potter, Gary D.; Scott, Brett D.

    2002-12-18

    .4 megacalories of digestible energy per pound. Feeds with higher levels of energy need even Once training or forced exercise begins, the feeding program should be evaluated even more carefully. Horses in race training Researchers have recently found... on good-quali- ty, improved pastures. The digestive tract of a yearling can process more roughage than that of a weanling. Good-quality grazing appears to sup- port acceptable growth and development at this stage. 7 However, yearlings being prepared...

  5. Thermal Evaporation of Gas from X-ray Clusters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abraham Loeb

    2006-09-18

    A fraction of the thermal protons in the outer envelope of an X-ray cluster have velocities that exceed the local escape speed from the cluster gravitational potential. The Coulomb mean-free-path of these protons is larger than the virial radius of the cluster at temperatures >2.5 keV. The resulting leakage of suprathermal particles generates a collisionless shock in neighboring voids and fills them with heat and magnetic fields. The momentum flux of suprathermal particles cannot be confined by magnetic tension at the typical field strength in the periphery of cluster halos (heat is deposited into the gas by cluster mergers, active galactic nuclei or supernovae. Thermal evaporation is not included in existing cosmological simulations since they are based on the fluid approximation. Measurements of the baryon mass fraction in the outer envelopes of hot clusters (through their Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect or X-ray emission) can be used to empirically constrain their evaporation rate.

  6. Naked and Thunderbolt Singularities in Black Hole Evaporation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. W. Hawking; J. M. Stewart

    1992-07-30

    If an evaporating black hole does not settle down to a non radiating remnant, a description by a semi classical Lorentz metric must contain either a naked singularity or what we call a thunderbolt, a singularity that spreads out to infinity on a spacelike or null path. We investigate this question in the context of various two dimensional models that have been proposed. We find that if the semi classical equations have an extra symmetry that make them solvable in closed form, they seem to predict naked singularities but numerical calculations indicate that more general semi classical equations, such as the original CGHS ones give rise to thunderbolts. We therefore expect that the semi classical approximation in four dimensions will lead to thunderbolts. We interpret the prediction of thunderbolts as indicating that the semi classical approximation breaks down at the end point of black hole evaporation, and we would expect that a full quantum treatment would replace the thunderbolt with a burst of high energy particles. The energy in such a burst would be too small to account for the observed gamma ray bursts.

  7. On the interface instability during rapid evaporation in microgravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Juric, D.

    1997-05-01

    The rapid evaporation of a superheated liquid (vapor explosion) under microgravity conditions is studied by direct numerical simulation. The time-dependent Navier-Stokes and energy equations coupled to the interface dynamics are solved using a two-dimensional finite-difference/front-tracking method. Large interface deformations, topology change, latent heat, surface tension and unequal material properties between the liquid and vapor phases are included in the simulations. A comparison of numerical results to the exact solution of a one-dimensional test problem shows excellent agreement. For the two-dimensional rapid evaporation problem, the vapor volume growth rate and unstable interface dynamics are studied for increasing levels of initial liquid superheat. As the superheat is increased the liquid-vapor interface experiences increasingly unstable energetic growth. These results indicate that heat transfer plays a very important role in the instability mechanism leading to vapor explosions. It is suggested that the Mullins-Sekerka instability could play a role in the instability initiation mechanism.

  8. Glass Development for Treatment of LANL Evaporator Bottoms Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DE Smith; GF Piepel; GW Veazey; JD Vienna; ML Elliott; RK Nakaoka; RP Thimpke

    1998-11-20

    Vitrification is an attractive treatment option for meeting the stabilization and final disposal requirements of many plutonium (Pu) bearing materials and wastes at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) TA-55 facility, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), Hanford, and other Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has declared that vitrification is the "best demonstrated available technology" for high- level radioactive wastes (HLW) (Federal Register 1990) and has produced a handbook of vitriilcation technologies for treatment of hazardous and radioactive waste (US EPA, 1992). This technology has been demonstrated to convert Pu-containing materials (Kormanos, 1997) into durable (Lutze, 1988) and accountable (Forsberg, 1995) waste. forms with reduced need for safeguarding (McCulhun, 1996). The composition of the Evaporator Bottoms Waste (EVB) at LANL, like that of many other I%-bearing materials, varies widely and is generally unpredictable. The goal of this study is to optimize the composition of glass for EVB waste at LANL, and present the basic techniques and tools for developing optimized glass compositions for other Pu-bearing materials in the complex. This report outlines an approach for glass formulation with fixed property restrictions, using glass property-composition databases. This approach is applicable to waste glass formulation for many variable waste streams and vitrification technologies.. Also reported are the preliminary property data for simulated evaporator bottom glasses, including glass viscosity and glass leach resistance using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP).

  9. Economic and Technical Tradeoffs Between Open and Closed Cycle Vapor Compression Evaporators 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Timm, M. L.

    1986-01-01

    AND TECHNICAL TRADEOFFS BETWEEN OPEN AND CLOSED CYCLE VAPOR COM~RESSION EVAPORATORS Martin L. Timm, P.E. Bassett Inc. Appleton, WI ABSTRACT Evaporators are used extensively in the chemical, pulp Bnd paper, food and beverage, and related industries.... Mechanical vapor recompression (MVR) evaporators are a type using an open heat pump cycle with steam as the working fluid. The tech nology is widely used and time-proven. Closed cycle vapor compression is an emerging technology. A secondary working fluid...

  10. Use of DOE-2 to Evaluate Evaporative Cooling in Texas Correctional Facilities 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saman, N.; Heneghan, T.; Bou-Saada, T. E.

    1996-01-01

    weather tapes, one for Kingsville, Texas and one for Abilene, Texas during April, July, and October to resemble neutral, summer and winter weather conditions. The results showed that direct evaporative cooling is applicable in April for Abilene... and October for fingsville. The indirect evaporative cooling is feasible in July for Abilene and April for Kingsville. INTRODUCTION Evaporative cooling provides an energy efficient, environmentally safe, and cost effective alternative to traditional...

  11. Energy savings from indirect evaporative pre-cooling: Control strategies and commissioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Felts, D.; Jump, D.A.

    1998-07-01

    Package rooftop air conditioning units (RTU) with evaporative pre-cooling systems were installed at an Agricultural History Museum and conference center in the northern Sacramento Valley in California, a hot and dry summer climate region. The evaporative pre-coolers serve to extend the economizer range of the RTU's. A commissioning team monitored the performance of the RTU evaporative pre-coolers. The purpose of the monitoring was to determine if changes were warranted to optimize the system's energy efficiency. The commissioning process revealed that the RTU evaporative pre-coolers were being controlled by the economizer control cycle. With this control cycle, the evaporative pre-cooler operates when the outdoor air temperature is falling below the space return air temperature. This means that the pre-cooler will never operate at peak load conditions. The conference center is an assembly occupancy. Building codes require significant levels of outdoor air for ventilation. The evaporative pre-cooler system provides the means to significantly offset the energy requirements for cooling down and heating up this ventilation air. A DOE2 energy simulation analysis indicated that the evaporative pre-cooler could cut energy use by over 50% if it were working correctly. Investigation concludes that in buildings with high outdoor air requirements, evaporative pre-cooling, using building exhaust air as the indirect evaporative cooling source, significantly reduce building energy consumption. This evaporative pre-cooling technology works in any climate, regardless of outdoor conditions, since the return air stream exhausted from the building provides a relatively constant temperature and humidity source for evaporative cooling. An added benefit is that the evaporative pre-cooler heat exchanger recovers heat from the exhausted air stream in cold weather.

  12. Evaluation of the freeze-thaw/evaporation process for the treatment of produced waters. Final report, August 1992--August 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boysen, J.E.; Walker, K.L.; Mefford, J.L.; Kirsch, J.R. [Resource Technology Corp., Laramie, WY (United States); Harju, J.A. [North Dakota Univ., Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center

    1996-06-01

    The use of freeze-crystallization is becoming increasingly acknowledged as a low-cost, energy-efficient method for purifying contaminated water. The natural freezing process can be coupled with natural evaporative processes to treat oil and gas produced waters year round in regions where subfreezing temperatures seasonally occur. The climates typical of Colorado`s San Juan Basin and eastern slope, as well as the oil and gas producing regions of Wyoming, are well suited for application of these processes in combination. Specifically, the objectives of this research are related to the development of a commercially-economic FTE (freeze-thaw/evaporation) process for the treatment and purification of water produced in conjunction with oil and natural gas. The research required for development of this process consists of three tasks: (1) a literature survey and process modeling and economic analysis; (2) laboratory-scale process evaluation; and (3) field demonstration of the process. Results of research conducted for the completion of these three tasks indicate that produced water treatment and disposal costs for commercial application of the process, would be in the range of $0.20 to $0.30/bbl in the Rocky Mountain region. FTE field demonstration results from northwestern New Mexico during the winter of 1995--96 indicate significant and simultaneous removal of salts, metals, and organics from produced water. Despite the unusually warm winter, process yields demonstrate disposal volume reductions on the order of 80% and confirm the potential for economic production of water suitable for various beneficial uses. The total dissolved solids concentrations of the FTE demonstration streams were 11,600 mg/L (feed), 56,900 mg/L (brine), and 940 mg/L (ice melt).

  13. EMRTC Report RF 10-13: Application to LANL Evaporator Nitrate...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    from evaporator operations at TA55 were packaged (up to around 1991) primarily in plastic bags and ranged in moisture content up to saturation (generator knowledge states the...

  14. No-tillage and high-residue practices reduce soil water evaporation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    P, Brown L, Hirschi M. 2000. Water erosion. In: Conservationeffects on evaporation, soil water content, and yield offor Computing Crop Water Requirements. FAO Irrigation and

  15. Evaporation-powered Motor and Light | U.S. DOE Office of Science...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    composites harness energy from evaporation to power locomotion and generate electricity. Print Text Size: A A A Subscribe FeedbackShare Page Click to enlarge photo....

  16. Nebraska's Cattle Feeding Industry: Size, Structure and Related Industries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farritor, Shane

    growing production of distillers grains and other feed byproducts from bio-energy produc- tion plants

  17. Beef feedlot cattle use individual feeding strategies to gain access to feed in a competitive environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrell, Anthony P.

    i Beef feedlot cattle use individual feeding strategies to gain access to feed in a competitive August 2007 © Gosia Zobel, 2007 #12;ii ABSTRACT Cattle are social animals and frequently interact interest in the social behavior of cattle, no research has focused on assessing the relationship between

  18. Thermal Reactions of Uranium Metal, UO2, U3O8, UF4, and UO2F2 with NF3 to Produce UF6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNamara, Bruce K.; Scheele, Randall D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; Edwards, Matthew K.

    2009-11-01

    he objective of this paper is to demonstrate that NF3 fluorinates uranium metal, UO2, UF4, UO3, U3O8, and UO2F2•2H2O to produce the volatile UF6 at temperatures between 100 and 500?C. Thermogravimetric reaction profiles are described that reflect changes in the uranium oxidation state and discrete chemical speciation. Differences in the onset temperatures for each system indicate that NF3-substrate interactions are important for the temperature at which NF3 reacts: U metal > UO3 > UO2 > UO2F2 > UF4 and in fact may indicate different fluorination mechanisms for these various substrates. These studies demonstrate that NF3 is a potential replacement fluorinating agent in the existing nuclear fuel cycle and in oft-proposed actinide volatility reprocessing.

  19. Fixture for forming evaporative pattern (EPC) process patterns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turner, Paul C. (Albany, OR); Jordan, Ronald R. (Albany, OR); Hansen, Jeffrey S. (Corvallis, OR)

    1993-01-01

    A method of casting metal using evaporative pattern casting process patterns in combination with a fixture for creating and maintaining a desired configuration in flexible patterns. A pattern is constructed and gently bent to the curvature of a suitable fixture. String or thin wire, which burns off during casting, is used to tie the pattern to the fixture. The fixture with pattern is dipped in a commercially available refractory wash to prevent metal adherence and sticking to the fixture. When the refractory wash is dry, the fixture and pattern are placed in a flask, and sand is added and compacted by vibration. The pattern remains in position, restrained by the fixture. Metal that is poured directly into the pattern replaces the pattern exactly but does not contact or weld to the fixture due to the protective refractory layer. When solid, the casting is easily separated from the fixture. The fixture can be cleaned for reuse in conventional casting cleaning equipment.

  20. OIL in a Nutshell D. Fensel1, I. Horrocks2, F. Van Harmelen1,3, S. Decker4, M. Erdmann4, and M. Klein1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Harmelen, Frank

    OIL in a Nutshell D. Fensel1, I. Horrocks2, F. Van Harmelen1,3, S. Decker4, M. Erdmann4, and M will present OIL, which is a proposal for such a standard. It is based on existing proposals such as OKBC, XOL the main ideas of OIL. 1 Introduction Currently, we are on the brink of the second Web generation. The Web

  1. The Ordered [WO2F4]2-Anion Margaret E. Welk, Alexander J. Norquist, Charlotte L. Stern, and Kenneth R. Poeppelmeier*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R.

    through the protonated amine and a second hydrogen bond to a different cluster through the hydroxyl group in the new compound [HNC6H6OH]2[Cu(NC5H5)4- (WO2F4)2], using the additional hydrogen bond from the hydroxyl a hydrogen bond from the protonated amine in [HNC6H6OH]+. The third contact to the anion is made through F(2

  2. Addressing Water Consumption of Evaporative Coolers with Greywater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sahai, Rashmi; Shah, Nihar; Phadke, Amol

    2012-07-01

    Evaporative coolers (ECs) provide significant gains in energy efficiency compared to vapor compression air conditioners, but simultaneously have significant onsite water demand. This can be a major barrier to deployment in areas of the world with hot and arid climates. To address this concern, this study determined where in the world evaporative cooling is suitable, the water consumption of ECs in these cities, and the potential that greywater can be used reduce the consumption of potable water in ECs. ECs covered 69percent of the cities where room air conditioners are may be deployed, based on comfort conditions alone. The average water consumption due to ECs was found to be 400 L/household/day in the United States and Australia, with the potential for greywater to provide 50percent this amount. In the rest of the world, the average water consumption was 250 L/household/day, with the potential for greywater to supply 80percent of this amount. Home size was the main factor that contributed to this difference. In the Mediterranean, the Middle East, Northern India, and the Midwestern and Southwestern United States alkalinity levels are high and water used for bleeding will likely contribute significantly to EC water consumption. Although technically feasible, upfront costs for household GW systems are currently high. In both developed and developing parts of the world, however, a direct EC and GW system is cost competitive with conventional vapor compression air conditioners. Moreover, in regions of the world that face problems of water scarcity the benefits can substantially outweigh the costs.

  3. Multifragmentation vs. Evaporation vs. Binary-Decay in Fragment Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. G. Mashnik; K. K. Gudima; M. I. Baznat

    2006-03-16

    This paper presents part of an internal LANL Progress Report on completion of the "S" and "G" versions of the improved Cascade-Exciton Model (CEM03.01) and the Los Alamos Quark-Gluon String Model (LAQGSM.03.01) codes. The "S" versions consider fragmentation of compound nuclei produced after the preequilibrium stage of reactions for excitation energies above 2A MeV using the Statistical Multifragmentation Model (SMM) by Botvina et al. ("S" stands for SMM), while the "G" versions describe evaporation/fission stages of reactions using the fission-like binary-decay model GEMINI of Charity et al. ("G" stands for GEMINI) instead of using the the Generalized Evaporation Model GEM2 of Furihata incorporated into the standard versions of these codes. We present here an analysis of the recent 660 MeV p + 129I and 3.65 GeV p + 112Sn JINR measurements, of the new COSY data on 1.2 GeV p + (13 nuclei from Al to Th), of the 300 MeV and 1 GeV p + 56Fe data measured at GSI in inverse kinematics, and of the new GSI data on 1 GeV/nucleon 124Xe and 136Xe + Pb. To better understand the mechanisms of fragment production, we discuss several calculated but not-yet-measured kinematic characteristics of products of these reactions, which are predicted to be quite different by SMM, GEMINI, and GEM2. We find these kinematic quantities to be potentially useful in differentiating these reaction mechanisms if they can be measured in future experiments.

  4. Low-level waste feed staging plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Certa, P.J.; Grams, W.H.; McConville, C.M.; L. W. Shelton, L.W.; Slaathaug, E.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-12

    The `Preliminary Low-Level Waste Feed Staging Plan` was updated to reflect the latest requirement in the Tank Waste Remediation Privatization Request for Proposals (RFP) and amendments. The updated plan develops the sequence and transfer schedule for retrieval of DST supernate by the management and integration contractor and delivery of the staged supernate to the private low-activity waste contractors for treatment. Two DSTs are allocated as intermediate staging tanks. A transfer system conflict analysis provides part of the basis for determining transfer system upgrade requirements to support both low-activity and high-level waste feed delivery. The intermediate staging tank architecture and retrieval system equipment are provided as a planning basis until design requirements documents are prepared. The actions needed to successfully implement the plan are identified. These include resolution of safety issues and changes to the feed envelope limits, minimum order quantities, and desired batch sizes.

  5. Tracking Atmospheric Ducts Using Radar Clutter: I. Evaporation Duct Tracking Using Kalman Filters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerstoft, Peter

    Tracking Atmospheric Ducts Using Radar Clutter: I. Evaporation Duct Tracking Using Kalman Filters 92093­0238, USA Introduction This paper addresses the problem of tracking evaporation ducts in marine-standard electromagnetic propagation due to formation of lower atmospheric sea ducts is a common occurrence in maritime

  6. Evaporative Cooling of Antiprotons to Cryogenic Temperatures G. B. Andresen,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wurtele, Jonathan

    Evaporative Cooling of Antiprotons to Cryogenic Temperatures G. B. Andresen,1 M. D. Ashkezari,2 M the application of evaporative cooling to clouds of trapped antiprotons, resulting in plasmas with measured of cooling efficiency in future experiments. The technique opens up new possibilities for cooling of trapped

  7. Revisiting the parameterization of potential evaporation as a driver of long-term water balance trends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dai, Aiguo

    /or Runoff. Most regions in the world lie in the continuum between the water and energy limits, reachingRevisiting the parameterization of potential evaporation as a driver of long-term water balance, evaporative flux and runoff simulated by the water balance model underlying the Palmer Drought Severity Index

  8. Vol. 122 (2012) ACTA PHYSICA POLONICA A No. 4 Evaporation of Micro-Droplets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    -Square-Law Revisited D. Jakubczyk , M. Kolwas, G. Derkachov, K. Kolwas and M. Zientara Institute of Physics, Polish. The continuous- -medium descriptions of evaporation/condensation phe- nomena (see e.g. [3, 4]) cannot grasp valuable information, if they are carefully applied. As far as the evaporation/condensation of droplets

  9. Determination of mass and thermal accommodation coefficients from evolution of evaporating water droplet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    droplet M. Zientara, D. Jakubczyk, G. Derkachov, K. Kolwas and M. Kolwas Institute of Physics, Polish of evaporation and condensation are in the very heart of various fields of science. Cloud and aerosol called evaporation (condensation) or mass accommodation coefficient C and thermal conductivity

  10. Consecutive solvent evaporation and co-rolling techniques for polymer multilayer hollow fiber preform fabrication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skorobogatiy, Maksim

    Consecutive solvent evaporation and co-rolling techniques for polymer multilayer hollow fiber photonic fiber preforms were fabricated using consecutive deposition from a solvent phase of two polymers process involved consecutive film deposition by solvent evaporation of polymer solutions on the inside

  11. Large-eddy simulation of evaporating spray in a coaxial combustor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apte, Sourabh V.

    Large-eddy simulation of evaporating spray in a coaxial combustor Sourabh V. Apte a,*, Krishnan, Stanford, CA 94305, USA Abstract Large-eddy simulation of an evaporating isopropyl alcohol spray Mahesh b , Parviz Moin c a School of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, Oregon State

  12. Matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation of polymeric materials: a molecular dynamics study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhigilei, Leonid V.

    Matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation of polymeric materials: a molecular dynamics study Tatiana Matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) has been recently developed to deposit high-quality thin is modeled as a solution of polymer molecules in a molecular matrix. The breathing sphere model is used

  13. Controlling bubble motion over heated surface through evaporation momentum force to enhance pool boiling heat transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kandlikar, Satish

    Controlling bubble motion over heated surface through evaporation momentum force to enhance pool://apl.aip.org/about/rights_and_permissions #12;Controlling bubble motion over heated surface through evaporation momentum force to enhance pool on the basis of this hypothesis to control the bubble trajectory for (i) enhancing the heat transfer

  14. CORRELATING EVAPORATION HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT OF REFRIGERANT R-134a IN A PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kandlikar, Satish

    1 CORRELATING EVAPORATION HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT OF REFRIGERANT R-134a IN A PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER for evaporation heat transfer coefficient of refrigerant R-134a flowing in a plate heat exchanger. Correlation schemes proposed by Yan and Lin (1999b) for modeling the heat transfer coefficient in both a single- phase

  15. Effects of Residual Feed Intake Classification on Feed Efficiency, Feeding Behavior, Carcass Traits, and Net Revenue in Angus-Based Composite Steers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, Joel

    2012-02-14

    and carcass measurements on between-animal variation in net revenue of feedlot steers. Performance, feed intake and feeding behavior traits were measured in 508 Angus-based composite steers, using the GrowSafe feed-intake measurement system, while fed a high...

  16. Cottonseed Meal as a Feed for Hogs. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hale, Fred

    1930-01-01

    FEED FOR HOGS AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS T. 0. WALTON, President STATION STAFF7 AD MINISTRATION : A B CONNER M S Director R: E: KARPERI M: s:: Vice-Director CLARICE MIX~N B.'A Secretary M. P. HOLLEMAN: JR., chief Clefk J. K... contains the results of the study of cottonseed meal as a feed for hogs. The period of this study was from 1924 to 1928, inclusive. Eight brood sows and two hundred and seventy-nine pigs were used during the four and one-half years' study on various...

  17. Compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donahoo, Eric E; Ross, Christopher W

    2014-11-25

    A compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system for a turbine engine for directing cooling fluids from a compressor to a turbine airfoil cooling system to supply cooling fluids to one or more airfoils of a rotor assembly is disclosed. The compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system may enable cooling fluids to be exhausted from a compressor exhaust plenum through a downstream compressor bleed collection chamber and into the turbine airfoil cooling system. As such, the suction created in the compressor exhaust plenum mitigates boundary layer growth along the inner surface while providing flow of cooling fluids to the turbine airfoils.

  18. Commercial Feeding Stuffs 1917-1918. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuller, F. D. (Frederick Driggs)

    1918-01-01

    as mzy be necessary for the enforcement of the lam. T director shall have the power. to refuse the registration of any feedin under a name which would be misleading as to the materials of whio made up, or which does no 1 to the standards and defir... poilnds of feeding stuffs the package contains. 2. Xame of brand. exactly as shown in registration. 3. Sames of the ingredients of which such feed is cpmposed, in cases where the contents are of a mixed niiture. 4. Percentage of each ingredient of )he...

  19. Feed Intake and Feeding Behavior Associations with Performance and Feed Efficiency of Feedlot Cattle Fed a Corn-based Diet 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bailey, Jayton

    2012-02-14

    - RFI pigs. Bunk visit duration, frequency and feed intake per BV traits were all found to have moderate to high heritabilities in Landrace and Large White boars of 0.43, 0.43, and 0.51, respectively (Von Felde et al., 1996). Similarly, BV duration...

  20. Evaluation of the evaporative fraction for parameterization of the surface energy balance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nichols, W.E. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Cuenca, R.H. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis (United States))

    1993-11-01

    The evaporative fraction is a ratio of latent heat flux to the sum of latent and sensible heat fluxes. It has been used to characterize the energy partition over land surfaces and has potential for inferring daily energy balance information based on midday remote sensing measurements. The HAPEX-MOBILHY program SAMER system provided surface energy balance data over a range of agricultural crops and soil types. Data from this large-scale field experiment was analyzed to study the behavior and daylight stability of the evaporative fraction in both ideal and general meteorological conditions. Strong linear relations were found to exist between the midday evaporative fraction and the daylight evaporative fraction. Statistical tests, however, rejected the hypothesis that the two quantities were equal. Relations between the evaporative fraction and surface soil moisture as well as soil moisture over the complete root zone were explored, but no correlation was identified. 33 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. Steam Oxidation and Chromia Evaporation in Ultra-Supercritical Steam Boilers and Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon H. Holcomb

    2009-01-01

    U.S. Department of Energy’s goals include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which requires steam conditions of up to 760 °C and 340 atm, so-called ultra-supercritical (USC) conditions. Evaporation of protective chromia scales is expected to be a primary corrosion mechanism. A methodology to calculate Cr evaporation rates from chromia scales was developed and combined with Cr diffusion calculations within the alloy (with a constant flux of Cr leaving the alloy from evaporation) to predict Cr concentration profiles and to predict the time until breakaway oxidation. At the highest temperatures and pressures, the time until breakaway oxidation was predicted to be quite short for the turbine blade, and of concern within the steam pipe and the higher temperature portions of the superheater tube. Alloy additions such as Ti may allow for a reduction in evaporation rate with time, mitigating the deleterious effects of chromia evaporation.

  2. Steam oxidation and chromia evaporation in ultrasupercritical steam boilers and turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, G.R.

    2009-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's goals include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which requires steam conditions of up to 760 {sup o}C and 340 atm, so-called ultrasupercritical conditions. Evaporation of protective chromia scales is a primary corrosion mechanism. A methodology to calculate Cr evaporation rates from chromia scales was developed and combined with Cr diffusion calculations within the alloy (with a constant flux of Cr leaving the alloy from evaporation) to predict Cr concentration profiles and to predict the time until breakaway oxidation. At the highest temperatures and pressures, the time until breakaway oxidation was quite short for the turbine blade, and of concern within the steam pipe and the higher temperature portions of the superheater tube. Alloy additions such as Ti may allow for a reduction in evaporation rate with time, mitigating the deleterious effects of chromia evaporation.

  3. Injectivity Testing for Vapour Dominated Feed Zones

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clotworthy, A.W.; Hingoyon, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    Wells with vapor dominated feed zones yield abnormal pressure data. This is caused by the condensation of vapor during water injection. A revised injectivity test procedure currently applied by PNOC at the Leyte Geothermal Power Project has improved the injectivity test results.

  4. Feeding Experiments with Steers and Hogs. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cruse, J.T.

    1910-01-01

    . rice; 1156.5 Ibs. tankage. Hogs fed cottonseed meal and rough red rice. Average daily gain 1.: 26 pounds. Hogs fed alfalfa meal and corn chops, fermented. Average daily gain, 1.14 pounds TABLE 1V.-FEED EATEN AND GAINS MADE BY LOT IV RECEIVING...

  5. comparator Feed CCM/DCM modification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    controller. Comparator signal (sDCM) feeds into the DCM current sensing corrector, and into DPWM for adaptive-- This paper addresses control techniques aimed at improving light-load efficiency and reducing harmonic (CCM) and in DCM. Furthermore, adaptive switching and adaptive switching frequency techniques

  6. Rigid Top Plate Electronics Feed-through

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sample SupportRod Vessel Head Rigid Top Plate Electronics Feed-through Aluminum Standard Ultrasonic measurement assembly. For seismic frequencies, strains are measured on both the sample and aluminum standard and exchange of pore fluids independent of confining pressure. #12;1. Ends flat and parallel (length should = 2

  7. Effect of lubricant on spray evaporation heat transfer performance of R-134a and R-22 in tube bundles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moeykens, S.A.; Pate, M.B.

    1996-11-01

    This study evaluates the effects of lubricant on spray evaporation heat transfer performance. Tests were conducted with refrigerant R-134a and triangular-pitch tube bundles made from enhanced-condensation, enhanced-boiling, low-finned, and plain-surface tubes. A 340-SUS polyol-ester (POE) oil was used for the R-134a testing because this lubricant is being integrated into industry for use with this refrigerant. Refrigerant was sprayed onto the tube bundles with low-pressure-drop, wide-angle nozzles located directly above the bundle. Collector testing was conducted with both R-134a and R-22 to determine the percentage of refrigerant contacting the tue bundle. It was found that small concentrations of the polyol-ester lubricant yielded significant improvement in the heat transfer performance of R-134a. The shell-side heat transfer coefficient was more dependent on lubricant concentration than on film-feed supply rate within the range of the respective parameters evaluated in this study. As expected, pure R-22 results show higher heat transfer coefficients than those obtained with pure R-134a at the same saturation temperature of 2.0 C (35.6 F).

  8. Dynamics of evaporative colloidal patterning C. Nadir Kaplan, Ning Wu, Shreyas Mandre, Joanna Aizenberg, and L. Mahadevan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahadevan, L.

    Dynamics of evaporative colloidal patterning C. Nadir Kaplan, Ning Wu, Shreyas Mandre, Joanna of evaporative colloidal patterning C. Nadir Kaplan,1 Ning Wu,2 Shreyas Mandre,3 Joanna Aizenberg,1,4,5,6 and L

  9. VOL. 7, NO. 2, MARCH-APRIL 1991 J. PROPULSION 213 Computations of Turbulent EvaporatingSprays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aggarwal, Suresh K.

    VOL. 7, NO. 2, MARCH-APRIL 1991 J. PROPULSION 213 Computations of Turbulent EvaporatingSprays S. K of turbulent evaporating sprays is reported. The major focus is to study the structure of turbulent evaporating sprays and to examine the sensitivity of their vaporization behavior to transient liquid-phase processes

  10. Heat exchanger efficiently operable alternatively as evaporator or condenser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ecker, Amir L. (Dallas, TX)

    1981-01-01

    A heat exchanger adapted for efficient operation alternatively as evaporator or condenser and characterized by flexible outer tube having a plurality of inner conduits and check valves sealingly disposed within the outer tube and connected with respective inlet and outlet master flow conduits and configured so as to define a parallel flow path for a first fluid such as a refrigerant when flowed in one direction and to define a serpentine and series flow path for the first fluid when flowed in the opposite direction. The flexible outer tube has a heat exchange fluid, such as water, flowed therethrough by way of suitable inlet and outlet connections. The inner conduits and check valves form a package that is twistable so as to define a spiral annular flow path within the flexible outer tube for the heat exchange fluid. The inner conduits have thin walls of highly efficient heat transfer material for transferring heat between the first and second fluids. Also disclosed are specific materials and configurations.

  11. A Unitary Model of The Black Hole Evaporation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu-Lei Feng; Yi-Xin Chen

    2014-12-16

    A unitary effective field model of the black hole evaporation is proposed to satisfy almost the four postulates of the black hole complementarity (BHC). In this model, we enlarge a black hole-scalar field system by adding an extra radiation detector that couples with the scalar field. After performing a partial trace over the scalar field space, we obtain an effective entanglement between the black hole and the detector (or radiation in it). As the whole system evolves, the S-matrix formula can be constructed formally step by step. Without local quantum measurements, the paradoxes of the information loss and AMPS's firewall can be resolved. However, the information can be lost due to quantum decoherence, as long as some local measurement has been performed on the detector to acquire the information of the radiation in it. But unlike Hawking's completely thermal spectrum, some residual correlations can be found in the radiations. All these considerations can be simplified in a qubit model that provides a \\emph{modified quantum teleportation} to transfer the information via an EPR pairs.

  12. Reduced low frequency noise in electron beam evaporated MgO magnetic tunnel junctions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diao, Z.; Feng, J. F.; Kurt, H.; Feng, G.; Coey, J. M. D. [CRANN and School of Physics, Trinity College, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2010-05-17

    We compare low frequency noise in magnetic tunnel junctions with MgO barriers prepared by electron-beam evaporation with those prepared by radiofrequency sputtering, both showing a high tunneling magnetoresistance. The normalized noise parameter in the parallel state of junctions with evaporated barriers is at least one order of magnitude lower than that in junctions with sputtered barriers, and exhibits a weaker bias dependence. The lowest normalized noise is in the 10{sup -11} mum{sup 2} range. A lower density of oxygen vacancies acting as charge trap states in the evaporated MgO is responsible for the lower noise.

  13. Field Performance of a Slimline Turbomist Evaporator under Southeastern U. S. Climate Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sappington, F.C.

    2003-12-15

    A recent study of evaporation technologies for treating F- and H-area groundwater contaminated with radionuclides and metals (Flach 2002) suggested that spray evaporation might be a viable alternative or supplemental technique for managing tritiated groundwater at the Mixed Waste Management Facility. The particular technology of interest in this study is the Slimline Manufacturing Ltd. Turbo-Mist Evaporator, which uses a powerful blower and high-pressure spray nozzles to propel a fine mist into the air at high air and water flowrates.

  14. Grain Sorghum By-Product Feeds for Farm Animals. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1951-01-01

    . GRAIN SORGHUM BY-PRODUCT FEEDS FOR FARM ANIMALS 15 SORGHUJI GLUTEN FEED Sorghum gluten feed was used in three different combi- nations in experimental rations for fattening steers. In the first ration, it was fed as the only concentrate received... .................................................................................................. 18 Sorghum gluten meal .................................................................................. 18 experimental ration ............................................................................. 18...

  15. Comparative feeding biomechanics and behavioral performance of feeding in the family kogiidae and tursiops truncatus (odontoceti, cetacea) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bloodworth, Brian Edward

    2007-09-17

    Hyolingual biomechanics and kinematics in three species of two odontocete genera were investigated to compare adaptations and performance of divergent feeding strategies. Ram and suction feeding are two ends of a continuous spectrum that is poorly...

  16. Determining biological sources of variation in residual feed intake in Brahman heifers during confinement feeding and on pasture 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dittmar (III), Robert Otto

    2009-05-15

    Objectives were to characterize residual feed intake (RFI) and determine the phenotypic correlation between performance, feed efficiency, and other biological measurements in Brahman heifers, as well as the relationship ...

  17. Crude oil as refinery feed stock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boduszynski, M.M.; Farrell, T.R. [Chevron Research and Technology Co., Richmond, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This paper gives a brief overview of the integrated oil refinery. It illustrates that crude oil refining involves {open_quotes}molecular tailoring,{close_quotes} where feed stock molecules are {open_quotes}tailored{close_quotes} through catalytic processing to make products with the most desirable composition. Chemical composition of crude oil as refinery feed stock is discussed. The emphasis is on the understanding of molecular transformations which occur in refinery processes to manufacture light transportation fuels. Diesel fuel manufacturing is used as an example. Recent environmental legislation in the United States has necessitated a significant upgrade in the quality of diesel fuel used for highway transportation. Examples are given to illustrate the impact that petroleum chemistry may have on the industry`s response to government regulations.

  18. Waste Feed Delivery Transfer System Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JULYK, L.J.

    2000-05-05

    This document provides a documented basis for the required design pressure rating and pump pressure capacity of the Hanford Site waste-transfer system in support of the waste feed delivery to the privatization contractor for vitrification. The scope of the analysis includes the 200 East Area double-shell tank waste transfer pipeline system and the associated transfer system pumps for a11 Phase 1B and Phase 2 waste transfers from AN, AP, AW, AY, and A2 Tank Farms.

  19. Commercial Feeding Stuffs in 1907-08. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carson, J.W.; Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1908-01-01

    GICULTURAL EXPERIIMENT STATIONS. BULLETIN NO. 117. November, 1908. Commercial Feeding Stuffs in 1907-08. J. W. CARSON AND G. S. FRAPS. POSTOFFICE : COLLEGE STATION, BRAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS. AUSTIN, TEXAS: VON BOECKMANN-JONES CO., PRINTERS 1908. TEXAS AGRICULTURAI... not, nnder any circumstances, print this infornation upon the tag. The following examples show how the information which the law re- quires should appear on the tax tag: 100 POUNDS CORN CHOPS. Manufactured by J. JV. NELSON $ CO., LITTLE ELM...

  20. Feed-In Tariffs and similar programs

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2013-01-01

    Feed-in tariffs (FITs) are a policy mechanism used to encourage deployment of renewable electricity technologies. FITs are used to a limited extent around the United States as listed. A FIT program typically guarantees that customers who own a FIT-eligible renewable electricity generation facility, such as a roof-top solar photovoltaic system, will receive a set price from their utility for all of the electricity they generate and provide to the grid.

  1. Vitamin A Content of Foods and Feeds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Treichler, Ray; Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1933-01-01

    Publications : H. G. Wick-, D. V. M.. Feed Inepeetor A. D. Jackson. Chief SUBSTATIONS No. 1, Beeville. Bee County: No. 9, Balmorhea, Reeven CountT: R. A. Hall, B. S.. Superintendent J. J. Bayles. B. S., Superintendent No. 2, Lindale. Smith County: No. 10... stover ........................... Kafir, black 6 1-31 ............................................. Kafir red Kafir, white .............................................. Loco weed, air dried .............................. 4 55 2 48 Milk, whole...

  2. Photoconductivity in reactively evaporated copper indium selenide thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urmila, K. S., E-mail: urmilaks7@gmail.com; Asokan, T. Namitha, E-mail: urmilaks7@gmail.com; Pradeep, B., E-mail: urmilaks7@gmail.com [Solid State Physics Laboratory, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi, Kerala (India); Jacob, Rajani; Philip, Rachel Reena [Thin Film Research Laboratory, Union Christian College, Aluva, Kerala (India)

    2014-01-28

    Copper indium selenide thin films of composition CuInSe{sub 2} with thickness of the order of 130 nm are deposited on glass substrate at a temperature of 423 ±5 K and pressure of 10{sup ?5} mbar using reactive evaporation, a variant of Gunther's three temperature method with high purity Copper (99.999%), Indium (99.999%) and Selenium (99.99%) as the elemental starting materials. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies shows that the films are polycrystalline in nature having preferred orientation of grains along the (112) plane. The structural type of the film is found to be tetragonal with particle size of the order of 32 nm. The structural parameters such as lattice constant, particle size, dislocation density, number of crystallites per unit area and strain in the film are also evaluated. The surface morphology of CuInSe{sub 2} films are studied using 2D and 3D atomic force microscopy to estimate the grain size and surface roughness respectively. Analysis of the absorption spectrum of the film recorded using UV-Vis-NIR Spectrophotometer in the wavelength range from 2500 nm to cutoff revealed that the film possess a direct allowed transition with a band gap of 1.05 eV and a high value of absorption coefficient (?) of 10{sup 6} cm{sup ?1} at 570 nm. Photoconductivity at room temperature is measured after illuminating the film with an FSH lamp (82 V, 300 W). Optical absorption studies in conjunction with the good photoconductivity of the prepared p-type CuInSe{sub 2} thin films indicate its suitability in photovoltaic applications.

  3. Defining And Characterizing Sample Representativeness For DWPF Melter Feed Samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shine, E. P.; Poirier, M. R.

    2013-10-29

    Representative sampling is important throughout the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) process, and the demonstrated success of the DWPF process to achieve glass product quality over the past two decades is a direct result of the quality of information obtained from the process. The objective of this report was to present sampling methods that the Savannah River Site (SRS) used to qualify waste being dispositioned at the DWPF. The goal was to emphasize the methodology, not a list of outcomes from those studies. This methodology includes proven methods for taking representative samples, the use of controlled analytical methods, and data interpretation and reporting that considers the uncertainty of all error sources. Numerous sampling studies were conducted during the development of the DWPF process and still continue to be performed in order to evaluate options for process improvement. Study designs were based on use of statistical tools applicable to the determination of uncertainties associated with the data needs. Successful designs are apt to be repeated, so this report chose only to include prototypic case studies that typify the characteristics of frequently used designs. Case studies have been presented for studying in-tank homogeneity, evaluating the suitability of sampler systems, determining factors that affect mixing and sampling, comparing the final waste glass product chemical composition and durability to that of the glass pour stream sample and other samples from process vessels, and assessing the uniformity of the chemical composition in the waste glass product. Many of these studies efficiently addressed more than one of these areas of concern associated with demonstrating sample representativeness and provide examples of statistical tools in use for DWPF. The time when many of these designs were implemented was in an age when the sampling ideas of Pierre Gy were not as widespread as they are today. Nonetheless, the engineers and statisticians used carefully thought out designs that systematically and economically provided plans for data collection from the DWPF process. Key shared features of the sampling designs used at DWPF and the Gy sampling methodology were the specification of a standard for sample representativeness, an investigation that produced data from the process to study the sampling function, and a decision framework used to assess whether the specification was met based on the data. Without going into detail with regard to the seven errors identified by Pierre Gy, as excellent summaries are readily available such as Pitard [1989] and Smith [2001], SRS engineers understood, for example, that samplers can be biased (Gy?s extraction error), and developed plans to mitigate those biases. Experiments that compared installed samplers with more representative samples obtained directly from the tank may not have resulted in systematically partitioning sampling errors into the now well-known error categories of Gy, but did provide overall information on the suitability of sampling systems. Most of the designs in this report are related to the DWPF vessels, not the large SRS Tank Farm tanks. Samples from the DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME), which contains the feed to the DWPF melter, are characterized using standardized analytical methods with known uncertainty. The analytical error is combined with the established error from sampling and processing in DWPF to determine the melter feed composition. This composition is used with the known uncertainty of the models in the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) to ensure that the wasteform that is produced is comfortably within the acceptable processing and product performance region. Having the advantage of many years of processing that meets the waste glass product acceptance criteria, the DWPF process has provided a considerable amount of data about itself in addition to the data from many special studies. Demonstrating representative sampling directly from the large Tank Farm tanks is a difficult, if not unsolvable enterprise due to li

  4. Understanding Fish Nutrition, Feeds, and Feeding Steven Craig, Extension Specialist, Virginia-Maryland College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Tech

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Understanding Fish Nutrition, Feeds, and Feeding Steven Craig, Extension Specialist, Virginia to economically produce a healthy, high quality product. In fish farming, nutrition is critical because feed represents 40-50% of the production costs. Fish nutrition has advanced dramatically in recent years

  5. A Study of Mechanisms and Supression of Evaporation of Water from Soils 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wendt, C. W.

    1971-01-01

    Extensive greenhouse experiments were conducted to evaluate chemicals not previously studied extensively for their potential as evaporation suppressants. Included in the studies were crude oil, anionics, cationics, nonionics, silicones...

  6. The Effect of Reduced Evaporator Air Flow on the Performance of a Residential Central Air Conditioner 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palani, M.; O'Neal, D.; Haberl, J.

    1992-01-01

    the performance of a residential cooling system operating under degraded conditions such as reduced evaporator air flow. Degraded performance measurements can provide information which could help electric utilities evaluate the potential impact of system...

  7. Experimental Study of the Circulation Air Volume of Recirculation Evaporative Cooling 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiong, J.; Liu, Z.; Wang, C.; Chen, G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the technology of re-circulation evaporative cooling (REC), which uses a portion of supply air as secondary air to make cool water used to indirectly cool outside air through a heat exchanger. The circulation volume...

  8. Mean evaporation and condensation coefficients based on energy dependent condensation probability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Struchtrup, Henning

    Maurice Bond and Henning Struchtrup* Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Victoria, P. Ward, Phys. Rev. E 59, 419 (1999)]. It is shown that mean condensation and evaporation coefficients

  9. An experimental study of evaporative cooling from liquid droplets impinging on a hot surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koveal, Catherine Helene

    2005-01-01

    We have performed a series of experiments to characterize the different regimes observed in drop impacts during evaporative cooling of heated surfaces. We found four regimes which were named splashing, fizzing, flat film, ...

  10. Energy Efficient Design, Retrofit and Control of Evaporative Condensers in Ammonia Refrigeration Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kissock, Kelly

    Energy Efficient Design, Retrofit and Control of Evaporative Condensers in Ammonia Refrigeration ABSTRACT Ammonia refrigeration systems typically offer many energy efficiency opportunities because efficiency of ammonia refrigeration systems. Introduction About 7.5% of the total manufacturing energy

  11. Insight into the molecular mechanism of water evaporation via the finite temperature string method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Musolino, Nicholas

    The process of water's evaporation at its liquid/air interface has proven challenging to study experimentally and, because it constitutes a rare event on molecular time scales, presents a challenge for computer simulations ...

  12. Microscale observables for heat and mass transport in sub-micron scale evaporating thin film 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wee, Sang-Kwon

    2004-09-30

    A mathematical model is developed to describe the micro/nano-scale fluid flow and heat/mass transfer phenomena in an evaporating extended meniscus, focusing on the transition film region under nonisothermal interfacial conditions. The model...

  13. INLINE HIGH-RATE THERMAL EVAPORATION OF ALUMINUM FOR NOVEL INDUSTRIAL SOLAR CELL METALLIZATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in the food industry. For the metallization of solar cells Schott Solar AG used a batch evaporation system, seven vacuum chambers and an unloading area and may be used either in a continuous or in an oscillating

  14. A feasibility study of internal evaporative cooling for proton exchange membrane fuel cells 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Snyder, Loren E

    2006-04-12

    An investigation was conducted to determine the feasibility of using the technique of ultrasonic nebulization of water into the anode gas stream for evaporative cooling of a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell. The basic concept of this form...

  15. Making Record-efficiency SnS Solar Cells by Thermal Evaporation and Atomic Layer Deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaramillo, Rafael

    Tin sulfide (SnS) is a candidate absorber material for Earth-abundant, non-toxic solar cells. SnS offers easy phase control and rapid growth by congruent thermal evaporation, and it absorbs visible light strongly. However, ...

  16. Establishing feasibility for providing passive cooling with solar updraft and evaporative downdraft chimneys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cunningham, W.A.; Migon, G.V.

    1985-01-01

    The solar updraft and a natural evaporative downdraft tower built onto an existing residence structure and a greenhouse were completed and operating. Performance data for the hottest days of June, July, and August, 1985 are included. (MHR)

  17. Investigations on Vapour Compression Air Conditioner with Direct Contact Desiccant Loop over Condenser and Evaporator 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maiya, M. P.; Ravi, J.; Tiwari, S.

    2010-01-01

    (low humidity). Operation of such a novel system is explained, elucidating the operational feasibility. The results presented consider the characteristics of such a system with respect to changes in the evaporator inlet air temperature and humidity...

  18. Dispersion of UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} aerosol and HF vapor in the operating floor during winter ventilation at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, S.H.; Chen, N.C.J.; Taleyarkhan, R.P.; Keith, K.D.; Schmidt, R.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Carter, J.C. [J.C. Carter Associates, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1996-12-30

    The gaseous diffusion process is currently employed at two plants in the US: the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant and the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. As part of a facility-wide safety evaluation, a postulated design basis accident involving large line-rupture induced releases of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) into the process building of a gaseous diffusion plant (GDP) is evaluated. When UF{sub 6} is released into the atmosphere, it undergoes an exothermic chemical reaction with moisture (H{sub 2}O) in the air to form vaporized hydrogen fluoride (HF) and aerosolized uranyl fluoride (UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}). These reactants disperse in the process building and transport through the building ventilation system. The ventilation system draws outside air into the process building, distributes it evenly throughout the building, and discharges it to the atmosphere at an elevated temperature. Since air is recirculated from the cell floor area to the operating floor, issues concerning in-building worker safety and evacuation need to be addressed. Therefore, the objective of this study is to evaluate the transport of HF vapor and UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} aerosols throughout the operating floor area following B-line break accident in the cell floor area.

  19. Annual Report of the Feed Control Service, 1951-52. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holleman, M. P.; Brock, F. D.

    1952-01-01

    CONTROL SERVICE 1951-52 [Blank Page in Original Bulletin] Digest This bulletin is the 47th annual report of the Feed Control Service on the inspection and analysis of feeds sold in Texas. Heretofore it has been entitled "Commercial Feeding Stuffs...," for the fiscal year covered. In this bulletin is the analysis of each sample of feed taken and a detailed report of the results obtained in the inspection of feeds from September 1, 1951, to August 31, 1952. During this fiscal year, 3,611 official samples...

  20. Calculation of Steady-State Evaporation for an Arbitrary Matric Potential at Ground Surface 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Xin

    2014-12-15

    . .................... 6 Figure 2: The different contours of Ep/Ks value for N and –a/L in Eq. (9). ..................... 15 Figure 3: Influence of water table depth and matric potential on estimated evaporation rate for the Chino Clay... potential head (-cm) for the Chino Clay. ......................................................................... 29 Figure 7: Influence of water table depth and matric potential on estimated evaporation rate for the clay loam...

  1. The effects of feed area design on the social behaviour of dairy cattle 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rioja-Lang, Fiona C

    2009-01-01

    The overall objective of this thesis was to assess the effect of feed area design including feeding space availability, barrier type and stocking density, on the feeding behaviour of dairy cows. Feed intake in dairy cows ...

  2. Applicability of post-ionization theory to laser-assisted field evaporation of magnetite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schreiber, Daniel K.; Chiaramonti, Ann N.; Gordon, Lyle M.; Kruska, Karen

    2014-12-15

    Analysis of the mean Fe ion charge state from laser-assisted field evaporation of magnetite (Fe3O4) reveals unexpected trends as a function of laser pulse energy that break from conventional post-ionization theory for metals. For Fe ions evaporated from magnetite, the effects of post-ionization are partially offset by the increased prevalence of direct evaporation into higher charge states with increasing laser pulse energy. Therefore the final charge state is related to both the field strength and the laser pulse energy, despite those variables themselves being intertwined when analyzing at a constant detection rate. Comparison of data collected at different base temperatures also show that the increased prevalence of Fe2+ at higher laser energies is possibly not a direct thermal effect. Conversely, the ratio of 16O+:16O2+ is well-correlated with field strength and unaffected by laser pulse energy on its own, making it a better overall indicator of the field evaporation conditions than the mean Fe charge state. Plotting the normalized field strength versus laser pulse energy also elucidates a non-linear dependence, in agreement with previous observations on semiconductors, that suggests a field-dependent laser absorption efficiency. Together these observations demonstrate that the field evaporation process for laser-pulsed oxides exhibits fundamental differences from metallic specimens that cannot be completely explained by post-ionization theory. Further theoretical studies, combined with detailed analytical observations, are required to understand fully the field evaporation process of non-metallic samples.

  3. Computational fluid dynamics analysis of a wire-feed, high-velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF) thermal spray torch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopez, A.R.; Hassan, B.; Oberkampf, W.L.; Neiser, R.A.; Roemer, T.J.

    1996-09-01

    The fluid and particle dynamics of a High-Velocity Oxygen-Fuel Thermal Spray torch are analyzed using computational and experimental techniques. Three-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) results are presented for a curved aircap used for coating interior surfaces such as engine cylinder bores. The device analyzed is similar to the Metco Diamond Jet Rotating Wire (DJRW) torch. The feed gases are injected through an axisymmetric nozzle into the curved aircap. Premixed propylene and oxygen are introduced from an annulus in the nozzle, while cooling air is injected between the nozzle and the interior wall of the aircap. The combustion process is modeled using a single-step finite-rate chemistry model with a total of 9 gas species which includes dissociation of combustion products. A continually-fed steel wire passes through the center of the nozzle and melting occurs at a conical tip near the exit of the aircap. Wire melting is simulated computationally by injecting liquid steel particles into the flow field near the tip of the wire. Experimental particle velocity measurements during wire feed were also taken using a Laser Two-Focus (L2F) velocimeter system. Flow fields inside and outside the aircap are presented and particle velocity predictions are compared with experimental measurements outside of the aircap.

  4. Commercial Feeding Stuffs, from September 1, 1949 to August 31, 1950. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holleman, M. P.; Brock, F. D.

    1950-01-01

    . ( sho - *, :hemica1 standards for special-purpose mixed feeds a1 kwn, together with additional information on the requirt nts of the Texas Feed Law, the composition of feeds an thods of calculating guaranties of mixed feeds. CONTENTS Digest... .................................................. 7 Definitions and Standards ........................................ 8 .................... Method of Calculating Guaranties olf Mixed Feeds 8 .............................................. Suggested Guaranties 9 Special-purpose Mixed Feeds...

  5. Characterization of Feeding Behavior Traits and Associations with Performance and Feed Efficiency in Finishing Beef Cattle 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mendes, Egleu Diomedes Marinho

    2011-10-21

    ., 2000). Many studies have examined the relationships between feeding behavior traits and feed efficiency in poultry (Van Eerden et al., 2004), swine (de Haer et al., 1993; Rauw et al., 2006a, b; Von Felde et al., 1996), sheep (Cammack et al., 2005.... (2007); eRauw et al. (2006a); fRauw et al. (2006b); gRobinson and Oddy (2004); hSchwartzkopf-Genswein et al. (2002); iVon Felde et al. (1996) Bold values are correlated with P < 0.05 There were no specification for the P-value for the phenotypic...

  6. Regulation of the PDK4 Isozyme by the Rb-E2F1 Complex*S Received for publication,March 27, 2008, and in revised form, July 24, 2008 Published, JBC Papers in Press,July 30, 2008, DOI 10.1074/jbc.M802418200

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Regulation of the PDK4 Isozyme by the Rb-E2F1 Complex*S Received for publication,March 27, 2008-induced diabetes. Here, we dem- onstrate that E2F1 directly regulates the gene encoding PDK4 (pyruvate sen- sitivity to insulin stimulation. Consistently, enforced E2F1 expression up-regulates PDK4 levels

  7. Nutritional and Feeding Management of Broodmares 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gibbs, Pete G.; Potter, Gary D.; Vogelsang, M. M.

    2005-04-13

    well-be ing is an im por tant part of an effective broodmare op er a tion. Broodmares have specifi c nu tri - tion al re quire ments that differ from other class es of horses. There are differences both in the amount of feed mares need... tion relative to the effect of nu tri tion on re pro - duc tive per for mance in mares. It has been clearly shown that mares should be kept in good condition the year round, and es pe cial ly as breed ing season approaches. By check ing...

  8. United Nations Foundation Feed | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop IncIowa (Utility Company) JumpGTZ ClimateFeed Jump to: navigation, search

  9. fed feed families | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal GasAdministration Medal01 Sandia4) August 20123/%2A en46Afed feed families | National

  10. Joint Implementation Network Feed | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource History View NewGuam:onItron (California)Joint Implementation Network Feed Jump

  11. Burco Farm and Feed | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop IncIowaWisconsin:PontiacInformationAssessment ToolkitBullBurco Farm and Feed

  12. Feds feed Families | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12, 2015Executive Order14,Energy 9, 2013Federal TaxMAY 3-4,Into HighFeds feed

  13. Laboratory studies of 2H evaporator scale dissolution in dilute nitric acid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oji, L.

    2014-09-23

    The rate of 2H evaporator scale solids dissolution in dilute nitric acid has been experimentally evaluated under laboratory conditions in the SRNL shielded cells. The 2H scale sample used for the dissolution study came from the bottom of the evaporator cone section and the wall section of the evaporator cone. The accumulation rate of aluminum and silicon, assumed to be the two principal elemental constituents of the 2H evaporator scale aluminosilicate mineral, were monitored in solution. Aluminum and silicon concentration changes, with heating time at a constant oven temperature of 90 deg C, were used to ascertain the extent of dissolution of the 2H evaporator scale mineral. The 2H evaporator scale solids, assumed to be composed of mostly aluminosilicate mineral, readily dissolves in 1.5 and 1.25 M dilute nitric acid solutions yielding principal elemental components of aluminum and silicon in solution. The 2H scale dissolution rate constant, based on aluminum accumulation in 1.5 and 1.25 M dilute nitric acid solution are, respectively, 9.21E-04 ± 6.39E-04 min{sup -1} and 1.07E-03 ± 7.51E-05 min{sup -1}. Silicon accumulation rate in solution does track the aluminum accumulation profile during the first few minutes of scale dissolution. It however diverges towards the end of the scale dissolution. This divergence therefore means the aluminum-to-silicon ratio in the first phase of the scale dissolution (non-steady state conditions) is different from the ratio towards the end of the scale dissolution. Possible causes of this change in silicon accumulation in solution as the scale dissolution progresses may include silicon precipitation from solution or the 2H evaporator scale is a heterogeneous mixture of aluminosilicate minerals with several impurities. The average half-life for the decomposition of the 2H evaporator scale mineral in 1.5 M nitric acid is 12.5 hours, while the half-life for the decomposition of the 2H evaporator scale in 1.25 M nitric acid is 10.8 hours. Based on averaging the two half-lives from the 2H scale acid dissolution in 1.25 and 1.5 M nitric acid solutions, a reasonable half-live for the dissolution of 2H scales in dilute nitric acid is 11.7 ± 1.3 hours. The plant operational time for chemically cleaning (soaking) the 2H evaporator with dilute nitric acid is 32 hours. It therefore may require about 3 half-lives or less to completely dissolve most of the scales in the Evaporator pot which come into contact with the dilute nitric acid solution. On a mass basis, the Al-to-Si ratio for the scale dissolution in 1.5 M nitric acid averaged 1.30 ± 0.20 and averaged 1.18 ± 0.10 for the 2H scale dissolution in 1.25 M nitric acid. These aluminum-to-silicon ratios are in fairly good agreement with ratios from previous studies. Therefore, there is still more aluminum in the 2H evaporator scales than silicon which implies that there are no significant changes in scale properties which will exclude nitric acid as a viable protic solvent for aluminosilicate scale buildup dissolution from the 2H evaporator. Overall, the monitoring of the scale decomposition reaction in 1.25 and 1.5 M nitric acid may be better ascertained through the determination of aluminum concentration in solution than monitoring silicon in solution. Silicon solution chemistry may lead to partial precipitating of silicon with time as the scale and acid solution is heated.

  14. Analysis Of 2H-Evaporator Scale Pot Bottom Sample [HTF-13-11-28H

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oji, L. N.

    2013-07-15

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is planning to remove a buildup of sodium aluminosilicate scale from the 2H-evaporator pot by loading and soaking the pot with heated 1.5 M nitric acid solution. Sampling and analysis of the scale material from the 2H evaporator has been performed so that the evaporator can be chemically cleaned beginning July of 2013. Historically, since the operation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), silicon in the DWPF recycle stream combines with aluminum in the typical tank farm supernate to form sodium aluminosilicate scale mineral deposits in the 2H-evaporator pot and gravity drain line. The 2H-evaporator scale samples analyzed by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) came from the bottom cone sections of the 2H-evaporator pot. The sample holder from the 2H-evaporator wall was virtually empty and was not included in the analysis. It is worth noting that after the delivery of these 2H-evaporator scale samples to SRNL for the analyses, the plant customer determined that the 2H evaporator could be operated for additional period prior to requiring cleaning. Therefore, there was no need for expedited sample analysis as was presented in the Technical Task Request. However, a second set of 2H evaporator scale samples were expected in May of 2013, which would need expedited sample analysis. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) confirmed the bottom cone section sample from the 2H-evaporator pot consisted of nitrated cancrinite, (a crystalline sodium aluminosilicate solid), clarkeite and uranium oxide. There were also mercury compound XRD peaks which could not be matched and further X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis of the sample confirmed the existence of elemental mercury or mercuric oxide. On ''as received'' basis, the scale contained an average of 7.09E+00 wt % total uranium (n = 3; st.dev. = 8.31E-01 wt %) with a U-235 enrichment of 5.80E-01 % (n = 3; st.dev. = 3.96E-02 %). The measured U-238 concentration was 7.05E+00 wt % (n=3, st. dev. = 8.25E-01 wt %). Analyses results for Pu-238 and Pu-239, and Pu-241 are 7.06E-05 {+-} 7.63E-06 wt %, 9.45E-04 {+-} 3.52E-05 wt %, and <2.24E-06 wt %, respectively. These results are provided so that SRR can calculate the equivalent uranium-235 concentrations for the NCSA. Because this 2H evaporator pot bottom scale sample contained a significant amount of elemental mercury (11.7 wt % average), it is recommended that analysis for mercury be included in future Technical Task Requests on 2H evaporator sample analysis at SRNL. Results confirm that the uranium contained in the scale remains depleted with respect to natural uranium. SRNL did not calculate an equivalent U-235 enrichment, which takes into account other fissionable isotopes U-233, Pu-239 and Pu-241.

  15. Preliminary experimental studies with seawater on OTEC spout evaporator thermal effectiveness and phase transition in upcomer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sonwalkar, N.; Larsen-Basse, J.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OC-OTEC) test facility has been erected to perform spout evaporator experiments with seawater. The facility, located at Ke-ahole Point, Kona, Hawaii, consists of a spout evaporator, a spray condenser and an on-line deaerator. Warm seawater at 25-27/sup 0/C from 8 m depth and cold deep seawater at 7-10/sup 0/C from 580 m depth is available throughout the year to the facility. The results of thermal effectiveness tests are reported. The error due to instrumental uncertainties in thermal effectiveness measurements has been estimated to be of the order +-5.5 percent. The effect of design parameters; spout height, spout diameter and liquid loading on thermal effectiveness have been observed and compared with the existing theoretical predictions. A modified thermodynamic approach is proposed to evaluate average heat transfer characteristics of spout evaporators using a three component heat transfer coefficient approach. It adequately describes heat transfer characteristics of the spout evaporator under study. Results essentially agree with data obtained by others for fresh water, but clearly indicate the need for improvement of the existing model to take into account a number of identified factors associated with the real life OC-OTEC conditions, such as the transience in evaporator performance associated with the ocean-generated flow and pressure fluctuations and effects of noncondensable gases.

  16. Commercial Feeding Stuffs, September 1, 1940 to August 31, 1941. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, James; Fuller, F. D. (Frederick Driggs)

    1941-01-01

    .44 11.59 11.24 9.85 6.03 FEEDS Wheat Gray Shorts and Screenings.._. Wheat Mixed Feed Wheat Mixed Feed and Screenings_.- Dried Whey 13.34 15.55 27.79 5.87 6.07 7.54 6.27 6.00 18.60 21.65 31.90 6.33 5.72 4.07 4.26 4.46 1.69 4...

  17. The Salt or Sodium Chloride Content of Feeds 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach); Lomanitz, S. (Sebastian)

    1920-01-01

    STATION AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS W. B. BIZZELL, Preeident BULLETIN NO. 271 OCTOBER, 1920 DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY THE SALT OR SODIUM CHLORIDE CONTENT OF FEEDS B. YOUNGBLOOD, DIRECTOK COLLEGE STATION, BRAZOS COUNTT, TEXAS I..... ................... Summary ancl conclusions. Page. l1 [Blank Page in Original Bulletin] BULLETIN XO. 271. OCTOBE- '"On THE SALT OR SODIUM CHLORIDE CONTENT OF FEI The Texas feed law requires the statement of the ingredients of many mixed feeds. Common salt or sodium...

  18. Department of Energy Manual 435.1-1 Waste Incidental To Reprocessing Determination For The West Valley Demonstration Project Concentrator Feed Makeup Tank and Melter Feed Hold Tank

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Department of Energy Manual 435.1-1 Waste Incidental To Reprocessing Determination For The West Valley Demonstration Project Concentrator Feed Makeup Tank and Melter Feed Hold Tank

  19. Evaluation of cooling performance of thermally activated building system with evaporative cooling source for typical United States climates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Jingjuan; Bauman, Fred

    2013-01-01

    and high temperature cooling_REHVA Guidebook, Federation ofEvaluation of cooling performance of thermally activatedsystem with evaporative cooling source for typical United

  20. Innovative Evaporative and Thermally Activated Technologies Improve Air Conditioning; The Spectrum of Clean Energy Innovation (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-06-01

    Fact sheet describes NREL's work on a desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVap) that uses 90% less electricity than traditional air conditioning units.

  1. Spallation process with simultaneous multi-particle emission in nuclear evaporation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santos, B. M.

    2013-05-06

    High energy probes have been used currently to explore nuclear reaction mechanism and nuclear structure. The spallation process governs the reaction process around 1 GeV energy regime. A new aspect introduced here to describe the nuclear reaction is the in-medium nucleonnucleon collision framework. The nucleon-nucleon scattering is kinematically treated by using an effective mass to represent the nuclear binding. In respect to the evaporation phase of the reaction, we introduce the simultaneous particles emission decay. This process becomes important due to the rise of new channels at high excitation energy regime of the compound nucleus. As results, the particles yields in the rapid and evaporation phases are obtained and compared to experimental data. The effect and relevance of these simultaneous emission processes in the evaporation chain is also discussed.

  2. Observation and numerical modeling of chromospheric evaporation during the impulsive phase of a solar flare

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Imada, Shinsuke; Watanabe, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    We have studied the chromospheric evaporation flow during the impulsive phase of the flare by using the Hinode/EIS observation and 1D hydrodynamic numerical simulation coupled to the time-dependent ionization. The observation clearly shows that the strong redshift can be observed at the base of the flaring loop only during the impulsive phase. We performed two different numerical simulations to reproduce the strong downflows in FeXII and FeXV during the impulsive phase. By changing the thermal conduction coefficient, we carried out the numerical calculation of chromospheric evaporation in the thermal conduction dominant regime (conductivity coefficient kappa0 = classical value) and the enthalpy flux dominant regime (kappa0 = 0.1 x classical value). The chromospheric evaporation calculation in the enthalpy flux dominant regime could reproduce the strong redshift at the base of the flare during the impulsive phase. This result might indicate that the thermal conduction can be strongly suppressed in some cases o...

  3. A combined field approach for the two-way coupling problem in the liquid evaporation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xuefeng Xu

    2014-11-23

    During liquid evaporation, the temperature of the liquid determines the saturated vapor pressure above it, which controls the evaporation rate and thus determines the liquid temperature through latent heat. Therefore, the equations for the vapor concentration in the atmosphere and for the temperature in the liquid are coupled and must be solved in an iterative manner. In the present paper, a combined field approach which unifies the coupled fields into one single field and thus makes the iteration unnecessary is proposed. The present work will be useful in scientific and industrial processes involving liquid evaporation and may also have more general applications to coupled field problems in which all the fields have the same governing equation.

  4. Evaporation system and method for gas jet deposition of thin film materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmitt, Jerome J. (New Haven, CT); Halpern, Bret L. (Bethany, CT)

    1994-01-01

    A method and apparatus for depositing thin films of materials such as metals, oxides and nitrides at low temperature relies on a supersonic free jet of inert carrier gas to transport vapor species generated from an evaporation source to the surface of a substrate. Film deposition vapors are generated from solid film precursor materials, including those in the form of wires or powders. The vapor from these sources is carried downstream in a low pressure supersonic jet of inert gas to the surface of a substrate where the vapors deposit to form a thin film. A reactant gas can be introduced into the gas jet to form a reaction product with the evaporated material. The substrate can be moved from the gas jet past a gas jet containing a reactant gas in which a discharge has been generated, the speed of movement being sufficient to form a thin film which is chemically composed of the evaporated material and reactant gases.

  5. Automatic feed system for ultrasonic machining

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Calkins, Noel C. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1994-01-01

    Method and apparatus for ultrasonic machining in which feeding of a tool assembly holding a machining tool toward a workpiece is accomplished automatically. In ultrasonic machining, a tool located just above a workpiece and vibrating in a vertical direction imparts vertical movement to particles of abrasive material which then remove material from the workpiece. The tool does not contact the workpiece. Apparatus for moving the tool assembly vertically is provided such that it operates with a relatively small amount of friction. Adjustable counterbalance means is provided which allows the tool to be immobilized in its vertical travel. A downward force, termed overbalance force, is applied to the tool assembly. The overbalance force causes the tool to move toward the workpiece as material is removed from the workpiece.

  6. Spectral Lags of Gamma-Ray Bursts from Primordial Black Hole (PBH) Evaporations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. N. Ukwatta; J. H. MacGibbon; W. C. Parke; K. S. Dhuga; A. Eskandarian; N. Gehrels; L. Maximon; D. C. Morris

    2009-08-14

    Primordial Black Holes (PBHs), which may have been created in the early Universe, are predicted to be detectable by their Hawking radiation. PBHs with an initial mass of 5.0 * 10^14 g should be expiring today with a burst of high energy particles. Evaporating PBHs in the solar neighborhood are candidate Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) progenitors. We propose spectral lag, which is the temporal delay between the high energy photon pulse and the low energy photon pulse, as a possible method to detect PBH evaporation events with the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope Observatory.

  7. Demolition of the waste evaporator facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mandry, G.J. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Becker, C.L. [Allied Technology Group, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, in conjunction with Allied Technology Group, Inc., successfully executed the decommissioning of a former waste evaporator facility at ONRL. This project was conducted as a non-time critical removal action under CERCLA. The decommissioning alternative selected for the Waste Evaporator Facility was partial dismantlement. This alternative provided for the demolition of all above-grade structures; concrete which did not exceed pre-established radiological levels were eligible for placement in the below-grade portion of the facility. This project demonstrated a coordinated team approach that allowed the successful completion of one of the first full-scale decommissioning projects at ORNL.

  8. masf2f0.tmp

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    July, 1983 Reprinted November 1984 Aeroelastic Stability Analysis of a Darrieus Wind Turbine David Popelka Prepared by Sandia Nationall Laboratories Albuquerque, New Mexico...

  9. Chemistry & Biology Hemoglobin Digestion in Blood-Feeding Ticks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bogyo, Matthew

    Chemistry & Biology Article Hemoglobin Digestion in Blood-Feeding Ticks: Mapping a Multipeptidase: mares@uochb.cas.cz DOI 10.1016/j.chembiol.2009.09.009 SUMMARY Hemoglobin digestion is an essential transmission is linked to the physiology of blood feeding and digestion. Blood provides a rich source

  10. FEED-IN TARIFFS AND OFFSHORE WIND POWER DEVELOPMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    FEED-IN TARIFFS AND OFFSHORE WIND POWER DEVELOPMENT Prepared by Jon Lilley, Blaise Sheridan, Dawn.......................................................................................................................... 25 FERC Clarification as Applied to Offshore Wind........................................................................................................................ 28 #12; 3 Feed-in Tariffs and Offshore Wind Power Development Prepared Pursuant to DOE Grant Em

  11. Application of New Feeding Rules To Risering of Steel Castings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    and predicted shrinkage porosity in the castings to the expected level of porosity based on the new feeding1 Application of New Feeding Rules To Risering of Steel Castings Doug Smith , Tony Faivre , Shouzhu Engineering , ABC-NACO TECHNOLOGIES, Lombard, IL1 Project Engineer - Casting Simulation, ABC-NACO TECHNOLOGIES

  12. MODELING OF POROSITY FORMATION AND FEEDING FLOW IN STEEL CASTING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    , or even larger shrinkage cavities found in inadequately fed cast sections. Microporosity can cause leaksMODELING OF POROSITY FORMATION AND FEEDING FLOW IN STEEL CASTING Kent D. Carlson, Zhiping Lin pressure, feeding flow, and porosity formation and growth in steel castings during solidification

  13. Repression of miR-17-5p with elevated expression of E2F-1 and c-MYC in non-metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma and enhancement of cell growth upon reversing this expression pattern

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El Tayebi, H.M.; Omar, K.; Hegy, S.; El Maghrabi, M.; El Brolosy, M. [The Molecular Pathology Research Group, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy and Biotechnology, German University in Cairo, Cairo (Egypt)] [The Molecular Pathology Research Group, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy and Biotechnology, German University in Cairo, Cairo (Egypt); Hosny, K.A. [Department of General Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo (Egypt)] [Department of General Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo (Egypt); Esmat, G. [Department of Endemic Medicine and Hepatology, Cairo University, Cairo (Egypt)] [Department of Endemic Medicine and Hepatology, Cairo University, Cairo (Egypt); Abdelaziz, A.I., E-mail: ahmed.abdel-aziz@guc.edu.eg [The Molecular Pathology Research Group, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy and Biotechnology, German University in Cairo, Cairo (Egypt)

    2013-05-10

    Highlights: •The oncogenic miR-17-5p is downregulated in non-metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma patients. •E2F-1 and c-MYC transcripts are upregulated in non-metastatic HCC patients. •miR-17-5p forced overexpression inhibited E2F-1 and c-MYC expression in HuH-7 cells. •miR-17-5p mimicking increased HuH-7 cell growth, proliferation, migration and colony formation. •miR-17-5p is responsible for HCC progression among the c-MYC/E2F-1/miR-17-5p triad members. -- Abstract: E2F-1, c-MYC, and miR-17-5p is a triad of two regulatory loops: a negative and a positive loop, where c-MYC induces the expression of E2F-1 that induces the expression of miR-17-5p which in turn reverses the expression of E2F-1 to close the loop. In this study, we investigated this triad for the first time in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), where miR-17-5p showed a significant down-regulation in 23 non-metastatic HCC biopsies compared to 10 healthy tissues; however, E2F-1 and c-MYC transcripts were markedly elevated. Forced over-expression of miR-17-5p in HuH-7 cells resulted in enhanced cell proliferation, growth, migration and clonogenicity with concomitant inhibition of E2F-1 and c-MYC transcripts expressions, while antagomirs of miR-17-5p reversed these events. In conclusion, this study revealed a unique pattern of expression for miR-17-5p in non-metastatic HCC patients in contrast to metastatic HCC patients. In addition we show that miR-17-5p is the key player among the triad that tumor growth and spread.

  14. Inline evenflow material distributor for pneumatic material feed systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thiry, Michael J. (Oakdale, CA)

    2007-02-20

    An apparatus for reducing clogs in a pneumatic material feed line, such as employed in abrasive waterjet machining systems, by providing an evenflow feed of material therethrough. The apparatus preferably includes a hollow housing defining a housing volume and having an inlet capable of connecting to an upstream portion of the pneumatic material feed line, an outlet capable of connecting to a downstream portion of the pneumatic material feed line, and an air vent located between the inlet and outlet for venting excess air pressure out from the housing volume. A diverter, i.e. an impingement object, is located at the inlet and in a path of incoming material from the upstream portion of the pneumatic material feed line, to break up clumps of ambient moisture-ridden material impinging on the diverter. And one or more filter screens is also preferably located in the housing volume to further break up clumps and provide filtering.

  15. Ejection of matrix-polymer clusters in matrix-assisted laser evaporation: Coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhigilei, Leonid V.

    Ejection of matrix-polymer clusters in matrix-assisted laser evaporation: Coarse-grained molecular, as related to the matrix-assisted laser evaporation (MAPLE) technique for polymer film deposition. Coarse- grained description of molecular matrix and polymer molecules is used in the model, allowing for large

  16. Pulsed laser evaporation of boron/carbon pellets: Infrared spectra and quantum chemical structures and frequencies for BCp

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Jan M.L.

    Pulsed laser evaporation of boron/carbon pellets: Infrared spectra and quantum chemical structures March 1993) Pulsed laser evaporation of pellets pressed from boron and graphite powder gave a new 1 decreased with increasing B/C ratio in the pellet and with increasing laser power. Augmented coupled cluster

  17. Evaporative water losses of exercising sheep in neutral and hot climates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Evaporative water losses of exercising sheep in neutral and hot climates T Othman KG Johnson, DW, Australia Hot climates require an accelerated water loss to allowed for thermoregulation (Rai et al, 1979, Trop Anim Hlth Prod, 11, 51-56). The water losses associated with locomotion should be greater

  18. Thesis proposal CSF Brazil 2014 Enhanced evaporator for power electronics cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bordenave, Charles

    Thesis proposal CSF Brazil 2014 Title: Enhanced evaporator for power electronics cooling Thesis prototype is already available at LAPLACE. Subject description: The two-phase cooling systems (heat pipes an interface with an imposed temperature in the vicinity of the wall to be cooled . When this interface

  19. Upscaling of soil hydraulic properties for steady state evaporation and infiltration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohanty, Binayak P.

    Upscaling of soil hydraulic properties for steady state evaporation and infiltration Jianting Zhu September 2002. [1] Estimation of effective/average soil hydraulic properties for large land areas and guidelines for upscaling soil hydraulic properties in an areally heterogeneous field. In this study, we

  20. Gravity-Driven flow of evaporating thin liquid films over substrates with topography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jimack, Peter

    Gravity-Driven flow of evaporating thin liquid films over substrates with topography Gaskell, P. Abstract This paper considers gravity-driven flow of thin liquid films over substrates with topography of gravity-driven flow of thin liquid films over well defined topography, as indicated in Figure 1, in which

  1. CFD Simulation and Analysis of the Combined Evaporative Cooling and Radiant Ceiling Air-conditioning System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiang, H.; Yinming, L.; Junmei, W.

    2006-01-01

    Due to such disadvantages as large air duct and high energy consumption of the current all- outdoor air evaporative cooling systems used in the dry region of Northwest China, as well as the superiority of the ceiling cooling system in improving...

  2. Results from evaporation tests to support the MWTF heat removal system design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crea, B.A.

    1994-12-22

    An experimental tests program was conducted to measure the evaporative heat removal from the surface of a tank of simulated waste. The results contained in this report constitute definition design data for the latest heat removal function of the MWTF primary ventilation system.

  3. Under consideration for publication in J. Fluid Mech. 1 Evaporation and combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    fluid can be a fire hazard. A leak of liquid fuel at high pressure in industrial applications mayUnder consideration for publication in J. Fluid Mech. 1 Evaporation and combustion of thin films of liquid fuels By J. ARMEND ' AR I Z y AND M. MATALON Engineering Sciences and Applied Mathematics, Mc

  4. LETTER doi:10.1038/nature11718 Evaporative cooling of the dipolar hydroxyl radical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LETTER doi:10.1038/nature11718 Evaporative cooling of the dipolar hydroxyl radical Benjamin K cooling of neutral hydroxyl (OH. ) molecules loaded from a Stark-decelerated beam into an extremely high challenged it23­25 . Hydroxyl (OH. , referred to here as OH) would not, at first glance, seem

  5. Three-dimensional microstructuring of carbon by thermoplastic spacer evaporation during pyrolysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Deborah D.L.

    Three-dimensional microstructuring of carbon by thermoplastic spacer evaporation during pyrolysis pyrolysis of an epoxy-based film that coated the spacer and parts of the sub- strate. Fillers were chosen to reduce the shrinkage during pyrolysis and to increase the electrical conductivity. Multiwalled carbon

  6. Temperature corrections in the PriestleyTaylor equation of evaporation Jozsef Szilagyi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Szilagyi, Jozsef

    on the complementary relationship of evaporation (Bouchet, 1963), such as the Advection- Aridity model of Brutsaert. Georgakakos, Editor-in-Chief Keywords: Priestley­Taylor equation Wet-environment surface temperature (PTE) is frequently applied in actual areal evapotranspiration (ET) estima- tion methods for obtaining

  7. Observational Evidences of Electron-driven Evaporation in two Solar Flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Dong; Zhang, Qingmin

    2015-01-01

    We have explored the relationship between hard X-ray (HXR) emissions and Doppler velocities caused by the chromospheric evaporation in two X1.6 class solar flares on 2014 September 10 and October 22, respectively. Both events display double ribbons and Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) slit is fixed on one of their ribbons from the flare onset. The explosive evaporations are detected in these two flares. The coronal line of Fe XXI 1354.09 A shows blue shifts, but chromospheric line of C I 1354.29 A shows red shifts during the impulsive phase. The chromospheric evaporation tends to appear at the front of flare ribbon. Both Fe XXI and C I display their Doppler velocities with a `increase-peak-decrease' pattern which is well related to the `rising-maximum- decay' phase of HXR emissions. Such anti-correlation between HXR emissions and Fe XXI Doppler shifts, and correlation with C I Doppler shifts indicate the electron-driven evaporation in these two flares.

  8. Temperature Dependence of Evaporation Coefficient for Water Measured in Droplets in Nitrogen under Atmospheric Pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atmospheric Pressure D. JAKUBCZYK, M. ZIENTARA, K. KOLWAS, AND M. KOLWAS Institute of Physics, Polish Academy 277 to 289 K was found to be 0.7 0.2. 1. Introduction The processes of evaporation and condensation (condensation) or mass accommodation coefficient C. Likewise the ther- mal conductivity coefficient must

  9. Evaporation from a reservoir with fluctuating water level: Correcting for limited fetch

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katul, Gabriel

    a significant impact on evaporation. Reservoirs with different water content will also differ in energy (heat area within the footprint of the ECS is of a dual nature, comprising the water surface and surrounding the reservoir energy balance closure and the agreement between measurements and models that primar- ily rely

  10. Complementary relationship of evaporation and the mean annual water-energy balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Szilagyi, Jozsef

    Complementary relationship of evaporation and the mean annual water-energy balance Jozsef Szilagyi1 and the mean annual water-energy balance, Water Resour. Res., 45, W09201, doi:10.1029/2009WR008129. [2] Gerrits balance necessarily operates at the catchment scale, plus E0 depends predominantly on the available energy

  11. Large-Eddy Simulation of Evaporating Spray in a Coaxial Combustor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahesh, Krishnan

    Large-Eddy Simulation of Evaporating Spray in a Coaxial Combustor Sourabh V. Apte School of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 Krishnan Mahesh Department of Aerospace Engineering and Mechanics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455

  12. Impact of Antarctic Ozone Depletion and Recovery on Southern Hemisphere Precipitation, Evaporation, and Extreme Changes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Son, Seok-Woo

    Impact of Antarctic Ozone Depletion and Recovery on Southern Hemisphere Precipitation, Evaporation) ABSTRACT The possible impact of Antarctic ozone depletion and recovery on Southern Hemisphere (SH) mean- tercomparison Project 3 (CMIP3). By grouping models into four sets, those with and without ozone depletion

  13. The evaporation rate, free energy, and entropy of amorphous water Robin J. Speedy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The evaporation rate, free energy, and entropy of amorphous water at 150 K Robin J. Speedy can be interpreted as giving a measure of their free energy difference, i a G 150 K 1100 100 J of amorphous water (a) and ice (i) near 150 K and suppose that their ratio gives a measure of their free energy

  14. Evaporative Coating of Rb Maser Cells D. F. Phillips, A. Boca and R. L. Walsworth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walsworth, Ronald L.

    Evaporative Coating of Rb Maser Cells D. F. Phillips, A. Boca and R. L. Walsworth June 3, 1999 1. Long polarization times may be obtained by coating the in- ner surface of the bulb containing from a surface coated with tetracon- tane, C40H82, ­ a component of standard paraffin ­ (table 1

  15. Temperature dependence of volatile organic compound evaporative emissions from motor vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Allen

    Temperature dependence of volatile organic compound evaporative emissions from motor vehicles Juli tailpipe sources to motor vehicle volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. Contributions were determined in a highway tunnel were used to define the composition of running vehicle emissions. The chemical mass balance

  16. Large-Eddy Simulation of Evaporatively Driven Entrainment in Cloud-Topped Mixed Layers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

    Large-Eddy Simulation of Evaporatively Driven Entrainment in Cloud-Topped Mixed Layers TAKANOBU, Colorado (Manuscript received 1 March 2007, in final form 19 July 2007) ABSTRACT Cloud-top entrainment instability (CTEI) is a hypothesized positive feedback between cloud-top entrain- ment and enhanced turbulence

  17. A Simple Analytical Model of Evaporation in the Presence of Roots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cesare M. Cejas; Larry Hough; Jean-Christophe Castaing; Christian Fretigny; Remi Dreyfus

    2014-06-17

    Root systems can influence the dynamics of evapotranspiration of water out of a porous medium. The coupling of evapotranspiration remains a key aspect affecting overall root behavior. Predicting the evapotranspiration curve in the presence of roots helps keep track of the amount of water that remains in the porous medium. Using a controlled visual set-up of a 2D model soil system consisting of monodisperse glass beads, we first perform experiments on actual roots grown in partially saturated systems under different relative humidity conditions. We record parameters such as the total mass loss in the medium and the resulting position of the receding fronts and use these experimental results to develop a simple analytical model that predicts the position of the evaporating front as a function of time as well as the total amount of water that is lost from the medium due to the combined effects of evaporation and transpiration. The model is based on fundamental principles of evaporation flux and includes empirical assumptions on the quantity of stoma in the leaves and the transition time between regime 1 and regime 2. The model also underscores the importance of a much prolonged root life as long as the root is exposed to a partially saturated zone composed of a mixture of air and water. Comparison between the model and experimental results shows good prediction of the position of the evaporating front as well as the total mass loss from evapotranspiration in the presence of real root systems. These results provide additional understanding of both complex evaporation phenomenon and its influence on root mechanisms.

  18. BLACK HOLE FORAGING: FEEDBACK DRIVES FEEDING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dehnen, Walter; King, Andrew, E-mail: wd11@leicester.ac.uk, E-mail: ark@astro.le.ac.uk [Theoretical Astrophysics Group, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)] [Theoretical Astrophysics Group, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2013-11-10

    We suggest a new picture of supermassive black hole (SMBH) growth in galaxy centers. Momentum-driven feedback from an accreting hole gives significant orbital energy, but little angular momentum to the surrounding gas. Once central accretion drops, the feedback weakens and swept-up gas falls back toward the SMBH on near-parabolic orbits. These intersect near the black hole with partially opposed specific angular momenta, causing further infall and ultimately the formation of a small-scale accretion disk. The feeding rates into the disk typically exceed Eddington by factors of a few, growing the hole on the Salpeter timescale and stimulating further feedback. Natural consequences of this picture include (1) the formation and maintenance of a roughly toroidal distribution of obscuring matter near the hole; (2) random orientations of successive accretion disk episodes; (3) the possibility of rapid SMBH growth; (4) tidal disruption of stars and close binaries formed from infalling gas, resulting in visible flares and ejection of hypervelocity stars; (5) super-solar abundances of the matter accreting on to the SMBH; and (6) a lower central dark-matter density, and hence annihilation signal, than adiabatic SMBH growth implies. We also suggest a simple subgrid recipe for implementing this process in numerical simulations.

  19. Apparatus for feeding an MTG conversion reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mao, C.H.; Schreiner, M. Jr.

    1989-05-02

    A continuous system is described comprising: first distillation means; second distillation means; pressurized chemical reactor means containing dehydration catalyst; methanol-to-gasoline conversion reactor means containing conversion catalyst; means for passing a crude methanol feed containing a minor amount of water to an upper stage of the first distillation means; means for maintaining the first distillation means at a pressure at least equal to the pressure of the pressurized chemical reactor means; means for withdrawing dehydration product from pressurized chemical reactor means; means for adding dehydration product to an intermediate stage of the first distillation means; means for withdrawing from first distillation means a first overhead stream comprising essentially water-free dimethylether; means for withdrawing from first distillation means a first bottoms stream containing aqueous methanol; means for passing the dimethylether-containing first overhead stream from the first distillation means to methanol-to-gasoline conversion reactor means; means for passing the first bottoms stream containing aqueous methanol from the first distillation means to the second distillation means; means for withdrawing from second distillation means a second overhead stream comprising methanol; means for withdrawing from second distillation means a second bottoms stream comprising water; means for passing the second overhead methanol stream to pressurized chemical reactor means; and means for recycling the dehydration product to an intermediate stage of the first distillation means.

  20. In vitro gas production provides effective method for assessing ruminant feeds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Getachew, Girma; DePeters, Edward J.; Robinson, Peter H.

    2004-01-01

    in numerous experiments. Ani- mal experiments will continuevalue of ruminant feeds. Ani- mal Feed Sci Technol 102:169–value, or energy content, of an ani- mal feed is determined

  1. Mid-Infrared Observations of Methanol Masers and Massive Star Forming Regions A. J. Walsh 1;2 , F. Bertoldi 1 , M. G. Burton 2 and T. Nikola 2;3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burton, Michael

    Mid-Infrared Observations of Methanol Masers and Massive Star Forming Regions A. J. Walsh 1;2 , F methanol masers and massive star forma- tion, Walsh et al. (1997, MNRAS, 291, 261; 1998 MNRAS, 301, 640; 1999, MNRAS, in preparation) surveyed 276 IRAS sources for 6.7 GHz methanol maser and 6.7 GHz and 8

  2. The Texas- Oklahoma Cattle Feeding Industry: Structure and Operational Characteristics. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dietrich, Raymond A.

    1968-01-01

    and Mississippi were not published until 1960. Source: Cattle on Feed, U.S. Dept. Agri., Crop. Rpt. Bd., Stat. Rptg. Serv., Selected issues. :ABLE 3. SIZE AND CAPACITY OF TEXAS CATTLE FEEDLOTS, JANU- ARY 1, 1955-68 1,000 head or more Less than 1,000 heod... Total Total Yeor Feedlots capacity Feedlots capacity 1.000 1,000 Number head Ncrmber head 'Estimated by authorities in the livestock and cattle feeding industry. Source: Texas Cattle on Feed, U.S. Dept. Agr., Crop Rpt. Bd., Stat. Rptg. Sew...

  3. Corn fiber hulls as a food additive or animal feed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbas, Charles (Champaign, IL); Beery, Kyle E. (Decatur, IN); Cecava, Michael J. (Decatur, IN); Doane, Perry H. (Decatur, IN)

    2010-12-21

    The present invention provides a novel animal feed or food additive that may be made from thermochemically hydrolyzed, solvent-extracted corn fiber hulls. The animal feed or food additive may be made, for instance, by thermochemically treating corn fiber hulls to hydrolyze and solubilize the hemicellulose and starch present in the corn fiber hulls to oligosaccharides. The residue may be extracted with a solvent to separate the oil from the corn fiber, leaving a solid residue that may be prepared, for instance by aggolmerating, and sold as a food additive or an animal feed.

  4. Salinity controls on trophic interactions among invertebrates and algae of solar evaporation ponds in the Mojave Desert and relation to shorebird foraging and selenium risk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herbst, David B

    2006-01-01

    arti?cial salt evaporation ponds of the San Fran- cisco Bayindustrial evaporation ponds. Water Environment Research 71:Hydrobiology of the Alviso salt ponds. Ecol- ogy 38:382–385.

  5. Functional anatomy and feeding biomechanics of a giant Upper Jurassic pliosaur (Reptilia: Sauropterygia)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benton, Michael

    Functional anatomy and feeding biomechanics of a giant Upper Jurassic pliosaur (Reptilia and feeding biomechanics are poorly understood. A new, well-preserved pliosaur from the Kimmeridgian

  6. Qualitative Reasoning Feeding Back into Quantitative Model-Based Tracking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebel, Bernhard

    Qualitative Reasoning Feeding Back into Quantitative Model-Based Tracking Christian K¨ohler, 1- bilize basic signal processing and pattern recognition processes like the reliable extraction of some

  7. Qualitative Reasoning Feeding Back into Quantitative ModelBased Tracking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebel, Bernhard

    Qualitative Reasoning Feeding Back into Quantitative Model­Based Tracking Christian KË? ohler, 1­ bilize basic signal processing and pattern recognition processes like the reliable extraction of some

  8. Time phased alternate blending of feed coals for liquefaction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schweigharett, Frank (Allentown, PA); Hoover, David S. (New Tripoli, PA); Garg, Diwaker (Macungie, PA)

    1985-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method for reducing process performance excursions during feed coal or process solvent changeover in a coal hydroliquefaction process by blending of feedstocks or solvents over time. ,

  9. Reducing stress in sheep by feeding the seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Archer, Gregory Scott

    2005-11-01

    in poultry during heat stress (Belay et al., 1992). Increased feed intake and growth has been seen in prawns fed diets containing beatine (Felix and Sudharsan, 2004). Ducks fed diets containing betaine also exhibited increased growth and improved carcass...

  10. THERMAL ANALYSIS OF WASTE GLASS MELTER FEEDS Pavel Hrma,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    THERMAL ANALYSIS OF WASTE GLASS MELTER FEEDS Pavel Hrma, 1,2 David A. Pierce, 2 Richard Pokorn 3 1 Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, Pohang University of Science and...

  11. THERMAL ANALYSIS OF WASTE GLASS MELTER FEED Pavel Hrma,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    THERMAL ANALYSIS OF WASTE GLASS MELTER FEED Pavel Hrma, (a,b) David A. Pierce, (b) Richard Pokorn (b,c) (a) Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, Pohang University of Science...

  12. NNSA Production Office more than doubles Feds Feed Families campaign...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Posted: October 14, 2015 - 11:16am NPO employees are shown making a bulk purchase of food from employee donations to the Feds Feed Families campaign. This food went to the...

  13. NNSA Production Office tops Feds Feed Families campaign goal...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nuclear Security Administration Production Office have donated 17,348 pounds of food as part of the annual U.S. Department of Energy's "Feds Feed Families" campaign. The...

  14. PSEG Long Island- Solar Initiative Feed-in Tariff

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The PSEG Long Island Feed-in Tariff II (FIT II) program provides fixed payments for electricity produced by approved photovoltaic systems over a fixed period of time. The program operates under a...

  15. Fan and Pad Greenhouse Evaporative Cooling Systems1 R. A. Bucklin, J. D. Leary, D. B. McConnell, and E. G. Wilkerson2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Jeffrey E.

    CIR1135 Fan and Pad Greenhouse Evaporative Cooling Systems1 R. A. Bucklin, J. D. Leary, D. B. Mc systems. Such high temperatures reduce crop quality and worker productivity. Evaporative cooling temperatures are important when dealing with evaporative cooling systems ­ dry bulb temperature and wet bulb

  16. THE FEEDING HABITS OF THE GREEN CRAB, CARC/NUS MAENAS (L.) BY JOHN W. ROPES, Fishery Biologist

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    digging and feeding. Accessory organs other than eyes aid in directing it to food. Feeding is influenced and presumably feeding as well. Low salinities, however, apparently did not affect feeding. Because female crabs

  17. Commercial Feeding Stuffs, September 1, 1931 to August 31, 1932. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuller, F. D. (Frederick Driggs); Sullivan, James

    1932-01-01

    table and the digestible protein and the productive energy of the feeds are given. A table is given showing the average protein content of the cottonseed products made by each oil mill so that the reader can see which mills maintain the guaranties... -_----------___------------------.---------------------------------------.--------.c------ 21 Miscellaneous Products 22 Tentative Definitions ___-_.._----_-.----------------------------.-------------...-.-. 23 Fish Oils 223 Marine Products 23 Milk Products 24 Miscellaneous Products 24 Mineral Feeds...

  18. Annual Report of the Feed Control Service, 1952-53. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holleman, M. P.; Brock, F. D.

    1953-01-01

    protein. fat. 1 percent percent 1 Minimum Maximum nitroaen- e I free percent edrart, SPECIAL-PURPOSE FORMULA FEEDS. Grain sorghum gluten meal ................. Grain sorghum meal ....................... Grain sorghum head stems... protein, minimum percentage of crude fat, mimimum percentage of nitrogen-free extract, maxi- mum percentage of crude fiber, names of ingredients of a mixed feed, percentage of each ingredient when adulterants are present, and the percentage of each...

  19. Morphometry and feeding habits of two ommastrephid squid 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolff, Gary Arthur

    1977-01-01

    MORPHOMETRY AND FEEDING HABITS OF TWO OFKASTREPHID SQUID A Thesis by GARY ARTHUR WOLFF Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1977... Major Subject: Oceanography NORPHO~ifETRY AND FEEDING HABITS OF TWO OM'IASTREPHID SQUID A Thesis by GARY ARTHUR WOEFF Approved as to style and content by: rkfk ( (Chairman of Committee) (Head of Departme ' '(rremb er ) (Nember August 1977...

  20. The influence of feed/cattle price relationships on the optimum cattle feeding systems and on the optimum location of feeding in Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Eddy Joe

    1971-01-01

    on feed, a wide variety of systems with different rates of gain and conversion ratios were selected, The ob]ectives of the study were to determine (1) the competitive advantage of feeding cattle in each area, (2) the optimum location of each cattle...- ations of this model were used to (1) measure the effect of consider- ing only variable costs in selecting among alternative systems and areas; and (2) measure the effect of a change in the operating capital restriction. Selected combinations of milo...

  1. Co-Evaporated Cu2ZnSnSe4 Films and Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Repins, I.; Beall, C.; Vora, N.; DeHart, C.; Kuciauskas, D.; Dippo, P.; To, B.; Mann, J.; Hsu, W. C.; Goodrich, A.; Noufi, R.

    2012-06-01

    The use of vacuum co-evaporation to produce Cu2ZnSnSe4 photovoltaic devices with 9.15% total-area efficiency is described. These new results suggest that the early success of the atmospheric techniques for kesterite photovoltaics may be related to the ease with which one can control film composition and volatile phases, rather than a fundamental benefit of atmospheric conditions for film properties. The co-evaporation growth recipe is documented, as is the motivation for various features of the recipe. Characteristics of the resulting kesterite films and devices are shown in scanning electron micrographs, including photoluminescence, current-voltage, and quantum efficiency. Current-voltage curves demonstrate low series resistance without the light-dark cross-over seen in many devices in the literature. Band gap indicated by quantum efficiency and photoluminescence is roughly consistent with that expected from first principles calculation.

  2. Green Data Center Cooling: Achieving 90% Reduction: Airside Economization and Unique Indirect Evaporative Cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weerts, B. A.; Gallaher, D.; Weaver, R.; Van Geet, O.

    2012-01-01

    The Green Data Center Project was a successful effort to significantly reduce the energy use of the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC). Through a full retrofit of a traditional air conditioning system, the cooling energy required to meet the data center's constant load has been reduced by over 70% for summer months and over 90% for cooler winter months. This significant change is achievable through the use of airside economization and a new indirect evaporative cooling system. One of the goals of this project was to create awareness of simple and effective energy reduction strategies for data centers. This project's geographic location allowed maximizing the positive effects of airside economization and indirect evaporative cooling, but these strategies may also be relevant for many other sites and data centers in the U.S.

  3. Dependence of fluid flows in an evaporating sessile droplet on the characteristics of the substrate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barash, L Yu

    2014-01-01

    Temperature distributions and the corresponding vortex structures in an evaporating sessile droplet are obtained by performing detailed numerical calculations. A Marangoni convection induced by thermal conduction processes in the drop and the substrate is demonstrated to be able to result not only in a single vortex, but also in two or three vortices, depending on the ratio of substrate to fluid thermal conductivities, on the substrate thickness and the contact angle. The "phase diagrams" containing information on the number, orientation and spatial location of the vortices for quasistationary fluid flows are presented and analysed. The results obtained demonstrate that the fluid flow structure in evaporating droplets can be influenced in a controlled manner by selecting substrates with appropriate properties.

  4. An evaporation-based model of thermal neutron induced ternary fission of plutonium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lestone, J P

    2007-01-01

    Ternary fission probabilities for thermal neutron induced fission of plutonium are analyzed within the framework of an evaporation-based model where the complexity of time-varying potentials, associated with the neck collapse, are included in a simplistic fashion. If the nuclear temperature at scission and the fission-neck-collapse time are assumed to be ~1.2 MeV and ~10^-22 s, respectively, then calculated relative probabilities of ternary-fission light-charged-particle emission follow the trends seen in the experimental data. The ability of this model to reproduce ternary fission probabilities spanning seven orders of magnitude for a wide range of light-particle charges and masses implies that ternary fission is caused by the coupling of an evaporation-like process with the rapid re-arrangement of the nuclear fluid following scission.

  5. An evaporation-based model of thermal neutron induced ternary fission of plutonium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. P. Lestone

    2007-03-10

    Ternary fission probabilities for thermal neutron induced fission of plutonium are analyzed within the framework of an evaporation-based model where the complexity of time-varying potentials, associated with the neck collapse, are included in a simplistic fashion. If the nuclear temperature at scission and the fission-neck-collapse time are assumed to be ~1.2 MeV and ~10^-22 s, respectively, then calculated relative probabilities of ternary-fission light-charged-particle emission follow the trends seen in the experimental data. The ability of this model to reproduce ternary fission probabilities spanning seven orders of magnitude for a wide range of light-particle charges and masses implies that ternary fission is caused by the coupling of an evaporation-like process with the rapid re-arrangement of the nuclear fluid following scission.

  6. Fabrication and characterization of silver- and copper-coated Nylon 6 forcespun nanofibers by thermal evaporation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mihut, Dorina M., E-mail: dorinamm@yahoo.com; Lozano, Karen [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Texas Pan American, 1201 W University Drive, Edinburg, Texas 78539 (United States); Foltz, Heinrich [Department of Electrical Engineering, The University of Texas Pan American, 1201 W University Drive, Edinburg, Texas 78539 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Silver and copper nanoparticles were deposited as thin films onto substrates consisting of Nylon 6 nanofibers manufactured using forcespinning{sup ®} equipment. Different rotational speeds were used to obtain continuous nanofibers of various diameters arranged as nonwoven mats. The Nylon 6 nanofibers were collected as successive layers on frames, and a high-vacuum thermal evaporation method was used to deposit the silver and copper thin films on the nanofibers. The structures were investigated using scanning electron microscopy–scanning transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and electrical resistance measurements. The results indicate that evaporated silver and copper nanoparticles were successfully deposited on Nylon 6 nanofibers as thin films that adhered well to the polymer substrate while the native morphology of the nanofibers were preserved, and electrically conductive nanostructures were achieved.

  7. A study of heat pump fin staged evaporators under frosting conditions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Jianxin

    2004-09-30

    process. Comparisons with the test data indicated that the model could capture the trends iv of the coil capacity, pressure drop, airflow and frost growth. The model also provided a variety of other simulation results including frost mass accumulation... during high airflow at DOE A steady state cooling test condition ??????????? 101 5.1 Flow chart of frosted evaporator model ???????????.??..??. 108 5.2 Tube calculation sequence for two-row coils ?????..???.??.??? 109 5.3 Tube calculation sequence...

  8. Procedure for Applying an Open-Cycle Heat Pump to An Existing Evaporator 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagner, J. R.; Brush, F. C.

    1984-01-01

    that this retrofit project would be adopted, since 8 c 0 ?a E ::J . 'C ::J 0 r Electr\\Cil'i = 3? I kWh 6 5 Assumptions: ? MVC Handles Entire Heat Load ? MVC... Product (To Siorage or to Additional Effects) Steam Vapor Condensate Condensate 841073 Fig. 2(a). Multiple Effect Evaporator product liquor to assure adequate heat transfer 1n the heat exchanger. If not known, a value of TA = lOaF can...

  9. Retardation of Particle Evaporation from Excited Nuclear Systems Due to Thermal Expansion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Tõke; L. Pie?kowski; M. Houck; W. U. Schröder; L. G. Sobotka

    2005-07-26

    Particle evaporation rates from excited nuclear systems at equilibrium matter density are studied within the Harmonic-Interaction Fermi Gas Model (HIFGM) combined with Weisskopf's detailed balance approach. It is found that thermal expansion of a hot nucleus, as described quantitatively by HIFGM, leads to a significant retardation of particle emission, greatly extending the validity of Weisskopf's approach. The decay of such highly excited nuclei is strongly influenced by surface instabilities.

  10. Characterization Results For The 2013 HTF 3H Evaporator Overhead Samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Washington, A. L. II

    2013-12-04

    This report tabulates the radiochemical analysis of the 3H evaporator overhead sample for {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, and {sup 129}I to meet the requirements in the Effluent Treatment Project (ETP) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) (rev. 6). This report identifies the sample receipt date, preparation method, and analysis performed in the accumulation of the listed values. All data was found to be within the ETP WAC (rev. 6) specification for the Waste Water Collection Tanks (WWCT).

  11. Process control plan for 242-A Evaporator Campaign 94-2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Le, E.Q.

    1994-09-01

    242-A Evaporator Campaign 94-2 will process approximately 3.42 million gallons of dilute waste from tanks 101-AP, 107-AP, 108AP, 102-AW, and 106-AW. The process control plant describes activities which will occur during Campaign 94-2. This document also addresses compliance with the tank farm waste compatibility program, the 242-A radiological source term, the criticality prevention specifications, and effluent discharge limits.

  12. Effect of Chemical Composition on Enthalpy of Evaporation and Equilibrium Vapor Pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dobruskin, Vladimir Kh

    2010-01-01

    Proceeding from the Clausius-Clapeyron equation, the relation is derived that establishes a correlation between the partial enthalpy of evaporation from binary solutions, concentrations of components, and equilibrium vapor pressures. The difference between enthalpies of evaporation of components from solutions and those from the pure liquids, D(DH), depends on the chemical nature and concentrations, X, of solutions. The effect of concentrations on D(DH) makes different appearances in ideal and non-ideal solutions, although, as a whole, D(DH) increases with the growth of concentration of the second component. A model is introduced, which considers D(DH) as the sum of energetic changes of three sequential stages: passage of molecules from the bulk liquid into the surface layer, exit of the molecules on the outer side of the interface, and the following desorption into the gas phase. In the framework of the model, the main contribution to enthalpy of evaporation comes from the processes in the surface layer. It ...

  13. Effect of Chemical Composition on Enthalpy of Evaporation and Equilibrium Vapor Pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vladimir Kh. Dobruskin

    2010-04-20

    Proceeding from the Clausius-Clapeyron equation, the relation is derived that establishes a correlation between the partial enthalpy of evaporation from binary solutions, concentrations of components, and equilibrium vapor pressures. The difference between enthalpies of evaporation of components from solutions and those from the pure liquids, D(DH), depends on the chemical nature and concentrations, X, of solutions. The effect of concentrations on D(DH) makes different appearances in ideal and non-ideal solutions, although, as a whole, D(DH) increases with the growth of concentration of the second component. A model is introduced, which considers D(DH) as the sum of energetic changes of three sequential stages: passage of molecules from the bulk liquid into the surface layer, exit of the molecules on the outer side of the interface, and the following desorption into the gas phase. In the framework of the model, the main contribution to enthalpy of evaporation comes from the processes in the surface layer. It is suggested that adsorption from solutions, which changes the chemical composition of the surface layer with respect to that of the bulk solution, determines, to great extent, the difference in the forms of the curves D(DH)=f(X) for ideal and non-ideal solutions.

  14. Charged particle decay of hot and rotating $^{88}$Mo nuclei in fusion-evaporation reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Valdré; S. Piantelli; G. Casini; S. Barlini; S. Carboni; M. Ciema?a; M. Kmiecik; A. Maj; K. Mazurek; M. Cinausero; F. Gramegna; V. L. Kravchuk; L. Morelli; T. Marchi; G. Baiocco; L. Bardelli; P. Bednarczyk; G. Benzoni; M. Bini; N. Blasi; A. Bracco; S. Brambilla; M. Bruno; F. Camera; A. Chbihi; A. Corsi; F. C. L. Crespi; M. D'Agostino; M. Degerlier; D. Fabris; B. Fornal; A. Giaz; M. Krzysiek; S. Leoni; M. Matejska-Minda; I. Mazumdar; W. M?czy?ski; B. Million; D. Montanari; S. Myalski; R. Nicolini; A. Olmi; G. Pasquali; G. Prete; O. J. Roberts; J. Stycze?; B. Szpak; B. Wasilewska; O. Wieland; J. P. Wieleczko; M. Zi?bli?ski

    2015-09-10

    A study of fusion-evaporation and (partly) fusion-fission channels for the $^{88}$Mo compound nucleus, produced at different excitation energies in the reaction $^{48}$Ti + $^{40}$Ca at 300, 450 and 600 MeV beam energies, is presented. Fusion-evaporation and fusion-fission cross sections have been extracted and compared with the existing systematics. Experimental data concerning light charged particles have been compared with the prediction of the statistical model in its implementation in the Gemini++ code, well suited even for high spin systems, in order to tune the main model parameters in a mass region not abundantly covered by exclusive experimental data. Multiplicities for light charged particles emitted in fusion evaporation events are also presented. Some discrepancies with respect to the prediction of the statistical model have been found for forward emitted $\\alpha$-particles; they may be due both to pre-equilibrium emission and to reaction channels (such as Deep Inelastic Collisions, QuasiFission/QuasiFusion) different from the compound nucleus formation.

  15. Evaporation system and method for gas jet deposition of thin film materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmitt, J.J.; Halpern, B.L.

    1994-10-18

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for depositing thin films of materials such as metals, oxides and nitrides at low temperature relies on a supersonic free jet of inert carrier gas to transport vapor species generated from an evaporation source to the surface of a substrate. Film deposition vapors are generated from solid film precursor materials, including those in the form of wires or powders. The vapor from these sources is carried downstream in a low pressure supersonic jet of inert gas to the surface of a substrate where the vapors deposit to form a thin film. A reactant gas can be introduced into the gas jet to form a reaction product with the evaporated material. The substrate can be moved from the gas jet past a gas jet containing a reactant gas in which a discharge has been generated, the speed of movement being sufficient to form a thin film which is chemically composed of the evaporated material and reactant gases. 8 figs.

  16. Evaporation of Microscopic Black Holes in String Theory and the Bound on Species

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dvali, Gia; 10.1002/prop.201000008

    2010-01-01

    We address the question how string compactifications with D-branes are consistent with the black hole bound, which arises in any theory with number of particle species to which the black holes can evaporate. For the Kaluza-Klein particles, both longitudinal and transversal to the D-branes, it is relatively easy to see that the black hole bound is saturated, and the geometric relations can be understood in the language of species-counting. We next address the question of the black hole evaporation into the higher string states and discover, that contrary to the naive intuition, the exponentially growing number of Regge states does not preclude the existence of semi-classical black holes of sub-stringy size. Our analysis indicates that the effective number of string resonances to which such micro black holes evaporate is not exponentially large but is bounded by N = 1/g_s^2, which suggests the interpretation of the well-known relation between the Planck and string scales as the saturation of the black hole boun...

  17. A simple model of chromospheric evaporation and condensation driven conductively in a solar flare

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Longcope, D. W.

    2014-11-01

    Magnetic energy released in the corona by solar flares reaches the chromosphere where it drives characteristic upflows and downflows known as evaporation and condensation. These flows are studied here for the case where energy is transported to the chromosphere by thermal conduction. An analytic model is used to develop relations by which the density and velocity of each flow can be predicted from coronal parameters including the flare's energy flux F. These relations are explored and refined using a series of numerical investigations in which the transition region (TR) is represented by a simplified density jump. The maximum evaporation velocity, for example, is well approximated by v{sub e} ? 0.38(F/?{sub co,} {sub 0}){sup 1/3}, where ?{sub co,} {sub 0} is the mass density of the pre-flare corona. This and the other relations are found to fit simulations using more realistic models of the TR both performed in this work, and taken from a variety of previously published investigations. These relations offer a novel and efficient means of simulating coronal reconnection without neglecting entirely the effects of evaporation.

  18. Evaluation of defatted and whole algae as feed ingredients for the marine shrimp, litopenaeus vannamei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgan, J. L.; Patnaik, S.; Gatlin, III, D. M.; Lawrence, A. L.

    2012-06-13

    Evaluation of defatted and whole algae as feed ingredients for the marine shrimp, litopenaeus vannamei

  19. Evaluation of thermal evaporation conditions used in coating aluminum on near-field fiber-optic probes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hollars, Christopher W.; Dunn, Robert C.

    1998-01-01

    The effects that the thermal evaporation conditions have on the roughness of aluminum-coated near-field fiber-optic probes were investigated using the high-resolution capabilities of atomic force microscopy. The coating ...

  20. Monitoring the Performance of a Residential Central Air Conditioner under Reduced Evaporator Air Flow on a Test Bench 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palani, Manivannan

    1992-01-01

    This report presents results from degraded performance measurements of a residential air conditioning system operating under reduced evaporator air flow. Experiments were conducted using a R-22 three-ton split-type cooling system with a short...

  1. The design and evaluation of a water delivery system for evaporative cooling of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Asad, Dawood Khaled Abdullah

    2009-06-02

    An investigation was performed to demonstrate system design for the delivery of water required for evaporative cooling of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The water delivery system uses spray nozzles capable of injecting water directly...

  2. Establishing feasibility for providing passive cooling with solar updraft and evaporative downdraft chimneys. Progress report, March 1985--September 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cunningham, W.A.; Migon, G.V.

    1985-12-31

    The solar updraft and a natural evaporative downdraft tower built onto an existing residence structure and a greenhouse were completed and operating. Performance data for the hottest days of June, July, and August, 1985 are included. (MHR)

  3. Spatially resolved temperature and heat flux measurements for slow evaporating droplets heated by a microfabricated heater array 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paik, Sokwon

    2006-08-16

    The evaporation phenomenon of a liquid droplet was investigated by using microfabricated heaters. All 32 microheaters were designed to have the same resistance. Gold microheaters worked both as temperature indicators and as heaters. The first...

  4. Tank Farms and Waste Feed Delivery - 12507

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fletcher, Thomas; Charboneau, Stacy; Olds, Erik [US DOE (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The mission of the Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (ORP) is to safely retrieve and treat the 56 million gallons of Hanford's tank waste and close the Tank Farms to protect the Columbia River. Our discussion of the Tank Farms and Waste Feed Delivery will cover progress made to date with Base and Recovery Act funding in reducing the risk posed by tank waste and in preparing for the initiation of waste treatment at Hanford. The millions of gallons of waste are a by-product of decades of plutonium production. After irradiated fuel rods were taken from the nuclear reactors to the processing facilities at Hanford they were exposed to a series of chemicals designed to dissolve away the rod, which enabled workers to retrieve the plutonium. Once those chemicals were exposed to the fuel rods they became radioactive and extremely hot. They also couldn't be used in this process more than once. Because the chemicals are caustic and extremely hazardous to humans and the environment, underground storage tanks were built to hold these chemicals until a more permanent solution could be found. The underground storage tanks range in capacity from 55,000 gallons to more than 1 million gallons. The tanks were constructed with carbon steel and reinforced concrete. There are eighteen groups of tanks, called 'tank farms', some having as few as two tanks and others up to sixteen tanks. Between 1943 and 1964, 149 single-shell tanks were built at Hanford in the 200 West and East Areas. Heat generated by the waste and the composition of the waste caused an estimated 67 of these single-shell tanks to leak into the ground. Washington River Protection Solutions is the prime contractor responsible for the safe management of this waste. WRPS' mission is to reduce the risk to the environment that is posed by the waste. All of the pumpable liquids have been removed from the single-shell tanks and transferred to the double-shell tanks. What remains in the single-shell tanks are solid and semi-solid wastes. Known as salt-cakes, they have the consistency of wet beach sand. Some of the waste resembles small broken ice, or whitish crystals. Because the original pumps inside the tanks were designed to remove only liquid waste, other methods have been developed to reach the remaining waste. Access to the tank waste is through long, typically skinny pipes, called risers, extending out of the tanks. It is through these pipes that crews are forced to send machines and devices into the tanks that are used to break up the waste or push it toward a pump. These pipes range in size from just a few inches to just over a foot in diameter because they were never intended to be used in this manner. As part of the agreement regulating Hanford cleanup, crews must remove at least 99% of the material in every tank on the site, or at least as much waste that can be removed based on available technology. To date, seven single-shell tanks have been emptied, and work is underway in another 10 tanks in preparation for additional retrieval activities. Two barriers have been installed over single-shell tanks to prevent the intrusion of surface water down to the tanks, with additional barriers planned for the future. Single and double-shell tank integrity analyses are ongoing. Because the volume of the waste generated through plutonium production exceeded the capacity of the single-shell tanks, between 1968 and 1986 Hanford engineers built 28 double-shell tanks. These tanks were studied and made with a second shell to surround the carbon steel and reinforced concrete. The double-shell tanks have not leaked any of their waste. (authors)

  5. Effects of system cycling, evaporator airflow, and condenser coil fouling on the performance of residential split-system air conditioners 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dooley, Jeffrey Brandon

    2005-02-17

    -1 EFFECTS OF SYSTEM CYCLING, EVAPORATOR AIRFLOW, AND CONDENSER COIL FOULING ON THE PERFORMANCE OF RESIDENTIAL SPLIT-SYSTEM AIR CONDITIONERS A Thesis by JEFFREY BRANDON DOOLEY Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas... A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2004 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering EFFECTS OF SYSTEM CYCLING, EVAPORATOR AIRFLOW, AND CONDENSER...

  6. Preliminary evaluation of the performance, water use, and current application trends of evaporative coolers in California climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Y.J.; Hanford, J.W.; Wu, H.F.

    1992-09-01

    This paper describes the latest results of an ongoing analysis investigating the potential for evaporative cooling as an energy-efficient alternative to standard air-conditioning in California residences. In particular, the study uses detailed numerical models of evaporative coolers linked with the DOE-2 building energy simulation program to study the issues of indoor comfort, energy and peak demand savings with and without supplemental air-conditioning and consumptive water use. In addition, limited surveys are used to assess the current market availability of evaporative cooling in California, typical contractor practices and costs, and general acceptance of the technology among engineers, contractors, and manufacturers. The results show that evaporative coolers can provide significant energy and peak demand savings in California residences, but the impact of the increased indoor humidity on human comfort remains an unanswered question that requires further research and clarification. Evaluated against ASHRAE comfort standards developed primarily for air-conditioning both direct and two-stage evaporative coolers would not maintain comfort at peak cooling conditions due to excessive humidity. However, using bioclimatic charts that place human comfort at the 80% relative humidity line, the study suggests that direct evaporative coolers will work in mild coastal climates, while two-stage models should provide adequate comfort in Title 24 houses throughout California, except in the Imperial Valley. The study also shows that evaporative coolers will increase household water consumption by less than 6% on an annual basis, and as much as 23% during peak cooling months, and that the increases in water cost are minimal compared to the electricity savings. Lastly, a survey of engineers and contractors revealed generally positive experiences with evaporative coolers, with operational cost savings, improved comfort, unproved air quality as the primary benefits in their use.

  7. APPLICATION OF A THIN FILM EVAPORATOR SYSTEM FOR MANAGEMENT OF LIQUID HIGH-LEVEL WASTES AT HANFORD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    TEDESCHI AR; WILSON RA

    2010-01-14

    A modular, transportable evaporator system, using thin film evaporative technology, is planned for deployment at the Hanford radioactive waste storage tank complex. This technology, herein referred to as a wiped film evaporator (WFE), will be located at grade level above an underground storage tank to receive pumped liquids, concentrate the liquid stream from 1.1 specific gravity to approximately 1.4 and then return the concentrated solution back into the tank. Water is removed by evaporation at an internal heated drum surface exposed to high vacuum. The condensed water stream will be shipped to the site effluent treatment facility for final disposal. This operation provides significant risk mitigation to failure of the aging 242-A Evaporator facility; the only operating evaporative system at Hanford maximizing waste storage. This technology is being implemented through a development and deployment project by the tank farm operating contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), for the Office of River Protection/Department of Energy (ORP/DOE), through Columbia Energy & Environmental Services, Inc. (Columbia Energy). The project will finalize technology maturity and install a system at one of the double-shell tank farms. This paper discusses results of pre-project pilot-scale testing by Columbia Energy and ongoing technology maturation development scope through fiscal year 2012, including planned additional pilot-scale and full-scale simulant testing and operation with actual radioactive tank waste.

  8. Low-head feeding system for thin section castings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daniel, Sabah S. (Allegheny County, PA); Kleeb, Thomas R. (Allegheny County, PA); Lewis, Thomas W. (Allegheny County, PA); McDermott, John F. (Allegheny County, PA); Ozgu, Mustafa R. (Northhampton County, PA); Padfield, Ralph C. (Lehigh County, PA); Rego, Donovan N. (Lehigh County, PA); Vassilicos, Achilles (Allegheny County, PA)

    1990-01-01

    A feed system is provided for conveying molten metal to a thin section caster having mold surfaces moving exclusively in the direction of casting. The feed system has a passage of circular cross section adjacent to one end thereof for receiving molten metal and a rectangular cross section at the delivery end thereof adjacent to the caster. The feed system is designed for supplying molten metal to the caster at low pressure for "closed-pool" type caster operation. The point of highest elevation in the metal flow passage of the feed system is on the upper surface of a transition portion where the cross section changes from circular to rectangular adjacent to the nozzle. The level or height of the high point above the centerline of the nozzle exit is selected so as to be less than the pressure of the metal measured in inches at the nozzle exit. This feature enables the maintenance of positive pressure in the metal within the feed system so that ingress of air into the metal is prevented.

  9. Feed gas contaminant control in ion transport membrane systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carolan, Michael Francis (Allentown, PA); Minford, Eric (Laurys Station, PA); Waldron, William Emil (Whitehall, PA)

    2009-07-07

    Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising an enclosure having an interior and an interior surface, inlet piping having an internal surface and adapted to introduce a heated feed gas into the interior of the enclosure, and outlet piping adapted to withdraw a product gas from the interior of the enclosure; one or more planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the enclosure, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide material; and a preheater adapted to heat a feed gas to provide the heated feed gas to the inlet piping, wherein the preheater comprises an interior surface. Any of the interior surfaces of the enclosure, the inlet piping, and the preheater may be lined with a copper-containing metal lining. Alternatively, any of the interior surfaces of the inlet piping and the preheater may be lined with a copper-containing metal lining and the enclosure may comprise copper.

  10. EFFECT OF MELTER-FEED-MAKEUP ON VITRIFICATION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KRUGER AA; HRMA PR; SCHWEIGER MJ; HUMRICKHOUSE CJ; MOODY JA; TATE RM; TEGROTENHUIS NE; ARRIGONI BM; RODRIGUEZ CP

    2009-09-10

    Increasing the rate of glass processing in the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will allow shortening the life cycle of waste cleanup at the Hanford Site. While the WTP melters have approached the limit of increasing the rate of melting by enhancing the heat transfer rate from molten glass to the cold cap, a substantial improvement can still be achieved by accelerating the feed-to-glass conversion kinetics. This study investigates how the feed-to-glass conversion process responds to the feed makeup. By identifying the means of control of primary foam formation and silica grain dissolution, it provides data needed for a meaningful and economical design of large-scale experiments aimed at achieving faster melting.

  11. Statistical Methods and Tools for Hanford Staged Feed Tank Sampling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fountain, Matthew S.; Brigantic, Robert T.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2013-10-01

    This report summarizes work conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to technically evaluate the current approach to staged feed sampling of high-level waste (HLW) sludge to meet waste acceptance criteria (WAC) for transfer from tank farms to the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The current sampling and analysis approach is detailed in the document titled Initial Data Quality Objectives for WTP Feed Acceptance Criteria, 24590-WTP-RPT-MGT-11-014, Revision 0 (Arakali et al. 2011). The goal of this current work is to evaluate and provide recommendations to support a defensible, technical and statistical basis for the staged feed sampling approach that meets WAC data quality objectives (DQOs).

  12. Earth melter and method of disposing of feed materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chapman, C.C.

    1994-10-11

    An apparatus, and method of operating the apparatus is described, wherein a feed material is converted into a glassified condition for subsequent use or disposal. The apparatus is particularly useful for disposal of hazardous or noxious waste materials which are otherwise either difficult or expensive to dispose of. The apparatus is preferably constructed by excavating a melt zone in a quantity of soil or rock, and lining the melt zone with a back fill material if refractory properties are needed. The feed material is fed into the melt zone and, preferably, combusted to an ash, whereupon the heat of combustion is used to melt the ash to a molten condition. Electrodes may be used to maintain the molten feed material in a molten condition, and to maintain homogeneity of the molten materials. 3 figs.

  13. Earth melter and method of disposing of feed materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chapman, Christopher C. (Richland, WA)

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus, and method of operating the apparatus, wherein a feed material is converted into a glassified condition for subsequent use or disposal. The apparatus is particularly useful for disposal of hazardous or noxious waste materials which are otherwise either difficult or expensive to dispose of. The apparatus is preferably constructed by excavating a melt zone in a quantity of soil or rock, and lining the melt zone with a back fill material if refractory properties are needed. The feed material is fed into the melt zone and, preferably, combusted to an ash, whereupon the heat of combustion is used to melt the ash to a molten condition. Electrodes may be used to maintain the molten feed material in a molten condition, and to maintain homogeneity of the molten materials.

  14. The Texas Cattle Feeding Industry - Operations, Management, and Costs. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dietrich, R.A.; Thomas, P.J.; Farris, D.E.

    1985-01-01

    PLACED ON FEED BY SIZE OF FEEDLOT, TEXAS, 1980-81 Less than 2,000 to 2,000 3,999 head head Breed capacity capacity English Breeds and English crosses 78.4 37.3 Brahman and Brahman crosses 19.7 62.7 Holstein and Dairy crosses .2 NR Exotic European... primarily of large scale, highly efficient feeding operations located predominantly in the Panhandle-Plains area where more than 85% of Texas cattle are fed annually. Feedlots with 16,0.0.0. head or more capacity, which accounted for almost 80...

  15. Composition and Productive Energy of Poultry Feeds and Rations. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1946-01-01

    C. H. BIcDOWELL, Acting Director College Station. Texas RITI,I,ETIN NO. 878 FEBRUARY, 1916 ' * 2 ,-: !'. ,-;Y A. & 1% CviLiuc OF TEXAS COMPOSITION ,4ND PRODUCTIVE ENERGY OF POULTRY FEEDS AND RATIONS Ci. S. FRAPS Division of Chemislry 1... AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS GIBB GILCHRIST, President [Blank Page in Original Bulletin] The productive energy values of a number of poultry feeds hare heen measured by means of the gains of protein and fat in grow- ing chickens...

  16. Coal-feeding mechanism for a fluidized bed combustion chamber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gall, Robert L. (Morgantown, WV)

    1981-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a fuel-feeding mechanism for a fluidized bed combustor. In accordance with the present invention a perforated conveyor belt is utilized in place of the fixed grid normally disposed at the lower end of the fluidized bed combustion zone. The conveyor belt is fed with fuel, e.g. coal, at one end thereof so that the air passing through the perforations dislodges the coal from the belt and feeds the coal into the fluidized zone in a substantially uniform manner.

  17. Annual Report of the Feed Control Service, 1954-55. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anonymous

    1955-01-01

    . It is not impossible to obtain results by a process of elimination, but such a process is time-consuming and expensive. T In most cases it is a waste of time and effort: to start an investigation with the analysis of feed, or to depend entirely upon such analysis... of at least 70 percent. (Adopted May 4, 1955.) Following are the results of analyses of eight samples of hydrolized feathers investigated dur- ing the fiscal year. METHOD OF CALCULATING GUARANTIED ANALYSIS OF A FORMULA FEED A satisfactory method...

  18. Gasifier feed: Tailor-made from Illinois coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehrlinger, H.P. III.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop a coal slurry from waste streams using Illinois coal that is ideally suited for a gasification feed. The principle items to be studied are (1) methods of concentrating pyrite and decreasing other ash forming minerals into a high grade gasification feed using froth flotation and gravity separation techniques; (2) chemical and particle size analyses of coal slurries; (3) determination of how that slurry can be densified and to what degree of densification is optimum from the pumpability and combustibility analyses; and (4) reactivity studies.

  19. Seminar 14 - Desiccant Enhanced Air Conditioning: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozubal, E.

    2013-02-01

    This presentation explains how liquid desiccant based coupled with an indirect evaporative cooler can efficiently produce cool, dry air, and how a liquid desiccant membrane air conditioner can efficiently provide cooling and dehumidification without the carryover problems of previous generations of liquid desiccant systems. It provides an overview to a liquid desiccant DX air conditioner that can efficiently provide cooling and dehumidification to high latent loads without the need for reheat, explains how liquid desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems can outperform vapor compression based air conditioning systems in hot and humid climates, explains how liquid desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems work, and describes a refrigerant free liquid desiccant based cooling system.

  20. The Hawking evaporation process of rapidly-rotating black holes: An almost continuous cascade of gravitons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shahar Hod

    2015-06-17

    It is shown that rapidly-rotating Kerr black holes are characterized by the dimensionless ratio $\\tau_{\\text{gap}}/\\tau_{\\text{emission}}=O(1)$, where $\\tau_{\\text{gap}}$ is the average time gap between the emission of successive Hawking quanta and $\\tau_{\\text{emission}}$ is the characteristic timescale required for an individual Hawking quantum to be emitted from the black hole. This relation implies that the Hawking cascade from rapidly-rotating black holes has an almost continuous character. Our results correct some inaccurate claims that recently appeared in the literature regarding the nature of the Hawking black-hole evaporation process.

  1. The Hawking evaporation process of rapidly-rotating black holes: An almost continuous cascade of gravitons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hod, Shahar

    2015-01-01

    It is shown that rapidly-rotating Kerr black holes are characterized by the dimensionless ratio $\\tau_{\\text{gap}}/\\tau_{\\text{emission}}=O(1)$, where $\\tau_{\\text{gap}}$ is the average time gap between the emission of successive Hawking quanta and $\\tau_{\\text{emission}}$ is the characteristic timescale required for an individual Hawking quantum to be emitted from the black hole. This relation implies that the Hawking cascade from rapidly-rotating black holes has an almost continuous character. Our results correct some inaccurate claims that recently appeared in the literature regarding the nature of the Hawking black-hole evaporation process.

  2. Non Evaporable Getter (NEG) Pumps: a Route to UHV-XHV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manini, Paolo [SAES Getters SpA, Viale Italia 77, 20010 Lainate (Italy)

    2009-08-04

    Non Evaporable Getter (NEG) technology has been developed in the 1970's and since then adopted by industry, R and D labs, research centres and in large physics projects like accelerators, synchrotrons and fusion reactors. NEG pumps are very compact and vibration-free devices able to deliver very high pumping with minimal power requirement and electromagnetic interference. In the present paper, main features and performances of getter pumps are reviewed and discussed with a special focus to photocathode gun application, where UHV or XHV conditions are mandatory to ensure adequate gun life. NEG coating and future challenges for NEG technology are also discussed.

  3. Sensitivity of the FERMI Detectors to Gamma-Ray Bursts from Evaporating Primordial Black Holes (PBHs)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. N. Ukwatta; Jane H. MacGibbon; W. C. Parke; K. S. Dhuga; S. Rhodes; A. Eskandarian; N. Gehrels; L. Maximon; D. C. Morris

    2010-03-23

    Primordial Black Holes (PBHs), which may have been created in the early Universe, are predicted to be detectable by their Hawking radiation. The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope observatory offers increased sensitivity to the gamma-ray bursts produced by PBHs with an initial mass of $\\sim 5\\times 10^{14}$ g expiring today. PBHs are candidate progenitors of unidentified Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) that lack X-ray afterglow. We propose spectral lag, which is the temporal delay between the high and low energy pulses, as an efficient method to identify PBH evaporation events with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT).

  4. Imaging the condensation and evaporation of molecularly thin ethanol films with surface forces apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Gutian; Tan, Qiyan; Xiang, Li; Zhang, Di; Ni, Zhonghua E-mail: yunfeichen@seu.edu.cn; Yi, Hong; Chen, Yunfei E-mail: yunfeichen@seu.edu.cn

    2014-01-15

    A new method for imaging condensation and evaporation of molecularly thin ethanol films is reported. It is found that the first adsorbed layer of ethanol film on mica surface behaves as solid like structure that cannot flow freely. With the increase of exposure time, more ethanol molecules condense over the mica surface in the saturated ethanol vapor condition. The first layer of adsorbed ethanol film is about 3.8 Å thick measured from the surface forces apparatus, which is believed to be the average diameter of ethanol molecules while they are confined in between two atomically smooth mica surfaces.

  5. Equation of motion for incompressible mixed fluid driven by evaporation and its application to online rankings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumiko Hattori; Tetsuya Hattori

    2008-05-17

    We give a unique classical solution to initial value problem for a system of partial differential equations for the densities of components of one dimensional incompressible fluid mixture driven by evaporation. Motivated by the known fact that the solution appears as an infinite particle limit of stochastic ranking processes, which is a simple stochastic model of time evolutions of e.g., Amazon Sales Ranks, we collected data from the web and performed statistical fits to our formula. The results suggest that the fluid equations and solutions may have an application in the analysis of online rankings.

  6. A Remote Absorption Process for Disposal of Evaporate and Reverse Osmosis Concentrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brunsell, D.A.

    2008-07-01

    Many commercial nuclear plants and DOE facilities generate secondary waste streams consisting of evaporator bottoms and reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate. Since liquids are not permitted in disposal facilities, these waste streams must be converted to dry solids, either by evaporation to dried solids or by solidification to liquid-free solids. Evaporation of the liquid wastes reduces their volume, but requires costly energy and capital equipment. In some cases, concentration of the contaminants during drying can cause the waste to exceed Class A waste for nuclear utilities or exceed DOE transuranic limits. This means that disposal costs will be increased, or that, when the Barnwell, SC disposal site closes to waste outside of the Atlantic Compact in July 2008, the waste will be precluded from disposal for the foreseeable future). Solidification with cement agents requires less energy and equipment than drying, but results in a volume increase of 50-100%. The doubling or tripling of waste weight, along with the increased volume, sharply increases shipping and disposal costs. Confronted with these unattractive alternatives, Diversified Technologies Services (DTS), in conjunction with selected nuclear utilities and D and D operations at Rocky Flats, undertook an exploratory effort to convert this liquid wastewater to a solid without using cement. This would avoid the bulking effect of cement, and permit the waste to be disposed of the Energy Solutions facility in Utah as well as some DOE facilities. To address the need for an attractive alternative to drying and cement solidification, a test program was developed using a polymer absorbent media to convert the concentrate streams to a liquid-free waste form that meets the waste acceptance criteria of the pertinent burial sites. Two approaches for mixing the polymer with the liquid were tested: mechanical mixing and in-situ incorporation. As part of this test program, a process control program (PCP) was developed that is 100% scalable from a concentrate test sample as small as 50 grams to full-scale processing of 100 cubic foot containers or larger. In summary: The absorption process offers utilities a viable and less costly alternative to on-site drying or solidification of concentrates. The absorption process can be completed by site personnel or by a vendor as a turnkey service. The process is suitable for multiple types of waste, including RO and evaporator concentrates, sludges, and other difficult to process waters and wet solids. (author)

  7. Field Test of Combined Desiccant-Evaporator Cycle Providing Lower Dew Points and Enhanced Dehumidification 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cromer, C. J.

    2006-01-01

    sometimes referred to as the Cromer cycle. The use of the desiccant provides the AC unit with enhanced moisture removal and a control mechanism whereby the moisture removal of the evaporator coil can be adjusted on the fly down to SHRs below 50... humidity control is added, the industry normally resorts to a “cold coil” strategy, that is, the air is overcooled by the machine to remove the humidity, and then reheated to get it back into the comfort zone. This process is inefficient, adding extra...

  8. Coexisting generalist herbivores occupy unique nutritional feeding niches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eubanks, Micky

    plant-feeding insects (26), and plant secondary metabolites (PSMs) function as a primary assembly rule absolute amounts and ratios even if they eat the same plant taxa. The existence of species-specific nutri physiological ecology geometric framework Ecological niches remain central to explaining community structure (1

  9. Faceted Models of Blog Feeds Department of Computer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meng, Weiyi

    Faceted Models of Blog Feeds Lifeng Jia Department of Computer Science University of Illinois@cs.binghamton.edu ABSTRACT Faceted blog distillation aims at retrieving the blogs that are not only relevant to a query blogs depict various topics related to the personal experiences of bloggers while official blogs deliver

  10. The Estimation of Salt and Molasses in Mixed Feeds 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1931-01-01

    . KNOX, M. S., Animal IIushandry A. K. MACKEY, M. S., Animnl Hrrshondry *Dean School of Veterinary Medicine. ?As of May 1. 1931. **In cooperation with U. S. Department of Agriculture. A statement of the percentage of salt in mixed feeds is required...

  11. FEEDING POULTRY WASTES TO CATTLE PREPARED BY: JOSEPH P. FONTENOT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FEEDING POULTRY WASTES TO CATTLE PREPARED BY: JOSEPH P. FONTENOT DEPARTMENT OF ANIMAL AND POULTRY TO CATTLE Joseph P. Fontenot Executive Summary Animal wastes are valuable resources if utilized judiciously of the wastes. Performance of cattle fed diets containing animal wastes is similar to that of animals fed

  12. Feeding and Risering of High Alloy Steel Castings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    Feeding and Risering of High Alloy Steel Castings Kent D. Carlson, Shouzhu Ou and Christoph radiographically sound castings at 2 pct sensitivity. By comparing results between plate casting trials known as the Niyama criterion and ASTM shrinkage x-ray level. This relationship was then used

  13. Managing Milk Composition: Feed Additives and Production Enhancers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stokes, Sandra R.; Jordan, Ellen R.; Looper, Mike; Waldner, Dan

    2000-12-14

    Additivies and Production Enhancers Sandra R. Stokes, Dan N. Waldner, Ellen R. Jordan, and Michael L. Looper* L-5390 12/00 Feed additives and management tools such as bST (bovine somatotropin) play an essential role in enhanc- ing production and yield of milk...

  14. Waste Feed Delivery Environmental Permits and Approvals Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    TOLLEFSON, K.S.

    2000-01-18

    This plan describes the environmental permits approvals, and other requirements that may affect establishment of a waste feed delivery system for the Hanford Site's River Protection Project. This plan identifies and screens environmental standards for potential applicability, outlines alternatives for satisfying applicable standards, and describes preferred permitting and approval approaches.

  15. High latitude gas in the Beta Pictoris system. A possible origin related to Falling Evaporating Bodies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beust, Hervé

    2015-01-01

    The presence of off-plane Ca II ions in the Beta Pictoris disk, and the non-detection of off-plane Na I atoms, can be explained as a consequence of the evaporation process of Falling Evaporating Bodies (FEBs). In the star-grazing regime, the FEBs are subject to inclination oscillations up to 30 - 40 degrees that causes most metallic species released by sublimation to move off plane The ions are be stopped at about 100 AU from the star. We show that collisions with a neutral medium can stop the ions. The required H I column density is reduced to 10^17 cm^-2, one order of magnitude below present detection limits. We also investigate the possibility that the ions are slowed down magnetically. While the sole action of a magnetic field of the order of 1 microGauss is not effective, the combined effect of magnetic and collisional deceleration processes lead to an additional lowering of the required H I column density.

  16. Electron-beam-evaporated thin films of hafnium dioxide for fabricating electronic devices

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Xiao, Zhigang; Kisslinger, Kim

    2015-06-17

    Thin films of hafnium dioxide (HfO2) are widely used as the gate oxide in fabricating integrated circuits because of their high dielectric constants. In this paper, the authors report the growth of thin films of HfO2 using e-beam evaporation, and the fabrication of complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuits using this HfO2 thin film as the gate oxide. The authors analyzed the thin films using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction, thereby demonstrating that the e-beam-evaporation-grown HfO2 film has a polycrystalline structure and forms an excellent interface with silicon. Accordingly, we fabricated 31-stage CMOS ring oscillator to test themore »quality of the HfO2 thin film as the gate oxide, and obtained excellent rail-to-rail oscillation waveforms from it, denoting that the HfO2 thin film functioned very well as the gate oxide.« less

  17. Milagro limits and HAWC sensitivity for the rate-density of evaporating primordial black holes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Abdo, A. A.; Abeysekara, A. U.; Alfaro, R.; Allen, B. T.; Alvarez, C.; Alvarez, J. D.; Arceo, R.; Arteaga-Velazquez, J. C.; Aune, T.; Ayala Solares, H. A.; et al

    2015-04-01

    Primordial Black Holes (PBHs) are gravitationally collapsed objects that may have been created by density fluctuations in the early universe and could have arbitrarily small masses down to the Planck scale. Hawking showed that due to quantum effects, a black hole has a temperature inversely proportional to its mass and will emit all species of fundamental particles thermally. PBHs with initial masses of ~ 5.0 × 10¹? g should be expiring in the present epoch with bursts of high-energy particles, including gamma radiation in the GeV – TeV energy range. The Milagro high energy observatory, which operated from 2000 tomore »2008, is sensitive to the high end of the PBH evaporation gamma-ray spectrum. Due to its large field-of-view, more than 90% duty cycle and sensitivity up to 100 TeV gamma rays, the Milagro observatory is well suited to perform a search for PBH bursts. Based on a search on the Milagro data, we report new PBH burst rate density upper limits over a range of PBH observation times. In addition, we report the sensitivity of the Milagro successor, the High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) observatory, to PBH evaporation events.« less

  18. Engineering work plan for implementing the Process Condensate Recycle Project at the 242-A evaporator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haring, D.S.

    1995-02-02

    The 242-A Evaporator facility is used to reduce the volume of waste stored in the Hanford double shell tanks. This facility uses filtered raw water for cooling, de-entrainment pad sprays, pump seal water, and chemical tank make-up. Some of these uses result in the introduction of filtered raw water into the process, thus increasing the volume of waste requiring evaporation and subsequent treatment by the 200 East Effluent Treatment Facility. The pump seal water and the de-entrainment pad spray systems were identified as candidates for a waste minimization upgrade. This work plan describes the activities associated with the design, installation, testing and initial operation of the process condensate recycle system. Implementation of the process condensate recycle system will permit the use of process condensate in place of raw water for the de-entrainment pad sprays and pump seals. This will reduce the amount of low-level liquid waste and generated during facility operation through source reduction and recycling.

  19. Evaporative CO$_2$ microchannel cooling for the LHCb VELO pixel upgrade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Aguiar Francisco, Oscar A; Collins, Paula; Dumps, Raphael; John, Malcolm; Mapelli, Alessandro; Romagnoli, Giulia

    2015-01-01

    The LHCb Vertex Detector (VELO) will be upgraded in 2018 to a lightweight pixel detector capable of 40 MHz readout and operation in very close proximity to the LHC beams. The thermal management of the system will be provided by evaporative CO$_2$ circulating in microchannels embedded within thin silicon plates. This solution has been selected due to the excellent thermal efficiency, the absence of thermal expansion mismatch with silicon ASICs and sensors, the radiation hardness of CO$_2$, and very low contribution to the material budget. Although microchannel cooling is gaining considerable attention for applications related to microelectronics, it is still a novel technology for particle physics experiments, in particular when combined with evaporative CO$_2$ cooling. The R&D effort for LHCb is focused on the design and layout of the channels together with a fluidic connector and its attachment which must withstand pressures up to 170 bar. Even distribution of the coolant is ensured by means of the use o...

  20. Salinity controls on trophic interactions among invertebrates and algae of solar evaporation ponds in the Mojave Desert and relation to shorebird foraging and selenium risk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herbst, David B

    2006-01-01

    AMONG INVERTEBRATES AND ALGAE OF SOLAR EVAPORATION PONDS INplanktonic invertebrates and algae present along with avianof invertebrates and algae, and avian foraging were examined

  1. Analysis Of 2H-Evaporator Scale Wall [HTF-13-82] And Pot Bottom [HTF-13-77] Samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oji, L. N.

    2013-09-11

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is planning to remove a buildup of sodium aluminosilicate scale from the 2H-evaporator pot by loading and soaking the pot with heated 1.5 M nitric acid solution. Sampling and analysis of the scale material has been performed so that uranium and plutonium isotopic analysis can be input into a Nuclear Criticality Safety Assessment (NCSA) for scale removal by chemical cleaning. Historically, since the operation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), silicon in the DWPF recycle stream combines with aluminum in the typical tank farm supernate to form sodium aluminosilicate scale mineral deposits in the 2H-evaporator pot and gravity drain line. The 2H-evaporator scale samples analyzed by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) came from two different locations within the evaporator pot; the bottom cone sections of the 2H-evaporator pot [Sample HTF-13-77] and the wall 2H-evaporator [sample HTF-13-82]. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) confirmed that both the 2H-evaporator pot scale and the wall samples consist of nitrated cancrinite (a crystalline sodium aluminosilicate solid) and clarkeite (a uranium oxyhydroxide mineral). On ''as received'' basis, the bottom pot section scale sample contained an average of 2.59E+00 {+-} 1.40E-01 wt % total uranium with a U-235 enrichment of 6.12E-01 {+-} 1.48E-02 %, while the wall sample contained an average of 4.03E+00 {+-} 9.79E-01 wt % total uranium with a U-235 enrichment of 6.03E-01% {+-} 1.66E-02 wt %. The bottom pot section scale sample analyses results for Pu-238, Pu-239, and Pu-241 are 3.16E-05 {+-} 5.40E-06 wt %, 3.28E-04 {+-} 1.45E-05 wt %, and <8.80E-07 wt %, respectively. The evaporator wall scale samples analysis values for Pu-238, Pu-239, and Pu-241 averages 3.74E-05 {+-} 6.01E-06 wt %, 4.38E-04 {+-} 5.08E-05 wt %, and <1.38E-06 wt %, respectively. The Pu-241 analyses results, as presented, are upper limit values. For these two evaporator scale samples obtained at two different locations within the evaporator pot the major radioactive components (on a mass basis) in the additional radionuclide analyses were Sr-90, Cs-137 Np-237, Pu-239/240 and Th-232. Small quantities of americium and curium were detected in the blanks used for Am/Cm method for these radionuclides. These trace radionuclide amounts are assumed to come from airborne contamination in the shielded cells drying or digestion oven, which has been replaced. Therefore, the Am/Cm results, as presented, may be higher than the true Am/Cm values for these samples. These results are provided so that SRR can calculate the equivalent uranium-235 concentrations for the NCSA. Results confirm that the uranium contained in the scale remains depleted with respect to natural uranium. SRNL did not calculate an equivalent U-235 enrichment, which takes into account other fissionable isotopes U-233, Pu-239 and Pu-241. The applicable method for calculation of equivalent U-235 will be determined in the NCSA. With a few exceptions, a comparison of select radionuclides measurements from this 2013 2H evaporator scale characterization (pot bottom and wall scale samples) with those measurements for the same radionuclides in the 2010 2H evaporator scale analysis shows that the radionuclide analysis for both years are fairly comparable; the analyses results are about the same order of magnitude.

  2. The dark matter self-interaction and its impact on the critical mass for dark matter evaporations inside the sun

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chian-Shu Chen; Fei-Fan Lee; Guey-Lin Lin; Yen-Hsun Lin

    2014-12-21

    We study the capture, annihilation and evaporation of dark matter (DM) inside the Sun. It has been shown that the DM self-interaction can increase the DM number inside the Sun. We demonstrate that this enhancement becomes more significant in the regime of small DM mass, given a fixed DM self-interaction cross section. This leads to the enhancement of neutrino flux from DM annihilation. On the other hand, for DM mass as low as as a few GeVs, not only the DM-nuclei scatterings can cause the DM evaporation, DM self-interaction also provides non-negligible contributions to this effect. Consequently, the critical mass for DM evaporation (typically 3 ~ 4 GeV without the DM self-interaction) can be slightly increased. We discuss the prospect of detecting DM self-interaction in IceCube- PINGU using the annihilation channels $\\chi\\chi\\rightarrow\

  3. Coal-CO[subscript 2] Slurry Feed for Pressurized Gasifiers: Slurry Preparation System Characterization and Economics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Botero, Cristina

    Gasification-based plants with coal-CO[subscript 2] slurry feed are predicted to be more efficient than those with coal-water slurry feed. This is particularly true for high moisture, low rank coal such as lignite. ...

  4. Insulin Sensitivity in Tropically Adapted Cattle With Divergent Residual Feed Intake 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shafer, Gentrie

    2012-10-19

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is one method to identify feed efficient animals; however, this method is costly and time consuming therefore, identifying an indirect measure of RFI is important. Evaluating the glucoregulatory ...

  5. Renewable Energy Feed-in Tariffs: Lessons Learned from the U...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Renewable Energy Feed-in Tariffs: Lessons Learned from the U.S. and Abroad Presentation Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Renewable Energy Feed-in Tariffs: Lessons...

  6. Variation in energy expenditures between growing steers with divergent residual feed intakes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Monte Blaine III

    2006-04-12

    Objectives of this study were to determine if variation in energy expenditures contributed to differences in feed efficiency between low and high RFI steers. Nine steers with the lowest and highest residual feed intakes (RFI) were selected from 169...

  7. Sources of biological variation in residual feed intake in growing and finishing steers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Erin Gwen

    2006-04-12

    Objectives of this research were to characterize residual feed intake (RFI) in growing and finishing steers and examine phenotypic correlations between performance, feed efficiency, carcass, digestib ility, and physiological indicator traits...

  8. Regulation of lipogenic gene transcription during fasting and feeding/insulin: Role of USF, SREBP-1c, and BAF60c

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, Roger Hoi Fung

    2010-01-01

    Gene Transcription during Fasting and Feeding/insulin: RoleGene Transcription during Fasting and Feeding/insulin: Roleproteins during the fasting/feeding transition. First, USF

  9. Predicting yearly energy savings using BIN weather data with heat-pipe heat exchangers with indirect evaporative cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathur, G.D.

    1998-07-01

    Heat-Pipe Heat-Exchangers (HPHE) are passive systems that have recently seen application in energy recovery (Mathur, 1997). A HPHE consists of individual closed end heat pipe tubes that are charged with a suitable working fluid. In these systems, the working fluid evaporates on one side of the heat exchanger and condenses over the other end of the heat exchanger. The condensed fluid returns back to the evaporator section through the capillary action of the wick. The performance of a HPHE system can be improved by the raising the condenser portion of the heat exchanger which facilitates effective return of the condensate back to the evaporator. HPHE can be used with air conditioning systems as retrofits and in new applications. For retrofit applications, the operating costs are reduced because of the reduction in the energy (kWh) and peak demand (kW) consumptions. For new installations, the heating and cooling equipment can be of smaller capacity which will result in lower equipment and operating costs. During the summer season, indirect evaporative cooling can also be used to further enhance the performance of the air conditioning system. When operated during both the heating and cooling seasons, a HPHE yields four types of savings: (i) Heating equipment savings (ii) Cooling equipment savings (iii) Heating operating savings (iv) Cooling operating savings. Savings in the energy consumption for both heating and cooling were calculated with the HPHE for 30 cities with widely different climactic conditions. The payback periods for most of the cities were less than 1 year. If indirect evaporative cooling is used during the summer season, more energy savings would be realized on an yearly basis along with further reductions in the peak demand. In this paper, the author has simulated the performance of a HPHE with indirect evaporative cooling using the BIN weather data.

  10. In this project, researchers de-veloped alternative feeds for two

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tryon, Michael D.

    that will be infused into pellets for feed for rainbow trout, part of another project. Image: Stephen Ausmus for USDA

  11. Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air-Conditioning (DEVap): Evaluation of a New Concept in Ultra Efficient Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozubal, E.; Woods, J.; Burch, J.; Boranian, A.; Merrigan, T.

    2011-01-01

    NREL has developed the novel concept of a desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVap) with the objective of combining the benefits of liquid desiccant and evaporative cooling technologies into an innovative 'cooling core.' Liquid desiccant technologies have extraordinary dehumidification potential, but require an efficient cooling sink. DEVap's thermodynamic potential overcomes many shortcomings of standard refrigeration-based direct expansion cooling. DEVap decouples cooling and dehumidification performance, which results in independent temperature and humidity control. The energy input is largely switched away from electricity to low-grade thermal energy that can be sourced from fuels such as natural gas, waste heat, solar, or biofuels.

  12. Spontaneous parametric down conversion with a depleted pump as an analogue for black hole evaporation/particle production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paul M. Alsing; Michael L. Fanto

    2015-07-02

    We present an analytical formulation of the recent one-shot decoupling model of Br\\`adler and Adami [arXiv:1505.0284] and compute the resulting "Page Information" curves, for the reduced density matrices for the evaporating black hole internal degrees of freedom, and emitted Hawking radiation pairs entangled across the horizon. We argue that black hole evaporation/particle production has a very close analogy to the laboratory process of spontaneous parametric down conversion, when the pump is allowed to deplete.

  13. Silicon dioxide and hafnium dioxide evaporation characteristics from a high-frequency sweep e-beam system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chow, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551-0808 (United States); Tsujimoto, N. [MDC Vacuum Products Corporation, Hayward, California 94545 (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Reactive oxygen evaporation characteristics were determined as a function of the front-panel control parameters provided by a programmable, high-frequency sweep e-beam system. An experimental design strategy used deposition rate, beam speed, pattern, azimuthal rotation speed, and dwell time as the variables. The optimal settings for obtaining a broad thickness distribution, efficient silicon dioxide boule consumption, and minimal hafnium dioxide defect density were generated. The experimental design analysis showed the compromises involved with evaporating these oxides. {copyright} {ital 1996 Optical Society of America.}

  14. Digestibility of the Sugars, Starches, Pentosans, and Protein of Some Feeding Stuffs. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1922-01-01

    STATION AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS W. B. BIZZELL. President BULLETIN NO. 290 FEBRUARY, 1922 DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY DIGESTIBILITY OF THE SUGARS, STARCHES, PENTOSANS, AND PROTEIDS OF SOME FEEDING STUFFS B. YOUNGBLOOD, DI... .................................... Digestibility of the Feeds 14 .............................. Digestibility by Groups of Feeds 19 ................................... Proteids and Non.proteids 20 Acknowledgment ........................................... 21...

  15. Two-Hop Relay Channels with Limited FeedBack TELECOM ParisTech

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Two-Hop Relay Channels with Limited FeedBack Ali Osmane TELECOM ParisTech Paris, France Email and feeds it back to the relays. We propose an iterative algorithm to find this optimal rotation vector by the destination and feed it back to the relays. This algorithm is shown to have the same performance as an optimal

  16. Feeding of Nickel-Based Alloys Kent D. Carlson, Shouzhu Ou and Christoph Beckermann

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    as the distance over which a riser can provide feed metal resulting in a sound casting. This is an important&LA) and high alloy steel castings, a similar project is underway to develop feeding distance rules. Casting trials were performed at five foundries to produce experimental feeding distance results

  17. To understand the function and evolution of feeding mechanisms in vertebrates, we must have a thorough

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Summers, Adam P.

    protrusion. This study represents the first electromyographic and kinematic analysis of the feeding mechanismTo understand the function and evolution of feeding mechanisms in vertebrates, we must have knowledge of the evolution of aquatic feeding mechanisms, however, is limited by a lack of studies

  18. Colonising aliens: caterpillars (Lepidoptera) feeding on Piper aduncum and P. umbellatum in rainforests of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Basset, Yves

    Colonising aliens: caterpillars (Lepidoptera) feeding on Piper aduncum and P. umbellatum.S.A. Abstract. 1. Caterpillar assemblages feeding on two alien plants, Piper aduncum and P. umbellatum, were alien Piper increased with its host range from 3% for the species feeding on a single plant family to 92

  19. RESULTS OF THE 2H EVAPORATOR ACID CLEANING AND IN-POT NEUTRALIZATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilmarth, B; Phillip Norris, P; Terry Allen, T

    2007-05-29

    The estimated 200 gallons of sodium aluminosilicate scale (NAS) present in the 242-16H Evaporator pot prior to chemical cleaning was subjected to four batches of 1.5 M (9 wt%) nitric acid. Each batch was neutralized with 19 M (50 wt %) sodium hydroxide (caustic) before transfer to Tank 38. The chemical cleaning process began on November 20, 2006, and was terminated on December 10, 2006. An inspection of the pot's interior was performed and based on data gathered during that inspection; the current volume of scale in the pot is conservatively estimated to be 36.3 gallons, which is well below the 200 gallon limit specified in the Technical Safety Requirements. In addition, the performance during all aspects of cleaning agreed well with the flowsheet developed at the bench and pilot scale. There were some lessons learned during the cleaning outage and are detailed in appendices of this report.

  20. Indirect evaporative cooler using membrane-contained, liquid desiccant for dehumidification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kozubal, Eric Joseph; Slayzak, Steven Joseph

    2014-07-08

    An indirect evaporative cooler for cooling inlet supply air from a first temperature to a second, lower temperature using a stream of liquid coolant and a stream of exhaust or purge air. The cooler includes a first flow channel for inlet supply air and a second flow channel adjacent the first for exhaust air. The first and second flow channels are defined in part by sheets of a membrane permeable to water vapor such that mass is transferred as a vapor through the membrane from the inlet supply air to a contained liquid desiccant for dehumidification and also to the exhaust air as heat is transferred from the inlet supply air to the liquid coolant. A separation wall divides the liquid desiccant and the coolant but allows heat to be transferred from the supply air to the coolant which releases water vapor to the counter or cross flowing exhaust air.

  1. Preparation and characterization of indium zinc oxide thin films by electron beam evaporation technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keshavarzi, Reza [Chemistry Department, Catalysis Division, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Chemistry Department, Catalysis Division, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mirkhani, Valiollah, E-mail: mirkhani@sci.ui.ac.ir [Chemistry Department, Catalysis Division, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Chemistry Department, Catalysis Division, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moghadam, Majid, E-mail: moghadamm@sci.ui.ac.ir [Chemistry Department, Catalysis Division, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of) [Chemistry Department, Catalysis Division, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Nanotechnology Engineering, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tangestaninejad, Shahram; Mohammadpoor-Baltork, Iraj [Chemistry Department, Catalysis Division, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Chemistry Department, Catalysis Division, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fallah, Hamid Reza; Dastjerdi, Mohammad Javad Vahid; Modayemzadeh, Hamed Reza [Department of Physics, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Physics, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-04-15

    In this work, the preparation of In{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZnO thin films by electron beam evaporation technique on glass substrates is reported. Optical and electrical properties of these films were investigated. The effect of dopant amount and annealing temperature on the optical and electrical properties of In{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZnO thin films was also studied. Different amount of ZnO was used as dopant and the films were annealed at different temperature. The results showed that the most crystalline, transparent and uniform films with lowest resistivity were obtained using 25 wt% of ZnO annealed at 500 {sup o}C.

  2. Simulation of a photovoltaic/thermal heat pump system having a modified collector/evaporator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Guoying; Deng, Shiming; Zhang, Xiaosong; Yang, Lei; Zhang, Yuehong

    2009-11-15

    A new photovoltaic/thermal heat pump (PV/T-HP) system having a modified collector/evaporator (C/E) has been developed and numerically studied. Multi-port flat extruded aluminum tubes were used in the modified C/E, as compared to round copper tubes used in a conventional C/E. Simulation results suggested that a better operating performance can be achieved for a PV/T-HP system having such a modified C/E. In addition, using the meteorological data in both Nanjing and Hong Kong, China, the simulation results showed that this new PV/T-HP system could efficiently generate electricity and thermal energy simultaneously in both cities all-year-round. Furthermore, improved operation by using variable speed compressor has been designed and discussed. (author)

  3. Observational Characteristics of the Final Stages of Evaporating Primordial Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ukwatta, T N; MacGibbon, J H; Linnemann, J T; Marinelli, S S; Yapici, T; Tollefson, K

    2015-01-01

    Many early universe theories predict the creation of Primordial Black Holes (PBHs). The PBHs could have masses ranging from the Planck mass to 10^5 solar masses or higher depending on the formation scenario. Hawking showed that any Black Hole (BH) has a temperature which is inversely proportional to its mass. Hence a sufficiently small BH will thermodynamically radiate particles at an ever-increasing rate, continually decreasing its mass and raising its temperature. The final moments of this evaporation phase should be explosive. In this work, we investigate the final few seconds of the BH burst using the Standard Model of particle physics and calculate the energy dependent burst time profiles in the GeV/TeV range. We use the HAWC (High Altitude Water Cherenkov) observatory as a case study and calculate PBH burst light curves which would be observed by HAWC.

  4. Evaporative CO2 cooling using microchannels etched in silicon for the future LHCb vertex detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Nomerotski; J. Buytart; P. Collins; R. Dumps; E. Greening; M. John; A. Mapelli; A. Leflat; Y. Li; G. Romagnoli; B. Verlaat

    2013-02-16

    The extreme radiation dose received by vertex detectors at the Large Hadron Collider dictates stringent requirements on their cooling systems. To be robust against radiation damage, sensors should be maintained below -20 degree C and at the same time, the considerable heat load generated in the readout chips and the sensors must be removed. Evaporative CO2 cooling using microchannels etched in a silicon plane in thermal contact with the readout chips is an attractive option. In this paper, we present the first results of microchannel prototypes with circulating, two-phase CO2 and compare them to simulations. We also discuss a practical design of upgraded VELO detector for the LHCb experiment employing this approach.

  5. Annual Report of the Feed Control Service, 1953-54. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anonymous

    1954-01-01

    .0 Fish scrap (60r/ protein) .......................... 10.3 Meat and bon~'scraps ............................ 10.6 Sorghum gluten meal .............................. 10.8 Corn gluten meal ................................. 11.2 Linseed meal... protein, minimum percentage of crude fat, minimum percentage of nitrogen-free extract, maximum percentage of crude fiber, names of ingredients of a mixed feed, percentage of each ingredient when adulterants are present, and the percentage of each...

  6. Economics of Cattle Feeding Systems for West Texas. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hughes, W. F.; Fisher, C. E.; Marion, P. T.; Magee, A. C.

    1957-01-01

    ~ '6 $9 "4; ,p*, d Economics of Cattle Feeding Systems for West Texas ,,5~'* ,LI~~ 3 TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION R. D. LEWIS, DIRECTOR, COLLEGE STATION, TEXAS SUMMARY The purpose of the study reported here is to assist West Texas.... - Rations high in grain and low in roughage were the most profitable with cheap grain, but the comparative position of high-forage rations is enhanced when grain prices are high. Satisfactory results have been obtained with cottonseed hulls...

  7. Commercial Feeding Stuffs, September 1, 1934 to August 31, 1935. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuller, F. D. (Frederick Driggs); Sullivan, James

    1935-01-01

    usually is low in digestible protein and productive energy. Cottonseed hulls, oat hulls, peanut hulls, rice hulls, corn cobs, and materials of a similar nature contain high per- centages of crude fiber. If sufficient bulky materials are available... certain-limits, it indicates that the feed is adulterated with cottonseed hulls. In a similar way, crude fiber in excess of a given standard indicates the presence of corn cobs or corn bran in corn chop, rice hulls in rice bran, etc. Nitrogen...

  8. Losses of Vitamin A and Carotene from Feeds During Storage. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach); Kemmerer, A. R. (Arthur Russell)

    1937-01-01

    . CONNER, 1)IRECTOR COLLEGE STATION, BRAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS BULLETIN NO. 557 OCTOBER, 1937 DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY Losses of Vitamin A and Carotene From Feeds During Storage LIBRARY Agricultural & Mechanical ,l~l!egge of Texas AGRICULTURAL... liver oils, fish liver oil concentrates or solutions of carotene in oil, or yellow corn or alfalfa leaf meal of high potency. Since vitamin A and carotene are both unstable, it is important to know whether these substances would remain in commercial...

  9. Frequency of Feeding Protein Supplement to Range Cattle. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melton, A. A.; Riggs, J. K.

    1964-01-01

    /ment To Range Cattle f~~~~ AGRICULTURAL EXPE-RIMENT STATION, R. E. Patterson, Director E \\&'wintering Hereford heifers and cows were supplementally fed cottonseed cake on pasture... in the Davis Mountain area of Texas during four winters, 1958-62. The accompanying feeding schedules were used. Two pounds per head daily the first year and 3 pounds daily the last 3 years. Seven pounds per head on Tuesdays and Satur- days during...

  10. Maximum total organic carbon limit for DWPF melter feed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, A.S.

    1995-03-13

    DWPF recently decided to control the potential flammability of melter off-gas by limiting the total carbon content in the melter feed and maintaining adequate conditions for combustion in the melter plenum. With this new strategy, all the LFL analyzers and associated interlocks and alarms were removed from both the primary and backup melter off-gas systems. Subsequently, D. Iverson of DWPF- T{ampersand}E requested that SRTC determine the maximum allowable total organic carbon (TOC) content in the melter feed which can be implemented as part of the Process Requirements for melter feed preparation (PR-S04). The maximum TOC limit thus determined in this study was about 24,000 ppm on an aqueous slurry basis. At the TOC levels below this, the peak concentration of combustible components in the quenched off-gas will not exceed 60 percent of the LFL during off-gas surges of magnitudes up to three times nominal, provided that the melter plenum temperature and the air purge rate to the BUFC are monitored and controlled above 650 degrees C and 220 lb/hr, respectively. Appropriate interlocks should discontinue the feeding when one or both of these conditions are not met. Both the magnitude and duration of an off-gas surge have a major impact on the maximum TOC limit, since they directly affect the melter plenum temperature and combustion. Although the data obtained during recent DWPF melter startup tests showed that the peak magnitude of a surge can be greater than three times nominal, the observed duration was considerably shorter, on the order of several seconds. The long surge duration assumed in this study has a greater impact on the plenum temperature than the peak magnitude, thus making the maximum TOC estimate conservative. Two models were used to make the necessary calculations to determine the TOC limit.

  11. Commercial Feeding Stuffs, September 1, 1921, to August 31, 1922. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Youngblood, B. (Bonney)

    1922-01-01

    tags securely attached to bags: (a) Net weight of package. (b) Name of feeding stuff. (c) Name and address of manufacturer or importer. (d) Place of manufacture. (e) Minimum percentage of crude protein. (f) Minimum percentage of crude fat. (g... COUNTY, ""- ' " STATION DMINISTRATION B YOUNGRLOOD. M. S , Ph. D.. Director CHARLES A. FELKER, Chief Clerk A. S. WARE. S~cretarg A. D. JACKSON, Executir~e Assisfont CHARLES GORZYCKI. Technical Assistnnt M. P. FTOLLEMAN. JR.. As~istnnt Chip2 Clerk...

  12. Serum leptin concentration varies with meal size and feeding frequency 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruce, Samantha Michelle

    2004-11-15

    ghrelin. In vitro, ghrelin has been shown to increase expression of both NPY and ? -MSH (Nakazato et al., 2001). 6 Likewise, feed-restricted mice receiving exogenous leptin maintained normal ghrelin concentrations, while pair-fed control mice... experienced a 40% increase in ghrelin (Barazzoni et al., 2003). These investigators drew the conclusion that leptin negatively regulates ghrelin, and that ghrelin rose in the control mice due to a lack of inhibition from leptin. However, the loose...

  13. Evaluating Feed Delivery Performance in Scaled Double-Shell Tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Kearn P.; Thien, Michael G.

    2013-11-07

    The Hanford Tank Operations Contractor (TOC) and the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) contractor are both engaged in demonstrating mixing, sampling, and transfer system capability using simulated Hanford High-Level Waste (HLW) formulations. This work represents one of the remaining technical issues with the high-level waste treatment mission at Hanford. The TOCs' ability to adequately mix and sample high-level waste feed to meet the WTP WAC Data Quality Objectives must be demonstrated. The tank mixing and feed delivery must support both TOC and WTP operations. The tank mixing method must be able to remove settled solids from the tank and provide consistent feed to the WTP to facilitate waste treatment operations. Two geometrically scaled tanks were used with a broad spectrum of tank waste simulants to demonstrate that mixing using two rotating mixer jet pumps yields consistent slurry compositions as the tank is emptied in a series of sequential batch transfers. Testing showed that the concentration of slow settling solids in each transfer batch was consistent over a wide range of tank operating conditions. Although testing demonstrated that the concentration of fast settling solids decreased by up to 25% as the tank was emptied, batch-to-batch consistency improved as mixer jet nozzle velocity in the scaled tanks increased.

  14. High pressure feeder and method of operating to feed granular or fine materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vimalchand, Pannalal; Liu, Guohai; Peng, Wan Wang

    2014-10-07

    A coal feed system to feed pulverized low rank coals containing up to 25 wt % moisture to gasifiers operating up to 1000 psig pressure is described. The system includes gas distributor and collector gas permeable pipes imbedded in the lock vessel. Different methods of operation of the feed system are disclosed to minimize feed problems associated with bridging and packing of the pulverized coal. The method of maintaining the feed system and feeder device exit pressures using gas addition or extraction with the pressure control device is also described.

  15. Cesium Evaporation Rate on Tungsten Photocathodes Ameerah Jabr-Hamdan, Dr. Eric Montgomery, Dr. Patrick O' Shea, Blake Riddick, and Peter Zhigang Pan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anlage, Steven

    Cesium Evaporation Rate on Tungsten Photocathodes Ameerah Jabr-Hamdan, Dr. Eric Montgomery, Dr into a vacuum chamber. Experimentally found the evaporation rate of Cesium on a Tungsten Photocathode. Motivation A High Power Free Electron Laser. High QE and decent lifetime Photocathode. (Cesium Dispenser

  16. Effect of refrigerant charge, duct leakage, and evaporator air flow on the high temerature performance of air conditioners and heat pumps 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodriguez, Angel Gerardo

    1995-01-01

    evaporator airflow, and return air leakage from hot attic spaces. There were five sets of tests used for this research: two of them for the charging tests, two for the reduced evaporator airflow, and one for the return air leakage tests. For the charging...

  17. Mesoscale Patterns Formed by Evaporation of a Polymer Solution in the Proximity of a Sphere on a Smooth Substrate: Molecular Weight

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Zhiqun

    Mesoscale Patterns Formed by Evaporation of a Polymer Solution in the Proximity of a Sphere evaporation as a simple, lithography- and external-field- free route to well-ordered mesoscale structures weight (MW) effect on the mesoscale polymer patterns formed by drying a drop of polymer solution

  18. Chemistry of Silicate Atmospheres of Evaporating Super-Recommended short title: Silicate Atmospheres of Super-Earths

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    - 1 - Chemistry of Silicate Atmospheres of Evaporating Super- Earths Recommended short title: Silicate Atmospheres of Super-Earths Laura Schaefer1,2 Bruce Fegley, Jr.1,3 1 Planetary Chemistry through currently available methods. Keywords: atmosphere, silicate, exoplanet, chemistry #12;- 4 - 1

  19. Grain Formation Modulated by Molecular Hydrogen Evaporation in the Interstellar K. S. Kostov, and R. S. Berry*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berry, R. Stephen

    Grain Formation Modulated by Molecular Hydrogen Evaporation in the Interstellar Medium A. Reber, KVersity of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 ReceiVed: May 17, 2009; ReVised Manuscript ReceiVed: July 30, 2009 A mechanism for grain growth and formation in the interstellar medium is proposed. In this mechanism, hydrogen

  20. Determination of the crystalline structure of scale solids from the 16H evaporator gravity drain line to tank 38H

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oji, L. N.

    2015-10-01

    August 2015, scale solids from the 16H Evaporator Gravity Drain Line (GDL) to the Tank 38H were delivered to SRNL for analysis. The desired analytical goal was to identify and confirm the crystalline structure of the scale material and determine if the form of the aluminosilicate mineral was consistent with previous analysis of the scale material from the GDL.