Comparison of 2D and 3D gamma analyses
Pulliam, Kiley B.; Huang, Jessie Y.; Howell, Rebecca M.; Followill, David; Kry, Stephen F.; Bosca, Ryan; O’Daniel, Jennifer
2014-02-15
Purpose: As clinics begin to use 3D metrics for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) quality assurance, it must be noted that these metrics will often produce results different from those produced by their 2D counterparts. 3D and 2D gamma analyses would be expected to produce different values, in part because of the different search space available. In the present investigation, the authors compared the results of 2D and 3D gamma analysis (where both datasets were generated in the same manner) for clinical treatment plans. Methods: Fifty IMRT plans were selected from the authors’ clinical database, and recalculated using Monte Carlo. Treatment planning system-calculated (“evaluated dose distributions”) and Monte Carlo-recalculated (“reference dose distributions”) dose distributions were compared using 2D and 3D gamma analysis. This analysis was performed using a variety of dose-difference (5%, 3%, 2%, and 1%) and distance-to-agreement (5, 3, 2, and 1 mm) acceptance criteria, low-dose thresholds (5%, 10%, and 15% of the prescription dose), and data grid sizes (1.0, 1.5, and 3.0 mm). Each comparison was evaluated to determine the average 2D and 3D gamma, lower 95th percentile gamma value, and percentage of pixels passing gamma. Results: The average gamma, lower 95th percentile gamma value, and percentage of passing pixels for each acceptance criterion demonstrated better agreement for 3D than for 2D analysis for every plan comparison. The average difference in the percentage of passing pixels between the 2D and 3D analyses with no low-dose threshold ranged from 0.9% to 2.1%. Similarly, using a low-dose threshold resulted in a difference between the mean 2D and 3D results, ranging from 0.8% to 1.5%. The authors observed no appreciable differences in gamma with changes in the data density (constant difference: 0.8% for 2D vs 3D). Conclusions: The authors found that 3D gamma analysis resulted in up to 2.9% more pixels passing than 2D analysis. It must be noted
Interactive initialization of 2D/3D rigid registration
Gong, Ren Hui; Güler, Özgür; Kürklüoglu, Mustafa; Lovejoy, John; Yaniv, Ziv
2013-12-15
Purpose: Registration is one of the key technical components in an image-guided navigation system. A large number of 2D/3D registration algorithms have been previously proposed, but have not been able to transition into clinical practice. The authors identify the primary reason for the lack of adoption with the prerequisite for a sufficiently accurate initial transformation, mean target registration error of about 10 mm or less. In this paper, the authors present two interactive initialization approaches that provide the desired accuracy for x-ray/MR and x-ray/CT registration in the operating room setting. Methods: The authors have developed two interactive registration methods based on visual alignment of a preoperative image, MR, or CT to intraoperative x-rays. In the first approach, the operator uses a gesture based interface to align a volume rendering of the preoperative image to multiple x-rays. The second approach uses a tracked tool available as part of a navigation system. Preoperatively, a virtual replica of the tool is positioned next to the anatomical structures visible in the volumetric data. Intraoperatively, the physical tool is positioned in a similar manner and subsequently used to align a volume rendering to the x-ray images using an augmented reality (AR) approach. Both methods were assessed using three publicly available reference data sets for 2D/3D registration evaluation. Results: In the authors' experiments, the authors show that for x-ray/MR registration, the gesture based method resulted in a mean target registration error (mTRE) of 9.3 ± 5.0 mm with an average interaction time of 146.3 ± 73.0 s, and the AR-based method had mTREs of 7.2 ± 3.2 mm with interaction times of 44 ± 32 s. For x-ray/CT registration, the gesture based method resulted in a mTRE of 7.4 ± 5.0 mm with an average interaction time of 132.1 ± 66.4 s, and the AR-based method had mTREs of 8.3 ± 5.0 mm with interaction times of 58 ± 52 s. Conclusions: Based on the authors
Image Appraisal for 2D and 3D Electromagnetic Inversion
Alumbaugh, D.L.; Newman, G.A.
1999-01-28
Linearized methods are presented for appraising image resolution and parameter accuracy in images generated with two and three dimensional non-linear electromagnetic inversion schemes. When direct matrix inversion is employed, the model resolution and posterior model covariance matrices can be directly calculated. A method to examine how the horizontal and vertical resolution varies spatially within the electromagnetic property image is developed by examining the columns of the model resolution matrix. Plotting the square root of the diagonal of the model covariance matrix yields an estimate of how errors in the inversion process such as data noise and incorrect a priori assumptions about the imaged model map into parameter error. This type of image is shown to be useful in analyzing spatial variations in the image sensitivity to the data. A method is analyzed for statistically estimating the model covariance matrix when the conjugate gradient method is employed rather than a direct inversion technique (for example in 3D inversion). A method for calculating individual columns of the model resolution matrix using the conjugate gradient method is also developed. Examples of the image analysis techniques are provided on 2D and 3D synthetic cross well EM data sets, as well as a field data set collected at the Lost Hills Oil Field in Central California.
2D/3D registration algorithm for lung brachytherapy
Zvonarev, P. S.; Farrell, T. J.; Hunter, R.; Wierzbicki, M.; Hayward, J. E.; Sur, R. K.
2013-02-15
Purpose: A 2D/3D registration algorithm is proposed for registering orthogonal x-ray images with a diagnostic CT volume for high dose rate (HDR) lung brachytherapy. Methods: The algorithm utilizes a rigid registration model based on a pixel/voxel intensity matching approach. To achieve accurate registration, a robust similarity measure combining normalized mutual information, image gradient, and intensity difference was developed. The algorithm was validated using a simple body and anthropomorphic phantoms. Transfer catheters were placed inside the phantoms to simulate the unique image features observed during treatment. The algorithm sensitivity to various degrees of initial misregistration and to the presence of foreign objects, such as ECG leads, was evaluated. Results: The mean registration error was 2.2 and 1.9 mm for the simple body and anthropomorphic phantoms, respectively. The error was comparable to the interoperator catheter digitization error of 1.6 mm. Preliminary analysis of data acquired from four patients indicated a mean registration error of 4.2 mm. Conclusions: Results obtained using the proposed algorithm are clinically acceptable especially considering the complications normally encountered when imaging during lung HDR brachytherapy.
2-D and 3-D Models of Convective Turbulence and Oscillations...
Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)
2-D and 3-D Models of Convective Turbulence and Oscillations in Intermediate-Mass Main-Sequence Stars Citation Details In-Document Search Title: 2-D and 3-D Models of Convective ...
Nano-Composite Material Development for 3-D Printers
Satches, Michael Randolph
2015-10-14
The objectives of the project was to create a graphene reinforced polymer nano-composite viable in a commercial 3-D printer; study the effects of ultra-high loading of graphene in polymer matrices; and determine the functional upper limit of graphene loading.
Nano-Composite Material Development for 3-D Printers
Satches, Michael Randolph
2015-12-01
Graphene possesses excellent mechanical properties with a tensile strength that may exceed 130 GPa, excellent electrical conductivity, and good thermal properties. Future nano-composites can leverage many of these material properties in an attempt to build designer materials for a broad range of applications. 3-D printing has also seen vast improvements in recent years that have allowed many companies and individuals to realize rapid prototyping for relatively low capital investment. This research sought to create a graphene reinforced, polymer matrix nano-composite that is viable in commercial 3D printer technology, study the effects of ultra-high loading percentages of graphene in polymer matrices and determine the functional upper limit for loading. Loadings varied from 5 wt. % to 50 wt. % graphene nanopowder loaded in Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) matrices. Loaded sample were characterized for their mechanical properties using three point bending, tensile tests, as well as dynamic mechanical analysis.
Fabrication and applications of sub-micron 2D and 3D periodic...
Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)
In-Document Search Title: Fabrication and applications of sub-micron 2D and 3D periodic carbon structures. Abstract not provided. Authors: Burckel, David Bruce ; Polsky, Ronen ;...
Preliminary 3d depth migration of a network of 2d seismic lines for fault
Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)
imaging at a Pyramid Lake, Nevada geothermal prospect (Conference) | SciTech Connect Preliminary 3d depth migration of a network of 2d seismic lines for fault imaging at a Pyramid Lake, Nevada geothermal prospect Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Preliminary 3d depth migration of a network of 2d seismic lines for fault imaging at a Pyramid Lake, Nevada geothermal prospect Roxanna Frary, John N. Louie, Sathish Pullammanappallil, Amy Eisses, 2011, Preliminary 3d depth migration of a
KIVA: a comprehensive model for 2D and 3D engine simulations
Amsden, A.A.; Butler, T.D.; O'Rourke, P.J.; Ramshaw, J.D.
1985-01-01
This paper summarizes a comprehensive numerical model that represents the spray dynamics, fluid flow, species transport, mixing, chemical reactions, and accompanying heat release that occur inside the cylinder of an internal combustion engine. The model is embodied in the KIVA computer code. The code calculates both two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) situations. It is an outgrowth of the earlier 2D CONCHAS-SPRAY computer program. Sample numerical calculations are presented to indicate the level of detail that is available from these simulations. These calculations are for a direct injection stratified charge engine with swirl. Both a 2D and a 3D example are shown.
Erer, Hakan; Ye?ilel, Okan Zafer; Ar?c?, Mürsel; Keskin, Seda; Büyükgüngör, Orhan
2014-02-15
Hydrothermal reactions of rigid 1,4-bis(imidazol-1-yl)benzene (dib) and 1,4-bis(imidazol-1-yl)-2,5-dimethylbenzene (dimb) with deprotonated thiophene-2,5-dicarboxylic acid (H{sub 2}tdc) in the presence of Zn(II) and Cd(II) salts in H{sub 2}O produced three new metal–organic frameworks, namely, [Zn(µ-tdc)(H{sub 2}O)(µ-dib)]{sub n} (1), [Cd(µ-tdc)(H{sub 2}O)(µ-dib)]{sub n} (2), and ([Cd{sub 2}(µ{sub 3}-tdc){sub 2}(µ-dimb){sub 2}]·(H{sub 2}O)){sub n}(3). These MOFs were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, elemental, thermal (TG, DTA, DTG and DSC), and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. Isomorphous complexes 1 and 2 reveal polycatenated 2D+2D?3D framework based on an undulated (4,4)-sql layer. Complex 3 exhibits a new 4-fold interpenetrating 3D framework with the point symbol of 6{sup 6}. Molecular simulations were used to assess the potentials of the complexes for H{sub 2} storage application. Moreover, these coordination polymers exhibit blue fluorescent emission bands in the solid state at room temperature. - Graphical abstract: In this study, hydrothermal reactions of rigid 1,4-bis(imidazol-1-yl)benzene (dib) and 1,4-bis(imidazol-1-yl)-2,5-dimethylbenzene (dimb) with deprotonated thiophene-2,5-dicarboxylic acid (H{sub 2}tdc) in the presence of Zn(II) and Cd(II) salts in H{sub 2}O produced three new metal–organic frameworks. Isomorphous complexes 1 and 2 reveal polycatenated 2D+2D?3D framework based on an undulated (4,4)-sql layer. Complex 3 exhibits a new 4-fold interpenetrating 3D framework with the point symbol of 6{sup 6}. Molecular simulations were used to assess the potentials of the complexes for H{sub 2} storage application. These coordination polymers exhibit blue fluorescent emission bands in the solid state at room temperature. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Complexes 1 and 2 display polycatenated 2D+2D?3D framework. • Complex 3 exhibits a new 4-fold interpenetrating 3D framework. • Complex 1 adsorbs the highest amount of H{sub 2} at 100 bar and
The Benefits of 3D vs. 2D Analysis | GE Global Research
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Benefits of 3D vs. 2D Analysis Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) The Benefits of 3D vs. 2D Analysis Vin Smentkowski 2015.05.20 I am a research chemist and my field of research is surface characterization using a technique called Time of Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). About a decade ago,
Models Ion Trajectories in 2D and 3D Electrostatic and Magnetic Fields
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)
2000-02-21
SIMION3D7.0REV is a C based ion optics simulation program that can model complex problems using Laplace equation solutions for potential fields. The program uses an ion optics workbench that can hold up to 200 2D and/or 3D electrostatic/magnetic potential arrays. Arrays can have up to 50,000,000 points. SIMION3D7.0''s 32 bit virtual Graphics User Interface provides a highly interactive advanced user environment. All potential arrays are visualized as 3D objects that the user can cut awaymoreÂ Â» to inspect ion trajectories and potential energy surfaces. User programs allow the user to customize the program for specific simulations. A geometry file option supports the definition of highly complex array geometry. Algorithm modifications have improved this version''s computational speed and accuracy.Â«Â less
Chitcholtan, Kenny; Asselin, Eric; Parent, Sophie; Sykes, Peter H.; Evans, John J.
2013-01-01
Three-dimensional (3D) in vitro models have an invaluable role in understanding the behaviour of tumour cells in a well defined microenvironment. This is because some aspects of tumour characteristics cannot be fully recapitulated in a cell monolayer (2D). In the present study, we compared growth patterns, expression of signalling molecules, and metabolism-associated proteins of endometrial cancer cell lines in 3D and 2D cell cultures. Cancer cells formed spherical structures in 3D reconstituted basement membrane (3D rBM), and the morphological appearance was cell line dependent. Cell differentiation was observed after 8 days in the 3D rBM. There was reduced proliferation, detected by less expression of PCNA in 3D rBM than in 2D cell monolayers. The addition of exogenous epidermal growth factor (EGF) to cancer cells induced phosphorylation of EGFR and Akt in both cell culture conditions. The uptake of glucose was selectively altered in the 3D rBM, but there was a lack of association with Glut-1 expression. The secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}) was selectively altered in 3D rBM, and it was cell line dependent. Our data demonstrated that 3D rBM as an in vitro model can influence proliferation and metabolism of endometrial cancer cell behaviour compared to 2D cell monolayer. Changes are specific to individual cell types. The use of 3D rBM is, therefore, important in the in vitro study of targeted anticancer therapies.
Computation of neutron fluxes in clusters of fuel pins arranged in hexagonal assemblies (2D and 3D)
Prabha, H.; Marleau, G.
2012-07-01
For computations of fluxes, we have used Carvik's method of collision probabilities. This method requires tracking algorithms. An algorithm to compute tracks (in 2D and 3D) has been developed for seven hexagonal geometries with cluster of fuel pins. This has been implemented in the NXT module of the code DRAGON. The flux distribution in cluster of pins has been computed by using this code. For testing the results, they are compared when possible with the EXCELT module of the code DRAGON. Tracks are plotted in the NXT module by using MATLAB, these plots are also presented here. Results are presented with increasing number of lines to show the convergence of these results. We have numerically computed volumes, surface areas and the percentage errors in these computations. These results show that 2D results converge faster than 3D results. The accuracy on the computation of fluxes up to second decimal is achieved with fewer lines. (authors)
Najjar, F M; Solberg, J; White, D
2008-04-17
A verification test suite has been assessed with primary focus on low reynolds number flow of liquid metals. This is representative of the interface between the armature and rail in gun applications. The computational multiphysics framework, ALE3D, is used. The main objective of the current study is to provide guidance and gain confidence in the results obtained with ALE3D. A verification test suite based on 2-D cases is proposed and includes the lid-driven cavity and the Couette flow are investigated. The hydro and thermal fields are assumed to be steady and laminar in nature. Results are compared with analytical solutions and previously published data. Mesh resolution studies are performed along with various models for the equation of state.
Zhang, Ming-Dao Zhuang, Qi-Fan; Xu, Jing; Cao, Hui
2015-12-15
The title complex, ([Co(BPPA)(5-OH-bdc)] Â· (H{sub 2}O)){sub n} was prepared under hydrothermal conditions based on two ligands, namely, bis(4-(pyridin-4-yl)phenyl)amine (BPPA) and 5-hydroxyisophthalic acid (5-OH-H{sub 2}bdc). 5-OH-bdc{sup 2â€“} anions coordinated to Co atoms to give layers in crystal. BPPA ligands coordinate to Co atoms and thread into the adjacent layers. There are hydrogen bonds between adjacent layers, giving rise to a 2D â†’ 3D framework.
SU-E-T-77: Comparison of 2D and 3D Gamma Analysis in Patient-Specific QA for Prostate VMAT Plans
Clemente, F; Perez, C
2014-06-01
Purpose: Patient-specific QA procedures for IMRT and VMAT are traditionally performed by comparing TPS calculations with measured single point values and plane dose distributions by means of gamma analysis. New QA devices permit us to calculate 3D dose distributions on patient anatomy as redundant secondary check and reconstruct it from measurements taken with 2D and 3D detector arrays. 3D dose calculations allow us to perform DVH-based comparisons with clinical relevance, as well as 3D gamma analysis. One of these systems (Compass, IBA Dosimetry) combines traditional 2D with new anatomical-based 3D gamma analysis. This work shows the ability of this system by comparing 2D and 3D gamma analysis in pre-treatment QA for several VMAT prostate plans. Methods: Compass is capable of calculating dose as secondary check from DICOM TPS data and reconstructing it from measurements taken by a 2D ion chamber array (MatriXX Evolution, IBA Dosimetry). Both 2D and 3D gamma tests are available to compare calculated and reconstructed dose in Compass with TPS RT Dose. Results: 15 VMAT prostate plans have been measured with Compass. Dose is reconstructed with Compass for these plans. 2D gamma comparisons can be done for any plane from dose matrix. Mean gamma passing rates for isocenter planes (axial, coronal, sagittal) are (99.7±0.2)%, (99.9±0.1)%, (99.9±0.1)% for reconstructed dose planes. 3D mean gamma passing rates are (98.5±1.7)% for PTVs, (99.1±1.5)% for rectum, (100.0±0.0)% for bladder, (99.6±0.7)% for femoral heads and (98.1±4.1)% for penile bulb. Conclusion: Compass is a powerful tool to perform a complete pre-treatment QA analysis, from 2D techniques to 3D DVH-based techniques with clinical relevance. All reported values for VMAT prostate plans are in good agreement with TPS values. This system permits us to ensure the accuracy in the delivery of VMAT treatments completing a full patient-specific QA program.
Weon, Chijun; Hyun Nam, Woo; Lee, Duhgoon; Ra, Jong Beom; Lee, Jae Young
2015-01-15
Purpose: Registration between 2D ultrasound (US) and 3D preoperative magnetic resonance (MR) (or computed tomography, CT) images has been studied recently for US-guided intervention. However, the existing techniques have some limits, either in the registration speed or the performance. The purpose of this work is to develop a real-time and fully automatic registration system between two intermodal images of the liver, and subsequently an indirect lesion positioning/tracking algorithm based on the registration result, for image-guided interventions. Methods: The proposed position tracking system consists of three stages. In the preoperative stage, the authors acquire several 3D preoperative MR (or CT) images at different respiratory phases. Based on the transformations obtained from nonrigid registration of the acquired 3D images, they then generate a 4D preoperative image along the respiratory phase. In the intraoperative preparatory stage, they properly attach a 3D US transducer to the patientâ€™s body and fix its pose using a holding mechanism. They then acquire a couple of respiratory-controlled 3D US images. Via the rigid registration of these US images to the 3D preoperative images in the 4D image, the pose information of the fixed-pose 3D US transducer is determined with respect to the preoperative image coordinates. As feature(s) to use for the rigid registration, they may choose either internal liver vessels or the inferior vena cava. Since the latter is especially useful in patients with a diffuse liver disease, the authors newly propose using it. In the intraoperative real-time stage, they acquire 2D US images in real-time from the fixed-pose transducer. For each US image, they select candidates for its corresponding 2D preoperative slice from the 4D preoperative MR (or CT) image, based on the predetermined pose information of the transducer. The correct corresponding image is then found among those candidates via real-time 2D registration based on a
Pacht, J.A.; Brooks, L.; Messa, F.
1995-12-31
Carbonate debris flow are very important plays in Leonard strata along the northwestern margin of the Midland Basin. Delineation of these strata, however, is difficult and detailed stratigraphic analysis of both 2D and 3D seismic data is important in reducing risk. Porous debris flows are best developed during lowstand time. When sea-level falls to a point at or below the shelf margin, sand to boulder-sized clasts created by reef-front erosion are funneled through slope gullies onto the base of the slope. Large debris flows exhibit well-defined mounds which downlap onto the sequence boundary. Many of these flows, however, are too thin to exhibit discrete reflections. 3D seismic data are used to define subtle changes in amplitude and frequency which suggest presence of porous strata. Along the northwest shelf, porous debris flows exhibit lower amplitude (dim spots) and lower frequency than surrounding strata. They are commonly developed immediately downdip of major slump scars.
One Dimensional(1D)-to-2D Crossover of Spin Correlations in the 3D Magnet ZnMn2O4
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Disseler, S. M.; Chen, Y.; Yeo, S.; Gasparovic, G.; Piccoli, P. M. B.; Schultz, A. J.; Qiu, Y.; Huang, Q.; Cheong, S. -W.; Ratcliff, W.
2015-12-08
In this paper we report on the intriguing evolution of the dynamical spin correlations of the frustrated spinel ZnMn2O4. Inelastic neutron scattering and magnetization studies reveal that the dynamical correlations at high temperatures are 1D. At lower temperature, these dynamical correlations become 2D. Surprisingly, the dynamical correlations condense into a quasi 2D Ising-like ordered state, making this a rare observation of two dimensional order on the spinel lattice. Remarkably, 3D ordering is not observed down to temperatures as low as 300 mK. This unprecedented dimensional crossover stems from frustrated exchange couplings due to the huge Jahn-Teller distortions around Mn3+ ionsmoreÂ Â» on the spinel lattice.Â«Â less
One Dimensional(1D)-to-2D Crossover of Spin Correlations in the 3D Magnet ZnMn_{2}O_{4}
Disseler, S. M.; Chen, Y.; Yeo, S.; Gasparovic, G.; Piccoli, P. M. B.; Schultz, A. J.; Qiu, Y.; Huang, Q.; Cheong, S. -W.; Ratcliff, W.
2015-12-08
In this paper we report on the intriguing evolution of the dynamical spin correlations of the frustrated spinel ZnMn_{2}O_{4}. Inelastic neutron scattering and magnetization studies reveal that the dynamical correlations at high temperatures are 1D. At lower temperature, these dynamical correlations become 2D. Surprisingly, the dynamical correlations condense into a quasi 2D Ising-like ordered state, making this a rare observation of two dimensional order on the spinel lattice. Remarkably, 3D ordering is not observed down to temperatures as low as 300 mK. This unprecedented dimensional crossover stems from frustrated exchange couplings due to the huge Jahn-Teller distortions around Mn^{3+} ions on the spinel lattice.
Craig, Norman C.; Chen, Yihui; van Besien, Herman; Blake, Thomas A.
2014-09-01
The 2-d1 and 3-d1 isotopologues of trans-hexatriene have been synthesized, and their high-resolution (0.0015 cm-1) IR spectra have been recorded. For each of the isotopologues the rotational structure in four C-type bands for out-of-plane vibrational modes has been analyzed, and the ground state combination differences (GSCDs) have been pooled. Ground state rotational constants have been fitted to the GSCDs. For the 2-d species, A0, B0, and C0 values of 0.7837254(5), 0.0442806(3), and 0.0419299(2) cm-1 were fitted to 2450 GSCDs. For the 3-d species, A0, B0, and C0 values of 0.7952226(8), 0.0446149(7), and 0.0422661(4) cm-1 were fitted to 2234 GSCDs. For the eleven out-of-plane modes of the two isotopologues, predictions of anharmonic wavenumbers and harmonic intensities have been computed and compared with experiment where possible.
Russo, James K.; Armeson, Kent E.; Richardson, Susan
2012-05-01
Purpose: To evaluate bladder and rectal doses using two-dimensional (2D) and 3D treatment planning for vaginal cuff high-dose rate (HDR) in endometrial cancer. Methods and Materials: Ninety-one consecutive patients treated between 2000 and 2007 were evaluated. Seventy-one and 20 patients underwent 2D and 3D planning, respectively. Each patient received six fractions prescribed at 0.5 cm to the superior 3 cm of the vagina. International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) doses were calculated for 2D patients. Maximum and 2-cc doses were calculated for 3D patients. Organ doses were normalized to prescription dose. Results: Bladder maximum doses were 178% of ICRU doses (p < 0.0001). Two-cubic centimeter doses were no different than ICRU doses (p = 0.22). Two-cubic centimeter doses were 59% of maximum doses (p < 0.0001). Rectal maximum doses were 137% of ICRU doses (p < 0.0001). Two-cubic centimeter doses were 87% of ICRU doses (p < 0.0001). Two-cubic centimeter doses were 64% of maximum doses (p < 0.0001). Using the first 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 fractions, we predicted the final bladder dose to within 10% for 44%, 59%, 83%, 82%, and 89% of patients by using the ICRU dose, and for 45%, 55%, 80%, 85%, and 85% of patients by using the maximum dose, and for 37%, 68%, 79%, 79%, and 84% of patients by using the 2-cc dose. Using the first 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 fractions, we predicted the final rectal dose to within 10% for 100%, 100%, 100%, 100%, and 100% of patients by using the ICRU dose, and for 60%, 65%, 70%, 75%, and 75% of patients by using the maximum dose, and for 68%, 95%, 84%, 84%, and 84% of patients by using the 2-cc dose. Conclusions: Doses to organs at risk vary depending on the calculation method. In some cases, final dose accuracy appears to plateau after the third fraction, indicating that simulation and planning may not be necessary in all fractions. A clinically relevant level of accuracy should be determined and further research conducted to address
Xu, H; Song, K; Chetty, I; Kim, J; Wen, N
2015-06-15
Purpose: To determine the 6 degree of freedom systematic deviations between 2D/3D and CBCT image registration with various imaging setups and fusion algorithms on the Varian Edge Linac. Methods: An anthropomorphic head phantom with radio opaque targets embedded was scanned with CT slice thicknesses of 0.8, 1, 2, and 3mm. The 6 DOF systematic errors were assessed by comparing 2D/3D (kV/MV with CT) with 3D/3D (CBCT with CT) image registrations with different offset positions, similarity measures, image filters, and CBCT slice thicknesses (1 and 2 mm). The 2D/3D registration accuracy of 51 fractions for 26 cranial SRS patients was also evaluated by analyzing 2D/3D pre-treatment verification taken after 3D/3D image registrations. Results: The systematic deviations of 2D/3D image registration using kV- kV, MV-kV and MV-MV image pairs were within Â±0.3mm and Â±0.3Â° for translations and rotations with 95% confidence interval (CI) for a reference CT with 0.8 mm slice thickness. No significant difference (P>0.05) on target localization was observed between 0.8mm, 1mm, and 2mm CT slice thicknesses with CBCT slice thicknesses of 1mm and 2mm. With 3mm CT slice thickness, both 2D/3D and 3D/3D registrations performed less accurately in longitudinal direction than thinner CT slice thickness (0.60Â±0.12mm and 0.63Â±0.07mm off, respectively). Using content filter and using similarity measure of pattern intensity instead of mutual information, improved the 2D/3D registration accuracy significantly (P=0.02 and P=0.01, respectively). For the patient study, means and standard deviations of residual errors were 0.09Â±0.32mm, âˆ’0.22Â±0.51mm and âˆ’0.07Â±0.32mm in VRT, LNG and LAT directions, respectively, and 0.12Â°Â±0.46Â°, âˆ’0.12Â°Â±0.39Â° and 0.06Â°Â±0.28Â° in RTN, PITCH, and ROLL directions, respectively. 95% CI of translational and rotational deviations were comparable to those in phantom study. Conclusion: 2D/3D image registration provided on the Varian Edge radiosurgery, 6 DOF
Synchrotron X-ray 2D and 3D Elemental Imaging of CdSe/ZnS Quantum dot Nanoparticles in Daphnia Magna
Jackson, B.; Pace, H; Lanzirotti, A; Smith, R; Ranville, J
2009-01-01
The potential toxicity of nanoparticles to aquatic organisms is of interest given that increased commercialization will inevitably lead to some instances of inadvertent environmental exposures. Cadmium selenide quantum dots (QDs) capped with zinc sulfide are used in the semiconductor industry and in cellular imaging. Their small size (<10 nm) suggests that they may be readily assimilated by exposed organisms. We exposed Daphnia magna to both red and green QDs and used synchrotron X-ray fluorescence to study the distribution of Zn and Se in the organism over a time period of 36 h. The QDs appeared to be confined to the gut, and there was no evidence of further assimilation into the organism. Zinc and Se fluorescence signals were highly correlated, suggesting that the QDs had not dissolved to any extent. There was no apparent difference between red or green QDs, i.e., there was no effect of QD size. 3D tomography confirmed that the QDs were exclusively in the gut area of the organism. It is possible that the QDs aggregated and were therefore too large to cross the gut wall.
Xin Lingyun; Liu Guangzhen; Wang Liya
2011-06-15
The hydrothermal reactions of Cd, Zn, or Cu(II) acetate salts with H{sub 2}PHDA and BPP flexible ligands afford three new coordination polymers, including [Cd(PHDA)(BPP)(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n}(1), [Zn(PHDA)(BPP)]{sub n}(2), and [Cu{sub 2}(PHDA){sub 2}(BPP)]{sub n}(3) (H{sub 2}PHDA=1,2-phenylenediacetic acid, BPP=1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane). The single-crystal X-ray diffractions reveal that all three complexes feature various metal carboxylate subunits extended further by the BPP ligands to form a diverse range of structures, displaying a remarked structural sensitivity to metal(II) cation. Complex 1 containing PHDA-bridged binuclear cadmium generates 1D double-stranded chain, complex 2 results in 2D{yields}2D interpenetrated (4,4) grids, and complex 3 displays a 3D self-penetrated framework with 4{sup 8}6{sup 6}8 rob topology. In addition, fluorescent analyses show that both 1 and 2 exhibit intense blue-violet photoluminescence in the solid state. - Graphical Abstract: We show diverse supramolecular frameworks based on the same ligands (PHDA and BPP) and different metal acetate salts including 1D double-stranded chain, 2D {yields} 2D twofold interpenetrated layer, and 3D self-penetration networks. Highlights: > Three metal(II = 2 /* ROMAN ) coordination polymers were synthesized using H{sub 2}PHDA and BPP. > The diversity of structures show a remarked sensitivity to metal(II) center. > Complexes show the enhancement of fluorescence compared to that of free ligand.
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Print ALS researchers have discovered a material that is essentially a 3D version of graphene-the 2D sheets of carbon through which electrons race at many times the speed at which...
Chwalla, M.; Kim, K.; Monz, T.; Riebe, M.; Schindler, P.; Villar, A. S.; Haensel, W.; Benhelm, J.; Kirchmair, G.; Roos, C. F.; Blatt, R.; Abgrall, M.; Santarelli, G.; Rovera, G. D.; Laurent, Ph.
2009-01-16
We report on the first absolute transition frequency measurement at the 10{sup -15} level with a single, laser-cooled {sup 40}Ca{sup +} ion in a linear Paul trap. For this measurement, a frequency comb is referenced to the transportable Cs atomic fountain clock of LNE-SYRTE and is used to measure the {sup 40}Ca{sup +} 4s {sup 2}S{sub 1/2}-3d {sup 2}D{sub 5/2} electric-quadrupole transition frequency. After the correction of systematic shifts, the clock transition frequency {nu}{sub Ca{sup +}}=411 042 129 776 393.2(1.0) Hz is obtained, which corresponds to a fractional uncertainty within a factor of 3 of the Cs standard. In addition, we determine the Landeg factor of the 3d{sup 2}D{sub 5/2} level to be g{sub 5/2}=1.200 334 0(3)
Ugale, Bharat; Singh, Divyendu; Nagaraja, C.M.
2015-03-15
Two new Zn(II)â€“organic compounds, [Zn(muco)(dbds){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}] (1) and [Zn(muco)(dbs)] (2) (where, muco=trans, trans-muconate dianion, dbds=4,4â€²-dipyridyldisulfide and dbs=4,4â€²-dipyridylsulfide) have been synthesized from same precursors but at two different temperatures. Both the compounds have been characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, powder X-ray diffraction, elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, thermal analysis and photoluminescence studies. Compound 1 prepared at room temperature possesses a molecular structure extended to 2D supramolecular network through (Hâ€“Oâ€¦H) hydrogen-bonding interactions. Compound 2, obtained at high temperature (100 Â°C) shows a 3-fold interpenetrating 3D framework constituted by an in situ generated dbs linker by the cleavage of Sâ€“S and Câ€“S bonds of dbds linker. Thus, the influence of reaction temperature on the formation of two structural phases has been demonstrated. Both 1 and 2 exhibit ligand based luminescence emission owing to nâ†’Ï€â and Ï€â†’Ï€â transitions and also high thermal stabilities. - Graphical abstract: The influence of temperature on the formation of two structural phases, a 2D supramolecular network and a 3D 3-fold interpenetrating framework has been demonstrated and their luminescence emission is measured. - Highlights: â€¢ Two new Zn(II)â€“organic compounds were synthesized by tuning reaction temperatures. â€¢ Temperature induced in situ generation of dbs linker has been observed. â€¢ The compounds exhibit high thermal stability and luminescence emission properties. â€¢ The effect of temperature on structure, dimension and topology has been presented.
Liu Guocheng; Chen Yongqiang; Wang Xiuli Chen Baokuan; Lin Hongyan
2009-03-15
Three novel Cd(II) coordination polymers, namely, [Cd(Dpq)(1,8-NDC)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}][Cd(Dpq)(1,8-NDC)].2H{sub 2}O (1), [Cd(Dpq)(1,4-NDC)(H{sub 2}O)] (2), and [Cd(Dpq)(2,6-NDC)] (3) have been obtained from hydrothermal reactions of cadmium(II) nitrate with the mixed ligands dipyrido [3,2-d:2',3'-f]quinoxaline (Dpq) and three structurally related naphthalene-dicarboxylate ligands [1,8-naphthalene-dicarboxylic acid (1,8-H{sub 2}NDC), 1,4-naphthalene-dicarboxylic acid (1,4-H{sub 2}NDC), and 2,6-naphthalene-dicarboxylic acid (2,6-H{sub 2}NDC)]. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that the three polymers exhibit novel structures due to different naphthalene-dicarboxylic acid. Compound 1 is a novel cocrystal of left- and right-handed helical chains and binuclear complexes and ultimately packed into a 3D supramolecular structure through hydrogen bonds and {pi}-{pi} stacking interactions. Compound 2 shows a 2D rectangular network (4,4) bridged by 1,4-NDC with two kinds of coordination modes and ultimately packed into a 3D supramolecular structure through inter-layer {pi}-{pi} stacking interactions. Compound 3 is a new 3D coordination polymer with distorted PtS-type network. In addition, the title compounds exhibit blue/green emission in solid state at room temperature. - Graphical abstract: Three novel Cd(II) compounds have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions exhibiting a systematic variation of architecture by the employment of three structurally related naphthalene-dicarboxylate ligands.
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Graphene's 3D Counterpart Graphene's 3D Counterpart Print Monday, 21 July 2014 08:59 ALS researchers have discovered a material that is essentially a 3D version of graphene-the 2D sheets of carbon through which electrons race at many times the speed at which they move through silicon. The discovery promises exciting new things to come for the high--tech industry, including much faster transistors and far more compact hard drives. Researchers discovered that sodium bismuthide can exist as a form
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Graphene's 3D Counterpart Print ALS researchers have discovered a material that is essentially a 3D version of graphene-the 2D sheets of carbon through which electrons race at many times the speed at which they move through silicon. The discovery promises exciting new things to come for the high--tech industry, including much faster transistors and far more compact hard drives. Researchers discovered that sodium bismuthide can exist as a form of quantum matter called a three--dimensional
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Graphene's 3D Counterpart Print ALS researchers have discovered a material that is essentially a 3D version of graphene-the 2D sheets of carbon through which electrons race at many times the speed at which they move through silicon. The discovery promises exciting new things to come for the high--tech industry, including much faster transistors and far more compact hard drives. Researchers discovered that sodium bismuthide can exist as a form of quantum matter called a three--dimensional
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Graphene's 3D Counterpart Print ALS researchers have discovered a material that is essentially a 3D version of graphene-the 2D sheets of carbon through which electrons race at many times the speed at which they move through silicon. The discovery promises exciting new things to come for the high--tech industry, including much faster transistors and far more compact hard drives. Researchers discovered that sodium bismuthide can exist as a form of quantum matter called a three--dimensional
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Graphene's 3D Counterpart Print ALS researchers have discovered a material that is essentially a 3D version of graphene-the 2D sheets of carbon through which electrons race at many times the speed at which they move through silicon. The discovery promises exciting new things to come for the high--tech industry, including much faster transistors and far more compact hard drives. Researchers discovered that sodium bismuthide can exist as a form of quantum matter called a three--dimensional
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)
003029WKSTN00 Delineation of nuclear structures in 3D multicellular systems https://vision.lbl.gov/Software/3DMorphometry/
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
| Department of Energy 3D Printed Tool for Building Aircraft Achieves Guinness World Records Title 3D Printed Tool for Building Aircraft Achieves Guinness World Records Title August 30, 2016 - 2:07pm Addthis Official measurement of the 3D printed trim tool co-developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and The Boeing Company exceeded the required minimum size to achieve the Guinness World Records title of largest solid 3D printed item. Official measurement of the 3D printed trim tool
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)
2007-07-20
This software distribution contains MATLAB and C++ code to enable identity verification using 3D images that may or may not contain a texture component. The code is organized to support system performance testing and system capability demonstration through the proper configuration of the available user interface. Using specific algorithm parameters the face recognition system has been demonstrated to achieve a 96.6% verification rate (Pd) at 0.001 false alarm rate. The system computes robust facial featuresmoreÂ Â» of a 3D normalized face using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA). A 3D normalized face is obtained by alighning each face, represented by a set of XYZ coordinated, to a scaled reference face using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The scaled reference face is then deformed to the input face using an iterative framework with parameters that control the deformed surface regulation an rate of deformation. A variety of options are available to control the information that is encoded by the PCA. Such options include the XYZ coordinates, the difference of each XYZ coordinates from the reference, the Z coordinate, the intensity/texture values, etc. In addition to PCA/FLDA feature projection this software supports feature matching to obtain similarity matrices for performance analysis. In addition, this software supports visualization of the STL, MRD, 2D normalized, and PCA synthetic representations in a 3D environment.Â«Â less
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)
003188MLTPL00 F3D Image Processing and Analysis for Many - and Multi-core Platforms http://camera.lbl.gov/software
RAG-3D: A search tool for RNA 3D substructures
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Zahran, Mai; Sevim Bayrak, Cigdem; Elmetwaly, Shereef; Schlick, Tamar
2015-08-24
In this study, to address many challenges in RNA structure/function prediction, the characterization of RNA's modular architectural units is required. Using the RNA-As-Graphs (RAG) database, we have previously explored the existence of secondary structure (2D) submotifs within larger RNA structures. Here we present RAG-3Dâ€”a dataset of RNA tertiary (3D) structures and substructures plus a web-based search toolâ€”designed to exploit graph representations of RNAs for the goal of searching for similar 3D structural fragments. The objects in RAG-3D consist of 3D structures translated into 3D graphs, cataloged based on the connectivity between their secondary structure elements. Each graph is additionally describedmoreÂ Â» in terms of its subgraph building blocks. The RAG-3D search tool then compares a query RNA 3D structure to those in the database to obtain structurally similar structures and substructures. This comparison reveals conserved 3D RNA features and thus may suggest functional connections. Though RNA search programs based on similarity in sequence, 2D, and/or 3D structural elements are available, our graph-based search tool may be advantageous for illuminating similarities that are not obvious; using motifs rather than sequence space also reduces search times considerably. Ultimately, such substructuring could be useful for RNA 3D structure prediction, structure/function inference and inverse folding.Â«Â less
RAG-3D: A search tool for RNA 3D substructures
Zahran, Mai; Sevim Bayrak, Cigdem; Elmetwaly, Shereef; Schlick, Tamar
2015-08-24
In this study, to address many challenges in RNA structure/function prediction, the characterization of RNA's modular architectural units is required. Using the RNA-As-Graphs (RAG) database, we have previously explored the existence of secondary structure (2D) submotifs within larger RNA structures. Here we present RAG-3Dâ€”a dataset of RNA tertiary (3D) structures and substructures plus a web-based search toolâ€”designed to exploit graph representations of RNAs for the goal of searching for similar 3D structural fragments. The objects in RAG-3D consist of 3D structures translated into 3D graphs, cataloged based on the connectivity between their secondary structure elements. Each graph is additionally described in terms of its subgraph building blocks. The RAG-3D search tool then compares a query RNA 3D structure to those in the database to obtain structurally similar structures and substructures. This comparison reveals conserved 3D RNA features and thus may suggest functional connections. Though RNA search programs based on similarity in sequence, 2D, and/or 3D structural elements are available, our graph-based search tool may be advantageous for illuminating similarities that are not obvious; using motifs rather than sequence space also reduces search times considerably. Ultimately, such substructuring could be useful for RNA 3D structure prediction, structure/function inference and inverse folding.
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
some exciting phenomena and applications of graphene in 3D materials-it also gives rise to many unusual properties. In addition to these unusual properties, the 3DTDS is the...
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
can exist as a form of quantum matter called a three--dimensional topological Dirac semi--metal (3DTDS). This is the first experimental confirmation of 3D Dirac fermions...
Shim3d Helmholtz Solution Package
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)
2009-01-29
This suite of codes solves the Helmholtz Equation for the steady-state propagation of single-frequency electromagnetic radiation in an arbitrary 2D or 3D dielectric medium. Materials can be either transparent or absorptive (including metals) and are described entirely by their shape and complex dielectric constant. Dielectric boundaries are assumed to always fall on grid boundaries and the material within a single grid cell is considered to be uniform. Input to the problem is in the formmoreÂ Â» of a Dirichlet boundary condition on a single boundary, and may be either analytic (Gaussian) in shape, or a mode shape computed using a separate code (such as the included eigenmode solver vwave20), and written to a file. Solution is via the finite difference method using Jacobi iteration for 3D problems or direct matrix inversion for 2D problems. Note that 3D problems that include metals will require different iteration parameters than described in the above reference. For structures with curved boundaries not easily modeled on a rectangular grid, the auxillary codes helmholtz11(2D), helm3d (semivectoral), and helmv3d (full vectoral) are provided. For these codes the finite difference equations are specified on a topological regular triangular grid and solved using Jacobi iteration or direct matrix inversion as before. An automatic grid generator is supplied.Â«Â less
Nonlaser-based 3D surface imaging
Lu, Shin-yee; Johnson, R.K.; Sherwood, R.J.
1994-11-15
3D surface imaging refers to methods that generate a 3D surface representation of objects of a scene under viewing. Laser-based 3D surface imaging systems are commonly used in manufacturing, robotics and biomedical research. Although laser-based systems provide satisfactory solutions for most applications, there are situations where non laser-based approaches are preferred. The issues that make alternative methods sometimes more attractive are: (1) real-time data capturing, (2) eye-safety, (3) portability, and (4) work distance. The focus of this presentation is on generating a 3D surface from multiple 2D projected images using CCD cameras, without a laser light source. Two methods are presented: stereo vision and depth-from-focus. Their applications are described.
Kennedy, T. )
1989-05-01
DYNA3D is an explicit, three-dimensional, finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic response of inelastic solids and structures. DYNA3D contains 30 material models and 10 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, Blatz-Ko rubber, high explosive burn, hydrodynamic without deviatoric stresses, elastoplastic hydrodynamic, temperature-dependent elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic with failure, soil and crushable foam with failure, Johnson/Cook plasticity model, pseudo TENSOR geological model, elastoplastic with fracture, power law isotropic plasticity, strain rate dependent plasticity, rigid, thermal orthotropic, composite damage model, thermal orthotropic with 12 curves, piecewise linear isotropic plasticity, inviscid two invariant geologic cap, orthotropic crushable model, Moonsy-Rivlin rubber, and resultant plasticity. The hydrodynamic material models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 10 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack 'Tuesday' high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, tabulated, and TENSOR pore collapse. DYNA3D generates three binary output databases. One contains information for complete states at infrequent intervals; 50 to 100 states is typical. The second contains information for a subset of nodes and elements at frequent intervals; 1,000 to 10,000 states is typical. The last contains interface data for contact surfaces.
3D Wavelet-Based Filter and Method
Moss, William C.; Haase, Sebastian; Sedat, John W.
2008-08-12
A 3D wavelet-based filter for visualizing and locating structural features of a user-specified linear size in 2D or 3D image data. The only input parameter is a characteristic linear size of the feature of interest, and the filter output contains only those regions that are correlated with the characteristic size, thus denoising the image.
3D face analysis for demographic biometrics
Tokola, Ryan A; Mikkilineni, Aravind K; Boehnen, Chris Bensing
2015-01-01
Despite being increasingly easy to acquire, 3D data is rarely used for face-based biometrics applications beyond identification. Recent work in image-based demographic biometrics has enjoyed much success, but these approaches suffer from the well-known limitations of 2D representations, particularly variations in illumination, texture, and pose, as well as a fundamental inability to describe 3D shape. This paper shows that simple 3D shape features in a face-based coordinate system are capable of representing many biometric attributes without problem-specific models or specialized domain knowledge. The same feature vector achieves impressive results for problems as diverse as age estimation, gender classification, and race classification.
Tinker, S.W.
1996-04-01
Reservoir characterization involves the quantification, integration, reduction, and analysis of geological, petrophysical, seismic, and engineering data. This is no small task. A principal goal of reservoir characterization is to derive a spatial understanding of interwell heterogeneity. Traditionally, geologic attempts to characterize interwell heterogeneity have been done using hand-drawn or computer-generated two-dimensional (2-D) maps and cross sections. Results can be improved dramatically using three-dimensional (3-D) interpretation and analysis techniques. Three-dimensional reservoir characterization requires the same input data used in 2-D approaches, and the cost is equal to, and commonly lower than, traditional 2-D methods. The product of 3-D reservoir characterization is a 3-D reservoir model. The language used to communicate the results of a 3-D reservoir model is visualization; i.e., visual images of numerical data. All of the available log and core data in a model area are incorporated in a 3-D model, but the data are depicted as colored cells rather than as log traces. The integrity of the 3-D reservoir model is largely a function of the stratigraphic framework. Interpreting the correct stratigraphic framework for a subsurface reservoir is the most difficult and creative part of the 3-D modeling process. Sequence and seismic stratigraphic interpretation provide the best stratigraphic framework for 3-D reservoir modeling. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the pro- cess of 3-D deterministic reservoir modeling and to illustrate the advantages of using a sequence stratigraphic framework in 3-D modeling. Mixed carbonate and siliciclastic sediment outcrop and subsurface examples from the Permian basin of west Texas and New Mexico will be used as examples, but the concepts and techniques can be applied to reservoirs of any age.
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)
2013-10-01
Earth3D is a computer code designed to allow fast calculation of seismic rays and travel times through a 3D model of the Earth. LLNL is using this for earthquake location and global tomography efforts and such codes are of great interest to the Earth Science community.
None
2014-02-26
This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.
DYNA3D96. Explicit 3-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program
Lin, J.
1993-11-01
DYNA3D is a nonlinear explicit finite element code for analyzing 3-D structures and solid continuum. The code is vectorized and available on several computer platforms. The element library includes continuum, shell, beam, truss and spring/damper elements to allow maximum flexibility in modeling physical problems. Many materials are available to represent a wide range of material behavior, including elasticity, plasticity, composites, thermal effects and rate dependence. In addition, DYNA3D has a sophisticated contact interface capability, including frictional sliding, single surface contact and automatic contact generation.
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)
2005-07-01
Aniso2d is a two-dimensional seismic forward modeling code. The earth is parameterized by an X-Z plane in which the seismic properties Can have monoclinic with x-z plane symmetry. The program uses a user define time-domain wavelet to produce synthetic seismograms anrwhere within the two-dimensional media.
Ercius, Peter
2014-06-27
Berkeley Lab's Peter Ercius discusses "Imaging atoms in 3-D" in this Oct. 28, 2013 talk, which is part of a Science at the Theater event entitled Eight Big Ideas
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)
2011-12-31
Mesh2d is a Fortran90 program designed to generate two-dimensional structured grids of the form [x(i),y(i,j)] where [x,y] are grid coordinates identified by indices (i,j). The x(i) coordinates alone can be used to specify a one-dimensional grid. Because the x-coordinates vary only with the i index, a two-dimensional grid is composed in part of straight vertical lines. However, the nominally horizontal y(i,j0) coordinates along index i are permitted to undulate or otherwise vary. Mesh2d also assignsmoreÂ Â» an integer material type to each grid cell, mtyp(i,j), in a user-specified manner. The complete grid is specified through three separate input files defining the x(i), y(i,j), and mtyp(i,j) variations.Â«Â less
Microsoft PowerPoint - A new efficient approach for 3D hydrodynamics simulation [Compatibility Mode]
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
3039 This document is approved for public release; further dissemination unlimited A new efficient approach for 3D hydrodynamics simulation A new efficient approach for 3D hydrodynamics simulation Current high-fidelity 3D simulation tools are limited by accuracy, performance, and setup time * Tedious problem definition * 2D algorithms often do not scale to 3D * Poor accuracy requires intractable levels of mesh resolution * Legacy tools not easily ported to advanced computer architectures
DYNA3D. Explicit 3-d Hydrodynamic FEM Program
Chu, R.; Amakai, M.; Lung, H.C.; Ishigai, T.
1989-05-01
DYNA3D is an explicit, three-dimensional, finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic response of inelastic solids and structures. DYNA3D contains 30 material models and 10 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, Blatz-Ko rubber, high explosive burn, hydrodynamic without deviatoric stresses, elastoplastic hydrodynamic, temperature-dependent elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic with failure, soil and crushable foam with failure, Johnson/Cook plasticity model, pseudo TENSOR geological model, elastoplastic with fracture, power law isotropic plasticity, strain rate dependent plasticity, rigid, thermal orthotropic, composite damage model, thermal orthotropic with 12 curves, piecewise linear isotropic plasticity, inviscid two invariant geologic cap, orthotropic crushable model, Moonsy-Rivlin rubber, resultant plasticity. The hydrodynamic material models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 10 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack Tuesday high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, tabulated, and TENSOR pore collapse. DYNA3D generates three binary output databases. One contains information for complete states at infrequent intervals; 50 to 100 states is typical. The second contains information for a subset of nodes and elements at frequent intervals; 1,000 to 10,000 states is typical. The last contains interface data for contact surfaces.
DYNA3D. Explicit 3-d Hydrodynamic FEM Program
Kennedy, T.
1989-05-01
DYNA3D is an explicit, three-dimensional, finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic response of inelastic solids and structures. DYNA3D contains 30 material models and 10 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, Blatz-Ko rubber, high explosive burn, hydrodynamic without deviatoric stresses, elastoplastic hydrodynamic, temperature-dependent elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic with failure, soil and crushable foam with failure, Johnson/Cook plasticity model, pseudo TENSOR geological model, elastoplastic with fracture, power law isotropic plasticity, strain rate dependent plasticity, rigid, thermal orthotropic, composite damage model, thermal orthotropic with 12 curves, piecewise linear isotropic plasticity, inviscid two invariant geologic cap, orthotropic crushable model, Moonsy-Rivlin rubber, and resultant plasticity. The hydrodynamic material models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 10 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack `Tuesday` high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, tabulated, and TENSOR pore collapse. DYNA3D generates three binary output databases. One contains information for complete states at infrequent intervals; 50 to 100 states is typical. The second contains information for a subset of nodes and elements at frequent intervals; 1,000 to 10,000 states is typical. The last contains interface data for contact surfaces.
2-D and 3-D Models of Convective Turbulence and Oscillations...
Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)
Los Alamos National Laboratory Brigham Young University, Provo, UT Mount Allison, University, Sackville, New Brunswick, Canada Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, FL NASA ...
Synthesis and structure of a 2D â†’ 3D framework with coexistence...
Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)
Monitoring and Pollution Control, Collaborative Innovation ... Crystallography Reports; Journal Volume: 60; Journal Issue: ... Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency ...
Deterministic algorithms for 2-d convex programming and 3-d online linear programming
Chan, T.M.
1997-06-01
We present a deterministic algorithm for solving two-dimensional convex programs with a linear objective function. The algorithm requires O(k log k) primitive operations for k constraints; if a feasible point is given, the bound reduces to O(k log k/ log log k). As a consequence, we can decide whether k convex n-gons in the plane have a common intersection in O(k log n min (log k, log log n)) worst-case time. Furthermore, we can solve the three-dimensional online linear programming problem in o(log{sup 3} n) worst-case time per operation.
Pyrolysis of 2D and 3D Interferometrically Patterned Resist Structures...
Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)
OSTI Identifier: 1123421 Report Number(s): SAND2010-3929J Journal ID: ISSN 1071-1023; 492229 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC04-94AL85000 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource ...
SIMS of organicsâ€”Advances in 2D and 3D imaging and future outlook
Gilmore, Ian S.
2013-09-15
Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) has become a powerful technique for the label-free analysis of organics from cells to electronic devices. The development of cluster ion sources has revolutionized the field, increasing the sensitivity for organics by two or three orders of magnitude and for large clusters, such as C{sub 60} and argon clusters, allowing depth profiling of organics. The latter has provided the capability to generate stunning three dimensional images with depth resolutions of around 5 nm, simply unavailable by other techniques. Current state-of-the-art allows molecular images with a spatial resolution of around 500 nm to be achieved and future developments are likely to progress into the sub-100 nm regime. This review is intended to bring those with some familiarity with SIMS up-to-date with the latest developments for organics, the fundamental principles that underpin this and define the future progress. State-of-the-art examples are showcased and signposts to more in-depth reviews about specific topics given for the specialist.
DYNA3D. Explicit 3-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program
Whirley, R.G.; Englemann, B.E.
1993-11-01
DYNA3D is an explicit, three-dimensional, finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic response of inelastic solids and structures. DYNA3D contains 30 material models and 10 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, Blatz-Ko rubber, high explosive burn, hydrodynamic without deviatoric stresses, elastoplastic hydrodynamic, temperature-dependent elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic with failure, soil and crushable foam with failure, Johnson/Cook plasticity model, pseudo TENSOR geological model, elastoplastic with fracture, power law isotropic plasticity, strain rate dependent plasticity, rigid, thermal orthotropic, composite damage model, thermal orthotropic with 12 curves, piecewise linear isotropic plasticity, inviscid two invariant geologic cap, orthotropic crushable model, Moonsy-Rivlin rubber, resultant plasticity, closed form update shell plasticity, and Frazer-Nash rubber model. The hydrodynamic material models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 10 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack `Tuesday` high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, tabulated, and TENSOR pore collapse. DYNA3D generates three binary output databases. One contains information for complete states at infrequent intervals; 50 to 100 states is typical. The second contains information for a subset of nodes and elements at frequent intervals; 1,000 to 10,000 states is typical. The last contains interface data for contact surfaces.
DYNA3D. Explicit 3-d Hydrodynamic FEM Program
Whirley, R.G.; Englemann, B.E.
1993-11-01
DYNA3D is an explicit, three-dimensional, finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic response of inelastic solids and structures. DYNA3D contains 30 material models and 10 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, Blatz-Ko rubber, high explosive burn, hydrodynamic without deviatoric stresses, elastoplastic hydrodynamic, temperature-dependent elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic with failure, soil and crushable foam with failure, Johnson/Cook plasticity model, pseudo TENSOR geological model, elastoplastic with fracture, power law isotropic plasticity, strain rate dependent plasticity, rigid, thermal orthotropic, composite damage model, thermal orthotropic with 12 curves, piecewise linear isotropic plasticity, inviscid two invariant geologic cap, orthotropic crushable model, Moonsy-Rivlin rubber, resultant plasticity, closed form update shell plasticity, and Frazer-Nash rubber model. The hydrodynamic material models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 10 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack Tuesday high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, tabulated, and TENSOR pore collapse. DYNA3D generates three binary output databases. One contains information for complete states at infrequent intervals; 50 to 100 states is typical. The second contains information for a subset of nodes and elements at frequent intervals; 1,000 to 10,000 states is typical. The last contains interface data for contact surfaces.
DYNA3D. Explicit 3-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program
Whirley, R.G.
1989-05-01
DYNA3D is an explicit, three-dimensional, finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic response of inelastic solids and structures. DYNA3D contains 30 material models and 10 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, Blatz-Ko rubber, high explosive burn, hydrodynamic without deviatoric stresses, elastoplastic hydrodynamic, temperature-dependent elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic with failure, soil and crushable foam with failure, Johnson/Cook plasticity model, pseudo TENSOR geological model, elastoplastic with fracture, power law isotropic plasticity, strain rate dependent plasticity, rigid, thermal orthotropic, composite damage model, thermal orthotropic with 12 curves, piecewise linear isotropic plasticity, inviscid two invariant geologic cap, orthotropic crushable model, Moonsy-Rivlin rubber, resultant plasticity, closed form update shell plasticity, and Frazer-Nash rubber model. The hydrodynamic material models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 10 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack `Tuesday` high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, tabulated, and TENSOR pore collapse. DYNA3D generates three binary output databases. One contains information for complete states at infrequent intervals; 50 to 100 states is typical. The second contains information for a subset of nodes and elements at frequent intervals; 1,000 to 10,000 states is typical. The last contains interface data for contact surfaces.
DYNA3D; Explicit 3-d Hydrodynamic FEM Program
Whirley, R.G.
1989-05-01
DYNA3D is an explicit, three-dimensional, finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic response of inelastic solids and structures. DYNA3D contains 30 material models and 10 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, Blatz-Ko rubber, high explosive burn, hydrodynamic without deviatoric stresses, elastoplastic hydrodynamic, temperature-dependent elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic with failure, soil and crushable foam with failure, Johnson/Cook plasticity model, pseudo TENSOR geological model, elastoplastic with fracture, power law isotropic plasticity, strain rate dependent plasticity, rigid, thermal orthotropic, composite damage model, thermal orthotropic with 12 curves, piecewise linear isotropic plasticity, inviscid two invariant geologic cap, orthotropic crushable model, Moonsy-Rivlin rubber, resultant plasticity, closed form update shell plasticity, and Frazer-Nash rubber model. The hydrodynamic material models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 10 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack Tuesday high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, tabulated, and TENSOR pore collapse. DYNA3D generates three binary output databases. One contains information for complete states at infrequent intervals; 50 to 100 states is typical. The second contains information for a subset of nodes and elements at frequent intervals; 1,000 to 10,000 states is typical. The last contains interface data for contact surfaces.
DYNA3D. Explicit 3-d Hydrodynamic FEM Program
Whirley, R.G.; Englemann, B.E. )
1993-11-30
DYNA3D is an explicit, three-dimensional, finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic response of inelastic solids and structures. DYNA3D contains 30 material models and 10 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, Blatz-Ko rubber, high explosive burn, hydrodynamic without deviatoric stresses, elastoplastic hydrodynamic, temperature-dependent elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic with failure, soil and crushable foam with failure, Johnson/Cook plasticity model, pseudo TENSOR geological model, elastoplastic with fracture, power law isotropic plasticity, strain rate dependent plasticity, rigid, thermal orthotropic, composite damage model, thermal orthotropic with 12 curves, piecewise linear isotropic plasticity, inviscid two invariant geologic cap, orthotropic crushable model, Moonsy-Rivlin rubber, resultant plasticity, closed form update shell plasticity, and Frazer-Nash rubber model. The hydrodynamic material models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 10 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack Tuesday high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, tabulated, and TENSOR pore collapse. DYNA3D generates three binary output databases. One contains information for complete states at infrequent intervals; 50 to 100 states is typical. The second contains information for a subset of nodes and elements at frequent intervals; 1,000 to 10,000 states is typical. The last contains interface data for contact surfaces.
DYNA3D. Explicit 3-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program
Whirley, R.G.
1989-05-01
DYNA3D is an explicit, three-dimensional, finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic response of inelastic solids and structures. DYNA3D contains 30 material models and 10 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, Blatz-Ko rubber, high explosive burn, hydrodynamic without deviatoric stresses, elastoplastic hydrodynamic, temperature-dependent elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic with failure, soil and crushable foam with failure, Johnson/Cook plasticity model, pseudo TENSOR geological model, elastoplastic with fracture, power law isotropic plasticity, strain rate dependent plasticity, rigid, thermal orthotropic, composite damage model, thermal orthotropic with 12 curves, piecewise linear isotropic plasticity, inviscid two invariant geologic cap, orthotropic crushable model, Moonsy-Rivlin rubber, resultant plasticity, closed form update shell plasticity, and Frazer-Nash rubber model. The hydrodynamic material models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 10 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack Tuesday high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, tabulated, and TENSOR pore collapse. DYNA3D generates three binary output databases. One contains information for complete states at infrequent intervals; 50 to 100 states is typical. The second contains information for a subset of nodes and elements at frequent intervals; 1,000 to 10,000 states is typical. The last contains interface data for contact surfaces.
GPU-Accelerated Denoising in 3D (GD3D)
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)
2013-10-01
The raw computational power GPU Accelerators enables fast denoising of 3D MR images using bilateral filtering, anisotropic diffusion, and non-local means. This software addresses two facets of this promising application: what tuning is necessary to achieve optimal performance on a modern GPU? And what parameters yield the best denoising results in practice? To answer the first question, the software performs an autotuning step to empirically determine optimal memory blocking on the GPU. To answer themoreÂ Â» second, it performs a sweep of algorithm parameters to determine the combination that best reduces the mean squared error relative to a noiseless reference image.Â«Â less
SciTech Connect: "3d printing"
Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)
3d printing" Find + Advanced Search Term Search Semantic Search Advanced Search All Fields: "3d printing" Semantic Semantic Term Title: Full Text: Bibliographic Data: Creator ...
Chaiko, David J.
2007-01-02
The present invention relates to methods for the preparation of clay/polymer nanocomposites. The methods include combining an organophilic clay and a polymer to form a nanocomposite, wherein the organophilic clay and the polymer each have a peak recrystallization temperature, and wherein the organophilic clay peak recrystallization temperature sufficiently matches the polymer peak recrystallization temperature such that the nanocomposite formed has less permeability to a gas than the polymer. Such nanocomposites exhibit 2, 5, 10, or even 100 fold or greater reductions in permeability to, e.g., oxygen, carbon dioxide, or both compared to the polymer. The invention also provides a method of preparing a nanocomposite that includes combining an amorphous organophilic clay and an amorphous polymer, each having a glass transition temperature, wherein the organophilic clay glass transition temperature sufficiently matches the polymer glass transition temperature such that the nanocomposite formed has less permeability to a gas than the polymer.
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)
2012-01-05
ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from themoreÂ Â» displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.Â«Â less
Measurements of 3D slip velocities and plasma column lengths of a gliding arc discharge
Zhu, Jiajian; Gao, Jinlong; Ehn, Andreas; Aldén, Marcus; Li, Zhongshan E-mail: alpers@ma.tum.de; Moseev, Dmitry; Kusano, Yukihiro; Salewski, Mirko; Alpers, Andreas E-mail: alpers@ma.tum.de; Gritzmann, Peter; Schwenk, Martin
2015-01-26
A non-thermal gliding arc discharge was generated at atmospheric pressure in an air flow. The dynamics of the plasma column and tracer particles were recorded using two synchronized high-speed cameras. Whereas the data analysis for such systems has previously been performed in 2D (analyzing the single camera image), we provide here a 3D data analysis that includes 3D reconstructions of the plasma column and 3D particle tracking velocimetry based on discrete tomography methods. The 3D analysis, in particular, the determination of the 3D slip velocity between the plasma column and the gas flow, gives more realistic insight into the convection cooling process. Additionally, with the determination of the 3D slip velocity and the 3D length of the plasma column, we give more accurate estimates for the drag force, the electric field strength, the power per unit length, and the radius of the conducting zone of the plasma column.
3-D Metals | Open Energy Information
Metals Jump to: navigation, search Name 3-D Metals Facility 3-D Metals Sector Wind energy Facility Type Small Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Location Valley City OH...
3D Elastic Seismic Wave Propagation Code
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)
1998-09-23
E3D is capable of simulating seismic wave propagation in a 3D heterogeneous earth. Seismic waves are initiated by earthquake, explosive, and/or other sources. These waves propagate through a 3D geologic model, and are simulated as synthetic seismograms or other graphical output.
ARM - Datastreams - sonicwind2d
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
We would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Datastream : SONICWIND2D Horizontal wind speed and direction from ultrasonic wind sensor ...
Riemke, Richard Allan
2001-09-01
The Reactor Excursion and Leak Analysis Program with 3D capability1 (RELAP5-3D) is a reactor system analysis code that has been developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). The 3D capability in RELAP5-3D includes 3D hydrodynamics2 and 3D neutron kinetics3,4. Assessment, verification, and validation of the 3D capability in RELAP5-3D is discussed in the literature5,6,7,8,9. Additional assessment, verification, and validation of the 3D capability of RELAP5-3D will be presented in other papers in this users seminar. As with any software, user problems occur. User problems usually fall into the categories of input processing failure, code execution failure, restart/renodalization failure, unphysical result, and installation. This presentation will discuss some of the more generic user problems that have been reported on RELAP5-3D as well as their resolution.
Riemke, Richard Allan
2002-09-01
The Reactor Excursion and Leak Analysis Program with 3D capability1 (RELAP5-3D) is a reactor system analysis code that has been developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). The 3D capability in RELAP5-3D includes 3D hydrodynamics2 and 3D neutron kinetics3,4. Assessment, verification, and validation of the 3D capability in RELAP5-3D is discussed in the literature5,6,7,8,9,10. Additional assessment, verification, and validation of the 3D capability of RELAP5-3D will be presented in other papers in this users seminar. As with any software, user problems occur. User problems usually fall into the categories of input processing failure, code execution failure, restart/renodalization failure, unphysical result, and installation. This presentation will discuss some of the more generic user problems that have been reported on RELAP5-3D as well as their resolution.
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)
2004-08-01
AnisWave2D is a 2D finite-difference code for a simulating seismic wave propagation in fully anisotropic materials. The code is implemented to run in parallel over multiple processors and is fully portable. A mesh refinement algorithm has been utilized to allow the grid-spacing to be tailored to the velocity model, avoiding the over-sampling of high-velocity materials that usually occurs in fixed-grid schemes.
Evaluation of static pressure drops and PM10 and TSP emissions for modified 1D-3D cyclones
Holt, G.A.; Baker, R.V.; Hughs, S.E.
1999-12-01
Five modifications of a standard 1D3D cyclone were tested and compared against the standard 1D3D design in the areas of particulate emissions and static pressure drop across the cyclone. The modifications to the 1D3D design included a 2D2D inlet, a 2D2D air outlet, a D/3 trash exit, an expansion chamber with a D/3 trash exit, and a tapered air outlet duct. The 1D3D modifications that exhibited a significant improvement in reducing both PM10 and total suspended particulate (TSP) emissions were the designs with the 2D2D inlet and air exhaust combined with either the conical D/3 tail cone or the expansion chamber. In reference to the standard 1D3D cyclone, the average reduction in PM10 emissions was 24 to 29% with a 29 to 35% reduction observed in TSP emissions. The modifications with the tapered air outlets did not show any significant improvements in controlling PM10 emissions. However, the modification with the tapered air outlet/expansion chamber combination exhibited statistical significance in reducing TSP emissions by 18% compared to the 1D3D cyclone. All modifications tested exhibited lower static pressure drops than the standard 1D3D.
Clement, T.P.; Jones, N.L.
1998-02-01
RT3D (Reactive Transport in 3-Dimensions) is a computer code that solves coupled partial differential equations that describe reactive-flow and transport of multiple mobile and/or immobile species in a three dimensional saturated porous media. RT3D was developed from the single-species transport code, MT3D (DoD-1.5, 1997 version). As with MT3D, RT3D also uses the USGS groundwater flow model MODFLOW for computing spatial and temporal variations in groundwater head distribution. This report presents a set of tutorial problems that are designed to illustrate how RT3D simulations can be performed within the Department of Defense Groundwater Modeling System (GMS). GMS serves as a pre- and post-processing interface for RT3D. GMS can be used to define all the input files needed by RT3D code, and later the code can be launched from within GMS and run as a separate application. Once the RT3D simulation is completed, the solution can be imported to GMS for graphical post-processing. RT3D v1.0 supports several reaction packages that can be used for simulating different types of reactive contaminants. Each of the tutorials, described below, provides training on a different RT3D reaction package. Each reaction package has different input requirements, and the tutorials are designed to describe these differences. Furthermore, the tutorials illustrate the various options available in GMS for graphical post-processing of RT3D results. Users are strongly encouraged to complete the tutorials before attempting to use RT3D and GMS on a routine basis.
3-D MAPPING TECHNOLOGIES FOR HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANKS
Marzolf, A.; Folsom, M.
2010-08-31
time-of-flight data (3D image) collected with a single laser pulse, high frame rates, direct calculation of range, blur-free images without motion distortion, no need for precision scanning mechanisms, ability to combine 3D flash LIDAR with 2D cameras for 2D texture over 3D depth, and no moving parts. The major disadvantage of the 3D flash LIDAR camera is the cost of approximately $150,000, not including the software development time and repackaging of the camera for deployment in the waste tanks.
TAURUS. 3-d Finite Element Code Postprocessor
Whirley, R.G.
1991-05-01
TAURUS reads the binary plot files generated by the LLNL three-dimensional finite element analysis codes, NIKE3D (ESTSC 139), DYNA3D (ESTSC 138), TACO3D (ESTSC 287), TOPAZ3D (ESTSC 231), and GEMINI (ESTSC 455) and plots contours, time histories,and deformed shapes. Contours of a large number of quantities may be plotted on meshes consisting of plate, shell, and solid type elements. TAURUS can compute a variety of strain measures, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. TAURUS has three phases: initialization, geometry display with contouring, and time history processing.
TAURUS. 3-d Finite Element Code Postprocessor
Whirley, R.G.
1992-03-03
TAURUS reads the binary plot files generated by the LLNL three-dimensional finite element analysis codes, NIKE3D (ESTSC 139), DYNA3D (ESTSC 138), TACO3D (ESTSC 287), TOPAZ3D (ESTSC 231), and GEMINI (ESTSC 455) and plots contours, time histories,and deformed shapes. Contours of a large number of quantities may be plotted on meshes consisting of plate, shell, and solid type elements. TAURUS can compute a variety of strain measures, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. TAURUS has three phases: initialization, geometry display with contouring, and time history processing.
TAURUS. 3-D Finite Element Code Postprocessor
Whirley, R.G.
1984-05-01
TAURUS reads the binary plot files generated by the LLNL three-dimensional finite element analysis codes, NIKE3D, DYNA3D, TACO3D, TOPAZ3D, and GEMINI and plots contours, time histories,and deformed shapes. Contours of a large number of quantities may be plotted on meshes consisting of plate, shell, and solid type elements. TAURUS can compute a variety of strain measures, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. TAURUS has three phases: initialization, geometry display with contouring, and time history processing.
TAURUS. 3-D Finite Element Code Postprocessor
Whirley, R.G.
1993-11-30
TAURUS reads the binary plot files generated by the LLNL three-dimensional finite element analysis codes, NIKE3D, DYNA3D, TACO3D, TOPAZ3D, and GEMINI and plots contours, time histories,and deformed shapes. Contours of a large number of quantities may be plotted on meshes consisting of plate, shell, and solid type elements. TAURUS can compute a variety of strain measures, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. TAURUS has three phases: initialization, geometry display with contouring, and time history processing.
TAURUS. 3-D Finite Element Code Postprocessor
Whirley, R.G.
1992-03-03
TAURUS reads the binary plot files generated by the LLNL three-dimensional finite element analysis codes, NIKE3D, DYNA3D, TACO3D, TOPAZ3D, and GEMINI and plots contours, time histories,and deformed shapes. Contours of a large number of quantities may be plotted on meshes consisting of plate, shell, and solid type elements. TAURUS can compute a variety of strain measures, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. TAURUS has three phases: initialization, geometry display with contouring, and time history processing.
TAURUS. 3-D Finite Element Code Postprocessor
Kennedy, T.
1992-03-03
TAURUS reads the binary plot files generated by the LLNL three-dimensional finite element analysis codes, NIKE3D, DYNA3D, TACO3D, TOPAZ3D, and GEMINI and plots contours, time histories, and deformed shapes. Contours of a large number of quantities may be plotted on meshes consisting of plate, shell, and solid type elements. TAURUS can compute a variety of strain measures, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. TAURUS has three phases: initialization, geometry display with contouring, and time history processing.
Twisted 3D N=4 supersymmetric YM on deformed A{sub 3}{sup *} lattice
Saidi, El Hassan
2014-01-15
We study a class of twisted 3D N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory on particular 3-dimensional lattice L{sub 3D} formally denoted as L{sub 3D}{sup su{sub 3}Ã—u{sub 1}} and given by non-trivial fibration L{sub 1D}{sup u{sub 1}}Ã—L{sub 2D}{sup su{sub 3}} with base L{sub 2D}{sup su{sub 3}}=A{sub 2}{sup *}, the weight lattice of SU(3). We first, develop the twisted 3D N=4 SYM in continuum by using superspace method where the scalar supercharge Q is manifestly exhibited. Then, we show how to engineer the 3D lattice L{sub 3D}{sup su{sub 3}Ã—u{sub 1}} that host this theory. After that we build the lattice action S{sub latt} invariant under the following three points: (i) U(N) gauge invariance, (ii) BRST symmetry, (iii) the S{sub 3} point group symmetry of L{sub 3D}{sup su{sub 3}Ã—u{sub 1}}. Other features such as reduction to twisted 2D supersymmetry with 8 supercharges living on L{sub 2D}â‰¡L{sub 2D}{sup su{sub 2}Ã—u{sub 1}}, the extension to twisted maximal 5D SYM with 16 supercharges on lattice L{sub 5D}â‰¡L{sub 5D}{sup su{sub 4}Ã—u{sub 1}} as well as the relation with known results are also given.
A 3D Geostatistical Mapping Tool
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)
1999-02-09
This software provides accurate 3D reservoir modeling tools and high quality 3D graphics for PC platforms enabling engineers and geologists to better comprehend reservoirs and consequently improve their decisions. The mapping algorithms are fractals, kriging, sequential guassian simulation, and three nearest neighbor methods.
Static & Dynamic Response of 3D Solids
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)
1996-07-15
NIKE3D is a large deformations 3D finite element code used to obtain the resulting displacements and stresses from multi-body static and dynamic structural thermo-mechanics problems with sliding interfaces. Many nonlinear and temperature dependent constitutive models are available.
3-D seismology in the Arabian Gulf
Al-Husseini, M.; Chimblo, R.
1995-08-01
Since 1977 when Aramco and GSI (Geophysical Services International) pioneered the first 3-D seismic survey in the Arabian Gulf, under the guidance of Aramco`s Chief Geophysicist John Hoke, 3-D seismology has been effectively used to map many complex subsurface geological phenomena. By the mid-1990s extensive 3-D surveys were acquired in Abu Dhabi, Oman, Qatar and Saudi Arabia. Also in the mid-1990`s Bahrain, Kuwait and Dubai were preparing to record surveys over their fields. On the structural side 3-D has refined seismic maps, focused faults and fractures systems, as well as outlined the distribution of facies, porosity and fluid saturation. In field development, 3D has not only reduced drilling costs significantly, but has also improved the understanding of fluid behavior in the reservoir. In Oman, Petroleum Development Oman (PDO) has now acquired the first Gulf 4-D seismic survey (time-lapse 3D survey) over the Yibal Field. The 4-D survey will allow PDO to directly monitor water encroachment in the highly-faulted Cretaceous Shu`aiba reservoir. In exploration, 3-D seismology has resolved complex prospects with structural and stratigraphic complications and reduced the risk in the selection of drilling locations. The many case studies from Saudi Arabia, Oman, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates, which are reviewed in this paper, attest to the effectiveness of 3D seismology in exploration and producing, in clastics and carbonates reservoirs, and in the Mesozoic and Paleozoic.
Fabrication of 3D Silicon Sensors
Kok, A.; Hansen, T.E.; Hansen, T.A.; Lietaer, N.; Summanwar, A.; Kenney, C.; Hasi, J.; Da Via, C.; Parker, S.I.; /Hawaii U.
2012-06-06
Silicon sensors with a three-dimensional (3-D) architecture, in which the n and p electrodes penetrate through the entire substrate, have many advantages over planar silicon sensors including radiation hardness, fast time response, active edge and dual readout capabilities. The fabrication of 3D sensors is however rather complex. In recent years, there have been worldwide activities on 3D fabrication. SINTEF in collaboration with Stanford Nanofabrication Facility have successfully fabricated the original (single sided double column type) 3D detectors in two prototype runs and the third run is now on-going. This paper reports the status of this fabrication work and the resulted yield. The work of other groups such as the development of double sided 3D detectors is also briefly reported.
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)
2001-01-31
This software reduces the data from two-dimensional kSA MOS program, k-Space Associates, Ann Arbor, MI. Initial MOS data is recorded without headers in 38 columns, with one row of data per acquisition per lase beam tracked. The final MOSS 2d data file is reduced, graphed, and saved in a tab-delimited column format with headers that can be plotted in any graphing software.
Explicit 3-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program
2000-11-07
DYNA3D is a nonlinear explicit finite element code for analyzing 3-D structures and solid continuum. The code is vectorized and available on several computer platforms. The element library includes continuum, shell, beam, truss and spring/damper elements to allow maximum flexibility in modeling physical problems. Many materials are available to represent a wide range of material behavior, including elasticity, plasticity, composites, thermal effects and rate dependence. In addition, DYNA3D has a sophisticated contact interface capability, including frictional sliding, single surface contact and automatic contact generation.
2015-04-23
A new type of graphene aerogel will make for better energy storage, sensors, nanoelectronics, catalysis and separations. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory researchers have made graphene aerogel microlattices with an engineered architecture via a 3D printing technique known as direct ink writing. The research appears in the April 22 edition of the journal, Nature Communications. The 3D printed graphene aerogels have high surface area, excellent electrical conductivity, are lightweight, have mechanical stiffness and exhibit supercompressibility (up to 90 percent compressive strain). In addition, the 3D printed graphene aerogel microlattices show an order of magnitude improvement over bulk graphene materials and much better mass transport.
Explicit 3-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)
2000-11-07
DYNA3D is a nonlinear explicit finite element code for analyzing 3-D structures and solid continuum. The code is vectorized and available on several computer platforms. The element library includes continuum, shell, beam, truss and spring/damper elements to allow maximum flexibility in modeling physical problems. Many materials are available to represent a wide range of material behavior, including elasticity, plasticity, composites, thermal effects and rate dependence. In addition, DYNA3D has a sophisticated contact interface capability, includingmoreÂ Â» frictional sliding, single surface contact and automatic contact generation.Â«Â less
Climate Change Capacity Development (C3D+) | Open Energy Information
Capacity Development (C3D+) Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Climate Change Capacity Development (C3D+) Name Climate Change Capacity Development (C3D+) AgencyCompany...
Advanced 3D Geophysical Imaging Technologies for Geothermal Resource...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
3D Geophysical Imaging Technologies for Geothermal Resource Characterization Advanced 3D Geophysical Imaging Technologies for Geothermal Resource Characterization Advanced 3D ...
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)
002440MLTPL00 3D Torus Routing Engine Module for OFA OpenSM v. 1.0 http://www.openfabrics.org/git?p=sashak/management.git;a=sum
Parallel 3D Fast Fourier Transform Functions
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)
2008-12-19
BigFFT is a scalable implementation of a three dimensional Fast Fourier Transform operation. Functions are included for forward and backward real-to-complex 3D transforms.
3-D Model for Deactivation & Decommissioning
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
The design and production of 3-D scale models that replicate the highly contaminated structures within the nuclear facility would provide a significant improvement in visualization of the work...
Directing Matter: Toward Atomic-Scale 3D Nanofabrication
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Jesse, Stephen; Borisevich, Albina Y.; Fowlkes, Jason D.; Lupini, Andrew R.; Rack, Philip D.; Unocic, Raymond R.; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Belianinov, Alex; Ovchinnikova, Olga S.
2016-05-16
Here we report that enabling memristive, neuromorphic, and quantum based computing as well as efficient mainstream energy storage and conversion technologies requires next generation of materials customized at the atomic scale. This requires full control of atomic arrangement and bonding in three dimensions. The last two decades witnessed substantial industrial, academic, and government research efforts directed towards this goal through various lithographies and scanning probe based methods. These technologies emphasize 2D surface structures, with some limited 3D capability. Recently, a range of focused electron and ion based methods have demonstrated compelling alternative pathways to achieving atomically precise manufacturing of 3DmoreÂ Â» structures in solids, liquids, and at interfaces. Electron and ion microscopies offer a platform that can simultaneously observe dynamic and static structures at the nano and atomic scales, and also induce structural rearrangements and chemical transformation. The addition of predictive modeling or rapid image analytics and feedback enables guiding these in a controlled manner. Here, we review the recent results that used focused electron and ion beams to create free-standing nanoscale 3D structures, radiolysis and the fabrication potential with liquid precursors, epitaxial crystallization of amorphous oxides with atomic layer precision, as well as visualization and control of individual dopant motion within a 3D crystal lattice. These works lay the foundation for new approaches to directing nanoscale level architectures and offer a potential roadmap to full 3D atomic control in materials. Lastly, in this perspective we lay out the gaps that currently constrain the processing range of these platforms, reflect on indirect requirements, such as the integration of large scale data analysis with theory, and discuss future prospects of these technologies.Â«Â less
3D Charge Order Found in Superconductor
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
3D Charge Order Found in Superconductor 3D Charge Order Found in Superconductor Print Wednesday, 08 June 2016 00:00 Despite 30 years of intense study, the explanation behind the zero-resistance current displayed by high-temperature superconductors (HTSCs) is still shrouded in complexity. HTSCs tend to be heterogeneous materials with multiple phases, and disentangling their various electronic behaviors for analysis can be difficult. At the ALS, researchers used resonant soft x-ray diffraction
Lovejoy, S.C.; Whirley, R.G.
1990-10-10
This manual describes in detail the solution of ten example problems using the explicit nonlinear finite element code DYNA3D. The sample problems include solid, shell, and beam element types, and a variety of linear and nonlinear material models. For each example, there is first an engineering description of the physical problem to be studied. Next, the analytical techniques incorporated in the model are discussed and key features of DYNA3D are highlighted. INGRID commands used to generate the mesh are listed, and sample plots from the DYNA3D analysis are given. Finally, there is a description of the TAURUS post-processing commands used to generate the plots of the solution. This set of example problems is useful in verifying the installation of DYNA3D on a new computer system. In addition, these documented analyses illustrate the application of DYNA3D to a variety of engineering problems, and thus this manual should be helpful to new analysts getting started with DYNA3D. 7 refs., 56 figs., 9 tabs.
3D Direct Simulation Monte Carlo Code Which Solves for Geometrics
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)
1998-01-13
Pegasus is a 3D Direct Simulation Monte Carlo Code which solves for geometries which can be represented by bodies of revolution. Included are all the surface chemistry enhancements in the 2D code Icarus as well as a real vacuum pump model. The code includes multiple species transport.
Advancements in 3D Structural Analysis of Geothermal Systems
Siler, Drew L; Faulds, James E; Mayhew, Brett; McNamara, David
2013-06-23
:24,000 scale detailed geologic map and cross-sections, 2D seismic reflection profiles and other geophysical data, and downhole temperature data. The 3D geologic model based on these data consists of 61 fault planes, 25 distinct stratigraphic units, and 2 intrusive bodies. Geothermal fluids are produced from a left step-over/relay ramp within the Bradyâ€™s Fault Zone (BFZ). Under local stress conditions, fault segments that strike NNE-to-NE are most likely to slip and/or dilate, and therefore transmit geothermal fluids. The 3D model defines the locations of discrete fault intersections within the BFZ and indicates that the densest zones of structurally controlled fracture permeability are ~10-to-10s of meters in diameter and plunge ~55Â° NW-NNW beneath the heart of the BFZ step over. The locations of high intersection density, high fault slip and dilation tendency, high subsurface temperature, and lithologies known to support high fracture permeability are combined to produce 3D â€˜fairwayâ€™ maps useful in both assessments of geothermal resource potential and for defining drilling targets. Astor Pass is located on the Pyramid Lake Paiute Reservation, ~80 km north of Reno, NV. It is a prospective â€˜greenfieldâ€™ geothermal area, and thus subsurface data are relatively sparse. Available data include: two relatively deep wells (~1400 m) and one shallower well (~500 m) with lithologies interpreted from drill cuttings, several 2D seismic reflection profiles, a 1:24,000 scale geologic map and cross-section, a shallow temperature survey, and downhole temperature data. 3D modeling based on these data has defined 19 distinct fault planes and 16 stratigraphic units. Based on the stress field calculated from borehole breakouts, drilling induced tensile cracks and petal-centerline cracks in the two relatively deep wells, 3D slip and dilation tendency analysis indicates that northerly striking fault segments are most likely to slip and/or dilate, and therefore transmit geothermal fluids
DYNA3D Code Practices and Developments
Lin, L.; Zywicz, E.; Raboin, P.
2000-04-21
DYNA3D is an explicit, finite element code developed to solve high rate dynamic simulations for problems of interest to the engineering mechanics community. The DYNA3D code has been under continuous development since 1976[1] by the Methods Development Group in the Mechanical Engineering Department of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The pace of code development activities has substantially increased in the past five years, growing from one to between four and six code developers. This has necessitated the use of software tools such as CVS (Concurrent Versions System) to help manage multiple version updates. While on-line documentation with an Adobe PDF manual helps to communicate software developments, periodically a summary document describing recent changes and improvements in DYNA3D software is needed. The first part of this report describes issues surrounding software versions and source control. The remainder of this report details the major capability improvements since the last publicly released version of DYNA3D in 1996. Not included here are the many hundreds of bug corrections and minor enhancements, nor the development in DYNA3D between the manual release in 1993[2] and the public code release in 1996.
3D imaging of semiconductor components by discrete laminography
Batenburg, K. J.; Palenstijn, W. J.; Sijbers, J.
2014-06-19
X-ray laminography is a powerful technique for quality control of semiconductor components. Despite the advantages of nondestructive 3D imaging over 2D techniques based on sectioning, the acquisition time is still a major obstacle for practical use of the technique. In this paper, we consider the application of Discrete Tomography to laminography data, which can potentially reduce the scanning time while still maintaining a high reconstruction quality. By incorporating prior knowledge in the reconstruction algorithm about the materials present in the scanned object, far more accurate reconstructions can be obtained from the same measured data compared to classical reconstruction methods. We present a series of simulation experiments that illustrate the potential of the approach.
Some remarks on shell element analysis with DYNA3D and NIKE3D
Whirley, R.G.; Engelmann, B.E.; Maker, B.N.; Spelce, T.E.
1992-03-24
There has been some confusion in the user community recently regarding the various shell element formulations now available in DYNA3D (Whirley and Hadlquist, 1991) and NIKE3D (Maker, Ferencz, and Hallquist, 1991). In particular, questions have been raised about the behavior of these elements under large strain, and the display of meaningful results from such problems using TAURUS (Spelce and Hallquist, 1991). This brief report is intended to aid the DYNA/NIKE user community by elaborating on the formulation of the DYNA3D/NIKE3D shell elements and on the display of shell data using TAURUS. In the following discussion no attempt is made to give a complete description of the theoretical development or implementation of any of the elements. Readers interested in a more complete discussion of the shell elements in DYNA3D and NIKE3D are directed to the published papers cited in the code User Manuals.
INGRID; 3-D Mesh Generation Nonlinear Systems
Stillman, D.W.; Rainsberger, R.
1985-07-01
INGRID is a general-purpose, three-dimensional mesh generator developed for use with finite element, nonlinear, structural dynamics codes. INGRID generates the large and complex input data files for DYNA3D, NIKE3D, FACET, and TOPAZ3D. One of the greatest advantages of INGRID is that virtually any shape can be described without resorting to wedge elements, tetrahedrons, triangular elements or highly distorted quadrilateral or hexahedral elements. Other capabilities available are in the areas of geometry and graphics. Exact surface equations and surface intersections considerably improve the ability to deal with accurate models, and a hidden line graphics algorithm is included which is efficient on the most complicated meshes. The primary new capability is associated with the boundary conditions, loads, and material properties required by nonlinear mechanics programs. Commands have been designed for each case to minimize user effort. This is particularly important since special processing is almost always required for each load or boundary condition.
INGRID. 3-D Mesh Generation Nonlinear Systems
Christon, M.A.; Dovey, D.; Stillman, D.W.; Hallquist, J.O.; Rainsberger, R.B.
1992-09-01
INGRID is a general-purpose, three-dimensional mesh generator developed for use with finite element, nonlinear, structural dynamics codes. INGRID generates the large and complex input data files for DYNA3D, NIKE3D, FACET, and TOPAZ3D. One of the greatest advantages of INGRID is that virtually any shape can be described without resorting to wedge elements, tetrahedrons, triangular elements or highly distorted quadrilateral or hexahedral elements. Other capabilities available are in the areas of geometry and graphics. Exact surface equations and surface intersections considerably improve the ability to deal with accurate models, and a hidden line graphics algorithm is included which is efficient on the most complicated meshes. The primary new capability is associated with the boundary conditions, loads, and material properties required by nonlinear mechanics programs. Commands have been designed for each case to minimize user effort. This is particularly important since special processing is almost always required for each load or boundary condition.
INGRID. 3-D Mesh Generation Nonlinear Systems
Stillman, D.W.; Rainsberger, R.
1985-07-01
INGRID is a general-purpose, three-dimensional mesh generator developed for use with finite element, nonlinear, structural dynamics codes. INGRID generates the large and complex input data files for DYNA3D, NIKE3D, FACET, and TOPAZ3D (ESTSC. One of the greatest advantages of INGRID is that virtually any shape can be described without resorting to wedge elements, tetrahedrons, triangular elements or highly distorted quadrilateral or hexahedral elements. Other capabilities available are in the areas of geometry and graphics. Exact surface equations and surface intersections considerably improve the ability to deal with accurate models, and a hidden line graphics algorithm is included which is efficient on the most complicated meshes. The primary new capability is associated with the boundary conditions, loads, and material properties required by nonlinear mechanics programs. Commands have been designed for each case to minimize user effort. This is particularly important since special processing is almost always required for each load or boundary condition.
INGRID. 3-D Mesh Generation Nonlinear Systems
Stillman, D.W.; Rainsberger, R.
1985-07-01
INGRID is a general-purpose, three-dimensional mesh generator developed for use with finite element, nonlinear, structural dynamics codes. INGRID generates the large and complex input data files for DYNA3D, NIKE3D, FACET, and TOPAZ3D. One of the greatest advantages of INGRID is that virtually any shape can be described without resorting to wedge elements, tetrahedrons, triangular elements or highly distorted quadrilateral or hexahedral elements. Other capabilities available are in the areas of geometry and graphics. Exact surface equations and surface intersections considerably improve the ability to deal with accurate models, and a hidden line graphics algorithm is included which is efficient on the most complicated meshes. The primary new capability is associated with the boundary conditions, loads, and material properties required by nonlinear mechanics programs. Commands have been designed for each case to minimize user effort. This is particularly important since special processing is almost always required for each load or boundary condition.
3-D Mesh Generation Nonlinear Systems
1994-04-07
INGRID is a general-purpose, three-dimensional mesh generator developed for use with finite element, nonlinear, structural dynamics codes. INGRID generates the large and complex input data files for DYNA3D, NIKE3D, FACET, and TOPAZ3D. One of the greatest advantages of INGRID is that virtually any shape can be described without resorting to wedge elements, tetrahedrons, triangular elements or highly distorted quadrilateral or hexahedral elements. Other capabilities available are in the areas of geometry and graphics. Exact surface equations and surface intersections considerably improve the ability to deal with accurate models, and a hidden line graphics algorithm is included which is efficient on the most complicated meshes. The primary new capability is associated with the boundary conditions, loads, and material properties required by nonlinear mechanics programs. Commands have been designed for each case to minimize user effort. This is particularly important since special processing is almost always required for each load or boundary condition.
Ames Lab 101: 3D Metals Printer
Ott, Ryan
2014-02-13
To meet one of the biggest energy challenges of the 21st century - finding alternatives to rare-earth elements and other critical materials - scientists will need new and advanced tools. The Critical Materials Institute at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory has a new one: a 3D printer for metals research. 3D printing technology, which has captured the imagination of both industry and consumers, enables ideas to move quickly from the initial design phase to final form using materials including polymers, ceramics, paper and even food. But the Critical Materials Institute (CMI) will apply the advantages of the 3D printing process in a unique way: for materials discovery.
Further improvements on TRACE 3-D
Rusthoi, D.P.; Lysenko, W.P.; Crandall, K.R.
1997-08-01
TRACE 3-D, an interactive beam-dynamics program that calculates the envelopes of a bunched beam (including linear space-charge forces) through a user-defined transport system, has undergone several upgrades in physics, coding, and capabilities. Recent modifications include centroid tracking (and misalignment capabilities) and an improved beam description that allows study of some nonlinear effects such as wakefields. The Fortran code has been made portable and runs on numerous platforms. It can be used with a variety of graphics packages. The additional beamline elements, new commands, expanded fitting capabilities, improved beam description, and coding modifications have extended TRACE 3-D`s usefulness and applicability to the accelerator community. These changes are documented in the third edition of TRACE 3-D Documentation.
3-D Finite Element Heat Transfer
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)
1992-02-01
TOPAZ3D is a three-dimensional implicit finite element computer code for heat transfer analysis. TOPAZ3D can be used to solve for the steady-state or transient temperature field on three-dimensional geometries. Material properties may be temperature-dependent and either isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time-dependent and temperature-dependent boundary conditions can be specified including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation. By implementing the user subroutine feature, users can model chemical reaction kinetics and allow for any type of functionalmoreÂ Â» representation of boundary conditions and internal heat generation. TOPAZ3D can solve problems of diffuse and specular band radiation in an enclosure coupled with conduction in the material surrounding the enclosure. Additional features include thermal contact resistance across an interface, bulk fluids, phase change, and energy balances.Â«Â less
Ames Lab 101: 3D Metals Printer
Ott, Ryan
2014-06-04
To meet one of the biggest energy challenges of the 21st century - finding alternatives to rare-earth elements and other critical materials - scientists will need new and advanced tools. The Critical Materials Institute at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory has a new one: a 3D printer for metals research. 3D printing technology, which has captured the imagination of both industry and consumers, enables ideas to move quickly from the initial design phase to final form using materials including polymers, ceramics, paper and even food. But the Critical Materials Institute (CMI) will apply the advantages of the 3D printing process in a unique way: for materials discovery.
Whirley, R.G.; Engelmann, B.E.
1992-08-25
This paper describes some recent developments in adaptive contact algorithms for the transient analysis of penetration and material failure in DYNA3D. A failure criterion is defined for volumes of potentially failing material on each side of a contact surface. As material within an element fails, the element is deleted from the calculation and the contact surface is adaptively redefined to include the newly exposed outer material boundary. This algorithm admits arbitrary combinations of shell and solid elements to allow modeling of composite or honeycomb structures. The algorithms and their efficiency are illustrated with several DYNA3D simulations and results are compared with experimental data.
Hallquist, J.O.
1983-03-01
This report provides a theoretical manual for DYNA3D, a vectorized explicit three-dimensional finite element code for analyzing the large deformation dynamic response of inelastic solids. A contact-impact algorithm that permits gaps and sliding along material interfaces is described. By a specialization of this algorithm, such interfaces can be rigidly tied to admit variable zoning without the need of transition regions. Spatial discretization is achieved by the use of 8-node solid elements, and the equations-of-motion are integrated by the central difference method. DYNA3D is operational on the CRAY-1 and CDC7600 computers.
VisIt - 3D Scientific Visualization
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
VisIt VisIt - 3D Scientific Visualization Description and Overview VisIt is a point-and-click 3D scientific visualization application that supports most common visualization techniques (e.g., iso-contouring and volume rendering) on structured and unstructured grids. Due to its distributed and parallel architecture, VisIt is able to handle very large datasets interactively. In addition, VisIt is extensible, allowing users to add data loaders or additional analysis tools to VisIt. The NERSC
3D Modeling Engine Representation Summary Report
Steven Prescott; Ramprasad Sampath; Curtis Smith; Timothy Yang
2014-09-01
Computers have been used for 3D modeling and simulation, but only recently have computational resources been able to give realistic results in a reasonable time frame for large complex models. This summary report addressed the methods, techniques, and resources used to develop a 3D modeling engine to represent risk analysis simulation for advanced small modular reactor structures and components. The simulations done for this evaluation were focused on external events, specifically tsunami floods, for a hypothetical nuclear power facility on a coastline.
3D J-Integral Capability in Grizzly
Benjamin Spencer; Marie Backman; Pritam Chakraborty; William Hoffman
2014-09-01
This report summarizes work done to develop a capability to evaluate fracture contour J-Integrals in 3D in the Grizzly code. In the current fiscal year, a previously-developed 2D implementation of a J-Integral evaluation capability has been extended to work in 3D, and to include terms due both to mechanically-induced strains and due to gradients in thermal strains. This capability has been verified against a benchmark solution on a model of a curved crack front in 3D. The thermal term in this integral has been verified against a benchmark problem with a thermal gradient. These developments are part of a larger effort to develop Grizzly as a tool that can be used to predict the evolution of aging processes in nuclear power plant systems, structures, and components, and assess their capacity after being subjected to those aging processes. The capabilities described here have been developed to enable evaluations of Mode- stress intensity factors on axis-aligned flaws in reactor pressure vessels. These can be compared with the fracture toughness of the material to determine whether a pre-existing flaw would begin to propagate during a pos- tulated pressurized thermal shock accident. This report includes a demonstration calculation to show how Grizzly is used to perform a deterministic assessment of such a flaw propagation in a degraded reactor pressure vessel under pressurized thermal shock conditions. The stress intensity is calculated from J, and the toughness is computed using the fracture master curve and the degraded ductile to brittle transition temperature.
Crashworthiness simulations with DYNA3D
Schauer, D.A.; Hoover, C.G.; Kay, G.J.; Lee, A.S.; De Groot, A.J.
1996-04-01
Current progress in parallel algorithm research and applications in vehicle crash simulation is described for the explicit, finite element algorithms in DYNA3D. Problem partitioning methods and parallel algorithms for contact at material interfaces are the two challenging algorithm research problems that are addressed. Two prototype parallel contact algorithms have been developed for treating the cases of local and arbitrary contact. Demonstration problems for local contact are crashworthiness simulations with 222 locally defined contact surfaces and a vehicle/barrier collision modeled with arbitrary contact. A simulation of crash tests conducted for a vehicle impacting a U-channel small sign post embedded in soil has been run on both the serial and parallel versions of DYNA3D. A significant reduction in computational time has been observed when running these problems on the parallel version. However, to achieve maximum efficiency, complex problems must be appropriately partitioned, especially when contact dominates the computation.
3D Technology for intelligent trackers
Lipton, Ronald; /Fermilab
2010-09-01
At Super-LHC luminosity it is expected that the standard suite of level 1 triggers for CMS will saturate. Information from the tracker will be needed to reduce trigger rates to satisfy the level 1 bandwidth. Tracking trigger modules which correlate information from closely-spaced sensor layers to form an on-detector momentum filter are being developed by several groups. We report on a trigger module design which utilizes three dimensional integrated circuit technology incorporating chips which are connected both to the top and bottom sensor, providing the ability to filter information locally. A demonstration chip, the VICTR, has been submitted to the Chartered/Tezzaron two-tier 3D run coordinated by Fermilab. We report on the 3D design concept, the status of the VICTR chip and associated sensor integration utilizing oxide bonding.
Azimuthally Anisotropic 3D Velocity Continuation
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Burnett, William; Fomel, Sergey
2011-01-01
We extend time-domain velocity continuation to the zero-offset 3D azimuthally anisotropic case. Velocity continuation describes how a seismic image changes given a change in migration velocity. This description turns out to be of a wave propagation process, in which images change along a velocity axis. In the anisotropic case, the velocity model is multiparameter. Therefore, anisotropic image propagation is multidimensional. We use a three-parameter slowness model, which is related to azimuthal variations in velocity, as well as their principal directions. This information is useful for fracture and reservoir characterization from seismic data. We provide synthetic diffraction imaging examples to illustratemoreÂ Â» the concept and potential applications of azimuthal velocity continuation and to analyze the impulse response of the 3D velocity continuation operator.Â«Â less
3D Charge Order Found in Superconductor
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
3D Charge Order Found in Superconductor Print Despite 30 years of intense study, the explanation behind the zero-resistance current displayed by high-temperature superconductors (HTSCs) is still shrouded in complexity. HTSCs tend to be heterogeneous materials with multiple phases, and disentangling their various electronic behaviors for analysis can be difficult. At the ALS, researchers used resonant soft x-ray diffraction (RSXD), a technique sensitive to both structure and electronic state at
3D Charge Order Found in Superconductor
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
3D Charge Order Found in Superconductor Print Despite 30 years of intense study, the explanation behind the zero-resistance current displayed by high-temperature superconductors (HTSCs) is still shrouded in complexity. HTSCs tend to be heterogeneous materials with multiple phases, and disentangling their various electronic behaviors for analysis can be difficult. At the ALS, researchers used resonant soft x-ray diffraction (RSXD), a technique sensitive to both structure and electronic state at
3D Charge Order Found in Superconductor
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
3D Charge Order Found in Superconductor Print Despite 30 years of intense study, the explanation behind the zero-resistance current displayed by high-temperature superconductors (HTSCs) is still shrouded in complexity. HTSCs tend to be heterogeneous materials with multiple phases, and disentangling their various electronic behaviors for analysis can be difficult. At the ALS, researchers used resonant soft x-ray diffraction (RSXD), a technique sensitive to both structure and electronic state at
3D Charge Order Found in Superconductor
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
3D Charge Order Found in Superconductor Print Despite 30 years of intense study, the explanation behind the zero-resistance current displayed by high-temperature superconductors (HTSCs) is still shrouded in complexity. HTSCs tend to be heterogeneous materials with multiple phases, and disentangling their various electronic behaviors for analysis can be difficult. At the ALS, researchers used resonant soft x-ray diffraction (RSXD), a technique sensitive to both structure and electronic state at
3D Charge Order Found in Superconductor
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
3D Charge Order Found in Superconductor Print Despite 30 years of intense study, the explanation behind the zero-resistance current displayed by high-temperature superconductors (HTSCs) is still shrouded in complexity. HTSCs tend to be heterogeneous materials with multiple phases, and disentangling their various electronic behaviors for analysis can be difficult. At the ALS, researchers used resonant soft x-ray diffraction (RSXD), a technique sensitive to both structure and electronic state at
3D Charge Order Found in Superconductor
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
3D Charge Order Found in Superconductor Print Despite 30 years of intense study, the explanation behind the zero-resistance current displayed by high-temperature superconductors (HTSCs) is still shrouded in complexity. HTSCs tend to be heterogeneous materials with multiple phases, and disentangling their various electronic behaviors for analysis can be difficult. At the ALS, researchers used resonant soft x-ray diffraction (RSXD), a technique sensitive to both structure and electronic state at
Sandia Modifies Delft3D Turbine Model
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Modifies Delft3D Turbine Model - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)
2012-01-04
GEN3D is a three-dimensional mesh generation program. The three-dimensional mesh is generated by mapping a two-dimensional mesh into threedimensions according to one of four types of transformations: translating, rotating, mapping onto a spherical surface, and mapping onto a cylindrical surface. The generated three-dimensional mesh can then be reoriented by offsetting, reflecting about an axis, and revolving about an axis. GEN3D can be used to mesh geometries that are axisymmetric or planar, but, due to three-dimensionalmoreÂ Â» loading or boundary conditions, require a three-dimensional finite element mesh and analysis. More importantly, it can be used to mesh complex three-dimensional geometries composed of several sections when the sections can be defined in terms of transformations of two dimensional geometries. The code GJOIN is then used to join the separate sections into a single body. GEN3D reads and writes twodimensional and threedimensional mesh databases in the GENESIS database format; therefore, it is compatible with the preprocessing, postprocessing, and analysis codes used by the Engineering Analysis Department at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM.Â«Â less
3-D Mesh Generation Nonlinear Systems
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)
1994-04-07
INGRID is a general-purpose, three-dimensional mesh generator developed for use with finite element, nonlinear, structural dynamics codes. INGRID generates the large and complex input data files for DYNA3D, NIKE3D, FACET, and TOPAZ3D. One of the greatest advantages of INGRID is that virtually any shape can be described without resorting to wedge elements, tetrahedrons, triangular elements or highly distorted quadrilateral or hexahedral elements. Other capabilities available are in the areas of geometry and graphics. Exact surfacemoreÂ Â» equations and surface intersections considerably improve the ability to deal with accurate models, and a hidden line graphics algorithm is included which is efficient on the most complicated meshes. The primary new capability is associated with the boundary conditions, loads, and material properties required by nonlinear mechanics programs. Commands have been designed for each case to minimize user effort. This is particularly important since special processing is almost always required for each load or boundary condition.Â«Â less
Transforming Wind Turbine Blade Mold Manufacturing with 3D Printing...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Transforming Wind Turbine Blade Mold Manufacturing with 3D Printing Transforming Wind Turbine Blade Mold Manufacturing with 3D Printing A screenshot of the cover of the 3D blade ...
George Mesina; Joshua Hykes
2005-09-01
The RELAP5-3D source code is unstructured with many interwoven logic flow paths. By restructuring the code, it becomes easier to read and understand, which reduces the time and money required for code development, debugging, and maintenance. A structured program is comprised of blocks of code with one entry and exit point and downward logic flow. IF tests and DO loops inherently create structured code, while GOTO statements are the main cause of unstructured code. FOR_STRUCT is a commercial software package that converts unstructured FORTRAN into structured programming; it was used to restructure individual subroutines. Primarily it transforms GOTO statements, ARITHMETIC IF statements, and COMPUTED GOTO statements into IF-ELSEIF-ELSE tests and DO loops. The complexity of RELAP5-3D complicated the task. First, FOR_STRUCT cannot completely restructure all the complex coding contained in RELAP5-3D. An iterative approach of multiple FOR_STRUCT applications gave some additional improvements. Second, FOR_STRUCT cannot restructure FORTRAN 90 coding, and RELAP5-3D is partially written in FORTRAN 90. Unix scripts for pre-processing subroutines into coding that FOR_STRUCT could handle and post-processing it back into FORTRAN 90 were written. Finally, FOR_STRUCT does not have the ability to restructure the RELAP5-3D code which contains pre-compiler directives. Variations of a file were processed with different pre-compiler options switched on or off, ensuring that every block of code was restructured. Then the variations were recombined to create a completely restructured source file. Unix scripts were written to perform these tasks, as well as to make some minor formatting improvements. In total, 447 files comprising some 180,000 lines of FORTRAN code were restructured. These showed significant reduction in the number of logic jumps contained as measured by reduction in the number of GOTO statements and line labels. The average number of GOTO statements per subroutine
PSTD Simulations of Multiple Light Scattering in 3-D Macrocsopic...
Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)
PSTD Simulations of Multiple Light Scattering in 3-D Macrocsopic Random Media Citation Details In-Document Search Title: PSTD Simulations of Multiple Light Scattering in 3-D ...
Interferometrically Defined 3D Pyrolyzed-Carbon Sensors. (Conference...
Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)
Conference: Interferometrically Defined 3D Pyrolyzed-Carbon Sensors. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Interferometrically Defined 3D Pyrolyzed-Carbon Sensors. Abstract ...
Transforming Wind Turbine Blade Mold Manufacturing with 3D Printing...
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Transforming Wind Turbine Blade Mold Manufacturing with 3D Printing Transforming Wind Turbine Blade Mold Manufacturing with 3D Printing Addthis Description Innovation in the design ...
Characterization and Modeling via 3D Reconstructions of Laser...
Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)
Characterization and Modeling via 3D Reconstructions of Laser Welds in Stainless Steel. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Characterization and Modeling via 3D...
Visualization and Analysis of 3D Gene Expression Data (Technical...
Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)
Technical Report: Visualization and Analysis of 3D Gene Expression Data Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Visualization and Analysis of 3D Gene Expression Data Recent...
Numerical integration of structural elements in NIKE3D and DYNA3D
Maker, B.N.; Whirley, R.G.; Engelmann, B.E.
1992-08-05
The beam and shell elements found in many linear elastic finite element codes accept integrated cross sectional properties as input, and produce solutions using classical beam and shell theory. These theories are built upon the equation of resultant forces and moments with integrals of assumed stress distributions over the cross section. In contrast, the structural elements in NIKE3D and DYNA3D are formulated to represent nonlinear geometric and material behavior. Thus stress distributions may not necessarily be representable by simple functions of cross section variables. In NIKE3D and DYNA3D, the Hughes-Liu beam element and all shell elements accommodate these more general stress distributions by computing stresses at various points in the cross section. The integration of stresses within each element is then performed numerically, using a variety of methods. This report describes these numerical integration procedures in detail, and highlights their application to engineering problems. Several other features of the structural elements are also described, including force and moment resultants, user-defined reference surfaces, and user-defined integration rules. Finally, the shear correction factor is described in a section which relates results from NIKE3D and DYNA3D to those obtained from classical beam theory.
3D reconstruction of tensors and vectors
Defrise, Michel; Gullberg, Grant T.
2005-02-17
Here we have developed formulations for the reconstruction of 3D tensor fields from planar (Radon) and line-integral (X-ray) projections of 3D vector and tensor fields. Much of the motivation for this work is the potential application of MRI to perform diffusion tensor tomography. The goal is to develop a theory for the reconstruction of both Radon planar and X-ray or line-integral projections because of the flexibility of MRI to obtain both of these type of projections in 3D. The development presented here for the linear tensor tomography problem provides insight into the structure of the nonlinear MRI diffusion tensor inverse problem. A particular application of tensor imaging in MRI is the potential application of cardiac diffusion tensor tomography for determining in vivo cardiac fiber structure. One difficulty in the cardiac application is the motion of the heart. This presents a need for developing future theory for tensor tomography in a motion field. This means developing a better understanding of the MRI signal for diffusion processes in a deforming media. The techniques developed may allow the application of MRI tensor tomography for the study of structure of fiber tracts in the brain, atherosclerotic plaque, and spine in addition to fiber structure in the heart. However, the relations presented are also applicable to other fields in medical imaging such as diffraction tomography using ultrasound. The mathematics presented can also be extended to exponential Radon transform of tensor fields and to other geometric acquisitions such as cone beam tomography of tensor fields.
Elastoplastic shell analysis in DYNA3D
Whirley, R.G. )
1991-01-01
Computer simulation of the elastoplastic behavior of thin shell structures under transient dynamic loads play an important role in many programs at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, Calif. Often the loads are severe and the structure undergoes plastic (or permanent) deformation. These simulations are effectively performed using DYNA3D, an explicit nonlinear finite element code developed at LLNL for simulating and analyzing the large-deformation dynamic response of solids and structures. It is generally applicable to problems where the loading and response are of short duration and contain significant high-frequency components. Typical problems of this type include the contact of two impacting bodies and the resulting elastoplastic structural behavior. The objective of this investigation was to examine and improve upon the elastoplastic shell modeling capability in DYNA3D. This article summarizes the development of a new four-node quadrilateral finite element shell formulation, the YASE shell, and compares two basic methods (the stress-resultant and the thickness-resultant methods) employed in elastoplastic constitutive algorithms for shell structure modeling.
Madison, Jonathan D.; Susan, Donald F.; Kilgo, Alice C.
2015-10-01
The goal of this project is to generate 3D microstructural data by destructive and non-destructive means and provide accompanying characterization and quantitative analysis of such data. This work is a continuing part of a larger effort to relate material performance variability to microstructural variability. That larger effort is called â€œPredicting Performance Marginsâ€ or PPM. In conjunction with that overarching initiative, the RoboMET.3Dâ„¢ is a specific asset of Center 1800 and is an automated serialsectioning system for destructive analysis of microstructure, which is called upon to provide direct customer support to 1800 and non-1800 customers. To that end, data collection, 3d reconstruction and analysis of typical and atypical microstructures have been pursued for the purposes of qualitative and quantitative characterization with a goal toward linking microstructural defects and/or microstructural features with mechanical response. Material systems examined in FY15 include precipitation hardened 17-4 steel, laser-welds of 304L stainless steel, thermal spray coatings of 304L and geological samples of sandstone.
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)
2001-06-06
FORTRAN90 software computes synthetic induction log responses in fully 3D anistropic geoelectric media.
3D Multigroup Sn Neutron Transport Code
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)
2001-02-14
ATTILA is a 3D multigroup transport code with arbitrary order ansotropic scatter. The transport equation is solved in first order form using a tri-linear discontinuous spatial differencing on an arbitrary tetrahedral mesh. The overall solution technique is source iteration with DSA acceleration of the scattering source. Anisotropic boundary and internal sources may be entered in the form of spherical harmonics moments. Alpha and k eigenvalue problems are allowed, as well as fixed source problems. ForwardmoreÂ Â» and adjoint solutions are available. Reflective, vacumn, and source boundary conditions are available. ATTILA can perform charged particle transport calculations using slowing down (CSD) terms. ATTILA can also be used to peform infra-red steady-state calculations for radiative transfer purposes.Â«Â less
Malba, Vincent
1998-01-01
A manufacturable process for fabricating electrical interconnects which extend from a top surface of an integrated circuit chip to a sidewall of the chip using laser pantography to pattern three dimensional interconnects. The electrical interconnects may be of an L-connect or L-shaped type. The process implements three dimensional (3D) stacking by moving the conventional bond or interface pads on a chip to the sidewall of the chip. Implementation of the process includes: 1) holding individual chips for batch processing, 2) depositing a dielectric passivation layer on the top and sidewalls of the chips, 3) opening vias in the dielectric, 4) forming the interconnects by laser pantography, and 5) removing the chips from the holding means. The process enables low cost manufacturing of chips with bond pads on the sidewalls, which enables stacking for increased performance, reduced space, and higher functional per unit volume.
Malba, V.
1998-11-10
A manufacturable process for fabricating electrical interconnects which extend from a top surface of an integrated circuit chip to a sidewall of the chip using laser pantography to pattern three dimensional interconnects. The electrical interconnects may be of an L-connect or L-shaped type. The process implements three dimensional (3D) stacking by moving the conventional bond or interface pads on a chip to the sidewall of the chip. Implementation of the process includes: (1) holding individual chips for batch processing, (2) depositing a dielectric passivation layer on the top and sidewalls of the chips, (3) opening vias in the dielectric, (4) forming the interconnects by laser pantography, and (5) removing the chips from the holding means. The process enables low cost manufacturing of chips with bond pads on the sidewalls, which enables stacking for increased performance, reduced space, and higher functional per unit volume. 3 figs.
3D Diagnostic Of Complex Plasma
Hall, Edward; Samsonov, Dmitry
2011-11-29
This paper reports the development of a three-dimensional(3D) dust particle position diagnostic for complex plasmas. A beam produce by Light Emitting Diodes(LEDs) is formed into horizontal sheet, for the illumination of the particles. The light sheet has a vertical colour gradient across its width, from two opposing colours. The light scattered from the particles is imaged with the camera from above. The horizontal coordinates are measured from the positions on the image. The third coordinate is determined from the colour which represents a position on the gradient of the light sheet. The use of LEDs as a light source reduces a variation in Mie scattered intensity from the particles due to the particle size distribution. The variation would induce a large vertical positional error.
MOSSFRAC: An anisotropic 3D fracture model
Moss, W C; Levatin, J L
2006-08-14
Despite the intense effort for nearly half a century to construct detailed numerical models of plastic flow and plastic damage accumulation, models for describing fracture, an equally important damage mechanism still cannot describe basic fracture phenomena. Typical fracture models set the stress tensor to zero for tensile fracture and set the deviatoric stress tensor to zero for compressive fracture. One consequence is that the simple case of the tensile fracture of a cylinder under combined compressive radial and tensile axial loads is not modeled correctly. The experimental result is a cylinder that can support compressive radial loads, but no axial load, whereas, the typical numerical result is a cylinder with all stresses equal to zero. This incorrect modeling of fracture locally also has a global effect, because material that is fracturing produces stress release waves, which propagate from the fracture and influence the surrounding material. Consequently, it would be useful to have a model that can describe the stress relief and the resulting anisotropy due to fracture. MOSSFRAC is a material model that simulates three-dimensional tensile and shear fracture in initially isotropic elastic-plastic materials, although its framework is also amenable to initially anisotropic materials. It differs from other models by accounting for the effects of cracks on the constitutive response of the material, so that the previously described experiment, as well as complicated fracture scenarios are simulated more accurately. The model is implemented currently in the LLNL hydrocodes DYNA3D, PARADYN, and ALE3D. The purpose of this technical note is to present a complete qualitative description of the model and quantitative descriptions of salient features.
Staring 2-D hadamard transform spectral imager
Gentry, Stephen M.; Wehlburg, Christine M.; Wehlburg, Joseph C.; Smith, Mark W.; Smith, Jody L.
2006-02-07
A staring imaging system inputs a 2D spatial image containing multi-frequency spectral information. This image is encoded in one dimension of the image with a cyclic Hadamarid S-matrix. The resulting image is detecting with a spatial 2D detector; and a computer applies a Hadamard transform to recover the encoded image.
Needle segmentation using 3D Hough transform in 3D TRUS guided prostate transperineal therapy
Qiu Wu; Yuchi Ming; Ding Mingyue; Tessier, David; Fenster, Aaron
2013-04-15
Purpose: Prostate adenocarcinoma is the most common noncutaneous malignancy in American men with over 200 000 new cases diagnosed each year. Prostate interventional therapy, such as cryotherapy and brachytherapy, is an effective treatment for prostate cancer. Its success relies on the correct needle implant position. This paper proposes a robust and efficient needle segmentation method, which acts as an aid to localize the needle in three-dimensional (3D) transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guided prostate therapy. Methods: The procedure of locating the needle in a 3D TRUS image is a three-step process. First, the original 3D ultrasound image containing a needle is cropped; the cropped image is then converted to a binary format based on its histogram. Second, a 3D Hough transform based needle segmentation method is applied to the 3D binary image in order to locate the needle axis. The position of the needle endpoint is finally determined by an optimal threshold based analysis of the intensity probability distribution. The overall efficiency is improved through implementing a coarse-fine searching strategy. The proposed method was validated in tissue-mimicking agar phantoms, chicken breast phantoms, and 3D TRUS patient images from prostate brachytherapy and cryotherapy procedures by comparison to the manual segmentation. The robustness of the proposed approach was tested by means of varying parameters such as needle insertion angle, needle insertion length, binarization threshold level, and cropping size. Results: The validation results indicate that the proposed Hough transform based method is accurate and robust, with an achieved endpoint localization accuracy of 0.5 mm for agar phantom images, 0.7 mm for chicken breast phantom images, and 1 mm for in vivo patient cryotherapy and brachytherapy images. The mean execution time of needle segmentation algorithm was 2 s for a 3D TRUS image with size of 264 Multiplication-Sign 376 Multiplication-Sign 630 voxels. Conclusions
Thigpen, L.; Peterson, J.C.
1983-08-01
This report provides instructions on the use of the DYNALK computer program to generate boundary conditions for a soil island used in soil-structure interaction problems. DYNALK converts temporal motions from 2-D TENSOR calculations into appropriate three-dimensional boundary conditions for a DYNA3D soil-structure interaction problem. The program is operational on the CRAY-1 computer.
Enhancement of neurite outgrowth in neuron cancer stem cells by growth on 3-D collagen scaffolds
Chen, Chih-Hao; Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan, ROC; Department of Biomedical Engineering, I-Shou University, Taiwan, ROC ; Kuo, Shyh Ming; Liu, Guei-Sheung; Chen, Wan-Nan U.; Chuang, Chin-Wen; Liu, Li-Feng
2012-11-09
Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Neuron cancer stem cells (NCSCs) behave high multiply of growth on collagen scaffold. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enhancement of NCSCs neurite outgrowth on porous collagen scaffold. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 3-D collagen culture of NCSCs shows an advance differentiation than 2-D culture. -- Abstract: Collagen is one component of the extracellular matrix that has been widely used for constructive remodeling to facilitate cell growth and differentiation. The 3-D distribution and growth of cells within the porous scaffold suggest a clinical significance for nerve tissue engineering. In the current study, we investigated proliferation and differentiation of neuron cancer stem cells (NCSCs) on a 3-D porous collagen scaffold that mimics the natural extracellular matrix. We first generated green fluorescence protein (GFP) expressing NCSCs using a lentiviral system to instantly monitor the transitions of morphological changes during growth on the 3-D scaffold. We found that proliferation of GFP-NCSCs increased, and a single cell mass rapidly grew with unrestricted expansion between days 3 and 9 in culture. Moreover, immunostaining with neuronal nuclei (NeuN) revealed that NCSCs grown on the 3-D collagen scaffold significantly enhanced neurite outgrowth. Our findings confirmed that the 80 {mu}m porous collagen scaffold could enhance attachment, viability and differentiation of the cancer neural stem cells. This result could provide a new application for nerve tissue engineering and nerve regeneration.
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)
2009-06-29
JAS3D is a three-dimensional finite element program originally designed to solve Lagrangian quasistatic non-linear mechanics problems, and subsequently extended to include both implicit and explicit dynamics. A set of continuum equations describes the nonlinear mechanics involving large rotation and strain. Innovative multilevel nonlinear iterative methods are used to solve the equations. A wide variety of material constitutive models are available, and contact interface logic is implemented. Two Lagrangian uniform-strain elements are available: an eighth-node hexahedronmoreÂ Â» for solids and a four-node quadrilateral for shells. Both use hourglass stiffness to control zero-energy modes. In addition, a version of the hexahedron is available with uniform pressure and a deviatoric response scalable from the mean response of the original element up to a fully-integrated response. Bodies under analysis may be loaded by surface pressures and concentrated forces, specified displacements, or body forces from gravity, steady-state transport, or thermal expansion.Â«Â less
3-D simulations of multiple beam klystrons
Smithe, David N.; Bettenhausen, Mike; Ludeking, Larry; Caryotakis, G.; Sprehn, Daryl; Scheitrum, Glenn [Mission Research Corporation, 8560 Cinderbed Rd., Suite 700, Newington, Virginia 22122 (United States); Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, 2575 Sand Hill Rd., Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States)
1999-05-07
The MAGIC3D simulation code is being used to assess the multi-dimensional physics issues relating to the design and operation of multiple beam klystrons. Investigations, to date, include a detailed study of the mode structure of the cavities in the 19-beam hexagonally packed geometry and a study of the velocity spread caused by the cavity mode's field profile. Some attempts to minimize this effect are investigated. Additional simulations have provided quantification of the beam loading Q in a dual input cavity, and optimization of a dual output cavity. An important goal of the simulations is an accurate picture of beam transport along the length of the MBK. We have quantified the magnitude and spatial variation of the beam-line space charge interactions within a cavity gap. Present simulations have demonstrated the transport of the beam through three cavities (the present limits of our simulation size) without difficulty; additional length simulations are expected. We have also examined unbalanced beam-line scenarios, e.g., one beam-line suppressed, and find little disturbance to the transport in individual cavity tests, with results for multiple cavity transport expected.
2-d Finite Element Code Postprocessor
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)
1996-07-15
ORION is an interactive program that serves as a postprocessor for the analysis programs NIKE2D, DYNA2D, TOPAZ2D, and CHEMICAL TOPAZ2D. ORION reads binary plot files generated by the two-dimensional finite element codes currently used by the Methods Development Group at LLNL. Contour and color fringe plots of a large number of quantities may be displayed on meshes consisting of triangular and quadrilateral elements. ORION can compute strain measures, interface pressures along slide lines, reaction forcesmoreÂ Â» along constrained boundaries, and momentum. ORION has been applied to study the response of two-dimensional solids and structures undergoing finite deformations under a wide variety of large deformation transient dynamic and static problems and heat transfer analyses.Â«Â less
Form 2D | Open Energy Information
D Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- Permit ApplicationPermit Application: Form 2DLegal Abstract Form 2D: Application for Permit to...
Novel 3-D Printed Inverters for Electric Vehicles Can Improve...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Novel 3-D Printed Inverters for Electric Vehicles Can Improve EV Power and Efficiency Novel 3-D Printed Inverters for Electric Vehicles Can Improve EV Power and Efficiency April...
Visualization and Analysis of 3D Gene Expression Data (Technical...
Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)
Technical Report: Visualization and Analysis of 3D Gene Expression Data Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Visualization and Analysis of 3D Gene Expression Data You are...
3D Visualization of Water Transport in Ferns
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
3D Visualization of Water Transport in Ferns 3D Visualization of Water Transport in Ferns Print Monday, 08 April 2013 00:00 Plants transport water through elongated cells called...
FMI Borehole Geology, Geomechanics and 3D Reservoir Modeling...
FMI Borehole Geology, Geomechanics and 3D Reservoir Modeling Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: FMI Borehole Geology, Geomechanics and 3D...
Ames Lab 101: Real-Time 3D Imaging
Zhang, Song
2012-08-29
Ames Laboratory scientist Song Zhang explains his real-time 3-D imaging technology. The technique can be used to create high-resolution, real-time, precise, 3-D images for use in healthcare, security, and entertainment applications.
Phonon Polariton Behavior in 2D Materials
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Phonon Polariton Behavior in 2D Materials Phonon Polariton Behavior in 2D Materials Print Tuesday, 19 January 2016 09:57 In a crystal, collective excitations can be treated as if they are quasiparticles. For example, an excited electron and its associated hole are an exciton; oscillations of conduction electrons in a metal are plasmons; and different modes of lattice vibrations are phonons. Furthermore, when such excitations interact strongly with photons, a new form of quasiparticle emerges:
Nanocomposite scintillator and detector
Cooke, D. Wayne; McKigney, Edward A.; Muenchausen, Ross E.; Bennett, Bryan L.; Ott, Kevin C.; Del Sesto, Rico E.; McCleskey, T. Mark; Burrell, Anthony K.
2009-06-16
A nanocomposite scintillator is prepared using fast, bright, rare-earth doped nanopowder phosphor and a binder that is transparent to the emission of the phosphor.
SU-E-T-472: A Multi-Dimensional Measurements Comparison to Analyze a 3D Patient Specific QA Tool
Ashmeg, S; Jackson, J; Zhang, Y; Oldham, M; Yin, F; Ren, L
2014-06-01
Purpose: To quantitatively evaluate a 3D patient specific QA tool using 2D film and 3D Presage dosimetry. Methods: A brain IMRT case was delivered to Delta4, EBT2 film and Presage plastic dosimeter. The film was inserted in the solid water slabs at 7.5cm depth for measurement. The Presage dosimeter was inserted into a head phantom for 3D dose measurement. Delta4's Anatomy software was used to calculate the corresponding dose to the film in solid water slabs and to Presage in the head phantom. The results from Anatomy were compared to both calculated results from Eclipse and measured dose from film and Presage to evaluate its accuracy. Using RIT software, we compared the “Anatomy” dose to the EBT2 film measurement and the film measurement to ECLIPSE calculation. For 3D analysis, DICOM file of “Anatomy” was extracted and imported to CERR software, which was used to compare the Presage dose to both “Anatomy” calculation and ECLIPSE calculation. Gamma criteria of 3% - 3mm and 5% - 5mm was used for comparison. Results: Gamma passing rates of film vs “Anatomy”, “Anatomy” vs ECLIPSE and film vs ECLIPSE were 82.8%, 70.9% and 87.6% respectively when 3% - 3mm criteria is used. When the criteria is changed to 5% - 5mm, the passing rates became 87.8%, 76.3% and 90.8% respectively. For 3D analysis, Anatomy vs ECLIPSE showed gamma passing rate of 86.4% and 93.3% for 3% - 3mm and 5% - 5mm respectively. The rate is 77.0% for Presage vs ECLIPSE analysis. The Anatomy vs ECLIPSE were absolute dose comparison. However, film and Presage analysis were relative comparison Conclusion: The results show higher passing rate in 3D than 2D in “Anatomy” software. This could be due to the higher degrees of freedom in 3D than in 2D for gamma analysis.
World's First 3-D Printed Car | Department of Energy
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
World's First 3-D Printed Car World's First 3-D Printed Car Addthis Description The video is about a partnership between Local Motors and Oak Ridge National Laboratory to print the world's first 3-D printed car-the Strati-at the 2014 International Manufacturing Technology Show
3D/3D registration of coronary CTA and biplane XA reconstructions for improved image guidance
Dibildox, Gerardo Baka, Nora; Walsum, Theo van; Punt, Mark; Aben, Jean-Paul; Schultz, Carl; Niessen, Wiro
2014-09-15
Purpose: The authors aim to improve image guidance during percutaneous coronary interventions of chronic total occlusions (CTO) by providing information obtained from computed tomography angiography (CTA) to the cardiac interventionist. To this end, the authors investigate a method to register a 3D CTA model to biplane reconstructions. Methods: The authors developed a method for registering preoperative coronary CTA with intraoperative biplane x-ray angiography (XA) images via 3D models of the coronary arteries. The models are extracted from the CTA and biplane XA images, and are temporally aligned based on CTA reconstruction phase and XA ECG signals. Rigid spatial alignment is achieved with a robust probabilistic point set registration approach using Gaussian mixture models (GMMs). This approach is extended by including orientation in the Gaussian mixtures and by weighting bifurcation points. The method is evaluated on retrospectively acquired coronary CTA datasets of 23 CTO patients for which biplane XA images are available. Results: The Gaussian mixture model approach achieved a median registration accuracy of 1.7 mm. The extended GMM approach including orientation was not significantly different (P > 0.1) but did improve robustness with regards to the initialization of the 3D models. Conclusions: The authors demonstrated that the GMM approach can effectively be applied to register CTA to biplane XA images for the purpose of improving image guidance in percutaneous coronary interventions.
Non-linear tearing of 3D null point current sheets
Wyper, P. F. Pontin, D. I.
2014-08-15
The manner in which the rate of magnetic reconnection scales with the Lundquist number in realistic three-dimensional (3D) geometries is still an unsolved problem. It has been demonstrated that in 2D rapid non-linear tearing allows the reconnection rate to become almost independent of the Lundquist number (the â€œplasmoid instabilityâ€). Here, we present the first study of an analogous instability in a fully 3D geometry, defined by a magnetic null point. The 3D null current layer is found to be susceptible to an analogous instability but is marginally more stable than an equivalent 2D Sweet-Parker-like layer. Tearing of the sheet creates a thin boundary layer around the separatrix surface, contained within a flux envelope with a hyperbolic structure that mimics a spine-fan topology. Efficient mixing of flux between the two topological domains occurs as the flux rope structures created during the tearing process evolve within this envelope. This leads to a substantial increase in the rate of reconnection between the two domains.
TOPAZ2D heat transfer code users manual and thermal property data base
Shapiro, A.B.; Edwards, A.L.
1990-05-01
TOPAZ2D is a two dimensional implicit finite element computer code for heat transfer analysis. This user's manual provides information on the structure of a TOPAZ2D input file. Also included is a material thermal property data base. This manual is supplemented with The TOPAZ2D Theoretical Manual and the TOPAZ2D Verification Manual. TOPAZ2D has been implemented on the CRAY, SUN, and VAX computers. TOPAZ2D can be used to solve for the steady state or transient temperature field on two dimensional planar or axisymmetric geometries. Material properties may be temperature dependent and either isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time and temperature dependent boundary conditions can be specified including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation. Time or temperature dependent internal heat generation can be defined locally be element or globally by material. TOPAZ2D can solve problems of diffuse and specular band radiation in an enclosure coupled with conduction in material surrounding the enclosure. Additional features include thermally controlled reactive chemical mixtures, thermal contact resistance across an interface, bulk fluid flow, phase change, and energy balances. Thermal stresses can be calculated using the solid mechanics code NIKE2D which reads the temperature state data calculated by TOPAZ2D. A three dimensional version of the code, TOPAZ3D is available. The material thermal property data base, Chapter 4, included in this manual was originally published in 1969 by Art Edwards for use with his TRUMP finite difference heat transfer code. The format of the data has been altered to be compatible with TOPAZ2D. Bob Bailey is responsible for adding the high explosive thermal property data.
SU-E-T-154: Establishment and Implement of 3D Image Guided Brachytherapy Planning System
Jiang, S; Zhao, S; Chen, Y; Li, Z; Li, P; Huang, Z; Yang, Z; Zhang, X
2014-06-01
Purpose: Cannot observe the dose intuitionally is a limitation of the existing 2D pre-implantation dose planning. Meanwhile, a navigation module is essential to improve the accuracy and efficiency of the implantation. Hence a 3D Image Guided Brachytherapy Planning System conducting dose planning and intra-operative navigation based on 3D multi-organs reconstruction is developed. Methods: Multi-organs including the tumor are reconstructed in one sweep of all the segmented images using the multiorgans reconstruction method. The reconstructed organs group establishs a three-dimensional visualized operative environment. The 3D dose maps of the three-dimentional conformal localized dose planning are calculated with Monte Carlo method while the corresponding isodose lines and isodose surfaces are displayed in a stereo view. The real-time intra-operative navigation is based on an electromagnetic tracking system (ETS) and the fusion between MRI and ultrasound images. Applying Least Square Method, the coordinate registration between 3D models and patient is realized by the ETS which is calibrated by a laser tracker. The system is validated by working on eight patients with prostate cancer. The navigation has passed the precision measurement in the laboratory. Results: The traditional marching cubes (MC) method reconstructs one organ at one time and assembles them together. Compared to MC, presented multi-organs reconstruction method has superiorities in reserving the integrality and connectivity of reconstructed organs. The 3D conformal localized dose planning, realizing the 'exfoliation display' of different isodose surfaces, helps make sure the dose distribution has encompassed the nidus and avoid the injury of healthy tissues. During the navigation, surgeons could observe the coordinate of instruments real-timely employing the ETS. After the calibration, accuracy error of the needle position is less than 2.5mm according to the experiments. Conclusion: The speed and
2D microwave imaging reflectometer electronics
Spear, A. G.; Domier, C. W. Hu, X.; Muscatello, C. M.; Ren, X.; Luhmann, N. C.; Tobias, B. J.
2014-11-15
A 2D microwave imaging reflectometer system has been developed to visualize electron density fluctuations on the DIII-D tokamak. Simultaneously illuminated at four probe frequencies, large aperture optics image reflections from four density-dependent cutoff surfaces in the plasma over an extended region of the DIII-D plasma. Localized density fluctuations in the vicinity of the plasma cutoff surfaces modulate the plasma reflections, yielding a 2D image of electron density fluctuations. Details are presented of the receiver down conversion electronics that generate the in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) reflectometer signals from which 2D density fluctuation data are obtained. Also presented are details on the control system and backplane used to manage the electronics as well as an introduction to the computer based control program.
Heritable Genetic Changes in Cells Recovered From Irradiated 3D Tissue Constructs
Michael Cornforth
2012-03-26
Combining contemporary cytogenetic methods with DNA CGH microarray technology and chromosome flow-sorting increases substantially the ability to resolve exchange breakpoints associated with interstitial deletions and translocations, allowing the consequences of radiation damage to be directly measured at low doses, while also providing valuable insights into molecular mechanisms of misrepair processes that, in turn, identify appropriate biophysical models of risk at low doses. Specific aims apply to cells recovered from 3D tissue constructs of human skin and, for the purpose of comparison, the same cells irradiated in traditional 2D cultures. The project includes research complementary to NASA/HRP space radiation project.
3D Simulation of Missing Pellet Surface Defects in Light Water Reactor Fuel Rods
B.W. Spencer; J.D. Hales; S.R. Novascone; R.L. Williamson
2012-09-01
The cladding on light water reactor (LWR) fuel rods provides a stable enclosure for fuel pellets and serves as a first barrier against fission product release. Consequently, it is important to design fuel to prevent cladding failure due to mechanical interactions with fuel pellets. Cladding stresses can be effectively limited by controlling power increase rates. However, it has been shown that local geometric irregularities caused by manufacturing defects known as missing pellet surfaces (MPS) in fuel pellets can lead to elevated cladding stresses that are sufficiently high to cause cladding failure. Accurate modeling of these defects can help prevent these types of failures. Nuclear fuel performance codes commonly use a 1.5D (axisymmetric, axially-stacked, one-dimensional radial) or 2D axisymmetric representation of the fuel rod. To study the effects of MPS defects, results from 1.5D or 2D fuel performance analyses are typically mapped to thermo-mechanical models that consist of a 2D plane-strain slice or a full 3D representation of the geometry of the pellet and clad in the region of the defect. The BISON fuel performance code developed at Idaho National Laboratory employs either a 2D axisymmetric or 3D representation of the full fuel rod. This allows for a computational model of the full fuel rod to include local defects. A 3D thermo-mechanical model is used to simulate the global fuel rod behavior, and includes effects on the thermal and mechanical behavior of the fuel due to accumulation of fission products, fission gas production and release, and the effects of fission gas accumulation on thermal conductivity across the fuel-clad gap. Local defects can be modeled simply by including them in the 3D fuel rod model, without the need for mapping between two separate models. This allows for the complete set of physics used in a fuel performance analysis to be included naturally in the computational representation of the local defect, and for the effects of the
Parallel stitching of 2D materials
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Ling, Xi; Wu, Lijun; Lin, Yuxuan; Ma, Qiong; Wang, Ziqiang; Song, Yi; Yu, Lili; Huang, Shengxi; Fang, Wenjing; Zhang, Xu; et al
2016-01-27
Diverse parallel stitched 2D heterostructures, including metalâ€“semiconductor, semiconductorâ€“semiconductor, and insulatorâ€“semiconductor, are synthesized directly through selective â€œsowingâ€ of aromatic molecules as the seeds in the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Lastly, the methodology enables the large-scale fabrication of lateral heterostructures, which offers tremendous potential for its application in integrated circuits.
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)
000191MLTPL01 NON-NRC FUNDED RELAP5-3D VERSION 4.x.x SOFTWARE REACTOR EXCURSION AND LEAK ANALYSIS PACKAGE - THREE DIMENSIONAL
Transforming Wind Turbine Blade Mold Manufacturing with 3D Printing
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
WORKING TOGETHER TO BUILD A FASTER AND LEANER FUTURE FOR WIND TURBINE BLADE MANUFACTURING ... For the wind industry, 3D printing could transform turbine blade mold manufacturing, ...
Advanced 3D Geophysical Imaging Technologies for Geothermal Resource Characterization
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
Advanced 3D Geophysical Imaging Technologies for Geothermal Resource Characterization presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado.
Assessing the RELAPS-3D Heat Conduction Enclosure Model
McCann, Larry D.
2008-09-30
Three heat conduction problems that have exact solutions are modeled with RELAP5-3D using the conduction enclosure model. These comparisons are designed to be used in the RELAP5-3D development assessment scheduled to be completed in 2009. It is shown that with proper input choices and adequate model detail the exact solutions can be matched. In addition, this analysis identified an error and the required correction in the cylindrical and spherical heat conductor models in RELAP5-3D which will be corrected in a future version of RELAP5-3D.
3-D Combustion Simulation Strategy Status, Future Potential,...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
D Combustion Simulation Strategy Status, Future Potential, and Application Issues 3-D Combustion Simulation Strategy Status, Future Potential, and Application Issues 2004 Diesel ...
3D MAGNETOTELLURIC CHARACTERIZATION OF THE COSO GEOTHERMAL FIELD...
3D MAGNETOTELLURIC CHARACTERIZATION OF THE COSO GEOTHERMAL FIELD Abstract Knowledge of the subsurface electrical resistivityconductivity can contribute to a better...
Energy Department Unveils 3D-Printed Building; New Initiatives...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
... Energy Department Unveils 3D-Printed Building; New Initiatives During Industry Day DOE Announces JUMP Initiative Winners, Launches New Crowdsourcing Calls at Bay Area Maker Faire
3D Imaging with Structured Illumination for Advanced Security Applications
Birch, Gabriel Carisle; Dagel, Amber Lynn; Kast, Brian A.; Smith, Collin S.
2015-09-01
Three-dimensional (3D) information in a physical security system is a highly useful dis- criminator. The two-dimensional data from an imaging systems fails to provide target dis- tance and three-dimensional motion vector, which can be used to reduce nuisance alarm rates and increase system effectiveness. However, 3D imaging devices designed primarily for use in physical security systems are uncommon. This report discusses an architecture favorable to physical security systems; an inexpensive snapshot 3D imaging system utilizing a simple illumination system. The method of acquiring 3D data, tests to understand illumination de- sign, and software modifications possible to maximize information gathering capability are discussed.
3-D Printer Speeds Metals Research | Critical Materials Institute
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
3-D Printer Speeds Metals Research The Critical Materials Institute has a new 3D printer for metals research. Ryan Ott, principal investigator at the Ames Laboratory and the CMI, is using 3D printing technology to discover new materials. He uses the printer to produce a large variety of alloys in less time than needed in traditional casting methods. "Metal 3D printers are slowly becoming more commonplace," Ott said. "They can be costly, and are often limited to small-scale
How 3D Printers Work | Department of Energy
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
3D Printers Work How 3D Printers Work June 19, 2014 - 9:28am Addthis How does 3D printing work? Watch a 3D printing timelapse video and read on below to learn everything you need to know about this game-changing innovation that is capturing the imagination of major manufacturers and hobbyists alike. | Video by Matty Greene, Energy Department. Rebecca Matulka Rebecca Matulka Former Digital Communications Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Matty Greene Matty Greene Former Videographer What are
Osiry, H.; Cano, A.; Lemus-Santana, A.A.; RodrÃguez, A.; Carbonio, R.E.; Reguera, E.
2015-10-15
This contribution discusses the intercalation of imidazole and its 2-ethyl derivative, and pyridine in 2D copper nitroprusside. In the interlayer region, neighboring molecules remain interacting throuÂ gh their dipole and quadrupole moments, which supports the solid 3D crystal structure. The crystal structure of this series of intercalation compounds was solved and refined from powder X-ray diffraction patterns complemented with spectroscopic information. The intermolecular interactions were studied from the refined crystal structures and low temperature magnetic measurements. Due to strong attractive forces between neighboring molecules, the resulting Ï€â€“Ï€ cloud overlapping enables the ferromagnetic coupling between metal centers on neighboring layers, which was actually observed for the solids containing imidazole and pyridine as intercalated molecules. For these two solids, the magnetic data were properly described with a model of six neighbors. For the solid containing 2-ethylimidazole and for 2D copper nitroprusside, a model of four neighbors in a plane is sufficient to obtain a reliable data fitting. - Highlights: â€¢ Intercalation of organic molecules in 2D copper (II) nitroprusside. â€¢ Molecular properties of intercalation compounds of 2D copper (II) nitroprusside. â€¢ Magnetic properties of hybrid inorganicâ€“organic solids. â€¢ Hybrid inorganicâ€“organic 3D framework.
Experimental observation of 3-D, impulsive reconnection events in a laboratory plasma
Dorfman, S.; Ji, H.; Yamada, M.; Yoo, J.; Lawrence, E.; Myers, C.; Tharp, T. D.
2014-01-15
Fast, impulsive reconnection is commonly observed in laboratory, space, and astrophysical plasmas. In this work, impulsive, local, 3-D reconnection is identified for the first time in a laboratory current sheet. The two-fluid, impulsive reconnection events observed on the Magnetic Reconnection Experiment (MRX) [Yamada et al., Phys Plasmas 4, 1936 (1997)] cannot be explained by 2-D models and are therefore fundamentally three-dimensional. Several signatures of flux ropes are identified with these events; 3-D high current density regions with O-point structure form during a slow buildup period that precedes a fast disruption of the reconnecting current layer. The observed drop in the reconnection current and spike in the reconnection rate during the disruption are due to ejection of these flux ropes from the layer. Underscoring the 3-D nature of the events, strong out-of-plane gradients in both the density and reconnecting magnetic field are found to play a key role in this process. Electromagnetic fluctuations in the lower hybrid frequency range are observed to peak at the disruption time; however, they are not the key physics responsible for the impulsive phenomena observed. Important features of the disruption dynamics cannot be explained by an anomalous resistivity model. An important discrepancy in the layer width and force balance between the collisionless regime of MRX and kinetic simulations is also revisited. The wider layers observed in MRX may be due to the formation of flux ropes with a wide range of sizes; consistent with this hypothesis, flux rope signatures are observed down to the smallest scales resolved by the diagnostics. Finally, a 3-D two-fluid model is proposed to explain how the observed out-of-plane variation may lead to a localized region of enhanced reconnection that spreads in the direction of the out-of-plane electron flow, ejecting flux ropes from the layer in a 3-D manner.
Explicit 2-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program
1996-08-07
DYNA2D* is a vectorized, explicit, two-dimensional, axisymmetric and plane strain finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic and hydrodynamic response of inelastic solids. DYNA2D* contains 13 material models and 9 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented in all machine versions are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic elastic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, rubber, high explosive burn, isotropic elastic-plastic, temperature-dependent elastic-plastic. The isotropic and temperature-dependent elastic-plastic models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 9 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack Tuesday high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, and tabulated.
Static & Dynamic Response of 2D Solids
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)
1996-07-15
NIKE2D is an implicit finite-element code for analyzing the finite deformation, static and dynamic response of two-dimensional, axisymmetric, plane strain, and plane stress solids. The code is fully vectorized and available on several computing platforms. A number of material models are incorporated to simulate a wide range of material behavior including elasto-placicity, anisotropy, creep, thermal effects, and rate dependence. Slideline algorithms model gaps and sliding along material interfaces, including interface friction, penetration and single surfacemoreÂ Â» contact. Interactive-graphics and rezoning is included for analyses with large mesh distortions. In addition to quasi-Newton and arc-length procedures, adaptive algorithms can be defined to solve the implicit equations using the solution language ISLAND. Each of these capabilities and more make NIKE2D a robust analysis tool.Â«Â less
Explicit 2-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)
1996-08-07
DYNA2D* is a vectorized, explicit, two-dimensional, axisymmetric and plane strain finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic and hydrodynamic response of inelastic solids. DYNA2D* contains 13 material models and 9 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented in all machine versions are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic elastic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, rubber, high explosive burn, isotropic elastic-plastic, temperature-dependent elastic-plastic. ThemoreÂ Â» isotropic and temperature-dependent elastic-plastic models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 9 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack Tuesday high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, and tabulated.Â«Â less
Static & Dynamic Response of 2D Solids
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)
1996-07-15
NIKE2D is an implicit finite-element code for analyzing the finite deformation, static and dynamic response of two-dimensional, axisymmetric, plane strain, and plane stress solids. The code is fully vectorized and available on several computing platforms. A number of material models are incorporated to simulate a wide range of material behavior including elasto-placicity, anisotropy, creep, thermal effects, and rate dependence. Slideline algorithms model gaps and sliding along material interfaces, including interface friction, penetration and single surfacemore »contact. Interactive-graphics and rezoning is included for analyses with large mesh distortions. In addition to quasi-Newton and arc-length procedures, adaptive algorithms can be defined to solve the implicit equations using the solution language ISLAND. Each of these capabilities and more make NIKE2D a robust analysis tool.« less
Stochastic Inversion of 2D Magnetotelluric Data
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)
2010-07-01
The algorithm is developed to invert 2D magnetotelluric (MT) data based on sharp boundary parametrization using a Bayesian framework. Within the algorithm, we consider the locations and the resistivity of regions formed by the interfaces are as unknowns. We use a parallel, adaptive finite-element algorithm to forward simulate frequency-domain MT responses of 2D conductivity structure. Those unknown parameters are spatially correlated and are described by a geostatistical model. The joint posterior probability distribution function ismoreÂ Â» explored by Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling methods. The developed stochastic model is effective for estimating the interface locations and resistivity. Most importantly, it provides details uncertainty information on each unknown parameter. Hardware requirements: PC, Supercomputer, Multi-platform, Workstation; Software requirements C and Fortan; Operation Systems/version is Linux/Unix or WindowsÂ«Â less
Phonon Polariton Behavior in 2D Materials
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Phonon Polariton Behavior in 2D Materials Print In a crystal, collective excitations can be treated as if they are quasiparticles. For example, an excited electron and its associated hole are an exciton; oscillations of conduction electrons in a metal are plasmons; and different modes of lattice vibrations are phonons. Furthermore, when such excitations interact strongly with photons, a new form of quasiparticle emerges: the "polariton." The ability to excite and control polaritons in
Phonon Polariton Behavior in 2D Materials
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Phonon Polariton Behavior in 2D Materials Print In a crystal, collective excitations can be treated as if they are quasiparticles. For example, an excited electron and its associated hole are an exciton; oscillations of conduction electrons in a metal are plasmons; and different modes of lattice vibrations are phonons. Furthermore, when such excitations interact strongly with photons, a new form of quasiparticle emerges: the "polariton." The ability to excite and control polaritons in
Phonon Polariton Behavior in 2D Materials
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Phonon Polariton Behavior in 2D Materials Print In a crystal, collective excitations can be treated as if they are quasiparticles. For example, an excited electron and its associated hole are an exciton; oscillations of conduction electrons in a metal are plasmons; and different modes of lattice vibrations are phonons. Furthermore, when such excitations interact strongly with photons, a new form of quasiparticle emerges: the "polariton." The ability to excite and control polaritons in
Phonon Polariton Behavior in 2D Materials
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Phonon Polariton Behavior in 2D Materials Print In a crystal, collective excitations can be treated as if they are quasiparticles. For example, an excited electron and its associated hole are an exciton; oscillations of conduction electrons in a metal are plasmons; and different modes of lattice vibrations are phonons. Furthermore, when such excitations interact strongly with photons, a new form of quasiparticle emerges: the "polariton." The ability to excite and control polaritons in
Phonon Polariton Behavior in 2D Materials
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Phonon Polariton Behavior in 2D Materials Print In a crystal, collective excitations can be treated as if they are quasiparticles. For example, an excited electron and its associated hole are an exciton; oscillations of conduction electrons in a metal are plasmons; and different modes of lattice vibrations are phonons. Furthermore, when such excitations interact strongly with photons, a new form of quasiparticle emerges: the "polariton." The ability to excite and control polaritons in
Tappan, Alexander S.; Cesarano, III, Joseph; Stuecker, John N.
2011-11-01
A nanocomposite thermite ink for use in inkjet, screen, and gravure printing. Embodiments of this invention do not require separation of the fuel and oxidizer constituents prior to application of the ink to the printed substrate.
3-D Galaxy-mapping Project Enters Construction Phase
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
3-D Galaxy-mapping Project Enters Construction Phase DESI (Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument) - a 3-D sky-mapping project that will measure the light of millions of galaxies and explore the nature of dark energy - has received approval to move forward with construction, which is scheduled to begin next year. Observations will start in January 2019.
Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Pitts, J. Roland
2010-05-25
Nano-composite materials are disclosed. An exemplary method of producing a nano-composite material may comprise co-sputtering a transition metal and a refractory metal in a reactive atmosphere. The method may also comprise co-depositing a transition metal and a refractory metal composite structure on a substrate. The method may further comprise thermally annealing the deposited transition metal and refractory metal composite structure in a reactive atmosphere.
Quantum Oscillations in an Interfacial 2D Electron Gas. (Technical...
Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)
Quantum Oscillations in an Interfacial 2D Electron Gas. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Quantum Oscillations in an Interfacial 2D Electron Gas. Abstract not provided....
Thermopower Enhancement by Fractional Layer Control in 2D Oxide...
Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)
Thermopower Enhancement by Fractional Layer Control in 2D Oxide Superlattices Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Thermopower Enhancement by Fractional Layer Control in 2D ...
Enhanced Absorption in 2D Materials Via Fano- Resonant Photonic...
Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)
Enhanced Absorption in 2D Materials Via Fano- Resonant Photonic Crystals Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Enhanced Absorption in 2D Materials Via Fano- Resonant Photonic ...
Molecular Predictors of 3D Morphogenesis by Breast Cancer Cell Lines in 3D Culture
Han, Ju; Chang, Hang; Giricz, Orsi; Lee, Genee; Baehner, Frederick; Gray, Joe; Bissell, Mina; Kenny, Paraic; Parvin, Bahram
2010-02-01
Correlative analysis of molecular markers with phenotypic signatures is the simplest model for hypothesis generation. In this paper, a panel of 24 breast cell lines was grown in 3D culture, their morphology was imaged through phase contrast microscopy, and computational methods were developed to segment and represent each colony at multiple dimensions. Subsequently, subpopulations from these morphological responses were identified through consensus clustering to reveal three clusters of round, grape-like, and stellate phenotypes. In some cases, cell lines with particular pathobiological phenotypes clustered together (e.g., ERBB2 amplified cell lines sharing the same morphometric properties as the grape-like phenotype). Next, associations with molecular features were realized through (i) differential analysis within each morphological cluster, and (ii) regression analysis across the entire panel of cell lines. In both cases, the dominant genes that are predictive of the morphological signatures were identified. Specifically, PPAR? has been associated with the invasive stellate morphological phenotype, which corresponds to triple-negative pathobiology. PPAR? has been validated through two supporting biological assays.
Detectability limitations with 3-D point reconstruction algorithms using digital radiography
Lindgren, Erik
2015-03-31
The estimated impact of pores in clusters on component fatigue will be highly conservative when based on 2-D rather than 3-D pore positions. To 3-D position and size defects using digital radiography and 3-D point reconstruction algorithms in general require a lower inspection time and in some cases work better with planar geometries than X-ray computed tomography. However, the increase in prior assumptions about the object and the defects will increase the intrinsic uncertainty in the resulting nondestructive evaluation output. In this paper this uncertainty arising when detecting pore defect clusters with point reconstruction algorithms is quantified using simulations. The simulation model is compared to and mapped to experimental data. The main issue with the uncertainty is the possible masking (detectability zero) of smaller defects around some other slightly larger defect. In addition, the uncertainty is explored in connection to the expected effects on the component fatigue life and for different amount of prior object-defect assumptions made.
Simion 3D Version 6.0 User`s Manual
Dahl, D.A.
1995-11-01
The original SIMION was an electrostatic lens analysis and design program developed by D.C. McGilvery at Latrobe University, Bundoora Victoria, Australia, 1977. SIMION for the PC, developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, shares little more than its name with the original McGilvery version. INEL`s fifth major SIMION release, version 6.0, represents a quantum improvement over previous versions. This C based program can model complex problems using an ion optics workbench that can hold up to 200 2D and/or 3D electrostatic/magnetic potential arrays. Arrays can have up to 10,000,000 points. SIMION 3D`s 32 bit virtual Graphics User Interface provides a highly interactive advanced user environment. All potential arrays are visualized as 3D objects that the user can cut away to inspect ion trajectories and potential energy surfaces. User programs have been greatly extended in versatility and power. A new geometry file option supports the definition of highly complex array geometry. Extensive algorithm modifications have dramatically improved this version`s computational speed and accuracy.
GBL-2D Version 1.0: a 2D geometry boolean library.
McBride, Cory L. (Elemental Technologies, American Fort, UT); Schmidt, Rodney Cannon; Yarberry, Victor R.; Meyers, Ray J. (Elemental Technologies, American Fort, UT)
2006-11-01
This report describes version 1.0 of GBL-2D, a geometric Boolean library for 2D objects. The library is written in C++ and consists of a set of classes and routines. The classes primarily represent geometric data and relationships. Classes are provided for 2D points, lines, arcs, edge uses, loops, surfaces and mask sets. The routines contain algorithms for geometric Boolean operations and utility functions. Routines are provided that incorporate the Boolean operations: Union(OR), XOR, Intersection and Difference. A variety of additional analytical geometry routines and routines for importing and exporting the data in various file formats are also provided. The GBL-2D library was originally developed as a geometric modeling engine for use with a separate software tool, called SummitView [1], that manipulates the 2D mask sets created by designers of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS). However, many other practical applications for this type of software can be envisioned because the need to perform 2D Boolean operations can arise in many contexts.
Real time 3D and heterogeneous data fusion
Little, C.Q.; Small, D.E.
1998-03-01
This project visualizes characterization data in a 3D setting, in real time. Real time in this sense means collecting the data and presenting it before it delays the user, and processing faster than the acquisition systems so no bottlenecks occur. The goals have been to build a volumetric viewer to display 3D data, demonstrate projecting other data, such as images, onto the 3D data, and display both the 3D and projected images as fast as the data became available. The authors have examined several ways to display 3D surface data. The most effective was generating polygonal surface meshes. They have created surface maps form a continuous stream of 3D range data, fused image data onto the geometry, and displayed the data with a standard 3D rendering package. In parallel with this, they have developed a method to project real-time images onto the surface created. A key component is mapping the data on the correct surfaces, which requires a-priori positional information along with accurate calibration of the camera and lens system.
Periodically sheared 2D Yukawa systems
KovÃ¡cs, AnikÃ³ Zsuzsa; Hartmann, Peter; DonkÃ³, ZoltÃ¡n
2015-10-15
We present non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation studies on the dynamic (complex) shear viscosity of a 2D Yukawa system. We have identified a non-monotonic frequency dependence of the viscosity at high frequencies and shear rates, an energy absorption maximum (local resonance) at the Einstein frequency of the system at medium shear rates, an enhanced collective wave activity, when the excitation is near the plateau frequency of the longitudinal wave dispersion, and the emergence of significant configurational anisotropy at small frequencies and high shear rates.
Suitability for 3D Printed Parts for Laboratory Use
Zwicker, Andrew P.; Bloom, Josh; Albertson, Robert; Gershman, Sophia
2014-08-01
3D printing has become popular for a variety of users, from industrial to the home hobbyist, to scientists and engineers interested in producing their own laboratory equipment. In order to determine the suitability of 3D printed parts for our plasma physics laboratory, we measured the accuracy, strength, vacuum compatibility, and electrical properties of pieces printed in plastic. The flexibility of rapidly creating custom parts has led to the 3D printer becoming an invaluable resource in our laboratory and is equally suitable for producing equipment for advanced undergraduate laboratories.
3D Printing a Classic Shelby Cobra | Department of Energy
7pt.2PerformanceBasedServiceAcquisition.pdf 37pt.2PerformanceBasedServiceAcquisition.pdf (1022.17 KB) More Documents & Publications Acquisitions___Communications.pdf Acquisition Guide Chapter 7.1 - Acquisition Planning One Acquisition Solution for Integrated Services (OASIS) - Brad DeMers, General Services Administration (GSA)
3D Printed Shelby Cobra 3D Printed Shelby Cobra Description ORNL's newly printed 3D car will be showcased at the 2015 NAIAS in Detroit. This "laboratory on
3D Printed Shelby Cobra | Department of Energy
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
3D Printed Shelby Cobra 3D Printed Shelby Cobra Description ORNL's newly printed 3D car will be showcased at the 2015 NAIAS in Detroit. This "laboratory on wheels" uses the Shelby Cobra design, celebrating the 50th anniversary of this model and honoring the first vehicle to be voted a national monument. The Shelby was printed at the Department of Energy's Manufacturing Demonstration Facility at ORNL using the BAAM (Big Area Additive Manufacturing) machine and is intended as a
3D Printing a Classic | Department of Energy
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
D Printing a Classic 3D Printing a Classic January 15, 2015 - 4:02pm Addthis The team from the Oak Ridge Manufacturing Demonstration Facility is at the Detroit Auto Show this week to display their latest accomplishment: a 3D-printed, electric-motor driven, Shelby Cobra. In just six weeks, the team went from designing the car in digital models, to 3D printing the frame and other parts with fiber-reinforced composite material, to assembling, finishing, and painting the final product. President
A New 2D-Transport, 1D-Diffusion Approximation of the Boltzmann Transport equation
Larsen, Edward
2013-06-17
The work performed in this project consisted of the derivation, implementation, and testing of a new, computationally advantageous approximation to the 3D Boltz- mann transport equation. The solution of the Boltzmann equation is the neutron flux in nuclear reactor cores and shields, but solving this equation is difficult and costly. The new â€œ2D/1Dâ€ approximation takes advantage of a special geometric feature of typical 3D reactors to approximate the neutron transport physics in a specific (ax- ial) direction, but not in the other two (radial) directions. The resulting equation is much less expensive to solve computationally, and its solutions are expected to be sufficiently accurate for many practical problems. In this project we formulated the new equation, discretized it using standard methods, developed a stable itera- tion scheme for solving the equation, implemented the new numerical scheme in the MPACT code, and tested the method on several realistic problems. All the hoped- for features of this new approximation were seen. For large, difficult problems, the resulting 2D/1D solution is highly accurate, and is calculated about 100 times faster than a 3D discrete ordinates simulation.
A Novel Approach for Introducing 3D Cloud Spatial Structure
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Novel Approach for Introducing 3D Cloud Spatial Structure Into 1D Radiative Transfer For original submission and image(s), see ARM Research Highlights http:www.arm.govscience...
3D Printed Microscope for Mobile Devices that Cost Pennies
Erikson, Rebecca; Baird, Cheryl; Hutchinson, Janine
2015-06-23
Scientists at PNNL have designed a 3D-printable microscope for mobile devices using pennies worth of plastic and glass materials. The microscope has a wide range of uses, from education to in-the-field science.
Printing 3D Catalytic Devices | The Ames Laboratory
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Printing 3D Catalytic Devices An error occurred. Try watching this video on www.youtube.com, or enable JavaScript if it is disabled in your browser. Ames Laboratory scientist Igor...
Metasurface skin invisibility cloak makes 3D objects disappear
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Metasurface skin invisibility cloak makes 3D objects disappear Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window) Click to share on ...
Full-3D Waveform Tomography for Southern California | Argonne...
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Full-3D Waveform Tomography for Southern California Authors: Lee, E., Chenm P., Jordan, ... Model Version 4.0 (CVM4) in Southern California as initial model, a staggered-grid ...
3D Printing Comes of Age | Department of Energy
Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]
and used only for prototype builds, to performing on the real factory floor. Watch the video about the 3D printing demonstration. Learn more about the Advanced Manufacturing Office
3D-Printed Car by Local Motors- The Strati
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
A timelapse video of the production process behind The Strati - the 3D-printed car by Local Motors, which manufactured with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and delivered at the International Manufacturing Technology Show (IMTS) in September of 2014.
The Development and Application of SCDAP-3D
Coryell, E.W.; Harvego, E.A.; Siefken, L.J.
2002-03-05
The SCDAP-3D computer code (Coryell 2001) has been developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the analysis of severe reactor accidents. A prominent feature of SCDAP-3D relative to other versions of the code is its linkage to the state-of-the-art thermal/hydraulic analysis capabilities of RELAP5-3D. Enhancements to the severe accident models include the ability to simulate high burnup and alternative fuel, as well as modifications to support advanced reactor analyses, such as those described by the Department of Energy's Generation IV (GenIV) initiative. Initial development of SCDAP-3D is complete and two widely varying but successful applications of the code are summarized. The first application is to large break loss of coolant accident analysis performed for a reactor with alternative fuel, and the second is a calculation of International Standard Problem 45 (ISP-45) or the QUENCH 6 experiment.
Development and Application of RELAP5-3D
Coryell, Eric Wesley; Harvego, Edwin Allan; Siefken, Larry James
2002-04-01
The SCDAP-3D computer code (Coryell 2001) has been developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the analysis of severe reactor accidents. A prominent feature of SCDAP-3D relative to other versions of the code is its linkage to the state-of-the-art thermal/hydraulic analysis capabilities of RELAP5-3D. Enhancements to the severe accident models include the ability to simulate high burnup and alternative fuel, as well as modifications to support advanced reactor analyses, such as those described by the Department of Energy's Generation IV (GenIV) initiative. Initial development of SCDAP-3D is complete and two widely varying but successful applications of the code are summarized. The first application is to large break loss of coolant accident analysis performed for a reactor with alternative fuel, and the second is a calculation of International Standard Problem 45 (ISP-45) or the QUENCH 6 experiment.
3D Printed Car at the International Manufacturing Technology...
Office of Environmental Management (EM)
Image: Courtesy of Local Motors Carbon Fiber Pellets 4 of 6 Carbon Fiber Pellets Pellets of plastic mixed with carbon fiber were used in the production process of the 3D-printed ...
3D Printed Microscope for Mobile Devices that Cost Pennies
Erikson, Rebecca; Baird, Cheryl; Hutchinson, Janine
2014-09-15
Scientists at PNNL have designed a 3D-printable microscope for mobile devices using pennies worth of plastic and glass materials. The microscope has a wide range of uses, from education to in-the-field science.
LLNL researchers outline what happens during metal 3D printing...
National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
are fused by a laser or electron beam based on a 3D computer-aided design (CAD) model. ... NNSA's systems administrators keep the computers running Meet a Machine: Explosive science ...
3D Covalent Organic Framework Materials database (Dataset) |...
Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)
Citation Details In-Document Search Title: 3D Covalent Organic Framework Materials ... DOE Contract Number: AC02-05CH11231 Resource Type: Dataset Data Type: Numeric Data ...
Microseismicity and 3-D Mapping of an Active Geothermal Field...
suggests an intersecting network of fractures with both NE and approximately NW trends. 3-D tomographic analyses of P-wave velocity, S-wave velocity, and the VpVs ratio are...
Future of 3D Printing | GE Global Research
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
In 2016, GE will enter a new jet engine into service called the CFM LEAP-the first in GE's line to incorporate 3D-printed parts. Specifically, it will be a combustion component ...
Roaming Mars and Space: 3D Technology Exploration from Home ...
Linda Silverman Senior Advisor, Tech-to-Market Office Erin Twamley Project and Web ... It is part of a growing culture of 3D Web innovation. Visit the code library. DOE's ...
Hanford Site - 100-HR-3-D | Department of Energy
Office of Environmental Management (EM)
D Hanford Site - 100-HR-3-D July 1, 2014 - 12:00pm Addthis US Department of Energy Groundwater Database Groundwater Master Report InstallationName, State: Hanford Site, WA Responsible DOE Office: Office of Environmental Management Plume Name: 100-HR-3-D Remediation Contractor: CHPRC PBS Number: 30 Report Last Updated: July 2014 with CY2013 data Contaminants Halogenated VOCs/SVOCs Present?: No Fuel Present? No Metals Present? Yes Isotopes Present? Yes Explosives Present? No Other Contaminants? No
Researchers 3D print ultralight supercapacitors | National Nuclear Security
National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
Administration | (NNSA) 3D print ultralight supercapacitors Monday, February 22, 2016 - 12:00am NNSA Blog The micro-architectured, ultra-lightweight supercapacitor material is able to retain energy on par with those made with electrodes 10 to 100 times thinner. For the first time ever, scientists at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and UC Santa Cruz have successfully 3D-printed supercapacitors using an ultra-lightweight graphene aerogel, opening the door to novel, unconstrained designs
Metasurface skin invisibility cloak makes 3D objects disappear
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Metasurface skin invisibility cloak makes 3D objects disappear Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window) Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window) Click to share on Pinterest (Opens in new window) Invisibility skin cloaks on the microscopic scale might prove valuable for hiding the detailed layout of microelectronic components or for security encryption purposes. This image is a A 3-D illustration of a metasurface skin cloak made from
Texture splats for 3D vector and scalar field visualization
Crawfis, R.A.; Max, N.
1993-04-06
Volume Visualization is becoming an important tool for understanding large 3D datasets. A popular technique for volume rendering is known as splatting. With new hardware architectures offering substantial improvements in the performance of rendering texture mapped objects, we present textured splats. An ideal reconstruction function for 3D signals is developed which can be used as a texture map for a splat. Extensions to the basic splatting technique are then developed to additionally represent vector fields.
Ng, Angela; Brock, Kristy K.; Sharpe, Michael B.; Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario ; Moseley, Joanne L.; Craig, Tim; Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario ; Hodgson, David C.
2012-11-15
Purpose: Understanding the relationship between normal tissue dose and delayed radiation toxicity is an important component of developing more effective radiation therapy. Late outcome data are generally available only for patients who have undergone 2-dimensional (2D) treatment plans. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of 3D normal tissue dosimetry derived from reconstructed 2D treatment plans in Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) patients. Methods and Materials: Three-dimensional lung, heart, and breast volumes were reconstructed from 2D planning radiographs for HL patients who received mediastinal radiation therapy. For each organ, a reference 3D organ was modified with patient-specific structural information, using deformable image processing software. Radiation therapy plans were reconstructed by applying treatment parameters obtained from patient records to the reconstructed 3D volumes. For each reconstructed organ mean dose (D{sub mean}) and volumes covered by at least 5 Gy (V{sub 5}) and 20Gy (V{sub 20}) were calculated. This process was performed for 15 patients who had both 2D and 3D planning data available to compare the reconstructed normal tissue doses with those derived from the primary CT planning data and also for 10 historically treated patients with only 2D imaging available. Results: For patients with 3D planning data, the normal tissue doses could be reconstructed accurately using 2D planning data. Median differences in D{sub mean} between reconstructed and actual plans were 0.18 Gy (lungs), -0.15 Gy (heart), and 0.30 Gy (breasts). Median difference in V{sub 5} and V{sub 20} were less than 2% for each organ. Reconstructed 3D dosimetry was substantially higher in historical mantle-field treatments than contemporary involved-field mediastinal treatments: average D{sub mean} values were 15.2 Gy vs 10.6 Gy (lungs), 27.0 Gy vs 14.3 Gy (heart), and 8.0 Gy vs 3.2 Gy (breasts). Conclusions: Three-dimensional reconstruction of absorbed dose to
McBride, Cory L. (Elemental Technologies, American Fort, UT); Yarberry, Victor R.; Schmidt, Rodney Cannon; Meyers, Ray J.
2006-11-01
This report describes the SummitView 1.0 computer code developed at Sandia National Laboratories. SummitView is designed to generate a 3D solid model, amenable to visualization and meshing, that represents the end state of a microsystem fabrication process such as the SUMMiT (Sandia Ultra-Planar Multilevel MEMS Technology) V process. Functionally, SummitView performs essentially the same computational task as an earlier code called the 3D Geometry modeler [1]. However, because SummitView is based on 2D instead of 3D data structures and operations, it has significant speed and robustness advantages. As input it requires a definition of both the process itself and the collection of individual 2D masks created by the designer and associated with each of the process steps. The definition of the process is contained in a special process definition file [2] and the 2D masks are contained in MEM format files [3]. The code is written in C++ and consists of a set of classes and routines. The classes represent the geometric data and the SUMMiT V process steps. Classes are provided for the following process steps: Planar Deposition, Planar Etch, Conformal Deposition, Dry Etch, Wet Etch and Release Etch. SummitView is built upon the 2D Boolean library GBL-2D [4], and thus contains all of that library's functionality.
New 3-D coordination polymers based on semi-rigid V-shape tetracarboxylates
Huang, Jing-Jing; Xu, Wei; Wang, Yan-Ning; Yu, Jie-Hui; Zhang, Ping; Xu, Ji-Qing
2015-03-15
Under the hydrothermal conditions, the reactions of transition-metal salts, tetracarboxylic acids and N,Nâ€²-donor ligands yielded three new coordination polymers as [Cu{sub 4}(fph){sub 2}(bpe){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]Â·2H{sub 2}O (fph=4,4â€²-(hexafluoroisopropylidene)diphthalate, bpe=1,2-bis(pyridyl)ethylene) 1, [Co{sub 2}(fph)(bpa){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]Â·3H{sub 2}O (bpa=1,2-bis(pyridyl)ethylane) 2, and [Ni(H{sub 2}O)(H{sub 2}oph)(bpa)] (oph=4,4â€²-oxydiphthalate) 3. X-ray single-crystal diffraction analysis revealed that the title three compounds all possess the three-dimensional (3-D) network structures. For compound 1, the fph molecules first link the Cu{sup 2+} ions into a two-dimensional (2-D) wave-like layer with a (4,4) topology. The bpe molecules act as the second linkers, extending the 2-D layers into a 3-D network. For compound 2, the fph molecules still serve as the first connectors, linking the Co{sup 2+} ions into a one-dimensional (1-D) tube-like chain. Then the bpa molecules propagate the chains into a 3-D (4,4,4)-connected network. In the formation of the 3-D network of compound 3, the oph molecule does not play a role. The bpa molecules as well as the water molecules act as a mixed bridge. Only a kind of 4-connected metal node is observed in compound 3. The magnetic properties of compounds 1â€“3 were investigated and all exhibit the predominant antiferromegnetic magnetic behaviors. - Graphical abstract: Structures of three semi-rigid V-shape tetracarboxylate-based coordination polymers were reported, and their magnetic properties were investigated. - Highlights: â€¢ Structures of three tetracarboxylate-based coordination polymers were reported. â€¢ Role of organic bases in metalâ€“tetracarboxylate compounds was discussed. â€¢ Characters of V-shape and semi-rigidity for tetracarboxylate play a key role in crystal growth. â€¢ Their magnetic properties were investigated.
Extra Dimensions: 3D and Time in PDF Documentation
Graf, N.A.; /SLAC
2012-04-11
Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide, non-technical audience. We discuss how the field of radiation imaging could benefit from incorporating full 3D information about not only the detectors, but also the results of the experimental analyses, in its electronic publications. In this article, we present examples drawn from high-energy physics, mathematics and molecular biology which take advantage of this functionality. We demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input.
Advanced 3D Sensing and Visualization System for Unattended Monitoring
Carlson, J.J.; Little, C.Q.; Nelson, C.L.
1999-01-01
The purpose of this project was to create a reliable, 3D sensing and visualization system for unattended monitoring. The system provides benefits for several of Sandia's initiatives including nonproliferation, treaty verification, national security and critical infrastructure surety. The robust qualities of the system make it suitable for both interior and exterior monitoring applications. The 3D sensing system combines two existing sensor technologies in a new way to continuously maintain accurate 3D models of both static and dynamic components of monitored areas (e.g., portions of buildings, roads, and secured perimeters in addition to real-time estimates of the shape, location, and motion of humans and moving objects). A key strength of this system is the ability to monitor simultaneous activities on a continuous basis, such as several humans working independently within a controlled workspace, while also detecting unauthorized entry into the workspace. Data from the sensing system is used to identi~ activities or conditions that can signi~ potential surety (safety, security, and reliability) threats. The system could alert a security operator of potential threats or could be used to cue other detection, inspection or warning systems. An interactive, Web-based, 3D visualization capability was also developed using the Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML). The intex%ace allows remote, interactive inspection of a monitored area (via the Internet or Satellite Links) using a 3D computer model of the area that is rendered from actual sensor data.
Highly compressible 3D periodic graphene aerogel microlattices
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Zhu, Cheng; Han, T. Yong-Jin; Duoss, Eric B.; Golobic, Alexandra M.; Kuntz, Joshua D.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.; Worsley, Marcus A.
2015-04-22
Graphene is a two-dimensional material that offers a unique combination of low density, exceptional mechanical properties, large surface area and excellent electrical conductivity. Recent progress has produced bulk 3D assemblies of graphene, such as graphene aerogels, but they possess purely stochastic porous networks, which limit their performance compared with the potential of an engineered architecture. Here we report the fabrication of periodic graphene aerogel microlattices, possessing an engineered architecture via a 3D printing technique known as direct ink writing. The 3D printed graphene aerogels are lightweight, highly conductive and exhibit supercompressibility (up to 90% compressive strain). Moreover, the Youngâ€™s modulimoreÂ Â» of the 3D printed graphene aerogels show an order of magnitude improvement over bulk graphene materials with comparable geometric density and possess large surface areas. Ultimately, adapting the 3D printing technique to graphene aerogels realizes the possibility of fabricating a myriad of complex aerogel architectures for a broad range of applications.Â«Â less
3D automatic anatomy segmentation based on iterative graph-cut-ASM
Chen, Xinjian; Bagci, Ulas
2011-08-15
Purpose: This paper studies the feasibility of developing an automatic anatomy segmentation (AAS) system in clinical radiology and demonstrates its operation on clinical 3D images. Methods: The AAS system, the authors are developing consists of two main parts: object recognition and object delineation. As for recognition, a hierarchical 3D scale-based multiobject method is used for the multiobject recognition task, which incorporates intensity weighted ball-scale (b-scale) information into the active shape model (ASM). For object delineation, an iterative graph-cut-ASM (IGCASM) algorithm is proposed, which effectively combines the rich statistical shape information embodied in ASM with the globally optimal delineation capability of the GC method. The presented IGCASM algorithm is a 3D generalization of the 2D GC-ASM method that they proposed previously in Chen et al.[Proc. SPIE, 7259, 72590C1-72590C-8 (2009)]. The proposed methods are tested on two datasets comprised of images obtained from 20 patients (10 male and 10 female) of clinical abdominal CT scans, and 11 foot magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. The test is for four organs (liver, left and right kidneys, and spleen) segmentation, five foot bones (calcaneus, tibia, cuboid, talus, and navicular). The recognition and delineation accuracies were evaluated separately. The recognition accuracy was evaluated in terms of translation, rotation, and scale (size) error. The delineation accuracy was evaluated in terms of true and false positive volume fractions (TPVF, FPVF). The efficiency of the delineation method was also evaluated on an Intel Pentium IV PC with a 3.4 GHZ CPU machine. Results: The recognition accuracies in terms of translation, rotation, and scale error over all organs are about 8 mm, 10 deg. and 0.03, and over all foot bones are about 3.5709 mm, 0.35 deg. and 0.025, respectively. The accuracy of delineation over all organs for all subjects as expressed in TPVF and FPVF is 93.01% and 0.22%, and
Nanocomposite protective coatings for battery anodes (Patent...
Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)
Nanocomposite protective coatings for battery anodes Title: Nanocomposite protective ... USDOE Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 25 ENERGY STORAGE
Improved time-space method for 3-D heat transfer problems including global warming
Saitoh, T.S.; Wakashima, Shinichiro
1999-07-01
In this paper, the Time-Space Method (TSM) which has been proposed for solving general heat transfer and fluid flow problems was improved in order to cover global and urban warming. The TSM is effective in almost all-transient heat transfer and fluid flow problems, and has been already applied to the 2-D melting problems (or moving boundary problems). The computer running time will be reduced to only 1/100th--1/1000th of the existing schemes for 2-D and 3-D problems. However, in order to apply to much larger-scale problems, for example, global warming, urban warming and general ocean circulation, the SOR method (or other iterative methods) in four dimensions is somewhat tedious and provokingly slow. Motivated by the above situation, the authors improved the speed of iteration of the previous TSM by introducing the following ideas: (1) Timewise chopping: Time domain is chopped into small peaches to save memory requirement; (2) Adaptive iteration: Converged region is eliminated for further iteration; (3) Internal selective iteration: Equation with slow iteration speed in iterative procedure is selectively iterated to accelerate entire convergence; and (4) False transient integration: False transient term is added to the Poisson-type equation and the relevant solution is regarded as a parabolic equation. By adopting the above improvements, the higher-order finite different schemes and the hybrid mesh, the computer running time for the TSM is reduced to some 1/4600th of the conventional explicit method for a typical 3-D natural convection problem in a closed cavity. The proposed TSM will be more efficacious for large-scale environmental problems, such as global warming, urban warming and general ocean circulation, in which a tremendous computing time would be required.
3D circuit integration for Vertex and other detectors
Yarema, Ray; /Fermilab
2007-09-01
High Energy Physics continues to push the technical boundaries for electronics. There is no area where this is truer than for vertex detectors. Lower mass and power along with higher resolution and radiation tolerance are driving forces. New technologies such as SOI CMOS detectors and three dimensional (3D) integrated circuits offer new opportunities to meet these challenges. The fundamentals for SOI CMOS detectors and 3D integrated circuits are discussed. Examples of each approach for physics applications are presented. Cost issues and ways to reduce development costs are discussed.
STELLOPT Modeling of the 3D Diagnostic Response in ITER
Lazerson, Samuel A
2013-05-07
The ITER three dimensional diagnostic response to an n=3 resonant magnetic perturbation is modeled using the STELLOPT code. The in-vessel coils apply a resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) fi eld which generates a 4 cm edge displacement from axisymmetry as modeled by the VMEC 3D equilibrium code. Forward modeling of flux loop and magnetic probe response with the DIAGNO code indicates up to 20 % changes in measured plasma signals. Simulated LIDAR measurements of electron temperature indicate 2 cm shifts on the low field side of the plasma. This suggests that the ITER diagnostic will be able to diagnose the 3D structure of the equilibria.