Powered by Deep Web Technologies
Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "200-meter cell size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

A catalog of bright calibrator stars for 200-meter baseline near-infrared stellar interferometry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present in this paper a catalog of reference stars suitable for calibrating infrared interferometric observations. In the K band, visibilities can be calibrated with a precision of 1% on baselines up to 200 meters for the whole sky, and up to 300 meters for some part of the sky. This work, extending to longer baselines a previous catalog compiled by Borde et al. (2002), is particularly well adapted to hectometric-class interferometers such as the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI, Glindemann et al. 2003) or the CHARA array (ten Brummelaar et al. 2003) when observing well resolved, high surface brightness objects (K<8). We use the absolute spectro-photometric calibration method introduced by Cohen et al. (1999) to derive the angular diameters of our new set of 948 G8--M0 calibrator stars extracted from IRAS, 2MASS and MSX catalogs. Angular stellar diameters range from 0.6 mas to 1.8 mas (median is 1.1 mas) with a median precision of 1.35%. For both the northern and southern hemispheres, the closest calibrator star is always less than 10 degree away.

A. Merand; P. Borde; V. Coude du Foresto

2004-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

2

Battery-Size Regenerative Fuel Cells  

ORNL 2010-G01073/jcn UT-B ID 201002378 Battery-Size Regenerative Fuel Cells Technology Summary A battery-size regenerative fuel cell with energy ...

3

Objective selection of suitable unit cell size in data-driven modeling of mineral prospectivity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In GIS-based data-driven modeling of mineral prospectivity, a suitably fine unit cell size is used for spatial representation of known occurrences of mineral deposits of the type sought (D) in a study area (T). However, until now, the unit cell size ... Keywords: Fractal analysis, GIS, Point pattern analysis, Spatial contrast, Weights-of-evidence

Emmanuel John M. Carranza

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Effect of different support morphologies and pt particle sizes in electrocatalysts for fuel cell applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The performance of a low temperature fuel cell is strongly correlated with parameters like the platinum particle size, platinum dispersion on the carbon support, and electronic and protonic conductivity in the catalyst layer as well as its porosity. ...

G. Sevjidsuren; S. Zils; S. Kaserer; A. Wolz; F. Ettingshausen; D. Dixon; A. Schoekel; C. Roth; P. Altantsog; D. Sangaa; Ch. Ganzorig

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Detonation cell size measurements and predictions in hydrogen-air-steam mixtures at elevated temperatures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The present research reports on the effect of initial mixture temperature on the experimentally measured detonation cell size for hydrogen-air-steam mixtures. Experimental and theoretical research related to combustion phenomena in hydrogen-air-steam mixtures has been ongoing for many years. However, detonation cell size data currently exists or hydrogen-air-steam mixtures up to a temperature of only 400K. Sever accident scenarios have been identified for light water reactors (LWRs) where hydrogen-air mixture temperatures in excess of 400K could be generated within containment. The experiments in this report focus on extending the cell size data base for initial mixture temperatures in excess of 400K. The experiments were carried out in a 10-cm inner-diameter, 6.1-m long heated detonation tube with a maximum operating temperature of 700K and spatial temperature uniformity of {plus_minus}14K. Detonation cell size measurements provide clear evidence that the effect of hydrogen-air initial gas mixture temperature, in the range 300K--650K, is to decrease cell size and, hence, to increase the sensitivity of the mixture to undergo detonations. The effect of steam content, at any given temperature, is to increase the cell size and, thereby, to decrease the sensitivity of stoichiometric hydrogen-air mixtures. The hydrogen-air detonability limits for the 10-cm inside-diameter test vessel, based upon the onset of single-head spin, decreased from 15 percent by hydrogen at 300K down to about 9 percent hydrogen at 650K. The one-dimensional ZND model does a very good job at predicting the overall trends in the cell size data over the range of hydrogen-air-steam mixture compositions and temperature studied in the experiments.

Ciccarelli, G.; Ginsberg, T.; Boccio, J.; Economos, C.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Transporting of a Cell-Sized Phospholipid Vesicle Across Water/Oil Interface  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

When a cell-sized water droplet, with a diameter of several tens of micro meter, is placed in oil containing phospholipids, a stable cell-sized vesicle is spontaneously formed as a water-in-oil phospholipid emulsion (W/O CE) with a phospholipid monolayer. We transferred the lipid vesicle thus formed in the oil phase to the water phase across the water/oil interface by micromanipulation, which suggests that the vesicle is transformed from a phospholipid monolayer as W/O CE into a bilayer. The lipid vesicle can then be transported back into the oil phase. This novel experimental procedure may be a useful tool for creating a model cellular system, which, together with a microreactor, is applicable as a micrometer-scale biochemical reaction field.

Hase, M; Hamada, T; Yoshikawa, K; Hase, Masahiko; Yamada, Ayako; Hamada, Tsutomu; Yoshikawa, Kenichi

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Particle size distribution of airborne plutonium near a chemical separations facility  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Particulate matter containing Pu-238 and Pu-239,240 emitted from a stack at the Savannah River Plant was collected and fractionated by size with cascade impactors. Two impactor measurements were made at a distance of 200 meters from the H-Area stack and a third was at a distance of 420 meters. Annual collections were made for three years. The Pu-238 and Pu 239,240 concentrations were determined for each of the size fractions. The fractions collected at 200 m from the 62 m stack showed a biphasic curve for both Pu-238 and Pu-239,240. The highest concentration for both Pu-238 and Pu-239,240 were found in the <0.49 ..mu..m fraction, with the secondary peak occurring in the fractions greater than 3.0 ..mu..m. At 420 meters from the stack, the size distribution curves for Pu-238 and Pu-239,240 were not biphasic; only one peak appeared and that was for the fraction less than 0.49 ..mu..m. The doses to different organs from plutonium inhalation were calculated for the particle size distributions obtained in this study. The maximum potential 50-year dose commitment to the bone, the critical organ, for one year continuous exposure was 13 mrem for Pu-238 and 0.44 mrem for Pu-239,240 at 200 meters from the H-Area stack.

Gay, D.D.; Watts, J.R.

1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Scaling of cell size in cellular instabilities of nonpremixed jet flames  

SciTech Connect

Systematic experiments have been undertaken to study the parameter dependence of cellular instability and in particular the scaling of the resulting cell size in CO{sub 2}-diluted H{sub 2}-O{sub 2} jet diffusion flames. Cellular flames are known to arise near the extinction limit when reactant Lewis numbers are relatively low. The Lewis numbers of the investigated near-extinction mixtures, based on the initial mixture strength {phi}{sub m} and ambient conditions, varied in the ranges [1.1-1.3] for oxygen and [0.25-0.29] for hydrogen ({phi}{sub m} is defined here as the fuel-to-oxygen mass ratio, normalized by the stoichiometric ratio). The experiments were carried out both in an axisymmetric jet (AJ) burner and in a two-dimensional slot burner known as a Wolfhard-Parker (WP) burner with an oxidizer co-flow (mostly 100% O{sub 2}) of fixed low velocity. First, the region of cellular flames adjacent to the extinction limit was characterized in terms of initial H{sub 2} concentration and fuel jet velocity, with all other parameters fixed. Then, the wavelength of the cellular instability, i.e., the cell size, was determined as a function of the fuel jet velocity and the initial mixture strength {phi}{sub m}. For conditions not too close to extinction, this wavelength is found to increase with the square root of the vorticity thickness of the jet shear layer and roughly the 1/5 power of {phi}{sub m}. Very close to extinction, this scaling breaks down and will likely switch to a scaling with the flame thickness, i.e., involving the Damkoehler number. (author)

Lo Jacono, D.; Monkewitz, P.A. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Laboratory of Fluid Mechanics, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

2007-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

9

TUNING OF SIZE AND SHAPE OF AU-PT NANOCATALYST FOR DIRECT METHANOL FUEL CELLS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this paper, we report the precise control of the size, shape and surface morphology of Au-Pt nanocatalysts (cubes, blocks, octahedrons and dogbones) synthesized via a seed-mediated approach. Gold 'seeds' of different aspect ratios (1 to 4.2), grown by a silver-assisted approach, were used as templates for high-yield production of novel Au-Pt nanocatalysts at a low temperature (40 C). Characterization by electron microscopy (SEM, TEM, HRTEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), UV-Vis spectroscopy, zeta-potential (surface charge), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were used to better understand their physico-chemical properties, preferred reactivities and underlying nanoparticle growth mechanism. A rotating disk electrode was used to evaluate the Au-Pt nanocatalysts electrochemical performance in the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and the methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) of direct methanol fuel cells. The results indicate the Au-Pt dogbones are partially and in some cases completely unaffected by methanol poisoning during the evaluation of the ORR. The ORR performance of the octahedron particles in the absence of MeOH is superior to that of the Au-Pt dogbones and Pt-black, however its performance is affected by the presence of MeOH.

Murph, S.

2011-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

10

The Relation between the Area-Average Rain Rate and the Rain Cell Size Distribution Parameters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A review of the literature on the rain cell diameter distribution (RCDD) is first presented. It shows that RCDD, for a given rain-rate threshold ?, is accurately described by an exponential distribution with an exponential parameter ? weakly ...

Henri Sauvageot; Frédéric Mesnard; Ricardo S. Tenório

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Detonation cell size measurements in high-temperature hydrogen-air-steam mixtures at the BNL high-temperature combustion facility  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The High-Temperature Combustion Facility (HTCF) was designed and constructed with the objective of studying detonation phenomena in mixtures of hydrogen-air-steam at initially high temperatures. The central element of the HTCF is a 27-cm inner-diameter, 21.3-m long cylindrical test vessel capable of being heating to 700K {+-} 14K. A unique feature of the HTCF is the {open_quotes}diaphragmless{close_quotes} acetylene-oxygen gas driver which is used to initiate the detonation in the test gas. Cell size measurements have shown that for any hydrogen-air-steam mixture, increasing the initial mixture temperature, in the range of 300K to 650K, while maintaining the initial pressure of 0.1 MPa, decreases the cell size and thus makes the mixture more detonable. The effect of steam dilution on cell size was tested in stoichiometric and off-stoichiometric (e.g., equivalence ratio of 0.5) hydrogen-air mixtures. Increasing the steam dilution in hydrogen-air mixtures at 0.1 MPa initial pressure increases the cell size, irrespective of initial temperature. It is also observed that the desensitizing effect of steam diminished with increased initial temperature. A 1-dimensional, steady-state Zel`dovich, von Neumann, Doring (ZND) model, with full chemical kinetics, has been used to predict cell size for hydrogen-air-steam mixtures at different initial conditions. Qualitatively the model predicts the overall trends observed in the measured cell size versus mixture composition and initial temperature and pressure. It was found that the proportionality constant used to predict detonation cell size from the calculated ZND model reaction zone varies between 10 and 100 depending on the mixture composition and initial temperature. 32 refs., 35 figs.

Ciccarelli, G.; Ginsberg, T.; Boccio, J.L. [and others

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Program Record 13006 (Offices of Vehicle Technologies and Fuel Cell Technologies: Life-Cycle Costs of Mid-Size Light-Duty Vehicles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Program Record (Offices of Vehicle Technologies & Fuel Cell Program Record (Offices of Vehicle Technologies & Fuel Cell Technologies) Record #: 13006 Date: April 24, 2013 Title: Life-cycle Costs of Mid-Size Light-Duty Vehicles Originator: Tien Nguyen & Jake Ward Approved by: Sunita Satyapal Pat Davis Date: April 25, 2013 Items: DOE is pursuing a portfolio of technologies with the potential to significantly reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions and petroleum consumption while being cost-effective. This record documents the assumptions and results of analyses conducted to estimate the life-cycle costs resulting from several fuel/vehicle pathways, for a future mid-size car. The results are summarized graphically in the following figure. Costs of Operation for Future Mid-Size Car

13

Efficient recovery of nano-sized iron oxide particles from synthetic acid-mine drainage (AMD) water using fuel cell  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Efficient recovery of nano-sized iron oxide particles from synthetic acid-mine drainage (AMD) water electricity. Here we show that this approach can also be used as a technique to generate spherical nano

14

Size Effects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 5, 2013 ... An Explanation of the Power-Exponent in the Size Effect on Strength in ... in terms of the Taylor-type resistance in the dislocation network in the specimen. ... hysteresis and loss in pseudoelasticity with decrease in sample size.

15

Effect of Size, shape, and surface modification on cytotoxicity of gold nanoparticles to human HEp-2 and canine MDCK cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There have been increasing interests in applying gold nanoparticles in biological research, drug delivery, and therapy. As the interaction of gold nanoparticles with cells relies on properties of nanoparticles, the cytotoxicity is complex and still under ...

Yinan Zhang; Dan Xu; Wenqin Li; Jun Yu; Yu Chen

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Why single cell genome sequencing of mesopelagic bacterioplankton?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

single cell genome sequencing of single cell genome sequencing of mesopelagic bacterioplankton? Considered one of the largest but least understood marine biomes, the mesopelagic zone starts some 200 meters (650 feet) below the ocean's surface and extends another 800 meters. The temperatures in this region range from 20° Celsius closer to the surface of the water to 4° Celsius further down and oxygen levels are poor. In sequencing samples of bacteria and archaea collected from the mesopelagic zone of the South Atlantic Gyre, located off the eastern coast of South America, researchers hope to learn more about the microorganisms that thrive in this region,. Studies suggest that some microbes in the mesopelagic zone might play significant roles in the carbon and nitrogen cycles, having the ability to fix or sequester these elements, but little

17

Nano-biolistics: a method of biolistic transfection of cells and tissues using a gene gun with novel nanometer-sized projectiles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

METHODOLOGY ARTICLE Open Access Nano-biolistics: a method of biolistic transfection of cells and tissues using a gene gun with novel nanometer-sized projectiles John A O’Brien1 and Sarah CR Lummis1,2* Abstract Background: Biolistic transfection... and nano-particles The core diameter of the particles used was 40 ± 0.8 nm or 991 ± 11 nm for the 40 nm (Alfa Aesar, MA, USA) and 1 ?m (Bio-Rad laboratories, USA) particles respec- tively. These particles have a hydrodynamic diameter of 47.2 ± 1.3 and 1060...

O'Brien, John A; Lummis, Sarah C R

2011-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

18

Thermal-fluid and electrochemical modeling and performance study of a planar solid oxide electrolysis cell : analysis on SOEC resistances, size, and inlet flow conditions.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Argonne National Laboratory and Idaho National Laboratory researchers are analyzing the electrochemical and thermal-fluid behavior of solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs) for high temperature steam electrolysis using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques. The major challenges facing commercialization of steam electrolysis technology are related to efficiency, cost, and durability of the SOECs. The goal of this effort is to guide the design and optimization of performance for high temperature electrolysis (HTE) systems. An SOEC module developed by FLUENT Inc. as part of their general CFD code was used for the SOEC analysis by INL. ANL has developed an independent SOEC model that combines the governing electrochemical mechanisms based on first principals to the heat transfer and fluid dynamics in the operation of SOECs. The ANL model was embedded into the commercial STAR-CD CFD software, and is being used for the analysis of SOECs by ANL. The FY06 analysis performed by ANL and reported here covered the influence of electrochemical properties, SOEC component resistances and their contributing factors, SOEC size and inlet flow conditions, and SOEC flow configurations on the efficiency and expected durability of these systems. Some of the important findings from the ANL analysis are: (1) Increasing the inlet mass flux while going to larger cells can be a compromise to overcome increasing thermal and current density gradients while increasing the cell size. This approach could be beneficial for the economics of the SOECs; (2) The presence of excess hydrogen at the SOEC inlet to avoid Ni degradation can result in a sizeable decrease in the process efficiency; (3) A parallel-flow geometry for SOEC operation (if such a thing be achieved without sealing problems) yields smaller temperature gradients and current density gradients across the cell, which is favorable for the durability of the cells; (4) Contact resistances can significantly influence the total cell resistance and cell temperatures over a large range of operating potentials. Thus it is important to identify and avoid SOEC stack conditions leading to such high resistances due to poor contacts.

Yildiz, B.; Smith, J.; Sofu, T.; Nuclear Engineering Division

2008-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

19

Cat heart Size  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

heart Size Name: Iris Status: student Grade: K-3 Location: OR Country: USA Date: NA Question: Can you tell me the size of a cats heart? Replies: Iris A cat's heart is about the...

20

Cat heart Size  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cat heart Size Name: Rebecca Status: student Grade: 6-8 Location: FL Country: USA Date: Spring 2011 Question: What is the average size of a cat's heart? Replies: Hi Rebecca, That...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "200-meter cell size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Hopper Job Size Charts  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

charts shows the fraction of hours used on Hopper in each of 5 job-core-size bins. 2012 Usage by Job Size Chart 2011 . This chart shows the fraction of hours used on Hopper by jobs...

22

Land animal sizes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Land animal sizes Name: tamar c Status: NA Age: NA Location: NA Country: NA Date: Around 1993 Question: Why are today's land mammals so much smaller than prehistoric mammals?...

23

ARM - Measurement - Hydrometeor size  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

size size ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Hydrometeor size The size of a hydrometeor, measured directly or derived from other measurements . Categories Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments DISDROMETER : Impact Disdrometer LDIS : Laser Disdrometer External Instruments CPOL : C-Band Polarimetric Radar Field Campaign Instruments EC-CONVAIR580-BULK : Environment Canada Convair 580 Bulk Parameters

24

Multimodal Raindrop Size Distributions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The raindrop size distributions (DSDs) observed over a short span usually have an erratic shape, with several relative maxima. This multimodal structure is studied from disdrometer data acquired in tropical and midlatitude areas. It is shown that ...

Henri Sauvageot; Manlandon Koffi

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Raindrop Size Distribution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper reviews some of the published results relating to raindrop-size distributions and couples this with some of the authors' results in order to show that the mathematical description of the distribution can be divided into three ...

M. C. Hodson

1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Size-dependent piezoelectricity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, a consistent theory is developed for size-dependent piezoelectricity in dielectric solids. This theory shows that electric polarization can be generated as the result of coupling to the mean curvature tensor, unlike previous flexoelectric theories that postulate such couplings with other forms of curvature and more general strain gradient terms ignoring the possible couple- stresses. The present formulation represents an extension of recent work that establishes a consistent size-dependent theory for solid mechanics. Here by including scale-dependent measures in the energy equation, the general expressions for force- and couple-stresses, as well as electric displacement, are obtained. Next, the constitutive relations, displacement formulations, the uniqueness theorem and the reciprocal theorem for the corresponding linear small deformation size-dependent piezoelectricity are developed. As with existing flexoelectric formulations, one finds that the piezoelectric effect can also exist in isotrop...

Hadjesfandiari, Ali R

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Pore size estimation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A novel method for characterization of any porous structure is presented. The principle of the method is simple scanning a plane surface of a cellular material and consequent digital image analysis of the scan. Eleven samples of bread baked from dough ... Keywords: foams, image analysis, modelling the structure, plane cut visualization, pore size distribution, voronoi tessellation

Tomas Matousek; Petr Ponizil; Filip Kremen; Iva Buresova; Petra Dvorakova

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

The Importance of Domain Size and Purity in High-Efficiency Organic...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Importance of Domain Size and Purity in High-Efficiency Organic Solar Cells Print The efficiency of polymerorganic photovoltaic cells hinges on excitons-electronhole pairs...

29

Usage by Job Size  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Usage by Job Usage by Job Size Table Usage by Job Size Table page loading animation Usage Query Interface System All Hopper Edison Carver Planck Matgen Franklin Hopper 1 Magellan Dirac Bassi Jacquard Seaborg User Account (Repo) Execution Queue All Debug Interactive Premium Regular Short Regular Long Regular Small Regular Medium Regular Big Regular Extra Big Killable Low Transfer IO Task Special System Serial Big Memory Westmere === Inactive === Magellan Serial Magellan Short Magellan Small Magellan Medium Magellan Big Magellan Long Regular 1 Regular 1 Long Regular 16 Regular 32 Regular 48 Full Config Seaborg Serial Batch 16 Batch 32 Batch 64 Submit Queue all interactive debug premium regular low DOE Office all ASCR BER BES FES HEP NP Summary for jobs that completed after Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun July Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 @ 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 : 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59

30

Dog's Heart Size and Activity  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dog's Heart Size and Activity Name: Addie Status: Student Grade: 4-5 Location: IN Country: USA Date: Winter 2009-2010 Question: Does the size of a dog affect it's heart rate before...

31

Automated size analysis for OCL  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An essential tool in object oriented modeling is the specification of cardinalities of associations between classes. In Object Constraint Language (OCL) such constraints are expressed as conditions on the sizes of the collections that correspond to associations. ... Keywords: OCL, size abstraction, size analysis

Fang Yu; Tevfik Bultan; Erik Peterson

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Cell separator and cell  

SciTech Connect

There is disclosed a novel cell separator made of a grafted membrane comprising a polyethylene film which is graft copolymerized with a monomer having an ion exchange group, characterized in that said membrane has an area which is not grafted at all or an area of low degree grafting. By making use of this membrane, a small size and thin cell having excellent performance as well as satisfactory mechanical strength can be produced at low cost with great advantages.

Ishigaki, I.; Machi, S.; Murata, K.; Okada, T.; Senoo, K.; Sugo, T.; Tanso, S.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Size Influence on the Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity and Instability of Supported Pt Nanoparticles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Size-dependent oxygen reduction reaction activity (ORR) and instability of Pt nanoparticles is of great importance in proton exchange membrane fuel cell applications. In this study, the size-dependence of ORR activity on ...

Sheng, Wenchao

34

ARM - Measurement - Hydrometeor Size Distribution  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Size Distribution Size Distribution ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Hydrometeor Size Distribution The number of hydrometeors observed in a given size range. Categories Cloud Properties, Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments LDIS : Laser Disdrometer Datastreams LDIS : Laser Disdrometer Datastreams PARS2 : OTT Parsivel2 Laser Disdrometer VDIS : Video Disdrometer Datastreams VDIS : Video Disdrometer Drop Size Distribution

35

Full Size Image - Energy Innovation Portal  

Bookmark Full Size Image - Energy Innovation Portal on Google; Bookmark Full Size Image - Energy Innovation Portal on Delicious; Rank Full Size Image ...

36

ARM - Measurement - Aerosol particle size  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

particle size particle size ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Aerosol particle size Linear size (e.g. radius or diameter) of an aerosol particle. Categories Aerosols Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. Field Campaign Instruments AEROSMASSSPEC : Aerosol Mass Spectrometer CPI : Cloud Particle Imager DRI-GND : Desert Research Institute Ground-Based Aerosol Instruments DRUM-AEROSOL : Drum Aerosol Sampler AEROSOL-TOWER-EML : EML Tower based Aerosol Measurements

37

ARM - Measurement - Particle size distribution  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

size distribution size distribution ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Particle size distribution The number of particles present in any given volume of air within a specified size range. Categories Aerosols Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments AOS : Aerosol Observing System CSPHOT : Cimel Sunphotometer TDMA : Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer UHSAS : Ultra-High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer Field Campaign Instruments

38

ARM - Measurement - Cloud droplet size  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

droplet size droplet size ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Cloud droplet size Linear size (e.g. radius or diameter) of a cloud particle Categories Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. Field Campaign Instruments CPI : Cloud Particle Imager CVI-AIR : Counterflow Virtual Impactor MIRAI : JAMSTEC Research Vessel Mirai PDI : Phase Doppler Interferometer UAV-PROTEUS-MICRO : Proteus Cloud Microphysics Instruments SPEC-CPI : Stratton Park Engineering Company - Cloud particle imager

39

Size Effects in Multilayer Structures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 28, 2011 ... This work was supported by Sandia National Laboratories through USDOE NNSA Contract DE-AC04 94AL85000. 5:40 PM Size Effect in ...

40

Method for sizing hollow microspheres  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Hollow Microspheres may be effectively sized by placing them beneath a screen stack completely immersed in an ultrasonic bath containing a liquid having a density at which the microspheres float and ultrasonically agitating the bath.

Farnum, E.H.; Fries, R.J.

1975-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "200-meter cell size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Search by EPA Size Class  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

EPA Size Class Select Year... 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993 1992 1991 1990 1989 1988 1987 1986 1985...

42

Exponential Size Distributions for Snow  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using airborne data from several recent field projects, the authors have taken another look at the properties of exponential ice particle size distributions (PSDs) when the PSDs are broad. Two primary questions are addressed: for what ranges of ...

Andrew J. Heymsfield; Paul Field; Aaron Bansemer

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Parameterizing the Raindrop Size Distribution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper addresses the problem of finding a parametric form for the raindrop size distribution (DSD) that 1) is an appropriate model for tropical rainfall, and 2) involves statistically independent parameters. Such a parameterization is derived ...

Ziad S. Haddad; Stephen L. Durden; Eastwood Im

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Size does matter: how image size affects aesthetic perception?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There is no doubt that an image's content determines how people assess the image aesthetically. Previous works have shown that image contrast, saliency features, and the composition of objects may jointly determine whether or not an image is perceived ... Keywords: crowdsourcing, human percpetion, image aesthetics, quality assessment, size-dependent aesthetics

Wei-Ta Chu, Yu-Kuang Chen, Kuan-Ta Chen

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Compare All CBECS Activities: Size  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

By Building Size By Building Size Compare Activities by ... Building Size Total Floorspace by Building Type There was approximately 67.3 billion square feet of commercial floorspace in the U.S. in 1999. Because there are many of them, office buildings comprised the largest amount of commercial floorspace. Figure showing total floorspace by building type. If you need assistance viewing this page, please call 202-586-8800. Square Feet per Building by Building Type Inpatient health buildings were by far the largest building type, on average, while food service and food sales buildings were the smallest. Figure showing square feet per building by building type. If you need assistance viewing this page, please call 202-586-8800. Establishments per Building by Building Type

46

Peaks in Raindrop Size Distributions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The multipeak behavior of raindrop size distributions has been studied. Peaks have been found for distinct drop diameters: 0.7, 1.0, 1.9, and possibly 3.2 mm. The probability is about 65% that at least one of these peaks exists in an observed ...

M. Steiner; A. Waldvogel

1987-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Size of Cloud from Shadow  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Size of Cloud from Shadow Size of Cloud from Shadow Name: mike Status: other Grade: other Location: N/A Country: USA Date: Summer 2011 Question: I see a cloud and I see its shadow in a field - knowing high sun angles - is there a way of telling how far away the cloud is or how big? - I am thinking if the shadow is 30' wide and the sun is at 2:00 pm- ? Replies: Hi Mike, Try this, draw a small circle representing the Sun. Somewhere below this circle and maybe to the right, draw an oblong, make this oblong bigger than the circle. Now connect the leftmost edge of the circle with the leftmost edge of the oblong with a straight line. Do the same for the rightmost edges. The oblong now represent the shadow of a cloud on the ground, and the lines represent the rays of the sun passing along the edges of the cloud.

48

High temperature size selective membranes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this research is to develop a high temperature size selective membrane capable of separating gas mixture components from each other based on molecular size, using a molecular sieving mechanism. The authors are evaluating two concepts: a composite of a carbon molecular sieve (CMS) with a tightly defined pore size distribution between 3 and 4 {angstrom}, and a microporous supporting matrix which provides mechanical strength and resistance to thermal degradation, and a sandwich of a CMS film between the porous supports. The high temperature membranes the authors are developing can be used to replace the current low-temperature unit operations for separating gaseous mixtures, especially hydrogen, from the products of the water gas shift reaction at high temperatures. Membranes that have a high selectivity and have both thermal and chemical stability would improve substantially the economics of the coal gasification process. These membranes can also improve other industrial processes such as the ammonia production and oil reform processes where hydrogen separation is crucial. Results of tests on a supported membrane and an unsupported carbon film are presented.

Yates, S.F.; Zhou, S.J.; Anderson, D.J.; Til, A.E. van

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Strategy Guideline: HVAC Equipment Sizing  

SciTech Connect

The heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system is arguably the most complex system installed in a house and is a substantial component of the total house energy use. A right-sized HVAC system will provide the desired occupant comfort and will run efficiently. This Strategy Guideline discusses the information needed to initially select the equipment for a properly designed HVAC system. Right-sizing of an HVAC system involves the selection of equipment and the design of the air distribution system to meet the accurate predicted heating and cooling loads of the house. Right-sizing the HVAC system begins with an accurate understanding of the heating and cooling loads on a space; however, a full HVAC design involves more than just the load estimate calculation - the load calculation is the first step of the iterative HVAC design procedure. This guide describes the equipment selection of a split system air conditioner and furnace for an example house in Chicago, IL as well as a heat pump system for an example house in Orlando, Florida. The required heating and cooling load information for the two example houses was developed in the Department of Energy Building America Strategy Guideline: Accurate Heating and Cooling Load Calculations.

Burdick, A.

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

NCNR Magnetic Cluster Sizes in Recording Disks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Presently, cluster sizes are believed to be about 10 nano meters to 15 nano meters, but accurate knowledge of the size distribution and even the ...

51

Full Size Image - Energy Innovation Portal  

Site Map; Printable Version; Share this resource. Send a link to Full Size Image - Energy Innovation Portalto someone by E-mail; Share Full Size Image - Energy ...

52

Full Size Image - Energy Innovation Portal  

Site Map; Printable Version; Share this resource. Send a link to Full Size Image - Energy Innovation Portalto someone by E-mail; Share Full Size Image ...

53

Organic Solar Cells: Absolute Measurement of Domain Composition...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Organic Solar Cells: Absolute Measurement of Domain Composition and Nanoscale Size Distribution Explains Performance in Solar Cells Organic Solar Cells: Absolute Measurement of...

54

Using harmony search algorithm for optimization the component sizing of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, an optimal design to minimize the mass, cost and volume of the supercapacitor (SC) and fuel cell (FC) ina fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle is presented. Because of the hybrid powertrain, component sizing significantly affects vehicle ... Keywords: fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle (FCHEV), harmony search algorithm, particle swarm optimization, power management, powertrain modeling

Amir Khanjanzadeh; Alireza Rezazadeh; Mostafa Sedighizadeh

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Closed form solutions to simultaneous buffer insertion/sizing and wire sizing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we consider the delay minimization problem of an interconnect wire by simultaneously considering buffer insertion, buffer sizing and wire sizing. We consider three cases, namely using no buffer (i.e., wire sizing alone), using a given ... Keywords: buffer insertion, buffer sizing, closed form solution, interconnect optimization, wire sizing

Chris Chu; D. F. Wong

2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Stresses within Dislocation Cell Structures: Size Effects versus ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Overview of Microstructural Models Applied to Hot Rolling Mill for Long ... Study of Composite Materials Application for Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine Blades.

57

Microsoft Word - Nano-sized Ion Exchange Particles.docx  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reducing Ion Exchange Particles to Nano-Size Shows Big Potential Reducing Ion Exchange Particles to Nano-Size Shows Big Potential AIKEN, S.C. (January 30, 2012) - Sometimes bigger isn't better. Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River National Laboratory have successfully shown that they can replace useful little particles of monosodium titanate (MST) with even tinier nano-sized particles, making them even more useful for a variety of applications. MST is an ion exchange material used to decontaminate radioactive and industrial wastewater solutions, and has been shown to be an effective way to deliver metals into living cells for some types of medical treatment. Typically, MST, and a modified form known as mMST developed by SRNL and Sandia National Laboratories, are in the form of fine powders, spherically-shaped particles about 1 to 10 microns in diameter

58

Characterization of Grain Size, Morphology, Transmittance, and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 16, 2010 ... Characterization of Minerals, Metals and Materials: Characterization of Grain Size, Morphology, Transmittance, and Tomography Sponsored ...

59

Full Size Image - Energy Innovation Portal  

A coin-sized integrated circuit developed by researchers at PNNL may help solve the nation's overworked electricity grid.

60

Reduce Pumping Costs through Optimum Pipe Sizing  

SciTech Connect

BestPractices Program tip sheet discussing pumping system efficiency by reducing pumping costs through optimum pipe sizing.

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "200-meter cell size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Bilayer Thickness Mismatch Controls Domain Size in Model Membranes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The observation of lateral phase separation in lipid bilayers has received considerable attention, especially in connection to lipid raft phenomena in cells. It is widely accepted that rafts play a central role in cellular processes, notably signal transduction. While micrometer-sized domains are observed with some model membrane mixtures, rafts much smaller than 100 nm beyond the reach of optical microscopy are now thought to exist, both in vitro and in vivo. We have used small-angle neutron scattering, a probe free technique, to measure the size of nanoscopic membrane domains in unilamellar vesicles with unprecedented accuracy. These experiments were performed using a four-component model system containing fixed proportions of cholesterol and the saturated phospholipid 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DSPC), mixed with varying amounts of the unsaturated phospholipids 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) and 1,2-dioleoylsn- glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC). We find that liquid domain size increases with the extent of acyl chain unsaturation (DOPC:POPC ratio). Furthermore, we find a direct correlation between domain size and the mismatch in bilayer thickness of the coexisting liquid-ordered and liquid-disordered phases, suggesting a dominant role for line tension in controlling domain size. While this result is expected from line tension theories, we provide the first experimental verification in free-floating bilayers. Importantly, we also find that changes in bilayer thickness, which accompany changes in the degree of lipid chain unsaturation, are entirely confined to the disordered phase. Together, these results suggest how the size of functional domains in homeothermic cells may be regulated through changes in lipid composition.

Heberle, Frederick A [ORNL; Petruzielo, Robin S [ORNL; Pan, Jianjun [ORNL; Drazba, Paul [ORNL; Kucerka, Norbert [Canadian Neutron Beam Centre and Comelius University (Slovakia); Feigenson, Gerald [Cornell University; Katsaras, John [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Laser Cutting and Size Reduction. Innovative Technology Summary Report  

SciTech Connect

The project utilizes a Neodymium Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (Nd:YAG) laser to cut and size reduce equipment in the 324 Laboratory B Hot Cell located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. This project will demonstrate the ability of the Nd:Yag laser to remotely and safely dismantle equipment faster, cheaper, and more efficiently than baseline cutting methods, such as the plasma torch and the water knife, in a highly radioactive area using fiber optics.

None

2001-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Preliminary Investigations of the Effect of Particle Size and Tip Size ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Preliminary Investigations of the Effect of Particle Size and Tip Size in the Current Activated Tip-Based Sintering (CATS) of Nickel Powder ...

64

A study on the effect of particle size on coal flotation kinetics using fuzzy logic  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper investigates the effect of particle size on the flotation kinetics of coal in a batch flotation cell. The relationship between flotation kinetics constant and theoretical flotation recovery with particle size was estimated with nonlinear equations. ... Keywords: Coal, Flotation kinetics, Fuzzy logic, Modeling

Emad Abkhoshk; Mohammad Kor; Bahram Rezai

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

1999 Commercial Buildings Characteristics--Building Size  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Size of Buildings Size of Buildings Size of Buildings The 1999 CBECS estimated that 2,348,000 commercial buildings, or just over half (50.4 percent) of total buildings, were found in the smallest building size category (1,001 to 5,000 square feet) (Figure 1). Only 7,000 buildings occupied the largest size category (over 500,000 square feet). Detailed tables Figure 1. Distribution of Buildings by Size of Building, 1999 Figure 1. Distribution of Buildings by Size of Building, 1999. If having trouble viewing this page, please contact the National Energy Information Center at (202) 586-8800. Energy Information Administration Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey The middle size categories (10,001 to 100,000 square feet) had relatively more floorspace per category than smaller or larger size categories (Figure 2). The greatest amount of floorspace, about 11,153,000 square feet (or 17 percent of total floorspace) was found in the 10,001 to 25,000 square feet category. Figure 2. Distribution of Floorspace by Size of Building, 1999

66

PowerPlex Fusion Product Size Ranges  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The schematic diagram illustrates the fluorescent dye label color and relative PCR product size ranges for the various STR loci present in this ...

2012-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

67

Bird's Eggs - Their Size, Shape and Color  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Search Engine Table of Contents Copyright Disclaimer Bird's Eggs - Their Size, Shape and Color Nature Bulletin No. 455-A April 29, 1972 Forest Preserve District of Cook...

68

Production mechanisms, number concentration, size distribution...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com) DOI: 10.1002asl2.441 Meeting Report Production mechanisms, number concentration, size distribution, chemical composition, and...

69

Lot Sizing with Piecewise Concave Production Costs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Feb 14, 2013 ... We study the lot-sizing problem with piecewise concave production costs ... is to propose a minimum cost production plan to satisfy the demand ...

70

Interfacial Studies of Sized Carbon Fiber  

SciTech Connect

This study was performed to investigate the influence of sizing treatment on carbon fiber in respect of interfacial adhesion in composite materials, Epolam registered 2025. Fortafil unsized carbon fiber was used to performed the experiment. The fiber was commercially surface treated and it was a polyacrylonitrile based carbon fiber with 3000 filament per strand. Epicure registered 3370 was used as basic sizing chemical and dissolved in two types of solvent, ethanol and acetone for the comparison purpose. The single pull out test has been used to determine the influence of sizing on carbon fiber. The morphology of carbon fiber was observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The apparent interfacial strength IFSS values determined by pull out test for the Epicure registered 3370/ethanol sized carbon fiber pointed to a good interfacial behaviour compared to the Epicure registered 3370/acetone sized carbon fiber. The Epicure registered 3370/ethanol sizing agent was found to be effective in promoting adhesion because of the chemical reactions between the sizing and Epolam registered 2025 during the curing process. From this work, it showed that sized carbon fiber using Epicure registered 3370 with addition of ethanol give higher mechanical properties of carbon fiber in terms of shear strength and also provided a good adhesion between fiber and matrix compared to the sizing chemical that contain acetone as a solvent.

Shahrul, S. N.; Hartini, M. N.; Hilmi, E. A.; Nizam, A. [Nanomaterials Program, Advance Materials Centre (AMREC), SIRIM Berhad, Lot 34, Jalan Hi-Tech Park, 09000, Kulim, Kedah (Malaysia)

2010-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

71

and Large Sized Chinese Steel Enterprises  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Analysis of the Past and Future Trends of Energy Use in Key Medium and Large Sized Chinese Steel Enterprises year month institution Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory abstract p...

72

Optimization Online - Lot sizing with inventory gains  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Apr 27, 2006 ... Abstract: This paper introduces the single item lot sizing problem with inventory gains. This problem is a generalization of the classical single ...

73

Full Size Image - Energy Innovation Portal  

Share Full Size Image - Energy Innovation Portal on Facebook; ... Hydropower, Wave and Tidal; Industrial Technologies; Solar Photovoltaic; Solar Thermal; Startup America;

74

Particle size distribution instrument. Topical report 13  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The development of an instrument to measure the concentration of particles in gas is described in this report. An in situ instrument was designed and constructed which sizes individual particles and counts the number of occurrences for several size classes. Although this instrument was designed to detect the size distribution of slag and seed particles generated at an experimental coal-fired magnetohydrodynamic power facility, it can be used as a nonintrusive diagnostic tool for other hostile industrial processes involving the formation and growth of particulates. Two of the techniques developed are extensions of the widely used crossed beam velocimeter, providing simultaneous measurement of the size distribution and velocity of articles.

Okhuysen, W.; Gassaway, J.D.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Robust gate sizing by geometric programming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present an efficient optimization scheme for gate sizing in the presence of process variations. Using a posynomial delay model, the delay constraints are modified to incorporate uncertainty in the transistor widths and effective channel lengths due ... Keywords: gate sizing, geometric program, optimization, posynomial, uncertainty ellipsoid

Jaskirat Singh; Vidyasagar Nookala; Zhi-Quan Luo; Sachin Sapatnekar

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

When Size Matters: Yttrium Oxide Breaking Down Under Pressure | Advanced  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Breakthrough in Nanocrystals' Growth Breakthrough in Nanocrystals' Growth Next Step to Drought-Resistant Plants? A Boring Material "Stretched" Could Lead to an Electronics Revolution At the Crossroads of Chromosomes Unveiling the Structure of Adenovirus Science Highlights Archives: 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 2001 | 2000 | 1998 | Subscribe to APS Science Highlights rss feed When Size Matters: Yttrium Oxide Breaking Down Under Pressure NOVEMBER 2, 2010 Bookmark and Share Top: Pair distribution function (PDF) of 16 nm-sized Y2O3 at high pressures. Bottom: Lin Wang (left) and Wenge Yang (right) of the Carnegie Institution of Washington shown with the diamond anvil cell and x-ray instrumentation used to probe the PDF of the sample at high applied

77

Experimental study of full-size automated venetian blind windows  

SciTech Connect

This study presents an experimental study on full-size automated venetian blind window systems consisting of horizontal pivoted louvers installed and hermetically sealed between two glass panes. The experimental study was carried out using a test cell of 2.43 m high, 1.48 m wide, and 1.92 m deep. Various parameters were measured instantaneously and recorded using a data acquisition system: interior and exterior air temperatures; various surface temperatures; and total and direct solar radiations. A linearized numerical model was used to verify the experimental results.

Rheault, S.; Bilgen, E. (Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, Quebec (Canada))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

ARM - Measurement - Cloud particle size distribution  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

size distribution size distribution ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Cloud particle size distribution The number of cloud particles present in any given volume of air within a specified size range, including liquid and ice. Categories Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments WSACR : Scanning ARM Cloud Radar, tuned to W-Band (95GHz) Field Campaign Instruments CPI : Cloud Particle Imager CLDAEROSMICRO : Cloud and Aerosol Microphysical Properties

79

Small- and Medium-Sized Reactors  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

to essentially the same concept. As defined by the IAEA, a small reactor has an output electrical power of 300 MWe or less while a medium-sized reactor has an electrical power...

80

ARM - Measurement - Aerosol particle size distribution  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

particle size distribution particle size distribution ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Aerosol particle size distribution The number of aerosol particles present in any given volume of air within a specificied size range Categories Aerosols Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments SMPS : Scanning mobility particle sizer TDMA : Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer UHSAS : Ultra-High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer Field Campaign Instruments

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "200-meter cell size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Firm Size And Higher Education Graduate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Tables 1. West Virginia Public Higher Education Graduate Work Participation By Area Of Concentration .................................................................................................1 Employment And Annualized Wages By West Virginia Firm Employment Size.....................................................18 Appendix I: Detailed Description Of Employment Data .........................................19

Mohaghegh, Shahab

82

nano sized lead free solder paste  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dec 16, 2010 ... A while ago, I read an article about development of nano size Pb-free solder paste to reduce the melting point by increasing surface energy.

83

Gamma Size Distribution and Stochastic Sampling Errors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A maximum likelihood approach to the application of the gamma size distribution is described and compared with the method of moments approach suggested by Ulbrich. Estimation of distribution parameters based on the maximum likelihood principle ...

Raymond K. W. Wong; Norman Chidambaram

1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

The expected size of the orbits - CECM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Apparently, this data does not exclude or confirm a growth rate of . Another ... for fixed , the size of the orbit should increase with q as predicted by (6.7) and (6.8).

85

Raindrop Size Distribution Measurements in Tropical Cyclones  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Characteristics of the raindrop size distribution in seven tropical cyclones have been studied through impact-type disdrometer measurements at three different sites during the 2004–06 Atlantic hurricane seasons. One of the cyclones has been ...

Ali Tokay; Paul G. Bashor; Emad Habib; Takis Kasparis

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Development of an Inexpensive Raindrop Size Spectrometer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The deployment of weather radar, notably in mountainous terrain with many microclimates, requires the use of several or even many drop size spectrometers to provide confidence in the quantitative relation between radar reflectivity and rainfall. ...

William Henson; Geoff Austin; Harry Oudenhoven

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Temperature dependence of the indentation size effect  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The influence of temperature on the indentation size effect is explored experimentally. Copper is indented on a custom-built high-temperature nanoindenter at temperatures between ambient and 200 °C, in an inert atmosphere ...

Franke, Oliver

88

Genome Size Varaiation in D. melanogaster  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

As yet significant portions of the genetic variation in complex traits have not been explained with genome wide association experiments; and this has led to the search for the "missing heritability". Our data support the hypothesis that variation in genome size may account for some of the missing heritability. We measured female genome sizes for 34 Drosophila melanogaster inbred strains that derived from isofemale lines established from a natural population in Raleigh, NC, in addition to a group of 40 strains artificially selected for increased and decreased body size. We provide the first evidence that significant intraspecific genome size variation exists among these Drosophila melanogaster lines and that selection has a downsizing effect on the extent of variation.

Alfrejd, Benjamin

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

The Shape of Averaged Drop Size Distributions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The shape of averaged drop size distributions (DSD) is studied from a large sample of data (892 h) collected at several sites of various latitudes. The results show that neither the hypothesis of an exponential distribution to represent rainfall ...

Henri Sauvageot; Jean-Pierre Lacaux

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Acoustic Sounding of Raindrop Size Distribution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radars have been successfully used for remote measurements of raindrop size distribution and rain intensity for many years. Over the last two decades, sodars have been increasingly applied to measure the parameters of precipitation. In the ...

Sergei V. Shamanaev

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

A General Formulation for Raindrop Size Distribution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A general phenomenological formulation for drop size distribution (DSD), written down as a scaling law, is proposed. It accounts for all previous fitted DSDs. As a main implication of the expression proposed, the integral rainfall variables are ...

Daniel Sempere Torres; Josep M. Porrà; Jean-Dominique Creutin

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

What is a Raindrop Size Distribution?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is commonly understood that the number of drops that one happens to measure as a function of diameter in some sample represents the drop size distribution. However, recent observations show that rain is "patchy" suggesting that such a ...

A. R. Jameson; A. B. Kostinski

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Crushed Coal Particle Size Distribution Monitoring  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes an evaluation of different commercially available technologies for on-line monitoring of crushed coal size distribution with a subsequent laboratory test of the most promising system. The technology evaluation focused on image-based approaches for evaluating crushed coal size distribution that would address previous challenges encountered, including depth of field, image scale dependency upon the distance of the sample from the lens, image shadows caused by perimeter lighting, ...

2013-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

94

Full Size Image - Energy Innovation Portal  

Electricity Transmission; Energy Analysis; Energy Storage; Geothermal; Hydrogen and Fuel Cell; Hydropower, Wave and Tidal; Industrial Technologies; Solar Photovoltaic;

95

Full Size Image - Energy Innovation Portal  

Electricity Transmission; Energy Analysis; Energy Storage; Geothermal; Hydrogen and Fuel Cell; Hydropower, Wave and Tidal; Industrial Technologies; ...

96

NREL GIS Data: U.S. Great Lakes Offshore Windspeed 90m Height High  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Great Lakes Offshore Windspeed 90m Height High Great Lakes Offshore Windspeed 90m Height High Resolution Dataset Summary Description This dataset is a geographic shapefile generated from the original raster data. The original raster data resolution is a 200-meter cell size. The data provide an estimate of annual average wind speed at 90 meter height above surface for specific offshore regions of the United States. To learn more, please see the Assessment of Offshore Wind Energy Resources for the United States. These data were produced in cooperation with U.S. Department of Energy, and have been validated by NREL. To download state wind resource maps, visit Wind Powering America. In order to ensure the downloadable shapefile is current, please compare the date updated on this page to the last updated date on the NREL GIS Wind Data webpage.

97

NREL GIS Data: U.S. Hawaii Offshore Windspeed 90m Height High Resolution |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hawaii Offshore Windspeed 90m Height High Resolution Hawaii Offshore Windspeed 90m Height High Resolution Dataset Summary Description This dataset is a geographic shapefile generated from the original raster data. The original raster data resolution is a 200-meter cell size. The data provide an estimate of annual average wind speed at 90 meter height above surface for specific offshore regions of the United States. To learn more, please see the Assessment of Offshore Wind Energy Resources for the United States. These data were produced in cooperation with U.S. Department of Energy, and have been validated by NREL. To download state wind resource maps, visit Wind Powering America. In order to ensure the downloadable shapefile is current, please compare the date updated on this page to the last updated date on the NREL GIS Wind Data webpage.

98

NREL: Dynamic Maps, GIS Data, and Analysis Tools - Wind Data  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Wind Data Wind Data The available datasets are 50-meter height state-level and regional coverages and 25-kilometer national coverage. Please note that a 50-meter height national coverage is not available. We do not have data or contacts for Alabama, Florida, Louisiana or Mississippi. If you have questions, please contact the Webmaster. State and national 30-meter, 80-meter and offshore data at 80-meter height data used in the maps located at the Wind Powering America and U.S. DOE EERE websites can be purchased from AWS TruePower. 50-Meter Resolution (50-meter height above surface) These datasets are geographic shapefiles generated from the original raster data. The original raster data varied in resolution from 200-meter to 1000-meter cell sizes. The data provide an estimate of annual average wind

99

NREL GIS Data: U.S. Gulf of Mexico Coast Offshore Windspeed 90m Height High  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Gulf of Mexico Coast Offshore Windspeed 90m Height High Gulf of Mexico Coast Offshore Windspeed 90m Height High Resolution Dataset Summary Description This dataset is a geographic shapefile generated from the original raster data. The original raster data resolution is a 200-meter cell size. The data provide an estimate of annual average wind speed at 90 meter height above surface for specific offshore regions of the United States. To learn more, please see the Assessment of Offshore Wind Energy Resources for the United States. These data were produced in cooperation with U.S. Department of Energy, and have been validated by NREL. To download state wind resource maps, visit Wind Powering America. In order to ensure the downloadable shapefile is current, please compare the date updated on this page to the last updated date on the NREL GIS Wind Data webpage.

100

Size separation in vibrated granular matter  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We review recent developments in size separation in vibrated granular materials. Motivated by a need in industry to efficiently handle granular materials and a desire to make fundamental advances in non-equilibrium physics, experimental and theoretical investigations have shown size separation to be a complex phenomena. Large particles in a vibrated granular system invariably rise to the top. However, they may also sink to the bottom, or show other patterns depending on subtle variations in physical conditions. While size ratio is a dominant factor, particle specific properties such as density, inelasticity and friction can play an important role. The nature of the energy input, boundary conditions and interstitial air have been also shown to be significant factors in determining spatial distributions. The presence of convection can enhance mixing or lead to size separation. Experimental techniques including direct visualization and magnetic resonance imaging are being used to investigate these properties. Molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulation techniques have been developed to probe size separation. Analytical methods such as kinetic theory are being used to study the interplay between particle size and density in the vibro-fluidized regime, and geometric models have been proposed to describe size separation for deep beds. Besides discussing these studies, we will also review the impact of inelastic collision and friction on the density and velocity distributions to gain a deeper appreciation of the non-equilibrium nature of the system. While a substantial number of studies have been accomplished, considerable work is still required to achieve a firm description of the phenomena.

A. Kudrolli

2004-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "200-meter cell size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Full Size Image - Energy Innovation Portal  

Geothermal; Hydrogen and Fuel Cell; Hydropower, Wave and Tidal; Industrial Technologies; Solar Photovoltaic; Solar Thermal; Startup America; Vehicles and Fuels; Wind ...

102

Full Size Image - Energy Innovation Portal  

Biomass and Biofuels; Building Energy Efficiency; Electricity Transmission; Energy Analysis; Energy Storage; Geothermal; Hydrogen and Fuel Cell; ... (i.e. target ...

103

Two for One: Simultaneous Size and Electrochemical ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... biological processes,” explains NIST materials researcher Vivek ... cells that are essentially half of a battery. ... through the primary electrode depend on ...

2012-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

104

Size Dependent Transport Properties in Nanocrystalline Ceria ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Novel Electrode Material for Symmetrical Solid Oxide Fuel Cells ... High Performance Oxide Protective Coatings for SOFC Components · Influence of Pore ...

105

Towards Palm-Size Autonomous Helicopters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

muFly EU project started in 2006 with the idea to build an autonomous micro helicopter, comparable in size and weight to a small bird. Several scientific and technological objectives were identified. This spanned from system-level integration, high efficiency ... Keywords: Graph based SLAM, Micro actuators, Micro helicopter, Multi-directional triangulation

Samir Bouabdallah; Christian Bermes; Slawomir Grzonka; Christiane Gimkiewicz; Alain Brenzikofer; Robert Hahn; Dario Schafroth; Giorgio Grisetti; Wolfram Burgard; Roland Siegwart

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Modeling Maximum Hail Size in Alberta Thunderstorms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A one-dimensional steady-state cloud model was combined with a time-dependent hail growth model to predict the maximum hailstone size on the ground. Model runs were based on 160 proximity soundings recorded within the Alberta Hail Project area ...

Julian C. Brimelow; Gerhard W. Reuter; Eugene R. Poolman

2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

The Distribution of Cloud Horizontal Sizes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cloud horizontal size distributions from near-global satellite data, from aircraft, and from a global high-resolution numerical weather prediction model, are presented for the scale range 0.1–8000 km and are shown to be well-represented using a ...

Robert Wood; Paul R. Field

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Reducing code size through address register assignment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In DSP processors, minimizing the amount of address calculations is critical for reducing code size and improving performance, since studies of programs have shown that instructions that manipulate address registers constitute a significant portion of ... Keywords: DSP, Software compilation, address registers, register assignment

G. Chen; M. Kandemir; M. J. Irwin; J. Ramanujam

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

The Sampling Variations of Hailstone Size Distributions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The use of a shifted gamma size distribution for hailstone samples is proposed. This is shown to provide a better fit than the usual exponential form, using time-resolved Alberta data. It is also concluded that there is a dependence of the shape ...

Raymond K. W. Wong; Norman Chidambaram; Lawrence Cheng; Marianne English

1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Sizing and burn time measurements of micron-sized metal powders  

SciTech Connect

Detailed ignition and combustion mechanisms are needed to develop optimized propellant and energetic formulations using micron-sized metal powders, such as aluminum. Combustion researchers have traditionally used relatively coarse metal particles to characterize the burn time dependence on particle size. However, measurements of burn times for particles below 10 {mu}m in diameter are still needed for aluminum powders and other metal fuels. The apparatus described here sizes the particles just before the ignition event, providing a direct correlation between individual particle size and its burn time. Two lasers were utilized: a 785 nm laser diode for sizing the particles and a 125 W CO{sub 2} laser for particle ignition. The particles crossed the 785 nm laser beam just before crossing the CO{sub 2} laser beam. The particle size was determined from the amplitude of the scattered 785 nm light pulse. The burn time was determined from the duration of the visible light emission produced from the ignited particle. The in situ measured particle size distributions compared well with the size distributions measured for the same powders by a commercial instrument using low angle laser light scattering. Our measurements with two nominally spherical aluminum powders, suggest that the burn times increase from 0.5 to {approx}2.5 ms as the particle diameters increase from 3 to 8 {mu}m.

Gill, Robert J.; Mohan, Salil; Dreizin, Edward L. [New Jersey Institute of Technology Newark, New Jersey 07102 (United States)

2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

111

Size-independent vs. size-dependent policies in scheduling heavy-tailed distributions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the problem of scheduling jobs on a two-machine distributed server, where the job size distribution is heavy-tailed. We focus on two distributions, for which we prove that the performance of the optimal size-independent ...

Nham, John (John T.)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Microsoft PowerPoint - FlexCell Poster - 072610 [Compatibility...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

NexTech's FlexCell Planar SOFC Technology Fabrication of Large-Area FlexCells One of the key advantages of the FlexCell design is that there is no intrinsic limitation to the size...

113

INITIAL PLANETESIMAL SIZES AND THE SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF SMALL KUIPER BELT OBJECTS  

SciTech Connect

The Kuiper Belt is a remnant from the early solar system and its size distribution contains many important constraints that can be used to test models of planet formation and collisional evolution. We show, by comparing observations with theoretical models, that the observed Kuiper Belt size distribution is well matched by coagulation models, which start with an initial planetesimal population with radii of about 1 km, and subsequent collisional evolution. We find that the observed size distribution above R {approx} 30 km is primordial, i.e., it has not been modified by collisional evolution over the age of the solar system, and that the size distribution below R {approx} 30 km has been modified by collisions and that its slope is well matched by collisional evolution models that use published strength laws. We investigate in detail the resulting size distribution of bodies ranging from 0.01 km to 30 km and find that its slope changes several times as a function of radius before approaching the expected value for an equilibrium collisional cascade of material strength dominated bodies for R {approx}< 0.1 km. Compared to a single power-law size distribution that would span the whole range from 0.01 km to 30 km, we find in general a strong deficit of bodies around R {approx} 10 km and a strong excess of bodies around 2 km in radius. This deficit and excess of bodies are caused by the planetesimal size distribution left over from the runaway growth phase, which left most of the initial mass in small planetesimals while only a small fraction of the total mass is converted into large protoplanets. This excess mass in small planetesimals leaves a permanent signature in the size distribution of small bodies that is not erased after 4.5 Gyr of collisional evolution. Observations of the small Kuiper Belt Object (KBO) size distribution can therefore test if large KBOs grew as a result of runaway growth and constrained the initial planetesimal sizes. We find that results from recent KBO occultation surveys and the observed KBO size distribution can be best matched by an initial planetesimal population that contained about equal mass per logarithmic mass bin in bodies ranging from 0.4 km to 4 km in radius. We further find that we cannot match the observed KBO size distribution if most of the planetesimal mass was contained in bodies that were 10 km in radius or larger simply because their resulting size distribution cannot be sufficiently depleted over 4.5 Gyr to match observations.

Schlichting, Hilke E. [UCLA, Department of Earth and Space Science, 595 Charles E. Young Drive East, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Fuentes, Cesar I.; Trilling, David E., E-mail: hilke@ucla.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northern Arizona University, P.O. Box 6010, Flagstaff, AZ 86011 (United States)

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

The double effect of grain size on the work hardening behavior of polycrystalline copper  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Following the approach by Ashby, one can consider that strain compatibility between adjacent grains of a polycrystal generates geometrical dislocations. These dislocations participated in the strengthening mechanism in conjunction with statistically stored dislocations which are related to the single-crystal behavior. The dislocations of either species are indistinguishable and, as a whole, they may contribute to cell formation. The dislocation structure formed in a polycrystal is then a function of the major or minor intergranular accommodation complexity. At intermediate strain values the accommodation is distributed over the cells leading to a linear relationship between the tensile stress and the inverse of the cell size, whatever the grain size of the tested samples. The aim of the present work is to check that the presence of statistical and geometrical dislocations in the grains, as well as the fact that at the very early stage of plastic deformation the mean free path of dislocations is of the order of the grain size, leads to a double effect of the grain size on the work hardening behavior of polycrystalline copper. Moreover, careful analysis of the mechanical behavior of polycrystalline copper, including the microstructural aspects of plastic deformation, is performed, allowing the understanding of the relationship between the work hardening ratio and the grain size.

Gracio, J.J. (Univ. de Aveiro (Portugal). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica)

1994-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

115

THE SIZE SCALE OF STAR CLUSTERS  

SciTech Connect

Direct N-body simulations of star clusters in a realistic Milky-Way-like potential are carried out using the code NBODY6. Based on these simulations, a new relationship between scale size and galactocentric distance is derived: the scale size of star clusters is proportional to the hyperbolic tangent of the galactocentric distance. The half-mass radius of star clusters increases systematically with galactocentric distance but levels off when star clusters orbit the galaxy beyond {approx}40 kpc. These simulations show that the half-mass radius of individual star clusters varies significantly as they evolve over a Hubble time, more so for clusters with shorter relaxation times, and remains constant through several relaxation times only in certain situations when expansion driven by the internal dynamics of the star cluster and the influence of the host galaxy tidal field balance each other. Indeed, the radius of a star cluster evolving within the inner 20 kpc of a realistic galactic gravitational potential is severely truncated by tidal interactions and does not remain constant over a Hubble time. Furthermore, the half-mass radius of star clusters measured with present-day observations bears no memory of the original cluster size. Stellar evolution and tidal stripping are the two competing physical mechanisms that determine the present-day size of globular clusters. These simulations also show that extended star clusters can form at large galactocentric distances while remaining fully bound to the host galaxy. There is thus no need to invoke accretion from an external galaxy to explain the presence of extended clusters at large galactocentric distances in a Milky-Way-type galaxy.

Madrid, Juan P.; Hurley, Jarrod R.; Sippel, Anna C. [Center for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia)

2012-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

116

Quantum size effects in classical hadrodynamics  

SciTech Connect

The author discusses future directions in the development of classical hydrodynamics for extended nucleons, corresponding to nucleons of finite size interacting with massive meson fields. This new theory provides a natural covariant microscopic approach to relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions that includes automatically spacetime nonlocality and retardation, nonequilibrium phenomena, interactions among all nucleons, and particle production. The present version of the theory includes only the neutral scalar ({sigma}) and neutral vector ({omega}) meson fields. In the future, additional isovector pseudoscalar ({pi}{sup +}, {pi}{sup {minus}}, {pi}{sup 0}), isovector vector ({rho}{sup +}, {rho}{sup {minus}}, {rho}{sup 0}), and neutral pseudoscalar ({eta}) meson fields should be incorporated. Quantum size effects should be included in the equations of motion by use of the spreading function of Moniz and Sharp, which generates an effective nucleon mass density smeared out over a Compton wavelength. However, unlike the situation in electrodynamics, the Compton wavelength of the nucleon is small compared to its radius, so that effects due to the intrinsic size of the nucleon dominate.

Nix, J.R.

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Size-Related Behavior of Anatase Nanocrystals under Extreme Pressure |  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Boron-Based Compounds Trick a Biomedical Protein Boron-Based Compounds Trick a Biomedical Protein A Targeted Cancer Treatment using Nanomaterials When Roots Follow the Path of Least Resistance Perfecting Catalytic Arrays A Stable Open Framework with Wide Open Spaces Science Highlights Archives: 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 2001 | 2000 | 1998 | Subscribe to APS Science Highlights rss feed Size-Related Behavior of Anatase Nanocrystals under Extreme Pressure SEPTEMBER 27, 2009 Bookmark and Share Left: A polyhedral representation of the anatase TiO2 crystal structure. Right: Simplified relative cell parameter plots. The smoothly varying curves (+ diamond symbols) represent gold that was used as the pressure standard. The circles represent the 6-nm anatase. From the near vacuum of outer space to the intense pressure at a planet's

118

SBA Increases Size Standards for Waste Remediation Services ...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Increases Size Standards for Waste Remediation Services & InformationAdmin Support SBA Increases Size Standards for Waste Remediation Services & InformationAdmin Support December...

119

Energy Efficiency Services Sector: Workforce Size and Expectations...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Size and Expectations for Growth Title Energy Efficiency Services Sector: Workforce Size and Expectations for Growth Publication Type Report Year of Publication 2010 Authors...

120

Effect of Coke Particle Size on Sinter Quality  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, The effect of different Coke particle size on sinter quality has been investigated. Eight different coke particle sizes were chosen and sinter ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "200-meter cell size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Analytical Solutions to the Stochastic Kinetic Equation for Liquid and Ice Particle Size Spectra. Part I: Small-Size Fraction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The kinetic equation of stochastic condensation for cloud drop size spectra is extended to account for crystalline clouds and also to include the accretion–aggregation process. The size spectra are separated into small and large size fractions ...

Vitaly I. Khvorostyanov; Judith A. Curry

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Matching equipment size to the cooling load  

SciTech Connect

This article presents a heat extraction rate analysis method, using ASHRAE algorithms that enables HVAC system designers to optimally size cooling equipment. The final stage of the cooling load calculation process determines the heat extraction rate required to achieve design conditions. Put another way, this stage determines the equipment capacity required to match the cooling load profile, and it does so in a manner that predicts the resulting space temperature profile, and it does so in a manner that predicts the resulting space temperature profile. It is a stage in the design process that, in practice, may not be given the attention it deserves.

Bloom, B. (Harvey Toub Engineering, Atlanta, GA (United States))

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

The Importance of Domain Size and Purity in High-Efficiency Organic Solar  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Importance of Domain Size and Purity in High-Efficiency Organic Solar Cells Print The Importance of Domain Size and Purity in High-Efficiency Organic Solar Cells Print The efficiency of polymer/organic photovoltaic cells hinges on excitons-electron/hole pairs energized by sunlight-getting to the interfaces of donor and acceptor domains quickly, before recombining. At the interfaces, they become free charges that must then reach device electrodes. With the discovery of mixed domains of donor and acceptor molecules, many have pictured the excitons' journey as easy (interfaces are everywhere) but the charges' journey as precarious (interfaces are everywhere). Instead, using a combination of x-ray scattering and microscopy techniques, researchers have found that excitons may actually not fare so well in mixed domains but need access to pure aggregates to efficiently convert into charges. The smaller the aggregates, the better, allowing increased interfacial area and dramatic increases in device performance.

124

The Importance of Domain Size and Purity in High-Efficiency Organic Solar  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Importance of Domain Size and Purity in High-Efficiency Organic Solar Cells Print The Importance of Domain Size and Purity in High-Efficiency Organic Solar Cells Print The efficiency of polymer/organic photovoltaic cells hinges on excitons-electron/hole pairs energized by sunlight-getting to the interfaces of donor and acceptor domains quickly, before recombining. At the interfaces, they become free charges that must then reach device electrodes. With the discovery of mixed domains of donor and acceptor molecules, many have pictured the excitons' journey as easy (interfaces are everywhere) but the charges' journey as precarious (interfaces are everywhere). Instead, using a combination of x-ray scattering and microscopy techniques, researchers have found that excitons may actually not fare so well in mixed domains but need access to pure aggregates to efficiently convert into charges. The smaller the aggregates, the better, allowing increased interfacial area and dramatic increases in device performance.

125

The Importance of Domain Size and Purity in High-Efficiency Organic Solar  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Importance of Domain Size and Purity in High-Efficiency Organic Solar Cells Print The Importance of Domain Size and Purity in High-Efficiency Organic Solar Cells Print The efficiency of polymer/organic photovoltaic cells hinges on excitons-electron/hole pairs energized by sunlight-getting to the interfaces of donor and acceptor domains quickly, before recombining. At the interfaces, they become free charges that must then reach device electrodes. With the discovery of mixed domains of donor and acceptor molecules, many have pictured the excitons' journey as easy (interfaces are everywhere) but the charges' journey as precarious (interfaces are everywhere). Instead, using a combination of x-ray scattering and microscopy techniques, researchers have found that excitons may actually not fare so well in mixed domains but need access to pure aggregates to efficiently convert into charges. The smaller the aggregates, the better, allowing increased interfacial area and dramatic increases in device performance.

126

The Perfect Nanocube: Precise Control of Size, Shape, and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Perfect Nanocube: Precise Control of Size, Shape, and Composition. For Immediate Release: August 31, 2010. ...

2010-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

127

An efficient approach to simultaneous transistor and interconnect sizing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we study the simultaneous transistor and interconnect sizing (STIS) problem. We define a class of optimization problems as CH-posynomial programs and reveal a general dominance property for all CH-posynomial programs. We show that the ... Keywords: CH-posynomial programs, STIS, circuit CAD, driver/buffer, transistor and interconnect sizing, transistor sizing, wire sizing problem

Jason Cong; Lei He

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Parameterizing Size Distribution in Ice Clouds  

SciTech Connect

PARAMETERIZING SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS IN ICE CLOUDS David L. Mitchell and Daniel H. DeSlover ABSTRACT An outstanding problem that contributes considerable uncertainty to Global Climate Model (GCM) predictions of future climate is the characterization of ice particle sizes in cirrus clouds. Recent parameterizations of ice cloud effective diameter differ by a factor of three, which, for overcast conditions, often translate to changes in outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) of 55 W m-2 or more. Much of this uncertainty in cirrus particle sizes is related to the problem of ice particle shattering during in situ sampling of the ice particle size distribution (PSD). Ice particles often shatter into many smaller ice fragments upon collision with the rim of the probe inlet tube. These small ice artifacts are counted as real ice crystals, resulting in anomalously high concentrations of small ice crystals (D < 100 µm) and underestimates of the mean and effective size of the PSD. Half of the cirrus cloud optical depth calculated from these in situ measurements can be due to this shattering phenomenon. Another challenge is the determination of ice and liquid water amounts in mixed phase clouds. Mixed phase clouds in the Arctic contain mostly liquid water, and the presence of ice is important for determining their lifecycle. Colder high clouds between -20 and -36 oC may also be mixed phase but in this case their condensate is mostly ice with low levels of liquid water. Rather than affecting their lifecycle, the presence of liquid dramatically affects the cloud optical properties, which affects cloud-climate feedback processes in GCMs. This project has made advancements in solving both of these problems. Regarding the first problem, PSD in ice clouds are uncertain due to the inability to reliably measure the concentrations of the smallest crystals (D < 100 µm), known as the “small mode”. Rather than using in situ probe measurements aboard aircraft, we employed a treatment of ice cloud optical properties formulated in terms of PSD parameters in combination with remote measurements of thermal radiances to characterize the small mode. This is possible since the absorption efficiency (Qabs) of small mode crystals is larger at 12 µm wavelength relative to 11 µm wavelength due to the process of wave resonance or photon tunneling more active at 12 µm. This makes the 12/11 µm absorption optical depth ratio (or equivalently the 12/11 µm Qabs ratio) a means for detecting the relative concentration of small ice particles in cirrus. Using this principle, this project tested and developed PSD schemes that can help characterize cirrus clouds at each of the three ARM sites: SGP, NSA and TWP. This was the main effort of this project. These PSD schemes and ice sedimentation velocities predicted from them have been used to test the new cirrus microphysics parameterization in the GCM known as the Community Climate Systems Model (CCSM) as part of an ongoing collaboration with NCAR. Regarding the second problem, we developed and did preliminary testing on a passive thermal method for retrieving the total water path (TWP) of Arctic mixed phase clouds where TWPs are often in the range of 20 to 130 g m-2 (difficult for microwave radiometers to accurately measure). We also developed a new radar method for retrieving the cloud ice water content (IWC), which can be vertically integrated to yield the ice water path (IWP). These techniques were combined to determine the IWP and liquid water path (LWP) in Arctic clouds, and hence the fraction of ice and liquid water. We have tested this approach using a case study from the ARM field campaign called M-PACE (Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment). This research led to a new satellite remote sensing method that appears promising for detecting low levels of liquid water in high clouds typically between -20 and -36 oC. We hope to develop this method in future research.

DeSlover, Daniel; Mitchell, David L.

2009-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

129

Size-based Scheduling with Differentiated Services to Improve Response Time of Highly Varying Flow Sizes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The sizes of Internet objects are known to be highly varying. We evaluate an M/G/1 queue under foreground background N (FBN ) scheduling policy for job size distributions with varying coefficient of variability (CoV) to analyze the impact of variability of job sizes to the performance of the policy. We find that FBN is very efficient in reducing the response time and minimizing the number of jobs that are penalized (i.e., have a higher response time under FBN than under processor sharing (PS)) when job sizes have a high CoV. We also propose and analyze variants of FBN called fixed priority FBN (FP \\Gamma FBN ) and differential FBN (DF \\Gamma FBN ), which introduce service differentiation by classifying jobs into high priority and low priority and then servicing the high priority before low priority jobs in an FBN related order. The numerical analysis conducted for highly varying job sizes reveals that FP \\Gamma FBN achieves a perfect service differentiation at the expense of a high penalty for the low priority small jobs. While DF \\Gamma FBN offers acceptable service differentiation, it does not penalize small jobs with low priority at all. Moreover, FP \\Gamma FBN and DF \\Gamma FBN can guarantee the service of high priority jobs even under overload.

Idris A. Rai; Guillaume Urvoy-keller; Ernst W. Biersack

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

City Size Distributions For India and China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper studies the size distributions of urban agglomerations for India and China. We have estimated the scaling exponent for the Zipf's law with the Indian census data for the years of 1981-2001 and the Chinese census data for 1990 and 2000. Along with the biased linear fit estimate, the maximum likelihood estimate for the Pareto and Tsallis q-exponential distribution has been computed. For India, the scaling exponent is in the range of [1.88, 2.06] and for China, it is in the interval [1.82, 2.29]. The goodness-of-fit tests of the estimated distributions are performed using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic.

Gangopadhyay, Kausik

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Pore size distribution and accessible pore size distribution in bituminous coals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The porosity and pore size distribution of coals determine many of their properties, from gas release to their behavior on carbonization, and yet most methods of determining pore size distribution can only examine a restricted size range. Even then, only accessible pores can be investigated with these methods. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and ultra small-angle neutron scattering (USANS) are increasingly used to characterize the size distribution of all of the pores non-destructively. Here we have used USANS/SANS to examine 24 well-characterized bituminous and subbituminous coals: three from the eastern US, two from Poland, one from New Zealand and the rest from the Sydney and Bowen Basins in Eastern Australia, and determined the relationships of the scattering intensity corresponding to different pore sizes with other coal properties. The range of pore radii examinable with these techniques is 2.5 nm to 7 {micro}m. We confirm that there is a wide range of pore sizes in coal. The pore size distribution was found to be strongly affected by both rank and type (expressed as either hydrogen or vitrinite content) in the size range 250 nm to 7 {micro}m and 5 to 10 nm, but weakly in intermediate regions. The results suggest that different mechanisms control coal porosity on different scales. Contrast-matching USANS and SANS were also used to determine the size distribution of the fraction of the pores in these coals that are inaccessible to deuterated methane, CD{sub 4}, at ambient temperature. In some coals most of the small ({approx} 10 nm) pores were found to be inaccessible to CD{sub 4} on the time scale of the measurement ({approx} 30 min - 16 h). This inaccessibility suggests that in these coals a considerable fraction of inherent methane may be trapped for extended periods of time, thus reducing the effectiveness of methane release from (or sorption by) these coals. Although the number of small pores was less in higher rank coals, the fraction of total pores that was inaccessible was not rank dependent. In the Australian coals, at the 10 nm to 50 nm size scales the pores in inertinites appeared to be completely accessible to CD{sub 4}, whereas the pores in the vitrinite were about 75% inaccessible. Unlike the results for total porosity that showed no regional effects on relationships between porosity and coal properties, clear regional differences in the relationships between fraction of closed porosity and coal properties were found. The 10 to 50 nm-sized pores of inertinites of the US and Polish coals examined appeared less accessible to methane than those of the inertinites of Australian coals. This difference in pore accessibility in inertinites may explain why empirical relationships between fluidity and coking properties developed using Carboniferous coals do not apply to Australian coals.

Sakurovs, Richard [ORNL; He, Lilin [ORNL; Melnichenko, Yuri B [ORNL; Radlinski, Andrzej Pawell [ORNL; Blach, Tomasz P [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Sizing a New Water Heater | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Sizing a New Water Heater Sizing a New Water Heater Sizing a New Water Heater May 29, 2012 - 7:16pm Addthis Is your water heater the right size for you house? | Photo credit ENERGY STAR® Is your water heater the right size for you house? | Photo credit ENERGY STAR® A properly sized water heater will meet your household's hot water needs while operating more efficiently. Therefore, before purchasing a water heater, make sure it's the correct size. Here you'll find information about how to size these systems: Tankless or demand-type water heaters Solar water heating system Storage and heat pump (with tank) water heaters. For sizing combination water and space heating systems -- including some heat pump systems, and tankless coil and indirect water heaters -- consult a qualified contractor.

133

Effect of Grain Size on Uranium(VI) Surface Complexation Kinetics and Adsorption Additivity  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory experiments were performed to investigate the contribution of variable grain sizes to uranium adsorption/desorption in a sediment collected from the US DOE Hanford site. The sediment was wet-sieved into four size fractions: coarse sand (1-2 mm), medium sand (0.2-1 mm), fine sand (0.05-0.2 mm), and clay/silt fraction (< 0.05mm). For each size fraction and their composite (sediment), batch experiments were performed to determine uranium adsorption isotherms, and stirred flow-cell experiments were conducted to derive kinetic data of uranium adsorption and subsequent desorption. The results showed that uranium adsorption isotherms and adsorption/desorption kinetics were size-specific, reflecting the effects of size-specific adsorption site concentration and kinetic rate constants. The larger-size fraction had a larger mass percentage in the sediment, but with a smaller adsorption site concentration and generally a slower uranium adsorption/desorption rate. The same equilibrium surface complexation reaction and reaction constant could describe uranium adsorption isotherms for all size fractions and the composite after accounting for the effect of adsorption site concentration. Mass-weighted, linear additivity was observed for both uranium adsorption isotherms and adsorption/desorption kinetics in the composite. Our analysis also showed that uranium adsorption site concentration estimated from the adsorption isotherms was 3 orders of magnitude less than a site concentration estimated from sediment surface area and generic site density. One important implication of this study is that grain size distribution may be used to estimate uranium adsorption site, and adsorption/desorption kinetic rates in heterogeneous sediments from a common location.

Shang, Jianying; Liu, Chongxuan; Wang, Zheming; Zachara, John M.

2011-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

134

Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Percentage of Dry Natural Gas...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Reserves from Greater than 200 Meters Deep (Percent) Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Percentage of Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves from Greater than 200 Meters Deep (Percent)...

135

Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Percentage of Crude Oil Production...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

from Greater than 200 Meters Deep (Percent) Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Percentage of Crude Oil Production from Greater than 200 Meters Deep (Percent) Decade Year-0...

136

Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Percentage of Natural Gas Liquids...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Reserves from Greater than 200 Meters Deep (Percent) Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Percentage of Natural Gas Liquids Proved Reserves from Greater than 200 Meters Deep (Percent)...

137

Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Percentage of Dry Natural Gas...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

from Greater than 200 Meters Deep (Percent) Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Percentage of Dry Natural Gas Production from Greater than 200 Meters Deep (Percent) Decade...

138

Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Percentage of Natural Gas Liquids...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

from Greater than 200 Meters Deep (Percent) Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Percentage of Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate Production from Greater than 200 Meters Deep...

139

Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Percentage of Natural Gas, Wet...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

from Greater than 200 Meters Deep (Percent) Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Percentage of Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Production from Greater than 200 Meters...

140

Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Percentage of Natural Gas Liquids...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

from Greater than 200 Meters Deep (Percent) Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Percentage of Natural Gas Liquids Production from Greater than 200 Meters Deep (Percent) Decade...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "200-meter cell size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Percentage of Crude Oil Proved...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Reserves from Greater than 200 Meters Deep (Percent) Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Percentage of Crude Oil Proved Reserves from Greater than 200 Meters Deep (Percent) Decade...

142

Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Percentage of Natural Gas Liquids...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Reserves from Greater than 200 Meters Deep (Percent) Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Percentage of Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate Proved Reserves from Greater than 200 Meters...

143

Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Greater than 200 Meters Deep (Million Barrels) Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate Production from Greater than 200 Meters Deep (Million Barrels)...

144

Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Greater than 200 Meters Deep (Billion Cubic Feet) Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves from Greater than 200 Meters Deep...

145

Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Greater than 200 Meters Deep (Billion Cubic Feet) Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves from Greater than 200 Meters Deep (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade...

146

Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Greater than 200 Meters Deep (Million Barrels) Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate Proved Reserves from Greater than 200 Meters Deep (Million...

147

Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Less than 200 Meters Deep (Million Barrels) Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate Production from Less than 200 Meters Deep (Million Barrels) Decade...

148

Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Greater than 200 Meters Deep (Billion Cubic Feet) Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Production from Greater than 200 Meters Deep (Billion...

149

Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Less than 200 Meters Deep (Billion Cubic Feet) Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Production from Less than 200 Meters Deep (Billion Cubic...

150

Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Less than 200 Meters Deep (Billion Cubic Feet) Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves from Less than 200 Meters Deep (Billion...

151

Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Less than 200 Meters Deep (Million Barrels) Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate Proved Reserves from Less than 200 Meters Deep (Million Barrels)...

152

Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Natural Gas Liquids Production...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Greater than 200 Meters Deep (Million Barrels) Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Natural Gas Liquids Production from Greater than 200 Meters Deep (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0...

153

Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Natural Gas Liquids Proved Reserves...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Greater than 200 Meters Deep (Million Barrels) Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Natural Gas Liquids Proved Reserves from Greater than 200 Meters Deep (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0...

154

Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: Full-Size Electric Vehicle...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Full-Size Electric Vehicle Basics to someone by E-mail Share Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: Full-Size Electric Vehicle Basics on Facebook Tweet about Advanced Vehicle Testing...

155

Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: Full-Size Electric Vehicles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Full-Size Electric Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: Full-Size Electric Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity:...

156

Acoustic Method for Fish Counting and Fish Sizing in Tanks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A-123: 3.01.2004–2.28.2005 Acoustic Method for Fish Countingand Fish Sizing in Tanks W.A. Kuperman and Philippe Rouxlower the costs of raising fish to marketable size. Water,

Kuperman, William A.; Roux, Philippe

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: Full-Size Electric Vehicle...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Full-Size Electric Vehicle Fleet and Reliability Test Reports to someone by E-mail Share Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: Full-Size Electric Vehicle Fleet and Reliability Test...

158

Evolution with size in a locally periodic system: Scattering and deterministic maps  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we study the evolution of the wave function with the system size in a locally periodic structure. In particular we analyse the dependence of the wave function with the number of unit cells, which also reflects information about its spatial behaviour in the system. We reduce the problem to a nonlinear map and find an equivalence of its energy regions of single periodicity and of weak chaos, with the forbidden and allowed bands of the fully periodic system, respectively. At finite size the wave function decays exponentially with system size, as well as in space, when the energy lies inside a region of single periodicity, while for energies in the weak chaotic region never decays. At the transition between those regions the wave function still decays but in a $q$-exponential form; we found that the decay length is a half of the mean free path, which is larger than the lattice constant.

V. Dominguez-Rocha; M. Martinez-Mares

2013-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

159

Influence of lateral target size on hot electron production and electromagnetic pulse emission from laser-irradiated metallic targets  

SciTech Connect

The influences of lateral target size on hot electron production and electromagnetic pulse emission from laser interaction with metallic targets have been investigated. Particle-in-cell simulations at high laser intensities show that the yield of hot electrons tends to increase with lateral target size, because the larger surface area reduces the electrostatic field on the target, owing to its expansion along the target surface. At lower laser intensities and longer time scales, experimental data characterizing electromagnetic pulse emission as a function of lateral target size also show target-size effects. Charge separation and a larger target tending to have a lower target potential have both been observed. The increase in radiation strength and downshift in radiation frequency with increasing lateral target size can be interpreted using a simple model of the electrical capacity of the target.

Chen Ziyu; Li Jianfeng; Yu Yong; Li Xiaoya; Peng Qixian; Zhu Wenjun [National Key Laboratory of Shock Wave and Detonation Physics, Institute of Fluid Physics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, Sichuan 621900 (China); Wang Jiaxiang [State Key Laboratory of Precision Spectroscopy, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

160

Novel platinum/carbon catalysts with cluster size control for...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Project overview - Cluster chemistry - Catalysts and supports * Experimental - Novel catalyst preparation * Results - Metal cluster size - Electrochemical properties * Summary...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "200-meter cell size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Effect of Coke particle size on sinter quality  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Meeting, 2011 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition. Symposium, EMPMD Technical Division Student Poster Contest. Presentation Title, Effect of Coke particle size ...

162

Quartz size/shape relationships: variable size/shape relationships of detrital quartz reflect differences in source/transport parameters  

SciTech Connect

A common misconception is that as size decreases, quartz grains become progressively more angular. All possible size/shape relationships can and do occur including: 1) no relationship, 2) fine sizes, more rounded, 3) finer sized more angular, and 4) size/shape discontinuities where shape is constant over a wide range and then changes and stays constant over the remaining range. Detritus from large, long established flood plains (Mississippi, Ganges, Amazon) display a continuous change in shape with size. Detritus from primary sources generally display no size/shape effect. Small rivers commonly exhibit size/shape discontinuities. The origin of a particular size/shape relationship arises from two opposing tendencies. Finer detritus travel much faster than coarser sands. Thus silts from one provenance can overtake coarser material of different provenance. If flood plains are large and long-lived, the contribution of individual tributaries is diluted almost to indetectibility and all sizes have time enough to reach the sea. In such situations the size/shape relationship reflects a steady state of equilibrium. In smaller rivers individual tributaries can provide significant proportions of grains to flood plains with characteristic sizes and shapes leading to discrete shifts in the size/shape curve.

Ehrlich, R.; Eggers, M.R.; Goodman, E.D.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Hierarchical sizing and biasing of analog firm intellectual properties  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A hierarchical sizing and biasing methodology for analog firm intellectual properties (IPs) is presented. An analog firm IP designates an unsized transistor netlist of an analog circuit. The methodology sizes and biases an analog firm IP by automatically ... Keywords: Analog design, Analog firm IP, Modeling, Reuse, Simulation, Sizing, Synthesis

Ramy Iskander; Marie-Minerve LouëRat; Andreas Kaiser

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Lot sizing and furnace scheduling in small foundries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A lot sizing and scheduling problem prevalent in small market-driven foundries is studied. There are two related decision levels: (1) the furnace scheduling of metal alloy production, and (2) moulding machine planning which specifies the type and size ... Keywords: Lot sizing and scheduling, Meta-heuristics, Mixed integer programming

Silvio A. de Araujo; Marcos N. Arenales; Alistair R. Clark

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Size Effect of Element in Structural Blasting Demolition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Performed the size effect of the unit in numerical simulation of blasting demoLition. Considered three elemental sizes, which were 10, 20 and 40 cm. Adopt 40 cm element, the structure was damaged more seriously. This resulted in the bigger error in predicting ... Keywords: blasting demoLition, finite element, numerical simulation, size effect

Guo-liang Yang; Lin-lin Jiang; Yu-long Che

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Method to study fracture fluid polymer degradation using size exclusion chromatography. [Size exclusion chromatography  

SciTech Connect

A Size Exclusion Chromatography system is described which can be used to study conditions affecting the degradation of fracturing fluid polymers. In general, the effects of breaker type and concentration, temperature, and other additives to the fracturing fluid system can be monitored using this technique. Identification of effective conditions for polymer degradation may result in better design of fracturing fluids in order to minimize fracture and formation damage. 18 references, 20 figures, 6 tables.

Gall, B.L.; Raible, C.J.

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Method for determining aerosol particle size, device for determining aerosol particle size  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for determining the mass median diameter D of particles contained in a fluid is provided wherein the data of the mass of a pre-exposed and then a post-exposed filter is mathematically combined with data concerning the pressure differential across the same filter before and then after exposure to a particle-laden stream. A device for measuring particle size is also provided wherein the device utilizes the above-method for mathematically combining the easily quantifiable data.

Novick, Vincent J.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Variable area fuel cell process channels  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel cell arrangement having a non-uniform distribution of fuel and oxidant flow paths, on opposite sides of an electrolyte matrix, sized and positioned to provide approximately uniform fuel and oxidant utilization rates, and cell conditions, across the entire cell.

Kothmann, Richard E. (Churchill Borough, PA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Invariant scaling relationships for interspecific plant biomass production rates and body size  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

relationships for plant annualized biomass produc- tion (``growth'') rates, different measures of body size (dry scale as the 3 4-power of body mass M over 20 orders of magnitude of M (i.e., G M3/4); plant body length L (i.e., cell length or plant height) scales, on average, as the 1 4-power of M over 22 orders

Enquist, Brian Joseph

170

Photovoltaic Cell Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cell Basics Cell Basics Photovoltaic Cell Basics August 16, 2013 - 4:53pm Addthis Photovoltaic (PV) cells, or solar cells, take advantage of the photoelectric effect to produce electricity. PV cells are the building blocks of all PV systems because they are the devices that convert sunlight to electricity. Commonly known as solar cells, individual PV cells are electricity-producing devices made of semiconductor materials. PV cells come in many sizes and shapes, from smaller than a postage stamp to several inches across. They are often connected together to form PV modules that may be up to several feet long and a few feet wide. Modules, in turn, can be combined and connected to form PV arrays of different sizes and power output. The modules of the array make up the major part of a PV system, which can also include electrical connections,

171

The Importance of Domain Size and Purity in High-Efficiency Organic Solar  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Importance of Domain Size The Importance of Domain Size and Purity in High-Efficiency Organic Solar Cells The Importance of Domain Size and Purity in High-Efficiency Organic Solar Cells Print Wednesday, 27 March 2013 00:00 The efficiency of polymer/organic photovoltaic cells hinges on excitons-electron/hole pairs energized by sunlight-getting to the interfaces of donor and acceptor domains quickly, before recombining. At the interfaces, they become free charges that must then reach device electrodes. With the discovery of mixed domains of donor and acceptor molecules, many have pictured the excitons' journey as easy (interfaces are everywhere) but the charges' journey as precarious (interfaces are everywhere). Instead, using a combination of x-ray scattering and microscopy techniques, researchers have found that excitons may actually not fare so well in mixed domains but need access to pure aggregates to efficiently convert into charges. The smaller the aggregates, the better, allowing increased interfacial area and dramatic increases in device performance.

172

The Effect of PV Array Size and Battery Size on the Economics of PV/Diesel/Battery Hybrid RAPS Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Effect of PV Array Size and Battery Size on the Economics of PV/Diesel/Battery Hybrid RAPS WA 6150 Abstract This paper focuses on pv/diesel/battery hybrid RAPS systems meeting loads above 50 kWh per day. The effect of varying the size of the pv array and the battery bank in such systems on both

173

Building Technologies Office: Small- and Medium-Sized Building Automation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Small- and Medium-Sized Small- and Medium-Sized Building Automation and Control System Needs: Scoping Study Research Project to someone by E-mail Share Building Technologies Office: Small- and Medium-Sized Building Automation and Control System Needs: Scoping Study Research Project on Facebook Tweet about Building Technologies Office: Small- and Medium-Sized Building Automation and Control System Needs: Scoping Study Research Project on Twitter Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Small- and Medium-Sized Building Automation and Control System Needs: Scoping Study Research Project on Google Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Small- and Medium-Sized Building Automation and Control System Needs: Scoping Study Research Project on Delicious Rank Building Technologies Office: Small- and Medium-Sized Building

174

A method and apparatus for sizing and separating warp yarns  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A slashing process for preparing warp yarns for weaving operations includes the steps of sizing and/or desizing the yarns in an acoustic resonance box and separating the yarns with a leasing apparatus comprised of a set of acoustically agitated lease rods. The sizing step includes immersing the yarns in a size solution contained in an acoustic resonance box. Acoustic transducers are positioned against the exterior of the box for generating an acoustic pressure field within the size solution. Ultrasonic waves that result from the acoustic pressure field continuously agitate the size solution to effect greater mixing and more uniform application and penetration of the size onto the yarns. The sized yarns are then separated by passing the warp yarns over and under lease rods. Electroacoustic transducers generate acoustic waves along the longitudinal axis of the lease rods, creating a shearing motion on the surface of the rods for splitting the yarns.

Sheen, Shuh-Haw; Chien, Hual-Te; Raptis, Apostolos C.; Kupperman, David S.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Phase Behavior and Domain Size in Sphingomyelin-Containing Lipid Bilayers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Membrane raft size measurements are crucial to understanding the stability and functionality of rafts in cells. The challenge of accurately measuring raft size is evidenced by the disparate reports of domain sizes, which range from nanometers to microns for the ternary model membrane system sphingomyelin (SM)/1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC)/cholesterol (Chol). Using F rster resonance energy transfer (FRET) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), we established phase diagrams for porcine brain SM (bSM)/dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC)/Chol and bSM/POPC/Chol at 15 and 25 C. By combining two techniqueswith different spatial sensitivities, namely FRET and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS),we have significantly narrowed the uncertainty in domain size estimates for bSM/POPC/Chol mixtures. Compositional trends in FRET data revealed coexisting domains at 15 and 25 C for bothmixtures, while SANS measurements detected no domain formation for bSM/POPC/Chol. Together these results indicate that liquid domains in bSM/POPC/Chol are between 2 and 7 nmin radius at 25 C: that is, domains must be on the order of the 2 6 nmF rster distance of the FRET probes, but smaller than the ~7 nm minimum cluster size detectable with SANS. However, for palmitoyl SM (PSM)/POPC/Chol at a similar composition, SANS detected coexisting liquid domains. This increase in domain size upon replacing the natural SMcomponent (which consists of amixture of chain lengths) with synthetic PSM, suggests a role for SM chain length in modulating raft size in vivo.

Petruzielo, Robin S [Cornell University; Heberle, Frederick A [ORNL; Drazba, Paul [ORNL; Katsaras, John [ORNL; Feigenson, Gerald [Cornell University

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Fuel Cell Demonstration Program  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In an effort to promote clean energy projects and aid in the commercialization of new fuel cell technologies the Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) initiated a Fuel Cell Demonstration Program in 1999 with six month deployments of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) non-commercial Beta model systems at partnering sites throughout Long Island. These projects facilitated significant developments in the technology, providing operating experience that allowed the manufacturer to produce fuel cells that were half the size of the Beta units and suitable for outdoor installations. In 2001, LIPA embarked on a large-scale effort to identify and develop measures that could improve the reliability and performance of future fuel cell technologies for electric utility applications and the concept to establish a fuel cell farm (Farm) of 75 units was developed. By the end of October of 2001, 75 Lorax 2.0 fuel cells had been installed at the West Babylon substation on Long Island, making it the first fuel cell demonstration of its kind and size anywhere in the world at the time. Designed to help LIPA study the feasibility of using fuel cells to operate in parallel with LIPA's electric grid system, the Farm operated 120 fuel cells over its lifetime of over 3 years including 3 generations of Plug Power fuel cells (Lorax 2.0, Lorax 3.0, Lorax 4.5). Of these 120 fuel cells, 20 Lorax 3.0 units operated under this Award from June 2002 to September 2004. In parallel with the operation of the Farm, LIPA recruited government and commercial/industrial customers to demonstrate fuel cells as on-site distributed generation. From December 2002 to February 2005, 17 fuel cells were tested and monitored at various customer sites throughout Long Island. The 37 fuel cells operated under this Award produced a total of 712,635 kWh. As fuel cell technology became more mature, performance improvements included a 1% increase in system efficiency. Including equipment, design, fuel, maintenance, installation, and decommissioning the total project budget was approximately $3.7 million.

Gerald Brun

2006-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

177

Series cell light extinction monitor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for using the light extinction measurements from two or more light cells positioned along a gasflow chamber in which the gas volumetric rate is known to determine particle number concentration and mass concentration of an aerosol independent of extinction coefficient and to determine estimates for particle size and mass concentrations. The invention is independent of particle size. This invention has application to measurements made during a severe nuclear reactor fuel damage test.

Novick, Vincent J. (Downers Grove, IL)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Method for determining aerosol particle size, device for determining aerosol particle size  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for determining the mass median diameter D of particles contained in a fluid is provided wherein the data of the mass of a pre-exposed and then a post-exposed filter is mathematically combined with data concerning the pressure differential across the same filter before and then after exposure to a particle-laden stream. A device for measuring particle size is also provided wherein the device utilizes the above-method for mathematically combining the easily quantifiable data. 2 figs.

Novick, V.J.

1998-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

179

Series cell light extinction monitor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for using the light extinction measurements from two or more light cells positioned along a gasflow chamber in which the gas volumetric rate is known to determine particle number concentration and mass concentration of an aerosol independent of extinction coefficient and to determine estimates for particle size and mass concentrations. The invention is dependent of particle size. This invention is independent of particle size. This invention has application to measurements made during a severe nuclear reactor fuel damage test. 11 figs.

Novick, V.J.

1989-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

180

Federal Energy Management Program: Assess Potential Agency Size Changes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Assess Potential Assess Potential Agency Size Changes that Impact Greenhouse Gas Emissions to someone by E-mail Share Federal Energy Management Program: Assess Potential Agency Size Changes that Impact Greenhouse Gas Emissions on Facebook Tweet about Federal Energy Management Program: Assess Potential Agency Size Changes that Impact Greenhouse Gas Emissions on Twitter Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Assess Potential Agency Size Changes that Impact Greenhouse Gas Emissions on Google Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Assess Potential Agency Size Changes that Impact Greenhouse Gas Emissions on Delicious Rank Federal Energy Management Program: Assess Potential Agency Size Changes that Impact Greenhouse Gas Emissions on Digg Find More places to share Federal Energy Management Program: Assess

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "200-meter cell size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Design of a Nanometer Beam Size Monitor for ATF2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We developed an electron beam size monitor for extremely small beam sizes. It uses a laser interference fringe for a scattering target with the electron beam. Our target performance is measurement using 90 electron bunches for 25 - 6000 nm beam size. A precise laser interference fringe control system using an active feedback function is incorporated to the monitor to achieve the target performance. We describe an overall design, implementations, and performance estimations of the monitor.

Taikan Suehara; Masahiro Oroku; Takashi Yamanaka; Hakutaro Yoda; Tomoya Nakamura; Yoshio Kamiya; Yosuke Honda; Tatsuya Kume; Toshiaki Tauchi; Tomoyuki Sanuki; Sachio Komamiya

2008-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

182

Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: Full-Size Electric Vehicle...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Projects to someone by E-mail Share Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: Full-Size Electric Vehicle Special Projects on Facebook Tweet about Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity:...

183

Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: Full-Size Electric Vehicle...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Procedures to someone by E-mail Share Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: Full-Size Electric Vehicle Specifications and Test Procedures on Facebook Tweet about Advanced Vehicle...

184

On nano size structures for enhanced bone formation.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Purpose The general aim of the present thesis was to investigate early bone response to titanium implants modified with nano size structures. Therefore, 1. a… (more)

Meirelles, Luiz

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Flexible Mid-Sized Gas Turbine: Preliminary Market Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study estimates the sales potential of Flexible Mid-Sized Gas Turbine (FMGT) plants for the U.S. market over the period 2000-2015.

1998-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

186

Flame inhibition/suppression by water mist: Droplet size ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... 1. Analysis of the flame structure and critical flame ... In the present work, the inhibition of a one ... sizes, the underlying reason for the breakdown in the ...

2012-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

187

Microsoft PowerPoint - ARM2007LetterSize.ppt  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Remote sensing microphysical retrieval and cloud microphysics parameterizations rely on a knowledge of the shape of cloud drop size distributions (DSD). These are often...

188

Lot Sizing with Piecewise Concave Production Costs - Optimization ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Feb 14, 2013 ... Abstract: We study the lot-sizing problem with piecewise concave production costs and concave holding costs. This problem is a generalization ...

189

Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: Full-Size Electric Vehicle...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Testing Reports to someone by E-mail Share Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: Full-Size Electric Vehicle Testing Reports on Facebook Tweet about Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity:...

190

Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity - Full Size Electric Vehicles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Full Size Electric Vehicles What's New Baseline Performance Testing for 2011 Nissan Leaf Battery Testing for 2011 Nissan Leaf - When New The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity...

191

Particle Size Distribution Model for Leaching Kinetics of Alumina  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Particle Size Distribution Model for Leaching Kinetics of Alumina. Author(s), Li Bao, Ting-an Zhang, Weimin Long, Anh V Nguyen, Guozhi Lv, ...

192

State Policy: One Size Doesnt Fit All  

Wind Powering America (EERE)

Policy: One Size Doesn't Fit All Larry Flowers Deputy Director, Distributed and Community Wind American Wind Energy Association lflowers@awea.org www.awea.orgcommunitywind...

193

Optimization Online - Lot Sizing with Inventory Bounds and Fixed ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Jul 15, 2003 ... Abstract: We investigate the polyhedral structure of the lot-sizing problem with inventory bounds. We consider two models, one with linear costs ...

194

Topics in Bayesian sample size determination and Bayesian model selection.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This dissertation contains three topics using the Bayesian paradigm for statistical inference. The first topic is related to Bayesian sample size determination with a misclassified… (more)

Cheng, Dunlei.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Remote Sensing of Cirrus Particle Size Vertical Profile Using...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and shapes. The vertical variation of ice crystal size can alter the radiative heatingcooling profiles in cirrus cloudy atmospheres and hence is an important component in the...

196

Particle Size Effects on the Morphology and Bioactivity of Flame ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Flame spraying was used to manufacture coatings with different levels of porosity by altering both the deposition conditions and the feedstock particle size ...

197

Influence of Powder Particle Size Distribution and Pressure on the ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

during HIP were determined as a function of applied pressure, temperature and initial powder particle size distribution for the nickel base superalloy. RENE 95.

198

Measuring the Raindrop Size Distribution, ARM's Efforts at Darwin...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Measuring the Raindrop Size Distribution, ARM's Efforts at Darwin and SGP Bartholomew, Mary Jane Brookhaven National Laboratory Category: Instruments ARM has purchased two impact...

199

Evolution of droplet size distribution and autoconversion parameteriza...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Evolution of droplet size distribution and autoconversion parameterization in turbulent clouds McGraw, Robert Brookhaven National Laboratory Liu, Yangang Brookhaven National...

200

Size Influence on the Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity and Instability of Supported Pt Nanoparticles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Size-dependent oxygen reduction reaction activity (ORR) and instability of Pt nanoparticles is of great importance in proton exchange membrane fuel cell applications. In this study, the size-dependence of ORR activity on Pt nanoparticles (NPs) was investigated on high-surface-area carbon supported Pt NPs below 5 nm in acidic electrolytes using rotating disk electrode method. The ORR activity was correlated to the estimated surface coverage by OH anion from cyclic voltammogram measurements and the surface composition and electronic structure of Pt NPs, which was studied using X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, and ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy. The results revealed a size-independent ORR activity on Pt NPs below 5 nm, which was attributed to similar surface compositions and surface electronic structures of Pt NPs below 5 nm as well as comparable OH anion coverage at the potential where ORR was evaluated. In contrast, the instability of Pt NPs under accelerated potential cycling was found to be strongly dependent on the particle size.

Sheng W.; Vescovo E.; Shuo, C. & Shao-Horn, Y.

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "200-meter cell size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

A Polyhedral Study of Multiechelon Lot Sizing with Intermediate Demands  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we study a multiechelon uncapacitated lot-sizing problem in series (m-ULS), where the output of the intermediate echelons has its own external demand and is also an input to the next echelon. We propose a polynomial-time dynamic ... Keywords: extended formulation, facets, fixed-charge networks, lot sizing, multiechelon

Minjiao Zhang; Simge Küçükyavuz; Hande Yaman

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Generative Historical Model of City Size Hierarchies: 430 BCE –  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Despite the enormous changes in city size and differentiation of functions over time and space, and discontinuities in growth processes, key spatio-temporal and distributional processes shaping city sizes are often assumed to remain invariant. We demonstrate in this article that most of the facile assumptions about such invariance, that is, constancy over long historical periods, are unsupported when comparisons are made concerning

Douglas R. White; Constantino Tsallis; Céline Rozenblat December

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Scattering of Ultra Cold Neutrons on Nano-size Bubbles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Inelastic scattering of ultra cold neutrons on bubbles with the size of nanometers is considered. It is shown that neutron-bubble cross section is large and sensitive to different vibration modes of bubbles. This process could be used for study of dynamics of nano-size bubbles and for new methods of ultra cold neutron production.

Vladimir Gudkov

2006-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

204

Exact Sizing of Battery Capacity for Photovoltaic Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Exact Sizing of Battery Capacity for Photovoltaic Systems Yu Rua , Jan Kleisslb , Sonia Martinezb a study battery sizing for grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems. In our setting, PV generated, it is stored in a battery (as long as the battery is not fully charged), which has a fixed maximum charging

Martínez, Sonia

205

Transistor sizing for large combinational digital CMOS circuits  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article describes a new method to determine the device sizes of combinational digital CMOS circuits for an upper limit on the signal propagation delays. By modeling gate delay and area or power consumption of a circuit as a simple analytical function ... Keywords: Transistor sizing, digital combinational CMOS circuits, timing optimization

Lucas S. Heusler; Wolfgang Fichtner

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Comparison of Raindrop Size Distribution Measurements by Collocated Disdrometers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An impact-type Joss–Waldvogel disdrometer (JWD), a two-dimensional video disdrometer (2DVD), and a laser optical OTT Particle Size and Velocity (PARSIVEL) disdrometer (PD) were used to measure the raindrop size distribution (DSD) over a 6-month ...

Ali Tokay; Walter A. Petersen; Patrick Gatlin; Matthew Wingo

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Retrieval of trademark images by means of size functions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We propose a new, effective system for content-based retrieval of figurative images, which is based on size functions, a geometrical-topological tool for shape description and matching. Three different classes of shape descriptors are introduced and ... Keywords: content-based image retrieval, shape comparison, size functions, trademark retrieval

A. Cerri; M. Ferri; D. Giorgi

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Empirical findings on team size and productivity in software development  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The size of software project teams has been considered to be a driver of project productivity. Although there is a large literature on this, new publicly available software repositories allow us to empirically perform further research. In this paper ... Keywords: Effort estimation datasets, ISBSG repository, Productivity, Team size

D. Rodríguez; M. A. Sicilia; E. García; R. Harrison

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Obtaining a bimodal grain size distribution via thermal means  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Obtaining a bimodal grain size distribution via thermal means ... manipulating thermal history, a family of bimodal grain size distributions may be formed. ... Mild Carbon Steel Quenche in Coconut Water, Fresh urine, Nigerian unadultrated up-wine, ... Multi-scale modeling of phase transformations in steels.

210

Using histograms to estimate answer sizes for XML queries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Estimating the sizes of query results, and intermediate results, is crucial to many aspects of query processing. In particular, it is necessary for effective query optimization. Even at the user level, predictions of the total result size can be valuable ... Keywords: XML, estimation, histogram, schema

Yuqing Wu; Jignesh M. Patel; H. V. Jagadish

2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Bite-sized science The oldest flint tools in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bite-sized science The oldest flint tools in Northern Europe Bite-sized science ShrimpArch at the University of York, were part of an international team studying flint flakes discovered two years ago-doors' (opercula) from fossilised snails' shells found around the flints, and measured how far their amino acids

Brierley, Andrew

212

Bayesian sample-size determination for two independent Poisson rates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract: Because of the high cost and time constraints for clinical trials, researchers often need to determine the smallest sample size that provides accurate inferences for a parameter of interest. Although most experimenters have employed frequentist ... Keywords: Average length criterion, Average power, Bayesian sample-size determination, Comparison of two Poisson rates

Austin L. Hand; James D. Stamey; Dean M. Young

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Stability and size of galaxies from Planck's constant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Stability and characterisitic geometrical and kinematical sizes of galaxies are strictly related to a minimal characteristic action whose value is of order $h$, the Planck constant. We infer that quantum mechanics, in some sense, determines the structure and the size of galaxies.

Salvatore Capozziello; Salvatore De Martino; Silvio De Siena; Fabrizio Illuminati

1999-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

214

Phospholipid-assisted synthesis of size-controlled gold nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect

Morphology and size control of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) by phospholipids (PLs) has been reported. It was found that gold entities could form nanostructures with different sizes controlled by PLs in an aqueous solution. During the preparation of 1.5 nm gold seeds, AuNPs were obtained from the reduction of gold complex by sodium borohydride and capped by citrate for stabilization. With the different ratios between seed solution and growth solution, which was composed by gold complex and PLs, gold seeds grew into larger nanoparticles step by step until enough large size up to 30 nm. The main discovery of this work is that common biomolecules, such as PLs can be used to control nanoparticle size. This conclusion has been confirmed by transmission electron micrographs, particle size analysis, and UV-vis spectra.

He Peng [Department of Chemistry, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States)]. E-mail: phe@ncsu.edu; Zhu Xinyuan [Instrumental Analysis Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 1954 Huashan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China)]. E-mail: xyzhu@sjtu.edu.cn

2007-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

215

SBA Increases Size Standards for Waste Remediation Services &  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

SBA Increases Size Standards for Waste Remediation Services & SBA Increases Size Standards for Waste Remediation Services & Information/Admin Support SBA Increases Size Standards for Waste Remediation Services & Information/Admin Support December 12, 2012 - 10:22am Addthis John Hale III John Hale III Director, Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization Earlier this week, the U.S. Small Business Administration announced that they have revised size definitions for small businesses in Administrative and Support & Waste Management and Remediation Services categories, saying these revisions "reflect changes in marketplace conditions." The new standards are published in the Federal Register. Increases to size standards will enable some growing small businesses in these sectors to retain their small business status; will give federal

216

Productivity and Firm Size Distribution: Evidence from India's Organized and Unorganized Manufacturing Sectors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Size Distribution - Credit, Electricity, and Labor Reg-Change in Employment Size Distribution Electricity SurplusChange in Employment Size Distribution Electricity Surplus

Nataraj, Shanthi

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Finite size corrections to the blackbody radiation laws  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the radiation of a blackbody in a cavity of finite size. For a given geometry, we use semiclassical techniques to obtain explicit expressions of the modified Planck's and Stefan-Boltzmann's blackbody radiation laws as a function of the size and shape of the cavity. We determine the range of parameters (temperature, size and shape of the cavity) for which these effects are accessible to experimental verification. Finally we discuss potential applications of our findings in the physics of the cosmic microwave background and sonoluminescence.

Antonio Miguel Garcia-Garcia

2007-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

218

Effect of size heterogeneity on community identification in complex networks  

SciTech Connect

Identifying community structure can be a potent tool in the analysis and understanding of the structure of complex networks. Up to now, methods for evaluating the performance of identification algorithms use ad-hoc networks with communities of equal size. We show that inhomogeneities in community sizes can and do affect the performance of algorithms considerably, and propose an alternative method which takes these factors into account. Furthermore, we propose a simple modification of the algorithm proposed by Newman for community detection (Phys. Rev. E 69 066133) which treats communities of different sizes on an equal footing, and show that it outperforms the original algorithm while retaining its speed.

Danon, L.; Diaz-Guilera, A.; Arenas, A.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Photovoltaic Cells  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Photovoltaic (PV) cells, or solar cells, take advantage of the photoelectric effect to produce electricity. PV cells are the building blocks of all PV systems because they are the devices that...

220

Statistical Tools for Drop Size Distributions: Moments and Generalized Gamma  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Several problems associated with drop size distributions are treated. For rainfall rate R or radar reflectivity Z high powers of the drop diameters must be taken into account. This paper suggests methods to deal with the relevant moments and to ...

A. N. Aufder Maur

2001-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "200-meter cell size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Bounds on distance distributions in codes of known size  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We treat the problem of bounding components of the possible distance distributions of codes given the knowledge of their size and possibly minimum distance. Using the Beckner inequality from harmonic analysis, we derive upper bounds on distance distribution ...

A. E. Ashikhmin; G. D. Cohen; M. Krivelevich; S. N. Litsyn

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Cloud Droplet Size Distributions in Low-Level Stratiform Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A database of stratus cloud droplet (diameter <50 ?m) size distribution parameters, derived from in situ data reported in the existing literature, was created, facilitating intercomparison among datasets and quantifying typical values and their ...

Natasha L. Miles; Johannes Verlinde; Eugene E. Clothiaux

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Climate Sensitivity to Continental Ice Sheet Size and Configuration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A version of the NCAR Community Climate Model (CCM) has been used to carry out a study of climate sensitivity to the size and distribution of continental ice sheets by comparing two perpetual season, fixed sea surface temperature (SST), winter ...

Richard A. Shinn; Eric J. Barron

1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

A Transformed Lagged Ensemble Forecasting Technique for Increasing Ensemble Size  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An ensemble-based data assimilation approach is used to transform old ensemble forecast perturbations with more recent observations for the purpose of inexpensively increasing ensemble size. The impact of the transformations are propagated ...

Andrew R. Lawrence; James A. Hansen

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Property:Incentive/EligSysSize | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Property Property Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Property:Incentive/EligSysSize Jump to: navigation, search Property Name Incentive/EligSysSize Property Type Text Description Eligible System Size. Pages using the property "Incentive/EligSysSize" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) 3 30% Business Tax Credit for Solar (Vermont) + 150 kW A AEP (Central and SWEPCO) - Coolsaver A/C Tune Up (Texas) + AEP Texas residential and business customers with units up to 25 tons. AEP Ohio - Commercial Custom Project Rebate Program (Ohio) + Must have a minimum of 1 year simple payback or maximum of 7 years simple payback without the incentive AEP Ohio - Renewable Energy Credit (REC) Purchase Program (Ohio) + Must have a rated capacity of 100kW or less

226

Grain size effects on the fatigue response of nanocrystalline materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The resistance of metals and alloys to fatigue crack initiation and propagation is known to be influenced significantly by grain size. Based on a wealth of experimental results obtained from microcrystalline metals, where ...

Hanlon, Timothy, 1977-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Applying Strategic Sustainability: For Small and Medium Sized Enterprises.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) are an underutilised sector to disseminating sustainability within communities. Entrepreneurs are action-oriented individuals who enjoy challenges and act upon environmental… (more)

McElroy, Rachelle; Orozco, Itzel

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Raindrop Size Distributions and the Radar Bright Band  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The relationship between raindrop size distribution, measured with a disdrometer, and a radar parameter of the melting-layer bright band is investigated. The data, obtained in July 1993 in Switzerland, cover 120 h of precipitation. A good ...

A. Huggel; W. Schmid; A. Waldvogel

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Influence of grain size, morphology and aggregation on galena dissolution.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The acidic, non-oxidative dissolution of galena nanocrystals has been studied using both microscopic and wet-chemical methods. The effects of particle size, shape, aggregation state, and… (more)

Liu, Juan

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

The Measurement of Bubble-Size Distributions by Acoustical Backscatter  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A multifrequency acoustical-backscatter technique is described for determining the size distribution of bubbles with radii between 8 and 130 µm. The method makes use of the resonance in the microbubbles and operates at six frequencies ranging ...

Svein Vagle; David M. Farmer

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

On Determinations of Maximum Hailstone Sizes from Hallpad Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Reports of hailstones larger than those indicated by hailpad observations being found on the ground around the hailpad sites raise questions about the validity of maximum-size determinations. Data from the Grossversuch IV hailpad network ...

Paul L. Smith; Albert Waldvogel

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

On the size distribution of Atlantic tropical cyclones  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The size of a tropical cyclone is known to vary considerably across storms, though little is understood about the environmental and internal factors that modulate it. Making use of newly available extended tropical cyclone ...

Emanuel, Kerry Andrew

233

Hailstone Size Distributions and Their Relationship to Storm Thermodynamics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

From ten storms, 184 time-resolved hailstone samples have been collected at the ground in Alberta. For each of the samples collected, hailstone size and concentration were determined and a truncated exponential distribution was fitted to the ...

L. Cheng; M. English; R. Wong

1985-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Influence of Environmental Humidity on Tropical Cyclone Size  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Observations demonstrate that the radius of maximum winds in tropical cyclones (TCs) can vary by an order of magnitude; similar size differences are evident in other spatial measures of the wind field as well as in cloud and precipitation fields. ...

Kevin A. Hill; Gary M. Lackmann

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Statistical Characteristics of Raindrop Size Distribution in Southwest Monsoon Season  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Raindrop size distribution (DSD) parameters are retrieved from dual-frequency (UHF and VHF) wind profiler measurements made at Gadanki, India, in a summer monsoon season. The convoluted UHF spectra are first corrected for vertical air motion and ...

N. V. P. Kirankumar; T. Narayana Rao; B. Radhakrishna; D. Narayana Rao

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Measurement of Raindrop Size Distributions Using a Small Doppler Radar  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A small X-band bistatic Doppler radar originally developed for use in automated weather stations as a Precipitation Occurrence Sensor System (POSS) can also measure real time raindrop size distributions. In contrast to large-scale pulsed Doppler ...

Brian E. Sheppard

1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Laboratory Measurements of Spontaneous Oscillations for Moderate-Size Raindrops  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The natural oscillations of moderate-size raindrops were studied in a seven-story fall column using a computer-controlled generator to produce isolated water drops at terminal speed. Instantaneous shapes were photographed to obtain oscillation ...

Rodney J. Kubesh; Kenneth V. Beard

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Use of an Ultrasonic Sodar to Sense Raindrop Size Distributions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The design of a sodar that uses ultrasound to remotely sense drop size distributions in rainfall is described. The Doppler shift is proportional to a drop's terminal velocity and gives a measure of the drop diameter, whereas the intensity of ...

Stuart Bradley; Tracey Webb

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Microphysics of Raindrop Size Spectra: Tropical Continental and Maritime Storms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This work uses raindrop size spectra measured at the surface in tropical continental storms to determine the associated parameters of the best-fit gamma distributions. The physical processes responsible for those parameters and their relations to ...

Carlton W. Ulbrich; David Atlas

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

The Development of Drop Size Distributions in Light Rain  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A model of rain development based on the quasi-stochastic coalescence equation and including the sedimentation of drops has been used to study the formation of drop size distributions in conditions of weak updraft. Comparisons with “box model” ...

I. Zawadzki; E. Monteiro; F. Fabry

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "200-meter cell size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Using MODIS and AERONET to Determine GCM Aerosol Size  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aerosol size is still a poorly constrained quantity in general circulation models (GCMs). By using the modal radii of the coarse and fine mode retrieved from 103 stations in the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) and the fine mode aerosol optical ...

Glen Lesins; Ulrike Lohmann

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Some Factors Affecting the Size Distributions of Oceanic Bubbles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effects of water temperature, dissolved gas saturation levels, and particulate concentrations on the size distribution of subsurface bubbles are investigated using numerical models. The input of bubbles, either at a constant rate in a “steady-...

S. A. Thorpe; P. Bowyer; D. K. Woolf

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

TVA - Mid-Sized Renewable Standard Offer Program (Alabama) |...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

0.037kWh Eligible System Size 50kW-20MW Start Date 10102010 Ownership of Renewable Energy Credits All credits and attributes are transferred to TVA. Terms Up to 20 year...

244

TVA - Mid-Sized Renewable Standard Offer Program (Georgia) |...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

0.037kWh Eligible System Size 50kW-20MW Start Date 10102010 Ownership of Renewable Energy Credits All credits and attributes are transferred to TVA. Terms Up to 20 year...

245

Comparison of Polarimetric Radar Drop Size Distribution Retrieval Algorithms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recently, two physically based algorithms, the “beta” (?) method and the “constrained-gamma” method, have been proposed for retrieving the governing parameters of the gamma drop size distribution (DSD) from polarimetric radar measurements. The ? ...

Edward A. Brandes; Guifu Zhang; J. Vivekanandan

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Polarization Radar Estimates of Raindrop Size Spectra and Rainfall Rates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The differential reflectivity (ZDR) measures the mean shape of hydrometeors and provides an estimate of the mean size of raindrops Observations of ZDR for rain may be combined with the conventional radar reflectivity factor (Z) and fitted to any ...

A. J. Illingworth; I. J. Caylor

1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Gradually Truncated Log-normal distribution- Size distribution of firms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Many natural and economical phenomena are described through power law or log-normal distributions. In these cases, probability decreases very slowly with step size compared to normal distribution. Thus it is essential to cut-off these distributions for larger step size. Recently we introduce the gradually truncated power law distribution to successfully describe variation of financial, educational, physical and citation index. In the present work, we introduce gradually truncated log-normal distribution in which we gradually cut-off larger steps due to physical limitation of the system. We applied this distribution successfully to size distribution of USA´s manufactoring firms which is measured through their annual sell. The physical limitation are due to limited market size or shortage of highly competent executives. I.

Hari M. Gupta; José R. Campanha

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Examination of the ?–? Relation Suggested for Drop Size Distribution Parameters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Raindrop size distributions are often assumed to follow a three-parameter gamma distribution. Since rain intensity retrieval from radar observations is an underdetermined problem, there is great interest in finding physical correlations between ...

Dmitri N. Moisseev; V. Chandrasekar

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Size Effect of Ruthenium Nanoparticles in Catalytic Carbon Monoxide Oxidation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Carbon monoxide oxidation over ruthenium catalysts has shown an unusual catalytic behavior. Here we report a particle size effect on CO oxidation over Ru nanoparticle (NP) catalysts. Uniform Ru NPs with a tunable particle size from 2 to 6 nm were synthesized by a polyol reduction of Ru(acac){sub 3} precursor in the presence of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) stabilizer. The measurement of catalytic activity of CO oxidation over two-dimensional Ru NPs arrays under oxidizing reaction conditions (40 Torr CO and 100 Torr O{sub 2}) showed an activity dependence on the Ru NP size. The CO oxidation activity increases with NP size, and the 6 nm Ru NP catalyst shows 8-fold higher activity than the 2 nm catalysts. The results gained from this study will provide the scientific basis for future design of Ru-based oxidation catalysts.

Joo, Sang Hoon; Park, Jeong Y.; Renzas, J. Russell; Butcher, Derek R.; Huang, Wenyu; Somorjai, Gabor A.

2010-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

250

The sizing rules method for analog integrated circuit design  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents the sizing rules method for analog CMOS circuit design that consists of: first, the development of a hierarchical library of transistor pair groups as basic building blocks for analog CMOS circuits; second, the derivation of ...

H. Graeb; S. Zizala; J. Eckmueller; K. Antreich

2001-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Raindrop Size Distribution and Radar Parameters at Cape Verde  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Precipitation measurement using passive or active microwaves from space- or ground-based radar involves hypotheses about the raindrop size distribution (DSD). A universal knowledge of DSD characteristics is needed. A 4-yr dataset collected with a ...

Armand Nzeukou; Henri Sauvageot; Abe Delfin Ochou; Cheikh Mouhamed Fadel Kebe

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

The geographic distribution of mammal body size in Europe  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

palaeo/ice_topo. 2 Heat conservation — grid cell averages ofgrid cell from data available at: http:// www.ngdc.noaa.gov/seg/cdroms/ged_iia/datasets/a13/fnoc.htm. 3 Heat

Rodriguez, M A; Lopez-Sanudo, I L; Hawkins, Bradford A.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Determining size-specific emission factors for environmental tobacco smoke  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Determining size-specific emission factors for environmental tobacco smoke Determining size-specific emission factors for environmental tobacco smoke particles Title Determining size-specific emission factors for environmental tobacco smoke particles Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2003 Authors Klepeis, Neil E., Michael G. Apte, Lara A. Gundel, Richard G. Sextro, and William W. Nazaroff Journal Aerosol Science & Technology Volume 37 Start Page Chapter Pagination 780-790 Date Published October 2003 Abstract Because size is a major controlling factor for indoor airborne particle behavior, human particle exposure assessments will benefit from improved knowledge of size-specific particle emissions. We report a method of inferring size-specific mass emission factors for indoor sources that makes use of an indoor aerosol dynamics model, measured particle concentration time series data, and an optimization routine. This approach provides -- in addition to estimates of the emissions size distribution and integrated emission factors -- estimates of deposition rate, an enhanced understanding of particle dynamics, and information about model performance. We applied the method to size-specific environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) particle concentrations measured every minute with an 8-channel optical particle counter (PMS-LASAIR; 0.1-2+ micrometer diameters) and every 10 or 30 min with a 34-channel differential mobility particle sizer (TSI-DMPS; 0.01-1+ micrometer diameters) after a single cigarette or cigar was machine-smoked inside a low air-exchange rate 20m^3 chamber. The aerosol dynamics model provided good fits to observed concentrations when using optimized values of mass emission rate and deposition rate for each particle size range as input. Small discrepancies observed in the first 1-2 hours after smoking are likely due to the effect of particle evaporation, a process neglected by the model. Size-specific ETS particle emission factors were fit with log-normal distributions, yielding an average mass median diameter of 0.2 micrometers and an average geometric standard deviation of 2.3 with no systematic differences between cigars and cigarettes. The equivalent total particle emission rate, obtained by integrating each size distribution, was 0.2-0.7 mg/min for cigars and 0.7-0.9 mg/min for cigarettes

254

Size-Controlled Dissolution of Organic-Coated Silver Nanoparticles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The solubility of Ag NPs can affect their toxicity and persistence in the environment. We measured the solubility of organic-coated silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) having particle diameters ranging from 5 to 80 nm that were synthesized using various methods, and with different organic polymer coatings including poly(vinylpyrrolidone) and gum arabic. The size and morphology of Ag NPs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy and synchrotron-based total X-ray scattering and pair distribution function (PDF) analysis were used to determine the local structure around Ag and evaluate changes in crystal lattice parameters and structure as a function of NP size. Ag NP solubility dispersed in 1 mM NaHCO{sub 3} at pH 8 was found to be well correlated with particle size based on the distribution of measured TEM sizes as predicted by the modified Kelvin equation. Solubility of Ag NPs was not affected by the synthesis method and coating as much as by their size. Based on the modified Kelvin equation, the surface tension of Ag NPs was found to be {approx}1 J/m{sup 2}, which is expected for bulk fcc (face centered cubic) silver. Analysis of XAFS, X-ray scattering, and PDFs confirm that the lattice parameter, {alpha}, of the fcc crystal structure of Ag NPs did not change with particle size for Ag NPs as small as 6 nm, indicating the absence of lattice strain. These results are consistent with the finding that Ag NP solubility can be estimated based on TEM-derived particle size using the modified Kelvin equation for particles in the size range of 5-40 nm in diameter.

Ma, Rui; Levard, Clément; Marinakos, Stella M.; Cheng, Yingwen; Liu, Jie; Michel, F. Marc; Brown, Jr., Gordon E.; Lowry, Gregory V. (Duke)

2012-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

255

Challenge: Decrease Size and Cost of Fuel Processor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

published papers 2 Patent Applications (mesoporous MOx, Pt/WO3 Fuel Cell Cat) #12;Significant Results

256

cell tree  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

NIST. cell tree. (data structure). ... Concave objects are decomposed into convex pieces. Each convex piece is indexed in every cell which it overlaps. ...

2013-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

257

Sizing handbook for stand-alone photovoltaic/storage systems  

SciTech Connect

This report details the use and development of a simplified sizing technique for stand-alone photovoltaic/storage systems. The array size and storage capacity are chosen to achieve the required loss-of-load probability (LOLP). The LOLP represents the level of confidence at which the system will satisfy the load. An LOLP of 0 means that the load will always be satisfied, and an LOLP of 1 means that the load will never be satisfied. Array sizes are read from array-sizing nomograms as a function of latitude, tilt angle, and average horizontal insolation in December (in the northern hemisphere) or June (in the southern hemisphere). Storage capacities are read from storage-sizing nomograms as a function of the required LOLP. The technique is valid for systems with a fixed tilt array, product or energy storage, and for any hourly load profile or daily load profile within a given month. The only constraint is that the average monthly load must not vary more than +-10% from month to month. The designer can choose from tilt angles from latitude minus 20/sup 0/ to latitude plus 20/sup 0/ and can choose from a range of array size/storage capacity combinations for any given LOLP.

Chapman, R.N.

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Methods to determine the size distribution of airborne rhinovirus  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Methods to determine the size distribution of airborne rhinovirus Methods to determine the size distribution of airborne rhinovirus Title Methods to determine the size distribution of airborne rhinovirus Publication Type Report Year of Publication 2004 Authors Russell, Marion L., Regine Goth-Goldstein, Michael G. Apte, and William J. Fisk Publisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Abstract About 50% of viral-induced respiratory illnesses are caused by the human rhinovirus (HRV). Prior research has demonstrated that rhinovirus infections can be transmitted via person-to-person contact and via inhalation of infectious aerosols. Measurements of the concentrations and sizes of bioaerosols are critical for research on building characteristics, aerosol transport, and mitigation measures. To detect airborne HRV, we developed a quantitative reverse transcription-coupled polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay and verified that this assay detects HRV in nasal lavage samples. A quantitation standard was used to determine the assay detection limit of 5 fg of HRV RNA with a linear range over 10,000-fold. This assay was used to quantify the size distribution of an artificially-produced HRV aerosol captured with an Andersen six-stage cascade impactor. In future studies, we hope to use the methods developed here to characterize the size distribution of naturally occurring viral-aerosols

259

Detonation cell size measurements in H/sub 2/-air-H/sub 2/O mixtures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Conclusions of this study are: (1) For H/sub 2/-air mixtures at 20/sup 0/C and a total pressure of 101 kPa, detonations have been achieved between 13.5% and 70% H/sub 2/ mole fraction. This compositional range is wider than the detonability limits previously reported for smaller tubes. (2) The addition of CO/sub 2/ to H/sub 2/-air mixtures greatly reduces the detonability of the mixture. (3) For a given initial temperature, air density and equivalence ratio, the addition of steam to a H/sub 2/-Air mixture greatly decreases the detonability of the mixture. (4) At 100/sup 0/C and an air density of 41.6 moles/m/sup 3/, detonation of H/sub 2/-air mixtures with up to 30% steam have been recorded. (5) For H/sub 2/-air mixtures, the detonability increases with increasing initial temperature at constant density. Consequently, the diluent effect of the addition of steam to a fixed volume of an H/sub 2/-air mixture in reducing detonability is partially offset if there is a concomitant temperature increase. (6) At 100/sup 0/C and an air density of 41.6 moles/m/sup 3/, a 13.0% H/sub 2/-air mixture has been detonated. 18 refs., 7 figs.

Tieszen, S.R.; Sherman, M.P.; Benedick, W.B.; Shepherd, J.E.; Knystautas, R.; Lee, J.H.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Effects of Particle Sizes of Titanium Hydride on Cell Structures for Al ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Piezoelectric Smart Composites: Electromechanical Properties and Design Maps · Preparation of ... Research on Aluminum Foam Railway Noise Barrier.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "200-meter cell size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Technology independent circuit sizing for standard cell based design using neural networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a neural network (NN) approach for modeling the time characteristics of fundamental gates of digital integrated circuits that include inverter, NAND, NOR, and XOR gates. The modeling approach presented here is technology independent, ... Keywords: Computer aided design, Digital integrated circuits, Neural networks

Nihan Kahraman; Tulay Yildirim

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cells Search Search Help Fuel Cells EERE Fuel Cell Technologies Office Fuel Cells Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Fuel...

263

An Investigation of the Gas Dispersion Properties of Mechanical Flotation Cells: an In-Situ Approach.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Bubble size is considered to be one of the most important parameters affecting the performance of froth flotation cells. However, monitoring, controlling and predicting bubble… (more)

Miskovic, Sanja

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Ampulse Raises $8 Million to Develop Low-Cost Solar Cells I  

Low-Cost Solar Cells In November 2009 Ampulse ... For consumers the benefits of using this appliance will vary depending on family size and hot

265

Size dependent study of MeOH decomposition over size-selected Pt nanoparticles synthesized via micelle encapsulation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is high. Solar electric power generation uses banks of solar cells to convert the energy of the sun, December 2001 #12;Hydrogen Fuel Cell Engines MODULE 2: HYDROGEN USE PAGE 2-8 Key Points & Notes This solarW) in bright sunlight. The power is supplied at 360 VDC with a maximum current of 103 A. Figure 2-5 Solar Cell

Kik, Pieter

266

Particle-Size-Distribution of Nevada Test Site Soils  

SciTech Connect

The amount of each size particle in a given soil is called the particle-size distribution (PSD), and the way it feels to the touch is called the soil texture. Sand, silt, and clay are the three particle sizes of mineral material found in soils. Sand is the largest sized particle and it feels gritty; silt is medium sized and it feels floury; and clay is the smallest and if feels sticky. Knowing the particle-size distribution of a soil sample helps to understand many soil properties such as how much water, heat, and nutrients the soil will hold, how fast water and heat will move through the soil, and what kind of structure, bulk density and consistence the soil will have. Furthermore, the native particle-size distribution of the soil in the vicinity of ground zero of a nuclear detonation plays a major role in nuclear fallout. For soils that have a high-sand content, the near-range fallout will be relatively high and the far-range fallout will be relatively light. Whereas, for soils that have a high-silt and high-clay content, the near-range fallout will be significantly lower and the far-range fallout will be significantly higher. As part of a program funded by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has recently measured the PSDs from the various major areas at the Nevada Test Site where atmospheric detonations and/or nuclear weapon safety tests were performed back in the 50s and 60s. The purpose of this report is to document those results.

Spriggs, G; Ray-Maitra, A

2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

267

Fuel Cells for Robots  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

For Robots For Robots Fuel Cells For Robots Pavlo Rudakevych iRobot Pavlo Rudakevych iRobot Product Needs Product Needs * Military/Police/Search and Rescue - PackBot - Gladiator - ThrowBot/UGCV * Industrial and Oil - CoWorker - MicroRig * Military/Police/Search and Rescue - PackBot - Gladiator - ThrowBot/UGCV * Industrial and Oil - CoWorker - MicroRig PackBot PackBot * Mission capable robots * Rugged, portable tools for minimal casualty engagements * Assisting behaviors * Small size and weight * Mission capable robots * Rugged, portable tools for minimal casualty engagements * Assisting behaviors * Small size and weight System Concept System Concept System Concept System Concept System Concept Continued System Concept Continued * Modular payload bays - 3 primary - 1 head - 4 side pods * Each payload socket supports - Ethernet

268

WHAT DETERMINES THE SIZES OF RED EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES?  

SciTech Connect

The sizes of galaxies are known to be closely related with their masses, luminosities, redshifts, and morphologies. However, when we fix these quantities and morphology, we still find large dispersions in the galaxy size distribution. We investigate the origin of these dispersions for red early-type galaxies using two SDSS-based catalogs. We find that the sizes of faint galaxies (log (M{sub dyn}/M{sub Sun }) {approx}< 10.3 or {sup 0.1} M{sub r} {approx}> -19.5, where {sup 0.1} M{sub r} is the r-band absolute magnitude, k-corrected to z = 0.1) are affected more significantly by luminosity, while the sizes of bright galaxies (log (M{sub dyn}/M{sub Sun }) {approx}> 11.4 or {sup 0.1} M{sub r} {approx}< -21.4) are by dynamical mass. At fixed mass and luminosity, the sizes of low-mass galaxies (log (M{sub dyn}/M{sub Sun }) {approx} 10.45 and {sup 0.1} M{sub r} {approx} -19.8) are relatively less sensitive to their colors, color gradients, and axis ratios. On the other hand, the sizes of intermediate-mass (log (M{sub dyn}/M{sub Sun }) {approx} 10.85 and {sup 0.1} M{sub r} {approx} -20.4) and high-mass (log (M{sub dyn}/M{sub Sun }) {approx} 11.25 and {sup 0.1} M{sub r} {approx} -21.0) galaxies significantly depend on those parameters, in the sense that larger red early-type galaxies have bluer colors, more negative color gradients (bluer outskirts), and smaller axis ratios. These results indicate that the sizes of intermediate- and high-mass red early-type galaxies are significantly affected by their recent minor mergers or rotations, whereas the sizes of low-mass red early-type galaxies are affected by some other mechanisms. Major dry mergers also seem to have influenced on the size growth of high-mass red early-type galaxies.

Lee, Joon Hyeop; Kim, Minjin; Ree, Chang Hee; Kim, Sang Chul; Lee, Jong Chul; Lee, Hye-Ran; Jeong, Hyunjin; Seon, Kwang-Il; Kyeong, Jaemann [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Kyuseok, E-mail: jhl@kasi.re.kr [Department of Astronomy, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Method for measuring the size distribution of airborne rhinovirus  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Method for measuring the size distribution of airborne rhinovirus Method for measuring the size distribution of airborne rhinovirus Title Method for measuring the size distribution of airborne rhinovirus Publication Type Conference Proceedings Year of Publication 2002 Authors Russell, Marion L., Regine Goth-Goldstein, Michael G. Apte, and William J. Fisk Conference Name Proceedings of the Indoor Air 2002 Conference, Monterey, CA Volume 1 Pagination 40-45 Publisher Indoor Air 2002, Santa Cruz, CA Abstract About 50% of viral-induced respiratory illnesses are caused by the human rhinovirus (HRV). Measurements of the concentrations and sizes of bioaerosols are critical for research on building characteristics, aerosol transport, and mitigation measures. We developed a quantitative reverse transcription-coupled polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for HRV and verified that this assay detects HRV in nasal lavage samples. A quantitation standard was used to determine a detection limit of 5 fg of HRV RNA with a linear range over 1000-fold. To measure the size distribution of HRV aerosols, volunteers with a head cold spent two hours in a ventilated research chamber. Airborne particles from the chamber were collected using an Andersen Six-Stage Cascade Impactor. Each stage of the impactor was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR for HRV. For the first two volunteers with confirmed HRV infection, but with mild symptoms, we were unable to detect HRV on any stage of the impactor

270

Storage Size Determination for Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, we study the problem of determining the size of battery storage used in grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems. In our setting, electricity is generated from PV and is used to supply the demand from loads. Excess electricity generated from the PV can be stored in a battery to be used later on, and electricity must be purchased from the electric grid if the PV generation and battery discharging cannot meet the demand. The objective is to minimize the electricity purchase from the electric grid while at the same time choosing an appropriate battery size. More specifically, we want to find a unique critical value (denoted as $E_{max}^c$) of the battery size such that the cost of electricity purchase remains the same if the battery size is larger than or equal to $E_{max}^c$, and the cost is strictly larger if the battery size is smaller than $E_{max}^c$. We propose an upper bound on $E_{max}^c$, and show that the upper bound is achievable for certain scenarios. For the case with ideal PV generat...

Ru, Yu; Martinez, Sonia

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Excitons and Excess Electrons in Nanometer Size Molecular Polyoxotitanate  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Excitons and Excess Electrons in Nanometer Size Molecular Polyoxotitanate Excitons and Excess Electrons in Nanometer Size Molecular Polyoxotitanate Clusters: Electronic Spectra, Exciton Dynamics, and Surface States Jianhua Bao, Zhihao Yu, Lars Gundlach, Jason B. Benedict, Philip Coppens, Hung Cheng Chen, John R. Miller and Piotr Piotrowiak J. Phys. Chem. B 117, 4422-4430 (2013). [Find paper at ACS Publications] Abstract: The behavior of excitons and excess electrons in the confined space of a molecular polyoxotitanate cluster Ti17(mu4-O)4(mu3-O)16(mu2-O)4(OPri)20 (in short Ti17) was studied using femtosecond pump-probe transient absorption, pulse radiolysis, and fluorescence spectroscopy. Due to pronounced quantum size effects, the electronic spectra of the exciton, Ti17*, and the excess electron carrying radical anion, Ti17(center dot-), are blue-shifted in

272

Table B6. Building Size, Number of Buildings, 1999  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

B6. Building Size, Number of Buildings, 1999" B6. Building Size, Number of Buildings, 1999" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)" ,"All Buildings ","Building Size" ,,"1,001 to 5,000 Square Feet","5,001 to 10,000 Square Feet","10,001 to 25,000 Square Feet","25,001 to 50,000 Square Feet","50,001 to 100,000 Square Feet","100,001 to 200,000 Square Feet","200,001 to 500,000 Square Feet","Over 500,000 Square Feet" "All Buildings ................",4657,2348,1110,708,257,145,59,23,7 "Principal Building Activity" "Education ....................",327,119,61,52,49,30,10,5,"Q" "Food Sales ...................",174,138,"Q","Q","Q","Q","Q","N","N"

273

Buildings","Building Size"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

B7. Building Size, Floorspace, 1999" B7. Building Size, Floorspace, 1999" ,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings","Building Size" ,,"1,001 to 5,000 Square Feet","5,001 to 10,000 Square Feet","10,001 to 25,000 Square Feet","25,001 to 50,000 Square Feet","50,001 to 100,000 Square Feet","100,001 to 200,000 Square Feet","200,001 to 500,000 Square Feet","Over 500,000 Square Feet" "All Buildings ................",67338,6774,8238,11153,9311,10112,8271,6851,6628 "Principal Building Activity" "Education ....................",8651,338,444,883,1803,2144,1484,1311,"Q" "Food Sales ...................",994,302,"Q","Q","Q","Q","Q","N","N"

274

Buildings*","Building Size"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

B6. Building Size, Number of Buildings for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" B6. Building Size, Number of Buildings for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)" ,"All Buildings*","Building Size" ,,"1,001 to 5,000 Square Feet","5,001 to 10,000 Square Feet","10,000 to 25,000 Square Feet","25,001 to 50,000 Square Feet","50,001 to 100,000 Square Feet","100,001 to 200,000 Square Feet","200,001 to 500,000 Square Feet","Over 500,000 Square Feet" "All Buildings* ...............",4645,2552,889,738,241,129,65,25,7 "Principal Building Activity" "Education ....................",386,162,56,60,48,39,16,5,"Q" "Food Sales ...................",226,164,44,"Q","Q","Q","Q","N","N"

275

Buildings","Building Size"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

A5. Building Size, Number of Buildings for All Buildings (Including Malls), 2003" A5. Building Size, Number of Buildings for All Buildings (Including Malls), 2003" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)" ,"All Buildings","Building Size" ,,"1,001 to 5,000 Square Feet","5,001 to 10,000 Square Feet","10,000 to 25,000 Square Feet","25,001 to 50,000 Square Feet","50,001 to 100,000 Square Feet","100,001 to 200,000 Square Feet","200,001 to 500,000 Square Feet","Over 500,000 Square Feet" "All Buildings ................",4859,2586,948,810,261,147,74,26,8 "Principal Building Activity" "Education ....................",386,162,56,60,48,39,16,5,"Q" "Food Sales ...................",226,164,44,"Q","Q","Q","Q","N","N"

276

Assess Potential Agency Size Changes that Impact Greenhouse Gases from  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Vehicles and Mobile Equipment Vehicles and Mobile Equipment Assess Potential Agency Size Changes that Impact Greenhouse Gases from Vehicles and Mobile Equipment October 7, 2013 - 11:31am Addthis YOU ARE HERE Step 1 Planned changes in a Federal agency's size, missions, transportation needs, and vehicle inventory all impact the strategic portfolio planning efforts that target greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions mitigation for vehicles and mobile equipment. Under Section 142 of the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) and Section 8 of Executive Order (E.O.) 13514, agencies are required to develop a plan that will reduce fleet GHG emissions to meet Federally mandated petroleum reduction and alternative fuel increase targets. Agencies can use these plans as a basis for determining potential changes in fleet size and

277

Guidelines and Toolkits for Urban Transport Development in Medium Sized  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Guidelines and Toolkits for Urban Transport Development in Medium Sized Guidelines and Toolkits for Urban Transport Development in Medium Sized Cities in India Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Guidelines and Toolkits for Urban Transport Development in Medium Sized Cities in India Agency/Company /Organization: Asian Development Bank Focus Area: Governance - Planning - Decision-Making Structure Topics: Best Practices Complexity/Ease of Use: Not Available Website: sti-india-uttoolkit.adb.org/ Transport Toolkit Region(s): Asia Related Tools Promoting Clean Cars: Case Study of Stockholm and Sweden MOtor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES) The World Bank - Transport ... further results Find Another Tool FIND TRANSPORTATION TOOLS This resource is designed to help decision makers and practitioners in states and municipal governments who are concerned with urban transport

278

Optimal Siting and Sizing of Distributed Energy Resources  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Optimal Siting and Sizing of Distributed Energy Resources Optimal Siting and Sizing of Distributed Energy Resources Speaker(s): Johan Driesen Date: February 15, 2007 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Chris Marnay Ongoing changes in the operation of distribution grids call for a new way to plan grid modifications. This presentation gives an overview of possible methods of long-term planning for the deployment of Distributed Energy Resources (distributed generation, storage and controllable loads) in a given grid. The placement and sizing of the units have to be considered, making this a complex optimization problem with discrete and continuous variables. In the optimization problem, multiple objectives are often conflicting, e.g. minimal grid losses, maximal use of the resources and voltage stability. An evolutionary algorithm (genetic algorithms) is used

279

Buildings","Building Size"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

A6. Building Size, Floorspace for All Buildings (Including Malls), 2003" A6. Building Size, Floorspace for All Buildings (Including Malls), 2003" ,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings","Building Size" ,,"1,001 to 5,000 Square Feet","5,001 to 10,000 Square Feet","10,000 to 25,000 Square Feet","25,001 to 50,000 Square Feet","50,001 to 100,000 Square Feet","100,001 to 200,000 Square Feet","200,001 to 500,000 Square Feet","Over 500,000 Square Feet" "All Buildings ................",71658,6922,7033,12659,9382,10291,10217,7494,7660 "Principal Building Activity" "Education ....................",9874,409,399,931,1756,2690,2167,1420,"Q" "Food Sales ...................",1255,409,356,"Q","Q","Q","Q","N","N"

280

Buildings*","Building Size"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

B7. Building Size, Floorspace for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" B7. Building Size, Floorspace for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings*","Building Size" ,,"1,001 to 5,000 Square Feet","5,001 to 10,000 Square Feet","10,000 to 25,000 Square Feet","25,001 to 50,000 Square Feet","50,001 to 100,000 Square Feet","100,001 to 200,000 Square Feet","200,001 to 500,000 Square Feet","Over 500,000 Square Feet" "All Buildings* ...............",64783,6789,6585,11535,8668,9057,9064,7176,5908 "Principal Building Activity" "Education ....................",9874,409,399,931,1756,2690,2167,1420,"Q" "Food Sales ...................",1255,409,356,"Q","Q","Q","Q","N","N"

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "200-meter cell size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents: Effects of Aerosol Size  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Effects of Aerosol Size Distribution and Vertical Profile on the Effects of Aerosol Size Distribution and Vertical Profile on the Polarization in the Oxygen A-Band Duan, Minzheng State University of New York at Albany Min, Qilong State University of New York at Albany A vector radiative transfer code with successive order of scattering method was used to simulate the high-resolution polarization spectra in the oxygen A-band. The effects of aerosol size distribution and vertical profile on the radiance and polarization at the top and bottom of the atmosphere were analyzed. The impacts of instrument specification on information content are also analyzed. Polarized radiances were dominated (>95%) by the first and second orders of scattering. The contributions of scattering from different levels to the TOA and surface observation are analyzed. The

282

Mid-Size Wind Turbines | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Page Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Mid-Size Wind Turbines Jump to: navigation, search A Vergnet GEV MP C 275-kW turbine at the Sandywoods Community, Rhode island. Photo from Stefan Dominioni/Vergnet S.A., NREL 26490. The U.S. Department of Energy defines mid-size wind turbines as 101 kilowatts to 1 megawatt.[1] Resources Kwartin, R.; Wolfrum, A.; Granfield, K.; Kagel, A.; Appleton, A. (2008). An Analysis of the Technical and Economic Potential for Mid-Scale Distributed Wind. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Accessed September 27, 2013. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Midsize Wind Turbine Research. Accessed September 27, 2013. This webpage discusses efforts to develop and commercialize mid-size wind turbines in the United States. References

283

Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Triples in Size to 16 Members |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Nuclear Energy Partnership Triples in Size to 16 Members Nuclear Energy Partnership Triples in Size to 16 Members Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Triples in Size to 16 Members September 16, 2007 - 2:33pm Addthis Nations Sign On to International Cooperation for Safe Expansion of Nuclear Energy Worldwide VIENNA, AUSTRIA - U.S. Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman and senior international officials from 16 nations today agreed to increase international nuclear energy cooperation through the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP). China, France, Japan, Russia and the United States, who are original GNEP partners, as well as Australia, Bulgaria, Ghana, Hungary, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovenia, and Ukraine signed a "Statement of Principles", which addresses the prospects of expanding the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, including enhanced

284

Improved sample size determination for attributes and variables sampling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Earlier INMM papers have addressed the attributes/variables problem and, under conservative/limiting approximations, have reported analytical solutions for the attributes and variables sample sizes. Through computer simulation of this problem, we have calculated attributes and variables sample sizes as a function of falsification, measurement uncertainties, and required detection probability without using approximations. Using realistic assumptions for uncertainty parameters of measurement, the simulation results support the conclusions: (1) previously used conservative approximations can be expensive because they lead to larger sample sizes than needed; and (2) the optimal verification strategy, as well as the falsification strategy, are highly dependent on the underlying uncertainty parameters of the measurement instruments. 1 ref., 3 figs.

Stirpe, D.; Picard, R.R.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

GENERAL REACTOR SIZING TECHNIQUES. VOLUME I. AEROTHERMODYNAMIC OPTIMIZATION  

SciTech Connect

A method is presented for the aerothermodynamic optimization of the net power and/or propulsive thrust per unit reactor free flow area of a nuclear power plant operating on the Brayton cycle. A system so optimized will translate into the minimum size, therefore the minimum weight, nuclear system for any selection of reactor materials, lifetime, and fuel loading. The theory and development of the thermodynamic optimization process, the importance and effect of various parameters, and specific methods to be employed in the optimization of the various forms of the Brayton cycle are discussed. A sample calculation for the case of the ramjet application is included. The results of the application of these techniques to any Brayton cycle system may be used in conjunction with nuclear sizing methods, for beryllia-moderated reactors, to determine the required reactor size as a function of fuel loading and reactivity requirements. (auth)

Prickett, W.Z.

1961-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Demand response medium sized industry consumers (Smart Grid Project) | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

response medium sized industry consumers (Smart Grid Project) response medium sized industry consumers (Smart Grid Project) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name Demand response medium sized industry consumers Country Denmark Headquarters Location Aarhus, Denmark Coordinates 56.162937°, 10.203921° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":56.162937,"lon":10.203921,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

287

Assess Potential Agency Size Changes to Reduce Greenhouse Gases Using  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Assess Potential Agency Size Changes to Reduce Greenhouse Gases Assess Potential Agency Size Changes to Reduce Greenhouse Gases Using Renewable Energy in Buildings Assess Potential Agency Size Changes to Reduce Greenhouse Gases Using Renewable Energy in Buildings October 7, 2013 - 11:15am Addthis To support planning for using renewable energy to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at the Federal agency or program-level, it is important to consider what changes to the agencies building or land-holding portfolio may have on opportunities for renewable energy. Changes to consider include: Addition of new buildings or sites to the agencies portfolio Major renovations to existing buildings Office moves into or out of agency-owned or leased space. As is the case with planning energy efficiency measures, planning for renewable energy in new construction can be more cost-effective than

288

Types of Lighting in Commercial Buildings - Building Size and Year  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Lighting and Building Size and Year Constructed Lighting and Building Size and Year Constructed Building Size Smaller commercial buildings are much more numerous than larger commercial buildings, but comprise less total floorspace-the 1,001 to 5,000 square feet category includes more than half of total buildings, but just 11 percent of total floorspace. In contrast, just 5 percent of buildings are larger than 50,000 square feet, but they account for half of total floorspace. Lighting consumes 38 percent of total site electricity. Larger buildings consume relatively more electricity for lighting than smaller buildings. Nearly half (47%) of electricity is consumed by lighting in the largest buildings (larger than 500,000 square feet). In the smallest buildings (1,001 to 5,000 square feet), one-fourth of electricity goes to lighting

289

Fuel Cell Handbook, Fifth Edition  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Progress continues in fuel cell technology since the previous edition of the Fuel Cell Handbook was published in November 1998. Uppermost, polymer electrolyte fuel cells, molten carbonate fuel cells, and solid oxide fuel cells have been demonstrated at commercial size in power plants. The previously demonstrated phosphoric acid fuel cells have entered the marketplace with more than 220 power plants delivered. Highlighting this commercial entry, the phosphoric acid power plant fleet has demonstrated 95+% availability and several units have passed 40,000 hours of operation. One unit has operated over 49,000 hours. Early expectations of very low emissions and relatively high efficiencies have been met in power plants with each type of fuel cell. Fuel flexibility has been demonstrated using natural gas, propane, landfill gas, anaerobic digester gas, military logistic fuels, and coal gas, greatly expanding market opportunities. Transportation markets worldwide have shown remarkable interest in fuel cells; nearly every major vehicle manufacturer in the U.S., Europe, and the Far East is supporting development. This Handbook provides a foundation in fuel cells for persons wanting a better understanding of the technology, its benefits, and the systems issues that influence its application. Trends in technology are discussed, including next-generation concepts that promise ultrahigh efficiency and low cost, while providing exceptionally clean power plant systems. Section 1 summarizes fuel cell progress since the last edition and includes existing power plant nameplate data. Section 2 addresses the thermodynamics of fuel cells to provide an understanding of fuel cell operation at two levels (basic and advanced). Sections 3 through 8 describe the six major fuel cell types and their performance based on cell operating conditions. Alkaline and intermediate solid state fuel cells were added to this edition of the Handbook. New information indicates that manufacturers have stayed with proven cell designs, focusing instead on advancing the system surrounding the fuel cell to lower life cycle costs. Section 9, Fuel Cell Systems, has been significantly revised to characterize near-term and next-generation fuel cell power plant systems at a conceptual level of detail. Section 10 provides examples of practical fuel cell system calculations. A list of fuel cell URLs is included in the Appendix. A new index assists the reader in locating specific information quickly.

Energy and Environmental Solutions

2000-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

290

Increasing the Competitiveness of Small and Medium-sized Enterprises  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Page Page Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Increasing the Competitiveness of Small and Medium-sized Enterprises Through the Use of Environmentally Sound Technologies Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Increasing the Competitiveness of Small and Medium-sized Enterprises Through the Use of Environmentally Sound Technologies: : Assessing the Potential for the Development of Second-generation Biofuels in the ESCWA Region Agency/Company /Organization: United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia Sector: Energy Focus Area: Renewable Energy, Biomass Topics: Market analysis, Policies/deployment programs, Background analysis, Technology characterizations Resource Type: Guide/manual, Lessons learned/best practices

291

Submicrometer-sized hollow nickel spheres synthesized by autocatalytic reduction  

SciTech Connect

A facile method to fabricate submicrometer-sized hollow nickel spheres by autocatalyzing the redox reaction around a sacrificial colloidal particle surface is presented in this paper. The size distribution of these spheres can be controlled by regulating the concentration of the alkali solution. The hollow nickel particles were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray powder diffraction. The hollow spheres produced by this process may have potential applications in many fields, including chemistry, biotechnology and materials science.

Deng Yida [State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 1954, Huashan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China)]. E-mail: denyda@sjtu.edu.cn; Zhao Ling [State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 1954, Huashan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Liu Lei [State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 1954, Huashan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Shen Bin [State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 1954, Huashan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Hu Wenbin [State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 1954, Huashan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China)

2005-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

292

Metal oxide porous ceramic membranes with small pore sizes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is disclosed for the production of metal oxide ceramic membranes of very small pore size. The process is particularly useful in the creation of titanium and other transition metal oxide membranes. The method utilizes a sol-gel process in which the rate of particle formation is controlled by substituting a relatively large alcohol in the metal alkoxide and by limiting the available water. Stable, transparent metal oxide ceramic membranes are created having a narrow distribution of pore size, with the pore diameter being manipulable in the range of 5 to 40 Angstroms.

Anderson, Marc A. (Madison, WI); Xu, Qunyin (Madison, WI)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Metal oxide porous ceramic membranes with small pore sizes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is disclosed for the production of metal oxide ceramic membranes of very small pore size. The process is particularly useful in the creation of titanium and other transition metal oxide membranes. The method utilizes a sol-gel process in which the rate of particle formation is controlled by substituting a relatively large alcohol in the metal alkoxide and by limiting the available water. Stable, transparent metal oxide ceramic membranes are created having a narrow distribution of pore size, with the pore diameter being manipulable in the range of 5 to 40 Angstroms.

Anderson, Marc A. (Madison, WI); Xu, Qunyin (Madison, WI)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Size-dependent same-material tribocharging in insulating grains  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Observations of flowing granular matter have suggested that same-material tribocharging de- pends on particle size, rendering large grains positive and small ones negative. Models assuming the transfer of trapped electrons can explain this, but so far have not been validated. Tracking individual grains in an electric field, we show quantitatively that charge is transferred based on size between materially identical grains. However, the surface density of trapped electrons, measured independently by thermoluminescence techniques, is orders of magnitude too small to account for the scale of charge transferred. This suggests that another negatively charged species, such as ions, is responsible.

Scott R. Waitukaitis; Victor Lee; James M. Pierson; Steven L. Forman; Heinrich M. Jaeger

2013-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

295

A Combined Model for Determining Capacity Usage and Battery Size...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

More Search Research & Development Batteries and Fuel Cells Li-Ion and Other Advanced Battery Technologies Buildings Energy Efficiency Applications Commercial Buildings Cool Roofs...

296

Cash, Money Laundering, and the Size of Underground Economy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Givenavastempiricalevidencethatcashiswidelyusedinthe underground economy, inter-governmental bodies like FATF recommend policy measures aimed at limitation of cash and at combat of money laundering. We show that there is no simple monotone relationship between policy and the size of underground economy, so that the policy has at best a limited scope.

Alexei Deviatov

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Calculating Horsepower Requirements and Sizing Supply Pipelines for Irrigation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pumping costs are often one of the largest single expenses in irrigated agriculture. This publication explains how to lower pumping costs by calculating horsepower requirements and sizing supply pipelines correctly. Examples take the reader through a step-by-step process. A special section deals with selecting PVC pipe.

Fipps, Guy

1995-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

298

A QuikSCAT climatology of tropical cyclone size  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

QuikSCAT data of near-surface wind vectors for the years 1999–2008 are used to create a climatology of tropical cyclone (TC) size, defined as the radius of vanishing winds. The azimuthally-averaged radius of 12 ms?1 [ms ...

Chavas, Daniel Robert

299

One-Way Nested Regional Climate Simulations and Domain Size  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The impact of domain size on regional climate simulations is explored in the context of a state-of-the-art regional model centered over western Europe. It is found that the quality of the climate simulations is highly dependent on the domain ...

S. Vannitsem; F. Chomé

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Method of controlling crystallite size in nuclear-reactor fuels  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Improved spherules for making enhanced forms of nuclear-reactor fuels are prepared by internal gelation procedures within a sol-gel operation and are accomplished by first boiling the concentrated HMTA-urea feed solution before engaging in the spherule-forming operation thereby effectively controlling crystallite size in the product spherules.

Lloyd, Milton H. (Oak Ridge, TN); Collins, Jack L. (Knoxville, TN); Shell, Sam E. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "200-meter cell size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Supplier selection and order lot sizing modeling: A review  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With globalization and the emergence of the extended enterprise of interdependent organizations, there has been a steady increase in the outsourcing of parts and services. This has led firms to give more importance to the purchasing function and its ... Keywords: Auctions, Decision models, Order sizing, Outsourcing, Purchasing, Supplier selection

Najla Aissaoui; Mohamed Haouari; Elkafi Hassini

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Accurate sizing of supercapacitors storage system considering its capacitance variation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Accurate sizing of supercapacitors storage system considering its capacitance variation S. Trieste Energy storage, Supercapacitor, Ultra capacitors, Traction application, Measurement, Efficiency, Device of supercapacitors used as a main energy source. First of all, the paper presents the two definitions of capacitance

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

303

Energy Efficiency Services Sector: Workforce Size and Expectations for Growth  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02- 05CH11231 ERNEST ORLANDO LAWRENCE BERKELEY Size and Expectations for Growth Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, Permitting, Siting and Analysis of the U.S. Department of Energy

304

Power provisioning for a warehouse-sized computer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Large-scale Internet services require a computing infrastructure that can beappropriately described as a warehouse-sized computing system. The cost ofbuilding datacenter facilities capable of delivering a given power capacity tosuch a computer can rival ... Keywords: energy efficiency, power modeling, power provisioning

Xiaobo Fan; Wolf-Dietrich Weber; Luiz Andre Barroso

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Technical Assistance for Small and Medium Sized Manufacturers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.iac.rutgers.edu U.S. Department of Energy Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Washington, DC 20585Technical Assistance for Small and Medium Sized Manufacturers As part of Save Energy Now, the Industrial Assessment Centers (IAC) provide energy, waste, and productivity assessments at no charge to small

Washington at Seattle, University of

306

D-D Nuclear Fusion Using Different Size Pyroelectric Crystals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

D-D Nuclear Fusion Using Different Size Pyroelectric Crystals A. M. Kovanen, D. J. Gillich, T. Z of Homeland Security under cooperative agreement number 2007-DN-077-ER0003. The authors are with the Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY. A. M

Danon, Yaron

307

Time Evolution of the Mutual Fund Size Distribution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the process of mutual fund growth both empirically and theoretically. The size of large mutual funds has a heavy tailed distribution that has been conjectured to be a power law; we investigate the data more carefully and show that it is better described by a log normal. To explain this we develop a stochastic growth model based on multiplicative growth, creation and annihilation. Under the simplifying assumption that these processes do not depend on fund size we obtain a time-dependent analytic solution of the model. The distribution evolves from a log normal into a power law only over long time scales, suggesting that log-normality comes about because the industry is still young and in a transient state due to its rapid growth in recent years. We make the model more realistic by taking into account size dependent effects, in particular the decay in the rates of diffusion and drift with increasing fund size. The resulting model is in good quantitative agreement with the data. Surprisingly, it a...

Schwarzkopf, Yonathan

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Thermodynamics and Finite size scaling in Scalar Field Theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work we consider the 1-component real scalar $\\phi^4$ theory in 4 space-time dimensions on the lattice and investigate the finite size scaling of thermodynamic quantities to study whether the thermodynamic limit is attained. The results are obtained for the symmetric phase of the theory.

Debasish Banerjee; Saumen Datta; Sourendu Gupta

2008-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

309

Energy Efficiency Services Sector: Workforce Size and Expectations for  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LBNL-3987E Energy Efficiency Services Sector: Workforce Size and Expectations for Growth Technical by the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Weatherization and Intergovernmental Programs Laboratory is an equal opportunity employer. #12;LBNL-3987E Energy Efficiency Services Sector - Workforce

310

Free energy and size distributions of micelles in solution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a new derivation of the free energy of micellar solutions. From this free energy a micelle size distribution can be calculated. By using a density functional model for the bulk contribution to the free energy and a simple approximation for the micelle (proper) contribution

P. S. Christopher; David W. Oxtoby

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Finite size effect on the magnon's correlation functions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We calculate the finite size correction on the three-point correlation function between two giant magnons and one marginal operator, which is dual to a dilaton field of the bulk gravity theory. We also check that the structure constant in the string setup is exactly the same as one of the renormalization group analyses in the gauge theory.

Lee, Bum-Hoon [Center for Quantum Spacetime (CQUeST), Sogang University, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, Sogang University, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Chanyong [Center for Quantum Spacetime (CQUeST), Sogang University, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

312

Competition under Capacitated Dynamic Lot Sizing with Capacity Acquisition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Lot-sizing and capacity planning are important supply chain decisions, and competition and cooperation affect the performance of these decisions. In this paper, we look into the dynamic lot sizing and resource competition problem of an industry consisting of multiple firms. A capacity competition model combining the complexity of time-varying demand with cost functions and economies os scale arising from dynamic lot-sizing costs is developed. Each firm can replenish inventory at the beginning of each period in a finite planning horizon. Fixed as well as variable production costs incur for each production setup, along with inventory carrying costs. The individual production lots of each firm are limited by a constant capacity restriction, which is purchased up front for the planning horizon. The capacity can be purchased from a spot market, and the capacity acquisition cost fluctuates with the total capacity demand of all the competing firms. We solve the competition model and establish the existence of a capacity equilibrium over the firms and the associated optimal dynamic lot-sizing plan for each firm under mild conditions.

Hongyan Li; Joern Meissner

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Aerosols and Ice Particle Size in Tropical Cumulonimbus  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A retrieval of ice crystal size near the tops of active deep cumulonimbus clouds (Cb) throughout the Tropics over a 12-yr period is presented based on radiances from the 3.7-?m channel of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR). ...

Steven C. Sherwood

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Aerosol Size Distributions from Genetic Inversion of Polar Nephelometer Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is shown that genetic inversions can be used to recover lognormal aerosol size distributions from multiangle optical scattering cross-section data measured by a polar nephelometer at a wavelength of 0.532 ?m. The inversions can also be used to ...

B. R. Lienert; J. N. Porter; S. K. Sharma

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Influence of Particle Size Distribution on Random Close Packing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The densest amorphous packing of rigid particles is known as random close packing. It has long been appreciated that higher densities are achieved by using collections of particles with a variety of sizes. The variety of sizes is often quantified by the polydispersity of the particle size distribution: the standard deviation of the radius divided by the mean radius. Several prior studies quantified the increase of the packing density as a function of polydispersity. Of course, a particle size distribution is also characterized by its skewness, kurtosis, and higher moments, but the influence of these parameters has not been carefully quantified before. In this work, we numerically generate many packings with different particle radii distributions, varying polydispersity and skewness independently of one another. We find two significant results. First, the skewness can have a significant effect on the packing density and in some cases can have a larger effect than polydispersity. Second, the packing fraction is relatively insensitive to the value of the kurtosis. We present a simple empirical formula for the value of the random close packing density as a function of polydispersity and skewness.

Kenneth W. Desmond; Eric R. Weeks

2013-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

316

Size effect and fracture characteristics of composite laminates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measurements of the size effect on the nominal strength of notched specimens of fiber composite laminates are reported. Tests were conducted on graphite/epoxy crossply and quasi-isotropic laminates. The specimens were rectangular strips of widths 6.4, 12.7, 25.4 and 50.8 mm (0.25, 0.50, 1.00 and 2.00 in.) geometrically similar in two dimensions. The gage lengths were 25, 51, 102 and 203 mm (1.0, 2.0, 4.0 and 8.0 in.). One set of specimens had double-edge notches and a [0/92{sub 2}]{sub s} crossply layup, and another set had a single-sided edge notch and a [0/{+-}45/90]{sub s} quasi-isotropic layup. It has been found that there is a significant size effect on the nominal strength. It approximately agrees with the size effect law proposed by Bazant, according to which the curve of the logarithm of the nominal strength versus the logarithm of size represents a smooth transition from a horizontal asymptote, corresponding to the strength criterion (plastic limit analysis), to an inclined asymptote of {minus}0.5 slope, corresponding to linear elastic fracture mechanics. Optimum fits of the test results to identify the material fracture characteristics, particularly the fracture energy and the effective length of the fracture process zone. Finally, the R-curves are also identified on the basis of the maximum load data. The results show that in design situations with notches or large initial traction-free cracks the size effect on the nominal strength of fiber composite laminates must be taken into account.

Bazant, Z.P.; Daniel, I.M.; Li, Z. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

324 Facility B-Cell quality process plan  

SciTech Connect

B-Cell is currently being cleaned out (i.e., removal of equipment, fixtures and residual radioactive materials) and deactivated. TPA Milestone M-89-02 dictates that all mixed waste and equipment be removed from B-Cell by 5/31/99. The following sections describe the major activities that remain for completion of the TPA milestone. These include: Size Reduce Tank 119 and Miscellaneous Equipment; Load and Ship Low-Level Waste; Remove and Size Reduce the 1B Rack; Collect Dispersible Material from Cell Floor; Remove and Size Reduce the 2A Rack; Size Reduce the 1A Rack; Load and Ship Mixed Waste to PUREX Tunnels; and Move Spent Fuel to A-Cell;

Carlson, J.L.

1998-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

318

Hypofractionated Whole-Breast Radiation Therapy: Does Breast Size Matter?  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the effects of breast size on dose-volume histogram parameters and clinical toxicity in whole-breast hypofractionated radiation therapy using intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, all patients undergoing breast-conserving therapy between 2005 and 2009 were screened, and qualifying consecutive patients were included in 1 of 2 cohorts: large-breasted patients (chest wall separation >25 cm or planning target volume [PTV] >1500 cm{sub 3}) (n=97) and small-breasted patients (chest wall separation <25 cm and PTV <1500 cm{sub 3}) (n=32). All patients were treated prone or supine with hypofractionated IMRT to the whole breast (42.4 Gy in 16 fractions) followed by a boost dose (9.6 Gy in 4 fractions). Dosimetric and clinical toxicity data were collected and analyzed using the R statistical package (version 2.12). Results: The mean PTV V95 (percentage of volume receiving >= 95% of prescribed dose) was 90.18% and the mean V105 percentage of volume receiving >= 105% of prescribed dose was 3.55% with no dose greater than 107%. PTV dose was independent of breast size, whereas heart dose and maximum point dose to skin correlated with increasing breast size. Lung dose was markedly decreased in prone compared with supine treatments. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group grade 0, 1, and 2 skin toxicities were noted acutely in 6%, 69%, and 25% of patients, respectively, and at later follow-up (>3 months) in 43%, 57%, and 0% of patients, respectively. Large breast size contributed to increased acute grade 2 toxicity (28% vs 12%, P=.008). Conclusions: Adequate PTV coverage with acceptable hot spots and excellent sparing of organs at risk was achieved by use of IMRT regardless of treatment position and breast size. Although increasing breast size leads to increased heart dose and maximum skin dose, heart dose remained within our institutional constraints and the incidence of overall skin toxicity was comparable to that reported in the literature. Taken together, these data suggest that hypofractionated radiation therapy using IMRT is a viable and appropriate therapeutic modality in large-breasted patients.

Hannan, Raquibul, E-mail: Raquibul.Hannan@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Thompson, Reid F.; Chen Yu; Bernstein, Karen; Kabarriti, Rafi; Skinner, William [Department of Radiation Oncology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, New York (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, New York (United States); Chen, Chin C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Landau, Evan; Miller, Ekeni; Spierer, Marnee; Hong, Linda; Kalnicki, Shalom [Department of Radiation Oncology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, New York (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, New York (United States)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

319

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Fuel Cells  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Efficiency and Renewable Energy EERE Home | Programs & Offices | Consumer Information Fuel Cells Search Search Help Fuel Cells EERE Fuel Cell Technologies Office Fuel Cells...

320

CLIMATE CHANGE FUEL CELL PROGRAM  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

ChevronTexaco has successfully operated a 200 kW PC25C phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant at the corporate data center in San Ramon, California for the past two years and seven months following installation in December 2001. This site was chosen based on the ability to utilize the combined heat (hot water) and power generation capability of this modular fuel cell power plant in an office park setting . In addition, this project also represents one of the first commercial applications of a stationary fuel cell for a mission critical data center to assess power reliability benefits. This fuel cell power plant system has demonstrated outstanding reliability and performance relative to other comparably sized cogeneration systems.

Mike Walneuski

2004-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "200-meter cell size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Assess Potential Agency Size Changes that Impact Greenhouse Gases from  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Employee Commuting Employee Commuting Assess Potential Agency Size Changes that Impact Greenhouse Gases from Employee Commuting October 7, 2013 - 1:42pm Addthis YOU ARE HERE Step 1 For employee commuting, it is important to account for any planned or expected changes in a Federal agency's size when estimating the greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction potential for different operating units or worksites. Considerations include: Are employment levels expected to change in the next decade at specific facilities or agency-wide? Are there any planned facility moves at major worksites? Employee commute coordinators may want to engage human resources and strategic planners in this effort to establish likely changes in employment numbers. Facility planners may be engaged to understand changes in commutes

322

Microsoft PowerPoint - Novel Nano-size_Yang  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nano-size Oxide Dispersion Nano-size Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Steels Development through Computational and Experimental Study Shizhong Yang, Ebrahim Khosravi Southern University and A & M College 6/12/2013 Pittsburgh, PA Outline Introduction Methods Preliminary Results Future Work Acknowledgement Introduction * Project Period: 6/1/2012 --- 5/31/2015 * Project Manager: Vito Cedro * Project Objectives: (1). Perform interface energy and molecular dynamics/Monte Carlo HPC simulation on the ODS models to screen out the potential high temperature and high pressure ODS candidates. (2). Perform experiments on the high temperature and high pressure property of the most promising ODS systems from the simulation. (3). Students/postdocs training. Introduction 1. The oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel alloys have higher

323

Size, shape, and appearance of the normal female pituitary gland  

SciTech Connect

One hundred seven women 18-65 years old were studied who were referred for suspected central nervous system disease not related to the pituitary gland or hypothalamus. High-resolution, direct, coronal, contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) was used to examine the size; shape, and density of the normal pituitary gland. There were three major conclusions: (1) the height of the normal gland can be as much as 9 mm; (2) the superior margin of the gland may bulge in normal patients; and (3) both large size and convex contour appear to be associated with younger age. It was also found that serum prolactin levels do not appear to correlate with the CT appearances. Noise artifacts inherent in high-detail, thin-section, soft-tissue scanning may be a limiting factor in defining reproducible patterns in different parts of the normal pituitary gland.

Wolpert, S.M.; Molitch, M.E.; Goldman, J.A.; Wood, J.B.

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Coating thermal noise of a finite-size cylindrical mirror  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermal noise of a mirror is one of the limiting noise sources in the high precision measurement such as gravitational-wave detection, and the modeling of thermal noise has been developed and refined over a decade. In this paper, we present a derivation of coating thermal noise of a finite-size cylindrical mirror based on the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. The result agrees to a previous result with an infinite-size mirror in the limit of large thickness, and also agrees to an independent result based on the mode expansion with a thin-mirror approximation. Our study will play an important role not only to accurately estimate the thermal-noise level of gravitational-wave detectors but also to help analyzing thermal noise in quantum-measurement experiments with lighter mirrors.

Kentaro Somiya; Kazuhiro Yamamoto

2009-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

325

Programs for Small and Medium-Sized Manufacturers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The industrial sector represents a diverse grouping of companies that very significantly in their size and how they use energy. Industrial programs have tended to focus their efforts on customized incentives that capture large energy efficiency opportunities at each facility. While this approach works well for larger firms, the transaction costs of identifying and proposing projects for small and medium-sized manufacturers (SMM) is frequently prohibitive. As a result, programs have tended to focus on prescriptive rebates for equipment that do not address a significant portion of the energy use in these firms. However, number of innovative approaches exist, including quasi-prescriptive rebates, funding in-house energy managers, working through supply chains, and working through trade groups and market allies to provide services through trusted networks. This paper will summarize recent research on energy efficiency programs targeting SMMs and provide recommendation for program design to maximize energy savings for small and medium manufactures.

Trombley, D.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

A novel hybrid (wind-photovoltaic) system sizing procedure  

SciTech Connect

Wind-photovoltaic hybrid system (WPHS) utilization is becoming popular due to increasing energy costs and decreasing prices of turbines and photovoltaic (PV) panels. However, prior to construction of a renewable generation station, it is necessary to determine the optimum number of PV panels and wind turbines for minimal cost during continuity of generated energy to meet the desired consumption. In fact, the traditional sizing procedures find optimum number of the PV modules and wind turbines subject to minimum cost. However, the optimum battery capacity is either not taken into account, or it is found by a full search between all probable solution spaces which requires extensive computation. In this study, a novel description of the production/consumption phenomenon is proposed, and a new sizing procedure is developed. Using this procedure, optimum battery capacity, together with optimum number of PV modules and wind turbines subject to minimum cost can be obtained with good accuracy. (author)

Hocaoglu, Fatih O. [Afyon Kocatepe University, Dept. of Electronics and Communication Eng., 03200 Afyonkarahisar (Turkey); Gerek, Oemer N.; Kurban, Mehmet [Anadolu University, Dept. of Electrical and Electronics Eng., 26555 Eskisehir (Turkey)

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

327

Fundamental solutions for isotropic size-dependent couple stress elasticity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fundamental solutions for two- and three-dimensional linear isotropic size-dependent couple stress elasticity are derived, based upon the decomposition of displacement fields into dilatational and solenoidal components. While several fundamental solutions have appeared previously in the literature, the present version is for the newly developed fully determinate couple stress theory. Within this theory, the couple stress tensor is skewsymmetrical and thus possesses vectorial character. The present derivation provides solutions for infinite domains of elastic materials under the influence of unit concentrated forces and couples. Unlike all previous work, unique solutions for displacements, rotations, force-stresses and couple-stresses are established, along with the corresponding force-tractions and couple-tractions. These fundamental solutions are central in analysis methods based on Green's functions for infinite domains and are required as kernels in the corresponding boundary integral formulations for size-dependent couple stress elastic materials.

Ali R. Hadjesfandiari; Gary F. Dargush

2011-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

328

Table B10. Employment Size Category, Number of Buildings, 1999  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0. Employment Size Category, Number of Buildings, 1999" 0. Employment Size Category, Number of Buildings, 1999" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)" ,"All Buildings","Number of Workers" ,,"Fewer than 5 Workers","5 to 9 Workers","10 to 19 Workers","20 to 49 Workers","50 to 99 Workers","100 to 249 Workers","250 or More Workers" "All Buildings ................",4657,2376,807,683,487,174,90,39 "Building Floorspace" "(Square Feet)" "1,001 to 5,000 ...............",2348,1567,482,226,66,"Q","Q","N" "5,001 to 10,000 ..............",1110,511,180,249,144,"Q","Q","N" "10,001 to 25,000 .............",708,250,105,146,157,46,"Q","Q"

329

Method for sizing and desizing yarns with liquid and supercritical carbon dioxide solvent  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a method of sizing and desizing yarn, or more specifically to a method of coating yarn with size and removing size from yarn with liquid carbon dioxide solvent. 3 figs.

Fulton, J.L.; Yonker, C.R.; Hallen, R.R.; Baker, E.G.; Bowman, L.E.; Silva, L.J.

1999-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

330

Method for sizing and desizing yarns with liquid and supercritical carbon dioxide solvent  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a method of sizing and desizing yarn, or more specifically to a method of coating yarn with size and removing size from yarn with liquid carbon dioxide solvent.

Fulton, John L. (Richland, WA); Yonker, Clement R. (Richland, WA); Hallen, Richard R. (Richland, WA); Baker, Eddie G. (Richland, WA); Bowman, Lawrence E. (Richland, WA); Silva, Laura J. (Richland, WA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

" Row: Employment Sizes within NAICS Codes;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4 Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 2006;" 4 Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 2006;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: Employment Sizes within NAICS Codes;" " Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;" " Unit: Varies." ,,,,"Consumption" ,,,"Consumption","per Dollar" ,,"Consumption","per Dollar","of Value" "NAICS",,"per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments" "Code(a)","Economic Characteristic(b)","(million Btu)","(thousand Btu)","(thousand Btu)" ,,"Total United States" " 311 - 339","ALL MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES"

332

Experimental Characterization of BORAL® Pore Size and Volume Distributions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study has measured pore size and pore volume of six different production batches of BORAL. The study included production lots that are known for being either blister prone or blister resistant under simulated canister wetting/vacuum drying conditions, or known to form edge blisters while in the spent-fuel pool. Additional production lots for which blister performance is unknown also were tested. Blisters in the cladding of BORAL, if large enough, can deform stainless steel walls in storage racks and...

2010-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

333

A Laboratory Method for Ash Particle Size Determination  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Increasing stringent particulate emissions limits are putting more pressure on power producers to improve electrostatic precipitator (ESP) performance. In an effort to select the most cost effective upgrade option, many power plant engineers are using ESP computer models to estimate the impact of the available options. These models are sensitive to the fly ash particle size distribution used in the calculations, but the actual distribution is rarely known. Furthermore, measuring this distribution has, in...

2005-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

334

An economic evaluation of community size biogas plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Economic evaluation of community size biogas plants has been performed in terms of the cost of the gas produced from such systems. The analysis takes into account the initial investment, life time, interest rate, maintenance cost and operating cost. Numerical calculations corresponding to 8 biogas systems show that if the manure can be sold at a price of Rs. 100 per ton, the pay back period varies from 3 to 6 years.

Sharma, J.P.; Vasudevan, P.; Bansal, N.K.

1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Unzipping DNA by force: thermodynamics and finite size behaviour  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We discuss the thermodynamic behaviour near the force induced unzipping transition of a double stranded DNA in two different ensembles. The Y-fork is identified as the coexisting phases in the fixed distance ensemble. From finite size scaling of thermodynamic quantities like the extensibility, the length of the unzipped segment of a Y-fork, the phase diagram can be recovered. We suggest that such procedures could be used to obtain the thermodynamic phase diagram from experiments on finite length DNA.

Rajeev Kapri; Somendra M. Bhattacharjee

2005-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

336

Technique for inferring sizes of stellar-active regions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Inspection of spectroheliograms showing large, well-developed active regions generally show the sunspots to lead the associated plage, in the sense of the solar rotation. Measurements have been made from spectroheliograms of spot-plage offsets and compared with nearly contemporaneous integrated disk observations. Larger active regions generally show larger spot leads; however, information regarding active-region sizes and spot-plage offsets is not readily obtainable form stellar-type observations of the Sun.

Dobson-Hockey, A.K.; Radick, R.R.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Cogeneration System Size Optimization Constant Capacity and Constant Demand Models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper presents the development of a quasi-linear optimization model for a cogeneration system subject to constant heat and power demands or loads. The linear model is next modified to a non-linear one to account for economies of scale. The models define the necessary and sufficient conditions for system size optimality. Thus, the underlying methodology constitutes the foundation for a subsequent series of more sophisticated cogeneration design models. Several examples are presented to illustrate the models.

Wong-Kcomt, J. B.; Turner, W. C.

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

" Row: Employment Sizes within NAICS Codes;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3. Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 1998;" 3. Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 1998;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: Employment Sizes within NAICS Codes;" " Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;" " Unit: Varies." " "," ",,,"Consumption"," " " "," ",,"Consumption","per Dollar" " "," ","Consumption","per Dollar","of Value","RSE" "NAICS",,"per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments","Row" "Code(a)","Economic Characteristic(b)","(million Btu)","(thousand Btu)","(thousand Btu)","Factors"

339

" Row: Employment Sizes within NAICS Codes;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4 Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 2002;" 4 Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 2002;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: Employment Sizes within NAICS Codes;" " Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;" " Unit: Varies." " "," ",,,"Consumption"," " " "," ",,"Consumption","per Dollar" " "," ","Consumption","per Dollar","of Value","RSE" "NAICS",,"per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments","Row" "Code(a)","Economic Characteristic(b)","(million Btu)","(thousand Btu)","(thousand Btu)","Factors"

340

Cube and Sphere Surface Area and Relative Size  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cube and Sphere Surface Area and Relative Size Cube and Sphere Surface Area and Relative Size Name: Andrea Status: student Age: N/A Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: Will a sphere that has the identical surface area as a cube fit inside the cube? Replies: The surface area of a cube is 6L^2 where L is the length of a side. The surface area of a sphere is 4 pi r^2 where r is the radius of the sphere Setting these two terms equal (which we do because the surface areas are equal, [we do not need and exact number, mind you. We just have to know they are equal.]) and doing some algebra we find that the cube has a side 1.414 times as long as the radius of the sphere. BUT WAIT. The radius of the sphere is only half its size (diameter)! To hold the sphere, the cube needs a side of 2r or twice the sphere's radius!! It is only 1.414 times as long so, the sphere will not fit.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "200-meter cell size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Discriminating Between the Physical Processes that Drive Spheroid Size Evolution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Massive galaxies at high-z have smaller effective radii than those today, but similar central densities. Their size growth therefore relates primarily to the evolving abundance of low-density material. Various models have been proposed to explain this evolution, which have different implications for galaxy, star, and BH formation. We compile observations of spheroid properties as a function of redshift and use them to test proposed models. Evolution in progenitor gas-richness with redshift gives rise to initial formation of smaller spheroids at high-z. These systems can then evolve in apparent or physical size via several channels: (1) equal-density 'dry' mergers, (2) later major or minor 'dry' mergers with less-dense galaxies, (3) adiabatic expansion, (4) evolution in stellar populations & mass-to-light-ratio gradients, (5) age-dependent bias in stellar mass estimators, (6) observational fitting/selection effects. If any one of these is tuned to explain observed size evolution, they make distinct predict...

Hopkins, Philip F; Hernquist, Lars; Wuyts, Stijn; Cox, Thomas J

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Level: National Data; Row: Employment Sizes within NAICS Codes;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4 Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 2006; 4 Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 2006; Level: National Data; Row: Employment Sizes within NAICS Codes; Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios; Unit: Varies. Consumption Consumption per Dollar Consumption per Dollar of Value NAICS per Employee of Value Added of Shipments Code(a) Economic Characteristic(b) (million Btu) (thousand Btu) (thousand Btu) Total United States 311 - 339 ALL MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES Employment Size Under 50 562.6 4.7 2.4 50-99 673.1 5.1 2.4 100-249 1,072.8 6.5 3.0 250-499 1,564.3 7.7 3.6 500-999 2,328.9 10.6 4.5 1000 and Over 1,415.5 5.7 2.5 Total 1,278.4 6.9 3.1 311 FOOD Employment Size Under 50 1,266.8 8.3 3.2 50-99 1,587.4 9.3 3.6 100-249 931.9 3.6 1.5 250-499 1,313.1 6.3

343

Advanced fuel cells and their future market  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The advantages of fuel cells over competing technologies are outlined. These include higher fuel-efficiency (and thus lower fuel costs) and financial credits that may help reduce the effective introductory capital costs and thus help broaden the market. The credits for fuel cells result from their modularity, relative independence of efficiency on size and load, dispersibility, and rapid installation time. The fuel cell of primary interest in the United States and Japan is the PAFC (whose operation is limited by materials problems to ca. 200{degrees}C), because it is the most highly developed for use with natural gas or clean light distillate fuels. Competing fuel cell (FC) technologies are the alkaline fuel cell (AFC, limited to 80{degrees}C if inexpensive construction materials are used), the molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC, 650{degrees}C), and the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC, 1000{degrees}C). The author focuses on the MCFC in this paper.

Appleby, A.J. (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (US))

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: Technology Status  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In its most common configuration, solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) uses an oxygen ion conducting ceramic electrolyte membrane, perovskite cathode and nickel cermet anode electrode. Cells operate in the 600-1000 C temperature range and utilize metallic or ceramic current collectors for cell-to-cell interconnection. Recent development in engineered electrode architectures, component materials chemistry, cell and stack designs and fabrication processes have led to significant improvement in the electrical performance and performance stability as well as reduction in the operating temperature of such cells. Large kW-size power generation systems have been designed and field demonstrated. This paper reviews the status of SOFC power generation systems with emphasis on cell and stack component materials, electrode reactions, materials reactions and corrosion processes

Singh, Prabhakar; Minh, Nguyen Q.

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Connections for solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A connection for fuel cell assemblies is disclosed. The connection includes compliant members connected to individual fuel cells and a rigid member connected to the compliant members. Adjacent bundles or modules of fuel cells are connected together by mechanically joining their rigid members. The compliant/rigid connection permits construction of generator fuel cell stacks from basic modular groups of cells of any desired size. The connections can be made prior to installation of the fuel cells in a generator, thereby eliminating the need for in-situ completion of the connections. In addition to allowing pre-fabrication, the compliant/rigid connections also simplify removal and replacement of sections of a generator fuel cell stack.

Collie, Jeffrey C. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Impact of Balancing Areas Size, Obligation Sharing, and Ramping Capability on Wind Integration: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper examines wind integration costs as a function of balancing area size to determine if the larger system size helps mitigate wind integration cost increases.

Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

The Effect of Proppant Size and Concentration on Hydraulic Fracture Conductivity in Shale Reservoirs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydraulic fracture conductivity in ultra-low permeability shale reservoirs is directly related to well productivity. The main goal of hydraulic fracturing in shale formations is to create a network of conductive pathways in the rock which increase the surface area of the formation that is connected to the wellbore. These highly conductive fractures significantly increase the production rates of petroleum fluids. During the process of hydraulic fracturing proppant is pumped and distributed in the fractures to keep them open after closure. Economic considerations have driven the industry to find ways to determine the optimal type, size and concentration of proppant that would enhance fracture conductivity and improve well performance. Therefore, direct laboratory conductivity measurements using real shale samples under realistic experimental conditions are needed for reliable hydraulic fracturing design optimization. A series of laboratory experiments was conducted to measure the conductivity of propped and unpropped fractures of Barnett shale using a modified API conductivity cell at room temperature for both natural fractures and induced fractures. The induced fractures were artificially created along the bedding plane to account for the effect of fracture face roughness on conductivity. The cementing material present on the surface of the natural fractures was preserved only for the initial unpropped conductivity tests. Natural proppants of difference sizes were manually placed and evenly distributed along the fracture face. The effect of proppant monolayer was also studied.

Kamenov, Anton

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuel Cells Fuel Cells Converting chemical energy of hydrogenated fuels into electricity Project Description Invented in 1839, fuels cells powered the Gemini and Apollo space missions, as well as the space shuttle. Although fuel cells have been successfully used in such applications, they have proven difficult to make more cost-effective and durable for commercial applications, particularly for the rigors of daily transportation. Since the 1970s, scientists at Los Alamos have managed to make various scientific breakthroughs that have contributed to the development of modern fuel cell systems. Specific efforts include the following: * Finding alternative and more cost-effective catalysts than platinum. * Enhancing the durability of fuel cells by developing advanced materials and

349

Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuel Cells Fuel Cells The Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) program is responsible for coordinating Federal efforts to facilitate development of a commercially relevant and robust solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system. Specific objectives include achieving an efficiency of greater than 60 percent, meeting a stack cost target of $175 per kW, and demonstrating lifetime performance degradation of less than 0.2 percent per

350

Fuel Cells  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Fuel cells are an emerging technology that can provide heat and electricity for buildings and electrical power for vehicles and electronic devices.

351

Electrochemical cell  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An electrochemical cell is disclosed that has a lithium anode, a thionyl chloride depolarizer and a sulphur dioxide passivation control agent which further includes having the pressure relieved to substantially reduce the internal pressure of the cell. The internal cell pressure is relieved by venting for sufficient time at an elevated temperature to reduce the internal cell pressure to less than five psi at room temperature, preferably by a plurality of venting cycles and a temperature ranging from room temperature to the elevated temperature. Normally, the elevated temperature ranges from at least 100/sup 0/ to greater than 150/sup 0/ F.

Chua, D.L.; Garoutte, K.F.; Levy, L.L.

1982-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

352

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Fuel Cell Animation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuel Cell Animation to someone by E-mail Share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Fuel Cell Animation on Facebook Tweet about Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Fuel Cell Animation on...

353

Continuous-feed electrochemical cell with nonpacking particulate electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrochemical cell providing full consumption of electrochemically active particles in a nonpacking, electrolyte-permeable bed has a tapered cell cavity bounded by two nonparallel surfaces separated by a distance that promotes bridging of particles across the cavity. The gap/particle size ratio is maintained as the particles are consumed, decrease in size, and travel from the point of entry to the narrower end of the cell. A cell of this configuration supports a bed of low packing density maintained in a dynamic steady state by alternate formation and collapse of particle bridges across the gap and associated voids over the entire active area of the cell. The cell design can be applied to refuelable zinc/air cells and zinc/ferrocyanide storage batteries.

Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Selection, Sizing, and Testing of Stream Traps in Commercial Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For maximum effectiveness in steam systems, steam traps should have operating characteristics which closely match the requirements of the applications for which they are used. A trap which holds back condensate until it is subcooled and some of the sensible heat has been utilized is unsuitable where the need is to get maximum output from an exchanger by discharging condensate as soon as it forms. Equally, a trap discharging condensate at steam temperature can exacerbate flash steam problems in cases where surplus heat exchange area exists and a subcooling trap might be more suitable. In all cases, undersized traps simply cannot drain condensate from the steam equipment at the required rate, while oversized traps which cost more will usually wear faster and begin leaking expensive steam. This emphasizes the need for carefully selecting trap sizes that are properly engineered for maximum system efficiency. And, of course, the ability of a trap to cope with varying loads and to discharge noncondensible gases is often important. The recommended procedure is to first select the trap type which has performance capabilities that satisfy specific application needs, and then to choose a size which handles the condensate load without any unnecessary excess capacity. The Selection Guide, Table 1, is not comprehensive but helps in many applications where no unusual operating conditions or severe corrosion problems exist. Choosing the correct trap size then implies estimating the steam consumption rate, which of course equals the condensate load. Sometimes the load has already been measured, or the rated output of the steam equipment is known or can be obtained from the original manufacturer. In other cases, an estimate must be made and a Table o f Load Formulas will help although it, too, cannot be comprehensive. After making the best possible estimate of the load, a safety factor is applied. This allows for any inaccuracies in the estimating, for increased condensation rates at start-up, and for lower than anticipated pressure differentials across the trap.

Armer, A.; Risko, J. R.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Climate Change Fuel Cell Program  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A 200 kW, natural gas fired fuel cell was installed at the Richard Stockton College of New Jersey. The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the financial and operational suitability of retrofit fuel cell technology at a medium sized college. Target audience was design professionals and the wider community, with emphasis on use in higher education. ''Waste'' heat from the fuel cell was utilized to supplement boiler operations and provide domestic hot water. Instrumentation was installed in order to measure the effectiveness of heat utilization. It was determined that 26% of the available heat was captured during the first year of operation. The economics of the fuel cell is highly dependent on the prices of electricity and natural gas. Considering only fuel consumed and energy produced (adjusted for boiler efficiency), the fuel cell saved $54,000 in its first year of operation. However, taking into account the price of maintenance and the cost of financing over the short five-year life span, the fuel cell operated at a loss, despite generous subsidies. As an educational tool and market stimulus, the fuel cell attracted considerable attention, both from design professionals and the general public.

Alice M. Gitchell

2006-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

356

The Size of Compact Extra Dimensions from Blackbody Radiation Laws  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work we generalize the Stefan-Boltzmann and Wien's displacement laws for a D-dimensional spacetime composed by 4 non-compact dimensions and D-4 compact dimensions. The electromagnetic field is assumed to pervade all compact and non-compact dimensions. In particular, the total radiated power becomes R(T) = \\sigma_B T^4 + \\sigma_D (a) T^D, where a is the size of compact extra dimensions. For D=10, predicted from String Theory, and D=11, from M-Theory, the outcomes agree with available experimental data for a as high as 2 x 10^{-7} m.

Ramaton Ramos; Henrique Boschi-Filho

2011-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

357

The Size of Compact Extra Dimensions from Blackbody Radiation Laws  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work we generalize the Stefan-Boltzmann and Wien's displacement laws for a D-dimensional spacetime composed by 4 non-compact dimensions and D-4 compact dimensions. The electromagnetic field is assumed to pervade all compact and non-compact dimensions. In particular, the total radiated power becomes R(T) = \\sigma_B T^4 + \\sigma_D (a) T^D, where a is the size of compact extra dimensions. For D=10, predicted from String Theory, and D=11, from M-Theory, the outcomes agree with available experimental data for a as high as 2 x 10^{-7} m.

Ramos, Ramaton

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Particle impact damping: influence of material and size  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this study, particle impact damping is measured for a cantilever beam with a particle-filled enclosure attached to its free end. Many particle materials are tested: lead spheres, steel spheres, glass spheres, tungsten carbide pellets, lead dust, steel dust, and sand. The effects of particle size are also investigated. Particle diameters are varied from about 0.2 mm to 3 mm. The experimental data collected is offered as a resourceful database for future development of an analytical model of particle impact damping.

Marhadi, Kun Saptohartyadi

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Size dependent motion of nanodroplets on chemical steps  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nanodroplets on chemically structured substrates move under the action of disjoining pressure induced forces. A detailed analysis of them shows that even in the absence of long-ranged lateral variations of the effective interface potential, already the fact, that due their small size nano-droplets do not sample the disjoining pressure at all distances from the substrate, can lead to droplet motion towards the less wettable part of the substrate, i.e., in the direction opposite to the one expected on the basis of macroscopic wettability considerations.

A. Moosavi; M. Rauscher; S. Dietrich

2008-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

360

Direct measures of mechanical energy for knife mill size reduction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lengthy straw/stalk of biomass may not be directly fed into grinders such as hammer mills and disc refiners. Hence, biomass needs to be preprocessed using coarse grinders like a knife mill to allow for efficient feeding in refiner mills without bridging and choking. Size reduction mechanical energy was directly measured for switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.), and corn stover (Zea mays L.) in an instrumented knife mill. Direct power inputs were determined for different knife mill screen openings from 12.7 to 50.8 mm, rotor speeds between 250 and 500 rpm, and mass feed rates from 1 to 11 kg/min. Overall accuracy of power measurement was calculated to be 0.003 kW. Total specific energy (kWh/Mg) was defined as size reduction energy to operate mill with biomass. Effective specific energy was defined as the energy that can be assumed to reach the biomass. The difference is parasitic or no-load energy of mill. Total specific energy for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover chopping increased with knife mill speed, whereas, effective specific energy decreased marginally for switchgrass and increased for wheat straw and corn stover. Total and effective specific energy decreased with an increase in screen size for all the crops studied. Total specific energy decreased with increase in mass feed rate, but effective specific energy increased for switchgrass and wheat straw, and decreased for corn stover at increased feed rate. For knife mill screen size of 25.4 mm and optimum speed of 250 rpm, optimum feed rates were 7.6, 5.8, and 4.5 kg/min for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover, respectively, and the corresponding total specific energies were 7.57, 10.53, and 8.87 kWh/Mg and effective specific energies were 1.27, 1.50, and 0.24 kWh/Mg for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover, respectively. Energy utilization ratios were calculated as 16.8%, 14.3%, and 2.8% for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover, respectively. These data will be useful for preparing the feed material for subsequent fine grinding operations and designing new mills.

Bitra, V.S.P. [University of Tennessee; Womac, A.R. [University of Tennessee; Igathinathane, C. [Mississippi State University (MSU); Miu, P.I [University of Tennessee; Yang, Y.T. [University of Tennessee; Smith, D.R. [University of Tennessee; Chevanan, Nehru [University of Tennessee; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "200-meter cell size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Materials Science » Materials Science » Fuel Cells Fuel Cells Research into alternative forms of energy, especially energy security, is one of the major national security imperatives of this century. Get Expertise Melissa Fox Applied Energy Email Catherine Padro Sensors & Electrochemical Devices Email Fernando Garzon Sensors & Electrochemical Devices Email Piotr Zelenay Sensors & Electrochemical Devices Email Rod Borup Sensors & Electrochemical Devices Email Karen E. Kippen Experimental Physical Sciences Email Like a battery, a fuel cell consists of two electrodes separated by an electrolyte-in polymer electrolyte fuel cells, the separator is made of a thin polymeric membrane. Unlike a battery, a fuel cell does not need recharging-it continues to produce electricity as long as fuel flows

362

Testing site size requirements in chemisorption: experiment and theory  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

''Ensemble requirements'' in surface chemistry refer to the number and shape of contiguous empty sites necessary for chemisorption of a particular molecule. Ensemble effects can play a major role in directing the course of surface reactions, leading, for example, to dramatic changes in catalytic selectivity when the active metal component is diluted upon alloying with an inert metal. We will review here fundamental surface science studies that have attempted to probe this site size requirement by diluting active sites on a single crystal surface with an inert metal overlayer. We will emphasize recent results in our lab on the interaction of simple molecules (CO, H/sub 2/, O/sub 2/) with Cu-, Ag-, and Bi-dosed Pt(111). Theoretical models based upon Monte-Carlo simulations will be summarized which, when compared to such data, allow more accurate determination of ensemble sizes. These models predict uptake curves that deviate strongly from the commonly used (1-theta)/sup A/ law (A = number of sites in ensemble), which is valid only for an array of isolated ensembles. 32 refs., 3 figs.

Campbell, C.T.; Paffett, M.T.; Voter, A.F.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS OF SOLAR FLARES AND SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE EVENTS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We suggest that the flatter size distribution of solar energetic proton (SEP) events relative to that of flare soft X-ray (SXR) events is primarily due to the fact that SEP flares are an energetic subset of all flares. Flares associated with gradual SEP events are characteristically accompanied by fast ({>=}1000 km s{sup -1}) coronal mass ejections (CMEs) that drive coronal/interplanetary shock waves. For the 1996-2005 interval, the slopes ({alpha} values) of power-law size distributions of the peak 1-8 A fluxes of SXR flares associated with (a) >10 MeV SEP events (with peak fluxes {>=}1 pr cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} sr{sup -1}) and (b) fast CMEs were {approx}1.3-1.4 compared to {approx}1.2 for the peak proton fluxes of >10 MeV SEP events and {approx}2 for the peak 1-8 A fluxes of all SXR flares. The difference of {approx}0.15 between the slopes of the distributions of SEP events and SEP SXR flares is consistent with the observed variation of SEP event peak flux with SXR peak flux.

Cliver, E. W. [Space Vehicles Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States); Ling, A. G. [Atmospheric Environmental Research, Lexington, MA 02421 (United States); Belov, A. [IZMIRAN, Troitsk, Moscow Region 142190 (Russian Federation); Yashiro, S. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

2012-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

364

Size-dependent structure of silver nanoparticles under high pressure  

SciTech Connect

Silver noble metal nanoparticles that are<10 nm often possess multiply twinned grains allowing them to adopt shapes and atomic structures not observed in bulk materials. The properties exhibited by particles with multiply twinned polycrystalline structures are often far different from those of single-crystalline particles and from the bulk. I will present experimental evidence that silver nanoparticles<10 nm undergo a reversible structural transformation under hydrostatic pressures up to 10 GPa. Results for nanoparticles in the intermediate size range of 5 to 10 nm suggest a reversible linear pressure-dependent rhombohedral distortion which has not been previously observed in bulk silver. I propose a mechanism for this transitiion that considers the bond-length distribution in idealized multiply twinned icosahedral particles. Results for nanoparticles of 3.9 nm suggest a reversible linear pressure-dependent orthorhombic distortion. This distortion is interpreted in the context of idealized decahedral particles. In addition, given these size-dependent measurements of silver nanoparticle compression with pressure, we have constructed a pressure calibration curve. Encapsulating these silver nanoparticles in hollow metal oxide nanospheres then allows us to measure the pressure inside a nanoshell using x-ray diffraction. We demonstrate the measurement of pressure gradients across nanoshells and show that these nanoshells have maximum resolved shear strengths on the order of 500 MPa to IGPa.

Koski, Kristie Jo

2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

365

Method of assembly of molecular-sized nets and scaffolding  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to methods and starting materials for forming molecular-sized grids or nets, or other structures based on such grids and nets, by creating molecular links between elementary molecular modules constrained to move in only two directions on an interface or surface by adhesion or bonding to that interface or surface. In the methods of this invention, monomers are employed as the building blocks of grids and more complex structures. Monomers are introduced onto and allowed to adhere or bond to an interface. The connector groups of adjacent adhered monomers are then polymerized with each other to form a regular grid in two dimensions above the interface. Modules that are not bound or adhered to the interface are removed prior to reaction of the connector groups to avoid undesired three-dimensional cross-linking and the formation of non-grid structures. Grids formed by the methods of this invention are useful in a variety of applications, including among others, for separations technology, as masks for forming regular surface structures (i.e., metal deposition) and as templates for three-dimensional molecular-sized structures.

Michl, Josef (Boulder, CO); Magnera, Thomas F. (Louisville, CO); David, Donald E. (Boulder, CO); Harrison, Robin M. (Boulder, CO)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Method of assembly of molecular-sized nets and scaffolding  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to methods and starting materials for forming molecular-sized grids or nets, or other structures based on such grids and nets, by creating molecular links between elementary molecular modules constrained to move in only two directions on an interface or surface by adhesion or bonding to that interface or surface. In the methods of this invention, monomers are employed as the building blocks of grids and more complex structures. Monomers are introduced onto and allowed to adhere or bond to an interface. The connector groups of adjacent adhered monomers are then polymerized with each other to form a regular grid in two dimensions above the interface. Modules that are not bound or adhered to the interface are removed prior to reaction of the connector groups to avoid undesired three-dimensional cross-linking and the formation of non-grid structures. Grids formed by the methods of this invention are useful in a variety of applications, including among others, for separations technology, as masks for forming regular surface structures (i.e., metal deposition) and as templates for three-dimensional molecular-sized structures. 9 figs.

Michl, J.; Magnera, T.F.; David, D.E.; Harrison, R.M.

1999-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

367

The transmission spectrum of Earth-size transiting planets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A variety of terrestrial planets with different physical parameters and exotic atmospheres might plausibly exist outside our Solar System, waiting to be detected by the next generation of space-exploration missions. Some of these planets might transit their parent star. We present here the first study of atmospheric signatures of transiting Earth-size exoplanets. We focus on a limited number of significant examples, for which we discuss the detectability of some of the possible molecules present in their atmospheres, such as water, carbon dioxide, ozone or molecular oxygen. To this purpose, we developed a model to simulate transmission spectra of Earth-size exoplanets from the ultraviolet to the near infrared. According to our calculations, the signatures of planetary atmospheres represent an absorption of a few parts-per-million (ppm) in the stellar flux. The atmospheres of a few Earth-like planets can be detected with a 30-40m telescope. The detection of the extensive atmospheres of tens of small satellites of giant exoplanets and hundreds of hypothetical ocean-planets can be achieved with 20-30m and 10-20m instruments, respectively, provided all these planets are frequent and they are efficiently surveyed. We also found that planets around K stars are favored, mainly because these stars are more numerous and they are smaller compared to G or F stars. While not addressed in this study, limitations might come from the stellar photometric micro-variability.

David Ehrenreich; Giovanna Tinetti; Alain Lecavelier Des Etangs; Alfred Vidal-Madjar; Franck Selsis

2005-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

368

Deliquescence properties and particle size change of hygroscopic aerosols  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Ambient aerosols frequently contain large proportions of hygroscopic inorganic salts such as sulfates and nitrates, which may induce adverse health effects upon inhalation. The inhaled salt particles are invariably exposed to a humid environment; their deposition along the respiratory tract will necessarily depend upon the size change resulting from water vapor condensation. This paper discusses the deliquescent properties of pure and mixed salt aerosols and the particle size change as a function of relative humidity. Experimental results are presented for the growth of mixed chlorides (NaCl-KCl), mixed sulfates (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-(NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}), and mixed (NH/sub 4/){sub 2}SOsub 4}-NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} aerosol systems. It is shown that the behavior of the mixed salt aerosols in a moist atmosphere can be predicted from phase diagrams and pertinent thermodynamic properties of the bulk solutions. The evaporation of a saline droplet in an atmosphere of decreasing humidities is also investigated experimentally. For each deliquescent salt aerosol, there is a threshold humidity below which the solution droplets will quickly evaporate to become crystalline particles. The information is useful in the selection of a suitable humidification procedure to generate test aerosols for exposure studies.

Tang, I.N.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Yttria-stabilized zirconia solid oxide electrolyte fuel cells, monolithic solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Small cell size, thin ceramic components, and high operating temperature are the key features of the MSOFC. The small size of individual cells in the monolithic structure increases the active surface area. For example, an MSOFC with channels about 1 mm in diameter has a ratio of active surface area to volume of about 9.4 sq cm/cu cm. This is about seven times the ratio for conventional fuel cells. On this basis alone, an MSOFC with a channel diameter of 1 mm should produce the same power as a conventional fuel cell seven times as large. The high current density of the MSOFC results from the small cell size and ensuing low internal resistance. The current density is high at the fuel inlet end of the fuel channel where the thermodynamic driving force (Nernst potential) is highest. Similarly, the current density is low at the outlet end of the fuel channel where the Nernst potential is lowest. Because of the high operating temperature of the MSOFC (1000{degrees}C),hydrocarbon fuels can be reformed in the fuel channels. The reform reaction produces hydrogen which is consumed by the fuel cell. Catalytic reforming of methane and natural gas within a solid oxide fuel cell has been demonstrated.

Not Available

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Effect Size and Moderators of Effects for Token Economy Interventions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

There is a clear call to use evidence-based practice (EBP) in schools, and a growing knowledge base of practices that have proven to be effective in helping students achieve in educational settings. In addition, the current trends of Positive Behavior Supports (PBS) and Response to Intervention (RtI) advocate for preventative and proactive strategies. Token economies (TE) are one intervention that is proactive and can be flexible to use with students across a wide range of behaviors and settings. According to Higgins, Williams, and McLaughlin, token economy (TE) is an effective way to improve classroom behavior. Unfortunately, limited recent research is available that evaluated the effects and moderators of token economies in classroom settings. The purpose of this investigation was to Meta-analyze the single case research on TE implemented in school and is the first to offer effect size analysis and identify moderators. The use of TE's has been widely established as an evidence-based intervention for use in prisons, psychiatric hospitals, and school settings. However, very few articles discuss size of effects to expect, the essential elements required, or the practical implementation issues within a classroom. Many myths surround the use of a TE, i.e., many assume a token system is effective only for individuals and this is not so, as TE is effective for groups as well as individuals. In an age of accountability and emphasis on preventative evidence based practice evidence for using a TE and how to implement a TE is needed in our literature. Empirical evidence for the use of a token economy in a classroom is presented along with suggested implementation ideas. Twenty four studies were included in this Meta-analysis with an overall combined Tau-U ES of .78 of data showing improvement between phase A and B with CI90 [.72, .83]. Tau-U effect sizes ranged from .35 to 1.0. TE is effective with all ages evaluated (ages 3 - 15); however, statistically significant results indicated it was more effective with ages 6 - 15. Active ingredients (i.e. procedural steps) were evaluated, combined, and reported. Results indicate that TE is an evidence-based intervention to increase academic readiness behaviors and to decrease inappropriate behaviors.

Soares, Denise

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Cell Image Visualization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Biological cell image analysis projects include methods to measure cell segmentation accuracy and new segmentation methods to track live cells. ...

2011-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

372

HVAC Right-Sizing Part 1: Calculating Loads  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Building America Building America Presented by: Mike Gestwick - National Renewable Energy Laboratory Arlan Burdick, Anthony Grisolia - IBACOS, a Building America Research Team HVAC Right-Sizing Part 1: Calculating Loads Thursday, April 28 11:00 a.m. - 12:00 p.m. Eastern Building Technologies Program Mike Gestwick michael.gestwick@nrel.gov Building America: Introduction April 28, 2011 Introduction to Building America * Reduce energy use in new and existing residential buildings * Promote building science and systems engineering / integration approach * "Do no harm": Ensure safety, health and durability are maintained or improved * Accelerate adoption of high performance technologies www.buildingamerica.gov 15 Industry Research Teams Habitat Cost Effective Energy Retrofit Program

373

Assess Potential Agency Size Changes that Impact Greenhouse Gas Emissions |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Emissions Emissions Assess Potential Agency Size Changes that Impact Greenhouse Gas Emissions October 7, 2013 - 10:12am Addthis Federal agencies should establish planned changes in operations that could have a substantial impact on emissions for each greenhouse gas (GHG) emission source: Buildings Vehicles and mobile equipment Business travel Employee commuting. Such changes could represent either an additional significant hurdle to overcome or a significant reduction in the effort required to drive emissions down-in the absence of any direct GHG mitigation reduction strategies. This will help each organization establish its "business as usual" emission profile in 2020, the year agencies are expected to meet their Scope 1 and 2 and Scope 3 GHG emission-reduction goals.

374

System size dependence of particle production at the SPS  

SciTech Connect

Recent results on the system size dependence of net-baryon and hyperon production as measured at the CERN SPS are discussed. The observed N{sub part} dependences of yields, but also of dynamical properties, such as average transverse momenta, can be described in the context of the core corona approach. Other observables, such as antiproton yields and net-protons at forward rapidities, do not follow the predictions of this model. Possible implications for a search for a critical point in the QCD phase diagram are discussed. Event-by-event fluctuations of the relative core to corona source contributions might influence fluctuation observables (e.g., multiplicity fluctuations). The magnitude of this effect is investigated.

Blume, C., E-mail: blume@ikf.uni-frankfurt.de [J.W. Goethe-Universitaet, Institut fuer Kernphysik (Germany)

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

375

Unconsolidated sand grain shape, size impact frac-pack design  

SciTech Connect

The shape and size of sand grains, as well as the saturating fluid, influence the mechanical properties of unconsolidated sands and need to be considered in frac-pack design. These mechanical properties of unconsolidated properties of unconsolidated sands play an important role in determining the geometry of frac-pack treatments. Stress-strain curves obtained for unconsolidated sands at elevated stresses show highly nonlinear hysteretic behavior. The impact of these findings on frac-pack design can be significant. The nonlinear elastic properties of unconsolidated sand can give rise to some unique features in the pressure response and in the fracture geometry that may not be observed in hard rocks. This article focuses on the impact of mechanical properties of poorly consolidated and unconsolidated sands on the geometry of frac packs. The paper discusses frac packs, mechanical properties (Young`s modulus, shear failure) and effective treatments.

Wang, E.; Sharma, M.M. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

1997-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

376

Importance of Design Conditions for Sizing Air-Conditioning Plant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Design conditions based on the meteorological data collected at two weather stations located less than 10 km away from each other within Kuwait City are presented for dry-bulb temperature (DBT) and web-bulb temperature (WBT) prioritization. The proposed design conditions specific to the location and the application are drastically different than currently used single design conditions for all application and locations. Cooling load estimates fro two building located in Kuwait have been analyzed for the proposed and the current design conditions to highlight over- or under-sizing the air-conditioning (A/C) plant capacity. Finally, a number of recommendations are made for architects and designers to use proper design conditions to ensure year-round comfort and energy conservation.

Shaban, N.; Maheshwari, G. P.; Suri, R. K.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Finite-Size Scaling in the Driven Lattice Gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a Monte Carlo study of the high-temperature phase of the two-dimensional driven lattice gas at infinite driving field. We define a finite-volume correlation length, verify that this definition has a good infinite-volume limit independent of the lattice geometry, and study its finite-size-scaling behavior. The results for the correlation length are in good agreement with the predictions based on the field theory proposed by Janssen, Schmittmann, Leung, and Cardy. The theoretical predictions for the susceptibility and the magnetization are also well verified. We show that the transverse Binder parameter vanishes at the critical point in all dimensions $d\\ge 2$ and discuss how such result should be expected in the theory of Janssen et al. in spite of the existence of a dangerously irrelevant operator. Our results confirm the Gaussian nature of the transverse excitations.

Sergio Caracciolo; Andrea Gambassi; Massimiliano Gubinelli; Andrea Pelissetto

2003-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

378

Sizing a water softener for aquifer thermal energy storage  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) installations, ground water is circulated between an aquifer and heat exchangers via a well field. It is often necessary to soften the water to prevent carbonate scaling in pipes, heat exchangers, and well screens. Most ATES projects requiring water softening will be best served by using synthetic ion-exchange resins. The size of the resin beds, the resin regeneration cycle, and the amount of NaCl brine used in each regeneration depend on several factors. These are (1) the chemistry of the native ground water, (2) allowable residual hardness after softening, (3) the maximum flow rate of water through the ATES plant, and (4) exchange characteristics of the resin. Example calculations are given for a three-bed water softening system.

Hall, S.H.; Jenne, E.A.

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Intermediate-Size Inducer Pump design report. [LMFBR  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the mechanical, structural, and hydrodynamic design of the Intermediate-Size Inducer Pump (ISIP). The design was performed under Atomics International's DOE Base Technology Program by the Atomics International and Rocketdyne Divisions of Rockwell International. The pump was designed to utilize the FFTF prototype pump frame as a test vehicle to test the inducer, impeller, and diffuser plus necessary adapter hardware under simulated Large Scale Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor service conditions. The report describes the design requirements including the purpose and objectives, and discusses those design efforts and considerations made to meet the requirements. Included in the report are appendices showing calculative methods and results. Also included are overall assembly and layout drawings plus some details used as illustrations for discussion of the design results and the results of water tests performed on a model of the inducer.

Boardman, T.J.

1979-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

380

The Influence of Availability Costs on Optimal Heat Exchanger Size  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optimizing heat exchangers based on second law rather than first law considerations ensures that the most efficient use of available energy is being made. Techniques for second-law optimizing heat exchangers have been developed recently that are straightforward and simple. The main difficulty lies in determining the proper cost of irrreversibility that is to be used in the optimization process. This paper demonstrates how this issue can be handled by including the irreversibility cost in a dimensionless parameter that represents the ratio of annual ownership costs to annual operating costs that include irreversibility costs. In this way, each heat exchanger designer can estimate the costs of irreversibilities for his particular system, and use the generalized method for determining the optimal heat exchanger size.

Witte, L. C.

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "200-meter cell size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Size-exclusion chromatography system for macromolecular interaction analysis  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A low pressure, microcomputer controlled system employing high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) allows for precise analysis of the interaction of two reversibly associating macromolecules such as proteins. Since a macromolecular complex migrates faster than its components during size-exclusion chromatography, the difference between the elution profile of a mixture of two macromolecules and the summation of the elution profiles of the two components provides a quantifiable indication of the degree of molecular interaction. This delta profile is used to qualitatively reveal the presence or absence of significant interaction or to rank the relative degree of interaction in comparing samples and, in combination with a computer simulation, is further used to quantify the magnitude of the interaction in an arrangement wherein a microcomputer is coupled to analytical instrumentation in a novel manner.

Stevens, Fred J. (Downers Grove, IL)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Laser-induced micron size clustering in thiophenol vapor  

SciTech Connect

Positively charged micron sized clusters are efficiently produced following irradiation of thiophenol vapor at 248 nm by a single KrF laser pulse of 30 ns duration. The production mechanism has been studied by examining the effect of N[sub 2], Ar, and He as diffusion media in mixtures with thiophenol, and by varying the laser pulse energy and excitation wavelength. A qualitative summary of possible mechanisms that may be responsible for the experimental results is presented providing a framework for understanding the observed cluster growth. The measurements indicate an optimum set of parameters for growth of large clusters and also show that the cluster charge can be controlled by selection of the buffer gas mixture.

Zafiropulos, V.; Kollia, Z.; Fotakis, C. (FORTH-Institute for Electronic Structure and Laser, P.O. Box 1527, GR 71110 Heraklion, Crete (Greece)); Stockdale, J.A.D. (L-463, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States))

1993-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

383

Measurements of Gas Bubble Size Distributions in Flowing Liquid Mercury  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

ABSTRACT Pressure waves created in liquid mercury pulsed spallation targets have been shown to induce cavitation damage on the target container. One way to mitigate such damage would be to absorb the pressure pulse energy into a dispersed population of small bubbles, however, measuring such a population in mercury is difficult since it is opaque and the mercury is involved in a turbulent flow. Ultrasonic measurements have been attempted on these types of flows, but the flow noise can interfere with the measurement, and the results are unverifiable and often unrealistic. Recently, a flow loop was built and operated at Oak Ridge National Labarotory to assess the capability of various bubbler designs to deliver an adequate population of bubbles to mitigate cavitation damage. The invented diagnostic technique involves flowing the mercury with entrained gas bubbles in a steady state through a horizontal piping section with a glass-window observation port located on the top. The mercury flow is then suddenly stopped and the bubbles are allowed to settle on the glass due to buoyancy. Using a bright-field illumination and a high-speed camera, the arriving bubbles are detected and counted, and then the images can be processed to determine the bubble populations. After using this technique to collect data on each bubbler, bubble size distributions were built for the purpose of quantifying bubbler performance, allowing the selection of the best bubbler options. This paper presents the novel procedure, photographic technique, sample visual results and some example bubble size distributions. The best bubbler options were subsequently used in proton beam irradiation tests performed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The cavitation damage results from the irradiated test plates in contact with the mercury are available for correlation with the bubble populations. The most effective mitigating population can now be designed into prototypical geometries for implementation into an actual SNS target.

Wendel, Mark W [ORNL; Riemer, Bernie [ORNL; Abdou, Ashraf A [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Energy Efficiency Services Sector: Workforce Size and Expectations for Growth  

SciTech Connect

The energy efficiency services sector (EESS) is poised to become an increasingly important part of the U.S. economy. Climate change and energy supply concerns, volatile and increasing energy prices, and a desire for greater energy independence have led many state and national leaders to support an increasingly prominent role for energy efficiency in U.S. energy policy. The national economic recession has also helped to boost the visibility of energy efficiency, as part of a strategy to support economic recovery. We expect investment in energy efficiency to increase dramatically both in the near-term and through 2020 and beyond. This increase will come both from public support, such as the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) and significant increases in utility ratepayer funds directed toward efficiency, and also from increased private spending due to codes and standards, increasing energy prices, and voluntary standards for industry. Given the growing attention on energy efficiency, there is a concern among policy makers, program administrators, and others that there is an insufficiently trained workforce in place to meet the energy efficiency goals being put in place by local, state, and federal policy. To understand the likelihood of a potential workforce gap and appropriate response strategies, one needs to understand the size, composition, and potential for growth of the EESS. We use a bottom-up approach based upon almost 300 interviews with program administrators, education and training providers, and a variety of EESS employers and trade associations; communications with over 50 sector experts; as well as an extensive literature review. We attempt to provide insight into key aspects of the EESS by describing the current job composition, the current workforce size, our projections for sector growth through 2020, and key issues that may limit this growth.

Goldman, Charles; Fuller, Merrian C.; Stuart, Elizabeth; Peters, Jane S.; McRae, Marjorie; Albers, Nathaniel; Lutzenhiser, Susan; Spahic, Mersiha

2010-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

385

Aerodynamic size associations of natural radioactivity with ambient aerosols  

SciTech Connect

The aerodynamic size of /sup 214/Pb, /sup 212/Pb, /sup 210/Pb, /sup 7/Be, /sup 32/P, /sup 35/S (as SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/), and stable SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ was measured using cascade impactors. The activity distribution of /sup 212/Pb and /sup 214/Pb, measured by alpha spectroscopy, was largely associated with aerosols smaller than 0.52 ..mu..m. Based on 46 measurements, the activity median aerodynamic diameter of /sup 212/Pb averaged 0.13 ..mu..m (sigma/sub g/ = 2.97), while /sup 214/Pb averaged 0.16 ..mu..m (sigma/sub g/ = 2.86). The larger median size of /sup 214/Pb was attributed to ..cap alpha..-recoil depletion of smaller aerosols following decay of aerosol-associated /sup 218/Po. Subsequent /sup 214/Pb condensation on all aerosols effectively enriches larger aerosols. /sup 212/Pb does not undergo this recoil-driven redistribution. Low-pressure impactor measurements indicated that the mass median aerodynamic diameter of SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ was about three times larger than the activity median diameter /sup 212/Pb, reflecting differences in atmospheric residence times as well as the differences in surface area and volume distributions of the atmospheric aerosol. Cosmogenic radionuclides, especially /sup 7/Be, were associated with smaller aerosols than SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ regardless of season, while /sup 210/Pb distributions in summer measurements were similar to sulfate but smaller in winter measurements. Even considering recoil following /sup 214/Po ..cap alpha..-decay, the avervage /sup 210/Pb labeled aerosol grows by about a factor of two during its atmospheric lifetime. The presence of 5 to 10% of the /sup 7/Be on aerosols greater than 1 ..mu..m was indicative of post-condensation growth, probably either in the upper atmosphere or after mixing into the boundary layer.

Bondietti, E.A.; Papastefanou, C.; Rangarajan, C.

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Cell mitosis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of the nuclear membrane in each of the daughter cells would conclude the cycle. Chromatin needs to uncoil and key genes become active again via transcription of mRNA. Lou...

387

Electrochemical cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrochemical cell is described having a bimodal positive electrode, a negative electrode of an alkali metal, and a compatible electrolyte including an alkali metal salt molten at the cell operating temperature. The positive electrode has an electrochemically active layer of at least one transition metal chloride at least partially present as a charging product, and additives of bromide and/or iodide and sulfur in the positive electrode or the electrolyte. Electrode volumetric capacity is in excess of 400 Ah/cm{sup 3}; the cell can be 90% recharged in three hours and can operate at temperatures below 160 C. There is also disclosed a method of reducing the operating temperature and improving the overall volumetric capacity of an electrochemical cell and for producing a positive electrode having a BET area greater than 6{times}10{sup 4}cm{sup 2}/g of Ni. 6 figs.

Redey, L.I.; Vissers, D.R.; Prakash, J.

1996-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

388

Electrochemical cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrochemical cell having a bimodal positive electrode, a negative electrode of an alkali metal, and a compatible electrolyte including an alkali metal salt molten at the cell operating temperature. The positive electrode has an electrochemically active layer of at least one transition metal chloride at least partially present as a charging product, and additives of bromide and/or iodide and sulfur in the positive electrode or the electrolyte. Electrode volumetric capacity is in excess of 400 Ah/cm.sup.3 ; the cell can be 90% recharged in three hours and can operate at temperatures below 160.degree. C. There is also disclosed a method of reducing the operating temperature and improving the overall volumetric capacity of an electrochemical cell and for producing a positive electrode having a BET area greater than 6.times.10.sup.4 cm.sup.2 /g of Ni.

Redey, Laszlo I. (Downers Grove, IL); Vissers, Donald R. (Naperville, IL); Prakash, Jai (Downers Grove, IL)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Electrochemical cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrochemical cell having a bimodal positive electrode, a negative electrode of an alkali metal, and a compatible electrolyte including an alkali metal salt molten at the cell operating temperature. The positive electrode has an electrochemically active layer of at least one transition metal chloride at least partially present as a charging product, and additives of bromide and/or iodide and sulfur in the positive electrode or the electrolyte. Electrode volumetric capacity is in excess of 400 Ah/cm.sup.3 ; the cell can be 90% recharged in three hours and can operate at temperatures below 160.degree. C. There is also disclosed a method of reducing the operating temperature and improving the overall volumetric capacity of an electrochemical cell and for producing a positive electrode having a BET area greater than 6.times.10.sup.4 cm.sup.2 /g of Ni.

Redey, Laszlo I. (6851 Carpenter St., Downers Grove, IL 60516); Vissers, Donald R. (611 Clover Ct., Naperville, IL 60540); Prakash, Jai (2205 Arbor Cir. 8, Downers Grove, IL 60515)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Fuel processing for fuel cell powered vehicles.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A number of auto companies have announced plans to have fuel cell powered vehicles on the road by the year 2004. The low-temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells to be used in these vehicles require high quality hydrogen. Without a hydrogen-refueling infrastructure, these vehicles need to convert the available hydrocarbon fuels into a hydrogen-rich gas on-board the vehicle. Earlier analysis has shown that fuel processors based on partial oxidation reforming are well suited to meet the size and weight targets and the other performance-related needs of on-board fuel processors for light-duty fuel cell vehicles (1).

Ahmed, S.; Wilkenhoener, R.; Lee, S. H. D.; Carter, J. D.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

1999-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

391

Load cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs, each directly proportional to one of the six general load components. 16 figs.

Spletzer, B.L.

1998-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

392

Load cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs which can be combined to determine any one of the six general load components.

Spletzer, Barry L. (Albuquerque, NM)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Load cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs, each directly proportional to one of the six general load components.

Spletzer, Barry L. (Albuquerque, NM)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Electrochemical cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrochemical cell having an alkali metal negative electrode such as sodium and a positive electrode including Ni or transition metals, separated by a .beta." alumina electrolyte and NaAlCl.sub.4 or other compatible material. Various concentrations of a bromine, iodine and/or sulfur containing additive and pore formers are disclosed, which enhance cell capacity and power. The pore formers may be the ammonium salts of carbonic acid or a weak organic acid or oxamide or methylcellulose.

Redey, Laszlo I. (Downers Grove, IL); Vissers, Donald R. (Naperville, IL); Prakash, Jai (Downers Grove, IL)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Tuning Pore Size to Enhance the Capacitance of Supercapacitors | U.S. DOE  

Office of Science (SC) Website

Tuning Pore Size to Enhance the Tuning Pore Size to Enhance the Capacitance of Supercapacitors Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) EFRCs Home Centers Research Science Highlights Highlight Archives News & Events Publications Contact BES Home 04.27.12 Tuning Pore Size to Enhance the Capacitance of Supercapacitors Print Text Size: A A A RSS Feeds FeedbackShare Page Scientific Achievement Simulations of nanoporous super-capacitors confirm and help to understand the anomalous increase in capacitance observed in experiment when the pore size is close to the ion size (0.7 nm). Significance and Impact The results point to a novel method for tuning supercapacitors by manipulating pore size and/or electrolyte ion size. Research Details Capacitance maxima and oscillation at pore sizes larger than the ion

396

FUEL CELL/MICRO-TURBINE COMBINED CYCLE  

SciTech Connect

A wide variety of conceptual design studies have been conducted that describe ultra-high efficiency fossil power plant cycles. The most promising of these ultra-high efficiency cycles incorporate high temperature fuel cells with a gas turbine. Combining fuel cells with a gas turbine increases overall cycle efficiency while reducing per kilowatt emissions. This study has demonstrated that the unique approach taken to combining a fuel cell and gas turbine has both technical and economic merit. The approach used in this study eliminates most of the gas turbine integration problems associated with hybrid fuel cell turbine systems. By using a micro-turbine, and a non-pressurized fuel cell the total system size (kW) and complexity has been reduced substantially from those presented in other studies, while maintaining over 70% efficiency. The reduced system size can be particularly attractive in the deregulated electrical generation/distribution environment where the market may not demand multi-megawatt central stations systems. The small size also opens up the niche markets to this high efficiency, low emission electrical generation option.

Larry J. Chaney; Mike R. Tharp; Tom W. Wolf; Tim A. Fuller; Joe J. Hartvigson

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

More than 100 years ago it was noted that highly trans-formed cells have enlarged nucleoli1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the control of cell growth, governing cell size and the ability of tumour cells to proliferate. Recent with cellular transformation. For instance, the active polyribosome fraction of proliferating cells was found complex in cancer The activity of the 43S ribosome pre-initiation complex is controlled

Bedwell, David M.

398

THE CO2 ABATEMENT POTENTIAL OF CALIFORNIA'S MID-SIZED COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) is working with the California Energy Commission (CEC) todetermine the potential role of commercial sector distributed generation (DG) with combined heat and power (CHP) capability deployment in greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) reductions. CHP applications at large industrial sites are well known, and a large share of their potential has already been harvested. In contrast, relatively little attention has been paid to the potential of medium-sized commercial buildings, i.e. ones with peak electric loads ranging from 100 kW to 5 MW. We examine how this sector might implement DG with CHP in cost minimizing microgrids that are able to adopt and operate various energy technologies, such as solar photovoltaics (PV), on-site thermal generation, heat exchangers, solar thermal collectors, absorption chillers, and storage systems. We apply a mixed-integer linear program (MILP) that minimizes a site?s annual energy costs as its objective. Using 138 representative mid-sized commercial sites in California (CA), existing tariffs of three major electricity distribution ultilities, and performance data of available technology in 2020, we find the GHG reduction potential for this CA commercial sector segment, which represents about 35percent of total statewide commercial sector sales. Under the assumptions made, in a reference case, this segment is estimated to be capable of economically installing 1.4 GW of CHP, 35percent of the California Air Resources Board (CARB) statewide 4 GW goal for total incremental CHP deployment by 2020. However, because CARB?s assumed utilization is far higher than is found by the MILP, the adopted CHP only contributes 19percent of the CO2 target. Several sensitivity runs were completed. One applies a simple feed-in tariff similar to net metering, and another includes a generous self-generation incentive program (SGIP) subsidy for fuel cells. The feed-in tariff proves ineffective at stimulating CHP deployment, while the SGIP buy down is more powerful. The attractiveness of CHP varies widely by climate zone and service territory, but in general, hotter inlandareas and San Diego are the more attractive regions because high cooling loads achieve higher equipment utilization. Additionally, large office buildings are surprisingly good hosts for CHP, so large office buildings in San Diego and hotter urban centers emerge as promising target hosts. Overall the effect on CO2 emissions is limited, never exceeding 27 percent of the CARB target. Nonetheless, results suggest that the CO2 emissions abatement potential of CHP in mid-sized CA buildings is significant, and much more promising than is typically assumed.

Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Cardoso, Goncalo; Lipman, Tim; Megel, Olivier; Ganguly, Srirupa; Siddiqui, Afzal; Lai, Judy

2009-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

399

Diode magnetic-field influence on radiographic spot size  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Flash radiography of hydrodynamic experiments driven by high explosives is a well-known diagnostic technique in use at many laboratories. The Dual-Axis Radiography for Hydrodynamic Testing (DARHT) facility at Los Alamos was developed for flash radiography of large hydrodynamic experiments. Two linear induction accelerators (LIAs) produce the bremsstrahlung radiographic source spots for orthogonal views of each experiment ('hydrotest'). The 2-kA, 20-MeV Axis-I LIA creates a single 60-ns radiography pulse. For time resolution of the hydrotest dynamics, the 1.7-kA, 16.5-MeV Axis-II LIA creates up to four radiography pulses by slicing them out of a longer pulse that has a 1.6-{micro}s flattop. Both axes now routinely produce radiographic source spot sizes having full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) less than 1 mm. To further improve on the radiographic resolution, one must consider the major factors influencing the spot size: (1) Beam convergence at the final focus; (2) Beam emittance; (3) Beam canonical angular momentum; (4) Beam-motion blur; and (5) Beam-target interactions. Beam emittance growth and motion in the accelerators have been addressed by careful tuning. Defocusing by beam-target interactions has been minimized through tuning of the final focus solenoid for optimum convergence and other means. Finally, the beam canonical angular momentum is minimized by using a 'shielded source' of electrons. An ideal shielded source creates the beam in a region where the axial magnetic field is zero, thus the canonical momentum zero, since the beam is born with no mechanical angular momentum. It then follows from Busch's conservation theorem that the canonical angular momentum is minimized at the target, at least in principal. In the DARHT accelerators, the axial magnetic field at the cathode is minmized by using a 'bucking coil' solenoid with reverse polarity to cancel out whatever solenoidal beam transport field exists there. This is imperfect in practice, because of radial variation of the total field across the cathode surface, solenoid misalignments, and long-term variability of solenoid fields for given currents. Therefore, it is useful to quantify the relative importance of canonical momentum in determining the focal spot, and to establish a systematic methodology for tuning the bucking coils for minimum spot size. That is the purpose of this article. Section II provides a theoretical foundation for understanding the relative importance of the canonical momentum. Section III describes the results of simulations used to quantify beam parameters, including the momentum, for each of the accelerators. Section IV compares the two accelerators, especially with respect to mis-tuned bucking coils. Finally, Section IV concludes with a methodology for optimizing the bucking coil settings.

Ekdahl, Carl A. Jr. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

400

Electrochemical cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is comprised of an electrochemical cell has a layer-type or sandwich configuration with a Teflon center section that houses working, reference and counter electrodes and defines a relatively narrow electrolyte cavity. The center section is surrounded on both sides with thin Teflon membranes. The membranes are pressed in place by a pair of Teflon inner frames which are in turn supported by a pair of outer metal frames. The pair of inner and outer frames are provided with corresponding, appropriately shaped slits that are in plane generally transverse to the plane of the working electrode and permit X-ray beams to enter and exit the cell through the Teflon membranes that cover the slits so that the interface between the working electrode and the electrolyte within the cell may be analyzed by transmission geometry. In one embodiment, the center section consists of two parts, one on top of the other. Alternatively, the center section of the electrochemical cell may consist of two intersliding pieces or may be made of a single piece of Teflon sheet material. The electrolyte cavity is shaped so that the electrochemical cell can be rotated 900 in either direction while maintaining the working-and counter electrodes submerged in the electrolyte.

Nagy, Z.; Yonco, R.M.; You, Hoydoo; Melendres, C.A.

1991-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "200-meter cell size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Electrochemical cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrochemical cell has a layer-type or sandwich configuration with a Teflon center section that houses working, reference and counter electrodes and defines a relatively narrow electrolyte cavity. The center section is surrounded on both sides with thin Teflon membranes. The membranes are pressed in place by a pair of Teflon inner frames which are in turn supported by a pair of outer metal frames. The pair of inner and outer frames are provided with corresponding, appropriately shaped slits that are in plane generally transverse to the plane of the working electrode and permit X-ray beams to enter and exit the cell through the Teflon membranes that cover the slits so that the interface between the working electrode and the electrolyte within the cell may be analyzed by transmission geometry. In one embodiment, the center section consists of two parts, one on top of the other. Alternatively, the center section of the electrochemical cell may consist of two intersliding pieces or may be made of a single piece of Teflon sheet material. The electrolyte cavity is shaped so that the electrochemical cell can be rotated 90[degree] in either direction while maintaining the working and counter electrodes submerged in the electrolyte. 5 figs.

Nagy, Z.; Yonco, R.M.; You, H.; Melendres, C.A.

1992-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

402

U.S. Distributed Generation Fuel Cell Program  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) is the largest funder of fuel cell technology in the U.S. The DOE Office of Fossil Energy (FE) is developing high temperature fuel cells for distributed generation. It has funded the development of tubular solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) power systems operating at up to 60% efficiency on natural gas. The remarkable environmental performance of these fuel cells makes them likely candidates to help mitigate pollution. DOE is now pursuing more widely applicable solid oxide fuel cells for 2010 and beyond. DOE estimates that a 5 kW solid oxide fuel cell system can reach $400/kW at reasonable manufacturing volumes. SECA - the Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance - was formed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to accelerate the commercial readiness of planar and other solid oxide fuel cell systems utilizing 3-10 kW size modules by taking advantage of the projected economies of production from a mass customization approach. In addition, if the modular 3-10 kW size units can be ganged or scaled up to larger sizes with no increase in cost, then commercial, microgrid and other distributed generation markets will become attainable. Further scale-up and hybridization of SECA SOFCs with gas turbines could result in penetration of the bulk power market. This paper reviews the current status of the solid oxide and molten carbonate fuel cells in the U.S.

Williams, Mark C.; Strakey, Joseph P.; Singhal, Subhash C.

2004-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

403

LAYOUT AND SIZING OF ESF ALCOVES AND REFUGE CHAMBERS  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this analysis is to establish size requirements and approximate locations of Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) test and operations alcoves, including refuge chambers during construction of the Topopah Spring (TS) loop. Preliminary conceptual layouts for non-deferred test alcoves will be developed to examine construction feasibility based on current test plans and available equipment. The final location and configuration layout for alcoves will be developed when in-situ rock conditions can be visually determined. This will be after the TBM has excavated beyond the alcove location and the rock has been exposed. The analysis will examine the need for construction of walkways and electrical alcoves in the ramps and main drift. Niches that may be required to accommodate conveyor booster drives and alignments are not included in this analysis. The analysis will develop design criteria for refuge chambers to meet MSHA requirements and will examine the strategic location of refuge chambers based on their potential use in various ESF fire scenarios. This document supersedes DI:BABE00000-01717-0200-00003 Rev 01, ''TS North Ramp Alcove and Stubout Location Analysis'' in its entirety (Reference 5-6).

John Beesley and Romeo S. Jurani

1995-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

404

Measuring micron size beams in the SLC final focus  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A pair of high resolution wire scanners have been built and installed in the SLC final focus. The final focus optics uses a set of de-magnifying telescopes, and an ideal location for a beam size monitor is at one of the magnified image points of the interaction point. The image point chosen for these scanners is in the middle of a large bend magnet. The design beam spots here are about 2 microns in the vertical and 20 microns in the horizontal plane. The scanners presented a number of design challenges. In this paper we discuss the mechanical design of the scanner, and fabrication techniques of its ceramic wire support card which holds many 4 and 7 um carbon wires. Accurate motion of the wire during a scan is critical. In this paper we describe tests of stepper motors, gear combinations, and radiation hardened encoders needed to produce the required motion with a step resolution of 80 nanometers. Also presented here are the results of scattered radiation detector placement studies carried out to optimize the signal from the 4 micron wires. Finally, we present measurements from the scanner.

McCormick, D.; Ross, M.; DeBarger, S. [and others

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

DNA fragment sizing and sorting by laser-induced fluorescence  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is provided for obtaining DNA fingerprints using high speed detection systems, such as flow cytometry to determine unique characteristics of DNA pieces from a selected sample. In one characterization the DNA piece is fragmented at preselected sites to produce a plurality of DNA fragments. The DNA piece or the resulting DNA fragments are treated with a dye effective to stain stoichiometrically the DNA fragments. The fluorescence from the dye in the stained fragments is then examined to generate an output functionally related to the number of nucleotides in each one of the DNA fragments. In one embodiment, the intensity of the fluorescence emissions from each fragment is directly proportional to the fragment length. Additional dyes can be bound to the DNA piece and DNA fragments to provide information additional to length information. Oligonucleotide specific dyes and/or hybridization probes can be bound to the DNA fragments to provide information on oligonucleotide distribution or probe hybridization to DNA fragments of different sizes.

Jett, J.H.; Hammond, M.L.; Keller, R.A.; Marrone, B.L.; Martin, J.C.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

406

Adaptive Evolution and Effective Population Size in Wild House Mice  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Estimates of the proportion of amino acid substitutions that have been fixed by selection (a) vary widely among taxa, ranging from zero in humans to over 50 % in Drosophila. This wide range may reflect differences in the efficacy of selection due to differences in the effective population size (Ne). However, most comparisons have been made among distantly related organisms that differ not only in Ne but also in many other aspects of their biology. Here, we estimate a in three closely related lineages of house mice that have a similar ecology but differ widely in Ne: Mus musculus musculus (Ne; 25,000–120,000), M. m. domesticus (Ne; 58,000–200,000), and M. m. castaneus (Ne; 200,000–733,000). Mice were genotyped using a high-density single nucleotide polymorphism array, and the proportions of replacement and silent mutations within subspecies were compared with those fixed between each subspecies and an outgroup, Mus spretus. There was significant evidence of positive selection in M. m. castaneus, the lineage with the largest Ne, with a estimated to be approximately 40%. In contrast, estimates of a for M. m. domesticus (a 5 13%) and for M. m. musculus (a 5 12 %) were much smaller. Interestingly, the higher estimate of a for M. m. castaneus appears to reflect not only more adaptive fixations but also more effective purifying selection. These results support the hypothesis that differences in Ne contribute to differences among species in the efficacy of selection.

Megan Phifer-rixey; Francxois Bonhomme; Pierre Boursot; Gary A. Churchill; Jaroslav Piálek; Priscilla K. Tucker; Michael W. Nachman

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Mechanisms in the size segregation of a binary granular mixture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A granular mixture of particles of two sizes that is shaken vertically will in most cases segregate. If the larger particles accumulate at the top of the sample, this is called the Brazil-nut effect (BNE); if they accumulate at the bottom, the reverse Brazil-nut effect (RBNE). While this process is of great industrial importance in the handling of bulk solids, it is not well understood. In recent years ten different mechanisms have been suggested to explain when each type of segregation is observed. However, the dependence of the mechanisms on driving conditions and material parameters and hence their relative importance is largely unknown. In this paper we present experiments and simulations where both types of particles are made from the same material and shaken under low air pressure, which reduces the number of mechanisms to be considered to seven. We observe both BNE and RBNE by varying systematically the driving frequency and amplitude, diameter ratio, ratio of total volume of small to large particles, and overall sample volume. All our results can be explained by a combination of three mechanisms: a geometrical mechanism called void filling, transport of particles in sidewall-driven convection rolls, and thermal diffusion, a mechanism predicted by kinetic theory.

M. Schröter; S. Ulrich; J. Kreft; J. B. Swift; H. L. Swinney

2006-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

408

Dust Grain-Size Distributions From MRN to MEM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Employing the Maximum Entropy Method algorithm, we fit interstellar extinction measurements which span the wavelength range 0.125-3 micron. We present a uniform set of MEM model fits, all using the same grain materials, optical constants and abundance constraints. In addition, we are taking advantage of improved UV and IR data and better estimates of the gas-to-dust ratio. The model fits cover the entire range of extinction properties that have been seen in the Galaxy and the Magellanic Clouds. The grain models employed for this presentation are the simplistic homogeneous spheres models (i.e., Mathis, Rumpl, & Nordsieck 1977) with two (graphite, silicate) or three (graphite, silicate, amorphous carbon) components. Though such usage is only a first step, the results do provide interesting insight into the use of grain size as a diagnostic of dust environment. We find that the SMC Bar extinction curve cannot be fit using carbon grains alone. This is a challenge to the recent observational result indicating little silicon depletion in the SMC.

Geoffrey C. Clayton; Michael J. Wolff; Ulysses J. Sofia; K. D. Gordon; K. A. Misselt

2003-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

409

Size influence on the sealing performance of cementitious borehole plugs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Flow tests have been conducted on cement plugs with diameters of 158.8 mm and 196.9 mm, and length to diameter ratios of one, in boreholes in basalt blocks and in steel pipes. Expansion strains and curing temperatures have been monitored on cement plugs in boreholes in basalt blocks, in PVC and in steel pipes with diameters from 25.4 mm to 196.9 mm and length to diameter ratios of one and two. During permeability tests, basalt blocks have fractured, presumably due to water injection pressure, cement expansion and packer pressure. Falling head tests have been performed on some block fractures to study the influence of the complicated interaction between a cement borehole plug (e.g. swelling and shrinkage alternations) and the rock, as well as of the normal stress across the fracture, on the hydraulic conductivity of a fracture intersecting a plugged borehole. The hydraulic conductivity of the cement plugs in the steel pipes varies between 3.57 x 10/sup -11/ cm/min and 3.65 x 10/sup -9/ cm/min. Cement swelling tests remain inconclusive about size effects, primarily because of instrumentation problems. Cement curing temperatures increase from small to large diameter cement plugs.

Akgun, H.; Daemen, J.J.K.

1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Sizing Wind/Photovoltaic Hybrids for Households in Inner Mongolia  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Approximately 140,000 wind turbines currently provide electricity to about one-third of the non-grid-connected households in Inner Mongolia. However, these households often suffer from a lack of power during the low-wind summer months. This report describes an analysis of hybrid wind/photovoltaic (PV) systems for such households. The sizing of the major components is based on a subjective trade-off between the cost of the system and the percent unmet load, as determined by the Hybrid 2 software in conjunction with a simplified time-series model. Actual resource data (wind speed and solar radiation) from the region are processed so as to best represent the scenarios of interest. Small wind turbines of both Chinese and U.S. manufacture are considered in the designs. The results indicate that combinations of wind and PV are more cost-effective than either one alone, and that the relative amount of PV in the design increases as the acceptable unmet load decreases and as the average wind sp eed decreases.

Barley, C. D.; Lew, D. J.; Flowers, L. T.

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

The elusive minimum viable population size for white sturgeon  

SciTech Connect

Biological conservation of sturgeon populations is a concern for many species. Those responsible for managing the white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and similar species are interested in identifying extinction thresholds to avoid. Two thresholds that exist in theory are the minimum viable population size (MVP) and minimum amount of suitable habitat. In this paper, we present both model and empirical estimates of these thresholds. We modified a population viability analysis (PVA) model for white sturgeon to include two new Allee mechanisms. Despite this, PVA-based MVP estimates were unrealistically low compared with empirical estimates unless opportunities for spawning were assumed to be less frequent. PVA results revealed a trade-off between MVP and habitat thresholds; smaller populations persisted in longer river segments and vice versa. Our empirical analyses suggested (1) a MVP range based on population trends from 1,194 to 27,700 individuals, and (2) a MVP estimate of 4,000 individuals based on recruitment. Long-term historical population surveys are needed for more populations to pinpoint an MVP based on trends, whereas the available data were sufficient to estimate MVP based on recruitment. Beyond the MVP, we developed a hierarchical model for population status based on empirical data. Metapopulation support was the most important predictor of population health, followed by the length of free-flowing habitat, with habitat thresholds at 26 and 150 km. Together, these results suggest that habitat and connectivity are important determinants of population status that likely influence the site-specific MVP thresholds.

Jager, Yetta [ORNL; Lepla, Ken B. [Idaho Power Company; Van Winkle, Webb [Van Windle Environmental Consulting; James, Mr Brad [Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife; McAdam, Dr Steve [University of British Columbia, Vancouver

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Tropical cyclone size in observations and in radiative-convective equilibrium  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Tropical cyclone size remains an unsolved problem in tropical meteorology, yet size plays a significant role in the damage caused by tropical cyclones due to wind, storm surge, and inland freshwater flooding. This work ...

Chavas, Daniel Robert

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Spatial Forecasts of Maximum Hail Size Using Prognostic Model Soundings and HAILCAST  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Forecasting the occurrence of hail and the maximum hail size is a challenging problem. This paper investigates the feasibility of producing maps of the forecast maximum hail size over the Canadian prairies using 12-h prognostic soundings from an ...

Julian C. Brimelow; Gerhard W. Reuter; Ron Goodson; Terrence W. Krauss

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

High-Resolution Measurement of Size Distributions of Asian Dust Using a Coulter Multisizer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Coulter Multisizer, which is based on the electrical sensing zone (ESZ) or the Coulter principle, was used to measure the size distribution of Asian dust. Coulter Multisizer analysis provides high-resolution size measurements of water-insoluble ...

Hiroshi Kobayashi; Kimio Arao; Toshiyuki Murayama; Kengo Iokibe; Ryuji Koga; Masataka Shiobara

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

The Sensitivity of Microwave Remote Sensing Observations of Precipitation to Ice Particle Size Distributions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study investigates the effect of variable size distribution and density of precipitation ice particles on microwave brightness temperatures. For this purpose, a set of self-consistent relationships among rain rate, size parameters of an ...

Ralf Bennartz; Grant W. Petty

2001-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Size Distribution of Coastal Aerosols: Effects of Local Sources and Sinks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using aerosol optical depth as a function of wavelength obtained from ground-based multiwavelength radiometer observations, columnar size-distribution functions of aerosols have been derived. It has been found that the nature of the derived size-...

K. Krishna Moorthy; Prabha R. Nair; B. V. Krishna Murthy

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Size based separation of submicron nonmagnetic particles through magnetophoresis in structured obstacle arrays  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The focus of this work was on developing a novel scalable size based separation technology for nonmagnetic particles in the submicron size range utilizing magnetophoretic forces. When a nonmagnetic particle is immersed in ...

Annavarapu, V. N. Ravikanth (Venkata Nagandra Ravikanth)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Modeling Raindrop Size Distribution and Z(R) Relations in the Western Mediterranean Area  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study shows the results of the modeling of drop size distributions (DSD) observed during a 2-yr study in Barcelona. Thirty-second individual sample collections of drop sizes and velocities were measured with an optical disdrometer and ...

Carlos Cerro; Bernat Codina; Joan Bech; Jeroni Lorente

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Tobacco smoke aging in the presence of ozone: a room-sized chamber...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tobacco smoke aging in the presence of ozone: a room-sized chamber study Title Tobacco smoke aging in the presence of ozone: a room-sized chamber study Publication Type Journal...

420

Variational Optimization Method for Calculation of Cloud Drop Growth in an Eulerian Drop-Size Framework  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A variational optimization (VO) method that requires specification of only one variable in each bin size for condensation and evaporation calculations in an Eulerian drop-size framework is proposed. The method is tested against the exact solution ...

Qingfu Liu; Yefim L. Kogan; Douglas K. Lilly; Marat P. Khairoutdinov

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "200-meter cell size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

A Self-Evaluating Disdrometer for the Measurement of Raindrop Size and Charge at the Ground  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A disdrometer for the measurement of the co-spectra of raindrop size and charge is described which can evaluate to a significant extent spurious data caused by unavoidable drop overlap within the charge detector volume. The sizes of individual ...

C. D. Stow; K. Jones

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Determination of the Size and Concentration of Cloud Drops with an FSSP  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A detailed size calibration of the Forward Scattering Spectrometer Probe (FSSP) over the size ranges of interest to cloud physics (2–47 ?m), is presented. The calibration includes laboratory tests with glass spheres, Mie scattering calculations ...

Todd A. Cerni

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

L-Moment Estimators as Applied to Gamma Drop Size Distributions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The traditional approach with experimental raindrop size data has been to use the method of moments in the fitting procedure to estimate the parameters for the raindrop size distribution function. However, the moment method is known to be biased ...

Donna V. Kliche; Paul L. Smith; Roger W. Johnson

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

On the Form of Stationary Size Distributions Established by Coagulation and Sedimentation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In stationary solutions of the equations for nucleation, coagulation and sedimentation, the concentration of large particles falls off more strongly than any power of particle size. The tails of stationary size distributions established by these ...

Warren H. White

1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Doppler Cloud Radar Derived Drop Size Distributions in Liquid Water Stratus Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A cloud particle size retrieval algorithm that uses radar reflectivity factor and Doppler velocity obtained by a 35-GHz Doppler radar and liquid water path estimated from microwave radiometer radiance measurements is developed to infer the size ...

Seiji Kato; Gerald G. Mace; Eugene E. Clothiaux; James C. Liljegren; Richard T. Austin

2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Effects of droplet size on intrusion of sub-surface oil spills  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis explores the effects of droplet size on droplet intrusion in sub-surface oil spills. Laboratory experiments were performed where glass beads of various sizes, which serve to simulate oil droplets in deepsea oil ...

Chan, Godine Kok Yan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Observations of Precipitation Size and Fall Speed Characteristics within Coexisting Rain and Wet Snow  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ground-based measurements of particle size and fall speed distributions using a Particle Size and Velocity (PARSIVEL) disdrometer are compared among samples obtained in mixed precipitation (rain and wet snow) and rain in the Oregon Cascade ...

Sandra E. Yuter; David E. Kingsmill; Louisa B. Nance; Martin Löffler-Mang

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Sensitivity of 5-cm Wavelength Polarimetric Radar Variables to Raindrop Axial Ratio and Drop Size Distribution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The sensitivity of polarimetric variables at a 5-cm wavelength to raindrop size and axial ratio is examined using T-matrix modeling of the scattering process for gamma raindrop size distributions fitted to tropical rainfall collected at Darwin, ...

T. D. Keenan; L. D. Carey; D. S. Zrni?; P. T. May

2001-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Doppler Polarimetric Radar Measurements of the Gamma Drop Size Distribution of Rain  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The conversion of radar reflections into rain intensities is dependent upon assumptions regarding the drop size distribution. The gamma drop size distribution contains three unknown parameters; the number of parameters that can be obtained ...

H. W. J. Russchenberg

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

GCM Aerosol Radiative Effects Using Geographically Varying Aerosol Sizes Deduced from AERONET Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aerosol optical properties, and hence the direct radiative effects, are largely determined by the assumed aerosol size distribution. In order to relax the fixed aerosol size constraint commonly used in general circulation models (GCMs), ...

Glen Lesins; Ulrike Lohmann

2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Distributions of Raindrop Sizes and Fall Velocities in a Semiarid Plateau Climate: Convective versus Stratiform Rains  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Joint size and fall velocity distributions of raindrops were measured with a Particle Size and Velocity (PARSIVEL) precipitation particle disdrometer in a field experiment conducted during July and August 2007 at a semiarid continental site ...

Shengjie Niu; Xingcan Jia; Jianren Sang; Xiaoli Liu; Chunsong Lu; Yangang Liu

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

A New Mechanism of Droplet Size Distribution Broadening during Diffusional Growth  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new mechanism has been developed for size distribution broadening toward large droplet sizes. This mechanism may explain the rapid formation of large cloud droplets, which may subsequently trigger precipitation formation through the collision–...

Alexei Korolev; Mark Pinsky; Alex Khain

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

The Bias in Moment Estimators for Parameters of Drop Size Distribution Functions: Sampling from Exponential Distributions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The moment estimators frequently used to estimate parameters for drop size distribution (DSD) functions being “fitted” to observed raindrop size distributions are biased. Consequently, the fitted functions often do not represent well either the ...

Paul L. Smith; Donna V. Kliche

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Electrochemical cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrochemical cell is described having an alkali metal negative electrode such as sodium and a positive electrode including Ni or transition metals, separated by a [beta] alumina electrolyte and NaAlCl[sub 4] or other compatible material. Various concentrations of a bromine, iodine and/or sulfur containing additive and pore formers are disclosed, which enhance cell capacity and power. The pore formers may be the ammonium salts of carbonic acid or a weak organic acid or oxamide or methylcellulose. 6 figs.

Redey, L.I.; Vissers, D.R.; Prakash, J.

1994-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

435

Intro Inlets & Sizing TOFMS Other MS LDI AMS CIMS Conc. 2012 AAAR Conference  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Intro Inlets & Sizing TOFMS Other MS LDI AMS CIMS Conc. 2012 AAAR Conference Minneapolis, MN://cires.colorado.edu/jimenez/ams.html 1 Intro Inlets & Sizing TOFMS Other MS LDI AMS CIMS Conc. Outline 1. Building Blocks ­ Inlets (see references) 2 #12;Intro Inlets & Sizing TOFMS Other MS LDI AMS CIMS Conc. Why Aerosol Mass

Colorado at Boulder, University of

436

Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical 228 (2005) 299307 Complementary methods for cluster size distribution measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

size distribution measurements: supported platinum nanoclusters in methane reforming catalysts J.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Cluster size; SAXS; XAFS; HRTEM; Methane reforming 1. Introduction cluster size strongly influences the reactivity of surfaces for C H bond activation during CH4 steam

Iglesia, Enrique

437

Great Plains ASPEN model development: ASPEN sizing enhancements. Final topical report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In preparing cost estimates for the various sections of the Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant, the equipment sizing methods for the major equipment items were checked. The sizing results obtained from ASPEN were compared with the sizing results obtained by using the Halcon SD Group's (HSD) own sizing methods and in-house computer programs. Where there were significant differences between the ASPEN sizing results and our own results, the subroutine coding was checked to determine where the differences arose. Modifications were then made to the ASPEN routines where it was thought that HSD's methods would significantly enhance the quality of ASPEN. The following ASPEN sizing subroutines were modified: (1) STW01 - ASPEN tray tower sizing; (2) SVS11 - ASPEN vertical vessel sizing; (3) SVS01 - ASPEN horizontal vessel sizing; and (4) CPVVTH - ASPEN vertical vessel/tower shell thickness and weight determination. Modifications were made to sizing calculations contained in the following ASPEN COST subroutines: (1) CPC01 - ASPEN centrifugal pump costing; and (2) CPC02 - ASPEN centrifugal compressor costing. Modifications also were made to sizing calculations contained in the following ASPEN UOS subroutines: (1) UPC01 - ASPEN pump model; and (2) UPC02 - ASPEN compressor model. A new ASPEN COST subroutine that contains sizing calculations was developed, CPC04 - ASPEN reciprocating compressor costing. 4 references.

Schwint, K.J.

1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

What is the upper size limit for cosmopolitan distribution in free-living microorganisms?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

What is the upper size limit for cosmopolitan distribution in free-living microorganisms? ABSTRACT distance apart) is used to try and answer the question `What is the upper size limit for cosmopolitan to 230 lm while the largest cosmopolitan species was 135 lm in size. Comparison of the testate

Brown, Richard

439

Effects of supercritical carbon dioxide treatment on bending properties of micro-sized SU-8 Specimens  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The bending properties of micro-sized photoresist patterns are quantitatively evaluated using micro-sized SU-8 cantilever type test specimens to clarify the effects of supercritical carbon dioxide-treatment (ScCO"2-treatment). The SU-8 specimens were ... Keywords: Bending strength, Degree of crosslinking, Micro-sized materials, Photoresist, SU-8, Supercritical carbon dioxide

Chiemi Ishiyama; Tso-Fu Mark Chang; Masato Sone

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

A method to automatically adapt the step size for numerical solving of ordinary differential equations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accurate numerical solving of differential equations requires a step size modification in order to control the error amplification. In a standard strategy this implies to repeat the calculations with different step size, then compare the obtained results ... Keywords: coordinates rotation, function slope, step size

C. Berbente; S. Berbente

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "200-meter cell size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

A Search for Earth-size Planets Detection of Transiting Planet  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Search for Earth-size Planets STScI!SAO Detection of Transiting Planet Candidates in Kepler Mission Data Peter Tenenbaum For the Kepler Transiting Planet Search Team 2012-June-06 #12;A Search for Earth-size Planets The Kepler Mission A space-based photometer searching for Earth-size exoplanets Uses

Masci, Frank

442

Determining the adaptive decision zone of discrete lot sizing model with changes of total cost  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) zone is beneficial for giving some latitude in picking the lot sizes in a continuous time inventory problem, but it is not suitable for a discrete time inventory problem, the discrete lot sizing (DLS) problem. In this ... Keywords: Alternative solutions, Decision making, Discrete lot sizing, EOQ zone

Dong-Shang Chang; Fu-Chiao Chyr; Fu-Chiang Yang

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Low temperature fabrication from nano-size ceramic powders  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of the compaction process is to produce a dense green-state compact from a nanosize powder that subsequently can be sintered at high temperatures to form a dense ceramic piece. High density in the green-state after pressing is of primary importance for achieving high densities after sintering. Investigation of the compaction behavior of ceramic powders, therefore, is an important part of characterization of raw ceramic powders and evaluation of their compaction behavior, analysis of interaction between particles, and the study of microstructure of green body (unsintered) during pressure-forming processes. The compaction of nanosize ceramic particles into high density green bodies is very difficult. For the nanosize materials used in this study (amorphous Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and {gamma} Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), there is no evidence by TEM of partial sintering after synthesis. Nevertheless, strong aggregation forces, such as the van der Waals surface forces of attraction, exist and result in moderate precursor particle agglomeration. More importantly, these attractive surface forces, which increase in magnitude with decreasing particle size, inhibit interparticle sliding necessary for particle rearrangement to denser bodies during subsequent compaction. Attempts to produce high density green body compacts of nanosize particles, therefore, generally have been focused on overcoming these surface forces of attraction by using either dispersive fluids or high pressures with or without lubricating liquids. In the present work, the use of high pressure has been employed as a means of compacting nanosize powders to relatively high green densities.

Gonzalez, E.J.; Piermarini, G.J.; Hockey, B. [and others

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Crude Oil Production from Less...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Less than 200 Meters Deep (Million Barrels) Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Crude Oil Production from Less than 200 Meters Deep (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

445

Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Crude Oil Production from Greater...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Greater than 200 Meters Deep (Million Barrels) Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Crude Oil Production from Greater than 200 Meters Deep (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

446

Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Crude Oil Proved Reserves from...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Less than 200 Meters Deep (Million Barrels) Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Crude Oil Proved Reserves from Less than 200 Meters Deep (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

447

Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Crude Oil Proved Reserves from...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Greater than 200 Meters Deep (Million Barrels) Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Crude Oil Proved Reserves from Greater than 200 Meters Deep (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1...

448

Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Less than 200 Meters Deep (Billion Cubic Feet) Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves from Less than 200 Meters Deep (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0...

449

Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Dry Natural Gas Production from...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Greater than 200 Meters Deep (Billion Cubic Feet) Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Dry Natural Gas Production from Greater than 200 Meters Deep (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0...

450

Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Natural Gas Liquids Production...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Less than 200 Meters Deep (Million Barrels) Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Natural Gas Liquids Production from Less than 200 Meters Deep (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1...

451

Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Dry Natural Gas Production from...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Less than 200 Meters Deep (Billion Cubic Feet) Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Dry Natural Gas Production from Less than 200 Meters Deep (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1...

452

Photovoltaic cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a photovoltaic cell structure containing a visibly transparent, electrically conductive first layer of metal oxide, and a light-absorbing semiconductive photovoltaic second layer, the improvement comprising a thin layer of transition metal nitride, carbide or boride interposed between said first and second layers.

Gordon, Roy G. (Cambridge, MA); Kurtz, Sarah (Somerville, MA)

1984-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

453

Photoelectrodialytic cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A multicompartment photoelectrodialytic demineralization cell is provided with a buffer compartment interposed between the product compartment and a compartment containing an electrolyte solution. Semipermeable membranes separate the buffer compartment from the product and electrolyte compartments. The buffer compartment is flushed to prevent leakage of the electrolyte compartment from entering the product compartment.

Murphy, George W. (2328 Ashwood, Norman, OK 73069)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Powered Remote Manipulators Perform Hazardous Retrieval, Handling, and Size Reduction Operations  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a new lightweight, powered remote manipulator (PRM) that S.A.Robotics has developed for remote material handling and size reduction in hazardous environments such as reactor decommissioning projects. PRMs can be mounted to various deployment platforms such as remote controlled track-driven vehicles, commercial All Terrain Vehicles, or crane-mounted arms. They can also be installed as replacements for traditional Master-Slave Manipulators (MSMs) in hot cells. The PRM is a six degree of freedom manipulator with carbon fiber structural components that can provide up to a 3 meter (10 foot) reach. Either electric or hydraulic power options can be used and a variety of hydraulic fluids are available to meet combustible material limitations. The PRM is operated with easy-to-use joystick controls that allow operators to sit in a comfortable work station and handle 90 kg (200 pound) loads with a hydraulic power pack or 45 kg (100 pounds) with electric servo-motor driven equipment. With a quick disconnect tool changer, the manipulator can operate grippers, drills, shears, saws, sampling and survey instruments, and the arm can also deploy cameras and lights to support a wide range of remote applications. (authors)

Cole, M.D.; Owen, J.R.; Adams, S.R. [S.A.Robotics, Inc., 3985 S. Lincoln Avenue, Suite 100, Loveland, Colorado 80241 (United States)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Effect of particle size on the carrier-distillation analysis of PuO$sub 2$  

SciTech Connect

A study was made to determine the effect of particle size on the carrier- distillation analysis of PuO/sub 2/ and to explain how to avoid the difficulties caused by large PuO/sub 2/ particles. The relative intensity of five elements was determined for three particle sizes and it was shown that it increases as the particle size becomes smaller. Further the line intensity of the added internal standard Co also increased with decreasing particle size. Accurate spectrochemical results were obtained when the PuO/sub 2/ particle size was reduced to 45 mu m or less. (JSR)

Martell, C.J.

1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Development of internal reforming carbonate fuel cell stack technology  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Activities under this contract focused on the development of a coal-fueled carbonate fuel cell system design and the stack technology consistent with the system design. The overall contract effort was divided into three phases. The first phase, completed in January 1988, provided carbonate fuel cell component scale-up from the 1ft{sup 2} size to the commercial 4ft{sup 2} size. The second phase of the program provided the coal-fueled carbonate fuel cell system (CGCFC) conceptual design and carried out initial research and development needs of the CGCFC system. The final phase of the program emphasized stack height scale-up and improvement of stack life. The results of the second and third phases are included in this report. Program activities under Phase 2 and 3 were designed to address several key development areas to prepare the carbonate fuel cell system, particularly the coal-fueled CFC power plant, for commercialization in late 1990's. The issues addressed include: Coal-Gas Related Considerations; Cell and Stack Technology Improvement; Carbonate Fuel Cell Stack Design Development; Stack Tests for Design Verification; Full-Size Stack Design; Test Facility Development; Carbonate Fuel Cell Stack Cost Assessment; and Coal-Fueled Carbonate Fuel Cell System Design. All the major program objectives in each of the topical areas were successfully achieved. This report is organized along the above-mentioned topical areas. Each topical area has been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

Farooque, M.

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Method and apparatus for sizing and separating warp yarns using acoustical energy  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A slashing process is disclosed for preparing warp yarns for weaving operations including the steps of sizing and/or desizing the yarns in an acoustic resonance box and separating the yarns with a leasing apparatus comprised of a set of acoustically agitated lease rods. The sizing step includes immersing the yarns in a size solution contained in an acoustic resonance box. Acoustic transducers are positioned against the exterior of the box for generating an acoustic pressure field within the size solution. Ultrasonic waves that result from the acoustic pressure field continuously agitate the size solution to effect greater mixing and more uniform application and penetration of the size onto the yarns. The sized yarns are then separated by passing the warp yarns over and under lease rods. Electroacoustic transducers generate acoustic waves along the longitudinal axis of the lease rods, creating a shearing motion on the surface of the rods for splitting the yarns. 2 figs.

Sheen, S.H.; Chien, H.T.; Raptis, A.C.; Kupperman, D.S.

1998-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

458

Nanocrystal Solar Cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

research on organic photovoltaic cells since small molecule10 years prior (4). Photovoltaic cells with an active layerof the associated photovoltaic cells. 2.4 Charge transport

Gur, Ilan

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Mathematical model parameters for describing the particle size spectra of knife-milled corn stover  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Particle size distributions of Corn stover (Zea mays L.) created by a knife mill were determined using integral classifying screens with sizes from 12.7 to 50.8 mm, operating at speeds from 250 to 500 rpm, and mass input rates ranging from 1 to 9 kg min_1. Particle distributions were classified using American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE) standardised sieves for forage analysis that incorporated a horizontal sieving motion. The sieves were made from machined-aluminium with their thickness proportional to the sieve opening dimensions. A wide range of analytical descriptors that could be used to mathematically represent the range of particle sizes in the distributions were examined. The correlation coefficients between geometric mean length and screen size, feed rate, and speed were 0.980, 0.612, and _0.027, respectively. Screen size and feed rate directly influenced particle size, whereas operating speed had a weak indirect relation with particle size. The Rosin Rammler equation fitted the chopped corn stover size distribution data with coefficient of determination (R2) > 0.978. This indicated that particle size distribution of corn stover was well-fit by the Rosin Rammler function. This can be attributed to the fact that Rosin Rammler expression was well suited to the skewed distribution of particle sizes. Skewed distributions occurred when significant quantities of particles, either finer or coarser, existed or were removed from region of the predominant size. The mass relative span was slightly greater than 1, which indicated that it was a borderline narrow to wide distribution of particle sizes. The uniformity coefficient was corn stover produced fine-skewed mesokurtic particles with 12.7 50.8 mm screens. Size-related parameters, namely, geometric mean length, Rosin Rammler size parameter, median length, effective length, and size guide number, were well predicted at R2 values of 0.981, 0.982, 0.979, 0.950 and 0.978, respectively as a function of knife mill screen size, feed rate, and speed. Results of this analysis of particle sizes could be applied to the selection of knife mill operating parameters to produce a particular size of corn stover chop, and could serve as a guide for the relationships among various analytic descriptors of biomass particle distributions.

Bitra, V.S.P [University of Tennessee; Womac, A.R. [University of Tennessee; Yang, Y.T. [University of Tennessee; Miu, P.I. [University of Tennessee; Igathanathane, C. [Mississippi State University (MSU)

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Property Influence of Polyanilines on Photovoltaic Behaviors of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Property Influence of Polyanilines on Photovoltaic Behaviors of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Shuxin conductors on the photovoltaic behaviors of dye-sensitized solarcellsisstudied of both the film formation property and the cluster size of polyanilines on the photovoltaic behaviors

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "200-meter cell size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Choreography of the transcriptome, photophysiology, and cell cycle of a minimal photoautotroph, prochlorococcus  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The marine cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus MED4 has the smallest genome and cell size of all known photosynthetic organisms. Like all phototrophs at temperate latitudes, it experiences predictable daily variation in available ...

Zinser, Erik R.

462

A Two-Cylinder Model of Cumulus Cells and Its Application in Computing Cumulus Transports  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A two-cylinder model suitable for computing vertical transports in cumulus cells is formulated. The model includes explicit computation of perturbation pressure and allows the study of the evolution of raindrop size spectra. Sensitivity tests ...

Man Kong Yau

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Configuration and performance of fuel cell-combined cycle options  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The natural gas, indirect-fired, carbonate fuel-cell-bottomed, combined cycle (NG-IFCFC) and the topping natural-gas/solid-oxide fuel-cell combined cycle (NG-SOFCCC) are introduced as novel power-plant systems for the distributed power and on-site markets in the 20-200 mega-watt (MW) size range. The novel NG-IFCFC power-plant system configures the ambient pressure molten-carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) with a gas turbine, air compressor, combustor, and ceramic heat exchanger: The topping solid-oxide fuel-cell (SOFC) combined cycle is not new. The purpose of combining a gas turbine with a fuel cell was to inject pressurized air into a high-pressure fuel cell and to reduce the size, and thereby, to reduce the cost of the fuel cell. Today, the SOFC remains pressurized, but excess chemical energy is combusted and the thermal energy is utilized by the Carnot cycle heat engine to complete the system. ASPEN performance results indicate efficiencies and heat rates for the NG-IFCFC or NG-SOFCCC are better than conventional fuel cell or gas turbine steam-bottomed cycles, but with smaller and less expensive components. Fuel cell and gas turbine systems should not be viewed as competitors, but as an opportunity to expand to markets where neither gas turbines nor fuel cells alone would be commercially viable. Non-attainment areas are the most likely markets.

Rath, L.K.; Le, P.H.; Sudhoff, F.A.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

464

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Fuel Cell Animation  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Efficiency and Renewable Energy EERE Home | Programs & Offices | Consumer Information Fuel Cell Technologies Office Search Search Help Fuel Cell Technologies Office HOME ABOUT...

465

Physicochemical Characterization of Capstone Depleted Uranium Aerosols II: Particle Size Distributions as a Function of Time  

SciTech Connect

The Capstone Depleted Uranium (DU) Aerosol Study, which generated and characterized aerosols containing depleted uranium from perforation of armored vehicles with large-caliber DU penetrators, incorporated a sampling protocol to evaluated particle size distributions. Aerosol particle size distribution is an important parameter that influences aerosol transport and deposition processes as well as the dosimetry of the inhaled particles. These aerosols were collected on cascade impactor substrates using a pre-established time sequence following the firing event to analyze the uranium concentration and particle size of the aerosols as a function of time. The impactor substrates were analyzed using beta spectrometry, and the derived uranium content of each served as input to the evaluation of particle size distributions. Activity median aerodynamic diameters (AMADs) of the particle size distributions were evaluated using unimodal and bimodal models. The particle size data from the impactor measurements was quite variable. Most size distributions measured in the test based on activity had bimodal size distributions with a small particle size mode in the range of between 0.2 and 1.2 um and a large size mode between 2 and 15 um. In general, the evolution of particle size over time showed an overall decrease of average particle size from AMADs of 5 to 10 um shortly after perforation to around 1 um at the end of the 2-hr sampling period. The AMADs generally decreased over time because of settling. Additionally, the median diameter of the larger size mode decreased with time. These results were used to estimate the dosimetry of inhaled DU particles.

Cheng, Yung-Sung; Kenoyer, Judson L.; Guilmette, Raymond A.; Parkhurst, MaryAnn

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Advanced Electrocatalysts for PEM Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Webinar on PEM Fuel Cells 2-12-2013 Webinar on PEM Fuel Cells 2-12-2013 Advanced Electrocatalysts for PEM Fuel Cells Nenad M. Markovic Vojislav R. Stamenkovic Materials Science Division Argonne National Laboratory 1 st Layer 2 nd Layer 3 rd Layer Pt=100 at.% Pt=48 at.% Ni=52 at.% Pt=87 at.% Ni=13 at.% Pt[111]-Skin surface 5 nm (111) (100) 3 nm Size distribution c-15 nm Shape Bulk composition Surface structure ? HR-TEM: Characterization of Nanoscale Pt/C Catalyst x 15 x 5 Surface composition ? 2 Surface Science Approach design, synthesis, characterization, and testing of well-defined interfaces Pt/C H 2 O 2 Real Applications FUEL CELLS / BATTERIES / ELECTROLIZERS Activity and Stability Mapping DFT/MC EC Pt Au Ru Surface Characterization UHV Chemical / Physical Synthesis SXS/HRDFS FTIR HRTEM DOUBLE-LAYER-BY-DESIGN

467

Heteroatom incorporated coke for electrochemical cell electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to an electrode for a coke/alkali metal electrochemical cell comprising: (a) calcined coke particles: (i) that contain at least 0.5 weight percent of nitrogen heteroatoms and at least 1.0 weight percent sulfur heteroatoms, and (ii) that have an average particle size from 2 microns to 40 microns with essentially no particles being greater than 50 microns. (b) a binder This invention also relates to a coke/alkali metal electrochemical cell comprising: (a) an electrode as described above, (b) a non-aqueous electrolytic solution comprising an organic aprotic solvent and an electrically conductive salt, and (c) a counterelectrode.

Lewis, Irwin Charles (Strongsville, OH); Greinke, Ronald Alfred (Medina, OH)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Heteroatom incorporated coke for electrochemical cell electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to an electrode for a coke/alkali metal electrochemical cell comprising: (a) calcined coke particles: (1) that contain at least 0.5 weight percent of nitrogen heteroatoms and at least 1.0 weight percent sulfur heteroatoms, and (2) that have an average particle size from 2 microns to 40 microns with essentially no particles being greater than 50 microns and (b) a binder. This invention also relates to a coke/alkali metal electrochemical cell comprising: (a) an electrode as described above, (b) a non-aqueous electrolytic solution comprising an organic aprotic solvent and an electrically conductive salt, and (c) a counterelectrode. 5 figs.

Lewis, I.C.; Greinke, R.A.

1997-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

469

High-efficiency concentrator silicon solar cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report presents results from extensive process development in high-efficiency Si solar cells. An advanced design for a 1.56-cm{sup 2} cell with front grids achieved 26% efficiency at 90 suns. This is especially significant since this cell does not require a prismatic cover glass. New designs for simplified backside-contact solar cells were advanced from a status of near-nonfunctionality to demonstrated 21--22% for one-sun cells in sizes up to 37.5 cm{sup 2}. An efficiency of 26% was achieved for similar 0.64-cm{sup 2} concentrator cells at 150 suns. More fundamental work on dopant-diffused regions is also presented here. The recombination vs. various process and physical parameters was studied in detail for boron and phosphorous diffusions. Emitter-design studies based solidly upon these new data indicate the performance vs design parameters for a variety of the cases of most interest to solar cell designers. Extractions of p-type bandgap narrowing and the surface recombination for p- and n-type regions from these studies have a generality that extends beyond solar cells into basic device modeling. 68 refs., 50 figs.

Sinton, R.A.; Cuevas, A.; King, R.R.; Swanson, R.M. (Stanford Univ., CA (USA). Solid-State Electronics Lab.)

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Flexible implementation of rigid solar cell technologies.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As a source of clean, remote energy, photovoltaic (PV) systems are an important area of research. The majority of solar cells are rigid materials with negligible flexibility. Flexible PV systems possess many advantages, such as being transportable and incorporable on diverse structures. Amorphous silicon and organic PV systems are flexible; however, they lack the efficiency and lifetime of rigid cells. There is also a need for PV systems that are light weight, especially in space and flight applications. We propose a solution to this problem by arranging rigid cells onto a flexible substrate creating efficient, light weight, and flexible devices. To date, we have created a working prototype of our design using the 1.1cm x 1cm Emcore cells. We have achieved a better power to weight ratio than commercially available PowerFilm{reg_sign}, which uses thin film silicon yielding .034W/gram. We have also tested our concept with other types of cells and verified that our methods are able to be adapted to any rigid solar cell technology. This allows us to use the highest efficiency devices despite their physical characteristics. Depending on the cell size we use, we can rival the curvature of most available flexible PV devices. We have shown how the benefits of rigid solar cells can be integrated into flexible applications, allowing performance that surpasses alternative technologies.

Hollowell, Andrew E.

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Exploring a Full-Sized Black Hole 30 This black ball shown below is the exact size of a black hole with a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Exploring a Full-Sized Black Hole 30 This black ball shown below is the exact size of a black hole with a diameter of 9.0 centimeters. Such a black hole would have a mass of 5 times the mass of our Earth. All of this mass would be INSIDE the ball below. Although it looks pretty harmless, if this black hole were at arms

472

Thermodynamic Equilibrium-Driven Formation of Single-Sized Nanocrystals: Reaction Media Tuning CdSe Magic-Sized versus Regular Quantum Dots  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A concept for the fundamental science of nanoparticle synthesis, thermodynamic equilibrium-driven formation of colloidal single-sized nanoparticle ensembles, is proposed and demonstrated in this manuscript, which addresses the controlled formation of CdSe magic-sized and regular quantum dots (MSQDs and RQDs). During formation, the former are magic-sized nuclei without further growth in size, while the latter experience nucleation and growth. Both MSQDs and RQDs exhibit bandgap emission, while the former have homogeneous spectra broadening only and the latter both homogeneous and inhomogeneous spectra broadening. The former are single-sized and the latter have size distribution. With continuous and homogeneous nucleation, the thermodynamically driven formation of MSQDs was realized via our one-pot noninjection approach, which features highly synthetic reproducibility and large-scale capability. With the proper tuning of the synthetic parameters, such as the nature of the reaction medium, that affect the thermodynamic equilibria, various CdSe MSQDs and RQDs were synthesized discriminately under otherwise identical synthetic formulation and reaction conditions; the reaction media were noncoordinating 1-octadecene, coordinating trioctylphosphine, and mixtures of the two. The nature of Cd precursors, affected also by the reaction media, plays a major role in the formation of MSQDs versus RQDs. The present investigation on the thermodynamically driven formation of CdSe single-sized nanoparticles via tuning of the reaction medium, mainly, brings novel insights into the formation mechanism and into the surface ligands of the resulting colloidal nanocrystals. More importantly, the present study provides novel experimental design and approaches to single-sized nanoparticles desired for various applications.

Yu, Kui [SIMS, NRC of Canada; Hu, Michael Z. [ORNL; Wang, Ruibing [SIMS, NRC of Canada; Le Piolet, Mickael [SIMS, NRC of Canada; Frotey, Marion [SIMS, NRC of Canada; Zaman, Md. Badruz [SIMS, NRC of Canada; Wu, Xiaohua [IMS, NRC of Canada; Leek, Donald M. [SIMS, NRC of Canada; Tao, Ye [IMS, NRC of Canada; Wilkinson, Diana [SIMS, NRC of Canada; Li, Chunsheng [National Research Council of Canada

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Corrosion and Electrochemical Cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 1   Cell conditions for commercial and industrial electrode processes...fuel cells Electrolytic e cell > e cell,rev I � 0 (impressed current

474

Electrorefining cell evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Operational characteristics of the LANL electrorefining cell, a modified LANL electrorefining cell, and an advanced electrorefining cell (known as the CRAC cell) were determined. Average process yields achieved were: 75% for the LANL cell, 82% for the modified LANL cell, and 86% for the CRAC cell. All product metal from the LANL and modified LANL cells was within foundry specifications. Metal from one run in the CRAC cell exceeded foundry specifications for tantalum. The LANL and modified LANL cells were simple in design and operation, but product separation was more labor intensive than with the CRAC cell. The CRAC cell was more complicated in design but remained relatively simple in operation. A decision analysis concluded that the modified LANL cell was the preferred cell. It was recommended that the modified LANL cell be implemented by the Plutonium Recovery Project at Rocky Flats and that development of the CRAC cell continue. 8 refs., 22 figs., 12 tabs.

Bronson, M.C.; Thomas, R.L. (ed.)

1989-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

475

MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL PRODUCT DESIGN IMPROVEMENT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The program efforts are focused on technology and system optimization for cost reduction, commercial design development, and prototype system field trials. The program is designed to advance the carbonate fuel cell technology from full-size field test to the commercial design. FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE) is in the later stage of the multiyear program for development and verification of carbonate fuel cell based power plants supported by DOE/NETL with additional funding from DOD/DARPA and the FuelCell Energy team. FCE has scaled up the technology to full-size and developed DFC{reg_sign} stack and balance-of-plant (BOP) equipment technology to meet product requirements, and acquired high rate manufacturing capabilities to reduce cost. FCE has designed submegawatt (DFC300A) and megawatt (DFC1500 and DFC3000) class fuel cell products for commercialization of its DFC{reg_sign} technology. A significant progress was made during the reporting period. The reforming unit design was optimized using a three-dimensional stack simulation model. Thermal and flow uniformities of the oxidant-In flow in the stack module were improved using computational fluid dynamics based flow simulation model. The manufacturing capacity was increased. The submegawatt stack module overall cost was reduced by {approx}30% on a per kW basis. An integrated deoxidizer-prereformer design was tested successfully at submegawatt scale using fuels simulating digester gas, coal bed methane gas and peak shave (natural) gas.

H.C. Maru; M. Farooque

2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Can clone size serve as a proxy for clone age?An exploration Blackwell Publishing Ltd  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In long-lived clonal plants, the overall size of a clone is often used to estimate clone age. The size of a clone, however, might be largely determined by physical or biotic interactions, obscuring the relationship between clone size and age. Here, we use the accumulation of mutations at 14 microsatellite loci to estimate clone age in trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) from southwestern Canada. We show that the observed patterns of genetic divergence are consistent with a model of increasing ramet population size, allowing us to use pairwise genetic divergence as an estimator of clone age. In the populations studied, clone size did not exhibit a significant relationship with microsatellite divergence, indicating that clone size is not a good proxy for clone age. In P. tremuloides, the per-locus per-year neutral somatic mutation rate across 14 microsatellite loci was estimated to lie between 6 × 10 –7 (lower bound) and 4 × 10 –5 (upper bound).

D. Ally; K. Ritland; S P. O Tto

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Small and Medium-Sized Building Automation and Control System Needs Scoping  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Small and Medium-Sized Building Automation Small and Medium-Sized Building Automation and Control System Needs Scoping Study Small and Medium-Sized Building Automation and Control System Needs Scoping Study The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently conducting a scoping research study of small- and medium-sized building automation and control system needs. Project Description This project seeks to develop a scoping study to identify the building automation system needs-such as end-uses and systems to be controlled-and control capabilities for small- and medium-sized buildings. Researchers also plan to develop a case study to show that building controls for small- and medium-sized buildings can be cost-effective. The monitoring needs to ensure proper and persistent operations will also be identified.

478

Microfluidic Cell Culture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... microfluidic device with access to optical imaging, electrochemical interrogation, controlled lysis of desired cells, and collection of cell contents for ...

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Compilation and Integration of K Basin Sludge Particle Size Analysis Data  

SciTech Connect

This report consolidates and integrates all of the particle size analysis data generated during the Hanford K Basin sludge characterization campaigns. The provides the most representative particle size distribution curves for the various K Basin sludge types. Understanding the particle size distribution of the sludge is necessary to design sludge retrieval and processing systems and to address sludge transportation and storage safety issues due to the potential reactivity of sludge.

Bredt, Paul R. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Tingey, Joel M. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Schmidt, Andrew J. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

2000-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

480

Yttria-stabilized zirconia solid oxide electrolyte fuel cells, monolithic solid oxide fuel cells. Quarterly report, April--June 1989  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Small cell size, thin ceramic components, and high operating temperature are the key features of the MSOFC. The small size of individual cells in the monolithic structure increases the active surface area. For example, an MSOFC with channels about 1 mm in diameter has a ratio of active surface area to volume of about 9.4 sq cm/cu cm. This is about seven times the ratio for conventional fuel cells. On this basis alone, an MSOFC with a channel diameter of 1 mm should produce the same power as a conventional fuel cell seven times as large. The high current density of the MSOFC results from the small cell size and ensuing low internal resistance. The current density is high at the fuel inlet end of the fuel channel where the thermodynamic driving force (Nernst potential) is highest. Similarly, the current density is low at the outlet end of the fuel channel where the Nernst potential is lowest. Because of the high operating temperature of the MSOFC (1000{degrees}C),hydrocarbon fuels can be reformed in the fuel channels. The reform reaction produces hydrogen which is consumed by the fuel cell. Catalytic reforming of methane and natural gas within a solid oxide fuel cell has been demonstrated.

Not Available

1989-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "200-meter cell size" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Small- and Medium-Size Building Automation and Control System Needs: Scoping Study  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Small- and Medium-Size Building Automation and Control System Small- and Medium-Size Building Automation and Control System Needs: Scoping Study Small- and Medium-Size Building Automation and Control System Needs: Scoping Study Michael Brambley, Ph.D. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Michael.Brambley@pnnl.gov (509) 375-6875 April 2, 2013 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Problem Statement * Less than 10% of the buildings have building automation systems (BAS) * Over 90% of buildings stock either: - small (<5,000 sf) or - medium-sized (between 5,000 sf and 50,000 sf)

482

Small- and Medium-Size Building Automation and Control System Needs: Scoping Study  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Small- and Medium-Size Building Automation and Control System Small- and Medium-Size Building Automation and Control System Needs: Scoping Study Small- and Medium-Size Building Automation and Control System Needs: Scoping Study Michael Brambley, Ph.D. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Michael.Brambley@pnnl.gov (509) 375-6875 April 2, 2013 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Problem Statement * Less than 10% of the buildings have building automation systems (BAS) * Over 90% of buildings stock either: - small (<5,000 sf) or - medium-sized (between 5,000 sf and 50,000 sf)

483

HVAC Right-Sizing Part 1-Calculating Loads | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

-Calculating Loads HVAC Right-Sizing Part 1-Calculating Loads During this webinar, Building America Research Team IBACOS highlighted the key criteria required to create accurate...

484

HVAC Right-Sizing Part 1: Calculating Loads | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

: Calculating Loads HVAC Right-Sizing Part 1: Calculating Loads This webinar, presented by IBACOS (a Building America Research Team) will highlight the key criteria required to...

485

The CO2 Abatement Potential of California's Mid-sized Commerical...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

mid-sized commercial sites in California (CA), existing tariffs of three major electricity distribution ultilities, and performance data of available technology in 2020,...

486

NREL: Technology Transfer - DOE-NREL Launch Mid-size Turbine ...  

National Renewable Energy Laboratory Technology Transfer DOE-NREL Launch Mid-size Turbine Development Project October 30, 2009. Since the early 90s, the wind energy ...

487

NREL: Technology Transfer - DOE-NREL Launch Mid-size Turbine ...  

DOE-NREL Launch Mid-size Turbine Development Project October 30, 2009. Since the early 90s, the wind energy industry has experienced substantial growth in ...

488

Optimization Online - The multi-item capacitated lot-sizing problem ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sep 21, 2005 ... Abstract: We address a multi-item capacitated lot-sizing problem with setup times and shortage costs that arises in real-world production ...

489

Fundamentals of Spark-Plasma Sintering: Net-Shaping and Size ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Net-shaping capabilities and size effects on spark-plasma sintering are analysed both theoretically and experimentally. Modeling and experimentation are ...

490

Influences on Burr Size During Face-Milling of Aluminum Alloys and Cast Iron  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ON BURR SIZE DURING FACE-MILLING OF ALUMINUM-SILICON ALLOYSburrs formed during face milling. Other influences are tooliron. INTRODUCTION Face milling is a common procedure during

Shefelbine, Wendy; Dornfeld, David

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

An O(n^2) Algorithm for Lot Sizing with Inventory Bounds and Fixed ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Jun 26, 2007 ... Abstract: Lot-sizing problems with inventory bounds and fixed charges have not received much attention in the literature, even though there are ...

492

How Wood Chip Size Affects Pretreatment Effectiveness of Woody Biomass for Biological Processing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

explosion pretreatment of wood: effect of chip size, acid,In: Soltes, E.J. (Ed. ), Wood and Agriculture Residues –D. , Wegener, G. , 1984. Wood: Chemistry, Ultrastructure,

Tam, Jerry

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

In vitro digestibility of starch in sorghum differing in endosperm hardness and flour particle size.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In vitro digestibility of starch in sorghum grains differing in endosperm hardness and flour particle size was assayed by an Englyst resistant starch (RS) method.… (more)

Xu, Xiaoli

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

494

The Effect of Coke Particle Size on Thermal Profile of Sintering ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Baking process and sinter production was performed for different ranges of coke particle size while other parameter like, iron ore, lime and sintering mixture ...

495

Soot particle sizing during high-pressure Diesel spray combustion via time-resolved laser-induced incandescence  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Single-pulse time-resolved laser-induced incandescence (TiRe-LII) signal transients from soot particulates were acquired during unsteady high pressure Diesel combustion in a constant volume cell for typical top dead center conditions during a Diesel engine cycle. Measurements were performed for initial gas pressures between 1 and 3 MPa, injection pressures between 50 and 130 MPa and laser probe timings between 5 and 16 ms after start of fuel injection. In separate experiments and for the same cell operating conditions gas temperatures were deduced from spectrally resolved soot pyrometry measurements. Implementing the LII model of Kock et al. [Combust. Flame 147 (2006) 79-92] ensemble mean soot particle diameters were evaluated from least-squares fitting of theoretical cooling curves to experimental TiRe-LII signal transients. Since in the experiments the environmental gas temperature and the width of an assumed particle size distribution were not known, the effects of the initial choice of these parameters on retrieved particle diameters were investigated. It is shown that evaluated mean particle diameters are only slightly biased by the choice of typical size distribution widths and gas temperatures. For a fixed combustion phase mean particle diameters are not much affected by gas pressure, however they become smaller at high fuel injection pressure. At a mean chamber pressure of 1.39 MPa evaluated mean particle diameters increased by a factor of two for probe delays between 5 and 16 ms after start of injection irrespective of the choices of first-guess fitting variables, indicating a certain robustness of data analysis procedure. (author)

Ryser, R.; Gerber, T.; Dreier, T. [Reaction Analysis Group, Department of General Energy, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

496

Soot particle sizing during high-pressure Diesel spray combustion via time-resolved laser-induced incandescence  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Single-pulse time-resolved laser-induced incandescence (TiRe-LII) signal transients from soot particulates were acquired during unsteady high pressure Diesel combustion in a constant volume cell for typical top dead center conditions during a Diesel engine cycle. Measurements were performed for initial gas pressures between 1 and 3 MPa, injection pressures between 50 and 130 MPa and laser probe timings between 5 and 16 ms after start of fuel injection. In separate experiments and for the same cell operating conditions gas temperatures were deduced from spectrally resolved soot pyrometry measurements. Implementing the LII model of Kock et al. [Combust. Flame 147 (20006) 79-92] ensemble mean soot particle diameters were evaluated from least-squares fitting of theoretical cooling curves to experimental TiRe-LII signal transients. Since in the experiments the environmental gas temperature and the width of an assumed particle size distribution were not known, the effects of the initial choice of these parameters on retrieved particle diameters were investigated. It is shown that evaluated mean particle diameters are only slightly biased by the choice of typical size distribution widths and gas temperatures. For a fixed combustion phase mean particle diameters are not much affected by gas pressure, however they become smaller at high fuel injection pressure. At a mean chamber pressure of 1.39 MPa evaluated mean particle diameters increased by a factor of two for probe delays between 5 and 16 ms after start of injection irrespective of the choices of first-guess fitting variables, indicating a certain robustness of data analysis procedure. (author)

Ryser, R.; Gerber, T.; Dreier, T. [Reaction Analysis Group, Department of General Energy, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland)

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

497

Photoelectrochemical cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A photoelectrochemical cell comprising a sealed container having a light-transmitting window for admitting light into the container across a light-admitting plane, an electrolyte in the container, a photoelectrode in the container having a light-absorbing surface arranged to receive light from the window and in contact with the electrolyte, the surface having a plurality of spaced portions oblique to the plane, each portion having dimensions at least an order of magnitude larger than the maximum wavelength of incident sunlight, the total surface area of the surface being larger than the area of the plane bounded by the container, and a counter electrode in the container in contact with the electrolyte.

Rauh, R. David (Newton, MA); Boudreau, Robert A. (Norton, MA)

1983-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

498

Thin film polycrystalline silicon solar cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

During the present quarter efficiency of heterostructure solar cells has been increased from 13 to 13.7% for single crystal and from 10.3 to 11.2% for polysilicon. For polysilicon the improvements can be attributed to reductions in grid-area coverage and in reflection losses and for single crystal to a combination of reduction in grid-area coverage and increase in fill factor. The heterostructure cells in both cases were IT0/n-Si solar cells. Degradation in Sn0/sub 2//n-Si solar cells can be greatly reduced to negligible proportions by proper encapsulation. The cells used in stability tests have an average initial efficiency of 11% which reduces to a value of about 10.5% after 6 months of exposure to sunlight and ambient conditions. This small degradation occurs within the first month, and the efficiency remains constant subsequently. The reduction in efficiency is due to a decrease in the open-circuit voltage only, while the short-circuit current and fill factor remain constant. The effects of grain-size on the Hall measurements in polysilicon have been analyzed and interpreted, with some modifications, using a model proposed by Bube. This modified model predicts that the measured effective Hall voltage is composed of components originating from the bulk and space-charge region. For materials with large grains, the carrier concentration is independent of the inter-grain boundary barrier, whereas the mobility is dependent on it. However, for small rains, both the carrier density and mobility depend on the barrier. These predictions are consistant with experimental results of mm-size Wacker polysilicon and ..mu..m-size NTD polysilicon.

Ghosh, A. K.; Feng, T.; Eustace, D. J.; Maruska, H. P.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

499

Fuel cell/gas turbine system performance studies  

SciTech Connect

Because of the synergistic effects (higher efficiencies, lower emissions) of combining a fuel cell and a gas turbine into a power generation system, many potential system configurations were studied. This work is focused on novel power plant systems by combining gas turbines, solid oxide fuel cells, and a high-temperature heat exchanger; these systems are ideal for the distributed power and on- site markets in the 1-5 MW size range.

Lee, G.T.; Sudhoff, F.A.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

500

Buffer sizing for minimum energy-delay product by using an approximating polynomial  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper first presents an accurate and efficient method of estimating the short circuit energy dissipation and the output transition time of CMOS buffers. Next, the paper describes a sizing method for tapered buffer chains. It is shown that the first-order ... Keywords: buffer sizing, polynomial approximation, short circuit energy

Chang Woo Kang; Soroush Abbaspour; Massoud Pedram

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z