Sample records for 2-chloroethyl vinyl ether

  1. Treatability studies of groundwater contaminated with bis(2-chloroethyl) ether

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, F.Y.C. [New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States). Dept. of Mineral and Environmental Engineering] [New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States). Dept. of Mineral and Environmental Engineering; Li, K.Y.; Liu, C.C. [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The groundwater aquifer underneath a chemical manufacturing plant in Southeast Texas has been contaminated with the leachate from its landfill. There are 17 major chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants found in the groundwater with concentrations ranging from 1 ppm to 1,200 ppm. An air-stripping unit followed by a thermal catalytic oxidation unit is currently operating on-site to remove all of the chlorinated compounds from the contaminated groundwater. One of the contaminants, bis(2-chloroethyl)ether (DCEE), has a fairly low Henry`s Law constant; therefore, a high air flow rate is employed in the stripping unit to improve the overall stripping efficiency. Nevertheless, the treated groundwater still contains a fair amount of DCEE. An UV-peroxidation reactor is set up to study its feasibility for oxidizing DCEE. The treatability data indicate that DCEE at a concentration of 200 ppm can be oxidized effectively in the presence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and the effective UV wavelengths lie between 200 and 280 nm. No noticeable reduction of the oxidation rate is observed at low temperature ({approximately} 11 C). Apparent oxidation rate equations of DCEE are determined and several process design parameters are discussed.

  2. Unexpected Alternated Radical Copolymerization of Vinylidene cyanide with a Vinyl ether for Superhydrophobic and Highly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    for Superhydrophobic and Highly Oleophobic Films Ahmed Meskini, Mustapha Raihane Laboratoire de Chimie Bioorganique et Radical Copolymerization of Vinylidene cyanide with a Vinyl ether for Superhydrophobic and Highly(VCN-alt-FAVE8) copolymers exhibit superhydrophobic and highly oleophobic characters as evidenced by high water

  3. Decontamination of 2-chloroethyl ethylsulfide using titanate nanoscrolls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qin, Lu-Chang

    Decontamination of 2-chloroethyl ethylsulfide using titanate nanoscrolls Alfred Kleinhammes a of TiO2 nanocrystals, are tested as reactive sorbent for chemical warfare agent (CWA) decontamination as a decontaminant for CWAs. Ó 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Hydrolysis reactions have shown promising

  4. anhydride-vinyl methyl ether: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    TREAT METHYL- TERT-BUTYL ETHER CONTAMINATED CiteSeer Summary: Methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a commonly used gasoline additive. Leaking underground storage tank systems,...

  5. Effect of thermal history on the molecular orientation in polystyrene/poly(vinyl methyl ether) blends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pezolet, Michel

    ether) (PS/PVME) has been studied using polarization modulation infrared linear dichroism (PM to an increased orientation if the heating time at 51 8C is kept short. Moreover, PS and PVME develop a larger) blends; Thermal history; Polarization modulation infrared linear dichroism 1. Introduction The influence

  6. In vivo potentiation of 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea by the radiation sensitizer benznidazole

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siemann, D.W.; Morrissey, S.; Wolf, K.

    1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent studies in mouse tumor systems have indicated a potential therapeutic advantage in combining the radiosensitizer misonidazole (MISO) with cancer chemotherapy drugs. One agent the antitumor activity of which has been enhanced to a greater extent than its hematological or gastrointestinal toxicities is the nitrosourea, 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea (CCNU). Recently, sensitizers more lipophylic than MISO have been reported to give greater tumor response enhancement when combined with CCNU. The present studies compared the potential therapeutic benefit of combining MISO (partition coefficient, 0.43) or benznidazole (BENZO) (partition coefficient, 8.5) in KHT sarcoma or RIF-1 tumor-bearing C3H mice. Both sensitizers were administered i.p. and given either 30 min before (BENZO) or simultaneously with (MISO) the chemotherapeutic agent. Survival of clonogenic tumor cells assessed 22 to 24 hr after treatment or in situ tumor growth delay were used as assays of tumor response. Normal tissue toxicity was determined using the drug dose yielding 50% animal lethality in 30 days end point. When combined with CCNU, doses of MISO (5.0 mmol/kg) or BENZO (0.3 mmol/kg) were found to yield approximately equivalent increases in both the tumor effect (enhancement ratio, approximately 1.8 to 2.0) and normal tissue toxicity (enhancement ratio approximately 1.3 to 1.4). Both sensitizers therefore led to a therapeutic benefit. However, although a approximately 10-fold lower dose of the more lipophylic sensitizer BENZO proved to be as effective as MISO at enhancing the tumoricidal effects of CCNU, this dose reduction did not result in a greater therapeutic gain for BENZO.

  7. 4-Vinyl-, 4-vinyl-, and 4'-vinyl-2,2':6',2''-terpyridinyl ligands: their synthesis and the electrochemistry of their transition-metal coordination complexes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Potts, K.T.; Usifer, D.A.; Guadalupe, A.; Abruna, H.D.

    1987-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    4'-Vinyl-2,2':6',2''-terpyridinyl was conveniently prepared from 2-acetylpyridine via -oxoketene dithioacetal methodology, the intermediate 4'-(methylthio)-2,2':6',2''-terpyridinyl being converted into the corresponding 4'-methyl derivative with methylmagnesium bromide and bis(triphenylphosphino)nickel(II) dichloride followed by generation of the methyl anion with lithium tetramethylpiperidide, reaction of the anion with chloromethyl methyl ether, and introduction of the vinyl group by treatment of the ether with potassium tert-butoxide/THF. Analogous reactions led to the 4-vinyl- and 6-vinyl isomers by using the appropriate methyl-substituted 2-acetylpyridine except that in these instances desulfurization of the 4'-methylthio group with nickel boride was an addition step. These vinyl-substituted ligands formed a variety of readily electropolymerizable simple and mixed-ligand complex monomers with cobalt, ruthenium, and iron with polymerization rates whose magnitude varied with position and number of vinyl substituents.

  8. 2,6-Dithiopurine, a nucleophilic scavenger, protects against mutagenesis in mouse skin treated in vivo with 2-(chloroethyl) ethyl sulfide, a mustard gas analog

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boulware, Stephen [Division of Pharmacy and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Texas at Austin, Dell Pediatric Research Institute, 1400 Barbara Jordan Blvd., Austin, TX 78723 (United States)] [Division of Pharmacy and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Texas at Austin, Dell Pediatric Research Institute, 1400 Barbara Jordan Blvd., Austin, TX 78723 (United States); Fields, Tammy; McIvor, Elizabeth; Powell, K. Leslie; Abel, Erika L. [Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States)] [Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States); Vasquez, Karen M. [Division of Pharmacy and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Texas at Austin, Dell Pediatric Research Institute, 1400 Barbara Jordan Blvd., Austin, TX 78723 (United States)] [Division of Pharmacy and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Texas at Austin, Dell Pediatric Research Institute, 1400 Barbara Jordan Blvd., Austin, TX 78723 (United States); MacLeod, Michael C., E-mail: mcmacleod@mdanderson.org [Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States)

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sulfur mustard [bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide, SM] is a well-known DNA-damaging agent that has been used in chemical warfare since World War I, and is a weapon that could potentially be used in a terrorist attack on a civilian population. Dermal exposure to high concentrations of SM produces severe, long-lasting burns. Topical exposure to high concentrations of 2-(chloroethyl) ethyl sulfide (CEES), a monofunctional analog of SM, also produces severe skin lesions in mice. Utilizing a genetically engineered mouse strain, Big Blue, that allows measurement of mutation frequencies in mouse tissues, we now show that topical treatment with much lower concentrations of CEES induces significant dose- and time-dependent increases in mutation frequency in mouse skin; the mutagenic exposures produce minimal toxicity as determined by standard histopathology and immunohistochemical analysis for cytokeratin 6 and the DNA-damage induced phosphorylation of histone H2AX (?-H2AX). We attempted to develop a therapeutic that would inhibit the CEES-induced increase in mutation frequency in the skin. We observe that multi-dose, topical treatment with 2,6-dithiopurine (DTP), a known chemical scavenger of CEES, beginning 1 h post-exposure to CEES, completely abolishes the CEES-induced increase in mutation frequency. These findings suggest the possibility that DTP, previously shown to be non-toxic in mice, may be useful as a therapeutic agent in accidental or malicious human exposures to SM. -- Highlights: ? 200 mM 2-(chloroethyl) ethyl sulfide (CEES) induces mutations in mouse skin. ? This dose of CEES is not overtly toxic, as assayed by histopathology. ? 2,6-Dithiopurine (DTP), applied after CEES-treatment, abolishes CEES-mutagenesis. ? This supports the idea that sulfur mustards exhibit long biological half-lives.

  9. Transition-metal pi-complexes of vinyl alcohol: platinum and palladium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ori, Masaru

    1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -necked flask, equipped wi th a con- denser with a drying tube on the top, dry mercuric di- acetaldehyde (40 g, 0. 147 mol) was suspended under argon in dry ether (70 ml) containing the freshly distilled N, N-dimethyl aniline (1. Z g, 0. 01 mol ). Under a... )platinum(I I) was prepared by hydrolyzing the x-trimethylsilyl vinyl ether complex, which was obtained by treating the ethyl- ene complex with trimethylsilyl vinyl ether. The vinyl alcohol complex was characterized by nmr, ir, molecular weight...

  10. Inhibition of NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase by the model sulfur mustard vesicant 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide is associated with increased production of reactive oxygen species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, Joshua P. [Department of Science, United States Coast Guard Academy, New London, CT (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Mishin, Vladimir [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Heck, Diane E. [Department of Environmental Health Science, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY (United States); Laskin, Debra L. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D., E-mail: jlaskin@eohsi.rutgers.ed [Environmental and Occupational Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Inhalation of vesicants including sulfur mustard can cause significant damage to the upper airways. This is the result of vesicant-induced modifications of proteins important in maintaining the integrity of the lung. Cytochrome P450s are the major enzymes in the lung mediating detoxification of sulfur mustard and its metabolites. NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase is a flavin-containing electron donor for cytochrome P450. The present studies demonstrate that the sulfur mustard analog, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), is a potent inhibitor of human recombinant cytochrome P450 reductase, as well as native cytochrome P450 reductase from liver microsomes of saline and {beta}-naphthoflavone-treated rats, and cytochrome P450 reductase from type II lung epithelial cells. Using rat liver microsomes from {beta}-naphthoflavone-treated rats, CEES was found to inhibit CYP 1A1 activity. This inhibition was overcome by microsomal cytochrome P450 reductase from saline-treated rats, which lack CYP 1A1 activity, demonstrating that the CEES inhibitory activity was selective for cytochrome P450 reductase. Cytochrome P450 reductase also generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) via oxidation of NADPH. In contrast to its inhibitory effects on the reduction of cytochrome c and CYP1A1 activity, CEES was found to stimulate ROS formation. Taken together, these data demonstrate that sulfur mustard vesicants target cytochrome P450 reductase and that this effect may be an important mechanism mediating oxidative stress and lung injury.

  11. Expression of proliferative and inflammatory markers in a full-thickness human skin equivalent following exposure to the model sulfur mustard vesicant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Black, Adrienne T. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Hayden, Patrick J. [MatTek Corporation, Ashland, MA (United States); Casillas, Robert P. [Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH (United States); Heck, Diane E. [Environmental Health Sciences, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY (United States); Gerecke, Donald R. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Sinko, Patrick J. [Pharmaceutics, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Laskin, Debra L. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D., E-mail: jlaskin@eohsi.rutgers.ed [Environmental and Occupational Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sulfur mustard is a potent vesicant that induces inflammation, edema and blistering following dermal exposure. To assess molecular mechanisms mediating these responses, we analyzed the effects of the model sulfur mustard vesicant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, on EpiDerm-FT{sup TM}, a commercially available full-thickness human skin equivalent. CEES (100-1000 {mu}M) caused a concentration-dependent increase in pyknotic nuclei and vacuolization in basal keratinocytes; at high concentrations (300-1000 {mu}M), CEES also disrupted keratin filament architecture in the stratum corneum. This was associated with time-dependent increases in expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, a marker of cell proliferation, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and phosphorylated histone H2AX, markers of DNA damage. Concentration- and time-dependent increases in mRNA and protein expression of eicosanoid biosynthetic enzymes including COX-2, 5-lipoxygenase, microsomal PGE{sub 2} synthases, leukotriene (LT) A{sub 4} hydrolase and LTC{sub 4} synthase were observed in CEES-treated skin equivalents, as well as in antioxidant enzymes, glutathione S-transferases A1-2 (GSTA1-2), GSTA3 and GSTA4. These data demonstrate that CEES induces rapid cellular damage, cytotoxicity and inflammation in full-thickness skin equivalents. These effects are similar to human responses to vesicants in vivo and suggest that the full thickness skin equivalent is a useful in vitro model to characterize the biological effects of mustards and to develop potential therapeutics.

  12. Preparation of vinyl acetate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tustin, G.C.; Zoeller, J.R.; Depew, L.S.

    1998-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting a mixture of hydrogen and ketene with a heterogeneous catalyst containing a transition metal to produce acetaldehyde, which is then reacted with ketene in the presence of an acid catalyst to produce vinyl acetate.

  13. Regulation of Hsp27 and Hsp70 expression in human and mouse skin construct models by caveolae following exposure to the model sulfur mustard vesicant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Black, Adrienne T. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Hayden, Patrick J. [MatTek Corporation, Ashland, MA (United States); Casillas, Robert P. [Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH (United States); Heck, Diane E. [Environmental Health, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY (United States); Gerecke, Donald R. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Sinko, Patrick J. [Pharmaceutics, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Laskin, Debra L. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D., E-mail: jlaskin@eohsi.rutgers.edu [Environmental and Occupational Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dermal exposure to the vesicant sulfur mustard causes marked inflammation and tissue damage. Basal keratinocytes appear to be a major target of sulfur mustard. In the present studies, mechanisms mediating skin toxicity were examined using a mouse skin construct model and a full-thickness human skin equivalent (EpiDerm-FT{sup TM}). In both systems, administration of the model sulfur mustard vesicant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES, 100-1000 {mu}M) at the air surface induced mRNA and protein expression of heat shock proteins 27 and 70 (Hsp27 and Hsp70). CEES treatment also resulted in increased expression of caveolin-1, the major structural component of caveolae. Immunohistochemistry revealed that Hsp27, Hsp70 and caveolin-1 were localized in basal and suprabasal layers of the epidermis. Caveolin-1 was also detected in fibroblasts in the dermal component of the full thickness human skin equivalent. Western blot analysis of caveolar membrane fractions isolated by sucrose density centrifugation demonstrated that Hsp27 and Hsp70 were localized in caveolae. Treatment of mouse keratinocytes with filipin III or methyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin, which disrupt caveolar structure, markedly suppressed CEES-induced Hsp27 and Hsp70 mRNA and protein expression. CEES treatment is known to activate JNK and p38 MAP kinases; in mouse keratinocytes, inhibition of these enzymes suppressed CEES-induced expression of Hsp27 and Hsp70. These data suggest that MAP kinases regulate Hsp 27 and Hsp70; moreover, caveolae-mediated regulation of heat shock protein expression may be important in the pathophysiology of vesicant-induced skin toxicity.

  14. Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spormann, Alfred M. (Stanford, CA); Muller, Jochen A. (Baltimore, MD); Rosner, Bettina M. (Berlin, DE); Von Abendroth, Gregory (Nannhein, DE); Meshulam-Simon, Galit (Los Altos, CA); McCarty, Perry L (Stanford, CA)

    2011-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Compositions and methods are provided that relate to the bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes, particularly the bioremediation of vinyl chloride by Dehalococcoides-like organisms. An isolated strain of bacteria, Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS, that metabolizes vinyl chloride is provided; the genetic sequence of the enzyme responsible for vinyl chloride dehalogenation; methods of assessing the capability of endogenous organisms at an environmental site to metabolize vinyl chloride; and a method of using the strains of the invention for bioremediation.

  15. Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spormann, Alfred M [Stanford, CA; Muller, Jochen A [Baltimore, MD; Rosner, Bettina M [Berlin, DE; Von Abendroth, Gregory [Mannheim, DE; Meshulam-Simon, Galit [Los Angeles, CA; McCarty, Perry L [Stanford, CA

    2014-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Compositions and methods are provided that relate to the bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes, particularly the bioremediation of vinyl chloride by Dehalococcoides-like organisms. An isolated strain of bacteria, Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS, that metabolizes vinyl chloride is provided; the genetic sequence of the enzyme responsible for vinyl chloride dehalogenation; methods of assessing the capability of endogenous organisms at an environmental site to metabolize vinyl chloride; and a method of using the strains of the invention for bioremediation.

  16. amine methanol, ether . Amine amine CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Deog Ki

    IP [2012] 7 C O 2 (CO2) . CO2 amine methanol, ether . Amine amine CO2 CO2 .Amine CO2 (functional group) amine amine+ +promoter .Amine CO2 CO2 . . , methanol ether methanol, ether promoter CO2 CO2 H2S, COS CO2 . Methanol rectisol process, di-methylene ether polypropylene glycol selexol (-30oC) . CO2

  17. Process for the preparation of vinyl acetate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tustin, G.C.; Zoeller, J.R.; Depew, L.S.

    1998-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting within a contact zone a mixture of ketene and acetaldehyde with an acid catalyst at about one bar pressure and between about 85 and 200 C and removing the reaction products from the contact zone.

  18. Beam damage of poly(2-chloroethyl methylacrylate) [PCEMA] films...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    evaluating x-ray damage. PCEMA has been shown to be more sensitive to degradation than PVC which has also been used as a damage sensitive material useful for comparison of damage...

  19. analog 2-chloroethyl ethyl: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    de 170 High Purity Ethyl Acetate Production with a Batch Reactive Distillation Column using Dynamic Optimization Strategy CiteSeer Summary: AbstractEthyl acetate with the...

  20. anhydride-methyl vinyl ether: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Low Band Gap Polymers" Weibin Cui and Fred Wudl Macromolecules, 46 (18): 7232-7238 (2013). DOI Link "A Montarnal, Nancy D. Eisenmenger, Sung-Yu Ku, Michael L....

  1. acid-methyl vinyl ether: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Low Band Gap Polymers" Weibin Cui and Fred Wudl Macromolecules, 46 (18): 7232-7238 (2013). DOI Link "A Montarnal, Nancy D. Eisenmenger, Sung-Yu Ku, Michael L....

  2. Synthesis and Modification of Alternating Copolymers Based on Vinyl Ethers, Chlorotrifluoroethylene, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , in dynamic mode, under air, showed decomposition temperatures (Td,10%) higher than 200 °C. Electrochemical recent fuel cells technology, combining the best of both alkaline batteries and solid polymer electrolyte-exchange membranes, do not require noble metals (Pt, Ru...) as catalysts to function, which is one of the main

  3. Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Robert

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    vinyl- sunlight.html. Certainteed. 2005. “PVC Capstockon PVC Substrate. ” Material Safety Data Sheet MSDS Number:2010. “Overview of materials for PVC, Rigid Grade. ” http://

  4. Vinyl Siding Institute (VSI) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTown of Ladoga,planningFlowmeterUtah: Energy Resources Jump to:Vinyl Kraft

  5. Aza crown ether compounds as anion receptors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, H.S.; Yang, X.O.; McBreen, J.

    1998-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A family of aza-ether based compounds including linear, multi-branched and aza-crown ethers is provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the new family of aza-ether based compounds acts as neutral receptors to complex the anion moiety of the electrolyte salt thereby increasing the conductivity and the transference number of LI{sup +} ion in alkali metal batteries. 3 figs.

  6. Near-Infrared Electrochromism in Electroactive Pentacenediquinone-Containing Poly(aryl ether)s

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wan, Xin-hua

    Near-Infrared Electrochromism in Electroactive Pentacenediquinone-Containing Poly(aryl etherVed October 21, 2005 The synthesis and near-infrared electrochromic properties of pentacenediquinone-infrared electrochromic properties of pentacenediquinone-containing poly(aryl ether)s were studied

  7. Crown Ethers in Graphene Bring Strong, Selective Binding | ornl...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials Characterization Crown Ethers in Graphene Bring Strong, Selective Binding November 14, 2014 Schematic showing a graphene sheet containing an array of ideal crown ethers....

  8. Purification of aqueous cellulose ethers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartscherer, K.A.; de Pablo, J.J.; Bonnin, M.C.; Prausnitz, J.M.

    1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Manufacture of cellulose ethers usually involves high amounts of salt by-products. For application of the product, salt must be removed. In this work, we have studied the injection of high-pressure CO{sub 2} into an aqueous polymer-salt solution; we find that upon addition of isopropanol in addition to CO{sub 2}, the solution separates into two phases. One phase is rich in polymer and water, and the other phase contains mostly isopropanol, water and CO{sub 2}. The salt distributes between the two phases, thereby offering interesting possibilities for development of a new purification process for water-soluble polymers. This work presents experimental phase-equilibrium data for hydroxyethyl cellulose and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose with sodium acetate and potassium sulfate, respectively, in the region 40{degree}C and 30 to 80 bar. Based on these data, we suggest a process for the manufacture and purification of water-soluble cellulose ethers. 15 refs., 14 figs., 9 tabs.

  9. Guidance Document Peroxide-FormingChemicals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    months. Acrylic acid Tetrafluoroethylene Acrylonitrile Vinyl acetate 1,3-Butadiene Vinyl acetylene months. Acetal Diethylene glycol dimethyl ether (diglyme) Isopropyl alcohol Acetaldehyde Diethyl ether Isopropyl propyl ether Acrylamide Diethyl fumatate Isopropyl vinyl ether Allyl ethyl ether Diethylketene 2

  10. Beam damage of poly(vinyl chloride) [PVC] as observed by x-ray...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    damage of poly(vinyl chloride) PVC as observed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy at 143 K, 303 K and 373 K. Beam damage of poly(vinyl chloride) PVC as observed by x-ray...

  11. Beam Damage of Poly(Vinyl Chloride) [PVC] Film as Observed by...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Damage of Poly(Vinyl Chloride) PVC Film as Observed by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. Beam Damage of Poly(Vinyl Chloride) PVC Film as Observed by X-ray Photoelectron...

  12. Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hart, Robert; Curcija, Charlie; Arasteh, Dariush; Goudey, Howdy; Kohler, Christian; Selkowitz, Stephen

    2011-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The subject of glass solar reflectance and its contribution to permanent vinyl siding distortion has not been extensively studied, and some phenomena are not yet well understood. This white paper presents what is known regarding the issue and identifies where more research is needed. Three primary topics are discussed: environmental factors that control the transfer of heat to and from the siding surface; vinyl siding properties that may affect heat build-up and permanent distortion; and factors that determine the properties of reflected solar radiation from glass surfaces, including insulating window glass. Further research is needed to fully characterize the conditions associated with siding distortion, the scope of the problem, physical properties of vinyl siding, insulating window glass reflection characteristics, and possible mitigation or prevention strategies.

  13. Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .S. for residential buildings. To meet IECC's U-factor and solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) requirements insulatingLBNL-5022E Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding Authors: R. Hart*, C. Curcija of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would

  14. Reduction of Vinyl Chloride in Metallic Iron-Water Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Baolin

    Reduction of Vinyl Chloride in Metallic Iron-Water Systems B A O L I N D E N G * Department to groundwater and soil contamination. In particular, VC can be produced as an intermediate in the reductive- lenging. Traditional "pump-and-treat" treatment systems have proven to be costly and ineffective in many

  15. Production of methyl tert-alkyl ethers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trofimov, V.A.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The transition to the use of unleaded gasolines has required the replacement of tetraethyl lead by oxygen-containing compounds such as methanol, ethanol, and ethers, which are termed {open_quotes}oxygenates{close_quotes} in the technical literature. These may be used in commercial gasolines in amounts of 10-15% by volume, equivalent to 2% oxygen by weight. When methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is used, the oxygen content may amount to 2.7% by weight. This oxygenate gives a significant improvement of knock resistance of naphtha fractions, the greatest effects being observed for straight-run naphthas and reformer naphthas produced under normal conditions; the MTBE also improves the engine power and economy characteristics and lowers the carbon monoxide content in the exhaust by 15-30% and the hydrocarbon content by 7-8%. This paper describes methods for the production of MTBE and also methyl tert-alkyl ethers.

  16. Experimental Pathology Laboratories, Inc. Methyl-Tertiary-Butyl Ether

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, Chris I.

    COORDINATOR'S REPORT FOR LIFETIME CARCINOGENICITY STUDY OF METHYL-TERTIARY-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) IN SPRAGUE CARCINOGENICITY STUDY OF METHYL-TERTIARY-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) IN SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS CONDUCTED AT THE CANCER

  17. Experimental Pathology Laboratories, Inc. Ethyl-Tertiary-Butyl Ether

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, Chris I.

    FOR LIFETIME CARCINOGENICITY STUDY OF ETHYL-TERTIARY-BUTYL ETHER (ETBE) IN SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS CONDUCTED STUDY OF ETHYL-TERTIARY-BUTYL ETHER (ETBE) IN SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS CONDUCTED AT THE CANCER RESEARCH

  18. Public health assessment for tri-county landfill waste management of Illinois, South Elgin, Kane County, Illinois, Region 5. Cerclis No. ILD048306183. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The Tri-County and Elgin Landfills pose a public health hazard because the concentrations of lead in downgradient private wells are high enough to be a long-term health concern. Completed exposure pathways include the exposure to contaminated water from on- and off-site private wells (inhalation, ingestion, dermal contact; past, present, future). Contaminants of concern in on-site groundwater include bis(2-chloroethyl)ether, vinyl chloride, antimony, arsenic, barium, cadmium, fluoride, lead, manganese, nickel, nitrate + nitrite, and thallium. Chemicals of concern in on-site surface soil and sediments include PCBs, arsenic, cadmium, and nickel. Contaminants of concern in on-site subsurface soil include PCBs, arsenic, cadmium, lead, and nickel. This public health assessment recommends health professionals education and community health education be conducted for the community impacted by the landfills.

  19. Vacuum structure and ether-drift experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Consoli; L. Pappalardo

    2009-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    In the data of the ether-drift experiments there might be sizable fluctuations superposed on the smooth sinusoidal modulations due to the Earth's rotation and orbital revolution. These fluctuations might reflect the stochastic nature of the underlying "quantum ether" and produce vanishing averages for all vectorial quantities extracted from a naive Fourier analysis of the data. By comparing the typical stability limits of the individual optical resonators with the amplitude of their relative frequency shift, the presently observed signal, rather than being spurious experimental noise, might also express fundamental properties of a physical vacuum similar to a superfluid in a turbulent state of motion. In this sense, the situation might be similar to the discovery of the CMBR that was first interpreted as mere instrumental noise.

  20. Model Predictive Control of a Nonlinear Large-Scale Process Network Used in the Production of Vinyl Acetate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tu, TungSheng

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    monomer process design. Chemical Engineering Communications,design/control study for the vinyl acetate monomer process. Computers & Chemical Engineering,

  1. ORIGINAL PAPER Natural Fiber Reinforced Poly(vinyl chloride) Composites: Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ORIGINAL PAPER Natural Fiber Reinforced Poly(vinyl chloride) Composites: Effect of Fiber Type Science+Business Media, LLC 2008 Abstract Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) and natural fiber composites were copolymer on composite properties was investigated. Mechanical analysis showed that storage modulus

  2. Vinyl Kraft Windows and Doors | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTown of Ladoga,planningFlowmeterUtah: Energy Resources Jump to:Vinyl Kraft Windows

  3. Crown Ethers Flatten in Graphene for Strong, Specific Binding...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SHARE Crown Ethers Flatten in Graphene for Strong, Specific Binding ORNL discovery holds potential for separations, sensors, batteries, biotech and more This sheet of graphene...

  4. Alternative Fuels lDimethyl Ether Rheology and Materials Studies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Publications Research on Fuels & Lubricants Development of a Dimethyl Ether (DME)-Fueled Shuttle Bus Ionic Liquids as Multifunctional Ashless Additives for Engine Lubrication...

  5. Divinyl ether synthase gene, and protein and uses thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Howe, Gregg A.; Itoh, Aya

    2006-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to divinyl ether synthase genes, proteins, and methods of their use. The present invention encompasses both native and recombinant wild-type forms of the synthase, as well as mutants and variant forms, some of which possess altered characteristics relative to the wild-type synthase. The present invention also relates to methods of using divinyl ether synthase genes and proteins, including in their expression in transgenic organisms and in the production of divinyl ether fatty acids, and to methods of suing divinyl ether fatty acids, including in the protection of plants from pathogens.

  6. Divinyl ether synthase gene and protein, and uses thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Howe, Gregg A. (East Lansing, MI); Itoh, Aya (Tsuruoka, JP)

    2011-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to divinyl ether synthase genes, proteins, and methods of their use. The present invention encompasses both native and recombinant wild-type forms of the synthase, as well as mutants and variant forms, some of which possess altered characteristics relative to the wild-type synthase. The present invention also relates to methods of using divinyl ether synthase genes and proteins, including in their expression in transgenic organisms and in the production of divinyl ether fatty acids, and to methods of suing divinyl ether fatty acids, including in the protection of plants from pathogens.

  7. alkyl-tert alkyl ethers: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    TREAT METHYL- TERT-BUTYL ETHER CONTAMINATED CiteSeer Summary: Methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a commonly used gasoline additive. Leaking underground storage tank systems,...

  8. Process for producing dimethyl ether from synthesis gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pierantozzi, R.

    1985-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention pertains to a Fischer Tropsch process for converting synthesis gas to an oxygenated hydrocarbon with particular emphasis on dimethyl ether. Synthesis gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen are converted to dimethyl ether by carrying out the reaction in the presence of an alkali metal-manganese-iron carbonyl cluster incorporated onto a zirconia-alumina support.

  9. Process for producing dimethyl ether form synthesis gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pierantozzi, Ronald (Macungie, PA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention pertains to a Fischer Tropsch process for converting synthesis gas to an oxygenated hydrocarbon with particular emphasis on dimethyl ether. Synthesis gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen are converted to dimethyl ether by carrying out the reaction in the presence of an alkali metal-manganese-iron carbonyl cluster incorporated onto a zirconia-alumina support.

  10. Synthesis of Methanol and Dimethyl Ether from Syngas over Pd...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Methanol and Dimethyl Ether from Syngas over PdZnOAl2O3 Catalysts. Synthesis of Methanol and Dimethyl Ether from Syngas over PdZnOAl2O3 Catalysts. Abstract: A PdZnOAl2O3...

  11. Origin of mechanical modifications in poly (ether ether ketone)/carbon nanotube composite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pavlenko, Ekaterina; Puech, Pascal; Bacsa, Wolfgang, E-mail: wolfgang.bacsa@cemes.fr [CEMES-CNRS and University of Toulouse, 29 Jeanne Marvig, 31055 Toulouse (France); Boyer, François; Olivier, Philippe [Université de Toulouse, Institut Clément Ader, I.U.T. Université Paul Sabatier - 133C Avenue de Rangueil - B.P. 67701, 31077 Toulouse CEDEX 4 (France); Sapelkin, Andrei [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, E1 4NS London (United Kingdom); King, Stephen; Heenan, Richard [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, OX11 0QX Didcot (United Kingdom); Pons, François; Gauthier, Bénédicte; Cadaux, Pierre-Henri [AIRBUS FRANCE (B.E. M and P Toulouse), 316 Route de Bayonne, 31060 Toulouse (France)

    2014-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Variations in the hardness of a poly (ether ether ketone) beam electrically modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT, 0.5%-3%) are investigated. It is shown that both rupture and hardness variations correlate with the changes in carbon nanotube concentration when using micro indentation and extended Raman imaging. Statistical analysis of the relative spectral intensities in the Raman image is used to estimate local tube concentration and polymer crystallinity. We show that the histogram of the Raman D band across the image provides information about the amount of MWCNTs and the dispersion of MWCNTs in the composite. We speculate that we have observed a local modification of the ordering between pure and modified polymer. This is partially supported by small angle neutron scattering measurements, which indicate that the agglomeration state of the MWCNTs is the same at the concentrations studied.

  12. Plug repairs of marine glass fiber / vinyl ester laminates subjected to uniaxial tension

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michelis, Alexandros

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Glass fiber/vinyl ester composite laminates are currently being used and proposed for the hulls, bulkheads, and superstructures of large ships. This thesis examines the effectiveness of the repair of such laminates using ...

  13. Synthesis and Characterization of Hydrogels Based on Poly (N-vinyl formamide)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aziz, Vara

    2010-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    It is important to synthesize gels with lower toxicity and higher processibility to widen their applications. In this regard, the monomer N-vinyl formamide has an advantage over its widely used isomer acrylamide. A novel ...

  14. Pour-depressant activity of copolymers of ethylene with vinyl acetate in diesel fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dushechkin, A.P.; Ivanov, V.I.; Elagin, A.L.; Levin, A.A.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors investigate the influence of the degree of branching of the ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers (EVAC) on the limiting filterability temperature and the solid point of diesel fuels. EVAC samples with identical contents of vinyl acetate and having a molecular weight of 4500-7200 were used. The pour-depressant activity of the copolymers was determined in diesel fuel. It is shown that the degree of branching of EVAC has a substantial influence on the depressant activity in diesel fuel.

  15. State Restrictions on Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    By the end of 2005, 25 states had barred, or passed laws banning, any more than trace levels of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) in their gasoline supplies, and legislation to ban MTBE was pending in 4 others. Some state laws address only MTBE; others also address ethers such as ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE) and tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME). Annual Energy Outlook 2006 assumes that all state MTBE bans prohibit the use of all ethers for gasoline blending.

  16. Molecular Mechanism of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether Disposition in the Liver

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pacyniak, Erik Kristofer

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were introduced in the late 1970's as additive flame retardants incorporated into textiles, electronics, plastics and furniture. Although 2,2',3,3',4,4',5,5',6,6'-decabromodiphenyl ...

  17. Photoionization of methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) and t-octyl methyl ether (TOME) and analysis of their pyrolyses by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morton, Thomas Hellman

    Photoionization of methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) and t-octyl methyl ether (TOME) and analysis 1999; accepted 20 July 1999 Abstract The pyrolysis products of neutral methyl-d3 t-butyl ether (MTBE-d3 from thermal cracking patterns. MTBE and TOME both exhibit base peaks at m/z 73 (which shifts to m/z 76

  18. Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate Potential Problems for Photovoltaic Packaging: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kempe, M. D.; Jorgensen, G. J.; Terwilliger, K. M.; McMahon, T. J.; Kennedy, C. E.; Borek, T. T.

    2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Photovoltaic (PV) devices are typically encapsulated using ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) to provide mechanical support, optical coupling, electrical isolation, and protection against environmental exposure. Under exposure to atmospheric water and/or ultraviolet radiation, EVA will decompose to produce acetic acid, lowering the pH and increasing the surface corrosion rates of embedded devices. Even though acetic acid is produced at a very slow rate, it may not take much to catalyze reactions that lead to rapid module deterioration. Another consideration is that the glass transition of EVA, as measured using dynamic mechanical analysis, begins at temperatures of about ?15 C. Temperatures lower than this can be reached for extended periods of time in some climates. Because of increased moduli below the glass transition temperature, a module may be more vulnerable to damage if a mechanical load is applied by snow or wind at low temperatures. Modules using EVA should not be rated for use at such low temperatures without additional low-temperature mechanical testing beyond the scope of UL 1703.

  19. Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate Potential Problems for Photovoltaic Packaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kempe, M. D.; Jorgensen, G. J.; Terwilliger, K. M.; McMahon, T. J.; Kennedy, C. E.; Borek, T. T.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Photovoltaic (PV) devices are typically encapsulated using ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) to provide mechanical support, optical coupling, electrical isolation, and protection against environmental exposure. Under exposure to atmospheric water and/or ultraviolet radiation, EVA will decompose to produce acetic acid, lowering the pH and increasing the surface corrosion rates of embedded devices. Even though acetic acid is produced at a very slow rate, it may not take much to catalyze reactions that lead to rapid module deterioration. Another consideration is that the glass transition of EVA, as measured using dynamic mechanical analysis, begins at temperatures of about -15 degC. Temperatures lower than this can be reached for extended periods of time in some climates. Because of increased moduli below the glass transition temperature, a module may be more vulnerable to damage if a mechanical load is applied by snow or wind at low temperatures. Modules using EVA should not be rated for use at such low temperatures without additional low-temperature mechanical testing beyond the scope of UL1703.

  20. Room Temperature Copper(II)-Catalyzed Oxidative Cyclization of Enamides to 2,5-Disubstituted Oxazoles via Vinylic C–H Functionalization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheung, Chi Wai

    A copper(II)-catalyzed oxidative cyclization of enamides to oxazoles via vinylic C–H bond functionalization at room temperature is described. Various 2,5-disubstituted oxazoles bearing aryl, vinyl, alkyl, and heteroaryl ...

  1. Process Design, Simulation and Integration of Dimethyl Ether (DME) Production from Shale Gas by Direct and Indirect Methods 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karagoz, Secgin

    2014-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    may be obtained from shale gas is dimethyl ether (DME). Dimethyl ether can be used in many areas such as power generation, transportation fuel, and domestic heating and cooking. Dimethyl ether is currently produced from natural gas, coal and biomass...

  2. High octane ethers from synthesis gas-derived alcohols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.; Feeley, O.C.; Johansson, M.A.

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the proposed research is to synthesize high octane ethers, primarily methyl isobutyl ether (MIBE) and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), directly from H[sub 2]/CO/CO[sub 2] coal-derived synthesis gas via alcohol mixtures that are rich in methanol and 2-methyl-l-propanol (isobutanol). The overall scheme involves gasification of coal, purification and shifting of the synthesis gas, higher alcohol synthesis, and direct synthesis of ethers. The last stage of the synthesis involves direct coupling of synthesis gas-derived methanol and isobutanol that has been demonstrated by us to occur over superacid catalysts to yield methyl isobutyl ether (MIBE) at moderate pressures and a mixture of methanol and isobutene at low pressures. MIBE is an isomer of MTBE and a process is proposed whereby MTBE from the two alcohols is maximized and MIBE is minimized. This will be achieved by the proper choice of reaction conditions, i.e. intermediate pressures, and of inorganic acid catalysts that are stable at temperatures higher than 200[degree]C, at which the carbonium ion reaction coupling of the two alcohols to MTBE is more effective than the oxonium ion or ester reaction coupling to MIBE. Both organic and inorganic catalysts will be investigated, and the better catalysts of these classes will be subjected to long term performance studies. The long term performance studies of the combined process will extend to 1000 hr and detailed analytical data for all products will be provided.

  3. Hot Pin Welding of Thin Poly(vinyl chloride) Sheet James D. Van de Ven, Arthur G. Erdman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van de Ven, James D.

    Hot Pin Welding of Thin Poly(vinyl chloride) Sheet James D. Van de Ven, Arthur G. Erdman Mechanical of welding two thin sheets of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) with a heated pin, thus allowing construction of a relationship between the weld temperature and weld strength. Constructing a relationship between weld strength

  4. The Ether Extract and the Chloroform Extract of Soils.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S.; Rather, J. B.

    1913-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    I39-3I3-5m TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS BULLETIN NO. 155 JANUARY, 1913 DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY TECHNICAL BULLETIN THE ETHER EXTRACT AND THE CHLORO? FORM EXTRACT OF SOILS BY G. S. FRAPS and J. B. RATHER POSTOFFICE COLLEGE STATION... postal card will bring these publications. THE ETHER EXTRACT AND THE CHLOROFORM EXTRACT OF SOILS. (t. S. FliAPS , Chemist. ?J. B. o Y . C U G O Assistant Chemist. The soil may coDtarn any of the Substances which are found in plants or animals...

  5. Near-Infrared Laser Absorption of Poly(vinyl chloride) at Elevated Temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van de Ven, James D.

    Near-Infrared Laser Absorption of Poly(vinyl chloride) at Elevated Temperatures James D. Van de Ven polymer, pigments, and fillers. Because of the complex phase transition that occurs when heating the charac- teristics of heating owing to the laser radiation. This paper discusses an experiment measuring

  6. Fabrication and characterization of iron oxide nanoparticles reinforced vinyl-ester resin nanocomposites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, John Zhanhu

    reinforced with iron oxide (Fe2O3) nanoparticles were fabricated. The particle func- tionalization with a bi-functional-stability in the functionalized nanoparticles filled vinyl ester resin nanocomposites as compared to the unmodified nanoparticle acid or base. Furthermore, the functional groups of the polymer surrounding the nano- particles enable

  7. Adsorption of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate and Sodium Dodecyl Benzenesulfonate on Poly(Vinyl Chloride) Latexes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Adsorption of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate and Sodium Dodecyl Benzenesulfonate on Poly(Vinyl Chloride@cpe.fr #12;2 Abstract The adsorption of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and sodium dodecyl benzenesulfonate performed to determine the area per surfactant molecule at various temperatures (20-50ºC) and the adsorption

  8. Kinetic and spectroscopic studies of vinyl acetate synthesis over Pd(100)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Wayne

    ,b , M.S. Chena , and D.W. Goodmana, * a Department of Chemistry, Texas A&M University, P.O. Box 30012 for the production of polymers such as, polyvinyl acetate and vinyl acetate copolymers [1]. Currently, VA), For XPS analysis, Mg­Karadiation (300 W, pass energy 58.7 eV) was used, and the spectra referenced

  9. Simultaneous measurement of laser reflection and transmission of poly,,vinyl chloride...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van de Ven, James D.

    , unpigmented state are highly transmissive of light in the near-infrared range, al- lowing laser transmissionSimultaneous measurement of laser reflection and transmission of poly,,vinyl chloride... James D reflection, emphasizing the light transmitted through a material. This paper presents work creating a low

  10. Radiation chemistry of alternative fuel oxygenates -- Substituted ethers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mezyk, S. P.; Cooper, W. J.; Bartels, D. M.; Tobien, T.; O'Shea, K. E.

    1999-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The electron beam process, an advanced oxidation and reduction technology, is based in the field of radiation chemistry. Fundamental to the development of treatment processes is an understanding of the underlying chemistry. The authors have previously evaluated the bimolecular rate constants for the reactions of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and with this study have extended their studies to include ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), di-isopropyl ether (DIPE) and tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME) with the hydroxyl radical, hydrogen atom and solvated electron using pulse radiolysis. For all of the oxygenates the reaction with the hydroxyl radical appears to be of primary interest in the destruction of the compounds in water. The rates with the solvated electron are limiting values as the rates appear to be relatively low. The hydrogen atom rate constants are relatively low, coupled with the low yield in radiolysis, they concluded that these are of little significance in the destruction of the alternative fuel oxygenates (and MTBE).

  11. Effect of composite microstructure on electrical and mechanical properties of poly(vinyl acetate) composites with carbon black and clay.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miriyala, Sethu M.

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The electrical and mechanical behavior of carbon black filled poly(vinyl acetate) latex-based and solution-based polymer composites was examined. A set of experiments were performed to distinguish composites with a segregated network (emulsion...

  12. Effects of Concentration of Organically Modified Nanoclay on Properties of Sulfonated Poly(vinyl alcohol) Nanocomposite Membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanglimsuwan, Apiradee

    Electrolyte nanocomposite membranes for proton exchange membrane fuel cells and direct methanol fuel cells were prepared by carrying out a sulfonation of poly(vinyl alcohol) with sulfosuccinic acid and adding a type of ...

  13. CATALYSTS FOR HIGH CETANE ETHERS AS DIESEL FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamil Klier; Richard G. Herman; James G.C. Shen; Qisheng Ma

    2000-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel 1,2-ethanediol, bis(hydrogen sulfate), disodium salt precursor-based solid acid catalyst with a zirconia substrate was synthesized and demonstrated to have significantly enhanced activity and high selectivity in producing methyl isobutyl ether (MIBE) or isobutene from methanol-isobutanol mixtures. The precursor salt was synthesized and provided by Dr. T. H. Kalantar of the M.E. Pruitt Research Center, Dow Chemical Co., Midland, MI 48674. Molecular modeling of the catalyst synthesis steps and of the alcohol coupling reaction is being carried out. A representation of the methyl transfer from the surface activated methanol molecule (left) to the activated oxygen of the isobutanol molecule (right) to form an ether linkage to yield MIBE is shown.

  14. The effect of temperature and relative humidity levels upon charcoal tube sampling for vinyl choloride

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCaskill, Gerald Daniel

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    their cooperation, this research would not have been possible. I also wish to express my appreciation to the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health which prov ided an educational grant. DEDICATION To Ann, Your love, words of encouragement... of their employees from angiosarcoma to prolonged vinyl chloride monomer (UCM) exposure. (I) The government immediately stepped in, and by Febr uary 1974, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) had issued a set of recommendations...

  15. Thermodynamics of Hydrogen Production from Dimethyl Ether Steam Reforming and Hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.A. Semelsberger

    2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermodynamic analyses of producing a hydrogen-rich fuel-cell feed from the process of dimethyl ether (DME) steam reforming were investigated as a function of steam-to-carbon ratio (0-4), temperature (100 C-600 C), pressure (1-5 atm), and product species: acetylene, ethanol, methanol, ethylene, methyl-ethyl ether, formaldehyde, formic acid, acetone, n-propanol, ethane and isopropyl alcohol. Results of the thermodynamic processing of dimethyl ether with steam indicate the complete conversion of dimethyl ether to hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide for temperatures greater than 200 C and steam-to-carbon ratios greater than 1.25 at atmospheric pressure (P = 1 atm). Increasing the operating pressure was observed to shift the equilibrium toward the reactants; increasing the pressure from 1 atm to 5 atm decreased the conversion of dimethyl ether from 99.5% to 76.2%. The order of thermodynamically stable products in decreasing mole fraction was methane, ethane, isopropyl alcohol, acetone, n-propanol, ethylene, ethanol, methyl-ethyl ether and methanol--formaldehyde, formic acid, and acetylene were not observed. The optimal processing conditions for dimethyl ether steam reforming occurred at a steam-to-carbon ratio of 1.5, a pressure of 1 atm, and a temperature of 200 C. Modeling the thermodynamics of dimethyl ether hydrolysis (with methanol as the only product considered), the equilibrium conversion of dimethyl ether is limited. The equilibrium conversion was observed to increase with temperature and steam-to-carbon ratio, resulting in a maximum dimethyl ether conversion of approximately 68% at a steam-to-carbon ratio of 4.5 and a processing temperature of 600 C. Thermodynamically, dimethyl ether processed with steam can produce hydrogen-rich fuel-cell feeds--with hydrogen concentrations exceeding 70%. This substantiates dimethyl ether as a viable source of hydrogen for PEM fuel cells.

  16. CATALYSTS FOR HIGH CETANE ETHERS AS DIESEL FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamil Klier; Richard G. Herman; Heock-Hoi Kwon; James G. C. Shen; Qisheng Ma; Robert A. Hunsicker; Andrew P. Butler; Scott J. Bollinger

    2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A tungstena-zirconia (WZ) catalyst has been investigated for coupling methanol and isobutanol to unsymmetrical ethers, i.e. methyl isobutyl ether (MIBE) and compared with earlier studied sulfated-zirconia (SZ) and Nafion-H catalysts. In all cases, the ether synthesis mechanism is a dual site S{sub N}2 process involving competitive adsorption of reactants on proximal acid sites. At low reaction temperatures, methylisobutylether (MIBE) is the predominant product. However, at temperatures >135 C the WZ catalyst is very good for dehydration of isobutanol to isobutene. The surface acid sites of the WZ catalyst and a Nafion-H catalyst were diagnosed by high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of N 1s shifts after adsorption of amines. Using pyridine, ethylenediamine, and triethylamine, it is shown that WZ has heterogeneous strong Broensted acid sites. Theoretical study located the transition state of the alcohol coupling reaction on proximal Broensted acid sites and accounted well for XPS core-level shifts upon surface acid-base interactions. While computations have not been carried out with WZ, it is shown that the SZ catalyst is a slightly stronger acid than CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}H (a model for Nafion-H) by 1.3-1.4 kcal/mol. A novel sulfated zirconia catalyst having proximal strong Broensted acid sites was synthesized and shown to have significantly enhanced activity and high selectivity in producing MIBE or isobutene from methanol/isobutanol mixtures. The catalyst was prepared by anchoring 1,2-ethanediol bis(hydrogen sulfate) salt precursor onto zirconium hydroxide, followed by calcination to remove the -(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2})- bridging residues.

  17. Dimethyl Ether Market Size | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluating A Potential Microhydro SiteDaytonDestilaria detheDiebuOpenDimethyl Ether

  18. Alkaline stability of cellulose ethers and impact of their degradation products on cement hydration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Alkaline stability of cellulose ethers and impact of their degradation products on cement-mail address: pourchez@emse.fr emse-00449712,version1-18Sep2010 Author manuscript, published in "Cement the potential role of cellulose ethers degradation on the alteration of the cement hydration kinetics

  19. Control Study of Ethyl tert-Butyl Ether Reactive Distillation Muhammad A. Al-Arfaj

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Arfaj, Muhammad A.

    Control Study of Ethyl tert-Butyl Ether Reactive Distillation Muhammad A. Al-Arfaj Department structures for ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) reactive distillation columns are studied. Two process The use of reactive distillation has grown in recent years because it results in less expensive and more

  20. Treatment of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether Vapors in Biotrickling Filters. 2.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    vapors of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), a gasoline additive of great environmental concern MTBE treatment are discussed. Introduction The rapidly rising number of reports of groundwater con- taminated with the gasoline additive methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) has raised concerns about its

  1. Atmospheric Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) at a Rural Mountain Site in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Ronald C.

    Atmospheric Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) at a Rural Mountain Site in California Gunnar W. Schade,* Gabrielle B. Dreyfus, and Allen H. Goldstein ABSTRACT (CARB) measured MTBE in urban regions in 1995­ 1996, reporting a range of 0.4 to 13.2 ppbv in the LosMethyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE

  2. Environmental Microbiology (2001) 3(6), 407416 Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) degradation by a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Environmental Microbiology (2001) 3(6), 407±416 Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) degradation of California, Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521, USA. Summary The widespread use of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE is often proposed as the most promising alter- native after treatment. However, MTBE biodegradation appears

  3. Decomposition of Ethanol and Dimethyl Ether During Chemical Vapour deposition Synthesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    1 Decomposition of Ethanol and Dimethyl Ether During Chemical Vapour deposition Synthesis of Single-phase thermal decomposition of ethanol and dimethyl ether (DME) at typical SWNT growth conditions using to the predicted decomposition mechanism. Signature peak intensities indicated concentrations of both ethanol

  4. Overall Rate Constant Measurements of the Reaction of Hydroxy-and Chloroalkylperoxy Radicals Derived from Methacrolein and Methyl Vinyl Ketone with Nitric Oxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elrod, Matthew J.

    and to lead to additional ozone production in regions where isoprene oxidation chemistry is dominant Derived from Methacrolein and Methyl Vinyl Ketone with Nitric Oxide Hong Yuan Hsin and Matthew J. Elrod- and chloroalkylperoxy radicals, derived from the OH- and Cl-initiated oxidation of methacrolein and methyl vinyl ketone

  5. Use TAME and heavier ethers to improve gasoline properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ignatius, J.; Jaervelin, H.; Lindqvist, P. (Neste Engineering, Porvoo (Finland))

    1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Producing oxygenates from all potential FCC tertiary olefins is one of the most economic methods for reducing olefins and Reid vapor pressure (Rvp) in motor gasoline. MTBE production based on FCC isobutylene has reached a very high level. But the amount of MTBE from a refinery sidestream MTBE unit is insufficient for producing reformulated gasoline (RFG) and additional oxygenates must be purchased. The next phase will see conversion of isoamylenes in FCC light gasoline to TAME. Very little attention has been given to the heavier tertiary olefins present in the FCC light gasoline like tert-hexenes and heptenes. This route allows higher levels of oxygenates production, thereby lowering Rvp and the proportion of olefins in the gasoline pool and maximizing the use of FCC olefins. By using all the components produced by an FCC efficiently, many gasoline problems can be solved. Isobutene is converted to MTBE, C[sub 3]/C[sub 4] olefins are converted to alkylate and C[sub 5] tertiary olefins can be converted to TAME. All of these are preferred components for gasoline quality. By producing more oxygenates like MTBE, TAME and heavier ethers, a refinery can be self-sufficient in blending reformulated gasoline and no oxygenates need to be purchased. The technology for producing TAME and other ethers is described.

  6. Anodic polymerization of vinyl ethylene carbonate in Li-Ion battery electrolyte

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Guoying; Zhuang, Guorong V.; Richardson, Thomas J.; Gao, Liu; Ross Jr., Philip N.

    2005-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A study of the anodic oxidation of vinyl ethylene carbonate (VEC) was conducted with post-mortem analysis of reaction products by ATR-FTIR and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The half-wave potential (E1/2) for oxidation of VEC is ca. 3.6 V producing a resistive film on the electrode surface. GPC analysis of the film on a gold electrode produced by anodization of a commercial Li-ion battery electrolyte containing 2 percent VEC at 4.1 V showed the presence of a high molecular weight polymer. IR analysis indicated polycarbonate with alkyl carbonate rings linked by aliphatic methylene and methyl branches.

  7. Genome Sequence of the Ethene- and Vinyl Chloride-Oxidizing Actinomycete Nocardioides sp Strain JS614

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coleman, Nicholas V [University of Sydney, Australia; Wilson, Neil L [University of Sydney, Australia; Barry, Kerrie [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Copeland, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Dalin, Eileen [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Hammon, Nancy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Han, Shunsheng [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Israni, Sanjay [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kim, Edwin [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Larimer, Frank W [ORNL; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Richardson, Paul [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Schmutz, Jeremy [Stanford University; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Thompson, Sue [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Tice, Hope [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Spain, Jim C [Georgia Institute of Technology; Gossett, James G [Cornell University; Mattes, Timothy E [University of Iowa

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nocardioides sp. strain JS614 grows on ethene and vinyl chloride (VC) as sole carbon and energy sources and is of interest for bioremediation and biocatalysis. Sequencing of the complete genome of JS614 provides insight into the genetic basis of alkene oxidation, supports ongoing research into the physiology and biochemistry of growth on ethene and VC, and provides biomarkers to facilitate detection of VC/ethene oxidizers in the environment. This is the first genome sequence from the genus Nocardioides and the first genome of a VC/ethene-oxidizing bacterium.

  8. Determination of methyl tert. butyl ether (MTBE) in gasoline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feldman, J.; Orchin, M. (Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States))

    1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A GLC-acid extraction method is described for the determination of MTBE in gasolines. The method consists of a programmed GLC analysis starting at about room temperature conducted before and after extraction with cold 85% phosphoric acid. This treatment results in the preferential solubility of ethers and other oxygenated compounds while minimizing the reaction of olefins and aromatics which may be present in the gasolines. Plotting various known concentrations of MTBE in gasolines against the concentrations determined in the same samples by the authors methodology results in a straight line relationship. The concentration of MTBE in any sample of gasoline may thus be determined using their GLC-extraction procedure and the calibration line. The analysis can accommodate a wide choice of standard GLC columns and programs. 2 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  9. Dimethyl ether fuel proposed as an alternative to LNG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kikkawa, Yoshitsugi; Aoki, Ichizo [Chiyoda Corp., Yokohama (Japan)

    1998-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    To cope with the emerging energy demand in Asia, alternative fuels to LNG must be considered. Alternative measures, which convert the natural gas to liquid fuel, include the Fischer-Tropsch conversion, methanol synthesis, and dimethyl ether (DME) synthesis. Comparisons are evaluated based on both transportation cost and feed-gas cost. The analysis will show that DME, one alternative to LNG as transportation fuel, will be more economical for longer distances between the natural-gas source and the consumer. LNG requires a costly tanker and receiving terminal. The break-even distance will be around 5,000--7,000 km and vary depending on the transported volume. There will be risk, however, since there has never been a DME plant the size of an LNG-equivalent plant [6 million metric tons/year (mty)].

  10. alkyl tert-butyl ether: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by Fusarium solani CiteSeer Summary: Fusarium solani degraded methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and other oxygenated compounds from gasoline including tert-butyl alcohol (TBA). The...

  11. Study of the peroxidation mechanism of diethyl ether (DEE) International Symposium on Loss Prvention

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    and in allylic and benzylic structures. In figure 23 are presented peroxidizable moieties in order of decreasing hazard. l.Ethers and acetals with a-hvdroaen H -i-o-

  12. The Copolymerization of CO_(2) and Cyclic Ethers and Their Degradation Pathways

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei, Sheng-Hsuan

    2013-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    couplings of epoxides and CO_(2) to produce polycarbonates has received attention from researchers. In this dissertation, metal catalyzed CO_(2)/cyclic ether copolymerization, depolymerization of polycarbonates, and the equilibria between polycarbonate...

  13. The Total Fatty Acids and Other Ether-Soluable Constituents of Feedstuffs.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rather, J. B. (James Burness)

    1914-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    586-914-10m TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN NO. 169 SEPTEMBER, 19I4 DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY The Total Fatty Acids and Other Ether-Soluble Constituents of Feedstuffs BY J. B. RATHER Assistant Chemist POSTOFFICE COLLEGE STATION............................................................................................................. 5 An Improved Method for the Determination of Total Fatty Acids and Other Constituents of Ether Extracts................................... 7 A New Method for the Extraction of Total Fatty Acids and Other Constituents of Feed Stuffs...

  14. Composition and Digestibility of the Ether Extract of Hays and Fodders.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S.; Rather, J. B.

    1912-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    556-712-5m TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS. BULLETIN NO . 150 AUGUST , 1912. Division o f Chemistry TECHNICAL BULLETIN Composition and Digestibility of the Ether Extract of Hays and Fodders By G S. FRAPS and J. B. RATHER POSTOFFICE..........................................................13 Properties of UDsapoDifiable...................................................................15 Method of Determination of UDsapoDifiable and SapoDifiable........ 17 Composition of Ether Extract of Hays and Fodders........................ 21...

  15. Reactive triblock polymers from tandem ring-opening polymerization for nanostructured vinyl thermosets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amendt, Mark A.; Pitet, Louis M.; Moench, Sarah; Hillmyer, Marc A. (UMM)

    2013-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Multiply functional hydroxyl telechelic poly(cyclooctene-s-5-norbornene-2-methylene methacrylate) was synthesized by ring opening metathesis (co)polymerization of cis-cyclooctene and 5-norbornene-2-methylene methacrylate using the second generation Grubbs catalyst in combination with a symmetric chain transfer agent bearing hydroxyl functionality. The resulting hydroxyl-telechelic polymer was used as a macroinitiator for the ring opening transesterification polymerization of d,l-lactide to form reactive poly(lactide)-b-poly(cyclooctene-s-5-norbornene-2-methylene methacrylate)-b-poly(lactide) triblock polymers. Subsequently, the triblocks were crosslinked by free radical copolymerization with several vinyl monomers including styrene, divinylbenzene, methyl methacrylate, and ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate. Certain conditions led to optically transparent thermosets with mesoscale phase separation as evidenced by small angle X-ray scattering, differential scanning calorimetry and transmission electron microscopy. Disordered, bicontinuous structures with nanoscopic domains were generated in several cases, rendering the samples attractive for size-selective membrane applications.

  16. Endovascular Embolization of Visceral Artery Aneurysms with Ethylene-vinyl Alcohol (Onyx): A Case Series

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bratby, M.J.; Lehmann, E.D. [St. George's Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Bottomley, J.; Kessel, D.O.; Nicholson, A.A.; McPherson, S.J. [Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Morgan, R.A.; Belli, A.-M. [St. George's Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)], E-mail: Anna.Belli@stgeorges.nhs.uk

    2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the application of the liquid embolic agent ethylene-vinyl alcohol (Onyx; MicroTherapeutics, Irvine, CA, USA) in the management of visceral artery aneurysms. The technique and indications for using Onyx are discussed with emphasis on the management of wide-necked aneurysms and maintenance of patency of the parent vessel. None of the cases was considered suitable for stent-grafting or embolization with conventional agents. Two aneurysms of the renal artery bifurcation and one aneurysm of the inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery were treated. Following treatment there was complete exclusion of all aneurysms. There was no evidence of end-organ infarction. Follow-up with intervals up to 6 months has shown sustained aneurysm exclusion. Onyx is known to be effective in the management of intracranial aneurysms. Our experience demonstrates the efficacy and applicability of the use of Onyx in the treatment of complex visceral artery aneurysms.

  17. Process for producing high purity isoolefins and dimers thereof by dissociation of ethers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Jones, E.M. Jr.; Hearn, D.

    1984-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Alkyl tertiary butyl ether or alkyl tertiary amyl ether is dissociated by vapor phase contact with a cation acidic exchange resin at temperatures in the range of 150 to 250 F at LHSV of 0.1 to 20 to produce a stream consisting of unreacted ether, isobutene or isoamylene and an alcohol corresponding to the alkyl radical. After the alcohol is removed, the ether/isoolefin stream may be fractionated to obtain a high purity isoolefin (99+%) or the ether/isoolefin stream can be contacted in liquid phase with a cation acidic exchange resin to selectively dimerize the isoolefin in a highly exothermic reaction, followed by fractionation of the dimerization product to produce high purity diisoolefin (97+%). In the case where the alkyl is C[sub 3] to C[sub 6] and the corresponding alcohol is produced on dissociation of the ether, combined dissociation-distillation may be carried out such that isoolefin is the overhead product and alcohol the bottom. 2 figs.

  18. Process for producing high purity isoolefins and dimers thereof by dissociation of ethers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX); Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX); Hearn, Dennis (Houston, TX)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Alkyl tertiary butyl ether or alkyl tertiary amyl ether is dissociated by vapor phase contact with a cation acidic exchange resin at temperatures in the range of 150.degree. to 250.degree. F. at LHSV of 0.1 to 20 to produce a stream consisting of unreacted ether, isobutene or isoamylene and an alcohol corresponding to the alkyl radical. After the alcohol is removed, the ether/isoolefin stream may be fractionated to obtain a high purity isoolefin (99+%) or the ether/isoolefin stream can be contacted in liquid phase with a cation acidic exchange resin to selectively dimerize the isoolefin in a highly exothermic reaction, followed by fractionation of the dimerization product to produce high purity diisoolefin (97+%). In the case where the alkyl is C.sub.3 to C.sub.6 and the corresponding alcohol is produced on dissociation of the ether, combined dissociation-distillation may be carried out such that isoolefin is the overhead product and alcohol the bottom.

  19. Conducting polymer blends: Polypyrrole and polythiophene blends with polystyrene, polycarbonate resin, poly(vinyl alcohol) and poly(vinyl methyl ketone)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, H.L.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Various aromatic compounds can be polymerized by electrochemical oxidation in solution containing a supporting electrolyte. Most studies have been devoted to polypyrrole and polythiophene. In situ doping during electrochemical polymerization yields free standing conductive polymer film. One major approach to making conducting polymer blends is electrochemical synthesis after coating the host polymer on a platinum electrode. In the electrolysis of pyrrole or thiophene monomer, using (t-Bu[sub 4]N)BF[sub 4] as supporting electrolyte, and acetonitrile as solvent, monomer can diffuse through the polymer film, to produce a polypyrrole or polythiophene blend in the film. Doping occurs along with polymerization to form a conducting polymer alloy. The strongest molecular interaction in polymers, and one that is central to phase behavior, is hydrogen bonding. This mixing at the molecular level enhances the degree of miscibility between two polymers and results in macroscopic properties indicative of single phase behavior. In this dissertation, the authors describes the syntheses of conducting polymer blends: polypyrrole and polythiophene blends with polystyrene, poly(bisphenol-A-carbonate), polyvinyl alcohol and poly(vinyl methyl ketone). The syntheses are performed both electrochemically and chemically. Characterization of these blends was carried out by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, Differential Scanning Calorimetry, Thermogravimetric Analysis, Scanning Electron Microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Percolating threshold conductivities occur from 7% to 20% for different polymer blends. The low threshold conductivity is attributed to blend homogeneity enhanced by hydrogen bonding between the carbonyl group in the insulating polymer and the N-H group in polypyrrole. Thermal stability, environmental stability, mechanical properties, crystallinity and morphological structure are also discussed. The authors have also engaged in the polymerization of imidazoles.

  20. Plug repairs of marine glass fiber / vinyl ester laminates subjected to in-plane shear stress or in-plane bending moment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Urrutia Valenzuela, Roberto

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Glass fiber / vinyl ester composite laminates represent an important class of modem fiber composites being proposed or used in state-of-the-art shipbuilding. This thesis examined the effectiveness of chopped strand mat ...

  1. An Explanation of Dayton Miller's Anomalous "Ether Drift" Result

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas J. Roberts

    2006-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1933 Dayton Miller published in this journal the results of his voluminous observations using his ether drift interferometer, and proclaimed that he had determined the "absolute motion of the earth". This result is in direct conflict with the prediction of Special Relativity, and also with numerous related experiments that found no such signal or "absolute motion". This paper presents a complete explanation for his anomalous result by: a) showing that his results are not statistically significant, b) describing in detail how flaws in his analysis procedure produced a false signal with precisely the properties he expected, and c) presenting a quantitative model of his systematic drift that shows there is no real signal in his data. In short, this is every experimenter's nightmare: he was unknowingly looking at statistically insignificant patterns in his systematic drift that mimicked the appearance of a real signal. An upper limit on "absolute motion" of 6 km/sec is derived from his raw data, fully consistent with similar experimental results and the prediction of Special Relativity. The key point of this paper is the need for a comprehensive and quantitative error analysis. The concepts and techniques used in this analysis were not available in Miller's day, but are now standard. These problems also apply to the famous measurements of Michelson and Morley, and to most if not all similar experiments; appendices are provided discussing several such experiments.

  2. Vapor-liquid equilibria for methanol + tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Esteve, X.; Chaudhari, S.K.; Coronas, A. [Univ. Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona (Spain). Dept. of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vapor-liquid equilibrium (P-T-x) for the methanol + tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether binary system were obtained by the static method in the range of temperatures from 293.15 to 423.15 K at 10 K intervals. The modified vapor pressure apparatus used is described. The Kuczynsky method was used to calculate the liquid and vapor composition and the activity coefficients of methanol from the initial composition of the sample and the measured pressure and temperature. The results were correlated by the NRTL and UNIQUAC temperature dependent activity coefficient models. This system shows nearly ideal behavior at 323.15 K, but positive deviations from ideality at lower temperatures and negative deviations at higher temperatures are observed. The activity coefficients become more negative with the increase in temperature and mole fraction of methanol. The excess molar enthalpy using the Gibss-Helmholtz equation and the NRTL and UNIQUAC parameters were calculated at 303.15 K and compared with experimental data. This binary system shows promise as a working pair for high-temperature heat pump applications.

  3. Control technology of vinyl chloride in EDC-VCM and PVC plants at main source points and fugitive emissions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parra, Dario Antonio

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    phase. A free radical catalyst (dibenzoil peroxide) is dissolved in the VCM feed, and is used to initiate polymerization. Suspending agents such as polyvinyl alcohol are used along with continuous agitation to keep VCM droplets small. The heat... The sources of fugitive emissions from both processes correspond to: 1. Leakage from pumps, compressors, agitator seals, relief valves, and flanges. 2. Taking samples of vinyl chloride product. 3. In process waste water. The emission sources...

  4. DIMETHYL ETHER (DME)-FUELED SHUTTLE BUS DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elana M. Chapman; Shirish Bhide; Jennifer Stefanik; Howard Glunt; Andre L. Boehman; Allen Homan; David Klinikowski

    2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this research and demonstration program are to convert a campus shuttle bus to operation on dimethyl ether, a potential ultra-clean alternative diesel fuel. To accomplish this objective, this project includes laboratory evaluation of a fuel conversion strategy, as well as, field demonstration of the DME-fueled shuttle bus. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In this project, they have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. Their strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. The bulk of the efforts over the past year were focused on the conversion of the campus shuttle bus. This process, started in August 2001, took until April 2002 to complete. The process culminated in an event to celebrate the launching of the shuttle bus on DME-diesel operation on April 19, 2002. The design of the system on the shuttle bus was patterned after the system developed in the engine laboratory, but also was subjected to a rigorous failure modes effects analysis (FMEA, referred to by Air Products as a ''HAZOP'' analysis) with help from Dr. James Hansel of Air Products. The result of this FMEA was the addition of layers of redundancy and over-pressure protection to the system on the shuttle bus. The system became operational in February 2002. Preliminary emissions tests and basic operation of the shuttle bus took place at the Pennsylvania Transportation Institute's test track facility near the University Park airport. After modification and optimization of the system on the bus, operation on the campus shuttle route began in early June 2002. However, the work and challenges continued as it has been difficult to maintain operability of the shuttle bus due to fuel and component difficulties. In late June 2002, the pump head itself developed operational problems (loss of smooth function) leading to excessive stress on the magnetic coupling and excessive current draw to operate. A new pump head was installed on the system to alleviate this problem and the shuttle bus operated successfully on DME blends from 10-25 vol% on the shuttle bus loop until September 30, 2002. During the period of operation on the campus loop, the bus was pulled from service, operated at the PTI test track and real-time emissions measurements were obtained using an on-board emissions analyzer from Clean Air Technologies International, Inc. Particulate emissions reductions of 60% and 80% were observed at DME blend ratios of 12 vol.% and 25 vol.%, respectively, as the bus was operated over the Orange County driving cycle. Increases in NOx, CO and HC emissions were observed, however. In summary, the conversion of the shuttle bus was successfully accomplished, particulate emissions reductions were observed, but there were operational challenges in the field. Nonetheless, they were able to demonstrate reliable operation of the shuttle bus on DME-diesel blends.

  5. Mechanisms, Chemistry, and Kinetics of Anaerobic Biodegradation of cis-Dichloroethene and Vinyl Chloride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCarty, P.L.; Spormann, A.M.

    2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Anaerobic biological processes can result in PCE and TCE destruction through conversion to cis-dichloroethene (cDCE) then to vinyl chloride (VC), and finally to ethene. Here, the chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) serve as electron acceptors in energy metabolism, requiring electron donors such as hydrogen from an external source. The purpose of this study was to learn more about the biochemistry of cDCE and VC conversion to ethene, to better understand the requirements for electron donors, and to determine factors affecting the rates of CAH degradation and organism growth. The biochemistry of reductive dehalogenation of VC was studied with an anaerobic mixed culture enriched on VC. In other studies on electron donor needs for dehalogenation of cDCE and VC, competition for hydrogen was found to occur between the dehalogenators and other microorganisms such as methanogens and homoacetogens in a benzoate-acclimated dehalogenating methanogenic mixed culture. Factors affecting the relative rates of destruction of the solvents and their intermediate products were evaluated. Studies using a mixed PCE-dehalogenating culture as well as the VC enrichment for biochemical studies suggested that the same species was involved in both cDCE and VC dechlorination, and that cDCE and VC competitively inhibited each other's dechlorination rate.

  6. Potential Problems with Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate for Photovoltaic Packaging (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kempe, M. D.; Jorgensen, G. J.; Terwilliger, K, M.; McMahon, T. J.; Kennedy, C. E.; Borek, T. T.

    2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Photovoltaic (PV) devices are typically encapsulated using ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) to provide mechanical support electrical isolation, optical coupling, and protection against environmental exposure. Under exposure to atmospheric water and/or ultraviolet radiation, EVA will decompose to produce acetic acid, lowering the pH and increasing the surface corrosion rates of embedded devices. Even though acetic acid is produced at a very slow rate it may not take much to catalyze reactions that lead to rapid module deterioration. Another consideration is that the glass transition of EVA, as measured using dynamic mechanical analysis, begins at temperatures of about -15 C. Temperatures lower than this can be reached for extended periods of time in some climates. Due to increased moduli below the glass transition temperature, a module may be more vulnerable to damage if a mechanical load is applied by snow or wind at low temperatures. Modules using EVA should not be rated for use at such low temperatures without additional low-temperature mechanical testing beyond the scope of UL 1703.

  7. Alternate fuels and chemicals from synthesis gas: Vinyl acetate monomer. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard D. Colberg; Nick A. Collins; Edwin F. Holcombe; Gerald C. Tustin; Joseph R. Zoeller

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There has been a long-standing desire on the part of industry and the U.S. Department of Energy to replace the existing ethylene-based vinyl acetate monomer (VAM) process with an entirely synthesis gas-based process. Although there are a large number of process options for the conversion of synthesis gas to VAM, Eastman Chemical Company undertook an analytical approach, based on known chemical and economic principles, to reduce the potential candidate processes to a select group of eight processes. The critical technologies that would be required for these routes were: (1) the esterification of acetaldehyde (AcH) with ketene to generate VAM, (2) the hydrogenation of ketene to acetaldehyde, (3) the hydrogenation of acetic acid to acetaldehyde, and (4) the reductive carbonylation of methanol to acetaldehyde. This report describes the selection process for the candidate processes, the successful development of the key technologies, and the economic assessments for the preferred routes. In addition, improvements in the conversion of acetic anhydride and acetaldehyde to VAM are discussed. The conclusion from this study is that, with the technology developed in this study, VAM may be produced from synthesis gas, but the cost of production is about 15% higher than the conventional oxidative acetoxylation of ethylene, primarily due to higher capital associated with the synthesis gas-based processes.

  8. Impacts of Ethanol on Anaerobic Production of Tert-Butyl Alcohol (TBA) from Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) in Groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scow, K M; MacKay, Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) in Groundwater P.I. names,Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a contaminant of concernsubsurface environments. MTBE appears to be degraded readily

  9. The Effect of the Di-Tertiary Butyl Peroxide (DTBP) additive on HCCI Combustion of Fuel Blends of Ethanol and Diethyl Ether

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mack, John Hunter; Buchholz, Bruce A; Flowers, Daniel L; Dibble, Robert W

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    diethyl ether (DEE) in ethanol fuel blends for a range ofbio-derived fuel components (ethanol) in emission productsHCCI Combustion of Fuel Blends of Ethanol and Diethyl Ether

  10. Accurate Computer Simulation of Phase Equilibrium for Complex Fluid Mixtures. Application to Binaries Involving Isobutene, Methanol, Methyl tert-Butyl Ether, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lisal, Martin

    to Binaries Involving Isobutene, Methanol, Methyl tert-Butyl Ether, and n-Butane Martin Li´sal,*,, William R + methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and the binaries formed by methanol with isobutene, MTBE, and n

  11. IDENTIFYING THE USAGE PATTERNS OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) AND OTHER OXYGENATES IN GASOLINE USING GASOLINE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    IDENTIFYING THE USAGE PATTERNS OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) AND OTHER OXYGENATES IN GASOLINE 1608 Mt. View Rapid City, SD 57702 Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is commonly added to gasoline. In 1998, 11.9 billion liters of MTBE were produced in the U.S. MTBE has been detected frequently

  12. Catalyst system and process for benzyl ether fragmentation and coal liquefaction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zoeller, Joseph Robert (Kingsport, TN)

    1998-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Dibenzyl ether can be readily cleaved to form primarily benzaldehyde and toluene as products, along with minor amounts of bibenzyl and benzyl benzoate, in the presence of a catalyst system comprising a Group 6 metal, preferably molybdenum, a salt, and an organic halide. Although useful synthetically for the cleavage of benzyl ethers, this cleavage also represents a key model reaction for the liquefaction of coal; thus this catalyst system and process should be useful in coal liquefaction with the advantage of operating at significantly lower temperatures and pressures.

  13. Toxicity of polychlorinated diphenyl ethers in Hydra attenuata and in rat whole embryo culture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Becker, Marion Carol

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    TOXICITY OF POLYCHLORINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS IN HYDRA A?TENUATA AND IN RAT WHOLE EMBRYO CULTURE A Thesis by MARION CAROL BECKER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A8cM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1991 Major Subject: Toxicology TOXICITY OF POLYCHLORINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS IN HYDRA A1TENUATA AND IN RAT WHOLE EMBRYO CULTURE by MARION CAROL BECKER Approved as to style and content by: Stephen H. S (Ca...

  14. Toxicity of polychlorinated diphenyl ethers in Hydra attenuata and in rat whole embryo culture 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Becker, Marion Carol

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    TOXICITY OF POLYCHLORINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS IN HYDRA A?TENUATA AND IN RAT WHOLE EMBRYO CULTURE A Thesis by MARION CAROL BECKER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A8cM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1991 Major Subject: Toxicology TOXICITY OF POLYCHLORINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS IN HYDRA A1TENUATA AND IN RAT WHOLE EMBRYO CULTURE by MARION CAROL BECKER Approved as to style and content by: Stephen H. S (Ca...

  15. NMR investigations of water retention mechanism by cellulose ethers in cement-based materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 NMR investigations of water retention mechanism by cellulose ethers in cement-based materials J of freshly-mixed white cement pastes. NMRD is useful to determine the surface diffusion coefficient of water, the specific surface area and the hydration kinetics of the cement-based material. In spite of modifications

  16. Treatment of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether Vapors in Biotrickling Filters. 1.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    An aerobic microbial consortium able to biodegrade methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) was enriched in two waste, the two laboratory- scale biotrickling filters were able to degrade up to 50 g of MTBE per cubic meter be sustained for at least 4-6 weeks. After the acclimation phase, the MTBE degrading biotrickling filters were

  17. Treatment of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether Contaminated Water Using a Dense

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dandy, David

    -butyl ether (MTBE) in a dense medium plasma (DMP) reactor utilizing gas chromatog- raphy-massspectrometryandgaschromatography-thermal conductivity techniques. A rate law is developed for the removal of MTBE from an aqueous solution in the DMP. The oxidation products from the treatment of MTBE-contaminated water in the DMP reactor were found

  18. Enhanced diisobutene production in the presence of methyl tertiary butyl ether

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the liquid phase reaction of isobutene in the presence of resin cation exchange resins with itself in a C[sub 4] hydrocarbon stream to form dimers, the formation of higher polymers, oligomers, and co-dimer by-products is suppressed by the presence of 0.0001 to 1 mole per mole of isobutene of methyl tertiary butyl ether. 1 fig.

  19. Dimethyl ether (DME) from coal as a household cooking fuel in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    be made from any carbonaceous feedstock, including natural gas, coal, or biomass, using establishedDimethyl ether (DME) from coal as a household cooking fuel in China Eric D. Larson Princeton gas (LPG) as a household cooking fuel. As such, DME is an attractive fuel for clean cooking. DME can

  20. Lithium Hexamethyldisilazide-Mediated Ketone Enolization: The Influence of Hindered Dialkyl Ethers and Isostructural

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collum, David B.

    Lithium Hexamethyldisilazide-Mediated Ketone Enolization: The Influence of Hindered Dialkyl Ethers of the enolization of 2-methylcyclohexanone mediated by lithium hexameth- yldisilazide (LiHMDS; TMS2NLi) solvated- bine to make lithium hexamethyldisilazide (LiHMDS) one of the most important Bro¨nsted bases in organic

  1. Viscoelastic Behavior of Poly(ether imide) Incorporated with Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, Frank

    plastic, and suitable for use in many demanding applications because of its relatively high strength, high, and thermal properties of engineering plastics, including poly(ether imide) (PEI), with various nanoin; viscoelastic properties INTRODUCTION The demand for lightweight materials with high strength and thermal

  2. Synthesis and characterization of redox polymers of (M(4-vinyl-4 prime -methyl-2,2 prime -bipyridine) sub 3 )(PF sub 6 ) sub 2 (M = Ru, Os)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bommarito, S.L.; Lowery-Bretz, S.P.; Abruna, H.D. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States))

    1992-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors have prepared polymers of (M(vbpy){sub 3}(PF{sub 6}){sub 2}) (M = Ru, Os) (vbpy = 4-vinyl-4{prime}-methyl-2,2{prime}-bipyridine) in solution via free-radical polymerization and fractionated them according to molecular weight using size exclusion chromatography. Different fractions have been characterized by electrochemical and spectroscopic means. The authors find that whereas for the osmium containing polymers the relative polymer size varies in proportion to the number of vinyl groups consumed during the polymerization reaction, the same is not true for the analogous ruthenium polymers. In addition, the emission energy of both the ruthenium and osmium polymers is also related to the concentration of residual vinyl groups in the polymer. Upon polymerization, there is a shift in the emission toward higher energies. Electrochemically determined diffusion coefficients are consistent with the relative size of the various fractions.

  3. Assessment of ether and alcohol fuels from coal. Volume 2. Technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A unique route for the indirect liquefaction of coal to produce transportation fuel has been evaluated. The resultant fuel includes alkyl tertiary alkyl ethers and higher alcohols, all in the gasoline boiling range. When blended into gasoline, the ether fuel provides several advantages over the lower alcohols: (1) lower chemical oxygen content, (2) less-severe water-separation problems, and (3) reduced front-end volatility effects. The ether fuel also has high-octane quality. Further, it can be utilized as a gasoline substitute in all proportions. Production of ether fuel combines several steps, all of which are or have been practiced on an industrial scale: (1) coal gasification, (2) gas cleanup and shift to desired H/sub 2/:CO ratio, (3) conversion of synthesis gas to isobutanol, methanol, and higher alcohols, (4) separation of alcohols, (5) chemical dehydration of isobutanol to isobutylene, and (6) etherification of isobutylene with methanol. A pilot-plant investigation of the isobutanol synthesis step was performed. Estimates of ether-fuel manufacturing costs indicate this process route is significantly more costly than synthesis of methanol. However, the fuel performance features provide incentive for developing the necessary process and catalyst improvements. Co-production of higher-molecular-weight co-solvent alcohols represents a less-drastic form of methanol modification to achieve improvement in the performance of methanol-gasoline blends. Costs were estimated for producing several proportions of methanol plus higher alcohols from coal. Estimated fuel selling price increases regularly but modestly with higher alcohol content.

  4. Ionization and dissociation dynamics of vinyl bromide probed by femtosecond extreme ultraviolet transient absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Ming-Fu; Neumark, Daniel M. [Ultrafast X-ray Science Laboratory, Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States) [Ultrafast X-ray Science Laboratory, Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Gessner, Oliver [Ultrafast X-ray Science Laboratory, Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)] [Ultrafast X-ray Science Laboratory, Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Leone, Stephen R. [Ultrafast X-ray Science Laboratory, Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States) [Ultrafast X-ray Science Laboratory, Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2014-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Strong-field induced ionization and dissociation dynamics of vinyl bromide, CH{sub 2}=CHBr, are probed using femtosecond extreme ultraviolet (XUV) transient absorption spectroscopy. Strong-field ionization is initiated with an intense femtosecond, near infrared (NIR, 775 nm) laser field. Femtosecond XUV pulses covering the photon energy range of 50-72 eV probe the subsequent dynamics by measuring the time-dependent spectroscopic features associated with transitions of the Br (3d) inner-shell electrons to vacancies in molecular and atomic valence orbitals. Spectral signatures are observed for the depletion of neutral C{sub 2}H{sub 3}Br, the formation of C{sub 2}H{sub 3}Br{sup +} ions in their ground (X{sup ~}) and first excited (A{sup ~}) states, the production of C{sub 2}H{sub 3}Br{sup ++} ions, and the appearance of neutral Br ({sup 2}P{sub 3/2}) atoms by dissociative ionization. The formation of free Br ({sup 2}P{sub 3/2}) atoms occurs on a timescale of 330 ± 150 fs. The ionic A{sup ~} state exhibits a time-dependent XUV absorption energy shift of ?0.4 eV within the time window of the atomic Br formation. The yield of Br atoms correlates with the yield of parent ions in the A{sup ~} state as a function of NIR peak intensity. The observations suggest that a fraction of vibrationally excited C{sub 2}H{sub 3}Br{sup +} (A{sup ~}) ions undergoes intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution followed by the C–Br bond dissociation. The C{sub 2}H{sub 3}Br{sup +} (X{sup ~}) products and the majority of the C{sub 2}H{sub 3}Br{sup ++} ions are relatively stable due to a deeper potential well and a high dissociation barrier, respectively. The results offer powerful new insights about orbital-specific electronic processes in high field ionization, coupled vibrational relaxation and dissociation dynamics, and the correlation of valence hole-state location and dissociation in polyatomic molecules, all probed simultaneously by ultrafast table-top XUV spectroscopy.

  5. Whole-Genome Analysis of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether-Degrading Beta-Proteobacterium Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ethyl-tert butyl ether (ETBE), occurs via a cytochrome P450protein complexes involved in ETBE degradation from R. rubernot been shown to degrade ETBE. Many pollutant degradation

  6. 3 Micro-mechanics based derivation of the materials constitutive 4 relations for carbon-nanotube reinforced poly-vinyl-ester-epoxy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grujicic, Mica

    , carbon nanotube-reinforced polymer-ma- 45trix composite) materials have spurred considerable 46interest relations for carbon-nanotube reinforced poly-vinyl-ester-epoxy 5 based composites 6 Mica Grujicic Y. P. Sun mechanical reinforcements for 59lightweight composite systems. However, the material 60and the processing

  7. Journal of Materials Science, 2012, 47(14): p. 5596-5604 Thermal expansion behavior of hollow glass particle/vinyl ester composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Nikhil

    with the addition of glass microballoons for the twelve compositions of syntactic foams characterized using glass particle/vinyl ester composites Vasanth Chakravarthy Shunmugasamy, Dinesh Pinisetty and Nikhil filled composites (syntactic foams), the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) can be controlled by two

  8. Process to convert biomass and refuse derived fuel to ethers and/or alcohols

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Diebold, J.P.; Scahill, J.W.; Chum, H.L.; Evans, R.J.; Rejai, B.; Bain, R.L.; Overend, R.P.

    1996-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for conversion of a feedstock selected from the group consisting of biomass and refuse derived fuel (RDF) to provide reformulated gasoline components comprising a substantial amount of materials selected from the group consisting of ethers, alcohols, or mixtures thereof, comprising: drying said feedstock; subjecting said dried feedstock to fast pyrolysis using a vortex reactor or other means; catalytically cracking vapors resulting from said pyrolysis using a zeolite catalyst; condensing any aromatic byproduct fraction; catalytically alkylating any benzene present in said vapors after condensation; catalytically oligomerizing any remaining ethylene and propylene to higher olefins; isomerizing said olefins to reactive iso-olefins; and catalytically reacting said iso-olefins with an alcohol to form ethers or with water to form alcohols. 35 figs.

  9. Process to convert biomass and refuse derived fuel to ethers and/or alcohols

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Diebold, James P. (Lakewood, CO); Scahill, John W. (Evergreen, CO); Chum, Helena L. (Arvada, CO); Evans, Robert J. (Lakewood, CO); Rejai, Bahman (Lakewood, CO); Bain, Richard L. (Golden, CO); Overend, Ralph P. (Lakewood, CO)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for conversion of a feedstock selected from the group consisting of biomass and refuse derived fuel (RDF) to provide reformulated gasoline components comprising a substantial amount of materials selected from the group consisting of ethers, alcohols, or mixtures thereof, comprising: drying said feedstock; subjecting said dried feedstock to fast pyrolysis using a vortex reactor or other means; catalytically cracking vapors resulting from said pyrolysis using a zeolite catalyst; condensing any aromatic byproduct fraction; catalytically alkylating any benzene present in said vapors after condensation; catalytically oligomerizing any remaining ethylene and propylene to higher olefins; isomerizing said olefins to reactive iso-olefins; and catalytically reacting said iso-olefins with an alcohol to form ethers or with water to form alcohols.

  10. Multiple steady states during reactive distillation of methyl tert-butyl ether

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nijhuis, S.A. (Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands). Chemical Engineering Dept.); Kerkhof, F.P.J.M.; Mak, A.N.S. (Comprimo Engineers and Contractors, Amsterdam (Netherlands))

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents results of computer simulations of the synthesis of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in a fixed-bed reactor and in a reactive distillation column. These calculations clearly showed the advantages of MTBE synthesis in a catalytic distillation tower. Furthermore, the computer simulations showed that multiple steady states may occur in the reactive distillation column during MTBE synthesis in a broad range of operating conditions. An analysis of some sensitivity studies is presented.

  11. solved in an organic solvent and diethyl ether was the most appropriate. The solvent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , the growth was hampe- red by a too large portion of wax. For detecting spores in beeswax, the wax was put into water (wax/water 1:10). The receptacle was placed into a water bath hea- ted up to 90 °C for 6 min, under the wax dissolved in diethyl ether. 80 ?L of this solution was smeared onto a plate with MYP

  12. 2[prime] and 3[prime] Carboranyl uridines and their diethyl ether adducts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Soloway, A.H.; Barth, R.F.; Anisuzzaman, A.K.; Alam, F.; Tjarks, W.

    1992-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for preparing carboranyl uridine nucleoside compounds and their diethyl ether adducts, which exhibit a tenfold increase in boron content over prior art boron containing nucleoside compounds. The carboranyl uridine nucleoside compounds exhibit enhanced lipophilicity and hydrophilic properties adequate to enable solvation in aqueous media for subsequent incorporation of the compounds in methods for boron neutron capture therapy in mammalian tumor cells. No Drawings

  13. Molecular modeling of the morphology and transport properties of two direct methanol fuel cell membranes: phenylated sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone ketone) versus Nafion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devanathan, Ramaswami; Idupulapati, Nagesh B.; Dupuis, Michel

    2012-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We have used molecular dynamics simulations to examine membrane morphology and the transport of water, methanol and hydronium in phenylated sulfonated poly ether ether ketone ketone (Ph-SPEEKK) and Nafion membranes at 360 K for a range of hydration levels. At comparable hydration levels, the pore diameter is smaller, the sulfonate groups are more closely packed, the hydronium ions are more strongly bound to sulfonate groups, and the diffusion of water and hydronium is slower in Ph-SPEEKK relative to the corresponding properties in Nafion. The aromatic carbon backbone of Ph-SPEEKK is less hydrophobic than the fluorocarbon backbone of Nafion. Water network percolation occurs at a hydration level ({lambda}) of {approx}8 H{sub 2}O/SO{sub 3}{sup -}. At {lambda} = 20, water, methanol and hydronium diffusion coefficients were 1.4 x 10{sup -5}, 0.6 x 10{sup -5} and 0.2 x 10{sup -5} cm{sup 2}/s, respectively. The pore network in Ph-SPEEKK evolves dynamically and develops wide pores for {lambda} > 20, which leads to a jump in methanol crossover and ion transport. This study demonstrates the potential of aromatic membranes as low-cost challengers to Nafion for direct methanol fuel cell applications and the need to develop innovative strategies to combat methanol crossover at high hydration levels.

  14. Oxidation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) by ozone and combined ozone/hydrogen peroxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leitner, N.K.V.; Papailhou, A.L.; Croue, J.P.; Dore, M. (Univ. de Poitiers (France)); Peyrot, J. (British Petroleum, Harfleur (France))

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of this work was to study the reaction of ozone and combined ozone/hydrogen peroxide on oxygenated additives such as methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) in dilute aqueous solution using controlled experimental conditions. Experiments conducted in a semi-continuous reactor with MTBE and ETBE in combination (initial concentration: 2 mmol/L of each) showed that ETBE was better eliminated than MTBE with both ozone and combined O[sub 3]/H[sub 2]O[sub 2]. batch experiments led to the determination of the ratio of the kinetic constants for the reaction of OH[degree]-radical with MTBE and ETBE (k[sub OH[degree]/ETBE]/k[sub OH[degree]//MTBE] = 1.7). Tert-butyl formate and tert-butyl acetate were identified as the ozonation byproducts of MTBE an ETBE, respectively, while tert-butyl alcohol was found to be produced during the ozonation of both compounds. 10 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Observation on the biodegradation and bioremediation potential of methyl t-butyl ether

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salanitro, J.; Wisniewski, H.; McAllister, P. [Shell Development Co., Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    There have been few reports documenting evidence for the biodegradation of the fuel oxygenate alkyl ether, methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) in groundwater, soils, and biosludges. Partial (or complete) microbial breakdown of MTBE has been observed in an anaerobic subsoil, a river sediment under methanogenic conditions, a cyclohexane-degrading bacterial consortium and a pure culture of the methylotroph, Methylisnus trichosporium OB3b. An aerobic bacterial enrichment (BC-1) isolated from an industrial transient (non-accumulating) metabolic intermediate. The studies suggest that MTBE is cleaved by BC-1 to TBA which is then metabolized via isopropanol and acetone. There is little information on the occurrence of indigenous MTBE-degraders in groundwater, soils and activated sludges. Preliminary evidence has been obtained, however, from a marketing terminal groundwater site that naturally-occurring MTBE-degraders are present in some monitoring wells. Microcosm experiments with groundwater from this aquifer show that MTBE is aerobically degraded (no TBA formed) with a first-order decay rate (0.31/day) similar to BTEX. Also, MTBE did not inhibit the intrinsic biodegradation potential of BTEX in groundwater microcosms. In summary, the data presented indicate that MTBE biodegradation has been observed in some environmental media. Further work is needed to assess the feasibility of using indigenous or derived aerobic and anaerobic MTBE-degrading cultures for treating fuel ethers in groundwaters or wastewater with in-situ or ex-situ bioremediation technologies.

  16. High octane ethers from synthesis gas-derived alcohols. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.; Feeley, O.C.; Johansson, M.A.

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the proposed research is to synthesize high octane ethers, primarily methyl isobutyl ether (MIBE) and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), directly from H{sub 2}/CO/CO{sub 2} coal-derived synthesis gas via alcohol mixtures that are rich in methanol and 2-methyl-l-propanol (isobutanol). The overall scheme involves gasification of coal, purification and shifting of the synthesis gas, higher alcohol synthesis, and direct synthesis of ethers. The last stage of the synthesis involves direct coupling of synthesis gas-derived methanol and isobutanol that has been demonstrated by us to occur over superacid catalysts to yield methyl isobutyl ether (MIBE) at moderate pressures and a mixture of methanol and isobutene at low pressures. MIBE is an isomer of MTBE and a process is proposed whereby MTBE from the two alcohols is maximized and MIBE is minimized. This will be achieved by the proper choice of reaction conditions, i.e. intermediate pressures, and of inorganic acid catalysts that are stable at temperatures higher than 200{degree}C, at which the carbonium ion reaction coupling of the two alcohols to MTBE is more effective than the oxonium ion or ester reaction coupling to MIBE. Both organic and inorganic catalysts will be investigated, and the better catalysts of these classes will be subjected to long term performance studies. The long term performance studies of the combined process will extend to 1000 hr and detailed analytical data for all products will be provided.

  17. Measurement of methyl-tert-butyl-ether (MTBE) in raw drinking water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davisson, M L; Koester, C J; Moran, J E

    1999-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to assess the pathways for human exposure to methyl-tert-butyl-ether (MTBE) and to understand the extent of MTBE contamination in watersheds, a purge and trap gas chromatographic mass spectrometric method to measure part-per-trillion (ppt) concentrations of MTBE in environmental waters was developed. A variety of California's raw drinking waters were analyzed. No detectable MTBE was found in deep groundwater (>1000 feet). However shallow groundwater ({approx}250 feet) contained MTBE concentrations of non-detect to 1300 ppt. MTBE concentrations measured in rivers and lakes ranged from non-detect to 3500 ppt. East (San Francisco) Bay area rain water contained approximately 80 ppt MTBE.

  18. High octane ethers from synthesis gas-derived alcohols. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.; Menszak, J.; Johansson, M.A.; Feeley, O.C.; Kim, D.

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results shown in Figures 10 and 11 demonstrate that the formation of butenes was very sensitive to the alcohol partial pressure. A small elevation of the alcohol pressure suppressed the formation of butenes rather drastically at both 90 and 117{degree}C. The synthesis rates of DME, MIBE, and MTBE ethers were not significantly affected at 90{degree}C, although there was a trend to increase the space time yield of DME as the alcohol pressure was increased. At the reaction temperature of 117{degree}C, all of the ethers showed increasing productivities as the pressure of the reactants was increased (Figure 11). An isotope labelling experiment was carried out to provide mechanistic insight into the manner in which methanol and isobutanol react together to form DME, MIBE, and MTBE ethers and to determine if MTBE were derived from MIBE.

  19. Impact of cellulose ethers on the cement paste microstructure J. Pourchez*, P. Grosseau*, E. Rouche-Pourchez*, J. Debayle*, J.C. Pinoli*,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Impact of cellulose ethers on the cement paste microstructure J. Pourchez*, P. Grosseau*, E to examine the effects of cellulose ethers on the cement paste microstructure. The obtained results show, the content of air volume and the stabilisation of the porosity from the fresh cement paste to the hardened

  20. RELATIONS BETWEEN THE DETECTION OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) IN SURFACE AND GROUND WATER AND ITS CONTENT IN GASOLINE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    RELATIONS BETWEEN THE DETECTION OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) IN SURFACE AND GROUND WATER.S. Geological Survey 1608 Mt. View Rapid City, SD 57702 Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is commonly used today, the one used most commonly is MTBE. To meet the oxygen requirements of the CAA Amendments, gasoline

  1. Review of the environmental behavior and fate of methyl tert-butyl ether

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Squillace, P.J.; Zogorski, J.S. [Geological Survey, Rapid City, SD (United States); Pankow, J.F. [Oregon Graduate Inst. of Science and Technology, Beaverton, OR (United States). Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering; Korte, N.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Science Div.

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A review of pertinent equations and current research indicates that when gasoline oxygenated with methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) comes into contact with water, large amounts of MTBe can dissolve. At 25 C, the water solubility of MTBE is about 5,000 mg/L for a gasoline that is 10% MTBE by weight, whereas for a nonoxygenated gasoline, the total hydrocarbon solubility in water is typically about 120 mg/L. Methyl tert-butyl ether sorbs only weakly to subsurface solids; therefore, sorption does not substantially retard the transport of MTBE by ground water. In addition, MTBE generally resists biodegradation in ground water. The half-life of MTBE in the atmosphere can be as short as 3 d in a regional airshed. In the air, MTBE tends to partition into atmospheric water, including precipitation. However, the washing out of gas-phase MTBE by precipitation will not, by itself, greatly alter the gas-phase concentration of the compound in the air. The partitioning of MTBE to precipitation can nevertheless result in concentrations as high as 3 {micro}g/L or more in urban precipitation and can contribute to the presence of MTBE in surface and ground water.

  2. Acute toxicity of methyl-tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) to aquatic organisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BenKinney, M.T.; Barbieri, J.F.; Gross, J.S.; Naro, P.A. [Stonybrook Labs. Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to the recent amendment of the Clean Air Act, oxygenates are now being added to gasolines to boost octane and reduce air pollution from combustion in heavily populated areas. Oxygenates such as alcohols (i.e. methanol) and ethers (methyl-tertiary-butyl ether, MTBE) are commonly being used. A series of bioassay studies have been conducted with MTBE, one of the most commonly used octane-enhancing additives. Freshwater and marine studies were conducted with fish, invertebrates and algae to determine the impact of this material on the environment following accidental spills. Static-renewal studies were run to ensure maintenance of MTBE, a highly volatile material in the test containers. Chemical confirmation of exposure concentrations demonstrated the adequacy of the exposure system. Mysid shrimp were highly sensitive to MTBE, with significantly less effect observed with the other species evaluated. These data have implications for spill response, particularly since MTBE is slow to biodegrade and will rapidly move through groundwater. Comparative data for other oxygenates will also be discussed.

  3. Calixarene crown ether solvent composition and use thereof for extraction of cesium from alkaline waste solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moyer, Bruce A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Sachleben, Richard A. (Knoxville, TN); Bonnesen, Peter V. (Knoxville, TN); Presley, Derek J. (Ooltewah, TN)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A solvent composition and corresponding method for extracting cesium (Cs) from aqueous neutral and alkaline solutions containing Cs and perhaps other competing metal ions is described. The method entails contacting an aqueous Cs-containing solution with a solvent consisting of a specific class of lipophilic calix[4]arene-crown ether extractants dissolved in a hydrocarbon-based diluent containing a specific class of alkyl-aromatic ether alcohols as modifiers. The cesium values are subsequently recovered from the extractant, and the solvent subsequently recycled, by contacting the Cs-containing organic solution with an aqueous stripping solution. This combined extraction and stripping method is especially useful as a process for removal of the radionuclide cesium-137 from highly alkaline waste solutions which are also very concentrated in sodium and potassium. No pre-treatment of the waste solution is necessary, and the cesium can be recovered using a safe and inexpensive stripping process using water, dilute (millimolar) acid solutions, or dilute (millimolar) salt solutions. An important application for this invention would be treatment of alkaline nuclear tank wastes. Alternatively, the invention could be applied to decontamination of acidic reprocessing wastes containing cesium-137.

  4. Treatment of methyl t-butyl ether contaminated water using a dense medium plasma reactor, a mechanistic and kinetic investigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dandy, David

    and oxidation mechanisms of methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) in a dense medium plasma (DMP) reactor utilizing gas for the removal of MTBE from an aqueous solution in the DMP reactor. Rate constants are also derived for three reactor configurations and two pin array spin rates. The oxidation products from the treatment of MTBE

  5. Propylene glycol monomethyl ether. A 3-generation study of isomer effects on reproductive and developmental parameters in rats.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Propylene glycol monomethyl ether. A 3-generation study of isomer effects on reproductive tel +33 (0) 3 44 55 62 64, fax +33 (0)3 44 55 66 05, E- mail : emmanuel.lemazurier@ineris.fr Propylene reproductive toxicity E Lemazurier et al. ineris-00961896,version1-20Mar2014 #12;3 Introduction Propylene

  6. Title: Decomposition of ethanol and dimethyl-ether during CVD synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    of ethanol and dimethyl-ether during CVD synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes Author list: Bo Hou (single-walled carbon nanotubes) was investigated. Gas-phase thermal decomposition of ethanol and DME ethanol and DME decomposition, confirming expected reaction trends and primary byproducts. Peak

  7. Why methyl tert-butyl ether production by reactive distillation may yield multiple solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauan, S.; Hertzberg, T.; Lien, K.M. [Univ. of Trondheim (Norway)

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents an explanation of why methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) production by reactive distillation may yield multiple solutions. Widely different composition profiles and conversions may, as already reported by Krishna and others, results with identical column specifications, depending on the initial estimates provided. A hypothesis yielding a qualitative understanding of this phenomenon has been developed. The inert n-butene plays a key role in the proposed explanation: As the reaction mixture is diluted with n-butene, the activity coefficient of methanol increases substantially and the temperature decreases. This dilution has a profound effect on the equilibrium conversion, enabling MTBE to escape from the reactive zone without decomposition. When methanol is fed below or in the lower part of the reactive zone of the column, the ``lifting capacity`` of the minimum boiling point MTBE-methanol azeotrope will also be important.

  8. Use of aluminum phosphate as the dehydration catalyst in single step dimethyl ether process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, Xiang-Dong (Allentown, PA); Parris, Gene E. (Coopersburg, PA); Toseland, Bernard A. (Allentown, PA); Battavio, Paula J. (Allentown, PA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention pertains to a process for the coproduction of methanol and dimethyl ether (DME) directly from a synthesis gas in a single step (hereafter, the "single step DME process"). In this process, the synthesis gas comprising hydrogen and carbon oxides is contacted with a dual catalyst system comprising a physical mixture of a methanol synthesis catalyst and a methanol dehydration catalyst. The present invention is an improvement to this process for providing an active and stable catalyst system. The improvement comprises the use of an aluminum phosphate based catalyst as the methanol dehydration catalyst. Due to its moderate acidity, such a catalyst avoids the coke formation and catalyst interaction problems associated with the conventional dual catalyst systems taught for the single step DME process.

  9. Observation and Nature of Non-statistical Dynamic Effects in Ordinary Organic Reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quijano, Larisa Mae Mangaliman 1984-

    2012-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    of vinyl ethers. Ozonolysis of a homologous series of vinyl ethers in solution exhibit experimental product ratios wherein the selectivity among cleavage pathways increases with the size of the alkyl group to an extent that is far less than RRKM theory.... DYNAMIC EFFECTS ON PRODUCT SELECTIVITY IN OZONOLYSIS REACTIONS OF VINYL ETHERS ??????????? 12 2.1 Introduction ???????????????????????... 12 2.2 Design of Experiment and Experimental Results ?????????.. 13 2.3 NMR Peak Assignments...

  10. Reactive Surfaces and Interfaces utilizing 2-Vinyl-4,4-Dimethylazlactone (VDMA): An Example of ??Click?? Chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Messman, Jamie M [ORNL; Kilbey, II, S Michael [ORNL; Lokitz, Bradley S [ORNL; Hinestrosa Salazar, Juan Pablo [Clemson University; Ankner, John Francis [ORNL

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Creating polymer-modified interfaces decorated with biologically-relevant materials V so-called bio-interfaces V with precise control over the nanoscale structure and properties is of increasing technological importance for a large number of advanced materials applications, including adaptive and/or lubricious biomaterial coatings, electro-actuators (synthetic muscles), biosensors with amplified response, coatings for stealth drug delivery, supports for enzymatic catalysts, protein or antibody arrays, and high affinity separation agents. The ability to design and decorate interfaces with biologically-relevant molecules and understand synthesis-structure-function relationships remains a significant challenge. The overarching objective of this research program is to investigate the polymerization and functionalization of a new class of polymeric materials that are capable of serving as a versatile platform from which bio-interfaces for specific applications can be created and evaluated. Stimuli-responsive (co)polymers containing vinyl dimethyl azlactone (VDMA) have been prepared using free radical polymerization techniques (controlled and conventional). Subsequent immobilization of biomolecules (e.g., dansylcadaverine, N ,N -bis(carboxymethyl)-L-lysine hydrate) on PVDMA-containing surface scaffolds affords bio-interfaces. Reaction of nucleophiles with the azlactone moiety proceeds rapidly, quantitatively, and in the absence of byproducts, which are essential criteria governing the click-type nature of this procedure. The conversion of these materials into polyelectrolytes and bioconjugates can be monitored in real-time using infrared spectroscopy. Additionally, pVDMA polymers prepared using reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization are the basis for creating polymer brushes by a grafting to approach. We will describe how compositional differences and changes in molecular weight affect the solubility and responsiveness of pVDMA-based polymers and surface layers when functionalized with various biomolecules.

  11. Transarterial Ethylene Vinyl Alcohol Copolymer Visualization and Penetration After Embolization of Life-Threatening Hemoptysis: Technical and Clinical Outcomes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bommart, Sebastien, E-mail: s-bommart@chu-montpellier.fr [CHU of Montpellier, Arnaud de Villeneuve Hospital, Department of Radiology (France); Bourdin, Arnaud [CHU of Montpellier, Arnaud de Villeneuve Hospital, Department of Respiratory Diseases (France); Giroux, Marie France [Centre Hospitalier de l'Universite de Montreal, Notre-Dame Hospital, Department of Radiology (Canada); Klein, Francois; Micheau, Antoine; Bares, Valerie Monnin; Kovacsik, Helene [CHU of Montpellier, Arnaud de Villeneuve Hospital, Department of Radiology (France)

    2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Objectives: This study was designed to evaluate the feasibility of using ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVAC) for bronchial artery embolization (BAE) in patients with life-threatening hemoptysis and to compare the visualization and transarterial penetration of EVAC under fluoroscopy and computed tomography (CT). Methods: Fifteen patients (mean age, 62.9 (range, 24-82) years) who were referred for life-threatening hemoptysis (27 month period) underwent BAE using EVAC. All patients had thoracic CT examination before and after BAE. Technical and clinical results were evaluated. Visibility and extent of cast penetration (graded 1-4) on fluoroscopy and postprocedure CT were assessed and compared. Results: BAE was feasible in all but one artery (due to spasm; n = 27; 96.4%). No procedure-related complications or deaths were detected. Two patients had recurrent bleeding in the following day (13.3%). Immediate clinical success was achieved in 14 cases (93.3%) after reembolization of pulmonary artery pseudoaneurysm in one patient (mean follow-up, 43.5 (range, 14-148) days). Visibility of the cast was possible in 73.3% of patients (n = 11) under fluoroscopy (mean cast penetration 1.66) and in all patients under CT (mean cast penetration 2.06). The postinjection fluoroscopic visibility in 6 of 15 (40%) patients was inferior to CT (P < 0.02). Conclusions: BAE with EVAC seems to be feasible and safe with immediate control of hemoptysis in most patients. The postinjection fluoroscopic visibility of EVAC under fluoroscopy was inferior to CT.

  12. Carbon-carbon bond cleavage of 1,2-hydroxy ethers b7 vanadium(V) dipicolinate complexes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanson, Susan K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gordon, John C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Thorn, David L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Scott, Brian L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Baker, R Tom [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of alternatives to current petroleum-based fuels and chemicals is becoming increasingly important due to concerns over climate change, growing world energy demand, and energy security issues. Using non-food derived biomass to produce renewable feedstocks for chemicals and fuels is a particularly attractive possibility. However, the majority of biomass is in the form of lignocellulose, which is often not fully utilized due to difficulties associated with breaking down both lignin and cellulose. Recently, a number of methods have been reported to transform cellulose directly into more valuable materials such as glucose, sorbitol, 5-(chloromethyl)furfural, and ethylene glycol. Less progress has been made with selective transformations of lignin, which is typically treated in paper and forest industries by kraft pulping (sodium hydroxide/sodium sulfide) or incineration. Our group has begun investigating aerobic oxidative C-C bond cleavage catalyzed by dipicolinate vanadium complexes, with the idea that a selective C-C cleavage reaction of this type could be used to produce valuable chemicals or intermediates from cellulose or lignin. Lignin is a randomized polymer containing methoxylated phenoxy propanol units. A number of different linkages occur naturally; one of the most prevalent is the {beta}-O-4 linkage shown in Figure 1, containing a C-C bond with 1,2-hydroxy ether substituents. While the oxidative C-C bond cleavage of 1,2-diols has been reported for a number of metals, including vanadium, iron, manganese, ruthenium, and polyoxometalate complexes, C-C bond cleavage of 1,2-hydroxy ethers is much less common. We report herein vanadium-mediated cleavage of C-C bonds between alcohol and ether functionalities in several lignin model complexes. In order to explore the scope and potential of vanadium complexes to effect oxidative C-C bond cleavage in 1,2-hydroxy ethers, we examined the reactivity of the lignin model complexes pinacol monomethyl ether (A), 2-phenoxyethanol (B), and 1,2-diphenyl-2-methoxyethanol (C) (Figure 1). Reaction of (dipic)V{sup V}(O)O{sup i}Pr (1a) or (dipic)V{sup v}(O)OEt (lb) with A, B, or C in acetonitrile yielded new vanadium(V) complexes where the alcohol-ether ligand was bound in a chelating fashion. From the reaction of 1b with pinacol monomethyl ether (A) in acetonitrile solution, (dipic)V{sup v}(O)(pinOMe) (2) (PinOMe = 2,3-dimethyl-3-methoxy-2-butanoxide) was isolated in 61 % yield. Reaction of 1b with 2-phenoxyethanol (B) in acetonitrile gave the new complex (dipic)V{sup v}(O)(OPE) (3) (OPE = 2-phenoxyethoxide), which was isolated in 76% yield. In a similar fashion, 1a reacted with 1,2-diphenyl-2-methoxyethanol (C) to give (dipic)V(O)(DPME) (4) (DPME = 1,2-diphenyl-2-methoxyethoxide), which was isolated in 39% yield. Complexes 2, 3, and 4 were characterized by {sup 1}H NMR and IR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and X-ray crystallography. Compared to the previously reported vanadium(V) pinacolate complex (dipic)V(O)(pinOH) the X-ray structure of complex 2 reveals a slightly shorter V = O bond, 1.573(2) {angstrom} vs 1.588(2) {angstrom} for the pinOH structure. Complexes 3 and 4 display similar vanadium oxo bond distances of 1.568(2) {angstrom} and 1.576(2) {angstrom}, respectively. All three complexes show longer bonds to the ether-oxygen trans to the oxo (2.388(2) {angstrom} for 2, 2.547(2) {angstrom} for 3, and 2.438(2) {angstrom} for 4) than to the hydroxy-oxygen in the pinOH structure (2.252(2) {angstrom}).

  13. Advanced emission-speciation methodologies for the Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program. 1. Hydrocarbons and ethers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, T.E.; Siegl, W.O.; Lipari, F.; Loo, J.F.; Sigsby, J.E.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An analytical method for the determination of hydrocarbon and ether emissions from gasoline-, methanol-, and flexible-fueled vehicles is described. This method was used in Phase I of the Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program to provide emissions data for various vehicles using individual reformulated gasolines and alternate fuels. These data would then be used for air modeling studies. Emission samples for tailpipe, evaporative, and running loss were collected in Tedlar bags. Gas chromatographic analysis of the emissions samples included 140 components (hydrocarbons, ethers, alcohols and aldehydes) between C1 and C12 in a single analysis of 54-minutes duration. Standardization, quality control procedures, and inter-laboratory comparisons developed and completed as part of this program are also described. (Copyright (c) 1992 Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc.).

  14. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in leachates from selected landfill sites in South Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Odusanya, David O. [Department of Environmental, Water and Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X680, 175 Nelson Mandela Drive, Arcadia, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Okonkwo, Jonathan O. [Department of Environmental, Water and Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X680, 175 Nelson Mandela Drive, Arcadia, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa)], E-mail: OkonkwoOJ@tut.ac.za; Botha, Ben [Department of Environmental, Water and Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X680, 175 Nelson Mandela Drive, Arcadia, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa)

    2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The last few decades have seen dramatic growth in the scale of production and the use of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) as flame retardants. Consequently, PBDEs such as BDE -28, -47, -66, -71, -75, -77, -85, -99, -100, -119, -138, -153, -154, and -183 have been detected in various environmental matrices. Generally, in South Africa, once the products containing these chemicals have outlived their usefulness, they are discarded into landfill sites. Consequently, the levels of PBDEs in leachates from landfill sites may give an indication of the general exposure and use of these compounds. The present study was aimed at determining the occurrence and concentrations of most common PBDEs in leachates from selected landfill sites. The extraction capacities of the solvents were also tested. Spiked landfill leachate samples were used for the recovery tests. Separation and determination of the PBDE congeners were carried out with a gas chromatograph equipped with Ni{sup 63} electron capture detector. The mean percentage recoveries ranged from 63% to 108% (n = 3) for landfill leachate samples with petroleum ether giving the highest percentage extraction. The mean concentrations of PBDEs obtained ranged from ND to 2670 pg l{sup -1}, ND to 6638 pg l{sup -1}, ND to 7230 pg l{sup -1}, 41 to 4009 pg l{sup -1}, 90 to 9793 pg l{sup -1} for the Garankuwa, Hatherly, Kwaggarsrand, Soshanguve and Temba landfill sites, respectively. Also BDE -28, -47, -71 and BDE-77 were detected in the leachate samples from all the landfill sites; and all the congeners were detected in two of the oldest landfill sites. The peak concentrations were recorded for BDE-47 at three sites and BDE-71 and BDE-75 at two sites. The highest concentration, 9793 {+-} 1.5 pg l{sup -1}, was obtained for the Temba landfill site with the highest BOD value. This may suggest some influence of organics on the level of PBDEs. Considering the leaching characteristics of brominated flame retardants, there is a high possibility that with time these compounds may infiltrate into the groundwater around the sites since most of the sites are not adequately lined.

  15. Scanning tunneling microscopy of dimeric and polymeric products of electroreduced (Re(CO) sub 3 (4-vinyl,4 prime -methyl-2,2 prime -bipyridine)Cl)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snyder, S.R.; White, H.S. (Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis (USA)); Lopez, S.; Abruna, H.D. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (USA))

    1990-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) was used to image adsorbed products resulting from electroreduction of (Re(CO){sub 3}(vbpy)Cl) (vbpy = 4-vinyl,4{prime}-methyl-2,2{prime}-bipyridine) on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG). STM images, in air, of HOPG electrodes following electroreduction of (Re(CO){sub 3}(vbpy)Cl) (in acetonitrile/0.1 M tetra-n-butylammonium perchlorate) by cycling the potential between 0 and {minus}2.0 V vs a sodium saturated colomel electrode (SSCE) show molecular species uniformly distributed on the surface including approximately dumbbell shaped molecules ({approx} 40 {times} 20 {angstrom}). The size and shape of these aggregates is consistent with products derived from vinyl-vinvyl coupling of Re-Re bonded dimers: ((vbpy)(CO){sub 3}Re-Re(CO){sub 3}(vbpyH-vbpyH)(CO){sub 3}Re-Re(CO){sub 3}(vbpy)). STM images of electrodes prepared by cycling the potential between 0 and {minus}1.45 V vs SSCE (less reducing conditions) show highly nonuniform coating of the surface by polymer. Several polymer morphologies were observed with polymer nucleation preferentially occurring at step sites on HOPG.

  16. Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibria in the systems methyl 1,1-dimethylethyl ether + hexane and + heptane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wisniak, J.; Magen, E.; Shachar, M.; Zeroni, I.; Segura, H. [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Reich, R. [Univ. de Concepcion (Chile). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Univ. de Concepcion (Chile). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The vapor-liquid equilibrium at 94 kPa has been determined for the binary systems of methyl 1,1-dimethylethyl ether (MTBE) with hexane and with heptane. Both systems deviate slightly from ideal behavior, can be described as regular solutions, and do not present an azeotrope. The activity coefficients and boiling point of the solutions were correlated with its composition by the Redlich-Kister, Wohl, Wilson, UNIQUAC, NRTL, and Wisniak-Tamir equations.

  17. Exposure to methyl tert-butyl ether and benzene among service station attendants and operators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartle, R. [National Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Concerns for atmospheric pollution from auto exhaust have led to the blending of {open_quotes}oxygenates{close_quotes} with motor fuels. The most common oxygenate, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is currently required within several metropolitan areas (Denver and Phoenix) in the range of 12% of the motor fuel. Amendments to the Clean Air Act may expand this requirement to as many as 44 other areas of the United States in the near future. In consideration of the magnitude of potential uncontrolled exposures from its extensive use and a related concern involving the potential influence of MTBE blending on exposures to other constituents of gasoline (particularly benzene), an evaluation of exposures among service station attendants and operators was undertaken at the request, and in cooperation with, the American Petroleum Institute during the latter part of 1990. For application of the survey results to a broad audience, three categories or types of service stations were identified with regard to MTBE use and exposure potential: (a) service stations that do not use MTBE or use it only as an octane enhancer, (b) service stations with seasonal requirements to use 12-15% MTBE (the Denver, Colorado, and Phoenix, Arizona, metropolitan areas), and (c) service stations equipped with stage II (active) vapor recovery systems (several coastal areas, most notably Southern California). 4 refs., 4 tabs.

  18. Toxicity of methyl tertiary butyl ether to Daphnia magna and photobacterium phosphoreum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, G.; Lin, Y.J. [Univ. of Maryland Eastern Shore, Princess Anne, MD (United States)

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) is a liquid organic compound added to gasoline to increase its oxygen content and to reduce the emission of carbon monoxide during combustion in many urban areas. In order to meet the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments, gasoline must contain 2.7% oxygen (by weight) or 15% (by volume) of MTBE in gasoline to meet the regulations for the control of carbon monoxide emissions. Health effects caused by inhalation of MTBE include headaches, dizziness, irritated eyes and nausea; MTBE is one of cancer--causing chemicals. Intracaval injection of MTBE (0.2 mg/kg) caused the highest mortality (100%) in rats. General anesthetic effect induced by MTBE was found at or above 1200 mg/kg body weight; Rosenkranz and Klopman (1991) predicted that MTBE is neither a genotoxicant nor a carcinogen. Nevertheless, the safety of using MTBE in oxygenated fuels is now being questioned from its potential as groundwater pollutant. This study measures the toxicity of MTBE to Daphnia magna and Photobacterium phosphoreum. 13 refs.

  19. Reaction calorimetry study of the liquid-phase synthesis of tert-butyl methyl ether

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sola, L.; Pericas, M.A.; Cunill, F.; Iborra, M. (Univ. de Barcelona (Spain). Dept. d'Enginyeria Quimica)

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The liquid-phase addition of methanol to isobutene to give tert-butyl methyl ether (MTBE) on the ion-exchange resin Lewatit K2631 has been studied in a calorimetric reactor. Heat capacity of MTBE and enthalpy of the MTBE synthesis reaction in the temperature range 312--333 K have been determined. MTBE heat capacity in the liquid phase has been found to obey the equation c[sub P] (J/mol[center dot]K) = 472.34 [minus] 2.468(T/K) + 0.005071(T/K)[sup 2]. At 298 K the standard molar reaction enthalpy is [Delta]H[degree] = [minus]33.8 kJ/mol. A method to estimate apparent activation energies from heat flow rate in a given reaction has been developed and proved to be valid for the MTBE synthesis. Using this method, an apparent activation energy of 91.1--95.2 kJ/mol is calculated. A [minus]3.8 kJ/mol value has been found for the adsorption enthalpy of methanol on the ion-exchange resin Lewatit K2631 by a combination of reaction calorimetry and thermogravimetry. This allows the calculation of an activation energy on the gel phase of the resin of 91 kJ/mol.

  20. Disposition, metabolism, and toxicity of methyl tertiary butyl ether, an oxygenate for reformulated gasoline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hutcheon, D.E.; Hove, W. ten; Boyle, J. III [UMDNJ, New Jersey Medical Schook, Newark, NJ (United States)] [UMDNJ, New Jersey Medical Schook, Newark, NJ (United States); Arnold, J.D. [Arnold & Arnold, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States)] [Arnold & Arnold, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States)

    1996-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Studies of the toxicology of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) were reviewed as a possible information base for evaluating the health effects of evaporative emissions from reformulated gasoline (RFG). Perirenal fat/blood MTBE concentration ratios ranged from 9.7 to 11.6 after 15 wk of intermittent exposure. During an oxyfuels program in Fairbanks, AK, blood levels of occupationally exposed workers were 0.2-31.5 {mu}g/L MTBE and 1.6 to 72.2 {mu}g/L TBA with a mean TBA:MTBE blood concentration ratio of 4.2. In patients who received MTBE by percutaneous, transhepatic puncture for the dissolution of cholesterol gallstones, concentrations of MTBE in fat tissue reached 60 and 300 {mu}g/g at a treatment time when mean blood MTBE was less than 20 {mu}g/ml. The results of laboratory and clinical studies indicate that metabolites of MTBE may contribute to the nephropathy, neoplasms, and other pathological changes associated with repeated exposure to MTBE in experimental animals. It is concluded that such studies can provide a well-defined database for quantitatitive safety comparisons and health risk-benefit analyses of MTBE and other oxygenates in RFG. 39 refs., 1 tab.

  1. A fluorescence-based method for rapid and direct determination of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shan, Huimei; Liu, Chongxuan; Wang, Zheming; Ma, Teng; Shang, Jianying; Pan, Duoqiang

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new method was developed for rapid and direct measurement of aqueous polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) using fluorescence spectroscopy. The fluorescence spectra of aqueous tri- to deca-BDE (BDE28, 47, 99, 153, 190 and 209) that are commonly found in environment were determined at variable emission and excitation wavelengths. The results revealed that the PBDEs have distinct fluorescence spectral profiles and peak positions that can be exploited to identify these species and determine their concentrations in aqueous solutions. The detection limits as determined in deionized water spiked with PBDEs are 1.71-5.82 ng/L for BDE28, BDE47, BDE190 and BDE209, and 45.55-69.95 ng/L for BDE99 and BDE153. The effects of environmental variables including pH, humic substance, and groundwater chemical composition on PBDEs measurements were also investigated. These environmental variables affected fluorescence intensity, but their effect can be corrected through linear additivity and separation of spectral signal contribution. Compared with conventional GC-based analytical methods, the fluorescence spectroscopy method is more efficient as it only uses a small amount of samples (4 ml), avoids lengthy complicated concentration and extraction steps, and has a low detection limit of a few ng/L.

  2. Ethyl-tertiary-butyl-ether (ETBE) as an aviation fuel: Eleventh international symposium on alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maben, G.D.; Shauck, M.E.; Zanin, M.G.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses the preliminary flight testing of an aircraft using neat burning ethyl-tertiary-butyl-ether (ETBE) as a fuel. No additional changes were made to the fuel delivery systems which had previously been modified to provide the higher fuel flow rates required to operate the engine on neat ethanol. Air-fuel ratios were manually adjusted with the mixture control. This system allows the pilot to adjust the mixture to compensate for changes in air density caused by altitude, pressure and temperature. The engine was instrumented to measure exhaust gas temperatures (EGT), cylinder head temperatures (CHT), and fuel flows, while the standard aircraft instruments were used to collect aircraft performance data. Baseline engine data for ETBE and Avgas are compared. Preliminary data indicates the technical and economic feasibility of using ETBE as an aviation fuel for the piston engine fleet. Furthermore, the energy density of ETBE qualifies it as a candidate for a turbine engine fuel of which 16.2 billion gallons are used in the US each year.

  3. Thermophysical properties of 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol + tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herraiz, J.; Olive, F.; Zhu, S.; Shen, S.; Coronas, A. [Univ. Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona (Spain). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering] [Univ. Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona (Spain). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Isothermal P,x data from 303.15 K to 423.15 K, liquid densities from 283.15 K to 423.15 K, and dynamic viscosities from 343.15 K to 393.15 K for the binary system 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol + tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether were measured. The vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) data were measured. The vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) data were measured using a static apparatus. VLE data were correlated by the five-parameter NRTL equation, while density and kinematic viscosity data were correlated with temperature and liquid composition using empirical equations. The viscosity data used in the correlation cover the range of 293.15--393.15 K. VLE data indicate that this binary system exhibits large negative deviations from Raoult`s law. These mixtures present large exothermic excess molar enthalpies. The excess molar enthalpy calculated using the Gibbs-Helmholtz equation and the NRTL parameters was compared with experimental data existing in the literature.

  4. European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Valencia, Spain, 6-10 September 2010, 4AV.3.115 NON-LINEAR MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF ETHYLENE-VINYL ACETATE (EVA) AND ITS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    25th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Valencia, Spain, 6-10 September 2010, 4AV.3,2 1 Institute for Solar Energy Research Hamelin (ISFH), Am Ohrberg 1, D-31860 Emmerthal, Germany 2 ABSTRACT: Polymers such as ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) encapsulants are known for their non

  5. JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE 2012, IN PRESS DOI: 10.1007/S10853-012-6927-8 Viscoelastic properties of hollow glass particle filled vinyl ester matrix syntactic foams: effect of temperature and loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Nikhil

    properties of hollow glass particle filled vinyl ester matrix syntactic foams: effect of temperature compositions of syntactic foams. Storage modulus, loss modulus, and glass transition temperature (Tg@poly.edu Abstract Viscoelastic properties of hollow particle reinforced composites called syntactic foams

  6. Synthesis and characterization of redox copolymers of (Ru(4-vinyl-4 prime -methyl-2,2 prime -bipyridine) sub 3 ) sup 2+ and (Os(4-vinyl-4 prime -methyl-2,2 prime -bipyridine) sub 3 ) sup 2+ : Unusual energy-transfer dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bommarito, S.L.; Lowery-Bretz, S.P.; Abruna, H.D. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States))

    1992-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Copolymers of (Ru(vbpy){sub 3}(PF{sub 6}){sub 2}) and (Os(vbpy){sub 3}(PF{sub 6}){sub 2}) (vbpy = 4-vinyl-4{prime}-methyl-2,2{prime}-bipyridine) have been prepared in solution and by electropolymerization. The ruthenium and osmium monomers were incorporated in the copolymers in different ratios depending on the polymerization method. These results point to fundamental differences between solution polymerization and electropolymerization. In addition, luminescence experiments at liquid-nitrogen temperature and room temperature point to a significant degree of energy transfer from ruthenium to osmium states in the polymer.

  7. Mechanistic Investigation of Acid-Catalyzed Cleavage of Aryl-Ether Linkages: Implications for Lignin Depolymerization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sturgeon, M. R.; Kim, S.; Chmely, S. C.; Foust, T. D.; Beckham, G. T.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon-oxygen bonds are the primary inter-monomer linkages lignin polymers in plant cell walls, and as such, catalyst development to cleave these linkages is of paramount importance to deconstruct biomass to its constituent monomers for the production of renewable fuels and chemicals. For many decades, acid catalysis has been used to depolymerize lignin. Lignin is a primary component of plant cell walls, which is connected primarily by aryl-ether linkages, and the mechanism of its deconstruction by acid is not well understood, likely due to its heterogeneous and complex nature compared to cellulose. For effective biomass conversion strategies, utilization of lignin is of significant relevance and as such understanding the mechanisms of catalytic lignin deconstruction to constituent monomers and oligomers is of keen interest. Here, we present a comprehensive experimental and theoretical study of the acid catalysis of a range of dimeric species exhibiting the b-O-4 linkage, the most common inter-monomer linkage in lignin. We demonstrate that the presence of a phenolic species dramatically increases the rate of cleavage in acid at 150 degrees C. Quantum mechanical calculations on dimers with the para-hydroxyl group demonstrate that this acid-catalyzed pathway differs from the nonphenolic dimmers. Importantly, this result implies that depolymerization of native lignin in the plant cell wall will proceed via an unzipping mechanism wherein b-O-4 linkages will be cleaved from the ends of the branched, polymer chains inwards toward the center of the polymer. To test this hypothesis further, we synthesized a homopolymer of b-O-4 with a phenolic hydroxyl group, and demonstrate that it is cleaved in acid from the end containing the phenolic hydroxyl group. This result suggests that genetic modifications to lignin biosynthesis pathways in plants that will enable lower severity processes to fractionate lignin for upgrading and for easier access to the carbohydrate fraction of the plant cell wall.

  8. LIDEM unit for the production of methyl tert-butyl ether from butanes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudin, M.G.; Zadvornov, M.A.

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the basic problems in the production of motor fuels is how to obtain high-octane unleaded gasolines that will meet today`s ecological requirements. The term {open_quotes}reformulated gasolines{close_quotes} has come into general use throughout the world to denote fuels with a certain chemical composition. These gasolines consist of preselected components; as shown by worldwide experience, they must include oxygen-containing compounds that are distinguished by high octane numbers and low reactivities. Standards in effect in the United States, Japan, and certain Western European countries require that automotive gasolines must contain at least 2-4% by weight of oxygen-containing compounds (calculated as oxygen). In the last 15 years, in order to meet these requirements, production has been set up in various countries for the manufacture of high-octane oxygen-containing components known as oxygenates. The most common of these is methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), obtained by etherification of isobutene by methanol. Process technology developed by this last organization was used as the basis for constructing a unit in the Nizhnekamskneftekhim Production Association and at the Mazheikyai Petroleum Refinery in Lithuania. MTBE production has been held back mainly by a shortage of isobutene, which is obtained mainly from butane-butene cuts produced in cat crackers. In order to alleviate this shortage, it has been proposed that MTBE should be obtained from saturated C{sub 4} hydrocarbons that are recovered in processing oilfield associated gas, and also in the refinery from primary distillation units, catalytic reformers, and hydrocrackers. A working design was developed in 1991-1992 by Lengiproneftekhim for a basically new combination unit designed for the processing of saturated C{sub 4} hydrocarbons, which has been termed the LIDEM unit (Leningrad - isomerization - dehydrogenation - MTBE).

  9. Biodegradation of methyl tert-butyl ether by a bacterial pure culture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanson, J.R.; Ackerman, C.E.; Scow, K.M.

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A bacterial strain, PM1, which is able to utilize methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) as its sole carbon and energy source, was isolated from a mixed microbial consortium in a compost biofilter capable of degrading MTBE. Initial linear rates of MTBE degradation by 2 x 10{sup 6} cells ml{sup {minus}1} were 0.07, 1.17, and 3.56 {mu}g ml{sup {minus}1} h{sup {minus}1} for initial concentrations of 5, 50, and 500 {mu}g MTBE ml{sup {minus}1}, respectively. When incubated with 20 {mu}g of uniformly labeled [{sup 14}C]MTBE ml{sup {minus}1}, strain PM1 converted 46% to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} and 19% to {sup 14}C-labeled cells within 120 h. This yield is consistent with the measurement of protein accumulation at different MTBE concentrations from which was estimated a biomass yield of 0.18 of cells mg MTBE{sup {minus}1}. Strain PM1 was inoculated into sediment core material collected from a contaminated groundwater plume at Port Hueneme, California, in which there was no evidence of MTBE degradation. Strain PM1 readily degraded 20 {micro}g of MTBE ml{sup {minus}1} added to the core material. The rate of MTBE removal increased with additional inputs of 20 {micro}g of MTBE ml{sup {minus}1}. These results suggest that PM1 has potential for use in the remediation of MTBE-contaminated environments.

  10. N-Heterocyclic Carbene Metal Complexes: Synthesis, Kinetics, Reactivity, and Recycling With Polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Su, Haw-Lih

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Page Polymer-supported Vinyl Ethers as Sequestrants for Metathesis Catalysts ......................................................................................... 68 Conclusion...-supported scavenger and (b) an insoluble resin to support scavenger ...................................................... 70 17 The reaction between PIB vinyl ether 47 and 2nd generation Grubbs catalyst 18 was monitored with 1H NMR spectroscopy...

  11. SYNTHESIS OF NOVEL CROWN ETHERS BEARING THE exo-cis-2,3-NORBORNYL GROUP AS POTENTIAL Na+ AND K+ EXTRACTANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robeson, R.M.; Bonnesen, P.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The synthesis of a series of novel dinorbornyl-16-crown-5 and dinorbornyl-18-crown-6 ethers that incorporate the exo-cis-2,3-norbornyl moiety within the macrocycle framework is described. The key starting material for the crown ethers, exo-cis-2,3-norbornanediol, was successfully prepared on a large (>30g) scale in 88% yield from norbornylene by osmium tetroxide-catalyzed hydroxylation. The syn and anti isomers of the dinorbornyl-16-crown-5 ether family were prepared using diethylene glycol with ring closure achieved using a methallyl linkage. The isomers cis-syn-cis and cis-anti-cis di-norbornano-15-methyleno-16-crown-5 (6A and 6B) could be separated using column chromatography, and a single crystal of the syn isomer 6A suitable for X-ray crystal structure analysis was obtained, thereby confi rming the syn orientation. The syn and anti isomers of the dinorbornyl-18-crown-6 ether family were successfully prepared employing a different synthetic strategy, involving the potassium–templated cyclization of two bis-hydroxyethoxy-substituted exo-cis-2,3-norbornyl groups under high dilution conditions. Attempts to fully separate cis-syn-cis di-norbornano-18-crown-6 (10A) and cis-anti-cis di-norbornano-18-crown-6 (10B) from one another using column chromatography were unsuccessful. All intermediates and products were checked for purity using either thin layer chromatography or gas chromatography, and characterized by proton and carbon NMR. Crown ethers 6AB and 10AB are to our knowledge the fi rst crown ethers to incorporate the exo-cis-2,3-norbornyl moiety into the crown ring to be successfully synthesized and characterized.

  12. Highly Enantioselective Syntheses of Functionalized r-Methylene--butyrolactones via Rh(I)-catalyzed Intramolecular Alder Ene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Xumu

    the utility of our methodology, we introduced various functional groups at the allylic position (Table 3). If R2 is an acetyl group, the desired product is a vinyl acetate-substituted -lactone. If R2 is an alkyl group, a vinyl ether is the corresponding product. Due to the wide applications of vinyl acetates

  13. Synthesis of octane enhancers during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch. [801Methyl tert-butyl ether

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marcelin, G.

    1992-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to investigate three possible routes to the formation of ethers, in particular methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), during slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch reaction. The three reaction schemes to be investigated are: (1) Addition of isobutylene during the formation of methanol and/or higher alcohols directly from CO and H{sub 2} during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch. (2) Addition of isobutylene to FT liquid products including alcohols in a slurry-phase reactor containing an MTBE or other acid catalyst. (3) Addition of methanol to slurry phase FT synthesis making iso-olefins. During the sixth quarter we completed the construction of the slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR), conducted initial shake-down experiments in a cold-flow mode, and finalized the selection process of the acid catalysts for conversion of syngas-produced alcohols and isobutylene to MTBE (scheme 2). Tasks 3, 4, and 5 are awaiting complete implementation of the SBCR system.

  14. Process for the polymerization of vinyl chloride in aqueous suspension utilizing an oil-soluble initiator and subsequently a water-soluble initiator and use of the powders obtained thereby

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petit, A.

    1981-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Process for the polymerization of vinyl chloride in aqueous suspension in the presence of a dispersing system comprising a cellulosic derivative and an anionic emulsifying agent wherein the polymerizaton is initiated by an oil-soluble initiator and a water-soluble free radical polymerization initiator is added in the course of polymerization. The thus obtained polyvinyl chloride powders are particularly suitable for the production of battery separators.

  15. channel voltage sensor+ether--go-go K Optical detection of rate-determining ion-modulated conformational changes of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bezanilla, Francisco

    channel voltage sensor+ether-à-go-go K Optical detection of rate-determining ion electrophysiological and optical approach. We find that a fluorescent probe attached near S4 in the voltage sensor.pnas.org/misc/reprints.shtml To order reprints, see: Notes: #12;Optical detection of rate-determining ion-modulated conformational

  16. Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a volatile organic com-pound (VOC) derived from natural gas that is added to gas-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a volatile organic com- pound (VOC) derived from natural gas Water in Urban and Agricultural Areas made from methanol, which is derived primarily from natural gas that is added to gas- oline either seasonally or year round in many parts of the United States to increase

  17. Comparative Environmental Performance of Two-Diesel-Fuel Oxygenates: Dibutyl Maleate (DBM) and Triproplyene Glycol Monomethyl Ether (TGME)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Layton, D.W.; Marchetti, A.A.

    2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many studies have shown that the addition of oxygen bearing compounds to diesel fuel can significantly reduce particulate emissions. To assist in the evaluation of the environmental performance of diesel-fuel oxygenates, we have implemented a suite of diagnostic models for simulating the transport of compounds released to air, water, and soils/groundwater as well as regional landscapes. As a means of studying the comparative performance of DBM and TGME, we conducted a series of simulations for selected environmental media. Benzene and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) were also addressed because they represent benchmark fuel-related compounds that have been the subject of extensive environmental measurements and modeling. The simulations showed that DBM and TGME are less mobile in soil because of reduced vapor-phase transport and increased retention on soil particles. The key distinction between these two oxygenates is that DBM is predicted to have a greater potential than TGME for aerobic biodegradation, based on chemical structure.

  18. Kinetics and modeling of mixture effects during complete catalytic oxidation of benzene and methyl tert-butyl ether

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dangi, S.; Abraham, M.A. [Univ. of Tulsa, OK (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Univ. of Tulsa, OK (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance of a catalytic incinerator depends on the nature of the compounds being oxidized and cannot be predicted simply by knowing the performance of the incinerator with pure-component model compounds. Considering the importance of mixture effects, an attempt was made to develop a combined model to predict the conversion when benzene and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) are simultaneously oxidized. Complete catalytic oxidation of benzene and MTBE, singly and in mixtures, was investigated over a platinum catalyst. No inhibition effects were seen with benzene, but MTBE conversion was distinctly inhibited by benzene. A Mars-van Krevelen rate model was used to explain the results. Model parameters were obtained from pure-component experiments and then incorporated into a multicomponent model without any adjustment or additional rate parameters. The multicomponent model was able to predict the conversion of benzene and MTBE oxidation in the binary mixture using the pure-component data without adjustable parameters.

  19. Single-Step Syngas-to-Distillates (S2D) Synthesis via Methanol and Dimethyl Ether Intermediates: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dagle, Robert A.; Lebarbier, Vanessa MC; Lizarazo Adarme, Jair A.; King, David L.; Zhu, Yunhua; Gray, Michel J.; Jones, Susanne B.; Biddy, Mary J.; Hallen, Richard T.; Wang, Yong; White, James F.; Holladay, Johnathan E.; Palo, Daniel R.

    2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the work was to enhance price-competitive, synthesis gas (syngas)-based production of transportation fuels that are directly compatible with the existing vehicle fleet (i.e., vehicles fueled by gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, etc.). To accomplish this, modifications to the traditional methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) process were investigated. In this study, we investigated direct conversion of syngas to distillates using methanol and dimethyl ether intermediates. For this application, a Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 (PdZnAl) catalyst previously developed for methanol steam reforming was evaluated. The PdZnAl catalyst was shown to be far superior to a conventional copper-based methanol catalyst when operated at relatively high temperatures (i.e., >300°C), which is necessary for MTG-type applications. Catalytic performance was evaluated through parametric studies. Process conditions such as temperature, pressure, gas-hour-space velocity, and syngas feed ratio (i.e., hydrogen:carbon monoxide) were investigated. PdZnAl catalyst formulation also was optimized to maximize conversion and selectivity to methanol and dimethyl ether while suppressing methane formation. Thus, a PdZn/Al2O3 catalyst optimized for methanol and dimethyl ether formation was developed through combined catalytic material and process parameter exploration. However, even after compositional optimization, a significant amount of undesirable carbon dioxide was produced (formed via the water-gas-shift reaction), and some degree of methane formation could not be completely avoided. Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 used in combination with ZSM-5 was investigated for direct syngas-to-distillates conversion. High conversion was achieved as thermodynamic constraints are alleviated when methanol and dimethyl are intermediates for hydrocarbon formation. When methanol and/or dimethyl ether are products formed separately, equilibrium restrictions occur. Thermodynamic relaxation also enables the use of lower operating pressures than what would be allowed for methanol synthesis alone. Aromatic-rich hydrocarbon liquid (C5+), containing a significant amount of methylated benzenes, was produced under these conditions. However, selectivity control to liquid hydrocarbons was difficult to achieve. Carbon dioxide and methane formation was problematic. Furthermore, saturation of the olefinic intermediates formed in the zeolite, and necessary for gasoline production, occurred over PdZnAl. Thus, yield to desirable hydrocarbon liquid product was limited. Evaluation of other oxygenate-producing catalysts could possibly lead to future advances. Potential exists with discovery of other types of catalysts that suppress carbon dioxide and light hydrocarbon formation. Comparative techno-economics for a single-step syngas-to-distillates process and a more conventional MTG-type process were investigated. Results suggest operating and capital cost savings could only modestly be achieved, given future improvements to catalyst performance. Sensitivity analysis indicated that increased single-pass yield to hydrocarbon liquid is a primary need for this process to achieve cost competiveness.

  20. The germination and development of seedlings from seeds treated with growth regulators: (2-chloroethyl) trimethylammonium chloride, succinic acid 2,2 dimethylhydrazide and 2,3-dihydro-5-6-diphenyl-1,4 oxathiin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kamp, Marihelen

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    intensity, demonstrate any significant reduction in leaf width (Table II). Leaf length was not significantly affected by these treatments under either light level (Table III). Because the influence of growth retarding chemicals is in the subapical meris...

  1. Enol Ethers as Substrates for Efficient Z- and Enantioselective Ring-Opening/Cross-Metathesis Reactions Promoted by Stereogenic-at-Mo Complexes: Utility in Chemical Synthesis and Mechanistic Attributes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Miao

    The first examples of catalytic enantioselective ring-opening/cross-metathesis (EROCM) reactions that involve enol ethers are reported. Specifically, we demonstrate that catalytic EROCM of several oxa- and azabicycles, ...

  2. Involvement of reactive oxygen species in brominated diphenyl ether-47-induced inflammatory cytokine release from human extravillous trophoblasts in vitro

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Hae-Ryung, E-mail: heaven@umich.edu; Kamau, Patricia W.; Loch-Caruso, Rita

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely used flame retardant compounds. Brominated diphenyl ether (BDE)-47 is one of the most prevalent PBDE congeners found in human breast milk, serum and placenta. Despite the presence of PBDEs in human placenta, effects of PBDEs on placental cell function are poorly understood. The present study investigated BDE-47-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and its role in BDE-47-stimulated proinflammatory cytokine release in a first trimester human extravillous trophoblast cell line, HTR-8/SVneo. Exposure of HTR-8/SVneo cells for 4 h to 20 ?M BDE-47 increased ROS generation 1.7 fold as measured by the dichlorofluorescein (DCF) assay. Likewise, superoxide anion production increased approximately 5 fold at 10 and 15 ?M and 9 fold at 20 ?M BDE-47 with a 1-h exposure, as measured by cytochrome c reduction. BDE-47 (10, 15 and 20 ?M) decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential by 47–64.5% at 4, 8 and 24 h as assessed with the fluorescent probe Rh123. Treatment with 15 and 20 ?M BDE-47 stimulated cellular release and mRNA expression of IL-6 and IL-8 after 12 and 24-h exposures: the greatest increases were a 35-fold increased mRNA expression at 12 h and a 12-fold increased protein concentration at 24 h for IL-6. Antioxidant treatments (deferoxamine mesylate, (±)?-tocopherol, or tempol) suppressed BDE-47-stimulated IL-6 release by 54.1%, 56.3% and 37.7%, respectively, implicating a role for ROS in the regulation of inflammatory pathways in HTR-8/SVneo cells. Solvent (DMSO) controls exhibited statistically significantly decreased responses compared with non-treated controls for IL-6 release and IL-8 mRNA expression, but these responses were not consistent across experiments and times. Nonetheless, it is possible that DMSO (used to dissolve BDE-47) may have attenuated the stimulatory actions of BDE-47 on cytokine responses. Because abnormal activation of proinflammatory responses can disrupt trophoblast functions necessary for placental development and successful pregnancy, further investigation is warranted of the impact of ROS and BDE-47 on trophoblast cytokine responses. - Highlights: • BDE-47 induced ROS overproduction and mitochondrial dysfunction. • BDE-47 stimulated production of proinflammatory cytokines. • Antioxidant treatment reduced BDE-47-stimulated ROS generation and cytokine release.

  3. Heat Capacity Uncertainty Calculation for the Eutectic Mixture of Biphenyl/Diphenyl Ether Used as Heat Transfer Fluid: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gomez, J. C.; Glatzmaier, G. C.; Mehos, M.

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The main objective of this study was to calculate the uncertainty at 95% confidence for the experimental values of heat capacity of the eutectic mixture of biphenyl/diphenyl ether (Therminol VP-1) determined from 300 to 370 degrees C. Twenty-five samples were evaluated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to obtain the sample heat flow as a function of temperature. The ASTM E-1269-05 standard was used to determine the heat capacity using DSC evaluations. High-pressure crucibles were employed to contain the sample in the liquid state without vaporizing. Sample handling has a significant impact on the random uncertainty. It was determined that the fluid is difficult to handle, and a high variability of the data was produced. The heat capacity of Therminol VP-1 between 300 and 370 degrees C was measured to be equal to 0.0025T+0.8672 with an uncertainty of +/- 0.074 J/g.K (3.09%) at 95% confidence with T (temperature) in Kelvin.

  4. Alveolar breath sampling and analysis to assess exposures to methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) during motor vehicle refueling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindstrom, A.B.; Pleil, J.D. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study we present a sampling and analytical methodology that can be used to assess consumers` exposures to methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) that may result from routine vehicle refueling operations. The method is based on the collection of alveolar breath samples using evacuated one-liter stainless steel canisters and analysis using a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer equipped with a patented `valveless` cryogenic preconcentrator. To demonstrate the utility of this approach, a series of breath samples was collected from two individuals (the person pumping the fuel and a nearby observer) immediately before and for 64 min after a vehicle was refueled with premium grade gasoline. Results demonstrate low levels of MTBE in both subjects` breaths before refueling, and levels that increased by a factor of 35 to 100 after the exposure. Breath elimination models fitted to the post exposure measurements indicate that the half-life of MTBE in the first physiological compartment was between 1.3 and 2.9 min. Analysis of the resulting models suggests that breath elimination of MTBE during the 64 min monitoring period was approximately 155 {mu}g for the refueling subject while it was only 30 {mu}g for the nearby observer. This analysis also shows that the post exposure breath elimination of other gasoline constituents was consistent with previously published observations. 20 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Synergistic effect of mixing dimethyl ether with methane, ethane, propane, and ethylene fuels on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and soot formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, S.S. [Corporate Research and Development Division, Hyundai-Kia Motors, Gyeonggi-do 445-706 (Korea); Anh, D.H. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon 305-380 (Korea); Chung, S.H. [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea)

    2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and soot formation in counterflow diffusion flames of methane, ethane, propane, and ethylene fuels mixed with dimethyl ether (DME) have been investigated. Planar laser-induced incandescence and fluorescence techniques were employed to measure relative soot volume fractions and PAH concentrations, respectively. Results showed that even though DME is known to be a clean fuel in terms of soot formation, DME mixture with ethylene fuel increases PAH and soot formation significantly as compared to the pure ethylene case, while the mixture of DME with methane, ethane, and propane decreases PAH and soot formation. Numerical calculations adopting a detailed kinetics showed that DME can be decomposed to produce a relatively large number of methyl radicals in the low-temperature region where PAH forms and grows; thus the mixture of DME with ethylene increases CH{sub 3} radicals significantly in the PAH formation region. Considering that the increase in the concentration of O radicals is minimal in the PAH formation region with DME mixture, the enhancement of PAH and soot formation in the mixture flames of DME and ethylene can be explained based on the role of methyl radicals in PAH and soot formation. Methyl radicals can increase the concentration of propargyls, which could enhance incipient benzene ring formation through the propargyl recombination reaction and subsequent PAH growth. Thus, the result substantiates the importance of methyl radicals in PAH and soot formation, especially in the PAH formation region of diffusion flames. (author)

  6. Investigation of HCCI Combustion of Diethyl Ether and Ethanol Mixtures Using Carbon 14 Tracing and Numerical Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mack, J H; Dibble, R W; Buchholz, B A; Flowers, D L

    2004-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Despite the rapid combustion typically experienced in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), components in fuel mixtures do not ignite in unison or burn equally. In our experiments and modeling of blends of diethyl ether (DEE) and ethanol (EtOH), the DEE led combustion and proceeded further toward completion, as indicated by {sup 14}C isotope tracing. A numerical model of HCCI combustion of DEE and EtOH mixtures supports the isotopic findings. Although both approaches lacked information on incompletely combusted intermediates plentiful in HCCI emissions, the numerical model and {sup 14}C tracing data agreed within the limitations of the single zone model. Despite the fact that DEE is more reactive than EtOH in HCCI engines, they are sufficiently similar that we did not observe a large elongation of energy release or significant reduction in inlet temperature required for light-off, both desired effects for the combustion event. This finding suggests that, in general, HCCI combustion of fuel blends may have preferential combustion of some of the blend components.

  7. Whole-genorne analysis of the methyl tert-butyl ether-degrading beta-proteobacterium Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kane, Staci R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Chakicherla, Anu Y. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Chain, Patrick S. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Schmidt, Radomir [University of California, Davis; Shin, M [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Legler, Tina C. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Scow, Kate M. [University of California, Davis; Larimer, Frank W [ORNL; Lucas, Susan [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Richardson, P M [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hristova, Krassimira R. [University of California, Davis

    2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1 is a methylotroph distinguished by its ability to completely metabolize the fuel oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). Strain PM1 also degrades aromatic (benzene, toluene, and xylene) and straight-chain (C, to C,,) hydrocarbons present in petroleum products. Whole-genome analysis of PM1 revealed an similar to 4-Mb circular chromosome and an similar to 600-kb megaplasmid, containing 3,831 and 646 genes, respectively. Aromatic hydrocarbon and alkane degradation, metal resistance, and methylotrophy are encoded on the chromosome. The megaplasmid contains an unusual t-RNA island, numerous insertion sequences, and large repeated elements, including a 40-kb region also present on the chromosome and a 29-kb tandem repeat encoding phosphonate transport and cobalamin biosynthesis. The megaplasmid also codes for alkane degradation and was shown to play an essential role in MTBE degradation through plasmid-curing experiments. Discrepancies between the insertion sequence element distribution patterns, the distributions of best BLASTP hits among major phylogenetic groups, and the G+C contents of the chromosome (69.2%) and plasmid (66%), together with comparative genome hybridization experiments, suggest that the plasmid was recently acquired and apparently carries the genetic information responsible for PM1's ability to degrade MTBE. Comparative genomic hybridization analysis with two PM1-like MTBE-degrading environmental isolates (similar to 99% identical 16S rRNA gene sequences) showed that the plasmid was highly conserved (ca. 99% identical), whereas the chromosomes were too diverse to conduct resequencing analysis. PM1's genome sequence provides a foundation for investigating MTBE biodegradation and exploring the genetic regulation of multiple biodegradation pathways in M. petroleiphilum and other MTBE-degrading beta-proteobacteria.

  8. Exposure to methyl tert-butyl ether, benzene, and total hydrocarbons at the Singapore-Malaysia causeway immigration checkpoint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan, C.; Ong, H.Y.; Kok, P.W. [and others

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary aim of this study was to determine the extent and levels of exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from automobile emissions in a group of immigration officers at a busy cross-border checkpoint. A majority (80%) of the workers monitored were exposed to benzene at levels between 0.01 and 0.5 ppm, with only 1.2% exceeding the current Occupational Safety and Health Administration occupational exposure limit of 1 ppm. The geometric mean (GM) concentrations of 8-hr time-weighted average exposure were 0.03 ppm, 0.9 ppm, and 2.46 ppm for methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE), benzene, and total hydrocarbons (THC), respectively. The highest time-weighted average concentrations measured were 1.05 ppm for MTBE, 2.01 ppm for benzene, and 34 ppm for THC. It was found that motorbikes emitted a more significant amount of pollutants compared with motor cars. On average, officers at the motorcycle booths were exposed to four to five times higher levels of VOCs (GMs of 0.07 ppm, 0.23 ppm, and 4.7 ppm for MTBE, benzene, and THC) than their counterparts at the motor car booths (GMs of 0.01 ppm, 0.05 ppm, and 1.5 ppm). The airborne concentrations of all three pollutants correlated with the flow of vehicle traffic. Close correlations were also noted for the concentrations in ambient air for the three pollutants measured. Benzene and MTBE had a correlation coefficient of 0.97. The overall findings showed that the concentrations of various VOCs were closely related to the traffic density, suggesting that they were from a common source, such as exhaust emissions from the vehicles. The results also indicated that although benzene, MTBE, and THC are known to be volatile, a significant amount could still be detected in the ambient environment, thus contributing to our exposure to these compounds. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  9. Synthesis of Methanol and Dimethyl Ether from Syngas over Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lebarbier, Vanessa MC; Dagle, Robert A.; Kovarik, Libor; Lizarazo Adarme, Jair A.; King, David L.; Palo, Daniel R.

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst was developed for the synthesis of methanol and dimethyl ether (DME) from syngas. Studied were temperatures of operation ranging from 250°C to 380°C. High temperatures (e.g. 380°C) are necessary when combining methanol and DME synthesis with a methanol to gasoline (MTG) process in a single reactor bed. A commercial Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst, utilized industrially for the synthesis of methanol at 220-280°C, suffers from a rapid deactivation when the reaction is conducted at high temperature (>320°C). On the contrary, a Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst was found to be highly stable for methanol and DME synthesis at 380°C. The Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst was thus further investigated for methanol and DME synthesis at P=34-69 bars, T= 250-380°C, GHSV= 5 000-18 000 h-1, and molar feeds H2/CO= 1, 2, and 3. Selectivity to DME increased with decreasing operating temperature, and increasing operating pressure. Increased GHSV’s and H2/CO syngas feed ratios also enhanced DME selectivity. Undesirable CH4 formation was observed, however, can be minimized through choice of process conditions and by catalyst design. By studying the effect of the Pd loading and the Pd:Zn molar ratio the formulation of the Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst was optimized. A catalyst with 5% Pd and a Pd:Zn molar ratio of 0.25:1 has been identified as the preferred catalyst. Results indicate that PdZn particles are more active than Pdº particles for the synthesis of methanol and less active for CH4 formation. A correlation between DME selectivity and the concentration of acid sites of the catalysts has been established. Hence, two types of sites are required for the direct conversion of syngas to DME: 1) PdZn particles are active for the synthesis of methanol from syngas, and 2) acid sites which are active for the conversion of methanol to DME. Additionally, CO2 formation was problematic as PdZn was found to be active for the water-gas-shift (WGS) reaction, under all the conditions evaluated.

  10. Manipulation of the HIF–Vegf pathway rescues methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)-induced vascular lesions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonventre, Josephine A., E-mail: josephine.bonventre@oregonstate.edu [Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Joint Graduate Program in Toxicology, 170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, 76 Lipman Dr., New Brunswick, NJ 08901 (United States); Oregon State University, Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, 1011 Agricultural and Life Sciences Bldg, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Kung, Tiffany S., E-mail: tiffany.kung@rutgers.edu [Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Joint Graduate Program in Toxicology, 170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, 76 Lipman Dr., New Brunswick, NJ 08901 (United States); White, Lori A., E-mail: lawhite@aesop.rutgers.edu [Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Joint Graduate Program in Toxicology, 170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, 76 Lipman Dr., New Brunswick, NJ 08901 (United States); Cooper, Keith R., E-mail: cooper@aesop.rutgers.edu [Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Joint Graduate Program in Toxicology, 170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, 76 Lipman Dr., New Brunswick, NJ 08901 (United States)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) has been shown to be specifically anti-angiogenic in piscine and mammalian model systems at concentrations that appear non-toxic in other organ systems. The mechanism by which MTBE targets developing vascular structures is unknown. A global transcriptome analysis of zebrafish embryos developmentally exposed to 0.00625–5 mM MTBE suggested that hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-regulated pathways were affected. HIF-driven angiogenesis via vascular endothelial growth factor (vegf) is essential to the developing vasculature of an embryo. Three rescue studies were designed to rescue MTBE-induced vascular lesions: pooled blood in the common cardinal vein (CCV), cranial hemorrhages (CH), and abnormal intersegmental vessels (ISV), and test the hypothesis that MTBE toxicity was HIF–Vegf dependent. First, zebrafish vegf-a over-expression via plasmid injection, resulted in significantly fewer CH and ISV lesions, 46 and 35% respectively, in embryos exposed to 10 mM MTBE. Then HIF degradation was inhibited in two ways. Chemical rescue by N-oxaloylglycine significantly reduced CCV and CH lesions by 30 and 32% in 10 mM exposed embryos, and ISV lesions were reduced 24% in 5 mM exposed zebrafish. Finally, a morpholino designed to knock-down ubiquitin associated von Hippel–Lindau protein, significantly reduced CCV lesions by 35% in 10 mM exposed embryos. In addition, expression of some angiogenesis related genes altered by MTBE exposure were rescued. These studies demonstrated that MTBE vascular toxicity is mediated by a down regulation of HIF–Vegf driven angiogenesis. The selective toxicity of MTBE toward developing vasculature makes it a potentially useful chemical in the designing of new drugs or in elucidating roles for specific angiogenic proteins in future studies of vascular development. - Highlights: • Global gene expression of MTBE exposed zebrafish suggested altered HIF1 signaling. • Over expression of zebrafish vegf-a rescues MTBE-induced vascular lesions. • Inhibiting PHD or knocking down VHL rescues MTBE-induced vascular lesions. • HIF1-Vegf driven angiogenesis is a target for MTBE vascular toxicity.

  11. A MILD OXIDJ.TION OF ALDEHYDES TO ir,B-LMATURATEU ALDEHYDES David K. Willm~s"' and Klyoshl Nishltani

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, David R.

    led to mixtures. - Notably enol acetates and ethers have been recognized as excellent substrates-hydroxy selenldes which are conven- iently transformed into vinyl selenides, epoxldes, olefins, and allylic alcohols

  12. EAST CAROLINA UNIVERSITY HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL USE GRANT REVIEW FORM ECU policy requires that all grant proposals involving the use of hazardous chemicals be reviewed by an institutional review committee or

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -benezene 4-Aminodiphenyl Asbestos Coal tar pitch volatiles Methyl chloromethyl ether Formaldehyde Vinyl chloride Coke oven emissions 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane Lead Cadmium Benzene Cotton dust Chromium VI

  13. Ethers help gasoline quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, E.J.; Leiby, S.M. (SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (US))

    1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this article three scenarios to evaluate the effect of etherification on gasoline production and quality are reviewed: Base case FCC/C{sub 4} alkylation complex - FCC unit operation for maximum gasoline yield, MTBE unit added to base case FCC unit operation and MTBE unit added to maximum olefins FCC unit operation. Details of the FCC, MTBE and C{sub 4} alkylation operations used in this article are reviewed, followed by a discussion of overall results.

  14. Treatment of methyl tert-butyl ether vapors in a biotrickling filters. 2. Analysis of the rate-limiting step and behavior under transient conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fortin, N.Y.; Deshusses, M.A. [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering] [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering

    1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Detailed experiments were performed with gas phase biotrickling filters treating vapors of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), a gasoline additive of great environmental concern. A particular emphasis was placed on the analysis of the rate-limiting step, and it was found that the process was mostly limited by the biological reaction rather than by mass transfer. Further experiments involved the study of the dynamic behavior of the biotrickling filters under simulated field conditions. In all cases, the biotrickling filters adapted rapidly to the new conditions, and new steady states were obtained within hours. The relevance of the results and the implications as far as implementation of biotrickling filters for field MTBE treatment are discussed.

  15. Kinetics and mechanism of the sonolytic destruction of methyl tert-butyl ether by ultrasonic irradiation in the presence of ozone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, J.W. [Yonsei Univ., Wonju (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Industrial Environment and Health] [Yonsei Univ., Wonju (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Industrial Environment and Health; Hoffmann, M.R. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). W.M. Keck Labs.] [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). W.M. Keck Labs.

    1998-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The kinetics and mechanism of the sonolytic degradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) have been investigated at an ultrasonic frequency of 205 kHz and power of 200 W L{sup {minus}1}. The observed first-order degradation rate constant for the loss of MTBE increased from 4.1 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} s{sup {minus}1} to 8.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} s{sup {minus}1} as the concentration of MTBE decreased from 1.0 to 0.01 mM. In the presence of O{sub 3}, the sonolytic rate of destruction of MTBE was accelerated substantially. The rate of MTBE sonolysis with ozone was enhanced by a factor of 1.5--3.9 depending on the initial concentration of MTBE. tert-Butyl formate, tert-butyl alcohol, methyl acetate, and acetone were found to be the primary intermediates and byproducts of the degradation reaction with yields of 8, 5, 3, and 12%, respectively. A reaction mechanism involving three parallel pathways that include the direct pyrolytic decomposition of MTBE, the direct reaction of MTBE with ozone, and the reaction of MTBE with hydroxyl radical is proposed.

  16. Cytotoxic and DNA-damaging effects of methyl tert-butyl ether and its metabolites on HL-60 cells in vitro

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, G.H. [Xian Medical Univ. (China); Shen, Y.; Shen, H.M. [National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore)] [and others

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a widely used oxygenate in unleaded gasoline; however, few studies have been conducted on the toxicity of this compound. This study evaluates the cytotoxic and DNA-damaging effects of MTBE and its metabolites in a human haemopoietic cell line, HL-60. The metabolites of MTBE studied include tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA), {alpha}-hydroxyisobutyric acid (HIBA), and formaldehyde. Comet assay is used to assess DNA damage, and the cytotoxicity is investigated by lactate dehydrogenease (LDH) release. The results show no significant cytotoxic effects of MTBE, TBA, and HIBA over a concentration ranging from 1 to 30 mM. Formaldehyde, in contrast, causes a substantial LDH release at a concentration of 5 {mu}M. Hydrogen peroxide, a known oxidative agent, at concentrations ranging from 10 to 100 {mu}M, produces a significant dose-related increase in DNA damage, whereas a much higher concentration of MTBE (1 to 30 mM) is required to produce a similar observation. The genotoxic effects of TBA and HIBA appear to be identical to that of MTBE. Conversely, DNA damage is observed for formaldehyde at a relatively low concentration range (5 to 100 {mu}M). These findings suggest that MTBE and its metabolites, except formaldehyde, have relatively low cytotoxic and genotoxic effects. 16 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Treatment of methyl tert-butyl ether vapors in biotrickling filters. 1. Reactor startup, steady-state performance, and culture characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fortin, N.Y.; Deshusses, M.A. [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering] [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering

    1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An aerobic microbial consortium able to biodegrade methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) was enriched in two waste air biotrickling filters after continuous operation for 6 months. After this acclimation phase, the two laboratory-scale biotrickling filters were able to degrade up to 50 g of MTBE per cubic meter of reactor per hour, a value comparable to other gasoline constituents. Such high performance could be sustained for at least 4--6 weeks. After the acclimation phase, the MTBE degrading biotrickling filters were characterized by their almost full conversion of MTBE to carbon dioxide and the absence of any degradation byproducts in either the gas or the liquid phase. They also exhibited a very high specific degradation activity per amount of biomass, and a low rate of biomass accumulation. An observed biomass yield of 0.1 g g{sup {minus}1} and a specific growth rate of 0.025 day{sup {minus}1} were determined for the biotrickling filter process culture. Further data on MTBE mass transfer and on the dynamic behavior of the biotrickling filter are presented in part 2 of this paper. Overall, the results demonstrate that MTBE can be effectively biodegraded under carefully controlled environmental conditions.

  18. Combined 3D-QSAR, molecular docking and molecular dynamics study on thyroid hormone activity of hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers to thyroid receptors ?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Xiaolin [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China); Ye, Li [Suzhou NeuPharma Co.,Ltd, Suzhou 215123 (China)] [Suzhou NeuPharma Co.,Ltd, Suzhou 215123 (China); Wang, Xiaoxiang [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China); Wang, Xinzhou [Suzhou NeuPharma Co.,Ltd, Suzhou 215123 (China)] [Suzhou NeuPharma Co.,Ltd, Suzhou 215123 (China); Liu, Hongling [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China); Zhu, Yongliang [Suzhou NeuPharma Co.,Ltd, Suzhou 215123 (China)] [Suzhou NeuPharma Co.,Ltd, Suzhou 215123 (China); Yu, Hongxia, E-mail: hongxiayu01@yahoo.com.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China)

    2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Several recent reports suggested that hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (HO-PBDEs) may disturb thyroid hormone homeostasis. To illuminate the structural features for thyroid hormone activity of HO-PBDEs and the binding mode between HO-PBDEs and thyroid hormone receptor (TR), the hormone activity of a series of HO-PBDEs to thyroid receptors ? was studied based on the combination of 3D-QSAR, molecular docking, and molecular dynamics (MD) methods. The ligand- and receptor-based 3D-QSAR models were obtained using Comparative Molecular Similarity Index Analysis (CoMSIA) method. The optimum CoMSIA model with region focusing yielded satisfactory statistical results: leave-one-out cross-validation correlation coefficient (q{sup 2}) was 0.571 and non-cross-validation correlation coefficient (r{sup 2}) was 0.951. Furthermore, the results of internal validation such as bootstrapping, leave-many-out cross-validation, and progressive scrambling as well as external validation indicated the rationality and good predictive ability of the best model. In addition, molecular docking elucidated the conformations of compounds and key amino acid residues at the docking pocket, MD simulation further determined the binding process and validated the rationality of docking results. -- Highlights: ? The thyroid hormone activities of HO-PBDEs were studied by 3D-QSAR. ? The binding modes between HO-PBDEs and TR? were explored. ? 3D-QSAR, molecular docking, and molecular dynamics (MD) methods were performed.

  19. Effect of Ethanol and Methyl-tert-Butyl Ether on Monoaromatic Hydrocarbon Biodegradation: Response Variability for Different Aquifer Materials Under Various Electron-Accepting Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruiz-Aguilar, G L; Fernandez-Sanchez, J M; Kane, S R; Kim, D; Alvarez, P J

    2003-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Aquifer microcosms were used to determine how ethanol and methyl-tert-butyl ether (MtBE) affect monoaromatic hydrocarbon degradation under different electron-accepting conditions commonly found in contaminated sites experiencing natural attenuation. Response variability was investigated by using aquifer material from four sites with different exposure history. The lag phase prior to BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) and ethanol degradation was typically shorter in microcosms with previously contaminated aquifer material, although previous exposure did not always result in high degradation activity. Toluene was degraded in all aquifer materials and generally under a broader range of electron-accepting conditions compared to benzene, which was degraded only under aerobic conditions. MtBE was not degraded within 100 days under any condition, and it did not affect BTEX or ethanol degradation patterns. Ethanol was often degraded before BTEX compounds, and had a variable effect on BTEX degradation as a function of electron-accepting conditions and aquifer material source. An occasional enhancement of toluene degradation by ethanol occurred in denitrifying microcosms with unlimited nitrate; this may be attributable to the fortuitous growth of toluene-degrading bacteria during ethanol degradation. Nevertheless, experiments with flow-through aquifer columns showed that this beneficial effect could be eclipsed by an ethanol-driven depletion of electron acceptors, which significantly inhibited BTEX degradation and is probably the most important mechanism by which ethanol could hinder BTEX natural attenuation. A decrease in natural attenuation could increase the likelihood that BTEX compounds reach a receptor as well as the potential duration of exposure.

  20. Electrophilic Metal Alkyl Chemistry in New Ligand Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, Richard F. [University of Chicago] University of Chicago

    2013-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The goals of this project were to design new electrophilic metal alkyl complexes and to exploit these systems in fundamental studies of olefin polymerization and other important and new catalytic reactions. A key target reaction is insertion copolymerization of olefins and polar CH2=CHX vinyl monomers such as vinyl halides and vinyl ethers. During the period covered by this report we (i) investigated the properties of ortho-alkoxy-arylphosphine ligands in Ni-based olefin polymerization catalysts, (ii) studied the synthesis of double-end-capped polyethylene using group 4 metal catalysts that contain tris-pyrazolylborate ligands, (iii) explored the ethylene insertion reactivity of group 4 metal tris-pyrazolyl-borate complexes, (iv) showed that (?-diimine)PdMe{sup +} species undergo multiple insertion of silyl vinyl ethers, (v) synthesized and explored the reactivity of base-free Ni benzyl complexes that contain ortho-phosphino-arene sulfonate ligands, (vi) established the mechanism of the reaction of vinyl chloride with (?-diimine)PdMe{sup +} catalysts, (vii) explored the role of cationic polymerization and insertion chemistry in the reactions of vinyl ethers with (?-diimine)PdMe{sup +} species, (viii) discovered a new class of self-assembled tetranuclear Pd catalysts that produce high molecular weight linear polyethylene and copolymerize ethylene and vinyl fluoride, and (ix) developed model systems that enabled investigation of cis-trans isomerization of {phosphine-sulfonate}Pd(II) complexes.

  1. Quercetin 3-O-methyl ether protects FL83B cells from copper induced oxidative stress through the PI3K/Akt and MAPK/Erk pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tseng, Hsiao-Ling, E-mail: lily1001224@gmail.com [Department of Life Sciences, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Life Sciences, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Li, Chia-Jung, E-mail: 97751101@stmail.tcu.edu.tw [Institute of Medical Sciences, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China)] [Institute of Medical Sciences, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Huang, Lin-Huang, E-mail: yg1236@yahoo.com.tw [School of Medicine, Institute of Traditional Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)] [School of Medicine, Institute of Traditional Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chun-Yao, E-mail: cychen@mail.tcu.edu.tw [Department of Life Sciences, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Life Sciences, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Chun-Hao, E-mail: 100726105@stmail.tcu.edu.tw [Department of Life Sciences, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Life Sciences, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Lin, Chun-Nan, E-mail: lincna@cc.kmu.edu.tw [Faculty of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China) [Faculty of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Department of Biological Science and Technology, School of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Hsue-Yin, E-mail: hsueyin@mail.tcu.edu.tw [Department of Life Sciences, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Life Sciences, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China)

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Quercetin is a bioflavonoid that exhibits several biological functions in vitro and in vivo. Quercetin 3-O-methyl ether (Q3) is a natural product reported to have pharmaceutical activities, including antioxidative and anticancer activities. However, little is known about the mechanism by which it protects cells from oxidative stress. This study was designed to investigate the mechanisms by which Q3 protects against Cu{sup 2+}-induced cytotoxicity. Exposure to Cu{sup 2+} resulted in the death of mouse liver FL83B cells, characterized by apparent apoptotic features, including DNA fragmentation and increased nuclear condensation. Q3 markedly suppressed Cu{sup 2+}-induced apoptosis and mitochondrial dysfunction, characterized by reduced mitochondrial membrane potential, caspase-3 activation, and PARP cleavage, in Cu{sup 2+}-exposed cells. The involvement of PI3K, Akt, Erk, FOXO3A, and Mn-superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) was shown to be critical to the survival of Q3-treated FL83B cells. The liver of both larval and adult zebrafish showed severe damage after exposure to Cu{sup 2+} at a concentration of 5 ?M. Hepatic damage induced by Cu{sup 2+} was reduced by cotreatment with Q3. Survival of Cu{sup 2+}-exposed larval zebrafish was significantly increased by cotreatment with 15 ?M Q3. Our results indicated that Cu{sup 2+}-induced apoptosis in FL83B cells occurred via the generation of ROS, upregulation and phosphorylation of Erk, overexpression of 14-3-3, inactivation of Akt, and the downregulation of FOXO3A and MnSOD. Hence, these results also demonstrated that Q3 plays a protective role against oxidative damage in zebrafish liver and remarked the potential of Q3 to be used as an antioxidant for hepatocytes. Highlights: ? Protective effects of Q3 on Cu{sup 2+}-induced oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo. ? Cu{sup 2+} induced apoptosis in FL83B cells via ROS and the activation of Erk. ? Q3 abolishes Cu{sup 2+}-induced apoptosis through the PI3K/Akt and MAPK/Erk pathway.

  2. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in e-waste: Level and transfer in a typical e-waste recycling site in Shanghai, Eastern China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yue; Duan, Yan-Ping, E-mail: duanyanping@tongji.edu.cn; Huang, Fan; Yang, Jing; Xiang, Nan; Meng, Xiang-Zhou; Chen, Ling

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: • PBDEs were detected in the majority of e-waste. • PBDEs were found in TVs made in China after 1990. • The levels of ?PBDEs in e-waste made in Japan far exceed the threshold limit of RoHS. • The inappropriate recycling and disposal of e-waste is an important source of PBDEs. - Abstract: Very few data for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were available in the electronic waste (e-waste) as one of the most PBDEs emission source. This study reported concentrations of PBDEs in e-waste including printer, rice cooker, computer monitor, TV, electric iron and water dispenser, as well as dust from e-waste, e-waste dismantling workshop and surface soil from inside and outside of an e-waste recycling plant in Shanghai, Eastern China. The results showed that PBDEs were detected in the majority of e-waste, and the concentrations of ?PBDEs ranged from not detected to 175 g/kg, with a mean value of 10.8 g/kg. PBDEs were found in TVs made in China after 1990. The mean concentrations of ?PBDEs in e-waste made in Korea, Japan, Singapore and China were 1.84 g/kg, 20.5 g/kg, 0.91 g/kg, 4.48 g/kg, respectively. The levels of ?PBDEs in e-waste made in Japan far exceed the threshold limit of RoHS (1.00 g/kg). BDE-209 dominated in e-waste, accounting for over 93%. The compositional patterns of PBDEs congeners resembled the profile of Saytex 102E, indicating the source of deca-BDE. Among the samples of dust and surface soil from a typical e-waste recycling site, the highest concentrations of ?{sub 18}PBDEs and BDE-209 were found in dust in e-waste, ranging from 1960 to 340,710 ng/g and from 910 to 320,400 ng/g, which were 1–2 orders of magnitude higher than other samples. It suggested that PBDEs released from e-waste via dust, and then transferred to surrounding environment.

  3. Density functional theory study of the interaction of vinyl radical, ethyne, and ethene with benzene, aimed to define an affordable computational level to investigate stability trends in large van der Waals complexes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maranzana, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.maranzana@unito.it, E-mail: anna.giordana@hotmail.com, E-mail: vincenzo.barone@sns.it, E-mail: mauro.causa@unina.it, E-mail: mipavone@unina.it; Giordana, Anna, E-mail: andrea.maranzana@unito.it, E-mail: anna.giordana@hotmail.com, E-mail: vincenzo.barone@sns.it, E-mail: mauro.causa@unina.it, E-mail: mipavone@unina.it; Indarto, Antonius, E-mail: antonius.indarto@che.itb.ac.id; Tonachini, Glauco, E-mail: glauco.tonachini@unito.it [Dipartimento di Chimica, Università di Torino, Corso Massimo D’Azeglio 48, I-10125 Torino (Italy)] [Dipartimento di Chimica, Università di Torino, Corso Massimo D’Azeglio 48, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Barone, Vincenzo, E-mail: andrea.maranzana@unito.it, E-mail: anna.giordana@hotmail.com, E-mail: vincenzo.barone@sns.it, E-mail: mauro.causa@unina.it, E-mail: mipavone@unina.it [Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, I-56126, Pisa (Italy)] [Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, I-56126, Pisa (Italy); Causà, Mauro, E-mail: andrea.maranzana@unito.it, E-mail: anna.giordana@hotmail.com, E-mail: vincenzo.barone@sns.it, E-mail: mauro.causa@unina.it, E-mail: mipavone@unina.it [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, dei Materiali e della Produzione Industriale, Università di Napoli “Federico II,” Via Cintia, 80126 Napoli (Italy)] [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, dei Materiali e della Produzione Industriale, Università di Napoli “Federico II,” Via Cintia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Pavone, Michele, E-mail: andrea.maranzana@unito.it, E-mail: anna.giordana@hotmail.com, E-mail: vincenzo.barone@sns.it, E-mail: mauro.causa@unina.it, E-mail: mipavone@unina.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Università di Napoli “Federico II,” Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant’Angelo, Via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy)] [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Università di Napoli “Federico II,” Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant’Angelo, Via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy)

    2013-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Our purpose is to identify a computational level sufficiently dependable and affordable to assess trends in the interaction of a variety of radical or closed shell unsaturated hydro-carbons A adsorbed on soot platelet models B. These systems, of environmental interest, would unavoidably have rather large sizes, thus prompting to explore in this paper the performances of relatively low-level computational methods and compare them with higher-level reference results. To this end, the interaction of three complexes between non-polar species, vinyl radical, ethyne, or ethene (A) with benzene (B) is studied, since these species, involved themselves in growth processes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and soot particles, are small enough to allow high-level reference calculations of the interaction energy ?E{sub AB}. Counterpoise-corrected interaction energies ?E{sub AB} are used at all stages. (1) Density Functional Theory (DFT) unconstrained optimizations of the A?B complexes are carried out, using the B3LYP-D, ?B97X-D, and M06-2X functionals, with six basis sets: 6-31G(d), 6-311 (2d,p), and 6-311++G(3df,3pd); aug-cc-pVDZ and aug-cc-pVTZ; N07T. (2) Then, unconstrained optimizations by Møller-Plesset second order Perturbation Theory (MP2), with each basis set, allow subsequent single point Coupled Cluster Singles Doubles and perturbative estimate of the Triples energy computations with the same basis sets [CCSD(T)//MP2]. (3) Based on an additivity assumption of (i) the estimated MP2 energy at the complete basis set limit [E{sub MP2/CBS}] and (ii) the higher-order correlation energy effects in passing from MP2 to CCSD(T) at the aug-cc-pVTZ basis set, ?E{sub CC-MP}, a CCSD(T)/CBS estimate is obtained and taken as a computational energy reference. At DFT, variations in ?E{sub AB} with basis set are not large for the title molecules, and the three functionals perform rather satisfactorily even with rather small basis sets [6-31G(d) and N07T], exhibiting deviation from the computational reference of less than 1 kcal mol{sup ?1}. The zero-point vibrational energy corrected estimates ?(E{sub AB}+ZPE), obtained with the three functionals and the 6-31G(d) and N07T basis sets, are compared with experimental D{sub 0} measures, when available. In particular, this comparison is finally extended to the naphthalene and coronene dimers and to three ??? associations of different PAHs (R, made by 10, 16, or 24 C atoms) and P (80 C atoms)

  4. 13-03-09 9:37 PMModernity, the Cold War, and New Whig Histories of Ideas, Pt. 2 | Ether Wave Propaganda Page 1 of 4http://etherwave.wordpress.com/2012/10/21/modernity-the-cold-war-and-new-whig-histories-of-ideas-pt-2/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solovey, Mark

    13-03-09 9:37 PMModernity, the Cold War, and New Whig Histories of Ideas, Pt. 2 | Ether Wave Propaganda Page 1 of 4http://etherwave.wordpress.com/2012/10/21/modernity-the-cold-war-and-new-whig-histories-of-ideas-pt-2/ Modernity, the Cold War, and New Whig Histories of Ideas, Pt. 2 October 21, 2012 Posted

  5. 12-11-24 7:47 PMModernity, the Cold War, and New Whig Histories of Ideas, Pt. 3 Ether Wave Propaganda Page 1 of 6http://etherwave.wordpress.com/2012/11/17/modernity-the-cold-war-and-new-whig-histories-of-ideas-pt-3/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solovey, Mark

    12-11-24 7:47 PMModernity, the Cold War, and New Whig Histories of Ideas, Pt. 3 « Ether Wave Propaganda Page 1 of 6http://etherwave.wordpress.com/2012/11/17/modernity-the-cold-war-and-new-whig-histories-of-ideas-pt-3/ Modernity, the Cold War, and New Whig Histories of Ideas, Pt. 3 November 17, 2012 Posted

  6. 13-03-09 9:32 PMModernity, the Cold War, and New Whig Histories of Ideas, Pt. 1 | Ether Wave Propaganda Page 1 of 6http://etherwave.wordpress.com/2012/09/22/modernity-the-cold-war-and-new-whig-histories-of-ideas-pt-1/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solovey, Mark

    13-03-09 9:32 PMModernity, the Cold War, and New Whig Histories of Ideas, Pt. 1 | Ether Wave Propaganda Page 1 of 6http://etherwave.wordpress.com/2012/09/22/modernity-the-cold-war-and-new-whig-histories-of-ideas-pt-1/ Modernity, the Cold War, and New Whig Histories of Ideas, Pt. 1 September 22, 2012 Posted

  7. Synthesis of selected aminohexanols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stout, Jack Lynn

    1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -hexanol 2- a min o - 3-he xano1 The previously unreported 5-amino-2-hexanol was prepared in a three step synthesis. Nitroethane in ether was treated with methyl vinyl ketone in the presence of a catalytic amount of Triton 9 B to give 5-nitro-2.... For the synthesis of the previously unreported 6-amino-3- hexanol a procedure similar to that required for 5-amino-2-hexanol r was used. A large excess of nitromethane in ether was treated with ethyl vinyl ketone in the pr'esence of a catalytic amount of Triton...

  8. Separation of gases through gas enrichment membrane composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swedo, R.J.; Kurek, P.R.

    1988-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin film composite membranes having as a permselective layer a film of a homopolymer of certain vinyl alkyl ethers are useful in the separation of various gases. Such homopolymers have a molecular weight of greater than 30,000 and the alkyl group of the vinyl alkyl monomer has from 4 to 20 carbon atoms with branching within the alkyl moiety at least at the carbon atom bonded to the ether oxygen or at the next adjacent carbon atom. These membranes show excellent hydrolytic stability, especially in the presence of acidic or basic gaseous components.

  9. Separation of gases through gas enrichment membrane composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swedo, Raymond J. (Mt. Prospect, IL); Kurek, Paul R. (Schaumburg, IL)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin film composite membranes having as a permselective layer a film of a homopolymer of certain vinyl alkyl ethers are useful in the separation of various gases. Such homopolymers have a molecular weight of greater than 30,000 and the alkyl group of the vinyl alkyl monomer has from 4 to 20 carbon atoms with branching within the alkyl moiety at least at the carbon atom bonded to the ether oxygen or at the next adjacent carbon atom. These membranes show excellent hydrolytic stability, especially in the presence of acidic or basic gaseous components.

  10. Sonolytic destruction of methyl tert-butyl ether by ultrasonic irradiation: The role of O{sub 3}, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, frequency, and power density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, J.W.; Hung, H.M.; Lin, A.; Hoffmann, M.R. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). W.M. Keck Labs.] [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). W.M. Keck Labs.

    1999-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The kinetics of degradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) by ultrasonic irradiation in the presence of ozone as functions of applied frequencies and applied power are investigated. Experiments are performed over the frequency range of 205--1,078 kHz. The higher overall reaction rates are observed at 358 and 618 kHz and then at 205 and 1,078 kHz. The observed pseudo-first-order rate constant, k{sub 0}, for MTBE degradation increases with increasing power density up to 250 W L{sup {minus}1}. A linear dependence of the first-order rate constant, k{sub O{sub 3}}, for the simultaneous degradation of O{sub 3} on power density is also observed. Naturally occurring organic matter (NOM) is shown to have a negligible effect on observed reaction rates.

  11. 13-03-09 9:30 PMCold War Social Science and the Rubric of the "Cold War" | Ether Wave Propaganda Page 1 of 6http://etherwave.wordpress.com/2012/09/06/cold-war-social-science-and-the-rubric-of-the-cold-war/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solovey, Mark

    13-03-09 9:30 PMCold War Social Science and the Rubric of the "Cold War" | Ether Wave Propaganda Page 1 of 6http://etherwave.wordpress.com/2012/09/06/cold-war-social-science-and-the-rubric-of-the-cold-war/ Cold War Social Science and the Rubric of the "Cold War" September 6, 2012 Posted by Will Thomas in EWP

  12. {gamma}-aminobutyric acid{sub A} (GABA{sub A}) receptor regulates ERK1/2 phosphorylation in rat hippocampus in high doses of Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE)-induced impairment of spatial memory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng Gang; Zhang Wenbin [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health and Military Preventive Medicine, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032 (China); Zhang Yun [465 Hospital, Jilin Medical College, Jilin 132001 (China); Chen Yaoming; Liu Mingchao; Yao Ting; Yang Yanxia; Zhao Fang [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health and Military Preventive Medicine, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032 (China); Li Jingxia; Huang Chuanshu [Nelson Institute of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, Tuxedo, New York 10987 (United States); Luo Wenjing [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health and Military Preventive Medicine, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032 (China)], E-mail: luowenj@fmmu.edu.cn; Chen Jingyuan [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health and Military Preventive Medicine, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032 (China)], E-mail: jy_chen@fmmu.edu.cn

    2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental and occupational exposure to Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) has been reported to induce neurotoxicological and neurobehavioral effects, such as headache, nausea, dizziness, and disorientation, etc. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in MTBE-induced neurotoxicity are still not well understood. In the present study, we investigated the effects of MTBE on spatial memory and the expression and function of GABA{sub A} receptor in the hippocampus. Our results demonstrated that intraventricular injection of MTBE impaired the performance of the rats in a Morris water maze task, and significantly increased the expression of GABA{sub A} receptor {alpha}1 subunit in the hippocampus. The phosphorylation of ERK1/2 decreased after the MTBE injection. Furthermore, the decreased ability of learning and the reduction of phosphorylated ERK1/2 level of the MTBE-treated rats was partly reversed by bicuculline injected 30 min before the training. These results suggested that MTBE exposure could result in impaired spatial memory. GABA{sub A} receptor may play an important role in the MTBE-induced impairment of learning and memory by regulating the phosphorylation of ERK in the hippocampus.

  13. Preliminary Evaluation of the Field and Laboratory Emission Cell (FLEC) for Sampling Attribution Signatures from Building Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harvey, Scott D.; He, Lijian; Wahl, Jon H.

    2012-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This study provides a preliminary evaluation of the Field and Laboratory Emission Cell (FLEC) for its suitability for sampling building materials for toxic compounds and their associated impurities and residues that might remain after a terrorist chemical attack. Chemical warfare (CW) agents and toxic industrial chemicals were represented by a range of test probes that included CW surrogates. The test probes encompassed the acid-base properties, volatilities, and polarities of the expected chemical agents and residual compounds. Results indicated that dissipation of the test probes depended heavily on the underlying material. Near complete dissipation of almost all test probes occurred from galvanized stainless steel within 3.0 hrs, whereas far stronger retention with concomitant slower release was observed for vinyl composition floor tiles. The test probes displayed immediated permanence on Teflon. FLEC sampling was further evaluated by profiling residues remaining after the evaporation of 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, a sulfur mustard simulant. This study lays the groundwork for the eventual goal of applying this sampling approach for collection of forensic attribution signatures that remain after a terrorist chemical attack.

  14. High Temperature, Low Relative Humidity, Polymer-type Membranes Based on Disulfonated Poly(arylene ether) Block and Random Copolymers Optionally Incorporating Protonic Conducting Layered Water insoluble Zirconium Fillers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGrath, James E.; Baird, Donald G.

    2010-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Our research group has been engaged in the past few years in the synthesis of biphenol based partially disulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) random copolymers as potential PEMs. This series of polymers are named as BPSH-xx, where BP stands for biphenol, S stands for sulfonated, H stands for acidified and xx represents the degree of disulfonation. All of these sulfonated copolymers phase separate to form nano scale hydrophilic and hydrophobic morphological domains. The hydrophilic phase containing the sulfonic acid moieties causes the copolymer to absorb water. Water confined in hydrophilic pores in concert with the sulfonic acid groups serve the critical function of proton (ion) conduction and water transport in these systems. Both Nafion and BPSH show high proton conductivity at fully hydrated conditions. However proton transport is especially limited at low hydration level for the BPSH random copolymer. It has been observed that the diffusion coefficients of both water and protons change with the water content of the pore. This change in proton and water transport mechanisms with hydration level has been attributed to the solvation of the acid groups and the amount of bound and bulk-like water within a pore. At low hydration levels most of the water is tightly associated with sulfonic groups and has a low diffusion coefficient. This tends to encourage isolated domain morphology. Thus, although there may be significant concentrations of protons, the transport is limited by the discontinuous morphological structure. Hence the challenge lies in how to modify the chemistry of the polymers to obtain significant protonic conductivity at low hydration levels. This may be possible if one can alter the chemical structure to synthesize nanophase separated ion containing block copolymers. Unlike the BPSH copolymers, where the sulfonic acid groups are randomly distributed along the chain, the multiblock copolymers will feature an ordered sequence of hydrophilic and hydrophobic segments. If, like in Nafion, connectivity is established between the hydrophilic domains in these multiblock copolymers, they will not need as much water, and hence will show much better protonic conductivity than the random copolymers (with similar degree of sulfonation, or IEC) at partially hydrated conditions. The goal of this research is to develop a material suitable for use as a polymer electrolyte membrane which by the year 2010 will meet all the performance requirements associated with fuel cell operation at high temperatures and low relative humidity, and will out-perform the present standard Nafion{reg_sign}. In particular, it is our objective to extend our previous research based on the use of thermally, oxidatively, and hydrolytically, ductile, high Tg ion containing polymers based on poly(arylene ethers) to the production of polymer electrolyte membranes which will meet all the performance requirements in addition to having an areal resistance of < 0.05 ohm-cm{sup 2} at a temperature of up to 120 C, relative humidity of 25 to 50%, and up to 2.5 atm total pressure. In many instances, our materials already out performs Nafion{reg_sign}, and it is expected that with some modification by either combining with conductive inorganic fillers and/or synthesizing as a block copolymer it will meet the performance criteria at high temperatures and low relative humidity. A key component in improving the performance of the membranes (and in particular proton conductivity) and meeting the cost requirements of $40/m{sup 2} is our development of a film casting process, which shows promise for generation of void free thin films of uniform thickness with controlled polymer alignment and configuration.

  15. Mode of action of ethyl tertiary-butyl ether hepatotumorigenicity in the rat: Evidence for a role of oxidative stress via activation of CAR, PXR and PPAR signaling pathways

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kakehashi, Anna, E-mail: anna@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Pathology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-4-3 Asahi-machi, Abeno-ku, Osaka 545-8585 (Japan); Hagiwara, Akihiro; Imai, Norio [DIMS Institute of Medical Science, Inc., 64 Goura, Nishiazai, Azai-cho, Ichinomiya, Aichi 491-0113 (Japan); Nagano, Kasuke [Nagano Toxicologic-Pathology Consulting, Ochiai, Hadano, Kanagawa 257-0025 (Japan); Nishimaki, Fukumi [Biofuel Assessment Group, New Fuels Dept., Japan Petroleum Energy Center (JPEC), 4-3-9 Toranomon, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-0001 (Japan); Banton, Marcy [Toxicology and Risk Assessment, LyondellBasell Industries, LyondellBasell Corporate HSE/Product Safety, One Houston Center, Suite 700, 1221 McKinney Street, Houston, TX 770 10 (United States); Wei, Min [Department of Pathology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-4-3 Asahi-machi, Abeno-ku, Osaka 545-8585 (Japan); Fukushima, Shoji [Department of Pathology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-4-3 Asahi-machi, Abeno-ku, Osaka 545-8585 (Japan); Japan Bioassay Research Center, Japan Industrial Safety and Health Association, 2445 Hirasawa, Hadano, Kanagawa 257-0011 (Japan); Wanibuchi, Hideki [Department of Pathology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-4-3 Asahi-machi, Abeno-ku, Osaka 545-8585 (Japan)

    2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To elucidate possible mode of action (MOA) and human relevance of hepatotumorigenicity in rats for ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE), male F344 rats were administered ETBE at doses of 0, 150 and 1000 mg/kg body weight twice a day by gavage for 1 and 2 weeks. For comparison, non-genotoxic carcinogen phenobarbital (PB) was applied at a dose of 500 ppm in diet. Significant increase of P450 total content and hydroxyl radical levels by low, high doses of ETBE and PB treatments at weeks 1 and 2, and 8-OHdG formation at week 2, accompanied accumulation of CYP2B1/2B2, CYP3A1/3A2 and CYP2C6, and downregulation of DNA oxoguanine glycosylase 1, induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in hepatocytes, respectively. Up-regulation of CYP2E1 and CYP1A1 at weeks 1 and 2, and peroxisome proliferation at week 2 were found in high dose ETBE group. Results of proteome analysis predicted activation of upstream regulators of gene expression altered by ETBE including constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), pregnane-X-receptor (PXR) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). These results indicate that the MOA of ETBE hepatotumorigenicity in rats may be related to induction of oxidative stress, 8-OHdG formation, subsequent cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis, suggesting regenerative cell proliferation after week 2, predominantly via activation of CAR and PXR nuclear receptors by a mechanism similar to that of PB, and differentially by activation of PPARs. The MOA for ETBE hepatotumorigenicity in rats is unlikely to be relevant to humans. - Highlights: • We focus on MOA and human relevance of hepatotumorigenicity in rats for ETBE. • ETBE was administered to F344 rats for 1 and 2 weeks. • Oxidative stress formation, proliferation and apoptosis in the liver are analyzed. • ETBE-induced changes of gene and protein expression in the liver are examined. • The effects are compared with those induced by non-genotoxic carcinogen PB.

  16. Determination of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether and tert-Butyl Alcohol in Water by Solid-Phase Microextraction/Head Space Analysis in Comparison to EPA Method 5030/8260B

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oh, Keun-Chan; Stringfellow, William T.

    2003-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is now one of the most common groundwater contaminants in the United States. Groundwater contaminated with MTBE is also likely to be contaminated with tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), because TBA is a component of commercial grade MTBE, TBA can also be used as a fuel oxygenate, and TBA is a biodegradation product of MTBE. In California, MTBE is subject to reporting at concentrations greater than 3 {micro}g/L. TBA is classified as a ''contaminant of current interest'' and has a drinking water action level of 12 {micro}g/L. In this paper, we describe the development and optimization of a simple, automated solid phase microextraction (SPME) method for the analysis of MTBE and TBA in water and demonstrate the applicability of this method for monitoring MTBE and TBA contamination in groundwater, drinking water, and surface water. In this method, the headspace (HS) of a water sample is extracted with a carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane SPME fiber, the MTBE and TBA are desorbed into a gas chromatograph (GC), and detected using mass spectrometry (MS). The method is optimized for the routine analysis of MTBE and TBA with a level of quantitation of 0.3 {micro}g/L and 4 {micro}g/L, respectively, in water. MTBE quantitation was linear for over two orders of concentration (0.3 {micro}g/L -80 {micro}g/L). TBA was found to be linear within the range of 4 {micro}g/L-7,900 {micro}g/L. The lower level of detection for MTBE is 0.03 {micro}g/L using this method. This SPME method using headspace extraction was found to be advantageous over SPME methods requiring immersion of the fiber into the water samples, because it prolonged the life of the fiber by up to 400 sample analyses. This is the first time headspace extraction SPME has been shown to be applicable to the measurement of both MTBE and TBA at concentrations below regulatory action levels. This method was compared with the certified EPA Method 5030/8260B (purge-and-trap/GC/MS) using split samples from laboratory bioreactors treating MTBE contaminated water and applied to environmental samples collected throughout the East Bay area of California. Results from the SPME-HS/GC/MS method were directly comparable to the EPA Method 5030/8260B. This method provides an simple, inexpensive, accurate, and sensitive alternative to EPA Method 5030/8260B for the analysis of MTBE and TBA in water samples.

  17. Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in soil, vegetation, workshop-floor dust, and electronic shredder residue from an electronic waste recycling facility and in soils from a chemical industrial complex in eastern China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jing Ma; Rudolf Addink; Sehun Yun; Jinping Cheng; Wenhua Wang; Kurunthachalam Kannan [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China). School of Environmental Science and Engineering

    2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, 11 2,3,7,8-substituted PBDD/Fs and 10 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners were determined in electronic shredder waste, workshop-floor dust, soil, and leaves (of plants on the grounds of the facility) from a large-scale electronic wastes (e-waste) recycling facility and in surface soil from a chemical-industrial complex (comprising a coke-oven plant, a coal-fired power plant, and a chlor-alkali plant) as well as agricultural areas in eastern China. Total PBDD/F concentrations in environmental samples were in the range of 113-818 pg/g dry wt (dw) for leaves, 392-18,500 pg/g dw for electronic shredder residues, 716-80,0000 pg/g dw for soil samples, and 89,600-14,3000 pg/g dw for workshop-floor dust from the e-waste recycling facility and in a range from nondetect (ND) to 427 pg/g dw in soil from the chemical-industrial complex. The highest mean concentrations of total PBDD/Fs were found in soil samples and workshop-floor dust from the e-waste recycling facility. The dioxin-like toxic equivalent (measured as TEQ) concentrations of PBDD/Fs were greater than the TEQs of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) reported in our previous study for the same set of samples. The concentrations of PBDFs were several orders of magnitude higher than the concentrations of PBDDs in samples from the e-waste facility or from soil from the chemical-industrial complex. A significant correlation was found between the concentrations of {Sigma}PBDD/Fs and {Sigma}PBDEs (r = 0.769, p < 0.01) and between SPBDD/Fs and the previously reported SPCDD/F concentrations (r = 0.805, p < 0.01). The estimated daily human intakes of TEQs contributed by PBDD/Fs via soil/dust ingestion and dermal exposures in e-waste recycling facilities were higher than the intakes of TEQs contributed by PCDD/Fs, calculated in our previous study. 45 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. OpenEI Community - Dimethyl Ether Market

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOfRoseConcernsCompany Oil and GasOff the GridHome All0 en

  19. Dimethyl Ether Market | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluating A Potential Microhydro SiteDaytonDestilaria detheDiebuOpenDimethylDimethyl

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Dimethyl Ether

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWP TWP RelatedCellulase C.Tier 2North Carolina forFuelsDiesel

  1. Synthesis of Dihydrobenzofurans via Palladium-Catalyzed Heteroannulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roman Vladimirovich Rozhkov

    2004-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Palladium-catalyzed heteroannulation of 1,3-dienes with 3-iodo-2-alkenols, and 2-iodo-2-alkenols, as well as their amino analogs, affords the corresponding cyclic ethers and amines respectively. The presence of a {beta}-hydrogen in the vinylic halide results in {beta}-hydride elimination giving the corresponding alkyne. The presence of a bulky group in the {alpha}-position of the vinylic halide results in failure or reduced amounts of annulation products. A chloride source, pyridine base and electron-rich phosphine are essential for this reaction.

  2. NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (third edition). Fourth supplement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods, 3rd edition, was updated for the following chemicals: allyl-glycidyl-ether, 2-aminopyridine, aspartame, bromine, chlorine, n-butylamine, n-butyl-glycidyl-ether, carbon-dioxide, carbon-monoxide, chlorinated-camphene, chloroacetaldehyde, p-chlorophenol, crotonaldehyde, 1,1-dimethylhydrazine, dinitro-o-cresol, ethyl-acetate, ethyl-formate, ethylenimine, sodium-fluoride, hydrogen-fluoride, cryolite, sodium-hexafluoroaluminate, formic-acid, hexachlorobutadiene, hydrogen-cyanide, hydrogen-sulfide, isopropyl-acetate, isopropyl-ether, isopropyl-glycidyl-ether, lead, lead-oxide, maleic-anhydride, methyl-acetate, methyl-acrylate, methyl-tert-butyl ether, methyl-cellosolve-acetate, methylcyclohexanol, 4,4'-methylenedianiline, monomethylaniline, monomethylhydrazine, nitric-oxide, p-nitroaniline, phenyl-ether, phenyl-ether-biphenyl mixture, phenyl-glycidyl-ether, phenylhydrazine, phosphine, ronnel, sulfuryl-fluoride, talc, tributyl-phosphate, 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane, trimellitic-anhydride, triorthocresyl-phosphate, triphenyl-phosphate, and vinyl-acetate.

  3. Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Robert

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    U.S. Department of Energy and model energy codes have madethe most commonly adopted model energy code in the U.S. for

  4. Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Robert

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    irradiance on a vertical, solar tracking, surface in Golden,irradiance on a vertical solar tracking surface in Golden,

  5. Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Robert

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    properties of reflected solar radiation from glass surfaces,transfer at the siding surface. Direct solar radiation tosiding, reflected solar radiation from nearby surfaces,

  6. Synthesis of vinyl acetate on palladium-based catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, Dheeraj

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    ...................................................................................8 Surface Science Techniques..............................................................................................10 X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS)...................................................................11 Auger... the energy level diagram of Auger electron emission process............................................................................................................................15 Fig. 5. Schematic diagram of the Michelson interferometer used...

  7. Methods for the synthesis of deuterated vinyl pyridine monomers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hong, Kunlun; Yang, Jun; Bonnesen, Peter V

    2014-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for synthesizing deuterated vinylpyridine compounds of the Formula (1), wherein the method includes: (i) deuterating an acyl pyridine of the Formula (2) in the presence of a metal catalyst and D.sub.2O, wherein the metal catalyst is active for hydrogen exchange in water, to produce a deuterated acyl compound of Formula (3); (ii) reducing the compound of Formula (3) with a deuterated reducing agent to convert the acyl group to an alcohol group, and (iii) dehydrating the compound produced in step (ii) with a dehydrating agent to afford the vinylpyridine compound of Formula (1). The resulting deuterated vinylpyridine compounds are also described.

  8. Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Robert

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    temperature International Energy Conservation Codeof the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC), the

  9. The Palladium-Catalyzed Trifluoromethylation of Vinyl Sulfonates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, Eun Jin

    A method for the palladium-catalyzed trifluoromethylation of cyclohexenyl sulfonates has been developed. Various cyclohexenyl triflates and nonaflates underwent trifluoromethylation under mild reaction conditions using a ...

  10. acid vinyl ester: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    stable thermodynamically and hydration free energies obtained Yu, Fangqun 280 ANTIBODY PURIFICATION USING CAPRYLIC ACID In mildly acidic conditions, the addition of short-chain...

  11. Annual Survey of Biological and Chemical Agents regulated by Homeland Security

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Portman, Douglas

    is different than dinitrobenze, which is not regulated) Nitrogen mustard hydrochloride [Bis(2-chloroethyl)methylamine hydrochloride] Nitrogen trioxide Phosphorus oxychloride Phosphorus trichloride Propylphosphonothioic dichloride Thiodiglycol [Bis(2- hydroxyethyl)sulfide] Titanium tetrachloride Triethyl phosphite Trimethyl phosphite Gases

  12. Natural attenuation of organophosphates in river systems: Chattahoochee River case study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrews, Matthew B. (Matthew Bryan), 1981-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three organophosphoric acid triesters, tributyl phosphate (TBP), tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), and tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBEP) have been detected in surface waters across the world, primarily the result ...

  13. Studies of Various Hydrocarbon Conversion Reactions on Pt Catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaneko, Shinji

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with various reactants. Acrolein, methyl vinyl ketone,hydrogenation products. Acrolein, methyl vinyl ketone,

  14. Extractant composition including crown ether and calixarene extractants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meikrantz, David H. (Idaho Falls, ID); Todd, Terry A. (Aberdeen, ID); Riddle, Catherine L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Law, Jack D. (Pocalello, ID); Peterman, Dean R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Mincher, Bruce J. (Idaho Falls, ID); McGrath, Christopher A. (Blackfoot, ID); Baker, John D. (Blackfoot, ID)

    2009-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    An extractant composition comprising a mixed extractant solvent consisting of calix[4] arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo)-crown-6 ("BOBCalixC6"), 4',4',(5')-di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 ("DtBu18C6"), and at least one modifier dissolved in a diluent. The DtBu18C6 may be present at from approximately 0.01M to approximately 0.4M, such as at from approximately 0.086 M to approximately 0.108 M. The modifier may be 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol ("Cs-7SB") and may be present at from approximately 0.01M to approximately 0.8M. In one embodiment, the mixed extractant solvent includes approximately 0.15M DtBu18C6, approximately 0.007M BOBCalixC6, and approximately 0.75M Cs-7SB modifier dissolved in an isoparaffinic hydrocarbon diluent. The extractant composition further comprises an aqueous phase. The mixed extractant solvent may be used to remove cesium and strontium from the aqueous phase.

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Dimethyl Ether (DME) as a Transportatio...

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    The AFDC is a resource of the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program. Contacts | Web Site Policies | U.S. Department of Energy | USA.gov Content Last Updated: 01282015...

  16. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in the Sediments of the Great Lakes.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rockne, Karl J.

    -retardants that are used in a wide range of consumer products including paints, plastics, textiles, and electronics. They are considered to be environmentally persistent due to their resistance to various degradation, and their high and have a large impact on their distribu- tion, transport, and fate. Sediment profiles from carefully

  17. Catalytic Asymmetric Synthesis of Hydroxy Enol Ethers: Approach to a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walsh, Patrick J.

    for the generation of polypro- pionate backbone.1-7 In contrast, the asymmetric acetate aldol reaction that leads associated with acetate aldol reactions have prompted investigations into alternative methods to generate the catalytic asymmetric allylation of aldehydes followed by oxidative cleavage of the allyl group (Scheme 1, A

  18. Direct Dimethyl Ether Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells for Portable Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . However, hydrogen suf- fers from low storage density and lack of storage, generation, and distribution at atmospheric pressure. It is typically stored as a liquid at 0.6 MPa 75 psig in standard propane tanks. DME

  19. allene ether nazarov: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Administration to become the nation's energy landscape. However, the environmental impacts associated with fracking'' for shale gas Angenent, Lars T. 213 Allen County...

  20. Copper mediated synthesis of mono-and dichlorinated diaryl ethers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cirkva, Vladimir

    ): (ppm) 158.32, 156.28, 135.01, 130.45, 129.91, 123.98, 123.15, 119.40, 118.75, 116.66. GC/MS (EI, 70 e and after compound. Electron impact (EI) mass spectra (Thermo Scientific Focus DSQ) were determined (CDCl3, 75 MHz): (ppm) 157.19, 129.68, 123.15, 118.83. GC/MS (EI, 70 eV): m/z (%) 171 (13), 170 (M

  1. archaeal isoprenoid ether: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Low Band Gap Polymers" Weibin Cui and Fred Wudl Macromolecules, 46 (18): 7232-7238 (2013). DOI Link "A Montarnal, Nancy D. Eisenmenger, Sung-Yu Ku, Michael L....

  2. alternariol monomethyl ether: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Low Band Gap Polymers" Weibin Cui and Fred Wudl Macromolecules, 46 (18): 7232-7238 (2013). DOI Link "A Montarnal, Nancy D. Eisenmenger, Sung-Yu Ku, Michael L....

  3. allyl glycidyl ether: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Low Band Gap Polymers" Weibin Cui and Fred Wudl Macromolecules, 46 (18): 7232-7238 (2013). DOI Link "A Montarnal, Nancy D. Eisenmenger, Sung-Yu Ku, Michael L....

  4. anesthesia ether cyclopropane: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the alternate stepwise (carbometalation) pathway in non-polar and polar (THF, 7.85) media. These results for synthesizing cyclopropane rings has a long history dating back at...

  5. OpenEI Community - Dimethyl Ether Market Size

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOfRoseConcernsCompany Oil and GasOff the GridHome All0 en

  6. OpenEI Community - Dimethyl Ether Market Trends

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOfRoseConcernsCompany Oil and GasOff the GridHome All0 en

  7. Dimethyl Ether Market Trends | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluating A Potential Microhydro SiteDaytonDestilaria detheDiebuOpenDimethyl

  8. Alternative Fuels lDimethyl Ether Rheology and Materials Studies |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of1Albuquerque, NM -Alicia Moulton AboutDepartment of Energy Fuels

  9. Age and growth of black drum (Pogonias cromis) from Galveston Bay, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    King, John Mark

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bertalanffy Growth Equation SUMMARY RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE STUDIES REFERENCES VITA Page 1 8 10 10 16 20 21 24 24 24 25 25 27 28 29 31 32 33 36 LIST OF TABLES Total number, mean lengths (mm) and weight (g) for black drum from... mixture poured into plastic peel- away molds (22 mm wide x 25 mm tong x 22 mm deep). The embedding mixture was produced by mixing vinyl cyclohexene dioxide, diglycidyl ether and nonenyl succinic anhydride in concentrations of 10. 0, 4. 0, and 26. 0 g...

  10. Vinyl Ester Resin: Rheological Behaviors, Curing Kinetics, Thermomechanical, and Tensile Properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, John Zhanhu

    , Integrated Composites Laboratory (ICL), Lamar University, Beaumont, TX 77710 Xi Zhang and Suying Wei Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Lamar University, Beaumont, TX 77710 Henry A. Colorado Dept. of Mechanical

  11. Rate-dependent deformation behavior of poss-filled and plasticized poly(vinyl chloride)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soong, Sharon Yu-Wen

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Polymers are known to exhibit strong time-dependent mechanical behavior. In different temperatures or frequency regimes, the rate sensitivities of polymers change as various primary and secondary molecular mobility mechanisms ...

  12. Electron Beam Damage in Poly(Vinyl Chloride) and Poly(Acrylonitrile...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in the PVC film as a function of dose (time). It takes a dose of approximately 7.0x10-5 Ccm-5 for the chlorine concentration to fall from its original value by 10% (one definition...

  13. Poly (vinyl alcohol)/3-(trimethylammonium) propyl-functionalized silica hybrid membranes for alkaline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Tianshou

    oxidation and oxygen reduction reactions. As a result, the overall cost of the fuel cell system can for alkaline direct ethanol fuel cells E.D. Wang, T.S. Zhao*, W.W. Yang Department of Mechanical Engineering Accepted 29 December 2009 Available online 8 January 2010 Keywords: Fuel cell Direct ethanol fuel cell

  14. CuO nanoparticle filled vinyl-ester resin nanocomposites: Fabrication, characterization and property analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, John Zhanhu

    Angeles, CA 90095, USA Received 28 August 2006; received in revised form 4 November 2006; accepted 30 such as photovoltaic (solar) cells [11,12] and magnetic data storage. The func- tional groups of the polymer are normally steric interaction forces, van der Waals forces, or Lewis acid­base interactions. However, in situ

  15. aerobic vinyl chloride-assimilating: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    organic sulfides,6 and perfluorinated polyesters,7,8 have been used to create release coatings Chaudhury, Manoj K. 425 1283J. Blumel, F. H. Kohler Metallated...

  16. Degradation of Vinyl Chloride and 1,2-Dichloroethane by Advanced Reduction Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Xu

    2013-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    UV with dithionite, sulfite, sulfide or ferrous iron. Complete degradation of both target compounds was achieved by all ARP and the reactions were found to follow pseudo-first-order decay kinetics. The effects of pH, sulfite dose, UV light intensity...

  17. Poly(vinyl alcohol)-based buffering membranes for isoelectric trapping separations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Craver, Helen C.

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    ?.????????????.?. 149 A-3 Excel spreadsheet used to calculate the recipes for the MORPH-ASP-PVA membranes buffering on the lower pK a in the MORPH-ASP mixture?.???????????????.?. 150 A-4 Excel spreadsheet used to calculate the recipes for the MORPH...-ASP-PVA membranes buffering on the higher pK a in the MORPH-ASP mixture ?.????????????????. 151 A-5 Excel spreadsheet used to calculate the recipes for the TRIS-ASP-PVA membranes?.????????????.?. 152 A-6 Excel spreadsheet used to calculate...

  18. Synthetic Approaches to Skeletally Diverse Sultams Using Vinyl- and ?-Halo Benzenesulfonamides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeon, KyuOk

    2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    ,?-unsaturated 5- and 6-membered sultams. These 5- and 6-membered sultams were prepared and applied to further diversifications using aza-Michael reactions, cycloadditions, alkylation/benzylations and propargylation-[3+2]-cycloadditions. Utilizing the aza...

  19. Monodisperse SiC/vinyl ester nanocomposites: Dispersant formulation, synthesis, and characterization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yong, Virginia; Hahn, H. Thomas

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and composites with epoxy resins: Topography, fractographyreinforced polypropylene and epoxy resin composites. Compos.filled polypropylene and epoxy resin com- posites, 22 carbon

  20. DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200700419 Autonomic Healing of Epoxy Vinyl Esters via Ring Opening

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sottos, Nancy R.

    the Grubbs' catalyst is encapsulated in paraffin wax microspheres.[5] These wax micro- spheres serve the dual. Protecting the catalyst from aggressive curing agents by encapsulation in wax microspheres increases chemistry, and demonstrate a viable healing system follow- ing wax protection of the catalyst. The size

  1. Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/sulfonated polyhedral oligosilsesquioxane (sPOSS) hybrid membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mather, Patrick T.

    transport of methanol from the anode side of the fuel cell, through the membrane, to the cathode side for direct methanol fuel cell applications Young-Wook Chang1*, Erdong Wang1y , Geumsig Shin1 , Jung-Eun Han1 polyhedral oligosilsesquioxane (sPOSS); membrane; direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) INTRODUCTION Fuel cell

  2. Localized Plasticity in the Streamlined Genomes of Vinyl Chloride Respiring Dehalococcoides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McMurdie, Paul J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conceived and designed the experiments: PJM SFB FEL AMS.Performed the experiments: PJM SFB KMR.Analyzed the data: PJM SFB JAM JG KMR RW EG AL SH FEL AMS.

  3. Localized Plasticity in the Streamlined Genomes of Vinyl Chloride Respiring Dehalococcoides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McMurdie, Paul J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    package [75] of the R language for statistical computing [R Development Core Team (2009) R: A Language and Environment for Statistical

  4. alpha-tosyloxy ketones applications: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    methyl vinyl ketone, ethyl vinyl ketone, phenyl vinyl sulfone, phenyl vinylsulfonate, acrolein and acrylonitrile, under Baylis-Hillman (more) Nocanda, Xolani Wittleton 2001-01-01...

  5. Chemico-Biological Interactions 166 (2007) 264276 Chemical process-based reconstruction of exposures for an

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Illinois at Chicago, University of

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Keywords: Chloroprene; Vinyl chloride; Plastics; Synthetic rubber; Exposure reconstruction; Occupational

  6. Open Archive TOULOUSE Archive Ouverte (OATAO) OATAO is an open access repository that collects the work of Toulouse researchers and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mailhes, Corinne

    Chimique, Toulouse, France 2 Ineos ChlorVinyls, Mazingarbe, France On-line Monitoring of Vinyl Chloride

  7. Ambipolar Behavior in All-Carbon-Nanotube Field-Effect Transistors by Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) Coating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    parameter analyzer (Agilent 4156C) at room temperature under ambient conditions. Fig. 1 Schematic of device including SWNT diameter distribution, capacitances of PVA film, and I-V characteristics when coating. Wang, M. Shim, K. Roy, M. A. Alam and J. A. Rogers, Nature 454, 495 (2008). 2. D. M. Sun, M. Y

  8. An investigation in the hygrothermal degradation of an E- glass/vinyl-ester composite in humid and immersion environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Svetlik, Stephanie Laura

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water transport in epoxy resins. ” Progress in PolymerWater transport in epoxy resins. ” Prog. Polym. Sci. Vol.Diffusion Studies in an Epoxy Resin System. ” J. of Polymer

  9. Model Predictive Control of a Nonlinear Large-Scale Process Network Used in the Production of Vinyl Acetate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tu, TungSheng

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    operation. Journal of Process Control, [10] C. E. Garcia, D.sys- tems. Journal of Process Control, 23:404–414, 2013. [processes. Journal of Process Control, 21:501–509, 2011. [

  10. Highly nucleophilic acetylide, vinyl, and vinylidene complexes. Final progress report, 1 January 1991--31 March 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geoffroy, G.L.

    1994-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    In the course of this research the authors found that the anionic alkynyl complex [Cp{prime}(CO)(PPh{sub 3})Mn-C{triple_bond}C-CH{sub 3}]{sup {minus}} can be generated in situ by the addition of two equivalents of n-BuLi to a solution of the carbene complex Cp{prime}(CO)(PPh{sub 3})Mn{double_bond}C(OMe)CH{sub 2}CH{sub 3}. It was also found that the highly nucleophilic propynyl complex [Cp(CO)(PPh{sub 3})Mn-C{triple_bond}C-Me]{sup {minus}} reacts with a variety of aldehydes and ketones in the presence of BF{sub 3}{center_dot}Et{sub 2}O to give, after quenching with MeOH, a series of cationic vinylcarbyne complexes of the general form [Cp(CO)(PPh{sub 3})Mn{triple_bond}C-C(Me){double_bond}C(R)(R{prime})]BF{sub 4}. The cationic alkylidyne complexes [Cp(CO){sub 2}M{triple_bond}C-CH{sub 2}R]{sup +} [M = Re, R = H, M = Mn, R = H, Me, Ph] have been found to undergo facile deprotonation to give the corresponding neutral vinylidene complexes Cp(CO){sub 2}M{double_bond}C{double_bond}C(H)R. The authors have also investigated reactions relevant to the halide promoted Fe and Ru catalyzed carbonylation of nitroaromatics. The final part of this work has involved investigations of metal-oxo complexes.

  11. Effect of composite microstructure on electrical and mechanical properties of poly(vinyl acetate) composites with carbon black and clay. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miriyala, Sethu M.

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    -based case, fully solvated polymer results in a random dispersion of carbon black. The segregated network composite also shows significant improvement in both electrical conductivity and storage modulus with low carbon black loading, while the solution...

  12. Control technology of vinyl chloride in EDC-VCM and PVC plants at main source points and fugitive emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parra, Dario Antonio

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in a boiler and the combustion gases scrubbed with water or a caustic solution to remove the hydrogen chloride to form hydrochloric acid or sodium chloride. According to the Trane Thermal Company, thermal incineration is a basic proven process... and fugitive emissions, (b) collection of data by using a questionaire ? survey from industries located in the United States, and (c) a statistical analysis of the data. It was found that thermal incineration is considered the best approach to control...

  13. Model Predictive Control of a Nonlinear Large-Scale Process Network Used in the Production of Vinyl Acetate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tu, TungSheng

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    kcal/kg ? C a ¯ i Liquid heat capacity/enthalpy coefficientkg ? C 2 ¯ b i Liquid heat capacity/enthalpy coefficient fori kmol/m 3 c ? i Liquid heat capacity of species i kcal/

  14. Materials Science and Engineering A317 (2001) 128134 Mechanical and microstructural properties of notched E-glass/vinyl

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nemat-Nasser, Sia

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    strand mat. The composites were fabricated by Seemann's composite resin infusion molding process (SCRIMP

  15. Photoredox Vinylation of Amino Acids and NAryl Amines Adam Noble and David W. C. MacMillan*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacMillan, David W. C.

    -tert- butoxycarbonyl (N-Boc) -amino acids,7,8 a CO2-extrusion mechanism that has implications for the use of biomass feedstocks in conjugate additions and organometallic couplings. Allylic amines have long been attractive

  16. Base-Mediated Cascade Rearrangements of Aryl-Substituted Diallyl Ethers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reid, Jolene P.; McAdam, Catherine A.; Johnston, Adam J. S.; Grayson, Matthew N.; Goodman, Jonathan M.; Cook, Matthew J.

    2014-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    ? 7.26 ppm and 77.2 ppm respectively. Infrared spectra were recorded as a thin film on KBr discs. High- resolution mass spectra were obtained on mass spectrometers using electrospray ionization (ESI) or electron impact ionization at 70 eV and TOF... alcohol (1 equiv.) in a dry, argon purged 10 mL round-bottomed flask at room temperature. The flask was fitted with a condenser and heated to 60 oC and allowed to stir overnight. The reaction mixture slowly turned deep brown after addition of the KHMDS...

  17. A mechanistic and experimental study on the diethyl ether oxidation S. Di Tommaso1-2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    -00976232,version1-9Apr2014 Author manuscript, published in "AIChE Spring Meeting 2012 & 8. Global Congress] and theoretically [7], since it has a relevant role, due to its good ignition properties, in the domain of biofuels

  18. Measurements of flatflame velocities of diethyl ether in air Fiona Gillespiea,b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    biofuels are important in today's world due to a decline in oil and fossil fuels and an increase in CO2

  19. Biodegradation of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) using a granular activated carbon trickling filter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Converse, B.M.; Schroeder, E.D.; Chang, D.P.Y.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A pilot scale trickling filter was constructed using granular activated carbon (GAC) as the packing medium and inoculated with a microbial culture known to degrade MTBE. The packing dimensions were 0.076 m in diameter and 0.22 m deep. The unit operated with recycling flow for two months before a biofilm was observed on the GAC. After two additional months the biofilm had visibly spread throughout the packing. A few pieces of GAC were placed in a sealed bottle with MTBE-contaminated water and nutrients. Headspace analysis performed over 14 days confirmed that MTBE degradation was occurring. The trickling filter was converted to continuous flow and operated for one month at a nominal flow rate of 0.1 L/min and a hydraulic loading rate of 32 m{sup 3}/m{sup 2}-d. Samples were collected for analysis at the spray nozzle and at the bottom of the trickling filter. Fractional removal varied with influent MTBE concentration, temperature and liquid flow rate. Percent MTBE removal was as high as 85%. A mechanical failure resulted in the trickling filter bed drying and percent removal dropping to less than 1 percent. However, the system recovered within five days.

  20. MECHANISTIC STUDIES OF ARYL-OXYGEN BOND ACTIVATION IN A NICKEL(0) DIPHOSPHINE-ETHER COMPLEX

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winfree, Erik

    with nickel precursors was studied. A series of nickel(0) complexes containing nickel-arene interactions.1).1a,1b Quenching of the lithium species with an electrophilic species leads to the functionalization

  1. Synthesis of the C29-C37 Bicyclic Ether Core of (+)-Sorangicin A

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    's asymmetric allylation protocol (>95:5 dr).7 Diol 11 was protected as its p-methoxyphenyl acetal 12 would effect hydrolysis of the acetal to form diol 3 as well as catalyze the opening of the epoxide metathesis reaction with ethyl acrylate (Table 1). The cyclic acetal was chosen as the diol protecting group

  2. The potential for alcohols and related ethers to displace conventional gasoline components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); McNutt, B.D. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The United States Department of Energy is required by law to determine the feasibility of producing sufficient replacement fuels to replace 30 percent of the projected United States consumption of motor fuels by light duty vehicles in the year 2010. A replacement fuel is a non-petroleum portion of gasoline, including alcohols, natural gas and certain other components. A linear program has been used to study refinery impacts for production of ``low petroleum`` gasolines, which contain replacement fuels. The analysis suggests that high oxygenation is the key to meeting the replacement fuel target, and major contributors to cost increase can include investment in processes to produce olefins for etherification with alcohols. High oxygenation can increase the costs of control of vapor pressure, distillation properties, and pollutant emissions of gasolines. Year-round low petroleum gasoline with near-30 percent non-petroleum might be produced with cost increases of 23 to 37 cents per gallon, with substantial decreases in greenhouse gas emissions in some cases. Cost estimates are sensitive to assumptions about extrapolation of a national model for pollutant emissions, availability of raw materials and other issues. Reduction in crude oil use, a major objective of the low petroleum gasoline program, is 10 to 17 percent in the analysis.

  3. Cu-Catalyzed Arylation of Phenols: Synthesis of Sterically Hindered and Heteroaryl Diaryl Ethers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maiti, Debabrata

    Cu-catalyzed O-arylation of phenols with aryl iodides and bromides can be performed under mild condition in DMSO/K3PO4 with use of picolinic acid as the ligand for copper. This method tolerates a variety of functional ...

  4. The processing of alcohols, hydrocarbons and ethers to produce hydrogen for a PEMFC for transportation applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dams, R.A.J.; Hayter, P.R.; Moore, S.C. [Wellman CJB Limited, Portsmouth (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Wellman CJB Limited is involved in a number of projects to develop fuel processors to provide a hydrogen-rich fuel in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC) systems for transportation applications. This work started in 1990 which resulted in the demonstration of 10kW PEMFC system incorporating a methanol reformer and catalytic gas clean-up system. Current projects include: The development of a compact fast response methanol reformer and gas clean-up system for a motor vehicle; Reforming of infrastructure fuels including gasoline, diesel, reformulated fuel gas and LPG to produce a hydrogen rich gas for PEMFC; Investigating the potential of dimethylether (DME) as source of hydrogen rich gas for PEMFCs; The use of thin film palladium diffusers to produce a pure hydrogen stream from the hydrogen rich gas from a reformer; and Processing of naval logistic fuels to produce a hydrogen rich gas stream for PEMFC power system to replace diesel generators in surface ships. This paper outlines the background to these projects and reports their current status.

  5. Cesium and strontium extraction using a mixed extractant solvent including crown ether and calixarene extractants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meikrantz, David H. (Idaho Falls, ID); Todd, Terry A. (Aberdeen, ID); Riddle, Catherine L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Law, Jack D. (Pocatello, ID); Peterman, Dean R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Mincher, Bruce J. (Idaho Falls, ID); McGrath, Christopher A. (Blackfoot, ID); Baker, John D. (Blackfoot, ID)

    2007-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A mixed extractant solvent including calix[4]arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo)-crown-6 ("BOBCalixC6"), 4',4',(5')-di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 ("DtBu18C6"), and at least one modifier dissolved in a diluent. The mixed extractant solvent may be used to remove cesium and strontium from an acidic solution. The DtBu18C6 may be present from approximately 0.01 M to approximately 0.4M, such as from approximately 0.086 M to approximately 0.108 M. The modifier may be 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol ("Cs-7SB") and may be present from approximately 0.01M to approximately 0.8M. In one embodiment, the mixed extractant solvent includes approximately 0.15M DtBu18C6, approximately 0.007M BOBCalixC6, and approximately 0.75M Cs-7SB modifier dissolved in an isoparaffinic hydrocarbon diluent. The mixed extractant solvent may form an organic phase in an extraction system that also includes an aqueous phase. Methods of extracting cesium and strontium as well as strontium alone are also disclosed.

  6. a-fluorinated ethers thioethers: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Low Band Gap Polymers" Weibin Cui and Fred Wudl Macromolecules, 46 (18): 7232-7238 (2013). DOI Link "A Montarnal, Nancy D. Eisenmenger, Sung-Yu Ku, Michael L....

  7. MC-CAM Publications "Allyl Glycidyl Ether-Based Polymer Electrolytes for Room Temperature Lithium Batteries"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bigelow, Stephen

    ­Acceptor Low Band Gap Polymers" Weibin Cui and Fred Wudl Macromolecules, 46 (18): 7232-7238 (2013). DOI Link "A

  8. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in relation to autism and developmental delay: A case-control study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    212:109-134. 5. Rose M, Bennett DH, Bergman A, Fangstrom B,Robin Hansen 4 , Deborah H Bennett 1 Abstract Background:

  9. Structural Requirements and Reaction Pathways in Dimethyl Ether Combustion Catalyzed by Supported Pt Clusters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    as a convenient energy carrier for distributed power generation, space heating, and diesel replace- ment combustion of DME because of its potential use in power generation and radiant heating devices and its

  10. Crown Ethers Flatten in Graphene for Strong, Specific Binding | ornl.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisitingContract Management Fermi Site OfficeCourse Clusters CourseN

  11. Development of a Dimethyl Ether (DME)-Fueled Shuttle Bus | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197E T A * S HBatteries withAbstract Development

  12. Responses of the L51781Y tk/sup +//tk/sup -/ mouse lymphoma cell forward mutation assay: III. 72 coded chemicals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGregor, D.B.; Brown, A.; Cattanach, P.; Edwards, I.; McBride, D.; Riach, C.; Caspary, W.J.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Seventy-two chemicals were tested for their mutagenic potential in the L51781Y tk/sup +///sup -/ mouse lymphoma cell forward mutation assay, using procedures based upon those described previously. Cultures were exposed to the chemicals for 4 hr, then cultured for 2 days before planting in soft agar with or without trifluorothymidine (TFT), 3 ..mu..g/ml. The chemicals were tested at least twice. Significant responses were obtained with allyl isothiocyanate, p-benzoquinone dioxime, benzyl acetate, 2-biphenylamine HCl, bis(2-chloro-1-methylethyl)ether, cadmium chloride, chlordane, chlorobenzene, chlorobenzilate, 2-chloroethanol, chlorothalonil, cytarabine x HCl, p,p'-DDE, diazinon, 2,6-dichloro-p-phenylenediamine, N,N-diethylthiourea, diglycidylresorcinol ether, 2,4-dimethoxy aniline x HCl, disperse yellow 3, endosulfan, 1,2-epoxyhexadecane, ethyl acrylate, ethyl benzene, ethylene thiourea, F D and C yellow Number 6, furan, heptachlor, isophorone, mercuric chloride, 4,4'-methylenedianiline x 2 HCl, methyl viologen, nickel sulfate x 6H/sub 2/O, 4,4'-oxydianiline, pentachloroethane, piperonyl butoxide, propyl gallate, quinoline, rotenone, 2,4,5,6-tetrachloro-4-nitro-anisole, 1,1,1,2-tetrachloroethane, trichlorfon, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, 2,4,5-trimethoxybenzaldehyde, 1,1,3-trimethyl-2-thiourea, 1-vinyl-3-cyclopetene dioxide, vinyl toluene, and ziram. The assay was incapable of providing a clear indication of whether some chemicals were mutagens; these benzyl alcohol, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, phenol, succinic acid-2,2-dimethyl hydrazide, and toluene.

  13. aqueous polyvinyl alcohol: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    fuel cell Activated carbon Separator Cathode Poly(vinyl alcohol) High for the oxygen reduction cathode catalyst and the electrode separator. A poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA 9...

  14. 23/11/2009 S&I meeting 2009 1 NanoparticleNanoparticle--polymerpolymer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strathclyde, University of

    Divinyl ether-based polymer: HTP3 HTP3 components: 1,4-cyclohexyldimethanol divinyl ether (CHDV) monomer

  15. DETAILED CHEMICAL KINETIC MODELS FOR THE LOW TEMPERATURE COMBUSTION OF HYDROCARBONS WITH APPLICATION TO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ;NOMENCLATURE CV: closed vessel DIPE: di-isopropyl-ether ETBE: ethyl-tert-butyl-ether FR: flow reactor HCCI

  16. Open Archive TOULOUSE Archive Ouverte (OATAO) OATAO is an open access repository that collects the work of Toulouse researchers and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , Université de Toulouse, Laboratoire de Génie Chimique, Toulouse, France 2 Ineos ChlorVinyls, Mazingarbe

  17. 168 JOURNAL OF VINYL & ADDITIVE TECHNOLOGY, DECEMBER 2004, Vol. 10, No. 4 Thirty-Year Durability of a 20-Mil PVC Geomembrane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of a 20-Mil PVC Geomembrane E. J. NEWMAN and T. D. STARK* Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Michigan. The 30.5-m-diameter re- search ponds were lined using a 0.51-mm-thick fish-grade PVC geomembrane behavior of the nearly 30-year-old PVC geomembrane is within current specifications for new 0.51-mm

  18. Photoproduct Channels from BrCD2CD2OH at 193 nm and the HDO + Vinyl Products from the CD2CD2OH Radical Intermediate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Butler, Laurie J.

    for the undeuterated system. However, because the vibrational energy distribution of the deuterated radicals is lower, Illinois 60637, United States National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan, Republic of China *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: We present the results of our product branching

  19. Examination of the New r-(2Z-Fluoro)vinyl Trigger with Lysine Decarboxylase: The Absolute Stereochemistry Dictates the Reaction Course

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berkowitz, David

    , and - and -replacement enzymes), and (ii) promoting the requisite errant protonation. We chose lysine decarboxylase (LDC of the Hafnia alVei LDC.16 Furthermore, this class of bacterial LDC was reported to be resistant to covalent

  20. The formation of PdCx over Pd-based catalysts in vapor-phase vinyl acetate synthesis: does a PdAu alloy catalyst resist carbide formation?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Wayne

    a Pd­Au/SiO2 mixed-metal catalyst. XRD data show that PdCx was produced in the pure Pd catalysts after greater resistance to the formation of PdCx. The XRD and XPS data are consistent with formation of a Pd in a micro-reactor using online GC; before reaction the catalysts were pretreated (oxidized in a 20 m

  1. European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Valencia, Spain, 6-10 September 2010, 4AV.3.25 MODELLING THE CURING DYNAMICS OF ETHYLENE-VINYL ACETATE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    25th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Valencia, Spain, 6-10 September 2010, 4AV.3. Alshuth2 , M. Köntges1 and R. Brendel1,3 1 Institute for Solar Energy Research Hamelin (ISFH), Am Ohrberg 1, D-31860 Emmerthal, Germany 2 German Institute of Rubber Technology, Eupener Stra�e 33, D-30519

  2. Poly(vinyl alcohol) based hydrogen-bonded multilayers : from pH-controlled multi-stage dissolution to zwitter-wettable surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Hyomin, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Understanding the mechanisms that govern the structure and function of synthetic polymer thin films is of fundamental and practical significance for developing a diverse range of functional surfaces including antifogging ...

  3. Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MtBE) contamination of the City of Santa Monica drinking water supply

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, A.; Farrow, J.R.C. [Komex H2O Science, Huntington Beach, CA (United States); Rodriguez, R.A. [City of Santa Monica, CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In the summer of 1996, the City of Santa Monica ceased pumping groundwater from two Well Fields (Charnock and Arcadia) used for public drinking water supply due to persistent and increasing concentrations of MtBE in all seven municipal water supply wells. This lost production accounted for 50% of the City`s total drinking water supply. In late 1996, the City, in cooperation with State and Federal agencies, initiated an investigation of MtBE contamination at the two well fields. The objectives of the investigation were as follows: (1) Review available data on the production, use, chemical characteristics, fate and transport, toxicology, and remediation of MtBE; (2) Identify locations of potential sources of MtBE groundwater contamination at the well fields; (3) Develop an understanding of the hydrologic pathways from the potential sources to the drinking water wells; and (4) Evaluate alternative treatment technologies for the removal of MtBE from drinking water. In addition to a review of available information about MtBE, the investigation included an extensive review of literature and available data relevant to the well fields, including well field production histories, site and regional hydrogeology, all well logs and production in the groundwater basins, general groundwater quality, and the record of MtBE detection. Based upon the review of background information, conceptual hydrogeologic models were developed. A detailed review of agency files for over 45 potential source sites was conducted. The information from this review was summarized, and source site screening and ranking criteria were developed. A field program was conducted at the major well field (Charnock), including soil gas surveys, CPTs, soil borings and well installations, geophysics, and aquifer testing. The field program provided site data which allowed the conceptual hydrogeologic model to be refitted to actual site conditions.

  4. Whole-Genome Analysis of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether-Degrading Beta-Proteobacterium Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    D. J. Slomczynski. 2003. BTEX/MTBE bioremediation: BionetsScow, and L. Alvarez-Cohen. MTBE and benzene biodegradationinteractions in BTEX and MTBE mixtures by an MTBE-degrading

  5. Review of potential technologies for the treatment of Methyl tertiary butyl Ether (MtBE) in drinking water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, A.; Browne, T.E. [Komex H2O Science, Huntington Beach, CA (United States); Devinny, J.S. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    At present, the state of knowledge on effective treatment technologies for MtBE in drinking water, and groundwater in general, is limited. Research by others is focusing on the remediation of MtBE close to the point of release. The City of Santa Monica, MWD, Komex and USC are currently conducting research into different technologies that could be used to remove MtBE from drinking water supplies. The objectives of the research are to evaluate different treatment technologies to identify cost-effective and technically feasible alternatives for the removal of MtBE from drinking water. The evaluation is considering moderate to high water flow rates (100 to 2,000+ gpm) and low to moderate MtBE concentrations (<2,000 {mu}g/l). The research program includes four phases: (1) Literature Review; (2) Bench Scale Study; (3) Field Scale Pre-pilot Study; and (4) Summary Evaluation. This paper presents some preliminary information and findings from the first phase of this research - the literature review. The review discusses the chemical properties of MtBE and how they affect remediation and thus, an evaluation of alternative treatment technologies. The review of available literature, and the applicability and limitations of the following technologies are presented in detail.

  6. Alkaline-Side Extraction of Cesium from Savannah River Tank Waste Using a Calixarene-Crown Ether Extractant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonnesen, P.V.; Delmau, L.H.; Haverlock, T.J.; Moyer, B.A.

    1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Results are presented supporting the viability of the alkaline-side CSEX process as a potential replacement for the In-Tank Precipitation process for removal of cesium from aqueous high-level waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Under funding from the USDOE Efficient Separations and Crosscutting program, a flowsheet was suggested in early June of 1998, and in the following four months, this flowsheet underwent extensive testing, both in batch tests at ORNL and ANL and in two centrifugal-contactor tests at ANL. To carry out these tests, the initial ESP funding was augmented by direct funds from Westinghouse Savannah River Corporation. The flowsheet employed a solvent containing a calixarene-crown hybrid compound called BoBCalixC6 that was invented at ORNL and can now be obtained commercially for government use from IBC Advanced Technologies. This special extractant is so powerful and selective that it can be used at only 0.01 M, compensating for its expense, but a modifier is required for use in an aliphatic diluent, primarily to increase the cesium distribution ratio D{sub Cs} in extraction. The modifier selected is a relatively economical fluorinated alcohol called Cs3, invented at ORNL and so far available. only from ORNL. For the flowsheet, the modifier is used at 0.2 M in the branched aliphatic kerosene Isopar{reg_sign} L. Testing at ORNL and ANL involved simulants of the SRS HLW. After extraction of the Cs from the waste simulant, the solvent is scrubbed with 0.05 M HNO{sub 3} and stripped with a solution comprised of 0.0005 M HNO{sub 3} and 0.0001 M CsNO{sub 3}. The selection of these conditions is justified in this report, both on the basis of experimental data and underlying theory.

  7. DOI: 10.1002/chem.200902350 Rigid-Strut-Containing Crown Ethers and [2]Catenanes for Incorporation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yaghi, Omar M.

    as templates in the construction of me- chanically interlocked molecules (MIMs), such as catenanes (BPP34C10DA), and dicarboxylic acid 1,5-naphthoparaphenylene[36]crown-10 (NPP36C10DA). These novel10DA was determined by X- ray crystallography. The NPP36C10DA-based [2]catenane (H2NPP36C10DC-CAT·4PF

  8. Gold(I)-catalyzed formation of furans by a Claisen-type rearrangement of ynenyl allyl ethers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    June 2011 This article is part of the Thematic Series "Gold catalysis for organic synthesis". Guest in this field which have led to the development of a new procedure for the synthesis of polysubstituted furans of furans. Scheme 2: Synthetic approach to functionalized furans. ized pyrroles 3 (X = NTs) in the presence

  9. Investigation of HCCI Combustion of Diethyl Ether and Ethanol Mixtures Using Carbon 14 Tracing and Numerical Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mack, John Hunter; Flowers, Daniel L.; Buchholz, Bruce A.; Dibble, Robert W

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ryan III, and J.S. Souder, "HCCI Operation of a Dual-FuelJ. Girard, and R. Dibble, "HCCI in a CFR Engine: Experimentsthe DOE University HCCI Program, and LLNL Laboratory

  10. Whole-Genome Analysis of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether-Degrading Beta-Proteobacterium Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2003. BTEX/MTBE bioremediation: Bionets containing Isolite,In Situ and On-site Bioremediation Symposium. Battellebacteria for use in bioremediation. FEMS Lett. 22. Dennis,

  11. Process Design, Simulation and Integration of Dimethyl Ether (DME) Production from Shale Gas by Direct and Indirect Methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karagoz, Secgin

    2014-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    are methanol synthesis and dehydration of the methanol to DME. Another way to produce DME is the direct synthesis of DME from syngas. In order to use DME as a fuel alternative, it must be produced at low cost in large quantities. The purpose of this study...

  12. Insight into Selected Reactions in Low-Temperature Dimethyl Ether Combustion from Born-Oppenheimer Molecular Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carter, Emily A.

    fuel, which is comprised of long-chain hydrocarbons. Unlike conventional diesel fuel, DME creates for conventional diesel fuel. DME's propensity to compression ignite is comparable to that of conventional diesel

  13. [Transition metal mediated transformations of small molecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sen, A.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Work on organotransition metal chemistry, homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis is summarized. Several cationic palladium(II) complexes with bulky phosphine or pyridine ligands were discovered that are highly selective catalysts for linear dimerization of vinyl monomers and linear polymerization of p-divinylbenzene, the reactions proceeding through a carbocationic mechanism. Our studies were continued on alternating olefin-carbon monoxide copolymers. The copolymerization reaction and reactivity of copolymers were examined. New catalytic systems for alternating copolymerization of [alpha]-olefins with CO were discovered. In the case of styrene derivatives, tactic copolymers were obtained. Poly(ethylenepyrrolediyl) derivatives were synthesized from alternating ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymer and become electronic conductors when doped with iodine. A catalytic system for direct synthesis of polyureas and polyoxamides from and diamines was also discovered. Pt metal catalyzed the oxidation of ethers, esters, and amines to carboxylic acids and the oxidation of olefins to 1,2-diols. Anaerobic and aerobic decomposition of molybdenum(VI)-oxoalkyl compounds were studied for heterogeneous oxidation of alkanes and olefins on Mo(VI)-oxide surfaces. Synthesis of polymer-trapped metal, metal oxide, and metal sulfide nanoclusters (size <1--10 nm) was studied.

  14. [Transition metal mediated transformations of small molecules]. Progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sen, A.

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Work on organotransition metal chemistry, homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis is summarized. Several cationic palladium(II) complexes with bulky phosphine or pyridine ligands were discovered that are highly selective catalysts for linear dimerization of vinyl monomers and linear polymerization of p-divinylbenzene, the reactions proceeding through a carbocationic mechanism. Our studies were continued on alternating olefin-carbon monoxide copolymers. The copolymerization reaction and reactivity of copolymers were examined. New catalytic systems for alternating copolymerization of {alpha}-olefins with CO were discovered. In the case of styrene derivatives, tactic copolymers were obtained. Poly(ethylenepyrrolediyl) derivatives were synthesized from alternating ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymer and become electronic conductors when doped with iodine. A catalytic system for direct synthesis of polyureas and polyoxamides from and diamines was also discovered. Pt metal catalyzed the oxidation of ethers, esters, and amines to carboxylic acids and the oxidation of olefins to 1,2-diols. Anaerobic and aerobic decomposition of molybdenum(VI)-oxoalkyl compounds were studied for heterogeneous oxidation of alkanes and olefins on Mo(VI)-oxide surfaces. Synthesis of polymer-trapped metal, metal oxide, and metal sulfide nanoclusters (size <1--10 nm) was studied.

  15. Understanding Molecular Interactions within Chemically Selective Layered Polymer Assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary J. Blanchard

    2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This work focuses on two broad issues. These are (1) the molecular origin of the chemical selectivity achieved with ultrathin polymer multilayers, and (2) how the viscoelastic properties of the polymer layers are affected by exposure to solvent and analytes. These issues are inter-related, and to understand them we need to design experiments that probe both the energetic and kinetic aspects of interfacial adsorption processes. This project focuses on controling the chemical structure, thickness, morphology and sequential ordering of polymer layers bound to interfaces using maleimide-vinyl ether and closely related alternating copolymerization chemistry and efficient covalent cross-linking reactions that allow for layer-by-layer polymer deposition. This chemistry has been developed during the funding cycle of this Grant. We have measure the equilibrium constants for interactions between specific layers within the polymer interfaces and size-controlled, surface-functionalized gold nanoparticles. The ability to control both size and functionality of gold nanoparticle model analytes allows us to evaluate the average “pore size” that characterizes our polymer films. We have measured the “bulk” viscosity and shear modulus of the ultrathin polymer films as a function of solvent overlayer identity using quartz crystal microbalance complex impedance measurements. We have measured microscopic viscosity at specific locations within the layered polymer interfaces with time-resolved fluorescence lifetime and depolarization techniques. We combine polymer, cross-linking and nanoparticle synthetic expertise with a host of characterization techniques, including QCM gravimetry and complex impedance analysis, steady state and time-resolved spectroscopies.

  16. activity-dependent polyadenylation site: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    commercial setting. Contaminants: Contaminants: Vinyl Chloride 37 Clinical Research Site Management Engineering Websites Summary: Clinical Research Site Management Dan...

  17. alpine site jungfraujoch: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    commercial setting. Contaminants: Contaminants: Vinyl Chloride 166 Clinical Research Site Management Engineering Websites Summary: Clinical Research Site Management Dan...

  18. allosteric site: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    commercial setting. Contaminants: Contaminants: Vinyl Chloride 69 Clinical Research Site Management Engineering Websites Summary: Clinical Research Site Management Dan...

  19. affect redd site: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    commercial setting. Contaminants: Contaminants: Vinyl Chloride 62 Clinical Research Site Management Engineering Websites Summary: Clinical Research Site Management Dan...

  20. allosteric citalopram-binding site: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    commercial setting. Contaminants: Contaminants: Vinyl Chloride 69 Clinical Research Site Management Engineering Websites Summary: Clinical Research Site Management Dan...

  1. atp-binding site lesions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    commercial setting. Contaminants: Contaminants: Vinyl Chloride 107 Clinical Research Site Management Engineering Websites Summary: Clinical Research Site Management Dan...

  2. agnostic splice site: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    commercial setting. Contaminants: Contaminants: Vinyl Chloride 279 Clinical Research Site Management Engineering Websites Summary: Clinical Research Site Management Dan...

  3. agent dumping site: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    commercial setting. Contaminants: Contaminants: Vinyl Chloride 357 Clinical Research Site Management Engineering Websites Summary: Clinical Research Site Management Dan...

  4. adenine dinucleotide-binding site: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    commercial setting. Contaminants: Contaminants: Vinyl Chloride 43 Clinical Research Site Management Engineering Websites Summary: Clinical Research Site Management Dan...

  5. Model Estimates of the Contributions of Environmental Tobacco Smoke to Volatile Organic Compound Exposures in Office Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daisey, J.M.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    vinyl ketone 2,3-Butadione Acrolein Limonene 1,3-Butadieneconcentrations for for acrolein, acetaldehyde and 1,3-

  6. HOSPITAL VENTILATION STANDARDS AND ENERGY CONSERVATION: A SUMMARY OF THE LITERATURE WITH CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS, FY 78 FINAL REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeRoos, R.L.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ESTIMATED LITERS/NONTH TLV (EEm) NIOSH ACGIH ACGIH ACGIHPainters - Solvent TLV (EEm) ACGIH Vinyl Chloride (Monomer)

  7. Antithrombogenic and antibiotic compositions and methods of preparation thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hermes, R.E.

    1988-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Antithrombogenic and antibiotic composition of matter and method of preparation thereof. A random copolymer of a component of garlic and a biocompatible polymer has been prepared and found to exhibit antithrombogenic and antibiotic properties. Polymerization occurs selectively at the vinyl moiety in 2-vinyl-4H-1,3-dithiin when copolymerized with N-vinyl pyrrolidone. 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Antithrombogenic and antibiotic composition and methods of preparation thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hermes, R.E.

    1990-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Antithrombogenic and antibiotic composition of matter and method of preparation are disclosed. A random copolymer of a component of garlic and a biocompatible polymer has been prepared and found to exhibit antithrombogenic and antibiotic properties. Polymerization occurs selectively at the vinyl moiety in 2-vinyl-4H-1,3-dithiin when copolymerized with N-vinyl pyrrolidone. 4 figs.

  9. Catalytic Consequences of Acid Strength in the Conversion of...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Consequences of Acid Strength in the Conversion of Methanol to Dimethyl Ether. Catalytic Consequences of Acid Strength in the Conversion of Methanol to Dimethyl Ether. Abstract:...

  10. Inorg. Chem. 1993, 32, 2001-2004 2001 Ruthenium Ammine/Crown Ether Interactions in Solution: Effects of Modification of both Guest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , K.; Kurihara, H. Polyhedron 1991, IO,1139. (5) (a) Strzelbicki,J.;Charewicz, W.A.; Liu,Y.;Bartsch, R, D. J. J. Chem. SOC.Dalton Trans. 1983, 607. (g) Young,C. W.; Bartsch, R. A,;Holwerda, R. A. Inorg

  11. Analysis of dissolved benzene plumes and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) plumes in ground water at leaking underground fuel tank (LUFT) sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Happel, A.M.; Rice, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Beckenbach, E. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States); Savalin, L.; Temko, H.; Rempel, R. [California State Water Resources Control Board, Sacramento, CA (United States); Dooher, B. [California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments mandate the addition of oxygenates to gasoline products to abate air pollution. Currently, many areas of the country utilize oxygenated or reformulated fuel containing 15- percent and I I-percent MTBE by volume, respectively. This increased use of MTBE in gasoline products has resulted in accidental point source releases of MTBE containing gasoline products to ground water. Recent studies have shown MTBE to be frequently detected in samples of shallow ground water from urban areas throughout the United States (Squillace et al., 1995). Knowledge of the subsurface fate and transport of MTBE in ground water at leaking underground fuel tank (LUFT) sites and the spatial extent of MTBE plumes is needed to address these releases. The goal of this research is to utilize data from a large number of LUFT sites to gain insights into the fate, transport, and spatial extent of MTBE plumes. Specific goals include defining the spatial configuration of dissolved MTBE plumes, evaluating plume stability or degradation over time, evaluating the impact of point source releases of MTBE to ground water, and attempting to identify the controlling factors influencing the magnitude and extent of the MTBE plumes. We are examining the relationships between dissolved TPH, BTEX, and MTBE plumes at LUFT sites using parallel approaches of best professional judgment and a computer-aided plume model fitting procedure to determine plume parameters. Here we present our initial results comparing dissolved benzene and MTBE plumes lengths, the statistical significance of these results, and configuration of benzene and MTBE plumes at individual LUFT sites.

  12. Structure of n-Butyllithium in Mixtures of Ethers and Diamines: Influence of Mixed Solvation on 1,2-Additions to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collum, David B.

    -8 Moreover, TMCDA is a stronger ligand than TMEDA by 0.5 kcal/mol.6,9 (This statement is laced.; Spero, D. M. Org. Prep. Proced. Int. 2000, 32, 205. (3) The first report of a polyamine

  13. Impacts of Ethanol on Anaerobic Production of Tert-Butyl Alcohol (TBA) from Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) in Groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scow, K M; MacKay, Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Project title: Impacts of Ethanol on Anaerobic Production oftert-butanol (TBA). As ethanol is being promoted as ainvestigate the effect of ethanol release on existing MTBE

  14. Impacts of Ethanol on Anaerobic Production of Tert-Butyl Alcohol (TBA) from Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) in Groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scow, K M; MacKay, Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    field site is located at the Vandenberg Air Force Base at a site where a leaking underground storage

  15. IN VITRO SUSCEPTIBILITY OF CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS TO LPS-BINDING POLYAMINES AND CELLULOSE ETHER POLYMERS: TOWARDS THE DEVELOPMENT OF A MICROBICIDE AGAINST CHLAMYDIA INFECTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Osaka, Ichie

    2013-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    shock protein 60 (hsp60), inclusion membrane proteins such as various Inc proteins, and effector proteins of the type III secretion system (T3SS) that are secreted into host cytosol. Vaginal Microbicide Although immunization would be an ideal strategy...-negative infection can lead to septic shock [139]. LPS is also recognized for the essential roles it plays in the pathogenesis and survival of Gram-negative bacteria. LPS contributes greatly to the structural integrity and stability of the outer membrane...

  16. Bisphenol A Diglycidyl Ether Induces Adipogenic Differentiation of Multipotent Stromal Stem Cells through a Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma-Independent Mechanism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Food contamination from epoxy resins and organosols used asG. 1981. Metabolism of the epoxy resin component 2,2-bis[4-(in the manufacture of epoxy resins, paints, and as a coating

  17. Sulfobutyl Ether b-Cyclodextrin (SBE-b-CD) in Eyedrops Improves the Tolerability of a Topically Applied Pilocarpine Prodrug in Rabbits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stella, Valentino J.; Jä rvinen, Tomi; Jä rvinen, Kristina; Thompson, Diame; Urtti, Arto

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ,O'-dipropionyl-(1,4-xylylene) bispilocarpate, in albino rabbits were studied. Compared to the commercial pilocarpine eyedrop solution (163 mM, equivalent to 3.4% pilocarpine), 12 - 24 mM pilocarpine prodrug solutions (equivalent to 0.5 - 1.0% pilocarpine...

  18. The Effect of the Di-Tertiary Butyl Peroxide (DTBP) additive on HCCI Combustion of Fuel Blends of Ethanol and Diethyl Ether

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mack, John Hunter; Buchholz, Bruce A; Flowers, Daniel L; Dibble, Robert W

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engines: Key Research andJ. Girard, and R. Dibble, "HCCI in a CFR Engine: ExperimentsRyan III, and J.S. Souder, "HCCI Operation of a Dual-Fuel

  19. Northern Tool + Equipment Find the Right Fitting for Your Pressure Washer at Northern Tool! NorthernTool.com/PressureWashers Pristine Pressure Pressure/power washing in Maryland Vinyl siding cleaned, decks cleaned www.pristinepressure.com

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sóbester, András

    and microchips; and poor construction -- from shipbuilding to space shuttles -- since dirty surfaces do not bond.LifeIonizers.com/Alkaline-Water... Braun® Official Site Braun® Series Premium Shavers. Try Risk Free: Money Back Guaranteed. www

  20. Thermoset epoxy polymers from renewable resources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    East, Anthony (Madison, NJ); Jaffe, Michael (Maplewood, NJ); Zhang, Yi (Harrison, NJ); Catalani, Luiz H (Carapicuiba, BR)

    2009-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Novel thermoset epoxy polymers using the bisglycidyl ethers of anhydrosugars, such as isosorbide, isomannide, and isoidide, are disclosed. The bisglycidyl ethers are useful as substitutes for bisphenol A in the manufacture of thermoset epoxy ethers. The anhydrosugars are derived from renewable sources and the bisglycidyl ethers are not xenoestrogenic and the thermoset curing agents are likewise derived form renewable resources.

  1. larve/nymphe. La mue larve/nymphe n'a t nettement perturbe qu' partir de la

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    #12;and in their antifungal activity. A furano- coumarin complex extracted with petrole- um ether from

  2. Specimen-Specific Method for Quantifying Glenohumeral Joint Kinematics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Yeon Soo; Lee, Thay Q.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    poly- vinyl chloride (PVC) cylinder using screws and plasteraxial center line of the PVC pipe was matched to thewas determined with two PVC cylinder circumferences formed

  3. Techniques and Technologies for Field Detection of Asbestos Containing Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Asbestos has been used in numerous applications at DOE sites including sprayed-on fireproofing, asphalt and vinyl floor tile, and asbestos-cement(transite) siding.

  4. E-Print Network 3.0 - asymmetric hetero-diels-alder reactions...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Correction Paper No. b927076k Summary: . The classic hetero-Diels Alder reaction of acrolein with methyl vinyl ketone (Scheme 3) was examined in great... is unsymmetrically...

  5. Focused Safety Management Evaluation of the Oak Ridge National...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    permit (RWP) did not prescribe adequate personal protective equipment, monitoring, or tooling for ALARA considerations (i.e., leaded vinyl gloves, extremity dosimetry, andor...

  6. acetal benzoic acids: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    blend. Inthe present investigation, densities and viscosities have been measured in 4 % solution of polyAcrylic Acid and Poly vinyl Acetate in DMSO using calculated and reduced...

  7. acetic acid allyl: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    blend. Inthe present investigation, densities and viscosities have been measured in 4 % solution of polyAcrylic Acid and Poly vinyl Acetate in DMSO using calculated and reduced...

  8. acetic acid cyano: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    blend. Inthe present investigation, densities and viscosities have been measured in 4 % solution of polyAcrylic Acid and Poly vinyl Acetate in DMSO using calculated and reduced...

  9. acetic acid injection: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    blend. Inthe present investigation, densities and viscosities have been measured in 4 % solution of polyAcrylic Acid and Poly vinyl Acetate in DMSO using calculated and reduced...

  10. acetic acid esters: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    blend. Inthe present investigation, densities and viscosities have been measured in 4 % solution of polyAcrylic Acid and Poly vinyl Acetate in DMSO using calculated and reduced...

  11. acetic acids: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    blend. Inthe present investigation, densities and viscosities have been measured in 4 % solution of polyAcrylic Acid and Poly vinyl Acetate in DMSO using calculated and reduced...

  12. acetic acid exemption: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    blend. Inthe present investigation, densities and viscosities have been measured in 4 % solution of polyAcrylic Acid and Poly vinyl Acetate in DMSO using calculated and reduced...

  13. acetic acid bacterium: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    blend. Inthe present investigation, densities and viscosities have been measured in 4 % solution of polyAcrylic Acid and Poly vinyl Acetate in DMSO using calculated and reduced...

  14. acetic acid: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    blend. Inthe present investigation, densities and viscosities have been measured in 4 % solution of polyAcrylic Acid and Poly vinyl Acetate in DMSO using calculated and reduced...

  15. acetic acid ability: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    blend. Inthe present investigation, densities and viscosities have been measured in 4 % solution of polyAcrylic Acid and Poly vinyl Acetate in DMSO using calculated and reduced...

  16. acetic acid trichloro: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    blend. Inthe present investigation, densities and viscosities have been measured in 4 % solution of polyAcrylic Acid and Poly vinyl Acetate in DMSO using calculated and reduced...

  17. acetate sedimentation concentration: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    blend. Inthe present investigation, densities and viscosities have been measured in 4 % solution of polyAcrylic Acid and Poly vinyl Acetate in DMSO using calculated and reduced...

  18. Novel mixed organoboranes for the reductive alkylation of p-benzoquinone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hincapié, Gloria

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with methyl vinyl ketone or acrolein 20 was found to beWhen this is reacted with acrolein, 15% of the product is 4-

  19. Laboratory Hazard Assessment Questionnaire EH&S is available to assist with the recognition, evaluation and control of laboratory hazards. This form is to be used to help evaluate possible hazards reported by members of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jia, Songtao

    Chloroform Chromium (VI) Ethylene oxide Formaldehyde Isoflurane Lead Mercury Acrylonitrile Crystalline silica Methyl methacrylate Methylene chloride Nitrous oxide Vinyl chloride Other Brief Description

  20. Glove Selection Guideline

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    working molten materials. Chemical Resistance Gloves. These gloves may be made of rubber, neoprene, polyvinyl alcohol or vinyl, etc. The gloves protect hands from corrosives,...

  1. Roll Printed Electronics: Development and Scaling of Gravure Printing Techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Fuente Vornbrock, Alejandro

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    effect transistors with polyimide gate dielectric layers."methacrylate (PMMA), polyimide (PI), poly(vinyl-alcohol) (styrene, PMMA, and polyimide were the earliest materials to

  2. aldosterone modulates cell: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Renewable Energy Websites Summary: the benefit of using optically superior silicone encapsulant materials over the incumbent ethylene vinyl in the UV region of the solar...

  3. Gossypol content of C X (AD)1 and G X (AD)1 hexaploids and parents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Linn Elizabeth

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of gossypol, gossypol-6-methyl ether (ME) and gossypol-6-dimethyl ether (DME) in seed meats from G. australe, G. hirsutum cv. Hancock, and Hexaploid-G. australe x Hancock. . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 17 Gossypol, gossypol-6-methyl ether (ME) and gossypol-6...-dimethyl ether (DME) content in seed meats from G. australe, G. hirsutum cv. Hancock, and Hexaploid-G. australe x Hancock. 38 Analysis of variance of gossypol, gossypol-6-methyl ether (ME) and gossypol-6-dimethyl ether (DME) of seed meats from G...

  4. The Scientific Basis for the Regulation of Nanoparticles: Challenging Paracelsus and Pare

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Bernard D.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NANOTECHNOILOGY 402 (2007). 20. MTBE unquestionably causesTertiary-Butyl Ether (MTBE)-a Gasoline Additive-CausesMethyl Tertiary-butyl Ether (MTBE) in CD-I Mice and F-344

  5. Pyrolysis of Organic Molecules Relevant to Combustion as Monitored by Photoionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weber, Kevin Howard

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is observed, which is similar to MTBE in this system whichisobutene formed from MTBE, is found to occur. REFERENCES [methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and tert-amyl methyl ether (

  6. QUANTIFYING NON-POINT SOURCES OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN STORMWATER FROM A PARKING LOT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -butyl ether (MTBE) on urban particles indicates a site- specific interaction between MTBE and a particulate is a possible source only for the gasoline oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). Lopes and Bender (1998

  7. Life-cycle Environmental Inventory of Passenger Transportation in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chester, Mikhail V

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methyl tert?Butyl Ether (MTBE); http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/Methyl Tertiary Butyl  Ether  (MTBE),  which  was  easily accounting was not performed on MTBE and the result  of 

  8. () Trichloromethane ()1,1,2,2-1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Haimei

    acetate () Ethylene glycol monobutyl ether () Ethylene glycol monomethy ether ()- O-dichlorobenzene ( ) Xylenes(o-,m-,p- isomers) () Cresol - 19 - #12;() Chlorobenzene () Amyl acetate () Isoamyl acetate () Isobutyl acetate () Isopropyl acetate () Ethyl acetate () Propyl acetate () Butyl acetate () Methyl acetate

  9. Measurement and Treatment of Nuisance Odors at Wastewater Treatment Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abraham, Samantha Margaret

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the presence of MTBE, ETBE and TAME. Chemosphere 85, 616-Xanthomonas sp. MTBE/ETBE/TAME a Acinetobacter calcoaceticusMTBE= Methyl tert-Butyl Ether, ETBE= Ethyl tert-Butyl Ether,

  10. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 21612176, 2006 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/6/2161/2006/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    is oxygenated by addition of ethyl-tertio-butyl ether (ETBE), the second is based on a reformulation of its the ethyl- tertio-butyl-ether or ETBE) allows the

  11. Handbook of Applied Cryptography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alfred J. Menezes; Paul C. Van Oorschot; Scott A. Vanstone; R. L. Rivest

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    more and more on our ability to let such ethereal carrier pigeons mediate at a distance what we used to

  12. Vol. 83, No. 2, 2006 121 Analysis of Heat Transfer Fouling by Dry-Grind Maize Thin Stillage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), a petroleum derivative, and ethanol. In recent years, MTBE has been phased out due

  13. Chemical Hygiene and Safety Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ricks Editor, R.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ether ethylene oxide lead and lead compounds mercury andether ethylene oxide lead and lead compounds mercury andoxide lead

  14. MTBE Production Economics (Released in the STEO April 2001)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate the causes of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) price increases in 2000.

  15. Dispersed Polyphosphate in Fungal Vacuoles in Eucalyptus pilularis/Pisolithus tinctorius

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vesk, Peter

    . Stained sections of ether­acrolein freeze-substituted mycorrhizas also showed only dis- persed material

  16. Characterization of trace gases measured over Alberta oil sands mining operations: 76 speciated C2-C10 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), CO2, CH4, CO, NO, NO2, NOy, O3 and SO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    K. : Atmospheric chemistry of gasoline-related emissions:chemistry. Methyl tert-butyl ether is a solvent and gasoline

  17. The social costs of an MTBE ban in California (Long version)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rausser, Gordon C.; Adams, Gregory D.; Montgomery, W. David; Smith, Anne E.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE) or tertiary amyl methylOther oxygenates, such as ETBE and TAME exist. However,

  18. The Social Costs of an MTBE Ban in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rausser, Gordon C.; Adams, Gregory D.; Montgomery, W. David; Smith, Anne E.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE), or tertiary amyl methylOther oxygenates such as ETBE and TAME exist. However, these

  19. Epoxy Resin-Photopolymer Composites for Volume Timothy J. Trentler, Joel E. Boyd, and Vicki L. Colvin*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Epoxy Resin-Photopolymer Composites for Volume Holography Timothy J. Trentler, Joel E. Boyd by mixing photopo- lymerizable vinyl monomers with a liquid epoxy resin and an amine hardener. A solid matrix is formed in situ as the epoxy cures at room temperature. The unreacted vinyl monomers

  20. Effects of oxygenate concentration on species mole fractions in premixed n-heptane flames

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Senkan, Selim M.

    -heptane/oxygenate mixtures were 2.7 and 3.4. Three different fuel oxygenates (i.e. MTBE, methanol, and ethanol) were tested tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE), ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE), and tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME)) were considered as possible fuel oxygenates. MTBE and ethanol are the most common oxygenates currently used

  1. Health risks associated with exposure to gasoline additives-methyl tertiary butyl ether [MTBE]. Hearing before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Appropriations, United States Senate, One Hundred Third Congress, First Session, Special Hearing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This hearing focuses on an Alaskan study by the Centers for Disease Control which examines possible health risks associated with exposure to gasoline additive know as MTBE. Testimony is given by Dr. William Roper, Director, CDC.

  2. Composition and process for separating cesium ions from an acidic aqueous solution also containing other ions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietz, M.L.; Horwitz, E.P.; Bartsch, R.A.; Barrans, R.E. Jr.; Rausch, D.

    1999-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A crown ether cesium ion extractant is disclosed as is its synthesis. The crown ether cesium ion extractant is useful for the selective purification of cesium ions from aqueous acidic media, and more particularly useful for the isolation of radioactive cesium-137 from nuclear waste streams. Processes for isolating cesium ions from aqueous acidic media using the crown ether cesium extractant are disclosed as are processes for recycling the crown ether cesium extractant and processes for recovering cesium from a crown ether cesium extractant solution. 4 figs.

  3. Composition and process for separating cesium ions from an acidic aqueous solution also containing other ions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietz, Mark L. (Elmhurst, IL); Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Bartsch, Richard A. (Lubbock, TX); Barrans, Jr., Richard E. (Downers Grove, IL); Rausch, David (Naperville, IL)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A crown ether cesium ion extractant is disclosed as is its synthesis. The crown ether cesium ion extractant is useful for the selective purification of cesium ions from aqueous acidic media, and more particularly useful for the isolation of radioactive cesium-137 from nuclear waste streams. Processes for isolating cesium ions from aqueous acidic media using the crown ether cesium extractant are disclosed as are processes for recycling the crown ether cesium extractant and processes for recovering cesium from a crown ether cesium extractant solution.

  4. RECORDINGS OF THE CHAPEL CHOIR OF TRINITY COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE This is a list of recordings made by the Choir under the direction of Richard Marlow, and issued on vinyl LP and/or cassette tape. It also includes two recordings of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lasenby, Joan

    RECORDINGS OF THE CHAPEL CHOIR OF TRINITY COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE This is a list of recordings made by Richard Marlow on the new Metzler organ in Trinity Chapel. Includes Toccata, Adagio and Fugue in C Parry's 'Songs of Farewell', together with Stanford's three motets written for Trinity and his double

  5. Effect in the KHT sarcoma of CCNU and MISO on cell cycle progression evaluated by flow-cytometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, S.A.; Bauer, K.D.; Keng, P.C.; Siemann, D.W.

    1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Previous studies using the KHT sarcoma have shown that misonidazole (MISO) enhances the cytotoxicity of 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea (CCNU) by as much as a factor of 2.0. In the present study flow cytometry was used to monitor the changing DNA distributions of cells dissociated from solid tumors at successive times following treatment with CCNU, applied either alone or in combination with 0.5 mg/g MISO. The proportion of cells in late S and the G/sub 2/M phases of the cell cycle increased gradually after CCNU treatment. MISO did not significantly change this block in cell progression, which persisted for at least 48 hr after treatment in all cases. CCNU shows marked carbamoylating activity, which has been associated with inhibition of RNA processing and with the degree of chemopotentiation achieved with MISO. By 24 hr after treatment, CCNU clearly altered the distribution of RNA, but no significant differences could be detected between results obtained from drug and drug plus sensitizer treated groups. These studies demonstrate the effect of CCNU on cell cycle progression in vivo. The addition of MISO did not result in further perturbation of the total tumor population, suggesting that cell cycle redistribution does not play a major role in chemopotentiation by MISO.

  6. Survival in subpopulations of cells derived from solid KHT sarcomas by centrifugal elutriation following treatment with CCNU and MISO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, S.A.; Keng, P.C.; Siemann, D.W.

    1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Misonidazole (MISO) has been shown to enhance the cytotoxicity of 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea (CCNU) in a number of different animal tumor systems. The authors have investigated the response to therapy of the various subpopulations of cells comprising the KHT sarcoma, to determine whether chemopotentiation occurred as a preferential enhancement of killing in one subpopulation of cells. Twenty-four hr after drug treatment, cells dissociated from solid tumors were separated into homogeneous populations based on cell size by the technique of centrifugal elutriation. Clonogenic cell survival was measured for each elutriated fraction. In vivo treatment with MISO produced no measurable cell-kill across the cell cycle. Those cells in late G/sub 1/ and S phase 24 hr after treatment were most sensitive to CCNU alone. The enhancement of CCNU cytotoxicity by MISO occurred primarily in the early G/sub 1/ and S fractions. These data suggest that chemopotentiation does not occur equally in all tumor cell subpopulations and that some specificity of enhanced cell killing exists.

  7. Enhanced tumor responses through therapies combining CCNU, MISO and radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siemann, D.W.; Hill, S.A.

    1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Studies were performed to determine whether the radiation sensitizer misonidazole (MISO) could enhance the tumor control probability in a treatment strategy combining radiation and the nitrosourea 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea (CCNU). In initial experiments KHT sarcoma-bearing mice were injected with 1.0 mg/g of MISO simultaneously with a 20 mg/kg dose of CCNU 30-40 min prior to irradiation (1500 rad). With this treatment protocol approximately 60% of the mice were found to be tumor-free 100 days post treatment. By comparison all 2 agent combinations led to 0% cures. To evaluate the relative importance of chemopotentiation versus radiosensitization in the 3 agent protocol, tumors were treated with MISO plus one anti-tumor agent (either radiation of CCNU) and then at times ranging from 0 to 24 hr later exposed to the other agent. When the time between treatments was 0 to 6 hr, a 60 to 80% tumor control rate was achieved for both MISO plus radiation followed by CCNU and MISO plus CCNU followed by radiation. However if the time interval was increased to 18 or 24 hr, the cure rate in the former treatment regimen dropped to 10% while that of the latter remained high at 40%. The data therefore indicate that (1) improved tumor responses may be achieved when MISO is added to a radiation-chemotherapy combination and (2) MISO may be more effective in such a protocol when utilized as a chemopotentiator.

  8. Characterization of Arsenic Contamination on Rust from Ton Containers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary S. Groenewold; Recep Avci; Robert V. Fox; Muhammedin Deliorman; Jayson Suo; Laura Kellerman

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The speciation and spatial distribution of arsenic on rusted steel surfaces affects both measurement and removal approaches. The chemistry of arsenic residing in the rust of ton containers that held the chemical warfare agents bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide (sulfur mustard) and 2-chlorovinyldichloroarsine (Lewisite) is of particular interest, because while the agents have been decontaminated, residual arsenic could pose a health or environmental risk. The chemistry and distribution of arsenic in rust samples was probed using imaging secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Auger electron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX). Arsenic in the +3 and or +5 oxidation state is homogeneously distributed at the very top-most layer of the rust samples, and is intimately associated with iron. Sputter depth profiling followed by SIMS and XPS shows As at a depth of several nm, in some cases in a reduced form. The SEM/EDX experiments show that As is present at a depth of several microns, but is inhomogeneously distributed; most locations contained oxidized As at concentrations of a few percent, however several locations showed very high As in a metallic form. These results indicate that the rust material must be removed if the steel containers are to be cleared of arsenic.

  9. All-Weather Hydrogen Peroxide-Based Decontamination of CBRN Contaminants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, George W.; Procell, Lawrence R.; Sorrick, David C.; Lawson, Glenn E.; Wells, Claire M.; Reynolds, Charles M.; Ringelberg, D. B.; Foley, Karen L.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Blanchard, David L.

    2010-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A hydrogen peroxide-based decontaminant, Decon Green, is efficacious for the decontamination of chemical agents VX (S-2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl O-ethyl methylphosphonothioate), GD (Soman, pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate), and HD (mustard, bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide); the biological agent anthrax (Bacillus anthracis); and radiological isotopes Cs-137 and Co-60; thus demonstrating the ability of this decontamination approach to ameliorate the aftermath of all three types of weapons of mass destruction (WMD). Reaction mechanisms afforded for the chemical agents are discussed as are rationales for the enhanced removal efficacy of recalcitrant 60Co on certain surfaces. Decontaminants of this nature can be deployed, and are effective, at very low temperatures (-32 ?C), as shown for studies done with VX and HD simulants, without the need for external heat sources. Finally, the efficacy of a lower-logistics, dry decontaminant powder concentrate (utilizing the solid active-oxygen compounds peracetyl borate and Peroxydone) which can be reconstituted with water in the field prior to use, is presented.

  10. Mesoporous titanium-manganese dioxide for sulphur mustard and soman decontamination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stengl, Vaclav, E-mail: stengl@iic.cas.cz [Department of Solid State Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic)] [Department of Solid State Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Bludska, Jana [Department of Solid State Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic)] [Department of Solid State Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Oplustil, Frantisek; Nemec, Tomas [Military Technical Institute of Protection Brno, Veslarska 230, 628 00 Brno (Czech Republic)] [Military Technical Institute of Protection Brno, Veslarska 230, 628 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: {yields} New nano-dispersive materials for warfare agents decontamination. {yields} 95% decontamination activities for sulphur mustard. {yields} New materials base on titanium and manganese oxides. -- Abstract: Titanium(IV)-manganese(IV) nano-dispersed oxides were prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis of potassium permanganate and titanium(IV) oxo-sulphate with 2-chloroacetamide. Synthesised samples were characterised using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and Barrett-Joiner-Halenda porosity (BJH), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These oxides were taken for an experimental evaluation of their reactivity with sulphur mustard (HD or bis(2-chloroethyl)sulphide) and soman (GD or (3,3'-dimethylbutan-2-yl)-methylphosphonofluoridate). Mn{sup 4+} content affects the decontamination activity; with increasing Mn{sup 4+} content the activity increases for sulphur mustard and decreases for soman. The best decontamination activities for sulphur mustard and soman were observed for samples TiMn{sub 3}7 with 18.6 wt.% Mn and TiMn{sub 5} with 2.1 wt.% Mn, respectively.

  11. Zinc oxide nanoparticle-polymeric thin films for dynamic strain sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loh, Kenneth J.; Chang, Donghee

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    onto poly(vinyl chloride) PVC Type I plates (McMaster- Carr)cm wide, and 0.3-cm thick PVC plate. It should be noted thatduring free vibration of the PVC cantilevered beam the CN-Y

  12. INHIBITION EFFECTS ON EXTINCTION OF POLYMER BURNING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pitz, W.J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) in N /0 2 mixtures . Thesein comparison to Cl being added to the fuel side of PVC .Impurities in this commercial PVC and PE may have had an

  13. BEESE ET AL. VOL. 7 ' NO. 4 ' 34343446 ' 2013 www.acsnano.org

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Espinosa, Horacio D.

    , spinning from CNT aerogel, and twisting or rolling of CNT films, as summarized in a recent review article coating on the surface of the DWNT bundles interacts strongly with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) through

  14. Allyl Sulfides Are Privileged Substrates in Aqueous Cross-Metathesis: Application to Site-Selective Protein Modification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, Ben G.

    likely to be compatible with protein disulfides than other conventional catalysts. A simple test a similar "relay effect" of appropriately positioned heteroa- toms in RCM macrocycle synthesis.11 Vinyl

  15. Any correspondence concerning this service should be sent to the repository administrator: staff-oatao@inp-toulouse.fr

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mailhes, Corinne

    Toulouse, France 3 INEOS - Société Artésienne de Vinyle, Chemin des soldats 62670 Mazingarbe, France Tel.: +33 3 21 72 83 17, E-mail: Thierry.lasuye@ineos.com Abstract: A one-dimensional steady-state model

  16. Expensive Moisture/Insulation System Problems at Several Central Florida and South Texas Nursing Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lotz, W. A.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    where temperaturs reach 150° F. increases condensation due to inadequate details in mechanical insulation on ducts and pipes Vinyl wall covering is well known to be a disaster in this climate but interior decorators continue to specify it on various...

  17. eddy on the Georgia continental shelf, April, 1977. Deep-MENZIES, R., AND W KRUCZYNSKI.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    maladies? Worms, germs and other sym- bionts from the northern Gulf of Mexico. Blossman Print. Co., Inc from either hardware or plumbing supply houses and are interconnected using poly- vinyl chloride (PVC

  18. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study 2013: Transformation, Inc...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    0.21 and solar heat gain coefficients of 0.19. All exterior doors are insulated vinyl panel doors. Air leakage testing was conducted and showed that the home had a very air-tight...

  19. Direct synthesis of pyridine and pyrimidine derivatives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Matthew D. (Matthew Dennis)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    I. Synthesis of Substituted Pyridine Derivatives via the Ruthenium-Catalyzed Cycloisomerization of 3-Azadienynes. The two-step conversion of various N-vinyl and N-aryl amides to the corresponding substituted pyridines and ...

  20. Mohamed, Tarek Said. Fabrication and Behavior of Three-Dimensionally Woven Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymeric Bridge Deck. (Under the direction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    deck. The use of epoxy resin versus vinyl ester resin in the fabrication process was examined a textile machine and resin infusion process. The research investigated the mechanical properties of 3-D

  1. ambipolar nanotube field: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in All-Carbon-Nanotube Field-Effect Transistors by Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) Coating Materials Science Websites Summary: Ambipolar Behavior in All-Carbon-Nanotube Field-Effect...

  2. GENERAL SUPPLIES Required Optional

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Michael

    HB H F 2H 3H Vinyl Gloves Other CHEMISTRY Stealth Safety Goggles MUSIC Col-erase Pencil (specifyNumber Professor EstimatedEnrollment DateSignature Specialized Course Materials Adoption Form FAX: (905) 572

  3. Comparison of QM-Only and QM/MM Models for the Mechanism of Tungsten-Dependent Acetylene Hydratase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liao, Rongzhen

    Comparison of QM-Only and QM/MM Models for the Mechanism of Tungsten-Dependent Acetylene Hydratase study on the formation of vinyl alcohol in the catalytic cycle of tungsten-dependent acetylene hydratase

  4. The development of palladium-catalysts for organic synthesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martinelli, Joseph R

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chapter 1. Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reactions of aryl and heteroaryl halides with aryl-, heteroaryl and vinyl boronic acids proceed in very good to excellent yield with the use of 2-(2',6'-dimethoxybiphenyl)-dicyclohexylphosphine, ...

  5. This article was published in an Elsevier journal. The attached copy is furnished to the author for non-commercial research and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venkataraman, Dhandapani "DV"

    and distribution, or selling or licensing copies, or posting to personal, institutional or third party websites,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)propane). Although reactions of phenyl vinyl sulfoxide were complicated

  6. About Ply Gem Headquartered in Cary, North Carolina, Ply Gem is a leading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, Kathleen

    . After expanding into wood paneling and vacuum bags, Ply Gem's next big move was to aluminum and vinyl to increase energy efficiency, including its low-energy windows and insulated siding. Community

  7. affect dielectric membrane: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    how relaxation dynamics of a poly-vinyl-acetate ultra-thin film is influenced by inorganic nano-inclusions of a layered silicate (montmorillonite). Dielectric loss spectra are...

  8. Cathodic disbondment resistance with reactive ethylene terpolymer blends and composite coatings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Love, Corey T.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EPDM EVA ethylene vinyl acetate FBE fusion-bonded epoxy GMACoating Thickness on FBE ………………. Figure 7.13: NormalizedWhen XANES was applied to FBE-coated iron, the cathodically

  9. Green chemistry : dense carbon dioxide and water as environmentally benign reaction media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, Andrew J. (Andrew John), 1978-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (cont.) was investigated in scCO?, and the cycloaddition between cyclopentadiene and methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) was studied in an scCO?/liquid water environment. Nitrogen chemistry, specifically the synthesis of nitrogen ...

  10. An analysis of residential window waterproofing systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parsons, Austin, 1959-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The prevalence of vinyl nail-on windows in the North American new home construction market has prompted ASTM International to write ASTM E2112-01 "Standard Practice for Installation of Exterior Windows, Doors and Skylights". ...

  11. Syntheses and applications of soluble polyisobutylene (PIB)-supported transition metal catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tian, Jianhua

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    catalysts using liquid/liquid biphasic separations after a homogeneous reaction. Our work has shown that PIB-supported Ni(II) and Co(II) ?-diketonates prepared from commercially available vinyl terminated PIB oligomers possess catalytic activity like...

  12. A Versatile Catalyst System for Suzuki?Miyaura Cross-Coupling Reactions of C(sp[superscript 2])-Tosylates and Mesylates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhayana, Brijesh

    A catalyst system for the Suzuki?Miyaura cross-coupling reactions of aryl and vinyl tosylates and mesylates has been developed. This catalyst displays excellent functional group tolerance and allows the coupling of ...

  13. Asymmetric Hydrogenations of Chiral Acyclic Alkenes for Important Chiron Syntheses 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Ye

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    -?-hydroxy-?-methyl chiron, ?-methyl- ?-alkyl-?-amino acid can be obtained with high stereoselectivities. With those well- developed methodologies, (-)-dihydromyoporone, (-)-spongidepsin, (-)-invictolide have been prepared with high effiency. Not like the vinyl acetate...

  14. Next-generation sequencing reveals the biological significance of the N[superscript 2],3-ethenoguanine lesion in vivo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Shiou-chi

    Etheno DNA adducts are a prevalent type of DNA damage caused by vinyl chloride (VC) exposure and oxidative stress. Etheno adducts are mutagenic and may contribute to the initiation of several pathologies; thus, elucidating ...

  15. Non-eyring temperature dependence of dynamic isotope effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruiz, N. Rebecca

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    12 - 1-octanol 423 6 - 1-octanol 453 9 - diethyl ether 183 2 - diethyl ether 298 15.5 - p-dioxane 298 4 - p-dioxane 353 2 - pentane 298 15.5 - toluene 298 6 - 1:1 pentane/methanol 153 1 74% 1:3 pentane/methanol 173 1 43% 1:3 methanol/pentane 158 3 20...% 1:10 methanol/pentane 298 3 10% 1:10 methanol/pentane 148 3 12% 1:1 methanol/diethyl ether 173 3 10% 1:3 methanol/diethyl ether 168 3 16% 1:10 methanol/diethyl ether 298 3 8% 1:10 methanol/diethyl ether 163 3 - 1:5 methanol/n-propanol 298 6 23% 1...

  16. Accelerated Wear Tests on Common Floor-covering Materials.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stewart, B. R.; Kunze, O. R.; Hobgood, Price.

    1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    *'r** qd** ""~c- web*- !,* . flccelerated Wear Tests e" f loor-couering materials AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION R. D. LEWIS, DIRECTOR, COLLEGE STATION. TEXAS SUMMARY I .. - " : 5: Accelerated wear tests made on six common floor covering... materials indicated there are variations in the changes of appearance and wear in these materials. Solid sheet vinyls and rubber tiles showed significantly less wear than asphalt tiles, vinyl- asbestos tiles, linoleums and cork. Asphalt tiles showed...

  17. Nonaqueous composition for slip casting or cold forming refractory material into solid shapes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montgomery, L.C.

    1993-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A composition is described for slip casting or cold forming non-oxide refractory material(s) into solid shape comprising finely divided solid refractory materials selected from the group consisting of metal boride, refractory carbide, nitride, silicide and a refractory metal of tungsten, molybdenum, tantalum and chromium suspended in a nonaqueous liquid slip composition consisting essentially of a deflocculent composed of a vinyl chloride-vinyl acetate resin dissolved in an organic solvent.

  18. The Composition and Utilization of Texas Feeding Stuffs.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1932-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    referred to as fats and oils, and this is substantially correct for concentrated feeding stuffs, such as cottonseed meal, corn, rice bran, etc. Although some other substances are present, the ether extract in these feeds is composed mainly of fats... and oils. The ether extracts of hays and fodders, however, contain large proportions of waxes, coloring matters, and other substances (23, 24), so that it is not strictly correct to apply the names fats and oils to the ether extract of these roughages...

  19. Race to license new MTBE and TAME routes heats up

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rotman, D.

    1993-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    With refineries and petrochemical manufacturers continuing to gear up production of oxygenates for use in reformulated fuels, new routes to methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME) are clearly hot items in the licensing market. And probably nowhere has the competition become as intense as in offerings for skeletal isomerization technologies to boost ethers production from fluid catalytic cracking and steam cracking.

  20. Polyisobutylene as a Polymer Support for Homogeneous Catalysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hongfa, Chayanant

    2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    and filtration. PEG is insoluble in hexane, diethyl ether, tert-butylmethyl ether (TBME), isopropyl alcohol, and cold ethanol. These are the solvents usually used for the precipitation process. 14 PEG is usefully soluble in a wide range of solvents... (>80% ee) and high yield (>80%). The PEG-bound Cinchona alkaloid 6 was recovered (8) 11 by solvent precipitation with diethyl ether and recycled through five cycles with p- chlorostyrene as a substrate. The average yield of all 5 cycles was 93...

  1. The alkaloid of Acacia berlandieri, N-methyl-B-phenylethylamine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Camp, Bennie Joe

    1956-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the oily base proved fruitless from such solvents as acetone, absolute alcohol, hexane, petroleum ether, ether, ethyl acetate, and chloroform. Crystallization was finally induced by dissolving the liquid base in chloroform, and then adding a relatively... large volume of anhydrous ether. Qualitative Analysis: Qualitative analysis for the elements was carried out according to the procedure out? lined by McElvain (6). This procedure employs fusion with metallic sodium which converts the organically...

  2. Synthesis and characterization of dialkyl ditellurides and dialkyl tellurides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Sang Woo

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) ditelluride bonded to the tellurium atoms form a dihedral angle of 86 [17]. Sink and Harvey[18] assumed a similar structure for dimethyl ditelluride with a dihedral angle of 82 in their vibrational analyses of this molecule. Disodrum ditelluride... diethyl ether, petroleum ether (b. p. 35-60 ), tetrahydrofuran, methanol, benzene, methylene chloride, and chloroform, were purchased from Manufacturing Chemists Inc. Absolute diethyl ether, ethylenediamine, N, N-dimethylformamide, chloroform, benzene...

  3. Aza compounds as anion receptors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, H.S.; Yang, X.Q.; McBreen, J.

    1998-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A family of aza-ether based compounds including linear, multi-branched and aza-crown ethers is provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the family of aza-ether based compounds acts as neutral receptors to complex the anion moiety of the electrolyte salt thereby increasing the conductivity and the transference number of Li{sup +} ion in alkali metal batteries. 3 figs.

  4. The Action of Certain Acid Reagents on the Substituted Ureas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brewster, Ray Q.

    1915-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    aniline and methyl phenyl urea chloride with pyridine - 6 Di-phenyl ethyl thio urea and phosgene with pyridine 7 Para mono brom di-phenyl thio urea and methyl phenyl urea chloride - 8 Di-phenyl thio urea and chlor formic ethyl ester with pyridine 9... Methyl ether of di-phenyl thio urea and methyl phenyl urea chloride with pyridine - - 10 Ethyl ether of ortho di-tolyl thio urea and methyl phenyl urea chloride 13 Ethyl ether of ortho di-tolyl thio urea and di-phenyl urea chloride 14 Methyl ether...

  5. Multiple Objective Stormwater Management For the Coliseum Complex

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Jesse; Kraai, Rachel

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) remain in the soil around5.2 ppb xylenes, and 160 ppb MTBE remain in the groundwater

  6. aromatic compound mixtures: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and mineralization potentials of gasoline monoaromatics and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), compounds that commonly co-exist in groundwater contaminant plumes. A mixed culture...

  7. Stratospheric ozone, global warming, and the principle of unintended consequences - an ongoing science and policy story

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    as methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE), lubricating oil and itsthe environment. Use of the MTBE additive in gasoline wasof gasoline laced with MTBE into groundwater resulted in

  8. The Drinking Water Security and Safety Amendments of 2002: Is America's Drinking Water Infrastructure Safer Four Years Later?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shermer, Steven D.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    355 tertiary butyl ether ("MTBE"). 43 8 Amazingly, even "[c]Water: Study Estimates Cost of MTBE Remedia- tion At Up to $

  9. Oxygenates du`jour...MTBE? Ethanol? ETBE?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolfe, R.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    There are many different liquids that contain oxygen which could be blended into gasoline. The ones that have been tried and make the most sense are in the alcohol (R-OH) and ether (R-O-R) chemical family. The alcohols considered are: methanol (MeOH), ethanol (EtOH), tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA). The ethers are: methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE), tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME), tertiary amyl ethyl ether (TAEE), di-isopropyl ether (DIPE). Of the eight oxygenates listed above, the author describes the five that are still waiting for widespread marketing acceptance (methanol, TBA, TAME, TAEE, and DIPE). He then discusses the two most widely used oxygenates in the US, MTBE and ethanol, along with the up-and-coming ethanol ether, ETBE. Selected physical properties for all of these oxygenates can be found in Table 2 at the end of this paper. A figure shows a simplified alcohol/ether production flow chart for the oxygenates listed above and how they are interrelated.

  10. accelerated cleanup risk: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    California at Berkeley, University of 20 Guidelines for Investigation and Cleanup of MTBE and Other Ether-Based Oxygenates Overview CiteSeer Summary: (Sher-- Chapter 812,...

  11. Agricultural and Resource Economics Update

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Aaron; Zilberman, David; Saitone, Tina; Sexton, Richard J.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), a natural-gas derivative, werebattle between advocates for ethanol and those for MTBE.MTBE became the dominant additive because it was less

  12. Comparison of SPME headspace analysis to U.S. EPA method5030/8260B for MTBE monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stringfellow, William T.; Oh, Kuen-Chan

    2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel method for analysis of methyl tert-butyl ether andtert-butyl alcohol using solid phase microextraction is described andcompared to a standard method.

  13. Biomass burning and urban air pollution over the Central Mexican Plateau

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the urban tracers (e.g. C 2 H 2 , MTBE, toluene) are highlymethyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) because their shorter atmo-

  14. Effects of water chemistry on NF/RO membrane structure and performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mo, Yibing

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), benzene, ethylbenzene,TCE** Industrial C 2 HCl 3 MTBE** [48] Industrial C 5 H 12 O

  15. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Petrochemical Industry - An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neelis, Maarten

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ethylene dichloride 1 MTBE 2 Vinylchloride 3 Ethylbenzene 1Methyl- Tertiary-Butyl-Ether (MTBE) or Ethyl-Tertiary-Butyl-Styrene Vinylchloride MTBE Benzene, Toluene, Xylene Acetone

  16. Cometabolic bioremediation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hazen, Terry C.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Intrinsic bioremediation of MTBE-contaminated groundwater atcontaminants, e.g. PCE, TCE, MTBE, TNT, dioxane, atrazine,Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) has also been remediated

  17. First Annual U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science Joint Genome Institute User Meeting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Various

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Genome Analysis of MTBE-Degrading Beta- Proteobacteriummethyl tert- butyl ether (MTBE). Strain PM1 can alsooften co-contaminants with MTBE in groundwater, including

  18. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    fuels are compressed and liquefied natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas (propane), hydrogen, electricity, and fuels containing at least 85% ethanol, methanol, ether, or another...

  19. E-Print Network 3.0 - asymmetric dimethylarginine adma Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    with ethene. The substrates used in this study include AEE (Allyl Ethyl Ether), ADMA (Acrolein... which mechanism is operative in this case. 3.4. Functional monomer - allyl...

  20. Development and Application of Advanced Models for Steam Hydrogasification: Process Design and Economic Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Xiaoming

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    comparative analysis of biodiesel and FT diesel. Energy and5.9 Schematic flow diagram for biodiesel production fromGas (LPG), ethanol, biodiesel, hydrogen, Dimethyl Ether (

  1. Water Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    which can lead to public health problems. * MtBE (Methyl tert Butyl Ether), a gasoline additive, has begun to contaminate ground water supplies. * Similarly, perchlorate has...

  2. Functionalization of metal-organic frameworks with metalloligands and postsynthetic modification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garibay, Sergio J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    spectrometry ix Et 2 O Diethyl ether EtOH Ethanol ee Enantiomeric excess FT-IR Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy Gamma

  3. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma modulation and lipogenic response in adipocytes of small-for-gestational age offspring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    gamma; BADGE: Bisphenol-A diglycidyl ether; TZD: Thiazolidinedione; ORO: Oil Red O; GC/MS: Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry;

  4. This journal is c the Owner Societies 2012 Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2012, 14, 675680 675 Cite this: Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2012, 14, 675680

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neumark, Daniel M.

    -octane and in the oxidation of fuel additives such as MTBE and ETBE (methyl and ethyl t-butyl ether).1 The chemistry

  5. CHEM333: Experiment 2: Extraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taber, Douglass

    ). Combine the aqueous NaOH extractions and back-extract them with ether (15 ml). Combine the ether extracts the stopcock is closed c. Before you attempt to drain the sepfunnel, remove the stopper. 2. Use a ring stand. You will also find that the funnel will not drain properly (if at all) when the stopper is one. 3

  6. 7198 J. Org. Chem. 1995,60, 7198-7208 Gas Phase Decomposition of Conjugate Acid Ions of Simple

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morton, Thomas Hellman

    (MTBE),ethyl (ETBE),n-propyl,isopropyl,and isobutyl tert-butyl ethers have been examined experimentally spectroscopy (MIKES) experiments on deuterated ions from MTBE and ETBE. Mechanistic possibilities are probed tert-amyl ether and its deuterated analogues. Protonated MTBE displays a single unimolecular

  7. Monitoring synaptic protein dynamics with higher temporal, spatial, and molecular resolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Butko, Margaret

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spectrometry mSOG MiniSOG MTBE Methyl tert-butyl ether mTORMethyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE, 1.4 mL) was then added for1,000 g, 5 min). The MTBE layer was collected into a 1.5-mL

  8. Water Research 37 (2003) 37563766 Seasonal and daily variations in concentrations of methyl-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toran, Laura

    - tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) at Cranberry Lake, New Jersey Laura Torana, *, Charles Lipkaa , Arthur Baehrb; accepted 24 March 2003 Abstract Methyl-tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE), an additive used to oxygenate gasoline of gasoline-powered watercraft. This paper documents and explains both seasonal and daily variations in MTBE

  9. International Journal of Mass Spectrometry 249250 (2006) 303310 Pyrolysis of 2-methoxy-2,3,3-trimethylbutane (MTMB) monitored by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morton, Thomas Hellman

    used fuel oxygenates MTBE and TAME), the predominance of bond homolysis at temperatures >900 K suggests homologues ­ methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME) ­ present a new set of problems discussed as alternatives to MTBE and TAME, because they are expected to be much less soluble in water. More

  10. UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA Santa Barbara

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Barbara, University of

    , B. Dooher, and D. Rice, Analysis of dissolved benzene plumes and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE, An evaluation of MTBE impacts to California groundwater resources, pp. 68 p., Lawrence Livermore National, Temporal Analysis of Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) Plumes at California Leaking Underground Fuel tank

  11. A review of life-cycle analysis studies on liquid biofuel systems for the transport sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    " liquid biofuels (biodiesel and sugar/starch bioethanol) and potential "future" liquid biofuels (Fischer-Tropsch fu- els, dimethyl ether, and cellulosic bioethanol) are included. Striking features of the LCAs, SVO) from rapeseed · Bioethanol (E100, E85, E10, ethyl tetrabutyl ether or ETBE) from grains or seeds

  12. Dynamics of Solvent Exchange in Organolithium Reagents. Lithium as a Center of Chirality1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reich, Hans J.

    Dynamics of Solvent Exchange in Organolithium Reagents. Lithium as a Center of Chirality1 Hans J slow enough for direct NMR observation.3,4 However, the detailed nature of interactions with ethers advance was the recent report by Lucht and Collum that individual ether solvates of a lithium amide can

  13. What's in a name? Noncovalent ArCl?(HAr9)n interactions and terminology based on structure and nature of the bonding{

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glaser, Rainer

    by four ether molecules and there are four lithium cation­ether bonds. The overall interaction of Li+ What's in a name? Noncovalent Ar­Cl?(H­Ar9)n interactions and terminology based on structure Interactions are named based on the interacting moieties and on the mechanism of their interaction

  14. Published Ahead of Print 1 July 2011. 2011, 193(17):4549. DOI: 10.1128/JB.00415-11.J. Bacteriol.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa

    Laboratory, Joint Genome Institute, Biosciences Division Genome Science B6, Los Alamos, New Mexico 875454 ; U and energy source (9, 10, 11, 14). This strain can also grow on other ethers (e.g., 2-methyl-1,3- dioxolane and butyl methyl ether), alcohols, and benzene as the sole carbon and energy source, and it can grow

  15. 10.1021/ol202573s r 2011 American Chemical Society Published on Web 10/13/2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suh, Young-Ger

    auxiliary- assisted diastereoselective allylation of N-acyliminium ions3,4 prepared from N,O-acetal TMS Vol. 13, No. 21 5920­5923 Expedient Synthesis of Chiral Homoallylamines via N,O-Acetal TMS Ethers recently reported a new approach to the synthesis of the N-acyliminium ion from N,O-acetal TMS ether, which

  16. High energy electron beam curing of epoxy resin systems incorporating cationic photoinitiators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janke, Christopher J. (Powell, TN); Lopata, Vincent J. (Manitoba, CA); Havens, Stephen J. (Knoxville, TN); Dorsey, George F. (Farragut, TN); Moulton, Richard J. (Lafayette, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A mixture of epoxy resins such as a semi-solid triglycidyl ether of tris (hydroxyphenyl) methane and a low viscosity bisphenol A glycidyl ether and a cationic photoinitiator such as a diaryliodonium salt is cured by irradiating with a dosage of electron beams from about 50 to about 150 kGy, forming a cross-linked epoxy resin polymer.

  17. Innovative Drying and Nutrients Extraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to the extraction process. This method evaporates the water from the products but also drives off up to 70 percent dimethyl ether to extract the water from the material. The new process does not require the addition of heat to evaporate the water during the extraction process. Dimethyl ether has a lower heat

  18. Hindawi Publishing Corporation Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cunningham, Brian

    lines. For MCF-7 cancer cells, the chittagonga (Pet-Ether and CH2Cl2) and rohituka (Pet-Ether) extracts, dichloromethane, and ethanol, were explored for their anticancer potential against two breast cancer (MCF-7 rohituka and chittagonga on Breast and Pancreatic Cancer Cells Leo L. Chan,1 Sherine George,2 Irfan Ahmad,3

  19. Nom du Produit Caractristiques du produit Conditionnement Quantit 1 ACETATE D'ETHYLE puret minimale 99% bidons de 5L 1200 litres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris 7 - Denis Diderot, Université

    5L 200 litres 16 ETHER DE PETROLE pur pour synthèse 35-60°C bidons de 5L 2500 litres 17 ETHER DE PETROLE pur pour synthèse 100-140°C bouteilles en verre de 1 L 2 litres 18 HEXANES mélange d

  20. High energy electron beam curing of epoxy resin systems incorporating cationic photoinitiators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janke, C.J.; Lopata, V.J.; Havens, S.J.; Dorsey, G.F.; Moulton, R.J.

    1999-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A mixture of epoxy resins such as a semi-solid triglycidyl ether of tris (hydroxyphenyl) methane and a low viscosity bisphenol A glycidyl ether and a cationic photoinitiator such as a diaryliodonium salt is cured by irradiating with a dosage of electron beams from about 50 to about 150 kGy, forming a cross-linked epoxy resin polymer.

  1. Water-soluble polymers and compositions thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Barbara F. (Los Alamos, NM); Robison, Thomas W. (Los Alamos, NM); Gohdes, Joel W. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water-soluble polymers including functionalization from the group of amino groups, carboxylic acid groups, phosphonic acid groups, phosphonic ester groups, acylpyrazolone groups, hydroxamic acid groups, aza crown ether groups, oxy crown ethers groups, guanidinium groups, amide groups, ester groups, aminodicarboxylic groups, permethylated polvinylpyridine groups, permethylated amine groups, mercaptosuccinic acid groups, alkyl thiol groups, and N-alkylthiourea groups are disclosed.

  2. Modeling simple amphiphilic solutes in a Jagla solvent Zhiqiang Su, Sergey V. Buldyrev, Pablo G. Debenedetti, Peter J. Rossky, and H. Eugene Stanley

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanley, H. Eugene

    of phase equilibria and structure for dimethyl ether + sulfur dioxide and dimethyl ether + carbon dioxide J distinctive physical properties. The volume change upon mixing, for example, is negative across the entire, which has been previously shown to exhibit many of the anomalous properties of water. We consider two

  3. THEJOURNALOF BIOLOGICALCHEMISTRY 0 1987by The AmericanSociety for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology,Inc.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, David D.

    in sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) by diethyl ether. Conventional and saturation-transfer electron para- magnetic resonance (EPR) were used to probe rota- tional motions of spin labels attached either to fatty acid ether progressively fluidizes the SR membrane with respect to lipid hydrocarbon chaindy- namics probed

  4. Repair of O sup 6 -ethylguanine in DNA protects rat 208F cells from tumorigenic conversion by N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomale, J.; Huh, Namho; Nehls, P.; Eberle, G.; Rajewsky, M.F. (Univ. of Essen Medical School (West Germany))

    1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    O{sup 6}-Ethylguanine (O{sup 6}-EtGua) is one of about a dozen different alkylation products formed in the DNA of cells exposed to the alkylating N-nitroso carcinogen N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (EtNU). The authors have evaluated selectively the relative capacity of cells for the specific enzymatic repair of O{sup 6}-EtGua as a determinant for the probability of malignant conversion. Eleven O{sup 6}-EtGua-repair-proficient (R{sup +}) variant subclones were isolated from the O{sup 6}-EtGua-repair-deficient (R{sup {minus}}) clonal rat fibroblast line 208F by selection for resistance to 1,3-bis-(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea. Contrary to the 208F wild-type cells, all variants expressed O{sup 6}-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase activity, while both kinds of cells were deficient for repair of the DNA ethylation products O{sup 2}- and O{sup 4}-ethylthymine. After exposure to EtNU cells were analyzed for the formation of piled-up foci in monolayer culture and of anchorage-independent colonies in semisolid agar medium. No significant differences in the frequencies of piled-up foci were found between wild-type and variant cells after exposure to the major reactive metabolite of benzo(a)pyrene, (+)-7{beta},8{alpha}-dihydroxy-9,10{alpha}-epoxy7,8,9,10{alpha}-tetrahydrobenzo(a)pyrene, for which stable binding to guanine O{sup 6} in cellular DNA has not been observed. The relative capacity of cells for repair of O{sup 6}-alkylguanine is, therefore, a critical determinant for their risk of malignant conversion by N-nitroso carcinogens.

  5. Inexpensive CO2 Thickening Agents for Improved Mobility Control of CO2 Floods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Enick; Eric Beckman; Andrew Hamilton

    2005-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this research was the design, synthesis and evaluation of inexpensive, non-fluorous carbon dioxide thickening agents. We followed the same strategy employed in the design of fluorinated CO{sub 2} polymeric thickeners. First, a highly CO{sub 2}-philic, hydrocarbon-based monomer was to be identified. Polymers or oligomers of this monomer were then synthesized. The second step was to design a CO{sub 2}-thickener based on these CO{sub 2}-philic polymers. Two types of thickeners were considered. The first was a copolymer in which the CO{sub 2}-philic monomer was combined with a small proportion of CO{sub 2}-phobic associating groups that could cause viscosity-enhancing intermolecular interactions to occur. The second was a small hydrogen-bonding compound with urea groups in the core to promote intermolecular interactions that would cause the molecules to 'stack' in solution while the arms were composed of the CO{sub 2}-philic oligomers. Although we were not able to develop a viable thickener that exhibited high enough CO{sub 2} solubility at EOR MMP conditions to induce a viscosity increase, we made significant progress in our understanding of CO{sub 2}-soluble compounds that can be used in subsequent studies to design CO{sub 2}-soluble thickeners or CO{sub 2}-soluble surfactant-based foaming agents. These findings are detailed in this final report. In summary, we assessed many polymers and verified that the most CO{sub 2}-soluble oxygenated hydrocarbon polymer is poly(vinyl acetate), PVAc. This is primarily due to the presence of both ether and carbonyl oxygens associated with acetate-rich compounds. In addition to polymers, we also made small acetate-rich molecules that were also capable of associating in solution via the inclusion of hydrogen-bonding groups in hopes of forming viscosity-enhancing macromolecules. Despite the presence of multiple acetate groups in these compounds, which can impart incredible CO{sub 2}-solubility to many compounds, our attempts to make acetate-rich high molecular weight polymers and small hydrogen-bonding compounds did not yield a highly CO{sub 2}-soluble polymer or hydrogen-bonding associative thickener. The conclusions of our molecular modeling calculations confirmed that although acetates are indeed 'CO{sub 2}-philic', nitrogen-containing amines also interact favorably with CO{sub 2} and should also be examined. Therefore we obtained and synthesized many N-rich (e.g. amine-containing) polymers. Unfortunately, we found that the intermolecular polymer-polymer interactions between the amines were so strong that the polymers were essentially insoluble in CO{sub 2}. For the convenience of the reader, a table of all of the polymers evaluated during this research is provided.

  6. A STUDY OF FUNDAMENTAL REACTION PATHWAYS FOR TRANSITION METAL ALKYL COMPLEXES. I. THE REACTION OF A NICKEL METHYL COMPLEX WITH ALKYNES. II. THE MECHANISM OF ALDEHYDE FORMATION IN THE REACTION OF A MOLYBDENUM HYDRIDE WITH MOLYBDENUM ALKYLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huggins, John Mitchell

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    I. This study reports the rapid reaction under mild conditions of internal or terminal alkynes with methyl (acetyl~ acetonato) (triphenylphosphine) nickel (1) in either aromatic or ether solvents. In all cases vinylnickel products 2 are formed by insertion of the alkyne into the nickel=methyl bond. These complexes may be converted into a variety of organic products (e.g. alkenes, esters, vinyl halides) by treatment with appropriate reagents. Unsymmetrical alkynes give selectively the one regioisomer with the sterically largest substituent next to the nickel atom. In order to investigate the stereochemistry of the initial insertion, a x-ray diffraction study of the reaction of 1 with diphenylacetylene was carried out. This showed that the vinylnickel complex formed by overall trans insertion was the product of the reaction. Furthermore, subsequent slow isomerization of this complex, to a mixture of it and the corresponding cis isomer, demonstrated that this trans addition product is the kinetic product of the reaction. In studies with other alkynes, the product of trans addition was not always exclusively (or even predominantly) formed, but the ratio of the stereoisomers formed kinetically was substantially different from the thermodynamic ratio. Isotope labeling, added phosphine, and other experiments have allowed us to conclude that the mechanism of this reaction does involve initial cis addition. However, a coordinatively unsaturated vinylnickel complex is initially formed which can undergo rapid, phosphine-catalyzed cis-trans isomerization in competition with its conversion to the isolable phosphine-substituted kinetic reaction products. II. The reaction of CpMo(CO){sub 3}H (1a) with CpMo(CO){sub 3}R (2, R= CH{sub 3}, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}) at 50{degrees} C in THF gives the aldehyde RCHO and the dimers [CpMo(CO){sub 3}]{sub 2} (3a) and [CpMo(CO){sub 2}]{sub 2} (4a). Labeling one of the reactants with a methylcyclopentadienyl ligand it was possible to show that the mixed dimers MeCpMo(CO){sub 3}-(CO){sub 3}MoCp (3b) and MeCpMo(CO){sub 2}{triple_bond}(CO){sub 2}MoCp (4b) are the predominant kinetic products of the reaction. Additionally labeling the carbonyl ligands of 1a with {sup 13}CO led to the conclusion that all three of the carbonyl ligands in 1a end up in the tetracarbonyl dimers 4a if the reaction is carried out under a continuous purge of argon Trapping studies failed to find any evidence for the intermediacy of either [CpMo(CO){sub 3}]{sup -} or [CpMo(CO){sub 3}]{sup +} in this reaction. A mechanism is proposed that involves the initial migration of the alkyl ligand in 2 to CO forming an unsaturated acyl complex which reacts with 1a to give a binuclear complex containing a three center-two electron Mo-H-Mo bond. This complex then selectively looses a carbonyl from the acyl molybdenum, migrates the hydride to that same metal, and forms a metal-metal bond. This binuclear complex with the hydride and acyl ligands on one metal reductively eliminates aldehyde, and migrates a carbonyl ligand, to give 4a directly. The other product 3a is formed by addition of two molecules of free CO to 4a.

  7. Evaluation of Ultra-Violet Photocatalytic Oxidation (UVPCO) forIndoor Air Applications: Conversion of Volatile Organic Compounds at LowPart-per-Billion Concentrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodgson, Alfred T.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William J.

    2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Efficient removal of indoor generated airborne particles and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in office buildings and other large buildings may allow for a reduction in outdoor air supply rates with concomitant energy savings while still maintaining acceptable indoor air quality in these buildings. Ultra-Violet Photocatalytic Oxidation (UVPCO) air cleaners have the potential to achieve the necessary reductions in indoor VOC concentrations at relatively low cost. In this study, laboratory experiments were conducted with a scaled, prototype UVPCO device designed for use in a duct system. The experimental UVPCO contained two 30 by 30-cm honeycomb monoliths coated with titanium dioxide and 3% by weight tungsten oxide. The monoliths were irradiated with 12 UVC lamps arranged in four banks. The UVPCO was challenged with four mixtures of VOCs typical of mixtures encountered in indoor air. A synthetic office mixture contained 27 VOCs commonly measured in office buildings. A cleaning product mixture contained three cleaning products with high market shares. A building product mixture was created by combining sources including painted wallboard, composite wood products, carpet systems, and vinyl flooring. A fourth mixture contained formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Steady-state concentrations were produced in a classroom laboratory or a 20-m{sup 3} environmental chamber. Air was drawn through the UVPCO, and single pass conversion efficiencies were measured from replicate air samples collected upstream and downstream of the reactor section. Concentrations of the mixtures were manipulated, with concentrations of individual VOCs mostly maintained below 10 ppb. Device flow rates were varied between 165 and 580 m{sup 3}/h. Production of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, formic acid, and acetic acid as reaction products was investigated. Conversion efficiency data were generated for 48 individual VOCs or groups of closely related compounds. Alcohols and glycol ethers were the most reactive chemical classes with conversion efficiencies often near or above 70% at the low flow rate and near 40% at the high flow rate. Ketones and terpene hydrocarbons were somewhat less reactive. The relative VOC conversion rates are generally favorable for treatment of indoor air since many contemporary products used in buildings employ oxygenated solvents. A commercial UVPCO device likely would be installed in the supply air stream of a building and operated to treat both outdoor and recirculated air. Assuming a recirculation rate comparable to three times the normal outdoor air supply rate, simple mass-balance modeling suggests that a device with similar characteristics to the study unit has sufficient conversion efficiencies for most VOCs to compensate for a 50% reduction in outdoor air supply without substantially impacting indoor VOC concentrations. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, formic acid, and acetic acid were produced in these experiments as reaction byproducts. No other significant byproducts were observed. A coupled steady-state mass balance model is presented and applied to VOC data from a study of a single office building. For the operating assumptions described above, the model estimated a three-fold increase in indoor formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations. The outcome of this limited assessment suggests that evaluation of the potential effects of the operation of a UVPCO device on indoor concentrations of these contaminants is warranted. Other suggested studies include determining VOC conversion efficiencies in actual buildings and evaluating changes in VOC conversion efficiency as monoliths age with long-term operation.

  8. Parametric Evaluation of an Innovative Ultra-Violet PhotocatalyticOxidation (UVPCO) Air Cleaning Technology for Indoor Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodgson, Alfred T.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William J.

    2005-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    An innovative Ultra-Violet Photocatalytic Oxidation (UVPCO) air cleaning technology employing a semitransparent catalyst coated on a semitransparent polymer substrate was evaluated to determine its effectiveness for treating mixtures of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) representative of indoor environments at low, indoor-relevant concentration levels. The experimental UVPCO contained four 30 by 30-cm honeycomb monoliths irradiated with nine UVA lamps arranged in three banks. A parametric evaluation of the effects of monolith thickness, air flow rate through the device, UV power, and reactant concentrations in inlet air was conducted for the purpose of suggesting design improvements. The UVPCO was challenged with three mixtures of VOCs. A synthetic office mixture contained 27 VOCs commonly measured in office buildings. A building product mixture was created by combining sources including painted wallboard, composite wood products, carpet systems, and vinyl flooring. The third mixture contained formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Steady state concentrations were produced in a classroom laboratory or a 20-m{sup 3} chamber. Air was drawn through the UVPCO, and single-pass conversion efficiencies were measured from replicate samples collected upstream and downstream of the reactor. Thirteen experiments were conducted in total. In this UVPCO employing a semitransparent monolith design, an increase in monolith thickness is expected to result in general increases in both reaction efficiencies and absolute reaction rates for VOCs oxidized by photocatalysis. The thickness of individual monolith panels was varied between 1.2 and 5 cm (5 to 20 cm total thickness) in experiments with the office mixture. VOC reaction efficiencies and rates increased with monolith thickness. However, the analysis of the relationship was confounded by high reaction efficiencies in all configurations for a number of compounds. These reaction efficiencies approached or exceeded 90% for alcohols, glycol ethers, and other individual compounds including d-limonene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, and decamethylcyclopentasiloxane. This result implies a reaction efficiency of about 30% per irradiated monolith face, which is in agreement with the maximum efficiency for the system predicted with a simulation model. In these and other experiments, the performance of the system for highly reactive VOCs appeared to be limited by mass transport of reactants to the catalyst surface rather than by photocatalytic activity. Increasing the air flow rate through the UVPCO device decreases the residence time of the air in the monoliths and improves mass transfer to the catalyst surface. The effect of gas velocity was examined in four pairs of experiments in which the air flow rate was varied from approximately 175 m{sup 3}/h to either 300 or 600 m{sup 3}/h. Increased gas velocity caused a decrease in reaction efficiency for nearly all reactive VOCs. For all of the more reactive VOCs, the decrease in performance was less, and often substantially less, than predicted based solely on residence time, again likely due to mass transfer limitations at the low flow rate. The results demonstrate that the UVPCO is capable of achieving high conversion efficiencies for reactive VOCs at air flow rates above the base experimental rate of 175 m{sup 3}/h. The effect of UV power was examined in a series of experiments with the building product mixture in which the number of lamps was varied between nine and three. For the most reactive VOCs in the mixture, the effects of UV power were surprisingly small. Thus, even with only one lamp in each section, there appears to be sufficient photocatalytic activity to decompose most of the mass of reactive VOCs that reach the catalyst surface. For some less reactive VOCs, the trend of decreasing efficiency with decreasing UV intensity was in general agreement with simulation model predictions.

  9. Method for making carbon films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan, M.X.

    1999-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for treating an organic polymer material, preferably a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer (Saran) to produce a flat sheet of carbon film material having a high surface area ([approx equal]1000 m[sup 2] /g) suitable as an electrode material for super capacitor applications. The method comprises heating a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer film disposed between two spaced apart graphite or ceramic plates to a first temperature of about 160 C for about 14 hours to form a stabilized vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride polymer film, thereafter heating the stabilized film to a second temperature of about 750 C in an inert atmosphere for about one hour to form a carbon film; and finally activating the carbon film to increase the surface area by heating the carbon film in an oxidizing atmosphere to a temperature of at least 750--850 C for between 1--6 hours. 2 figs.

  10. Radionuclides in the terrestrial ecosystem near a Canadian uranium mill -- Part 3: Atmospheric deposition rates (pilot test)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, P.A.

    2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric deposition rates of uranium series radionuclides were directly measured at three sites near the operating Key Lake uranium mill in northern Saskatchewan. Sites impacted by windblown tailings and mill dusts had elevated rates of uranium deposition near the mill and elevated {sup 226}Ra deposition near the tailings compared to a control site. Rainwater collectors, dust jars, and passive vinyl collectors previously used at the Ranger Mine in Australia were pilot-tested. Adhesive vinyl surfaces (1 m{sup 2}) were oriented horizontally, vertically, and facing the ground as a means of measuring gravitational settling, wind impaction, and soil resuspension, respectively. Although the adhesive glue on the vinyls proved difficult to digest, relative differences in deposition mode were found among radionuclides and among sites. Dry deposition was a more important transport mechanism for uranium, {sup 226}Ra, and {sup 210}Pb than rainfall, while more {sup 210}Po was deposited with rainfall.

  11. Incorporation of radiohalogens via versatile organometallic reactions: applications in radiopharmaceutical chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srivastava, P.C.; Goodman, M.M.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Factors that must be considered for the design of radiohalogenated radio-pharmaceuticals include the stability and availability of the substrate, the physical half-life of the radiohalogen and the in vivo stability of the radiolabel. Vinyl and phenyl radiohalogen bonds show more in vivo stability than the alkyl radiohalogen bonds. Consequently, a variety of methods suitable for the synthesis of tissue specific radiopharmaceuticals bearing a vinyl or phenyl radiohalogen have been developed involving the synthesis and halogenation of metallovinyl and phenyl intermediates. The halogens and metallation reactions include iodine and bromine and alanation, boronation, mercuration, stannylation, and thallation, respectively. 19 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  12. In-situ stabilization of radioactive zirconium swarf

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hess, C.C.

    1999-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The method for treating ignitable cutting swarf in accordance with the present invention involves collecting cutting swarf in a casting mold underwater and injecting a binder mixture comprising vinyl ester styrene into the vessel to fill void volume; and form a mixture comprising swarf and vinyl ester styrene; and curing the mixture. The method is especially useful for stabilizing the ignitable characteristics of radioactive zirconium cutting swarf, and can be used to solidify zirconium swarf, or other ignitable finely divided material, underwater. The process could also be performed out of water with other particulate wastes. 6 figs.

  13. Electronic effects in the Diels-Alder reactions of vinylboranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Jose Vernon

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    &H NMR spectrum of the oxidized products in the competitive reaction of 4a and 4b with vinyl-9-BBN 10 tH NMR spectrum of the oxidized products in the competitive reaction of 4b and 4c with vinyl-9-BBN 11 tH NMR spectrum of trivinylborane. 12 t...~C NMR spectrum of trivinylborane . 13 Plot of the reaction ratio versus time 17 21 22 26 27 in the reaction of 4a with trivinylborane 31 LIST OF FIGURES (Continued) 14 Plot of the reaction ratio versus time in the reaction of cyclopentadiene...

  14. Passivation-free solid state battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, K.M.; Peramunage, D.

    1998-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention pertains to passivation-free solid-state rechargeable batteries composed of Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} anode, a solid polymer electrolyte and a high voltage cathode. The solid polymer electrolyte comprises a polymer host, such as polyacrylonitrile, poly(vinyl chloride), poly(vinyl sulfone), and poly(vinylidene fluoride), plasticized by a solution of a Li salt in an organic solvent. The high voltage cathode includes LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, LiCoO{sub 2}, LiNiO{sub 2} and LiV{sub 2}O{sub 5} and their derivatives. 5 figs.

  15. An investigation in the wake of a symmetric airfoil with riblets at zero angle of attack

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caram, Jose Miguel

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the test section. The vertical and longitudinal a. ) b. ) c. ) Fig. 4 Riblet micrographerc a). 0229 mm, b). 076 mm, and c). 152 mm. 14 TSI l lot Film X Probe Moda No. 124 t. 20 Serial No. 7274 A. A Lab Systems- 1 sr rei , ' l lull t... with three different riblet sizes at freestream Reynolds numbers of 2. 5 x 10 and 5. 0 x 10 . The riblets were the vinyl symmetric v-grooved type of heights . 0229, . 076, and . 152 mm, respectively. The clean airfoil and the airfoil with a vinyl base...

  16. New etherification process commercialized in Finland

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The phase-out of leaded fuels in Europe, Asia, and parts of Africa and Latin America is increasing demand for octane and octane-bearing fuel components such as ethers. Early solutions to the problem of increasing octane while reducing tailpipe emissions involved use of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE). According to Neste, using both tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME) and MTBE can give refiners increased blending flexibility for volatility control. But the economics associated with TAME production often make TAME units difficult to justify. The paper discusses the NExTAME process, the unit at the Porvoo refinery and process improvements.

  17. The effect of asphalt deposition on permeability in miscible flooding with liquified petroleum gas (LPG

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pinson, Arthur Edward, Jr

    1962-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    'teen milliliters of oil was mixed thoroughly with 85 milliliters of petroleum ether and centrifuged at 1750 rpm for 450 seconds. The results of the precipitation tests are shown in Table III. The petroleum ether used was 67. )fo N-Pentane and. $2. 7%%d Di.... 48 0. 114 21 ' 8 24. 7 36 ' 6 41. 4 39. 0 37. 7 37-3 ?Hawkins and Talco at 80'F, others at 74 F TABLE III PRECIPITATION BEHAVIOR OP OILS MIXED WITH PETROLEUM ETHER OILS Denton 75%%d Denton/25% "Heavy" 50% Denton/50%%d "Heavy" 25...

  18. Catalytic decomposition of methanol at various temperatures and several liquid hourly space velocities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Yashpal Satyapal

    1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to quantitatively analyze the products of the reactions. Based on the results obtained, a scheme is presented by which methanol can be converted to a gaseous fuel consisting of dimethyl ether (50K), carbon monoxide ( 16 . 67K) and hyrdogen (33 . 33K) . Dedicated... is produced by catalytically dehydrating methanol over a y-alumina catalyst to produce dimethyl ether and dehydrogenating methanol to CO and H& over a methanol synthesis catalyst and then mixing these gases in the proportion of 50% dimethyl ether, 33. 33K...

  19. Synthetic approaches to the activation of substituted 2-methyl pyridines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cancanon, Fernadina de la Caridad

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (21%), 148 (42%), 135 (100%), 1 08 (35%), 93 ( 43%), 83 (38%), 55 (49%), 41 (48%), 29 (27 la) 2-[N(4, 4-Dimethyl-2, 6-dioxopiperidinyl))-6-pycolyl-tert-butytdi phenylsilyl ether (26) O Bu'Ph zSi0 N N The same procedure for the preparation.... 14%, ' N, 16. 52%. Attempted ring opening of 2-[N-(4, 4-dimethyl-2, 6-dioxo piperidinyl)]-6- picolyl-tert-butyl diphenylsilyl ether (26) with 6-amino-2-pyridine methanol-fert-butyldiphenylsilyl ether (22) The cyclic imide 26 (0. 487g, 0. 001 mole...

  20. Mechanistic studies of coenzyme B?? model systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robinson, John Walter

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    involved a 2-step synthesis of first, tert-butyl chloromethyl ether, and secondly, alkylation of the ether with dimethyl methyl malonate. The synthesis of tert-butyl chloromethyl ether proved more diffucult than anticipated. After irradiating a soludon... PAGE 17 2. 2. 2 The Reaction Products: 0, S diethyl methyl succinate and 0, S diethyl dimethyl malonate 2. 2. 2. 1 0, S diethyl methyl succinate 2. 2. 2. 2 0, S diethyl dimethyl malonate 2. 2. 3 Radical Generation and Trapping 2. 4 Summary 2. 5...

  1. VERA version 1.3 user manual and documentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quist, Daniel Allen [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    VERA is a visualization tool for analyzing compiled executables. It is built on an OpenGL framework with the wxWidgets package. The current version is only for use with the Windows XP and higher operating system. This manual will detail the steps that are needed to run and analyze a sample of malware. VERA is meant to be used in conjunction with the Ether hypervisor framework. Ether is a set of patches made to the Xen hypervisor that allows for covert analysis of running processes. It makes an ideal environment to monitor and trace running programs. More information is available from the Ether website.

  2. Transetherification method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hearn, D.

    1985-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Transetherification is carried out in a catalytic distillation reactor, wherein the catalytic structure also serves as a distillation structure, by feeding a first ether to the catalyst bed to at least partially dissociate it into a first olefin and a first alcohol while concurrently therewith feeding either a second olefin (preferably a tertiary olefin) having a higher boiling point than said first olefin or a second alcohol having a higher boiling point than said first alcohol to the catalyst whereby either the second olefin and the first alcohol or the first olefin and the second alcohol react to form a second ether which has a higher boiling point than the first ether, which second ether is concurrently removed as a bottoms in the concurrent reaction-distillation to force that reaction to completion, while the unreacted first olefin or first alcohol is removed in the overhead. 1 fig.

  3. Transetherification method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hearn, Dennis (Houston, TX)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Transetherification is carried out in a catalytic distillation reactor, wherein the catalytic structure also serves as a distillation structure, by feeding a first ether to the catalyst bed to at least partially dissociate it into a first olefin and a first alcohol while concurrently therewith feeding either a second olefin (preferably a tertiary olefin) having a higher boiling point than said first olefin or a second alcohol having a higher boiling point than said first alcohol to the catalyst whereby either the second olefin and the first alcohol or the first olefin and the second alcohol react to form a second ether which has a higher boiling point than the first ether, which second ether is concurrently removed as a bottoms in the concurrent reaction-distillation to force that reaction to completion, while the unreacted first olefin or first alcohol is removed in the overhead.

  4. antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by Fusarium solani CiteSeer Summary: Fusarium solani degraded methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and other oxygenated compounds from gasoline including tert-butyl alcohol (TBA). The...

  5. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    methyl-tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), from gasoline by 2004.MTBE was used to meet a requirement for gasoline to containbeginning in 2002, replacing MTBE with ethanol. According to

  6. Emissions of volatile organic compounds inferred from airborne flux measurements over a megacity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karl, T.; Apel, E.; Hodzic, A.; Riemer, D. D; Blake, D. R; Wiedinmyer, C.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    methyl-tertiary-butyl- ether (MTBE) and the biomass burningfrom all source categories. MTBE is a gasoline additive andwith the fuel tracer MTBE (e.g. 0.82 for MTBE/benzene).

  7. Chemical evolution of volatile organic compounds in the outflow of the Mexico City Metropolitan area

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methanol Ethanol Acetone MEK MTBE CO Methane UCI UCI TOGA/methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), and toluene all ratioedthe observed decay. For MTBE, also a species that is not

  8. Soil type, crop and irrigation technique affect nitrogen leaching to groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Letey, John; Vaughan, Peter

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    water contamination with MTBE (methyl tertiary-butyl ether,that areas vulnerable to MTBE are also vulner- able tothat affect the movement of MTBE. If only a small amount of

  9. Measurements of volatile organic compounds at a suburban ground site (T1) in Mexico City during the MILAGRO 2006 campaign: measurement comparison, emission ratios, and source attribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) at 57 amu has been previouslyby a fragment of MTBE (62%) with minor contributions fromFortner and Knighton, 2008). MTBE also in- terfered (16%)

  10. Characterization of trace gases measured over Alberta oil sands mining operations: 76 speciated C2-C10 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), CO2, CH4, CO, NO, NO2, NOy, O3 and SO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    methyl tertiary- butyl ether (MTBE) and its effect on plasmaand three VOCs (propyne, furan, MTBE) remained below their 3Ethanol Acetone MEK MAC MVK MTBE Furan CH 3 OH C 2 H 5 OH C

  11. Synthesis of higher alcohols on copper catalysts supported on alkali-promoted basic oxides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    -butyl-ether (MTBE) after isobutanol dehydration to form isobutene. An equimolar ratio of methanol to isobutanol would be preferred for MTBE synthesis. Methanol and higher alcohols can also be used for direct blending

  12. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrell, Alexander E.; Sperling, Dan

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    methyl-tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), from gasoline by 2004.MTBE was used to meet a requirement for gasoline to containbeginning in 2002, replacing MTBE with ethanol. According to

  13. Factors influencing biological treatment of MTBE contaminated ground water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stringfellow, William T.; Hines Jr., Robert D.; Cockrum, Dirk K.; Kilkenny, Scott T.

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) biodegradation in batchCometabolic degradation of MTBE by a cyclohexane-oxidizingof 49 Biological Treatment of MTBE Fortin, N. Y. , and M. A.

  14. ammoniated glycyrrhizin butylated: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by Fusarium solani CiteSeer Summary: Fusarium solani degraded methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and other oxygenated compounds from gasoline including tert-butyl alcohol (TBA). The...

  15. Finding the missing stratospheric Bry: a global modeling study of CHBr3 and CH2Br2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methanol Ethanol Acetone MEK MTBE CO Methane UCI UCI TOGA/methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), and toluene all ratioedthe observed decay. For MTBE, also a species that is not

  16. APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY, Aug. 2004, p. 47204726 Vol. 70, No. 8 0099-2240/04/$08.00 0 DOI: 10.1128/AEM.70.8.47204726.2004

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Pedro J.

    contamination of surface and groundwater resources by the gasoline oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is leading to its phaseout. Ethanol, a likely candidate to substitute MTBE, is increasingly being used

  17. Assessing the Effectiveness of California's Underground Storage Tank Annual Inspection Rate Requirements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cutter, W. Bowman

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE), a gasoline additive. Thefor the lion’s share of MTBE contamination, as well asIn response to the MTBE crisis, California increased the

  18. active methyl tert-butyl: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by Fusarium solani CiteSeer Summary: Fusarium solani degraded methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and other oxygenated compounds from gasoline including tert-butyl alcohol (TBA). The...

  19. Development of Gold-Catalyzed Oxidative Alkene Heteroarylation and of Enantioselective Reactions Enabled by Phase Separation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lackner, Aaron D.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    pet. ether pentane C 8 F 17 MTBE mesitylene PhEt conv. ee ndR)-C 8 -TRIP heptane Et 2 O MTBE toluene C 6 H 5 F C 6 H 5 F

  20. Trichloroethene Removal From Waste Gases in Anaerobic Biotrickling Filters Through Reductive Dechlorination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Popat, Sudeep Chandrakant

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) vapors into water was used.MTBE is highly soluble in water (dimensionless Henry’sgas stream was laden with MTBE vapors (200-300 mg m -3 )