National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for 2d extend insulation

  1. Thermal Conductivity and Thermopower near the 2D Metal-Insulator transition, Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SARACHIK, MYRIAM P

    2015-02-20

    STUDIES OF STRONGLY-INTERACTING 2D ELECTRON SYSTEMS – There is a great deal of current interest in the properties of systems in which the interaction between electrons (their potential energy) is large compared to their kinetic energy. We have investigated an apparent, unexpected metal-insulator transition inferred from the behavior of the temperature-dependence of the resistivity; moreover, detailed analysis of the behavior of the magnetoresistance suggests that the electrons’ effective mass diverges, supporting this scenario. Whether this is a true phase transition or crossover behavior has been strenuously debated over the past 20 years. Our measurements have now shown that the thermoelectric power of these 2D materials diverges at a finite density, providing clear evidence that this is, in fact, a phase transition to a new low-density phase which may be a precursor or a direct transition to the long sought-after electronic crystal predicted by Eugene Wigner in 1934.

  2. Aniso2D

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-07-01

    Aniso2d is a two-dimensional seismic forward modeling code. The earth is parameterized by an X-Z plane in which the seismic properties Can have monoclinic with x-z plane symmetry. The program uses a user define time-domain wavelet to produce synthetic seismograms anrwhere within the two-dimensional media.

  3. Mesh2d

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2011-12-31

    Mesh2d is a Fortran90 program designed to generate two-dimensional structured grids of the form [x(i),y(i,j)] where [x,y] are grid coordinates identified by indices (i,j). The x(i) coordinates alone can be used to specify a one-dimensional grid. Because the x-coordinates vary only with the i index, a two-dimensional grid is composed in part of straight vertical lines. However, the nominally horizontal y(i,j0) coordinates along index i are permitted to undulate or otherwise vary. Mesh2d also assignsmore » an integer material type to each grid cell, mtyp(i,j), in a user-specified manner. The complete grid is specified through three separate input files defining the x(i), y(i,j), and mtyp(i,j) variations.« less

  4. Vacuum foil insulation system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hanson, John P.; Sabolcik, Rudolph E.; Svedberg, Robert C.

    1976-11-16

    In a multifoil thermal insulation package having a plurality of concentric cylindrical cups, means are provided for reducing heat loss from the penetration region which extends through the cups. At least one cup includes an integral skirt extending from one end of the cup to intersection with the penetration means. Assembly of the insulation package with the skirted cup is facilitated by splitting the cup to allow it to be opened up and fitted around the other cups during assembly.

  5. High voltage variable diameter insulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vanacek, D.L.; Pike, C.D.

    1982-07-13

    A high voltage feedthrough assembly having a tubular insulator extending between the ground plane ring and the high voltage ring. The insulator is made of Pyrex and decreases in diameter from the ground plane ring to the high voltage ring, producing equipotential lines almost perpendicular to the wall of the insulator to optimize the voltage-holding capability of the feedthrough assembly.

  6. Quantum Anomalous Hall Effect in 2D Organic Topological Insulators...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Publisher: American Physical Society Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country of Publication: United States Language: English Word Cloud More Like This Free Publicly Accessible Full Text ...

  7. Quantum Anomalous Hall Effect in 2D Organic Topological Insulators...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    American Physical Society Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country of Publication: United States Language: English Word Cloud More Like This Free Publicly Accessible Full Text Accepted...

  8. 2D microwave imaging reflectometer electronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spear, A. G.; Domier, C. W. Hu, X.; Muscatello, C. M.; Ren, X.; Luhmann, N. C.; Tobias, B. J.

    2014-11-15

    A 2D microwave imaging reflectometer system has been developed to visualize electron density fluctuations on the DIII-D tokamak. Simultaneously illuminated at four probe frequencies, large aperture optics image reflections from four density-dependent cutoff surfaces in the plasma over an extended region of the DIII-D plasma. Localized density fluctuations in the vicinity of the plasma cutoff surfaces modulate the plasma reflections, yielding a 2D image of electron density fluctuations. Details are presented of the receiver down conversion electronics that generate the in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) reflectometer signals from which 2D density fluctuation data are obtained. Also presented are details on the control system and backplane used to manage the electronics as well as an introduction to the computer based control program.

  9. Wall Insulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2000-10-01

    This fact sheet provides information on advanced wall framing, including insulating walls, airtight construction, and moisture control.

  10. High voltage variable diameter insulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vanecek, David L.; Pike, Chester D.

    1984-01-01

    A high voltage feedthrough assembly (10) having a tubular insulator (15) extending between the ground plane ring (16) and the high voltage ring (30). The insulator (15) is made of Pyrex and decreases in diameter from the ground plane ring (16) to the high voltage ring (30), producing equipotential lines almost perpendicular to the wall (27) of the insulator (15) to optimize the voltage-holding capability of the feedthrough assembly (10).

  11. ARM - Datastreams - sonicwind2d

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    We would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Datastream : SONICWIND2D Horizontal wind speed and direction from ultrasonic wind sensor ...

  12. Radiative heat transfer in 2D Dirac materials

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rodriguez-López, Pablo; Tse, Wang -Kong; Dalvit, Diego A. R.

    2015-05-12

    We compute the radiative heat transfer between two sheets of 2D Dirac materials, including topological Chern insulators and graphene, within the framework of the local approximation for the optical response of these materials. In this approximation, which neglects spatial dispersion, we derive both numerically and analytically the short-distance asymptotic of the near-field heat transfer in these systems, and show that it scales as the inverse of the distance between the two sheets. In conclusion, we discuss the limitations to the validity of this scaling law imposed by spatial dispersion in 2D Dirac materials.

  13. AnisWave 2D

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2004-08-01

    AnisWave2D is a 2D finite-difference code for a simulating seismic wave propagation in fully anisotropic materials. The code is implemented to run in parallel over multiple processors and is fully portable. A mesh refinement algorithm has been utilized to allow the grid-spacing to be tailored to the velocity model, avoiding the over-sampling of high-velocity materials that usually occurs in fixed-grid schemes.

  14. Slab Insulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2000-12-01

    Fact sheet for homeowners and contractors on how to insulate slab-on-grade floors and control moisture, air leakage, termites, and radon.

  15. Insulation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Insulation Insulation Where to Insulate Where to Insulate Learn where to insulate in a home to save money and improve comfort. Read more Insulation Insulation Get the facts about how insulation works. Read more Moisture Control Moisture Control Learn how to control moisture in your home to improve the effectiveness of your insulation and air sealing strategies. Read more You can reduce your home's heating and cooling costs through proper insulation and air sealing techniques. These techniques

  16. MOSS2D V1

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2001-01-31

    This software reduces the data from two-dimensional kSA MOS program, k-Space Associates, Ann Arbor, MI. Initial MOS data is recorded without headers in 38 columns, with one row of data per acquisition per lase beam tracked. The final MOSS 2d data file is reduced, graphed, and saved in a tab-delimited column format with headers that can be plotted in any graphing software.

  17. Building America Case Study: Innovative Retrofit Foundation Insulation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The team evaluated a retroft insulation strategy that is designed for use with open-core ... The water-control layer and the insulation extend 1 ft below grade. The core fll is ...

  18. Quantum Oscillations in an Interfacial 2D Electron Gas.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Bingop; Lu, Ping; Liu, Henan; Lin, Jiao; Ye, Zhenyu; Jaime, Marcelo; Balakirev, Fedor F.; Yuan, Huiqiu; Wu, Huizhen; Pan, Wei; Zhang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Recently, it has been predicted that topological crystalline insulators (TCIs) may exist in SnTe and Pb1-xSnxTe thin films [1]. To date, most studies on TCIs were carried out either in bulk crystals or thin films, and no research activity has been explored in heterostructures. We present here the results on electronic transport properties of the 2D electron gas (2DEG) realized at the interfaces of PbTe/ CdTe (111) heterostructures. Evidence of topological state in this interfacial 2DEG was observed.

  19. Spin transport in normal metal/insulator/topological insulator coupled to ferromagnetic insulator structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kondo, Kenji

    2014-05-07

    In this study, we investigate the spin transport in normal metal (NM)/insulator (I)/topological insulator (TI) coupled to ferromagnetic insulator (FI) structures. In particular, we focus on the barrier thickness dependence of the spin transport inside the bulk gap of the TI with FI. The TI with FI is described by two-dimensional (2D) Dirac Hamiltonian. The energy profile of the insulator is assumed to be a square with barrier height V and thickness d along the transport-direction. This structure behaves as a tunnel device for 2D Dirac electrons. The calculation is performed for the spin conductance with changing the barrier thickness and the components of magnetization of FI layer. It is found that the spin conductance decreases with increasing the barrier thickness. Also, the spin conductance is strongly dependent on the polar angle ?, which is defined as the angle between the axis normal to the FI and the magnetization of FI layer. These results indicate that the structures are promising candidates for novel tunneling magnetoresistance devices.

  20. A Novel Quasi-1D Topological Insulator

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Novel Quasi-1D Topological Insulator A Novel Quasi-1D Topological Insulator Print Wednesday, 15 June 2016 00:00 Topological insulators (TIs) are materials with many exotic properties. Perhaps the most technologically salient is the suppression of electron scattering on their surfaces-a tantalizing path to energy-saving, ultralow-power electronics. This prospect has led to a vigorous search for optimal TIs, most of which have so far been layered, quasi-2D materials. Now, an international team

  1. Large kinetic asymmetry in the metal-insulator transition nucleated...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Large kinetic asymmetry in the metal-insulator transition nucleated at localized and extended defects Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Large kinetic...

  2. Insulation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Weatherize » Insulation Insulation Spray foam insulation fills the nooks and crannies in the walls of this energy-efficient Florida home. | Photo courtesy of FSEC/IBACOS. Spray foam insulation fills the nooks and crannies in the walls of this energy-efficient Florida home. | Photo courtesy of FSEC/IBACOS. Foam core structural insulated panels are built in a factory, shipped to the jobsite, and assembled. | Photo courtesy of Michael Baechler. Foam core structural insulated panels are built in a

  3. Staring 2-D hadamard transform spectral imager

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gentry, Stephen M.; Wehlburg, Christine M.; Wehlburg, Joseph C.; Smith, Mark W.; Smith, Jody L.

    2006-02-07

    A staring imaging system inputs a 2D spatial image containing multi-frequency spectral information. This image is encoded in one dimension of the image with a cyclic Hadamarid S-matrix. The resulting image is detecting with a spatial 2D detector; and a computer applies a Hadamard transform to recover the encoded image.

  4. Multiple density layered insulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alger, Terry W.

    1994-01-01

    A multiple density layered insulator for use with a laser is disclosed wh provides at least two different insulation materials for a laser discharge tube, where the two insulation materials have different thermoconductivities. The multiple layer insulation materials provide for improved thermoconductivity capability for improved laser operation.

  5. Calcium silicate insulation structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kollie, Thomas G.; Lauf, Robert J.

    1995-01-01

    An insulative structure including a powder-filled evacuated casing utilizes a quantity of finely divided synthetic calcium silicate having a relatively high surface area. The resultant structure-provides superior thermal insulating characteristics over a broad temperature range and is particularly well-suited as a panel for a refrigerator or freezer or the insulative barrier for a cooler or a insulated bottle.

  6. Multiple density layered insulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alger, T.W.

    1994-09-06

    A multiple density layered insulator for use with a laser is disclosed which provides at least two different insulation materials for a laser discharge tube, where the two insulation materials have different thermoconductivities. The multiple layer insulation materials provide for improved thermoconductivity capability for improved laser operation. 4 figs.

  7. Insulation assembly for electric machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rhoads, Frederick W.; Titmuss, David F.; Parish, Harold; Campbell, John D.

    2013-10-15

    An insulation assembly is provided that includes a generally annularly-shaped main body and at least two spaced-apart fingers extending radially inwards from the main body. The spaced-apart fingers define a gap between the fingers. A slot liner may be inserted within the gap. The main body may include a plurality of circumferentially distributed segments. Each one of the plurality of segments may be operatively connected to another of the plurality of segments to form the continuous main body. The slot liner may be formed as a single extruded piece defining a plurality of cavities. A plurality of conductors (extendable from the stator assembly) may be axially inserted within a respective one of the plurality of cavities. The insulation assembly electrically isolates the conductors in the electric motor from the stator stack and from other conductors.

  8. 2-d Finite Element Code Postprocessor

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1996-07-15

    ORION is an interactive program that serves as a postprocessor for the analysis programs NIKE2D, DYNA2D, TOPAZ2D, and CHEMICAL TOPAZ2D. ORION reads binary plot files generated by the two-dimensional finite element codes currently used by the Methods Development Group at LLNL. Contour and color fringe plots of a large number of quantities may be displayed on meshes consisting of triangular and quadrilateral elements. ORION can compute strain measures, interface pressures along slide lines, reaction forcesmore » along constrained boundaries, and momentum. ORION has been applied to study the response of two-dimensional solids and structures undergoing finite deformations under a wide variety of large deformation transient dynamic and static problems and heat transfer analyses.« less

  9. Form 2D | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    D Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- Permit ApplicationPermit Application: Form 2DLegal Abstract Form 2D: Application for Permit to...

  10. Phonon Polariton Behavior in 2D Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Phonon Polariton Behavior in 2D Materials Phonon Polariton Behavior in 2D Materials Print Tuesday, 19 January 2016 09:57 In a crystal, collective excitations can be treated as if they are quasiparticles. For example, an excited electron and its associated hole are an exciton; oscillations of conduction electrons in a metal are plasmons; and different modes of lattice vibrations are phonons. Furthermore, when such excitations interact strongly with photons, a new form of quasiparticle emerges:

  11. Insulation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Other less common materials such as cementitious and phenolic foams and vermiculite and perlite are also available. Learn More Where to insulate in a home Insulation for new home ...

  12. Insulating polymer concrete

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schorr, H. Peter; Fontana, Jack J.; Steinberg, Meyer

    1987-01-01

    A lightweight insulating polymer concrete formed from a lightweight closed cell aggregate and a water resistance polymeric binder.

  13. Slab edge insulating form system and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Brain E.; Barsun, Stephan K.; Bourne, Richard C.; Hoeschele, Marc A.; Springer, David A.

    2009-10-06

    A method of forming an insulated concrete foundation is provided comprising constructing a foundation frame, the frame comprising an insulating form having an opening, inserting a pocket former into the opening; placing concrete inside the foundation frame; and removing the pocket former after the placed concrete has set, wherein the concrete forms a pocket in the placed concrete that is accessible through the opening. The method may further comprise sealing the opening by placing a sealing plug or sealing material in the opening. A system for forming an insulated concrete foundation is provided comprising a plurality of interconnected insulating forms, the insulating forms having a rigid outer member protecting and encasing an insulating material, and at least one gripping lip extending outwardly from the outer member to provide a pest barrier. At least one insulating form has an opening into which a removable pocket former is inserted. The system may also provide a tension anchor positioned in the pocket former and a tendon connected to the tension anchor.

  14. Parallel stitching of 2D materials

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ling, Xi; Wu, Lijun; Lin, Yuxuan; Ma, Qiong; Wang, Ziqiang; Song, Yi; Yu, Lili; Huang, Shengxi; Fang, Wenjing; Zhang, Xu; et al

    2016-01-27

    Diverse parallel stitched 2D heterostructures, including metal–semiconductor, semiconductor–semiconductor, and insulator–semiconductor, are synthesized directly through selective “sowing” of aromatic molecules as the seeds in the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Lastly, the methodology enables the large-scale fabrication of lateral heterostructures, which offers tremendous potential for its application in integrated circuits.

  15. Insulated solar storage tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eldighidy, S.M. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents the theoretical and experimental investigation of an insulated parallelepiped, outdoor solar, water-filled storage tank of size 1 m {times} 0.5 m {times} 0.3 m, that is made from galvanized iron. The absorption coefficient of the insulating material has been determined. The effects of plastic covers and insulation thickness on the water temperature and the energy gained or lost by water are investigated. Moreover, the effects of insulation thickness on the temperature profiles of the insulating material are discussed. The results show that the absorption coefficient decreases as the insulation thickness increases. Also, it is found that the glass wool insulation of 2.5 cm thickness has the best results compared with the other thicknesses (5 cm, 7.5 cm, and 10 cm) as far as the water temperature and the energy gained by water are concerned.

  16. Static & Dynamic Response of 2D Solids

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1996-07-15

    NIKE2D is an implicit finite-element code for analyzing the finite deformation, static and dynamic response of two-dimensional, axisymmetric, plane strain, and plane stress solids. The code is fully vectorized and available on several computing platforms. A number of material models are incorporated to simulate a wide range of material behavior including elasto-placicity, anisotropy, creep, thermal effects, and rate dependence. Slideline algorithms model gaps and sliding along material interfaces, including interface friction, penetration and single surfacemore » contact. Interactive-graphics and rezoning is included for analyses with large mesh distortions. In addition to quasi-Newton and arc-length procedures, adaptive algorithms can be defined to solve the implicit equations using the solution language ISLAND. Each of these capabilities and more make NIKE2D a robust analysis tool.« less

  17. Explicit 2-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1996-08-07

    DYNA2D* is a vectorized, explicit, two-dimensional, axisymmetric and plane strain finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic and hydrodynamic response of inelastic solids. DYNA2D* contains 13 material models and 9 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented in all machine versions are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic elastic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, rubber, high explosive burn, isotropic elastic-plastic, temperature-dependent elastic-plastic. Themore » isotropic and temperature-dependent elastic-plastic models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 9 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack Tuesday high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, and tabulated.« less

  18. Explicit 2-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-08-07

    DYNA2D* is a vectorized, explicit, two-dimensional, axisymmetric and plane strain finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic and hydrodynamic response of inelastic solids. DYNA2D* contains 13 material models and 9 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented in all machine versions are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic elastic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, rubber, high explosive burn, isotropic elastic-plastic, temperature-dependent elastic-plastic. The isotropic and temperature-dependent elastic-plastic models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 9 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack Tuesday high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, and tabulated.

  19. Stochastic Inversion of 2D Magnetotelluric Data

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2010-07-01

    The algorithm is developed to invert 2D magnetotelluric (MT) data based on sharp boundary parametrization using a Bayesian framework. Within the algorithm, we consider the locations and the resistivity of regions formed by the interfaces are as unknowns. We use a parallel, adaptive finite-element algorithm to forward simulate frequency-domain MT responses of 2D conductivity structure. Those unknown parameters are spatially correlated and are described by a geostatistical model. The joint posterior probability distribution function ismore » explored by Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling methods. The developed stochastic model is effective for estimating the interface locations and resistivity. Most importantly, it provides details uncertainty information on each unknown parameter. Hardware requirements: PC, Supercomputer, Multi-platform, Workstation; Software requirements C and Fortan; Operation Systems/version is Linux/Unix or Windows« less

  20. Static & Dynamic Response of 2D Solids

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1996-07-15

    NIKE2D is an implicit finite-element code for analyzing the finite deformation, static and dynamic response of two-dimensional, axisymmetric, plane strain, and plane stress solids. The code is fully vectorized and available on several computing platforms. A number of material models are incorporated to simulate a wide range of material behavior including elasto-placicity, anisotropy, creep, thermal effects, and rate dependence. Slideline algorithms model gaps and sliding along material interfaces, including interface friction, penetration and single surfacemorecontact. Interactive-graphics and rezoning is included for analyses with large mesh distortions. In addition to quasi-Newton and arc-length procedures, adaptive algorithms can be defined to solve the implicit equations using the solution language ISLAND. Each of these capabilities and more make NIKE2D a robust analysis tool.less

  1. Phonon Polariton Behavior in 2D Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Phonon Polariton Behavior in 2D Materials Print In a crystal, collective excitations can be treated as if they are quasiparticles. For example, an excited electron and its associated hole are an exciton; oscillations of conduction electrons in a metal are plasmons; and different modes of lattice vibrations are phonons. Furthermore, when such excitations interact strongly with photons, a new form of quasiparticle emerges: the "polariton." The ability to excite and control polaritons in

  2. Phonon Polariton Behavior in 2D Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Phonon Polariton Behavior in 2D Materials Print In a crystal, collective excitations can be treated as if they are quasiparticles. For example, an excited electron and its associated hole are an exciton; oscillations of conduction electrons in a metal are plasmons; and different modes of lattice vibrations are phonons. Furthermore, when such excitations interact strongly with photons, a new form of quasiparticle emerges: the "polariton." The ability to excite and control polaritons in

  3. Phonon Polariton Behavior in 2D Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Phonon Polariton Behavior in 2D Materials Print In a crystal, collective excitations can be treated as if they are quasiparticles. For example, an excited electron and its associated hole are an exciton; oscillations of conduction electrons in a metal are plasmons; and different modes of lattice vibrations are phonons. Furthermore, when such excitations interact strongly with photons, a new form of quasiparticle emerges: the "polariton." The ability to excite and control polaritons in

  4. Phonon Polariton Behavior in 2D Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Phonon Polariton Behavior in 2D Materials Print In a crystal, collective excitations can be treated as if they are quasiparticles. For example, an excited electron and its associated hole are an exciton; oscillations of conduction electrons in a metal are plasmons; and different modes of lattice vibrations are phonons. Furthermore, when such excitations interact strongly with photons, a new form of quasiparticle emerges: the "polariton." The ability to excite and control polaritons in

  5. Phonon Polariton Behavior in 2D Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Phonon Polariton Behavior in 2D Materials Print In a crystal, collective excitations can be treated as if they are quasiparticles. For example, an excited electron and its associated hole are an exciton; oscillations of conduction electrons in a metal are plasmons; and different modes of lattice vibrations are phonons. Furthermore, when such excitations interact strongly with photons, a new form of quasiparticle emerges: the "polariton." The ability to excite and control polaritons in

  6. Byron Extended Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Byron Extended Facility Map

  7. Ashton Extended Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ashton Extended Facility Map

  8. Thermopower Enhancement by Fractional Layer Control in 2D Oxide...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Thermopower Enhancement by Fractional Layer Control in 2D Oxide Superlattices Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Thermopower Enhancement by Fractional Layer Control in 2D ...

  9. Enhanced Absorption in 2D Materials Via Fano- Resonant Photonic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Enhanced Absorption in 2D Materials Via Fano- Resonant Photonic Crystals Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Enhanced Absorption in 2D Materials Via Fano- Resonant Photonic ...

  10. Quantum Oscillations in an Interfacial 2D Electron Gas. (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Quantum Oscillations in an Interfacial 2D Electron Gas. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Quantum Oscillations in an Interfacial 2D Electron Gas. Abstract not provided....

  11. Superconducting Topological Insulators

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Superconducting Topological Insulators Superconducting Topological Insulators Print Wednesday, 26 January 2011 00:00 Three-dimensional topological insulators (TIs), discovered experimentally in 2007-2009 by a Princeton-ALS collaboration, are a promising platform for developing the next generation of electronics. Electrons within one nanometer of a TI's surface move at high speeds in a "light-like" fashion. The quantum interactions that generate these electronic states cause individual

  12. Loose-fill insulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-05-01

    Whether you are increasing the insulation levels in your current home or selecting insulation for a new home, choosing the right insulation material can be challenging. Fibrous loose-fill insulations such as cellulose, fiberglass, and rock wool are options you may wish to consider. This publication will introduce you to these materials--what they are, how they are applied, how they compare with each other, and other considerations regarding their use--so that you can decide whether loose fills are right for your home.

  13. GBL-2D Version 1.0: a 2D geometry boolean library.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McBride, Cory L. (Elemental Technologies, American Fort, UT); Schmidt, Rodney Cannon; Yarberry, Victor R.; Meyers, Ray J. (Elemental Technologies, American Fort, UT)

    2006-11-01

    This report describes version 1.0 of GBL-2D, a geometric Boolean library for 2D objects. The library is written in C++ and consists of a set of classes and routines. The classes primarily represent geometric data and relationships. Classes are provided for 2D points, lines, arcs, edge uses, loops, surfaces and mask sets. The routines contain algorithms for geometric Boolean operations and utility functions. Routines are provided that incorporate the Boolean operations: Union(OR), XOR, Intersection and Difference. A variety of additional analytical geometry routines and routines for importing and exporting the data in various file formats are also provided. The GBL-2D library was originally developed as a geometric modeling engine for use with a separate software tool, called SummitView [1], that manipulates the 2D mask sets created by designers of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS). However, many other practical applications for this type of software can be envisioned because the need to perform 2D Boolean operations can arise in many contexts.

  14. Periodically sheared 2D Yukawa systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kovács, Anikó Zsuzsa; Hartmann, Peter; Donkó, Zoltán

    2015-10-15

    We present non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation studies on the dynamic (complex) shear viscosity of a 2D Yukawa system. We have identified a non-monotonic frequency dependence of the viscosity at high frequencies and shear rates, an energy absorption maximum (local resonance) at the Einstein frequency of the system at medium shear rates, an enhanced collective wave activity, when the excitation is near the plateau frequency of the longitudinal wave dispersion, and the emergence of significant configurational anisotropy at small frequencies and high shear rates.

  15. Particle trap with dielectric barrier for use in gas insulated transmission lines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dale, S.J.

    1982-06-15

    A gas-insulated transmission line includes an outer sheath, an inner conductor within the outer sheath, insulating supports supporting the inner conductor within the outer sheath, and an insulating gas electrically insulating the inner conductor from the outer sheath. An apertured particle trapping electrode is disposed within the outer sheath, and the electrode has a pair of dielectric members secured at each longitudinal end thereof, with the dielectric members extending outwardly from the apertured electrode. 7 figs.

  16. Particle trap with dielectric barrier for use in gas insulated transmission lines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dale, Steinar J.

    1982-01-01

    A gas-insulated transmission line includes an outer sheath, an inner conductor within the outer sheath, insulating supports supporting the inner conductor within the outer sheath, and an insulating gas electrically insulating the inner conductor from the outer sheath. An apertured particle trapping electrode is disposed within the outer sheath, and the electrode has a pair of dielectric members secured at each longitudinal end thereof, with the dielectric members extending outwardly from the apertured electrode.

  17. Gas insulated transmission line with insulators having field controlling recesses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cookson, Alan H. (Pittsburgh, PA); Pederson, Bjorn O. (Chelmsford, MA)

    1984-01-01

    A gas insulated transmission line having a novel insulator for supporting an inner conductor concentrically within an outer sheath. The insulator has a recess contiguous with the periphery of one of the outer and inner conductors. The recess is disposed to a depth equal to an optimum gap for the dielectric insulating fluid used for the high voltage insulation or alternately disposed to a large depth so as to reduce the field at the critical conductor/insulator interface.

  18. Insulation Materials | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Materials Insulation Materials Cellulose, a fiber insulation material with a high recycled content, is blown into a home attic. | Photo courtesy of Cellulose Insulation Manufacturers Association. Cellulose, a fiber insulation material with a high recycled content, is blown into a home attic. | Photo courtesy of Cellulose Insulation Manufacturers Association. Blown-in fiberglass insulation thoroughly fills the stud cavities in this home. | Photo courtesy of Bob Hendron, NREL. Blown-in fiberglass

  19. Tips: Insulation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    blown into walls, on attic surfaces, or under floors to insulate and reduce air leakage. ... Consequently, the levels may differ from current local building codes. How Much Insulation ...

  20. Dielectric insulating polyolefin compounds and conductor products insulated therewith

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacKenzie, Jr., Burton T.; Prober, Maurice; Kiersztyn, Stanley E.

    1979-01-01

    Polyolefin compounds containing nitrile polysiloxane fluid which have improved electrical properties, and electrical conductors insulated therewith.

  1. Insulation fact sheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-08-01

    Electricity bills, oil bills, gas bills - all homeowners pay for one or more of these utilities, and wish they paid less. Often many of us do not really know how to control or reduce our utility bills. We resign ourselves to high bills because we think that is the price we have to pay for a comfortable home. We encourage our children to turn off the lights and appliances, but may not recognize the benefits of insulating the attic. This publication provides facts relative to home insulation. It discusses where to insulate, what products to use, the decision making process, installation options, and sources of additional information.

  2. Cooper Pairs in Insulators?!

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    James Valles

    2010-01-08

    Nearly 50 years elapsed between the discovery of superconductivity and the emergence of the microscopic theory describing this zero resistance state. The explanation required a novel phase of matter in which conduction electrons joined in weakly bound pairs and condensed with other pairs into a single quantum state. Surprisingly, this Cooper pair formation has also been invoked to account for recently uncovered high-resistance or insulating phases of matter. To address this possibility, we have used nanotechnology to create an insulating system that we can probe directly for Cooper pairs. I will present the evidence that Cooper pairs exist and dominate the electrical transport in these insulators and I will discuss how these findings provide new insight into superconductor to insulator quantum phase transitions. 

  3. Method of preventing leakage of a fluid along and through an insulating jacket of a thermocouple

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thermos, Anthony Constantine; Rahal, Fadi Elias

    2002-01-01

    A thermocouple assembly includes a thermocouple; a plurality of lead wires extending from the thermocouple; an insulating jacket extending along and enclosing the plurality of leads; and at least one internally sealed area within the insulating jacket to prevent fluid leakage along and within the insulating jacket. The invention also provides a method of preventing leakage of a fluid along and through an insulating jacket of a thermocouple including the steps of a) attaching a plurality of lead wires to a thermocouple; b) adding a heat sensitive pseudo-wire to extend along the plurality of lead wires; c) enclosing the lead wires and pseudo-wire inside an insulating jacket; d) locally heating axially spaced portions of the insulating jacket to a temperature which melts the pseudo-wire and fuses it with an interior surface of the jacket.

  4. Superconducting Topological Insulators

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Superconducting Topological Insulators Print Three-dimensional topological insulators (TIs), discovered experimentally in 2007-2009 by a Princeton-ALS collaboration, are a promising platform for developing the next generation of electronics. Electrons within one nanometer of a TI's surface move at high speeds in a "light-like" fashion. The quantum interactions that generate these electronic states cause individual electrons to be spin polarized even at room temperature and to strongly

  5. Superconducting Topological Insulators

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Superconducting Topological Insulators Print Three-dimensional topological insulators (TIs), discovered experimentally in 2007-2009 by a Princeton-ALS collaboration, are a promising platform for developing the next generation of electronics. Electrons within one nanometer of a TI's surface move at high speeds in a "light-like" fashion. The quantum interactions that generate these electronic states cause individual electrons to be spin polarized even at room temperature and to strongly

  6. Superconducting Topological Insulators

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Superconducting Topological Insulators Print Three-dimensional topological insulators (TIs), discovered experimentally in 2007-2009 by a Princeton-ALS collaboration, are a promising platform for developing the next generation of electronics. Electrons within one nanometer of a TI's surface move at high speeds in a "light-like" fashion. The quantum interactions that generate these electronic states cause individual electrons to be spin polarized even at room temperature and to strongly

  7. Superconducting Topological Insulators

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Superconducting Topological Insulators Print Three-dimensional topological insulators (TIs), discovered experimentally in 2007-2009 by a Princeton-ALS collaboration, are a promising platform for developing the next generation of electronics. Electrons within one nanometer of a TI's surface move at high speeds in a "light-like" fashion. The quantum interactions that generate these electronic states cause individual electrons to be spin polarized even at room temperature and to strongly

  8. Superconducting Topological Insulators

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Superconducting Topological Insulators Print Three-dimensional topological insulators (TIs), discovered experimentally in 2007-2009 by a Princeton-ALS collaboration, are a promising platform for developing the next generation of electronics. Electrons within one nanometer of a TI's surface move at high speeds in a "light-like" fashion. The quantum interactions that generate these electronic states cause individual electrons to be spin polarized even at room temperature and to strongly

  9. Insulator for laser housing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duncan, D.B.

    1992-12-29

    The present invention provides a heat-resistant electrical insulator adapted for joining laser housing portions, which insulator comprises: an annulus; a channel in the annulus traversing the circumference and length of the housing; at least two ports, each communicating with the channel and an outer surface of the housing; and an attachment for securely attaching each end of the annulus to a laser housing member. 3 figs.

  10. THE VEX RADIATION MODULE: 2D RADIATION TRANSPORT WITH MIMETIC...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    THE VEX RADIATION MODULE: 2D RADIATION TRANSPORT WITH MIMETIC DIFFUSION FOR EXAFLAG Citation Details In-Document Search Title: THE VEX RADIATION MODULE: 2D RADIATION TRANSPORT WITH ...

  11. THE VEX RADIATION MODULE: 2D RADIATION TRANSPORT WITH MIMETIC...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    THE VEX RADIATION MODULE: 2D RADIATION TRANSPORT WITH MIMETIC DIFFUSION FOR EXAFLAG Citation Details In-Document Search Title: THE VEX RADIATION MODULE: 2D RADIATION TRANSPORT WITH...

  12. Generates 2D Input for DYNA NIKE & TOPAZ

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1996-07-15

    MAZE is an interactive program that serves as an input and two-dimensional mesh generator for DYNA2D, NIKE2D, TOPAZ2D, and CHEMICAL TOPAZ2D. MAZE also generates a basic template for ISLAND input. MAZE has been applied to the generation of input data to study the response of two-dimensional solids and structures undergoing finite deformations under a wide variety of large deformation transient dynamic and static problems and heat transfer analyses.

  13. 2d PDE Linear Symmetric Matrix Solver

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1983-10-01

    ICCG2 (Incomplete Cholesky factorized Conjugate Gradient algorithm for 2d symmetric problems) was developed to solve a linear symmetric matrix system arising from a 9-point discretization of two-dimensional elliptic and parabolic partial differential equations found in plasma physics applications, such as resistive MHD, spatial diffusive transport, and phase space transport (Fokker-Planck equation) problems. These problems share the common feature of being stiff and requiring implicit solution techniques. When these parabolic or elliptic PDE''s are discretized withmore » finite-difference or finite-element methods,the resulting matrix system is frequently of block-tridiagonal form. To use ICCG2, the discretization of the two-dimensional partial differential equation and its boundary conditions must result in a block-tridiagonal supermatrix composed of elementary tridiagonal matrices. The incomplete Cholesky conjugate gradient algorithm is used to solve the linear symmetric matrix equation. Loops are arranged to vectorize on the Cray1 with the CFT compiler, wherever possible. Recursive loops, which cannot be vectorized, are written for optimum scalar speed. For matrices lacking symmetry, ILUCG2 should be used. Similar methods in three dimensions are available in ICCG3 and ILUCG3. A general source containing extensions and macros, which must be processed by a pre-compiler to obtain the standard FORTRAN source, is provided along with the standard FORTRAN source because it is believed to be more readable. The pre-compiler is not included, but pre-compilation may be performed by a text editor as described in the UCRL-88746 Preprint.« less

  14. 2d PDE Linear Asymmetric Matrix Solver

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1983-10-01

    ILUCG2 (Incomplete LU factorized Conjugate Gradient algorithm for 2d problems) was developed to solve a linear asymmetric matrix system arising from a 9-point discretization of two-dimensional elliptic and parabolic partial differential equations found in plasma physics applications, such as plasma diffusion, equilibria, and phase space transport (Fokker-Planck equation) problems. These equations share the common feature of being stiff and requiring implicit solution techniques. When these parabolic or elliptic PDE''s are discretized with finite-difference or finite-elementmore » methods, the resulting matrix system is frequently of block-tridiagonal form. To use ILUCG2, the discretization of the two-dimensional partial differential equation and its boundary conditions must result in a block-tridiagonal supermatrix composed of elementary tridiagonal matrices. A generalization of the incomplete Cholesky conjugate gradient algorithm is used to solve the matrix equation. Loops are arranged to vectorize on the Cray1 with the CFT compiler, wherever possible. Recursive loops, which cannot be vectorized, are written for optimum scalar speed. For problems having a symmetric matrix ICCG2 should be used since it runs up to four times faster and uses approximately 30% less storage. Similar methods in three dimensions are available in ICCG3 and ILUCG3. A general source, containing extensions and macros, which must be processed by a pre-compiler to obtain the standard FORTRAN source, is provided along with the standard FORTRAN source because it is believed to be more readable. The pre-compiler is not included, but pre-compilation may be performed by a text editor as described in the UCRL-88746 Preprint.« less

  15. Pseudospin S = 1 formalism and skyrmion-like excitations in the three-body constrained extended Bose–Hubbard model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moskvin, A. S.

    2015-09-15

    We discuss the most prominent and intensively studied S = 1 pseudospin formalism for the extended bosonic Hubbard model (EBHM) with the on-site Hilbert space truncated to the three lowest occupation states n = 0, 1, 2. The EBHM Hamiltonian is a paradigmatic model for the highly topical field of ultracold gases in optical lattices. The generalized non-Heisenberg effective pseudospin Hamiltonian does provide a deep link with a boson system and a physically clear description of “the myriad of phases,” from uniform Mott insulating phases and density waves to two types of superfluids and supersolids. We argue that the 2D pseudospin system is prone to a topological phase separation and focus on several types of unconventional skyrmion-like topological structures in 2D boson systems, which have not been analyzed until now. The structures are characterized by a complicated interplay of insulating and two superfluid phases with a single- boson and two-boson condensation, respectively.

  16. Innovative Retrofit Insulation Strategies for Concrete Masonry Foundations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huelman, P.; Goldberg, L.; Jacobson, R.

    2015-05-06

    This study was designed to test a new approach for foundation insulation retrofits, with the goal of demonstrating improved moisture control, improved occupant comfort, and reduced heat loss. Because conducting experimental research on existing below-grade assemblies is very difficult, most of the results are based on simulations. The retrofit approach consists of filling open concrete block cores with an insulating material and adding R-10 exterior insulation that extends 1 ft below grade. The core fill is designed to improve the R-value of the foundation wall and increase the interior wall surface temperature, but more importantly to block convection currents that could otherwise increase moisture loads on the foundation wall and interior space. The exterior insulation significantly reduces heat loss through the most exposed part of the foundation and further increases the interior wall surface temperature. This improves occupant comfort and decreases the risk of condensation. Such an insulation package avoids the full-depth excavation necessary for exterior insulation retrofits, reduces costs, and eliminates the moisture and indoor air quality risks associated with interior insulation retrofits. Retrofit costs for the proposed approach were estimated at roughly half those of a full-depth exterior insulation retrofit.

  17. Method and apparatus for fabrication of high gradient insulators with parallel surface conductors spaced less than one millimeter apart

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sanders, David M. (Livermore, CA); Decker, Derek E. (Livermore, CA)

    1999-01-01

    Optical patterns and lithographic techniques are used as part of a process to embed parallel and evenly spaced conductors in the non-planar surfaces of an insulator to produce high gradient insulators. The approach extends the size that high gradient insulating structures can be fabricated as well as improves the performance of those insulators by reducing the scale of the alternating parallel lines of insulator and conductor along the surface. This fabrication approach also substantially decreases the cost required to produce high gradient insulators.

  18. Types of Insulation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    which saves money. Structural Insulated Panels Structural insulated panels (SIPs) are prefabricated insulated structural elements for use in building walls, ceilings, floors,...

  19. Black Mountain Insulation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mountain Insulation Jump to: navigation, search Name: Black Mountain Insulation Place: United Kingdom Sector: Carbon Product: UK-based manufacturer of sheeps wool insulation which...

  20. Types of Insulation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Insulating Concrete Forms Insulating concrete forms (ICFs) are basically forms for poured ... Unfaced boards can then be finished with reinforced insulating cement, canvas, or ...

  1. Physical properties of residential insulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yarbrough, D.W.

    1980-01-01

    Research to evaluate properties, test methods and operating environments for thermal insulations used in residences is an important part of the Building Thermal Envelope Systems and Insulating Materials (BTESIM) program sponsored by the US DOE. Three projects were carried out under the Insulating Materials part of BTESIM. The areas discussed are: (1) the thermal performance of mineral fiber insulating batts, (2) the design density for loose-fill insulations, and (3) the operatio of recesses light fixtures covered by loose-fill cellulosic insulation.

  2. Thermal insulated glazing unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Selkowitz, S.E.; Arasteh, D.K.; Hartmann, J.L.

    1988-04-05

    An improved insulated glazing unit is provided which can attain about R5 to about R10 thermal performance at the center of the glass while having dimensions about the same as those of a conventional double glazed insulated glazing unit. An outer glazing and inner glazing are sealed to a spacer to form a gas impermeable space. One or more rigid, non-structural glazings are attached to the inside of the spacer to divide the space between the inner and outer glazings to provide insulating gaps between glazings of from about 0.20 inches to about 0.40 inches. One or more glazing surfaces facing each thermal gap are coated with a low emissivity coating. Finally, the thermal gaps are filled with a low conductance gas such as krypton gas. 2 figs.

  3. Thermal insulated glazing unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Selkowitz, Stephen E. (Piedmont, CA); Arasteh, Dariush K. (Oakland, CA); Hartmann, John L. (Seattle, WA)

    1991-01-01

    An improved insulated glazing unit is provided which can attain about R5 to about R10 thermal performance at the center of the glass while having dimensions about the same as those of a conventional double glazed insulated glazing unit. An outer glazing and inner glazing are sealed to a spacer to form a gas impermeable space. One or more rigid, non-structural glazings are attached to the inside of the spacer to divide the space between the inner and outer glazings to provide insulating gaps between glazings of from about 0.20 inches to about 0.40 inches. One or more glazing surfaces facing each thermal gap are coated with a low emissivity coating. Finally, the thermal gaps are filled with a low conductance gas such as krypton gas.

  4. Vertically aligned gas-insulated transmission line having particle traps at the inner conductor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dale, Steinar J.

    1984-01-01

    Gas insulated electrical apparatus having first and second conductors separated by an insulating support within an insulating gas environment, and particle traps disposed along the surface of the high potential conductor for trapping and inactivating foreign particles which may be present within the insulating gas medium. Several embodiments of the invention were developed which are particularly suited for vertically aligned gas insulated transmission lines. The particle traps are grooves or cavities formed into the walls of the tubular inner conductor, without extending into the hollow portion of the conductor. In other embodiments, the traps are appendages or insert flanges extending from the inner conductor, with the insulator supports contacting the appendages instead of the inner conductor.

  5. 2D 'Flat' Boron Yields a Superconducting Surprise

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2D 'Flat' Boron Yields a Superconducting Surprise 2D 'Flat' Boron Yields a Superconducting Surprise Simulations Run at NERSC Help Reveal Material's Superconducting Superpowers April 22, 2016 2Dboron Electrons with opposite momenta and spins pair up via lattice vibrations at low temperatures in 2D boron and give it superconducting properties. Image: Evgeni Penev, Rice University Density functional theory simulations run at NERSC helped Rice University researchers determine that two-dimensional

  6. A Geometric Boolean Library for 2D Objects

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2006-01-05

    The 2D Boolean Library is a collection of C++ classes -- which primarily represent 2D geometric data and relationships, and routines -- which contain algorithms for 2D geometric Boolean operations and utility functions. Classes are provided for 2D points, lines, arcs, edgeuses, loops, surfaces and mask sets. Routines are provided that incorporate the Boolean operations Union(OR), XOR, Intersection and Difference. Various analytical geometry routines and routines for importing and exporting the data in various filemore » formats, are also provided in the library.« less

  7. R2D Ingenierie SAS | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: R2D Ingenierie SAS Place: Montpellier, France Product: French automation equipment manufacturer for PV cells and semiconductor chips. Coordinates:...

  8. Peg supported thermal insulation panel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nowobilski, J.J.; Owens, W.J.

    1985-04-30

    A thermal insulation panel which is lightweight, load bearing, accommodates thermal stress, and has excellent high temperature insulation capability comprises high performance insulation between thin metal walls supported by high density, high strength glass pegs made in compliance with specified conditions of time, temperature and pressure. 2 figs.

  9. Peg supported thermal insulation panel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nowobilski, Jeffert J.; Owens, William J.

    1985-01-01

    A thermal insulation panel which is lightweight, load bearing, accommodates thermal stress, and has excellent high temperature insulation capability comprising high performance insulation between thin metal walls supported by high density, high strength glass pegs made in compliance with specified conditions of time, temperature and pressure.

  10. Contaminant trap for gas-insulated apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adcock, J.L.; Pace, M.O.; Christophorou, L.G.

    1984-01-01

    A resinous body is placed in gas-insulated electrical apparatus to remove particulate material from the insulating gas.

  11. AnisWave2D: User's Guide to the 2d Anisotropic Finite-DifferenceCode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toomey, Aoife

    2005-01-06

    This document describes a parallel finite-difference code for modeling wave propagation in 2D, fully anisotropic materials. The code utilizes a mesh refinement scheme to improve computational efficiency. Mesh refinement allows the grid spacing to be tailored to the velocity model, so that fine grid spacing can be used in low velocity zones where the seismic wavelength is short, and coarse grid spacing can be used in zones with higher material velocities. Over-sampling of the seismic wavefield in high velocity zones is therefore avoided. The code has been implemented to run in parallel over multiple processors and allows large-scale models and models with large velocity contrasts to be simulated with ease.

  12. Elk Falls Extended Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Elizabeth Spencer About Us Elizabeth Spencer - Communicator, National Renewable Energy Laboratory Elizabeth Spencer is a communicator at DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory, which assists EERE in providing technical content for many of its Web sites. Most Recent The Story of a House that Never Stayed Warm: A Well-Insulated Resolution April 8 Insulation Troubles: A Story of a House That Never Stayed Warm, Part 2 November 10 Insulation Troubles: A Story of a House That Never Stayed Warm,

  13. Compact vacuum insulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1993-01-05

    An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially point'' or line'' contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form line'' contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively point'' contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included.

  14. Compact vacuum insulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, David K.; Potter, Thomas F.

    1993-01-01

    An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially "point" or "line" contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form "line" contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively "point" contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included.

  15. Compact vacuum insulation embodiments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, David K.; Potter, Thomas F.

    1992-01-01

    An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially "point" or "line" contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form "line" contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively "point" contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included.

  16. Compact vacuum insulation embodiments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1992-04-28

    An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially point' or line' contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form line' contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively point' contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included. 26 figs.

  17. Gas filled panel insulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Griffith, B.T.; Arasteh, D.K.; Selkowitz, S.E.

    1993-12-14

    A structural or flexible highly insulative panel which may be translucent, is formed from multi-layer polymeric material in the form of an envelope surrounding a baffle. The baffle is designed so as to minimize heat transfer across the panel, by using material which forms substantially closed spaces to suppress convection of the low conductivity gas fill. At least a portion of the baffle carries a low emissivity surface for suppression of infrared radiation. 18 figures.

  18. Gas filled panel insulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Griffith, Brent T.; Arasteh, Dariush K.; Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    1993-01-01

    A structural or flexible highly insulative panel which may be translucent, is formed from multi-layer polymeric material in the form of an envelope surrounding a baffle. The baffle is designed so as to minimize heat transfer across the panel, by using material which forms substantially closed spaces to suppress convection of the low conductivity gas fill. At least a portion of the baffle carries a low emissivity surface for suppression of infrared radiation.

  19. Improved DC Gun Insulator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.L. Neubauer, K.B. Beard, R. Sah, C. Hernandez-Garcia, G. Neil

    2009-05-01

    Many user facilities such as synchrotron light sources and free electron lasers require accelerating structures that support electric fields of 10-100 MV/m, especially at the start of the accelerator chain where ceramic insulators are used for very high gradient DC guns. These insulators are difficult to manufacture, require long commissioning times, and have poor reliability, in part because energetic electrons bury themselves in the ceramic, creating a buildup of charge and causing eventual puncture. A novel ceramic manufacturing process is proposed. It will incorporate bulk resistivity in the region where it is needed to bleed off accumulated charge caused by highly energetic electrons. This process will be optimized to provide an appropriate gradient in bulk resistivity from the vacuum side to the air side of the HV standoff ceramic cylinder. A computer model will be used to determine the optimum cylinder dimensions and required resistivity gradient for an example RF gun application. A ceramic material example with resistivity gradient appropriate for use as a DC gun insulator will be fabricated by glazing using doping compounds and tested.

  20. Comparison of 2D and 3D gamma analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pulliam, Kiley B.; Huang, Jessie Y.; Howell, Rebecca M.; Followill, David; Kry, Stephen F.; Bosca, Ryan; ODaniel, Jennifer

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: As clinics begin to use 3D metrics for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) quality assurance, it must be noted that these metrics will often produce results different from those produced by their 2D counterparts. 3D and 2D gamma analyses would be expected to produce different values, in part because of the different search space available. In the present investigation, the authors compared the results of 2D and 3D gamma analysis (where both datasets were generated in the same manner) for clinical treatment plans. Methods: Fifty IMRT plans were selected from the authors clinical database, and recalculated using Monte Carlo. Treatment planning system-calculated (evaluated dose distributions) and Monte Carlo-recalculated (reference dose distributions) dose distributions were compared using 2D and 3D gamma analysis. This analysis was performed using a variety of dose-difference (5%, 3%, 2%, and 1%) and distance-to-agreement (5, 3, 2, and 1 mm) acceptance criteria, low-dose thresholds (5%, 10%, and 15% of the prescription dose), and data grid sizes (1.0, 1.5, and 3.0 mm). Each comparison was evaluated to determine the average 2D and 3D gamma, lower 95th percentile gamma value, and percentage of pixels passing gamma. Results: The average gamma, lower 95th percentile gamma value, and percentage of passing pixels for each acceptance criterion demonstrated better agreement for 3D than for 2D analysis for every plan comparison. The average difference in the percentage of passing pixels between the 2D and 3D analyses with no low-dose threshold ranged from 0.9% to 2.1%. Similarly, using a low-dose threshold resulted in a difference between the mean 2D and 3D results, ranging from 0.8% to 1.5%. The authors observed no appreciable differences in gamma with changes in the data density (constant difference: 0.8% for 2D vs 3D). Conclusions: The authors found that 3D gamma analysis resulted in up to 2.9% more pixels passing than 2D analysis. It must be noted

  1. Technical Review of the UNET2D Hydraulic Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perkins, William A.; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2009-05-18

    The Kansas City District of the US Army Corps of Engineers is engaged in a broad range of river management projects that require knowledge of spatially-varied hydraulic conditions such as velocities and water surface elevations. This information is needed to design new structures, improve existing operations, and assess aquatic habitat. Two-dimensional (2D) depth-averaged numerical hydraulic models are a common tool that can be used to provide velocity and depth information. Kansas City District is currently using a speci?c 2D model, UNET2D, that has been developed to meet the needs of their river engineering applications. This report documents a tech- nical review of UNET2D.

  2. ARM - SGP Extended Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Extended Facility SGP Related Links Virtual Tour Facilities and Instruments Central Facility Boundary Facility Extended Facility Intermediate Facility Radiometric Calibration...

  3. Differentiation of surface and bulk conductivities in topological insulator via four-probe spectroscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Xiaoguang; McGuire, Michael A.; Chen, Yong P.; Li, An -Ping; Durand, Corentin; Hus, Saban M.; Ma, Chuanxu; Hu, Yang; Cao, Helin; Miotkowski, Ireneusz

    2016-03-08

    Topological insulators, with characteristic topological surface states, have emerged as a new state of matter with rich potentials for both fundamental physics and device applications. However, the experimental detection of the surface transport has been hampered by the unavoidable extrinsic conductivity associated with the bulk crystals. Here we show that a four-probe transport spectroscopy in a multi-probe scanning tunneling microscopy system can be used to differentiate conductivities from the surface states and the coexisting bulk states in topological insulators. We derive a scaling relation of measured resistance with respect to varying inter-probe spacing for two interconnected conduction channels, which allowsmore » quantitative determination of conductivities from both channels. Using this method, we demonstrate the separation of 2D and 3D conduction in topological insulators by comparing the conductance scaling of Bi2Se3, Bi2Te2Se, and Sb-doped Bi2Se3 with that of a pure 2D conductance of graphene on SiC substrate. We also report the 2D conductance enhancement due to the surface doping effect in topological insulators. This technique can be applied to reveal 2D to 3D crossover of conductance in other complex systems.« less

  4. Thermal insulations using vacuum panels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glicksman, Leon R.; Burke, Melissa S.

    1991-07-16

    Thermal insulation vacuum panels are formed of an inner core of compressed low thermal conductivity powders enclosed by a ceramic/glass envelope evaluated to a low pressure.

  5. Insulation Materials | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Insulation and Energy Efficiency Information: Home Energy: The Magazine of Residential Energy Conservation Addthis Related Articles In existing homes, cellulose (here) or other...

  6. Compact vacuum insulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1992-10-27

    Improved compact insulation panel is provided which is comprised of two adjacent metal sheets spaced close together with a plurality of spherical, or other discretely shaped, glass or ceramic beads optimally positioned between the sheets to provide support and maintain the spacing between the metal sheets when the gases there between are evacuated to form a vacuum. These spherical glass beads provide the maximum support while minimizing thermal conductance. In its preferred embodiment; these two metal sheets are textured with ribs or concave protrusions in conjunction with the glass beads to maximize the structural integrity of the panels while increasing the spacing between beads, thereby reducing the number of beads and the number of thermal conduction paths. Glass or porcelain-enameled liners in combination with the glass spacers and metal sidewalls effectively decrease thermal conductivity, and various laminates, including wood, porcelain-enameled metal, and others effectively increase the strength and insulation capabilities of the panels. Also, a metal web is provided to hold the spacers in place, and strategic grooves are shown to accommodate expansion and contraction or shaping of the panels. 35 figs.

  7. Compact vacuum insulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, David K.; Potter, Thomas F.

    1992-01-01

    Improved compact insulation panel is provided which is comprised of two adjacent metal sheets spaced close together with a plurality of spherical, or other discretely shaped, glass or ceramic beads optimally positioned between the sheets to provide support and maintain the spacing between the metal sheets when the gases therebetween are evacuated to form a vacuum. These spherical glass beads provide the maximum support while minimizing thermal conductance. In its preferred embodiment; these two metal sheets are textured with ribs or concave protrusions in conjunction with the glass beads to maximize the structural integrity of the panels while increasing the spacing between beads, thereby reducing the number of beads and the number of thermal conduction paths. Glass or porcelain-enameled liners in combination with the glass spacers and metal sidewalls effectively decrease thermal conductivity, and variious laminates, including wood, porcelain-enameled metal, and others effectively increase the strength and insulation capabilities of the panels. Also, a metal web is provided to hold the spacers in place, and strategic grooves are shown to accommodate expansion and contraction or shaping of the panels.

  8. Electrical wire insulation and electromagnetic coil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bich, George J.; Gupta, Tapan K.

    1984-01-01

    An electromagnetic coil for high temperature and high radiation application in which glass is used to insulate the electrical wire. A process for applying the insulation to the wire is disclosed which results in improved insulation properties.

  9. Wall Insulation; BTS Technology Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Southface Energy Institute; Tromly, K.

    2000-11-07

    Properly sealed, moisture-protected, and insulated walls help increase comfort, reduce noise, and save on energy costs. This fact sheet addresses these topics plus advanced framing techniques, insulation types, wall sheathings, and steps for effective wall construction and insulation.

  10. Technology Solutions Case Study: Insulating Concrete Forms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2012-10-01

    This Pacific Northwest National Laboratory project investigated insulating concrete forms—rigid foam, hollow walls that are filled with concrete for highly insulated, hurricane-resistant construction.

  11. Solar Decathlon Technology Spotlight: Structural Insulated Panels...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Structural insulated panels (SIPs) are prefabricated structural elements used to build walls, ceilings, floors, and roofs. Made of foam insulation sandwiched between two layers of ...

  12. Flipping Photoelectron Spins in Topological Insulators

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The interior bulk of a topological insulator is an insulator, but electrons (grey spheres) move swiftly on the surface as if through a metal. They are spin polarized,...

  13. SEALED INSULATOR BUSHING

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carmichael, H.

    1952-11-11

    The manufacture of electrode insulators that are mechanically strong, shock-proof, vacuum tight, and are capable of withstanding gas pressures of many atmospheres under intense neutron bombardment, such as may be needed in an ionization chamber, is described. The ansulator comprises a bolt within a quartz tube, surrounded by a bushing held in place by two quartz rings, and tightened to a pressure of 1,000 pounds per square inch by a nut and washer. Quartz is the superior material to meet these conditions, however, to withstand this pressure the quartz must be fire polished, lapped to form smooth and parallel surfaces, and again fire polished to form an extremely smooth and fracture resistant mating surface.

  14. Metallization of electronic insulators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gottesfeld, Shimshon (Los Alamos, NM); Uribe, Francisco A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1994-01-01

    An electroplated element is formed to include an insulating substrate, a conducting polymer polymerized in situ on the substrate, and a metal layer deposited on the conducting polymer. In one application a circuit board is formed by polymerizing pyrrole on an epoxy-fiberglass substrate in a single step process and then electrodepositing a metal over the resulting polypyrrole polymer. No chemical deposition of the metal is required prior to electroplating and the resulting layer of substrate-polymer-metal has excellent adhesion characteristics. The metal deposition is surprisingly smooth and uniform over the relatively high resistance film of polypyrrole. A continuous manufacturing process is obtained by filtering the solution between successive substrates to remove polymer formed in the solution, by maintaining the solution oxidizing potential within selected limits, and by adding a strong oxidant, such as KMnO.sub.4 at periodic intervals to maintain a low sheet resistivity in the resulting conducting polymer film.

  15. Multiple layer insulation cover

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farrell, James J.; Donohoe, Anthony J.

    1981-11-03

    A multiple layer insulation cover for preventing heat loss in, for example, a greenhouse, is disclosed. The cover is comprised of spaced layers of thin foil covered fabric separated from each other by air spaces. The spacing is accomplished by the inflation of spaced air bladders which are integrally formed in the cover and to which the layers of the cover are secured. The bladders are inflated after the cover has been deployed in its intended use to separate the layers of the foil material. The sizes of the material layers are selected to compensate for sagging across the width of the cover so that the desired spacing is uniformly maintained when the cover has been deployed. The bladders are deflated as the cover is stored thereby expediting the storage process and reducing the amount of storage space required.

  16. Two-dimensional topological insulators with tunable band gaps: Single-layer HgTe and HgSe

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Jin; He, Chaoyu; Meng, Lijun; Xiao, Huaping; Tang, Chao; Wei, Xiaolin; Kim, Jinwoong; Kioussis, Nicholas; Stocks, G. Malcolm; Zhong, Jianxin

    2015-09-14

    Here, we report that two-dimensional (2D) topological insulators (TIs) with large band gaps are of great importance for the future applications of quantum spin Hall (QSH) effect. Employing ab initio electronic calculations we propose a novel type of 2D topological insulators, the monolayer (ML) low-buckled (LB) mercury telluride (HgTe) and mercury selenide (HgSe), with tunable band gap. We demonstrate that LB HgTe (HgSe) monolayers undergo a trivial insulator to topological insulator transition under in-plane tensile strain of 2.6% (3.1%) due to the combination of the strain and the spin orbital coupling (SOC) effects. Furthermore, the band gaps can be tunedmore » up to large values (0.2 eV for HgTe and 0.05 eV for HgSe) by tensile strain, which far exceed those of current experimentally realized 2D quantum spin Hall insulators. Our results suggest a new type of material suitable for practical applications of 2D TI at room-temperature.« less

  17. Spatially separated excitons in 2D and 1D

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    separated excitons in 2D and 1D David Abergel March 10th, 2015 D.S.L. Abergel 3/10/15 1 / 24 Outline 1 Introduction 2 Spatially separated excitons in 2D - The role of disorder 3 Spatially separated excitons in 1D D.S.L. Abergel 3/10/15 2 / 24 Introduction D.S.L. Abergel 3/10/15 3 / 24 The fundamental idea Key ingredients: Independent contacts to each layer High degree of nesting of Fermi surfaces Low SP tunneling rate between layers Picture credit: Kharitonov et al., Phys. Rev. B 78 Phase

  18. Patterned Arrays of Lateral Heterojunctions within Monolayer 2D Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahjouri-Samani, Masoud; Lin, Ming-Wei; Wang, Kai; Lupini, Andrew R; Lee, Jaekwang; Basile Carrasco, Leonardo A; Rouleau, Christopher M; Boulesbaa, Abdelaziz; Puretzky, Alexander A; Ivanov, Ilia N; Xiao, Kai; Yoon, Mina; Geohegan, David B

    2015-01-01

    The formation of semiconductor heterojunctions and their high density integration are foundations of modern electronics and optoelectronics. To enable two-dimensional (2D) crystalline semiconductors as building blocks in next generation electronics, developing methods to deterministically form lateral heterojunctions is crucial. Here we demonstrate a process strategy for the formation of lithographically-patterned lateral semiconducting heterojunctions within a single 2D crystal. E-beam lithography is used to pattern MoSe2 monolayer crystals with SiO2, and the exposed locations are selectively and totally converted to MoS2 using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) of sulfur in order to form MoSe2/MoS2 heterojunctions in predefined patterns. The junctions and conversion process are characterized by atomically resolved scanning transmission electron microscopy, photoluminescence, and Raman spectroscopy. This demonstration of lateral semiconductor heterojunction arrays within a single 2D crystal is an essential step for the lateral integration of 2D semiconductor building blocks with different electronic and optoelectronic properties for high-density, ultrathin circuitry.

  19. ELLIPT2D: A Flexible Finite Element Code Written Python

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pletzer, A.; Mollis, J.C.

    2001-03-22

    The use of the Python scripting language for scientific applications and in particular to solve partial differential equations is explored. It is shown that Python's rich data structure and object-oriented features can be exploited to write programs that are not only significantly more concise than their counter parts written in Fortran, C or C++, but are also numerically efficient. To illustrate this, a two-dimensional finite element code (ELLIPT2D) has been written. ELLIPT2D provides a flexible and easy-to-use framework for solving a large class of second-order elliptic problems. The program allows for structured or unstructured meshes. All functions defining the elliptic operator are user supplied and so are the boundary conditions, which can be of Dirichlet, Neumann or Robbins type. ELLIPT2D makes extensive use of dictionaries (hash tables) as a way to represent sparse matrices.Other key features of the Python language that have been widely used include: operator over loading, error handling, array slicing, and the Tkinter module for building graphical use interfaces. As an example of the utility of ELLIPT2D, a nonlinear solution of the Grad-Shafranov equation is computed using a Newton iterative scheme. A second application focuses on a solution of the toroidal Laplace equation coupled to a magnetohydrodynamic stability code, a problem arising in the context of magnetic fusion research.

  20. Patterned Arrays of Lateral Heterojunctions within Monolayer 2D Semiconductors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mahjouri-Samani, Masoud; Lin, Ming-Wei; Wang, Kai; Lupini, Andrew R; Lee, Jaekwang; Basile Carrasco, Leonardo A; Rouleau, Christopher M; Boulesbaa, Abdelaziz; Puretzky, Alexander A; Ivanov, Ilia N; et al

    2015-01-01

    The formation of semiconductor heterojunctions and their high density integration are foundations of modern electronics and optoelectronics. To enable two-dimensional (2D) crystalline semiconductors as building blocks in next generation electronics, developing methods to deterministically form lateral heterojunctions is crucial. Here we demonstrate a process strategy for the formation of lithographically-patterned lateral semiconducting heterojunctions within a single 2D crystal. E-beam lithography is used to pattern MoSe2 monolayer crystals with SiO2, and the exposed locations are selectively and totally converted to MoS2 using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) of sulfur in order to form MoSe2/MoS2 heterojunctions in predefined patterns. The junctions and conversionmoreprocess are characterized by atomically resolved scanning transmission electron microscopy, photoluminescence, and Raman spectroscopy. This demonstration of lateral semiconductor heterojunction arrays within a single 2D crystal is an essential step for the lateral integration of 2D semiconductor building blocks with different electronic and optoelectronic properties for high-density, ultrathin circuitry.less

  1. Insulation Materials | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... These pellets can be poured into place or mixed with cement to create a lightweight, less heat-conductive concrete. Urea-Formaldehyde Foam Insulation Material Urea-formaldehyde ...

  2. Measure Guideline: Basement Insulation Basics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aldrich, R.; Mantha, P.; Puttagunta, S.

    2012-10-01

    This guideline is intended to describe good practices for insulating basements in new and existing homes, and is intended to be a practical resources for building contractors, designers, and also to homeowners.

  3. Measure Guideline. Basement Insulation Basics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aldrich, R.; Mantha, P.; Puttagunta, S.

    2012-10-01

    This guideline is intended to describe good practices for insulating basements in new and existing homes, and to be a practical resource for building contractors, designers, and also to homeowners.

  4. Variable pressure thermal insulating jacket

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, P.A.; Malecha, R.F.; Chilenskas, A.A.

    1994-09-20

    A device for controlled insulation of a thermal device is disclosed. The device includes a thermal jacket with a closed volume able to be evacuated to form an insulating jacket around the thermal source. A getter material is in communication with the closed volume of the thermal jacket. The getter material can absorb and desorb a control gas to control gas pressure in the volume of the thermal jacket to control thermal conductivity in the thermal jacket. 10 figs.

  5. Fully synthetic taped insulation cables

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsyth, Eric B. (Brookhaven, NY); Muller, Albert C. (Center Moriches, NY)

    1984-01-01

    A high voltage oil-impregnated electrical cable with fully polymer taped insulation operable to 765 kV. Biaxially oriented, specially processed, polyethylene, polybutene or polypropylene tape with an embossed pattern is wound in multiple layers over a conductive core with a permeable screen around the insulation. Conventional oil which closely matches the dielectric constant of the tape is used, and the cable can be impregnated after field installation because of its excellent impregnation characteristics.

  6. Variable pressure thermal insulating jacket

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Paul A. (Wheaton, IL); Malecha, Richard F. (Naperville, IL); Chilenskas, Albert A. (Chicago, IL)

    1994-01-01

    A device for controlled insulation of a thermal device. The device includes a thermal jacket with a closed volume able to be evacuated to form an insulating jacket around the thermal source. A getter material is in communcation with the closed volume of the thermal jacket. The getter material can absorb and desorb a control gas to control gas pressure in the volume of the thermal jacket to control thermal conductivity in the thermal jacket.

  7. Extend the Operating Life of Your Motor | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Extend the Operating Life of Your Motor Extend the Operating Life of Your Motor Certain components of motors degrade with time and operating stress. Electrical insulation weakens over time with exposure to voltage unbalance, over and undervoltage, voltage disturbances, and temperature. Contact between moving surfaces causes wear. Wear is affected by dirt, moisture, and corrosive fumes and is greatly accelerated when lubricant is misapplied, becomes overheated or contaminated, or is not replaced

  8. 2D FEM Heat Transfer & E&M Field Code

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-04-02

    TOPAZ and TOPAZ2D are two-dimensional implicit finite element computer codes for heat transfer analysis. TOPAZ2D can also be used to solve electrostatic and magnetostatic problems. The programs solve for the steady-state or transient temperature or electrostatic and magnetostatic potential field on two-dimensional planar or axisymmetric geometries. Material properties may be temperature or potential-dependent and either isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time and temperature-dependent boundary conditions can be specified including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation.more » By implementing the user subroutine feature, users can model chemical reaction kinetics and allow for any type of functional representation of boundary conditions and internal heat generation. The programs can solve problems of diffuse and specular band radiation in an enclosure coupled with conduction in the material surrounding the enclosure. Additional features include thermal contact resistance across an interface, bulk fluids, phase change, and energy balances.« less

  9. 2D FEM Heat Transfer & E&M Field Code

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-04-02

    TOPAZ and TOPAZ2D are two-dimensional implicit finite element computer codes for heat transfer analysis. TOPAZ2D can also be used to solve electrostatic and magnetostatic problems. The programs solve for the steady-state or transient temperature or electrostatic and magnetostatic potential field on two-dimensional planar or axisymmetric geometries. Material properties may be temperature or potential-dependent and either isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time and temperature-dependent boundary conditions can be specified including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation.moreBy implementing the user subroutine feature, users can model chemical reaction kinetics and allow for any type of functional representation of boundary conditions and internal heat generation. The programs can solve problems of diffuse and specular band radiation in an enclosure coupled with conduction in the material surrounding the enclosure. Additional features include thermal contact resistance across an interface, bulk fluids, phase change, and energy balances.less

  10. 2D Monolayers Could Yield Thinnest Solar Cells Ever

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thinnest solar cells ever 2D Monolayers Could Yield Thinnest Solar Cells Ever October 21, 2013 Contact: Kathy Kincade, +1 510 495 2124, kkincade@lbl.gov Efforts to improve solar cells have historically focused on improving energy conversion efficiencies and lowering manufacturing costs. But new computer simulations have shown how using a different type of material could yield thinner, more lightweight solar panels that provide power densities - watts per kilogram of material - orders of

  11. 2D Gridded Surface Data Value-Added Product

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 2D Gridded Surface Data Value-Added Product Q Tang S Xie July 2015 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned

  12. Thermal shock resistance ceramic insulator (Patent) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Patent: Thermal shock resistance ceramic insulator Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Thermal shock resistance ceramic insulator Thermal shock resistant cermet insulators ...

  13. Insulation for New Home Construction | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Articles Spray foam insulation fills the nooks and crannies in the walls of this energy-efficient Florida home. | Photo courtesy of FSECIBACOS. Insulation Adding insulation in...

  14. Where to Insulate in a Home | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    to improve your home's energy efficiency. Insulate either the attic floor or under the roof. Check with a contractor about crawl space or basement insulation. Tips: Insulation...

  15. 2D Seismic Reflection Data across Central Illinois

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Valerie; Leetaru, Hannes

    2014-09-30

    In a continuing collaboration with the Midwest Geologic Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) on the Evaluation of the Carbon Sequestration Potential of the Cambro-Ordovician Strata of the Illinois and Michigan Basins project, Schlumberger Carbon Services and WesternGeco acquired two-dimensional (2D) seismic data in the Illinois Basin. This work included the design, acquisition and processing of approximately 125 miles of (2D) seismic reflection surveys running west to east in the central Illinois Basin. Schlumberger Carbon Services and WesternGeco oversaw the management of the field operations (including a pre-shoot planning, mobilization, acquisition and de-mobilization of the field personnel and equipment), procurement of the necessary permits to conduct the survey, post-shoot closure, processing of the raw data, and provided expert consultation as needed in the interpretation of the delivered product. Three 2D seismic lines were acquired across central Illinois during November and December 2010 and January 2011. Traversing the Illinois Basin, this 2D seismic survey was designed to image the stratigraphy of the Cambro-Ordovician sections and also to discern the basement topography. Prior to this survey, there were no regionally extensive 2D seismic data spanning this section of the Illinois Basin. Between the NW side of Morgan County and northwestern border of Douglas County, these seismic lines ran through very rural portions of the state. Starting in Morgan County, Line 101 was the longest at 93 miles in length and ended NE of Decatur, Illinois. Line 501 ran W-E from the Illinois Basin – Decatur Project (IBDP) site to northwestern Douglas County and was 25 miles in length. Line 601 was the shortest and ran N-S past the IBDP site and connected lines 101 and 501. All three lines are correlated to well logs at the IBDP site. Originally processed in 2011, the 2D seismic profiles exhibited a degradation of signal quality below ~400 millisecond (ms) which made

  16. Black liquor gasification phase 2D final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohl, A.L.; Stewart, A.E.

    1988-06-01

    This report covers work conducted by Rockwell International under Amendment 5 to Subcontract STR/DOE-12 of Cooperative Agreement DE-AC-05-80CS40341 between St. Regis Corporation (now Champion International) and the Department of Energy (DOE). The work has been designated Phase 2D of the overall program to differentiate it from prior work under the same subcontract. The overall program is aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of and providing design data for the Rockwell process for gasifying Kraft black liquor. In this process, concentrated black liquor is converted into low-Btu fuel gas and reduced melt by reaction with air in a specially designed gasification reactor.

  17. 110th Congress 2D Session H.R. 5746

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    VerDate Aug 31 2005 03:31 Apr 11, 2008 Jkt 069200 PO 00000 Frm 00001 Fmt 6652 Sfmt 6201 E:\BILLS\H5746.IH H5746 wwoods2 on PRODPC68 with BILLS I 110TH CONGRESS 2D SESSION H. R. 5746 To amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to establish the infrastructure foundation for the hydrogen economy, and for other purposes. IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES APRIL 9, 2008 Mr. LARSON of Connecticut (for himself, Mr. DENT, Mr. WYNN, Mr. INGLIS of South Carolina, Ms. DELAURO, Mr. DOYLE, Mr. HOLDEN, Mr. WAMP,

  18. Transport Experiments on 2D Correlated Electron Physics in Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsui, Daniel

    2014-03-24

    This research project was designed to investigate experimentally the transport properties of the 2D electrons in Si and GaAs, two prototype semiconductors, in several new physical regimes that were previously inaccessible to experiments. The research focused on the strongly correlated electron physics in the dilute density limit, where the electron potential energy to kinetic energy ratio rs>>1, and on the fractional quantum Hall effect related physics in nuclear demagnetization refrigerator temperature range on samples with new levels of purity and controlled random disorder.

  19. Thermal shock resistance ceramic insulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morgan, Chester S. (Oak Ridge, TN); Johnson, William R. (Maynardville, TN)

    1980-01-01

    Thermal shock resistant cermet insulators containing 0.1-20 volume % metal present as a dispersed phase. The insulators are prepared by a process comprising the steps of (a) providing a first solid phase mixture of a ceramic powder and a metal precursor; (b) heating the first solid phase mixture above the minimum decomposition temperature of the metal precursor for no longer than 30 minutes and to a temperature sufficiently above the decomposition temperature to cause the selective decomposition of the metal precursor to the metal to provide a second solid phase mixture comprising particles of ceramic having discrete metal particles adhering to their surfaces, said metal particles having a mean diameter no more than 1/2 the mean diameter of the ceramic particles, and (c) densifying the second solid phase mixture to provide a cermet insulator having 0.1-20 volume % metal present as a dispersed phase.

  20. Process for making ceramic insulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Akash, Akash; Balakrishnan, G. Nair

    2009-12-08

    A method is provided for producing insulation materials and insulation for high temperature applications using novel castable and powder-based ceramics. The ceramic components produced using the proposed process offers (i) a fine porosity (from nano-to micro scale); (ii) a superior strength-to-weight ratio; and (iii) flexibility in designing multilayered features offering multifunctionality which will increase the service lifetime of insulation and refractory components used in the solid oxide fuel cell, direct carbon fuel cell, furnace, metal melting, glass, chemical, paper/pulp, automobile, industrial heating, coal, and power generation industries. Further, the ceramic components made using this method may have net-shape and/or net-size advantages with minimum post machining requirements.

  1. Use of finite volume radiation for predicting the Knudsen minimum in 2D channel flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malhotra, Chetan P.; Mahajan, Roop L.

    2014-12-09

    In an earlier paper we employed an analogy between surface-to-surface radiation and free-molecular flow to model Knudsen flow through tubes and onto planes. In the current paper we extend the analogy between thermal radiation and molecular flow to model the flow of a gas in a 2D channel across all regimes of rarefaction. To accomplish this, we break down the problem of gaseous flow into three sub-problems (self-diffusion, mass-motion and generation of pressure gradient) and use the finite volume method for modeling radiation through participating media to model the transport in each sub-problem as a radiation problem. We first model molecular self-diffusion in the stationary gas by modeling the transport of the molecular number density through the gas starting from the analytical asymptote for free-molecular flow to the kinetic theory limit of gaseous self-diffusion. We then model the transport of momentum through the gas at unit pressure gradient to predict Poiseuille flow and slip flow in the 2D gas. Lastly, we predict the generation of pressure gradient within the gas due to molecular collisions by modeling the transport of the forces generated due to collisions per unit volume of gas. We then proceed to combine the three radiation problems to predict flow of the gas over the entire Knudsen number regime from free-molecular to transition to continuum flow and successfully capture the Knudsen minimum at Kn ? 1.

  2. 2D Gridded Surface Data Value-Added Product

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Q; Xie, S

    2015-08-30

    This report describes the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Best Estimate (ARMBE) 2-dimensional (2D) gridded surface data (ARMBE2DGRID) value-added product. Spatial variability is critically important to many scientific studies, especially those that involve processes of great spatial variations at high temporal frequency (e.g., precipitation, clouds, radiation, etc.). High-density ARM sites deployed at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) allow us to observe the spatial patterns of variables of scientific interests. The upcoming megasite at SGP with its enhanced spatial density will facilitate the studies at even finer scales. Currently, however, data are reported only at individual site locations at different time resolutions for different datastreams. It is difficult for users to locate all the data they need and requires extra effort to synchronize the data. To address these problems, the ARMBE2DGRID value-added product merges key surface measurements at the ARM SGP sites and interpolates the data to a regular 2D grid to facilitate the data application.

  3. MESH2D GRID GENERATOR DESIGN AND USE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flach, G.; Smith, F.

    2012-01-20

    Mesh2d is a Fortran90 program designed to generate two-dimensional structured grids of the form [x(i),y(i,j)] where [x,y] are grid coordinates identified by indices (i,j). The x(i) coordinates alone can be used to specify a one-dimensional grid. Because the x-coordinates vary only with the i index, a two-dimensional grid is composed in part of straight vertical lines. However, the nominally horizontal y(i,j{sub 0}) coordinates along index i are permitted to undulate or otherwise vary. Mesh2d also assigns an integer material type to each grid cell, mtyp(i,j), in a user-specified manner. The complete grid is specified through three separate input files defining the x(i), y(i,j), and mtyp(i,j) variations. The overall mesh is constructed from grid zones that are typically then subdivided into a collection of smaller grid cells. The grid zones usually correspond to distinct materials or larger-scale geometric shapes. The structured grid zones are identified through uppercase indices (I,J). Subdivision of zonal regions into grid cells can be done uniformly, or nonuniformly using either a polynomial or geometric skewing algorithm. Grid cells may be concentrated backward, forward, or toward both ends. Figure 1 illustrates the above concepts in the context of a simple four zone grid.

  4. Insulation board and process of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nowobilski, Jeffert J.; Owens, William J.

    1985-01-01

    Insulation board capable of bearing a load without significant loss of insulating capacity due to compression, produced by a method wherein the board is made in compliance with specified conditions of time, temperature and pressure.

  5. Basement Insulation Systems- Building America Top Innovation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Building America Innovations profile describes Building America research on basement insulation, which identifies the wall installation methods and materials that perform best in terms of insulation and water resistance.

  6. Flipping Photoelectron Spins in Topological Insulators

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Flipping Photoelectron Spins in Topological Insulators Flipping Photoelectron Spins in Topological Insulators Print Tuesday, 23 April 2013 10:00 Inherently strange crystalline materials called 3D topological insulators (TIs) are all the rage in materials science. This new phase of condensed matter is an insulator in the bulk, yet behaves like a metal on its surface, even at room temperature. The electrons that flow swiftly across the surfaces of TIs are "spin polarized", meaning the

  7. Types of Insulation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Weatherize » Insulation » Types of Insulation Types of Insulation In existing homes, cellulose (here) or other loose-fill materials can be installed in building cavities through holes drilled (usually) on the exterior of the house. After the installation, the holes are plugged and finish materials replaced. | Photo courtesy of Cellulose Insulation Manufacturers Association. In existing homes, cellulose (here) or other loose-fill materials can be installed in building cavities through holes

  8. Carpe Diem: Install Insulated Roman Shades

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    As I mentioned in yesterday's blog, I had insulated window quilts installed on most of my home's windows.

  9. Training: Mechanical Insulation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mechanical Insulation Training: Mechanical Insulation April 16, 2014 - 6:34pm Addthis Learn about the diverse training sessions offered. The courses are taught by highly qualified instructors who have met rigorous standards. View additional plant-wide resources. Mechanical Insulation Education and Awareness E-Learning Series Availability: Online self-paced workshop. The Mechanical Insulation Education & Awareness Campaign, or MIC, is an eLearning series offered by the U.S. Department of

  10. Interactive initialization of 2D/3D rigid registration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gong, Ren Hui; Gler, zgr; Krkloglu, Mustafa; Lovejoy, John; Yaniv, Ziv

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: Registration is one of the key technical components in an image-guided navigation system. A large number of 2D/3D registration algorithms have been previously proposed, but have not been able to transition into clinical practice. The authors identify the primary reason for the lack of adoption with the prerequisite for a sufficiently accurate initial transformation, mean target registration error of about 10 mm or less. In this paper, the authors present two interactive initialization approaches that provide the desired accuracy for x-ray/MR and x-ray/CT registration in the operating room setting. Methods: The authors have developed two interactive registration methods based on visual alignment of a preoperative image, MR, or CT to intraoperative x-rays. In the first approach, the operator uses a gesture based interface to align a volume rendering of the preoperative image to multiple x-rays. The second approach uses a tracked tool available as part of a navigation system. Preoperatively, a virtual replica of the tool is positioned next to the anatomical structures visible in the volumetric data. Intraoperatively, the physical tool is positioned in a similar manner and subsequently used to align a volume rendering to the x-ray images using an augmented reality (AR) approach. Both methods were assessed using three publicly available reference data sets for 2D/3D registration evaluation. Results: In the authors' experiments, the authors show that for x-ray/MR registration, the gesture based method resulted in a mean target registration error (mTRE) of 9.3 5.0 mm with an average interaction time of 146.3 73.0 s, and the AR-based method had mTREs of 7.2 3.2 mm with interaction times of 44 32 s. For x-ray/CT registration, the gesture based method resulted in a mTRE of 7.4 5.0 mm with an average interaction time of 132.1 66.4 s, and the AR-based method had mTREs of 8.3 5.0 mm with interaction times of 58 52 s. Conclusions: Based on the authors

  11. Vacuum-insulated catalytic converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, David K.

    2001-01-01

    A catalytic converter has an inner canister that contains catalyst-coated substrates and an outer canister that encloses an annular, variable vacuum insulation chamber surrounding the inner canister. An annular tank containing phase-change material for heat storage and release is positioned in the variable vacuum insulation chamber a distance spaced part from the inner canister. A reversible hydrogen getter in the variable vacuum insulation chamber, preferably on a surface of the heat storage tank, releases hydrogen into the variable vacuum insulation chamber to conduct heat when the phase-change material is hot and absorbs the hydrogen to limit heat transfer to radiation when the phase-change material is cool. A porous zeolite trap in the inner canister absorbs and retains hydrocarbons from the exhaust gases when the catalyst-coated substrates and zeolite trap are cold and releases the hydrocarbons for reaction on the catalyst-coated substrate when the zeolite trap and catalyst-coated substrate get hot.

  12. R25 Polyisocyanurate Composite Insulation Material | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    R25 Polyisocyanurate Composite Insulation Material R25 Polyisocyanurate Composite Insulation Material R25 Polyisocyanurate Composite Insulation Material R25 Polyisocyanurate Composite Insulation Material R25 Polyisocyanurate Composite Insulation Material R25 Polyisocyanurate Composite Insulation Material Lead Performer: Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) - Oak Ridge, TN Partners: -- NanoPore Inc. - Albuquerque, NM; -- Firestone Building Products Company - Indianapolis, IN DOE Funding:

  13. Hybrid particle traps and conditioning procedure for gas insulated transmission lines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dale, Steinar J.; Cookson, Alan H.

    1982-01-01

    A gas insulated transmission line includes an outer sheath, an inner condor within the outer sheath, insulating supports supporting the inner conductor within the outer sheath, and an insulating gas electrically insulating the inner conductor from the outer sheath. An apertured particle trapping ring is disposed within the outer sheath, and the trapping ring has a pair of dielectric members secured at each longitudinal end thereof, with the dielectric members extending outwardly from the trapping ring along an arc. A support sheet having an adhesive coating thereon is secured to the trapping ring and disposed on the outer sheath within the low field region formed between the trapping ring and the outer sheath. A conditioning method used to condition the transmission line prior to activation in service comprises applying an AC voltage to the inner conductor in a plurality of voltage-time steps, with the voltage-time steps increasing in voltage magnitude while decreasing in time duration.

  14. Retrospective analysis of 2D patient-specific IMRT verifications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Childress, Nathan L.; White, R. Allen; Bloch, Charles; Salehpour, Mohammad; Dong, Lei; Rosen, Isaac I.

    2005-04-01

    We performed 858 two-dimensional (2D) patient-specific intensity modulated radiotherapy verifications over a period of 18 months. Multifield, composite treatment plans were measured in phantom using calibrated Kodak EDR2 film and compared with the calculated dose extracted from two treatment planning systems. This research summarizes our findings using the normalized agreement test (NAT) index and the percent of pixels failing the gamma index as metrics to represent the agreement between measured and computed dose distributions. An in-house dose comparison software package was used to register and compare all verifications. We found it was important to use an automatic positioning algorithm to achieve maximum registration accuracy, and that our automatic algorithm agreed well with anticipated results from known phantom geometries. We also measured absolute dose for each case using an ion chamber. Because the computed distributions agreed with ion chamber measurements better than the EDR2 film doses, we normalized EDR2 data to the computed distributions. The distributions of both the NAT indices and the percentage of pixels failing the gamma index were found to be exponential distributions. We continue to use both the NAT index and percent of pixels failing gamma with 5%/3 mm criteria to evaluate future verifications, as these two metrics were found to be complementary. Our data showed that using 2%/2 mm or 3%/3 mm criteria produces results similar to those using 5%/3 mm criteria. Normalized comparisons that have a NAT index greater than 45 and/or more than 20% of the pixels failing gamma for 5%/3 mm criteria represent outliers from our clinical data set and require further analysis. Because our QA verification results were exponentially distributed, rather than a tight grouping of similar results, we continue to perform patient-specific QA in order to identify and correct outliers in our verifications. The data from this work could be useful as a reference for

  15. SUPPORTING AND HEAT INSULATING MEANS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Birmingham, B.W.; Brown, H.; Scott, R.B.; Vander-arend, P.C.

    1959-01-27

    A method is described for simultaneously supporting inner and outer members spaced from each other and heat insulating them from each other comprising an inner and outer member together defining an annular cavity. Each member carries a shoulder projecting towards the other member. A stack of annular metal plates in the cavity is held between the shoulder of the outer member and the shoulder of the inner member. The edges of the metal plate forming the stack are exposed to the cavity and to evacuation conditions which may exist within thc cavity. The stack of metal plates acts to both support one of the members with respect to the other and as a heat insulator.

  16. High temperature structural insulating material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, W.Y.

    1984-07-27

    A high temperature structural insulating material useful as a liner for cylinders of high temperature engines through the favorable combination of high service temperature (above about 800/sup 0/C), low thermal conductivity (below about 0.2 W/m/sup 0/C), and high compressive strength (above about 250 psi). The insulating material is produced by selecting hollow ceramic beads with a softening temperature above about 800/sup 0/C, a diameter within the range of 20-200 ..mu..m, and a wall thickness in the range of about 2 to 4 ..mu..m; compacting the beads and a compatible silicate binder composition under pressure and sintering conditions to provide the desired structural form with the structure having a closed-cell, compact array of bonded beads.

  17. High temperature structural insulating material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Wayne Y.

    1987-01-01

    A high temperature structural insulating material useful as a liner for cylinders of high temperature engines through the favorable combination of high service temperature (above about 800.degree. C.), low thermal conductivity (below about 0.2 W/m.degree. C.), and high compressive strength (above about 250 psi). The insulating material is produced by selecting hollow ceramic beads with a softening temperature above about 800.degree. C., a diameter within the range of 20-200 .mu.m, and a wall thickness in the range of about 2-4 .mu.m; compacting the beads and a compatible silicate binder composition under pressure and sintering conditions to provide the desired structural form with the structure having a closed-cell, compact array of bonded beads.

  18. Insulation for a Thermionic Microbattery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James P. Blanchard

    2004-09-19

    Microelectronmechanical Systems (MEMS) have not gained wide use because they lack the on-device power required by many important applications. To supply this need power, on can consider power from fossil fuels, but nuclear sources provide an intriguing option in terms of power density and lifetime. In order to make use of alpha particles, one is forced to use thermal approaches because diodes are damaged by the high energy of the alpha particles, one is forced to use thermal approaches because diodes are damaged by the high energy of the alphas. One difficulty, though, is that the surface to volume ration increases as we move to smaller scales and heat losses thus become significant at MEMS scales. Hence, efficient microscale insulation is needed to permit high overall efficiencies. This research explores concepts for one variety of microscale insulation created using MEMS fabrication techniques.

  19. Magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bacon, Larry D.; Ballard, William P.; Clark, M. Collins; Marder, Barry M.

    1988-01-01

    A magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator employs self-generated magnetic fields to generate microwave energy. An anode of the oscillator includes slow-wave structures which are formed of a plurality of thin conductive vanes defining cavities therebetween, and a gap is formed between the anode and a cathode of the oscillator. In response to a pulsed voltage applied to the anode and cathode, self-generated magnetic fields arfe produced in a cross-field orientation with respect to the orientation of the electric field between the anode and the cathode. The cross-field magnetic fields insulate the flow of electrons in the gap and confine the flow of electrons within the gap.

  20. Magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bacon, L.D.; Ballard, W.P.; Clark, M.C.; Marder, B.M.

    1987-05-19

    A magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator employs self-generated magnetic fields to generate microwave energy. An anode of the oscillator includes slow-wave structures which are formed of a plurality of thin conductive vanes defining cavities therebetween, and a gap is formed between the anode and a cathode of the oscillator. In response to a pulsed voltage applied to the anode and cathode, self-generated magnetic fields are produced in a cross-field orientation with respect to the orientation of the electric field between the anode and the cathode. The cross-field magnetic fields insulate the flow of electrons in the gap and confine the flow of electrons within the gap. 11 figs.

  1. Magnetic instability of Kondo insulators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Ziqiang [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)]|[Boston Univ., MA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Li, Xiao-Ping [Rutgers--the State Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States). Serin Physics Lab.; Lee, Dung-Hai [International Business Machines Corp., Yorktown Heights, NY (United States). Thomas J. Watson Research Center

    1993-09-01

    We review a number of experiments on isoelectronic, isostructural ternary compounds CeTSn (T=Ni,Pd,Sn) and alloys CeNi{sub 1-x}(Pd,Pt){sub x}Sn, and propose a finite temperature phase diagram describing the evolution of a Kondo insulator to an antiferromagnetic Kondo state with decreasing hybridization or Kondo coupling. We then provide microscopic justifications for the phase diagram by analyzing the magnetic properties of the symmetric Kondo lattice model in two dimensions.

  2. 2D/3D registration algorithm for lung brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zvonarev, P. S.; Farrell, T. J.; Hunter, R.; Wierzbicki, M.; Hayward, J. E.; Sur, R. K.

    2013-02-15

    Purpose: A 2D/3D registration algorithm is proposed for registering orthogonal x-ray images with a diagnostic CT volume for high dose rate (HDR) lung brachytherapy. Methods: The algorithm utilizes a rigid registration model based on a pixel/voxel intensity matching approach. To achieve accurate registration, a robust similarity measure combining normalized mutual information, image gradient, and intensity difference was developed. The algorithm was validated using a simple body and anthropomorphic phantoms. Transfer catheters were placed inside the phantoms to simulate the unique image features observed during treatment. The algorithm sensitivity to various degrees of initial misregistration and to the presence of foreign objects, such as ECG leads, was evaluated. Results: The mean registration error was 2.2 and 1.9 mm for the simple body and anthropomorphic phantoms, respectively. The error was comparable to the interoperator catheter digitization error of 1.6 mm. Preliminary analysis of data acquired from four patients indicated a mean registration error of 4.2 mm. Conclusions: Results obtained using the proposed algorithm are clinically acceptable especially considering the complications normally encountered when imaging during lung HDR brachytherapy.

  3. Image Appraisal for 2D and 3D Electromagnetic Inversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alumbaugh, D.L.; Newman, G.A.

    1999-01-28

    Linearized methods are presented for appraising image resolution and parameter accuracy in images generated with two and three dimensional non-linear electromagnetic inversion schemes. When direct matrix inversion is employed, the model resolution and posterior model covariance matrices can be directly calculated. A method to examine how the horizontal and vertical resolution varies spatially within the electromagnetic property image is developed by examining the columns of the model resolution matrix. Plotting the square root of the diagonal of the model covariance matrix yields an estimate of how errors in the inversion process such as data noise and incorrect a priori assumptions about the imaged model map into parameter error. This type of image is shown to be useful in analyzing spatial variations in the image sensitivity to the data. A method is analyzed for statistically estimating the model covariance matrix when the conjugate gradient method is employed rather than a direct inversion technique (for example in 3D inversion). A method for calculating individual columns of the model resolution matrix using the conjugate gradient method is also developed. Examples of the image analysis techniques are provided on 2D and 3D synthetic cross well EM data sets, as well as a field data set collected at the Lost Hills Oil Field in Central California.

  4. Design of wheel motor using Maxwell 2D simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, G.H.; Tseng, K.J.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents a high efficiency direct wheel motor drive for electric vehicles (EVs). The proposed motor is a permanent magnet square-wave motor whose rotor with rare earth magnets forms the outside of the motor to be set within each rear wheel tire to realize the direct drive. The inner stator with its windings is rigidly linked to the suspension and frame structure of the vehicle. In order to achieve the direct drive without any mechanical transmission for EVs, the wheel motor has been designed as a low-speed high-torque motor. The design and optimization of the motor was done with the aid of finite element electromagnetic field analysis using the Maxwell 2D Simulator software. The motor parameters and characteristics can be accurately calculated and predicted in terms of field computation and analysis results. The design procedure of the 6.6 kW, 1,000 rpm wheel motor and its technical data are given in this paper.

  5. Topological Insulators at Room Temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Haijun; Liu, Chao-Xing; Qi, Xiao-Liang; Dai, Xi; Fang, Zhong; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2010-03-25

    Topological insulators are new states of quantum matter with surface states protected by the time-reversal symmetry. In this work, we perform first-principle electronic structure calculations for Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3}, Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 3}, Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} crystals. Our calculations predict that Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3}, Bi{sub 2}T e{sub 3} and Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} are topological insulators, while Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 3} is not. In particular, Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} has a topologically non-trivial energy gap of 0.3eV , suitable for room temperature applications. We present a simple and unified continuum model which captures the salient topological features of this class of materials. These topological insulators have robust surface states consisting of a single Dirac cone at the {Lambda} point.

  6. 2-D and 3-D Models of Convective Turbulence and Oscillations...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    2-D and 3-D Models of Convective Turbulence and Oscillations in Intermediate-Mass Main-Sequence Stars Citation Details In-Document Search Title: 2-D and 3-D Models of Convective ...

  7. A 2D Radiation Transport Package with Mimetic Diffusion for ExaFlag...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A 2D Radiation Transport Package with Mimetic Diffusion for ExaFlag Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A 2D Radiation Transport Package with Mimetic Diffusion for ExaFlag ...

  8. A 2D Radiation Transport Package with Mimetic Diffusion for ExaFlag...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A 2D Radiation Transport Package with Mimetic Diffusion for ExaFlag Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A 2D Radiation Transport Package with Mimetic Diffusion for ExaFlag...

  9. High pressure electrical insulated feed thru connector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oeschger, Joseph E.; Berkeland, James E.

    1979-11-13

    A feed-thru type hermetic electrical connector including at least one connector pin feeding through an insulator block within the metallic body of the connector shell. A compression stop arrangement coaxially disposed about the insulator body is brazed to the shell, and the shoulder on the insulator block bears against this top in a compression mode, the high pressure or internal connector being at the opposite end of the shell. Seals between the pin and an internal bore at the high pressure end of the insulator block and between the insulator block and the metallic shell at the high pressure end are hermetically brazed in place, the first of these also functioning to transfer the axial compressive load without permitting appreciable shear action between the pin and insulator block.

  10. Unconventional Fermi surface in an insulating state

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, Neil; Tan, B. S.; Hsu, Y. -T.; Zeng, B.; Hatnean, M. Ciomaga; Zhu, Z.; Hartstein, M.; Kiourlappou, M.; Srivastava, A.; Johannes, M. D.; Murphy, T. P.; Park, J. -H.; Balicas, L.; Lonzarich, G. G.; Balakrishnan, G.; Sebastian, Suchitra E.

    2015-07-17

    Insulators occur in more than one guise; a recent finding was a class of topological insulators, which host a conducting surface juxtaposed with an insulating bulk. Here, we report the observation of an unusual insulating state with an electrically insulating bulk that simultaneously yields bulk quantum oscillations with characteristics of an unconventional Fermi liquid. We present quantum oscillation measurements of magnetic torque in high-purity single crystals of the Kondo insulator SmB6, which reveal quantum oscillation frequencies characteristic of a large three-dimensional conduction electron Fermi surface similar to the metallic rare earth hexaborides such as PrB6 and LaB6. As a result, the quantum oscillation amplitude strongly increases at low temperatures, appearing strikingly at variance with conventional metallic behavior.

  11. Foam insulated transfer line test report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Squier, D.M.

    1994-06-01

    Miles of underground insulated piping will be installed at the Hanford site to transfer liquid waste. Significant cost savings may be realized by using pre-fabricated polyurethane foam insulated piping. Measurements were made on sections of insulated pipe to determine the insulation`s resistance to axial expansion of the pipe, the force required to compress the foam in the leg of an expansion loop and the time required for heat up and cool down of a buried piping loop. These measurements demonstrated that the peak axial force increases with the amount of adhesion between the encasement pipe and the insulation. The compressive strength of the foam is too great to accommodate the thermal growth of long straight pipe sections into the expansion loops. Mathematical models of the piping system`s thermal behavior can be refined by data from the heated piping loop.

  12. Flipping Photoelectron Spins in Topological Insulators

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Flipping Photoelectron Spins in Topological Insulators Print Inherently strange crystalline materials called 3D topological insulators (TIs) are all the rage in materials science. This new phase of condensed matter is an insulator in the bulk, yet behaves like a metal on its surface, even at room temperature. The electrons that flow swiftly across the surfaces of TIs are "spin polarized", meaning the electron's spin is locked to its momentum, perpendicular to the direction of travel.

  13. Flipping Photoelectron Spins in Topological Insulators

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Flipping Photoelectron Spins in Topological Insulators Print Inherently strange crystalline materials called 3D topological insulators (TIs) are all the rage in materials science. This new phase of condensed matter is an insulator in the bulk, yet behaves like a metal on its surface, even at room temperature. The electrons that flow swiftly across the surfaces of TIs are "spin polarized", meaning the electron's spin is locked to its momentum, perpendicular to the direction of travel.

  14. Flipping Photoelectron Spins in Topological Insulators

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Flipping Photoelectron Spins in Topological Insulators Print Inherently strange crystalline materials called 3D topological insulators (TIs) are all the rage in materials science. This new phase of condensed matter is an insulator in the bulk, yet behaves like a metal on its surface, even at room temperature. The electrons that flow swiftly across the surfaces of TIs are "spin polarized", meaning the electron's spin is locked to its momentum, perpendicular to the direction of travel.

  15. Flipping Photoelectron Spins in Topological Insulators

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Flipping Photoelectron Spins in Topological Insulators Print Inherently strange crystalline materials called 3D topological insulators (TIs) are all the rage in materials science. This new phase of condensed matter is an insulator in the bulk, yet behaves like a metal on its surface, even at room temperature. The electrons that flow swiftly across the surfaces of TIs are "spin polarized", meaning the electron's spin is locked to its momentum, perpendicular to the direction of travel.

  16. Flipping Photoelectron Spins in Topological Insulators

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Flipping Photoelectron Spins in Topological Insulators Print Inherently strange crystalline materials called 3D topological insulators (TIs) are all the rage in materials science. This new phase of condensed matter is an insulator in the bulk, yet behaves like a metal on its surface, even at room temperature. The electrons that flow swiftly across the surfaces of TIs are "spin polarized", meaning the electron's spin is locked to its momentum, perpendicular to the direction of travel.

  17. Flipping Photoelectron Spins in Topological Insulators

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Flipping Photoelectron Spins in Topological Insulators Print Inherently strange crystalline materials called 3D topological insulators (TIs) are all the rage in materials science. This new phase of condensed matter is an insulator in the bulk, yet behaves like a metal on its surface, even at room temperature. The electrons that flow swiftly across the surfaces of TIs are "spin polarized", meaning the electron's spin is locked to its momentum, perpendicular to the direction of travel.

  18. Floating insulated conductors for heating subsurface formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burns, David; Goodwin, Charles R.

    2014-07-29

    A heating system for a subsurface formation includes a conduit located in a first opening in the subsurface formation. Three electrical conductors are located in the conduit. A return conductor is located inside the conduit. The return conductor is electrically coupled to the ends of the electrical conductors distal from the surface of the formation. Insulation is located inside the conduit. The insulation electrically insulates the three electrical conductors, the return conductor, and the conduit from each other.

  19. Studies Bolster Promise of Topological Insulators

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Studies Bolster Promise of Topological Insulators Studies Bolster Promise of Topological Insulators Print Tuesday, 27 November 2012 00:00 A few years ago, a strange new material began to drive research in condensed-matter physics around the world. First theorized and then discovered by researchers at Berkeley Lab and their colleagues in other institutions, these "strong 3D topological insulators"-TIs for short-are seemingly mundane semiconductors with startling properties. Not only are

  20. Extendable pipe crawler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hapstack, M.

    1991-05-28

    A pipe crawler is described having a front leg assembly and a back leg assembly connected together by two air cylinders, each leg assembly having four extendable legs and a pair of actuators for sliding the extendable legs radially outward to increase the range of the legs when the pipe crawler enters a section of a pipe having a larger diameter. The crawler crawls by inchworm'-like motion, the front leg assembly and back leg assembly alternately engaging and disengaging the wall of the pipe to hold the pipe crawler as the air cylinders alternately advance the front leg assembly and bring up the rear leg assembly. The pair of actuators of each leg assembly are parallel, adjacent and opposing acting so that each slides two adjacent extendable legs radially outward. 5 figures.

  1. Extendable pipe crawler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hapstack, Mark

    1991-01-01

    A pipe crawler having a front leg assembly and a back leg assembly connected together by two air cylinders, each leg assembly having four extendable legs and a pair of actuators for sliding the extendable legs radially outward to increase the range of the legs when the pipe crawler enters a section of a pipe having a larger diameter. The crawler crawls by "inchworm"-like motion, the front leg assembly and back leg assembly alternately engaging and disengaging the wall of the pipe to hold the pipe crawler as the air cylinders alternately advance the front leg assembly and bring up the rear leg assembly. The pair of actuators of each leg assembly are parallel, adjacent and opposing acting so that each slides two adjacent extendable legs radially outward.

  2. Studies Bolster Promise of Topological Insulators

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    states remain "topologically protected"-they can't scatter without breaking the rules of quantum mechanics. Electrons on the surface of a topological insulator can flow with...

  3. Studies Bolster Promise of Topological Insulators

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Studies Bolster Promise of Topological Insulators Print A few years ago, a strange new material began to drive research in condensed-matter physics around the world. First...

  4. Flipping Photoelectron Spins in Topological Insulators

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is an insulator, but electrons (grey spheres) move swiftly on the surface as if through a metal. They are spin polarized, however, with their momenta (directional ribbons) and...

  5. Farmers RECC- Residential Insulation Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Farmers Rural Electric Cooperative (RECC) Button-Up Program provides free energy audits and rebates for insulation upgrades to its residential customers. Farmers RECC's energy advisor will...

  6. Cladding Attachment Over Thick Exterior Rigid Insulation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Double Bending Linear (10 Cantilever) Linear (10 Double Bending) Cladding Attachment ... Compression Strut Function of fastener tension and insulation compression Measured ...

  7. Flipping Photoelectron Spins in Topological Insulators

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Flipping Photoelectron Spins in Topological Insulators Print Inherently strange crystalline materials called 3D ... When energetic photons from a synchrotron light source or laser ...

  8. Issue 5: Optimizing High Levels of Insulation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was given at the Summer 2012 DOE Building America meeting on July 25, 2012, and addressed the question "How much insulation is too much?"

  9. Flipping Photoelectron Spins in Topological Insulators

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Spintronics The ability to shine polarized light on a topological insulator (TI) and excite spin-polarization-tailored electrons has great potential for the field of spintronics - ...

  10. Connecting Thermoelectric Performance and Topological-Insulator...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Publisher's Accepted Manuscript: Connecting Thermoelectric Performance and Topological-Insulator Behavior: BiTe and BiTeSe from First Principles Prev Next Title: ...

  11. Fabricate-on-Demand Vacuum Insulating Glazings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    PPG is working to design a fabricate-on-demand process to overcome the cost and supply chain issues preventing widespread adoption of vacuum insulating glazings (VIGs).

  12. Building America Expert Meeting: Interior Insulation Retrofit...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Extensive information was presented on assessment of risk factors for premature building deterioration due to interior insulation retrofits, and methods to reduce such risks. It ...

  13. How Much Insulation is Too Much?

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was given at the Summer 2012 DOE Building America meeting on July 25, 2012, and addressed the question "How much insulation is too much?"

  14. Processing of insulators and semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quick, Nathaniel R.; Joshi, Pooran C.; Duty, Chad Edward; Jellison, Jr., Gerald Earle; Angelini, Joseph Attilio

    2015-06-16

    A method is disclosed for processing an insulator material or a semiconductor material. The method includes pulsing a plasma lamp onto the material to diffuse a doping substance into the material, to activate the doping substance in the material or to metallize a large area region of the material. The method may further include pulsing a laser onto a selected region of the material to diffuse a doping substance into the material, to activate the doping substance in the material or to metallize a selected region of the material.

  15. Fully synthetic taped insulation cables

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsyth, E.B.; Muller, A.C.

    1983-07-15

    The present invention is a cable which, although constructed from inexpensive polyolefin tapes and using typical impregnating oils, furnishes high voltage capability up to 765 kV, and has such excellent dielectric characteristics and heat transfer properties that it is capable of operation at capacities equal to or higher than presently available cables at a given voltage. This is accomplished by using polyethylene, polybutene or polypropylene insulating tape which has been specially processed to attain properties which are not generally found in these materials, but are required for their use in impregnated electrical cables. Chief among these properties is compatibility with impregnating oil.

  16. Electrically insulating and sealing frame

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guthrie, Robin J. (East Hartford, CT)

    1983-11-08

    A combination gas seal and electrical insulator having a closed frame shape interconnects a fuel cell stack and a reactant gas plenum of a fuel cell generator. The frame can be of rectangular shape including at least one slidable spline connection in each side to permit expansion or contraction consistent with that of the walls of the gas plenum and fuel cell stack. The slidable spline connections in the frame sides minimizes lateral movement between the frame side members and sealing material interposed between the frame and the fuel cell stack or between the frame and the reactant gas plenum.

  17. Electron flow stability in magnetically insulated vacuum transmission lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rose, D. V.; Genoni, T. C.; Clark, R. E.; Welch, D. R. [Voss Scientific, LLC, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87108 (United States); Stygar, W. A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    We evaluate the stability of electron current flow in high-power magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITLs). A detailed model of electron flow in cross-field gaps yields a dispersion relation for electromagnetic (EM) transverse magnetic waves [R. C. Davidson et al., Phys. Fluids 27, 2332 (1984)] which is solved numerically to obtain growth rates for unstable modes in various sheath profiles. These results are compared with two-dimensional (2D) EM particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of electron flow in high-power MITLs. We find that the macroscopic properties (charge and current densities and self-fields) of the equilibrium profiles observed in the simulations are well represented by the laminar-flow model of Davidson et al. Idealized simulations of sheared flow in electron sheaths yield growth rates for both long (diocotron) and short (magnetron) wavelength instabilities that are in good agreement with the dispersion analysis. We conclude that electron sheaths that evolve self-consistently from space-charged-limited emission of electrons from the cathode in well-resolved 2D EM PIC simulations form stable profiles.

  18. Electron flow stability in magnetically insulated vacuum transmission lines.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Genoni, Thomas C. (Voss Scientific, LLC, Albuquerque, NM); Stygar, William A.; Welch, Dale Robert (Voss Scientific, LLC, Albuquerque, NM); Clark, R. E. (Voss Scientific, LLC, Albuquerque, NM); Rose, David V. (Voss Scientific, LLC, Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-11-01

    We evaluate the stability of electron current flow in high-power magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITLs). A detailed model of electron flow in cross-field gaps yields a dispersion relation for electromagnetic (EM) transverse magnetic waves [R. C. Davidson et al., Phys. Fluids 27, 2332 (1984)] which is solved numerically to obtain growth rates for unstable modes in various sheath profiles. These results are compared with two-dimensional (2D) EM particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of electron flow in high-power MITLs. We find that the macroscopic properties (charge and current densities and self-fields) of the equilibrium profiles observed in the simulations are well represented by the laminar-flow model of Davidson et al. Idealized simulations of sheared flow in electron sheaths yield growth rates for both long (diocotron) and short (magnetron) wavelength instabilities that are in good agreement with the dispersion analysis. We conclude that electron sheaths that evolve self-consistently from space-charged-limited emission of electrons from the cathode in well-resolved 2D EM PIC simulations form stable profiles.

  19. Orbital disc insulator for SF.sub.6 gas-insulated bus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bacvarov, Dosio C.; Gomarac, Nicholas G.

    1977-01-01

    An insulator for supporting a high voltage conductor within a gas-filled grounded housing consists of radially spaced insulation rings fitted to the exterior of the bus and the interior of the grounded housing respectively, and the spaced rings are connected by trefoil type rings which are integrally formed with the spaced insulation rings.

  20. Corona processing of insulating oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohwein, G.J.

    1996-07-01

    It is well known that sustained corona discharge in insulating oil lowers its dielectric strength and simultaneously reduces its corona resistance. Therefore, for operating stresses in the corona regime, activity typically increases with time and, if allowed to continue, eventually leads to breakdown of the oil and failure of the component or system. It is, therefore, common practice to periodically replace oil in devices such as large power transformers and switch gear before breakdown occurs. Sealed components such as capacitors are typically replaced. Recent experiments have demonstrated that the dielectric properties of corona weakened oil can not only be restored, but actually improved by a simple regeneration process. These experiments were carried out on high voltage pulse transformer windings which were operated at high rep rates until partial discharges formed. Reprocessing the oil after each operating cycle resulted in successively longer operational periods before partial discharges appeared. In a separate experiment, a process was developed to precondition transformer oil to raise its corona inception voltage before using it to insulate a high voltage component, thus giving it a longer initial service life for a given operating stress or permitting higher stress operation for limited operating times.

  1. Low-cost exterior insulation process and structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vohra, A.

    1999-03-02

    A low-cost exterior insulation process of stacking bags of insulating material against a wall and covering them with wire mesh and stucco provides a durable structure with good insulating value. 2 figs.

  2. Low-cost exterior insulation process and structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vohra, Arun

    1999-01-01

    A low-cost exterior insulation process of stacking bags of insulating material against a wall and covering them with wire mesh and stucco provides a durable structure with good insulating value.

  3. Kingspan Insulated Panels: Order (2013-CE-5353)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered Kingspan Insulated Panels, Inc. to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding Kingspan Insulated Panels had failed to certify that any basic models of walk-in cooler and freezer components comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  4. Insulation board and process of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nowobilski, J.J.; Owens, W.J.

    1985-08-27

    Insulation board is described which is capable of bearing a load without significant loss of insulating capacity due to compression, produced by a method wherein the board is made in compliance with specified conditions of time, temperature and pressure. 2 figs.

  5. Uniform insulation applied-B ion diode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seidel, David B.; Slutz, Stephen A.

    1988-01-01

    An applied-B field extraction ion diode has uniform insulation over an anode surface for increased efficiency. When the uniform insulation is accomplished with anode coils, and a charge-exchange foil is properly placed, the ions may be focused at a point on the z axis.

  6. Adding Insulation to an Existing Home | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Weatherize » Insulation » Adding Insulation to an Existing Home Adding Insulation to an Existing Home Adding insulation in an existing home saves money and improves comfort. | Photo courtesy of Dennis Schroeder, NREL. Adding insulation in an existing home saves money and improves comfort. | Photo courtesy of Dennis Schroeder, NREL. Unless your home was specially constructed for energy efficiency, you can probably reduce your energy bills by adding more insulation. Many older homes have less

  7. Non-local order in Mott insulators, duality and Wilson loops

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rath, Steffen Patrick; Simeth, Wolfgang; Endres, Manuel; Zwerger, Wilhelm

    2013-07-15

    It is shown that the Mott insulating and superfluid phases of bosons in an optical lattice may be distinguished by a non-local parity order parameter which is directly accessible via single site resolution imaging. In one dimension, the lattice Bose model is dual to a classical interface roughening problem. We use known exact results from the latter to prove that the parity order parameter exhibits long range order in the Mott insulating phase, consistent with recent experiments by Endres et al. [M. Endres, M. Cheneau, T. Fukuhara, C. Weitenberg, P. Schau, C. Gross, L. Mazza, M.C. Bauls, L. Pollet, I. Bloch, et al., Science 334 (2011) 200]. In two spatial dimensions, the parity order parameter can be expressed in terms of an equal time Wilson loop of a non-trivial U(1) gauge theory in 2+1 dimensions which exhibits a transition between a Coulomb and a confining phase. The negative logarithm of the parity order parameter obeys a perimeter law in the Mott insulator and is enhanced by a logarithmic factor in the superfluid. -- Highlights: Number statistics of cold atoms in optical lattices show non-local correlations. These correlations are measurable via single site resolution imaging. Incompressible phases exhibit an area law in particle number fluctuations. This leads to long-range parity order of Mott-insulators in one dimension. Parity order in 2d is connected with a Wilson-loop in a lattice gauge theory.

  8. Observation of a Macroscopically Quantum-Entangled Insulator

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Observation of a Macroscopically Quantum-Entangled Insulator Observation of a Macroscopically Quantum-Entangled Insulator Print Wednesday, 27 May 2009 00:00 It has recently been...

  9. Surface theory of a family of topological Kondo insulators (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Surface theory of a family of topological Kondo insulators Prev Next Title: Surface theory of a family of topological Kondo insulators Authors: Roy, Bitan ; Sau, Jay D. ; ...

  10. Thermal shock resistance ceramic insulator (Patent) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Patent: Thermal shock resistance ceramic insulator Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Thermal shock resistance ceramic insulator You are accessing a document from the ...

  11. New developments in the area of topological insulators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Felser, Claudia; Yan, Binghai; Chadov, Stanislav; Kübler, Jürgen; Müchler, Lukas; Zhang, Shoucheng

    2015-12-31

    Topological insulators are a hot topic in condensed matter physics. A new topological insulator has been identified in cerium-filled skutterudite (FS) compounds.

  12. Computational Design of Axion Insulators Based on 5 d Spinel...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Computational Design of Axion Insulators Based on 5 d Spinel Compounds Title: Computational Design of Axion Insulators Based on 5 d Spinel Compounds Authors: Wan, Xiangang ; ...

  13. Exterior Rigid Insulation Best Practices - Building America Top...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Exterior Rigid Insulation Best Practices - Building America Top Innovation Exterior Rigid Insulation Best Practices - Building America Top Innovation Effec guid-exterior rigid ...

  14. Highly Insulating Residential Windows Using Smart Automated Shading...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Highly Insulating Residential Windows Using Smart Automated Shading Highly Insulating Residential Windows Using Smart Automated Shading Addthis 1 of 3 Residential Smart Window with ...

  15. Two-Dimensional Topological Insulator State and Topological Phase...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Two-Dimensional Topological Insulator State and Topological Phase Transition in Bilayer Graphene Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Two-Dimensional Topological Insulator ...

  16. Graphene physics and insulator-metal transition in compressed...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Graphene physics and insulator-metal transition in compressed hydrogen Title: Graphene physics and insulator-metal transition in compressed hydrogen Authors: Naumov, Ivan I. ; ...

  17. Kondo Breakdown in Topological Kondo Insulators (Journal Article...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Kondo Breakdown in Topological Kondo Insulators Prev Next Title: Kondo Breakdown in Topological Kondo Insulators Authors: Alexandrov, Victor ; Coleman, Piers ; Erten, Onur ...

  18. Noncommutative geometry for three-dimensional topological insulators...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Noncommutative geometry for three-dimensional topological insulators Title: Noncommutative geometry for three-dimensional topological insulators Authors: Neupert, Titus ; Santos, ...

  19. Fabricate-on-Demand Vacuum Insulating Glazings | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to enable wide-spread adoption of highly-insulating vacuum insulating glazings (VIG). ... mechanical robustness to improve product yield and increase service life, lowers capital ...

  20. Automatic insulation resistance testing apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wyant, Francis J.; Nowlen, Steven P.; Luker, Spencer M.

    2005-06-14

    An apparatus and method for automatic measurement of insulation resistances of a multi-conductor cable. In one embodiment of the invention, the apparatus comprises a power supply source, an input measuring means, an output measuring means, a plurality of input relay controlled contacts, a plurality of output relay controlled contacts, a relay controller and a computer. In another embodiment of the invention the apparatus comprises a power supply source, an input measuring means, an output measuring means, an input switching unit, an output switching unit and a control unit/data logger. Embodiments of the apparatus of the invention may also incorporate cable fire testing means. The apparatus and methods of the present invention use either voltage or current for input and output measured variables.

  1. NREL Theory Establishes a Path to High-Performance 2D Semiconductor Devices

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - News Releases | NREL Theory Establishes a Path to High-Performance 2D Semiconductor Devices April 22, 2016 Researchers at the Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have uncovered a way to overcome a principal obstacle in using two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors in electronic and optoelectronic devices. 2D semiconductors such as molybdenum disulfide are only a few layers thick and are considered promising candidates for next-generation devices. Scientists first

  2. Topological Insulator Nanowires and Nanoribbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kong, D.S.

    2010-06-02

    Recent theoretical calculations and photoemission spectroscopy measurements on the bulk Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} material show that it is a three-dimensional topological insulator possessing conductive surface states with nondegenerate spins, attractive for dissipationless electronics and spintronics applications. Nanoscale topological insulator materials have a large surface-to-volume ratio that can manifest the conductive surface states and are promising candidates for devices. Here we report the synthesis and characterization of high quality single crystalline Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} nanomaterials with a variety of morphologies. The synthesis of Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} nanowires and nanoribbons employs Au-catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism. Nanowires, which exhibit rough surfaces, are formed by stacking nanoplatelets along the axial direction of the wires. Nanoribbons are grown along [11-20] direction with a rectangular crosssection and have diverse morphologies, including quasi-one-dimensional, sheetlike, zigzag and sawtooth shapes. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) studies on nanoribbons show atomically smooth surfaces with {approx}1 nm step edges, indicating single Se-Bi-Se-Bi-Se quintuple layers. STM measurements reveal a honeycomb atomic lattice, suggesting that the STM tip couples not only to the top Se atomic layer, but also to the Bi atomic layer underneath, which opens up the possibility to investigate the contribution of different atomic orbitals to the topological surface states. Transport measurements of a single nanoribbon device (four terminal resistance and Hall resistance) show great promise for nanoribbons as candidates to study topological surface states.

  3. Thermal insulating barrier and neutron shield providing integrated protection for a nuclear reactor vessel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schreiber, Roger B.; Fero, Arnold H.; Sejvar, James

    1997-01-01

    The reactor vessel of a nuclear reactor installation which is suspended from the cold leg nozzles in a reactor cavity is provided with a lower thermal insulating barrier spaced from the reactor vessel to form a chamber which can be flooded with cooling water through passive valving to directly cool the reactor vessel in the event of a severe accident. The passive valving also includes bistable vents at the upper end of the thermal insulating barrier for releasing steam. A removable, modular neutron shield extending around the upper end of the reactor cavity below the nozzles forms with the upwardly and outwardly tapered transition on the outer surface of the reactor vessel, a labyrinthine channel which reduces neutron streaming while providing a passage for the escape of steam during a severe accident, and for the cooling air which is circulated along the reactor cavity walls outside the thermal insulating barrier during normal operation of the reactor.

  4. Thermal insulating barrier and neutron shield providing integrated protection for a nuclear reactor vessel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schreiber, R.B.; Fero, A.H.; Sejvar, J.

    1997-12-16

    The reactor vessel of a nuclear reactor installation which is suspended from the cold leg nozzles in a reactor cavity is provided with a lower thermal insulating barrier spaced from the reactor vessel to form a chamber which can be flooded with cooling water through passive valving to directly cool the reactor vessel in the event of a severe accident. The passive valving also includes bistable vents at the upper end of the thermal insulating barrier for releasing steam. A removable, modular neutron shield extending around the upper end of the reactor cavity below the nozzles forms with the upwardly and outwardly tapered transition on the outer surface of the reactor vessel, a labyrinthine channel which reduces neutron streaming while providing a passage for the escape of steam during a severe accident, and for the cooling air which is circulated along the reactor cavity walls outside the thermal insulating barrier during normal operation of the reactor. 8 figs.

  5. Excavationless Exterior Foundation Insulation Field Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schirber, T.; Mosiman, G.; Ojczyk, C.

    2014-10-01

    Building science research supports installing exterior (soil side) foundation insulation as the optimal method to enhance the hygrothermal performance of new homes. With exterior foundation insulation, water management strategies are maximized while insulating the basement space and ensuring a more even temperature at the foundation wall. However, such an approach can be very costly and disruptive when applied to an existing home, requiring deep excavation around the entire house. The NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership team implemented an innovative, minimally invasive foundation insulation upgrade technique on an existing home. The approach consisted of using hydrovac excavation technology combined with a liquid insulating foam. The team was able to excavate a continuous 4" wide by 4' to 5' deep trench around the entire house, 128 linear feet, except for one small part under the stoop that was obstructed with concrete debris. The combination pressure washer and vacuum extraction technology also enabled the elimination of large trenches and soil stockpiles normally produced by backhoe excavation. The resulting trench was filled with liquid insulating foam, which also served as a water-control layer of the assembly. The insulation was brought above grade using a liquid foam/rigid foam hybrid system and terminated at the top of the rim joist. Cost savings over the traditional excavation process ranged from 23% to 50%. The excavationless process could result in even greater savings since replacement of building structures, exterior features, utility meters, and landscaping would be minimal or non-existent in an excavationless process.

  6. Excavationless Exterior Foundation Insulation Field Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schirber, T.; Mosiman, G.; Ojczyk, C.

    2014-09-01

    Building science research supports installing exterior (soil side) foundation insulation as the optimal method to enhance the hygrothermal performance of new homes. With exterior foundation insulation, water management strategies are maximized while insulating the basement space and ensuring a more even temperature at the foundation wall. However, such an approach can be very costly and disruptive when applied to an existing home, requiring deep excavation around the entire house. The NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership team implemented an innovative, minimally invasive foundation insulation upgrade technique on an existing home. The approach consisted of using hydrovac excavation technology combined with liquid insulating foam. The team was able to excavate a continuous 4 inches wide by 4 feet to 5 feet deep trench around the entire house, 128 linear feet, except for one small part under the stoop that was obstructed with concrete debris. The combination pressure washer and vacuum extraction technology also enabled the elimination of large trenches and soil stockpiles normally produced by backhoe excavation. The resulting trench was filled with liquid insulating foam, which also served as a water-control layer of the assembly. The insulation was brought above grade using a liquid foam/rigid foam hybrid system and terminated at the top of the rim joist. Cost savings over the traditional excavation process ranged from 23% to 50%. The excavationless process could result in even greater savings since replacement of building structures, exterior features, utility meters, and landscaping would be minimal or non-existent in an excavationless process.

  7. Silicon on insulator self-aligned transistors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Anthony M.

    2003-11-18

    A method for fabricating thin-film single-crystal silicon-on-insulator (SOI) self-aligned transistors. Standard processing of silicon substrates is used to fabricate the transistors. Physical spaces, between the source and gate, and the drain and gate, introduced by etching the polysilicon gate material, are used to provide connecting implants (bridges) which allow the transistor to perform normally. After completion of the silicon substrate processing, the silicon wafer is bonded to an insulator (glass) substrate, and the silicon substrate is removed leaving the transistors on the insulator (glass) substrate. Transistors fabricated by this method may be utilized, for example, in flat panel displays, etc.

  8. Measure Guideline: Hybrid Foundation Insulation Retrofits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ueno, K.; Lstiburek, J.

    2012-05-01

    This measure guideline provides recommendations for designs and variations for retrofit hybrid assemblies in improving interior foundation insulation and water management of basements. Variations include closed cell spray foam (ccSPF) with membrane waterproofing or air gap membrane drainage layers, rigid board foam insulation at flat walls (cast concrete or CMU block), a 'partial drainage' detail making use of the bulk water drainage that occurs through the field of a rubble stone wall, and non-drained spray foam assemblies (including slab insulation).

  9. Measure Guideline. Hybrid Foundation Insulation Retrofits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ueno, K.; Lstiburek, J.

    2012-05-01

    This measure guideline provides recommendations for designs and variations for retrofit hybrid assemblies in improving interior foundation insulation and water management of basements. Variations include closed cell spray foam (ccSPF) with membrane waterproofing or air gap membrane drainage layers, rigid board foam insulation at flat walls (cast concrete or CMU block), a “partial drainage” detail making use of the bulk water drainage that occurs through the field of a rubble stone wall, and non-drained spray foam assemblies (including slab insulation).

  10. BOXER: Fine-flux Cross Section Condensation, 2D Few Group Diffusion and Transport Burnup Calculations

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2010-02-01

    Neutron transport, calculation of multiplication factor and neutron fluxes in 2-D configurations: cell calculations, 2-D diffusion and transport, and burnup. Preparation of a cross section library for the code BOXER from a basic library in ENDF/B format (ETOBOX).

  11. 110th Congress 2D Session H.R. 5746 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    10th Congress 2D Session H.R. 5746 110th Congress 2D Session H.R. 5746 To amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to establish the infrastructure hr_5746.pdf (60.24 KB) More Documents & Publications ENERGY POLICY ACT OF 2005 Energy Policy Act of 2005 Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act - December 17, 2004

  12. revealing H{sub 2}D{sup +} depletion and compact structure in starless and protostellar cores with ALMA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friesen, R. K.; Di Francesco, J.; Bourke, T. L.; Caselli, P.; Jrgensen, J. K.; Pineda, J. E.; Wong, M.

    2014-12-10

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of the submillimeter dust continuum and H{sub 2}D{sup +} 1{sub 10}-1{sub 11} emission toward two evolved, potentially protostellar cores within the Ophiuchus molecular cloud, Oph A SM1 and SM1N. The data reveal small-scale condensations within both cores, with mass upper limits of M ? 0.02 M {sub ?} (?20 M {sub Jup}). The SM1 condensation is consistent with a nearly symmetric Gaussian source with a width of only 37 AU. The SM1N condensation is elongated and extends 500 AU along its major axis. No evidence for substructure is seen in either source. A Jeans analysis indicates that these sources are unlikely to fragment, suggesting that both will form single stars. H{sub 2}D{sup +} is only detected toward SM1N, offset from the continuum peak by ?150-200 AU. This offset may be due to either heating from an undetected, young, low-luminosity protostellar source or first hydrostatic core, or HD (and consequently H{sub 2}D{sup +}) depletion in the cold center of the condensation. We propose that SM1 is protostellar and that the condensation detected by ALMA is a warm (T ? 30-50 K) accretion disk. The less concentrated emission of the SM1N condensation suggests that it is still starless, but we cannot rule out the presence of a low-luminosity source, perhaps surrounded by a pseudodisk. These data observationally reveal the earliest stages of the formation of circumstellar accretion regions and agree with theoretical predictions that disk formation can occur very early in the star formation process, coeval with or just after the formation of a first hydrostatic core or protostar.

  13. Ceilings and Attics: Install Insulation and Provide Ventilation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2000-02-01

    This document provides guidelines for installing insulation and managing ventilation through your attic.

  14. GEO2D - Two-Dimensional Computer Model of a Ground Source Heat Pump System

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    James Menart

    2013-06-07

    This file contains a zipped file that contains many files required to run GEO2D. GEO2D is a computer code for simulating ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems in two-dimensions. GEO2D performs a detailed finite difference simulation of the heat transfer occurring within the working fluid, the tube wall, the grout, and the ground. Both horizontal and vertical wells can be simulated with this program, but it should be noted that the vertical wall is modeled as a single tube. This program also models the heat pump in conjunction with the heat transfer occurring. GEO2D simulates the heat pump and ground loop as a system. Many results are produced by GEO2D as a function of time and position, such as heat transfer rates, temperatures and heat pump performance. On top of this information from an economic comparison between the geothermal system simulated and a comparable air heat pump systems or a comparable gas, oil or propane heating systems with a vapor compression air conditioner. The version of GEO2D in the attached file has been coupled to the DOE heating and cooling load software called ENERGYPLUS. This is a great convenience for the user because heating and cooling loads are an input to GEO2D. GEO2D is a user friendly program that uses a graphical user interface for inputs and outputs. These make entering data simple and they produce many plotted results that are easy to understand. In order to run GEO2D access to MATLAB is required. If this program is not available on your computer you can download the program MCRInstaller.exe, the 64 bit version, from the MATLAB website or from this geothermal depository. This is a free download which will enable you to run GEO2D..

  15. TOPAZ2D heat transfer code users manual and thermal property data base

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shapiro, A.B.; Edwards, A.L.

    1990-05-01

    TOPAZ2D is a two dimensional implicit finite element computer code for heat transfer analysis. This user's manual provides information on the structure of a TOPAZ2D input file. Also included is a material thermal property data base. This manual is supplemented with The TOPAZ2D Theoretical Manual and the TOPAZ2D Verification Manual. TOPAZ2D has been implemented on the CRAY, SUN, and VAX computers. TOPAZ2D can be used to solve for the steady state or transient temperature field on two dimensional planar or axisymmetric geometries. Material properties may be temperature dependent and either isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time and temperature dependent boundary conditions can be specified including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation. Time or temperature dependent internal heat generation can be defined locally be element or globally by material. TOPAZ2D can solve problems of diffuse and specular band radiation in an enclosure coupled with conduction in material surrounding the enclosure. Additional features include thermally controlled reactive chemical mixtures, thermal contact resistance across an interface, bulk fluid flow, phase change, and energy balances. Thermal stresses can be calculated using the solid mechanics code NIKE2D which reads the temperature state data calculated by TOPAZ2D. A three dimensional version of the code, TOPAZ3D is available. The material thermal property data base, Chapter 4, included in this manual was originally published in 1969 by Art Edwards for use with his TRUMP finite difference heat transfer code. The format of the data has been altered to be compatible with TOPAZ2D. Bob Bailey is responsible for adding the high explosive thermal property data.

  16. Saving Energy and Money with Aerogel Insulation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Department is investing in an innovative insulation material that saves energy and money for industrial facilities while also helping to support 50 full-time clean energy jobs for Americans.

  17. Thermal conductivity of thermal-battery insulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guidotti, R.A.; Moss, M.

    1995-08-01

    The thermal conductivities of a variety of insulating materials used in thermal batteries were measured in atmospheres of argon and helium using several techniques. (Helium was used to simulate the hydrogen atmosphere that results when a Li(Si)/FeS{sub 2} thermal battery ages.) The guarded-hot-plate method was used with the Min-K insulation because of its extremely low thermal conductivity. For comparison purposes, the thermal conductivity of the Min-K insulating board was also measured using the hot-probe method. The thermal-comparator method was used for the rigid Fiberfrax board and Fiberfrax paper. The thermal conductivity of the paper was measured under several levels of compression to simulate the conditions of the insulating wrap used on the stack in a thermal battery. The results of preliminary thermal-characterization tests with several silica aerogel materials are also presented.

  18. Where to Insulate in a Home | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Insulation » Where to Insulate in a Home Where to Insulate in a Home Examples of where to insulate. 1. In unfinished attic spaces, insulate between and over the floor joists to seal off living spaces below. If the air distribution is in the attic space, then consider insulating the rafters to move the distribution into the conditioned space. (1A) attic access door 2. In finished attic rooms with or without dormer, insulate (2A) between the studs of "knee" walls, (2B) between the studs

  19. Evaluation of Magnetic Insulation in SF6 Filled Regions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Houck, T; Ferriera, T; Goerz, D; Javedani, J; Speer, R; Tully, L; Vogtlin, G

    2009-06-08

    The use of magnetic fields perpendicular to quasistatic electric fields to deter electrical breakdown in vacuum, referred to as magnetic insulation, is well understood and used in numerous applications. Here we define quasi-static as applied high-voltage pulse widths much longer than the transit time of light across the electrode gap. For this report we extend the concept of magnetic insulation to include the inhibition of electrical breakdown in gases. Ionization and electrical breakdown of gases in crossed electric and magnetic fields is only a moderately explored research area. For sufficiently large magnetic fields an electron does not gain sufficient energy over a single cycloidal path to ionize the gas molecules. However, it may be possible for the electron to gain sufficient energy for ionization over a number of collisions. To study breakdown in a gas, the collective behavior of an avalanche of electrons in the formation of a streamer in the gas is required. Effective reduced electric field (EREF) theory, which considers the bulk properties of an electron avalanche, has been successful at describing the influence of a crossed magnetic field on the electric field required for breakdown in gases; however, available data to verify the theory has been limited to low gas pressures and weak electronegative gases. High power devices, for example explosively driven magnetic flux compressors, operate at electrical field stresses, magnetic fields, and insulating gas pressures nearly two orders of magnitude greater than published research for crossed fields in gases. The primary limitation of conducting experiments at higher pressures, e.g. atmospheric, is generating the large magnetic fields, 10's Tesla, and electric fields, >100 kV/cm, required to see a significant effect. In this paper we describe measurements made with a coaxial geometry diode, form factor of 1.2, operating at peak electrical field stress of 220 kV/cm, maximum magnetic field of 20 Tesla, and SF

  20. Measure Guideline: Internal Insulation of Masonry Walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Straube, J. F.; Ueno, K.; Schumacher, C. J.

    2012-07-01

    This measure guideline provides recommendations for interior insulation assemblies that control interstitial condensation and durability risks; recommendations for acceptable thermal performance are also provided. An illustrated guide of high-risk exterior details (which concentrate bulk water), and recommended remediation details is provided. This is followed by a recommended methodology for risk assessment of a masonry interior insulation project: a series of steps are suggested to assess the risks associated with this retrofit, with greater certainty with added steps.

  1. Panelized wall system with foam core insulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kosny, Jan; Gaskin, Sally

    2009-10-20

    A wall system includes a plurality of wall members, the wall members having a first metal panel, a second metal panel, and an insulating core between the first panel and the second panel. At least one of the first panel and the second panel include ridge portions. The insulating core can be a foam, such as a polyurethane foam. The foam can include at least one opacifier to improve the k-factor of the foam.

  2. Measure Guideline. Internal Insulation of Masonry Walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Straube, J. F.; Ueno, K.; Schumacher, C. J.

    2012-07-01

    This measure guideline provides recommendations for interior insulation assemblies that control interstitial condensation and durability risks; recommendations for acceptable thermal performance are also provided. An illustrated guide of high-risk exterior details (which concentrate bulk water), and recommended remediation details is provided. This is followed by a recommended methodology for risk assessment of a masonry interior insulation project: a series of steps are suggested to assess the risks associated with this retrofit, with greater certainty with added steps.

  3. Studies Bolster Promise of Topological Insulators

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Studies Bolster Promise of Topological Insulators Print A few years ago, a strange new material began to drive research in condensed-matter physics around the world. First theorized and then discovered by researchers at Berkeley Lab and their colleagues in other institutions, these "strong 3D topological insulators"-TIs for short-are seemingly mundane semiconductors with startling properties. Not only are they promising materials for energy-conserving electronic applications, they

  4. Studies Bolster Promise of Topological Insulators

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Studies Bolster Promise of Topological Insulators Print A few years ago, a strange new material began to drive research in condensed-matter physics around the world. First theorized and then discovered by researchers at Berkeley Lab and their colleagues in other institutions, these "strong 3D topological insulators"-TIs for short-are seemingly mundane semiconductors with startling properties. Not only are they promising materials for energy-conserving electronic applications, they

  5. Studies Bolster Promise of Topological Insulators

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Studies Bolster Promise of Topological Insulators Print A few years ago, a strange new material began to drive research in condensed-matter physics around the world. First theorized and then discovered by researchers at Berkeley Lab and their colleagues in other institutions, these "strong 3D topological insulators"-TIs for short-are seemingly mundane semiconductors with startling properties. Not only are they promising materials for energy-conserving electronic applications, they

  6. Studies Bolster Promise of Topological Insulators

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Studies Bolster Promise of Topological Insulators Print A few years ago, a strange new material began to drive research in condensed-matter physics around the world. First theorized and then discovered by researchers at Berkeley Lab and their colleagues in other institutions, these "strong 3D topological insulators"-TIs for short-are seemingly mundane semiconductors with startling properties. Not only are they promising materials for energy-conserving electronic applications, they

  7. Studies Bolster Promise of Topological Insulators

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Studies Bolster Promise of Topological Insulators Print A few years ago, a strange new material began to drive research in condensed-matter physics around the world. First theorized and then discovered by researchers at Berkeley Lab and their colleagues in other institutions, these "strong 3D topological insulators"-TIs for short-are seemingly mundane semiconductors with startling properties. Not only are they promising materials for energy-conserving electronic applications, they

  8. Studies Bolster Promise of Topological Insulators

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Studies Bolster Promise of Topological Insulators Print A few years ago, a strange new material began to drive research in condensed-matter physics around the world. First theorized and then discovered by researchers at Berkeley Lab and their colleagues in other institutions, these "strong 3D topological insulators"-TIs for short-are seemingly mundane semiconductors with startling properties. Not only are they promising materials for energy-conserving electronic applications, they

  9. Studies Bolster Promise of Topological Insulators

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Studies Bolster Promise of Topological Insulators Print A few years ago, a strange new material began to drive research in condensed-matter physics around the world. First theorized and then discovered by researchers at Berkeley Lab and their colleagues in other institutions, these "strong 3D topological insulators"-TIs for short-are seemingly mundane semiconductors with startling properties. Not only are they promising materials for energy-conserving electronic applications, they

  10. Vacuum Insulation for Windows | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vacuum Insulation for Windows Vacuum Insulation for Windows Image of vacuum capsules in water (4 mg/ml) used for dip coating. Image of vacuum capsules in water (4 mg/ml) used for dip coating. Image of vacuum capsules deposited using dip coating, demonstrating virtually no visual degradation. Image of vacuum capsules deposited using dip coating, demonstrating virtually no visual degradation. Image of vacuum capsules in water (4 mg/ml) used for dip coating. Image of vacuum capsules deposited using

  11. High-Performance Slab-on-Grade Foundation Insulation Retrofits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldberg, Louise F.; Mosiman, Garrett E.

    2015-09-01

    A more accurate assessment of slab-on-grade foundation insulation energy savings than traditionally possible is now feasible. This has been enabled by advances in whole building energy simulation with 3-dimensional foundation modelling integration at each time step together with an experimental measurement of the site energy savings of SOG foundation insulation. Ten SOG insulation strategies were evaluated on a test building to identify an optimum retrofit insulation strategy in a zone 6 climate (Minneapolis, MN). The optimum insulation strategy in terms of energy savings and cost effectiveness consisted of two components: (a) R-20 XPS insulation above grade, and, (b) R-20 insulation at grade (comprising an outer layer of R-10 insulation and an interior layer of R-12 poured polyurethane insulation) tapering to R-10 XPS insulation at half the below-grade wall height (the lower half of the stem wall was uninsulated).

  12. Insulation for New Home Construction | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for New Home Construction Insulation for New Home Construction Planning carefully for insulation results in reduced utility bills and superior comfort during the life of the home. In this house, raised heel trusses accommodate R-60 insulation. | Credit: Paul Norton, NREL. Planning carefully for insulation results in reduced utility bills and superior comfort during the life of the home. In this house, raised heel trusses accommodate R-60 insulation. | Credit: Paul Norton, NREL. State and local

  13. Install Removable Insulation on Valves and Fittings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Removable Insulation on Valves and Fittings Install Removable Insulation on Valves and Fittings This tip sheet on installing removable insulation on valves and fittings provides how-to advice for improving steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies. STEAM TIP SHEET #17 Install Removable Insulation on Valves and Fittings (January 2012) (400.95 KB) More Documents & Publications Insulate Steam Distribution and Condensate Return Lines Improving Steam System Performance: A

  14. Test Problem: Tilted Rayleigh-Taylor for 2-D Mixing Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrews, Malcolm J.; Livescu, Daniel; Youngs, David L.

    2012-08-14

    reasonable quality photographic data. The photographs in Figure 2 also reveal the appearance of a boundary layer at the left and right walls; this boundary layer has not been included in the test problem as preliminary calculations suggested it had a negligible effect on plume penetration and RT mixing. The significance of this test problem is that, unlike planar RT experiments such as the Rocket-Rig (Youngs, 1984), Linear Electric Motor - LEM (Dimonte, 1990), or the Water Tunnel (Andrews, 1992), the Tilted-Rig is a unique two-dimensional RT mixing experiment that has experimental data and now (in this TP) Direct Numerical Simulation data from Livescu and Wei. The availability of DNS data for the tilted-rig has made this TP viable as it provides detailed results for comparison purposes. The purpose of the test problem is to provide 3D simulation results, validated by comparison with experiment, which can be used for the development and validation of 2D RANS models. When such models are applied to 2D flows, various physics issues are raised such as double counting, combined buoyancy and shear, and 2-D strain, which have not yet been adequately addressed. The current objective of the test problem is to compare key results, which are needed for RANS model validation, obtained from high-Reynolds number DNS, high-resolution ILES or LES with explicit sub-grid-scale models. The experiment is incompressible and so is directly suitable for algorithms that are designed for incompressible flows (e.g. pressure correction algorithms with multi-grid); however, we have extended the TP so that compressible algorithms, run at low Mach number, may also be used if careful consideration is given to initial pressure fields. Thus, this TP serves as a useful tool for incompressible and compressible simulation codes, and mathematical models. In the remainder of this TP we provide a detailed specification; the next section provides the underlying assumptions for the TP, fluids, geometry details

  15. An Insulating Glass Knowledge Base

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael L. Doll; Gerald Hendrickson; Gerard Lagos; Russell Pylkki; Chris Christensen; Charlie Cureija

    2005-08-01

    This report will discuss issues relevant to Insulating Glass (IG) durability performance by presenting the observations and developed conclusions in a logical sequential format. This concluding effort discusses Phase II activities and focuses on beginning to quantifying IG durability issues while continuing the approach presented in the Phase I activities (Appendix 1) which discuss a qualitative assessment of durability issues. Phase II developed a focus around two specific IG design classes previously presented in Phase I of this project. The typical box spacer and thermoplastic spacer design including their Failure Modes and Effect Analysis (FMEA) and Fault Tree diagrams were chosen to address two currently used IG design options with varying components and failure modes. The system failures occur due to failures of components or their interfaces. Efforts to begin quantifying the durability issues focused on the development and delivery of an included computer based IG durability simulation program. The focus/effort to deliver the foundation for a comprehensive IG durability simulation tool is necessary to address advancements needed to meet current and future building envelope energy performance goals. This need is based upon the current lack of IG field failure data and the lengthy field observation time necessary for this data collection. Ultimately, the simulation program is intended to be used by designers throughout the current and future industry supply chain. Its use is intended to advance IG durability as expectations grow around energy conservation and with the growth of embedded technologies as required to meet energy needs. In addition the tool has the immediate benefit of providing insight for research and improvement prioritization. Included in the simulation model presentation are elements and/or methods to address IG materials, design, process, quality, induced stress (environmental and other factors), validation, etc. In addition, acquired data

  16. KIVA: a comprehensive model for 2D and 3D engine simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amsden, A.A.; Butler, T.D.; O'Rourke, P.J.; Ramshaw, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    This paper summarizes a comprehensive numerical model that represents the spray dynamics, fluid flow, species transport, mixing, chemical reactions, and accompanying heat release that occur inside the cylinder of an internal combustion engine. The model is embodied in the KIVA computer code. The code calculates both two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) situations. It is an outgrowth of the earlier 2D CONCHAS-SPRAY computer program. Sample numerical calculations are presented to indicate the level of detail that is available from these simulations. These calculations are for a direct injection stratified charge engine with swirl. Both a 2D and a 3D example are shown.

  17. 2D electron density profile measurement in tokamak by laser-accelerated ion-beam probe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Y. H.; Yang, X. Y.; Lin, C. E-mail: cjxiao@pku.edu.cn; Wang, X. G.; Xiao, C. J. E-mail: cjxiao@pku.edu.cn; Wang, L.; Xu, M.

    2014-11-15

    A new concept of Heavy Ion Beam Probe (HIBP) diagnostic has been proposed, of which the key is to replace the electrostatic accelerator of traditional HIBP by a laser-driven ion accelerator. Due to the large energy spread of ions, the laser-accelerated HIBP can measure the two-dimensional (2D) electron density profile of tokamak plasma. In a preliminary simulation, a 2D density profile was reconstructed with a spatial resolution of about 2 cm, and with the error below 15% in the core region. Diagnostics of 2D density fluctuation is also discussed.

  18. Application of 2D VSP Imaging Technology to the Targeting of...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    phones on a fiber optic wireline system coupled to a high-volume data acquisition system. A vibroseis source will be recorded along the 2D profiles with offsets up to...

  19. Small-Angle Shubnikov-de Haas Measurements in a 2D Electron System...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Small-Angle Shubnikov-de Haas Measurements in a 2D Electron System: The Effect of a Strong ... Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; ...

  20. Fabrication and applications of sub-micron 2D and 3D periodic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    In-Document Search Title: Fabrication and applications of sub-micron 2D and 3D periodic carbon structures. Abstract not provided. Authors: Burckel, David Bruce ; Polsky, Ronen ;...

  1. Ti3CrCu4: A possible 2-D ferromagnetic spin fluctuating system...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ti3CrCu4: A possible 2-D ferromagnetic spin fluctuating system Title: Ti3CrCu4: A possible ... Country of Publication: United States Language: English Word Cloud More Like This Free ...

  2. A New Family Member for 2D Nanomaterials | U.S. DOE Office of...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    ... Unlike other 2D materials, the hybrid perovskite sheets have an unusual atomic-scale ... Source (grazing-incidence wide-angle x-ray scattering), DOE Office of Science User ...

  3. An Azimuthal, Fourier Moment-Based Axial SN Solver for the 2D...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the degree of Doctor of Philosophy (Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences and ... With these fundamentals in hand, Chapter 3 covers the 2D1D framework and provides a ...

  4. Status Update on Action 2d: Discussion of DEAR ISM Clause in DOE Contracts

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Status Update on Action 2d: Discussion of DEAR ISM Clause in DOE Contracts Status Update on Action 2d: Discussion of DEAR ISM Clause in DOE Contracts Addthis Description Slide Presentation by Patricia Worthington, PhD, Director Office of Health and Safety, Office of Health Safety and Security. Regulatory Aspects of ISM--Evaluating current ISM clause in DOE Contracts

  5. Caffeine increases striatal dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability in the human brain

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Volkow, N. D.; Wang, G. -J.; Logan, J.; Alexoff, D.; Fowler, J. S.; Thanos, P. K.; Wong, C.; Casado, V.; Ferre, S.; Tomasi, D.

    2015-04-14

    Caffeine, the most widely consumed psychoactive substance in the world, is used to promote wakefulness and enhance alertness. Like other wake-promoting drugs (stimulants and modafinil), caffeine enhances dopamine (DA) signaling in the brain, which it does predominantly by antagonizing adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR). However, it is unclear if caffeine, at the doses consumed by humans, increases DA release or whether it modulates the functions of postsynaptic DA receptors through its interaction with adenosine receptors, which modulate them. We used positron emission tomography and [11C]raclopride (DA D2/D3 receptor radioligand sensitive to endogenous DA) to assess if caffeine increased DA release inmore » striatum in 20 healthy controls. Caffeine (300mg p.o.) significantly increased the availability of D2/D3 receptors in putamen and ventral striatum, but not in caudate, when compared with placebo. In addition, caffeine-induced increases in D2/D3 receptor availability in the ventral striatum were associated with caffeine-induced increases in alertness. Our findings indicate that in the human brain, caffeine, at doses typically consumed, increases the availability of DA D2/D3 receptors, which indicates that caffeine does not increase DA in the striatum for this would have decreased D2/D3 receptor availability. Instead, we interpret our findings to reflect an increase in D2/D3 receptor levels in striatum with caffeine (or changes in affinity). Furthermore, the association between increases in D2/D3 receptor availability in ventral striatum and alertness suggests that caffeine might enhance arousal, in part, by upregulating D2/D3 receptors.« less

  6. Building America New Homes Case Study: Advanced Extended Plate and Beam

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Wall System in a Cold-Climate House | Department of Energy New Homes Case Study: Advanced Extended Plate and Beam Wall System in a Cold-Climate House Building America New Homes Case Study: Advanced Extended Plate and Beam Wall System in a Cold-Climate House A zero energy ready home was recently completed that features an innovative wall system. This highly insulated (high-R) light-frame wall system, called the extended plate and beam, is for use above grade in residential buildings. The

  7. Tool for cutting insulation from electrical cables

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harless, Charles E.; Taylor, Ward G.

    1978-01-01

    This invention is an efficient hand tool for precisely slitting the sheath of insulation on an electrical cable--e.g., a cable two inches in diameter--in a manner facilitating subsequent peeling or stripping of the insulation. The tool includes a rigid frame which is slidably fitted on an end section of the cable. The frame carries a rigidly affixed handle and an opposed, elongated blade-and-handle assembly. The blade-and-handle assembly is pivotally supported by a bracket which is slidably mounted on the frame for movement toward and away from the cable, thus providing an adjustment for the depth of cut. The blade-and-handle assembly is mountable to the bracket in two pivotable positions. With the assembly mounted in the first position, the tool is turned about the cable to slit the insulation circumferentially. With the assembly mounted in the second position, the tool is drawn along the cable to slit the insulation axially. When cut both circumferentially and axially, the insulation can easily be peeled from the cable.

  8. Method for minimizing contaminant particle effects in gas-insulated electrical apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pace, M.O.; Adcock, J.L.; Christophorou, L.G.

    1984-01-01

    Electrical breakdown of a gas insulator in high voltage apparatus is prevented by placing an electrical insulative coating on contaminant particles in the gas insulator.

  9. Method for minimizing contaminant particle effects in gas-insulated electrical apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pace, Marshall O.; Adcock, James L.; Christophorou, Loucas G.

    1984-01-01

    Electrical breakdown of a gas insulator in high voltage apparatus is preved by placing an electrical insulative coating on contaminant particles in the gas insulator.

  10. #AskEnergySaver: Insulation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Insulation #AskEnergySaver: Insulation February 21, 2014 - 5:20pm Addthis One of the most cost-effective ways to improve your home's comfort is to add insulation to your attic. <a href="/node/366805">Learn more about insulation</a>. | Photo courtesy of Dennis Schroeder, National Renewable Energy Lab. One of the most cost-effective ways to improve your home's comfort is to add insulation to your attic. Learn more about insulation. | Photo courtesy of Dennis Schroeder,

  11. Nuclear reactor vessel fuel thermal insulating barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keegan, C. Patrick; Scobel, James H.; Wright, Richard F.

    2013-03-19

    The reactor vessel of a nuclear reactor installation which is suspended from the cold leg nozzles in a reactor cavity is provided with a lower thermal insulating barrier spaced from the reactor vessel that has a hemispherical lower section that increases in volume from the center line of the reactor to the outer extent of the diameter of the thermal insulating barrier and smoothly transitions up the side walls of the vessel. The space between the thermal insulating harrier and the reactor vessel forms a chamber which can be flooded with cooling water through passive valving to directly cool the reactor vessel in the event of a severe accident. The passive inlet valve for the cooling water includes a buoyant door that is normally maintained sealed under its own weight and floats open when the cavity is Hooded. Passively opening steam vents are also provided.

  12. Gaseous insulators for high voltage electrical equipment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christophorou, Loucas G.; James, David R.; Pace, Marshall O.; Pai, Robert Y.

    1979-01-01

    Gaseous insulators comprise compounds having high attachment cross sections for electrons having energies in the 0-1.3 electron volt range. Multi-component gaseous insulators comprise compounds and mixtures having overall high electron attachment cross sections in the 0-1.3 electron volt range and moderating gases having high cross sections for inelastic interactions with electrons of energies 1-4 electron volts. Suitable electron attachment components include hexafluorobutyne, perfluorobutene-2, perfluorocyclobutane, perfluorodimethylcyclobutane, perfluorocyclohexene, perfluoromethylcyclohexane, hexafluorobutadiene, perfluoroheptene-1 and hexafluoroazomethane. Suitable moderating gases include N.sub.2, CO, CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2. The gaseous insulating mixture can also contain SF.sub.6, perfluoropropane and perfluorobenzene.

  13. Gaseous insulators for high voltage electrical equipment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christophorou, Loucas G.; James, David R.; Pace, Marshall O.; Pai, Robert Y.

    1981-01-01

    Gaseous insulators comprise compounds having high attachment cross sections for electrons having energies in the 0-1.3 electron volt range. Multi-component gaseous insulators comprise compounds and mixtures having overall high electron attachment cross sections in the 0-1.3 electron volt range and moderating gases having high cross sections for inelastic interactions with electrons of energies 1-4 electron volts. Suitable electron attachment components include hexafluorobutyne, perfluorobutene-2, perfluorocyclobutane, perfluorodimethylcyclobutane, perfluorocyclohexene, perfluoromethylcyclohexane, hexafluorobutadiene, perfluoroheptene-1 and hexafluoroazomethane. Suitable moderating gases include N.sub.2, CO, CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2. The gaseous insulating mixture can also contain SF.sub.6, perfluoropropane and perfluorobenzene.

  14. Method of fabricating a multilayer insulation blanket

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonczy, John D. (Oak Lawn, IL); Niemann, Ralph C. (Downers Grove, IL); Boroski, William N. (Aurora, IL)

    1993-01-01

    An improved multilayer insulation blanket for insulating cryogenic structures operating at very low temperatures is disclosed. An apparatus and method for fabricating the improved blanket are also disclosed. In the improved blanket, each successive layer of insulating material is greater in length and width than the preceding layer so as to accommodate thermal contraction of the layers closest to the cryogenic structure. The fabricating apparatus has a rotatable cylindrical mandrel having an outer surface of fixed radius that is substantially arcuate, preferably convex, in cross-section. The method of fabricating the improved blanket comprises (a) winding a continuous sheet of thermally reflective material around the circumference of the mandrel to form multiple layers, (b) binding the layers along two lines substantially parallel to the edges of the circumference of the mandrel, (c) cutting the layers along a line parallel to the axle of the mandrel, and (d) removing the bound layers from the mandrel.

  15. Multilayer insulation blanket, fabricating apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonczy, John D. (Oak Lawn, IL); Niemann, Ralph C. (Downers Grove, IL); Boroski, William N. (Aurora, IL)

    1992-01-01

    An improved multilayer insulation blanket for insulating cryogenic structures operating at very low temperatures is disclosed. An apparatus and method for fabricating the improved blanket are also disclosed. In the improved blanket, each successive layer of insulating material is greater in length and width than the preceding layer so as to accommodate thermal contraction of the layers closest to the cryogenic structure. The fabricating apparatus has a rotatable cylindrical mandrel having an outer surface of fixed radius that is substantially arcuate, preferably convex, in cross-section. The method of fabricating the improved blanket comprises (a) winding a continuous sheet of thermally reflective material around the circumference of the mandrel to form multiple layers, (b) binding the layers along two lines substantially parallel to the edges of the circumference of the mandrel, (c) cutting the layers along a line parallel to the axle of the mandrel, and (d) removing the bound layers from the mandrel.

  16. Method of fabricating a multilayer insulation blanket

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonczy, J.D.; Niemann, R.C.; Boroski, W.N.

    1993-07-06

    An improved multilayer insulation blanket for insulating cryogenic structures operating at very low temperatures is disclosed. An apparatus and method for fabricating the improved blanket are also disclosed. In the improved blanket, each successive layer of insulating material is greater in length and width than the preceding layer so as to accommodate thermal contraction of the layers closest to the cryogenic structure. The fabricating apparatus has a rotatable cylindrical mandrel having an outer surface of fixed radius that is substantially arcuate, preferably convex, in cross-section. The method of fabricating the improved blanket comprises (a) winding a continuous sheet of thermally reflective material around the circumference of the mandrel to form multiple layers, (b) binding the layers along two lines substantially parallel to the edges of the circumference of the mandrel, (c) cutting the layers along a line parallel to the axle of the mandrel, and (d) removing the bound layers from the mandrel.

  17. Multilayer insulation blanket, fabricating apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonczy, J.D.; Niemann, R.C.; Boroski, W.N.

    1992-09-01

    An improved multilayer insulation blanket for insulating cryogenic structures operating at very low temperatures is disclosed. An apparatus and method for fabricating the improved blanket are also disclosed. In the improved blanket, each successive layer of insulating material is greater in length and width than the preceding layer so as to accommodate thermal contraction of the layers closest to the cryogenic structure. The fabricating apparatus has a rotatable cylindrical mandrel having an outer surface of fixed radius that is substantially arcuate, preferably convex, in cross-section. The method of fabricating the improved blanket comprises (a) winding a continuous sheet of thermally reflective material around the circumference of the mandrel to form multiple layers, (b) binding the layers along two lines substantially parallel to the edges of the circumference of the mandrel, (c) cutting the layers along a line parallel to the axle of the mandrel, and (d) removing the bound layers from the mandrel. 7 figs.

  18. Electrical insulator assembly with oxygen permeation barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van Der Beck, R.R.; Bond, J.A.

    1994-03-29

    A high-voltage electrical insulator for electrically insulating a thermoelectric module in a spacecraft from a niobium-1% zirconium alloy wall of a heat exchanger filled with liquid lithium while providing good thermal conductivity between the heat exchanger and the thermoelectric module. The insulator has a single crystal alumina layer (SxAl[sub 2]O[sub 3], sapphire) with a niobium foil layer bonded thereto on the surface of the alumina crystal facing the heat exchanger wall, and a molybdenum layer bonded to the niobium layer to act as an oxygen permeation barrier to preclude the oxygen depleting effects of the lithium from causing undesirable niobium-aluminum intermetallic layers near the alumina-niobium interface. 3 figures.

  19. Electrical insulator assembly with oxygen permeation barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van Der Beck, Roland R.; Bond, James A.

    1994-01-01

    A high-voltage electrical insulator (21) for electrically insulating a thermoelectric module (17) in a spacecraft from a niobium-1% zirconium alloy wall (11) of a heat exchanger (13) filled with liquid lithium (16) while providing good thermal conductivity between the heat exchanger and the thermoelectric module. The insulator (21) has a single crystal alumina layer (SxAl.sub.2 O.sub.3, sapphire) with a niobium foil layer (32) bonded thereto on the surface of the alumina crystal (26) facing the heat exchanger wall (11), and a molybdenum layer (31) bonded to the niobium layer (32) to act as an oxygen permeation barrier to preclude the oxygen depleting effects of the lithium from causing undesirable niobium-aluminum intermetallic layers near the alumina-niobium interface.

  20. Extend the Operating Life of Your Motor

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electrical insulation weakens over time with exposure to voltage unbalance, over and undervoltage, voltage disturbances, and temperature. Contact between moving surfaces causes ...

  1. Test Report: Cost Effective Foundation Insulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey M. Lacy; T. E. Rahl; G. A. Twitchell; R. G. Kobbe

    2003-06-01

    A field experiment was conducted to demonstrate and quantify the thermal effectiveness of rigid insulation board when installed on the exterior of a buried concrete foundation wall. A heated, insulated box was constructed along one wall of an existing, unheated building to simulate the living space of a home. The crawl space beneath the living space was divided into two sections. One featured external foundation insulation, while the other side had none. 36 temperature and heat flux sensors were installed at predetermined locations to measure the temperature profile and heat flow out of the living space. The temperature profile through the foundation was then used to calculate the total heat flow out of the foundation for both cases. This experiment showed that a significant energy savings is available with exterior foundation insulation. Over the course of 3 months, the heat-loss differential between the insulated and non-insulated foundations was 4.95 kilowatt-hours per lineal foot of foundation wall, for a ratio of 3:1. For a 2200 sq. ft home with a foundation perimeter 200 ft. long, this would amount to a savings of 990 kW-hrs in just 3 months, or 330 kW-hrs per month. Extrapolating to an 8-month heating year, we would expect to save over 2640 kW-hrs per year for such a home. The savings for a basement foundation, rather than a crawlspace, would be approach twice that amount, nearing 5280 kW-hr per year. Because these data were not collected during the coldest months of the year, they are conservative, and greater savings may be expected during colder periods.

  2. Silicon on insulator with active buried regions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Anthony M.

    1996-01-01

    A method for forming patterned buried components, such as collectors, sources and drains, in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) devices. The method is carried out by epitaxially growing a suitable sequence of single or multiple etch stop layers ending with a thin silicon layer on a silicon substrate, masking the silicon such that the desired pattern is exposed, introducing dopant and activating in the thin silicon layer to form doped regions. Then, bonding the silicon layer to an insulator substrate, and removing the silicon substrate. The method additionally involves forming electrical contact regions in the thin silicon layer for the buried collectors.

  3. Silicon on insulator with active buried regions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCarthy, A.M.

    1998-06-02

    A method is disclosed for forming patterned buried components, such as collectors, sources and drains, in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) devices. The method is carried out by epitaxially growing a suitable sequence of single or multiple etch stop layers ending with a thin silicon layer on a silicon substrate, masking the silicon such that the desired pattern is exposed, introducing dopant and activating in the thin silicon layer to form doped regions. Then, bonding the silicon layer to an insulator substrate, and removing the silicon substrate. The method additionally involves forming electrical contact regions in the thin silicon layer for the buried collectors. 10 figs.

  4. Silicon on insulator with active buried regions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCarthy, A.M.

    1996-01-30

    A method is disclosed for forming patterned buried components, such as collectors, sources and drains, in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) devices. The method is carried out by epitaxially growing a suitable sequence of single or multiple etch stop layers ending with a thin silicon layer on a silicon substrate, masking the silicon such that the desired pattern is exposed, introducing dopant and activating in the thin silicon layer to form doped regions. Then, bonding the silicon layer to an insulator substrate, and removing the silicon substrate. The method additionally involves forming electrical contact regions in the thin silicon layer for the buried collectors. 10 figs.

  5. Silicon on insulator with active buried regions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Anthony M.

    1998-06-02

    A method for forming patterned buried components, such as collectors, sources and drains, in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) devices. The method is carried out by epitaxially growing a suitable sequence of single or multiple etch stop layers ending with a thin silicon layer on a silicon substrate, masking the silicon such that the desired pattern is exposed, introducing dopant and activating in the thin silicon layer to form doped regions. Then, bonding the silicon layer to an insulator substrate, and removing the silicon substrate. The method additionally involves forming electrical contact regions in the thin silicon layer for the buried collectors.

  6. High Performance Slab-on-Grade Foundation Insulation Retrofits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldberg, Louise F.; Mosiman, Garrett E.

    2015-09-01

    ?A more accurate assessment of SOG foundation insulation energy savings than traditionally possible is now feasible. This has been enabled by advances in whole building energy simulation with 3-dimensional foundation modelling integration at each time step together with an experimental measurement of the site energy savings of SOG foundation insulation. Ten SOG insulation strategies were evaluated on a test building to identify an optimum retrofit insulation strategy in a zone 6 climate (Minneapolis, MN). The optimum insulation strategy in terms of energy savings and cost effectiveness consisted of two components: (a) R-20 XPS insulation above grade, and, (b) R-20 insulation at grade (comprising an outer layer of R-10 insulation and an interior layer of R-12 poured polyurethane insulation) tapering to R-10 XPS insulation at half the below-grade wall height (the lower half of the stem wall was uninsulated). The optimum insulation strategy was applied to single and multi-family residential buildings in climate zone 4 - 7. The highest site energy savings of 5% was realized for a single family home in Duluth, MN, and the lowest savings of 1.4 % for a 4-unit townhouse in Richmond, VA. SOG foundation insulation retrofit simple paybacks ranged from 18 to 47 years. There are other benefits of SOG foundation insulation resulting from the increase in the slab surface temperatures. These include increased occupant thermal comfort, and a decrease in slab surface condensation particularly around the slab perimeter.

  7. Insulator coating for high temperature alloys method for producing insulator coating for high temperature alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Park, Jong Hee

    1998-01-01

    A method for fabricating an electrically insulating coating on a surface is disclosed comprising coating the surface with a metal, and reacting the metal coated surface with a nonmetal so as to create a film on the metal-coated surface. Alternatively, the invention provides for a method for producing a noncorrosive, electrically insulating coating on a surface saturated with a nonmetal comprising supplying a molten fluid, dissolving a metal in the molten fluid to create a mixture, and contacting the mixture with the saturated surface. Lastly, the invention provides an electrically insulative coating comprising an underlying structural substrate coated with an oxide or nitride compound

  8. Insulator coating for high temperature alloys method for producing insulator coating for high temperature alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Park, J.H.

    1998-06-23

    A method for fabricating an electrically insulating coating on a surface is disclosed comprising coating the surface with a metal, and reacting the metal coated surface with a nonmetal so as to create a film on the metal-coated surface. Alternatively, the invention provides for a method for producing a noncorrosive, electrically insulating coating on a surface saturated with a nonmetal comprising supplying a molten fluid, dissolving a metal in the molten fluid to create a mixture, and contacting the mixture with the saturated surface. Lastly, the invention provides an electrically insulative coating comprising an underlying structural substrate coated with an oxide or nitride compound. 2 figs.

  9. Insulation for New Home Construction | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ultra-efficient home design. It is more cost-effective to add insulation during construction than to retrofit it after the house is finished. To properly insulate a new home,...

  10. Evaluation of strained silicon on insulator for SET based single...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    insulator for SET based single donor spin read-out. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Evaluation of strained silicon on insulator for SET based single donor spin read-out. ...

  11. Observation of a Macroscopically Quantum-Entangled Insulator

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Observation of a Macroscopically Quantum-Entangled Insulator Print It has recently been proposed that insulators with large band gaps and strong spin-orbit coupling can host a new...

  12. Interaction Driven Subgap Spin Exciton in the Kondo Insulator...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Interaction Driven Subgap Spin Exciton in the Kondo Insulator SmB 6 Title: Interaction Driven Subgap Spin Exciton in the Kondo Insulator SmB 6 Authors: Fuhrman, W. T. ; Leiner, J. ...

  13. Tuning of the Metal-Insulator Transition via Alkali Adsorption

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tuning of the Metal-Insulator Transition via Alkali Adsorption Print Turning a material from an insulator to a metal, or vice versa, by light irradiation, exposure to electric or...

  14. Tuning of the Metal-Insulator Transition via Alkali Adsorption

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tuning of the Metal-Insulator Transition via Alkali Adsorption Tuning of the Metal-Insulator Transition via Alkali Adsorption Print Wednesday, 29 March 2006 00:00 Turning a...

  15. A New Generation of Building Insulation by Foaming Polymer Blend...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A New Generation of Building Insulation by Foaming Polymer Blend Materials with CO2 A New Generation of Building Insulation by Foaming Polymer Blend Materials with CO2 ISTN ...

  16. Building America Top Innovations 2012: Basement Insulation Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes research on basement insulation, which identifies the wall installation methods and materials that perform best in terms of insulation and water resistance.

  17. Insulated laser tube structure and method of making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dittbenner, Gerald R.

    1999-01-01

    An insulated high temperature ceramic laser tube having substantially uniform insulation along the length of the tube is disclosed having particulate ceramic insulation positioned between the outer wall of the ceramic laser tube and the inner surface of tubular ceramic fiber insulation which surrounds the ceramic laser tube. The particulate ceramic insulation is preferably a ceramic capable of sintering to the outer surface of the ceramic laser tube and to the inner surface of the tubular ceramic fiber insulation. The addition of the particulate ceramic insulation to fill all the voids between the ceramic laser tube and the fibrous ceramic insulation permits the laser tube to be operated at a substantially uniform temperature throughout the length of the laser tube.

  18. Moisture Durability of Vapor Permeable Insulating Sheathing (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-10-01

    In this project, Building America team Building Science Corporation researched some of the ramifications of using exterior, vapor permeable insulation on retrofit walls with vapor permeable cavity insulation. Retrofit strategies are a key factor in reducing exterior building stock consumption.

  19. SENSIT-2D: a two-dimensional cross-section sensitivity and uncertainty analysis code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Embrechts, M.J.

    1982-10-01

    SENSIT-2D is a computer program that calculates the sensitivity and/or uncertainty for an integral response (e.g., heating, radiation damage), obtained from the two-dimensional discrete ordinates transport code TRIDENT-CTR, to the cross sections and cross-section uncertainties. A design-sensitivity option allows one to calculate the integral response when the cross sections in certain regions are changed. A secondary-energy-distribution sensitivity- and uncertainty-analysis capability is included. SENSIT-2D incorporates all the essential features of TRIDENT-CTR (r,z geometry option, triangular mesh, nonorthogonal boundaries, group-dependent quadrature sets) and is aimed at the needs of the fusion community. The structure of SENSIT-2D is similar to the structure of the SENSIT code, a one-dimensional sensitivity- and uncertainty-analysis code. This report covers the theory used in SENSIT-2D, outlines the code structure, and gives detailed input specifications. Where appropriate, parts of the SENSIT report are taken over in this write-up. Two sample problems which illustrate the use of SENSIT-2D are explained.

  20. Gas insulated transmission line having tapered particle trapping ring

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cookson, Alan H.

    1982-01-01

    A gas-insulated transmission line includes an outer sheath, an inner conductor, insulating supports and an insulating gas. A particle-trapping ring is secured to each insulating support, and it is comprised of a central portion and two tapered end portions. The ends of the particle trapping ring have a smaller diameter than the central portion of the ring, so as to enable the use of the particle trapping ring in a curved transmission line.

  1. Observation of a Macroscopically Quantum-Entangled Insulator

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Observation of a Macroscopically Quantum-Entangled Insulator Print It has recently been proposed that insulators with large band gaps and strong spin-orbit coupling can host a new phase of quantum matter called a topological insulator that is characterized by entangled wavefunctions. The proposal has now been realized by an international collaboration led by researchers from Princeton University who studied the electronic structure of insulating alloys of bismuth and antimony by means of

  2. Observation of a Macroscopically Quantum-Entangled Insulator

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Observation of a Macroscopically Quantum-Entangled Insulator Print It has recently been proposed that insulators with large band gaps and strong spin-orbit coupling can host a new phase of quantum matter called a topological insulator that is characterized by entangled wavefunctions. The proposal has now been realized by an international collaboration led by researchers from Princeton University who studied the electronic structure of insulating alloys of bismuth and antimony by means of

  3. Observation of a Macroscopically Quantum-Entangled Insulator

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Observation of a Macroscopically Quantum-Entangled Insulator Print It has recently been proposed that insulators with large band gaps and strong spin-orbit coupling can host a new phase of quantum matter called a topological insulator that is characterized by entangled wavefunctions. The proposal has now been realized by an international collaboration led by researchers from Princeton University who studied the electronic structure of insulating alloys of bismuth and antimony by means of

  4. Observation of a Macroscopically Quantum-Entangled Insulator

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Observation of a Macroscopically Quantum-Entangled Insulator Print It has recently been proposed that insulators with large band gaps and strong spin-orbit coupling can host a new phase of quantum matter called a topological insulator that is characterized by entangled wavefunctions. The proposal has now been realized by an international collaboration led by researchers from Princeton University who studied the electronic structure of insulating alloys of bismuth and antimony by means of

  5. Observation of a Macroscopically Quantum-Entangled Insulator

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Observation of a Macroscopically Quantum-Entangled Insulator Print It has recently been proposed that insulators with large band gaps and strong spin-orbit coupling can host a new phase of quantum matter called a topological insulator that is characterized by entangled wavefunctions. The proposal has now been realized by an international collaboration led by researchers from Princeton University who studied the electronic structure of insulating alloys of bismuth and antimony by means of

  6. Observation of a Macroscopically Quantum-Entangled Insulator

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Observation of a Macroscopically Quantum-Entangled Insulator Observation of a Macroscopically Quantum-Entangled Insulator Print Wednesday, 27 May 2009 00:00 It has recently been proposed that insulators with large band gaps and strong spin-orbit coupling can host a new phase of quantum matter called a topological insulator that is characterized by entangled wavefunctions. The proposal has now been realized by an international collaboration led by researchers from Princeton University who studied

  7. Observation of a Macroscopically Quantum-Entangled Insulator

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Observation of a Macroscopically Quantum-Entangled Insulator Print It has recently been proposed that insulators with large band gaps and strong spin-orbit coupling can host a new phase of quantum matter called a topological insulator that is characterized by entangled wavefunctions. The proposal has now been realized by an international collaboration led by researchers from Princeton University who studied the electronic structure of insulating alloys of bismuth and antimony by means of

  8. Observation of a Macroscopically Quantum-Entangled Insulator

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Observation of a Macroscopically Quantum-Entangled Insulator Print It has recently been proposed that insulators with large band gaps and strong spin-orbit coupling can host a new phase of quantum matter called a topological insulator that is characterized by entangled wavefunctions. The proposal has now been realized by an international collaboration led by researchers from Princeton University who studied the electronic structure of insulating alloys of bismuth and antimony by means of

  9. Aerogel-Based Insulation for Industrial Steam Distribution Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    New Efficient Insulation for Pipes Allows for the Use of Less Material with High-Temperature Durability

  10. Corrugated outer sheath gas-insulated transmission line

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kemeny, George A.; Cookson, Alan H.

    1981-01-01

    A gas-insulated transmission line includes two transmission line sections each of which are formed of a corrugated outer housing enclosing an inner high-voltage conductor disposed therein, with insulating support means supporting the inner conductor within the outer housing and an insulating gas providing electrical insulation therebetween. The outer housings in each section have smooth end sections at the longitudinal ends thereof which are joined together by joining means which provide for a sealing fixed joint.

  11. Insulation and Air Sealing Products and Services | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Insulation and Air Sealing Products and Services Insulation and Air Sealing Products and Services Insulation and Air Sealing Products and Services Use the following links to get product information and locate professional services for insulation and air sealing. Product Information Concrete Masonry Units Concrete Homes-Portland Cement Association Describes construction methods that use concrete block systems EPS Industry Alliance Information on expanded polystyrene manufacturing, use, and

  12. A high-temperature ferromagnetic topological insulating phase by proximity

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    coupling (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect high-temperature ferromagnetic topological insulating phase by proximity coupling Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A high-temperature ferromagnetic topological insulating phase by proximity coupling Topological insulators are insulating materials that display conducting surface states protected by time-reversal symmetry(1,)2, wherein electron spins are locked to their momentum. This unique property opens up new opportunities for creating

  13. Insulate Steam Distribution and Condensate Return Lines | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Insulate Steam Distribution and Condensate Return Lines Insulate Steam Distribution and Condensate Return Lines This tip sheet on insulating steam distribution and condensate return lines provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies. STEAM TIP SHEET #2 Insulate Steam Distribution and Condensate Return Lines (January 2012) (385.81 KB) More Documents & Publications Use a Vent Condenser to Recover Flash Steam Energy

  14. Cladding Attachment Over Thick Exterior Insulating Sheathing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, P.; Eng, P.; Lepage, R.

    2014-01-01

    The addition of insulation to the exterior of buildings is an effective means of increasing the thermal resistance of both wood framed walls as well as mass masonry wall assemblies. For thick layers of exterior insulation (levels greater than 1.5 inches), the use of wood furring strips attached through the insulation back to the structure has been used by many contractors and designers as a means to provide a convenient cladding attachment location (Straube and Smegal 2009, Pettit 2009, Joyce 2009, Ueno 2010). The research presented in this report is intended to help develop a better understanding of the system mechanics involved and the potential for environmental exposure induced movement between the furring strip and the framing. BSC sought to address the following research questions: 1.What are the relative roles of the mechanisms and the magnitudes of the force that influence the vertical displacement resistance of the system? 2.Can the capacity at a specified deflection be reliably calculated using mechanics based equations? 3.What are the impacts of environmental exposure on the vertical displacement of furring strips attached directly through insulation back to a wood structure?

  15. Laminated insulators having heat dissipation means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Niemann, R.C.; Mataya, K.F.; Gonczy, J.D.

    1980-04-24

    A laminated body is provided with heat dissipation capabilities. The insulator body is formed by dielectric layers interleaved with heat conductive layers, and bonded by an adhesive to form a composite structure. The heat conductive layers include provision for connection to an external thermal circuit.

  16. Cladding Attachment Over Thick Exterior Insulating Sheathing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, P.; Eng, P.; Lepage, R.

    2014-01-01

    The addition of insulation to the exterior of buildings is an effective means of increasing the thermal resistance of both wood framed walls as well as mass masonry wall assemblies. For thick layers of exterior insulation (levels greater than 1.5 inches), the use of wood furring strips attached through the insulation back to the structure has been used by many contractors and designers as a means to provide a convenient cladding attachment location (Straube and Smegal 2009, Pettit 2009, Joyce 2009, Ueno 2010). The research presented in this report is intended to help develop a better understanding of the system mechanics involved and the potential for environmental exposure induced movement between the furring strip and the framing. BSC sought to address the following research questions: 1. What are the relative roles of the mechanisms and the magnitudes of the force that influence the vertical displacement resistance of the system? 2. Can the capacity at a specified deflection be reliably calculated using mechanics based equations? 3. What are the impacts of environmental exposure on the vertical displacement of furring strips attached directly through insulation back to a wood structure?

  17. supplemental_lists_1d-2d-3c_06-24-2011.xls | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    lists1d-2d-3c06-24-2011.xls supplementallists1d-2d-3c06-24-2011.xls Office spreadsheet icon supplementallists1d-2d-3c06-24-2011.xls More Documents & Publications...

  18. Method and apparatus for filling thermal insulating systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arasteh, Dariush K. (Oakland, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A method for filling insulated glazing units is disclosed. The method utilizes a vacuum chamber in which the insulated glazing units are placed. The insulated glazing units and vacuum chamber are evacuated simultaneously. The units are then refilled with a low conductance gas such as Krypton while the chamber is simultaneously refilled with air.

  19. Method and apparatus for filling thermal insulating systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arasteh, D.K.

    1992-01-14

    A method for filling insulated glazing units is disclosed. The method utilizes a vacuum chamber in which the insulated glazing units are placed. The insulated glazing units and vacuum chamber are evacuated simultaneously. The units are then refilled with a low conductance gas such as Krypton while the chamber is simultaneously refilled with air. 3 figs.

  20. The Benefits of 3D vs. 2D Analysis | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Benefits of 3D vs. 2D Analysis Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) The Benefits of 3D vs. 2D Analysis Vin Smentkowski 2015.05.20 I am a research chemist and my field of research is surface characterization using a technique called Time of Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). About a decade ago,

  1. PROJECT PROFILE: 2D Materials for Low Cost Epitaxial Growth of Single Sun

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) Photovoltaics | Department of Energy 2D Materials for Low Cost Epitaxial Growth of Single Sun Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) Photovoltaics PROJECT PROFILE: 2D Materials for Low Cost Epitaxial Growth of Single Sun Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) Photovoltaics Funding Opportunity: SuNLaMP SunShot Subprogram: Photovoltaics Location: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO SunShot Award Amount: $125,000 Low-cost III-V cells will result in a breakthrough in photovoltaic (PV)

  2. 2D numerical simulation of the MEP energy-transport model with a finite difference scheme

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romano, V. . E-mail: romano@dmi.unict.it

    2007-02-10

    A finite difference scheme of Scharfetter-Gummel type is used to simulate a consistent energy-transport model for electron transport in semiconductors devices, free of any fitting parameters, formulated on the basis of the maximum entropy principle. Simulations of silicon n{sup +}-n-n{sup +} diodes, 2D-MESFET and 2D-MOSFET and comparisons with the results obtained by a direct simulation of the Boltzmann transport equation and with other energy-transport models, known in the literature, show the validity of the model and the robustness of the numerical scheme.

  3. Light and Fast: Probing Carriers and Vibrations in 1D and 2D Materials |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MIT-Harvard Center for Excitonics and Fast: Probing Carriers and Vibrations in 1D and 2D Materials April 17, 2014 at 3pm/36-428 Paul McEuen Department of Physics, Cornell University mceuen_001 Abstract: Carbon nanotubes and 2D atomic membrane materials cut across many disciplines with their remarkable optical, thermal, mechanical, and electronic properties. In this talk we will examine cases when a combination of properties, e.g. optical and mechanical, are simultaneously important. First,

  4. Preliminary 3d depth migration of a network of 2d seismic lines for fault

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    imaging at a Pyramid Lake, Nevada geothermal prospect (Conference) | SciTech Connect Preliminary 3d depth migration of a network of 2d seismic lines for fault imaging at a Pyramid Lake, Nevada geothermal prospect Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Preliminary 3d depth migration of a network of 2d seismic lines for fault imaging at a Pyramid Lake, Nevada geothermal prospect Roxanna Frary, John N. Louie, Sathish Pullammanappallil, Amy Eisses, 2011, Preliminary 3d depth migration of a

  5. Highly Insulating Glazing Systems using Non-Structural Center Glazing Layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohler, Christian; Arasteh, Dariush; Goudey, Howdy; Kohler, Christian

    2008-04-09

    Three layer insulating glass units with two low-e coatings and an effective gas fill are known to be highly insulating, with center-of-glass U-factors as low as 0.57 W/m{sup 2}-K (0.10 Btu/h-ft{sup 2}- F). Such units have historically been built with center layers of glass or plastic which extend all the way through the spacer system. This paper shows that triple glazing systems with non-structural center layers which do not create a hermetic seal at the edge have the potential to be as thermally efficient as standard designs, while potentially removing some of the production and product integration issues that have discouraged the use of triples.

  6. Polymer insulator profiles evaluated in a fog chamber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorur, R.S. . Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering); Cherney, E.A. ); Hackam, R. )

    1990-04-01

    This paper presents the results of fog chamber experiments done to examine the tracking and erosion performance of polymer insulator profiles. The effect of weathershed material, construction, orientation, and ac and dc voltage are examined. Correlation between cylindrical rod specimens of materials and insulator profiles is shown. The protected leakage path provided by the weathershed is found to play a major role in the tracking and erosion performance of polymer insulators. The resistance to tracking and erosion of insulator profiles with dc is shown to be reduced in comparison to ac. Cylindrical rods of material yielded the same ranking of material performance as insulator profiles but in a shorter time.

  7. Intercalation of organic molecules in 2D copper (II) nitroprusside: Intermolecular interactions and magnetic properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osiry, H.; Cano, A.; Lemus-Santana, A.A.; Rodríguez, A.; Carbonio, R.E.; Reguera, E.

    2015-10-15

    This contribution discusses the intercalation of imidazole and its 2-ethyl derivative, and pyridine in 2D copper nitroprusside. In the interlayer region, neighboring molecules remain interacting throu gh their dipole and quadrupole moments, which supports the solid 3D crystal structure. The crystal structure of this series of intercalation compounds was solved and refined from powder X-ray diffraction patterns complemented with spectroscopic information. The intermolecular interactions were studied from the refined crystal structures and low temperature magnetic measurements. Due to strong attractive forces between neighboring molecules, the resulting π–π cloud overlapping enables the ferromagnetic coupling between metal centers on neighboring layers, which was actually observed for the solids containing imidazole and pyridine as intercalated molecules. For these two solids, the magnetic data were properly described with a model of six neighbors. For the solid containing 2-ethylimidazole and for 2D copper nitroprusside, a model of four neighbors in a plane is sufficient to obtain a reliable data fitting. - Highlights: • Intercalation of organic molecules in 2D copper (II) nitroprusside. • Molecular properties of intercalation compounds of 2D copper (II) nitroprusside. • Magnetic properties of hybrid inorganic–organic solids. • Hybrid inorganic–organic 3D framework.

  8. 2D-Raman-THz spectroscopy: A sensitive test of polarizable water models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamm, Peter

    2014-11-14

    In a recent paper, the experimental 2D-Raman-THz response of liquid water at ambient conditions has been presented [J. Savolainen, S. Ahmed, and P. Hamm, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 110, 20402 (2013)]. Here, all-atom molecular dynamics simulations are performed with the goal to reproduce the experimental results. To that end, the molecular response functions are calculated in a first step, and are then convoluted with the laser pulses in order to enable a direct comparison with the experimental results. The molecular dynamics simulation are performed with several different water models: TIP4P/2005, SWM4-NDP, and TL4P. As polarizability is essential to describe the 2D-Raman-THz response, the TIP4P/2005 water molecules are amended with either an isotropic or a anisotropic polarizability a posteriori after the molecular dynamics simulation. In contrast, SWM4-NDP and TL4P are intrinsically polarizable, and hence the 2D-Raman-THz response can be calculated in a self-consistent way, using the same force field as during the molecular dynamics simulation. It is found that the 2D-Raman-THz response depends extremely sensitively on details of the water model, and in particular on details of the description of polarizability. Despite the limited time resolution of the experiment, it could easily distinguish between various water models. Albeit not perfect, the overall best agreement with the experimental data is obtained for the TL4P water model.

  9. Inspection design using 2D phased array, TFM and cueMAP software

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGilp, Ailidh; Dziewierz, Jerzy; Lardner, Tim; Mackersie, John; Gachagan, Anthony

    2014-02-18

    A simulation suite, cueMAP, has been developed to facilitate the design of inspection processes and sparse 2D array configurations. At the core of cueMAP is a Total Focusing Method (TFM) imaging algorithm that enables computer assisted design of ultrasonic inspection scenarios, including the design of bespoke array configurations to match the inspection criteria. This in-house developed TFM code allows for interactive evaluation of image quality indicators of ultrasonic imaging performance when utilizing a 2D phased array working in FMC/TFM mode. The cueMAP software uses a series of TFM images to build a map of resolution, contrast and sensitivity of imaging performance of a simulated reflector, swept across the inspection volume. The software takes into account probe properties, wedge or water standoff, and effects of specimen curvature. In the validation process of this new software package, two 2D arrays have been evaluated on 304n stainless steel samples, typical of the primary circuit in nuclear plants. Thick section samples have been inspected using a 1MHz 2D matrix array. Due to the processing efficiency of the software, the data collected from these array configurations has been used to investigate the influence sub-aperture operation on inspection performance.

  10. Composite multilayer insulations for thermal protection of aerospace vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kourtides, D.A.; Pitts, W.C.

    1989-02-01

    Composite flexible multilayer insulation systems (MLI), consisting of alternating layers of metal foil and scrim cloth or insulation quilted together using ceramic thread, were evaluated for thermal performance and compared with a silica fibrous (baseline) insulation system. The systems studied included: (1) alternating layers of aluminoborosilicate (ABS) scrim cloth and stainless steel foil, with silica, ABS, or alumina insulation; (2) alternating layers of scrim cloth and aluminum foil, with silica or ABS insulation; (3) alternating layers of alumininum foil and silica or ABS insulation; and (4) alternating layers of aluminum-coated polyimide placed on the bottom of the silica insulation. The MLIs containing aluminum were the most efficient, measuring as little as half the backface temperature increase of the baseline system.

  11. Extender for securing a closure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, II, Patrick A.

    2012-10-02

    An apparatus for securing a closure such as door or a window that opens and closes by movement relative to a fixed structure such as a wall or a floor. Many embodiments provide a device for relocating a padlock from its normal location where it secures a fastener (such as a hasp) to a location for the padlock that is more accessible for locking and unlocking the padlock. Typically an extender is provided, where the extender has a hook at a first end that is disposed through the eye of the staple of the hasp, and at an opposing second end the extender has an annulus, such as a hole in the extender or a loop or ring affixed to the extender. The shackle of the padlock may be disposed through the annulus and may be disposed through the eye of a second staple to secure the door or window in a closed or open position. Some embodiments employ a rigid sheath to enclose at least a portion of the extender. Typically the rigid sheath has an open state where the hook is exposed outside the sheath and a closed state where the hook is disposed within the sheath.

  12. High temperature insulation for ceramic matrix composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merrill, Gary B.; Morrison, Jay Alan

    2000-01-01

    A ceramic composition is provided to insulate ceramic matrix composites under high temperature, high heat flux environments. The composite comprises a plurality of hollow oxide-based spheres of varios dimentions, a phosphate binder, and at least one oxide filler powder, whereby the phosphate binder partially fills gaps between the spheres and the filler powders. The spheres are situated in the phosphate binder and the filler powders such that each sphere is in contact with at least one other sphere. The spheres may be any combination of Mullite spheres, Alumina spheres, or stabilized Zirconia spheres. The filler powder may be any combination of Alumina, Mullite, Ceria, or Hafnia. Preferably, the phosphate binder is Aluminum Ortho-Phosphate. A method of manufacturing the ceramic insulating composition and its application to CMC substates are also provided.

  13. High temperature insulation for ceramic matrix composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merrill, Gary B.; Morrison, Jay Alan

    2001-01-01

    A ceramic composition is provided to insulate ceramic matrix composites under high temperature, high heat flux environments. The composition comprises a plurality of hollow oxide-based spheres of various dimensions, a phosphate binder, and at least one oxide filler powder, whereby the phosphate binder partially fills gaps between the spheres and the filler powders. The spheres are situated in the phosphate binder and the filler powders such that each sphere is in contact with at least one other sphere. The spheres may be any combination of Mullite spheres, Alumina spheres, or stabilized Zirconia spheres. The filler powder may be any combination of Alumina, Mullite, Ceria, or Hafnia. Preferably, the phosphate binder is Aluminum Ortho-Phosphate. A method of manufacturing the ceramic insulating composition and its application to CMC substrates are also provided.

  14. Contaminant trap for gas-insulated apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adcock, James L.; Pace, Marshall O.; Christophorou, Loucas G.

    1984-01-01

    A contaminant trap for a gas-insulated electrical conductor is provided. A resinous dielectric body such as Kel-F wax, grease or other sticky polymeric or oligomeric compound is disposed on the inside wall of the outer housing for the conductor. The resinous body is sufficiently sticky at ambient temperatures to immobilize contaminant particles in the insulating gas on the exposed surfaces thereof. An electric resistance heating element is disposed in the resinous body to selectively raise the temperature of the resinous body to a molten state so that the contaminant particles collected on the surface of the body sink into the body so that the surface of the resinous body is renewed to a particle-less condition and, when cooled, returns to a sticky collecting surface.

  15. High temperature insulation for ceramic matrix composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merrill, Gary B.; Morrison, Jay Alan

    2004-01-13

    A ceramic composition is provided to insulate ceramic matrix composites under high temperature, high heat flux environments. The composition comprises a plurality of hollow oxide-based spheres of various dimensions, a phosphate binder, and at least one oxide filler powder, whereby the phosphate binder partially fills gaps between the spheres and the filler powders. The spheres are situated in the phosphate binder and the filler powders such that each sphere is in contact with at least one other sphere. The spheres may be any combination of Mullite spheres, Alumina spheres, or stabilized Zirconia spheres. The filler powder may be any combination of Alumina, Mullite, Ceria, or Hafnia. Preferably, the phosphate binder is Aluminum Ortho-Phosphate. A method of manufacturing the ceramic insulating composition and its application to CMC substrates are also provided.

  16. Apparatus for insulating windows and the like

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mitchell, Robert A.

    1984-01-01

    Apparatus for insulating window openings through walls and the like includes a thermal shutter, a rail for mounting the shutter adjacent to the window opening and a coupling for connecting the shutter to the rail. The thermal shutter includes an insulated panel adhered to frame members which surround the periphery of the panel. The frame members include a hard portion for providing the frame and a soft portion for providing a seal with that portion of the wall adjacent to the periphery of the opening. The coupling means is preferably integral with the attachment rail. According to a preferred embodiment, the coupling means includes a continuous hinge of reduced thickness. The thermal shutter can be permanently attached, hinged, bi-folded, or sliding with respect to the window and wall. A distribution method is to market the apparatus in "kit" form.

  17. Nuclear reactor insulation and preheat system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wampole, Nevin C.

    1978-01-01

    An insulation and preheat system for preselected components of a fluid cooled nuclear reactor. A gas tight barrier or compartment of thermal insulation surrounds the selected components and includes devices to heat the internal atmosphere of the compartment. An external surface of the compartment or enclosure is cooled, such as by a circulating fluid. The heating devices provide for preheating of the components, as well as maintenance of a temperature sufficient to ensure that the reactor coolant fluid will not solidify during shutdown. The external cooling limits the heat transferred to other plant structures, such as supporting concrete and steel. The barrier is spaced far enough from the surrounded components so as to allow access for remote or manual inspection, maintenance, and repair.

  18. Apparatus for insulating windows and the like

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mitchell, R.A.

    1984-06-19

    Apparatus for insulating window openings through walls and the like includes a thermal shutter, a rail for mounting the shutter adjacent to the window opening and a coupling for connecting the shutter to the rail. The thermal shutter includes an insulated panel adhered to frame members which surround the periphery of the panel. The frame members include a hard portion for providing the frame and a soft portion for providing a seal with that portion of the wall adjacent to the periphery of the opening. The coupling means is preferably integral with the attachment rail. According to a preferred embodiment, the coupling means includes a continuous hinge of reduced thickness. The thermal shutter can be permanently attached, hinged, bi-folded, or sliding with respect to the window and wall. A distribution method is to market the apparatus in kit'' form. 11 figs.

  19. Excavationless Exterior Foundation Insulation Exploratory Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mosimann, Garrett; Wagner, Rachel; Schirber, Tom

    2013-02-01

    The key objective of this exploratory study was to investigate the feasibility of the development or adoption of technologies that would enable a large percentage of existing homes in cold climates to apply a combination 'excavationless' soil removal process with appropriate insulation and water management on the exterior of existing foundations at a low cost. Our approach was to explore existing excavation and material technologies and systems to discover whether potential successful combinations existed.

  20. Smoldering combustion hazards of thermal insulation materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohlemiller, T.J.; Rogers, F.E.

    1980-07-01

    Work on the smolder ignitability in cellulosic insulation and on thermal analytical characterization of the oxidation of this material is presented. Thermal analysis (TGA and DSC) shows that both retarded and unretarded cellulosic insulation oxidizes in two overall stages, both of which are exothermic. The second stage (oxidation of the char left as a residue of the first stage) is much more energetic on a unit mass basis than the first. However, kinetics and a sufficient exothermicity make the first stage responsible for ignition in most realistic circumstances. Existing smolder retardants such as boric acid have their major effect on the kinetics of the second oxidation stage and thus produce only a rather small (20/sup 0/C) increase in smolder ignition temperature. Several simplified analogs of attic insulations have been tested to determine the variability of minimum smolder ignition temperature. These employed planar or tubular constant temperature heat sources in a thermal environment quite similar to a realistic attic application. Go/no-go tests provided the borderline (minimum) ignition temperature for each configuration. The wide range (150/sup 0/C) of minimum ignition temperatures confirmed the predominant dependence of smolder ignition on heat flow geometry. Other factors (bulk density, retardants) produced much less effect on ignitability.

  1. Aerogel: a transparent insulator for solar applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, A.J.; Russo, R.E.; Tewari, P.H.; Lofftus, K.D.

    1985-06-01

    Aerogel is a transparent, low density, insulating material suitable for a variety of solar applications. Significant energy savings can be realized by using aerogel for a window glazing material. Other possible applications include solar collector covers, transparent insulating jackets for direct gain passive solar devices, and situations that require both transparency and good insulation. Because silica aerogel has a low density (2 to 10% solid), it has a thermal conductivity as low as 0.014 W/m/sup 0/K without evacuation, and if evacuated, lower than 0.006 W/m/sup 0/K. It provides a clear view with only slight coloring due to its weak and nearly isotropic scattering of light. This paper describes significant progress made in the past year at our laboratory in the development of aerogel. We have improved the transparency, developed new preparation methods using less toxic materials, and initiated successful experiments in drying alcogels at near ambient temperature. Optical transmission, light scattering, and electron microscopy data show that CO/sub 2/ supercritical drying of alcogels produces aerogels similar in quality to those produced by high temperature supercritical drying. These advances make the commercial production of aerogel much more feasible.

  2. Humidity effects on wire insulation breakdown strength.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Appelhans, Leah

    2013-08-01

    Methods for the testing of the dielectric breakdown strength of insulation on metal wires under variable humidity conditions were developed. Two methods, an ASTM method and the twisted pair method, were compared to determine if the twisted pair method could be used for determination of breakdown strength under variable humidity conditions. It was concluded that, although there were small differences in outcomes between the two testing methods, the non-standard method (twisted pair) would be appropriate to use for further testing of the effects of humidity on breakdown performance. The dielectric breakdown strength of 34G copper wire insulated with double layer Poly-Thermaleze/Polyamide-imide insulation was measured using the twisted pair method under a variety of relative humidity (RH) conditions and exposure times. Humidity at 50% RH and below was not found to affect the dielectric breakdown strength. At 80% RH the dielectric breakdown strength was significantly diminished. No effect for exposure time up to 140 hours was observed at 50 or 80%RH.

  3. Dielectric-wall linear accelerator with a high voltage fast rise time switch that includes a pair of electrodes between which are laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caporaso, George J.; Sampayan, Stephen E.; Kirbie, Hugh C.

    1998-01-01

    A dielectric-wall linear accelerator is improved by a high-voltage, fast rise-time switch that includes a pair of electrodes between which are laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators. A high voltage is placed between the electrodes sufficient to stress the voltage breakdown of the insulator on command. A light trigger, such as a laser, is focused along at least one line along the edge surface of the laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators extending between the electrodes. The laser is energized to initiate a surface breakdown by a fluence of photons, thus causing the electrical switch to close very promptly. Such insulators and lasers are incorporated in a dielectric wall linear accelerator with Blumlein modules, and phasing is controlled by adjusting the length of fiber optic cables that carry the laser light to the insulator surface.

  4. Dielectric-wall linear accelerator with a high voltage fast rise time switch that includes a pair of electrodes between which are laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caporaso, G.J.; Sampayan, S.E.; Kirbie, H.C.

    1998-10-13

    A dielectric-wall linear accelerator is improved by a high-voltage, fast rise-time switch that includes a pair of electrodes between which are laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators. A high voltage is placed between the electrodes sufficient to stress the voltage breakdown of the insulator on command. A light trigger, such as a laser, is focused along at least one line along the edge surface of the laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators extending between the electrodes. The laser is energized to initiate a surface breakdown by a fluence of photons, thus causing the electrical switch to close very promptly. Such insulators and lasers are incorporated in a dielectric wall linear accelerator with Blumlein modules, and phasing is controlled by adjusting the length of fiber optic cables that carry the laser light to the insulator surface. 12 figs.

  5. Enhancing metal-insulator-insulator-metal tunnel diodes via defect enhanced direct tunneling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alimardani, Nasir; Conley, John F.

    2014-08-25

    Metal-insulator-insulator-metal tunnel diodes with dissimilar work function electrodes and nanolaminate Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} bilayer tunnel barriers deposited by atomic layer deposition are investigated. This combination of high and low electron affinity insulators, each with different dominant conduction mechanisms (tunneling and Frenkel-Poole emission), results in improved low voltage asymmetry and non-linearity of current versus voltage behavior. These improvements are due to defect enhanced direct tunneling in which electrons transport across the Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} via defect based conduction before tunneling directly through the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, effectively narrowing the tunnel barrier. Conduction through the device is dominated by tunneling, and operation is relatively insensitive to temperature.

  6. Nonlinear 2-D effects in the control of magnetic Islands by ECCD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lazzaro, Enzo; Borgogno, Dario; Comisso, Luca; Grasso, Daniela

    2014-02-12

    The stabilization of tearing magnetic islands by means of localized current driven by electron cyclotron waves, requires optimizing the efficiency of the injected helical current. The problem is conventionally addressed using 0-D model of the (generalized) Rutherford equation to find the dependence in terms of the island width, wave beam width and deposition scale length, as well as phase tracking requirements. The use of a 2-D reconnection model shows that both the early time response of a tearing unstable system to ECCD and important nonlinear processes lead to irreversible modifications on the 2-D configuration, where 'phase' and 'width' of an island cease to be observable and controllable state variables. In particular the occurrence of a phase instability and of multiple axis and current sheets, may be a serious impediment for feedback control schemes.

  7. Development and Application of Insulated Drill Pipe for High Temperature, High Pressure Drilling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tom Champness; Tony Worthen; John Finger

    2008-12-31

    This project aimed to extend the insulated drill pipe (IDP) technology already demonstrated for geothermal drilling to HTHP drilling in deep gas reservoirs where temperatures are high enough to pose a threat to downhole equipment such as motors and electronics. The major components of the project were: a preliminary design; a market survey to assess industry needs and performance criteria; mechanical testing to verify strength and durability of IDP; and development of an inspection plan that would quantify the ability of various inspection techniques to detect flaws in assembled IDP. This report is a detailed description of those activities.

  8. Fano-type coupling of a bound paramagnetic state with 2D continuum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rozhansky, I. V.; Averkiev, N. S.; Lhderanta, E.

    2013-12-04

    We analyze an effect of a bound impurity state located at a tunnel distance from a quantum well (QW). The study is focused on the resonance case when the bound state energy lies within the continuum of the QW states. Using the developed theory we calculate spin polarization of 2D holes induced by paramagnetic (Mn) delta-layer in the vicinity of the QW and indirect exchange interaction between two impurities located at a tunnel distance from electron gas.

  9. Digital Transfer Growth of Patterned 2D Metal Chalcogenides by Confined Nanoparticle Evaporation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahjouri-Samani, Masoud; Tian, Mengkun; Wang, Kai; Boulesbaa, Abdelaziz; Rouleau, Christopher M.; Puretzky, Alexander A.; McGuire, Michael A.; Srijanto, Bernadeta R.; Xiao, Kai; Eres, Gyula; Duscher, Gerd; Geohegan, David B.

    2014-10-19

    Developing methods for the facile synthesis of two-dimensional (2D) metal chalcogenides and other layered materials is crucial for emerging applications in functional devices. Controlling the stoichiometry, number of the layers, crystallite size, growth location, and areal uniformity is challenging in conventional vapor phase synthesis. Here, we demonstrate a new route to control these parameters in the growth of metal chalcogenide (GaSe) and dichalcogenide (MoSe2) 2D crystals by precisely defining the mass and location of the source materials in a confined transfer growth system. A uniform and precise amount of stoichiometric nanoparticles are first synthesized and deposited onto a substrate by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) at room temperature. This source substrate is then covered with a receiver substrate to form a confined vapor transport growth (VTG) system. By simply heating the source substrate in an inert background gas, a natural temperature gradient is formed that evaporates the confined nanoparticles to grow large, crystalline 2D nanosheets on the cooler receiver substrate, the temperature of which is controlled by the background gas pressure. Large monolayer crystalline domains (~ 100 m lateral sizes) of GaSe and MoSe2 are demonstrated, as well as continuous monolayer films through the deposition of additional precursor materials. This novel PLD-VTG synthesis and processing method offers a unique approach for the controlled growth of large-area, metal chalcogenides with a controlled number of layers in patterned growth locations for optoelectronics and energy related applications.

  10. Sheath insulator final test report, TFE Verification Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The sheath insulator in a thermionic cell has two functions. First, the sheath insulator must electrically isolate the collector form the outer containment sheath tube that is in contact with the reactor liquid metal coolant. Second, The sheath insulator must provide for high uniform thermal conductance between the collector and the reactor coolant to remove away waste heat. The goals of the sheath insulator test program were to demonstrate that suitable ceramic materials and fabrication processes were available, and to validate the performance of the sheath insulator for TFE-VP requirements. This report discusses the objectives of the test program, fabrication development, ex-reactor test program, in-reactor test program, and the insulator seal specifications.

  11. Extended range chemical sensing apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hughes, Robert C. (Albuquerque, NM); Schubert, W. Kent (Albuquerque, NM)

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus for sensing chemicals over extended range of concentrations. In particular, first and second sensors each having separate, but overlapping ranges for sensing concentrations of hydrogen are provided. Preferably, the first sensor is a MOS solid state device wherein the metal electrode or gate is a nickel alloy. The second sensor is a chemiresistor comprising a nickel alloy.

  12. Extended range chemical sensing apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hughes, R.C.; Schubert, W.K.

    1994-01-18

    An apparatus is described for sensing chemicals over extended range of concentrations. In particular, first and second sensors each having separate, but overlapping ranges for sensing concentrations of hydrogen are provided. Preferably, the first sensor is a MOS solid state device wherein the metal electrode or gate is a nickel alloy. The second sensor is a chemiresistor comprising a nickel alloy. 6 figures.

  13. Lightweight extendable and retractable pole

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warren, John L.; Brandt, James E.

    1994-01-01

    A lightweight extendable and retractable telescopic pole is disclosed comprising a plurality of non-metallic telescoping cylinders with sliding and sealing surfaces between the cylinders, a first plug member on the upper end of the smallest cylinder, and a second plug member on the lower end of the largest cylinder, whereby fluid pressure admitted to the largest cylinder will cause the telescoping cylinders to slide relative to one another causing the pole to extend. An elastomeric member connects the first plug member with one of the intermediate cylinders to urge the cylinders back into a collapsed position when the fluid pressure in the cylinders is vented. Annular elastomer members are provided which seal one cylinder to another when the pole is fully extended and further serve to provide a cushion to prevent damage to the cylinders when the pole is urged back into its retractable position by the elastomeric members and the venting of the pressure. A value mechanism associated with the pole is provided to admit a fluid under pressure to the interior of the telescoping cylinders of the pole while pressurizing a pressure relief port having an opening larger than the inlet port in a closed position whereby removal of the pressure on the relief port will cause the relief port to open to quickly lower the pressure in the interior of the telescoping cylinders to thereby assist in the rapid retraction of the extended pole.

  14. Lightweight extendable and retractable pole

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warren, J.L.; Brandt, J.E.

    1994-08-02

    A lightweight extendable and retractable telescopic pole is disclosed comprising a plurality of non-metallic telescoping cylinders with sliding and sealing surfaces between the cylinders, a first plug member on the upper end of the smallest cylinder, and a second plug member on the lower end of the largest cylinder, whereby fluid pressure admitted to the largest cylinder will cause the telescoping cylinders to slide relative to one another causing the pole to extend. An elastomeric member connects the first plug member with one of the intermediate cylinders to urge the cylinders back into a collapsed position when the fluid pressure in the cylinders is vented. Annular elastomer members are provided which seal one cylinder to another when the pole is fully extended and further serve to provide a cushion to prevent damage to the cylinders when the pole is urged back into its retractable position by the elastomeric members and the venting of the pressure. A value mechanism associated with the pole is provided to admit a fluid under pressure to the interior of the telescoping cylinders of the pole while pressurizing a pressure relief port having an opening larger than the inlet port in a closed position whereby removal of the pressure on the relief port will cause the relief port to open to quickly lower the pressure in the interior of the telescoping cylinders to thereby assist in the rapid retraction of the extended pole. 18 figs.

  15. Two-dimensional topological crystalline insulator phase in Sb/Bi planar honeycomb with tunable Dirac gap

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hsu, Chia -Hsiu; Huang, Zhi -Quan; Crisostomo, Christian P.; Yao, Liang -Zi; Chuang, Feng -Chuan; Liu, Yu -Tzu; Wang, Baokai; Hsu, Chuang -Han; Lee, Chi -Cheng; Lin, Hsin; et al

    2016-01-14

    We predict planar Sb/Bi honeycomb to harbor a two-dimensional (2D) topological crystalline insulator (TCI) phase based on first-principles computations. Although buckled Sb and Bi honeycombs support 2D topological insulator (TI) phases, their structure becomes planar under tensile strain. The planar Sb/Bi honeycomb structure restores the mirror symmetry, and is shown to exhibit non-zero mirror Chern numbers, indicating that the system can host topologically protected edge states. Our computations show that the electronic spectrum of a planar Sb/Bi nanoribbon with armchair or zigzag edges contains two Dirac cones within the band gap and an even number of edge bands crossing themore » Fermi level. Lattice constant of the planar Sb honeycomb is found to nearly match that of hexagonal-BN. As a result, the Sb nanoribbon on hexagonal-BN exhibits gapped edge states, which we show to be tunable by an out-of the-plane electric field, providing controllable gating of edge state important for device applications.« less

  16. Building America Expert Meeting: Interior Insulation Retrofit of Mass

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Masonry Wall Assemblies | Department of Energy Interior Insulation Retrofit of Mass Masonry Wall Assemblies Building America Expert Meeting: Interior Insulation Retrofit of Mass Masonry Wall Assemblies The Building Science Corporation team held an Expert Meeting on Interior Insulation Retrofit of Mass Masonry Wall Assemblies on July 30, 2011, at the Westford Regency Hotel in Westford, MA. Featured speakers included John Straube, Christopher Schumacher and Kohta Ueno of Building Science

  17. Aerogel-Based Insulation for High-Temperature Industrial Processes

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Aerogel-Based Insulation for High-Temperature Industrial Processes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Aerogel-Based Insulation for High-Temperature Industrial Processes Under this program, Aspen Aerogels has developed an industrial insulation called Pyrogel HT, which is 4-5 times more thermally efficient than current non-aerogel technology. Derived from nanoporous silica aerogels, Pyrogel HT was specifically developed to address a high temperature

  18. Compact gas-insulated transformer. Fourteenth quarterly report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-08-01

    Objective is to develop a compact, more efficient, quieter transformer which does not rely on mineral oil insulation. Compressed SF/sub 6/ is used as the external insulation and polymer film as the insulation between turns. A separate liquid cooling system is also provided. This document reports progress made in design, mechanical, dielectric, short circuit, thermal, materials, prototype, accessories, commercialization, and system studies. (DLC)

  19. Tuning of the Metal-Insulator Transition via Alkali Adsorption

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tuning of the Metal-Insulator Transition via Alkali Adsorption Tuning of the Metal-Insulator Transition via Alkali Adsorption Print Wednesday, 29 March 2006 00:00 Turning a material from an insulator to a metal, or vice versa, by light irradiation, exposure to electric or magnetic fields, or applying small changes in temperature, pressure, or doping-such intriguing control of a material's electronic properties is possible by exploiting strongly interacting or "correlated" electrons.

  20. Experiments Provide First Direct Signatures of a Topological Insulator - a

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Phase of Quantum Matter Experiments Provide First Direct Signatures of a Topological Insulator - a New Phase of Quantum Matter It has recently been proposed that insulators with large band gap and strong spin-orbit coupling can host a new phase of quantum matter called a topological insulator [1,2]. This exotic phase of matter is a subject of intense research because it is predicted to give rise to dissipationless spin currents [3], quantum entanglements and novel macroscopic behavior

  1. Operating temperatures of recessed fluorescent fixtures with thermal insulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yarbrough, D.W.; Toor, I.A.

    1981-05-01

    Tests were performed to determine steady state surface temperatures for recessed fluorescent fixtures operated with and without thermal insulation on the top side of the fixture and to identify potential problems associated with the installation of thermal insulation. In addition to measuring temperatures, means were sought by which the fixtures can be thermally insulated and operated without fire hazards or damage to the fixture. (MCW)

  2. Explosion resistant insulator and method of making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meyer, Jeffry R.; Billings, Jr., John S.; Spindle, Harvey E.; Hofmann, Charles F.

    1983-01-01

    An electrical insulator assembly and method of manufacturing same, having a generally cylindrical or conical body portion formed of a breakable cast solid insulation system and a reinforcing member having a corrugated configuration and formed of a web or mesh type reinforcing fabric. When the breakable body member has been broken, the corrugated configured reinforcing web member provides a path of escape for pressurized insulating fluid while limiting the movement of body member fragments in the direction of escape of the pressurized fluid.

  3. Aerogel-Based Insulation for High-Temperature Industrial Processes...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Aerogel-Based Insulation for High-Temperature Industrial Processes Dr. Owen Evans 32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION; COMPETITION; ENERGY CONSUMPTION; MARKET;...

  4. High-Performance External Insulation and Finish System Incorporating...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: Symposium on Next-Generation Thermal Insulation Challenges and Opportunities, Jacksonville, FL, USA, 20131023, 20131024

  5. Building America Case Study: Insulated Siding Retrofit in a Cold...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Projected energy cost savings: 170year Insulated siding has been available in the marketplace since 1997; both ASHRAE 90.1 and the International Energy Conservation Code qualify ...

  6. Building America Expert Meeting: Cladding Attachment Over Exterior Insulation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This expert meeting was conducted by Building Science Corporation on July 28, 2012 and focused on issues surrounding cladding attachment and performance of walls with exterior insulating sheathing.

  7. Heavy surface state in a possible topological Kondo insulator...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Heavy surface state in a possible topological Kondo insulator: Magnetothermoelectric transport on the (011) plane of SmB 6 This content will become publicly available on February...

  8. Soitec SA Silicon on Insulator Technologies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search Name: Soitec SA (Silicon on Insulator Technologies) Place: Bernin, France Zip: 38190 Product: Has an 'atomic scalpel' technology which allows extremely thin...

  9. Moderate Doping Leads to High Performance of Semiconductor/Insulator...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Moderate Doping Leads to High Performance of SemiconductorInsulator Polymer Blend Transistors Authors: Lu, Guanghao ; Blakesley, James ; Himmelberger, Scott ; Pingel, ...

  10. Glass fiber composition. [for use as thermal insulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolf, G.A.; Kupfer, M.J.

    1980-12-19

    The invention relates to a glass fiber composition useful for thermal insulation having a low melting temperature and high chemical durability.

  11. Where to Insulate in a Home | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Provides a continuous layer of insulation, which reduces thermal bridging through wood studs, saving energy and improving comfort. Is easier to cut and install than heavier ...

  12. Insulate Steam Distribution and Condensate Return Lines, Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and help ensure proper steam pressure at plant equipment. Any surface over 120F should be insulated, including boiler surfaces, steam and condensate return piping, and fttings. ...

  13. DOE Issues Request for Information on Advanced Thermal Insulation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    industry, academia, research laboratories, government agencies, and other stakeholders on advanced thermal insulation for sub-ambient temperature alternative fuel storage systems. ...

  14. Adding Insulation to an Existing Home | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    existing home saves money and improves comfort. | Photo courtesy of Dennis Schroeder, NREL. Adding insulation in an existing home saves money and improves comfort. | Photo...

  15. Savings Project: Insulate and Air Seal Floors Over Unconditioned...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Blanket insulation Wire fasteners Tape measure Sharp utility knife Caulk and foam sealant Caulk gun Stepladder Straightedge Respirator or dust mask Eye protection Protective ...

  16. Highly Insulating Windows Volume Purchase Program Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, Graham B.; Mapes, Terry S.; Zalis, WJ

    2013-02-01

    This report summarizes the Highly Insulating Windows Volume Purchase Program, conduced by PNNL for DOE-BTP, including a summary of outcomes and lessons learned.

  17. Disorder and Metal-Insulator Transitions in Weyl Semimetals ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Disorder and Metal-Insulator Transitions in Weyl Semimetals Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on December 10, 2016 Title: Disorder and ...

  18. Hydrogen Evolution at Si-based Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Hydrogen Evolution at Si-based Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor Photoelectrodes Enhanced by Inversion Channel Charge Collection and Hydrogen Spillover Citation Details In-Document...

  19. Band structure of topological insulators from noise measurements...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    noise measurements in tunnel junctions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Band structure of topological insulators from noise measurements in tunnel junctions The unique ...

  20. Aerogel-Based Insulation for Industrial Steam Distribution Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2009-05-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to improve the high-temperature performance, durability, and life expectancy of aerogel insulation materials.

  1. R25 Polyisocyanurate Composite Insulation Material

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    R25 Polyisocyanurate Composite Insulation Material 2016 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Kaushik Biswas, biswask@ornl.gov Oak Ridge National Laboratory 2 Project Summary Timeline: Start date: Oct 1, 2014 Planned end date: Sep 30, 2017 Key Milestones 1. First full-scale MAI-polyiso composite measured to be R-10/inch; 9/30/15 2. Verify R-value of improved MAI-polyiso composite produced on the production line to be R-12/inch ; 9/30/2016 3. Optimized cost of commercial composite panels with

  2. Process for forming transparent aerogel insulating arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tewari, P.H.; Hunt, A.J.

    1986-09-09

    This patent describes a drying process for forming transparent aerogel insulating arrays of the type utilizing the steps of hydrolyzing and condensing alkoxides to form alcogels, and subsequently removing the alcohol therefrom to form aerogels, the improvement comprising the additional step, after alcogels are formed, of substituting a solvent having a critical temperature less than the critical temperature of the alcohol for the alcohol in the alcogels, and drying the resulting gels at a supercritical temperature for the solvent, to thereby provide a transparent aerogel array within a substantially reduced drying time period.

  3. Layered insulator hexagonal boron nitride for surface passivation in quantum dot solar cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shanmugam, Mariyappan; Jain, Nikhil; Jacobs-Gedrim, Robin; Yu, Bin; Xu, Yang

    2013-12-09

    Single crystalline, two dimensional (2D) layered insulator hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), is demonstrated as an emerging material candidate for surface passivation on mesoporous TiO{sub 2}. Cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dot based bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cell employed h-BN passivated TiO{sub 2} as an electron acceptor exhibits photoconversion efficiency ?46% more than BHJ employed unpassivated TiO{sub 2}. Dominant interfacial recombination pathways such as electron capture by TiO{sub 2} surface states and recombination with hole at valence band of CdSe are efficiently controlled by h-BN enabled surface passivation, leading to improved photovoltaic performance. Highly crystalline, confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, dangling bond-free 2D layered h-BN with self-terminated atomic planes, achieved by chemical exfoliation, enables efficient passivation on TiO{sub 2}, allowing electronic transport at TiO{sub 2}/h-BN/CdSe interface with much lower recombination rate compared to an unpassivated TiO{sub 2}/CdSe interface.

  4. Impact of Extended Daylight Saving

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Extended Daylight Saving Time on National Energy Consumption TECHNICAL DOCUMENTATION FOR REPORT TO CONGRESS Energy Policy Act of 2005, Section 110 Prepared for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy By David B. Belzer (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory), Stanton W. Hadley (Oak Ridge National Laboratory), and Shih-Miao Chin (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) October 2008 U.S. Department of Energy Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Page Intentionally Left

  5. 2-D Coda and Direct Wave Attenuation Tomography in Northern Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morasca, P; Mayeda, K; Gok, R; Phillips, W S; Malagnini, L

    2007-10-17

    A 1-D coda method was proposed by Mayeda et al. (2003) in order to obtain stable seismic source moment-rate spectra using narrowband coda envelope measurements. That study took advantage of the averaging nature of coda waves to derive stable amplitude measurements taking into account all propagation, site, and Sto-coda transfer function effects. Recently this methodology was applied to micro earthquake data sets from three sub-regions of northern Italy (i.e., western Alps, northern Apennines and eastern Alps). Since the study regions were small, ranging between local-to-near-regional distances, the simple 1-D path assumptions used in the coda method worked very well. The lateral complexity of this region would suggest, however, that a 2-D path correction might provide even better results if the datasets were combined, especially when paths traverse larger distances and complicated regions. The structural heterogeneity of northern Italy makes the region ideal to test the extent to which coda variance can be reduced further by using a 2-D Q tomography technique. The approach we use has been developed by Phillips et al. (2005) and is an extension of previous amplitude ratio techniques to remove source effects from the inversion. The method requires some assumptions such as isotropic source radiation which is generally true for coda waves. Our results are compared against direct Swave inversions for 1/Q and results from both share very similar attenuation features that coincide with known geologic structures. We compare our results with those derived from direct waves as well as some recent results from northern California obtained by Mayeda et al. (2005) which tested the same tomographic methodology applied in this study to invert for 1/Q. We find that 2-D coda path corrections for this region significantly improve upon the 1-D corrections, in contrast to California where only a marginal improvement was observed. We attribute this difference to stronger lateral

  6. Designing of sparse 2D arrays for Lamb wave imaging using coarray concept

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ambrozi?ski, ?ukasz Stepinski, Tadeusz Uhl, Tadeusz

    2015-03-31

    2D ultrasonic arrays have considerable application potential in Lamb wave based SHM systems, since they enable equivocal damage imaging and even in some cases wave-mode selection. Recently, it has been shown that the 2D arrays can be used in SHM applications in a synthetic focusing (SF) mode, which is much more effective than the classical phase array mode commonly used in NDT. The SF mode assumes a single element excitation of subsequent transmitters and off-line processing the acquired data. In the simplest implementation of the technique, only single multiplexed input and output channels are required, which results in significant hardware simplification. Application of the SF mode for 2D arrays creates additional degrees of freedom during the design of the array topology, which complicates the array design process, however, it enables sparse array designs with performance similar to that of the fully populated dense arrays. In this paper we present the coarray concept to facilitate synthesis process of an arrays aperture used in the multistatic synthetic focusing approach in Lamb waves-based imaging systems. In the coherent imaging, performed in the transmit/receive mode, the sum coarray is a morphological convolution of the transmit/receive sub-arrays. It can be calculated as the set of sums of the individual sub-arrays elements locations. The coarray framework will be presented here using a an example of a star-shaped array. The approach will be discussed in terms of beampatterns of the resulting imaging systems. Both simulated and experimental results will be included.

  7. Digital Transfer Growth of Patterned 2D Metal Chalcogenides by Confined Nanoparticle Evaporation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mahjouri-Samani, Masoud; Tian, Mengkun; Wang, Kai; Boulesbaa, Abdelaziz; Rouleau, Christopher M.; Puretzky, Alexander A.; McGuire, Michael A.; Srijanto, Bernadeta R.; Xiao, Kai; Eres, Gyula; et al

    2014-10-19

    Developing methods for the facile synthesis of two-dimensional (2D) metal chalcogenides and other layered materials is crucial for emerging applications in functional devices. Controlling the stoichiometry, number of the layers, crystallite size, growth location, and areal uniformity is challenging in conventional vapor phase synthesis. Here, we demonstrate a new route to control these parameters in the growth of metal chalcogenide (GaSe) and dichalcogenide (MoSe2) 2D crystals by precisely defining the mass and location of the source materials in a confined transfer growth system. A uniform and precise amount of stoichiometric nanoparticles are first synthesized and deposited onto a substrate bymore » pulsed laser deposition (PLD) at room temperature. This source substrate is then covered with a receiver substrate to form a confined vapor transport growth (VTG) system. By simply heating the source substrate in an inert background gas, a natural temperature gradient is formed that evaporates the confined nanoparticles to grow large, crystalline 2D nanosheets on the cooler receiver substrate, the temperature of which is controlled by the background gas pressure. Large monolayer crystalline domains (~ 100 m lateral sizes) of GaSe and MoSe2 are demonstrated, as well as continuous monolayer films through the deposition of additional precursor materials. This novel PLD-VTG synthesis and processing method offers a unique approach for the controlled growth of large-area, metal chalcogenides with a controlled number of layers in patterned growth locations for optoelectronics and energy related applications.« less

  8. Variably insulating portable heater/cooler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Potter, T.F.

    1998-09-29

    A compact vacuum insulation panel is described comprising a chamber enclosed by two sheets of metal, glass-like spaces disposed in the chamber between the sidewalls, and a high-grade vacuum in the chamber includes apparatus and methods for enabling and disabling, or turning ``on`` and ``off`` the thermal insulating capability of the panel. One type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes a metal hydride for releasing hydrogen gas into the chamber in response to heat, and a hydrogen grate between the metal hydride and the chamber for selectively preventing and allowing return of the hydrogen gas to the metal hydride. Another type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes a variable emissivity coating on the sheets of metal in which the emissivity is controllably variable by heat or electricity. Still another type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes metal-to-metal contact devices that can be actuated to establish or break metal-to-metal heat paths or thermal short circuits between the metal sidewalls. 25 figs.

  9. Variably insulating portable heater/cooler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Potter, Thomas F.

    1998-01-01

    A compact vacuum insulation panel comprising a chamber enclosed by two sheets of metal, glass-like spaces disposed in the chamber between the sidewalls, and a high-grade vacuum in the chamber includes apparatus and methods for enabling and disabling, or turning "on" and "off" the thermal insulating capability of the panel. One type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes a metal hydride for releasing hydrogen gas into the chamber in response to heat, and a hydrogen grate between the metal hydride and the chamber for selectively preventing and allowing return of the hydrogen gas to the metal hydride. Another type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes a variable emissivity coating on the sheets of metal in which the emissivity is controllably variable by heat or electricity. Still another type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes metal-to-metal contact devices that can be actuated to establish or break metal-to-metal heat paths or thermal short circuits between the metal sidewalls.

  10. Radiation-controlled dynamic vacuum insulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1995-07-18

    A compact vacuum insulation panel is described comprising a chamber enclosed by two sheets of metal, glass-like spaces disposed in the chamber between the sidewalls, and a high-grade vacuum in the chamber that includes apparatus and methods for enabling and disabling, or turning ``on`` and ``off`` the thermal insulating capability of the panel. One type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes a metal hydride for releasing hydrogen gas into the chamber in response to heat, and a hydrogen grate between the metal hydride and the chamber for selectively preventing and allowing return of the hydrogen gas to the metal hydride. Another type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes a variable emissivity coating on the sheets of metal in which the emissivity is controllably variable by heat or electricity. Still another type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes metal-to-metal contact devices that can be actuated to establish or break metal-to-metal heat paths or thermal short circuits between the metal sidewalls. 25 figs.

  11. Radiation-controlled dynamic vacuum insulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, David K.; Potter, Thomas F.

    1995-01-01

    A compact vacuum insulation panel comprising a chamber enclosed by two sheets of metal, glass-like spaces disposed in the chamber between the sidewalls, and a high-grade vacuum in the chamber that includes apparatus and methods for enabling and disabling, or turning "on" and "off" the thermal insulating capability of the panel. One type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes a metal hydride for releasing hydrogen gas into the chamber in response to heat, and a hydrogen grate between the metal hydride and the chamber for selectively preventing and allowing return of the hydrogen gas to the metal hydride. Another type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes a variable emissivity coating on the sheets of metal in which the emissivity is controllably variable by heat or electricity. Still another type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes metal-to-metal contact devices that can be actuated to establish or break metal-to-metal heat paths or thermal short circuits between the metal sidewalls.

  12. Material-controlled dynamic vacuum insulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1996-10-08

    A compact vacuum insulation panel is described comprising a chamber enclosed by two sheets of metal, glass-like spaces disposed in the chamber between the sidewalls, and a high-grade vacuum in the chamber includes apparatus and methods for enabling and disabling, or turning ``on`` and ``off`` the thermal insulating capability of the panel. One type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes a metal hydride for releasing hydrogen gas into the chamber in response to heat, and a hydrogen grate between the metal hydride and the chamber for selectively preventing and allowing return of the hydrogen gas to the metal hydride. Another type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes a variable emissivity coating on the sheets of metal in which the emissivity is controllably variable by heat or electricity. Still another type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes metal-to-metal contact devices that can be actuated to establish or break metal-to-metal heat paths or thermal short circuits between the metal sidewalls. 25 figs.

  13. Material-controlled dynamic vacuum insulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, David K.; Potter, Thomas F.

    1996-10-08

    A compact vacuum insulation panel comprising a chamber enclosed by two sheets of metal, glass-like spaces disposed in the chamber between the sidewalls, and a high-grade vacuum in the chamber includes apparatus and methods for enabling and disabling, or turning "on" and "off" the thermal insulating capability of the panel. One type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes a metal hydride for releasing hydrogen gas into the chamber in response to heat, and a hydrogen grate between the metal hydride and the chamber for selectively preventing and allowing return of the hydrogen gas to the metal hydride. Another type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes a variable emissivity coating on the sheets of metal in which the emissivity is controllably variable by heat or electricity. Still another type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes metal-to-metal contact devices that can be actuated to establish or break metal-to-metal heat paths or thermal short circuits between the metal sidewalls.

  14. Ground-Based and Airborne (PMS 2-D Probe Canister-Mounted) 183 GHz Water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vapor Radiometer Ground-Based and Airborne (PMS 2-D Probe Canister-Mounted) 183 GHz Water Vapor Radiometer Pazmany, Andrew ProSensing Inc. Category: Instruments ProSensing Inc. has developed a G-band (183 GHz, 1.5 mm wavelength) water vapor radiometer (GVR) for the measurement of low concentrations of atmospheric water vapor and liquid water. The instrument's precipitable water vapor measurement precision is approximately 0.01 mm in dry (<2 mm vapor column) conditions. The ground-based

  15. Optical properties of GaAs 2D hexagonal and cubic photonic crystal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arab, F. Assali, A.; Grain, R.; Kanouni, F.

    2015-03-30

    In this paper we present our theoretical study of 2D hexagonal and cubic rods GaAs in air, with plan wave expansion (PWE) and finite difference time domain (FDTD) by using BandSOLVE and FullWAVE of Rsoft photonic CAD package. In order to investigate the effect of symmetry and radius, we performed calculations of the band structures for both TM and TE polarization, contour and electromagnetic propagation and transmission spectra. Our calculations show that the hexagonal structure gives a largest band gaps compare to cubic one for a same filling factor.

  16. Takes Electric or Magnetic field data through Inversion process a 2D Distributon

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2008-05-01

    Program images 2D distributions in electrical conductivity for geophysical applications. The program can treat surface based and cross well measurement geometries, including inductive and grounded source antennas in the quasi-static limit. The algorithm using Krylov iterative methods to solve for the predicted data and model sensitivities. The model update is achieved using a Gauss-newton optimization process for stability. A new line search capability is now included in the algorithm to insure global convergence of themore » inversion iteration.« less

  17. Magnetic helicity signature produced by cross-field 2D turbulence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markovskii, S. A.; Vasquez, Bernard J.

    2013-06-13

    Hybrid numerical simulations of freely decaying 2D turbulence are presented. The background magnetic field is perpendicular to the simulation plane, which eliminates linear kinetic Alfven waves from the system. The normalized magnetic helicity of the initial large-scale fluctuations is zero, while the normalized cross-helicity is not. As the turbulence evolves, it develops nonzero magnetic helicity at smaller scales, in the proton kinetic range. In the quasi-steady state of evolution, the magnetic helicity spectrum has a peak consistent with the solar wind observations.

  18. Insulation Project Moves Toward Higher R-value

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Current commercially available insulation materials yield R-6 per inch or less with no major improvements in thermal performance since the 1970s. In collaboration with Firestone Building Products and NanoPore, an Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) team led by Kaushik Biswas and Andre Desjarlais continues to research prototype composite foam boards with modified atmosphere insulation (MAI) cores.

  19. High voltage gas insulated transmission line with continuous particle trapping

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cookson, Alan H. (Pittsburgh, PA); Dale, Steinar J. (Monroeville, PA)

    1983-01-01

    This invention provides a novel high voltage gas insulated transmission line utilizing insulating supports spaced at intervals with snap-in means for supporting a continuous trapping apparatus and said trapping apparatus having perforations and cutouts to facilitate trapping of contaminating particles and system flexibility.

  20. Dielectrophoresis device and method having insulating ridges for manipulating particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cummings, Eric B.; Fiechtner, Gregory J.

    2008-03-25

    Embodiments of the present invention provide methods and devices for manipulating particles using dielectrophoresis. Insulating ridges and valleys are used to generate a spatially non-uniform electrical field. Particles may be concentrated, separated, or captured during bulk fluid flow in a channel having insulating ridges and valleys.

  1. A New 2D-Transport, 1D-Diffusion Approximation of the Boltzmann Transport equation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larsen, Edward

    2013-06-17

    The work performed in this project consisted of the derivation, implementation, and testing of a new, computationally advantageous approximation to the 3D Boltz- mann transport equation. The solution of the Boltzmann equation is the neutron flux in nuclear reactor cores and shields, but solving this equation is difficult and costly. The new “2D/1D” approximation takes advantage of a special geometric feature of typical 3D reactors to approximate the neutron transport physics in a specific (ax- ial) direction, but not in the other two (radial) directions. The resulting equation is much less expensive to solve computationally, and its solutions are expected to be sufficiently accurate for many practical problems. In this project we formulated the new equation, discretized it using standard methods, developed a stable itera- tion scheme for solving the equation, implemented the new numerical scheme in the MPACT code, and tested the method on several realistic problems. All the hoped- for features of this new approximation were seen. For large, difficult problems, the resulting 2D/1D solution is highly accurate, and is calculated about 100 times faster than a 3D discrete ordinates simulation.

  2. Optimizing the transverse thermal conductivity of 2D-SiCf/SiC composites, II. Experimental

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Youngblood, Gerald E; Senor, David J; Jones, Russell H; Kowbel, W

    2002-12-31

    Model predictions of the transverse thermal conductivity (Keff) are compared to experimentally determined values as a function of temperature for a commercial 2D-SiCf/SiC made by DuPont from plain weave Hi-Nicalon fabric and with an ICVI-SiC matrix. Two versions of the DuPont composite were examined: one with a “thin” and one with a “thick” pyrolytic carbon coating of thickness 0.110 m and 1.044 m, respectively. Generally good agreement of the model predictions with measured values of Keff suggest that these models can be used to predict Keff for composites with various “non-ideal” fiber, interphase and matrix structures. Importantly, the models make it possible to separate the relative component contributions to Keff so that individual component degradation mechanisms can be examined in detail. Then, based on specific knowledge of the component degradation, the models can used to predict Keff-values for composites subjected to irradiation, oxidation, thermal cycling, or other thermal or mechanical stress treatments. Finally, model predictions were examined to suggest specific design and/or development efforts directed to optimize the overall thermal transport performance of 2D-SiCf/SiC.

  3. Nanoscale elastic changes in 2D Ti3C2Tx (MXene) pseudocapacitive electrodes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Come, Jeremy; Xie, Yu; Naguib, Michael; Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Gogotsi, Yury; Kent, Paul R. C.; Balke, Nina

    2016-02-01

    Designing sustainable electrodes for next generation energy storage devices relies on the understanding of their fundamental properties at the nanoscale, including the comprehension of ions insertion into the electrode and their interactions with the active material. One consequence of ion storage is the change in the electrode volume resulting in mechanical strain and stress that can strongly affect the cycle life. Therefore, it is important to understand the changes of dimensions and mechanical properties occurring during electrochemical reactions. While the characterization of mechanical properties via macroscopic measurements is well documented, in-situ characterization of their evolution has never been achieved atmore » the nanoscale. Two dimensional (2D) carbides, known as MXenes, are promising materials for supercapacitors and various kinds of batteries, and understating the coupling between their mechanical and electrochemical properties is therefore necessary. Here we report on in-situ imaging, combined with density functional theory of the elastic changes, of a 2D titanium carbide (Ti3C2Tx) electrode in direction normal to the basal plane during cation intercalation. The results show a strong correlation between the Li+ ions content and the elastic modulus, whereas little effects of K+ ions are observed. Moreover, this strategy enables identifying the preferential intercalation pathways within a single particle.« less

  4. Optimizing the transverse thermal conductivity of 2D-SiCf/SiC composites, I. Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Youngblood, Gerald E.; Senor, David J.; Jones, Russell H.

    2002-12-31

    For potential fusion applications, considerable fabrication efforts have been directed to obtaining transverse thermal conductivity (Keff) values in excess of 30 W/mK (unirradiated) in the 800-1000°C temperature range for 2D-SiCf/SiC composites. To gain insight into the factors affecting Keff, at PNNL we have tested three different analytic models for predicting Keff in terms of constituent (fiber, matrix and interphase) properties. The tested models were: the Hasselman-Johnson (H-J) “2-Cylinder” model, which examines the effects of fiber-matrix (f/m) thermal barriers; the Markworth “3-Cylinder” model, which specifically examines the effects of interphase thickness and thermal conductivity; and a newly-developed Anisotropic “3-Square” model, which examines the potential effect of introducing a fiber coating with anisotropic properties to enhance (or diminish) f/m thermal coupling. The first two models are effective medium models, while the third model is a simple combination of parallel and series conductances. Model predictions suggest specific designs and/or development efforts directed to optimize the overall thermal transport performance of 2D-SiCf/SiC.

  5. Enhanced Absorption in 2D Materials Via Fano- Resonant Photonic Crystals

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Wenyi; Klotz, Andrey; Yang, Yuanmu; Li, Wei; Kravchenko, Ivan I.; Briggs, Dayrl P.; Bolotin, Kirill; Valentine, Jason

    2015-05-01

    The use of two-dimensional (2D) materials in optoelectronics has attracted much attention due to their fascinating optical and electrical properties. For instance, graphenebased devices have been employed for applications such as ultrafast and broadband photodetectors and modulators while transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) based photodetectors can be used for ultrasensitive photodetection. However, the low optical absorption of 2D materials arising from their atomic thickness limits the maximum attainable external quantum efficiency. For example, in the visible and NIR regimes monolayer MoS2 and graphene absorb only ~10% and 2.3% of incoming light, respectively. Here, we experimentally demonstrate the use of Fano-resonant photonicmore » crystals to significantly boost absorption in atomically thin materials. Using graphene as a test bed, we demonstrate that absorption in the monolayer thick material can be enhanced to 77% within the telecommunications band, the highest value reported to date. We also show that the absorption in the Fano-resonant structure is non-local, with light propagating up to 16 μm within the structure. This property is particularly beneficial in harvesting light from large areas in field-effect-transistor based graphene photodetectors in which separation of photo-generated carriers only occurs ~0.2 μm adjacent to the graphene/electrode interface.« less

  6. Issue #5: How Much Insulation is Too Much? | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5: How Much Insulation is Too Much? Issue #5: How Much Insulation is Too Much? How do we define the cost-effective limit for improvements in enclosure efficiency? issue5_enclosure_insulation.pdf (814.86 KB) issue5_optimizing_insulation.pdf (1.23 MB) issue5_code_cost_analy.pdf (979.99 KB) More Documents & Publications Issue 5: Optimizing High Levels of Insulation How Much Insulation is Too Much? Cost Analysis Approach for Codes

  7. Pressure effects on the optical conductivity of Kondo insulators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Sun

    2001-06-01

    The effects of pressure on the optical conductivity of Kondo insulators are studied in the framework of the slave-boson mean-field theory under the coherent potential approximation. A unified picture is presented for both the hole-type Kondo insulators [H. Okamura , Phys. Rev. B >58, R7496 (1998)] and the electron-type Kondo insulators [B. Bucher , Phys. Rev. Lett. >72, 522 (1994)]. The density of states of f electrons under the applied pressure and its variation with the concentration of the impurity doping are calculated self-consistently. The Kondo temperature and the optical conductivity are obtained, in agreement with the experiments qualitatively. The two contrasting pressure-dependent effects for the hole-type Kondo insulators and the electron-type Kondo insulators are also given as predictions for further observations.

  8. Gas insulated transmission line having low inductance intercalated sheath

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cookson, Alan H. (Southboro, MA)

    1978-01-01

    A gas insulated transmission line including an outer sheath, an inner conductor disposed within the outer sheath, and an insulating gas between the inner conductor and the outer sheath. The outer sheath comprises an insulating tube having first and second ends, and having interior and exterior surfaces. A first electrically conducting foil is secured to the interior surface of the insulating tube, is spirally wound from one tube end to the second tube end, and has a plurality of overlapping turns. A second electrically conducting foil is secured to the exterior surface of the insulating tube, and is spirally wound in the opposite direction from the first electrically conducting foil. By winding the foils in opposite directions, the inductances within the intercalated sheath will cancel each other out.

  9. Design of Experiments Results for the Feedthru Insulator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BENAVIDES,GILBERT L.; VAN ORNUM,DAVID J.; BACA,MAUREEN R.; APPEL,PATRICIA E.

    1999-12-01

    A design of experiments (DoE) was performed at Ceramtec to improve the yield of a cermet part known as the feedthru insulator. The factors chosen to be varied in this DoE were syringe orifice size, fill condition, solvent, and surfactant. These factors were chosen because of their anticipated effect on the cermet slurry and its consequences to the feedthru insulator in succeeding fabrication operations. Response variables to the DoE were chosen to be indirect indicators of production yield for the feedthru insulator. The solvent amount used to mix the cermet slurry had the greatest overall effect on the response variables. Based upon this DoE, there is the potential to improve the yield not only for the feedthru insulator but for other cermet parts as well. This report thoroughly documents the DoE and contains additional information regarding the feedthru insulator.

  10. A comparative examination of the fire performance of pipe insulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babrauskas, V.

    1996-12-31

    A standard method for evaluating the fire performance of pipe insulation is not available in North America. In Europe, however, the regional standards organization NORDTEST has had available for several years now a method specifically designed for this purpose. The NORDTEST NT FIRE 036 test is a full-scale room fire test where the pipe insulation is installed along the ceiling and subjected to a gas burner fire. Four classes of performance (Class I through III, plus unrated) are used to evaluate the products. In the present work, 4 different pipe insulation products, representing the most common materials used for this purpose, have been examined according to this test. The results showed that rock wool insulation gave the best fire performance, with phenolic foam being in the least safe rated category. Synthetic foam rubber and polyethylene insulation products gave intermediate performance. 12 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs.

  11. Improved DC Gun and Insulator Assembly (Technical Report) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Improved DC Gun and Insulator Assembly Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Improved DC Gun and Insulator Assembly Many user facilities such as synchrotron radiation light ...

  12. Technology Solutions Case Study: Interior Foundation Insulation Upgrade-Madison Residence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-10-01

    This basement insulation project included a dimple mat conveying inbound moisture to a draintile, airtight spray polyurethane foam wall and floor insulation, and radiant floor heat installation

  13. Pipe crawler with extendable legs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zollinger, William T.

    1992-01-01

    A pipe crawler for moving through a pipe in inchworm fashion having front and rear leg assemblies separated by air cylinders to increase and decrease the spacing between assemblies. Each leg of the four legs of an assembly is moved between a wall-engaging, extended position and a retracted position by a separate air cylinder. The air cylinders of the leg assemblies are preferably arranged in pairs of oppositely directed cylinders with no pair lying in the same axial plane as another pair. Therefore, the cylinders can be as long a leg assembly is wide and the crawler can crawl through sections of pipes where the diameter is twice that of other sections. The crawler carries a valving system, a manifold to distribute air supplied by a single umbilical air hose to the various air cylinders in a sequence controlled electrically by a controller. The crawler also utilizes a rolling mechanism, casters in this case, to reduce friction between the crawler and pipe wall thereby further extending the range of the pipe crawler.

  14. Pipe crawler with extendable legs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zollinger, W.T.

    1992-06-16

    A pipe crawler for moving through a pipe in inchworm fashion having front and rear leg assemblies separated by air cylinders to increase and decrease the spacing between assemblies. Each leg of the four legs of an assembly is moved between a wall-engaging, extended position and a retracted position by a separate air cylinder. The air cylinders of the leg assemblies are preferably arranged in pairs of oppositely directed cylinders with no pair lying in the same axial plane as another pair. Therefore, the cylinders can be as long as a leg assembly is wide and the crawler can crawl through sections of pipes where the diameter is twice that of other sections. The crawler carries a valving system, a manifold to distribute air supplied by a single umbilical air hose to the various air cylinders in a sequence controlled electrically by a controller. The crawler also utilizes a rolling mechanism, casters in this case, to reduce friction between the crawler and pipe wall thereby further extending the range of the pipe crawler. 8 figs.

  15. Method and apparatus for an insulating glazing unit and compliant seal for an insulating glazing unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Francis, IV, William H.; Freebury, Gregg E.; Beidleman, Neal J.; Hulse, Michael

    2016-05-03

    A Vacuum Insulating Glazing Unit (VIGU) comprises two or more glass lites (panes) spaced apart from one another and hermetically bonded to an edge seal assembly therebetween. The resulting cavity between the lites is evacuated to create at least one insulating vacuum cavity within which are disposed a plurality of stand-off members to maintain separation between the lites. The edge seal assembly is preferably compliant in the longitudinal (i.e., edgewise) direction to allow longitudinal relative motion between the two lites (e.g., from thermal expansion). The longitudinal compliance may be obtained by imprinting a three-dimensional pattern into the edge seal material. The edge seal assembly is preferably bonded to the lites with a first bond portion that is hermetic and a second bond portion that is load-resistant. Methods for producing VIGUs and/or compliant edge seal assemblies and VIGU and edge seal apparatus are disclosed.

  16. Quench from Mott Insulator to Superfluid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zurek, Wojciech H.; Dziarmaga, Jacek; Tylutki, Marek

    2012-06-01

    We study a linear ramp of the nearest-neighbor tunneling rate in the Bose-Hubbard model driving the system from the Mott insulator state into the superfluid phase. We employ the truncated Wigner approximation to simulate linear quenches of a uniform system in 1...3 dimensions, and in a harmonic trap in 3 dimensions. In all these setups the excitation energy decays like one over third root of the quench time. The -1/3 scaling is explained by an impulse-adiabatic approximation - a variant of the Kibble-Zurek mechanism - describing a crossover from non-adiabatic to adiabatic evolution when the system begins to keep pace with the increasing tunneling rate.

  17. Drapery assembly including insulated drapery liner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cukierski, Gwendolyn (Ithaca, NY)

    1983-01-01

    A drapery assembly is disclosed for covering a framed wall opening, the assembly including drapery panels hung on a horizontal traverse rod, the rod having a pair of master slides and means for displacing the master slides between open and closed positions. A pair of insulating liner panels are positioned behind the drapery, the remote side edges of the liner panels being connected with the side portions of the opening frame, and the adjacent side edges of the liner panels being connected with a pair of vertically arranged center support members adapted for sliding movement longitudinally of a horizontal track member secured to the upper horizontal portion of the opening frame. Pivotally arranged brackets connect the center support members with the master slides of the traverse rod whereby movement of the master slides to effect opening and closing of the drapery panels effects simultaneous opening and closing of the liner panels.

  18. Exfoliation of self-assembled 2D organic-inorganic perovskite semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niu, Wendy Baumberg, Jeremy J.; Eiden, Anna; Vijaya Prakash, G.

    2014-04-28

    Ultra-thin flakes of 2D organic-inorganic perovskite (C{sub 6}H{sub 9}C{sub 2}H{sub 4}NH{sub 3}){sub 2}PbI{sub 4} are produced using micromechanical exfoliation. Mono- and few-layer areas are identified using optical and atomic force microscopy, with an interlayer spacing of 1.6?nm. Refractive indices extracted from the optical spectra reveal a sample thickness dependence due to the charge transfer between organic and inorganic layers. These measurements demonstrate a clear difference in the exciton properties between bulk (>15 layers) and very thin (<8 layer) regions as a result of the structural rearrangement of organic molecules around the inorganic sheets.

  19. The low frequency 2D vibration sensor based on flat coil element

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Djamal, Mitra; Sanjaya, Edi; Islahudin; Ramli

    2012-06-20

    Vibration like an earthquake is a phenomenon of physics. The characteristics of these vibrations can be used as an early warning system so as to reduce the loss or damage caused by earthquakes. In this paper, we introduced a new type of low frequency 2D vibration sensor based on flat coil element that we have developed. Its working principle is based on position change of a seismic mass that put in front of a flat coil element. The flat coil is a part of a LC oscillator; therefore, the change of seismic mass position will change its resonance frequency. The results of measurements of low frequency vibration sensor in the direction of the x axis and y axis gives the frequency range between 0.2 to 1.0 Hz.

  20. Explicitly correlated Gaussian calculations of the {sup 2}D Rydberg states of the boron atom

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharkey, Keeper L.; Bubin, Sergiy; Adamowicz, Ludwik

    2012-08-14

    Accurate non-relativistic variational calculations are performed for the seven lowest members of the {sup 2}D Rydberg series (1s{sup 2}2s2p{sup 2}, and 1s{sup 2}2s{sup 2}nd, n= 3, Horizontal-Ellipsis , 8) of the boron atom. The wave functions of the states are expanded in terms of all-electron explicitly correlated Gaussian basis functions and the effect of the finite nuclear mass is directly included in the calculations allowing for determining the isotopic shifts of the energy levels. The Gaussian basis is optimized independently for each state with the aid of the analytic energy gradient with respect to the Gaussian parameters. The calculations represent the highest accuracy level currently achievable for the considered states. The computed energies are compared with the available experimental data.

  1. Models Ion Trajectories in 2D and 3D Electrostatic and Magnetic Fields

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2000-02-21

    SIMION3D7.0REV is a C based ion optics simulation program that can model complex problems using Laplace equation solutions for potential fields. The program uses an ion optics workbench that can hold up to 200 2D and/or 3D electrostatic/magnetic potential arrays. Arrays can have up to 50,000,000 points. SIMION3D7.0''s 32 bit virtual Graphics User Interface provides a highly interactive advanced user environment. All potential arrays are visualized as 3D objects that the user can cut awaymore » to inspect ion trajectories and potential energy surfaces. User programs allow the user to customize the program for specific simulations. A geometry file option supports the definition of highly complex array geometry. Algorithm modifications have improved this version''s computational speed and accuracy.« less

  2. Disentangling Redshift-Space Distortions and Nonlinear Bias using the 2D Power Spectrum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jennings, Elise; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2015-08-07

    We present the nonlinear 2D galaxy power spectrum, P(k, µ), in redshift space, measured from the Dark Sky simulations, using galaxy catalogs constructed with both halo occupation distribution and subhalo abundance matching methods, chosen to represent an intermediate redshift sample of luminous red galaxies. We find that the information content in individual µ (cosine of the angle to the line of sight) bins is substantially richer then multipole moments, and show that this can be used to isolate the impact of nonlinear growth and redshift space distortion (RSD) effects. Using the µ < 0.2 simulation data, which we show is not impacted by RSD effects, we can successfully measure the nonlinear bias to an accuracy of ~ 5% at k < 0.6hMpc-1 . This use of individual µ bins to extract the nonlinear bias successfully removes a large parameter degeneracy when constraining the linear growth rate of structure. We carry out a joint parameter estimation, using the low µ simulation data to constrain the nonlinear bias, and µ > 0.2 to constrain the growth rate and show that f can be constrained to ~ 26(22)% to a kmax < 0.4(0.6)hMpc-1 from clustering alone using a simple dispersion model, for a range of galaxy models. Our analysis of individual µ bins also reveals interesting physical effects which arise simply from different methods of populating halos with galaxies. We also find a prominent turnaround scale, at which RSD damping effects are greater then the nonlinear growth, which differs not only for each µ bin but also for each galaxy model. These features may provide unique signatures which could be used to shed light on the galaxy–dark matter connection. Furthermore, the idea of separating nonlinear growth and RSD effects making use of the full information in the 2D galaxy power spectrum yields significant improvements in constraining cosmological parameters and may be a promising probe of galaxy formation models.

  3. Extended optical model for fission

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sin, M.; Capote, R.; Herman, M. W.; Trkov, A.

    2016-03-07

    A comprehensive formalism to calculate fission cross sections based on the extension of the optical model for fission is presented. It can be used for description of nuclear reactions on actinides featuring multi-humped fission barriers with partial absorption in the wells and direct transmission through discrete and continuum fission channels. The formalism describes the gross fluctuations observed in the fission probability due to vibrational resonances, and can be easily implemented in existing statistical reaction model codes. The extended optical model for fission is applied for neutron induced fission cross-section calculations on 234,235,238U and 239Pu targets. A triple-humped fission barrier ismore » used for 234,235U(n,f), while a double-humped fission barrier is used for 238U(n,f) and 239Pu(n,f) reactions as predicted by theoretical barrier calculations. The impact of partial damping of class-II/III states, and of direct transmission through discrete and continuum fission channels, is shown to be critical for a proper description of the measured fission cross sections for 234,235,238U(n,f) reactions. The 239Pu(n,f) reaction can be calculated in the complete damping approximation. Calculated cross sections for 235,238U(n,f) and 239Pu(n,f) reactions agree within 3% with the corresponding cross sections derived within the Neutron Standards least-squares fit of available experimental data. Lastly, the extended optical model for fission can be used for both theoretical fission studies and nuclear data evaluation.« less

  4. THE EXTENDED VIRGO CLUSTER CATALOG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Suk; Rey, Soo-Chang; Lee, Youngdae; Chung, Jiwon; Pak, Mina; Yi, Wonhyeong; Lee, Woong; Jerjen, Helmut; Lisker, Thorsten; Sung, Eon-Chang

    2015-01-01

    We present a new catalog of galaxies in the wider region of the Virgo cluster, based on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7. The Extended Virgo Cluster Catalog (EVCC) covers an area of 725 deg{sup 2} or 60.1 Mpc{sup 2}. It is 5.2 times larger than the footprint of the classical Virgo Cluster Catalog (VCC) and reaches out to 3.5 times the virial radius of the Virgo cluster. We selected 1324 spectroscopically targeted galaxies with radial velocities less than 3000 km s{sup –1}. In addition, 265 galaxies that have been overlooked in the SDSS spectroscopic survey but have available redshifts in the NASA Extragalactic Database are also included. Our selection process secured a total of 1589 galaxies, 676 of which are not included in the VCC. The certain and possible cluster members are defined by means of redshift comparison with a cluster infall model. We employed two independent and complementary galaxy classification schemes: the traditional morphological classification based on the visual inspection of optical images and a characterization of galaxies from their spectroscopic features. SDSS u, g, r, i, and z passband photometry of all EVCC galaxies was performed using Source Extractor. We compare the EVCC galaxies with the VCC in terms of morphology, spatial distribution, and luminosity function. The EVCC defines a comprehensive galaxy sample covering a wider range in galaxy density that is significantly different from the inner region of the Virgo cluster. It will be the foundation for forthcoming galaxy evolution studies in the extended Virgo cluster region, complementing ongoing and planned Virgo cluster surveys at various wavelengths.

  5. A New Route to Nanoscale Conducting Channels in Insulating Oxides

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A New Route to Nanoscale Conducting Channels in Insulating Oxides A New Route to Nanoscale Conducting Channels in Insulating Oxides Print Wednesday, 29 August 2012 00:00 Two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs)-narrow conducting channels at the surfaces and interfaces of semiconductor materials-are the bedrock of conventional electronics. The startling 2004 discovery that such 2DEGs could be engineered at the interface between two insulating transition-metal oxides, SrTiO3 and LaAlO3, initiated a

  6. Savings Project: Insulate and Air Seal Floors Over Unconditioned Garages |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy and Air Seal Floors Over Unconditioned Garages Savings Project: Insulate and Air Seal Floors Over Unconditioned Garages Addthis Project Level Easy Energy Savings Depend on energy cost, R-value increase, and airtightness of newly insulated floor compared to existing. Time to Complete 4-8 hours Overall Cost $0.60 to $1.00 PER SQUARE FOOT FOR R-30 BATTS Careful air sealing and insulation between an unconditioned garage and the conditioned space above can increase comfort,

  7. Study of the electrical conductivity at finite temperature in 2D Si- MOSFETs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Limouny, L. Kaaouachi, A. El Tata, O.; Daoudi, E.; Errai, M.; Dlimi, S.; Idrissi, H. El; Zatni, A.

    2014-01-27

    We investigate the low temperature density dependent conductivity of two dimensional electron systems in zero magnetic field for sample Si-15 MOSFETs. The first purpose of this paper is to establish that the knee of the conductivity ?{sub 0} (?{sub 0} is the T = 0.3 conductivity obtained by linear extrapolation of the curves of ? (T) for different values of electron density, n{sub s}) as a function of the carrier densities n{sub s} for T = 0.3 K, observed by Lai et al. and Limouny et al. in previous work for two different samples, is independent of temperature. The second aim is the determination of the critical density, n{sub c}, of the metal-insulator transition. Many methods are used in this investigation of n{sub c} which have been already used for other samples. The motivation behind this last study is the observation of many values of n{sub c} that have been obtained from different methods and that are slightly different. We will use in this study three methods with the intention to infer which one is more appropriate to obtain n{sub c}.

  8. Delivery of human NKG2D-IL-15 fusion gene by chitosan nanoparticles to enhance antitumor immunity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, Chen; Jie, Leng; Yongqi, Wang; Weiming, Xiao; Juqun, Xi; Yanbing, Ding; Li, Qian; Xingyuan, Pan; Mingchun, Ji; Weijuan, Gong

    2015-07-31

    Nanoparticles are becoming promising carriers for gene delivery because of their high capacity in gene loading and low cell cytotoxicity. In this study, a chitosan-based nanoparticle encapsulated within a recombinant pcDNA3.1-dsNKG2D-IL-15 plasmid was generated. The fused dsNKG2D-IL-15 gene fragment consisted of double extracellular domains of NKG2D with IL-15 gene at downstream. The average diameter of the gene nanoparticles ranged from 200 nm to 400 nm, with mean zeta potential value of 53.8 ± 6.56 mV. The nanoparticles which were loaded with the dsNKG2D-IL-15 gene were uptaken by tumor cells with low cytotoxicity. Tumor cells pre-transfected by gene nanopartilces stimulated NK and T cells in vitro. Intramuscular injection of gene nanoparticles suppressed tumor growth and prolonged survival of tumor-bearing mice through activation of NK and CD8{sup +} T cells. Thus, chitosan-based nanoparticle delivery of dsNKG2D-IL-15 gene vaccine can be potentially used for tumor therapy. - Highlights: • Generation of a nanoparticle for delivery of dsNKG2D-IL-15 gene. • Characterization of the gene nanoparticle. • Antitumor activity mediated by the gene nanoparticle.

  9. Supersolid and solitonic phases in the one-dimensional extended Bose-Hubbard model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mishra, Tapan; Pai, Ramesh V.; Ramanan, S.; Luthra, Meetu Sethi; Das, B. P.

    2009-10-15

    We report our findings on the quantum phase transitions in cold bosonic atoms in a one-dimensional optical lattice using the finite-size density-matrix renormalization-group method in the framework of the extended Bose-Hubbard model. We consider wide ranges of values for the filling factors and the nearest-neighbor interactions. At commensurate fillings, we obtain two different types of charge-density wave phases and a Mott insulator phase. However, departure from commensurate fillings yields the exotic supersolid phase where both the crystalline and the superfluid orders coexist. In addition, we obtain the signatures for the solitary waves and the superfluid phase.

  10. Advanced Extended Plate and Beam Wall System in a Cold-Climate House

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mallay, Dave; Wiehagen, Joseph; Kochkin, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    This report presents the design and evaluation of an innovative wall system. This highly insulated (high-R) light-frame wall system for use above grade in residential buildings is referred to as Extended Plate & Beam (EP&B). The EP&B design is the first of its kind to be featured in a new construction test house (NCTH) for the DOE Building America program. The EP&B wall design integrates standard building methods and common building products to construct a high-R wall that minimizes transition risks and costs to builders.

  11. Computational Study and Analysis of Structural Imperfections in 1D and 2D Photonic Crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.R. Maskaly

    2005-06-01

    Dielectric reflectors that are periodic in one or two dimensions, also known as 1D and 2D photonic crystals, have been widely studied for many potential applications due to the presence of wavelength-tunable photonic bandgaps. However, the unique optical behavior of photonic crystals is based on theoretical models of perfect analogues. Little is known about the practical effects of dielectric imperfections on their technologically useful optical properties. In order to address this issue, a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) code is employed to study the effect of three specific dielectric imperfections in 1D and 2D photonic crystals. The first imperfection investigated is dielectric interfacial roughness in quarter-wave tuned 1D photonic crystals at normal incidence. This study reveals that the reflectivity of some roughened photonic crystal configurations can change up to 50% at the center of the bandgap for RMS roughness values around 20% of the characteristic periodicity of the crystal. However, this reflectivity change can be mitigated by increasing the index contrast and/or the number of bilayers in the crystal. In order to explain these results, the homogenization approximation, which is usually applied to single rough surfaces, is applied to the quarter-wave stacks. The results of the homogenization approximation match the FDTD results extremely well, suggesting that the main role of the roughness features is to grade the refractive index profile of the interfaces in the photonic crystal rather than diffusely scatter the incoming light. This result also implies that the amount of incoherent reflection from the roughened quarterwave stacks is extremely small. This is confirmed through direct extraction of the amount of incoherent power from the FDTD calculations. Further FDTD studies are done on the entire normal incidence bandgap of roughened 1D photonic crystals. These results reveal a narrowing and red-shifting of the normal incidence bandgap with

  12. Pair extended coupled cluster doubles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henderson, Thomas M.; Scuseria, Gustavo E.; Bulik, Ireneusz W.

    2015-06-07

    The accurate and efficient description of strongly correlated systems remains an important challenge for computational methods. Doubly occupied configuration interaction (DOCI), in which all electrons are paired and no correlations which break these pairs are permitted, can in many cases provide an accurate account of strong correlations, albeit at combinatorial computational cost. Recently, there has been significant interest in a method we refer to as pair coupled cluster doubles (pCCD), a variant of coupled cluster doubles in which the electrons are paired. This is simply because pCCD provides energies nearly identical to those of DOCI, but at mean-field computational cost (disregarding the cost of the two-electron integral transformation). Here, we introduce the more complete pair extended coupled cluster doubles (pECCD) approach which, like pCCD, has mean-field cost and reproduces DOCI energetically. We show that unlike pCCD, pECCD also reproduces the DOCI wave function with high accuracy. Moreover, pECCD yields sensible albeit inexact results even for attractive interactions where pCCD breaks down.

  13. Quality assurance of asymmetric jaw alignment using 2D diode array

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Sun Mo; Yeung, Ivan W. T.; Moseley, Douglas J.; Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: A method using a 2D diode array is proposed to measure the junction gap (or overlap) and dose with high precision for routine quality assurance of the asymmetric jaw alignment.Methods: The central axis (CAX) of the radiation field was determined with a 15 15 cm{sup 2} photon field at four cardinal collimator angles so that the junction gap (or overlap) can be measured with respect to the CAX. Two abutting fields having a field size of 15 cm (length along the axis parallel to the junction) 7.5 cm (width along the axis perpendicular to the junction) were used to irradiate the 2D diode array (MapCHECK2) with 100 MU delivered at the photon energy of 6 MV. The collimator was slightly rotated at 15 with respect to the beam central axis to increase the number of diodes effective on the measurement of junction gap. The junction gap and dose measured in high spatial resolution were compared to the conventional methods using an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) and radiochromic film, respectively. In addition, the reproducibility and sensitivity of the proposed method to the measurements of junction gap and dose were investigated.Results: The junction gap (or overlap) and dose measured by MapCHECK2 agreed well to those measured by the conventional methods of EPID and film (the differences ranged from ?0.01 to 0 cm and from ?1.34% to 0.6% for the gap and dose, respectively). No variation in the repeat measurements of the junction gap was found whereas the measurements of junction dose were found to vary in quite a small range over the days of measurement (0.21%0.35%). While the sensitivity of the measured junction gap to the actual junction gap applied was the ideal value of 1 cm/cm as expected, the sensitivity of the junction dose to the actual junction gap increased as the junction gap (or overlap) decreased (maximum sensitivity: 201.7%/cm).Conclusions: The initial results suggest that the method is applicable for a comprehensive quality assurance of

  14. Disentangling Redshift-Space Distortions and Nonlinear Bias using the 2D Power Spectrum

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jennings, Elise; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2015-08-07

    We present the nonlinear 2D galaxy power spectrum, P(k, µ), in redshift space, measured from the Dark Sky simulations, using galaxy catalogs constructed with both halo occupation distribution and subhalo abundance matching methods, chosen to represent an intermediate redshift sample of luminous red galaxies. We find that the information content in individual µ (cosine of the angle to the line of sight) bins is substantially richer then multipole moments, and show that this can be used to isolate the impact of nonlinear growth and redshift space distortion (RSD) effects. Using the µ < 0.2 simulation data, which we show ismore » not impacted by RSD effects, we can successfully measure the nonlinear bias to an accuracy of ~ 5% at k < 0.6hMpc-1 . This use of individual µ bins to extract the nonlinear bias successfully removes a large parameter degeneracy when constraining the linear growth rate of structure. We carry out a joint parameter estimation, using the low µ simulation data to constrain the nonlinear bias, and µ > 0.2 to constrain the growth rate and show that f can be constrained to ~ 26(22)% to a kmax < 0.4(0.6)hMpc-1 from clustering alone using a simple dispersion model, for a range of galaxy models. Our analysis of individual µ bins also reveals interesting physical effects which arise simply from different methods of populating halos with galaxies. We also find a prominent turnaround scale, at which RSD damping effects are greater then the nonlinear growth, which differs not only for each µ bin but also for each galaxy model. These features may provide unique signatures which could be used to shed light on the galaxy–dark matter connection. Furthermore, the idea of separating nonlinear growth and RSD effects making use of the full information in the 2D galaxy power spectrum yields significant improvements in constraining cosmological parameters and may be a promising probe of galaxy formation models.« less

  15. Control of electronic properties of 2D carbides (MXenes) by manipulating their transition metal layers

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Anasori, Babak; Shi, Chenyang; Moon, Eun Ju; Xie, Yu; Voigt, Cooper A.; Kent, Paul R. C.; May, Steven J.; Billinge, Simon J. L.; Barsoum, Michel W.; Gogotsi, Yury

    2016-02-24

    In this paper, a transition from metallic to semiconducting-like behavior has been demonstrated in two-dimensional (2D) transition metal carbides by replacing titanium with molybdenum in the outer transition metal (M) layers of M3C2 and M4C3 MXenes. The MXene structure consists of n + 1 layers of near-close packed M layers with C or N occupying the octahedral site between them in an [MX]nM arrangement. Recently, two new families of ordered 2D double transition metal carbides MXenes were discovered, M'2M"C2 and M'2M"2C3 – where M' and M" are two different early transition metals, such as Mo, Cr, Ta, Nb, V, andmore » Ti. The M' atoms only occupy the outer layers and the M" atoms fill the middle layers. In other words, M' atomic layers sandwich the middle M"–C layers. Using X-ray atomic pair distribution function (PDF) analysis on Mo2TiC2 and Mo2Ti2C3 MXenes, we present the first quantitative analysis of structures of these novel materials and experimentally confirm that Mo atoms are in the outer layers of the [MC]nM structures. The electronic properties of these Mo-containing MXenes are compared with their Ti3C2 counterparts, and are found to be no longer metallic-like conductors; instead the resistance increases mildly with decreasing temperatures. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations suggest that OH terminated Mo–Ti MXenes are semiconductors with narrow band gaps. Measurements of the temperature dependencies of conductivities and magnetoresistances have confirmed that Mo2TiC2Tx exhibits semiconductor-like transport behavior, while Ti3C2Tx is a metal. Finally, this finding opens new avenues for the control of the electronic and optical applications of MXenes and for exploring new applications, in which semiconducting properties are required.« less

  16. Thermally induced formation of 2D hexagonal BN nanoplates with tunable characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nersisyan, Hayk; Lee, Tae-Hyuk; Lee, Kap-Ho; Jeong, Seong-Uk; Kang, Kyung-Soo; Bae, Ki-Kwang; Lee, Jong-Hyeon

    2015-05-15

    We have investigated a thermally induced combustion route for preparing 2D hexagonal BN nanoplates from B{sub 2}O{sub 3}+(3+0.5k)Mg+kNH{sub 4}Cl solid system, for k=1–4 interval. Temperature–time profiles recorded by thermocouples indicated the existence of two sequential exothermic processes in the combustion wave leading to the BN nanoplates formation. The resulting BN nanoplates were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy, PL spectrometry, and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface area analysis. It was found that B{sub 2}O{sub 3} was converted into BN completely (by XRD) at 1450–1930 °C within tens of seconds in a single-step synthesis process. The BN prepared at a k=1–4 interval comprised well-shaped nanoplates with an average edge length ranging from 50 nm to several micrometer and thickness from 5 to 100 nm. The specific surface area of BN nanoplates was 13.7 g/m{sup 2} for k=2 and 28.4 m{sup 2}/g for k=4. - Graphical abstract: 2D hexagonal BN nanoplates with an average edge length ranging from 50 nm to several micrometer and thickness from 5 to 100 nm were prepared by combustion of B{sub 2}O{sub 3}+(3+0.5k)Mg+kNH{sub 4}Cl solid mixture in nitrogen atmosphere. - Highlights: • Thermally induced combustion route was developed for synthesizing BN nanoplates from B{sub 2}O{sub 3}. • Mg was used as reductive agent and NH{sub 4}Cl as an effective nitrogen source. • Temperature–time profiles and the combustion parameters were recorded and discussed. • BN with an average edge length from 50 nm to several micrometer and thickness from 5 to 100 nm were prepared. • Our study clarifies the formation mechanism of BN in the combustion wave.

  17. Exterior Rigid Insulation Best Practices- Building America Top Innovation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Field and lab studies by Building America teams BSC, PHI, and Northern STAR characterize the thermal, air, and vapor resistance properties of rigid foam insulation and describe best practices for their use on walls, roofs, and foundations.

  18. Kingspan Insulated Panels: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5353)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Kingspan Insulated Panels, Inc. failed to certify a variety of walk-in cooler or freezer components as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  19. System for increasing corona inception voltage of insulating oils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rohwein, Gerald J.

    1998-01-01

    The Corona Inception Voltage of insulating oils is increased by repetitive cycles of prestressing the oil with a voltage greater than the corona inception voltage, and either simultaneously or serially removing byproducts of corona by evacuation and heating the oil.

  20. Aerogel-Based Insulation for Industrial Steam Distribution Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Williams

    2011-03-30

    Thermal losses in industrial steam distribution systems account for 977 trillion Btu/year in the US, more than 1% of total domestic energy consumption. Aspen Aerogels worked with Department of Energy’s Industrial Technologies Program to specify, develop, scale-up, demonstrate, and deliver Pyrogel XT®, an aerogel-based pipe insulation, to market to reduce energy losses in industrial steam systems. The product developed has become Aspen’s best selling flexible aerogel blanket insulation and has led to over 60 new jobs. Additionally, this product has delivered more than ~0.7 TBTU of domestic energy savings to date, and could produce annual energy savings of 149 TBTU by 2030. Pyrogel XT’s commercial success has been driven by it’s 2-4X better thermal performance, improved durability, greater resistance to corrosion under insulation (CUI), and faster installation times than incumbent insulation materials.

  1. Impact of Fixed Change on Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor Barrier...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Impact of Fixed Change on Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor Barrier Height Reduction Authors: Hu, J. ; Nainani, A. ; Sun, Y. ; Saraswat, K.C. ; Wong, H.-S.P. Publication Date: ...

  2. Linear particle accelerator with seal structure between electrodes and insulators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Broadhurst, John H.

    1989-01-01

    An electrostatic linear accelerator includes an electrode stack comprised of primary electrodes formed or Kovar and supported by annular glass insulators having the same thermal expansion rate as the electrodes. Each glass insulator is provided with a pair of fused-in Kovar ring inserts which are bonded to the electrodes. Each electrode is designed to define a concavo-convex particle trap so that secondary charged particles generated within the accelerated beam area cannot reach the inner surface of an insulator. Each insulator has a generated inner surface profile which is so configured that the electrical field at this surface contains no significant tangential component. A spark gap trigger assembly is provided, which energizes spark gaps protecting the electrodes affected by over voltage to prevent excessive energy dissipation in the electrode stack.

  3. Savings Project: Insulate Your Water Heater Tank | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Your Water Heater Tank Savings Project: Insulate Your Water Heater Tank Addthis Project Level medium Energy Savings 20-45 annually Time to Complete 1.5 hours Overall Cost 30 ...

  4. Savings Project: Insulate Hot Water Pipes for Energy Savings...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Hot Water Pipes for Energy Savings Savings Project: Insulate Hot Water Pipes for Energy Savings Addthis Project Level Medium Energy Savings 8-12 annually Time to Complete 3 hours ...

  5. Observation of a Macroscopically Quantum-Entangled Insulator

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... The only previously known example was the Nobel-Prize-winning discovery of the quantum Hall effect insulator in the 1980s in a two-dimensional electron system under a large ...

  6. Aerogel Insulation: The Materials Science of Empty Space

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Empty space can be good, like a blank canvas for an artist, or it can be bad, like an attic without insulation for a homeowner.  But when a technological breakthrough provides just the right amount...

  7. Measure Guideline: Guidance on Taped Insulating Sheathing Drainage Planes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grin, A.; Lstiburek, J.

    2014-09-01

    The goal of this research is to provide durable and long-term water management solutions using exterior insulating sheathing as part of the water management system. It is possible to tape or seal the joints in insulating sheathing to create a drainage plane and even an air control layer. There exists the material durability component of the tape as well as the system durability component being the taped insulating sheathing as the drainage plane. This measure guideline provides best practice and product recommendations from the interviewed contractors and homebuilders who collectively have a vast amount of experience. Three significant issues were discussed with the group, which are required to make taped insulating sheathing a simple, long-term, and durable drainage plane: horizontal joints should be limited or eliminated wherever possible; where a horizontal joint exists use superior materials; and frequent installation inspection and regular trade training are required to maintain proper installation.

  8. Income Tax Deduction for the Installation of Building Insulation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    A residential taxpayer is entitled to an Indiana income tax deduction on the materials and labor used to install insulation in a taxpayer’s principal place of residence in Indiana. 

  9. Extended foil capacitor with radially spoked electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foster, James C.

    1990-01-01

    An extended foil capacitor has a conductive disk electrically connected in oncrushing contact to the extended foil. A conductive paste is placed through spaces between radial spokes on the disk to electrically and mechanically connect the extended foil to the disk.

  10. Advanced insulated gate bipolar transistor gate drive

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Short, James Evans; West, Shawn Michael; Fabean, Robert J.

    2009-08-04

    A gate drive for an insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) includes a control and protection module coupled to a collector terminal of the IGBT, an optical communications module coupled to the control and protection module, a power supply module coupled to the control and protection module and an output power stage module with inputs coupled to the power supply module and the control and protection module, and outputs coupled to a gate terminal and an emitter terminal of the IGBT. The optical communications module is configured to send control signals to the control and protection module. The power supply module is configured to distribute inputted power to the control and protection module. The control and protection module outputs on/off, soft turn-off and/or soft turn-on signals to the output power stage module, which, in turn, supplies a current based on the signal(s) from the control and protection module for charging or discharging an input capacitance of the IGBT.

  11. Silicon on insulator achieved using electrochemical etching

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCarthy, A.M.

    1997-10-07

    Bulk crystalline silicon wafers are transferred after the completion of circuit fabrication to form thin films of crystalline circuitry on almost any support, such as metal, semiconductor, plastic, polymer, glass, wood, and paper. In particular, this technique is suitable to form silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers, whereby the devices and circuits formed exhibit superior performance after transfer due to the removal of the silicon substrate. The added cost of the transfer process to conventional silicon fabrication is insignificant. No epitaxial, lift-off, release or buried oxide layers are needed to perform the transfer of single or multiple wafers onto support members. The transfer process may be performed at temperatures of 50 C or less, permits transparency around the circuits and does not require post-transfer patterning. Consequently, the technique opens up new avenues for the use of integrated circuit devices in high-brightness, high-resolution video-speed color displays, reduced-thickness increased-flexibility intelligent cards, flexible electronics on ultrathin support members, adhesive electronics, touch screen electronics, items requiring low weight materials, smart cards, intelligent keys for encryption systems, toys, large area circuits, flexible supports, and other applications. The added process flexibility also permits a cheap technique for increasing circuit speed of market driven technologies such as microprocessors at little added expense. 57 figs.

  12. Silicon on insulator achieved using electrochemical etching

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Anthony M.

    1997-01-01

    Bulk crystalline silicon wafers are transferred after the completion of circuit fabrication to form thin films of crystalline circuitry on almost any support, such as metal, semiconductor, plastic, polymer, glass, wood, and paper. In particular, this technique is suitable to form silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers, whereby the devices and circuits formed exhibit superior performance after transfer due to the removal of the silicon substrate. The added cost of the transfer process to conventional silicon fabrication is insignificant. No epitaxial, lift-off, release or buried oxide layers are needed to perform the transfer of single or multiple wafers onto support members. The transfer process may be performed at temperatures of 50.degree. C. or less, permits transparency around the circuits and does not require post-transfer patterning. Consequently, the technique opens up new avenues for the use of integrated circuit devices in high-brightness, high-resolution video-speed color displays, reduced-thickness increased-flexibility intelligent cards, flexible electronics on ultrathin support members, adhesive electronics, touch screen electronics, items requiring low weight materials, smart cards, intelligent keys for encryption systems, toys, large area circuits, flexible supports, and other applications. The added process flexibility also permits a cheap technique for increasing circuit speed of market driven technologies such as microprocessors at little added expense.

  13. Scientists Find Asymmetry in Topological Insulators - News Releases | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scientists Find Asymmetry in Topological Insulators Surprising findings bolster case for energy efficient quantum computer August 12, 2013 New research shows that a class of materials being eyed for the next generation of computers behaves asymmetrically at the sub-atomic level. This research is a key step toward understanding the topological insulators that may have the potential to be the building blocks of a super-fast quantum computer that could run on almost no electricity. Scientists from

  14. Aerogel Impregnated Polyurethane Piping and Duct Insulation | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Aerogel Impregnated Polyurethane Piping and Duct Insulation Aerogel Impregnated Polyurethane Piping and Duct Insulation Emerging Technologies Project for the 2013 Building Technologies Office's Program Peer Review emrgtech28_hess_040413.pdf (1.11 MB) More Documents & Publications WICF Certification, Compliance and Enforcement webinar New Code Compliance Briefs Assist in Resolving Codes and Standards Concerns in Energy Innovations Building America Best Practices Series: Volume 12.

  15. A New Route to Nanoscale Conducting Channels in Insulating Oxides

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A New Route to Nanoscale Conducting Channels in Insulating Oxides Print Two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs)-narrow conducting channels at the surfaces and interfaces of semiconductor materials-are the bedrock of conventional electronics. The startling 2004 discovery that such 2DEGs could be engineered at the interface between two insulating transition-metal oxides, SrTiO3 and LaAlO3, initiated a worldwide effort to harness the functionality of oxide materials for advanced electronic

  16. A New Route to Nanoscale Conducting Channels in Insulating Oxides

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Route to Nanoscale Conducting Channels in Insulating Oxides Print Two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs)-narrow conducting channels at the surfaces and interfaces of semiconductor materials-are the bedrock of conventional electronics. The startling 2004 discovery that such 2DEGs could be engineered at the interface between two insulating transition-metal oxides, SrTiO3 and LaAlO3, initiated a worldwide effort to harness the functionality of oxide materials for advanced electronic

  17. A New Route to Nanoscale Conducting Channels in Insulating Oxides

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A New Route to Nanoscale Conducting Channels in Insulating Oxides Print Two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs)-narrow conducting channels at the surfaces and interfaces of semiconductor materials-are the bedrock of conventional electronics. The startling 2004 discovery that such 2DEGs could be engineered at the interface between two insulating transition-metal oxides, SrTiO3 and LaAlO3, initiated a worldwide effort to harness the functionality of oxide materials for advanced electronic

  18. A New Route to Nanoscale Conducting Channels in Insulating Oxides

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A New Route to Nanoscale Conducting Channels in Insulating Oxides Print Two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs)-narrow conducting channels at the surfaces and interfaces of semiconductor materials-are the bedrock of conventional electronics. The startling 2004 discovery that such 2DEGs could be engineered at the interface between two insulating transition-metal oxides, SrTiO3 and LaAlO3, initiated a worldwide effort to harness the functionality of oxide materials for advanced electronic

  19. A New Route to Nanoscale Conducting Channels in Insulating Oxides

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A New Route to Nanoscale Conducting Channels in Insulating Oxides Print Two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs)-narrow conducting channels at the surfaces and interfaces of semiconductor materials-are the bedrock of conventional electronics. The startling 2004 discovery that such 2DEGs could be engineered at the interface between two insulating transition-metal oxides, SrTiO3 and LaAlO3, initiated a worldwide effort to harness the functionality of oxide materials for advanced electronic

  20. A New Route to Nanoscale Conducting Channels in Insulating Oxides

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A New Route to Nanoscale Conducting Channels in Insulating Oxides Print Two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs)-narrow conducting channels at the surfaces and interfaces of semiconductor materials-are the bedrock of conventional electronics. The startling 2004 discovery that such 2DEGs could be engineered at the interface between two insulating transition-metal oxides, SrTiO3 and LaAlO3, initiated a worldwide effort to harness the functionality of oxide materials for advanced electronic

  1. A New Route to Nanoscale Conducting Channels in Insulating Oxides

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A New Route to Nanoscale Conducting Channels in Insulating Oxides Print Two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs)-narrow conducting channels at the surfaces and interfaces of semiconductor materials-are the bedrock of conventional electronics. The startling 2004 discovery that such 2DEGs could be engineered at the interface between two insulating transition-metal oxides, SrTiO3 and LaAlO3, initiated a worldwide effort to harness the functionality of oxide materials for advanced electronic

  2. Electrochemical cell with powdered electrically insulative material as a separator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mathers, James P.; Olszanski, Theodore W.; Boquist, Carl W.

    1978-01-01

    A secondary electrochemical cell includes electrodes separated by a layer of electrically insulative powder. The powder includes refractory materials selected from the oxides and nitrides of metals and metaloids. The powdered refractory material, blended with electrolyte particles, can be compacted in layers with electrode materials to form an integral electrode structure or separately assembled into the cell. The assembled cell is heated to operating temperature leaving porous layers of electrically insulative, refractory particles, containing molten electrolyte between the electrodes.

  3. Tuning of the Metal-Insulator Transition via Alkali Adsorption

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tuning of the Metal-Insulator Transition via Alkali Adsorption Print Turning a material from an insulator to a metal, or vice versa, by light irradiation, exposure to electric or magnetic fields, or applying small changes in temperature, pressure, or doping-such intriguing control of a material's electronic properties is possible by exploiting strongly interacting or "correlated" electrons. Now a team of researchers from the University of Kiel in Germany and the ALS has found a novel,

  4. Tuning of the Metal-Insulator Transition via Alkali Adsorption

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tuning of the Metal-Insulator Transition via Alkali Adsorption Print Turning a material from an insulator to a metal, or vice versa, by light irradiation, exposure to electric or magnetic fields, or applying small changes in temperature, pressure, or doping-such intriguing control of a material's electronic properties is possible by exploiting strongly interacting or "correlated" electrons. Now a team of researchers from the University of Kiel in Germany and the ALS has found a novel,

  5. DOE Issues Request for Information on Advanced Thermal Insulation and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Composite Material Compatibility | Department of Energy Advanced Thermal Insulation and Composite Material Compatibility DOE Issues Request for Information on Advanced Thermal Insulation and Composite Material Compatibility October 20, 2015 - 9:58am Addthis The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Fuel Cell Technologies Office has issued a request for information (RFI) to obtain feedback and opinions from industry, academia, research laboratories, government agencies, and other stakeholders

  6. Highly Insulating Residential Windows Using Smart Automated Shading |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Highly Insulating Residential Windows Using Smart Automated Shading Highly Insulating Residential Windows Using Smart Automated Shading Addthis 1 of 3 Residential Smart Window with integrated sensors, control logic and a motorized shade between glass panes. Image: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 2 of 3 Residential Smart Window with integrated sensors, control logic and a motorized shade between glass panes. Image: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 3 of 3

  7. PRONTO 2D: A two-dimensional transient solid dynamics program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, L.M.; Flanagan, D.P.

    1987-03-01

    PRONTO 2D is a two-dimensional transient solid dynamics code for analyzing large deformations of highly nonlinear materials subjected to extremely high strain rates. This Lagrangian finite element program uses an explicit time integration operator to integrate the equations of motion. Four node uniform strain quadrilateral elements are used in the finite element formulation. A number of new numerical algorithms which have been developed for the code are described in this report. An adaptive time step control algorithm is described which greatly improves stability as well as performance in plasticity problems. A robust hourglass control scheme which eliminates hourglass distortions without disturbing the finite element solution is included. All constitutive models in PRONTO are cast in an unrotated configuration defined using the rotation determined from the polar decomposition of the deformation gradient. An accurate incremental algorithm was developed to determine this rotation and is described in detail. A robust contact algorithm was developed which allows for the impact and interaction of deforming contact surfaces of quite general geometry. A number of numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the utility of these algorithms. 41 refs., 51 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. OECD/MCCI 2-D Core Concrete Interaction (CCI) tests : final report February 28, 2006.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farmer, M. T.; Lomperski, S.; Kilsdonk, D. J.; Aeschlimann, R. W.; Basu, S.

    2011-05-23

    reactor material database for dry cavity conditions is solely one-dimensional. Although the MACE Scoping Test was carried out with a two-dimensional concrete cavity, the interaction was flooded soon after ablation was initiated to investigate debris coolability. Moreover, due to the scoping nature of this test, the apparatus was minimally instrumented and therefore the results are of limited value from the code validation viewpoint. Aside from the MACE program, the COTELS test series also investigated 2-D CCI under flooded cavity conditions. However, the input power density for these tests was quite high relative to the prototypic case. Finally, the BETA test series provided valuable data on 2-D core concrete interaction under dry cavity conditions, but these tests focused on investigating the interaction of the metallic (steel) phase with concrete. Due to these limitations, there is significant uncertainty in the partition of energy dissipated for the ablation of concrete in the lateral and axial directions under dry cavity conditions for the case of a core oxide melt. Accurate knowledge of this 'power split' is important in the evaluation of the consequences of an ex-vessel severe accident; e.g., lateral erosion can undermine containment structures, while axial erosion can penetrate the basemat, leading to ground contamination and/or possible containment bypass. As a result of this uncertainty, there are still substantial differences among computer codes in the prediction of 2-D cavity erosion behavior under both wet and dry cavity conditions. In light of the above issues, the OECD-sponsored Melt Coolability and Concrete Interaction (MCCI) program was initiated at Argonne National Laboratory. The project conducted reactor materials experiments and associated analysis to achieve the following technical objectives: (1) resolve the ex-vessel debris coolability issue through a program that focused on providing both confirmatory evidence and test data for the coolability

  9. 2D Rotational Angiography for Fast and Standardized Evaluation of Peripheral and Visceral Artery Stenoses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katoh, Marcus Opitz, Armin; Minko, Peter; Massmann, Alexander; Berlich, Joachim; Buecker, Arno

    2011-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the value of rotational digital subtraction angiography (rDSA) for evaluation of peripheral and visceral artery stenoses compared to conventional digital subtraction angiography (cDSA). Methods: A phantom study was performed comparing the radiation dose of cDSA with two projections and rDSA by means of the 2D Dynavision technique (Siemens Medical Solutions, Forchheim, Germany). Subsequently, 33 consecutive patients (18 women, 15 men; mean {+-} SD age 67 {+-} 15 years) were examined by both techniques. In total, 63 vessel segments were analyzed by two observers with respect to stenoses, image contrast, and vessel sharpness. Results: Radiation dose was significantly lower with rDSA. cDSA and rDSA revealed 21 and 24 flow-relevant stenotic lesions and vessel occlusions (70-100%), respectively. The same stenosis grade was assessed in 45 segments. By means of rDSA, 10 lesions were judged to have a higher and 8 lesions a lower stenosis grade compared to cDSA. rDSA yielded additive information regarding the vessel anatomy and pathology in 29 segments. However, a tendency toward better image quality and sharper vessel visualization was seen with cDSA. Conclusion: rDSA allows for multiprojection assessment of peripheral and visceral arteries and provides additional clinically relevant information after a single bolus of contrast medium. At the same time, radiation dose can be significantly reduced compared to cDSA.

  10. Quasi-Optimal Elimination Trees for 2D Grids with Singularities

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Paszyńska, A.; Paszyński, M.; Jopek, K.; Woźniak, M.; Goik, D.; Gurgul, P.; AbouEisha, H.; Moshkov, M.; Calo, V. M.; Lenharth, A.; et al

    2015-01-01

    We consmore » truct quasi-optimal elimination trees for 2D finite element meshes with singularities. These trees minimize the complexity of the solution of the discrete system. The computational cost estimates of the elimination process model the execution of the multifrontal algorithms in serial and in parallel shared-memory executions. Since the meshes considered are a subspace of all possible mesh partitions, we call these minimizers quasi-optimal. We minimize the cost functionals using dynamic programming. Finding these minimizers is more computationally expensive than solving the original algebraic system. Nevertheless, from the insights provided by the analysis of the dynamic programming minima, we propose a heuristic construction of the elimination trees that has cost O N e log ⁡ N e , where N e is the number of elements in the mesh. We show that this heuristic ordering has similar computational cost to the quasi-optimal elimination trees found with dynamic programming and outperforms state-of-the-art alternatives in our numerical experiments.« less

  11. Ionic Liquid–Solute Interactions Studied by 2D NOE NMR Spectroscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Khatun, Sufia; Castner, Edward W.

    2014-11-26

    Intermolecular interactions between a Ru²⁺(bpy)₃ solute and the anions and cations of four different ionic liquids (ILs) are investigated by 2D NMR nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) techniques, including {¹H-¹⁹F} HOESY and {¹H-¹H} ROESY. Four ILs are studied, each having the same bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide anion in common. Two of the ILs have aliphatic 1-alkyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium cations, while the other two ILs have aromatic 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium cations. ILs with both shorter (butyl) and longer (octyl or decyl) cationic alkyl substituents are studied. NOE NMR results suggest that the local environment of IL anions and cations near the Ru²⁺(bpy)₃ solute is rather different from the bulkmore » IL structure. The solute-anion and solute-cation interactions are significantly different both for ILs with short vs long alkyl tails and for ILs with aliphatic vs aromatic cation polar head groups. In particular, the solute-anion interactions are observed to be about 3 times stronger for the cations with shorter alkyl tails relative to the ILs with longer alkyl tails. The Ru²⁺(bpy)₃ solute interacts with both the polar head and the nonpolar tail groups of the 1- butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium cation but only with the nonpolar tail groups of the 1-decyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium cation.« less

  12. Task Parallel Incomplete Cholesky Factorization using 2D Partitioned-Block Layout

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Kyungjoo; Rajamanickam, Sivasankaran; Stelle, George Widgery; Edwards, Harold C.; Olivier, Stephen Lecler

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a task-parallel algorithm for sparse incomplete Cholesky factorization that utilizes a 2D sparse partitioned-block layout of a matrix. Our factorization algorithm follows the idea of algorithms-by-blocks by using the block layout. The algorithm-byblocks approach induces a task graph for the factorization. These tasks are inter-related to each other through their data dependences in the factorization algorithm. To process the tasks on various manycore architectures in a portable manner, we also present a portable tasking API that incorporates different tasking backends and device-specific features using an open-source framework for manycore platforms i.e., Kokkos. A performance evaluation is presented on both Intel Sandybridge and Xeon Phi platforms for matrices from the University of Florida sparse matrix collection to illustrate merits of the proposed task-based factorization. Experimental results demonstrate that our task-parallel implementation delivers about 26.6x speedup (geometric mean) over single-threaded incomplete Choleskyby- blocks and 19.2x speedup over serial Cholesky performance which does not carry tasking overhead using 56 threads on the Intel Xeon Phi processor for sparse matrices arising from various application problems.

  13. Ionic Liquid–Solute Interactions Studied by 2D NOE NMR Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khatun, Sufia; Castner, Edward W.

    2014-11-26

    Intermolecular interactions between a Ru²⁺(bpy)₃ solute and the anions and cations of four different ionic liquids (ILs) are investigated by 2D NMR nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) techniques, including {¹H-¹⁹F} HOESY and {¹H-¹H} ROESY. Four ILs are studied, each having the same bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide anion in common. Two of the ILs have aliphatic 1-alkyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium cations, while the other two ILs have aromatic 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium cations. ILs with both shorter (butyl) and longer (octyl or decyl) cationic alkyl substituents are studied. NOE NMR results suggest that the local environment of IL anions and cations near the Ru²⁺(bpy)₃ solute is rather different from the bulk IL structure. The solute-anion and solute-cation interactions are significantly different both for ILs with short vs long alkyl tails and for ILs with aliphatic vs aromatic cation polar head groups. In particular, the solute-anion interactions are observed to be about 3 times stronger for the cations with shorter alkyl tails relative to the ILs with longer alkyl tails. The Ru²⁺(bpy)₃ solute interacts with both the polar head and the nonpolar tail groups of the 1- butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium cation but only with the nonpolar tail groups of the 1-decyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium cation.

  14. 2D X-ray scanner and its uses in laboratory reservoir characterization measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maloney, D.; Doggett, K.

    1997-08-01

    X-ray techniques are used in petroleum laboratories for a variety of reservoir characterization measurements. This paper describes the configuration of a 2D X-ray scanner and many of the ways in which it simplifies and improves accuracy`s of laboratory measurements. Linear X-ray scanners are most often used to provide descriptions of fluid saturations within core plugs during flow tests. We configured our linear scanner for both horizontal and vertical movement. Samples can be scanned horizontally, vertically, or according to horizontal and vertical grids. X-ray measurements are fast, allowing measurements of two- and three-phase fluid saturations during both steady- and unsteady-state flow processes. Rock samples can be scanned while they are subjected to stress, pore pressure, and temperature conditions simulating those of a petroleum reservoir. Many types of measurements are possible by selecting appropriate X-ray power settings, dopes, filters, and collimator configurations. The scanner has been used for a variety of applications besides fluid saturation measurements. It is useful for measuring porosity distributions in rocks, concentrations of X-ray dopes within flow streams during tracer tests, gap widths in fracture flow cells, fluid interface levels in PVT cells and fluid separators, and other features and phenomena.

  15. 2d Affine XY-Spin Model/4d Gauge Theory Duality and Deconfinement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anber, Mohamed M.; Poppitz, Erich; Unsal, Mithat; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /San Francisco State U.

    2012-08-16

    We introduce a duality between two-dimensional XY-spin models with symmetry-breaking perturbations and certain four-dimensional SU(2) and SU(2) = Z{sub 2} gauge theories, compactified on a small spatial circle R{sup 1,2} x S{sup 1}, and considered at temperatures near the deconfinement transition. In a Euclidean set up, the theory is defined on R{sup 2} x T{sup 2}. Similarly, thermal gauge theories of higher rank are dual to new families of 'affine' XY-spin models with perturbations. For rank two, these are related to models used to describe the melting of a 2d crystal with a triangular lattice. The connection is made through a multi-component electric-magnetic Coulomb gas representation for both systems. Perturbations in the spin system map to topological defects in the gauge theory, such as monopole-instantons or magnetic bions, and the vortices in the spin system map to the electrically charged W-bosons in field theory (or vice versa, depending on the duality frame). The duality permits one to use the two-dimensional technology of spin systems to study the thermal deconfinement and discrete chiral transitions in four-dimensional SU(N{sub c}) gauge theories with n{sub f} {ge} 1 adjoint Weyl fermions.

  16. A Specification for a Godunov-type Eulerian 2-D Hydrocode, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nystrom, William D; Robey, Jonathan M

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this code specification is to describe an algorithm for solving the Euler equations of hydrodynamics in a 2D rectangular region in sufficient detail to allow a software developer to produce an implementation on their target platform using their programming language of choice without requiring detailed knowledge and experience in the field of computational fluid dynamics. It should be possible for a software developer who is proficient in the programming language of choice and is knowledgable of the target hardware to produce an efficient implementation of this specification if they also possess a thorough working knowledge of parallel programming and have some experience in scientific programming using fields and meshes. On modern architectures, it will be important to focus on issues related to the exploitation of the fine grain parallelism and data locality present in this algorithm. This specification aims to make that task easier by presenting the essential details of the algorithm in a systematic and language neutral manner while also avoiding the inclusion of implementation details that would likely be specific to a particular type of programming paradigm or platform architecture.

  17. Ceramic electrical insulation for electrical coils, transformers, and magnets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rice, John A.; Hazelton, Craig S.; Fabian, Paul E.

    2002-01-01

    A high temperature electrical insulation is described, which is suitable for electrical windings for any number of applications. The inventive insulation comprises a cured preceramic polymer resin, which is preferably a polysiloxane resin. A method for insulating electrical windings, which are intended for use in high temperature environments, such as superconductors and the like, advantageously comprises the steps of, first, applying a preceramic polymer layer to a conductor core, to function as an insulation layer, and second, curing the preceramic polymer layer. The conductor core preferably comprises a metallic wire, which may be wound into a coil. In the preferred method, the applying step comprises a step of wrapping the conductor core with a sleeve or tape of glass or ceramic fabric which has been impregnated by a preceramic polymer resin. The inventive insulation system allows conducting coils and magnets to be fabricated using existing processing equipment, and maximizes the mechanical and thermal performance at both elevated and cryogenic temperatures. It also permits co-processing of the wire and the insulation to increase production efficiencies and reduce overall costs, while still remarkably enhancing performance.

  18. Thermionic Technology Program: A, Insulator test and evaluation: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dobson, J.C.; Witt, T.

    1987-11-30

    The Thermionic Technology Program (TTP) consisted of two major efforts, evaluation of insulators and evaluation of thermionic converters. This report details the work performed on the insulator phase of the program. Efforts were made to better understand the mechanisms involved in the electrochemistry of insulators at elevated temperatures by modelling the ionic transport through the various layers of the insulator package. Although rigorous analytic solutions could not be obtained owing to a lack of detailed data, a simplified model indicated that alumina should not fail by depletion of aluminum for thousands of years, whereas calculations for yttria revealed a far more rapid depletion of oxygen and consequently earlier failure. Methods for microscopic and electrical testing of cylindrical insulator samples were developed, and an improved test oven design was initiated. Testing of alumina/niobium cermet samples revealed rapid failure contrary to the theoretical predictions for alumina. Large discrepancies in the initial conduction activation energy among the various samples suggested that different mechanisms could have controlled the conduction and hence the failure in different samples, although all had undergone nominally identical processing. The short lifetimes reveal how rapidly ambient conditions in thermionic power conversion can degrade the performance of insulating oxides. It was concluded that minor dopants could have been responsible for the early breakdowns. Thus, high purity materials with precise quality control will be necessary for trilayer package development. 35 refs., 28 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. External Insulation of Masonry Walls and Wood Framed Walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, P.

    2013-01-01

    The use of exterior insulation on a building is an accepted and effective means to increase the overall thermal resistance of the assembly that also has other advantages of improved water management and often increased air tightness of building assemblies. For thin layers of insulation (1” to 1 ½”), the cladding can typically be attached directly through the insulation back to the structure. For thicker insulation layers, furring strips have been added as a cladding attachment location. This approach has been used in the past on numerous Building America test homes and communities (both new and retrofit applications), and has been proven to be an effective and durable means to provide cladding attachment. However, the lack of engineering data has been a problem for many designers, contractors, and code officials. This research project developed baseline engineering analysis to support the installation of thick layers of exterior insulation on existing masonry and frame walls. Furthermore, water management details necessary to integrate windows, doors, decks, balconies and roofs were created to provide guidance on the integration of exterior insulation strategies with other enclosure elements.

  20. External Insulation of Masonry Walls and Wood Framed Walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, P.

    2013-01-01

    The use of exterior insulation on a building is an accepted and effective means to increase the overall thermal resistance of the assembly that also has other advantages of improved water management and often increased air tightness of building assemblies. For thin layers of insulation (1" to 1 1/2"), the cladding can typically be attached directly through the insulation back to the structure. For thicker insulation layers, furring strips have been added as a cladding attachment location. This approach has been used in the past on numerous Building America test homes and communities (both new and retrofit applications), and has been proven to be an effective and durable means to provide cladding attachment. However, the lack of engineering data has been a problem for many designers, contractors, and code officials. This research project developed baseline engineering analysis to support the installation of thick layers of exterior insulation on existing masonry and frame walls. Furthermore, water management details necessary to integrate windows, doors, decks, balconies and roofs were created to provide guidance on the integration of exterior insulation strategies with other enclosure elements.

  1. Settling of loose-fill insulations due to vibration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yarbrough, D.W.; McElroy, D.L.; Wright, J.W.

    1981-12-01

    Vibration and impact testing of loose-fill cellulosic, fiberglass, and rock wool insulations has been carried out to provide a data base for settled density tests. The ratio of final density to initial density for the three materials has been determined for repeated 19-mm (0.75-in.) drops, repeated 152-mm (6.0-in.) drops, and vibrations at frequencies from 10 to 60 Hz with displacements from 0.1 mm (0.004 in.) to 6.35 mm (0.25 in.). Repeated 19-mm or 152-mm drops increased the density ratio for rock wool insulation specimens the most, while the cellulosic insulation specimens were affected the least. Density ratios after 200 19-mm drops averaged 1.75 for loose-fill rock wool, 1.45 for loose-fill fiberglass, and 1.27 for loose-fill cellulosic insulations. Vibration tests for 7200 s at 0.1-mm displacement and 15 Hertz produced negligible changes in the densities of all three loose-fill insulations. An 1800-s vibration test at 2.5 mm (0.1 in.) and 10 Hz resulted in average density ratios of 1.05, 1.11, and 1.18 for specimens of loose-fill cellulosic, rock wool, and fiberglass insulations, respectively. Changes in either frequency of vibration, displacement, or test duration can be used to achieve a wide range of laboratory results. Efforts to correlate laboratory results with in situ density measurements are presented.

  2. Settling of loose-fill insulations due to vibration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yarbrough, D.W.; Wright, J.H.; McElroy, D.L.; Scanlan, T.F.

    1983-01-01

    Vibration and impact testing of loose-fill cellulosic, fiberglass, and rock wool insulations has been carried out to provide a data base for settled density tests. The ratio of final density to initial density for the three materials has been determined for repeated 19-mm (0.75-in.) drops, repeated 152-mm (6.0-in.) drops, and vibrations at frequencies from 10 to 60 Hz with displacements from 0.1 mm (0.004 in.) to 6.35 mm (0.25 in.). Repeated 19-mm or 152-mm drops increased the density ratio for rock wool insulation specimens the most, while the cellulosic insulation specimens were affected the least. Density ratios after 200 19-mm drops averaged 1.75 for loose-fill rock wool, 1.45 for loose-fill fiberglass, and 1.27 for loose-fill cellulosic insulations. Vibration tests for 7200 s at 0.1-mm displacement and 15 Hertz produced negligible changes in the densities of all three loose-fill insulations. An 1800-s vibration test at 2.5 mm (0.1 in.) and 10 Hz resulted in average density ratios of 1.05, 1.11, and 1.18 for specimens of loose-fill cellulosic, rock wool, and fiberglass insulations, respectively. Changes in either frequency of vibration, displacement, or test duration can be used to achieve a wide range of laboratory results. Efforts to correlate laboratory results with in situ density measurements are presented.

  3. Attic Retrofits Using Nail-Base Insulated Panels | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Attic Retrofits Using Nail-Base Insulated Panels Attic Retrofits Using Nail-Base Insulated Panels Photo courtesy of the Structural Insulated Panel Association. Photo courtesy of the Structural Insulated Panel Association. Lead Performer: Home Innovation Research Labs-Upper Marlboro, MD Partners: Structural Insulated Panel Association, American Chemistry Council, Forest Products Laboratory, DuPont, APA-The Engineered Wood Association, Insurance Institute for Business and Home Safety, Remodeling

  4. Large anomalous Hall effect in ferromagnetic insulator-topological insulator heterostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alegria, L. D.; Petta, J. R.; Ji, H.; Cava, R. J.; Yao, N.; Clarke, J. J.

    2014-08-04

    We demonstrate the van der Waals epitaxy of the topological insulator compound Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} on the ferromagnetic insulator Cr{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}Te{sub 6}. The layers are oriented with (001)Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}||(001)Cr{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}Te{sub 6} and (110)Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}||(100)Cr{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}Te{sub 6}. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy indicates the formation of a sharp interface. At low temperatures, bilayers consisting of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} on Cr{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}Te{sub 6} exhibit a large anomalous Hall effect (AHE). Tilted field studies of the AHE indicate that the easy axis lies along the c-axis of the heterostructure, consistent with magnetization measurements in bulk Cr{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}Te{sub 6}. The 61 K Curie temperature of Cr{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}Te{sub 6} and the use of near-stoichiometric materials may lead to the development of spintronic devices based on the AHE.

  5. Insulating Structural Ceramics Program, Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrews, Mark J.; Tandon, Raj; Ott, Eric; Hind, Abi Akar; Long, Mike; Jensen, Robert; Wheat, Leonard; Cusac, Dave; Lin, H. T.; Wereszczak, Andrew A.; Ferber, Mattison K.; Lee, Sun Kun; Yoon, Hyung K.; Moreti, James; Park, Paul; Rockwood, Jill; Boyer, Carrie; Ragle, Christie; Balmer-Millar, Marilou; Aardahl, Chris; Habeger, Craig; Rappe, Ken; Tran, Diana; Koshkarian, Kent; Readey, Michael; ,

    2005-11-22

    New materials and corresponding manufacturing processes are likely candidates for diesel engine components as society and customers demand lower emission engines without sacrificing power and fuel efficiency. Strategies for improving thermal efficiency directly compete with methodologies for reducing emissions, and so the technical challenge becomes an optimization of controlling parameters to achieve both goals. Approaches being considered to increase overall thermal efficiency are to insulate certain diesel engine components in the combustion chamber, thereby increasing the brake mean effective pressure ratings (BMEP). Achieving higher BMEP rating by insulating the combustion chamber, in turn, requires advances in material technologies for engine components such as pistons, port liners, valves, and cylinder heads. A series of characterization tests were performed to establish the material properties of ceramic powder. Mechanical chacterizations were also obtained from the selected materials as a function of temperature utilizing ASTM standards: fast fracture strength, fatique resistance, corrosion resistance, thermal shock, and fracture toughness. All ceramic materials examined showed excellent wear properties and resistance to the corrosive diesel engine environments. The study concluded that the ceramics examined did not meet all of the cylinder head insert structural design requirements. Therefore we do not recommend at this time their use for this application. The potential for increased stresses and temperatures in the hot section of the diesel engine combined with the highly corrosive combustion products and residues has driven the need for expanded materials capability for hot section engine components. Corrosion and strength requirements necessitate the examination of more advanced high temperture alloys. Alloy developments and the understanding of processing, structure, and properties of supperalloy materials have been driven, in large part, by the gas

  6. A sequential partly iterative approach for multicomponent reactive transport with CORE2D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samper, J.; Xu, T.; Yang, C.

    2008-11-01

    CORE{sup 2D} V4 is a finite element code for modeling partly or fully saturated water flow, heat transport and multicomponent reactive solute transport under both local chemical equilibrium and kinetic conditions. It can handle coupled microbial processes and geochemical reactions such as acid-base, aqueous complexation, redox, mineral dissolution/precipitation, gas dissolution/exsolution, ion exchange, sorption via linear and nonlinear isotherms, sorption via surface complexation. Hydraulic parameters may change due to mineral precipitation/dissolution reactions. Coupled transport and chemical equations are solved by using sequential iterative approaches. A sequential partly-iterative approach (SPIA) is presented which improves the accuracy of the traditional sequential noniterative approach (SNIA) and is more efficient than the general sequential iterative approach (SIA). While SNIA leads to a substantial saving of computing time, it introduces numerical errors which are especially large for cation exchange reactions. SPIA improves the efficiency of SIA because the iteration between transport and chemical equations is only performed in nodes with a large mass transfer between solid and liquid phases. The efficiency and accuracy of SPIA are compared to those of SIA and SNIA using synthetic examples and a case study of reactive transport through the Llobregat Delta aquitard in Spain. SPIA is found to be as accurate as SIA while requiring significantly less CPU time. In addition, SPIA is much more accurate than SNIA with only a minor increase in computing time. A further enhancement of the efficiency of SPIA is achieved by improving the efficiency of the Newton-Raphson method used for solving chemical equations. Such an improvement is obtained by working with increments of log-concentrations and ignoring the terms of the Jacobian matrix containing derivatives of activity coefficients. A proof is given for the symmetry and non-singularity of the Jacobian matrix

  7. Diesel combustion and emissions formation using multiple 2-D imaging diagnostics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dec, J.E.

    1997-12-31

    Understanding how emissions are formed during diesel combustion is central to developing new engines that can comply with increasingly stringent emission standards while maintaining or improving performance levels. Laser-based planar imaging diagnostics are uniquely capable of providing the temporally and spatially resolved information required for this understanding. Using an optically accessible research engine, a variety of two-dimensional (2-D) imaging diagnostics have been applied to investigators of direct-injection (DI) diesel combustion and emissions formation. These optical measurements have included the following laser-sheet imaging data: Mie scattering to determine liquid-phase fuel distributions, Rayleigh scattering for quantitative vapor-phase-fuel/air mixture images, laser induced incandescence (LII) for relative soot concentrations, simultaneous LII and Rayleigh scattering for relative soot particle-size distributions, planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) to obtain early PAH (polyaromatic hydrocarbon) distributions, PLIF images of the OH radical that show the diffusion flame structure, and PLIF images of the NO radical showing the onset of NO{sub x} production. In addition, natural-emission chemiluminescence images were obtained to investigate autoignition. The experimental setup is described, and the image data showing the most relevant results are presented. Then the conceptual model of diesel combustion is summarized in a series of idealized schematics depicting the temporal and spatial evolution of a reacting diesel fuel jet during the time period investigated. Finally, recent PLIF images of the NO distribution are presented and shown to support the timing and location of NO formation hypothesized from the conceptual model.

  8. SU-E-T-291: Sensitivity of a Simple 2D EPID in Vivo Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peca, S; Brown, D

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: As radiotherapy (RT) increases in complexity, so does motivation for in vivo dosimetry (IVD), which may detect errors such as: setup, beam shaping and dose delivered. We have recently developed an easy-toimplement method for two-dimensional IVD based on images taken with the electronic portal imaging device (EPID) in cine mode during treatment. The purpose of this work is to characterize its sensitivity to possible RT delivery errors. Methods: We introduced a series of modifications to a simple RT field (1010, 100MU, 300RR, 20cm homogeneous phantom) to simulate errors. These modifications included multi-leaf collimator (MLC) position, number of MUs, and collimator angle. We quantified the sensitivity to inhomogeneities by inserting variable amounts of solid lung and bone. Finally we delivered realistic fields to an anthropomorphic phantom to estimate sensitivity to gantry angle and setup errors. Results: Our EPIDIVD is sensitive to MLC positioning errors of 1mm and 3mm in the closed and open directions respectively, and to 3% MU variations. Sensitivity to collimator angle depends on field shape irregularity; in the case of a 10x10 field, we are sensitive to errors of 0.8. The sensitivity to inhomogeneities is limited by the nature of MV imaging: approximately 1% signal change is noted when switching 5cm of water to equal amounts of bone or lung. This suggests that the EPID-IVD is likely not sensitive to small setup or gantry angle errors, as confirmed by anthropomorphic tests. Conclusion: We have characterized a simple method of 2D dose reconstruction at isocenter depth inside the patient, which is sensitive to possible RT delivery errors. This method may be useful as a secondary safety check, to prevent large errors from being carried on to following fractions, and to record delivered dose. By using readily available hardware, it is easily implemented and may prove especially useful in centers with limited resources.

  9. Silicon-on-insulator field effect transistor with improved body ties for rad-hard applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schwank, James R.; Shaneyfelt, Marty R.; Draper, Bruce L.; Dodd, Paul E.

    2001-01-01

    A silicon-on-insulator (SOI) field-effect transistor (FET) and a method for making the same are disclosed. The SOI FET is characterized by a source which extends only partially (e.g. about half-way) through the active layer wherein the transistor is formed. Additionally, a minimal-area body tie contact is provided with a short-circuit electrical connection to the source for reducing floating body effects. The body tie contact improves the electrical characteristics of the transistor and also provides an improved single-event-upset (SEU) radiation hardness of the device for terrestrial and space applications. The SOI FET also provides an improvement in total-dose radiation hardness as compared to conventional SOI transistors fabricated without a specially prepared hardened buried oxide layer. Complementary n-channel and p-channel SOI FETs can be fabricated according to the present invention to form integrated circuits (ICs) for commercial and military applications.

  10. Simultaneous 3D–2D image registration and C-arm calibration: Application to endovascular image-guided interventions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitrović, Uroš; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan; Špiclin, Žiga

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: Three-dimensional to two-dimensional (3D–2D) image registration is a key to fusion and simultaneous visualization of valuable information contained in 3D pre-interventional and 2D intra-interventional images with the final goal of image guidance of a procedure. In this paper, the authors focus on 3D–2D image registration within the context of intracranial endovascular image-guided interventions (EIGIs), where the 3D and 2D images are generally acquired with the same C-arm system. The accuracy and robustness of any 3D–2D registration method, to be used in a clinical setting, is influenced by (1) the method itself, (2) uncertainty of initial pose of the 3D image from which registration starts, (3) uncertainty of C-arm’s geometry and pose, and (4) the number of 2D intra-interventional images used for registration, which is generally one and at most two. The study of these influences requires rigorous and objective validation of any 3D–2D registration method against a highly accurate reference or “gold standard” registration, performed on clinical image datasets acquired in the context of the intervention. Methods: The registration process is split into two sequential, i.e., initial and final, registration stages. The initial stage is either machine-based or template matching. The latter aims to reduce possibly large in-plane translation errors by matching a projection of the 3D vessel model and 2D image. In the final registration stage, four state-of-the-art intrinsic image-based 3D–2D registration methods, which involve simultaneous refinement of rigid-body and C-arm parameters, are evaluated. For objective validation, the authors acquired an image database of 15 patients undergoing cerebral EIGI, for which accurate gold standard registrations were established by fiducial marker coregistration. Results: Based on target registration error, the obtained success rates of 3D to a single 2D image registration after initial machine-based and

  11. Building America Case Study: Advanced Extended Plate and Beam...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The EP&B wall design signifcantly increases insulation value, reduces framing factors, and effectively manages moisture. It relies on common methods and materials for framing, air ...

  12. Installation of New Extended Facility in Progress

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 Installation of New Extended Facility in Progress In April 2002, the ARM extended facility near Seminole, Oklahoma, ceased operation after the leased land under it was sold to new owners. The facility's equipment was removed from the site and placed in storage while a search for a new location began. When a new site was found near Earlsboro, Oklahoma, the approval process for relocation was set in motion. Extended facility sites are instrumented to collect data on solar radiation and its

  13. Dispersion relations of externally and thermally excited dust lattice modes in 2D complex plasma crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang Xuefeng; Cui Jian; Zhang Yuan [School of Mathematical Sciences, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Liu Yue [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2012-07-15

    The dispersion relations of the externally and thermally (naturally) excited dust lattice modes (both longitudinal and transverse) in two-dimensional Debye-Yukawa complex plasma crystals are investigated. The dispersion relations are calculated numerically by taking the neutral gas damping effects into account and the numerical results are in agreement with the experimental data given by Nunomura et al.[Phys. Rev. E 65, 066402 (2002)]. It is found that for the mode excited by an external disturbance with a real frequency, the dispersion properties are changed at a critical frequency near where the group velocity of the mode goes to zero. Therefore, the high frequency branch with negative dispersion cannot be reached. In contrast, for the thermally excited mode, the dispersion curve can extend all the way to the negative dispersion region, while a 'cut-off' wave number exists at the long wavelength end of the dispersion in the transverse mode.

  14. Extending the Operating Lives of Materials

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Paul Jablonski

    2010-09-01

    Metallurgist Paul Jablonski discusses his role in developing processes that extend the operating temperatures and operating lives of materials used in energy applications.

  15. Mercury (I) nitroprusside: A 2D structure supported on homometallic interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osiry, H.; Cano, A.; Reguera, L.; Lemus-Santana, A.A.; Reguera, E.

    2015-01-15

    The pentacyanonitrosylferrate complex anion, [Fe(CN){sub 5}NO]{sup 2−}, forms an insoluble solid with Hg(I) ion, of formula unit Hg{sub 2}[Fe(CN){sub 5}NO]·2H{sub 2}O, whose crystal structure and related properties are unknown. This contribution reports the preparation of that compound by the precipitation method and its structural study from X-ray powder patterns complemented with spectroscopic information from IR, Raman, and UV–vis techniques. The crystal structure was solved ab initio and then refined using the Rietveld method. The solid crystallizes with a triclinic unit cell, in the P−1 space group, with cell parameters a=10.1202(12), b=10.1000(13), c=7.4704(11) Å; α=110.664(10), β=110.114(10), γ=104.724(8) °. Within the unit cell, two formula units are accommodated (Z=2). It adopts a layered structure related with the coordination of the equatorial CN groups at their N end to the Hg atoms while the axial CN ligand remains unlinked. Within the layers neighboring Hg{sub 2}[Fe(CN){sub 5}NO] building units remain linked through four relatively strong Hg–Hg interactions, with an interatomic distance of 2.549(3) Å. The charge donation from the equatorial CN groups through their 5σ orbitals results into an increase for the electron density on the Hg atoms, which strengths the Hg–Hg bond. In the Raman spectrum, that metal–metal bond is detected as a stretching vibration band at 167 cm{sup −1}. The available free volume between neighboring layers accommodates two water molecules, which are stabilized within the framework through hydrogen bonds with the N end of the unlinked axial CN group. The removal of these weakly bonded water molecules results in structural disorder for the material 3D framework. - Graphical abstract: Assembling of Hg{sub 2}[Fe(CN){sub 5}NO] units through Hg–Hg interactions. - Highlights: • Homometallic Hg–Hg interactions in metal nitroprusside. • 2D structure supported on metal–metal interactions. • Crystal

  16. Proximity-driven enhanced magnetic order at ferromagnetic-insulator-magnetic-topological-insulator interface

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Mingda; Zhu, Yimei; Chang, Cui -Zu; Kirby, B. J.; Jamer, Michelle E.; Cui, Wenping; Wu, Lijun; Wei, Peng; Heiman, Don; Li, Ju; et al

    2015-08-17

    Magnetic exchange driven proximity effect at a magnetic-insulator–topological-insulator (MI-TI) interface provides a rich playground for novel phenomena as well as a way to realize low energy dissipation quantum devices. In this study, we report a dramatic enhancement of proximity exchange coupling in the MI/magnetic-TI EuS/Sb2–xVxTe3 hybrid heterostructure, where V doping is used to drive the TI (Sb2Te3) magnetic. We observe an artificial antiferromagneticlike structure near the MI-TI interface, which may account for the enhanced proximity coupling. The interplay between the proximity effect and doping in a hybrid heterostructure provides insights into the engineering of magnetic ordering.

  17. Proximity-driven enhanced magnetic order at ferromagnetic-insulator-magnetic-topological-insulator interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Mingda; Zhu, Yimei; Chang, Cui -Zu; Kirby, B. J.; Jamer, Michelle E.; Cui, Wenping; Wu, Lijun; Wei, Peng; Heiman, Don; Li, Ju; Moodera, Jagadeesh S.; Katmis, Ferhat

    2015-08-17

    Magnetic exchange driven proximity effect at a magnetic-insulator–topological-insulator (MI-TI) interface provides a rich playground for novel phenomena as well as a way to realize low energy dissipation quantum devices. In this study, we report a dramatic enhancement of proximity exchange coupling in the MI/magnetic-TI EuS/Sb2–xVxTe3 hybrid heterostructure, where V doping is used to drive the TI (Sb2Te3) magnetic. We observe an artificial antiferromagneticlike structure near the MI-TI interface, which may account for the enhanced proximity coupling. The interplay between the proximity effect and doping in a hybrid heterostructure provides insights into the engineering of magnetic ordering.

  18. Accurate quantum dynamics calculations of vibrational spectrum of dideuteromethane CH{sub 2}D{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Hua-Gen

    2015-05-21

    We report a rigorous variational study of the infrared (IR) vibrational spectra of both CH{sub 2}D{sub 2} and {sup 13}CH{sub 2}D{sub 2} isotopomers using an exact molecular Hamiltonian. Calculations are carried out using a recently developed multi-layer Lanczos algorithm based on the accurate refined Wang and Carrington potential energy surface of methane and the low-order truncated ab initio dipole moment surface of Yurchenko et al. [J. Mol. Spectrosc. 291, 69 (2013)]. All well converged 357 vibrational energy levels up to 6100 cm{sup ?1} of CH{sub 2}D{sub 2} are obtained, together with a comparison to previous calculations and 91 experimental bands available. The calculated frequencies are in excellent agreement with the experimental results and give a root-mean-square error of 0.67?cm{sup ?1}. In particular, we also compute the transition intensities from the vibrational ground state for both isotopomers. Based on the theoretical results, 20 experimental bands are suggested to be re-assigned. Surprisingly, an anomalous C isotopic effect is discovered in the n?{sub 5} modes of CH{sub 2}D{sub 2}. The predicted IR spectra provide useful information for understanding those unknown bands.

  19. Supporting documentation for the 1997 revision to the DOE Insulation Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stovall, T.K.

    1997-08-22

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Insulation Fact Sheet has been revised to reflect developments in energy conservation technology and the insulation market. A nationwide insulation cost survey was made by polling insulation contractors and builders, and the results are reported here. These costs, along with regional weather data, regional fuel costs, and fuel-specific system efficiencies were used to produce recommended insulation levels for new and existing houses. This report contains all of the methodology, algorithms, assumptions, references, and data resources that were used to produce the 1997 DOE Insulation Fact Sheet.

  20. New coordination polymers from 1D chain, 2D layer to 3D framework constructed from 1,2-phenylenediacetic acid and 1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane flexible ligands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xin Lingyun; Liu Guangzhen; Wang Liya

    2011-06-15

    The hydrothermal reactions of Cd, Zn, or Cu(II) acetate salts with H{sub 2}PHDA and BPP flexible ligands afford three new coordination polymers, including [Cd(PHDA)(BPP)(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n}(1), [Zn(PHDA)(BPP)]{sub n}(2), and [Cu{sub 2}(PHDA){sub 2}(BPP)]{sub n}(3) (H{sub 2}PHDA=1,2-phenylenediacetic acid, BPP=1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane). The single-crystal X-ray diffractions reveal that all three complexes feature various metal carboxylate subunits extended further by the BPP ligands to form a diverse range of structures, displaying a remarked structural sensitivity to metal(II) cation. Complex 1 containing PHDA-bridged binuclear cadmium generates 1D double-stranded chain, complex 2 results in 2D{yields}2D interpenetrated (4,4) grids, and complex 3 displays a 3D self-penetrated framework with 4{sup 8}6{sup 6}8 rob topology. In addition, fluorescent analyses show that both 1 and 2 exhibit intense blue-violet photoluminescence in the solid state. - Graphical Abstract: We show diverse supramolecular frameworks based on the same ligands (PHDA and BPP) and different metal acetate salts including 1D double-stranded chain, 2D {yields} 2D twofold interpenetrated layer, and 3D self-penetration networks. Highlights: > Three metal(II = 2 /* ROMAN ) coordination polymers were synthesized using H{sub 2}PHDA and BPP. > The diversity of structures show a remarked sensitivity to metal(II) center. > Complexes show the enhancement of fluorescence compared to that of free ligand.