National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for 241-c-103 organic vapor

  1. EA-0881: Tank 241-c-103 Organic Vapor and Liquid Characterization and Supporting Activities, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to sample the vapor space and liquid waste and perform other supporting activities in Tank 241-C-103 located in the 241-C Tank Farm on the...

  2. Removal of floating organic in Hanford Waste Tank 241-C-103 restart plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, T.R.; Hanson, C.

    1994-10-03

    The decision whether or not to remove the organic layer from Waste Tank 241-C-103 was deferred until May, 1995. The following restart plan was prepared for removal of the organic if the decision is to remove the organic from the waste tank 241-C-103.

  3. Engineering work plan for tank 241-C-103 vapor phase characterization (ECN 613188). Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conrad, R.B.

    1994-10-05

    The tasks described by this work plan have been completed. The purpose of this revision it to document what actually occurred during the performance of this work plan. The scope was and is limited to phases 1 and 2 as described in the program plan, revision 1. Phases 1 and 2 include the tank 241-C-103 (C-103) vapor. For economic and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) reasons, we will limit our scope to characterize the C-103 vapor phase for the categories that could be expected to impact facility worker safety from a toxicological and flammability standpoint. In anticipation that a vapor treatment system may be required, categories necessary for design will also be included. It will be the intent of the C-103 vapor characterization program to: (1) identify the substances from the above list of categories that are applicable to the issues involving C-103, and (2) implement a phased plan which will develop the organic vapor phase characterization method and then characterize the organics and the other selected substances to the required quantitative certainty.

  4. Systems engineering study: tank 241-C-103 organic skimming,storage, treatment and disposal options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klem, M.J.

    1996-10-23

    This report evaluates alternatives for pumping, storing, treating and disposing of the separable phase organic layer in Hanford Site Tank 241-C-103. The report provides safety and technology based preferences and recommendations. Two major options and several varations of these options were identified. The major options were: 1) transfer both the organic and pumpable aqueous layers to a double-shell tank as part of interim stabilization using existing salt well pumping equipment or 2) skim the organic to an above ground before interim stabilization of Tank 241-C-103. Other options to remove the organic were considered but rejected following preliminary evaluation.

  5. Engineering task plan for the vapor monitor installation into 241-C-103 tank

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hertelendy, N.A.

    1994-12-01

    A vapor flow monitor is to be installed into the 241-C-103 tank`s exhaust, just downstream of the HEPA filter. The flow monitor system includes the flow sensor, the baffle assembly, the signal conditioning and control electronics, and a chart recorder. The electronics package and the chart recorder are installed into a small, heated instrument cabinet that is mounted on the same steel pallet on which the flowmeter and the diffuser assembly is mounted. The flowmeter is connected to the HEPA filter with an unheated, un-insulated flex hose. An automatic drain, upstream of the flowmeter, is designed to automatically drain the condensate into an evaporating pan. The flowmeter is heated with a temperature controlled heater to avoid condensation.

  6. Removal of Separable Organic From Tank 241-C-103 Scoping Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KOCH, M.R.

    2000-05-16

    This study is based on previous evaluations/proposals for removing the floating organic layer in C-103. A practical method is described with assumptions, cost and schedule estimates, and risks. Proposed operational steps include bulk organic removal, phase separation, organic washing and offsite disposal, followed by an in-situ polishing process.

  7. EA-0881: Final Environmental Assessment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Tank 241-c-103 Organic Vapor and Liquid Characterization and Supporting Activities, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington)

  8. EA-0881: Finding of No Significant Impact

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Tank 241-c-103 Organic Vapor and Liquid Characterization and Supporting Activities, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

  9. Organic vapor jet printing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R

    2012-10-23

    An organic vapor jet printing system includes a pump for increasing the pressure of an organic flux.

  10. Organic vapor jet printing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R.

    2016-05-03

    An organic vapor jet printing system includes a pump for increasing the pressure of an organic flux.

  11. Process for recovering organic vapors from air

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Richard W.

    1985-01-01

    A process for recovering and concentrating organic vapor from a feed stream of air having an organic vapor content of no more than 20,000 ppm by volume. A thin semipermeable membrane is provided which has a feed side and a permeate side, a selectivity for organic vapor over air of at least 50, as measured by the ratio of organic vapor permeability to nitrogen permeability, and a permeability of organic vapor of at least 3.times.10.sup.-7 cm.sup.3 (STP) cm/cm.sup.2 sec.cm Hg. The feed stream is passed across the feed side of the thin semipermeable membrane while providing a pressure on the permeate side which is lower than the feed side by creating a partial vacuum on the permeate side so that organic vapor passes preferentially through the membrane to form an organic vapor depleted air stream on the feed side and an organic vapor enriched stream on the permeate side. The organic vapor which has passed through the membrane is compressed and condensed to recover the vapor as a liquid.

  12. Quantitative organic vapor-particle sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gundel, Lara; Daisey, Joan M.; Stevens, Robert K.

    1998-01-01

    A quantitative organic vapor-particle sampler for sampling semi-volatile organic gases and particulate components. A semi-volatile organic reversible gas sorbent macroreticular resin agglomerates of randomly packed microspheres with the continuous porous structure of particles ranging in size between 0.05-10 .mu.m for use in an integrated diffusion vapor-particle sampler.

  13. Gas Separation Using Organic-Vapor-Resistent Membranes In Conjunctin With Organic-Vapor-Selective Membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Richard W.; Pinnau, Ingo; He, Zhenjie; Da Costa, Andre R.; Daniels, Ramin; Amo, Karl D.; Wijmans, Johannes G.

    2003-06-03

    A process for treating a gas mixture containing at least an organic compound gas or vapor and a second gas, such as natural gas, refinery off-gas or air. The process uses two sequential membrane separation steps, one using membrane selective for the organic compound over the second gas, the other selective for the second gas over the organic vapor. The second-gas-selective membranes use a selective layer made from a polymer having repeating units of a fluorinated polymer, and demonstrate good resistance to plasticization by the organic components in the gas mixture under treatment, and good recovery after exposure to liquid aromatic hydrocarbons. The membrane steps can be combined in either order.

  14. Analysis of organic vapors with laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nozari, Hadi; Tavassoli, Seyed Hassan; Rezaei, Fatemeh

    2015-09-15

    In this paper, laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is utilized in the study of acetone, ethanol, methanol, cyclohexane, and nonane vapors. Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen atomic emission spectra have been recorded following laser-induced breakdown of the organic vapors that are mixed with air inside a quartz chamber at atmospheric pressure. The plasma is generated with focused, Q-switched Nd:YAG radiation at the wavelength of 1064 nm. The effects of ignition and vapor pressure are discussed in view of the appearance of the emission spectra. The recorded spectra are proportional to the vapor pressure in air. The hydrogen and oxygen contributions diminish gradually with consecutive laser-plasma events without gas flow. The results show that LIBS can be used to characterize organic vapor.

  15. Dosimeter for monitoring vapors and aerosols of organic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vo-Dinh, T.

    1987-07-14

    A dosimeter is provided for collecting and detecting vapors and aerosols of organic compounds. The dosimeter comprises a lightweight, passive device that can be conveniently worn by a person as a badge or placed at a stationary location. The dosimeter includes a sample collector comprising a porous web treated with a chemical for inducing molecular displacement and enhancing phosphorescence. Compounds are collected onto the web by molecular diffusion. The web also serves as the sample medium for detecting the compounds by a room temperature phosphorescence technique. 7 figs.

  16. Dosimeter for monitoring vapors and aerosols of organic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    1987-01-01

    A dosimeter is provided for collecting and detecting vapors and aerosols of organic compounds. The dosimeter comprises a lightweight, passive device that can be conveniently worn by a person as a badge or placed at a stationary location. The dosimeter includes a sample collector comprising a porous web treated with a chemical for inducing molecular displacement and enhancing phosphorescence. Compounds are collected onto the web by molecular diffusion. The web also serves as the sample medium for detecting the compounds by a room temperature phosphorescence technique.

  17. Liquid-phase and vapor-phase dehydration of organic/water solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huang, Yu; Ly, Jennifer; Aldajani, Tiem; Baker, Richard W.

    2011-08-23

    Processes for dehydrating an organic/water solution by pervaporation or vapor separation using fluorinated membranes. The processes are particularly useful for treating mixtures containing light organic components, such as ethanol, isopropanol or acetic acid.

  18. Organic solvent vapor sensitive methylammonium lead trihalide film formation for efficient hybrid perovskite solar cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lian, Jiarong; Wang, Qi; Yuan, Yongbo; Shao, Yuchuan; Huang, Jinsong

    2015-03-25

    In this study, the anisotropic electronic properties of the perovskite crystals originating from their non-cubic crystal structures can potentially give rise to the grain orientation correlated photovoltaic device performance. Here we report that an organic solvent vapor atmosphere introduced during the spin-coating and formation of perovskite films changes the orientation and size of perovskite grains. It was found that slightly larger but much more oriented methylammonium lead trihalide (CH3NH3PbI3) grains could be obtained under 1,2-dichlorobenzene (DCB) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) vapor atmospheres. The devices with more oriented grains outperformed regular devices with more random grains by a 50 mV largermore » open circuit voltage as well as a slightly increased fill factor. The device efficiency enhancement can be attributed to the longer charge recombination lifetime resulting from the reduced trap density and oriented grains. This result is important in providing guidelines for comparing the results from various groups because organic solvent vapors are generally present in a sealed glovebox for perovskite solar cell fabrication.« less

  19. Organic solvent vapor sensitive methylammonium lead trihalide film formation for efficient hybrid perovskite solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lian, Jiarong; Wang, Qi; Yuan, Yongbo; Shao, Yuchuan; Huang, Jinsong

    2015-03-25

    In this study, the anisotropic electronic properties of the perovskite crystals originating from their non-cubic crystal structures can potentially give rise to the grain orientation correlated photovoltaic device performance. Here we report that an organic solvent vapor atmosphere introduced during the spin-coating and formation of perovskite films changes the orientation and size of perovskite grains. It was found that slightly larger but much more oriented methylammonium lead trihalide (CH3NH3PbI3) grains could be obtained under 1,2-dichlorobenzene (DCB) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) vapor atmospheres. The devices with more oriented grains outperformed regular devices with more random grains by a 50 mV larger open circuit voltage as well as a slightly increased fill factor. The device efficiency enhancement can be attributed to the longer charge recombination lifetime resulting from the reduced trap density and oriented grains. This result is important in providing guidelines for comparing the results from various groups because organic solvent vapors are generally present in a sealed glovebox for perovskite solar cell fabrication.

  20. Method of making AlInSb by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Biefeld, Robert M. (Albuquerque, NM); Allerman, Andrew A. (Albuquerque, NM); Baucom, Kevin C. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2000-01-01

    A method for producing aluminum-indium-antimony materials by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). This invention provides a method of producing Al.sub.X In.sub.1-x Sb crystalline materials by MOCVD wherein an Al source material, an In source material and an Sb source material are supplied as a gas to a heated substrate in a chamber, said Al source material, In source material, and Sb source material decomposing at least partially below 525.degree. C. to produce Al.sub.x In.sub.1-x Sb crystalline materials wherein x is greater than 0.002 and less than one.

  1. Life cycle cost study for coated conductor manufacture by metal organic chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chapman, J.N.

    1999-07-13

    The purpose of this report is to calculate the cost of producing high temperature superconducting wire by the Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) process. The technology status is reviewed from the literature and a plant conceptual design is assumed for the cost calculation. The critical issues discussed are the high cost of the metal organic precursors, the material utilization efficiency and the capability of the final product as measured by the critical current density achieved. Capital, operating and material costs are estimated and summed as the basis for calculating the cost per unit length of wire. Sensitivity analyses of key assumptions are examined to determine their effects on the final wire cost. Additionally, the cost of wire on the basis of cost per kiloampere per meter is calculated for operation at lower temperatures than the liquid nitrogen boiling temperature. It is concluded that this process should not be ruled out on the basis of high cost of precursors alone.

  2. Chemical sensing of copper phthalocyanine sol-gel glass through organic vapors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ridhi, R.; Gawri, Isha; Abbas, Saeed J.; Saini, G. S. S.; Tripathi, S. K.

    2015-05-15

    The sensitivities of metallophthalocyanine to vapor phase electron donors has gained significance in many areas and disciplines due to their sensing properties and ease of operation. In the present study the interaction mechanism of organic vapors in Copper Phthalocyanine (CuPc) sol-gel glass has been studied. The interaction mechanism is affected by many factors like morphology, electrical or optical properties of film. CuPc sol-gel glass has been synthesized using chemical route sol-gel method. Its structural characterization was conducted using XRD and the amorphous nature of the silicate glass was observed with characteristic α polymorph phase of CuPc at around 6.64° with 13.30Å interplanar spacing. The size of the particle as determined using Debbye Scherre’s formula comes out around 15.5 nm. The presence of α phase of CuPc was confirmed using FTIR with the appearance of crystal parameter marker band at 787 cm-1. Apart from this A2u and Eu symmetry bands of CuPc have also been observed. The UV absorption spectrum of CuPc exhibits absorption peaks owing to π→ π* and n→ π* transitions. A blue shift in the prepared CuPc glass has been observed as compared to the dopant CuPc salt indicating increase of band gap. A split in B (Soret) band and Q band appears as observed with the help of Lorentzian fitting. CuPc sol gel glass has been exposed with chemical vapors of Methanol, Benzene and Bromine individually and the electrical measurements have been carried out. These measurements show the variation in conductivity and the interaction mechanism has been analyzed.

  3. Double-sided reel-to-reel metal-organic chemical vapor deposition...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Subject: 75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; BARIUM OXIDES; CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION; COPPER OXIDES; CRITICAL CURRENT; HIGH-TC SUPERCONDUCTORS; ...

  4. A smart sensor system for trace organic vapor detection using a temperature-controlled array of surface acoustic wave vapor sensors, automated preconcentrator tubes, and pattern recognition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grate, J.W.; Rose-Pehrsson, S.L.; Klusty, M.; Wohltjen, H.

    1993-05-01

    A smart sensor system for the detection, of toxic organophosphorus and toxic organosulfur vapors at trace concentrations has been designed, fabricated, and tested against a wide variety of vapor challenges. The key features of the system are: An array of four surface acoustic wave (SAW) vapor sensors, temperature control of the vapor sensors, the use of pattern recognition to analyze the sensor data, and an automated sampling system including thermally-desorbed preconcentrator tubes (PCTs).

  5. Testing of a model to estimate vapor concentration of various organic chemicals. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bakalyar, S.M.

    1990-01-01

    A model developed by Dr. Parker C. Reist to predict the build-up and decay rates of vapor concentrations following a chemical spill and clean-up was tested. The chemicals tested were: acetone, butyl acetate, ethyl acetate, hexane, methylene chloride, methyl ethyl ketone, and toluene. The evaporation rates of these chemicals were determined both by prediction, using a model developed by I. Kawamura and D. Mackay, and empirically and these rates were used in the Reist model. Chamber experiments were done to measure actual building-up and decay of vapor concentrations for simulated spills and simulated clean-up.

  6. Novel Low Cost Organic Vapor Jet Printing of Striped High Efficiency Phosphorescent OLEDs for White Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Hack

    2008-12-31

    In this program, Universal Display Corporation and University of Michigan proposed to integrate three innovative concepts to meet the DOE's Solid State Lighting (SSL) goals: (1) high-efficiency phosphorescent organic light emitting device (PHOLED{trademark}) technology, (2) a white lighting design that is based on a series of red, green and blue OLED stripes, and (3) the use of a novel cost-effective, high rate, mask-less deposition process called organic vapor jet printing (OVJP). Our PHOLED technology offers up to four-times higher power efficiency than other OLED approaches for general lighting. We believe that one of the most promising approaches to maximizing the efficiency of OLED lighting sources is to produce stripes of the three primary colors at such a pitch (200-500 {mu}m) that they appear as a uniform white light to an observer greater than 1 meter (m) away from the illumination source. Earlier work from a SBIR Phase 1 entitled 'White Illumination Sources Using Striped Phosphorescent OLEDs' suggests that stripe widths of less than 500 {mu}m appear uniform from a distance of 1m without the need for an external diffuser. In this program, we intend to combine continued advances in this PHOLED technology with the striped RGB lighting design to demonstrate a high-efficiency, white lighting source. Using this background technology, the team has focused on developing and demonstrating the novel cost-effective OVJP process to fabricate these high-efficiency white PHOLED light sources. Because this groundbreaking OVJP process is a direct printing approach that enables the OLED stripes to be printed without a shadow mask, OVJP offers very high material utilization and high throughput without the costs and wastage associated with a shadow mask (i.e. the waste of material that deposits on the shadow mask itself). As a direct printing technique, OVJP also has the potential to offer ultra-high deposition rates (> 1,000 Angstroms/second) for any size or shaped

  7. Effects of polymethylmethacrylate-transfer residues on the growth of organic semiconductor molecules on chemical vapor deposited graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kratzer, Markus Teichert, Christian; Bayer, Bernhard C.; Kidambi, Piran R.; Matkovi?, Aleksandar; Gaji?, Rado; Cabrero-Vilatela, Andrea; Weatherup, Robert S.; Hofmann, Stephan

    2015-03-09

    Scalably grown and transferred graphene is a highly promising material for organic electronic applications, but controlled interfacing of graphene thereby remains a key challenge. Here, we study the growth characteristics of the important organic semiconductor molecule para-hexaphenyl (6P) on chemical vapor deposited graphene that has been transferred with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) onto oxidized Si wafer supports. A particular focus is on the influence of PMMA residual contamination, which we systematically reduce by H{sub 2} annealing prior to 6P deposition. We find that 6P grows in a flat-lying needle-type morphology, surprisingly independent of the level of PMMA residue and of graphene defects. Wrinkles in the graphene typically act as preferential nucleation centers. Residual PMMA does however limit the length of the resulting 6P needles by restricting molecular diffusion/attachment. We discuss the implications for organic device fabrication, with particular regard to contamination and defect tolerance.

  8. Metal organic chemical vapor deposition of 111-v compounds on silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vernon, Stanley M.

    1986-01-01

    Expitaxial composite comprising thin films of a Group III-V compound semiconductor such as gallium arsenide (GaAs) or gallium aluminum arsenide (GaAlAs) on single crystal silicon substrates are disclosed. Also disclosed is a process for manufacturing, by chemical deposition from the vapor phase, epitaxial composites as above described, and to semiconductor devices based on such epitaxial composites. The composites have particular utility for use in making light sensitive solid state solar cells.

  9. High mobility single-crystalline-like GaAs thin films on inexpensive flexible metal substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dutta, P. Rathi, M.; Gao, Y.; Yao, Y.; Selvamanickam, V.; Zheng, N.; Ahrenkiel, P.; Martinez, J.

    2014-09-01

    We demonstrate heteroepitaxial growth of single-crystalline-like n and p-type doped GaAs thin films on inexpensive, flexible, and light-weight metal foils by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. Single-crystalline-like Ge thin film on biaxially textured templates made by ion beam assisted deposition on metal foil served as the epitaxy enabling substrate for GaAs growth. The GaAs films exhibited strong (004) preferred orientation, sharp in-plane texture, low grain misorientation, strong photoluminescence, and a defect density of ?10{sup 7?}cm{sup ?2}. Furthermore, the GaAs films exhibited hole and electron mobilities as high as 66 and 300?cm{sup 2}/V-s, respectively. High mobility single-crystalline-like GaAs thin films on inexpensive metal substrates can pave the path for roll-to-roll manufacturing of flexible III-V solar cells for the mainstream photovoltaics market.

  10. The effect of dry and wet deposition of condensable vapors on secondary organic aerosols concentrations over the continental US

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Knote, C.; Hodzic, A.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2014-05-26

    The effect of dry and wet deposition of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) in the gas-phase on the concentrations of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is reassessed using recently derived water solubility information. The water solubility of SVOCs was implemented as a function of their volatility distribution within the regional chemistry transport model WRF-Chem, and simulations were carried out over the continental United States for the year 2010. Results show that including dry and wet removal of gas-phase SVOCs reduces annual average surface concentrations of anthropogenic and biogenic SOA by 48% and 63% respectively over the continental US Dry deposition of gas-phasemore » SVOCs is found to be more effective than wet deposition in reducing SOA concentrations (−40% vs. −8% for anthropogenics, −52% vs. −11% for biogenics). Reductions for biogenic SOA are found to be higher due to the higher water solubility of biogenic SVOCs. The majority of the total mass of SVOC + SOA is actually deposited via the gas-phase (61% for anthropogenics, 76% for biogenics). A number of sensitivity studies shows that this is a robust feature of the modeling system. Other models that do not consider dry and wet removal of gas-phase SVOCs would hence overestimate SOA concentrations by roughly 50%. Assumptions about the water solubility of SVOCs made in some current modeling systems (H* = 105 M atm−1; H* = H* (HNO3)) still lead to an overestimation of 25% / 10% compared to our best estimate. A saturation effect is observed for Henry's law constants above 108 M atm−1, suggesting an upper bound of reductions in surface level SOA concentrations by 60% through removal of gas-phase SVOCs. Considering reactivity of gas-phase SVOCs in the dry deposition scheme was found to be negligible. Further sensitivity studies where we reduce the volatility of organic matter show that consideration of gas-phase SVOC removal still reduces average SOA concentrations by 31% on average. We

  11. The effect of dry and wet deposition of condensable vapors on secondary organic aerosols concentrations over the continental US

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Knote, C.; Hodzic, A.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2015-01-06

    The effect of dry and wet deposition of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in the gas phase on the concentrations of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is reassessed using recently derived water solubility information. The water solubility of SVOCs was implemented as a function of their volatility distribution within the WRF-Chem regional chemistry transport model, and simulations were carried out over the continental United States for the year 2010. Results show that including dry and wet removal of gas-phase SVOCs reduces annual average surface concentrations of anthropogenic and biogenic SOA by 48 and 63% respectively over the continental US. Dry deposition ofmore » gas-phase SVOCs is found to be more effective than wet deposition in reducing SOA concentrations (−40 vs. −8% for anthropogenics, and −52 vs. −11% for biogenics). Reductions for biogenic SOA are found to be higher due to the higher water solubility of biogenic SVOCs. The majority of the total mass of SVOC + SOA is actually deposited via the gas phase (61% for anthropogenics and 76% for biogenics). Results are sensitive to assumptions made in the dry deposition scheme, but gas-phase deposition of SVOCs remains crucial even under conservative estimates. Considering reactivity of gas-phase SVOCs in the dry deposition scheme was found to be negligible. Further sensitivity studies where we reduce the volatility of organic matter show that consideration of gas-phase SVOC removal still reduces average SOA concentrations by 31% on average. We consider this a lower bound for the effect of gas-phase SVOC removal on SOA concentrations. A saturation effect is observed for Henry's law constants above 108 M atm−1, suggesting an upper bound of reductions in surface level SOA concentrations by 60% through removal of gas-phase SVOCs. Other models that do not consider dry and wet removal of gas-phase SVOCs would hence overestimate SOA concentrations by roughly 50%. Assumptions about the water solubility

  12. Effects of growth temperature on the properties of InGaN channel heterostructures grown by pulsed metal organic chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Yachao; Zhou, Xiaowei; Xu, Shengrui; Wang, Zhizhe; Chen, Zhibin; Zhang, Jinfeng; Zhang, Jincheng E-mail: xd-zhangyachao@163.com; Hao, Yue E-mail: xd-zhangyachao@163.com

    2015-12-15

    Pulsed metal organic chemical vapor deposition (P-MOCVD) is introduced into the growth of high quality InGaN channel heterostructures. The effects of InGaN channel growth temperature on the structural and transport properties of the heterostructures are investigated in detail. High resolution x-ray diffraction (HRXRD) and Photoluminescence (PL) spectra indicate that the quality of InGaN channel strongly depends on the growth temperature. Meanwhile, the atomic force microscopy (AFM) results show that the interface morphology between the InGaN channel and the barrier layer also relies on the growth temperature. Since the variation of material properties of InGaN channel has a significant influence on the electrical properties of InAlN/InGaN heterostructures, the optimal transport properties can be achieved by adjusting the growth temperature. A very high two dimension electron gas (2DEG) density of 1.92 × 10{sup 13} cm{sup −2} and Hall electron mobility of 1025 cm{sup 2}/(V⋅s) at room temperature are obtained at the optimal growth temperature around 740 °C. The excellent transport properties in our work indicate that the heterostructure with InGaN channel is a promising candidate for the microwave power devices, and the results in this paper will be instructive for further study of the InGaN channel heterostructures.

  13. Low-temperature growth and orientational control in RuO{sub 2} thin films by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bai, G.R.; Wang, A.; Foster, C.M.; Vetrone, J.; Patel, J.; Wu, X.

    1996-08-01

    For growth temperatures in the range of 275 C to 425 C, highly conductive RuO{sub 2} thin films with either (110)- or (101)-textured orientations have been grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on both SiO{sub 2}/Si(001) and Pt/Ti/SiO{sub 2}/Si(001) substrates. Both the growth temperature and growth rate were used to control the type and degree of orientational texture of the RuO{sub 2} films. In the upper part of this growth temperature range ({approximately} 350 C) and at a low growth rate (< 30 {angstrom}/min.), the RuO{sub 2} films favored a (110)-textured. In contrast, at the lower part of this growth temperature range ({approximately} 300 C) and at a high growth rate (> 30 {angstrom}/min.), the RuO{sub 2} films favored a (101)-textured. In contrast, a higher growth temperatures (> 425 C) always produced randomly-oriented polycrystalline films. For either of these low-temperature growth processes, the films produced were crack-free, well-adhered to the substrates, and had smooth, specular surfaces. Atomic force microscopy showed that the films had a dense microstructure with an average grain size of 50--80 nm and a rms. surface roughness of {approximately} 3--10 nm. Four-probe electrical transport measurements showed that the films were highly conductive with resistivities of 34--40 {micro}{Omega}-cm ({at} 25 C).

  14. Vapor Barriers or Vapor Diffusion Retarders | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Moisture Control Vapor Barriers or Vapor Diffusion Retarders Vapor Barriers or Vapor ... can be part of an overall moisture control strategy for your home. | Photo courtesy ...

  15. VAPOR PRESSURES AND HEATS OF VAPORIZATION OF PRIMARY COAL TARS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: VAPOR PRESSURES AND HEATS OF VAPORIZATION OF PRIMARY COAL TARS Citation Details In-Document Search Title: VAPOR PRESSURES AND HEATS OF VAPORIZATION OF PRIMARY ...

  16. Water Vapor Experiment Concludes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 Water Vapor Experiment Concludes The AIRS (atmospheric infrared sounder) Water Vapor Experiment - Ground (AWEX-G) intensive operations period (IOP) at the SGP central facility ...

  17. Calibrated vapor generator source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davies, John P.; Larson, Ronald A.; Goodrich, Lorenzo D.; Hall, Harold J.; Stoddard, Billy D.; Davis, Sean G.; Kaser, Timothy G.; Conrad, Frank J.

    1995-01-01

    A portable vapor generator is disclosed that can provide a controlled source of chemical vapors, such as, narcotic or explosive vapors. This source can be used to test and calibrate various types of vapor detection systems by providing a known amount of vapors to the system. The vapor generator is calibrated using a reference ion mobility spectrometer. A method of providing this vapor is described, as follows: explosive or narcotic is deposited on quartz wool, placed in a chamber that can be heated or cooled (depending on the vapor pressure of the material) to control the concentration of vapors in the reservoir. A controlled flow of air is pulsed over the quartz wool releasing a preset quantity of vapors at the outlet.

  18. Calibrated vapor generator source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davies, J.P.; Larson, R.A.; Goodrich, L.D.; Hall, H.J.; Stoddard, B.D.; Davis, S.G.; Kaser, T.G.; Conrad, F.J.

    1995-09-26

    A portable vapor generator is disclosed that can provide a controlled source of chemical vapors, such as, narcotic or explosive vapors. This source can be used to test and calibrate various types of vapor detection systems by providing a known amount of vapors to the system. The vapor generator is calibrated using a reference ion mobility spectrometer. A method of providing this vapor is described, as follows: explosive or narcotic is deposited on quartz wool, placed in a chamber that can be heated or cooled (depending on the vapor pressure of the material) to control the concentration of vapors in the reservoir. A controlled flow of air is pulsed over the quartz wool releasing a preset quantity of vapors at the outlet. 10 figs.

  19. ARM Water Vapor IOP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ARM Water Vapor IOP The SGP CART site will host the third ARM water vapor IOP on September 18-October 8, 2000. The CART site is home to a powerful array of instruments capable of ...

  20. G-Band Vapor Radiometer Precipitable Water Vapor (GVRPWV) Value...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    G-Band Vapor Radiometer Precipitable Water Vapor (GVRPWV) Value-Added Product Citation Details In-Document Search Title: G-Band Vapor Radiometer Precipitable Water Vapor (GVRPWV) ...

  1. VAPOR PRESSURES AND HEATS OF VAPORIZATION OF PRIMARY COAL TARS...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    VAPOR PRESSURES AND HEATS OF VAPORIZATION OF PRIMARY COAL TARS Citation Details In-Document Search Title: VAPOR PRESSURES AND HEATS OF VAPORIZATION OF PRIMARY COAL TARS You are ...

  2. Control of morphology and function of low band gap polymer bis-fullerene mixed heterojunctions in organic photovoltaics with selective solvent vapor annealing.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Huipeng; Hsiao, Yu-Che; Dadmun, Mark D

    2014-01-01

    Replacing PCBM with a bis-adduct fullerene (i.e. ICBA) has been reported to significantly improve the open circuit voltage (VOC) and power conversion efficiency (PCE) in P3HT bulk heterojunctions. However, for the most promising low band-gap polymer (LBP) systems, replacing PCBM with ICBA results in very poor shortcircuit current (JSC) and PCE although the VOC is significantly improved. Therefore, in this work, we have completed small angle neutron scattering and neutron reflectometry experiments to study the impact of post-deposition solvent annealing (SA) with control of solvent quality on the morphology and performance of LBP bis-fullerene BHJ photovoltaics. The results show that SA in a solvent that is selective for the LBP results in a depletion of bis-fullerene near the air surface, which limits device performance. SA in a solvent vapor which has similar solubility for polymer and bis-fullerene results in a higher degree of polymer ordering, bis-fullerene phase separation, and segregation of the bis-fullerene to the air surface, which facilitates charge transport and increases power conversion efficiency (PCE) by 100%. The highest degree of polymer ordering combined with significant bis-fullerene phase separation and segregation of bis-fullerene to the air surface is obtained by SA in a solvent vapor that is selective for the bis-fullerene. The resultant morphology increases PCE by 190%. These results indicate that solvent annealing with judicious solvent choice provides a unique tool to tune the morphology of LBP bisfullerene BHJ system, providing sufficient polymer ordering, formation of a bis-fullerene pure phase, and segregation of bis-fullerene to the air surface to optimize the morphology of the active layer. Moreover, this process is broadly applicable to improving current disappointing LBP bis-fullerene systems to optimize their morphology and OPV performance post-deposition, including higher VOC and power conversion efficiency.

  3. Control of morphology and function of low band gap polymer-bis-fullerene mixed heterojunctions in organic photovoltaics with selection solvent vapor annealing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Huipeng; Hsiao, Yu-Che; Hu, Bin; Dadmun, Mark D

    2014-01-01

    Replacing PCBM with a bis-adduct fullerene (i.e. ICBA) has been reported to significantly improve the open circuit voltage (VOC) and power conversion efficiency (PCE) in P3HT bulk heterojunctions. However, for the most promising low band-gap polymer (LBP) systems, replacing PCBM with ICBA results in very poor shortcircuit current (JSC) and PCE although the VOC is significantly improved. Therefore, in this work, we have completed small angle neutron scattering and neutron reflectometry experiments to study the impact of post-deposition solvent annealing (SA) with control of solvent quality on the morphology and performance of LBP bis-fullerene BHJ photovoltaics. The results show that SA in a solvent that is selective for the LBP results in a depletion of bis-fullerene near the air surface, which limits device performance. SA in a solvent vapor which has similar solubility for polymer and bis-fullerene results in a higher degree of polymer ordering, bis-fullerene phase separation, and segregation of the bis-fullerene to the air surface, which facilitates charge transport and increases power conversion efficiency (PCE) by 100%. The highest degree of polymer ordering combined with significant bis-fullerene phase separation and segregation of bis-fullerene to the air surface is obtained by SA in a solvent vapor that is selective for the bis-fullerene. The resultant morphology increases PCE by 190%. These results indicate that solvent annealing with judicious solvent choice provides a unique tool to tune the morphology of LBP bisfullerene BHJ system, providing sufficient polymer ordering, formation of a bis-fullerene pure phase, and segregation of bis-fullerene to the air surface to optimize the morphology of the active layer. Moreover, this process is broadly applicable to improving current disappointing LBP bis-fullerene systems to optimize their morphology and OPV performance post-deposition, including higher VOC and power conversion efficiency.

  4. Vapor Barriers or Vapor Diffusion Retarders | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Weatherize » Moisture Control » Vapor Barriers or Vapor Diffusion Retarders Vapor Barriers or Vapor Diffusion Retarders Vapor diffusion retarders installed in a crawlspace can be part of an overall moisture control strategy for your home. | Photo courtesy of Dennis Schroeder, NREL. Vapor diffusion retarders installed in a crawlspace can be part of an overall moisture control strategy for your home. | Photo courtesy of Dennis Schroeder, NREL. In most U.S. climates, vapor barriers, or -- more

  5. Unexpected bismuth concentration profiles in metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy-grown Ga(As{sub 1−x}Bi{sub x})/GaAs superlattices revealed by Z-contrast scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, A. W.; Babcock, S. E.; Guan, Y.; Forghani, K.; Anand, A.; Kuech, T. F.

    2015-03-01

    A set of GaAs{sub 1−x}Bi{sub x}/GaAs multilayer quantum-well structures was deposited by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy at 390 °C and 420 °C. The precursor fluxes were introduced with the intent of growing discrete and compositionally uniform GaAs{sub 1−x}Bi{sub x} well and GaAs barrier layers in the epitaxial films. High-resolution high-angle annular-dark-field (or “Z-contrast”) scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging revealed concentration profiles that were periodic in the growth direction, but far more complicated in shape than the intended square wave. The observed composition profiles could explain various reports of physical properties measurements that suggest compositional inhomogeneity in GaAs{sub 1−x}Bi{sub x} alloys as they currently are grown.

  6. Vapor spill monitoring method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bianchini, Gregory M.; McRae, Thomas G.

    1985-01-01

    Method for continuous sampling of liquified natural gas effluent from a spill pipe, vaporizing the cold liquified natural gas, and feeding the vaporized gas into an infrared detector to measure the gas composition. The apparatus utilizes a probe having an inner channel for receiving samples of liquified natural gas and a surrounding water jacket through which warm water is flowed to flash vaporize the liquified natural gas.

  7. ARM - Water Vapor

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Vapor Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, ... FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Water ...

  8. Vapor Pressures and Heats of Vaporization of Primary Coal Tars

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Therefore, future research could be directed at measuring the vapor pressures for the ... The results from the current work show that measuring the vapor pressures of complicated ...

  9. Temperature, Water Vapor, and Clouds"

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Radiometric Studies of Temperature, Water Vapor, and Clouds" Project ID: 0011106 ... measurements of column amounts of water vapor and cloud liquid has been well ...

  10. Using a flame ionization detector (FID) to continuously measure toxic organic vapors in a paint spray booth. Rept. for Jul 91-Jan 92

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitfield, J.K.; Howe, G.B.; Pate, B.A.; Wander, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    The paper reports the demonstration of linear and similar responses of a Ratfisch RS-55CA flame ionization detector (FID) to a solvent mixture identical to the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the coating and catalyst (NSN 8010-01-336-3036) and to the calibrating gas (propane) used in field calibrations of the FID. Sensitivity and linearity have been shown to extend from 715 to 45 mg/cu m, which brackets the calculated short-term exposure limit (STEL) and lower action thresholds. Monitoring is maintained constantly and, under field conditions, equilibration occurs rapidly (analysis and output transpire in milliseconds). As a trigger for fail-safe conversion from recirculation mode to a straight-through paint spray booth configuration, the FID may confidently be expected to initiate a corrective response before a transient elevation of VOC concentrations overexposes area personnel.

  11. Atomic vapor laser isotope separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stern, R.C.; Paisner, J.A.

    1986-08-15

    The atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) process for the enrichment of uranium is evaluated. (AIP)

  12. Combined rankine and vapor compression cycles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Radcliff, Thomas D.; Biederman, Bruce P.; Brasz, Joost J.

    2005-04-19

    An organic rankine cycle system is combined with a vapor compression cycle system with the turbine generator of the organic rankine cycle generating the power necessary to operate the motor of the refrigerant compressor. The vapor compression cycle is applied with its evaporator cooling the inlet air into a gas turbine, and the organic rankine cycle is applied to receive heat from a gas turbine exhaust to heat its boiler within one embodiment, a common condenser is used for the organic rankine cycle and the vapor compression cycle, with a common refrigerant, R-245a being circulated within both systems. In another embodiment, the turbine driven generator has a common shaft connected to the compressor to thereby eliminate the need for a separate motor to drive the compressor. In another embodiment, an organic rankine cycle system is applied to an internal combustion engine to cool the fluids thereof, and the turbo charged air is cooled first by the organic rankine cycle system and then by an air conditioner prior to passing into the intake of the engine.

  13. Vapor concentration monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bayly, John G.; Booth, Ronald J.

    1977-01-01

    An apparatus for monitoring the concentration of a vapor, such as heavy water, having at least one narrow bandwidth in its absorption spectrum, in a sample gas such as air. The air is drawn into a chamber in which the vapor content is measured by means of its radiation absorption spectrum. High sensitivity is obtained by modulating the wavelength at a relatively high frequency without changing its optical path, while high stability against zero drift is obtained by the low frequency interchange of the sample gas to be monitored and of a reference sample. The variable HDO background due to natural humidity is automatically corrected.

  14. Electrolyte vapor condenser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sederquist, R.A.; Szydlowski, D.F.; Sawyer, R.D.

    1983-02-08

    A system is disclosed for removing electrolyte from a fuel cell gas stream. The gas stream containing electrolyte vapor is supercooled utilizing conventional heat exchangers and the thus supercooled gas stream is passed over high surface area passive condensers. The condensed electrolyte is then drained from the condenser and the remainder of the gas stream passed on. The system is particularly useful for electrolytes such as phosphoric acid and molten carbonate, but can be used for other electrolyte cells and simple vapor separation as well. 3 figs.

  15. Compact organic vapor jet printing print head

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stepehen R; McGraw, Gregory

    2015-01-27

    A first device is provided. The first device includes a print head, and a first gas source hermetically sealed to the print head. The print head further includes a first layer further comprising a plurality of apertures, each aperture having a smallest dimension of 0.5 to 500 microns. A second layer is bonded to the first layer. The second layer includes a first via in fluid communication with the first gas source and at least one of the apertures. The second layer is made of an insulating material.

  16. Compact organic vapor jet printing print head

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R; McGraw, Gregory

    2013-12-24

    A first device is provided. The first device includes a print head, and a first gas source hermetically sealed to the print head. The print header further includes a first layer comprising a plurality of apertures, each aperture having a smallest dimension of 0.5 to 500 microns. A second layer is bonded to the first layer. The second layer includes a first via in fluid communication with the first gas source and at least one of the apertures. The second layer is made of an insulating material.

  17. Nozzle geometry for organic vapor jet printing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R; McGraw, Gregory

    2015-01-13

    A first device is provided. The device includes a print head. The print head further includes a first nozzle hermetically sealed to a first source of gas. The first nozzle has an aperture having a smallest dimension of 0.5 to 500 microns in a direction perpendicular to a flow direction of the first nozzle. At a distance from the aperture into the first nozzle that is 5 times the smallest dimension of the aperture of the first nozzle, the smallest dimension perpendicular to the flow direction is at least twice the smallest dimension of the aperture of the first nozzle.

  18. Solvent vapor collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellison, Kenneth; Whike, Alan S.

    1979-01-30

    A solvent vapor collector is mounted on the upstream inlet end of an oven having a gas-circulating means and intended for curing a coating applied to a strip sheet metal at a coating station. The strip sheet metal may be hot and solvent vapors are evaporated at the coating station and from the strip as it passes from the coating station to the oven. Upper and lower plenums within a housing of the collector are supplied with oven gases or air from the gas-circulating means and such gases or air are discharged within the collector obliquely in a downstream direction against the strip passing through that collector to establish downstream gas flows along the top and under surfaces of the strip so as, in turn, to induct solvent vapors into the collector at the coating station. A telescopic multi-piece shroud is usefully provided on the housing for movement between an extended position in which it overlies the coating station to collect solvent vapors released thereat and a retracted position permitting ready cleaning and adjustment of that coating station.

  19. Category:Mercury Vapor | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mercury Vapor Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Mercury Vapor page? For detailed information on Mercury Vapor as...

  20. Stratified vapor generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bharathan, Desikan; Hassani, Vahab

    2008-05-20

    A stratified vapor generator (110) comprises a first heating section (H.sub.1) and a second heating section (H.sub.2). The first and second heating sections (H.sub.1, H.sub.2) are arranged so that the inlet of the second heating section (H.sub.2) is operatively associated with the outlet of the first heating section (H.sub.1). A moisture separator (126) having a vapor outlet (164) and a liquid outlet (144) is operatively associated with the outlet (124) of the second heating section (H.sub.2). A cooling section (C.sub.1) is operatively associated with the liquid outlet (144) of the moisture separator (126) and includes an outlet that is operatively associated with the inlet of the second heating section (H.sub.2).

  1. Filter vapor trap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guon, Jerold

    1976-04-13

    A sintered filter trap is adapted for insertion in a gas stream of sodium vapor to condense and deposit sodium thereon. The filter is heated and operated above the melting temperature of sodium, resulting in a more efficient means to remove sodium particulates from the effluent inert gas emanating from the surface of a liquid sodium pool. Preferably the filter leaves are precoated with a natrophobic coating such as tetracosane.

  2. The vapor pressures of explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ewing, Robert G.; Waltman, Melanie J.; Atkinson, David A.; Grate, Jay W.; Hotchkiss, Peter

    2013-01-05

    The vapor pressures of many explosive compounds are extremely low and thus determining accurate values proves difficult. Many researchers, using a variety of methods, have measured and reported the vapor pressures of explosives compounds at single temperatures, or as a function of temperature using vapor pressure equations. There are large variations in reported vapor pressures for many of these compounds, and some errors exist within individual papers. This article provides a review of explosive vapor pressures and describes the methods used to determine them. We have compiled primary vapor pressure relationships traceable to the original citations and include the temperature ranges for which they have been determined. Corrected values are reported as needed and described in the text. In addition, after critically examining the available data, we calculate and tabulate vapor pressures at 25 C.

  3. In-well vapor stripping drilling and characterization work plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koegler, K.J.

    1994-03-13

    This work plan provides the information necessary for drilling, sampling, and hydrologic testing of wells to be completed in support of a demonstration of the in-well vapor stripping system. The in-well vapor stripping system is a remediation technology designed to preferentially extract volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from contaminated groundwater by converting them to a vapor phase. Air-lift pumping is used to lift and aerate groundwater within the well. The volatiles escaping the aerated water are drawn off by a slight vacuum and treated at the surface while the water is allowed to infiltrate the vadose zone back to the watertable.

  4. PROJECT PROFILE: Stable Perovskite Solar Cells via Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This project is focused on novel approaches to remove risk related to the development of hybrid perovskite solar cells (HPSCs). Researchers will synthesize a new and chemically stable hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite that eliminates decomposition of the absorber layer upon exposure to water vapor, which is a chief obstacle to widespread use of HPSC technology. They will also demonstrate a unique and industrially-scalable chemical vapor deposition method without halides or iodine, which are the main contributors to perovskite degradation.

  5. Vapor spill pipe monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bianchini, G.M.; McRae, T.G.

    1983-06-23

    The invention is a method and apparatus for continually monitoring the composition of liquefied natural gas flowing from a spill pipe during a spill test by continually removing a sample of the LNG by means of a probe, gasifying the LNG in the probe, and sending the vaporized LNG to a remote ir gas detector for analysis. The probe comprises three spaced concentric tubes surrounded by a water jacket which communicates with a flow channel defined between the inner and middle, and middle and outer tubes. The inner tube is connected to a pump for providing suction, and the probe is positioned in the LNG flow below the spill pipe with the tip oriented partly downward so that LNG is continuously drawn into the inner tube through a small orifice. The probe is made of a high thermal conductivity metal. Hot water is flowed through the water jacket and through the flow channel between the three tubes to provide the necessary heat transfer to flash vaporize the LNG passing through the inner channel of the probe. The gasified LNG is transported through a connected hose or tubing extending from the probe to a remote ir sensor which measures the gas composition.

  6. Vaporization of zinc from scrap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ozturk, B.; Fruehan, R.J.

    1996-12-31

    The rate of zinc vaporization from galvanized scrap was measured using a thermogravimetric apparatus along with chemical analysis. It is found that the rate of zinc vaporization is very fast in nitrogen and carbon monoxide atmospheres at temperatures higher than 950 C. At lower temperature rate decreases with decreasing temperature and is controlled by the gas phase mass transport. The simultaneous oxidation and vaporization of zinc occurs when the samples were heated in carbon dioxide and air. The current experimental results indicate that almost all of the zinc from scrap vaporizes during the heating process in a very short period of time after the temperature reaches above 850 C.

  7. Chemical vapor deposition of fluorinated polymers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, J.A.; Lang, C.I.; Lu, T.M.; You, L.

    1993-12-31

    An overview of the authors` work directed toward the deposition of fluorinated polymers by condensation of thermally or photochemically generated intermediates directly from the vapor state will be presented. Previously known materials such as Teflon AF{reg_sign} and Parylene AF{sub 4} have been successfully deposited and are being evaluated for microelectronic application as on-chip dielectrics. A novel, one-step route to Parylene AF{sub 4} will be described which obviates the necessity of multistep organic synthesis to prepare precursors. A new, partially fluorinated parylene obtained from tetrafluoro-p-xylene will be described. It has also been observed that ultraviolet irradiation of the vapor of dimethyl tetrafluorobenzocyclobutene causes the deposition of an insoluble film which contains fluorine.

  8. THERMALLY OPERATED VAPOR VALVE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dorward, J.G. Jr.

    1959-02-10

    A valve is presented for use in a calutron to supply and control the vapor to be ionized. The invention provides a means readily operable from the exterior of the vacuum tank of the apparatuss without mechanical transmission of forces for the quick and accurate control of the ionizing arc by a corresponding control of gas flow theretos thereby producing an effective way of carefully regulating the operation of the calutron. The invention consists essentially of a tube member extending into the charge bottle of a calutron devices having a poppet type valve closing the lower end of the tube. An electrical heating means is provided in the valve stem to thermally vary the length of the stem to regulate the valve opening to control the flow of material from the charge bottle.

  9. Liquid-phase exfoliation of chemical vapor deposition-grown single layer graphene and its application in solution-processed transparent electrodes for flexible organic light-emitting devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Chaoxing; Li, Fushan E-mail: gtl-fzu@hotmail.com; Wu, Wei; Chen, Wei; Guo, Tailiang E-mail: gtl-fzu@hotmail.com

    2014-12-15

    Efficient and low-cost methods for obtaining high performance flexible transparent electrodes based on chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown graphene are highly desirable. In this work, the graphene grown on copper foil was exfoliated into micron-size sheets through controllable ultrasonication. We developed a clean technique by blending the exfoliated single layer graphene sheets with conducting polymer to form graphene-based composite solution, which can be spin-coated on flexible substrate, forming flexible transparent conducting film with high conductivity (?8 ?/?), high transmittance (?81% at 550?nm), and excellent mechanical robustness. In addition, CVD-grown-graphene-based polymer light emitting diodes with excellent bendable performances were demonstrated.

  10. Atomic vapor laser isotope separation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wyeth, Richard W.; Paisner, Jeffrey A.; Story, Thomas

    1990-01-01

    A laser spectroscopy system is utilized in an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process. The system determines spectral components of an atomic vapor utilizing a laser heterodyne technique.

  11. Vapor port and groundwater sampling well

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hubbell, J.M.; Wylie, A.H.

    1996-01-09

    A method and apparatus have been developed for combining groundwater monitoring wells with unsaturated-zone vapor sampling ports. The apparatus allows concurrent monitoring of both the unsaturated and the saturated zone from the same well at contaminated areas. The innovative well design allows for concurrent sampling of groundwater and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the vadose (unsaturated) zone from a single well, saving considerable time and money. The sample tubes are banded to the outer well casing during installation of the well casing. 10 figs.

  12. Vapor port and groundwater sampling well

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hubbell, Joel M.; Wylie, Allan H.

    1996-01-01

    A method and apparatus has been developed for combining groundwater monitoring wells with unsaturated-zone vapor sampling ports. The apparatus allows concurrent monitoring of both the unsaturated and the saturated zone from the same well at contaminated areas. The innovative well design allows for concurrent sampling of groundwater and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the vadose (unsaturated) zone from a single well, saving considerable time and money. The sample tubes are banded to the outer well casing during installation of the well casing.

  13. Portable vapor diffusion coefficient meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ho, Clifford K.

    2007-06-12

    An apparatus for measuring the effective vapor diffusion coefficient of a test vapor diffusing through a sample of porous media contained within a test chamber. A chemical sensor measures the time-varying concentration of vapor that has diffused a known distance through the porous media. A data processor contained within the apparatus compares the measured sensor data with analytical predictions of the response curve based on the transient diffusion equation using Fick's Law, iterating on the choice of an effective vapor diffusion coefficient until the difference between the predicted and measured curves is minimized. Optionally, a purge fluid can forced through the porous media, permitting the apparatus to also measure a gas-phase permeability. The apparatus can be made lightweight, self-powered, and portable for use in the field.

  14. Vapor deposition of hardened niobium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blocher, Jr., John M.; Veigel, Neil D.; Landrigan, Richard B.

    1983-04-19

    A method of coating ceramic nuclear fuel particles containing a major amount of an actinide ceramic in which the particles are placed in a fluidized bed maintained at ca. 800.degree. to ca. 900.degree. C., and niobium pentachloride vapor and carbon tetrachloride vapor are led into the bed, whereby niobium metal is deposited on the particles and carbon is deposited interstitially within the niobium. Coating apparatus used in the method is also disclosed.

  15. Vapor deposition of thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, D.C.; Pattillo, S.G.; Laia, J.R. Jr.; Sattelberger, A.P.

    1990-10-05

    A highly pure thin metal film having a nanocrystalline structure and a process of preparing such highly pure thin metal films of, e.g., rhodium, iridium, molybdenum, tungsten, rhenium, platinum, or palladium by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition of, e.g., rhodium(allyl){sub 3}, iridium(allyl){sub 3}, molybdenum(allyl){sub 4}, tungsten(allyl){sub 4}, rhenium (allyl){sub 4}, platinum(allyl){sub 2}, or palladium(allyl){sub 2} are disclosed. Additionally, a general process of reducing the carbon content of a metallic film prepared from one or more organometallic precursor compounds by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition is disclosed.

  16. Vapor deposition of thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, David C. (Los Alamos, NM); Pattillo, Stevan G. (Los Alamos, NM); Laia, Jr., Joseph R. (Los Alamos, NM); Sattelberger, Alfred P. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1992-01-01

    A highly pure thin metal film having a nanocrystalline structure and a process of preparing such highly pure thin metal films of, e.g., rhodium, iridium, molybdenum, tungsten, rhenium, platinum, or palladium by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition of, e.g., rhodium(allyl).sub.3, iridium(allyl).sub.3, molybdenum(allyl).sub.4, tungsten(allyl).sub.4, rhenium(allyl).sub.4, platinum(allyl).sub.2, or palladium(allyl).sub.2 are disclosed. Additionally, a general process of reducing the carbon content of a metallic film prepared from one or more organometallic precursor compounds by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition is disclosed.

  17. Vapor generation methods for explosives detection research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grate, Jay W.; Ewing, Robert G.; Atkinson, David A.

    2012-12-01

    The generation of calibrated vapor samples of explosives compounds remains a challenge due to the low vapor pressures of the explosives, adsorption of explosives on container and tubing walls, and the requirement to manage (typically) multiple temperature zones as the vapor is generated, diluted, and delivered. Methods that have been described to generate vapors can be classified as continuous or pulsed flow vapor generators. Vapor sources for continuous flow generators are typically explosives compounds supported on a solid support, or compounds contained in a permeation or diffusion device. Sources are held at elevated isothermal temperatures. Similar sources can be used for pulsed vapor generators; however, pulsed systems may also use injection of solutions onto heated surfaces with generation of both solvent and explosives vapors, transient peaks from a gas chromatograph, or vapors generated by s programmed thermal desorption. This article reviews vapor generator approaches with emphasis on the method of generating the vapors and on practical aspects of vapor dilution and handling. In addition, a gas chromatographic system with two ovens that is configurable with up to four heating ropes is proposed that could serve as a single integrated platform for explosives vapor generation and device testing. Issues related to standards, calibration, and safety are also discussed.

  18. Vacuum vapor deposition gun assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zeren, Joseph D.

    1985-01-01

    A vapor deposition gun assembly includes a hollow body having a cylindrical outer surface and an end plate for holding an adjustable heat sink, a hot hollow cathode gun, two magnets for steering the plasma from the gun into a crucible on the heat sink, and a shutter for selectively covering and uncovering the crucible.

  19. An optical water vapor sensor for unmanned aerial vehicles (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    An optical water vapor sensor for unmanned aerial vehicles Citation Details In-Document Search Title: An optical water vapor sensor for unmanned aerial vehicles The water vapor ...

  20. Atomic vapor laser isotope separation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wyeth, R.W.; Paisner, J.A.; Story, T.

    1990-08-21

    A laser spectroscopy system is utilized in an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process. The system determines spectral components of an atomic vapor utilizing a laser heterodyne technique. 23 figs.

  1. ARM - Field Campaign - Water Vapor IOP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Water Vapor IOP ... Responses to Site Operations Questionnaires for Water Vapor IOP Instrument Name Instrument ...

  2. Photochemical dimerization of organic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crabtree, Robert H.; Brown, Stephen H.; Muedas, Cesar A.; Ferguson, Richard R.

    1992-01-01

    At least one of selectivity and reaction rate of photosensitized vapor phase dimerizations, including dehydrodimerizations, hydrodimerizations and cross-dimerizations of saturated and unsaturated organic compounds is improved by conducting the dimerization in the presence of hydrogen or nitrous oxide.

  3. Vapor Retarder Classification - Building America Top Innovation |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Vapor Retarder Classification - Building America Top Innovation Vapor Retarder Classification - Building America Top Innovation Photo of a vapor retarder classification. Air-tight and well-insulated homes have little or no tolerance for drying if they get wet; moisture control is critical. This Top Innovation profile describes Building America research that established vapor retarder classifications and appropriate applications that has been instrumental in the market

  4. Vapor phase modifiers for oxidative coupling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warren, Barbara K.

    1991-01-01

    Volatilized metal compounds retard vapor phase alkane conversion reactions in oxidative coupling processes that convert lower alkanes to higher hydrocarbons.

  5. Chemical vapor deposition of sialon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Landingham, R.L.; Casey, A.W.

    A laminated composite and a method for forming the composite by chemical vapor deposition are described. The composite includes a layer of sialon and a material to which the layer is bonded. The method includes the steps of exposing a surface of the material to an ammonia containing atmosphere; heating the surface to at least about 1200/sup 0/C; and impinging a gas containing N/sub 2/, SiCl/sub 4/, and AlCl/sub 3/ on the surface.

  6. Means and method for vapor generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, Larry W.

    1984-01-01

    A liquid, in heat transfer contact with a surface heated to a temperature well above the vaporization temperature of the liquid, will undergo a multiphase (liquid-vapor) transformation from 0% vapor to 100% vapor. During this transition, the temperature driving force or heat flux and the coefficients of heat transfer across the fluid-solid interface, and the vapor percentage influence the type of heating of the fluid--starting as "feedwater" heating where no vapors are present, progressing to "nucleate" heating where vaporization begins and some vapors are present, and concluding with "film" heating where only vapors are present. Unstable heating between nucleate and film heating can occur, accompanied by possibly large and rapid temperature shifts in the structures. This invention provides for injecting into the region of potential unstable heating and proximate the heated surface superheated vapors in sufficient quantities operable to rapidly increase the vapor percentage of the multiphase mixture by perhaps 10-30% and thereby effectively shift the multiphase mixture beyond the unstable heating region and up to the stable film heating region.

  7. Means and method for vapor generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, L.W.

    A liquid, in heat transfer contact with a surface heated to a temperature well above the vaporization temperature of the liquid, will undergo a multiphase (liquid-vapor) transformation from 0% vapor to 100% vapor. During this transition, the temperature driving force or heat flux and the coefficients of heat transfer across the fluid-solid interface, and the vapor percentage influence the type of heating of the fluid - starting as feedwater heating where no vapors are present, progressing to nucleate heating where vaporization begins and some vapors are present, and concluding with film heating where only vapors are present. Unstable heating between nucleate and film heating can occur, accompanied by possibly large and rapid temperature shifts in the structures. This invention provides for injecting into the region of potential unstable heating and proximate the heated surface superheated vapors in sufficient quantities operable to rapidly increase the vapor percentage of the multiphase mixture by perhaps 10 to 30% and thereby effectively shift the multiphase mixture beyond the unstable heating region and up to the stable film heating region.

  8. Production of higher quality bio-oils by in-line esterification of pyrolysis vapor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hilten, Roger Norris; Das, Keshav; Kastner, James R; Bibens, Brian P

    2014-12-02

    The disclosure encompasses in-line reactive condensation processes via vapor phase esterification of bio-oil to decease reactive species concentration and water content in the oily phase of a two-phase oil, thereby increasing storage stability and heating value. Esterification of the bio-oil vapor occurs via the vapor phase contact and subsequent reaction of organic acids with ethanol during condensation results in the production of water and esters. The pyrolysis oil product can have an increased ester content and an increased stability when compared to a condensed pyrolysis oil product not treated with an atomized alcohol.

  9. Wick for metal vapor laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duncan, David B. (Livermore, CA)

    1992-01-01

    An improved wick for a metal vapor laser is made of a refractory metal cylinder, preferably molybdenum or tungsten for a copper laser, which provides the wicking surface. Alternately, the inside surface of the ceramic laser tube can be metalized to form the wicking surface. Capillary action is enhanced by using wire screen, porous foam metal, or grooved surfaces. Graphite or carbon, in the form of chunks, strips, fibers or particles, is placed on the inside surface of the wick to reduce water, reduce metal oxides and form metal carbides.

  10. Chemical vapor deposition of sialon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Landingham, Richard L.; Casey, Alton W.

    1982-01-01

    A laminated composite and a method for forming the composite by chemical vapor deposition. The composite includes a layer of sialon and a material to which the layer is bonded. The method includes the steps of exposing a surface of the material to an ammonia containing atmosphere; heating the surface to at least about 1200.degree. C.; and impinging a gas containing in a flowing atmosphere of air N.sub.2, SiCl.sub.4, and AlCl.sub.3 on the surface.

  11. Control of flow through a vapor generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Radcliff, Thomas D.

    2005-11-08

    In a Rankine cycle system wherein a vapor generator receives heat from exhaust gases, provision is made to avoid overheating of the refrigerant during ORC system shut down while at the same time preventing condensation of those gases within the vapor generator when its temperature drops below a threshold temperature by diverting the flow of hot gases to ambient and to thereby draw ambient air through the vapor generator in the process. In one embodiment, a bistable ejector is adjustable between one position, in which the hot gases flow through the vapor generator, to another position wherein the gases are diverted away from the vapor generator. Another embodiment provides for a fixed valve ejector with a bias towards discharging to ambient, but with a fan on the downstream side of said vapor generator for overcoming this bias.

  12. Coupling apparatus for a metal vapor laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ball, D.G.; Miller, J.L.

    1993-02-23

    Coupling apparatus for a large bore metal vapor laser is disclosed. The coupling apparatus provides for coupling high voltage pulses (approximately 40 KV) to a metal vapor laser with a high repetition rate (approximately 5 KHz). The coupling apparatus utilizes existing thyratron circuits and provides suitable power input to a large bore metal vapor laser while maintaining satisfactory operating lifetimes for the existing thyratron circuits.

  13. Coupling apparatus for a metal vapor laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ball, Don G.; Miller, John L.

    1993-01-01

    Coupling apparatus for a large bore metal vapor laser is disclosed. The coupling apparatus provides for coupling high voltage pulses (approximately 40 KV) to a metal vapor laser with a high repetition rate (approximately 5 KHz). The coupling apparatus utilizes existing thyratron circuits and provides suitable power input to a large bore metal vapor laser while maintaining satisfactory operating lifetimes for the existing thyratron circuits.

  14. Non-Vapor Compression HVAC Technologies Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    While vapor-compression technologies have served heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) needs very effectively, and have been the dominant HVAC technology for close to 100 years, the conventional refrigerants used in vapor-compression equipment contribute to global climate change when released to the atmosphere. The Building Technologies Office is evaluating low-global warming potential (GWP) alternatives to vapor-compression technologies.

  15. Novel methods of copper vapor laser excitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McColl, W.B.; Ching, H.; Bosch, R.; Brake, M.; Gilgenbach, R.

    1990-12-31

    Microwave and intense electron beam excitation of copper vapor are being investigated to be used in copper vapor lasers for isotope separation. Both methods use copper chloride vapor by heating copper chloride. Helium was used as the buffer gas at 2 to 100 torr. In the microwave system, intense copperlines at 510 nm and 578 nm were observed. Initial electron beam results indicate that light emission follows the beam current.

  16. Vapor phase modifiers for oxidative coupling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warren, B.K.

    1991-12-17

    Volatilized metal compounds are described which are capable of retarding vapor phase alkane conversion reactions in oxidative coupling processes that convert lower alkanes to higher hydrocarbons.

  17. ARM - Field Campaign - Water Vapor IOP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsWater Vapor IOP ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Water Vapor IOP 2000.09.18 - 2000.10.08 Lead Scientist : Henry Revercomb For data sets, see below. Abstract Scientific hypothesis: 1. Microwave radiometer (MWR) observations of the 22 GHz water vapor line can accurately constrain the total column amount of water vapor (assuming a calibration accuracy of 0.5 degC or better, which

  18. Enhanced Attenuation Technologies: Passive Soil Vapor Extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vangelas, K.; Looney, B.; Kamath, R.; Adamson, D.; Newell, C.

    2010-03-15

    Passive soil vapor extraction (PSVE) is an enhanced attenuation (EA) approach that removes volatile contaminants from soil. The extraction is driven by natural pressure gradients between the subsurface and atmosphere (Barometric Pumping), or by renewable sources of energy such as wind or solar power (Assisted PSVE). The technology is applicable for remediating sites with low levels of contamination and for transitioning sites from active source technologies such as active soil vapor extraction (ASVE) to natural attenuation. PSVE systems are simple to design and operate and are more cost effective than active systems in many scenarios. Thus, PSVE is often appropriate as an interim-remedial or polishing strategy. Over the past decade, PSVE has been demonstrated in the U.S. and in Europe. These demonstrations provide practical information to assist in selecting, designing and implementing the technology. These demonstrations indicate that the technology can be effective in achieving remedial objectives in a timely fashion. The keys to success include: (1) Application at sites where the residual source quantities, and associated fluxes to groundwater, are relatively low; (2) Selection of the appropriate passive energy source - barometric pumping in cases with a deep vadose zone and barrier (e.g., clay) layers that separate the subsurface from the atmosphere and renewable energy assisted PSVE in other settings and where higher flow rates are required. (3) Provision of sufficient access to the contaminated vadose zones through the spacing and number of extraction wells. This PSVE technology report provides a summary of the relevant technical background, real-world case study performance, key design and cost considerations, and a scenario-based cost evaluation. The key design and cost considerations are organized into a flowchart that dovetails with the Enhanced Attenuation: Chlorinated Organics Guidance of the Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council (ITRC). The PSVE

  19. Organization | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Organization Organization Organization

  20. G-Band Vapor Radiometer Precipitable Water Vapor (GVRPWV) Value-Added Product

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koontz, A; Cadeddu, M

    2012-12-05

    The G-Band Vapor Radiometer Precipitable Water Vapor (GVRPWV) value-added product (VAP) computes precipitable water vapor using neural network techniques from data measured by the GVR. The GVR reports time-series measurements of brightness temperatures for four channels located at 183.3 ± 1, 3, 7, and 14 GHz.

  1. Near real time vapor detection and enhancement using aerosol adsorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Novick, V.J.; Johnson, S.A.

    1999-08-03

    A vapor sample detection method is described where the vapor sample contains vapor and ambient air and surrounding natural background particles. The vapor sample detection method includes the steps of generating a supply of aerosol that have a particular effective median particle size, mixing the aerosol with the vapor sample forming aerosol and adsorbed vapor suspended in an air stream, impacting the suspended aerosol and adsorbed vapor upon a reflecting element, alternatively directing infrared light to the impacted aerosol and adsorbed vapor, detecting and analyzing the alternatively directed infrared light in essentially real time using a spectrometer and a microcomputer and identifying the vapor sample. 13 figs.

  2. Near real time vapor detection and enhancement using aerosol adsorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Novick, Vincent J.; Johnson, Stanley A.

    1999-01-01

    A vapor sample detection method where the vapor sample contains vapor and ambient air and surrounding natural background particles. The vapor sample detection method includes the steps of generating a supply of aerosol that have a particular effective median particle size, mixing the aerosol with the vapor sample forming aerosol and adsorbed vapor suspended in an air stream, impacting the suspended aerosol and adsorbed vapor upon a reflecting element, alternatively directing infrared light to the impacted aerosol and adsorbed vapor, detecting and analyzing the alternatively directed infrared light in essentially real time using a spectrometer and a microcomputer and identifying the vapor sample.

  3. Atomic vapor laser isotope separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stern, R.C.; Paisner, J.A.

    1985-11-08

    Atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) is a general and powerful technique. A major present application to the enrichment of uranium for light-water power reactor fuel has been under development for over 10 years. In June 1985 the Department of Energy announced the selection of AVLIS as the technology to meet the nation's future need for the internationally competitive production of uranium separative work. The economic basis for this decision is considered, with an indicated of the constraints placed on the process figures of merit and the process laser system. We then trace an atom through a generic AVLIS separator and give examples of the physical steps encountered, the models used to describe the process physics, the fundamental parameters involved, and the role of diagnostic laser measurements.

  4. Stacked vapor fed amtec modules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sievers, Robert K.

    1989-01-01

    The present invention pertains to a stacked AMTEC module. The invention includes a tubular member which has an interior. The member is comprised of a ion conductor that substantially conducts ions relative to electrons, preferably a beta"-alumina solid electrolyte, positioned about the interior. A porous electrode for conducting electrons and allowing sodium ions to pass therethrough, and wherein electrons and sodium ions recombine to form sodium is positioned about the beta"-alumina solid electrolyte. The electrode is operated at a temperature and a pressure that allows the recombined sodium to vaporize. Additionally, an outer current collector grid for distributing electrons throughout the porous electrode is positioned about and contacts the porous electrode. Also included in the invention is transporting means for transporting liquid sodium to the beta"-alumina solid electrolyte of the tubular member. A transition piece is positioned about the interior of the member and contacts the transporting means. The transition piece divides the member into a first cell and a second cell such that each first and second cell has a beta"-alumina solid electrolyte, a first and second porous electrode and a grid. The transition piece conducts electrons from the interior of the tubular member. There is supply means for supplying sodium to the transporting means. Preferably the supply means is a shell which surrounds the tubular member and is operated at a temperature such that the vaporized sodium condenses thereon. Returning means for returning the condensed sodium from the shell to the transporting means provides a continuous supply of liquid sodium to the transporting means. Also, there are first conducting means for conducting electric current from the transition piece which extends through the shell, and second conducting means for conducting electric current to the grid of the first cell which extends through the shell.

  5. LNG fire and vapor control system technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Konzek, G.J.; Yasutake, K.M.; Franklin, A.L.

    1982-06-01

    This report provides a review of fire and vapor control practices used in the liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry. Specific objectives of this effort were to summarize the state-of-the-art of LNG fire and vapor control; define representative LNG facilities and their associated fire and vapor control systems; and develop an approach for a quantitative effectiveness evaluation of LNG fire and vapor control systems. In this report a brief summary of LNG physical properties is given. This is followed by a discussion of basic fire and vapor control design philosophy and detailed reviews of fire and vapor control practices. The operating characteristics and typical applications and application limitations of leak detectors, fire detectors, dikes, coatings, closed circuit television, communication systems, dry chemicals, water, high expansion foam, carbon dioxide and halogenated hydrocarbons are described. Summary descriptions of a representative LNG peakshaving facility and import terminal are included in this report together with typical fire and vapor control systems and their locations in these types of facilities. This state-of-the-art review identifies large differences in the application of fire and vapor control systems throughout the LNG industry.

  6. High bandwidth vapor density diagnostic system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Globig, Michael A.; Story, Thomas W.

    1992-01-01

    A high bandwidth vapor density diagnostic system for measuring the density of an atomic vapor during one or more photoionization events. The system translates the measurements from a low frequency region to a high frequency, relatively noise-free region in the spectrum to provide improved signal to noise ratio.

  7. An application of oil vaporization evaluation methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fleckenstein, W.W. ); Bouck, L.S.; Hudgens, D. ); Querin, M. ); Williams, L. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes and quantifies the benefits of residual oil vaporization in an enhanced recovery gas injection project. Vaporized oil is recovered as natural gas liquid (NGL) when the injected gas is produced. In the reservoir application studied, 20% of the liquid hydrocarbons produced were being recovered as NGL. (VC)

  8. An application of oil vaporization evaluation methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fleckenstein, W.W.; Bouck, L.S.; Hudgens, D.; Querin, M.; Williams, L.

    1992-02-01

    This paper describes and quantifies the benefits of residual oil vaporization in an enhanced recovery gas injection project. Vaporized oil is recovered as natural gas liquid (NGL) when the injected gas is produced. In the reservoir application studied, 20% of the liquid hydrocarbons produced were being recovered as NGL. (VC)

  9. Tower Water-Vapor Mixing Ratio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guastad, Krista; Riihimaki, Laura; none,

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of the Tower Water-Vapor Mixing Ratio (TWRMR) value-added product (VAP) is to calculate water-vapor mixing ratio at the 25-meter and 60-meter levels of the meteorological tower at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility.

  10. After More Than 20 Years Operating, Hanford's Soil Vapor Extraction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Wise, Juan Aguilar, Doug Rybarski, and Christina Agular. The soil vapor extraction trailer is shown near Hanfords Plutonium Finishing Plant. The soil vapor extraction...

  11. Rotary Vapor Compression Cycle Technology: A Pathway to Ultra...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Rotary Vapor Compression Cycle Technology: A Pathway to Ultra-Efficient Air Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration Rotary Vapor Compression Cycle Technology: A Pathway to...

  12. Mechanistic aspects of vapor phase lubrication of silicon. (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Mechanistic aspects of vapor phase lubrication of silicon. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Mechanistic aspects of vapor phase lubrication of silicon. No abstract ...

  13. Synthesis of platinum single-crystal nanoparticles in water vapor...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of platinum single-crystal nanoparticles in water vapor Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Synthesis of platinum single-crystal nanoparticles in water vapor Authors: ...

  14. Monitoring of Precipitable Water Vapor and Cloud Liquid Path...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Monitoring of Precipitable Water Vapor and Cloud Liquid Path from Scanning Microwave ... used to measure atmospheric precipitable water vapor (PWV) and cloud liquid path (CLP). ...

  15. GPS Water Vapor Projects Within the ARM Southern Great Plains...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    GPS Water Vapor Projects Within the ARM Southern Great Plains Region J. Braun, T. Van ... and characterize the four-dimensional distribution of water vapor within the atmosphere. ...

  16. Vertical Variability of Aerosols and Water Vapor Over the Southern...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vertical Variability of Aerosols and Water Vapor Over the Southern Great Plains R. A. ... Abstract We use Raman lidar profiles of water vapor mixing ratio, relative humidity, ...

  17. Raman Lidar Measurements of Aerosols and Water Vapor During the...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Raman Lidar Measurements of Aerosols and Water Vapor During the May 2003 Aerosol IOP R. A. ... Marina, California Abstract Raman lidar water vapor and aerosol extinction profiles ...

  18. Recovering hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing vapors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mirza, Zia I.; Knell, Everett W.; Winter, Bruce L.

    1980-09-30

    Values are recovered from a hydrocarbon-containing vapor by contacting the vapor with quench liquid consisting essentially of hydrocarbons to form a condensate and a vapor residue, the condensate and quench fluid forming a combined liquid stream. The combined liquid stream is mixed with a viscosity-lowering liquid to form a mixed liquid having a viscosity lower than the viscosity of the combined liquid stream to permit easy handling of the combined liquid stream. The quench liquid is a cooled portion of the mixed liquid. Viscosity-lowering liquid is separated from a portion of the mixed liquid and cycled to form additional mixed liquid.

  19. Process for vaporizing a liquid hydrocarbon fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Szydlowski, Donald F. (East Hartford, CT); Kuzminskas, Vaidotas (Glastonbury, CT); Bittner, Joseph E. (East Hartford, CT)

    1981-01-01

    The object of the invention is to provide a process for vaporizing liquid hydrocarbon fuels efficiently and without the formation of carbon residue on the apparatus used. The process includes simultaneously passing the liquid fuel and an inert hot gas downwardly through a plurality of vertically spaed apart regions of high surface area packing material. The liquid thinly coats the packing surface, and the sensible heat of the hot gas vaporizes this coating of liquid. Unvaporized liquid passing through one region of packing is uniformly redistributed over the top surface of the next region until all fuel has been vaporized using only the sensible heat of the hot gas stream.

  20. Hanford Tank Ventilation System Condensates and Headspace Vapors: An Assessment of Potential Dermal Exposures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huckaby, James L.; Springer, David L.

    2006-04-24

    This study considers the question of whether potential dermal exposures to Hanford high-level radioactive waste tank headspace vapors and their condensates could result in significant exposure to workers. Three types of potential exposures were evaluated; dermal contact with aqueous condensate, organic condensate, and direct contact with head space vapors. The dermal absorption rates from aqueous and organic condensates were estimated for selected chemicals using a model described by EPA (1992) with a modified correlation for dermal permeability suggested by Wilschut et al. (1995). Dermal absorption rates of vapors were estimated using a model given by AIHA (2000). Results were compared to an ''equivalent inhalation dose'' calculated by multiplying the inhalation occupational exposure limit by a nominal daily inhalation rate. The results should provide guidance for industrial hygienists to prepare specific recommendations based on specific scenarios.

  1. Probe for measurement of velocity and density of vapor in vapor plume

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berzins, Leon V.; Bratton, Bradford A.; Fuhrman, Paul W.

    1997-01-01

    A probe which directs a light beam through a vapor plume in a first direction at a first angle ranging from greater than 0.degree. to less than 90.degree., reflecting the light beam back through the vapor plume at a 90.degree. angle, and then reflecting the light beam through the vapor plume a third time at a second angle equal to the first angle, using a series of mirrors to deflect the light beam while protecting the mirrors from the vapor plume with shields. The velocity, density, temperature and flow direction of the vapor plume may be determined by a comparison of the energy from a reference portion of the beam with the energy of the beam after it has passed through the vapor plume.

  2. Probe for measurement of velocity and density of vapor in vapor plume

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berzins, L.V.; Bratton, B.A.; Fuhrman, P.W.

    1997-03-11

    A probe is disclosed which directs a light beam through a vapor plume in a first direction at a first angle ranging from greater than 0{degree} to less than 90{degree}, reflecting the light beam back through the vapor plume at a 90{degree} angle, and then reflecting the light beam through the vapor plume a third time at a second angle equal to the first angle, using a series of mirrors to deflect the light beam while protecting the mirrors from the vapor plume with shields. The velocity, density, temperature and flow direction of the vapor plume may be determined by a comparison of the energy from a reference portion of the beam with the energy of the beam after it has passed through the vapor plume. 10 figs.

  3. Perfluorocarbon vapor tagging of blasting cap detonators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietz, R.N.; Senum, G.I.

    A plug for a blasting cap is made of an elastomer in which is dissolved a perfluorocarbon. The perfluorocarbon is released as a vapor into the ambient over a long period of time to serve as a detectable taggant.

  4. Perfluorocarbon vapor tagging of blasting cap detonators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietz, Russell N.; Senum, Gunnar I.

    1981-01-01

    A plug for a blasting cap is made of an elastomer in which is dissolved a perfluorocarbon. The perfluorocarbon is released as a vapor into the ambient over a long period of time to serve as a detectable taggant.

  5. Chemical vapor infiltration using microwave energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Devlin, David J.; Currier, Robert P.; Laia, Jr., Joseph R.; Barbero, Robert S.

    1993-01-01

    A method for producing reinforced ceramic composite articles by means of chemical vapor infiltration and deposition in which an inverted temperature gradient is utilized. Microwave energy is the source of heat for the process.

  6. Vapor purification with self-cleaning filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Josephson, Gary B.; Heath, William O.; Aardahl, Christopher L.

    2003-12-09

    A vapor filtration device including a first electrode, a second electrode, and a filter between the first and second electrodes is disclosed. The filter is formed of dielectric material and the device is operated by applying a first electric potential between the electrodes to polarize the dielectric material such that upon passing a vapor stream through the filter, particles from the vapor stream are deposited onto the filter. After depositing the particles a second higher voltage is applied between the electrodes to form a nonthermal plasma around the filter to vaporize the collected particles thereby cleaning the filter. The filter can be a packed bed or serpentine filter mat, and an optional upstream corona wire can be utilized to charge airborne particles prior to their deposition on the filter.

  7. Water vapor distribution in protoplanetary disks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du, Fujun; Bergin, Edwin A.

    2014-09-01

    Water vapor has been detected in protoplanetary disks. In this work, we model the distribution of water vapor in protoplanetary disks with a thermo-chemical code. For a set of parameterized disk models, we calculate the distribution of dust temperature and radiation field of the disk with a Monte Carlo method, and then solve the gas temperature distribution and chemical composition. The radiative transfer includes detailed treatment of scattering by atomic hydrogen and absorption by water of Lyα photons, since the Lyα line dominates the UV spectrum of accreting young stars. In a fiducial model, we find that warm water vapor with temperature around 300 K is mainly distributed in a small and well-confined region in the inner disk. The inner boundary of the warm water region is where the shielding of UV field due to dust and water itself become significant. The outer boundary is where the dust temperature drops below the water condensation temperature. A more luminous central star leads to a more extended distribution of warm water vapor, while dust growth and settling tends to reduce the amount of warm water vapor. Based on typical assumptions regarding the elemental oxygen abundance and the water chemistry, the column density of warm water vapor can be as high as 10{sup 22} cm{sup –2}. A small amount of hot water vapor with temperature higher than ∼300 K exists in a more extended region in the upper atmosphere of the disk. Cold water vapor with temperature lower than 100 K is distributed over the entire disk, produced by photodesorption of the water ice.

  8. Optical monitor for water vapor concentration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kebabian, Paul

    1998-01-01

    A system for measuring and monitoring water vapor concentration in a sample uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to a water vapor absorption line. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split by a magnetic field parallel to the direction of light propagation from the lamp into sets of components of downshifted and upshifted frequencies of approximately 1575 Gauss. The downshifted components are centered on a water vapor absorption line and are thus readily absorbed by water vapor in the sample; the upshifted components are moved away from that absorption line and are minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the upshifted components or downshifted components and passes the selected components to the sample. After transmission through the sample, the transmitted intensity of a component of the argon line varies as a result of absorption by the water vapor. The system then determines the concentration of water vapor in the sample based on differences in the transmitted intensity between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments alternate selection of sets of components is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to the emitting plasma.

  9. Optical monitor for water vapor concentration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kebabian, P.

    1998-06-02

    A system for measuring and monitoring water vapor concentration in a sample uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to a water vapor absorption line. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split by a magnetic field parallel to the direction of light propagation from the lamp into sets of components of downshifted and upshifted frequencies of approximately 1575 Gauss. The downshifted components are centered on a water vapor absorption line and are thus readily absorbed by water vapor in the sample; the upshifted components are moved away from that absorption line and are minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the upshifted components or downshifted components and passes the selected components to the sample. After transmission through the sample, the transmitted intensity of a component of the argon line varies as a result of absorption by the water vapor. The system then determines the concentration of water vapor in the sample based on differences in the transmitted intensity between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments alternate selection of sets of components is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to the emitting plasma. 5 figs.

  10. Method and apparatus for detection of chemical vapors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mahurin, Shannon Mark; Dai, Sheng; Caja, Josip

    2007-05-15

    The present invention is a gas detector and method for using the gas detector for detecting and identifying volatile organic and/or volatile inorganic substances present in unknown vapors in an environment. The gas detector comprises a sensing means and a detecting means for detecting electrical capacitance variance of the sensing means and for further identifying the volatile organic and volatile inorganic substances. The sensing means comprises at least one sensing unit and a sensing material allocated therein the sensing unit. The sensing material is an ionic liquid which is exposed to the environment and is capable of dissolving a quantity of said volatile substance upon exposure thereto. The sensing means constitutes an electrochemical capacitor and the detecting means is in electrical communication with the sensing means.

  11. Organic rankine cycle fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brasz, Joost J.; Jonsson, Ulf J.

    2006-09-05

    A method of operating an organic rankine cycle system wherein a liquid refrigerant is circulated to an evaporator where heat is introduced to the refrigerant to convert it to vapor. The vapor is then passed through a turbine, with the resulting cooled vapor then passing through a condenser for condensing the vapor to a liquid. The refrigerant is one of CF.sub.3CF.sub.2C(O)CF(CF.sub.3).sub.2, (CF.sub.3).sub.2 CFC(O)CF(CF.sub.3).sub.2, CF.sub.3(CF.sub.2).sub.2C(O)CF(CF.sub.3).sub.2, CF.sub.3(CF.sub.2).sub.3C(O)CF(CG.sub.3).sub.2, CF.sub.3(CF.sub.2).sub.5C(O)CF.sub.3, CF.sub.3CF.sub.2C(O)CF.sub.2CF.sub.2CF.sub.3, CF.sub.3C(O)CF(CF.sub.3).sub.2.

  12. Diode pumped alkali vapor fiber laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Payne, Stephen A.; Beach, Raymond J.; Dawson, Jay W.; Krupke, William F.

    2007-10-23

    A method and apparatus is provided for producing near-diffraction-limited laser light, or amplifying near-diffraction-limited light, in diode pumped alkali vapor photonic-band-gap fiber lasers or amplifiers. Laser light is both substantially generated and propagated in an alkali gas instead of a solid, allowing the nonlinear and damage limitations of conventional solid core fibers to be circumvented. Alkali vapor is introduced into the center hole of a photonic-band-gap fiber, which can then be pumped with light from a pump laser and operated as an oscillator with a seed beam, or can be configured as an amplifier.

  13. Diode pumped alkali vapor fiber laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Payne, Stephen A.; Beach, Raymond J.; Dawson, Jay W.; Krupke, William F.

    2006-07-26

    A method and apparatus is provided for producing near-diffraction-limited laser light, or amplifying near-diffraction-limited light, in diode pumped alkali vapor photonic-band-gap fiber lasers or amplifiers. Laser light is both substantially generated and propagated in an alkali gas instead of a solid, allowing the nonlinear and damage limitations of conventional solid core fibers to be circumvented. Alkali vapor is introduced into the center hole of a photonic-band-gap fiber, which can then be pumped with light from a pump laser and operated as an oscillator with a seed beam, or can be configured as an amplifier.

  14. Thermal electric vapor trap arrangement and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alger, Terry (Tracy, CA)

    1988-01-01

    A technique for trapping vapor within a section of a tube is disclosed herein. This technique utilizes a conventional, readily providable thermal electric device having a hot side and a cold side and means for powering the device to accomplish this. The cold side of this device is positioned sufficiently close to a predetermined section of the tube and is made sufficiently cold so that any condensable vapor passing through the predetermined tube section is condensed and trapped, preferably within the predetermined tube section itself.

  15. Vaporized alcohol fuel boosts engine efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hardenburg, H.O.; Bergmann, H.K.; Metsch, H.I.; Schaefer, A.J.

    1983-02-01

    An effort is being made at Daimler-Benz AG to utilize the special characteristics of vaporized methanol and ethanol in an alcohol-gas spark-ignited engine. Describes laboratory testing which demonstrates that waste heat recovery and very lean air/fuel mixtures improve the efficiency and economy of a spark-ignition engine running on alcohol vapors. Presents graph comparing performance and torque of the alcohol-gas and diesel engines. Finds that the fuel consumption of the methanol-fueled version approaches that of a diesel engine, with other advantages including low engine noise, good acceleration, and favorable exhaust emissions.

  16. Thermal electric vapor trap arrangement and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alger, T.

    1988-03-15

    A technique for trapping vapor within a section of a tube is disclosed herein. This technique utilizes a conventional, readily providable thermal electric device having a hot side and a cold side and means for powering the device to accomplish this. The cold side of this device is positioned sufficiently close to a predetermined section of the tube and is made sufficiently cold so that any condensable vapor passing through the predetermined tube section is condensed and trapped, preferably within the predetermined tube section itself. 4 figs.

  17. Performance assessment of the In-Well Vapor-Stripping System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilmore, T.J.; White, M.D.; Spane, F.A. Jr.

    1996-10-01

    In-well vapor stripping is a remediation technology designed to preferentially extract volatile organic compounds dissolved in groundwater by converting them to a vapor phase and then treating the vapor. This vapor-stripping system is distinctly different from the more traditional in situ air-sparging concept. In situ sparging takes place in the aquifer formation; in-well vapor stripping takes place within the well casing. The system was field demonstrated at Edwards Air Force Base, California; the first-time demonstration of this technology in the United States. Installation and testing of the system were completed in late 1995, and the demonstration was operated nearly continuously for 6 months (191 days) between January 16 and July 25, 1996. Postdemonstration hydrochemical sampling continued until September 1996. The demonstration was conducted by collaborating researchers from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (a) and Stanford University as part of an interim cleanup action at the base. Edwards Air Force Base and its environmental subcontractor, Earth Technology Corporation, as well as EG&G Environmental, holders of the commercial rights to the technology, were also significant contributors to the demonstration.

  18. Method and Apparatus for Concentrating Vapors for Analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grate, Jay W.; Baldwin, David L.; Anheier, Jr., Norman C.

    2008-10-07

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for pre-concentrating gaseous vapors for analysis. The invention finds application in conjunction with, e.g., analytical instruments where low detection limits for gaseous vapors are desirable. Vapors sorbed and concentrated within the bed of the apparatus can be thermally desorbed achieving at least partial separation of vapor mixtures. The apparatus is suitable, e.g., for preconcentration and sample injection, and provides greater resolution of peaks for vapors within vapor mixtures, yielding detection levels that are 10-10,000 times better than for direct sampling and analysis systems. Features are particularly useful for continuous unattended monitoring applications.

  19. Vapor pressures of the polychlorinated naphthalenes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lei, Y.D.; Shiu, W.Y.; Wania, F.

    1999-05-01

    The vapor pressures of the supercooled liquid P{sub L} for 17 polychlorinated naphthalene congeners were determined as a function of temperature with a gas chromatographic retention time technique. The method was calibrated with vapor pressure data for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) which had been measured by other techniques. These data were employed to predict temperature-dependent vapor pressures for all polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) from a regression with published retention time indices. Enthalpies of vaporization {Delta}{sub VAP}H and activity coefficients in 1-octanol were calculated for the PCNs and compared with those for polychlorinated biphenyls. Data analysis suggests that the dependence of P{sub L} and {Delta}{sub VAP}H on molecular size, as well as the partitioning behavior into 1-octanol of the PCNs, is very similar to that of coplanar PCBs, i.e., those congeners with no or only one chlorine substitution in the ortho positions. The affinity of these chemicals to 1-octanol increases with the degree of chlorination.

  20. Advancing Explosives Detection Capabilities: Vapor Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atkinson, David

    2012-10-15

    A new, PNNL-developed method provides direct, real-time detection of trace amounts of explosives such as RDX, PETN and C-4. The method selectively ionizes a sample before passing the sample through a mass spectrometer to detect explosive vapors. The method could be used at airports to improve aviation security.

  1. Chemical vapor deposition of mullite coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sarin, Vinod (Lexington, MA); Mulpuri, Rao (Boston, MA)

    1998-01-01

    This invention is directed to the creation of crystalline mullite coatings having uniform microstructure by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The process comprises the steps of establishing a flow of reactants which will yield mullite in a CVD reactor, and depositing a crystalline coating from the reactant flow. The process will yield crystalline coatings which are dense and of uniform thickness.

  2. Advancing Explosives Detection Capabilities: Vapor Detection

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Atkinson, David

    2014-07-24

    A new, PNNL-developed method provides direct, real-time detection of trace amounts of explosives such as RDX, PETN and C-4. The method selectively ionizes a sample before passing the sample through a mass spectrometer to detect explosive vapors. The method could be used at airports to improve aviation security.

  3. Membranes for Reverse-Organic Air Separations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    New Membranes Use Reverse Separation to Reduce Pollutant Emissions: Many industrial applications need a process to separate pollutants known as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from air in order to protect the environment and save energy. One such application is the venting of vapor from underground storage tanks (UST) used in gasoline storage and dispensing. These vapors, which can build up and create high pressure within the UST, contribute to ground-level ozone and smog upon release.

  4. Vapor Pressure and Molecular Composition of Vapors of the RbF...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in the vapor phase of the respective systems. Farther work on the NaF-ZrFsub 4 system points to the existence of the gaseous complex NaZrsub 2Fsub 9 rather than NaZrFsub ...

  5. IMPROVED MAGNUS' FORM OF SATURATION VAPOR PRESSURE Oleg A. Alduchov...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    We will show that two of the new formulations of vapor pressure over water and ice are ... The most precise formulation of vapor pressure over a plane surface of water was given by ...

  6. ARM: Microwave Water Radiometer (MWR): water liq. and vapor along...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Microwave Water Radiometer (MWR): water liq. and vapor along line of sight (LOS) path Title: ARM: Microwave Water Radiometer (MWR): water liq. and vapor along line of sight (LOS) ...

  7. Moisture Durability of Vapor Permeable Insulating Sheathing (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-10-01

    In this project, Building America team Building Science Corporation researched some of the ramifications of using exterior, vapor permeable insulation on retrofit walls with vapor permeable cavity insulation. Retrofit strategies are a key factor in reducing exterior building stock consumption.

  8. Evaluation of aqueous cleaners as alternatives to vapor degreasing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guidotti, R.A.; Schneider, T.W.; Frye, G.C.

    1996-02-01

    As part of the preparation process during assembly of thermally activated batteries, the stainless steel piece parts are normally cleaned by vapor degreasing with trichloroethylene. Severe restrictions on the use of chlorinated and fluorinated hydrocarbons in recent years prompted the evaluation of a number of aqueous cleaners as a replacement technology for this application. A total of seven commercial aqueous degreasers was evaluated in this study at several dilution ratios and temperatures. One organic cleaner was also examined under ambient conditions. The effectiveness of the cleaner was determined by the use of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), which is a surface analytical technique that is very sensitive to low levels of surface contaminants. A quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) that is immersed in the cleaning bath was evaluated as a tool for monitoring the bath cleanliness. The best overall cleaning results were obtained with Micro, Impro-Clean 3800, and Sonicor cleaners.

  9. Detection of volatile organic compounds using surface enhanced Raman scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, A S; Maiti, A; Ileri, N; Bora, M; Larson, C C; Britten, J A; Bond, T C

    2012-03-22

    The authors present the detection of volatile organic compounds directly in their vapor phase by surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates based on lithographically-defined two-dimensional rectangular array of nanopillars. The type of nanopillars is known as the tapered pillars. For the tapered pillars, SERS enhancement arises from the nanofocusing effect due to the sharp tip on top. SERS experiments were carried out on these substrates using various concentrations of toluene vapor. The results show that SERS signal from a toluene vapor concentration of ppm level can be achieved, and the toluene vapor can be detected within minutes of exposing the SERS substrate to the vapor. A simple adsorption model is developed which gives results matching the experimental data. The results also show promising potential for the use of these substrates in environmental monitoring of gases and vapors.

  10. Volatile organic compound sensing devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lancaster, G.D.; Moore, G.A.; Stone, M.L.; Reagen, W.K.

    1995-08-29

    Apparatus employing vapochromic materials in the form of inorganic double complex salts which change color reversibly when exposed to volatile organic compound (VOC) vapors is adapted for VOC vapor detection, VOC aqueous matrix detection, and selective VOC vapor detection. The basic VOC vapochromic sensor is incorporated in various devices such as a ground probe sensor, a wristband sensor, a periodic sampling monitor, a soil/water penetrometer, an evaporative purge sensor, and various vacuum-based sensors which are particularly adapted for reversible/reusable detection, remote detection, continuous monitoring, or rapid screening of environmental remediation and waste management sites. The vapochromic sensor is used in combination with various fiber optic arrangements to provide a calibrated qualitative and/or quantitative indication of the presence of VOCs. 15 figs.

  11. Volatile organic compound sensing devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lancaster, Gregory D.; Moore, Glenn A.; Stone, Mark L.; Reagen, William K.

    1995-01-01

    Apparatus employing vapochromic materials in the form of inorganic double complex salts which change color reversibly when exposed to volatile organic compound (VOC) vapors is adapted for VOC vapor detection, VOC aqueous matrix detection, and selective VOC vapor detection. The basic VOC vapochromic sensor is incorporated in various devices such as a ground probe sensor, a wristband sensor, a periodic sampling monitor, a soil/water penetrometer, an evaporative purge sensor, and various vacuum-based sensors which are particularly adapted for reversible/reusable detection, remote detection, continuous monitoring, or rapid screening of environmental remediation and waste management sites. The vapochromic sensor is used in combination with various fiber optic arrangements to provide a calibrated qualitative and/or quantitative indication of the presence of VOCs.

  12. Composites for removing metals and volatile organic compounds and method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coronado, Paul R.; Coleman, Sabre J.; Reynolds, John G.

    2006-12-12

    Functionalized hydrophobic aerogel/solid support structure composites have been developed to remove metals and organic compounds from aqueous and vapor media. The targeted metals and organics are removed by passing the aqueous or vapor phase through the composite which can be in molded, granular, or powder form. The composites adsorb the metals and the organics leaving a purified aqueous or vapor stream. The species-specific adsorption occurs through specific functionalization of the aerogels tailored towards specific metals and/or organics. After adsorption, the composites can be disposed of or the targeted metals and/or organics can be reclaimed or removed and the composites recycled.

  13. Transparent Metal-Organic Framework/Polymer Mixed Matrix Membranes...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transparent Metal-Organic FrameworkPolymer Mixed Matrix Membranes as Water Vapor Barriers Previous Next List Bae, Youn Jue; Cho, Eun Seon; Qu, Fen; Sun, Daniel T.; Williams, ...

  14. Metal vapor laser including hot electrodes and integral wick

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ault, E.R.; Alger, T.W.

    1995-03-07

    A metal vapor laser, specifically one utilizing copper vapor, is disclosed herein. This laser utilizes a plasma tube assembly including a thermally insulated plasma tube containing a specific metal, e.g., copper, and a buffer gas therein. The laser also utilizes means including hot electrodes located at opposite ends of the plasma tube for electrically exciting the metal vapor and heating its interior to a sufficiently high temperature to cause the metal contained therein to vaporize and for subjecting the vapor to an electrical discharge excitation in order to lase. The laser also utilizes external wicking arrangements, that is, wicking arrangements located outside the plasma tube. 5 figs.

  15. Metal vapor laser including hot electrodes and integral wick

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ault, Earl R.; Alger, Terry W.

    1995-01-01

    A metal vapor laser, specifically one utilizing copper vapor, is disclosed herein. This laser utilizes a plasma tube assembly including a thermally insulated plasma tube containing a specific metal, e.g., copper, and a buffer gas therein. The laser also utilizes means including hot electrodes located at opposite ends of the plasma tube for electrically exciting the metal vapor and heating its interior to a sufficiently high temperature to cause the metal contained therein to vaporize and for subjecting the vapor to an electrical discharge excitation in order to lase. The laser also utilizes external wicking arrangements, that is, wicking arrangements located outside the plasma tube.

  16. Copper vapor laser modular packaging assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alger, T.W.; Ault, E.R.; Moses, E.I.

    1992-12-01

    A modularized packaging arrangement for one or more copper vapor lasers and associated equipment is disclosed herein. This arrangement includes a single housing which contains the laser or lasers and all their associated equipment except power, water and neon, and means for bringing power, water, and neon which are necessary to the operation of the lasers into the container for use by the laser or lasers and their associated equipment. 2 figs.

  17. Copper vapor laser modular packaging assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alger, Terry W.; Ault, Earl R.; Moses, Edward I.

    1992-01-01

    A modularized packaging arrangement for one or more copper vapor lasers and associated equipment is disclosed herein. This arrangement includes a single housing which contains the laser or lasers and all their associated equipment except power, water and neon, and means for bringing power, water, and neon which are necessary to the operation of the lasers into the container for use by the laser or lasers and their associated equipment.

  18. Apparatus and method for photochemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jackson, Scott C.; Rocheleau, Richard E.

    1987-03-31

    A photochemical vapor deposition apparatus includes a reactor housing having a window in one wall above a reaction chamber in the housing. A transparent curtain divides the reaction chamber into a reaction zone and a flush zone. At least one substrate is mounted in the reaction zone in light communication with the window so that ultraviolet radiation may penetrate through the window into the reaction zone. The window is kept clear by a gas flowing through the flush zone.

  19. DuPont Chemical Vapor Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MOORE, T.L.

    2003-10-03

    DuPont Safety Resources was tasked with reviewing the current chemical vapor control practices and providing preventive recommendations on best commercial techniques to control worker exposures. The increased focus of the tank closure project to meet the 2024 Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) milestones has surfaced concerns among some CH2MHill employees and other interested parties. CH2MHill is committed to providing a safe working environment for employees and desires to safely manage the tank farm operations using appropriate control measures. To address worker concerns, CH2MHill has chartered a ''Chemical Vapors Project'' to integrate the activities of multiple CH2MHill project teams, and solicit the expertise of external resources, including an independent Industrial Hygiene expert panel, a communications consultant, and DuPont Safety Resources. Over a three-month time period, DuPont worked with CH2MHill ESH&Q, Industrial Hygiene, Engineering, and the independent expert panel to perform the assessment. The process included overview presentations, formal interviews, informal discussions, documentation review, and literature review. DuPont Safety Resources concluded that it is highly unlikely that workers in the tank farms are exposed to chemicals above established standards. Additionally, the conventional and radiological chemistry is understood, the inherent chemical hazards are known, and the risk associated with chemical vapor exposure is properly managed. The assessment highlighted management's commitment to addressing chemical vapor hazards and controlling the associated risks. Additionally, we found the Industrial Hygiene staff to be technically competent and well motivated. The tank characterization data resides in a comprehensive database containing the tank chemical compositions and relevant airborne concentrations.

  20. Treatment of organic waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grantham, LeRoy F.

    1979-01-01

    An organic waste containing at least one element selected from the group consisting of strontium, cesium, iodine and ruthenium is treated to achieve a substantial reduction in the volume of the waste and provide for fixation of the selected element in an inert salt. The method of treatment comprises introducing the organic waste and a source of oxygen into a molten salt bath maintained at an elevated temperature to produce solid and gaseous reaction products. The gaseous reaction products comprise carbon dioxide and water vapor, and the solid reaction products comprise the inorganic ash constituents of the organic waste and the selected element which is retained in the molten salt. The molten salt bath comprises one or more alkali metal carbonates, and may optionally include from 1 to about 25 wt.% of an alkali metal sulfate.

  1. APPLICATION OF STIR BAR SORPTIVE EXTRACTION TO ANALYSIS OF VOLATILE AND SEMIVOLATILE ORGANIC CHEMICALS OF POTENTIAL CONCERN IN SOLIDS AND AQUEOUS SAMPLES FROM THE HANFORD SITE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FRYE JM; KUNKEL JM

    2009-03-05

    Stir bar sorptive extraction was applied to aqueous and solid samples for the extraction and analysis of organic compounds from the Hanford chemicals of potential concern list, as identified in the vapor data quality objectives. The 222-S Laboratory analyzed these compounds from vapor samples on thermal desorption tubes as part of the Hanford Site industrial hygiene vapor sampling effort.

  2. Vaporization and gasification of hydrocarbon feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davies, H.S.; Garstang, J.H.; Timmins, C.

    1983-08-23

    Heavy hydrocarbon feedstocks, e.g. gas oils, are vaporized and subsequently gasified at high temperatures without pyrolytic degradation by first admixing the hydrocarbon with a hot gaseous reactant, e.g. product gas or steam, to bring the temperature of the mixture above that of the dew point of the hydrocarbon and thereafter raising the temperature of the mixture to above that at which pyrolysis of the hydrocarbon begins to be significant by admixture with further quantities of the reactant which are superheated thereby to bring the temperature of the resultant mixture to that required for effecting a catalytic gasification reaction.

  3. Copper vapor laser acoustic thermometry system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Galkowski, Joseph J.

    1987-01-01

    A copper vapor laser (CVL) acoustic thermometry system is disclosed. The invention couples an acoustic pulse a predetermined distance into a laser tube by means of a transducer and an alumina rod such that an echo pulse is returned along the alumina rod to the point of entry. The time differential between the point of entry of the acoustic pulse into the laser tube and the exit of the echo pulse is related to the temperature at the predetermined distance within the laser tube. This information is processed and can provide an accurate indication of the average temperature within the laser tube.

  4. Chemical vapor deposition of epitaxial silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berkman, Samuel

    1984-01-01

    A single chamber continuous chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reactor is described for depositing continuously on flat substrates, for example, epitaxial layers of semiconductor materials. The single chamber reactor is formed into three separate zones by baffles or tubes carrying chemical source material and a carrier gas in one gas stream and hydrogen gas in the other stream without interaction while the wafers are heated to deposition temperature. Diffusion of the two gas streams on heated wafers effects the epitaxial deposition in the intermediate zone and the wafers are cooled in the final zone by coolant gases. A CVD reactor for batch processing is also described embodying the deposition principles of the continuous reactor.

  5. G-Band Vapor Radiometer Profiler (GVRP) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caddeau, MP

    2010-06-23

    The G-Band Vapor Radiometer Profiler (GVRP) provides time-series measurements of brightness temperatures from 15 channels between 170 and 183.310 GHz. Atmospheric emission in this spectral region is primarily due to water vapor, with some influence from liquid water. Channels between 170.0 and 176.0 GHz are particularly sensitive to the presence of liquid water. The sensitivity to water vapor of the 183.31-GHz line is approximately 30 times higher than at the frequencies of the two-channel microwave radiometer (MWR) for a precipitable water vapor (PWV) amount of less than 2.5 mm. Measurements from the GVRP instrument are therefore especially useful during low-humidity conditions (PWV < 5 mm). In addition to integrated water vapor and liquid water, the GVRP can provide low-resolution vertical profiles of water vapor in very dry conditions.

  6. Method and apparatus for concentrating vapors for analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grate, Jay W.; Baldwin, David L.; Anheier, Jr., Norman C.

    2012-06-05

    A pre-concentration device and a method are disclosed for concentrating gaseous vapors for analysis. Vapors sorbed and concentrated within the bed of the pre-concentration device are thermally desorbed, achieving at least partial separation of the vapor mixtures. The pre-concentration device is suitable, e.g., for pre-concentration and sample injection, and provides greater resolution of peaks for vapors within vapor mixtures, yielding detection levels that are 10-10,000 times better than direct sampling and analysis systems. Features are particularly useful for continuous unattended monitoring applications. The invention finds application in conjunction with, e.g., analytical instruments where low detection limits for gaseous vapors are desirable.

  7. Review of enhanced vapor diffusion in porous media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webb, S.W.; Ho, C.K.

    1998-08-01

    Vapor diffusion in porous media in the presence of its own liquid has often been treated similar to gas diffusion. The gas diffusion rate in porous media is much lower than in free space due to the presence of the porous medium and any liquid present. However, enhanced vapor diffusion has also been postulated such that the diffusion rate may approach free-space values. Existing data and models for enhanced vapor diffusion, including those in TOUGH2, are reviewed in this paper.

  8. Method for controlling corrosion in thermal vapor injection gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sperry, John S.; Krajicek, Richard W.

    1981-01-01

    An improvement in the method for producing high pressure thermal vapor streams from combustion gases for injection into subterranean oil producing formations to stimulate the production of viscous minerals is described. The improvement involves controlling corrosion in such thermal vapor gases by injecting water near the flame in the combustion zone and injecting ammonia into a vapor producing vessel to contact the combustion gases exiting the combustion chamber.

  9. Validation of TES Temperature and Water Vapor Retrievals with...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The primary objective of the TES (Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer) instrument on the Aura spacecraft is the retrieval of trace gases, especially water vapor and ozone. The TES...

  10. Ground Gravity Survey At Cove Fort Area - Vapor (Warpinski, Et...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ground Gravity Survey At Cove Fort Area - Vapor (Warpinski, Et Al., 2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Ground Gravity Survey...

  11. Glenwood Springs Vapor Caves Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Glenwood Springs Vapor Caves Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Glenwood Springs...

  12. Mercury Vapor At Mccoy Geothermal Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mccoy Geothermal Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Mccoy Geothermal Area (DOE GTP) Exploration...

  13. Numerical modeling of water injection into vapor-dominatedgeothermal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Numerical modeling of water injection into vapor-dominatedgeothermal reservoirs Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Numerical modeling of water injection ...

  14. Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Cove Fort Area - Vapor ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Cove Fort Area - Vapor (Warpinski, Et Al., 2002)...

  15. The role of polymer formation during vapor phase lubrication...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The lubrication of silicon surfaces with alcohol vapors has recently been demonstrated. ... The parent alcohol molecule pentanol, has molecular weight of 88amu, suggesting that ...

  16. Mercury Vapor At Medicine Lake Area (Kooten, 1987) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Medicine Lake Area (Kooten, 1987) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Medicine Lake Area (Kooten, 1987) Exploration...

  17. Mercury Vapor At Mokapu Penninsula Area (Thomas, 1986) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Mokapu Penninsula Area (Thomas, 1986) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  18. Mercury Vapor At Lualualei Valley Area (Thomas, 1986) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Lualualei Valley Area (Thomas, 1986) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  19. Mercury Vapor At Kawaihae Area (Thomas, 1986) | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Kawaihae Area (Thomas, 1986) Exploration Activity Details Location Kawaihae...

  20. Mercury Vapor At Mauna Loa Northeast Rift Area (Thomas, 1986...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Mauna Loa Northeast Rift Area (Thomas, 1986) Exploration Activity Details...

  1. Mercury Vapor At Socorro Mountain Area (Kooten, 1987) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Socorro Mountain Area (Kooten, 1987) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  2. Ground Magnetics At Cove Fort Area - Vapor (Warpinski, Et Al...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Ground Magnetics At Cove Fort Area - Vapor (Warpinski, Et Al., 2002) Exploration Activity Details...

  3. PROJECT PROFILE: Stable Perovskite Solar Cells via Chemical Vapor...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Stable Perovskite Solar Cells via Chemical Vapor Deposition PROJECT PROFILE: Stable ... would be suitable for a photovoltaic absorber in a single or multi-junction cell. ...

  4. New Vapor-Particle Separator Improves Understanding of Aircraft...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    separate volatile particles from condensible vapors in aircraft engine emissions. ... of the combustion process of modern jet engines and the formation process of ...

  5. Overview of the ARM/FIRE Water Vapor Experiment (AFWEX)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Vapor Experiment (AFWEX) D. C. Tobin, H. E. Revercomb, and D. D. Turner University of Wisconsin-Madison Madison, Wisconsin Introduction An overview of the ARMFIRE Water ...

  6. Posters Toward an Operational Water Vapor Remote Sensing System...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 Posters Toward an Operational Water Vapor Remote Sensing System Using the Global ... T. Van Hove and C. Rocken University Navstar Consortium Boulder, Colorado Background Water ...

  7. Vapor and gas sampling of the single-shell tank 241-S-101 using the in situ vapor sampling system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lockrem, L.L.

    1997-08-05

    The Vapor Issue Resolution Program tasked the Vapor Team (VT) to collect representative headspace samples from Hanford Site single-shell tank (SST) 241-S-101. This document presents In Situ Vapor Sampling System (ISVS) data resulting from the June 6, 1996 sampling of SST 241-S-101. Analytical results will be presented in separate reports issued by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) which supplied and analyzed the sample media.

  8. Vapor and gas sampling of single-shell tank 241-S-103 using the in situ vapor sampling system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lockrem, L.L.

    1997-08-05

    The Vapor Issue Resolution Program tasked the Vapor Team (VT) to collect representative headspace samples from Hanford Site single-shell tank (SST) 241-S-103. This document presents In Situ Vapor Sampling System (ISVS) data resulting from the June 12, 1996 sampling of SST 241-S-103. Analytical results will be presented in separate reports issued by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) which supplied and analyzed the sample media.

  9. Vapor and gas sampling of Single-Shell Tank 241-A-101 using the Vapor Sampling System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caprio, G.S.

    1995-11-01

    This document presents sampling data resulting from the June 8, 1995, sampling of SST 241-A-101 using the Vapor Sampling System.

  10. Chemical vapor deposition of group IIIB metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erbil, A.

    1989-11-21

    Coatings of Group IIIB metals and compounds thereof are formed by chemical vapor deposition, in which a heat decomposable organometallic compound of the formula given in the patent where M is a Group IIIB metal, such as lanthanum or yttrium and R is a lower alkyl or alkenyl radical containing from 2 to about 6 carbon atoms, with a heated substrate which is above the decomposition temperature of the organometallic compound. The pure metal is obtained when the compound of the formula 1 is the sole heat decomposable compound present and deposition is carried out under nonoxidizing conditions. Intermetallic compounds such as lanthanum telluride can be deposited from a lanthanum compound of formula 1 and a heat decomposable tellurium compound under nonoxidizing conditions.

  11. Vapor pressure osmometry studies on buckminsterfullerene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Honeychuck, R.V.; Cruger, T.W.; Milliken, J.

    1993-12-31

    Vapor pressure osmometry has been employed in studies of solutions of buckminsterfullerene (C{sub 60}. Two aromatic solvents were selected in order to obtain solutions which would be as concentrated as possible. The number-average molecular weights M{sub n} of C{sub 60} determined by analysis of the data are 930 {+-} 5 g mol{sup {minus}1} in chlorobenzene and 700 {+-} 10 g mol{sup {minus}1} in toluene), so the M{sub n} obtained in chlorobenzene is unexpected. Both determinations were performed with the same batch of C{sub 60}, which was processed to yield material of very high purity. The amount of interstitial N{sub 2} was determined using an appropriate method. The role if interstitial molecules, solvents in the crystal lattice, solvent-fullerene complexes, C{sub 70}, and C{sub 60} dimers in these measurements will be discussed.

  12. Chemical vapor deposition of group IIIB metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erbil, Ahmet

    1989-01-01

    Coatings of Group IIIB metals and compounds thereof are formed by chemical vapor deposition, in which a heat decomposable organometallic compound of the formula (I) ##STR1## where M is a Group IIIB metal, such as lanthanum or yttrium and R is a lower alkyl or alkenyl radical containing from 2 to about 6 carbon atoms, with a heated substrate which is above the decomposition temperature of the organometallic compound. The pure metal is obtained when the compound of the formula I is the sole heat decomposable compound present and deposition is carried out under nonoxidizing conditions. Intermetallic compounds such as lanthanum telluride can be deposited from a lanthanum compound of formula I and a heat decomposable tellurium compound under nonoxidizing conditions.

  13. Monitoring of vapor phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Hajaligol, Mohammad R.

    2004-06-01

    An apparatus for monitoring vapor phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a high-temperature environment has an excitation source producing electromagnetic radiation, an optical path having an optical probe optically communicating the electromagnetic radiation received at a proximal end to a distal end, a spectrometer or polychromator, a detector, and a positioner coupled to the first optical path. The positioner can slidably move the distal end of the optical probe to maintain the distal end position with respect to an area of a material undergoing combustion. The emitted wavelength can be directed to a detector in a single optical probe 180.degree. backscattered configuration, in a dual optical probe 180.degree. backscattered configuration or in a dual optical probe 90.degree. side scattered configuration. The apparatus can be used to monitor an emitted wavelength of energy from a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon as it fluoresces in a high temperature environment.

  14. Kinetics of wet sodium vapor complex plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mishra, S. K., E-mail: nishfeb@rediffmail.com [Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Sodha, M. S. [Centre of Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), New Delhi 110016 (India)] [Centre of Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2014-04-15

    In this paper, we have investigated the kinetics of wet (partially condensed) Sodium vapor, which comprises of electrons, ions, neutral atoms, and Sodium droplets (i) in thermal equilibrium and (ii) when irradiated by light. The formulation includes the balance of charge over the droplets, number balance of the plasma constituents, and energy balance of the electrons. In order to evaluate the droplet charge, a phenomenon for de-charging of the droplets, viz., evaporation of positive Sodium ions from the surface has been considered in addition to electron emission and electron/ion accretion. The analysis has been utilized to evaluate the steady state parameters of such complex plasmas (i) in thermal equilibrium and (ii) when irradiated; the results have been graphically illustrated. As a significant outcome irradiated, Sodium droplets are seen to acquire large positive potential, with consequent enhancement in the electron density.

  15. Brazing titanium-vapor-coated zirconia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santella, M.L. ); Pak, J.J. )

    1993-04-01

    Partially stabilized zirconia was vacuum furnace brazed to itself, to nodular cast iron, and to commercially pure titanium with a Ag-30Cu-10Sn wt% filler metal. Wetting was obtained by coating the ZrO[sub 2] surfaces with Ti prior to brazing by RF sputtering or electron beam evaporation. Braze joints made with Ti-sputter-coated ZrO[sub 2] contained high levels of porosity, but those made with Ti coatings deposited by evaporation, referred to as Ti-vapor-coated, contained little or no porosity. Brazing caused the ZrO[sub 2] within about 1 mm (0.04 in.) of the joint surfaces to turn black in color, and thermodynamic analysis indicated that the discoloration was likely due to oxygen diffusion out of the ZrO[sub 2] into the Ti vapor coating during brazing. Braze joint strength was determined by flexure testing in the four-point bend arrangement, and on a more limited basis, by shear testing. The latter method was used mainly as a screening test for ZrO[sub 2]-Fe and ZrO[sub 2]-Ti joints. Flexure testing of ZrO[sub 2]-ZrO[sub 2] and ZrO[sub 2]-Fe braze joints was done at 25, 200, 400, and 575 C (77, 392, 752 and 1,067 F) in air. For flexure testing, average strengths of joint specimens decreased with increasing test temperature. The lower average strengths of ZrO[sub 2]-Fe specimens compared to those from ZrO[sub 2]-ZrO[sub 2] joints was attributed to higher residual stresses in the ceramic-to-metal joints.

  16. Building America Top Innovations 2012: Vapor Retarder Classification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes research in vapor retarders. Since 2006 the IRC has permitted Class III vapor retarders like latex paint (see list above) in all climate zones under certain conditions thanks to research by Building America teams.

  17. Method and apparatus for conducting variable thickness vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nesslage, G.V.

    1984-08-03

    A method of vapor depositing metal on a substrate in variable thickness comprises conducting the deposition continuously without interruption to avoid formation of grain boundaries. To achieve reduced deposition in specific regions a thin wire or ribbon blocking body is placed between source and substrate to partially block vapors from depositing in the region immediately below.

  18. Operating a radio-frequency plasma source on water vapor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, Sonca V. T.; Gallimore, Alec D.; Foster, John E.

    2009-08-15

    A magnetically enhanced radio-frequency (rf) plasma source operating on water vapor has an extensive list of potential applications. In this work, the use of a rf plasma source to dissociate water vapor for hydrogen production is investigated. This paper describes a rf plasma source operated on water vapor and characterizes its plasma properties using a Langmuir probe, a residual gas analyzer, and a spectrometer. The plasma source operated first on argon and then on water vapor at operating pressures just over 300 mtorr. Argon and water vapor plasma number densities differ significantly. In the electropositive argon plasma, quasineutrality requires n{sub i}{approx_equal}n{sub e}, where n{sub i} is the positive ion density. But in the electronegative water plasma, quasineutrality requires n{sub i+}=n{sub i-}+n{sub e}. The positive ion density and electron density of the water vapor plasma are approximately one and two orders of magnitude lower, respectively, than those of argon plasma. These results suggest that attachment and dissociative attachment are present in electronegative water vapor plasma. The electron temperature for this water vapor plasma source is between 1.5 and 4 eV. Without an applied axial magnetic field, hydrogen production increases linearly with rf power. With an axial magnetic field, hydrogen production jumps to a maximum value at 500 W and then saturates with rf power. The presence of the applied axial magnetic field is therefore shown to enhance hydrogen production.

  19. Hybrid Vapor Compression Adsorption System: Thermal Storage Using Hybrid Vapor Compression Adsorption System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-04

    HEATS Project: UTRC is developing a new climate-control system for EVs that uses a hybrid vapor compression adsorption system with thermal energy storage. The targeted, closed system will use energy during the battery-charging step to recharge the thermal storage, and it will use minimal power to provide cooling or heating to the cabin during a drive cycle. The team will use a unique approach of absorbing a refrigerant on a metal salt, which will create a lightweight, high-energy-density refrigerant. This unique working pair can operate indefinitely as a traditional vapor compression heat pump using electrical energy, if desired. The project will deliver a hot-and-cold battery that provides comfort to the passengers using minimal power, substantially extending the driving range of EVs.

  20. Tower Water-Vapor Mixing Ratio (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Tower Water-Vapor Mixing Ratio Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Tower Water-Vapor Mixing Ratio The purpose of the Tower Water-Vapor Mixing Ratio (TWRMR) value-added ...

  1. A Comparison of Water Vapor Quantities from Model Short-Range...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Comparison of Water Vapor Quantities from Model Short-Range Forecasts and ARM Observations Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Comparison of Water Vapor Quantities from ...

  2. Monitoring PVD metal vapors using laser absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braun, D.G.; Anklam, T.M.; Berzins, L.V.; Hagans, K.G.

    1994-04-01

    Laser absorption spectroscopy (LAS) has been used by the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) program for over 10 years to monitor the co-vaporization of uranium and iron in its separators. During that time, LAS has proven to be an accurate and reliable method to monitor both the density and composition of the vapor. It has distinct advantages over other rate monitors, in that it is completely non-obtrusive to the vaporization process and its accuracy is unaffected by the duration of the run. Additionally, the LAS diagnostic has been incorporated into a very successful process control system. LAS requires only a line of sight through the vacuum chamber, as all hardware is external to the vessel. The laser is swept in frequency through an absorption line of interest. In the process a baseline is established, and the line integrated density is determined from the absorption profile. The measurement requires no hardware calibration. Through a proper choice of the atomic transition, a wide range of elements and densities have been monitored (e.g. nickel, iron, cerium and gadolinium). A great deal of information about the vapor plume can be obtained from the measured absorption profiles. By monitoring different species at the same location, the composition of the vapor is measured in real time. By measuring the same density at different locations, the spatial profile of the vapor plume is determined. The shape of the absorption profile is used to obtain the flow speed of the vapor. Finally, all of the above information is used evaluate the total vaporization rate.

  3. Design, demonstration and evaluation of a thermal enhanced vapor extraction system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phelan, J.; Reavis, B.; Swanson, J.

    1997-08-01

    The Thermal Enhanced Vapor Extraction System (TEVES), which combines powerline frequency heating (PLF) and radio frequency (RF) heating with vacuum soil vapor extraction, was used to effectively remove volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) from a pit in the chemical waste landfill (CWL) at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) within a two month heating period. Volume average temperatures of 83{degrees}C and 112{degrees}C were reached for the PLF and RF heating periods, respectively, within the 15 ft x 45 ft x 18.5 ft deep treated volume. This resulted in the removal of 243 lb of measured toxic organic compounds (VOCs and SVOCs), 55 gallons of oil, and 11,000 gallons of water from the site. Reductions of up to 99% in total chromatographic organics (TCO) was achieved in the heated zone. Energy balance calculations for the PLF heating period showed that 36.4% of the heat added went to heating the soil, 38.5% went to evaporating water and organics, 4.2% went to sensible heat in the water, 7.1% went to heating the extracted air, and 6.6% was lost. For the RF heating period went to heating the soil, 23.5% went to evaporating water and organics, 2.4% went to sensible heat in the water, 7.5% went to heating extracted air, and 9.7% went to losses. Energy balance closure was 92.8% for the PLF heating and 98% for the RF heating. The energy input requirement per unit soil volume heated per unit temperature increase was 1.63 kWH/yd{sup 3}-{degrees}C for PLF heating and 0.73 kWH/yd{sup 3}{degrees}C for RF heating.

  4. Optimization of Xenon Difluoride Vapor Delivery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sweeney, Joseph; Marganski, Paul; Kaim, Robert; Wodjenski, Mike; Gregg, John; Yedave, Sharad; Sergi, Steve; Bishop, Steve; Eldridge, David; Zou Peng [ATMI, Inc., Danbury, Connecticut 06810 (United States)

    2008-11-03

    Xenon difluoride (XeF{sub 2}) has been shown to provide many process benefits when used as a daily maintenance recipe for ion implant. Regularly flowing XeF{sub 2} into the ion source cleans the deposits generated by ion source operation. As a result, significant increases in productivity have been demonstrated. However, XeF{sub 2} is a toxic oxidizer that must be handled appropriately. Furthermore, it is a low vapor pressure solid under standard conditions ({approx}4.5 torr at 25 deg. C). These aspects present unique challenges for designing a package for delivering the chemistry to an ion implanter. To address these challenges, ATMI designed a high-performance, re-usable cylinder for dispensing XeF{sub 2} in an efficient and reliable manner. Data are presented showing specific attributes of the cylinder, such as the importance of internal heat transfer media and the cylinder valve size. The impact of mass flow controller (MFC) selection and ion source tube design on the flow rate of XeF{sub 2} are also discussed. Finally, cylinder release rate data are provided.

  5. The Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-11-09

    This report provides the finding and recommendations on the audit of the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) program. The status of the program was assessed to determine whether the Department was achieving objectives stated in its January 1990 Plan for the Demonstration, Transition and Deployment of AVLIS Technology. Through Fiscal Year 1991, the Department had spent about $1.1 billion to develop AVLIS technology. The January 1990 plan provided for AVLIS to be far enough along by September to enable the Department to make a determination of the technical and economic feasibility of deployment. However, the milestones needed to support that determination were not met. An estimated $550 million would be needed to complete AVLIS engineering development and related testing prior to deployment. The earliest possible deployment date has slipped to beyond the year 2000. It is recommended that the Department reassess the requirement for AVLIS in light of program delays and changes that have taken place in the enrichment market since January 1990. Following the reassessment, a decision should be made to either fully support and promote the actions needed to complete AVLIS development or discontinue support for the program entirely. Management`s position is that the Department will successfully complete the AVLIS technology demonstration and that the program should continue until it can be transferred to a Government corporation. Although the auditors recognize that AVLIS may be transferred, there are enough technical and financial uncertainties that a thorough assessment is warranted.

  6. Catalytic Reactor For Oxidizing Mercury Vapor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Helfritch, Dennis J.

    1998-07-28

    A catalytic reactor (10) for oxidizing elemental mercury contained in flue gas is provided. The catalyst reactor (10) comprises within a flue gas conduit a perforated corona discharge plate (30a, b) having a plurality of through openings (33) and a plurality of projecting corona discharge electrodes (31); a perforated electrode plate (40a, b, c) having a plurality of through openings (43) axially aligned with the through openings (33) of the perforated corona discharge plate (30a, b) displaced from and opposing the tips of the corona discharge electrodes (31); and a catalyst member (60a, b, c, d) overlaying that face of the perforated electrode plate (40a, b, c) opposing the tips of the corona discharge electrodes (31). A uniformly distributed corona discharge plasma (1000) is intermittently generated between the plurality of corona discharge electrode tips (31) and the catalyst member (60a, b, c, d) when a stream of flue gas is passed through the conduit. During those periods when corona discharge (1000) is not being generated, the catalyst molecules of the catalyst member (60a, b, c, d) adsorb mercury vapor contained in the passing flue gas. During those periods when corona discharge (1000) is being generated, ions and active radicals contained in the generated corona discharge plasma (1000) desorb the mercury from the catalyst molecules of the catalyst member (60a, b, c, d), oxidizing the mercury in virtually simultaneous manner. The desorption process regenerates and activates the catalyst member molecules.

  7. Numerical simulation of water injection into vapor-dominated reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pruess, K.

    1995-01-01

    Water injection into vapor-dominated reservoirs is a means of condensate disposal, as well as a reservoir management tool for enhancing energy recovery and reservoir life. We review different approaches to modeling the complex fluid and heat flow processes during injection into vapor-dominated systems. Vapor pressure lowering, grid orientation effects, and physical dispersion of injection plumes from reservoir heterogeneity are important considerations for a realistic modeling of injection effects. An example of detailed three-dimensional modeling of injection experiments at The Geysers is given.

  8. Controlling the vapor pressure of a mercury lamp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.

    1988-01-01

    The invention described herein discloses a method and apparatus for controlling the Hg vapor pressure within a lamp. This is done by establishing and controlling two temperature zones within the lamp. One zone is colder than the other zone. The first zone is called the cold spot. By controlling the temperature of the cold spot, the Hg vapor pressure within the lamp is controlled. Likewise, by controlling the Hg vapor pressure of the lamp, the intensity and linewidth of the radiation emitted from the lamp is controlled.

  9. Controlling the vapor pressure of a mercury lamp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.

    1988-05-24

    The invention described herein discloses a method and apparatus for controlling the Hg vapor pressure within a lamp. This is done by establishing and controlling two temperature zones within the lamp. One zone is colder than the other zone. The first zone is called the cold spot. By controlling the temperature of the cold spot, the Hg vapor pressure within the lamp is controlled. Likewise, by controlling the Hg vapor pressure of the lamp, the intensity and linewidth of the radiation emitted from the lamp is controlled. 2 figs.

  10. A hybrid encapsulation method for organic electronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, N.; Graham, S.; Potscavage, W. J. Jr.; Domercq, B.; Kippelen, B.

    2009-04-20

    We report a thin-film encapsulation method for organic electronics that combines the deposition of a layer of SiO{sub x} or SiN{sub x} (100 nm) by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition followed by a layer of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (10-50 nm) by atomic layer deposition and a 1-{mu}m-thick layer of parylene by chemical vapor deposition. The effective water vapor transmission rates of the encapsulation was (2{+-}1)x10{sup -5} g/m{sup 2} day at 20 deg. C and 50% relative humidity (RH). The encapsulation was integrated with pentacene/C{sub 60} solar cells, which showed no decrease in conversion efficiency after 5800 h of exposure to air demonstrating the effectiveness of the encapsulation methodology.

  11. Direct synthesis of large area graphene on insulating substrate by gallium vapor-assisted chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murakami, Katsuhisa Hiyama, Takaki; Kuwajima, Tomoya; Fujita, Jun-ichi; Tanaka, Shunsuke; Hirukawa, Ayaka; Kano, Emi; Takeguchi, Masaki

    2015-03-02

    A single layer of graphene with dimensions of 20?mm??20?mm was grown directly on an insulating substrate by chemical vapor deposition using Ga vapor catalysts. The graphene layer showed highly homogeneous crystal quality over a large area on the insulating substrate. The crystal quality of the graphene was measured by Raman spectroscopy and was found to improve with increasing Ga vapor density on the reaction area. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy observations showed that the synthesized graphene had a perfect atomic-scale crystal structure within its grains, which ranged in size from 50?nm to 200?nm.

  12. Vaporization, dispersion, and radiant fluxes from LPG spills. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-12-01

    Both burning and non-burning spills of LPG (primarily propane) were studied. Vaporization rates for propane spills on soil, concrete, insulating concrete, asphalt, sod, wood, and polymer foams were measured. Thermal conductivity, heat transfer coefficients, and steady state vaporization rates were determined. Vapor concentrations were measured downwind of open propane pools 25, 100, 400, and 1600 ft/sup 2/ in area. A Gaussian dispersion model modified for area sources provided a good correlation of measured concentrations. Emitted and incident radiant fluxes from propane fires were measured. Simplified flame radiation models were adequate for predicting radiant fluxes; the maximum effective flux emitted at the flame surface was about 50,000 Btu/h-ft/sup 2/. A few tests in which propane was sprayed into the air showed that at moderately high spray rates all the propane flashed to vapor or atomized; no liquid collected on the ground.

  13. Systems and methods for generation of hydrogen peroxide vapor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Love, Adam H; Eckels, Joel Del; Vu, Alexander K; Alcaraz, Armando; Reynolds, John G

    2014-12-02

    A system according to one embodiment includes a moisture trap for drying air; at least one of a first container and a second container; and a mechanism for at least one of: bubbling dried air from the moisture trap through a hydrogen peroxide solution in the first container for producing a hydrogen peroxide vapor, and passing dried air from the moisture trap into a headspace above a hydrogen peroxide solution in the second container for producing a hydrogen peroxide vapor. A method according one embodiment includes at least one of bubbling dried air through a hydrogen peroxide solution in a container for producing a first hydrogen peroxide vapor, and passing dried air from the moisture trap into a headspace above the hydrogen peroxide solution in a container for producing a second hydrogen peroxide vapor. Additional systems and methods are also presented.

  14. Characterization of urania vaporization with transpiration coupled thermogravimetry

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    McMurray, J. W.

    2015-12-05

    Determining equilibrium vapor pressures of materials is made easier by transpiration measurements. However, the traditional technique involves condensing the volatiles entrained in a carrier gas outside of the hot measurement zone. One potential problem is deposition en route to a cooled collector. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) can be used to measure in situ mass loss due to vaporization and therefore obviate the need to analyze the entire gas train due to premature plating of vapor species. Therefore, a transpiration coupled TGA technique was used to determine equilibrium pressures of UO3 gas over fluorite structure UO2+x and U3O8 at T = (1573more » and 1773) K. Moreover, we compared to calculations from models and databases in the open literature. Our study gives clarity to the thermochemical data for UO3 gas and validates the mass loss transpiration method using thermogravimetry for determining equilibrium vapor pressures of non-stoichiometric oxides.« less

  15. Characterization of urania vaporization with transpiration coupled thermogravimetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMurray, J. W.

    2015-12-05

    Determining equilibrium vapor pressures of materials is made easier by transpiration measurements. However, the traditional technique involves condensing the volatiles entrained in a carrier gas outside of the hot measurement zone. One potential problem is deposition en route to a cooled collector. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) can be used to measure in situ mass loss due to vaporization and therefore obviate the need to analyze the entire gas train due to premature plating of vapor species. Therefore, a transpiration coupled TGA technique was used to determine equilibrium pressures of UO3 gas over fluorite structure UO2+x and U3O8 at T = (1573 and 1773) K. Moreover, we compared to calculations from models and databases in the open literature. Our study gives clarity to the thermochemical data for UO3 gas and validates the mass loss transpiration method using thermogravimetry for determining equilibrium vapor pressures of non-stoichiometric oxides.

  16. Use Vapor Recompression to Recover Low-Pressure Waste Steam,...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Conduct a Pinch Analysis Based on the actual application, there may be other options to vapor recompres- sion. The industry best practice is to conduct a pinch analysis on the ...

  17. ARM - Field Campaign - Single Frequency GPS Water Vapor Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsSingle Frequency GPS Water Vapor Network ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA....

  18. University of Oregon: GPS-based Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Vignola, F.; Andreas, A.

    2013-08-22

    A partnership with the University of Oregon and U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to collect Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV) data to compliment existing resource assessment data collection by the university.

  19. Investigation of odd-order nonlinear susceptibilities in atomic vapors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, Yaqi; Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Information Photonic Technique, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049; Teaching and Research Section of Maths and Physics, Guangzhou Commanding Academy of Chinese People’s Armed Police Force, Guangzhou, 510440 ; Wu, Zhenkun; Si, Jinhai; Yan, Lihe; Zhang, Yiqi; Yuan, Chenzhi; Sun, Jia; Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Information Photonic Technique, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 ; Zhang, Yanpeng; Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Information Photonic Technique, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049

    2013-06-15

    We theoretically deduce the macroscopic symmetry constraints for arbitrary odd-order nonlinear susceptibilities in homogeneous media including atomic vapors for the first time. After theoretically calculating the expressions using a semiclassical method, we demonstrate that the expressions for third- and fifth-order nonlinear susceptibilities for undressed and dressed four- and six-wave mixing (FWM and SWM) in atomic vapors satisfy the macroscopic symmetry constraints. We experimentally demonstrate consistence between the macroscopic symmetry constraints and the semiclassical expressions for atomic vapors by observing polarization control of FWM and SWM processes. The experimental results are in reasonable agreement with our theoretical calculations. -- Highlights: •The macroscopic symmetry constraints are deduced for homogeneous media including atomic vapors. •We demonstrate that odd-order nonlinear susceptibilities satisfy the constraints. •We experimentally demonstrate the deduction in part.

  20. University of Oregon: GPS-based Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Vignola, F.; Andreas, A.

    A partnership with the University of Oregon and U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to collect Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV) data to compliment existing resource assessment data collection by the university.

  1. Injection locked oscillator system for pulsed metal vapor lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warner, Bruce E.; Ault, Earl R.

    1988-01-01

    An injection locked oscillator system for pulsed metal vapor lasers is disclosed. The invention includes the combination of a seeding oscillator with an injection locked oscillator (ILO) for improving the quality, particularly the intensity, of an output laser beam pulse. The present invention includes means for matching the first seeder laser pulses from the seeding oscillator to second laser pulses of a metal vapor laser to improve the quality, and particularly the intensity, of the output laser beam pulse.

  2. Organizing Committee

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Organizing Committee Organizing Committee R. Todd Anderson Program Manager, BER Climate and Environmental Sciences Anjuli Barnzai Program Manager, BER Climate and Environmental...

  3. Tank 241-T-111 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in January 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories.

  4. Tank 241-U-111 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in February 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories.

  5. Tank 241-S-111 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in March 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories.

  6. ARM: Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Maria Cadeddu

    2004-02-19

    Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

  7. ARM: Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Maria Cadeddu

    Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

  8. Field investigation of effectiveness of soil vapor extraction technology (September 1994). Final project report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    A research project was undertaken to study the effectiveness of soil vapor extraction (SVE), an emerging technology for remediation of soils contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). As part of the project, two soil vapor extraction systems, Site D and Site G at the Twin Cities Army Ammunition Plant, New Brighton, Minnesota were selected for evaluation. The approach of the project was to gather and compare site information regarding residual soil concentrations before and after treatment, and obtain operational data to evaluate the performance of the systems. The residual levels of volatile organics before and after treatment are compared for magnitude and distribution. Operational data are analyzed to present the performance of the systems and the progression of treatment with time. Capital, operating and maintenance costs are presented. Results of the evaluation indicate that SVE has been effective in reducing the residual concentrations, generally by several orders of magnitude. In most cases, residual concentrations were nondetectable. Samples taken in silty clays and waste materials showed the hightest residual concentrations.

  9. Drying of pulverized material with heated condensible vapor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, L.W.

    1984-08-16

    Apparatus for drying pulverized material utilizes a high enthalpy condensable vapor such as steam for removing moisture from the individual particles of the pulverized material. The initially wet particulate material is tangentially delivered by a carrier vapor flow to an upper portion of a generally vertical cylindrical separation drum. The lateral wall of the separation drum is provided with a plurality of flow guides for directing the vapor tangentially therein in the direction of particulate material flow. Positioned concentrically within the separation drum and along the longitudinal axis thereof is a water-cooled condensation cylinder which is provided with a plurality of collection plates, or fines, on the outer lateral surface thereof. The cooled collection fines are aligned counter to the flow of the pulverized material and high enthalpy vapor mixture to maximize water vapor condensation thereon. The condensed liquid which includes moisture removed from the pulverized materials then flows downward along the outer surface of the coolant cylinder and is collected and removed. The particles travel in a shallow helix due to respective centrifugal and vertical acceleration forces applied thereto. The individual particles of the pulverized material are directed outwardly by the vortex flow where they contact the inner cylindrical surface of the separation drum and are then deposited at the bottom thereof for easy collection and removal. The pulverized material drying apparatus is particularly adapted for drying coal fines and facilitates the recovery of the pulverized coal. 2 figs.

  10. Drying of pulverized material with heated condensible vapor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, Larry W.

    1986-01-01

    Apparatus for drying pulverized material utilizes a high enthalpy condensable vapor such as steam for removing moisture from the individual particles of the pulverized material. The initially wet particulate material is tangentially delivered by a carrier vapor flow to an upper portion of a generally vertical cylindrical separation drum. The lateral wall of the separation drum is provided with a plurality of flow guides for directing the vapor tangentially therein in the direction of particulate material flow. Positioned concentrically within the separation drum and along the longitudinal axis thereof is a water-cooled condensation cylinder which is provided with a plurality of collection plates, or fins, on the outer lateral surface thereof. The cooled collection fins are aligned counter to the flow of the pulverized material and high enthalpy vapor mixture to maximize water vapor condensation thereon. The condensed liquid which includes moisture removed from the pulverized material then flows downward along the outer surface of the coolant cylinder and is collected and removed. The particles travel in a shallow helix due to respective centrifugal and vertical acceleration forces applied thereto. The individual particles of the pulverized material are directed outwardly by the vortex flow where they contact the inner cylindrical surface of the separation drum and are then deposited at the bottom thereof for easy collection and removal. The pulverized material drying apparatus is particularly adapted for drying coal fines and facilitates the recovery of the pulverized coal.

  11. Laser absorption spectroscopy system for vaporization process characterization and control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galkowski, J.; Hagans, K.

    1993-09-07

    In support of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) Program, a laser atomic absorption spectroscopy (LAS) system has been developed. This multi-laser system is capable of simultaneously measuring the line densities of {sup 238}U ground and metastable states, {sup 235}U ground and metastable states, iron, and ions at up to nine locations within the separator vessel. Supporting enrichment experiments that last over one hundred hours, this laser spectroscopy system is employed to diagnose and optimize separator system performance, control the electron beam vaporizer and metal feed systems, and provide physics data for the validation of computer models. As a tool for spectroscopic research, vapor plume characterization, vapor deposition monitoring, and vaporizer development, LLNL`s LAS laboratory with its six argon-ion-pumped ring dye lasers and recently added Ti:Sapphire and external-cavity diode-lasers has capabilities far beyond the requirements of its primary mission.

  12. Direct Real-Time Detection of Vapors from Explosive Compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ewing, Robert G.; Clowers, Brian H.; Atkinson, David A.

    2013-10-03

    The real-time detection of vapors from low volatility explosives including PETN, tetryl, RDX and nitroglycerine along with various compositions containing these substances is demonstrated. This was accomplished with an atmospheric flow tube (AFT) using a non-radioactive ionization source and coupled to a mass spectrometer. Direct vapor detection was demonstrated in less than 5 seconds at ambient temperature without sample pre-concentration. The several seconds of residence time of analytes in the AFT provides a significant opportunity for reactant ions to interact with analyte vapors to achieve ionization. This extended reaction time, combined with the selective ionization using the nitrate reactant ions (NO3- and NO3-HNO3), enables highly sensitive explosives detection. Observed signals from diluted explosive vapors indicate detection limits below 10 ppqv using selected ion monitoring (SIM) of the explosive-nitrate adduct at m/z 349, 378, 284 and 289 for tetryl, PETN, RDX and NG respectively. Also provided is a demonstration of the vapor detection from 10 different energetic formulations, including double base propellants, plastic explosives and commercial blasting explosives using SIM for the NG, PETN and RDX product ions.

  13. Vapor etching of nuclear tracks in dielectric materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Musket, Ronald G.; Porter, John D.; Yoshiyama, James M.; Contolini, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    A process involving vapor etching of nuclear tracks in dielectric materials for creating high aspect ratio (i.e., length much greater than diameter), isolated cylindrical holes in dielectric materials that have been exposed to high-energy atomic particles. The process includes cleaning the surface of the tracked material and exposing the cleaned surface to a vapor of a suitable etchant. Independent control of the temperatures of the vapor and the tracked materials provide the means to vary separately the etch rates for the latent track region and the non-tracked material. As a rule, the tracked regions etch at a greater rate than the non-tracked regions. In addition, the vapor-etched holes can be enlarged and smoothed by subsequent dipping in a liquid etchant. The 20-1000 nm diameter holes resulting from the vapor etching process can be useful as molds for electroplating nanometer-sized filaments, etching gate cavities for deposition of nano-cones, developing high-aspect ratio holes in trackable resists, and as filters for a variety of molecular-sized particles in virtually any liquid or gas by selecting the dielectric material that is compatible with the liquid or gas of interest.

  14. New Regenerative Cycle for Vapor Compression Refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergander, Mark J [Magnetic Development, Inc.; Butrymowicz, Dariusz [Polish Academy of Scinces

    2010-01-26

    This project was a continuation of Category 1 project, completed in August 2005. Following the successful bench model demonstration of the technical feasibility and economic viability, the main objective in this stage was to fabricate the prototype of the heat pump, working on the new thermodynamic cycle. This required further research to increase the system efficiency to the level consistent with theoretical analysis of the cycle. Another group of objectives was to provide the foundation for commercialization and included documentation of the manufacturing process, preparing the business plan, organizing sales network and raising the private capital necessary to acquire production facilities.

  15. VAPORIZATION OF TUNGSTEN-METAL IN STEAM AT HIGH TEMPERATURES.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GREENE,G.A.; FINFROCK,C.C.

    2000-10-01

    The vaporization of tungsten from the APT spallation target dominates the radiological source term for unmitigated target overheating accidents. Chemical reactions of tungsten with steam which persist to tungsten temperatures as low as 800 C result in the formation of a hydrated tungsten-oxide which has a high vapor pressure and is readily convected in a flowing atmosphere. This low-temperature vaporization reaction essentially removes the oxide film that forms on the tungsten-metal surface as soon as it forms, leaving behind a fresh metallic surface for continued oxidation and vaporization. Experiments were conducted to measure the oxidative vaporization rates of tungsten in steam as part of the effort to quantify the MT radiological source term for severe target accidents. Tests were conducted with tungsten rods (1/8 inch diameter, six inches long) heated to temperatures from approximately 700 C to 1350 C in flowing steam which was superheated to 140 C. A total of 19 experiments was conducted. Fifteen tests were conducted by RF induction heating of single tungsten rods held vertical in a quartz glass retort. Four tests were conducted in a vertically-mounted tube furnace for the low temperature range of the test series. The aerosol which was generated and transported downstream from the tungsten rods was collected by passing the discharged steam through a condenser. This procedure insured total collection of the steam along with the aerosol from the vaporization of the rods. The results of these experiments revealed a threshold temperature for tungsten vaporization in steam. For the two tests at the lowest temperatures which were tested, approximately 700 C, the tungsten rods were observed to oxidize without vaporization. The remainder of the tests was conducted over the temperature range of 800 C to 1350 C. In these tests, the rods were found to have lost weight due to vaporization of the tungsten and the missing weight was collected in the downstream condensate

  16. Removal of Sarin Aerosol and Vapor by Water Sprays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brockmann, John E.

    1998-09-01

    Falling water drops can collect particles and soluble or reactive vapor from the gas through which they fall. Rain is known to remove particles and vapors by the process of rainout. Water sprays can be used to remove radioactive aerosol from the atmosphere of a nuclear reactor containment building. There is a potential for water sprays to be used as a mitigation technique to remove chemical or bio- logical agents from the air. This paper is a quick-look at water spray removal. It is not definitive but rather provides a reasonable basic model for particle and gas removal and presents an example calcu- lation of sarin removal from a BART station. This work ~ a starting point and the results indicate that further modeling and exploration of additional mechanisms for particle and vapor removal may prove beneficial.

  17. Low temperature photochemical vapor deposition of alloy and mixed metal oxide films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, David K.

    1992-01-01

    Method and apparatus for formation of an alloy thin film, or a mixed metal oxide thin film, on a substrate at relatively low temperatures. Precursor vapor(s) containing the desired thin film constituents is positioned adjacent to the substrate and irradiated by light having wavelengths in a selected wavelength range, to dissociate the gas(es) and provide atoms or molecules containing only the desired constituents. These gases then deposit at relatively low temperatures as a thin film on the substrate. The precursor vapor(s) is formed by vaporization of one or more precursor materials, where the vaporization temperature(s) is selected to control the ratio of concentration of metals present in the precursor vapor(s) and/or the total precursor vapor pressure.

  18. Low temperature photochemical vapor deposition of alloy and mixed metal oxide films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, D.K.

    1992-12-15

    Method and apparatus are described for formation of an alloy thin film, or a mixed metal oxide thin film, on a substrate at relatively low temperatures. Precursor vapor(s) containing the desired thin film constituents is positioned adjacent to the substrate and irradiated by light having wavelengths in a selected wavelength range, to dissociate the gas(es) and provide atoms or molecules containing only the desired constituents. These gases then deposit at relatively low temperatures as a thin film on the substrate. The precursor vapor(s) is formed by vaporization of one or more precursor materials, where the vaporization temperature(s) is selected to control the ratio of concentration of metals present in the precursor vapor(s) and/or the total precursor vapor pressure. 7 figs.

  19. Liquid-phase compositions from vapor-phase analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, W. Jr. ); Cochran, H.D. )

    1990-02-01

    Arsenic normally is not considered to be a contaminant. However, because arsenic was found in many cylinders of UF{sub 6}, including in corrosion products, a study was performed of the distribution of the two arsenic fluorides, AsF{sub 3} and AsF{sub 5}, between liquid and vapor phases. The results of the study pertain to condensation or vaporization of liquid UF{sub 6}. This study includes use of various experimental data plus many extrapolations necessitated by the meagerness of the experimental data. The results of this study provide additional support for the vapor-liquid equilibrium model of J.M. Prausnitz and his coworkers as a means of describing the distribution of various impurities between vapor and liquid phases of UF{sub 6}. Thus, it is concluded that AsF{sub 3} will tend to concentrate in the liquid phase but that the concentration of AsF{sub 5} in the vapor phase will exceed its liquid-phase concentration by a factor of about 7.5, which is in agreement with experimental data. Because the weight of the liquid phase in a condensation operation may be in the range of thousands of times that of the vapor phase, most of any AsF{sub 5} will be in the liquid phase in spite of this separation factor of 7.5. It may also be concluded that any arsenic fluorides fed into a uranium isotope separation plant will either travel with other low-molecular-weight gases or react with materials present in the plant. 25 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. CHEMICALLY VAPOR DEPOSITED YTTRIA-STABILIZED ZIRCONIA (YSZ) FOR THERMAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL BARRIER COATING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Varanasi, V.G.; Besmann, T.M.; Lothian, J.L.; Xu, W.; Starr, T.L.

    2003-04-22

    Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is used as a thermal barrier coating (TBC) to protect super-alloy blades such as Mar-M247 or Rene-N5 during engine operation. The current method for YSZ fabrication for TBC applications is by air-plasma spraying (APS) or electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) (Haynes 1997). APS gives reasonable deposition rates, but has a limited life and aging effects due to its porous and lamellar structure. The EB-PVD coatings are more stable and can accommodate thermomechanical stresses due to their characteristic strain-tolerant, columnar microstructure. EB-PVD, however, is primarily line-of-sight, which often leaves ''hidden areas'' uncoated, has low throughput, and has high capital cost. The process of metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) is investigated here as an economical alternative to EB-PVD and APS, with the potential for better overall coverage as well as the ability to produce thick (100-250 {micro}m), strain-tolerant, columnar coatings. MOCVD of YSZ involves the use of zirconium and yttrium organometallic precursors reacting with an oxygen source. Previous researchers have used diketonate or chloride precursors and oxygen (Wahl et al. 2001a, Wahl et al. 2001b, Yamane and Harai 1989). These precursors have low transport rates due to their low carrier solvent solubility (Varanasi et al. 2003). Solvated zirconium and yttrium butoxide precursors were investigated here due to their higher vapor pressures and high solvent solubility. This work uses predictive equilibrium modeling and experiments involving butoxide precursors for tetragonal YSZ fabrication.

  1. ARM - Field Campaign - ARM-FIRE Water Vapor Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsARM-FIRE Water Vapor Experiment ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : ARM-FIRE Water Vapor Experiment 2000.11.01 - 2000.12.31 Lead Scientist : Henry Revercomb Data Availability Yes For data sets, see below. Summary This field mission experience indicated that it is possible for several sensors to be used in a coordinated fashion over a period of several weeks to achieve a mean water

  2. ARM - Field Campaign - Arctic Winter Water Vapor IOP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsArctic Winter Water Vapor IOP ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Arctic Winter Water Vapor IOP 2004.03.09 - 2004.04.09 Lead Scientist : Ed Westwater Data Availability http://www.etl.noaa.gov/programs/2004/wviop/data will contain quicklooks of all of the data. For data sets, see below. Summary During the IOP, the Ground-based Scanning Radiometer of NOAA/ETL, and the ARM MicroWave

  3. The effects of heat conduction on the vaporization of liquid invading superheated permeable rock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woods, Andrew, W.; Fitzgerald, Shaun D.

    1996-01-24

    We examine the role of conductive and convective heat transfer in the vaporization of liquid as it slowly invades a superheated permeable rock. For very slow migration, virtually all of the liquid vaporizes. As the liquid supply rate increases beyond the rate of heat transfer by thermal conduction, a decreasing fraction of the liquid can vaporize. Indeed, for sufficiently high flow rates, the fraction vaporizing depends solely on the superheat of the rock, and any heat transfer from the superheated region is negligible. These results complement earlier studies of vaporization under very high injection rates, in which case the dynamic vapour pressure reduces the mass fraction vaporizing to very small values.

  4. Effect of higher water vapor content on TBC performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pint, Bruce A; Haynes, James A

    2012-01-01

    Coal gasification, or IGCC (integrated gasification combined cycle), is one pathway toward cleaner use of coal for power generation with lower emissions. However, when coal-derived synthesis gas (i.e., syngas) is burned in turbines designed for natural gas, turbine manufacturers recommend 'derating,' or lowering the maximum temperature, which lowers the efficiency of the turbine, making electricity from IGCC more expensive. One possible reason for the derating is the higher water vapor contents in the exhaust gas. Water vapor has a detrimental effect on many oxidation-resistant high-temperature materials. In a turbine hot section, Ni-base superalloys are coated with a thermal barrier coating (TBC) allowing the gas temperature to be higher than the superalloy solidus temperature. TBCs have a low thermal conductivity ceramic top coating (typically Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-stabilized ZrO{sub 2}, or YSZ) and an oxidation-resistant metallic bond coating. For land-based gas turbines, the industry standard is air plasma sprayed (APS) YSZ and high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) sprayed NiCoCrAlY bond coatings. To investigate the role of higher water vapor content on TBC performance and possible mitigation strategies, furnace cycling experiments were conducted in dry O{sub 2} and air with 10% (typical with natural gas or jet fuel) or 50 vol% water vapor. Cycle frequency and temperature were accelerated to one hour at 1100 C (with 10 minute cooling to {approx}30 C between each thermal cycle) to induce early failures in coatings that are expected to operate for several years with a metal temperature of {approx}900 C. Coupons (16 mm diameter x 2 mm thick) of commercial second-generation single crystal superalloy CMSX4 were HVOF coated on both sides with {approx}125 {micro}m of Ni-22wt%Co-17Cr-12Al either with 0.7Y or 0.7Y-0.3Hf-0.4Si. One side was then coated with 190-240 {micro}m of APS YSZ. Coatings were cycled until the YSZ top coating spalled. Figure 2 shows the results of the

  5. The Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation Program. [Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-11-09

    This report provides the finding and recommendations on the audit of the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) program. The status of the program was assessed to determine whether the Department was achieving objectives stated in its January 1990 Plan for the Demonstration, Transition and Deployment of AVLIS Technology. Through Fiscal Year 1991, the Department had spent about $1.1 billion to develop AVLIS technology. The January 1990 plan provided for AVLIS to be far enough along by September to enable the Department to make a determination of the technical and economic feasibility of deployment. However, the milestones needed to support that determination were not met. An estimated $550 million would be needed to complete AVLIS engineering development and related testing prior to deployment. The earliest possible deployment date has slipped to beyond the year 2000. It is recommended that the Department reassess the requirement for AVLIS in light of program delays and changes that have taken place in the enrichment market since January 1990. Following the reassessment, a decision should be made to either fully support and promote the actions needed to complete AVLIS development or discontinue support for the program entirely. Management's position is that the Department will successfully complete the AVLIS technology demonstration and that the program should continue until it can be transferred to a Government corporation. Although the auditors recognize that AVLIS may be transferred, there are enough technical and financial uncertainties that a thorough assessment is warranted.

  6. Quantitative IR Spectrum and Vibrational Assignments for Glycolaldehyde Vapor: Glycolaldehyde Measurements in Biomass Burning Plumes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Timothy J.; Sams, Robert L.; Profeta, Luisa T.; Akagi, Sheryl; Burling, Ian R.; Yokelson, Robert J.; Williams, Stephen D.

    2013-04-15

    Glycolaldehyde (GA, 2-hydroxyethanal, C2H4O2) is a semi-volatile molecule of atmospheric importance, recently proposed as a precursor in the formation of aqueous-phase secondary organic aerosol (SOA). There are few methods to measure glycolaldehyde vapor, but infrared spectroscopy has been used successfully. Using vetted protocols we have completed the first assignment of all fundamental vibrational modes and derived quantitative IR absorption band strengths using both neat and pressure-broadened GA vapor. Even though GA is problematic due to its propensity to both dimerize and condense, our intensities agree well with the few previously published values. Using the reference ?10 band Q-branch at 860.51 cm-1, we have also determined GA mixing ratios in biomass burning plumes generated by field and laboratory burns of fuels from the southeastern and southwestern United States, including the first field measurements of glycolaldehyde in smoke. The GA emission factors were anti-correlated with modified combustion efficiency confirming release of GA from smoldering combustion. The GA emission factors (g of GA emitted per kg dry biomass burned on a dry mass basis) had a low dependence on fuel type consistent with the production mechanism being pyrolysis of cellulose. GA was emitted at 0.23 0.13% of CO from field fires and we calculate that it accounts for ~18% of the aqueous-phase SOA precursors that we were able to measure.

  7. Industrial applications of high-power copper vapor lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warner, B.E.; Boley, C.D.; Chang, J.J.; Dragon, E.P.; Havstad, M.A.; Martinez, M.; McLean, W. II

    1995-08-01

    A growing appreciation has developed in the last several years for the copper vapor laser because of its utility in ablating difficult materials at high rates. Laser ablation at high rates shows promise for numerous industrial applications such as thin film deposition, precision hole drilling, and machining of ceramics and other refractories.

  8. Method for removing metal vapor from gas streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahluwalia, R. K.; Im, K. H.

    1996-01-01

    A process for cleaning an inert gas contaminated with a metallic vapor, such as cadmium, involves withdrawing gas containing the metallic contaminant from a gas atmosphere of high purity argon; passing the gas containing the metallic contaminant to a mass transfer unit having a plurality of hot gas channels separated by a plurality of coolant gas channels; cooling the contaminated gas as it flows upward through the mass transfer unit to cause contaminated gas vapor to condense on the gas channel walls; regenerating the gas channels of the mass transfer unit; and, returning the cleaned gas to the gas atmosphere of high purity argon. The condensing of the contaminant-containing vapor occurs while suppressing contaminant particulate formation, and is promoted by providing a sufficient amount of surface area in the mass transfer unit to cause the vapor to condense and relieve supersaturation buildup such that contaminant particulates are not formed. Condensation of the contaminant is prevented on supply and return lines in which the contaminant containing gas is withdrawn and returned from and to the electrorefiner and mass transfer unit by heating and insulating the supply and return lines.

  9. Method for removing metal vapor from gas streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahluwalia, R.K.; Im, K.H.

    1996-04-02

    A process for cleaning an inert gas contaminated with a metallic vapor, such as cadmium, involves withdrawing gas containing the metallic contaminant from a gas atmosphere of high purity argon; passing the gas containing the metallic contaminant to a mass transfer unit having a plurality of hot gas channels separated by a plurality of coolant gas channels; cooling the contaminated gas as it flows upward through the mass transfer unit to cause contaminated gas vapor to condense on the gas channel walls; regenerating the gas channels of the mass transfer unit; and, returning the cleaned gas to the gas atmosphere of high purity argon. The condensing of the contaminant-containing vapor occurs while suppressing contaminant particulate formation, and is promoted by providing a sufficient amount of surface area in the mass transfer unit to cause the vapor to condense and relieve supersaturation buildup such that contaminant particulates are not formed. Condensation of the contaminant is prevented on supply and return lines in which the contaminant containing gas is withdrawn and returned from and to the electrorefiner and mass transfer unit by heating and insulating the supply and return lines. 13 figs.

  10. Combination downflow-upflow vapor-liquid separator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kidwell, John H.; Prueter, William P.; Eaton, Andrew M.

    1987-03-10

    An improved vapor-liquid separator having a vertically disposed conduit for flow of a mixture. A first, second and third plurality of curved arms penetrate and extend within the conduit. A cylindrical member is radially spaced from the conduit forming an annulus therewith and having perforations and a retaining lip at its upper end.