National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for 200-meter cell size

  1. Control of gene expression by cell size

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Chia-Yung

    2010-01-01

    Polyploidy, increased copy number of whole chromosome sets in the genome, is a common cellular state in evolution, development and disease. Polyploidy enlarges cell size and alters gene expression, producing novel phenotypes ...

  2. Size homeostasis in adherent cells studied by synthetic phase microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sung, Yongjin

    The coupling of the rate of cell growth to the rate of cell division determines cell size, a defining characteristic that is central to cell function and, ultimately, to tissue architecture. The physiology of size homeostasis ...

  3. Fuel Cells Market Size | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fuel Cells Market Size Home John55364's picture Submitted by John55364(100) Contributor 15 May, 2015 - 02:14 Global Fuel Cells Market to Value USD910.3 million by 2018 Fuel Cells...

  4. Simultaneous regulation of cell size and chromosome replication in bacteria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Po-Yi Ho; Ariel Amir

    2015-07-24

    Bacteria are able to maintain a narrow distribution of cell sizes by regulating the timing of cell divisions. In rich nutrient conditions, cells divide much faster than their chromosomes replicate. This implies that cells maintain multiple rounds of chromosome replication per cell division by regulating the timing of chromosome replications. Here, we show that both cell size and chromosome replication may be simultaneously regulated by the long-standing initiator accumulation strategy. The strategy proposes that initiators are produced in proportion to the volume increase and is accumulated at each origin of replication, and chromosome replication is initiated when a critical amount per origin has accumulated. We show that this model maps to the incremental model of size control, which was previously shown to reproduce experimentally observed correlations between various events in the cell cycle and explains the exponential dependence of cell size on the growth rate of the cell. Furthermore, we show that this model also leads to the efficient regulation of the timing of initiation and the number of origins consistent with existing experimental results.

  5. Analytical determination of critical crack size in solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, C.P.

    1988-05-01

    Although solar cells usually have chips and cracks, no material specifications concerning the allowable crack size on solar cells are available for quality assurance and engineering design usage. Any material specifications that the cell manufacturers use were developed for cosmetic reasons that have no technical basis. Therefore, the Applied Solar Energy Corporation (ASEC) has sponsored a continuing program for the fracture mechanics evaluation of GaAs. Fracture mechanics concepts were utilized to develop an analytical model that can predict the critical crack size of solar cells. This model indicates that the edge cracks of a solar cell are more critical than its surface cracks. In addition, the model suggests that the material specifications on the allowable crack size used for Si solar cells should not be applied to GaAs solar cells. The analytical model was applied to Si and GaAs solar cells, but it would also be applicable to the semiconductor wafers of other materials, such as a GaAs thin film on a Ge substrate, using appropriate input data.

  6. Simulation of Cell Adhesion to Bioreactive Surfaces in Shear: The Effect of Cell Size

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tees, David F.J.

    Simulation of Cell Adhesion to Bioreactive Surfaces in Shear: The Effect of Cell Size David F. J Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 Leukocyte adhesion under flow in the microvasculature is a multistep process in which rolling adhesion is followed by firm arrest. These interactions are mediated

  7. A p-cell approach to integer gate sizing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doddannagari, Uday

    2009-05-15

    Standard-Cell-library-based design ow is widely followed in the Application Specific Integrated Circuit(ASIC) industry. Most of the realistic cell libraries are geometrically spaced introducing significant sparseness in the library. This is because...

  8. PRIMARY RESEARCH PAPER Differential cell size structure of desmids and diatoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , such as nutrients, temperature, or water transparency. This study focused on the community cell size of desmids@natur.cuni.cz 123 Hydrobiologia (2013) 709:159­171 DOI 10.1007/s10750-013-1446-4 #12;transparency (Finkel et al documented (Round et al., 1990). Passy (2007) argued that cell sizes of phytoplankton species of diatoms were

  9. Novel platinum/carbon catalysts with cluster size control for hydrogen fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Novel platinum/carbon catalysts with cluster size control for hydrogen fuel cells Eric N. Coker Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under

  10. Measuring the mass, density, and size of particles and cells using a suspended microchannel resonator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Godin, Michel; Bryan, Andrea K.; Burg, Thomas P.; Babcock, Ken; Manalis, Scott R.

    2007-09-17

    We demonstrate the measurement of mass, density, and size of cells and nanoparticles using suspended microchannel resonators. The masses of individual particles are quantified as transient frequency shifts, while the particles transit a microfluidic channel embedded in the resonating cantilever. Mass histograms resulting from these data reveal the distribution of a population of heterogeneously sized particles. Particle density is inferred from measurements made in different carrier fluids since the frequency shift for a particle is proportional to the mass difference relative to the displaced solution. We have characterized the density of polystyrene particles, Escherichia coli, and human red blood cells with a resolution down to 10{sup -4} g/cm{sup 3}.

  11. Molecular behavior of DNA in a cell-sized compartment coated by lipids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Hamada; R. Fujimoto; S. F. Shimobayashi; M. Ichikawa; M. Takagi

    2015-04-13

    The behavior of long DNA molecules in a cell-sized confined space was investigated. We prepared water-in-oil droplets covered by phospholipids, which mimic the inner space of a cell, following the encapsulation of DNA molecules with unfolded coil and folded globule conformations. Microscopic observation revealed that the adsorption of coiled DNA onto the membrane surface depended on the size of the vesicular space. Globular DNA showed a cell-size-dependent unfolding transition after adsorption on the membrane. Furthermore, when DNA interacted with a two-phase membrane surface, DNA selectively adsorbed on the membrane phase, such as an ordered or disordered phase, depending on its conformation. We discuss the mechanism of these trends by considering the free energy of DNA together with a polyamine in the solution. The free energy of our model was consistent with the present experimental data. The cooperative interaction of DNA and polyamines with a membrane surface leads to the size-dependent behavior of molecular systems in a small space. These findings may contribute to a better understanding of the physical mechanism of molecular events and reactions inside a cell.

  12. Molecular behavior of DNA in a cell-sized compartment coated by lipids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamada, T; Shimobayashi, S F; Ichikawa, M; Takagi, M

    2015-01-01

    The behavior of long DNA molecules in a cell-sized confined space was investigated. We prepared water-in-oil droplets covered by phospholipids, which mimic the inner space of a cell, following the encapsulation of DNA molecules with unfolded coil and folded globule conformations. Microscopic observation revealed that the adsorption of coiled DNA onto the membrane surface depended on the size of the vesicular space. Globular DNA showed a cell-size-dependent unfolding transition after adsorption on the membrane. Furthermore, when DNA interacted with a two-phase membrane surface, DNA selectively adsorbed on the membrane phase, such as an ordered or disordered phase, depending on its conformation. We discuss the mechanism of these trends by considering the free energy of DNA together with a polyamine in the solution. The free energy of our model was consistent with the present experimental data. The cooperative interaction of DNA and polyamines with a membrane surface leads to the size-dependent behavior of molec...

  13. Single-cell analysis of growth in budding yeast and bacteria reveals a common size regulation strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ilya Soifer; Lydia Robert; Naama Barkai; Ariel Amir

    2014-10-23

    Unicellular organism from various kingdoms of life face the challenge of regulating their size. Despite decades of research, we still do not have a good understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in this regulation, and how cells coordinate the different events of the cell cycle, such as growth, division and DNA replication is still unclear. Here, we report on experimental results for the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the bacterium Escherichia coli, showing that, remarkably, they share a common strategy for cell size control. We collected data on single-cell growth and cell cycle progression in S. cerevisiae in several growth media and estimated the distributions of size at birth and interdivision time as well as their correlations throughout cell lineages. We also performed the same analysis on previously collected data on single-cell growth and division in E. coli. The results are in quantitative agreement with the predictions of the incremental model, which leads to the addition of a constant volume (up to fluctuations), independent of size at birth, between birth and division; we show that in both organisms size at birth and size at division exhibit a linear relationship with slope one. This result, together with extended additional analysis supporting the incremental model, argues against the existing "critical size" paradigm for cell size control in bacteria and yeast.

  14. Adipose-Derived Perivascular Stem Cells Heal Critical Size Mouse Calvarial Defects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Megerdichian, Silva

    2013-01-01

    stromal  cells  derived  from  the  infrapatellar  fat  C.  M.   et  al.  Adipose-­?derived  adult  stromal  cells  Human  bone  marrow-­? derived  mesenchymal  stem  cells  

  15. TUNING OF SIZE AND SHAPE OF AU-PT NANOCATALYST FOR DIRECT METHANOL FUEL CELLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murph, S.

    2011-04-20

    In this paper, we report the precise control of the size, shape and surface morphology of Au-Pt nanocatalysts (cubes, blocks, octahedrons and dogbones) synthesized via a seed-mediated approach. Gold 'seeds' of different aspect ratios (1 to 4.2), grown by a silver-assisted approach, were used as templates for high-yield production of novel Au-Pt nanocatalysts at a low temperature (40 C). Characterization by electron microscopy (SEM, TEM, HRTEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), UV-Vis spectroscopy, zeta-potential (surface charge), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were used to better understand their physico-chemical properties, preferred reactivities and underlying nanoparticle growth mechanism. A rotating disk electrode was used to evaluate the Au-Pt nanocatalysts electrochemical performance in the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and the methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) of direct methanol fuel cells. The results indicate the Au-Pt dogbones are partially and in some cases completely unaffected by methanol poisoning during the evaluation of the ORR. The ORR performance of the octahedron particles in the absence of MeOH is superior to that of the Au-Pt dogbones and Pt-black, however its performance is affected by the presence of MeOH.

  16. Efficient recovery of nano-sized iron oxide particles from synthetic acid-mine drainage (AMD) water using fuel cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Efficient recovery of nano-sized iron oxide particles from synthetic acid-mine drainage (AMD) water 2010 Keywords: AMD Energy Iron oxide Microbial fuel cell Particles a b s t r a c t Acid mine drainage rights reserved. 1. Introduction Acid-mine drainage (AMD) and acid rock drainage (ARD) are caused

  17. Increased burst size in multiply infected cells can alter basic virus dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cummings, Kara W; Levy, David N; Wodarz, Dominik

    2012-01-01

    cells can alter basic virus dynamics. Biology Direct 2012 7:References 1. Nowak MA, May RM: Virus dynamics. Mathematicalin Human- Immunodeficiency-Virus Type-1 Infection. Nature

  18. Development and Application of ANN Model for Worker Assignment into Virtual Cells of Large Sized Configurations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murali, R. V.; Fathi, Khalid [Faculty Members, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Caledonian College of Engineering (Oman); Puri, A. B. [Associate Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, NIT, Durgapur, West Bengal (India)

    2010-10-26

    This paper presents an extended version of study already undertaken on development of an artificial neural networks (ANNs) model for assigning workforce into virtual cells under virtual cellular manufacturing systems (VCMS) environments. Previously, the same authors have introduced this concept and applied it to virtual cells of two-cell configuration and the results demonstrated that ANNs could be a worth applying tool for carrying out workforce assignments. In this attempt, three-cell configurations problems are considered for worker assignment task. Virtual cells are formed under dual resource constraint (DRC) context in which the number of available workers is less than the total number of machines available. Since worker assignment tasks are quite non-linear and highly dynamic in nature under varying inputs and conditions and, in parallel, ANNs have the ability to model complex relationships between inputs and outputs and find similar patterns effectively, an attempt was earlier made to employ ANNs into the above task. In this paper, the multilayered perceptron with feed forward (MLP-FF) neural network model has been reused for worker assignment tasks of three-cell configurations under DRC context and its performance at different time periods has been analyzed. The previously proposed worker assignment model has been reconfigured and cell formation solutions available for three-cell configuration in the literature are used in combination to generate datasets for training ANNs framework. Finally, results of the study have been presented and discussed.

  19. Improved dye sensitized solar cell performance in larger cell size by using TiO This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siegel, Paul H.

    Improved dye sensitized solar cell performance in larger cell size by using TiO 2 nanotubes.1088/0957-4484/24/4/045401 Improved dye sensitized solar cell performance in larger cell size by using TiO2 nanotubes Yanyan Zhang1 the use of anodized TiO2 nanotubes on Ti foil in combination with the standard TiO2 nanoparticle paste

  20. PHYS 101 Supplement 1 -Cell sizes and structures 1 2002 by David Boal, Simon Fraser University. All rights reserved; further copying or resale is strictly prohibited.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boal, David

    PHYS 101 Supplement 1 - Cell sizes and structures 1 ©2002 by David Boal, Simon Fraser University. All rights reserved; further copying or resale is strictly prohibited. PHYS 101 Supplement #1 - Cell synaptic cleft Schematic representation of a nerve cell, with its extended axon. #12;PHYS 101 Supplement 1

  1. Heat engines and heat pumps in a hydrostatic atmosphere: How surface pressure and temperature control wind power output and circulation cell size

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Makarieva, A M; Nefiodov, A V; Sheil, D; Nobre, A D; Shearman, P L; Li, B -L

    2015-01-01

    The gross spatial features of the atmospheric kinetic energy budget are analytically investigated. Kinetic energy generation is evaluated in a hydrostatic atmosphere where the axisymmetric circulation cells are represented by Carnot cycles. The condition that kinetic energy generation is positive in the lower atmosphere is shown to limit the poleward cell extension via a relationship between the meridional differences in surface pressure and temperature $\\Delta p_s$ and $\\Delta T_s$: an upper limit to cell size exists when $\\Delta p_s$ increases sublinearly with $\\Delta T_s$. This is the case for the Hadley cells as demonstrated here using data from MERRA re-analysis. The limited cell size necessitates the appearance of heat pumps -- circulation cells with negative work output where the low-level air moves towards colder areas. These cells consume the positive work output of heat engines -- cells where the low-level air moves towards the warmer areas -- and can in principle drive the global efficiency of atmo...

  2. Decoupling nutrient signaling from growth rate causes aerobic glycolysis and deregulation of cell size and gene expression

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Slavov, Nikolai G.

    To survive and proliferate, cells need to coordinate their metabolism, gene expression, and cell division. To understand this coordination and the consequences of its failure, we uncoupled biomass synthesis from nutrient ...

  3. Convenient fabrication of three-dimensional cell-culture substrates through introduction of micrometer-size pores on polyallyldiglycol carbonate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Peter K.N.

    of micrometer-size pores on polyallyldiglycol carbonate polymer films C.K.M. Ng a , J.P. Cheng b , S.H. Cheng b micrometer-size pores on polyallyldiglycol carbonate (or PADC) polymer films through irradiation of the film

  4. Nano-biolistics: a method of biolistic transfection of cells and tissues using a gene gun with novel nanometer-sized projectiles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Brien, John A; Lummis, Sarah C R

    2011-06-10

    -biolistics: a method of biolistic transfection of cells and tissues using a gene gun with novel nanometer-sized projectiles John A O’Brien1 and Sarah CR Lummis1,2* Abstract Background: Biolistic transfection is proving an increasingly popular method... gene gun (Bio- Rad, Hercules, CA) is one of the most widely used. This gene gun, which delivers particles superficially over a relatively wide area, has proved useful for cultured cells or thin tissue sections, and the use of a modified barrel has...

  5. Kinetic (particle-in-cell) simulation of nonlinear laser absorption in a finite-size plasma with a background inhomogeneous magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehdian, H. Kargarian, A.; Hajisharifi, K.

    2015-06-15

    In this paper, the effect of an external inhomogeneous magnetic field on the high intensity laser absorption rate in a sub-critical plasma has been investigated by employing a relativistic electromagnetic 1.5 dimensional particle-in-cell code. Relying on the effective nonlinear phenomena such as phase-mixing and scattering, this study shows that in a finite-size plasma the laser absorption increases with inhomogeneity of the magnetic field (i.e., reduction of characteristic length of inhomogeneous magnetic field, ?{sub p}) before exiting a considerable amount of laser energy from the plasma due to scattering process. On the other hand, the presence of the external inhomogeneous magnetic field causes the maximum absorption of laser to occur at a shorter time. Moreover, study of the kinetic results associated with the distribution function of plasma particles shows that, in a special range of the plasma density and the characteristic length of inhomogeneous magnetic field, a considerable amount of laser energy is transferred to the particles producing a population of electrons with kinetic energy along the laser direction.

  6. AMINO ACID SYNTHESIS IN PHOTO-SYNTHESIZING SPINACH CELLS. EFFECTS OF AMMONIA ON POOL SIZES AND RATES OF LABELING FROM 14co2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Larsen, Peder Olesen

    2013-01-01

    EFFECTS OF AMMONIA ON POOL SIZES AND RATES OF LABELING FROMmetabolically active and passive pools of these amino acids.of added ammonia on ing, pool sizes, and specific activi pro

  7. Striatins as plaque molecules of zonulae adhaerentes in simple epithelia, of tessellate junctions in stratified epithelia, of cardiac composite junctions and of various size classes of lateral adherens junctions in cultures of epithelia- and carcinoma-derived cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franke, Werner W.

    Proteins of the striatin family (striatins 1–4; sizes ranging from 90 to 110 kDa on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) are highly homologous in their amino acid sequences but can differ in their cell-type-specific ...

  8. 20% (AM1.5) efficiency GaAs solar cells on sub-mm grain-size poly-Ge and its transition to low-cost substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venkatasubramanian, R.; O`Quinn, B.C.; Siivola, E.; Keyes, B.; Ahrenkiel, R.

    1997-12-31

    Some of the key material and device issues related to the development of GaAs solar cells on poly-Ge substrates, including the dark-current reduction mechanism with an undoped spacer at the p{sup +}-n depletion layer, are discussed. Device-structure optimization studies that have led the authors to achieve an AM1.5 efficiency of {approximately}20% for a 4-cm{sup 2}-area GaAs cell on sub-mm grain-size poly-Ge and an efficiency of {approximately}21% for a 0.25-cm{sup 2}-area cell are presented. This successful demonstration of high-efficiency GaAs cells on sub-mm grain-size poly-Ge substrates have motivated us to consider the development of high-quality GaAs materials on significantly lower-cost substrates such as glass and moly foils. To date, the authors have achieved a best minority-carrier lifetime of 0.41 nsec in an n-GaAs thin-film on moly. The role of Group-VI dopant in the possible passivation of grain-boundaries in poly-GaAs is discussed. Development of PV-quality GaAs material, with minority-carrier lifetime of 1 to 2 nsec, on los-cost moly foils can significantly impact both the terrestrial and the space PV applications.

  9. Gravid Mosquito Trap P462 -Trap The ChemTica GMT operates on 4 size D cell batteries. A photo-activated switch turns on the fan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ishida, Yuko

    batteries. A photo-activated switch turns on the fan at dusk. Manual shutoff is required at dawn to prevent at dawn to prevent loss of trapped mosquitoes. Power is supplied by four D cell batteries. The upper case

  10. Simulation of quantum dots size and spacing effect for intermediate band solar cell application based on InAs quantum dots arrangement in GaAs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendra, P. I. B. Rahayu, F. Darma, Y.

    2014-03-24

    Intermediate band solar cell (IBSC) has become a promising technology in increasing solar cell efficiency. In this work we compare absorption coefficient profile between InAs quantum dots with GaAs bulk. We calculate the efficiency of GaAs bulk and GaAs doped with 2, 5, and 10 nm InAs quantum dot. Effective distances in quantum dot arrangement based on electron tunneling consideration were also calculated. We presented a simple calculation method with low computing power demand. Results showed that arrangement of quantum dot InAs in GaAs can increase solar cell efficiency from 23.9 % initially up to 60.4%. The effective distance between two quantum dots was found 2 nm in order to give adequate distance to prevent electron tunneling and wave functions overlap.

  11. Mechanical tugging force regulates the size of cellcell junctions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Christopher S.

    Mechanical tugging force regulates the size of cell­cell junctions Zhijun Liua,1 , John L. Tanb,1 through the generation of mechanical forces at sites of cell­matrix and cell­cell contact. While increased mechanical load- ing at cell­matrix adhesions results in focal adhesion growth, whether forces drive changes

  12. Evaluation of Powertrain Options and Component Sizing for MD...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sizing for MD and HD Applications on Real World Drive Cycles 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer...

  13. Does size matter?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carreras, B. A.; Physics Department, College of Natural Science and Mathematics and Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, Alaska 99775; Physics Department, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Madrid ; Newman, D. E.; Dobson, Ian

    2014-06-15

    Failures of the complex infrastructures society depends on having enormous human and economic cost that poses the question: Are there ways to optimize these systems to reduce the risks of failure? A dynamic model of one such system, the power transmission grid, is used to investigate the risk from failure as a function of the system size. It is found that there appears to be optimal sizes for such networks where the risk of failure is balanced by the benefit given by the size.

  14. Fire Size in Tunnels 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carvel, Ricky O

    In recent years, a number of high profile accidental fires have occurred in several road and rail tunnels throughout the world. Many of these fires grew rapidly to catastrophic size and claimed many lives. The processes ...

  15. Organic Solar Cells: Absolute Measurement of Domain Composition...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Organic Solar Cells: Absolute Measurement of Domain Composition and Nanoscale Size Distribution Explains Performance in Solar Cells Organic Solar Cells: Absolute Measurement of...

  16. Aerosol mobility size spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Jian (Port Jefferson, NY); Kulkarni, Pramod (Port Jefferson Station, NY)

    2007-11-20

    A device for measuring aerosol size distribution within a sample containing aerosol particles. The device generally includes a spectrometer housing defining an interior chamber and a camera for recording aerosol size streams exiting the chamber. The housing includes an inlet for introducing a flow medium into the chamber in a flow direction, an aerosol injection port adjacent the inlet for introducing a charged aerosol sample into the chamber, a separation section for applying an electric field to the aerosol sample across the flow direction and an outlet opposite the inlet. In the separation section, the aerosol sample becomes entrained in the flow medium and the aerosol particles within the aerosol sample are separated by size into a plurality of aerosol flow streams under the influence of the electric field. The camera is disposed adjacent the housing outlet for optically detecting a relative position of at least one aerosol flow stream exiting the outlet and for optically detecting the number of aerosol particles within the at least one aerosol flow stream.

  17. Contrasting size evolution in marine and freshwater diatoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    carbon cycle and most aquatic ecosystems. Their cell sizes impact carbon sequestration and en- ergy carbon cycle and the structure and functioning of aquatic ecosystems. evolutionarily stable strategy and forming the basis of many aquatic food webs (6). Diatom size distributions greatly influence carbon

  18. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Energy harvesting from organic liquids in micro-sized

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -powered applications of this fuel cell technology for Lab-on-a-Chip devices or portable point-of-care diagnosticOPEN ORIGINAL ARTICLE Energy harvesting from organic liquids in micro-sized microbial fuel cells Justine E Mink1,2, Ramy M Qaisi1, Bruce E Logan3 and Muhammad M Hussain1 Micro-sized microbial fuel cells

  19. Edison Job Size Charts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation Current HABFES Science Network RequirementsEdison ElectrifiesJob Size Charts

  20. Size Influence on the Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity and Instability of Supported Pt Nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheng, Wenchao

    Size-dependent oxygen reduction reaction activity (ORR) and instability of Pt nanoparticles is of great importance in proton exchange membrane fuel cell applications. In this study, the size-dependence of ORR activity on ...

  1. CELL CLINICS FOR BLOELECTRONIC INTERFACE WITH SINGLE CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maryland at College Park, University of

    CELL CLINICS FOR BLOELECTRONIC INTERFACE WITH SINGLE CELLS P. Abshiret, J.-M Lauensteid Y.L i d E for capture and characterization of large numbers of individual cells. Each of these "cell clinics" consists of a cell-sized cavity and a lid that can be opened and closed by hinges constructed from polypyrrole

  2. Library Efficiency Cat. No. 18262-014 Size: 1 ml

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirschner, Marc W.

    Library Efficiency DH5 Cells Cat. No. 18262-014 Size: 1 ml Store at -70°C. Do not store in liquid nitrogen. Description: Library Efficiency® DH5® Competent Cells have been prepared by a patented amounts of DNA. DH5® is capable of being transformed efficiently with large plasmids, and can also serve

  3. Hardware Sizing for Software Application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swaminathan, Ganesh

    2009-05-15

    Hardware sizing is an approximation of the hardware resources required to support a software implementation. Just like any theoretical model, hardware sizing model is an approximation of the reality. Depending on the infrastructure needs, workload...

  4. A microfluidic “baby machine” for cell synchronization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaw, Josephine

    Common techniques used to synchronize eukaryotic cells in the cell cycle often impose metabolic stress on the cells or physically select for size rather than age. To address these deficiencies, a minimally perturbing method ...

  5. Fluctuating fitness shapes the clone size distribution of immune repertoires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Desponds, Jonathan; Walczak, Aleksandra M

    2015-01-01

    The adaptive immune system relies on the diversity of receptors expressed on the surface of B and T-cells to protect the organism from a vast amount of pathogenic threats. The proliferation and degradation dynamics of different cell types (B cells, T cells, naive, memory) is governed by a variety of antigenic and environmental signals, yet the observed clone sizes follow a universal power law distribution. Guided by this reproducibility we propose effective models of somatic evolution where cell fate depends on an effective fitness. This fitness is determined by growth factors acting either on clones of cells with the same receptor responding to specific antigens, or directly on single cells with no regards for clones. We identify fluctuations in the fitness acting specifically on clones as the essential ingredient leading to the observed distributions. Combining our models with experiments we characterize the scale of fluctuations in antigenic environments and we provide tools to identify the relevant growth...

  6. Does semantic size affect size constancy scaling using lexical stimuli? 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beveridge, Madeleine

    2010-11-24

    Binocular disparity allows us to perceive the world in 3-dimensions through the process of stereopsis. In this study, we used binocular disparity to induce the size constancy illusion in lexical stimuli. 47 undergraduate ...

  7. Nanoconfined catalytic Ångström-size motors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peter H. Colberg; Raymond Kapral

    2015-01-13

    Chemically-powered synthetic micron and nano-scale motors that propel themselves in solution are being intensively studied because of the wide range of potential applications that exploit their directed motion. Recent experiments have shown that, even on the molecular scale, small-molecule catalysts and single enzyme molecules exhibit properties that have been attributed to self-propulsion. Simulations of very small {\\AA}ngstr\\"om-size synthetic motors in bulk solution have shown similar effects. Applications of such small motors in the cell or in microfluidic devices require knowledge of how these motors interact with boundaries. Molecular dynamics is used to investigate the properties of {\\AA}ngstr\\"om-size synthetic chemically-powered motors confined between walls separated by distances of tens of nanometers. Evidence for strong structural ordering of the motors between the walls, which reflects the finite size of solvent molecules and depends on solvent exclusion forces, is provided. Dynamical properties, such as average motor velocity, orientational relaxation and mean square displacement, are anisotropic and depend on the distance from the walls. This research presents information needed for potential applications that use these motors in the complex confined geometries encountered in biology and the laboratory.

  8. Generation of Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Mesoderm and Cardiac Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zandstra, Peter W.

    ARTICLE Generation of Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Mesoderm and Cardiac Cells Using Size pluripotent stem cell-derived cell types at sufficiently high numbers and in a reproducible manner for the differentiation of pluripotent cells such as human embryonic stem cells (hESC) rely on the generation

  9. Children's Clothes - Size and Selection. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vanderpoorten, Ann; Kerbel, Claudia

    1980-01-01

    , children's clothing should fit well, allow for growth and be durable and easy to care for. Children's Sizes The age of a child does not determine size. Chil dren of the same age may vary greatly in height, weight and body measurements. Clothing... and pants provide room for growth. Durability Because growing children are active and vigorous in play, select clothing that will withstand stress and strain. Clothing that wears out or falls apart before the child outgrows it is frustrating as well...

  10. How Focal Adhesion Size Depends on Integrin Affinity Tong Zhao,,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dinner, Aaron

    How Focal Adhesion Size Depends on Integrin Affinity Tong Zhao,, Ying Li,, and Aaron R. Dinner the thermodynamics and kinetics of integrin receptor binding and clustering impact the formation of focal adhesions in their environment. Cells on chemically well-defined surfaces were observed to have distributions of focal adhesions

  11. ARM - Measurement - Cloud droplet size

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments?govInstrumentsnoaacrnBarrow, Alaska Outreach Home Roomparticle size distributionconcentrationdroplet size

  12. OpenEI Community - Fuel Cells Market Size

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland:NPI VenturesNewSt.Information OlindaOnslow County,OpTICOpenBarter Jump

  13. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents: Stratocumulus cell size

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach HomeA Better AnodeThe Influence of Clouds, Aerosols,Comparisonatvariability: empiricalCO2,and emittance

  14. Cell State Identication by Mass, Density, and volume

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bryan, Andrea K. (Andrea Kristine)

    2011-01-01

    Cell size is often overlooked in the drive to define molecular mechanisms, but as a basic physical property it is an integrator of the cell's metabolic rate and indicator of cell fate. Development of the Suspended Microchannel ...

  15. Decreasing transmembrane segment length greatly decreases perfringolysin O pore size

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lin, Qingqing; Li, Huilin; Wang, Tong; London, Erwin

    2015-04-08

    Perfringolysin O (PFO) is a transmembrane (TM) ?-barrel protein that inserts into mammalian cell membranes. Once inserted into membranes, PFO assembles into pore-forming oligomers containing 30–50 PFO monomers. These form a pore of up to 300 Å, far exceeding the size of most other proteinaceous pores. In this study, we found that altering PFO TM segment length can alter the size of PFO pores. A PFO mutant with lengthened TM segments oligomerized to a similar extent as wild-type PFO, and exhibited pore-forming activity and a pore size very similar to wild-type PFO as measured by electron microscopy and a leakagemore »assay. In contrast, PFO with shortened TM segments exhibited a large reduction in pore-forming activity and pore size. This suggests that the interaction between TM segments can greatly affect the size of pores formed by TM ?-barrel proteins. PFO may be a promising candidate for engineering pore size for various applications.« less

  16. ARM - Measurement - Hydrometeor Size Distribution

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments?govInstrumentsnoaacrnBarrow, Alaska Outreach Home Roomparticle sizefraction ARMGeometry ARM DataSize

  17. Hydrocracking process using disparate catalyst particle sizes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kukes, S.G.; Miller, J.T.; Gutberlet, L.C.; Kelterboro, J.C

    1989-05-30

    This patent describes a process for the hydrocracking of a hydrocarbon feedstock which comprises reacting the feedstock with hydrogen at hydrocracking conversion conditions in a plurality of reaction zones in series containing hydrocracking catalyst wherein at least one of the reaction zones contains a small nominal size hydrocracking catalyst wherein the small nominal size catalyst has a U.S. sieve mesh size ranging from about 10 to about 16, and wherein at least one reaction zone upstream of the reaction zone containing the small nominal size hydrocracking catalyst having a particle size greater than the small nominal size hydrocracking catalyst.

  18. Experimental evaluation of cell temperature effects on miniature, air-breathing PEM fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Tonghun

    Experimental evaluation of cell temperature effects on miniature, air-breathing PEM fuel cells Z June 2011 Available online 14 June 2011 Keywords: Air-breathing PEM fuel cell Temperature effects Air) fuel cells is investi- gated using polarization and impedance spectroscopy. Three active area sizes

  19. 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Optical sizing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maerz, Norbert H.

    mining operation, from the drilling and blasting to the final product; the material size dictates all downstream operating costs. Previously, the only way to measure a size distribution was to stop production

  20. Grain size dependence of barchan dune dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Groh; N. Aksel; I. Rehberg; C. Kruelle

    2008-11-28

    The dependence of the barchan dune dynamics on the size of the grains involved is investigated experimentally. Downsized barchan dune slices are observed in a narrow water flow tube. The relaxation time from an initial symmetric triangular heap towards an asymmetric shape attractor increases with dune mass and decreases with grain size. The dune velocity increases with grain size. In contrast, the velocity scaling and the shape of the barchan dune is independent of the size of the grains.

  1. Moving Forward Moving Backward: Directional Sorting of Chemotactic Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    Moving Forward Moving Backward: Directional Sorting of Chemotactic Cells due to Size and Adhesion, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands Differential movement of individual cells within tissues of cell sorting caused by a combination of cell adhesion and chemotaxis, where we assume that all cells

  2. Semicontinuous Sized Types and Termination Andreas Abel #

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abel, Andreas

    , and classical applications are total correctness and termination of partial evaluation. In languagesSemi­continuous Sized Types and Termination Andreas Abel # Institut für Informatik Ludwig to termination uses sized types: an ordinal bound for the size of a data structure is stored in its type

  3. Hazards of explosives dusts: Particle size effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cashdollar, K L; Hertzberg, M; Green, G M

    1992-02-01

    At the request of the Department of Energy, the Bureau of Mines has investigated the hazards of military explosives dispersed as dust clouds in a 20-L test chamber. In this report, the effect of particle size for HMX, HNS, RDX, TATB, and TNT explosives dusts is studied in detail. The explosibility data for these dusts are also compared to those for pure fuel dusts. The data show that all of the sizes of the explosives dusts that were studied were capable of sustaining explosions as dust clouds dispersed in air. The finest sizes (<10 [mu]m) of explosives dusts were less reactive than the intermediate sizes (20 to 60 [mu]m); this is opposite to the particle size effect observed previously for the pure fuel dusts. At the largest sizes studied, the explosives dusts become somewhat less reactive as dispersed dust clouds. The six sizes of the HMX dust were also studied as dust clouds dispersed in nitrogen.

  4. Sex, Size and Gender Roles evolutionary studies of sexual size dimorphism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saltzman, Wendy

    , John L. Gittleman and Kate E. Jones 3. Sexual Size Dimorphism in Birds , Tamás Székely, Terje Lislevand in the Hartebeest, Isabella Capellini 13. Sexual Size Dimorphism and Offspring Vulnerability in Birds, EllenSex, Size and Gender Roles evolutionary studies of sexual size dimorphism Edited by Daphne J

  5. Size distribution of particle systems analyzed with organic photodetectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sentis, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    As part of a consortium between academic and industry, this PhD work investigates the interest and capabilities of organic photo-sensors (OPS) for the optical characterization of suspensions and two-phase flows. The principle of new optical particle sizing instruments is proposed to characterize particle systems confined in a cylinder glass (standard configuration for Process Analytical Technologies). To evaluate and optimize the performance of these systems, a Monte-Carlo model has been specifically developed. This model accounts for the numerous parameters of the system: laser beam profile, mirrors, lenses, sample cell, particle medium properties (concentration, mean & standard deviation, refractive indices), OPS shape and positions, etc. Light scattering by particles is treated either by using Lorenz-Mie theory, Debye, or a hybrid model (that takes into account the geometrical and physical contributions). For diluted media (single scattering), particle size analysis is based on the inversion of scatter...

  6. On measures of size for convex cones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-05-18

    Section 2 presents a battery of examples of size indices disseminated in the literature. For each ...... ferent measures of conditioning for conic linear systems.

  7. Interfacial Studies of Sized Carbon Fiber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shahrul, S. N.; Hartini, M. N.; Hilmi, E. A.; Nizam, A. [Nanomaterials Program, Advance Materials Centre (AMREC), SIRIM Berhad, Lot 34, Jalan Hi-Tech Park, 09000, Kulim, Kedah (Malaysia)

    2010-03-11

    This study was performed to investigate the influence of sizing treatment on carbon fiber in respect of interfacial adhesion in composite materials, Epolam registered 2025. Fortafil unsized carbon fiber was used to performed the experiment. The fiber was commercially surface treated and it was a polyacrylonitrile based carbon fiber with 3000 filament per strand. Epicure registered 3370 was used as basic sizing chemical and dissolved in two types of solvent, ethanol and acetone for the comparison purpose. The single pull out test has been used to determine the influence of sizing on carbon fiber. The morphology of carbon fiber was observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The apparent interfacial strength IFSS values determined by pull out test for the Epicure registered 3370/ethanol sized carbon fiber pointed to a good interfacial behaviour compared to the Epicure registered 3370/acetone sized carbon fiber. The Epicure registered 3370/ethanol sizing agent was found to be effective in promoting adhesion because of the chemical reactions between the sizing and Epolam registered 2025 during the curing process. From this work, it showed that sized carbon fiber using Epicure registered 3370 with addition of ethanol give higher mechanical properties of carbon fiber in terms of shear strength and also provided a good adhesion between fiber and matrix compared to the sizing chemical that contain acetone as a solvent.

  8. Effects of aneuploidy on growth and cell cycle progression

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    González Rubio, Christian

    2010-01-01

    In budding yeast, aneuploidy has a detrimental effect in cell growth and proliferation. The work presented here shows that most aneuploid yeast strains delay cell cycle entry by increasing the critical size for budding and ...

  9. Effect of age and concentration of sperm on conception rate and litter size in swine 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Licon Quintero, Mario Alberto

    1971-01-01

    Effect of parity on conception rate and litter size Analysis of variance for conception rate Analysis of variance for litter size 22 23 24 INTRODUCTION The artificial insemination of swine evolved, in Norway, Japan, England, The Netherlands... artificial insemination. Most of the researchers dealing with artificial insemination of swine recommend that approximately five billion live sperm cells be used per insemination. However, other investigators have suggested that with two billion...

  10. Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Diatom cell division in an environmental context

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    cytokinesis combined with centrifugal cell wall neosynthesis, and the role of sex in relation to cell size. Notwithstanding, diatoms were one of the most advanced models of cell division in the late 19th century

  11. High precision mass-based assay to examine growth regulation of the cell cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gulati, Amneet

    2014-01-01

    Studying biophysical properties of cells can provide insight into the metabolic mechanisms and regulation of cell cycle processes. Though size is considered to be a fundamental property of cell state, its measurement on a ...

  12. Cell Adhesion on Polyelectrolyte Multilayer Coated Polydimethylsiloxane Surfaces with Varying Topographies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Ilsoon

    Cell Adhesion on Polyelectrolyte Multilayer Coated Polydimethylsiloxane Surfaces with Varying to the pattern size and pitch influences cell adhesion and proliferation. Extensive research has shown substrate for cell ad- hesion. To improve adhesion, we built polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) on PDMS

  13. Modeling and Optimization of PEMFC Systems and its Application to Direct Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Hengbing; Burke, Andy

    2008-01-01

    H. Peng, Control of Fuel Cell Power Systems, Springer, 2004an arbitrary size (power) fuel cell. Finally, the model ison the rated fuel cell stack power. The rated stack power is

  14. Squibs and Discussions Pipelines and Size Constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Squibs and Discussions Pipelines and Size Constraints Ehud Reiter* University of Aberdeen Some. This can be a difficult constraint to enforce in a pipelined natural language generation (NLG) system of the pipeline, but size cannot be accurately measured until the document has been completely processed

  15. Elastic Interactions of Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    U. S. Schwarz; S. A. Safran

    2002-01-08

    Biological cells in soft materials can be modeled as anisotropic force contraction dipoles. The corresponding elastic interaction potentials are long-ranged ($\\sim 1/r^3$ with distance $r$) and depend sensitively on elastic constants, geometry and cellular orientations. On elastic substrates, the elastic interaction is similar to that of electric quadrupoles in two dimensions and for dense systems leads to aggregation with herringbone order on a cellular scale. Free and clamped surfaces of samples of finite size introduce attractive and repulsive corrections, respectively, which vary on the macroscopic scale. Our theory predicts cell reorientation on stretched elastic substrates.

  16. Series cell light extinction monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Novick, Vincent J. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1990-01-01

    A method and apparatus for using the light extinction measurements from two or more light cells positioned along a gasflow chamber in which the gas volumetric rate is known to determine particle number concentration and mass concentration of an aerosol independent of extinction coefficient and to determine estimates for particle size and mass concentrations. The invention is independent of particle size. This invention has application to measurements made during a severe nuclear reactor fuel damage test.

  17. Conglomeration of kilometre-sized planetesimals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shannon, Andrew; Wu, Yanqin; Lithwick, Yoram

    2015-02-25

    out of ? 104M? of primordial solids. The total disk mass, if supplemented with the missing hydro- gen gas, would then reach of order a solar mass. This is very surprising and, in our view, invalidates the low-efficiency conglomeration model. Moreover... . This corresponds to a dis- ruption velocity of v ? 100 cm/ s, or e ? 10?3 at 40 AU. When bodies of size s1 are catastrophically disrupted, we re-distribute their masses to smaller size bins with a number distribution that is power-law in size, dn/ds ? sq? for s < s...

  18. Finite size scaling analysis of compact QED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Arnold; Th. Lippert; Th. Neuhaus; K. Schilling

    2000-11-13

    We describe results of a high-statistics finite size scaling analysis of 4d compact U(1) lattice gauge theory with Wilson action at the phase transition point. Using a multicanonical hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm we generate data samples with more than 150 tunneling events between the metastable states of the system, on lattice sizes up to 18^4. We performed a first analysis within the Borgs-Kotecky finite size scaling scheme. As a result, we report evidence for a first-order phase transition with a plaquette energy gap, G=0.02667(20), at a transition coupling, beta_T=1.011128(11).

  19. Analysis of a one-dimensional model for the regulation of the size of the renewable zone in biological tissue.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mjolsness, Eric

    Analysis of a one-dimensional model for the regulation of the size of the renewable zone, 630090 The results of a numerical study of a cell-oriented model of the regulation of the renewable zone of the renewable zone is suggested. The shoot apical meristem (SAM) is provided as an example. The model is cell

  20. Particle Size Distribution of Gypseous Samples 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnett, Morgan P.

    2010-01-16

    Particle size distribution (PSD) of gypseous soils is important in the soil science community. When gypsum constitutes a major portion of the soil, its removal prior to PSD analysis distorts the results and may lead to ...

  1. Software Productivity Measurement Using Multiple Size Measures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bae, Doo-Hwan

    Software Productivity Measurement Using Multiple Size Measures Software Productivity MeasurementContents Introduction Background Related work Motivation Productivity measurement - Measurement model - Productivity measure construction - Productivity analysis Conclusion Discussion #12;Software Engineering Lab, KAIST 3

  2. Continuous Nanoparticle Sizing and Characterization via Microfluidics 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meng, Fanxu

    2015-04-27

    conductivity measurements can be exploited to instantaneously obtain size and species information in oxide nanoparticle suspensions. This approach is readily implemented in an easy to build platform that can be employed either online to provide real...

  3. Angular Size in a Static Universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David F. Crawford

    1994-07-11

    In principle the geometry of the universe can be investigated by measuring the angular size of known objects as a function of distance. Thus the distribution of angular sizes provides a critical test of the stable and static model of the universe described by Crawford (1991,1993) that has a simple and explicit relationship between the angular size of an object and its redshift. The result is that the agreement with observations of galactic diameters and the size of double radio sources with the static model is much better than the standard (Big Bang) theory without evolution. However there is still a small discrepancy at large redshifts that could be due to selection effects.

  4. Antiferromagnetic domain size and exchange bias 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fitzsimmons, M. R.; Lederman, D.; Cheon, M.; Shi, H.; Olamit, J.; Roshchin, Igor V.; Schuller, Ivan K.

    2008-01-01

    Using neutron diffraction, we measured the sizes of antiferromagnetic domains in three ferromagnet/antiferromagnet bilayer samples as a function of the magnitude and sign of exchange bias, temperature, and antiferromagnet composition. Neutron...

  5. Liquid/Liquid Interface Polymerized Porphyrin Membranes Displaying Size-Selective Molecular and Ionic Permeability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liquid/Liquid Interface Polymerized Porphyrin Membranes Displaying Size-Selective Molecular of ca. 3.5 Å. Molecular transport can be modulated by axially ligating pore- blocking moieties of studies of photophysical and photochemical processes, including solar-cell-related processes. In many

  6. Investigations of initiation spot size effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clarke, Steven A; Akinci, Adrian A; Leichty, Gary; Schaffer, Timothy; Murphy, Michael J; Munger, Alan; Thomas, Keith A

    2010-01-01

    As explosive components become smaller, a greater understanding of the effect of initiation spot size on detonation becomes increasingly critical. A series of tests of the effect of initiation spot size will be described. A series of DOI (direct optical initiation) detonators with initiation spots sizes from {approx}50 um to 1000um have been tested to determine laser parameters for threshold firing of low density PETN pressings. Results will be compared with theoretical predictions. Outputs of the initiation source (DOI ablation) have been characterized by a suite of diagnostics including PDV and schlieren imaging. Outputs of complete detonators have been characterized using PDV, streak, and/or schlieren imaging. At present, we have not found the expected change in the threshold energy to spot size relationship for DOI type detonators found in similar earlier for projectiles, slappers and EBWs. New detonators designs (Type C) are currently being tested that will allow the determination of the threshold for spot sizes from 250 um to 105um, where we hope to see change in the threshold vs. spot size relationship. Also, one test of an extremely small diameter spot size (50um) has resulted in preliminary NoGo only results even at energy densities as much as 8 times the energy density of the threshold results presented here. This gives preliminary evidence that 50um spot may be beyond the critical initiation diameter. The constant threshold energy to spot size relationship in the data to date does however still give some insight into the initiation mechanism of DOI detonators. If the DOI initiation mechanism were a 1D mechanism similar to a slapper or a flyer impact, the expected inflection point in the graph would have been between 300um and 500um diameter spot size, within the range of the data presented here. The lack of that inflection point indicates that the DOI initiation mechanism is more likely a 2D mechanism similar to a sphere or rod projectile. We expect to see a three region response as the results from the smaller spot size Type C detonators are completed.

  7. Cell Stem Cell Stem Cell States, Fates,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peterson, Carsten

    Cell Stem Cell Review Stem Cell States, Fates, and the Rules of Attraction Tariq Enver,1 Martin Pera,2 Carsten Peterson,3,4 and Peter W. Andrews5,* 1The Molecular Haematology Unit, The Weatherall and their relationship to commitment to differ- entiate and lineage selection can be elucidated in terms of a landscape

  8. Cell diameter measurements obtained with a handheld cell counter could be used as a surrogate marker of G2/M arrest and apoptosis in colon cancer cell lines exposed to SN-38

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tahara, Makiko; Inoue, Takeshi; Fujii, Hirofumi; Kotake, Kenjiro; Sugano, Kokichi

    2013-05-17

    Highlights: •Chemo-sensitivity to SN-38 was assayed by the automated cell counter. •Colon cancer cell line, HCT116 cells were more sensitive to SN-38 than HT29 cells. •Increase of cell size reflects G2/M arrest. •Appearance of small particles indicates cell apoptosis. -- Abstract: In vitro assessment of chemosensitivity are important for experiments evaluating cancer therapies. The Scepter 2.0 cell counter, an automated handheld device based on the Coulter principle of impedance-based particle detection, enables the accurate discrimination of cell populations according to cell size and volume. In this study, the effects of SN-38, the active metabolite of irinotecan, on the colon cancer cell lines HCT116 and HT29 were evaluated using this device. The cell count data obtained with the Scepter counter were compared with those obtained with the {sup 3}H-thymidine uptake assay, which has been used to measure cell proliferation in many previous studies. In addition, we examined whether the changes in the size distributions of these cells reflected alterations in the frequency of cell cycle arrest and/or apoptosis induced by SN-38 treatment. In our experiments using the Scepter 2.0 cell counter, the cell counts were demonstrated to be accurate and reproducible measure and alterations of cell diameter reflected G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Our data show that easy-to-use cell counting tools can be utilized to evaluate the cell-killing effects of novel treatments on cancer cells in vitro.

  9. Control of pore size in epoxy systems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sawyer, Patricia Sue; Lenhart, Joseph Ludlow (North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND); Lee, Elizabeth (North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND); Kallam, Alekhya (North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND); Majumdar, Partha (North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND); Dirk, Shawn M.; Gubbins, Nathan; Chisholm, Bret J. (North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND); Celina, Mathias Christopher; Bahr, James (North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND); Klein, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Both conventional and combinatorial approaches were used to study the pore formation process in epoxy based polymer systems. Sandia National Laboratories conducted the initial work and collaborated with North Dakota State University (NDSU) using a combinatorial research approach to produce a library of novel monomers and crosslinkers capable of forming porous polymers. The library was screened to determine the physical factors that control porosity, such as porogen loading, polymer-porogen interactions, and polymer crosslink density. We have identified the physical and chemical factors that control the average porosity, pore size, and pore size distribution within epoxy based systems.

  10. Can amphiphile architecture directly control vesicle size?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. J. Greenall; C. M. Marques

    2013-01-28

    Bilayer membranes self-assembled from simple amphiphiles in solution always have a planar ground-state shape. This is a consequence of several internal relaxation mechanisms of the membrane and prevents the straightforward control of vesicle size. Here, we show that this principle can be circumvented and that direct size control by molecular design is a realistic possibility. Using coarse-grained calculations, we design tetrablock copolymers that form membranes with a preferred curvature, and demonstrate how to form low-polydispersity vesicles while suppressing micellization.

  11. Fuel Cell Handbook, Fifth Edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Energy and Environmental Solutions

    2000-10-31

    Progress continues in fuel cell technology since the previous edition of the Fuel Cell Handbook was published in November 1998. Uppermost, polymer electrolyte fuel cells, molten carbonate fuel cells, and solid oxide fuel cells have been demonstrated at commercial size in power plants. The previously demonstrated phosphoric acid fuel cells have entered the marketplace with more than 220 power plants delivered. Highlighting this commercial entry, the phosphoric acid power plant fleet has demonstrated 95+% availability and several units have passed 40,000 hours of operation. One unit has operated over 49,000 hours. Early expectations of very low emissions and relatively high efficiencies have been met in power plants with each type of fuel cell. Fuel flexibility has been demonstrated using natural gas, propane, landfill gas, anaerobic digester gas, military logistic fuels, and coal gas, greatly expanding market opportunities. Transportation markets worldwide have shown remarkable interest in fuel cells; nearly every major vehicle manufacturer in the U.S., Europe, and the Far East is supporting development. This Handbook provides a foundation in fuel cells for persons wanting a better understanding of the technology, its benefits, and the systems issues that influence its application. Trends in technology are discussed, including next-generation concepts that promise ultrahigh efficiency and low cost, while providing exceptionally clean power plant systems. Section 1 summarizes fuel cell progress since the last edition and includes existing power plant nameplate data. Section 2 addresses the thermodynamics of fuel cells to provide an understanding of fuel cell operation at two levels (basic and advanced). Sections 3 through 8 describe the six major fuel cell types and their performance based on cell operating conditions. Alkaline and intermediate solid state fuel cells were added to this edition of the Handbook. New information indicates that manufacturers have stayed with proven cell designs, focusing instead on advancing the system surrounding the fuel cell to lower life cycle costs. Section 9, Fuel Cell Systems, has been significantly revised to characterize near-term and next-generation fuel cell power plant systems at a conceptual level of detail. Section 10 provides examples of practical fuel cell system calculations. A list of fuel cell URLs is included in the Appendix. A new index assists the reader in locating specific information quickly.

  12. Unwinding of circular helicoidal molecules versus size

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marco Zoli

    2015-04-12

    The thermodynamical stability of a set of circular double helical molecules is analyzed by path integral techniques. The minicircles differ only in \\textit{i)} the radius and \\textit{ii)} the number of base pairs ($N$) arranged along the molecule axis. Instead, the rise distance is kept constant. For any molecule size, the computational method simulates a broad ensemble of possible helicoidal configurations while the partition function is a sum over the path trajectories describing the base pair fluctuational states. The stablest helical repeat of every minicircle is determined by free energy minimization. We find that, for molecules with $N$ larger than $100$, the helical repeat grows linearly with the size and the twist number is constant. On the other hand, by reducing the size below $100$ base pairs, the double helices sharply unwind and the twist number drops to one for $N=\\,20$. This is predicted as the minimum size for the existence of helicoidal molecules in the closed form. The helix unwinding appears as a strategy to release the bending stress associated to the circularization of the molecules.

  13. Grain-size distributions of tsunami sediments 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spencer, Sarah

    2011-08-08

    tsunamis, Chile 2010 and Peru 2008. The grain-size of the sediment from each tsunami was measured by two common techniques: sieving and digital particle counter. To interpret this real tsunami data, numerical and analytical analysis were used to simulate...

  14. NEEDS SIZE ADJUSTMENT 2 Perfect Chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapman, Michael S.

    NEEDS SIZE ADJUSTMENT #12;2 Perfect Chemistry 8 Starr Power 10 Balancing Act 14 A Rare Thing.B.A. EDitors Dee Metaj Jill Smith DEsigN Anderson McConaughy Design Co. WritErs Todd Schwartz Jill Smith Jim and friends. Please send correspondence to: Bridges Magazine sm-alum@ohsu.edu OHSU School of Medicine 3181 SW

  15. Strategic Petroleum Reserve: Analysis of size options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-02-01

    This report presents the results of the deliberations of the interagency group formed to study the costs and benefits of expanding the size of the SPR. The study concentrated on severe oil supply disruptions involving sharp reductions in world oil production that were 2 to 4 times larger than the largest 1970s interruption. The disruption sizes and estimated probability of occurrence of these scenarios were supplied by the CIA. The most critical part of the CIA's analysis was the assessment of likelihood of these cases occurring. The CIA approached the likelihood problem by combining an examination of past oil supply disruptions with qualitative analysis of important oil market and regional trends. The study group then used statistical techniques and probability distributions to synthesize the historical data with CIA evaluations of as yet unobserved events. The SPR size study assumed direct purchases of SPR oil and did not assume the use of alternative financing mechanisms. Members of the working group with foreign policy and national security responsibilities provided an in-depth review of strategic considerations affecting SPR size. A number of prior studies, some classified, have addressed the strategic importance and insurance value of the SPR to the US and its allies. The results of these studies have also been incorporated in the current effort. 10 refs., 5 figs.

  16. Sizing and burn time measurements of micron-sized metal powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gill, Robert J.; Mohan, Salil; Dreizin, Edward L. [New Jersey Institute of Technology Newark, New Jersey 07102 (United States)

    2009-06-15

    Detailed ignition and combustion mechanisms are needed to develop optimized propellant and energetic formulations using micron-sized metal powders, such as aluminum. Combustion researchers have traditionally used relatively coarse metal particles to characterize the burn time dependence on particle size. However, measurements of burn times for particles below 10 {mu}m in diameter are still needed for aluminum powders and other metal fuels. The apparatus described here sizes the particles just before the ignition event, providing a direct correlation between individual particle size and its burn time. Two lasers were utilized: a 785 nm laser diode for sizing the particles and a 125 W CO{sub 2} laser for particle ignition. The particles crossed the 785 nm laser beam just before crossing the CO{sub 2} laser beam. The particle size was determined from the amplitude of the scattered 785 nm light pulse. The burn time was determined from the duration of the visible light emission produced from the ignited particle. The in situ measured particle size distributions compared well with the size distributions measured for the same powders by a commercial instrument using low angle laser light scattering. Our measurements with two nominally spherical aluminum powders, suggest that the burn times increase from 0.5 to {approx}2.5 ms as the particle diameters increase from 3 to 8 {mu}m.

  17. Surface plasmon standing waves on Ag nanorods: observations of finite size effects and size dependency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    Surface plasmon standing waves on Ag nanorods: observations of finite size effects and size to have clear configuration of standing waves of the nanorod. The nm resolution of the electron probe standing wave on a string with fixed ends, we observed that the wavelength of the SP standing wave

  18. INITIAL PLANETESIMAL SIZES AND THE SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF SMALL KUIPER BELT OBJECTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schlichting, Hilke E. [UCLA, Department of Earth and Space Science, 595 Charles E. Young Drive East, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Fuentes, Cesar I.; Trilling, David E., E-mail: hilke@ucla.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northern Arizona University, P.O. Box 6010, Flagstaff, AZ 86011 (United States)

    2013-08-01

    The Kuiper Belt is a remnant from the early solar system and its size distribution contains many important constraints that can be used to test models of planet formation and collisional evolution. We show, by comparing observations with theoretical models, that the observed Kuiper Belt size distribution is well matched by coagulation models, which start with an initial planetesimal population with radii of about 1 km, and subsequent collisional evolution. We find that the observed size distribution above R {approx} 30 km is primordial, i.e., it has not been modified by collisional evolution over the age of the solar system, and that the size distribution below R {approx} 30 km has been modified by collisions and that its slope is well matched by collisional evolution models that use published strength laws. We investigate in detail the resulting size distribution of bodies ranging from 0.01 km to 30 km and find that its slope changes several times as a function of radius before approaching the expected value for an equilibrium collisional cascade of material strength dominated bodies for R {approx}< 0.1 km. Compared to a single power-law size distribution that would span the whole range from 0.01 km to 30 km, we find in general a strong deficit of bodies around R {approx} 10 km and a strong excess of bodies around 2 km in radius. This deficit and excess of bodies are caused by the planetesimal size distribution left over from the runaway growth phase, which left most of the initial mass in small planetesimals while only a small fraction of the total mass is converted into large protoplanets. This excess mass in small planetesimals leaves a permanent signature in the size distribution of small bodies that is not erased after 4.5 Gyr of collisional evolution. Observations of the small Kuiper Belt Object (KBO) size distribution can therefore test if large KBOs grew as a result of runaway growth and constrained the initial planetesimal sizes. We find that results from recent KBO occultation surveys and the observed KBO size distribution can be best matched by an initial planetesimal population that contained about equal mass per logarithmic mass bin in bodies ranging from 0.4 km to 4 km in radius. We further find that we cannot match the observed KBO size distribution if most of the planetesimal mass was contained in bodies that were 10 km in radius or larger simply because their resulting size distribution cannot be sufficiently depleted over 4.5 Gyr to match observations.

  19. CMOS Photovoltaic-cell Layout Configurations for Harvesting Microsystems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rincon-Mora, Gabriel A.

    CMOS Photovoltaic-cell Layout Configurations for Harvesting Microsystems Rajiv Damodaran Prabha, and radiation, photovoltaic (PV) systems are appealing options. Still, chip-sized CMOS PV cells produce only well in substrate cell are better. Index Terms--Ambient light energy, harvester, CMOS photovoltaic (PV

  20. Depleted-Heterojunction Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sargent, Edward H. "Ted"

    -processed single-junction cells and also multijunction architectures. Size-effect tuning also en- ables the useDepleted-Heterojunction Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells Andras G. Pattantyus-Abraham,, Illan J requires thick, high-purity solar cells with correspondingly long carrier transport lengths;3 organic

  1. Size dependence of cubic to trigonal structural distortion in silver micro- and nanocrystals under high pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Qixum [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zhao, Yusheng [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zin, Zhijun [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wang, Zhongwu [CORNELL UNIV; Skrabalak, Sara E [INDIANA UNIV; Xia, Younan [WASHINGTON UNIV

    2008-01-01

    Silver micro- and nanocrystals with sizes of {approx}2--3.5 {mu}m and {approx}50--100 nm were uniaxially compressed under nonhydrostatic pressures (strong deviatoric stress) up to {approx}30 GPa at room temperature in a symmetric diamond-anvil cell and studied in situ using angle-dispersive synchrotron X-ray diffraction. A cubic to trigonal structural distortion along a 3-fold rotational axis was discovered by careful and comprehensive analysis of the apparent lattice parameter and full width at half-maximum, which are strongly dependent upon the Miller index and crystal size.

  2. Real-Time Simultaneous Measurements of Size, Density, and Composition...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Simultaneous Measurements of Size, Density, and Composition of Single Ultrafine Diesel Tailpipe Particles Real-Time Simultaneous Measurements of Size, Density, and Composition of...

  3. Small- and Medium-Size Building Automation and Control System...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Small- and Medium-Size Building Automation and Control System Needs: Scoping Study Small- and Medium-Size Building Automation and Control System Needs: Scoping Study Emerging...

  4. SBA Increases Size Standards for Waste Remediation Services ...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    review of all size standards for the next several years. An SBA-issued White Paper entitled, "Size Standards Methodology," which explains how SBA establishes, reviews...

  5. Reduce Pumping Costs Through Optimum Pipe Sizing | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reduce Pumping Costs Through Optimum Pipe Sizing Reduce Pumping Costs Through Optimum Pipe Sizing This tip sheet discusses how to reduce pumping system costs through optimum pipe...

  6. Overview of Detailed Chemical Speciation and Particle Sizing...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Detailed Chemical Speciation and Particle Sizing for Diesel Exhaust, Both Real Time and Filter Based Measurements Overview of Detailed Chemical Speciation and Particle Sizing for...

  7. Sample sizes for confidence limits for reliability.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darby, John L.

    2010-02-01

    We recently performed an evaluation of the implications of a reduced stockpile of nuclear weapons for surveillance to support estimates of reliability. We found that one technique developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) under-estimates the required sample size for systems-level testing. For a large population the discrepancy is not important, but for a small population it is important. We found that another technique used by SNL provides the correct required sample size. For systems-level testing of nuclear weapons, samples are selected without replacement, and the hypergeometric probability distribution applies. Both of the SNL techniques focus on samples without defects from sampling without replacement. We generalized the second SNL technique to cases with defects in the sample. We created a computer program in Mathematica to automate the calculation of confidence for reliability. We also evaluated sampling with replacement where the binomial probability distribution applies.

  8. Scaling of Seismic Memory with Earthquake Size

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Zeyu; Tenenbaum, Joel; Podobnik, Boris; Stanley, H Eugene

    2011-01-01

    It has been observed that the earthquake events possess short-term memory, i.e. that events occurring in a particular location are dependent on the short history of that location. We conduct an analysis to see whether real-time earthquake data also possess long-term memory and, if so, whether such autocorrelations depend on the size of earthquakes within close spatiotemporal proximity. We analyze the seismic waveform database recorded by 64 stations in Japan, including the 2011 "Great East Japan Earthquake", one of the five most powerful earthquakes ever recorded which resulted in a tsunami and devastating nuclear accidents. We explore the question of seismic memory through use of mean conditional intervals and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). We find that the waveform sign series show long-range power-law anticorrelations while the interval series show long-range power-law correlations. We find size-dependence in earthquake auto-correlations---as earthquake size increases, both of these correlation beha...

  9. Fundamental differences in endoreplication in mammals and Drosophila revealed by analysis of endocycling and endomitotic cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Orr-Weaver, Terry L.

    Throughout the plant and animal kingdoms specific cell types become polyploid, increasing their DNA content to attain a large cell size. In mammals, megakaryocytes (MKs) become polyploid before fragmenting into platelets. ...

  10. Influence of lateral target size on hot electron production and electromagnetic pulse emission from laser-irradiated metallic targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Ziyu; Li Jianfeng; Yu Yong; Li Xiaoya; Peng Qixian; Zhu Wenjun [National Key Laboratory of Shock Wave and Detonation Physics, Institute of Fluid Physics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, Sichuan 621900 (China); Wang Jiaxiang [State Key Laboratory of Precision Spectroscopy, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China)

    2012-11-15

    The influences of lateral target size on hot electron production and electromagnetic pulse emission from laser interaction with metallic targets have been investigated. Particle-in-cell simulations at high laser intensities show that the yield of hot electrons tends to increase with lateral target size, because the larger surface area reduces the electrostatic field on the target, owing to its expansion along the target surface. At lower laser intensities and longer time scales, experimental data characterizing electromagnetic pulse emission as a function of lateral target size also show target-size effects. Charge separation and a larger target tending to have a lower target potential have both been observed. The increase in radiation strength and downshift in radiation frequency with increasing lateral target size can be interpreted using a simple model of the electrical capacity of the target.

  11. Wide size range fast integrated mobility spectrometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jian

    2013-10-29

    A mobility spectrometer to measure a nanometer particle size distribution is disclosed. The mobility spectrometer includes a conduit and a detector. The conduit is configured to receive and provide fluid communication of a fluid stream having a charged nanometer particle mixture. The conduit includes a separator section configured to generate an electrical field of two dimensions transverse to a dimension associated with the flow of the charged nanometer particle mixture through the separator section to spatially separate charged nanometer particles of the charged nanometer particle mixture in said two dimensions. The detector is disposed downstream of the conduit to detect concentration and position of the spatially-separated nanometer particles.

  12. Size Dependent Population Dynamics of Microtus Ochrogaster

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sauer, John R.; Slade, Norman A.

    1986-06-01

    stream_size 20190 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name slade_american_naturalist.pdf.txt stream_source_info slade_american_naturalist.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Vol. 127... therefore could make no direct comparison of age- and mass-based methods (such as the analysis in Werner and Caswell 1977 of a population of teasel, Dipsacus sylvestris Huds.). Subsequent to our analysis of voles, we com­ pared age- and mass...

  13. Assessing Learning in Small Sized Physics Courses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ene, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    We describe the construction, validation and testing of a concept inventory for an Introduction to Physics of Semiconductors course offered by the department of physics for undergraduate engineering students. By design, this inventory addresses both content knowledge and ability to interpret content via different cognitive processes described in Bloom's taxonomy. The primary challenge comes from the low number of test takers. Since the Rasch Model (aka 1PL IRT model), can be used with small sample sizes, we describe Rasch Modeling analysis and results for this concept inventory.

  14. On the Physics of Size Selectivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roland Roth; Dirk Gillespie

    2005-11-07

    We demonstrate that two mechanisms used by biological ion channels to select particles by size are driven by entropy. With uncharged particles in an infinite cylinder, we show that a channel that attracts particles is small-particle selective and that a channel that repels water from the wall is large-particle selective. Comparing against extensive density-functional theory calculations of our model, we find that the main physics can be understood with surprisingly simple bulk models that neglect the confining geometry of the channel completely.

  15. ARM - Measurement - Aerosol particle size distribution

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments?govInstrumentsnoaacrnBarrow, Alaska Outreach Home Roomparticle size distribution ARM Data Discovery

  16. 1999 Commercial Buildings Characteristics--Building Size

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0ProvedDecade Year-0Cubic Monthly Actual Data10)Households,Size of

  17. #MarketSize | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop IncIowa (UtilityMichigan)data bookresult formatswindMarketSize Home n/a n/a n/a

  18. Imaging Liquids Using Microfluidic Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Xiao-Ying; Liu, Bingwen; Yang, Li

    2013-05-10

    Chemistry occurring in the liquid and liquid surface is important in many applications. Chemical imaging of liquids using vacuum based analytical techniques is challenging due to the difficulty in working with liquids with high volatility. Recent development in microfluidics enabled and increased our capabilities to study liquid in situ using surface sensitive techniques such as electron microscopy and spectroscopy. Due to its small size, low cost, and flexibility in design, liquid cells based on microfluidics have been increasingly used in studying and imaging complex phenomena involving liquids. This paper presents a review of microfluidic cells that were developed to adapt to electron microscopes and various spectrometers for in situ chemical analysis and imaging of liquids. The following topics will be covered including cell designs, fabrication techniques, unique technical features for vacuum compatible cells, and imaging with electron microscopy and spectroscopy. Challenges are summarized and recommendations for future development priority are proposed.

  19. CLIMATE CHANGE FUEL CELL PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Walneuski

    2004-09-16

    ChevronTexaco has successfully operated a 200 kW PC25C phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant at the corporate data center in San Ramon, California for the past two years and seven months following installation in December 2001. This site was chosen based on the ability to utilize the combined heat (hot water) and power generation capability of this modular fuel cell power plant in an office park setting . In addition, this project also represents one of the first commercial applications of a stationary fuel cell for a mission critical data center to assess power reliability benefits. This fuel cell power plant system has demonstrated outstanding reliability and performance relative to other comparably sized cogeneration systems.

  20. CELL TYPES, DIFFERENTIAL CELL COUNTS, AND BLOOD CELL MEASUREMENTS OF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    examined under oil immersion at 800 and 1200 power. Cells were measured at 800 power. Cell classificationCELL TYPES, DIFFERENTIAL CELL COUNTS, AND BLOOD CELL MEASUREMENTS OF A PORTUGUESE SHARK describe the cell types, differential cell counts, and measurements of both the erythrocytes and leukocytes

  1. Microbial Cell Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doktycz, Mitchel John; Sullivan, Claretta; Mortensen, Ninell P; Allison, David P

    2011-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is finding increasing application in a variety of fields including microbiology. Until the emergence of AFM, techniques for ivnestigating processes in single microbes were limited. From a biologist's perspective, the fact that AFM can be used to generate high-resolution images in buffers or media is its most appealing feature as live-cell imaging can be pursued. Imaging living cells by AFM allows dynamic biological events to be studied, at the nanoscale, in real time. Few areas of biological research have as much to gain as microbiology from the application of AFM. Whereas the scale of microbes places them near the limit of resolution for light microscopy. AFM is well suited for the study of structures on the order of a micron or less. Although electron microscopy techniques have been the standard for high-resolution imaging of microbes, AFM is quickly gaining favor for several reasons. First, fixatives that impair biological activity are not required. Second, AFM is capable of detecting forces in the pN range, and precise control of the force applied to the cantilever can be maintained. This combination facilitates the evaluation of physical characteristics of microbes. Third, rather than yielding the composite, statistical average of cell populations, as is the case with many biochemical assays, the behavior of single cells can be monitored. Despite the potential of AFM in microbiology, there are several limitations that must be considered. For example, the time required to record an image allows for the study of gross events such as cell division or membrane degradation from an antibiotic but precludes the evaluation of biological reactions and events that happen in just fractions of a second. Additionally, the AFM is a topographical tool and is restricted to imaging surfaces. Therefore, it cannot be used to look inside cells as with opticla and transmission electron microscopes. other practical considerations are the limitation on the maximum scan size (roughly 100 x 100 {mu}m) and the restricted movement of the cantilever in the Z (or height) direction. In most commercial AFMs, the Z range is restricted to roughly 10 {mu}m such that the height of cells to be imaged must be seriously considered. Nevertheless, AFM can provide structural-functional information at nanometer resolution and do so in physiologically relevant environments. Further, instrumentation for scanning probe microscopy continues to advance. Systems for high-speed imaging are becoming available, and techniques for looking inside the cells are being demonstrated. The ability to combine AFM with other imaging modalities is likely to have an even greater impact on microbiological studies. AFM studies of intact microbial cells started to appear in the literature in the 1990s. For example, AFM studies of Saccharomyces cerevisiae examined buddings cars after cell division and detailed changes related to cell growth processes. Also, the first AFM studies of bacterial biofilms appeared. In the late 1990s, AFM studies of intact fungal spores described clear changes in spore surfaces upon germination, and studies of individual bacterial cells were also described. These early bacterial imaging studies examined changes in bacterial morphology due to antimicrobial peptides exposure and bacterial adhesion properties. The majority of these early studies were carried out on dried samples and took advantage of the resolving power of AFM. The lack of cell mounting procedures presented an impediment for cell imaging studies. Subsequently, several approaches to mounting microbial cells have been developed, and these techniques are described later. Also highlighted are general considerations for microbial imaging and a description of some of the various applications of AFM to microbiology.

  2. Connections for solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Collie, Jeffrey C. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1999-01-01

    A connection for fuel cell assemblies is disclosed. The connection includes compliant members connected to individual fuel cells and a rigid member connected to the compliant members. Adjacent bundles or modules of fuel cells are connected together by mechanically joining their rigid members. The compliant/rigid connection permits construction of generator fuel cell stacks from basic modular groups of cells of any desired size. The connections can be made prior to installation of the fuel cells in a generator, thereby eliminating the need for in-situ completion of the connections. In addition to allowing pre-fabrication, the compliant/rigid connections also simplify removal and replacement of sections of a generator fuel cell stack.

  3. LNG fleet increases in size and capabilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linser, H.J. Jr.; Drudy, M.J.; Endrizzi, F.; Urbanelli, A.A.

    1997-06-02

    The LNG fleet as of early 1997 consisted of 99 vessels with total cargo capacity of 10.7 million cu m, equivalent to approximately 4.5 million tons. One of the newest additions to the fleet, the 137,000-cu m tanker Al Zubarah, is five times the size of the original commercial vessel Methane Princess. Al Zubarah`s first loading of more than 60,000 tons occurred in December 1996 for deliver to Japanese buyers from the newly commissioned Qatargas LNG plant at Ras Laffan. That size cargo contains enough clean-burning energy to heat 60,000 homes in Japan for 1 month. Measuring nearly 1,000 ft long, the tanker is among the largest in the industry fleet and joined 70 other vessels of more than 100,000 cu m. Most LNG tankers built since 1975 have been larger-capacity vessels. The paper discusses LNG shipping requirements, containment systems, vessel design, propulsion, construction, operations and maintenance, and the future for larger vessels.

  4. Right-Sizing Laboratory Equipment Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frenze, David; Greenberg, Steve; Mathew, Paul; Sartor, Dale; Starr, William

    2005-11-29

    Laboratory equipment such as autoclaves, glass washers, refrigerators, and computers account for a significant portion of the energy use in laboratories. However, because of the general lack of measured equipment load data for laboratories, designers often use estimates based on 'nameplate' rated data, or design assumptions from prior projects. Consequently, peak equipment loads are frequently overestimated. This results in oversized HVAC systems, increased initial construction costs, and increased energy use due to inefficiencies at low part-load operation. This best-practice guide first presents the problem of over-sizing in typical practice, and then describes how best-practice strategies obtain better estimates of equipment loads and right-size HVAC systems, saving initial construction costs as well as life-cycle energy costs. This guide is one in a series created by the Laboratories for the 21st Century ('Labs21') program, a joint program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy. Geared towards architects, engineers, and facilities managers, these guides provide information about technologies and practices to use in designing, constructing, and operating safe, sustainable, high-performance laboratories.

  5. Parameterizing Size Distribution in Ice Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeSlover, Daniel; Mitchell, David L.

    2009-09-25

    PARAMETERIZING SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS IN ICE CLOUDS David L. Mitchell and Daniel H. DeSlover ABSTRACT An outstanding problem that contributes considerable uncertainty to Global Climate Model (GCM) predictions of future climate is the characterization of ice particle sizes in cirrus clouds. Recent parameterizations of ice cloud effective diameter differ by a factor of three, which, for overcast conditions, often translate to changes in outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) of 55 W m-2 or more. Much of this uncertainty in cirrus particle sizes is related to the problem of ice particle shattering during in situ sampling of the ice particle size distribution (PSD). Ice particles often shatter into many smaller ice fragments upon collision with the rim of the probe inlet tube. These small ice artifacts are counted as real ice crystals, resulting in anomalously high concentrations of small ice crystals (D < 100 µm) and underestimates of the mean and effective size of the PSD. Half of the cirrus cloud optical depth calculated from these in situ measurements can be due to this shattering phenomenon. Another challenge is the determination of ice and liquid water amounts in mixed phase clouds. Mixed phase clouds in the Arctic contain mostly liquid water, and the presence of ice is important for determining their lifecycle. Colder high clouds between -20 and -36 oC may also be mixed phase but in this case their condensate is mostly ice with low levels of liquid water. Rather than affecting their lifecycle, the presence of liquid dramatically affects the cloud optical properties, which affects cloud-climate feedback processes in GCMs. This project has made advancements in solving both of these problems. Regarding the first problem, PSD in ice clouds are uncertain due to the inability to reliably measure the concentrations of the smallest crystals (D < 100 µm), known as the “small mode”. Rather than using in situ probe measurements aboard aircraft, we employed a treatment of ice cloud optical properties formulated in terms of PSD parameters in combination with remote measurements of thermal radiances to characterize the small mode. This is possible since the absorption efficiency (Qabs) of small mode crystals is larger at 12 µm wavelength relative to 11 µm wavelength due to the process of wave resonance or photon tunneling more active at 12 µm. This makes the 12/11 µm absorption optical depth ratio (or equivalently the 12/11 µm Qabs ratio) a means for detecting the relative concentration of small ice particles in cirrus. Using this principle, this project tested and developed PSD schemes that can help characterize cirrus clouds at each of the three ARM sites: SGP, NSA and TWP. This was the main effort of this project. These PSD schemes and ice sedimentation velocities predicted from them have been used to test the new cirrus microphysics parameterization in the GCM known as the Community Climate Systems Model (CCSM) as part of an ongoing collaboration with NCAR. Regarding the second problem, we developed and did preliminary testing on a passive thermal method for retrieving the total water path (TWP) of Arctic mixed phase clouds where TWPs are often in the range of 20 to 130 g m-2 (difficult for microwave radiometers to accurately measure). We also developed a new radar method for retrieving the cloud ice water content (IWC), which can be vertically integrated to yield the ice water path (IWP). These techniques were combined to determine the IWP and liquid water path (LWP) in Arctic clouds, and hence the fraction of ice and liquid water. We have tested this approach using a case study from the ARM field campaign called M-PACE (Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment). This research led to a new satellite remote sensing method that appears promising for detecting low levels of liquid water in high clouds typically between -20 and -36 oC. We hope to develop this method in future research.

  6. Nanocluster production for solar cell applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al Dosari, Haila M.; Ayesh, Ahmad I.

    2013-08-07

    This research focuses on the fabrication and characterization of silver (Ag) and silicon (Si) nanoclusters that might be used for solar cell applications. Silver and silicon nanoclusters have been synthesized by means of dc magnetron sputtering and inert gas condensation inside an ultra-high vacuum compatible system. We have found that nanocluster size distributions can be tuned by various source parameters, such as the sputtering discharge power, flow rate of argon inert gas, and aggregation length. Quadrupole mass filter and transmission electron microscopy were used to evaluate the size distribution of Ag and Si nanoclusters. Ag nanoclusters with average size in the range of 3.6–8.3 nm were synthesized (herein size refers to the nanocluster diameter), whereas Si nanoclusters' average size was controlled to range between 2.9 and 7.4 nm by controlling the source parameters. This work illustrates the ability of controlling the Si and Ag nanoclusters' sizes by proper optimization of the operation conditions. By controlling nanoclusters' sizes, one can alter their surface properties to suit the need to enhance solar cell efficiency. Herein, Ag nanoclusters were deposited on commercial polycrystalline solar cells. Short circuit current (I{sub SC}), open circuit voltage (V{sub OC}), fill factor, and efficiency (?) were obtained under light source with an intensity of 30 mW/cm{sup 2}. A 22.7% enhancement in solar cell efficiency could be measured after deposition of Ag nanoclusters, which demonstrates that Ag nanoclusters generated in this work are useful to enhance solar cell efficiency.

  7. Measuring compositional and growth properties of single cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delgado, Francisco Feijó

    2013-01-01

    The physical properties of a cell are manifestations of its most basic molecular and metabolic processes. In particular, size has been a sought metric, which can be difficult to ascertain with great resolution or for smaller ...

  8. Source Temperatures and Sizes in Central Collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Schwarz; ALADIN collaboration

    1997-04-03

    For midrapidity fragments from central 50-200 AMeV Au+Au collisions temperatures from double ratios of isotopic yields were compared with temperatures from particle unbound states. Temperatures from particle unbound states with T = 4-5 MeV show with increasing beam energy an increasing difference to temperatures from double ratios of isotopic yields, which increase from T = 5MeV to T = 12MeV. The lower temperatures extracted from particle unstable states can be explained by increasing cooling of the decaying system due to expansion. This expansion is driven by the radial flow, and freeze out of particle unstable states might depend on the dynamics of the expanding system. Source sizes from pp-correlation functions were found to be 9 to 11 fm.

  9. Pore size distribution and accessible pore size distribution in bituminous coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sakurovs, Richard [ORNL; He, Lilin [ORNL; Melnichenko, Yuri B [ORNL; Radlinski, Andrzej Pawell [ORNL; Blach, Tomasz P [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    The porosity and pore size distribution of coals determine many of their properties, from gas release to their behavior on carbonization, and yet most methods of determining pore size distribution can only examine a restricted size range. Even then, only accessible pores can be investigated with these methods. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and ultra small-angle neutron scattering (USANS) are increasingly used to characterize the size distribution of all of the pores non-destructively. Here we have used USANS/SANS to examine 24 well-characterized bituminous and subbituminous coals: three from the eastern US, two from Poland, one from New Zealand and the rest from the Sydney and Bowen Basins in Eastern Australia, and determined the relationships of the scattering intensity corresponding to different pore sizes with other coal properties. The range of pore radii examinable with these techniques is 2.5 nm to 7 {micro}m. We confirm that there is a wide range of pore sizes in coal. The pore size distribution was found to be strongly affected by both rank and type (expressed as either hydrogen or vitrinite content) in the size range 250 nm to 7 {micro}m and 5 to 10 nm, but weakly in intermediate regions. The results suggest that different mechanisms control coal porosity on different scales. Contrast-matching USANS and SANS were also used to determine the size distribution of the fraction of the pores in these coals that are inaccessible to deuterated methane, CD{sub 4}, at ambient temperature. In some coals most of the small ({approx} 10 nm) pores were found to be inaccessible to CD{sub 4} on the time scale of the measurement ({approx} 30 min - 16 h). This inaccessibility suggests that in these coals a considerable fraction of inherent methane may be trapped for extended periods of time, thus reducing the effectiveness of methane release from (or sorption by) these coals. Although the number of small pores was less in higher rank coals, the fraction of total pores that was inaccessible was not rank dependent. In the Australian coals, at the 10 nm to 50 nm size scales the pores in inertinites appeared to be completely accessible to CD{sub 4}, whereas the pores in the vitrinite were about 75% inaccessible. Unlike the results for total porosity that showed no regional effects on relationships between porosity and coal properties, clear regional differences in the relationships between fraction of closed porosity and coal properties were found. The 10 to 50 nm-sized pores of inertinites of the US and Polish coals examined appeared less accessible to methane than those of the inertinites of Australian coals. This difference in pore accessibility in inertinites may explain why empirical relationships between fluidity and coking properties developed using Carboniferous coals do not apply to Australian coals.

  10. Phase Behavior and Domain Size in Sphingomyelin-Containing Lipid Bilayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petruzielo, Robin S [Cornell University; Heberle, Frederick A [ORNL; Drazba, Paul [ORNL; Katsaras, John [ORNL; Feigenson, Gerald [Cornell University

    2013-01-01

    Membrane raft size measurements are crucial to understanding the stability and functionality of rafts in cells. The challenge of accurately measuring raft size is evidenced by the disparate reports of domain sizes, which range from nanometers to microns for the ternary model membrane system sphingomyelin (SM)/1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC)/cholesterol (Chol). Using F rster resonance energy transfer (FRET) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), we established phase diagrams for porcine brain SM (bSM)/dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC)/Chol and bSM/POPC/Chol at 15 and 25 C. By combining two techniqueswith different spatial sensitivities, namely FRET and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS),we have significantly narrowed the uncertainty in domain size estimates for bSM/POPC/Chol mixtures. Compositional trends in FRET data revealed coexisting domains at 15 and 25 C for bothmixtures, while SANS measurements detected no domain formation for bSM/POPC/Chol. Together these results indicate that liquid domains in bSM/POPC/Chol are between 2 and 7 nmin radius at 25 C: that is, domains must be on the order of the 2 6 nmF rster distance of the FRET probes, but smaller than the ~7 nm minimum cluster size detectable with SANS. However, for palmitoyl SM (PSM)/POPC/Chol at a similar composition, SANS detected coexisting liquid domains. This increase in domain size upon replacing the natural SMcomponent (which consists of amixture of chain lengths) with synthetic PSM, suggests a role for SM chain length in modulating raft size in vivo.

  11. Journal of Power Sources 135 (2004) 7987 Predicting water and current distributions in a commercial-size PEMFC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Zee, John W.

    2004-01-01

    in a commercial-size PEMFC S. Shimpaleea, S. Greenwaya, D. Spucklerb, J.W. Van Zeea, a Department of Chemical have experimentally studied small (10­50 cm2), single cell PEMFC systems to understand the behavior and electro- chemistry of PEMFC. Also, three-dimensional electrochemical models have been used to predict

  12. Resurrecting the Size Effect: Firm Size, Profitability Shocks, and Expected Stock Returns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aazhang, Behnaam

    and Mathijs A. van Dijk* September 2008 Abstract Recent studies report that the size effect in U.S. stock of Business, Ohio State University. Mathijs A. van Dijk is at the Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus Dijk (2006) for a survey of the literature to date. 2 Dichev (1998), Chan, Karceski, and Lakonishok

  13. size; island size promoted abundances of some organisms and reduced others (Fig. 1). Second,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Springer, Timothy A.

    - systems. Although a growing number of studies have used the concepts developed in island geographysize; island size promoted abundances of some organisms and reduced others (Fig. 1). Second, our study found diversity, community compo- sition, and ecosystem functioning all responded to island

  14. Continuous-feed electrochemical cell with nonpacking particulate electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA)

    1995-01-01

    An electrochemical cell providing full consumption of electrochemically active particles in a nonpacking, electrolyte-permeable bed has a tapered cell cavity bounded by two nonparallel surfaces separated by a distance that promotes bridging of particles across the cavity. The gap/particle size ratio is maintained as the particles are consumed, decrease in size, and travel from the point of entry to the narrower end of the cell. A cell of this configuration supports a bed of low packing density maintained in a dynamic steady state by alternate formation and collapse of particle bridges across the gap and associated voids over the entire active area of the cell. The cell design can be applied to refuelable zinc/air cells and zinc/ferrocyanide storage batteries.

  15. Continuous-feed electrochemical cell with nonpacking particulate electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, J.F.

    1995-07-18

    An electrochemical cell providing full consumption of electrochemically active particles in a nonpacking, electrolyte-permeable bed has a tapered cell cavity bounded by two nonparallel surfaces separated by a distance that promotes bridging of particles across the cavity. The gap/particle size ratio is maintained as the particles are consumed, decrease in size, and travel from the point of entry to the narrower end of the cell. A cell of this configuration supports a bed of low packing density maintained in a dynamic steady state by alternate formation and collapse of particle bridges across the gap and associated voids over the entire active area of the cell. The cell design can be applied to refuelable zinc/air cells and zinc/ferrocyanide storage batteries. 6 figs.

  16. Cost Sharing for the Economic Lot-Sizing Problem with ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-04-18

    Keywords: game theory; cooperative game; cost sharing; integrality gap; economic lot-sizing ... order to meet demand, the retailer can either place an order for newly ...... Capacitated dynamic lot sizing problems in closed-loop supply chain.

  17. SBA Increases Size Standards for Waste Remediation Services ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    You may also mail comments to Khem R. Sharma, Chief, Office of Size Standards, 409 3rd St., SW, Mail Code 6530, Washington, DC 20416. As part of an ongoing review of all size...

  18. Implications of Modern Semiconductor Technologies on Gate Sizing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, John

    2012-01-01

    set ? g as: the minimum power cell option ? that satisfiesslews. Next, the minimum power cell option that satisfiesgates at the minimum power cell, and p d 10 , is the power

  19. Calibrating page sized Gafchromic EBT3 films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crijns, W.; Maes, F.; Heide, U. A. van der; Van den Heuvel, F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospitals Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Department ESAT/PSI-Medical Image Computing, Medical Imaging Research Center, KU Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospitals Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven (Belgium)

    2013-01-15

    Purpose: The purpose is the development of a novel calibration method for dosimetry with Gafchromic EBT3 films. The method should be applicable for pretreatment verification of volumetric modulated arc, and intensity modulated radiotherapy. Because the exposed area on film can be large for such treatments, lateral scan errors must be taken into account. The correction for the lateral scan effect is obtained from the calibration data itself. Methods: In this work, the film measurements were modeled using their relative scan values (Transmittance, T). Inside the transmittance domain a linear combination and a parabolic lateral scan correction described the observed transmittance values. The linear combination model, combined a monomer transmittance state (T{sub 0}) and a polymer transmittance state (T{sub {infinity}}) of the film. The dose domain was associated with the observed effects in the transmittance domain through a rational calibration function. On the calibration film only simple static fields were applied and page sized films were used for calibration and measurements (treatment verification). Four different calibration setups were considered and compared with respect to dose estimation accuracy. The first (I) used a calibration table from 32 regions of interest (ROIs) spread on 4 calibration films, the second (II) used 16 ROIs spread on 2 calibration films, the third (III), and fourth (IV) used 8 ROIs spread on a single calibration film. The calibration tables of the setups I, II, and IV contained eight dose levels delivered to different positions on the films, while for setup III only four dose levels were applied. Validation was performed by irradiating film strips with known doses at two different time points over the course of a week. Accuracy of the dose response and the lateral effect correction was estimated using the dose difference and the root mean squared error (RMSE), respectively. Results: A calibration based on two films was the optimal balance between cost effectiveness and dosimetric accuracy. The validation resulted in dose errors of 1%-2% for the two different time points, with a maximal absolute dose error around 0.05 Gy. The lateral correction reduced the RMSE values on the sides of the film to the RMSE values at the center of the film. Conclusions: EBT3 Gafchromic films were calibrated for large field dosimetry with a limited number of page sized films and simple static calibration fields. The transmittance was modeled as a linear combination of two transmittance states, and associated with dose using a rational calibration function. Additionally, the lateral scan effect was resolved in the calibration function itself. This allows the use of page sized films. Only two calibration films were required to estimate both the dose and the lateral response. The calibration films were used over the course of a week, with residual dose errors Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 2% or Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 0.05 Gy.

  20. Impact of Secondary Users' Field Size on Spectrum Sharing Opportunities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yanikomeroglu, Halim

    Aramco, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. spatial size of the field of secondary users. In most studies, the spatial

  1. Perceptual Affordances of Wall-Sized Displays for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Isenberg, Petra

    .g., HCI)]: Miscellaneous. Introduction Wall-sized displays (PowerWalls) engulf viewers in very large high

  2. Cogeneration System Size Optimization Constant Capacity and Constant Demand Models 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong-Kcomt, J. B.; Turner, W. C.

    1993-01-01

    is made up by auxiliary boilers. 2. Isolated Operation, Thermal Load Following: the system is sized to match or exceed the maximum thermal load. Any electrical load deficit is made up by auxiliary generator. 3. Electrically Baseloaded, the system... is sized to meet - or slightly exceed the minimum electrical demand. 4. Thermally Baseloaded, the system is sized to meet - or slightly exceed the minimum thermal demand. 5. Maximum Legal System Size, as determined by the Public Utilities...

  3. Sexual size dimorphism and phylogeny in North American minnows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pyron, Mark

    often sexually size dimorphic than birds with nonlekking mating systems (Oakes, 1992). In snakes (ShineSexual size dimorphism and phylogeny in North American minnows MARK PYRON University of Oklahoma 1995 Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is predicted to vary across mating systems. A previous study examined

  4. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Metagenomic analysis of size-fractionated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stewart, Frank

    and metabolism of OMZ microorganisms vary between particle-associated and free-living size fractions. We used.6 lm) and small (0.2­1.6 lm) filter size fractions along a depth gradient in the OMZ off Chile. Despite steep vertical redox gradients, size fraction was a significantly stronger predictor of community

  5. Semi-continuous Sized Types and Termination Andreas Abel?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abel, Andreas

    Semi-continuous Sized Types and Termination Andreas Abel-based approach to termination uses sized types: an ordinal bound for the size of a data structure is stored criterion, * *a calculus for semi-continuous function is developed. 1 Introduction Termination

  6. Semi-continuous Sized Types and Termination Andreas Abel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abel, Andreas

    , and classical applications are total correctness and termination of partial evaluation. In languagesSemi-continuous Sized Types and Termination Andreas Abel Institut für Informatik Ludwig to termination uses sized types: an ordinal bound for the size of a data structure is stored in its type

  7. Concentration of measures via size biased couplings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghosh, Subhankar

    2009-01-01

    Let $Y$ be a nonnegative random variable with mean $\\mu$ and finite positive variance $\\sigma^2$, and let $Y^s$, defined on the same space as $Y$, have the $Y$ size biased distribution, that is, the distribution characterized by E[Yf(Y)]=\\mu E f(Y^s) for all functions $f$ for which these expectations exist. Under a variety of conditions on the coupling of Y and $Y^s$, including combinations of boundedness and monotonicity, concentration of measure inequalities hold. Examples include the number of relatively ordered subsequences of a random permutation, sliding window statistics including the number of m-runs in a sequence of coin tosses, the number of local maximum of a random function on a lattice, the number of urns containing exactly one ball in an urn allocation model, the volume covered by the union of $n$ balls placed uniformly over a volume n subset of d diml Euclidean space, the number of bulbs switched on at the terminal time in the so called lightbulb process, the number of isolated vertices in the ...

  8. Electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, L.I.; Vissers, D.R.; Prakash, J.

    1996-07-16

    An electrochemical cell is described having a bimodal positive electrode, a negative electrode of an alkali metal, and a compatible electrolyte including an alkali metal salt molten at the cell operating temperature. The positive electrode has an electrochemically active layer of at least one transition metal chloride at least partially present as a charging product, and additives of bromide and/or iodide and sulfur in the positive electrode or the electrolyte. Electrode volumetric capacity is in excess of 400 Ah/cm{sup 3}; the cell can be 90% recharged in three hours and can operate at temperatures below 160 C. There is also disclosed a method of reducing the operating temperature and improving the overall volumetric capacity of an electrochemical cell and for producing a positive electrode having a BET area greater than 6{times}10{sup 4}cm{sup 2}/g of Ni. 6 figs.

  9. Electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, L.I.; Vissers, D.R.; Prakash, J.

    1994-02-01

    An electrochemical cell is described having a bimodal positive electrode, a negative electrode of an alkali metal, and a compatible electrolyte including an alkali metal salt molten at the cell operating temperature. The positive electrode has an electrochemically active layer of at least one transition metal chloride at least partially present as a charging product, and additives of bromide and/or iodide and sulfur in the positive electrode or the electrolyte. Electrode volumetric capacity is in excess of 400 Ah/cm[sup 3]; the cell can be 90% recharged in three hours and can operate at temperatures below 160 C. There is also disclosed a method of reducing the operating temperature and improving the overall volumetric capacity of an electrochemical cell and for producing a positive electrode having a BET area greater than 6[times]10[sup 4] cm[sup 2]/g of Ni. 8 figures.

  10. Electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, Laszlo I. (Downers Grove, IL); Vissers, Donald R. (Naperville, IL); Prakash, Jai (Downers Grove, IL)

    1994-01-01

    An electrochemical cell having a bimodal positive electrode, a negative electrode of an alkali metal, and a compatible electrolyte including an alkali metal salt molten at the cell operating temperature. The positive electrode has an electrochemically active layer of at least one transition metal chloride at least partially present as a charging product, and additives of bromide and/or iodide and sulfur in the positive electrode or the electrolyte. Electrode volumetric capacity is in excess of 400 Ah/cm.sup.3 ; the cell can be 90% recharged in three hours and can operate at temperatures below 160.degree. C. There is also disclosed a method of reducing the operating temperature and improving the overall volumetric capacity of an electrochemical cell and for producing a positive electrode having a BET area greater than 6.times.10.sup.4 cm.sup.2 /g of Ni.

  11. Electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, Laszlo I. (6851 Carpenter St., Downers Grove, IL 60516); Vissers, Donald R. (611 Clover Ct., Naperville, IL 60540); Prakash, Jai (2205 Arbor Cir. 8, Downers Grove, IL 60515)

    1996-01-01

    An electrochemical cell having a bimodal positive electrode, a negative electrode of an alkali metal, and a compatible electrolyte including an alkali metal salt molten at the cell operating temperature. The positive electrode has an electrochemically active layer of at least one transition metal chloride at least partially present as a charging product, and additives of bromide and/or iodide and sulfur in the positive electrode or the electrolyte. Electrode volumetric capacity is in excess of 400 Ah/cm.sup.3 ; the cell can be 90% recharged in three hours and can operate at temperatures below 160.degree. C. There is also disclosed a method of reducing the operating temperature and improving the overall volumetric capacity of an electrochemical cell and for producing a positive electrode having a BET area greater than 6.times.10.sup.4 cm.sup.2 /g of Ni.

  12. Load cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spletzer, B.L.

    1998-12-15

    A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs, each directly proportional to one of the six general load components. 16 figs.

  13. Micro Fuel Cells Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Micro Fuel Cells TM Direct Methanol Fuel Cells for Portable Power A Fuel Cell System Developer-17, 2002 Phoenix, Arizona #12;Micro Fuel Cells Direct Methanol Fuel Cells for Portable Power Outline (1 Energy Content (Wh) Volume(cm^3) Li-Ion Battery DMFC #12;Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Technology

  14. Cell Stem Cell The Systematic Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zandstra, Peter W.

    Cell Stem Cell Review The Systematic Production of Cells for Cell Therapies Daniel C. Kirouac1 to guide the development of next-generation technologies capable of producing cell-based products in a safe will enhance cell therapy product quality and safety, expediting clinical development. Breakthroughs

  15. Electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nagy, Z.; Yonco, R.M.; You, H.; Melendres, C.A.

    1992-08-25

    An electrochemical cell has a layer-type or sandwich configuration with a Teflon center section that houses working, reference and counter electrodes and defines a relatively narrow electrolyte cavity. The center section is surrounded on both sides with thin Teflon membranes. The membranes are pressed in place by a pair of Teflon inner frames which are in turn supported by a pair of outer metal frames. The pair of inner and outer frames are provided with corresponding, appropriately shaped slits that are in plane generally transverse to the plane of the working electrode and permit X-ray beams to enter and exit the cell through the Teflon membranes that cover the slits so that the interface between the working electrode and the electrolyte within the cell may be analyzed by transmission geometry. In one embodiment, the center section consists of two parts, one on top of the other. Alternatively, the center section of the electrochemical cell may consist of two intersliding pieces or may be made of a single piece of Teflon sheet material. The electrolyte cavity is shaped so that the electrochemical cell can be rotated 90[degree] in either direction while maintaining the working and counter electrodes submerged in the electrolyte. 5 figs.

  16. Fuel Cells as an Emerging Technology 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jewell, D. M.

    1986-01-01

    electrodes. SOFC Status Very high temperature (l,OOOOC) solid oxide fuel cells might offer greater sulfur tolerance, more systems design options, and cost advantages by not requiring expensive noble metal catalysts. The solid oxide cell offers... stream_source_info ESL-IE-86-06-100.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 21359 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name ESL-IE-86-06-100.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 FUEL CELLS...

  17. A mechanistic first--passage time framework for bacterial cell-division timing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khem Raj Ghusinga; Cesar A. Vargas-Garcia; Abhyudai Singh

    2015-12-24

    How exponentially growing cells maintain size homeostasis is an important fundamental problem. Recent single-cell studies in prokaryotes have uncovered the adder principle, where cells on average, add a fixed size (volume) from birth to division. Interestingly, this added volume differs considerably among genetically-identical newborn cells with similar sizes suggesting a stochastic component in the timing of cell-division. To mechanistically explain the adder principle, we consider a time-keeper protein that begins to get stochastically expressed after cell birth at a rate proportional to the volume. Cell-division time is formulated as the first-passage time for protein copy numbers to hit a fixed threshold. Consistent with data, the model predicts that while the mean cell-division time decreases with increasing size of newborns, the noise in timing increases with size at birth. Intriguingly, our results show that the distribution of the volume added between successive cell-division events is independent of the newborn cell size. This was dramatically seen in experimental studies, where histograms of the added volume corresponding to different newborn sizes collapsed on top of each other. The model provides further insights consistent with experimental observations: the distributions of the added volume and the cell-division time when scaled by their respective means become invariant of the growth rate. Finally, we discuss various modifications to the proposed model that lead to deviations from the adder principle. In summary, our simple yet elegant model explains key experimental findings and suggests a mechanism for regulating both the mean and fluctuations in cell-division timing for size control.

  18. Electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, L.I.; Vissers, D.R.; Prakash, J.

    1994-08-23

    An electrochemical cell is described having an alkali metal negative electrode such as sodium and a positive electrode including Ni or transition metals, separated by a [beta] alumina electrolyte and NaAlCl[sub 4] or other compatible material. Various concentrations of a bromine, iodine and/or sulfur containing additive and pore formers are disclosed, which enhance cell capacity and power. The pore formers may be the ammonium salts of carbonic acid or a weak organic acid or oxamide or methylcellulose. 6 figs.

  19. Constructal flow structure for a PEM fuel cell J.V.C. Vargas a,*, J.C. Ordonez b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ordonez, Juan C.

    Constructal flow structure for a PEM fuel cell J.V.C. Vargas a,*, J.C. Ordonez b , A. Bejan c the internal structure (relative sizes, spacings) and external shape (aspect ratios) of a unit PEM fuel cell so) level of a fuel cell stack, i.e., the unit PEM fuel cell, which is modeled as a unidirectional flow

  20. FUEL CELL/MICRO-TURBINE COMBINED CYCLE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larry J. Chaney; Mike R. Tharp; Tom W. Wolf; Tim A. Fuller; Joe J. Hartvigson

    1999-12-01

    A wide variety of conceptual design studies have been conducted that describe ultra-high efficiency fossil power plant cycles. The most promising of these ultra-high efficiency cycles incorporate high temperature fuel cells with a gas turbine. Combining fuel cells with a gas turbine increases overall cycle efficiency while reducing per kilowatt emissions. This study has demonstrated that the unique approach taken to combining a fuel cell and gas turbine has both technical and economic merit. The approach used in this study eliminates most of the gas turbine integration problems associated with hybrid fuel cell turbine systems. By using a micro-turbine, and a non-pressurized fuel cell the total system size (kW) and complexity has been reduced substantially from those presented in other studies, while maintaining over 70% efficiency. The reduced system size can be particularly attractive in the deregulated electrical generation/distribution environment where the market may not demand multi-megawatt central stations systems. The small size also opens up the niche markets to this high efficiency, low emission electrical generation option.

  1. On the size-Ramsey number of hypergraphs Andrzej Dudek

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mubayi, Dhruv

    On the size-Ramsey number of hypergraphs Andrzej Dudek Steven La Fleur Dhruv Mubayi Vojtech R¨odl§ March 20, 2015 Abstract The size-Ramsey number of a graph G is the minimum number of edges in a graph H such that every 2-edge-coloring of H yields a monochromatic copy of G. Size-Ramsey numbers of graphs have been

  2. A Note on Ramsey Size-Linear Graphs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simonovits, Miklós

    A Note on Ramsey Size-Linear Graphs P.N. Balister,1 R.H. Schelp,1 and M. Simonovits1,2 1 DEPARTMENT is a Ramsey size-linear graph and x,y 2 V(G ) then if we add a sufficiently long path between x and y we obtain a new Ramsey size-linear graph. As a consequence we show that if G is any graph such that every

  3. Photoelectrodialytic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murphy, George W. (2328 Ashwood, Norman, OK 73069)

    1983-01-01

    A multicompartment photoelectrodialytic demineralization cell is provided with a buffer compartment interposed between the product compartment and a compartment containing an electrolyte solution. Semipermeable membranes separate the buffer compartment from the product and electrolyte compartments. The buffer compartment is flushed to prevent leakage of the electrolyte compartment from entering the product compartment.

  4. Photoelectrodialytic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murphy, G.W.

    1983-09-13

    A multicompartment photoelectrodialytic demineralization cell is provided with a buffer compartment interposed between the product compartment and a compartment containing an electrolyte solution. Semipermeable membranes separate the buffer compartment from the product and electrolyte compartments. The buffer compartment is flushed to prevent leakage of the electrolyte compartment from entering the product compartment. 3 figs.

  5. THE SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF THE NEPTUNE TROJANS AND THE MISSING INTERMEDIATE-SIZED PLANETESIMALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheppard, Scott S.; Trujillo, Chadwick A.

    2010-11-10

    We present an ultra-deep survey for Neptune Trojans using the Subaru 8.2 m and Magellan 6.5 m telescopes. The survey reached a 50% detection efficiency in the R band at m{sub R} = 25.7 mag and covered 49 deg{sup 2} of sky. m{sub R} = 25.7 mag corresponds to Neptune Trojans that are about 16 km in radius (assuming an albedo of 0.05). A paucity of smaller Neptune Trojans (radii < 45 km) compared with larger ones was found. The brightest Neptune Trojans appear to follow a steep power-law slope (q = 5 {+-} 1) similar to the brightest objects in the other known stable reservoirs such as the Kuiper Belt, Jupiter Trojans, and main belt asteroids. We find a roll-over for the Neptune Trojans that occurs around a radius of r = 45 {+-} 10 km (m{sub R} = 23.5 {+-} 0.3), which is also very similar to the other stable reservoirs. All the observed stable regions in the solar system show evidence for Missing Intermediate-Sized Planetesimals (MISPs). This indicates a primordial and not collisional origin, which suggests that planetesimal formation proceeded directly from small to large objects. The scarcity of intermediate- and smaller-sized Neptune Trojans may limit them as being a strong source for the short period comets.

  6. Solar Trackers Market - Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Trackers Market - Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends and Forecast, 2010 - 2020 Home > Groups > Increase Natural Gas Energy Efficiency John55364's picture...

  7. Efficient Algorithm for Locating and Sizing Series Compensation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Compensation Devices in Large Transmission Grids: Model Implementation We explore optimization methods for planning the placement, sizing and operations of Flexible Alternating...

  8. Sizing a New Water Heater | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    systems: Tankless or demand-type water heaters Solar water heating system Storage and heat pump (with tank) water heaters. For sizing combination water and space heating systems --...

  9. A note on string size evolution in phantom cosmology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soon-Tae Hong

    2015-04-05

    We analyze evolution of string size in higher-dimensional cosmology with phantom field. Assuming that the Universe possesses the phantom field defined in a ten-dimensional spacetime, we predict string size which is claimed to be that of photon in nature at present. The Universe size increases as in the standard inflationary Universe model while the photon size decreases drastically at the early stage of the string evolution after the Big Bang. Moreover, the photon spin in the phantom Universe is analyzed in the framework of the stringy cosmology.

  10. Development of Model Filtration Media for Investigating Size...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficiency A novel method for fabricating custom porous filtration media for emission control has been developed. Controlled pore sizes could be used to optimize...

  11. Algorithm for Lot Sizing with Inventory Bounds and Fixed Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alper Atamturk

    2007-06-26

    Jun 26, 2007 ... An O(n^2) Algorithm for Lot Sizing with Inventory Bounds and Fixed Costs. Alper Atamturk (atamturk ***at*** berkeley.edu) Simge Kucukyavuz ...

  12. Simulations of Sizing and Comfort Improvements for Residential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL 47309 1 Simulations of Sizing and Comfort Improvements for Residential Forced-Air Heating...................................................................................... 18 PEAK DEMAND AND POWER CONSUMPTION

  13. Scalable Heuristics for Planning, Placement and Sizing of Flexible...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and Sizing of Flexible AC Transmission System Devices Aiming to relieve transmission grid congestion and improve or extend feasibility domain of the operations, we build...

  14. Energy Efficiency Services Sector: Workforce Size and Expectations for Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldman, Charles

    2010-01-01

    for nuclear energy (Prelaw 2008). Energy Efficiency ServicesEnergy Efficiency Services Sector: Workforce Size Two implementation contractor respondents mentioned defense, semiconductor, nuclear, and

  15. Optimization Online - Optimal management and sizing of energy ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pavithra Harsha

    2012-07-30

    Jul 30, 2012 ... Optimal management and sizing of energy storage under dynamic pricing for the efficient integration of renewable energy. Pavithra Harsha ...

  16. SELF-CONSISTENT SIZE AND VELOCITY DISTRIBUTIONS OF COLLISIONAL CASCADES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Margaret [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Schlichting, Hilke E., E-mail: mpan@astro.berkeley.edu, E-mail: hilke@ucla.edu [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2012-03-10

    The standard theoretical treatment of collisional cascades derives a steady-state size distribution assuming a single constant velocity dispersion for all bodies regardless of size. Here we relax this assumption and solve self-consistently for the bodies' steady-state size and size-dependent velocity distributions. Specifically, we account for viscous stirring, dynamical friction, and collisional damping of the bodies' random velocities in addition to the mass conservation requirement typically applied to find the size distribution in a steady-state cascade. The resulting size distributions are significantly steeper than those derived without velocity evolution. For example, accounting self-consistently for the velocities can change the standard q = 3.5 power-law index of the Dohnanyi differential size spectrum to an index as large as q = 4. Similarly, for bodies held together by their own gravity, the corresponding power-law index range 2.88 < q < 3.14 of Pan and Sari can steepen to values as large as q = 3.26. Our velocity results allow quantitative predictions of the bodies' scale heights as a function of size. Together with our predictions, observations of the scale heights for different-sized bodies for the Kuiper belt, the asteroid belt, and extrasolar debris disks may constrain the mass and number of large bodies stirring the cascade as well as the colliding bodies' internal strengths.

  17. Estimating polyploidy levels in fossil Salix: A critical review of cell size proxy methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buechler, Walter K.

    2010-01-01

    L. T Wetzikon, Switzerland, 550 m /Nepal-Himalaya, 3450 mS. fragilis L. S. fragilis L. N Moenchaltorf, Switzerland NNiederuster, Switzerland C Schwerzenbach, Switzerland,

  18. Using cathode spacers to minimize reactor size in air cathode microbial fuel cells Qiao Yang a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    power. One of the primary applications of MFCs will likely be wastewater treatment, as a single process can be used to simultaneously accomplish both wastewater treatment and power generation (Feng et al

  19. Estimating polyploidy levels in fossil Salix: A critical review of cell size proxy methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buechler, Walter K.

    2010-01-01

    F F F F F F F F F F F F F Salix / Subalbae S. babylonica L.550 m /Nepal-Himalaya, 3450 m 4 (Bue) 289 Salix /Salix S. alba L. S. fragilis L. S. fragilis L. N

  20. Estimating polyploidy levels in fossil Salix: A critical review of cell size proxy methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buechler, Walter K.

    2010-01-01

    Salix germplasm resource reveals new insights into relationships among subgenera, sections and species. Bio Energy

  1. PRIMARY RESEARCH PAPER Differential cell size structure of desmids and diatoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of microalgae vary in relation to the abiotic factors, such as nutrients, temperature, or water transparency DOI 10.1007/s10750-013-1446-4 #12;transparency (Finkel et al., 2009). Small algae typi- cally over smaller centric diatoms in the phytoplankton has many times been documented (Round et al., 1990

  2. Sandia Energy - Glitter-Sized Photovoltaic Cells in Utility-Scale Solar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust, High-Throughput Analysis ofSample SULIColinEnergy PolicyLeaks in

  3. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gur, Ilan

    2006-01-01

    research on organic photovoltaic cells since small molecule10 years prior (4). Photovoltaic cells with an active layerof the associated photovoltaic cells. 2.4 Charge transport

  4. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark

    1992-01-01

    Reforming for Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells," Berichte derVan Dijkum, "The Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Programme in thealkaline, molten carbonate, and solid oxide. (Fuel cells

  5. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gur, Ilan

    2006-01-01

    Nov, 2005). Chapter 4 Hybrid solar cells with 3-dimensionalinorganic nanocrystal solar cells 5.1 Introduction In recentoperation of organic based solar cells and distinguish them

  6. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gur, Ilan

    2006-01-01

    nanocrystal-polymer solar cells The full potential of hybridto reach the full potential of polymer blend solar cells.solar cells described here offer several potential

  7. Abstract--The growing popularity and success of fuel cells in aerospace, stationary power, and transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rincon-Mora, Gabriel A.

    1 Abstract-- The growing popularity and success of fuel cells in aerospace, stationary power runtime, and decreasing size. Di- rect-methanol fuel cell batteries have now been built and conformed to low cost technologies and chip-scale dimen- sions. Conventional fuel cell models, however, fail

  8. Simulation of Large-Area Silicon Solar Cells1 Gernot Heiser2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New South Wales, University of

    Simulation of Large-Area Silicon Solar Cells1 Gernot Heiser2 Pietro P. Altermatt3 The University of high-efficiency silicon solar cells. In the past, however, such modelling could only be applied to produce an accurate model of a full-sized high-efficiency solar cell. We demon- strate the power

  9. Diagnostic Studies on Lithium Battery Cells and Cell Components...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Studies on Lithium Battery Cells and Cell Components Diagnostic Studies on Lithium Battery Cells and Cell Components 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle...

  10. Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Program: Fuel Cells Fact...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Program: Fuel Cells Fact Sheet Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Program: Fuel Cells Fact Sheet Fact sheet produced by the Fuel Cell...

  11. Journal of Power Sources, Vol.165, issue 2, March 2007, pp.819-832. Abstract--Power management strategy is as significant as component sizing in achieving optimal fuel economy of a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peng, Huei

    strategy is as significant as component sizing in achieving optimal fuel economy of a fuel cell hybrid demonstrate that combined optimization can efficiently provide excellent fuel economy. 1. Introduction Power management strategy and component sizing affect vehicle performance and fuel economy considerably in hybrid

  12. Blue Crab, Callinectes sapidus, Trap Selectivity Studies: Mesh Size

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blue Crab, Callinectes sapidus, Trap Selectivity Studies: Mesh Size VINCENT GUILLORY and PAUL had replaced drop nets and trot lines as the dominant gear in the commercial blue crab, Callinectes, LA 70343. ABSTRACT-Catch rates and sizes of blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus, were com pared in traps

  13. Energy Storage System Sizing for Smoothing Power Generation , P. Bydlowski

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Energy Storage System Sizing for Smoothing Power Generation of Direct J. Aubry1 , P. Bydlowski 1 E-mail: judicael.aubry Abstract This paper examines the sizing energy storage system (ESS) for energy converter. Keywords: Energy Storage System (ESS), power smoothing, Direct Wave Energy Converter, Supercapacitor, Power

  14. The Hydrogen Atom with a Finite Sized Nucleus Frank Rioux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rioux, Frank

    The Hydrogen Atom with a Finite Sized Nucleus Frank Rioux This exercise explores the impact of nuclear size on the ground state energy of the hydrogen atom's electron. The traditional approach assumes that the proton is a dimensionless point charge, which is a very good approximation for the hydrogen atom. However

  15. Enhancing cancer therapeutics using size-optimized magnetic fluid hyperthermia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krishnan, Kannan M.

    Enhancing cancer therapeutics using size-optimized magnetic fluid hyperthermia Amit P. Khandhar, R cancer therapeutics using size-optimized magnetic fluid hyperthermia Amit P. Khandhar,1 R. Matthew & Engineering, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA 2 Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Division of Clinical

  16. Network Dynamics of City Sizes, Trade Networks, and Conflict

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Douglas R.

    Network Dynamics of City Sizes, Trade Networks, and Conflict Doug White In collaboration world, scale-free ­ but they are not going to get us where we need to go What are the possibilites: city size hierarchies and how they are likely to be driven by trade networks Network realism

  17. Biodistribution Particle Size, Surface Coating, and PEGylation Influence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rao, Jianghong

    Biodistribution Particle Size, Surface Coating, and PEGylation Influence the Biodistribution of particle size, PEGylation, and surface coating on the quantitative biodistribution of near-infrared-emitting quantum dots (QDs) in mice. Polymer- or peptide-coated 64 Cu-labeled QDs 2 or 12 nm in diameter

  18. Method of producing submicron size particles and product produced thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourne, R.S.; Eichman, C.C.; Welbon, W.W.

    1988-05-11

    Submicron size particles are produced by using a sputtering process to deposit particles into a liquid. The liquid is processed to recover the particles therefrom, and the particles have sizes in the range of twenty to two hundred Angstroms. Either metallic or non-metallic particles can be produced, and the metallic particles can be used in ''metallic inks.'' 4 figs.

  19. D-D Nuclear Fusion Using Different Size Pyroelectric Crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Danon, Yaron

    D-D Nuclear Fusion Using Different Size Pyroelectric Crystals A. M. Kovanen, D. J. Gillich, T. Z the conditions for D-D fusion in pyroelectric crystal accelerators. Three different pyroelectric crystal sizes are with the Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY. A. M

  20. Electrochemical cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walsh, F.M.

    1986-12-23

    This patent describes an electrochemical cell having a metal anode wherein the metal is selected from zinc and cadmium; a bromine cathode; and an aqueous electrolyte containing a metal bromide, the metal bromide having the same metal as the metal of the anode. The improvement described here comprises: a bromine complexing agent in the aqueous metal bromide electrolyte, the complexing agent consisting solely of a quaternary ammonium salt of an N-organo substituted alpha amino acid, ester, or betaine.

  1. THE COLLISIONAL DIVOT IN THE KUIPER BELT SIZE DISTRIBUTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fraser, Wesley C. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, MC 150-21, 1200 E. California Blvd. Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2009-11-20

    This paper presents the results of collisional evolution calculations for the Kuiper Belt starting from an initial size distribution similar to that produced by accretion simulations of that region-a steep power-law large object size distribution that breaks to a shallower slope at r approx 1-2 km, with collisional equilibrium achieved for objects r approx< 0.5 km. We find that the break from the steep large object power law causes a divot, or depletion of objects at r approx 10-20 km, which, in turn, greatly reduces the disruption rate of objects with r approx> 25-50 km, preserving the steep power-law behavior for objects at this size. Our calculations demonstrate that the roll-over observed in the Kuiper Belt size distribution is naturally explained as an edge of a divot in the size distribution; the radius at which the size distribution transitions away from the power law, and the shape of the divot from our simulations are consistent with the size of the observed roll-over, and size distribution for smaller bodies. Both the kink radius and the radius of the divot center depend on the strength scaling law in the gravity regime for Kuiper Belt objects. These simulations suggest that the sky density of r approx 1 km objects is approx10{sup 6}-10{sup 7} objects per square degree. A detection of the divot in the size distribution would provide a measure of the strength of large Kuiper Belt objects, and constrain the shape of the size distribution at the end of accretion in the Kuiper Belt.

  2. Effect of Particle Size and Operating Conditions on Pt3Co PEMFC Cathode Catalyst Durability

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gummalla, Mallika; Ball, Sarah; Condit, David; Rasouli, Somaye; Yu, Kang; Ferreira, Paulo; Myers, Deborah; Yang, Zhiwei

    2015-05-29

    The initial performance and decay trends of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) cathodes with Pt3Co catalysts of three mean particle sizes (4.9 nm, 8.1 nm, and 14.8 nm) with identical Pt loadings are compared. Even though the cathode based on 4.9 nm catalyst exhibited the highest initial electrochemical surface area (ECA) and mass activity, the cathode based on 8.1 nm catalyst showed better initial performance at high currents. Owing to the low mass activity of the large particles, the initial performance of the 14.8 nm Pt3Co-based electrode was the lowest. The performance decay rate of the electrodes with themore »smallest Pt3Co particle size was the highest and that of the largest Pt3Co particle size was lowest. Interestingly, with increasing number of decay cycles (0.6 to 1.0 V, 50 mV/s), the relative improvement in performance of the cathode based on 8.1 nm Pt3Co over the 4.9 nm Pt3Co increased, owing to better stability of the 8.1 nm catalyst. The electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) of the decayed membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) showed that the amount of Co in the membrane was lower for the larger particles, and the platinum loss into the membrane also decreased with increasing particle size. This suggests that the higher initial performance at high currents with 8.1 nm Pt3Co could be due to lower contamination of the ionomer in the electrode. Furthermore, lower loss of Co from the catalyst with increased particle size could be one of the factors contributing to the stability of ECA and mass activity of electrodes with larger cathode catalyst particles. To delineate the impact of particle size and alloy effects, these results are compared with prior work from our research group on size effects of pure platinum catalysts. The impact of PEMFC operating conditions, including upper potential, relative humidity, and temperature on the alloy catalyst decay trends, along with the EMPA analysis of the decayed MEAs, are reported.« less

  3. The Effect of PV Array Size and Battery Size on the Economics of PV/Diesel/Battery Hybrid RAPS Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Effect of PV Array Size and Battery Size on the Economics of PV/Diesel/Battery Hybrid RAPS WA 6150 Abstract This paper focuses on pv/diesel/battery hybrid RAPS systems meeting loads above 50 kWh. INTRODUCTION A diesel hybrid system, incorporating a battery and inverter, can often provide power at a lower

  4. Cell Stem Cell Sic Transit Gloria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simons, Ben

    Cell Stem Cell Review Sic Transit Gloria: Farewell to the Epidermal Transit Amplifying Cell? Philip H. Jones,1,* Benjamin D. Simons,2 and Fiona M. Watt3,4 1MRC Cancer Cell Unit, Hutchison-MRC Research basement membrane (Figures 1D and 1F). On commitment to terminal differen- tiation, basal keratinocytes

  5. Pore-size-distribution of cationic polyacrylamide hydrogels. Progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kremer, M.; Prausnitz, J.M.

    1992-06-01

    The pore size distribution of a AAm/MAPTAC (acrylamide copolymerized with (3-methacrylamidopropyl)trimethylammonium chloride) hydrogel was investigated using Kuga`s mixed-solute-exclusion method, taking into account the wall effect. A Brownian-motion model is also used. Results show the feasibility of determining pore-size distribution of porous materials using the mixed-solute-exclusion method in conjunction with solution of the Fredholm equation; good agreement was obtained with experiment, even for bimodal pore structures. However, different pore size distributions were calculated for the two different probe-solutes (Dextran and poly(ethylene glycol/oxide)). Future work is outlined. 32 figs, 25 refs.

  6. Pore-size-distribution of cationic polyacrylamide hydrogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kremer, M.; Prausnitz, J.M.

    1992-06-01

    The pore size distribution of a AAm/MAPTAC (acrylamide copolymerized with (3-methacrylamidopropyl)trimethylammonium chloride) hydrogel was investigated using Kuga's mixed-solute-exclusion method, taking into account the wall effect. A Brownian-motion model is also used. Results show the feasibility of determining pore-size distribution of porous materials using the mixed-solute-exclusion method in conjunction with solution of the Fredholm equation; good agreement was obtained with experiment, even for bimodal pore structures. However, different pore size distributions were calculated for the two different probe-solutes (Dextran and poly(ethylene glycol/oxide)). Future work is outlined. 32 figs, 25 refs.

  7. Size scaling of self gravitating polymers and strings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shoichi Kawamoto; Toshihiro Matsuo

    2015-06-03

    We study a statistical ensemble of a single polymer with self gravitational interaction. This is a model of a gravitating string --- the precursor of a black hole. We analyze averaged sizes by mean field approximations with an effective Hamiltonian a la Edwards with Newtonian potential as well as a contact repulsive interaction. We find that there exists a certain scaling region where the attractive and the repulsive forces balance out. The repulsive interaction pushes the critical gravitational coupling to a larger value, at which the size of a polymer becomes comparable to its Schwarzschild radius, and as a result the size of the corresponding black hole increases considerably.

  8. Size scaling of self gravitating polymers and strings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kawamoto, Shoichi

    2015-01-01

    We study a statistical ensemble of a single polymer with self gravitational interaction. This is a model of a gravitating string --- the precursor of a black hole. We analyze averaged sizes by mean field approximations with an effective Hamiltonian a la Edwards with Newtonian potential as well as a contact repulsive interaction. We find that there exists a certain scaling region where the attractive and the repulsive forces balance out. The repulsive interaction pushes the critical gravitational coupling to a larger value, at which the size of a polymer becomes comparable to its Schwarzschild radius, and as a result the size of the corresponding black hole increases considerably.

  9. (Fuel Cells)(Fuel Cells) William Grove

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yang-Yuan

    Fuel Cell #12; H2 O2 Power CH4 H2 Toyota H2 H2 #12; H2 ~253 #12; 2. 3. : 1. #12; #12;Fuel Cell #12; (Fuel Cells)(Fuel Cells) 1839 William Grove A H2O2 H2O2 2H; Fuel Cell #12;!! PEMFC DMFC SOFC (60~200) (60~100) (600~1000) #12; Proton

  10. Optimal Urban Population Size: National vs Local Economic Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nam, Kyung-min

    This paper explores whether the population size of the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA) in Korea is efficient in terms of the national economy. To undertake this analysis, a recursively dynamic interregional computable general ...

  11. Characterization of Nanocrystalline CdSe by Size Exclusion Chromatography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Natelson, Douglas

    that recycling size exclusion chromatogra- phy can be applied to assess the fine details of a sample such as polymers and proteins.8-14 Fischer et al. first evaluated chromatography for separating aqueous colloidal

  12. Fiber Sizing Sensor and Controller | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    sample size is large and usually consists of hundreds of fibers. FibrSizr consists of a laser instrument developed for the accurate real-time and in-situ determination of fiber...

  13. Energy Efficiency Programs for Small and Medium Sized Industry 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shipley, A. M.; Elliott, R. N.

    2001-01-01

    Abundant, low-cost energy efficiency opportunities exist in industries with a high representation of small and medium-sized manufacturers. Small industrial facilities with fewer than 250 employees consume 25% of all industrial energy. Designing...

  14. Size-Dependent Filtration of Non-Loaded Particulate Traps 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Jessica

    2014-12-12

    This work investigates the filtration efficiency of uncoated, commercial Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) substrates of three porosities (55.8%, 61.1%, 65.0%) for particulate sizes representative of Gasoline Direct Injection ...

  15. 1999 Commercial Building Characteristics--Detailed Tables--Size...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Complete Set of 1999 CBECS Detailed Tables Detailed Tables- of Buildings Table B6. Building Size, Number of Buildings b6.pdf (PDF file), b6.xls (Excel spreadsheet file), b6.txt...

  16. Size Effect of Ruthenium Nanoparticles in Catalytic Carbon Monoxide Oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joo, Sang Hoon; Park, Jeong Y.; Renzas, J. Russell; Butcher, Derek R.; Huang, Wenyu; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2010-04-04

    Carbon monoxide oxidation over ruthenium catalysts has shown an unusual catalytic behavior. Here we report a particle size effect on CO oxidation over Ru nanoparticle (NP) catalysts. Uniform Ru NPs with a tunable particle size from 2 to 6 nm were synthesized by a polyol reduction of Ru(acac){sub 3} precursor in the presence of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) stabilizer. The measurement of catalytic activity of CO oxidation over two-dimensional Ru NPs arrays under oxidizing reaction conditions (40 Torr CO and 100 Torr O{sub 2}) showed an activity dependence on the Ru NP size. The CO oxidation activity increases with NP size, and the 6 nm Ru NP catalyst shows 8-fold higher activity than the 2 nm catalysts. The results gained from this study will provide the scientific basis for future design of Ru-based oxidation catalysts.

  17. Knowledge-based sizing of cogeneration plant in buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, J.M.; Griffiths, A.J.; Knight, I.P.

    1998-10-01

    Cogeneration is now accepted as a cost-effective and environmentally friendly means of meeting some of a building`s heating and power needs. Cogeneration plants have been installed in many buildings throughout the United Kingdom. Because of commercial pressures, building owners and cogeneration companies are keen to reduce the time and money involved in sizing units, and a decision support tool has been developed to aid the engineer in selecting the unit size. An initial assessment of the sizing can be made with only knowledge of the building`s type, size, and location, which enables the model to be used in new build situations. For an existing building, the accuracy of the predictions can then be progressively improved by providing more information about the building`s energy use, enabling the optimum unit to be identified. This paper briefly describes the model and demonstrates its use through an example feasibility study.

  18. Effective Size and Zeta Potential of Nanorods by Ferguson Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Sunho

    The effective hydrodynamic size and free mobility of particles of varying aspect ratio were evaluated by Ferguson analysis of gel electrophoresis. The ligand layer thickness was estimated from the difference between the ...

  19. Reduce Pumping Costs through Optimum Pipe Sizing: Industrial...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    9 * October 2005 Reduce Pumping Costs through Optimum Pipe Sizing Every industrial facility has a piping network that carries water or other fluids. According to the U.S....

  20. Particle Size Classification of Glass Particles Using Aerodynamic Jet Vectoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Barton L.

    Particle Size Classification of Glass Particles Using Aerodynamic Jet Vectoring Zachary E. Humes blowing and suction control flows­flows that are a fraction of the jet flow rate­to sharply change

  1. Grain size effects on the fatigue response of nanocrystalline materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hanlon, Timothy, 1977-

    2004-01-01

    The resistance of metals and alloys to fatigue crack initiation and propagation is known to be influenced significantly by grain size. Based on a wealth of experimental results obtained from microcrystalline metals, where ...

  2. Measuring Cepheid Angular Sizes Directly using the Palomar Testbed Interferometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Measuring Cepheid Angular Sizes Directly using the Palomar Testbed Interferometer M. Kuchner, B Cepheids with the Palomar Testbed Interferometer (PTI) to measure their angular diameters at H and K bands

  3. Incorporating cycle time uncertainty to improve railcar fleet sizing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jagatheesan, Jay

    2011-01-01

    This thesis involves railcar fleet sizing strategies with a specific company in the chemical industry. We note that the identity of the company in this report has been disguised, and some portions of the fleets have been ...

  4. A stochastic method for stand-alone photovoltaic system sizing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cabral, Claudia Valeria Tavora; Filho, Delly Oliveira; Martins, Jose Helvecio; Toledo, Olga Moraes

    2010-09-15

    Photovoltaic systems utilize solar energy to generate electrical energy to meet load demands. Optimal sizing of these systems includes the characterization of solar radiation. Solar radiation at the Earth's surface has random characteristics and has been the focus of various academic studies. The objective of this study was to stochastically analyze parameters involved in the sizing of photovoltaic generators and develop a methodology for sizing of stand-alone photovoltaic systems. Energy storage for isolated systems and solar radiation were analyzed stochastically due to their random behavior. For the development of the methodology proposed stochastic analysis were studied including the Markov chain and beta probability density function. The obtained results were compared with those for sizing of stand-alone using from the Sandia method (deterministic), in which the stochastic model presented more reliable values. Both models present advantages and disadvantages; however, the stochastic one is more complex and provides more reliable and realistic results. (author)

  5. Size scaling of self gravitating polymers and strings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shoichi Kawamoto; Toshihiro Matsuo

    2015-08-04

    We study a statistical ensemble of a single polymer with self gravitational interaction. This is a model of a gravitating string --- the precursor of a black hole. We analyze averaged sizes by mean field approximations with an effective Hamiltonian a la Edwards with Newtonian potential as well as a contact repulsive interaction. We find that there exists a certain scaling region where the attractive and the repulsive forces balance out. The repulsive interaction pushes the critical gravitational coupling to a larger value, at which the size of a polymer becomes comparable to its Schwarzschild radius, and as a result the size of the corresponding black hole increases considerably. We show phase diagrams in various dimensions that clarify how the size changes as the strengths of repulsive and gravitational forces vary.

  6. The geographic distribution of mammal body size in Europe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodriguez, M A; Lopez-Sanudo, I L; Hawkins, Bradford A.

    2006-01-01

    the mammals of Britain and Europe. Houghton Mif?in, Boston.mammals of Britain and Europe. Collins, London. Cotgreave,of mammal body size in Europe Miguel Á. Rodríguez 1 *, Irene

  7. Coherent regulation in yeast cell cycle network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nese Aral; Alkan Kabakcioglu

    2014-12-14

    We define a measure of coherent activity for gene regulatory networks, a property that reflects the unity of purpose between the regulatory agents with a common target. We propose that such harmonious regulatory action is desirable under a demand for energy efficiency and may be selected for under evolutionary pressures. We consider two recent models of the cell-cycle regulatory network of the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as a case study and calculate their degree of coherence. A comparison with random networks of similar size and composition reveals that the yeast's cell-cycle regulation is wired to yield and exceptionally high level of coherent regulatory activity. We also investigate the mean degree of coherence as a function of the network size, connectivity and the fraction of repressory/activatory interactions.

  8. Choreography of the transcriptome, photophysiology, and cell cycle of a minimal photoautotroph, prochlorococcus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zinser, Erik R.

    The marine cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus MED4 has the smallest genome and cell size of all known photosynthetic organisms. Like all phototrophs at temperate latitudes, it experiences predictable daily variation in available ...

  9. Adult Stem Cells & Homeostasis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tian, Weidong

    · Tissue models for studying adult stem cells · Experimental assays · Adult stem cell & Cancer · Adult stem in many organs/tissues · Adult stem cells self-renew and differentiate to maintain tissue homeostasis #12;Stem Cell & Progenitor ·long-term self-renewal ·generate all differentiated cells of an organ

  10. DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2013 Fuel Cell Seminar and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Office: 2013 Fuel Cell Seminar and Energy Exposition DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2013 Fuel Cell Seminar and Energy Exposition Overview of DOE's Fuel Cell Technologies Office...

  11. Size exclusion deep bed filtration: Experimental and modelling uncertainties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Badalyan, Alexander You, Zhenjiang; Aji, Kaiser; Bedrikovetsky, Pavel; Carageorgos, Themis; Zeinijahromi, Abbas

    2014-01-15

    A detailed uncertainty analysis associated with carboxyl-modified latex particle capture in glass bead-formed porous media enabled verification of the two theoretical stochastic models for prediction of particle retention due to size exclusion. At the beginning of this analysis it is established that size exclusion is a dominant particle capture mechanism in the present study: calculated significant repulsive Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek potential between latex particles and glass beads is an indication of their mutual repulsion, thus, fulfilling the necessary condition for size exclusion. Applying linear uncertainty propagation method in the form of truncated Taylor's series expansion, combined standard uncertainties (CSUs) in normalised suspended particle concentrations are calculated using CSUs in experimentally determined parameters such as: an inlet volumetric flowrate of suspension, particle number in suspensions, particle concentrations in inlet and outlet streams, particle and pore throat size distributions. Weathering of glass beads in high alkaline solutions does not appreciably change particle size distribution, and, therefore, is not considered as an additional contributor to the weighted mean particle radius and corresponded weighted mean standard deviation. Weighted mean particle radius and LogNormal mean pore throat radius are characterised by the highest CSUs among all experimental parameters translating to high CSU in the jamming ratio factor (dimensionless particle size). Normalised suspended particle concentrations calculated via two theoretical models are characterised by higher CSUs than those for experimental data. The model accounting the fraction of inaccessible flow as a function of latex particle radius excellently predicts normalised suspended particle concentrations for the whole range of jamming ratios. The presented uncertainty analysis can be also used for comparison of intra- and inter-laboratory particle size exclusion data.

  12. Residential Variable-Capacity Heat Pumps Sized to Heating Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munk, Jeffrey D.; Jackson, Roderick K.; Odukomaiya, Adewale; Gehl, Anthony C.

    2014-01-01

    Variable capacity heat pumps are an emerging technology offering significant energy savings potential and improved efficiency. With conventional single-speed systems, it is important to appropriately size heat pumps for the cooling load as over-sizing would result in cycling and insufficient latent capacity required for humidity control. These appropriately sized systems are often under-sized for the heating load and require inefficient supplemental electric resistance heat to meet the heating demand. Variable capacity heat pumps address these shortcomings by providing an opportunity to intentionally size systems for the dominant heating season load without adverse effects of cycling or insufficient dehumidification in the cooling season. This intentionally-sized system could result in significant energy savings in the heating season, as the need for inefficient supplemental electric resistance heat is drastically reduced. This is a continuation of a study evaluating the energy consumption of variable capacity heat pumps installed in two unoccupied research homes in Farragut, a suburb of Knoxville, Tennessee. In this particular study, space conditioning systems are intentionally sized for the heating season loads to provide an opportunity to understand and evaluate the impact this would have on electric resistance heat use and dehumidification. The results and conclusions drawn through this research are valid and specific for portions of the Southeastern and Midwestern United States falling in the mixed-humid climate zone. While other regions in the U.S. do not experience this type of climate, this work provides a basis for, and can help understand the implications of other climate zones on residential space conditioning energy consumption. The data presented here will provide a framework for fine tuning residential building EnergyPlus models that are being developed.

  13. Differential white cell count by centrifugal microfluidics.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sommer, Gregory Jon; Tentori, Augusto M.; Schaff, Ulrich Y.

    2010-07-01

    We present a method for counting white blood cells that is uniquely compatible with centrifugation based microfluidics. Blood is deposited on top of one or more layers of density media within a microfluidic disk. Spinning the disk causes the cell populations within whole blood to settle through the media, reaching an equilibrium based on the density of each cell type. Separation and fluorescence measurement of cell types stained with a DNA dye is demonstrated using this technique. The integrated signal from bands of fluorescent microspheres is shown to be proportional to their initial concentration in suspension. Among the current generation of medical diagnostics are devices based on the principle of centrifuging a CD sized disk functionalized with microfluidics. These portable 'lab on a disk' devices are capable of conducting multiple assays directly from a blood sample, embodied by platforms developed by Gyros, Samsung, and Abaxis. [1,2] However, no centrifugal platform to date includes a differential white blood cell count, which is an important metric complimentary to diagnostic assays. Measuring the differential white blood cell count (the relative fraction of granulocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes) is a standard medical diagnostic technique useful for identifying sepsis, leukemia, AIDS, radiation exposure, and a host of other conditions that affect the immune system. Several methods exist for measuring the relative white blood cell count including flow cytometry, electrical impedance, and visual identification from a stained drop of blood under a microscope. However, none of these methods is easily incorporated into a centrifugal microfluidic diagnostic platform.

  14. Storage Size Determination for Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ru, Yu; Martinez, Sonia

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study the problem of determining the size of battery storage used in grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems. In our setting, electricity is generated from PV and is used to supply the demand from loads. Excess electricity generated from the PV can be stored in a battery to be used later on, and electricity must be purchased from the electric grid if the PV generation and battery discharging cannot meet the demand. The objective is to minimize the electricity purchase from the electric grid while at the same time choosing an appropriate battery size. More specifically, we want to find a unique critical value (denoted as $E_{max}^c$) of the battery size such that the cost of electricity purchase remains the same if the battery size is larger than or equal to $E_{max}^c$, and the cost is strictly larger if the battery size is smaller than $E_{max}^c$. We propose an upper bound on $E_{max}^c$, and show that the upper bound is achievable for certain scenarios. For the case with ideal PV generat...

  15. Novel Materials for cell Studies and harvesting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Junghans, Sylvia Ann [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Singh, Saurabh [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Waltman, Mary Jo [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nagy, Amber [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Majewski, Jaroslaw [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-18

    Controlling cell growth on different surfaces is crucial for many applications. For instance after surgery, unspecific adhesion on exogenous materials can lead to fouling that may result in infections. On the other hand, fast attachment of tissue cells is pivotal for the healing process. Hence, specific regulation of cell adhesion to substrates is a significant task especially in the biomedical field. It has long been known that surface conditions like topology/roughness, wettability, charge, etc. are major factors in cell adhesion on various synthetic materials including Polytetrafluoroethylene, titanium or silicone. However, the literature is sparse on studies of cell growth on medical relevant substrates. We investigated the growth of different cells types on polyelectrolyte (PE) multilayers with and without lipid bilayers deposited and could observe confluence and multiplication of cells on both substrate types. Our neutron reflectometry studies of lipid bilayers deposited on polyelectrolyte multilayer demonstrates that the size of the water gap between the lipid bilayer and the PE covered substrate can be influenced by the environmental conditions, e.g. the pH of the surrounding medium. In principal, this 'floating' of a lipid bilayer can also be applied for growing monolayer of cells and detaching them by an environmental change. Such a fabrication would simplify cell growing and harvesting for various medical application, e.g. tissue engineering. Our approach for the fabrication of cellular monolayers that are easy to detach and transfer, creating free-floating sheets of cells also enables us to study those structures more conveniently and under in-situ conditions using neutron scattering.

  16. Fuel cell-fuel cell hybrid system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Geisbrecht, Rodney A.; Williams, Mark C.

    2003-09-23

    A device for converting chemical energy to electricity is provided, the device comprising a high temperature fuel cell with the ability for partially oxidizing and completely reforming fuel, and a low temperature fuel cell juxtaposed to said high temperature fuel cell so as to utilize remaining reformed fuel from the high temperature fuel cell. Also provided is a method for producing electricity comprising directing fuel to a first fuel cell, completely oxidizing a first portion of the fuel and partially oxidizing a second portion of the fuel, directing the second fuel portion to a second fuel cell, allowing the first fuel cell to utilize the first portion of the fuel to produce electricity; and allowing the second fuel cell to utilize the second portion of the fuel to produce electricity.

  17. Thermal Management of Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saadah, Mohammed Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    cell. The solar cell’s power conversion efficiency, ? is theEfficiency ..5 Thermal Managements of SolarTemperature on Efficiency Photons incident on a solar cell

  18. Thermal Management of Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saadah, Mohammed Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    D. Mills, "Cooling of photovoltaic cells under concentratedelectric performance of a photovoltaic cells by cooling andof Photovoltaic Solar Cell A photovoltaic cell is a

  19. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gur, Ilan

    2006-01-01

    basic bilayer CdTe/CdSe solar cells described above. Figurecomplete CdTe/CdSe nanocrystal solar cell (B). gap variationlength for CdSe-P3HT hybrid solar cells. (b) Current-voltage

  20. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gur, Ilan

    2006-01-01

    of organic based solar cells and distinguish them from theirNov, 2005). Chapter 4 Hybrid solar cells with 3-dimensionalinorganic nanocrystal solar cells 5.1 Introduction In recent

  1. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gur, Ilan

    2006-01-01

    inorganic nanocrystal solar cells 5.1 Introduction In recentoperation of organic based solar cells and distinguish themThe organic donor-acceptor solar cell relies on a type II

  2. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gur, Ilan

    2006-01-01

    of organic based solar cells and distinguish them from theirinorganic nanocrystal solar cells 5.1 Introduction In recentNov, 2005). Chapter 4 Hybrid solar cells with 3-dimensional

  3. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gur, Ilan

    2006-01-01

    Nov, 2005). Chapter 4 Hybrid solar cells with 3-dimensional5 All-inorganic nanocrystal solar cells 5.1 Introduction Inoperation of organic based solar cells and distinguish them

  4. Proliferation of Epithelial Cells on PDMS Substrates with Micropillars Fabricated with Different Curvature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Peter K.N.

    the ``transition'' phase to form casts with micrometer-sized pits with the same depth, but with different size, migration and differentiation. The input signals can be broadly categorized as topographical, mechanical] and migration [9­12]. For example, mesenchymal stem cells preferentially differentiated [5] and osteosarcoma

  5. Unexpected ferromagnetic ordering enhancement with crystallite size growth observed in La{sub 0.5}Ca{sub 0.5}MnO? nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iniama, G.; Ita, B. I. [Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, University of Calabar, Calabar (Nigeria); Presa, P. de la, E-mail: pmpresa@ucm.es; Hernando, A. [Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado, UCM-ADIF-CSIC, 28230 Las Rozas (Spain); Fac. CC Físicas, Dpto. Física de Materiales, Univ. Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Alonso, J. M. [Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado, UCM-ADIF-CSIC, 28230 Las Rozas (Spain); Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales, CSIC, 28049-Madrid (Spain); Multigner, M. [Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado, UCM-ADIF-CSIC, 28230 Las Rozas (Spain); Cortés-Gil, R.; Ruiz-González, M. L. [Fac. CC Químicas, Dpto. Química Inorgánica, Univ. Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Gonzalez-Calbet, J. M. [Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado, UCM-ADIF-CSIC, 28230 Las Rozas (Spain); Fac. CC Químicas, Dpto. Química Inorgánica, Univ. Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-09-21

    In this paper, the physical properties of half-doped manganite La{sub 0.5}Ca{sub 0.5}MnO? with crystallite sizes ranging from 15 to 40 nm are investigated. As expected, ferromagnetic order strengthens at expense of antiferromagnetic one as crystallite size is reduced to 15 nm. However, contrary to previously reported works, an enhancement of saturation magnetization is observed as crystallite size increases from 15 to 22 nm. This unexpected behavior is accompanied by an unusual cell volume variation that seems to induce ferromagnetic-like behavior at expense of antiferromagnetic one. Besides, field cooled hysteresis loops show exchange bias field and coercivity enhancement for increasing cooling fields, which suggest a kind of core-shell structure with AFM-FM coupling for crystallite sizes as small as 15 nm. It is expected that inner core orders antiferromagnetically, whereas uncompensated surface spins behave as spin glass with ferromagnetic-like ordering.

  6. Finite-size energy of non-interacting Fermi gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin Gebert

    2014-06-14

    We prove the asymptotics of the difference of the ground-state energies of two non-interacting $N$-particle Fermi gases on the half line of length $L$ in the thermodynamic limit up to order $1/L$. We are particularly interested in subdominant terms proportional to $1/L$, called finite-size energy. In the nineties Affleck and co-authors [Aff97, ZA97, AL94] claimed that the finite-size energy equals the decay exponent occuring in Anderson's orthogonality catastrophe. It turns out that the finite-size energy depends on the details of the thermodynamic limit and typically also includes a linear term in the scattering phase shift.

  7. Size distribution and structure of Barchan dune fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Orencio Durán; Veit Schwämmle; Pedro G. Lind; Hans J. Herrmann

    2011-05-19

    Barchans are isolated mobile dunes often organized in large dune fields. Dune fields seem to present a characteristic dune size and spacing, which suggests a cooperative behavior based on dune interaction. In Duran et al. (2009), we propose that the redistribution of sand by collisions between dunes is a key element for the stability and size selection of barchan dune fields. This approach was based on a mean-field model ignoring the spatial distribution of dune fields. Here, we present a simplified dune field model that includes the spatial evolution of individual dunes as well as their interaction through sand exchange and binary collisions. As a result, the dune field evolves towards a steady state that depends on the boundary conditions. Comparing our results with measurements of Moroccan dune fields, we find that the simulated fields have the same dune size distribution as in real fields but fail to reproduce their homogeneity along the wind direction.

  8. Size dependence of the Directional Scattering Conditions on Semiconductor Nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garcia-Camara, Braulio; Cuadrado, Alexander; Urruchi, Virginia; Sanchez-Pena, Jose Manuel; Vergaz, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    The resonant modes observed in semiconductor nanoparticles and the coherence interaction between them, producing directional light scattering, may be very interesting for CMOS integrated all-optical devices. In these systems the control over the light scattering should be crucial, as well as the strength of this control. Fabrication parameters such as the size and shape of the nanoparticles and the optical properties of the environment can strongly affect to the emergence of these phenomena. In this work, we numerically explore the size dependence of the directional scattering conditions of semiconductor nanoparticles. Several semiconductor materials and a large size range have been considered to be a reference for further works. An interesting and unexpected linear behavior has been observed.

  9. Cell Stem Cell Induction of Multipotential Hematopoietic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, James J.

    pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) represent a promising source of patient-specific cells for disease modeling self-renewal and multili- neage potential in vitro and maintained primitive CD34+ CD38Ã? cells., 2013), and others. These lines have the potential to become powerful models to gain insight

  10. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gur, Ilan

    2006-01-01

    will enable optimal solar cell efficiencies in multiple bandlow cost, high efficiency hybrid solar cells. 4.6 Conclusioncosts and improving efficiencies of solar photovoltaic

  11. Ceramic Fuel Cells (SOFC)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Engineering Argonne National Laboratory Thursday, August 11, 2011 Ceramic Fuel Cells (SOFC) Manufacturing Fuel Cell Manhattan Project: * Joe Bonadies - Delphi * Rick...

  12. Dust size distribution and concentrations with cottonseed oil mills 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiederhold, Lee Roy

    1976-01-01

    -VOLUME SAMPLES FOR P. S. D OF PARTICLES & 100 um DIAMETER (MMD) ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE ON HIGH-VOLUME SAMPLES FOR P. S. D. OF PARTICLES & 100 um DIAMETER (og) MULTIPLE RANGE TEST FOR MEAN VALUES OF MMD BY AREA MULTIPLE RANGE TEST OF MMD BY MILL PARTICLE SIZE... TEST OF AREA DUST CONCENTRATIONS = 15 Pm IN DIAMETER MULTIPLE RANGE TEST OF MILL DUST CONCENTRATIONS & 15 um IN DIAMETER ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE ON PARTICLE SIZING HEAD SAMPLES OF CONCENTRATIONS FOR PARTICLES & 100 IJBI DIAMETER . . . . 47 47 54...

  13. Finite-size behaviour of the microcanonical specific heat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Behringer; M. Pleimling; A. Hueller

    2004-11-05

    For models which exhibit a continuous phase transition in the thermodynamic limit a numerical study of small systems reveals a non-monotonic behaviour of the microcanonical specific heat as a function of the system size. This is in contrast to a treatment in the canonical ensemble where the maximum of the specific heat increases monotonically with the size of the system. A phenomenological theory is developed which permits to describe this peculiar behaviour of the microcanonical specific heat and allows in principle the determination of microcanonical critical exponents.

  14. Metal oxide porous ceramic membranes with small pore sizes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Marc A. (Madison, WI); Xu, Qunyin (Madison, WI)

    1991-01-01

    A method is disclosed for the production of metal oxide ceramic membranes of very small pore size. The process is particularly useful in the creation of titanium and other transition metal oxide membranes. The method utilizes a sol-gel process in which the rate of particle formation is controlled by substituting a relatively large alcohol in the metal alkoxide and by limiting the available water. Stable, transparent metal oxide ceramic membranes are created having a narrow distribution of pore size, with the pore diameter being manipulable in the range of 5 to 40 Angstroms.

  15. Novel ultrafine grain size processing of soft magnetic materials.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael, Joseph Richard; Robino, Charles Victor

    2009-01-01

    High performance soft magnetic alloys are used in solenoids in a wide variety of applications. These designs are currently being driven to provide more margin, reliability, and functionality through component size reductions; thereby providing greater power to drive ratio margins as well as decreases in volume and power requirements. In an effort to produce soft magnetic materials with improved properties, we have conducted an initial examination of one potential route for producing ultrafine grain sizes in the 49Fe-49Co-2V alloy. The approach was based on a known method for the production of very fine grain sizes in steels, and consisted of repeated, rapid phase transformation cycling through the ferrite to austenite transformation temperature range. The results of this initial attempt to produce highly refined grain sizes in 49Fe-49Co-2V were successful in that appreciable reductions in grain size were realized. The as-received grain size was 15 {micro}m with a standard deviation of 9.5 {micro}m. For the temperature cycling conditions examined, grain refinement appears to saturate after approximately ten cycles at a grain size of 6 {micro}m with standard deviation of 4 {micro}m. The process also reduces the range of grain sizes present in these samples as the largest grain noted in the as received and treated conditions were 64 and 26 {micro}m, respectively. The results were, however, complicated by the formation of an unexpected secondary ferritic constituent and considerable effort was directed at characterizing this phase. The analysis indicates that the phase is a V-rich ferrite, known as {alpha}{sub 2}, that forms due to an imbalance in the partitioning of vanadium during the heating and cooling portions of the thermal cycle. Considerable but unsuccessful effort was also directed at understanding the conditions under which this phase forms, since it is conceivable that this phase restricts the degree to which the grains can be refined. Due to this difficulty and the relatively short timeframe available in the study, magnetic and mechanical properties of the refined material could not be evaluated. An assessment of the potential for properties improvement through the transformation cycling approach, as well as recommendations for potential future work, are included in this report.

  16. The Influence of Availability Costs on Optimal Heat Exchanger Size 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Witte, L. C.

    1987-01-01

    OF AVAILABILITY COSTS ON OPTIMAL H~ EXCHANGER SIZE Larry C. Witte Professor of Mechanical Engineering University of Houston Houston, TX 77004 examples of such a process. I I Optimizing heat exchangers based on se cond law rather than first law co... ) we can make the plot in Figure 5 of heat duty vs. ~gt. Figures 4 and 5 contain the required inrormation for the selection of an appropri.te optimally sized condensing heater for a p.rticular he.t duty. 300 () 0 I Q) ... n; ~ ... Q...

  17. Ex-vessel demand by size for the Gulf shrimp 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chui, Margaret Kam-Too

    1980-01-01

    EX-VESSEL DEMAND BY SIZE FOR THE GULF SHRIMP A Thesis by MARGARET RAM-TOO CHUI Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1980 Major... Subject: Agricultural Economics EX-VESSEL DEMAND BY SIZE FOR SHRIMP IN THE GULF OF MEXICO A Thesis by MARGARET KAM-TOO CHUI Approved as to style and content by: ai an of Committee) (Hea f ep tment) (Member) (Member) August 1980 ABSTRACT Ex...

  18. Sizing a New Water Heater | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation ofAlbuquerque|Sensitive Species3 OutlookSize selective absorption ofSizing a

  19. Magnetic agglomeration method for size control in the synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huber, Dale L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-07-05

    A method for controlling the size of chemically synthesized magnetic nanoparticles that employs magnetic interaction between particles to control particle size and does not rely on conventional kinetic control of the reaction to control particle size. The particles are caused to reversibly agglomerate and precipitate from solution; the size at which this occurs can be well controlled to provide a very narrow particle size distribution. The size of particles is controllable by the size of the surfactant employed in the process; controlling the size of the surfactant allows magnetic control of the agglomeration and precipitation processes. Agglomeration is used to effectively stop particle growth to provide a very narrow range of particle sizes.

  20. STEM CELLS A CLOSER DIFFERENT KINDS OF STEM CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brutlag, Doug

    STEM CELLS ­ A CLOSER LOOK John Sun Bio 118Q #12;DIFFERENT KINDS OF STEM CELLS Embryonic Stem Cells Adult Stem Cells From Bone Marrow: Mesenchymal stem cells Haematopoietic stem cells Endothelial stem cells Induced Pluripotent Cells Mammary, Testicular, Neural, Dental, Umbilical cord, etc

  1. Size tunable elemental copper nanoparticles: extracellular synthesis by thermoanaerobic bacteria and capping molecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jang, Gyoung Gug; Jacobs, Christopher B; Gresback, Ryan G; Ivanov, Ilia N; Meyer III, Harry M; Kidder, Michelle; Joshi, Pooran C; Jellison Jr, Gerald Earle; Phelps, Tommy Joe; Graham, David E; Moon, Ji Won

    2015-01-01

    Bimodal sized elemental copper (Cu) nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized from inexpensive oxidized copper salts by an extracellular metal-reduction process using anaerobic Thermoanaerobacter sp. X513 bacteria in aqueous solution. The bacteria nucleate NPs outside of the cell, and they control the Cu2+ reduction rate to form uniform crystallites with an average diameter of 1.75 0.46 m after 3-day incubation. To control the size and enhance air stability of Cu NPs, the reaction mixtures were supplemented with nitrilotriacetic acid as a chelator, and the surfactant capping agents oleic acid, oleylamine, ascorbic acid, or L-cysteine. Time-dependent UV-visible absorption measurements and XPS studies indicated well-suspended, bimodal colloidal Cu NPs (70 150 and 5 10 nm) with extended air-stability up to 300 min and stable Cu NP films surfaces with 14% oxidation after 20 days. FTIR spectroscopy suggested that these capping agents were effectively adsorbed on the NP surface providing oxidation resistance in aqueous and dry conditions. Compared to previously reported Cu NP syntheses, this biological process substantially reduced the requirement for hazardous organic solvents and chemical reducing agents, while reducing the levels of Cu oxide impurities in the product. This process was highly reproducible and scalable from 0.01 to 1-L batches.

  2. Force localization in contracting cell layers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carina M. Edwards; Ulrich S. Schwarz

    2012-01-13

    Epithelial cell layers on soft elastic substrates or pillar arrays are commonly used as model systems for investigating the role of force in tissue growth, maintenance and repair. Here we show analytically that the experimentally observed localization of traction forces to the periphery of the cell layers does not necessarily imply increased local cell activity, but follows naturally from the elastic problem of a finite-sized contractile layer coupled to an elastic foundation. For homogeneous contractility, the force localization is determined by one dimensionless parameter interpolating between linear and exponential force profiles for the extreme cases of very soft and very stiff substrates, respectively. If contractility is sufficiently increased at the periphery, outward directed displacements can occur at intermediate positions, although the edge itself still retracts. We also show that anisotropic extracellular stiffness leads to force localization in the stiffer direction, as observed experimentally.

  3. Sedimentation of algae: relationships with biomass and size distribution1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mazumder, Asit

    Sedimentation of algae: relationships with biomass and size distribution1 Isabelle Larocque, A distribution of epilimnetic algae on patterns of algal sedimentation was determined in lake enclosures under the mean length of algae in fish-free enclosures and reduced the mean length in the enclosures to which

  4. Improving large-sized PLC programs verification using abstractions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    in formal verification by model-checking. In parallel, many researches have been undertaken since several project which was funded by Alstom Power Plant Information and Control Systems, Engineering toolsImproving large-sized PLC programs verification using abstractions V. Gourcuff O. de Smet J

  5. Monovalent, reduced-size quantum dots for imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . The small size improved access of QD-labeled glutamate receptors to neuronal synapses, and monovalency small QDs (sQDs) had a hydrodynamic diameter of 11.1 ± 0.1 nm, not much larger than an immunoglobulinQDs or commercial streptavidin-QD605 (hydro- dynamic diameter 21.2 ± 0.2 nm; Supplementary Fi

  6. THE STICKINESS OF MICROMETER-SIZED WATER-ICE PARTICLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gundlach, B.; Blum, J.

    2015-01-01

    Water ice is one of the most abundant materials in dense molecular clouds and in the outer reaches of protoplanetary disks. In contrast to other materials (e.g., silicates), water ice is assumed to be stickier due to its higher specific surface energy, leading to faster or more efficient growth in mutual collisions. However, experiments investigating the stickiness of water ice have been scarce, particularly in the astrophysically relevant micrometer-sized region and at low temperatures. In this work, we present an experimental setup to grow aggregates composed of ?m-sized water-ice particles, which we used to measure the sticking and erosion thresholds of the ice particles at different temperatures between 114 K and 260 K. We show with our experiments that for low temperatures (below ?210 K), ?m-sized water-ice particles stick below a threshold velocity of 9.6 m s{sup –1}, which is approximately 10 times higher than the sticking threshold of ?m-sized silica particles. Furthermore, erosion of the grown ice aggregates is observed for velocities above 15.3 m s{sup –1}. A comparison of the experimentally derived sticking threshold with model predictions is performed to determine important material properties of water ice, i.e., the specific surface energy and the viscous relaxation time. Our experimental results indicate that the presence of water ice in the outer reaches of protoplanetary disks can enhance the growth of planetesimals by direct sticking of particles.

  7. Global Patterns of City Size Distributions and Their Fundamental Drivers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kerkhoff, Andrew J.

    a global perspective on the problem. If we hope to successfully manage urban environmental impacts, we capita environmental impact of humans varies across settlements of different sizes and across regions¤ *, Andrew J. Kerkhoff2 , Melanie E. Moses3 1 Department of Biology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque

  8. Calculating Horsepower Requirements and Sizing Supply Pipelines for Irrigation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fipps, Guy

    1995-09-05

    between 2 and 3 ft/s in order to prevent cavitation. Table 5 lists the maximum flow rates recommended for different ID (internal diameter) pipe sizes using the 5 ft/s rule. Many friction loss tables give both the friction loss and velocity for any given...

  9. Method of controlling crystallite size in nuclear-reactor fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lloyd, Milton H. (Oak Ridge, TN); Collins, Jack L. (Knoxville, TN); Shell, Sam E. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1985-01-01

    Improved spherules for making enhanced forms of nuclear-reactor fuels are prepared by internal gelation procedures within a sol-gel operation and are accomplished by first boiling the concentrated HMTA-urea feed solution before engaging in the spherule-forming operation thereby effectively controlling crystallite size in the product spherules.

  10. Solvent Size vs Cohesive Energy as the Origin of Hydrophobicity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lazaridis, Themis

    of Chemistry, City College of CUNY, Convent Avenue & 138th Street, New York, New York 10031 Received March 22Solvent Size vs Cohesive Energy as the Origin of Hydrophobicity THEMIS LAZARIDIS* Department of water's properties and report a detailed decomposition of the solvation free energy, enthalpy, entropy

  11. Design and sizing of electromagnetic linear actuators for valve applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Page 1/9 Design and sizing of electromagnetic linear actuators for valve applications J.C Vannier1. These structures have been studied in order to drive the valves of a car motor. According to general specifications magnet, valves. 1. Introduction, general specifications The valves which can be found in thermal engines

  12. Food-supplementing parents reduces their sons' song repertoire size

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zanette, Liana

    Food-supplementing parents reduces their sons' song repertoire size Liana Zanette1,*, Michael, Canada Food-supplemented parents typically produce more offspring, as numerous experiments on vertebrate, with implications concerning the adult quality of offspring, although few experiments have addressed whether food-supplementing

  13. The Evolution of Maximum Body Size of Terrestrial Mammals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, James H.

    The Evolution of Maximum Body Size of Terrestrial Mammals Felisa A. Smith,1 * Alison G. Boyer,2 the primary driver for the evolution of giant mammals was diversification to fill ecological niches extracted from the Paleobiology Database (12), using the range- through option for each interval of time. We

  14. Size Correlations in Colloidal Suspensions Alexandre G. Derivi a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbosa, Marcia C. B.

    Size Correlations in Colloidal Suspensions Alexandre G. Derivi a Marcia C. Barbosa a aInstituto de and stabilize the solution against coagulation. But the electrostatic interaction between the colloidal double layers. The stability of the suspension results from the competition between the van der Waals

  15. 2006 EAAM Photogrammetric Estimates of Size and Mass in Hawaiian

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    © 2006 EAAM Photogrammetric Estimates of Size and Mass in Hawaiian Monk Seals (Monachus-invasive photographic technique was devel- oped to estimate the body mass of Hawaiian monk seals (Monachus schauinslandi-kg weaned pups. Key Words: Hawaiian monk seals, Monachus schauinslandi, photogrammetry, morphometric

  16. Thermodynamics and Finite size scaling in Scalar Field Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Debasish Banerjee; Saumen Datta; Sourendu Gupta

    2008-12-05

    In this work we consider the 1-component real scalar $\\phi^4$ theory in 4 space-time dimensions on the lattice and investigate the finite size scaling of thermodynamic quantities to study whether the thermodynamic limit is attained. The results are obtained for the symmetric phase of the theory.

  17. Termination Checking: Comparing Structural Recursion and Sized Types by Examples

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abel, Andreas

    Termination Checking: Comparing Structural Recursion and Sized Types by Examples David Thibodeau Decemer 3, 2011 Abstract Termination is an important property for programs and is necessary for formal proofs to make sense. In order to make sure that a program using recursion is terminating, one can use

  18. THE SIZE-CHANGE TERMINATION PRINCIPLE FOR CONSTRUCTOR BASED LANGUAGES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hyvernat, Pierre

    THE SIZE-CHANGE TERMINATION PRINCIPLE FOR CONSTRUCTOR BASED LANGUAGES PIERRE HYVERNAT Laboratoire describes an automatic termination checker for a generic first- order call-by-value language in ML style. We arguments of recursive calls evolve during evaluation. The result is a criterion for termination extending

  19. Economics of the Family Equilibrium Group Size and Genetic Relatedness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caraco, Thomas

    Benefits Increase Large Groups: Competitive Costs May Dominate Equilibrium Group Size Rules of Entry 1: Solitaries Decide to Enter Group Or Remain G = 1 Solitaries Enter Group at No Cost Assume r = 0 Free Entry (Overcome Territory Defense) Larger Group May Also Increase Local Competition (Cost) #12;3. Groups Reduce

  20. SUMO Protease Cat. No. 12588-018 Size: 250 units

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lebendiker, Mario

    SUMO Protease Cat. No. 12588-018 Size: 250 units Description SUMO Protease, a highly active can be used to cleave SUMO from recombinant fusion proteins. The optimal temperature for cleavage-term storage. Avoid multiple freeze/thaw cycles at -80°C. Store 10X SUMO Protease Buffers at 4°C or -20°C. Part

  1. Automatic calibration of LDA measurement volume size Mark Saffman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saffman, Mark

    Automatic calibration of LDA measurement volume size Mark Saffman The problem of particle number the instrument measurement cross section are given. An automatic calibration method for determining unknown are difficult and have rarely been reported inthe liter- ature. A new method of automatically determining

  2. Improving Size-Change Analysis in Offline Partial Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vidal, Germán

    local and global termination of the specialization This work has been partially supported by the EUImproving Size-Change Analysis in Offline Partial Evaluation Michael Leuschel1 and Salvador Tamarit {stamarit,gvidal}@dsic.upv.es Abstract. Some recent approaches for scalable offline partial evalua- tion

  3. Optimizing buffer sizes for pipeline workflow scheduling with setup times

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benoit, Anne

    Optimizing buffer sizes for pipeline workflow scheduling with setup times Anne Benoit1, Jean real-life applications have a linear pipelined struc- ture, where each data set must go through all (data sets) enters the pipeline and must go through several stages such as filters, encoders, and so

  4. Influence of defects distribution and specimen size on fracture initiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krivtsov, Anton M.

    Influence of defects distribution and specimen size on fracture initiation Anton M. Krivtsov akrivtsov@bk.ru Abstract An analytical model for the scale dependence of the fracture initiation is suggested. The model is based on the idea that fracture is a stochastic process, for the bigger specimens

  5. Comment on "Minimal size of a barchan dune"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Andreotti; P. Claudin

    2007-05-24

    It is now an accepted fact that the size at which dunes form from a flat sand bed as well as their `minimal size' scales on the flux saturation length. This length is by definition the relaxation length of the slowest mode toward equilibrium transport. The model presented by Parteli, Duran and Herrmann [Phys. Rev. E 75, 011301 (2007)] predicts that the saturation length decreases to zero as the inverse of the wind shear stress far from the threshold. We first show that their model is not self-consistent: even under large wind, the relaxation rate is limited by grain inertia and thus can not decrease to zero. A key argument presented by these authors comes from the discussion of the typical dune wavelength on Mars (650 m) on the basis of which they refute the scaling of the dune size with the drag length evidenced by Claudin and Andreotti [Earth Pla. Sci. Lett. 252, 30 (2006)]. They instead propose that Martian dunes, composed of large grains (500 micrometers), were formed in the past under very strong winds. We show that this saltating grain size, estimated from thermal diffusion measurements, is not reliable. Moreover, the microscopic photographs taken by the rovers on Martian aeolian bedforms show a grain size of 87 plus or minus 25 micrometers together with hematite spherules at millimetre scale. As those so-called ``blueberries'' can not be entrained by reasonable winds, we conclude that the saltating grains on Mars are the small ones, which gives a second strong argument against the model of Parteli et al.

  6. Screen bowl centrifuge: a high-efficiency particle size separator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohanty, M.K.; Zhang, B.; Khanna, N.; Palit, A.; Dube, B.

    2008-05-15

    Over the years, screen bowl centrifuges have been widely used for dewatering fine coal in coal preparation plants in the United States and elsewhere. It is generally recognized in the engineering and scientific communities that screen bowl centrifuges provide some degree of particle size separation while dewatering fine coal in a common application. However, the extent of differential partitioning of coarse and fine particles achievable by a screen bowl centrifuge has not been systematically studied in the past. The present investigation was aimed at conducting a parametric study using a statistically designed experimental program to better understand and optimize the size classification performance of a screen bowl centrifuge. A continuously operating screen bowl centrifuge having a bowl diameter of 0.5 m was used for this study at the Illinois Coal Development Park. Three key operating parameters, i.e., feed flow rate, feed solid content and pool depth, were varied to conduct a total of 17 experiments using a three-level factorial test matrix. Some of the best size separation performances achieved in this study may be described as having an imperfection value of 0.13 at an effective separation size (d(50c)) of 38 mu m and an imperfection value of 0.27 at an effective separation size (d(50c)) of 2.8 mu m. Due to an effective separation of ultrafine high ash materials, the ash content of the screen bowl feed was reduced from 22.3% to a minimum of 8.84% with a combustible recovery of 84.1% and an ash rejection of 71.6%. A higher combustible recovery of 92.1% was achieved at a product ash content of 12.5% with a d(50c) of 2.8 mu m and imperfection of 0.27.

  7. POLYMER ELECTROLYTE FUEL CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    POLYMER ELECTROLYTE FUEL CELLS: The Gas Diffusion Layer Johannah Itescu Princeton University PRISM REU #12;PEM FUEL CELLS: A little background information I. What do fuel cells do? Generate electricity through chemical reaction #12;PEM FUEL CELLS: A little background information -+ + eHH 442 2 0244 22 He

  8. Molten carbonate fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, Thomas D. (New Lenox, IL); Smith, James L. (Lemont, IL)

    1987-01-01

    A molten electrolyte fuel cell with an array of stacked cells and cell enclosures isolating each cell except for access to gas manifolds for the supply of fuel or oxidant gas or the removal of waste gas, the cell enclosures collectively providing an enclosure for the array and effectively avoiding the problems of electrolyte migration and the previous need for compression of stack components, the fuel cell further including an inner housing about and in cooperation with the array enclosure to provide a manifold system with isolated chambers for the supply and removal of gases. An external insulated housing about the inner housing provides thermal isolation to the cell components.

  9. Molten carbonate fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, T.D.; Smith, J.L.

    1986-07-08

    A molten electrolyte fuel cell is disclosed with an array of stacked cells and cell enclosures isolating each cell except for access to gas manifolds for the supply of fuel or oxidant gas or the removal of waste gas. The cell enclosures collectively provide an enclosure for the array and effectively avoid the problems of electrolyte migration and the previous need for compression of stack components. The fuel cell further includes an inner housing about and in cooperation with the array enclosure to provide a manifold system with isolated chambers for the supply and removal of gases. An external insulated housing about the inner housing provides thermal isolation to the cell components.

  10. Method for sizing and desizing yarns with liquid and supercritical carbon dioxide solvent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fulton, John L. (Richland, WA); Yonker, Clement R. (Richland, WA); Hallen, Richard R. (Richland, WA); Baker, Eddie G. (Richland, WA); Bowman, Lawrence E. (Richland, WA); Silva, Laura J. (Richland, WA)

    1999-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of sizing and desizing yarn, or more specifically to a method of coating yarn with size and removing size from yarn with liquid carbon dioxide solvent.

  11. Method for sizing and desizing yarns with liquid and supercritical carbon dioxide solvent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fulton, J.L.; Yonker, C.R.; Hallen, R.R.; Baker, E.G.; Bowman, L.E.; Silva, L.J.

    1999-01-26

    Disclosed is a method of sizing and desizing yarn, or more specifically to a method of coating yarn with size and removing size from yarn with liquid carbon dioxide solvent. 3 figs.

  12. Prevalence of Earth-size Planets Orbiting Sun-like Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petigura, Erik Ardeshir

    2015-01-01

    of Earth-Size Planets Orbiting Sun-Like 4.1 PlanetEarth-size Planets Orbiting Sun- like Stars 5.1 The Best42kEarth-size Planets Orbiting Sun-like Stars By Erik Ardeshir

  13. Thermal Management of Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saadah, Mohammed Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    voltage . The cell output power is given by:solar cell. The solar cell’s power conversion efficiency, ?ratio of the solar cell output power to the incident light

  14. Coated powder for electrolyte matrix for carbonate fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Iacovangelo, Charles D. (Schenectady, NY); Browall, Kenneth W. (Schenectady, NY)

    1985-01-01

    A plurality of electrolyte carbonate-coated ceramic particle which does not differ significantly in size from that of the ceramic particle and wherein no significant portion of the ceramic particle is exposed is fabricated into a porous tape comprised of said coated-ceramic particles bonded together by the coating for use in a molten carbonate fuel cell.

  15. StochasticModeling of the Independent Roles of Particle Size and Grain Size in Transgranular Cleavage Fracture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritchie, Robert

    Cleavage Fracture TSANN LIN, A. G. EVANS, and R. O. RITCHIE The independent roles of grain size. INTRODUCTION CLEAVAGE fracture in most metals occurs by the nu- cleation of a microcrack, assisted by the local, concentrated, tensile stress exceeds some critical fracture stress. In mild steels, such microcracks were

  16. THE MASSIVE SATELLITE POPULATION OF MILKY-WAY-SIZED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez-Puebla, Aldo; Avila-Reese, Vladimir; Drory, Niv, E-mail: apuebla@astro.unam.mx [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A. P. 70-264, 04510 Mexico, DF (Mexico)

    2013-08-20

    Several occupational distributions for satellite galaxies more massive than m{sub *} Almost-Equal-To 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} M{sub Sun} around Milky-Way (MW)-sized hosts are presented and used to predict the internal dynamics of these satellites as a function of m{sub *}. For the analysis, a large galaxy group mock catalog is constructed on the basis of (sub)halo-to-stellar mass relations fully constrained with currently available observations, namely the galaxy stellar mass function decomposed into centrals and satellites, and the two-point correlation functions at different masses. We find that 6.6% of MW-sized galaxies host two satellites in the mass range of the Small and Large Magellanic Clouds (SMC and LMC, respectively). The probabilities of the MW-sized galaxies having one satellite equal to or larger than the LMC, two satellites equal to or larger than the SMC, or three satellites equal to or larger than Sagittarius (Sgr) are Almost-Equal-To 0.26, 0.14, and 0.14, respectively. The cumulative satellite mass function of the MW, N{sub s} ({>=}m{sub *}) , down to the mass of the Fornax dwarf is within the 1{sigma} distribution of all the MW-sized galaxies. We find that MW-sized hosts with three satellites more massive than Sgr (as the MW) are among the most common cases. However, the most and second most massive satellites in these systems are smaller than the LMC and SMC by roughly 0.7 and 0.8 dex, respectively. We conclude that the distribution N{sub s} ({>=}m{sub *}) for MW-sized galaxies is quite broad, the particular case of the MW being of low frequency but not an outlier. The halo mass of MW-sized galaxies correlates only weakly with N{sub s} ({>=}m{sub *}). Then, it is not possible to accurately determine the MW halo mass by means of its N{sub s} ({>=}m{sub *}); from our catalog, we constrain a lower limit of 1.38 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} M{sub Sun} at the 1{sigma} level. Our analysis strongly suggests that the abundance of massive subhalos should agree with the abundance of massive satellites in all MW-sized hosts, i.e., there is not a missing (massive) satellite problem for the {Lambda}CDM cosmology. However, we confirm that the maximum circular velocity, v{sub max}, of the subhalos of satellites smaller than m{sub *} {approx} 10{sup 8} M{sub Sun} is systematically larger than the v{sub max} inferred from current observational studies of the MW bright dwarf satellites; different from previous works, this conclusion is based on an analysis of the overall population of MW-sized galaxies. Some pieces of evidence suggest that the issue could refer only to satellite dwarfs but not to central dwarfs, then environmental processes associated with dwarfs inside host halos combined with supernova-driven core expansion should be on the basis of the lowering of v{sub max}.

  17. No small matter: microRNAs -- key regulators of cancer stem cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ji, Qing; Karnak, David; Hao, Ping; Wang, Rongquan; Xu, Liang

    2010-02-05

    that they may also be critical players in cancer stem cells. Though small in size, miRNAs play a key role in the epigenetic regulation of cancer stem cells. Specifically, the imbalance of oncogenic vs. tumor suppressor miRNAs may lead to dysregulation of cancer...

  18. 9.4 SIGNIFICANT TORNADO EVENTS ASSOCIATED WITH CELL MERGERS Jaret W. Rogers*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    flank region of the primary storm, while precipitation associated with ancillary cells falling within, and suggested that the role of storm interaction may be sensitive to the orientation and size of the ancillary whether a distinct, ancillary cell merged within +/- 15 minutes (approximately three radar volume scans

  19. Toxicological studies of semiconductor quantum dots on immune cells.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ricken, James Bryce; Rios, Lynette; Poschet, Jens Fredrich; Bachand, Marlene; Bachand, George David; Greene, Adrienne Celeste; Carroll-Portillo, Amanda

    2008-11-01

    Nanoengineered materials hold a vast promise of enabling revolutionary technologies, but also pose an emerging and potentially serious threat to human and environmental health. While there is increasing knowledge concerning the risks posed by engineered nanomaterials, significant inconsistencies exist within the current data based on the high degree of variability in the materials (e.g., synthesis method, coatings, etc) and biological test systems (e.g., cell lines, whole organism, etc). In this project, we evaluated the uptake and response of two immune cell lines (RAW macrophage and RBL mast cells) to nanocrystal quantum dots (Qdots) with different sizes and surface chemistries, and at different concentrations. The basic experimental design followed a 2 x 2 x 3 factorial model: two Qdot sizes (Qdot 520 and 620), two surface chemistries (amine 'NH{sub 2}' and carboxylic acid 'COOH'), and three concentrations (0, 1 nM, and 1 {micro}M). Based on this design, the following Qdots from Evident Technologies were used for all experiments: Qdot 520-COOH, Qdot 520-NH{sub 2}, Qdot 620-COOH, and Qdot 620-NH{sub 2}. Fluorescence and confocal imaging demonstrated that Qdot 620-COOH and Qdot 620-NH{sub 2} nanoparticles had a greater level of internalization and cell membrane association in RAW and RBL cells, respectively. From these data, a two-way interaction between Qdot size and concentration was observed in relation to the level of cellular uptake in RAW cells, and association with RBL cell membranes. Toxicity of both RBL and RAW cells was also significantly dependent on the interaction of Qdot size and concentration; the 1 {micro}M concentrations of the larger, Qdot 620 nanoparticles induced a greater toxic effect on both cell lines. The RBL data also demonstrate that Qdot exposure can induce significant toxicity independent of cellular uptake. A significant increase in TNF-{alpha} and decrease in IL-10 release was observed in RAW cells, and suggested that Qdot exposure induced a pro-inflammatory response. In contrast, significant decreases in both TNF-{alpha} and IL-4 releases were observed in RBL cells, which is indicative of a suppressed inflammatory response. The changes in cytokine release observed in RAW and RBL cells were primarily dependent on Qdot concentration and independent of size and surface chemistry. Changes in the activity of superoxide dismutase were observed in RAW, but not RBL cells, suggesting that RAW cells were experiencing oxidative stress induced by Qdot exposure. Overall, our results demonstrate that the uptake/association and biomolecular response of macrophage and mast cells is primarily driven by an interaction between Qdot size and concentration. Based on these findings, a more detailed understanding of how size directly impacts cellular interactions and response will be critical to developing predictive models of Qdot toxicity.

  20. Combined Single-Cell Functional and Gene Expression Analysis Resolves Heterogeneity within Stem Cell Populations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilson, Nicola K.; Kent, David G.; Buettner, Florian; Shehata, Mona; Macaulay, Iain C.; Calero-Nieto, Fernando J.; Sánchez Castillo, Manuel; Oedekoven, Caroline A.; Diamanti, Evangelia; Schulte, Reiner; Ponting, Chris P.; Voet, Thierry; Caldas, Carlos; Stingl, John; Green, Anthony R.; Theis, Fabian J.; Göttgens, Berthold

    2015-05-21

    had fewer second and third division clones on days 2–4. (D) The pie charts depict the ratio of small (20,000) clones formed from single SLAM Scalo (upper chart) and SLAM Scahi (lower... chart). All clones formed by single SLAM Scalo cells were large or very large. (E) Clones were assessed by flow cytometry, and accurate clone sizes were determined using a standard number of fluorescent beads in each well and then back calculated to get...

  1. SU-E-T-141: Effect of a Single Gold Nanoparticle with Different Sizes Inside a Small Water Phantom

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jing, J; Lin, H; Xiong, Z

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: This study is to investigate the effects of the gold nanoparticles (GNP), a series of micrometre scale simulations have been constructed with Geant4 to track particles and simulate the effects of those particles as they pass through water phantom. Methods: The simulations were used to calculate the number of secondary electrons which are emitted from the particle tracks and the amount of energy which is deposited in the cell tissue. More electrons means that more water molecules can undergo hydrolysis and create potentially dangerous free radical molecules, therefore breaking up DNA and killing off cells or causing damaging mutations. Results: For the 20nm GNP, all three proton energies saw a small increase of electrons above the control, while the X-rays nearly tripled the number of electrons in the phantom. For the 50 nm GNP, the 3 and 2 MeV protons saw a small increase again, however the 1 MeV protons saw a decrease in electrons, the X-rays saw a large increase of nearly 4 times the number of electrons. For the 110nm GNP, all three proton energies saw a decrease in the total number of electrons in the phantom, while the X-rays saw an increase of 8 times as many electrons. Conclusion: From the range of GNP sizes used, it was found that the X-rays have a larger dose enhancement effect as the GNP size increases, the relation between electron emissions and GNP size was linear. This is because the majority of the dose from the X-rays is delivered to the cell tissue through the initial high energy secondary electrons, any dose lost from the Augerelectrons being trapped inside the GNP volume is small compared to the dose that escapes with the high energy electrons.

  2. Modeling of the electronic transport in multijunction solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rau, U.; Goldbach, M.

    1994-12-31

    Simulations of the electrical transport in multijunction thin-film solar cells made from polycrystalline silicon are presented. The authors investigate the effect of the grain size on the efficiency of the multijunction solar cell. Here, they concentrate on micro crystalline material with a high recombination velocity at the grain boundaries of 10{sup 4}cm/s. Typical results of their calculations demonstrate that based on the multijunction design structure consisting of 8 or more layers efficiencies of 14% may be obtained from 12--20 {micro}m thick solar cells.

  3. Impact of Balancing Areas Size, Obligation Sharing, and Ramping Capability on Wind Integration: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.

    2007-06-01

    This paper examines wind integration costs as a function of balancing area size to determine if the larger system size helps mitigate wind integration cost increases.

  4. Direct-hydrogen-fueled proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell system for transportation applications: Conceptual vehicle design report pure fuel cell powertrain vehicle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oei, D.; Kinnelly, A.; Sims, R.; Sulek, M.; Wernette, D.

    1997-02-01

    In partial fulfillment of the Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. DE-AC02-94CE50389, {open_quotes}Direct-Hydrogen-Fueled Proton-Exchange-Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell for Transportation Applications{close_quotes}, this preliminary report addresses the conceptual design and packaging of a fuel cell-only powered vehicle. Three classes of vehicles are considered in this design and packaging exercise, the Aspire representing the small vehicle class, the Taurus or Aluminum Intensive Vehicle (AIV) Sable representing the mid-size vehicle and the E-150 Econoline representing the van-size class. A fuel cell system spreadsheet model and Ford`s Corporate Vehicle Simulation Program (CVSP) were utilized to determine the size and the weight of the fuel cell required to power a particular size vehicle. The fuel cell power system must meet the required performance criteria for each vehicle. In this vehicle design and packaging exercise, the following assumptions were made: fuel cell power system density of 0.33 kW/kg and 0.33 kg/liter, platinum catalyst loading less than or equal to 0.25 mg/cm{sup 2} total and hydrogen tanks containing gaseous hydrogen under 340 atm (5000 psia) pressure. The fuel cell power system includes gas conditioning, thermal management, humidity control, and blowers or compressors, where appropriate. This conceptual design of a fuel cell-only powered vehicle will help in the determination of the propulsion system requirements for a vehicle powered by a PEMFC engine in lieu of the internal combustion (IC) engine. Only basic performance level requirements are considered for the three classes of vehicles in this report. Each vehicle will contain one or more hydrogen storage tanks and hydrogen fuel for 560 km (350 mi) driving range. Under these circumstances, the packaging of a fuel cell-only powered vehicle is increasingly difficult as the vehicle size diminishes.

  5. Testing General Relativity with the Shadow Size of Sgr A*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tim Johannsen; Avery E. Broderick; Philipp M. Plewa; Sotiris Chatzopoulos; Sheperd S. Doeleman; Frank Eisenhauer; Vincent L. Fish; Reinhard Genzel; Ortwin Gerhard; Michael D. Johnson

    2015-12-08

    In general relativity, the angular radius of the shadow of a black hole is primarily determined by its mass-to-distance ratio and depends only weakly on its spin and inclination. If general relativity is violated, however, the shadow size may also depend strongly on parametric deviations from the Kerr metric. Based on a reconstructed image of Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*) from a simulated one-day observing run of a seven-station Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) array, we employ a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm to demonstrate that such an observation can measure the angular radius of the shadow of Sgr A* with an uncertainty of ~1.5 uas (6%). We show that existing mass and distance measurements can be improved significantly when combined with upcoming EHT measurements of the shadow size and that tight constraints on potential deviations from the Kerr metric can be obtained.

  6. Size-reduction of nanodiamonds via air oxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gaebel, T; Chen, J; Hemmer, P; Rabeau, J R

    2011-01-01

    Here we report the size reduction and effects on nitrogen-vacancy centres in nanodiamonds by air oxidation using a combined atomic force and confocal microscope. The average height reduction of individual crystals as measured by atomic force microscopy was 10.6 nm/h at 600 {\\deg}C air oxidation at atmospheric pressure. The oxidation process modified the surface including removal of non-diamond carbon and organic material which also led to a decrease in background fluorescence. During the course of the nanodiamond size reduction, we observed the annihilation of nitrogen-vacancy centres which provided important insight into the formation of colour centres in small crystals. In these unirradiated samples, the smallest nanodiamond still hosting a stable nitrogen-vacancy centre observed was 8 nm.

  7. Size-reduction of nanodiamonds via air oxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Gaebel; C. Bradac; J. Chen; P. Hemmer; J. R. Rabeau

    2011-04-27

    Here we report the size reduction and effects on nitrogen-vacancy centres in nanodiamonds by air oxidation using a combined atomic force and confocal microscope. The average height reduction of individual crystals as measured by atomic force microscopy was 10.6 nm/h at 600 {\\deg}C air oxidation at atmospheric pressure. The oxidation process modified the surface including removal of non-diamond carbon and organic material which also led to a decrease in background fluorescence. During the course of the nanodiamond size reduction, we observed the annihilation of nitrogen-vacancy centres which provided important insight into the formation of colour centres in small crystals. In these unirradiated samples, the smallest nanodiamond still hosting a stable nitrogen-vacancy centre observed was 8 nm.

  8. Ab initio estimates of the size of the observable universe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Page, Don N., E-mail: profdonpage@gmail.com [Department of Physics, 4-183 CCIS, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E1 Canada (Canada)

    2011-09-01

    When one combines multiverse predictions by Bousso, Hall, and Nomura for the observed age and size of the universe in terms of the proton and electron charge and masses with anthropic predictions of Carter, Carr, and Rees for these masses in terms of the charge, one gets that the age of the universe should be roughly the inverse 64th power, and the cosmological constant should be around the 128th power, of the proton charge. Combining these with a further renormalization group argument gives a single approximate equation for the proton charge, with no continuous adjustable or observed parameters, and with a solution that is within 8% of the observed value. Using this solution gives large logarithms for the age and size of the universe and for the cosmological constant that agree with the observed values within 17%.

  9. Method for measuring the size distribution of airborne rhinovirus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell, M.L.; Goth-Goldstein, R.; Apte, M.G.; Fisk, W.J.

    2002-01-01

    About 50% of viral-induced respiratory illnesses are caused by the human rhinovirus (HRV). Measurements of the concentrations and sizes of bioaerosols are critical for research on building characteristics, aerosol transport, and mitigation measures. We developed a quantitative reverse transcription-coupled polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for HRV and verified that this assay detects HRV in nasal lavage samples. A quantitation standard was used to determine a detection limit of 5 fg of HRV RNA with a linear range over 1000-fold. To measure the size distribution of HRV aerosols, volunteers with a head cold spent two hours in a ventilated research chamber. Airborne particles from the chamber were collected using an Andersen Six-Stage Cascade Impactor. Each stage of the impactor was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR for HRV. For the first two volunteers with confirmed HRV infection, but with mild symptoms, we were unable to detect HRV on any stage of the impactor.

  10. A novel hybrid (wind-photovoltaic) system sizing procedure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hocaoglu, Fatih O.; Gerek, Oemer N.; Kurban, Mehmet

    2009-11-15

    Wind-photovoltaic hybrid system (WPHS) utilization is becoming popular due to increasing energy costs and decreasing prices of turbines and photovoltaic (PV) panels. However, prior to construction of a renewable generation station, it is necessary to determine the optimum number of PV panels and wind turbines for minimal cost during continuity of generated energy to meet the desired consumption. In fact, the traditional sizing procedures find optimum number of the PV modules and wind turbines subject to minimum cost. However, the optimum battery capacity is either not taken into account, or it is found by a full search between all probable solution spaces which requires extensive computation. In this study, a novel description of the production/consumption phenomenon is proposed, and a new sizing procedure is developed. Using this procedure, optimum battery capacity, together with optimum number of PV modules and wind turbines subject to minimum cost can be obtained with good accuracy. (author)

  11. Size dependent phase diagrams of Nickel-Carbon nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magnin, Yann; Amara, Hakim; Ducastelle, François; Bichara, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    The carbon rich phase diagrams of nickel-carbon nanoparticles, relevant to catalysis and catalytic chemical vapor deposition synthesis of carbon nanotubes, are calculated for system sizes up to about 3 nanometers (807 Ni atoms). A tight binding model for interatomic interactions drives the Grand Canonical Monte Carlo simulations used to locate solid, core/shell and liquid stability domains, as a function of size, temperature and carbon chemical potential or concentration. Melting is favored by carbon incorporation from the nanoparticle surface, resulting in a strong relative lowering of the eutectic temperature and a phase diagram topology different from the bulk one. This should be taken into account in our understanding of the nanotube growth mechanisms.

  12. Coating thermal noise of a finite-size cylindrical mirror

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kentaro Somiya; Kazuhiro Yamamoto

    2009-03-17

    Thermal noise of a mirror is one of the limiting noise sources in the high precision measurement such as gravitational-wave detection, and the modeling of thermal noise has been developed and refined over a decade. In this paper, we present a derivation of coating thermal noise of a finite-size cylindrical mirror based on the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. The result agrees to a previous result with an infinite-size mirror in the limit of large thickness, and also agrees to an independent result based on the mode expansion with a thin-mirror approximation. Our study will play an important role not only to accurately estimate the thermal-noise level of gravitational-wave detectors but also to help analyzing thermal noise in quantum-measurement experiments with lighter mirrors.

  13. The size of macroscopic superposition states in flux qubits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. I. Korsbakken; F. K. Wilhelm; K. B. Whaley

    2010-03-27

    The question as to whether or not quantum mechanics is applicable to the macroscopic scale has motivated efforts to generate superposition states of macroscopic numbers of particles and to determine their effective size. Superpositions of circulating current states in flux qubits constitute candidate states that have been argued to be at least mesoscopic. We present a microscopic analysis that reveals the number of electrons participating in these superpositions to be surprisingly but not trivially small, even though differences in macroscopic observables are large.

  14. Size and weight graded multi-ply laminar electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Chia-Tsun (Monroeville, PA); Demczyk, Brian G. (Rostrover Township, Westmoreland County, PA); Rittko, Irvin R. (Murrysville Borough, PA)

    1984-01-01

    An electrode is made comprising a porous backing sheet, and attached thereto a catalytically active layer having an electrolyte permeable side and a backing layer contacting side, where the active layer comprises a homogeneous mixture of active hydrophobic and hydrophilic agglomerates with catalyst disposed equally throughout the active layer, and where the agglomerate size increases from the electrolyte permeable side to the backing sheet contacting side.

  15. Improving Size-Change Analysis in Offline Partial Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leuschel, Michael; Vidal, German

    2009-01-01

    Some recent approaches for scalable offline partial evaluation of logic programs include a size-change analysis for ensuring both so called local and global termination. In this work|inspired by experimental evaluation|we introduce several improvements that may increase the accuracy of the analysis and, thus, the quality of the associated specialized programs. We aim to achieve this while maintaining the same complexity and scalability of the recent works.

  16. Finite-size instabilities in nuclear energy density functionals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hellemans, V.; Heenen, P.-H.; Bender, M.

    2012-10-20

    The systematic lack of convergence of self-consistent mean-field calculations with certain parameterizations of the Skyrme energy density functional has been attributed to the appearance of finite-size instabilities. In this contribution, we investigate what happens at the instability associated with the C{sub 0}{sup {Delta}s}s{sub 0} Dot-Operator {Delta}s{sub 0} term in a high-spin state of the superdeformed band in {sup 194}Hg.

  17. Vertical cavity surface-emitting laser scanning cytometer for high speed analysis of cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gourley, P.L.; McDonald, A.E.; Gourley, M.F.

    1995-12-31

    We have constructed a new semiconductor laser device that may be useful in high speed characterization of cell morphology for diagnosis of disease. This laser device has critical advantages over conventional cell fluorescence detection methods since it provides intense, monochromatic, low-divergence fight signals that are emitted from lasing modes confined by a cell. Further, the device integrates biological structures with semiconductor materials at the wafer level to reduce device size and simplify cell preparation. In this paper we discuss operational characteristics of the prototype cytometer and present preliminary data for blood cells and dielectric spheres.

  18. Water holding capacities of fly ashes: Effect of size fractionation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarkar, A.; Rano, R.

    2007-07-01

    Water holding capacities of fly ashes from different thermal power plants in Eastern India have been compared. Moreover, the effect of size fractionation (sieving) on the water holding capacities has also been determined. The desorption rate of water held by the fly ash fractions at ambient temperature (25-30{sup o}C) has been investigated. The effect of mixing various size fractions of fly ash in increasing the water holding capacities of fly ash has been studied. It is observed that the fly ash obtained from a thermal power plant working on stoker-fired combustor has the highest water holding capacity, followed by the one that works on pulverized fuel combustor. Fly ash collected from super thermal power plant has the least water holding capacity (40.7%). The coarser size fractions of fly ashes in general have higher water holding capacities than the finer ones. An attempt has been made to correlate the results obtained, with the potential use in agriculture.

  19. Red cell distribution width improves the simplified acute physiology score for risk prediction in unselected critically ill patients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunzike, Sabina

    Introduction: Recently, red cell distribution width (RDW), a measure of erythrocyte size variability, has been shown to be a prognostic marker in critical illness. The aim of this study was to investigate whether adding ...

  20. DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office Record 14012: Fuel Cell System...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    the cost of automotive polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell systems. DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record 14012 More Documents & Publications DOE Fuel Cell...

  1. Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Update: 2010 Fuel Cell Seminar...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    2010 Fuel Cell Seminar and Exposition on October 19, 2010. Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Update More Documents & Publications DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Overview: 2011...

  2. Stationary Fuel Cells: Overview of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Stationary Fuel Cells: Overview of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities Pete Devlin Fuel Cell Technologies Program United States Department of Energy Federal Utility Partnership...

  3. Fuel Cells for Supermarkets: Cleaner Energy with Fuel Cell Combined...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Supermarkets: Cleaner Energy with Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power Systems Fuel Cells for Supermarkets: Cleaner Energy with Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power Systems Presented...

  4. Plumage and body size in Blue-winged and Cinnamon teals 107 Plumage and body size in Blue-winged and Cinnamon teals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCracken, Kevin G.

    Plumage and body size in Blue-winged and Cinnamon teals 107 Plumage and body size in Blue-winged and Cinnamon teals doi: 10.3184/175815512X13350025801205 Plumage and body size differentiation in Blue-mail: wils0289@yahoo.com ABSTRACT Blue-winged Teal (Anas discors) and Cinnamon Teal (A. cyanoptera

  5. Ethan Burns (UNH) Iterative-deepening Search with On-line Tree Size Prediction 1 / 30 Iterative-deepening Search with On-line Tree Size Prediction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruml, Wheeler

    Ethan Burns (UNH) Iterative-deepening Search with On-line Tree Size Prediction ­ 1 / 30 Iterative-deepening Search with On-line Tree Size Prediction Ethan Burns and Wheeler Ruml {eaburns, ruml} at cs Evaluation Ethan Burns (UNH) Iterative-deepening Search with On-line Tree Size Prediction ­ 2 / 30 On

  6. Size matters . . . and so does shape Symmetry and singularities Ultraworld A mathematician's Divina Commedia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schoutens, Hans

    Size matters . . . and so does shape Symmetry and singularities Ultraworld A mathematician's Divina matters . . . and so does shape Symmetry and singularities Ultraworld Outline 1 Size matters #12;Size matters . . . and so does shape Symmetry and singularities Ultraworld Outline 1 Size matters 2

  7. Photovoltaic Cell Performance Basics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Photovoltaic (PV), or solar cells use the energy in sunlight to produce electricity. However, the amount of electricity produced depends on the quality of the light available and the performance of the PV cell.

  8. Interfacing devices with cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Voldman, Joel

    To detect electrical properties of cells, we have developed a method called iso-dielectric separation (IDS), where cells are placed in a spatially varying electric field and a spatially varying conductivity gradient that ...

  9. Cell-cell and cell-medium interactions in the growth of mouse embryonic stem cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mittal, Nikhil, 1979-

    2010-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells serve as powerful models for the study of development and disease and hold enormous potential for future therapeutics. Due to the potential for embryonic stem cells (ESCs) to provide a variety of tissues ...

  10. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark

    1992-01-01

    Experience with the German Hydrogen Fuel Project," HydrogenHydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles UCD-ITS-RR-92-14 September bycost than both. Solar-hydrogen fuel- cell vehicles would be

  11. NANOCOMPOSITE ENABLED SENSITIZED SOLAR CELL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phuyal, Dibya

    2012-01-01

    by Dye-Sensitized Photovoltaic cells. Inorganic Chemistry,by Dye-Sensitized Photovoltaic Cells. Inorganic ChemistryTiO 2 solar cells: transport, recombination and photovoltaic

  12. X-ray Line Profile Analysis of Nanoparticles in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Matthias Loster,*, Davor Balzar, K. Andreas Friedrich, and Ju1rgen Garche

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balzar, Davor

    on the power and durability of a fuel cell and can be further optimized, for example with respectX-ray Line Profile Analysis of Nanoparticles in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Electrodes exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), where it is particularly useful to determine particle size

  13. cytotoxic T cells kill infected cells directly by inducing them to undergo apoptosis helper T cells help activate B cells, macrophages and cytotoxic T cells.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morante, Silvia

    cytotoxic T cells kill infected cells directly by inducing them to undergo apoptosis helper T cells help activate B cells, macrophages and cytotoxic T cells. Both classes of T cells express cell-surface, antibodylike receptors, encoded by genes that are assembled from multiple gene segments during T cell

  14. Electroluminescence in photovoltaic cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petraglia, Antonio; 10.1088/0031-9120/46/5/F01

    2011-01-01

    Here we propose two methods to get electroluminescence images from photovoltaic cells in a school or home lab.

  15. Webinar: Fuel Cell Buses

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Video recording and text version of the webinar titled, Fuel Cell Buses, originally presented on September 12, 2013.

  16. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark

    1992-01-01

    California, June (1986). General Electric, Direct Energy Conversion Programs, Feasibility Study ofSPE Fuel Cell Power Plants

  17. Rapidly refuelable fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Joy, Richard W. (Santa Clara, CA)

    1983-01-01

    This invention is directed to a metal-air fuel cell where the consumable metal anode is movably positioned in the cell and an expandable enclosure, or bladder, is used to press the anode into contact with separating spacers between the cell electrodes. The bladder may be depressurized to allow replacement of the anode when consumed.

  18. Polyhedral Voronoi Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ina Voigt; Stephan Weis

    2010-03-22

    Voronoi cells of a discrete set in Euclidean space are known as generalized polyhedra. We identify polyhedral cells of a discrete set through a direction cone. For an arbitrary set we distinguish polyhedral from non-polyhedral cells using inversion at a sphere and a theorem of semi-infinite linear programming.

  19. Biomarkers of cell senescence

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dirmi, G.P.; Campisi, J.; Peacocke, M.

    1996-02-13

    The present invention provides a biomarker system for the in vivo and in vitro assessment of cell senescence. In the method of the present invention, {beta}-galactosidase activity is utilized as a means by which cell senescence may be assessed either in in vitro cell cultures or in vivo. 1 fig.

  20. Biomarkers of cell senescence

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dimri, G.P.; Campisi, J.; Peacocke, M.

    1998-08-18

    The present invention provides a biomarker system for the in vivo and in vitro assessment of cell senescence. In the method of the present invention, {beta}-galactosidase activity is utilized as a means by which cell senescence may be assessed either in vitro cell cultures or in vivo. 1 fig.

  1. Battery Powered Electric Car, Using Photovoltaic Cells Assistance Juan Dixon, Alberto Ziga, Angel Abusleme and Daniel Soto

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

    this constraint has been overcome in many cases using advanced technologies such as fuel cells and high. However, if a particular situation is considered, in which a small-sized, high-efficiency EV operates-sized, high-efficiency EV operating at low duty cycles in a sunny, predictable environment. In this case

  2. Yeast cell surface display for lipase whole cell catalyst and its applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Yun; Zhang, Rui; Lian, Zhongshuai; Wang, Shihui; Wright, Aaron T.

    2014-08-01

    The cell surface display technique allows for the expression of target proteins or peptides on the microbial cell surface by fusing an appropriate protein as an anchoring motif. Yeast display systems, such as Pichia pastoris, Yarowia lipolytica and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are ideal, alternative and extensive display systems with the advantage of simple genetic manipulation and post-translational modification of expressed heterologous proteins. Engineered yeasts show high performance characteristics and variant utilizations. Herein, we comprehensively summarize the variant factors affecting lipase whole cell catalyst activity and display efficiency, including the structure and size of target proteins, screening anchor proteins, type and chain length of linkers, and the appropriate matching rules among the above-mentioned display units. Furthermore, we also address novel approaches to enhance stability and activity of recombinant lipases, such as VHb gene co-expression, multi-enzyme co-display technique, and the micro-environmental interference and self-assembly techniques. Finally, we represent the variety of applications of whole cell surface displayed lipases on yeast cells in non-aqueous phases, including synthesis of esters, PUFA enrichment, resolution of chiral drugs, organic synthesis and biofuels. We demonstrate that the lipase surface display technique is a powerful tool for functionalizing yeasts to serve as whole cell catalysts, and increasing interest is providing an impetus for broad application of this technique.

  3. Differentiated human stem cells resemble fetal, not adult, ? cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hrvatin, Sinisa

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have the potential to generate any human cell type, and one widely recognized goal is to make pancreatic ? cells. To this end, comparisons between differentiated cell types produced in ...

  4. System size and energy dependence of $?$ meson production at RHIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. H. Chen

    2008-04-28

    We present a system size and energy dependence of $\\phi$ meson production in Cu+Cu and Au+Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$=62.4 GeV and 200 GeV measured by the STAR experiment at RHIC. We find that the number of participant scaled $\\phi$ meson yields in heavy ion collisions over that of p+p collisions are larger than 1 and increase with collision energy. We compare the results with those of open-strange particles and discuss the physics implication.

  5. Effect Size and Moderators of Effects for Token Economy Interventions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soares, Denise

    2012-02-14

    of this investigation was to Meta-analyze the single case research on TE implemented in school and is the first to offer effect size analysis and identify moderators. The use of TE?s has been widely established as an evidence-based intervention for use in prisons... to implement a TE is needed in our literature. Empirical evidence for the use of a token economy in a classroom is presented along with suggested implementation ideas. Twenty four studies were included in this Meta-analysis with an overall combined Tau...

  6. Do Finite-Size Lyapunov Exponents detect coherent structures?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karrasch, Daniel; Haller, George, E-mail: georgehaller@ethz.ch [Institute of Mechanical Systems, ETH Zurich, Tannenstrasse 3, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland)] [Institute of Mechanical Systems, ETH Zurich, Tannenstrasse 3, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2013-12-15

    Ridges of the Finite-Size Lyapunov Exponent (FSLE) field have been used as indicators of hyperbolic Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCSs). A rigorous mathematical link between the FSLE and LCSs, however, has been missing. Here, we prove that an FSLE ridge satisfying certain conditions does signal a nearby ridge of some Finite-Time Lyapunov Exponent (FTLE) field, which in turn indicates a hyperbolic LCS under further conditions. Other FSLE ridges violating our conditions, however, are seen to be false positives for LCSs. We also find further limitations of the FSLE in Lagrangian coherence detection, including ill-posedness, artificial jump-discontinuities, and sensitivity with respect to the computational time step.

  7. Size reduction techniques for vital compliant VHDL simulation models

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rich, Marvin J.; Misra, Ashutosh

    2006-08-01

    A method and system select delay values from a VHDL standard delay file that correspond to an instance of a logic gate in a logic model. Then the system collects all the delay values of the selected instance and builds super generics for the rise-time and the fall-time of the selected instance. Then, the system repeats this process for every delay value in the standard delay file (310) that correspond to every instance of every logic gate in the logic model. The system then outputs a reduced size standard delay file (314) containing the super generics for every instance of every logic gate in the logic model.

  8. Neutrons measure phase behavior in pores at Angstrom size

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bardoel, Agatha A; Melnichenko, Yuri B

    2012-01-01

    Researchers have measured the phase behavior of green house gases in pores at the Angstrom-level, using small angle neutron scattering (SANS) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's High Flux Isotope Reactor. Yuri Melnichenko, an instrument scientist on the General Purpose Small Angle Neutron Scattering (GP SANS) Diffractometer at ORNL's High Flux Isotope Reactor, his postdoctoral associate Lilin He and collaborators Nidia Gallego and Cristian Contescu from the Material Sciences Division (ORNL) were engaged in the work. They were studying nanoporous carbons to assess their attractiveness as storage media for hydrogen, with a view to potential use for on-board hydrogen storage for transportation applications. Nanoporous carbons can also serve as electrode material for supercapacitors and batteries. The researchers successfully determined that the most efficiently condensing pore size in a carbon nanoporous material for hydrogen storage is less than one nanometer. In a paper recently published by the Journal of the American Chemical Society, the collaborators used small angle neutron scattering to study how hydrogen condenses in small pores at ambient temperature. They discovered that the surface-molecule interactions create internal pressures in pores that may exceed the external gas pressure by a factor of up to 50. 'This is an exciting result,' Melnichenko said, 'as you achieve extreme densification in pores 'for free', i.e. without spending any energy. These results can be used to guide the development of new carbon adsorbents tailored to maximize hydrogen storage capacities.' Another important factor that defines the adsorption capacity of sub-nanometer pores is their shape. In order to get accurate structural information and maximize sorption capacity, it is important that pores are small and of approximately uniform size. In collaboration with Drexel University's Yury Gogotsi who supplied the samples, Melnichenko and his collaborators used the GP SANS instrument to study how the size and shape of pores in sub-nanometer porous carbons varies, depending on the manufacturing conditions. While small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) can do the job too, Melnichenko says, the SANS method broke new ground in analyzing the shape and behavior of pores at subnanometer size, when subjected to varying synthesis temperature. 'We found that these very small pores are in fact spherical, and that when we change the synthesis conditions, they become elongated, even 'slit-like', and all of this on a subnanometer scale,' Melnichenko said.

  9. Buildings","Building Size"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7 Relative Standard ErrorsYear Jan Feb MarA6. Building Size,

  10. Table B6. Building Size, Number of Buildings, 1999

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7CubicthroughtheSeptember 24,4,630.22PrimaryB6. Building Size, Number

  11. Dimethyl Ether Market Size | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar2-0057-EA Jump to: navigation,Department ofEnergieSize Home There are

  12. Sizing up nuclear fuel | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effect Photovoltaics -7541 UnlimitedShiftwater vaporRisks:Sitesix| DepartmentSizing

  13. Microturbine Systems Market Size | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource HistoryScenariosMarysvilleMicrogravity-Hybrid MicrogravitySize Home There are

  14. Offshore Lubricants Market Size | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsourceII Jump to:Information 3rd|Northfork ElectricName01988)IIslands LtdSize Home

  15. Size selective absorption of DNA tetrahedra in ATO nanomaterials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation ofAlbuquerque|Sensitive Species3 OutlookSize selective absorption of DNA

  16. Size-Selective Incorporation of DNA Nanocages into Nanoporous

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation ofAlbuquerque|Sensitive Species3 OutlookSize selective absorption of

  17. Copper migration in CdTe heterojunction solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, H.C.; Rohatgi, A.; Jokerst, N.M.; Thomas, E.W.; Kamra, S.

    1996-07-01

    CdTe solar cells were fabricated by depositing a Au/Cu contact with Cu thickness in the range of 50 to 150A on polycrystalline CdTe/CdS/SnO{sub 2} glass structures. The increase in Cu thickness improves ohmic contact and reduces series resistance (R{sub s}), but the excess Cu tends to diffuse into CdTe and lower shunt resistance (R{sub sh}) and cell performance. Light I-V and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) measurements were performed to understand the correlations between the Cu contact thickness, the extent of Cu incorporation in the CdTe cells, and its impact on the cell performance. The CdTe/CdS/SnO{sub 2} glass, CdTe/CdS/GaAs, and CdTe/GaAs structures were prepared in an attempt to achieve CdTe films with different degrees of crystallinity and grain size. A large grain polycrystalline CdTe thin film solar cell was obtained for the first time by selective etching the GaAs substrate coupled with the film transfer onto a glass substrate. SIMS measurement showed that poor crystallinity and smaller grain size of the CdTe film promotes Cu diffusion and decreases the cell performance. Therefore, grain boundaries are the main conduits for Cu migration and larger CdTe grain size or alternate method of contact formation can mitigate the adverse effect of Cu and improve the cell performance. 15 refs., 1 fig.,6 tabs.

  18. Ion transport through cell membrane channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jan Gomulkiewicz; Jacek Miekisz; Stanislaw Miekisz

    2007-06-05

    We discuss various models of ion transport through cell membrane channels. Recent experimental data shows that sizes of ion channels are compared to those of ions and that only few ions may be simultaneously in any single channel. Theoretical description of ion transport in such channels should therefore take into account interactions between ions and between ions and channel proteins. This is not satisfied by macroscopic continuum models based on Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations. More realistic descriptions of ion transport are offered by microscopic Brownian and molecular dynamics. One should also take into account a dynamical character of the channel structure. This is not yet addressed in the literature

  19. Membrane Cells in Chlor Alkali Application 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesker, K.

    1992-01-01

    stream_source_info ESL-IE-92-04-46.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 8868 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name ESL-IE-92-04-46.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 MEMBRANE CELLS... and paper industry, there is still a n overall increase in production due to the higher growth rates in the A~ian region. Tht: t:wllolllical anu t:Cological auvalllagt:s of membrane technology have been growing since its introduction more than one...

  20. Anode composite for molten carbonate fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Iacovangelo, Charles D. (Schenectady, NY); Zarnoch, Kenneth P. (Clifton Park, NY)

    1983-01-01

    An anode composite useful for a molten carbonate fuel cell comprised of a porous sintered metallic anode component having a porous bubble pressure barrier integrally sintered to one face thereof, said barrier being comprised of metal coated ceramic particles sintered together and to said anode by means of said metal coating, said metal coating enveloping said ceramic particle and being selected from the group consisting of nickel, copper and alloys thereof, the median pore size of the barrier being significantly smaller than that of the anode.

  1. a bStomach Lung cell zone Clara cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krasnow, Mark A.

    a bStomach Lung Chief-cell zone Stem-cell zone Mucus- cell zone Clara cell Tracheal airway Basal independent studies show that, if push comes to shove, differentiated cells of the stomach and lung can act and the other by Stange et al.2 published in Cell, find that followingdepletionofstemcellsinthestomach or lung

  2. Size-dependent structure of silver nanoparticles under high pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koski, Kristie Jo

    2008-12-31

    Silver noble metal nanoparticles that are<10 nm often possess multiply twinned grains allowing them to adopt shapes and atomic structures not observed in bulk materials. The properties exhibited by particles with multiply twinned polycrystalline structures are often far different from those of single-crystalline particles and from the bulk. I will present experimental evidence that silver nanoparticles<10 nm undergo a reversible structural transformation under hydrostatic pressures up to 10 GPa. Results for nanoparticles in the intermediate size range of 5 to 10 nm suggest a reversible linear pressure-dependent rhombohedral distortion which has not been previously observed in bulk silver. I propose a mechanism for this transitiion that considers the bond-length distribution in idealized multiply twinned icosahedral particles. Results for nanoparticles of 3.9 nm suggest a reversible linear pressure-dependent orthorhombic distortion. This distortion is interpreted in the context of idealized decahedral particles. In addition, given these size-dependent measurements of silver nanoparticle compression with pressure, we have constructed a pressure calibration curve. Encapsulating these silver nanoparticles in hollow metal oxide nanospheres then allows us to measure the pressure inside a nanoshell using x-ray diffraction. We demonstrate the measurement of pressure gradients across nanoshells and show that these nanoshells have maximum resolved shear strengths on the order of 500 MPa to IGPa.

  3. Method of assembly of molecular-sized nets and scaffolding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Michl, Josef (Boulder, CO); Magnera, Thomas F. (Louisville, CO); David, Donald E. (Boulder, CO); Harrison, Robin M. (Boulder, CO)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to methods and starting materials for forming molecular-sized grids or nets, or other structures based on such grids and nets, by creating molecular links between elementary molecular modules constrained to move in only two directions on an interface or surface by adhesion or bonding to that interface or surface. In the methods of this invention, monomers are employed as the building blocks of grids and more complex structures. Monomers are introduced onto and allowed to adhere or bond to an interface. The connector groups of adjacent adhered monomers are then polymerized with each other to form a regular grid in two dimensions above the interface. Modules that are not bound or adhered to the interface are removed prior to reaction of the connector groups to avoid undesired three-dimensional cross-linking and the formation of non-grid structures. Grids formed by the methods of this invention are useful in a variety of applications, including among others, for separations technology, as masks for forming regular surface structures (i.e., metal deposition) and as templates for three-dimensional molecular-sized structures.

  4. Method of assembly of molecular-sized nets and scaffolding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Michl, J.; Magnera, T.F.; David, D.E.; Harrison, R.M.

    1999-03-02

    The present invention relates to methods and starting materials for forming molecular-sized grids or nets, or other structures based on such grids and nets, by creating molecular links between elementary molecular modules constrained to move in only two directions on an interface or surface by adhesion or bonding to that interface or surface. In the methods of this invention, monomers are employed as the building blocks of grids and more complex structures. Monomers are introduced onto and allowed to adhere or bond to an interface. The connector groups of adjacent adhered monomers are then polymerized with each other to form a regular grid in two dimensions above the interface. Modules that are not bound or adhered to the interface are removed prior to reaction of the connector groups to avoid undesired three-dimensional cross-linking and the formation of non-grid structures. Grids formed by the methods of this invention are useful in a variety of applications, including among others, for separations technology, as masks for forming regular surface structures (i.e., metal deposition) and as templates for three-dimensional molecular-sized structures. 9 figs.

  5. The dust grain size - stellar luminosity trend in debris discs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pawellek, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    The cross section of material in debris discs is thought to be dominated by the smallest grains that can still stay in bound orbits despite the repelling action of stellar radiation pressure. Thus the minimum (and typical) grain size $s_\\text{min}$ is expected to be close to the radiation pressure blowout size $s_\\text{blow}$. Yet a recent analysis of a sample of Herschel-resolved debris discs showed the ratio $s_\\text{min}/s_\\text{blow}$ to systematically decrease with the stellar luminosity from about ten for solar-type stars to nearly unity in the discs around the most luminous A-type stars. Here we explore this trend in more detail, checking how significant it is and seeking to find possible explanations. We show that the trend is robust to variation of the composition and porosity of dust particles. For any assumed grain properties and stellar parameters, we suggest a recipe of how to estimate the "true" radius of a spatially unresolved debris disc, based solely on its spectral energy distribution. The r...

  6. Compressor Selection and Equipment Sizing for Cold Climate Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Bo [ORNL] [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL] [ORNL; Rice, C Keith [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    In order to limit heating capacity degradation at -25 C (-13 F) ambient to 25%, compared to the nominal rating point capacity at 8.3 C (47 F), an extensive array of design and sizing options were investigated, based on fundamental equipment system modeling and building energy simulation. Sixteen equipment design options were evaluated in one commercial building and one residential building, respectively in seven cities. The energy simulation results were compared to three baseline cases: 100% electric resistance heating, a 9.6 HSPF single-speed heat pump unit, and 90% AFUE gas heating system. The general recommendation is that variable-speed compressors and tandem compressors, sized such that their rated heating capacity at a low speed matching the building design cooling load, are able to achieve the capacity goal at low ambient temperatures by over-speeding, for example, a home with a 3.0 ton design cooling load, a tandem heat pump could meet this cooling load running a single compressor, while running both compressors to meet heating load at low ambient temperatures in a cold climate. Energy savings and electric resistance heat reductions vary with building types, energy codes and climate zones. Oversizing a heat pump can result in larger energy saving in a less energy efficient building and colder regions due to reducing electric resistance heating. However, in a more energy-efficient building or for buildings in warmer climates, one has to consider balance between reduction of resistance heat and addition of cyclic loss.

  7. EFFECT OF PORE SIZE ON TRAPPING ZINC VAPORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korinko, P.

    2010-12-17

    A series of experiments were conducted to determine the effect of pore size on pumping efficiency and zinc vapor trapping efficiency. A simple pumping efficiency test was conducted for all five pore diameters where it was observed that evacuation times were adversely affected by reducing the pore size below 5 {micro}m. Common test conditions for the zinc trapping efficiency experiments were used. These conditions resulted in some variability, to ascribe different efficiencies to the filter media. However, the data suggest that there is no significant difference in trapping efficiency for filter media with pores from 0.2 to 20 {micro}m with a thickness of 0.065-inch. Consequently, the 20 {micro}m pore filter media that is currently used at SRS is a suitable filter material for to utilize for future extractions. There is evidence that smaller pore filter will adversely affect the pumping times for the TEF and little evidence to suggest that a smaller pore diameters have significant impact on the trapping efficiency.

  8. THE CO2 ABATEMENT POTENTIAL OF CALIFORNIA'S MID-SIZED COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Cardoso, Goncalo; Lipman, Tim; Megel, Olivier; Ganguly, Srirupa; Siddiqui, Afzal; Lai, Judy

    2009-12-31

    The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) is working with the California Energy Commission (CEC) todetermine the potential role of commercial sector distributed generation (DG) with combined heat and power (CHP) capability deployment in greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) reductions. CHP applications at large industrial sites are well known, and a large share of their potential has already been harvested. In contrast, relatively little attention has been paid to the potential of medium-sized commercial buildings, i.e. ones with peak electric loads ranging from 100 kW to 5 MW. We examine how this sector might implement DG with CHP in cost minimizing microgrids that are able to adopt and operate various energy technologies, such as solar photovoltaics (PV), on-site thermal generation, heat exchangers, solar thermal collectors, absorption chillers, and storage systems. We apply a mixed-integer linear program (MILP) that minimizes a site?s annual energy costs as its objective. Using 138 representative mid-sized commercial sites in California (CA), existing tariffs of three major electricity distribution ultilities, and performance data of available technology in 2020, we find the GHG reduction potential for this CA commercial sector segment, which represents about 35percent of total statewide commercial sector sales. Under the assumptions made, in a reference case, this segment is estimated to be capable of economically installing 1.4 GW of CHP, 35percent of the California Air Resources Board (CARB) statewide 4 GW goal for total incremental CHP deployment by 2020. However, because CARB?s assumed utilization is far higher than is found by the MILP, the adopted CHP only contributes 19percent of the CO2 target. Several sensitivity runs were completed. One applies a simple feed-in tariff similar to net metering, and another includes a generous self-generation incentive program (SGIP) subsidy for fuel cells. The feed-in tariff proves ineffective at stimulating CHP deployment, while the SGIP buy down is more powerful. The attractiveness of CHP varies widely by climate zone and service territory, but in general, hotter inlandareas and San Diego are the more attractive regions because high cooling loads achieve higher equipment utilization. Additionally, large office buildings are surprisingly good hosts for CHP, so large office buildings in San Diego and hotter urban centers emerge as promising target hosts. Overall the effect on CO2 emissions is limited, never exceeding 27 percent of the CARB target. Nonetheless, results suggest that the CO2 emissions abatement potential of CHP in mid-sized CA buildings is significant, and much more promising than is typically assumed.

  9. Webinar: Fuel Cell Mobile Lighting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Video recording of the Fuel Cell Technologies Office webinar, Fuel Cell Mobile Lighting, originally presented on November 13, 2012.

  10. Numerical Model for the Deformation of Nucleated Cells by Optical Stretchers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ihab Sraj; Joshua Francois; David W. M. Marr; Charles D. Eggleton

    2015-01-15

    In this paper, we seek to model the deformation of nucleated cells by single diode-laser bar optical stretchers. We employ a recently developed computational model, the Dynamic Ray-Tracing method, to determine the stress distribution induced by the applied optical forces on a capsule encapsulating a nucleus of different optical properties. These forces are shape dependent and can deform real non-rigid objects; thus resulting in a dynamically changing optical stress distribution with cell and nucleus deformation. Chinese hamster ovary cell is a common biological cell that is of interest to the biomedical community because of their use in recombinant protein therapeutics and is an example of a nucleated cell. To this end, we model chinese hamster ovary cells as two three-dimensional elastic capsules of variable inner capsule size immersed in a fluid where the hydrodynamic forces are calculated using the Immersed Boundary Method. Our results show that the presence of a nucleus has a major effect on the force distribution on the cell surface and the net deformation. Scattering and gradient forces are reported for different nucleus sizes and the effect of nucleus size on the cell deformation is discussed.

  11. Indentation size effect and the plastic compressibility of glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smedskjaer, Morten M., E-mail: mos@bio.aau.dk [Section of Chemistry, Aalborg University, 9000 Aalborg (Denmark)

    2014-06-23

    Oxide glasses exhibit significant densification under an applied isostatic pressure at the glass transition temperature. The glass compressibility is correlated with the chemical composition and atomic packing density, e.g., borate glasses with planar triangular BO{sub 3} units are more disposed for densification than silicate glasses with tetrahedral units. We here show that there is a direct relation between the plastic compressibility following hot isostatic compression and the extent of the indentation size effect (ISE), which is the decrease of hardness with indentation load exhibited by most materials. This could suggest that the ISE is correlated with indentation-induced shear bands, which should form in greater density when the glass network is more adaptable to volume changes through structural and topological rearrangements under an applied pressure.

  12. Status of the Cherenkov Telescope Array's Large Size Telescopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cortina, J

    2015-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) observatory, will be deployed over two sites in the two hemispheres. Both sites will be equipped with four Large Size Telescopes (LSTs), which are crucial to achieve the science goals of CTA in the 20-200 GeV energy range. Each LST is equipped with a primary tessellated mirror dish of 23 m diameter, supported by a structure made mainly of carbon fibre reinforced plastic tubes and aluminum joints. This solution guarantees light weight (around 100 tons), essential for fast repositioning to any position in the sky in Canary island of La Palma (Spain). In this talk we will outline the technical solutions adopted to fulfill the design requirem...

  13. Strengthening of metallic alloys with nanometer-size oxide dispersions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flinn, J.E.; Kelly, T.F.

    1999-06-01

    Austenitic stainless steels and nickel-base alloys containing, by wt. %, 0.1 to 3.0% V, 0.01 to 0.08% C, 0.01 to 0.5% N, 0.05% max. each of Al and Ti, and 0.005 to 0.10% O, are strengthened and ductility retained by atomization of a metal melt under cover of an inert gas with added oxygen to form approximately 8 nanometer-size hollow oxides within the alloy grains and, when the alloy is aged, strengthened by precipitation of carbides and nitrides nucleated by the hollow oxides. Added strengthening is achieved by nitrogen solid solution strengthening and by the effect of solid oxides precipitated along and pinning grain boundaries to provide temperature-stabilization and refinement of the alloy grains. 20 figs.

  14. Strengthening of metallic alloys with nanometer-size oxide dispersions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flinn, John E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kelly, Thomas F. (Madison, WI)

    1999-01-01

    Austenitic stainless steels and nickel-base alloys containing, by wt. %, 0.1 to 3.0% V, 0.01 to 0.08% C, 0.01 to 0.5% N, 0.05% max. each of Al and Ti, and 0.005 to 0.10% O, are strengthened and ductility retained by atomization of a metal melt under cover of an inert gas with added oxygen to form approximately 8 nanometer-size hollow oxides within the alloy grains and, when the alloy is aged, strengthened by precipitation of carbides and nitrides nucleated by the hollow oxides. Added strengthening is achieved by nitrogen solid solution strengthening and by the effect of solid oxides precipitated along and pinning grain boundaries to provide temperature-stabilization and refinement of the alloy grains.

  15. Energy Efficiency Services Sector: Workforce Size and Expectations for Growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldman, Charles; Fuller, Merrian C.; Stuart, Elizabeth; Peters, Jane S.; McRae, Marjorie; Albers, Nathaniel; Lutzenhiser, Susan; Spahic, Mersiha

    2010-03-22

    The energy efficiency services sector (EESS) is poised to become an increasingly important part of the U.S. economy. Climate change and energy supply concerns, volatile and increasing energy prices, and a desire for greater energy independence have led many state and national leaders to support an increasingly prominent role for energy efficiency in U.S. energy policy. The national economic recession has also helped to boost the visibility of energy efficiency, as part of a strategy to support economic recovery. We expect investment in energy efficiency to increase dramatically both in the near-term and through 2020 and beyond. This increase will come both from public support, such as the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) and significant increases in utility ratepayer funds directed toward efficiency, and also from increased private spending due to codes and standards, increasing energy prices, and voluntary standards for industry. Given the growing attention on energy efficiency, there is a concern among policy makers, program administrators, and others that there is an insufficiently trained workforce in place to meet the energy efficiency goals being put in place by local, state, and federal policy. To understand the likelihood of a potential workforce gap and appropriate response strategies, one needs to understand the size, composition, and potential for growth of the EESS. We use a bottom-up approach based upon almost 300 interviews with program administrators, education and training providers, and a variety of EESS employers and trade associations; communications with over 50 sector experts; as well as an extensive literature review. We attempt to provide insight into key aspects of the EESS by describing the current job composition, the current workforce size, our projections for sector growth through 2020, and key issues that may limit this growth.

  16. Efficient solution-processed infrared photovoltaic cells: Planarized all-inorganic bulk heterojunction devices via inter-quantum-dot bridging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sargent, Edward H. "Ted"

    Efficient solution-processed infrared photovoltaic cells: Planarized all-inorganic bulk-processed photovoltaics. The authors demonstrate quantum size-effect tuning of device band gaps relevant to multijunction solar cells. © 2007 American Institute of Physics. DOI: 10.1063/1.2735674 Low-cost, large-area solar

  17. Staged venting of fuel cell system during rapid shutdown

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keskula, Donald H.; Doan, Tien M.; Clingerman, Bruce J.

    2004-09-14

    A venting methodology and system for rapid shutdown of a fuel cell apparatus of the type used in a vehicle propulsion system. H.sub.2 and air flows to the fuel cell stack are slowly bypassed to the combustor upon receipt of a rapid shutdown command. The bypass occurs over a period of time (for example one to five seconds) using conveniently-sized bypass valves. Upon receipt of the rapid shutdown command, the anode inlet of the fuel cell stack is instantaneously vented to a remote vent to remove all H.sub.2 from the stack. Airflow to the cathode inlet of the fuel cell stack gradually diminishes over the bypass period, and when the airflow bypass is complete the cathode inlet is also instantaneously vented to a remote vent to eliminate pressure differentials across the stack.

  18. Staged venting of fuel cell system during rapid shutdown

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clingerman, Bruce J. (Palmyra, NY); Doan, Tien M. (Columbia, MD); Keskula, Donald H. (Webster, NY)

    2002-01-01

    A venting methodology and system for rapid shutdown of a fuel cell apparatus of the type used in a vehicle propulsion system. H.sub.2 and air flows to the fuel cell stack are slowly bypassed to the combustor upon receipt of a rapid shutdown command. The bypass occurs over a period of time (for example one to five seconds) using conveniently-sized bypass valves. Upon receipt of the rapid shutdown command, the anode inlet of the fuel cell stack is instantaneously vented to a remote vent to remove all H.sub.2 from the stack. Airflow to the cathode inlet of the fuel cell stack gradually diminishes over the bypass period, and when the airflow bypass is complete the cathode inlet is also instantaneously vented to a remote vent to eliminate pressure differentials across the stack.

  19. Heterojunction solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, Jerry M. (Lakewood, CO)

    1994-01-01

    A high-efficiency single heterojunction solar cell wherein a thin emitter layer (preferably Ga.sub.0.52 In.sub.0.48 P) forms a heterojunction with a GaAs absorber layer. The conversion effiency of the solar cell is at least 25.7%. The solar cell preferably includes a passivating layer between the substrate and the absorber layer. An anti-reflection coating is preferably disposed over the emitter layer.

  20. FUEL CELLS FOR TRANSPORTATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for Fuel Cells for Transportation Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Office of Transportation............................................................................................. 101 A. R&D of a 50-kW, High-Efficiency, High-Power-Density, CO-Tolerant PEM Fuel Cell Stack SystemFUEL CELLS FOR TRANSPORTATION 2 0 0 1 A N N U A L P R O G R E S S R E P O R T U.S. Department

  1. Heterojunction solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, J.M.

    1994-08-30

    A high-efficiency single heterojunction solar cell is described wherein a thin emitter layer (preferably Ga[sub 0.52]In[sub 0.48]P) forms a heterojunction with a GaAs absorber layer. The conversion efficiency of the solar cell is at least 25.7%. The solar cell preferably includes a passivating layer between the substrate and the absorber layer. An anti-reflection coating is preferably disposed over the emitter layer. 1 fig.

  2. Direct hydrocarbon fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barnett, Scott A.; Lai, Tammy; Liu, Jiang

    2010-05-04

    The direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells, to generate greater power densities at lower temperatures without carbon deposition. The performance obtained is comparable to that of fuel cells used for hydrogen, and is achieved by using novel anode composites at low operating temperatures. Such solid oxide fuel cells, regardless of fuel source or operation, can be configured advantageously using the structural geometries of this invention.

  3. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gur, Ilan

    2006-12-15

    This dissertation presents the results of a research agenda aimed at improving integration and stability in nanocrystal-based solar cells through advances in active materials and device architectures. The introduction of 3-dimensional nanocrystals illustrates the potential for improving transport and percolation in hybrid solar cells and enables novel fabrication methods for optimizing integration in these systems. Fabricating cells by sequential deposition allows for solution-based assembly of hybrid composites with controlled and well-characterized dispersion and electrode contact. Hyperbranched nanocrystals emerge as a nearly ideal building block for hybrid cells, allowing the controlled morphologies targeted by templated approaches to be achieved in an easily fabricated solution-cast device. In addition to offering practical benefits to device processing, these approaches offer fundamental insight into the operation of hybrid solar cells, shedding light on key phenomena such as the roles of electrode-contact and percolation behavior in these cells. Finally, all-inorganic nanocrystal solar cells are presented as a wholly new cell concept, illustrating that donor-acceptor charge transfer and directed carrier diffusion can be utilized in a system with no organic components, and that nanocrystals may act as building blocks for efficient, stable, and low-cost thin-film solar cells.

  4. Hydrogen Fuel Cells

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    The fuel cell — an energy conversion device that can efficiently capture and use the power of hydrogen — is the key to making it happen.

  5. Micro fuel cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zook, L.A.; Vanderborgh, N.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Hockaday, R. [Energy Related Devices Inc., Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    1998-12-31

    An ambient temperature, liquid feed, direct methanol fuel cell device is under development. A metal barrier layer was used to block methanol crossover from the anode to the cathode side while still allowing for the transport of protons from the anode to the cathode. A direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is an electrochemical engine that converts chemical energy into clean electrical power by the direct oxidation of methanol at the fuel cell anode. This direct use of a liquid fuel eliminates the need for a reformer to convert the fuel to hydrogen before it is fed into the fuel cell.

  6. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raistrick, Ian D. (Menlo Park, CA); Poris, Jaime (Portola Valley, CA); Huggins, Robert A. (Stanford, CA)

    1983-01-01

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

  7. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raistrick, I.D.; Poris, J.; Huggins, R.A.

    1980-07-18

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400 to 500/sup 0/C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell which may be operated at temperatures between about 100 to 170/sup 0/C. The cell is comprised of an electrolyte, which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode.

  8. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raistrick, Ian D. (Menlo Park, CA); Poris, Jaime (Portola Valley, CA); Huggins, Robert A. (Stanford, CA)

    1982-02-09

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

  9. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark

    1992-01-01

    Membrane Fuel Cells and Electrolyzers," Journal of PowerAdvanced Alkaline Electrolyzer for Solar Operation,"requirements are for electrolyzer feedwater. T h e high-

  10. Opportunities with Fuel Cells

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1994-01-01

    The concept for fuel cells was discovered in the nineteenth century. Today, units incorporating this technology are becoming commercially available for cogeneration applications.

  11. Fuel Cell Technologies Budget

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    EERE

    2012-03-16

    The Fuel Cell Technologies Office receives appropriations from Energy and Water Development. The offices's major activities and budget are outlined in this Web page.

  12. Microcomposite Fuel Cell Membranes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Summary of microcomposite fuel cell membrane work presented to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting, Orlando FL, October 17, 2003

  13. Tropical cyclone size in observations and in radiative-convective equilibrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chavas, Daniel Robert

    2013-01-01

    Tropical cyclone size remains an unsolved problem in tropical meteorology, yet size plays a significant role in the damage caused by tropical cyclones due to wind, storm surge, and inland freshwater flooding. This work ...

  14. Better Buildings Alliance, Advanced Rooftop Unit Campaign: RTU Sizing Guidance (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-09-01

    This fact sheet discusses the causes and consequences of incorrect RTU sizing (with respect to cooling tonnage and supply fan horsepower) and points to resources that can help ensure accurate sizing calculations.

  15. Equilibrium Tropical Cyclone Size in an Idealized State of Axisymmetric Radiative–Convective Equilibrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chavas, Daniel Robert

    Tropical cyclone size remains an unsolved problem in tropical meteorology, yet size plays a significant role in modulating damage. This work employs the Bryan cloud model (CM1) to systematically explore the sensitivity of ...

  16. Effects of droplet size on intrusion of sub-surface oil spills

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Godine Kok Yan

    2013-01-01

    This thesis explores the effects of droplet size on droplet intrusion in sub-surface oil spills. Laboratory experiments were performed where glass beads of various sizes, which serve to simulate oil droplets in deepsea oil ...

  17. Size based separation of submicron nonmagnetic particles through magnetophoresis in structured obstacle arrays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Annavarapu, V. N. Ravikanth (Venkata Nagandra Ravikanth)

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this work was on developing a novel scalable size based separation technology for nonmagnetic particles in the submicron size range utilizing magnetophoretic forces. When a nonmagnetic particle is immersed in ...

  18. Retroviruses and sexual size dimorphism in domestic cats (Felis catus L.)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Courchamp, Franck

    Retroviruses and sexual size dimorphism in domestic cats (Felis catus L.) Dominique Pontier1 cat Felis catus. Orange cats have greater body size dimorphism than non-orange cats. Orange females; domestic cat, Felis catus: Yamane

  19. Efficiency of initiating cell adhesion in hydrodynamic flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Korn; U. S. Schwarz

    2006-09-05

    We theoretically investigate the efficiency of initial binding between a receptor-coated sphere and a ligand-coated wall in linear shear flow. The mean first passage time for binding decreases monotonically with increasing shear rate. Above a saturation threshold of the order of a few 100 receptor patches, the binding efficiency is enhanced only weakly by increasing their number and size, but strongly by increasing their height. This explains why white blood cells in the blood flow adhere through receptor patches localized to the tips of microvilli, and why malaria-infected red blood cells form elevated receptor patches (knobs).

  20. Transitional properties of starch colloid with particle size reduction from micro-to nanometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for implant materials, bioplastics, and drug carriers [5­7]. Furthermore, because of their size and good

  1. Electrolyte matrix in a molten carbonate fuel cell stack

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reiser, Carl A. (Glastonbury, CT); Maricle, Donald L. (Glastonbury, CT)

    1987-04-21

    A fuel cell stack is disclosed with modified electrolyte matrices for limiting the electrolytic pumping and electrolyte migration along the stack external surfaces. Each of the matrices includes marginal portions at the stack face of substantially greater pore size than that of the central body of the matrix. Consequently, these marginal portions have insufficient electrolyte fill to support pumping or wicking of electrolyte from the center of the stack of the face surfaces in contact with the vertical seals. Various configurations of the marginal portions include a complete perimeter, opposite edge portions corresponding to the air plenums and tab size portions corresponding to the manifold seal locations. These margins will substantially limit the migration of electrolyte to and along the porous manifold seals during operation of the electrochemical cell stack.

  2. Electrolyte matrix in a molten carbonate fuel cell stack

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reiser, C.A.; Maricle, D.L.

    1987-04-21

    A fuel cell stack is disclosed with modified electrolyte matrices for limiting the electrolytic pumping and electrolyte migration along the stack external surfaces. Each of the matrices includes marginal portions at the stack face of substantially greater pore size than that of the central body of the matrix. Consequently, these marginal portions have insufficient electrolyte fill to support pumping or wicking of electrolyte from the center of the stack of the face surfaces in contact with the vertical seals. Various configurations of the marginal portions include a complete perimeter, opposite edge portions corresponding to the air plenums and tab size portions corresponding to the manifold seal locations. These margins will substantially limit the migration of electrolyte to and along the porous manifold seals during operation of the electrochemical cell stack. 6 figs.

  3. Design for the fabrication of high efficiency solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simmons, Joseph H. (Gainesville, FL)

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for a photo-active region for generation of free carriers when a first surface is exposed to optical radiation. The photo-active region includes a conducting transparent matrix and clusters of semiconductor materials embedded within the conducting transparent matrix. The clusters are arranged in the matrix material so as to define at least a first distribution of cluster sizes ranging from those with the highest bandgap energy near a light incident surface of the photo-active region to those with the smallest bandgap energy near an opposite second surface of the photo-active region. Also disclosed is a method and apparatus for a solar cell. The solar cell includes a photo-active region containing a plurality of semiconductor clusters of varying sizes as described.

  4. Statistical distributions of water content and sizes for clouds above Europe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Statistical distributions of water content and sizes for clouds above Europe R. P. H. Berton O and water content (IWC), horizontal and vertical sizes (L and H), and top temperatures (T) of clouds above and water contents) controlling radiation transfer in the cloud, and geo- metrical sizes used

  5. Wilson Bull., 112(4), 2000, pp. 457466 SEXUAL SIZE DIMORPHISM OF THE MUSK DUCK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Afton, Alan D.

    457 Wilson Bull., 112(4), 2000, pp. 457­466 SEXUAL SIZE DIMORPHISM OF THE MUSK DUCK KEVIN G. McCRACKEN,1, 2, 3, 4, 5 DAVID C. PATON, 2 AND ALAN D. AFTON3 ABSTRACT.--We examined sexual size dimorphism-displaying species, Musk Ducks exhibit extreme sexual size di- morphism in addition to structural dimorphism. Body

  6. Simplified Wiener LMS Tracking Automatic Tuning of the Step-Size

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simplified Wiener LMS Tracking With Automatic Tuning of the Step-Size Jonas Rutstr¨om March 2005- size for the Simplified Wiener LMS algorithm (SWLMS). When tracking time-varying parameters, variable step-size algorithms, LMS, WLMS. c Jonas Rutstr¨om 2005 This thesis has been prepared using LATEX

  7. Retrieval of subpixel snow covered area, grain size, and albedo from MODIS Thomas H. Painter a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dozier, Jeff

    Retrieval of subpixel snow covered area, grain size, and albedo from MODIS Thomas H. Painter a Keywords: Snow Grain size Albedo Spectral mixture analysis MODIS We describe and validate a model that retrieves fractional snow-covered area and the grain size and albedo of that snow from surface reflectance

  8. A Hyperspectral Method for Remotely Sensing the Grain Size of Snow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurapov, Alexander

    A Hyperspectral Method for Remotely Sensing the Grain Size of Snow Anne W. Nolin* and Jeff Dozier in the snowpack. Changes in snow grain size can help identifynique for estimating the grain size in a snowpack's surface ice sheet surface features, such as melt areas, snow dunes,layer from imaging spectrometer data

  9. Comment on "Minimal size of a barchan dune" B. Andreotti and P. Claudin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Claudin, Philippe

    Comment on "Minimal size of a barchan dune" B. Andreotti and P. Claudin Laboratoire de Physique et Received 23 May 2007; published 21 December 2007 It is now an accepted fact that the size at which dunes of the typical dune wavelength on Mars 650 m on the basis of which they refute the scaling of the dune size

  10. The Size-Ramsey Number of Trees P.E. Haxell1* and Y. Kohayakawa2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kohayakawa, Yoshiharu

    The Size-Ramsey Number of Trees P.E. Haxell1* and Y. Kohayakawa2 1Department of Pure- matic copy of H in any 2-colouring of the edges of G. The size-Ramsey number re* *(H) of a graph H are concerned with a numerical problem in Ramsey theory: we shall study the size-Ramsey number of trees. Before

  11. Climate change, body size evolution, and Cope's Rule in deep-sea ostracodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roy, Kaustuv

    Climate change, body size evolution, and Cope's Rule in deep-sea ostracodes Gene Hunt* and Kaustuv in response to climate change can be an important determinant of macroevolutionary trends in body size (10), and it has been shown that body size can change in response to climatic change (11, 12). Thus

  12. Journal of Mammalogy, 84(1):197204, 2003 GROUP SIZE BUT NOT DISTANCE TO COVER INFLUENCES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grether, Gregory

    wallabies (Macropus agilis). The ability to modify time allocation as a function of group size allocated to foraging and vigilance as a function of group size but were insensitive to distance from cover to manage predation risk, the ability to modify time allocation as a function of group size (Bednekoff

  13. Developing a Model for Planning and Controlling Production in Small Sized Building Firms Proceedings IGLC `98

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tommelein, Iris D.

    Developing a Model for Planning and Controlling Production in Small Sized Building Firms Proceedings IGLC `98 DEVELOPING A MODEL FOR PLANNING AND CONTROLLING PRODUCTION IN SMALL SIZED BUILDING FIRMS process of a model for planning and controlling production in small sized building companies, as well

  14. BayesianScore(BDeu) Ave. Bayesian Score Results -Child -Sample Size 500

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Laura E.

    GS PC TPDA GES BayesianScore(BDeu) Ave. Bayesian Score Results - Child - Sample Size 500 Error Bars GS PC TPDA GES BayesianScore(BDeu) Ave. Bayesian Score Results - Child3 - Sample Size 500 Error Bars TPDA GES BayesianScore(BDeu) Ave. Bayesian Score Results - Child5 - Sample Size 500 Error Bars

  15. Improvements on the "Size Change Termination Principle" in a functional language

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Improvements on the "Size Change Termination Principle" in a functional language Pierre Hyvernat improvements of Lee, Jones and Ben-Amram size change termination principle specialised to functional-graphs and yields a more precise test for termination. 1 Introduction Lee, Jones and Ben-Amram size change

  16. SSP: A Simple Software Process for Small-Size Software Development Projects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guerrero, Luis

    SSP: A Simple Software Process for Small- Size Software Development Projects Sergio F. Ochoa1 number of software development projects in Latin- America countries are small-size, poorly defined development projects in Chile are information systems of small or medium size (1-2 months or 3-6 months) [17

  17. Relationships among Egg Size, Composition, and Energy: A Comparative Study of Geminate Sea Urchins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Relationships among Egg Size, Composition, and Energy: A Comparative Study of Geminate Sea Urchins histories of marine organisms. However, few studies have examined the relationships among egg size among egg size, composition, and energy using a comparative system, geminate species formed

  18. Micro moon versus macro moon: Brightness and size

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agrawal, Dulli Chandra

    2015-01-01

    The moon, moonlight, phases of the moon and its relatively simple recurring cycle has been of interest since time immemorial to the human beings, navigators, astronomers and astrologers. The fact that its orbit is elliptical as well its plane is inclined with the plane of rotation of the earth gives rise to new moon to full moon and solar and lunar eclipses. During the phase of the full moon, the luminous flux and its apparent size will depend on its distance from the earth. In case it is at farthest point known as lunar apogee causes smallest full moon or micro full moon and if it is closest to us termed as lunar perigee will result in macro full moon, also known as super moon, a term coined by astrologer Richard Nolle in 1979. The theoretical expressions for the lunar luminous fluxes on the earth representing the power of lunar light the earth intercepts in the direction normal to the incidence over an area of one square meter are derived for two extreme positions lunar apogee and lunar perigee. The express...

  19. Sifting attacks in finite-size quantum key distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corsin Pfister; Patrick J. Coles; Stephanie Wehner; Norbert Lütkenhaus

    2015-09-02

    A central assumption in quantum key distribution (QKD) is that Eve has no knowledge about which rounds will be used for parameter estimation or key distillation. Here we show that this assumption is violated for iterative sifting, a commonly used sifting procedure that has been em- ployed in both theoretical and experimental finite-size QKD. We show that iterative sifting leads to two problems: (1) some rounds are more likely to be key rounds than others, (2) the public communication of past measurement choices changes this bias round by round. We analyze these two previously unnoticed problems, present eavesdropping strategies that exploit them, and find that the two problems are independent. We propose corrections to the protocol and prove that the resulting protocol, which we call the fixed round number sifting protocol, is secure and can thus replace iterative sifting in future QKD protocols. It outperforms other recently suggested protocols, increasing the efficiency by a factor of almost two. More generally, we present two formal criteria for a sifting protocol which ensure that they are secure. Our criteria may guide the design of future protocols and inspire a more rigorous QKD analysis, which has neglected sifting-related attacks so far.

  20. Quantifying multipartite nonlocality via the size of the resource

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florian John Curchod; Nicolas Gisin; Yeong-Cherng Liang

    2014-11-17

    The generation of (Bell-)nonlocal correlations, i.e., correlations leading to the violation of a Bell-like inequality, requires the usage of a nonlocal resource, such as an entangled state. When given a correlation (a collection of conditional probability distributions) from an experiment or from a theory, it is desirable to determine the extent to which the participating parties would need to collaborate nonlocally for its (re)production. Here, we propose to achieve this via the minimal group size (MGS) of the resource, i.e., the smallest number of parties that need to share a given type of nonlocal resource for the above-mentioned purpose. In addition, we provide a general recipe --- based on the lifting of Bell-like inequalities --- to construct MGS witnesses for non-signaling resources starting from any given ones. En route to illustrating the applicability of this recipe, we also show that when restricted to the space of full-correlation functions, non-signaling resources are as powerful as unconstrained signaling resources. Explicit examples of correlations where their MGS can be determined using this recipe and other numerical techniques are provided.

  1. Size dependence of solar X-ray flare properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marina Battaglia; Paolo C. Grigis; Arnold O. Benz

    2005-05-09

    Non-thermal and thermal parameters of 85 solar flares of GOES class B1 to M6 (background subtracted classes A1 to M6) have been compared to each other. The hard X-ray flux has been measured by RHESSI and a spectral fitting provided flux and spectral index of the non-thermal emission, as well as temperature and emission measure of the thermal emission. The soft X-ray flux was taken from GOES measurements. We find a linear correlation in a double logarithmic plot between the non-thermal flux and the spectral index. The higher the acceleration rate of a flare, the harder the non-thermal electron distribution. The relation is similar to the one found by a comparison of the same parameters from several sub-peaks of a single flare. Thus small flares behave like small subpeaks of large flares. Thermal flare properties such as temperature, emission measure and the soft X-ray flux also correlate with peak non-thermal flux. A large non-thermal peak flux entails an enhancement in both thermal parameters. The relation between spectral index and the non-thermal flux is an intrinsic feature of the particle acceleration process, depending on flare size. This property affects the reported frequency distribution of flare energies.

  2. Molecular Cell Short Article

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lahav, Galit

    these pathways depends on cell-cycle phase; however the continuous effect of cell cycle on the balance between pathways are functional. The shift from NHEJ to HR is gradual, with the highest proportion of breaks repaired by HR in mid S, where the amount of DNA replication is highest. Higher proportions of HR also

  3. Electrochemical cell stack assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2010-06-22

    Multiple stacks of tubular electrochemical cells having a dense electrolyte disposed between an anode and a cathode preferably deposited as thin films arranged in parallel on stamped conductive interconnect sheets or ferrules. The stack allows one or more electrochemical cell to malfunction without disabling the entire stack. Stack efficiency is enhanced through simplified gas manifolding, gas recycling, reduced operating temperature and improved heat distribution.

  4. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark

    1992-01-01

    freezing and about a hundred freeze-thaw cycles, there is no change in fuel cellfuel cell is operating, it generates more than enough heat to prevent water and moisture from freezingfuel cell system, because in the present design the flow fields and manifolds would be damaged by the freezing-

  5. Programmed cell death

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this conference to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on the role programmed cell death plays in normal development and homeostasis of many organisms. This volume contains abstracts of papers in the following areas: invertebrate development; immunology/neurology; bcl-2 family; biochemistry; programmed cell death in viruses; oncogenesis; vertebrate development; and diseases.

  6. Solid oxide fuel cell generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Di Croce, A. Michael (Murrysville, PA); Draper, Robert (Churchill Boro, PA)

    1993-11-02

    A solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plenum containing at least two rows of spaced apart, annular, axially elongated fuel cells. An electrical conductor extending between adjacent rows of fuel cells connects the fuel cells of one row in parallel with each other and in series with the fuel cells of the adjacent row.

  7. Solid oxide fuel cell generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Di Croce, A.M.; Draper, R.

    1993-11-02

    A solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plenum containing at least two rows of spaced apart, annular, axially elongated fuel cells. An electrical conductor extending between adjacent rows of fuel cells connects the fuel cells of one row in parallel with each other and in series with the fuel cells of the adjacent row. 5 figures.

  8. Molten carbonate fuel cell reduction of nickel deposits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, James L. (Lemont, IL); Zwick, Stanley A. (Darien, IL)

    1987-01-01

    A molten carbonate fuel cell with anode and cathode electrodes and an eleolyte formed with two tile sections, one of the tile sections being adjacent the anode and limiting leakage of fuel gas into the electrolyte with the second tile section being adjacent the cathode and having pores sized to permit the presence of oxygen gas in the electrolyte thereby limiting the formation of metal deposits caused by the reduction of metal compositions migrating into the electrolyte from the cathode.

  9. Fuel cells and fuel cell catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Masel, Richard I.; Rice, Cynthia A.; Waszczuk, Piotr; Wieckowski, Andrzej

    2006-11-07

    A direct organic fuel cell includes a formic acid fuel solution having between about 10% and about 95% formic acid. The formic acid is oxidized at an anode. The anode may include a Pt/Pd catalyst that promotes the direct oxidation of the formic acid via a direct reaction path that does not include formation of a CO intermediate.

  10. Measuring the mechanical properties of plant cells by combining micro-indentation with osmotic treatments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weber, Alain; Braybrook, Siobhan; Huflejt, Michal; Mosca, Gabriella; Routier-Kierzkowska, Anne-Lise; Smith, Richard S.

    2015-04-07

    walls (or low turgor pressure) and soft cells walls (or high turgor pressure) and two indenter sizes as well as two indentation depths. The small indenter corresponds to our experimental set-up, whereas the large indenter is similar in size... of 13 | Weber et al. Beside the parameters in Eq. 1, we also studied the sensi- tivity of the contact force to the hydraulic conductivity of the cell wall. We compared the relative change in force at the four reference states when using the constant...

  11. Photovoltaic solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Gupta, Vipin P.; Okandan, Murat; Watts, Michael R.

    2015-09-08

    A photovoltaic solar concentrator is disclosed with one or more transverse-junction solar cells (also termed point contact solar cells) and a lens located above each solar cell to concentrate sunlight onto the solar cell to generate electricity. Piezoelectric actuators tilt or translate each lens to track the sun using a feedback-control circuit which senses the electricity generated by one or more of the solar cells. The piezoelectric actuators can be coupled through a displacement-multiplier linkage to provide an increased range of movement of each lens. Each lens in the solar concentrator can be supported on a frame (also termed a tilt plate) having three legs, with the movement of the legs being controlled by the piezoelectric actuators.

  12. Physics of adherent cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulrich S. Schwarz; Samuel S. Safran

    2013-09-09

    One of the most unique physical features of cell adhesion to external surfaces is the active generation of mechanical force at the cell-material interface. This includes pulling forces generated by contractile polymer bundles and networks, and pushing forces generated by the polymerization of polymer networks. These forces are transmitted to the substrate mainly by focal adhesions, which are large, yet highly dynamic adhesion clusters. Tissue cells use these forces to sense the physical properties of their environment and to communicate with each other. The effect of forces is intricately linked to the material properties of cells and their physical environment. Here a review is given of recent progress in our understanding of the role of forces in cell adhesion from the viewpoint of theoretical soft matter physics and in close relation to the relevant experiments.

  13. Mechanical forces such as cell traction control cell growth, differ

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salaita, Khalid

    Mechanical forces such as cell traction control cell growth, differ entiation, motility, which bind integrins (transmembrane receptors that relay mechanical signals from the extracellular the contribution of mechanical forces to cell behaviour and function. Eytan Zlotorynski TECHNIQUE DNA hairpins

  14. Cochlear hair cell regeneration from neonatal mouse supporting cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bramhall, Naomi F

    2012-01-01

    Unlike lower vertebrates, capable of spontaneous hair cell regeneration, mammals experience permanent sensorineural hearing loss following hair cell damage. Although low levels of hair cell regeneration have been demonstrated ...

  15. Single-cell technologies for monitoring interactions between immune cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yamanaka, Yvonne J. (Yvonne Joy)

    2014-01-01

    Immune cells participate in dynamic cellular interactions that play a critical role in the defense against pathogens and the destruction of malignant cells. The vast heterogeneity of immune cells motivates the study of ...

  16. Human serum activates CIDEB-mediated lipid droplet enlargement in hepatoma cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singaravelu, Ragunath; National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 ; Lyn, Rodney K.; National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 ; Srinivasan, Prashanth; Delcorde, Julie; National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 ; Steenbergen, Rineke H.; Tyrrell, D. Lorne; Li Ka Shing Institute of Virology, Katz Centre for Pharmacy and Health Research, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2S2 ; Pezacki, John P.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •Human serum induced differentiation of hepatoma cells increases cellular lipid droplet (LD) size. •The observed increase in LD size correlates with increased PGC-1? and CIDEB expression. •Induction of CIDEB expression correlates with rescue of VLDL secretion and loss of ADRP. •siRNA knockdown of CIDEB impairs the human serum mediated increase in LD size. •This system represents a cost-efficient model to study CIDEB’s role in lipid biology. -- Abstract: Human hepatocytes constitutively express the lipid droplet (LD) associated protein cell death-inducing DFFA-like effector B (CIDEB). CIDEB mediates LD fusion, as well as very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) maturation. However, there are limited cell culture models readily available to study CIDEB’s role in these biological processes, as hepatoma cell lines express negligible levels of CIDEB. Recent work has highlighted the ability of human serum to differentiate hepatoma cells. Herein, we demonstrate that culturing Huh7.5 cells in media supplemented with human serum activates CIDEB expression. This activation occurs through the induced expression of PGC-1?, a positive transcriptional regulator of CIDEB. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy revealed a correlation between CIDEB levels and LD size in human serum treated Huh7.5 cells. Human serum treatment also resulted in a rapid decrease in the levels of adipose differentiation-related protein (ADRP). Furthermore, individual overexpression of CIDEB was sufficient to down-regulate ADRP protein levels. siRNA knockdown of CIDEB revealed that the human serum mediated increase in LD size was CIDEB-dependent. Overall, our work highlights CIDEB’s role in LD fusion, and presents a new model system to study the PGC-1?/CIDEB pathway’s role in LD dynamics and the VLDL pathway.

  17. Gap-Size Distribution Functions of a Random Sequential Adsorption Model of Segments on the Line

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. A. M. Araujo; A. Cadilhe

    2006-04-24

    We performed extensive simulations accompanied by a detailed study of a two-segment size random sequential model on the line. We followed the kinetics towards the jamming state, but we paid particular attention to the characterization of the jamming state structure. In particular, we studied the effect of the size ratio on the mean-gap size, the gap-size dispersion, gap-size skewness, and gap-size kurtosis at the jamming state. We also analyzed the above quantities for the four possible segment-to-segment gap types. We ranged the values of the size ratio from one to twenty. In the limit of a size ratio of one, one recovers the classical car-parking problem. We observed that at low size ratios the jamming state is constituted by short streaks of small and large segments, while at high values of the size ratio the jamming state structure is formed by long streaks of small segments separated by a single large segment. This view of the jamming state structure as a function of the size ratio is supported by the various measured quantities. The present work can help provide insight, for example, on how to minimize the interparticle distance or minimize fluctuations around the mean particle-to-particle distance.

  18. tem cells are undifferentiated or "blank slate" cells from which other types of cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S tem cells are undifferentiated or "blank slate" cells from which other types of cells can arise. The defining characteristic of human stem cells is their ability to self-renew (provide an exact copy of themselves) while maintaining the potential to develop into other types of cells, such as blood, brain

  19. MODELING CELL HETEROGENEITY: FROM SINGLE-CELL VARIATIONS TO MIXED CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raphael, Ben J.

    MODELING CELL HETEROGENEITY: FROM SINGLE-CELL VARIATIONS TO MIXED CELLS ERIC BATCHELOR Center of Health Bethesda, MD 20894, USA Email: wojtowda@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov Emerging technologies such as single cell gene expression analysis and single cell genome sequencing provide an unprecedented opportunity

  20. Method and apparatus for sizing and separating warp yarns using acoustical energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheen, Shuh-Haw (Naperville, IL); Chien, Hual-Te (Naperville, IL); Raptis, Apostolos C. (Downers Grove, IL); Kupperman, David S. (Oak Park, IL)

    1998-01-01

    A slashing process for preparing warp yarns for weaving operations including the steps of sizing and/or desizing the yarns in an acoustic resonance box and separating the yarns with a leasing apparatus comprised of a set of acoustically agitated lease rods. The sizing step includes immersing the yarns in a size solution contained in an acoustic resonance box. Acoustic transducers are positioned against the exterior of the box for generating an acoustic pressure field within the size solution. Ultrasonic waves that result from the acoustic pressure field continuously agitate the size solution to effect greater mixing and more uniform application and penetration of the size onto the yarns. The sized yarns are then separated by passing the warp yarns over and under lease rods. Electroacoustic transducers generate acoustic waves along the longitudinal axis of the lease rods, creating a shearing motion on the surface of the rods for splitting the yarns.

  1. ON THE SIZE, SHAPE, AND DENSITY OF DWARF PLANET MAKEMAKE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, M. E.

    2013-04-10

    A recent stellar occultation by the dwarf planet Makemake provided an excellent opportunity to measure the size and shape of one of the largest objects in the Kuiper belt. The analysis of these results provided what were reported to be precise measurements of the lengths of the projected axes, the albedo, and even the density of Makemake, but these results were, in part, derived from qualitative arguments. We reanalyzed the occultation timing data using a quantitative statistical description, and, in general, found the previously reported results on the shape of Makemake to be unjustified. In our solution, in which we use our inference from photometric data that Makemake is being viewed nearly pole-on, we find a 1{sigma} upper limit to the projected elongation of Makemake of 1.02, with measured equatorial diameter of 1434 {+-} 14 km and a projected polar diameter of 1422 {+-} 14 km, yielding an albedo of 0.81{sup +0.01}{sub -0.02}. If we remove the external constraint on the pole position of Makemake, we find instead a 1{sigma} upper limit to the elongation of 1.06, with a measured equatorial diameter of 1434{sup +48}{sub -18} km and a projected polar diameter of 1420{sup +18}{sub -24} km, yielding an albedo of 0.81{sup +0.03}{sub -0.05}. Critically, we find that the reported measurement of the density of Makemake was based on the misapplication of the volatile retention models. A corrected analysis shows that the occultation measurements provide no meaningful constraint on the density of Makemake.

  2. Efficiency considerations for polycrystalline GaAs thin-film solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamaguchi, M.; Itoh, Y.

    1986-07-01

    The effect of grain boundaries upon the efficiency of polycrystalline GaAs thin-film solar cells is analyzed. Solar-cell properties are calculated on a simple model where grain boundaries act as recombination centers to reduce the minority-carrier diffusion length in the solar cell's active layer and increase the space-charge layer recombination current. An effective diffusion length is expressed in terms of grain size, allowing the calculation of short-circuit current density and open-circuit voltage. Excellent agreement is obtained between theory and experiment. The fabrication of thin-film GaAs solar cells with an efficiency greater than 18% appears to be possible if the grain size in the thin-film GaAs layer with thickness of 3 ..mu..m is larger than 1000 ..mu..m.

  3. Fuel Cell Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Cell Systems Fuel Cell Systems The design of fuel cell systems is complex, and can vary significantly depending upon fuel cell type and application. However, several basic...

  4. Fuel Cells Fact Sheet | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fact Sheet Fact sheet produced by the Fuel Cell Technologies Office describing hydrogen fuel cell technology. Fuel Cells More Documents & Publications Hydrogen and Fuel Cell...

  5. NANOCOMPOSITE ENABLED SENSITIZED SOLAR CELL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phuyal, Dibya

    2012-01-01

    W. , Dunlop, E.D. Solar Cell efficiency tables (version 38).Grätzel. A Low-Cost, High-Efficiency Solar Cell Based on Dyeand E.D. Dunlop. Solar Cell efficiency tables (version 38).

  6. RECHARGEABLE MOLTEN-SALT CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cairns, Elton J.

    2013-01-01

    KC! /FeS 2 cell lithium-silicon magnesium oxide molten-saltmolten-salt cells Na/Na glass/Na:z.Sn-S cell Na/NazO•xA!Symposium on Molten Salts, Physical Electrochemistry

  7. Thermal Management of Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saadah, Mohammed Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    heat exchangers, and solar cells," Sci-Tech News, vol. 65,Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 86, pp. 451-in crystalline silicon solar cells," Renewable Energy, vol.

  8. NANOCOMPOSITE ENABLED SENSITIZED SOLAR CELL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phuyal, Dibya

    2012-01-01

    Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 93(10): 1728-1723,Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 92(8) 39. Sima, C.Y. , Warta, W. , Dunlop, E.D. Solar Cell efficiency tables (

  9. Thermal Management of Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saadah, Mohammed Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Nanostructured Silicon- Based Solar Cells, 2013. X. C. Tong,heat exchangers, and solar cells," Sci-Tech News, vol. 65,in crystalline silicon solar cells," Renewable Energy, vol.

  10. Measuring single-cell density

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grover, William H.

    We have used a microfluidic mass sensor to measure the density of single living cells. By weighing each cell in two fluids of different densities, our technique measures the single-cell mass, volume, and density of ...

  11. NANOCOMPOSITE ENABLED SENSITIZED SOLAR CELL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phuyal, Dibya

    2012-01-01

    glass contact Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 93(10):cells. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 92(8) 39.potential of these materials for solar energy conversion,

  12. Thermal Management of Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saadah, Mohammed Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    heat exchangers, and solar cells," Sci-Tech News, vol. 65,Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 86, pp. 451-Nanostructured Silicon- Based Solar Cells, 2013. X. C. Tong,

  13. Power from the Fuel Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lipman, Timothy E.

    2000-01-01

    Power for Buildings Using Fuel-Cell Cars,” Proceedings ofwell as to drive down fuel-cell system costs through productPower from the Fuel Cell BY TIMOTHY E. LIPMAN A U T O M O B

  14. NANOCOMPOSITE ENABLED SENSITIZED SOLAR CELL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phuyal, Dibya

    2012-01-01

    Y. , Warta, W. , Dunlop, E.D. Solar Cell efficiency tables (in dye-sensitized solar cells based on Tio2 nanocrystal/R. J. ; Nozik, A. J. Schottky Solar Cells Based on Colloidal

  15. Modeling Stem Cell Induction Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gracio, Filipe

    Technology for converting human cells to pluripotent stem cell using induction processes has the potential to revolutionize regenerative medicine. However, the production of these so called iPS cells is still quite inefficient ...

  16. DOE Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Overview

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    t t 1 | Fuel Cell Technologies Program eere.energy.gov Fuel Cell Technologies Program DOE Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Overview Dr. Sunita Satyapal Program Manager U S D f E Overview U.S....

  17. Air Liquide - Biogas & Fuel Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and the environment PT Loma WWTP, Biogas to Fuel Cell Power BioFuels Energy Biogas to BioMethane to 4.5 MW Fuel Cell Power 3 FCE Fuel Cells 2 via directed...

  18. Cell Patterning with Mucin Biopolymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crouzier, T.

    The precise spatial control of cell adhesion to surfaces is an endeavor that has enabled discoveries in cell biology and new possibilities in tissue engineering. The generation of cell-repellent surfaces currently requires ...

  19. NANOCOMPOSITE ENABLED SENSITIZED SOLAR CELL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phuyal, Dibya

    2012-01-01

    there is a great deal of interest in thin-film solar cells.Thin-film solar cells are made from a variety oflimitation in all thin-film solar cell technologies is that

  20. NANOCOMPOSITE ENABLED SENSITIZED SOLAR CELL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phuyal, Dibya

    2012-01-01

    the harvesting potential of our solar cell and suggests thedye sensitized solar cell and the potential they can serveSchottky solar cells has demonstrated the potential of these

  1. Soot particle sizing during high-pressure Diesel spray combustion via time-resolved laser-induced incandescence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryser, R.; Gerber, T.; Dreier, T. [Reaction Analysis Group, Department of General Energy, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland)

    2009-01-15

    Single-pulse time-resolved laser-induced incandescence (TiRe-LII) signal transients from soot particulates were acquired during unsteady high pressure Diesel combustion in a constant volume cell for typical top dead center conditions during a Diesel engine cycle. Measurements were performed for initial gas pressures between 1 and 3 MPa, injection pressures between 50 and 130 MPa and laser probe timings between 5 and 16 ms after start of fuel injection. In separate experiments and for the same cell operating conditions gas temperatures were deduced from spectrally resolved soot pyrometry measurements. Implementing the LII model of Kock et al. [Combust. Flame 147 (20006) 79-92] ensemble mean soot particle diameters were evaluated from least-squares fitting of theoretical cooling curves to experimental TiRe-LII signal transients. Since in the experiments the environmental gas temperature and the width of an assumed particle size distribution were not known, the effects of the initial choice of these parameters on retrieved particle diameters were investigated. It is shown that evaluated mean particle diameters are only slightly biased by the choice of typical size distribution widths and gas temperatures. For a fixed combustion phase mean particle diameters are not much affected by gas pressure, however they become smaller at high fuel injection pressure. At a mean chamber pressure of 1.39 MPa evaluated mean particle diameters increased by a factor of two for probe delays between 5 and 16 ms after start of injection irrespective of the choices of first-guess fitting variables, indicating a certain robustness of data analysis procedure. (author)

  2. Soot particle sizing during high-pressure Diesel spray combustion via time-resolved laser-induced incandescence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryser, R.; Gerber, T.; Dreier, T. [Reaction Analysis Group, Department of General Energy, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2008-11-15

    Single-pulse time-resolved laser-induced incandescence (TiRe-LII) signal transients from soot particulates were acquired during unsteady high pressure Diesel combustion in a constant volume cell for typical top dead center conditions during a Diesel engine cycle. Measurements were performed for initial gas pressures between 1 and 3 MPa, injection pressures between 50 and 130 MPa and laser probe timings between 5 and 16 ms after start of fuel injection. In separate experiments and for the same cell operating conditions gas temperatures were deduced from spectrally resolved soot pyrometry measurements. Implementing the LII model of Kock et al. [Combust. Flame 147 (2006) 79-92] ensemble mean soot particle diameters were evaluated from least-squares fitting of theoretical cooling curves to experimental TiRe-LII signal transients. Since in the experiments the environmental gas temperature and the width of an assumed particle size distribution were not known, the effects of the initial choice of these parameters on retrieved particle diameters were investigated. It is shown that evaluated mean particle diameters are only slightly biased by the choice of typical size distribution widths and gas temperatures. For a fixed combustion phase mean particle diameters are not much affected by gas pressure, however they become smaller at high fuel injection pressure. At a mean chamber pressure of 1.39 MPa evaluated mean particle diameters increased by a factor of two for probe delays between 5 and 16 ms after start of injection irrespective of the choices of first-guess fitting variables, indicating a certain robustness of data analysis procedure. (author)

  3. Extracting magnetic cluster size and its distributions in advanced perpendicular recording media with shrinking grain size using small angle x-ray scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehta, Virat; Ikeda, Yoshihiro; Takano, Ken; Terris, Bruce D.; Hellwig, Olav; Wang, Tianhan; Wu, Benny; Graves, Catherine; Dürr, Hermann A.; Scherz, Andreas; Stöhr, Jo

    2015-05-18

    We analyze the magnetic cluster size (MCS) and magnetic cluster size distribution (MCSD) in a variety of perpendicular magnetic recording (PMR) media designs using resonant small angle x-ray scattering at the Co L{sub 3} absorption edge. The different PMR media flavors considered here vary in grain size between 7.5 and 9.5?nm as well as in lateral inter-granular exchange strength, which is controlled via the segregant amount. While for high inter-granular exchange, the MCS increases rapidly for grain sizes below 8.5?nm, we show that for increased amount of segregant with less exchange the MCS remains relatively small, even for grain sizes of 7.5 and 8?nm. However, the MCSD still increases sharply when shrinking grains from 8 to 7.5?nm. We show evidence that recording performance such as signal-to-noise-ratio on the spin stand correlates well with the product of magnetic cluster size and magnetic cluster size distribution.

  4. Fuel Cells Fact Sheet

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12, 2015ExecutiveFluorescentDanKathy LoftusFuel CellFuel Fuel CellsCells Fuel

  5. Cell development obeys maximum Fisher information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. R. Frieden; R. A. Gatenby

    2014-04-29

    Eukaryotic cell development has been optimized by natural selection to obey maximal intracellular flux of messenger proteins. This, in turn, implies maximum Fisher information on angular position about a target nuclear pore complex (NPR). The cell is simply modeled as spherical, with cell membrane (CM) diameter 10 micron and concentric nuclear membrane (NM) diameter 6 micron. The NM contains about 3000 nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). Development requires messenger ligands to travel from the CM-NPC-DNA target binding sites. Ligands acquire negative charge by phosphorylation, passing through the cytoplasm over Newtonian trajectories toward positively charged NPCs (utilizing positive nuclear localization sequences). The CM-NPC channel obeys maximized mean protein flux F and Fisher information I at the NPC, with first-order delta I = 0 and approximate 2nd-order delta I = 0 stability to environmental perturbations. Many of its predictions are confirmed, including the dominance of protein pathways of from 1-4 proteins, a 4nm size for the EGFR protein and the approximate flux value F =10^16 proteins/m2-s. After entering the nucleus, each protein ultimately delivers its ligand information to a DNA target site with maximum probability, i.e. maximum Kullback-Liebler entropy HKL. In a smoothness limit HKL approaches IDNA/2, so that the total CM-NPC-DNA channel obeys maximum Fisher I. Thus maximum information approaches non-equilibrium, one condition for life.

  6. Molecular Cell Hydroxyurea Induces Hydroxyl

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, James J.

    Molecular Cell Article Hydroxyurea Induces Hydroxyl Radical-Mediated Cell Death in Escherichia coli superoxide production, together with the increased iron uptake, fuels the formation of hydroxyl radicals

  7. Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Activities Mr. Pete Devlin U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Program Market Transformation Manager Stationary Fuel Cell Applications First National Bank of Omaha...

  8. NANOCOMPOSITE ENABLED SENSITIZED SOLAR CELL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phuyal, Dibya

    2012-01-01

    dynamics in dye sensitized nanocrystalline solar cells using a polymer electrolytedynamics in dye sensitized nanocrystalline solar cells using a polymer electrolyte.

  9. Webinar: Fuel Cells at NASCAR

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Video recording and text version of the Fuel Cell Technologies Office webinar "Fuel Cells at NASCAR," originally presented on April 17, 2014.

  10. Final Report, Validation of Novel Planar Cell Design for MW-Scale SOFC Power Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swartz, Dr Scott L.; Thrun, Dr Lora B.; Arkenberg, Mr Gene B.; Chenault, Ms Kellie M.

    2012-01-03

    This report describes the work completed by NexTech Materials, Ltd. during a three-year project to validate an electrolyte-supported planar solid oxide fuel cell design, termed the FlexCell, for coal-based, megawatt-scale power generation systems. This project was focused on the fabrication and testing of electrolyte-supported FlexCells with yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) as the electrolyte material. YSZ based FlexCells were made with sizes ranging from 100 to 500 cm2. Single-cell testing was performed to confirm high electrochemical performance, both with diluted hydrogen and simulated coal gas as fuels. Finite element analysis modeling was performed at The Ohio State University was performed to establish FlexCell architectures with optimum mechanical robustness. A manufacturing cost analysis was completed, which confirmed that manufacturing costs of less than $50/kW are achievable at high volumes (500 MW/year).

  11. Validation of Novel Planar Cell Design for MW-Scale SOFC Power Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Swartz; Lora Thrun; Gene Arkenberg; Kellie Chenault

    2011-09-30

    This report describes the work completed by NexTech Materials, Ltd. during a three-year project to validate an electrolyte-supported planar solid oxide fuel cell design, termed the FlexCell, for coal-based, megawatt-scale power generation systems. This project was focused on the fabrication and testing of electrolyte-supported FlexCells with yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) as the electrolyte material. YSZ based FlexCells were made with sizes ranging from 100 to 500 cm{sup 2}. Single-cell testing was performed to confirm high electrochemical performance, both with diluted hydrogen and simulated coal gas as fuels. Finite element analysis modeling was performed at The Ohio State University was performed to establish FlexCell architectures with optimum mechanical robustness. A manufacturing cost analysis was completed, which confirmed that manufacturing costs of less than $50/kW are achievable at high volumes (500 MW/year). DISCLAIMER

  12. Comparing Server Energy Use and Efficiency Using Small Sample Sizes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coles, Henry C.; Qin, Yong; Price, Phillip N.

    2014-11-01

    This report documents a demonstration that compared the energy consumption and efficiency of a limited sample size of server-type IT equipment from different manufacturers by measuring power at the server power supply power cords. The results are specific to the equipment and methods used. However, it is hoped that those responsible for IT equipment selection can used the methods described to choose models that optimize energy use efficiency. The demonstration was conducted in a data center at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California. It was performed with five servers of similar mechanical and electronic specifications; three from Intel and one each from Dell and Supermicro. Server IT equipment is constructed using commodity components, server manufacturer-designed assemblies, and control systems. Server compute efficiency is constrained by the commodity component specifications and integration requirements. The design freedom, outside of the commodity component constraints, provides room for the manufacturer to offer a product with competitive efficiency that meets market needs at a compelling price. A goal of the demonstration was to compare and quantify the server efficiency for three different brands. The efficiency is defined as the average compute rate (computations per unit of time) divided by the average energy consumption rate. The research team used an industry standard benchmark software package to provide a repeatable software load to obtain the compute rate and provide a variety of power consumption levels. Energy use when the servers were in an idle state (not providing computing work) were also measured. At high server compute loads, all brands, using the same key components (processors and memory), had similar results; therefore, from these results, it could not be concluded that one brand is more efficient than the other brands. The test results show that the power consumption variability caused by the key components as a group is similar to all other components as a group. However, some differences were observed. The Supermicro server used 27 percent more power at idle compared to the other brands. The Intel server had a power supply control feature called cold redundancy, and the data suggest that cold redundancy can provide energy savings at low power levels. Test and evaluation methods that might be used by others having limited resources for IT equipment evaluation are explained in the report.

  13. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gur, Ilan

    2006-01-01

    requisite, for solar energy conversion based on the donor-stable and low-cost solar energy conversion. Supplementalsolar cells blending organic semiconductors and inorganic semiconductor nanocrystals offer the potential to deliver efficient energy conversion

  14. Introgression & mapping Fiber cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Germplasm Introgression Genomics & mapping Fiber cell initiation Radiation hybrid (RH) mapping and breeding. Research activities commonly include plant breeding, genetics, genomics, cytogenetics, molecular methods. (C, S) · Contribute uniquely to genomics and its relevance to genetic improvement (C,S) · Harness

  15. Fuel cell water transport

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vanderborgh, Nicholas E. (Los Alamos, NM); Hedstrom, James C. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1990-01-01

    The moisture content and temperature of hydrogen and oxygen gases is regulated throughout traverse of the gases in a fuel cell incorporating a solid polymer membrane. At least one of the gases traverses a first flow field adjacent the solid polymer membrane, where chemical reactions occur to generate an electrical current. A second flow field is located sequential with the first flow field and incorporates a membrane for effective water transport. A control fluid is then circulated adjacent the second membrane on the face opposite the fuel cell gas wherein moisture is either transported from the control fluid to humidify a fuel gas, e.g., hydrogen, or to the control fluid to prevent excess water buildup in the oxidizer gas, e.g., oxygen. Evaporation of water into the control gas and the control gas temperature act to control the fuel cell gas temperatures throughout the traverse of the fuel cell by the gases.

  16. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Demonstration ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Brothers, Ltd., at their facility in the Port of Honolulu. The pilot hydrogen fuel cell unit will be used in place of a diesel generator currently used to provide power for...

  17. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gur, Ilan

    2006-01-01

    to create low-cost solar cells with performance andachieving stable and low-cost solar energy conversion.of large-scale solar power at low costs (1). The most

  18. Solar cell array interconnects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carey, P.G.; Thompson, J.B.; Colella, N.J.; Williams, K.A.

    1995-11-14

    Electrical interconnects are disclosed for solar cells or other electronic components using a silver-silicone paste or a lead-tin (Pb-Sn) no-clean fluxless solder cream, whereby the high breakage of thin (<6 mil thick) solar cells using conventional solder interconnect is eliminated. The interconnects of this invention employs copper strips which are secured to the solar cells by a silver-silicone conductive paste which can be used at room temperature, or by a Pb-Sn solder cream which eliminates undesired residue on the active surfaces of the solar cells. Electrical testing using the interconnects of this invention has shown that no degradation of the interconnects developed under high current testing, while providing a very low contact resistance value. 4 figs.

  19. Photovoltaic solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nielson, Gregory N; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Okandan, Murat; Resnick, Paul J

    2014-05-20

    A photovoltaic solar cell for generating electricity from sunlight is disclosed. The photovoltaic solar cell comprises a plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions formed in a semiconductor body to receive the sunlight and generate the electricity therefrom, the plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions having a first plurality of regions having a first doping type and a second plurality of regions having a second doping type. In addition, the photovoltaic solar cell comprises a first electrical contact electrically connected to each of the first plurality of regions and a second electrical contact electrically connected to each of the second plurality of regions, as well as a passivation layer covering major surfaces and sidewalls of the photovoltaic solar cell.

  20. Solar cell array interconnects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carey, Paul G. (Mountain View, CA); Thompson, Jesse B. (Brentwood, CA); Colella, Nicolas J. (Livermore, CA); Williams, Kenneth A. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01

    Electrical interconnects for solar cells or other electronic components using a silver-silicone paste or a lead-tin (Pb-Sn) no-clean fluxless solder cream, whereby the high breakage of thin (<6 mil thick) solar cells using conventional solder interconnect is eliminated. The interconnects of this invention employs copper strips which are secured to the solar cells by a silver-silicone conductive paste which can be used at room temperature, or by a Pb-Sn solder cream which eliminates undesired residue on the active surfaces of the solar cells. Electrical testing using the interconnects of this invention has shown that no degradation of the interconnects developed under high current testing, while providing a very low contact resistance value.

  1. Photovoltaic solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nielson, Gregory N; Okandan, Murat; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Resnick, Paul J

    2013-11-26

    A photovoltaic solar cell for generating electricity from sunlight is disclosed. The photovoltaic solar cell comprises a plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions formed in a semiconductor body to receive the sunlight and generate the electicity therefrom, the plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions having a first plurality of regions having a first doping type and a second plurality of regions having a second doping type. In addition, the photovoltaic solar cell comprises a first electrical contact electrically connected to each of the first plurality of regions and a second electrical contact electrically connected to each of the second plurality of regions, as well as a passivation layer covering major surfaces and sidewalls of the photovoltaic solar cell.

  2. Thin film photovoltaic cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rothwarf, Allen (Philadelphia, PA)

    1981-01-01

    A solar cell has as its transparent electrical contact a grid made from a non-noble metal by providing a layer of copper oxide between the transparent electrical contact and the absorber-generator.

  3. Aluminum reduction cell electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goodnow, W.H.; Payne, J.R.

    1982-09-14

    The invention is directed to cathode modules comprised of refractory hard metal materials, such as TiB[sub 2], for an electrolytic cell for the reduction of alumina wherein the modules may be installed and replaced during operation of the cell and wherein the structure of the cathode modules is such that the refractory hard metal materials are not subjected to externally applied forces or rigid constraints. 9 figs.

  4. Cytoskeleton and Cell Motility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Risler

    2011-05-12

    The present article is an invited contribution to the Encyclopedia of Complexity and System Science, Robert A. Meyers Ed., Springer New York (2009). It is a review of the biophysical mechanisms that underly cell motility. It mainly focuses on the eukaryotic cytoskeleton and cell-motility mechanisms. Bacterial motility as well as the composition of the prokaryotic cytoskeleton is only briefly mentioned. The article is organized as follows. In Section III, I first present an overview of the diversity of cellular motility mechanisms, which might at first glance be categorized into two different types of behaviors, namely "swimming" and "crawling". Intracellular transport, mitosis - or cell division - as well as other extensions of cell motility that rely on the same essential machinery are briefly sketched. In Section IV, I introduce the molecular machinery that underlies cell motility - the cytoskeleton - as well as its interactions with the external environment of the cell and its main regulatory pathways. Sections IV D to IV F are more detailed in their biochemical presentations; readers primarily interested in the theoretical modeling of cell motility might want to skip these sections in a first reading. I then describe the motility mechanisms that rely essentially on polymerization-depolymerization dynamics of cytoskeleton filaments in Section V, and the ones that rely essentially on the activity of motor proteins in Section VI. Finally, Section VII is devoted to the description of the integrated approaches that have been developed recently to try to understand the cooperative phenomena that underly self-organization of the cell cytoskeleton as a whole.

  5. Ice electrode electrolytic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glenn, D.F.; Suciu, D.F.; Harris, T.L.; Ingram, J.C.

    1993-04-06

    This invention relates to a method and apparatus for removing heavy metals from waste water, soils, or process streams by electrolytic cell means. The method includes cooling a cell cathode to form an ice layer over the cathode and then applying an electric current to deposit a layer of the heavy metal over the ice. The metal is then easily removed after melting the ice. In a second embodiment, the same ice-covered electrode can be employed to form powdered metals.

  6. Compliant fuel cell system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourgeois, Richard Scott (Albany, NY); Gudlavalleti, Sauri (Albany, NY)

    2009-12-15

    A fuel cell assembly comprising at least one metallic component, at least one ceramic component and a structure disposed between the metallic component and the ceramic component. The structure is configured to have a lower stiffness compared to at least one of the metallic component and the ceramic component, to accommodate a difference in strain between the metallic component and the ceramic component of the fuel cell assembly.

  7. Ice electrode electrolytic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glenn, David F. (Idaho Falls, ID); Suciu, Dan F. (Idaho Falls, ID); Harris, Taryl L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Ingram, Jani C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1993-01-01

    This invention relates to a method and apparatus for removing heavy metals from waste water, soils, or process streams by electrolytic cell means. The method includes cooling a cell cathode to form an ice layer over the cathode and then applying an electric current to deposit a layer of the heavy metal over the ice. The metal is then easily removed after melting the ice. In a second embodiment, the same ice-covered electrode can be employed to form powdered metals.

  8. CellNet: Network Biology Applied to Stem Cell Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, James J.

    developed CellNet, a network biology platform that more accurately assesses the fidelity of cellular a platform for quantifying how closely engineered cell populations resemble their target cell type to cells resembling myoblasts (Davis et al., 1987), motor neurons (Vierbuchen et al., 2010), car

  9. Fuel cell system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Early, Jack (Perth Amboy, NJ); Kaufman, Arthur (West Orange, NJ); Stawsky, Alfred (Teaneck, NJ)

    1982-01-01

    A fuel cell system is comprised of a fuel cell module including sub-stacks of series-connected fuel cells, the sub-stacks being held together in a stacked arrangement with cold plates of a cooling means located between the sub-stacks to function as electrical terminals. The anode and cathode terminals of the sub-stacks are connected in parallel by means of the coolant manifolds which electrically connect selected cold plates. The system may comprise a plurality of the fuel cell modules connected in series. The sub-stacks are designed to provide a voltage output equivalent to the desired voltage demand of a low voltage, high current DC load such as an electrolytic cell to be driven by the fuel cell system. This arrangement in conjunction with switching means can be used to drive a DC electrical load with a total voltage output selected to match that of the load being driven. This arrangement eliminates the need for expensive voltage regulation equipment.

  10. Fuel cell power supply with oxidant and fuel gas switching

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McElroy, James F. (Hamilton, MA); Chludzinski, Paul J. (Swampscott, MA); Dantowitz, Philip (Peabody, MA)

    1987-01-01

    This invention relates to a fuel cell vehicular power plant. Fuel for the fuel stack is supplied by a hydrocarbon (methanol) catalytic cracking reactor and CO shift reactor. A water electrolysis subsystem is associated with the stack. During low power operation part of the fuel cell power is used to electrolyze water with hydrogen and oxygen electrolysis products being stored in pressure vessels. During peak power intervals, viz, during acceleration or start-up, pure oxygen and pure hydrogen from the pressure vessel are supplied as the reaction gases to the cathodes and anodes in place of air and methanol reformate. This allows the fuel cell stack to be sized for normal low power/air operation but with a peak power capacity several times greater than that for normal operation.

  11. Fuel cell power supply with oxidant and fuel gas switching

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McElroy, J.F.; Chludzinski, P.J.; Dantowitz, P.

    1987-04-14

    This invention relates to a fuel cell vehicular power plant. Fuel for the fuel stack is supplied by a hydrocarbon (methanol) catalytic cracking reactor and CO shift reactor. A water electrolysis subsystem is associated with the stack. During low power operation part of the fuel cell power is used to electrolyze water with hydrogen and oxygen electrolysis products being stored in pressure vessels. During peak power intervals, viz, during acceleration or start-up, pure oxygen and pure hydrogen from the pressure vessel are supplied as the reaction gases to the cathodes and anodes in place of air and methanol reformate. This allows the fuel cell stack to be sized for normal low power/air operation but with a peak power capacity several times greater than that for normal operation. 2 figs.

  12. The Size-Ramsey Number of Trees P.E. Haxell1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kohayakawa, Yoshiharu

    The Size-Ramsey Number of Trees P.E. Haxell1 and Y. Kohayakawa2 1Department of Pure Mathematics-colouring of the edges of G. The size-Ramsey number re(H) of a graph H is the smallest possible number in Ramsey theory: we shall study the size-Ramsey number of trees. Before we proceed, let us introduce some

  13. k=10 GS PC TPDA GES Ave. Bayesian Score Results -Child -Sample Size 500

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Laura E.

    SC k=10 GS PC TPDA GES Bayesian Score (BDeu) Ave. Bayesian Score Results - Child - Sample Size 500 - Sample Size 500 Error Bars = +/- Std.Dev. -130 -120 -110 -100 -90 MMHC OR1 k=5 OR1 k=10 OR1 k=20 OR2 k=5 - Child5 - Sample Size 500 Error Bars = +/- Std.Dev. -260 -240 -220 -200 -180 * MMHC OR1 k=5 OR1 k=10 OR1

  14. Soot particle size measurements in laminar premixed ethylene flames with laser-induced incandescence and scanning mobility particle sizer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yin, Chung-Yuan

    2009-01-01

    Size Measurements in Laminar Premixed Ethylene Flames withof soot aggregate sampled from a laminar acetyleneSize Measurements in Laminar Premixed Ethylene Flames with

  15. Breakthrough Vehicle Development - Fuel Cells

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    Document describing research and development program for fuel cell power systems for transportation applications.

  16. National Fuel Cell Research Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mease, Kenneth D.

    the optimal conditions to operate a molten carbonate fuel cell, can be used to garner fundamental insightNational Fuel Cell Research Center www.nfcrc.uci.edu MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELLS STEADY STATE MODELING OF MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELLS FOR SYSTEM PERFORMANCE ANALYSES OVERVIEW Development of steady

  17. Hydrogen & Fuel Cells -Program Overview -

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Analysis Fuel Cells Solid oxide fuel cell (kW-scale) R&D led to 75% weight reduction and >80% volume,000 35,000 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012P (SystemsShipped) Fuel Cell Systems Shipped by Application, World Research Market Growth Fuel cell markets continue to grow 48% increase in global MWs shipped 62% increase

  18. Seventh Edition Fuel Cell Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NETL

    2004-11-01

    Provides an overview of fuel cell technology and research projects. Discusses the basic workings of fuel cells and their system components, main fuel cell types, their characteristics, and their development status, as well as a discussion of potential fuel cell applications.

  19. Organic Tandem Solar Cells: Design and Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Chun-Chao

    2015-01-01

    prediction of the efficiency limitation of solar cell givenperfect solar cell absorber. [29] Following this prediction,

  20. Rhombic Cell Analysis - A New Way of Probing the Large-Scale Structure of the Universe. I. General Considerations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Kiang

    2003-06-05

    A new way of probing the large-scale structure of the universe is proposed. Space is partitioned into cells the shape of rhombic dodecahedron. The cells are labelled ``filled'' or ``empty'' according as they contain galaxies or not. The cell size is so chosen as to have nearly equal numbers of filled and empty cells for the given galaxy sample. Two observables on each cell are definable: the number of its {\\em like} neighbors, $n_1$, and a two-suffixed topological type $\\tau$, the suffixes being the numbers of its like and unlike {\\em neighbor-groups}. The frequency distributions of $n_1$ and $\\tau$ in the observed set of filled (empty) cells are then considered as indicators of the morphology of the set. The method is applied to the CfA catalogue of galaxies as an illustration. Despite its limited size the data offers evidence 1) that the empty cells are more strongly clustered than the filled cells, and 2) that the filled cells, but not the empty cells, have a tendency of occurring in sheets. Further directions of development both in theory and application are indicated.