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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "2-chloroethyl vinyl ether" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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1

Computational methods used in the study of grafting 2-chloroethyl phosphonic acid on titania  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The surface of TiO2 particles can be modified by phosphonic acids, this modification having several applications, like: photoelectrochemical cells based on nanocrystalline films of TiO2, optical write-read-erase devices, enzymatic ... Keywords: 2-chloroethyl phosphonic acid, PM6, computational methods, grafting, quantum chemistry, titania

Simona Funar-Timofei; Gheorghe Ilia

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Protection against 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES) - induced cytotoxicity in human keratinocytes by an inducer of the glutathione detoxification pathway  

SciTech Connect

Sulfur mustard (SM or mustard gas) was first used as a chemical warfare agent almost 100 years ago. Due to its toxic effects on the eyes, lungs, and skin, and the relative ease with which it may be synthesized, mustard gas remains a potential chemical threat to the present day. SM exposed skin develops fluid filled bullae resulting from potent cytotoxicity of cells lining the basement membrane of the epidermis. Currently, there are no antidotes for SM exposure; therefore, chemopreventive measures for first responders following an SM attack are needed. Glutathione (GSH) is known to have a protective effect against SM toxicity, and detoxification of SM is believed to occur, in part, via GSH conjugation. Therefore, we screened 6 potential chemopreventive agents for ability to induce GSH synthesis and protect cultured human keratinocytes against the SM analog, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES). Using NCTC2544 human keratinocytes, we found that both sulforaphane and methyl-2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9-dien-28-oate (CDDO-Me) stimulated nuclear localization of Nrf2 and induced expression of the GSH synthesis gene, GCLM. Additionally, we found that treatment with CDDO-Me elevated reduced GSH content of NCTC2544 cells and preserved their viability by {approx} 3-fold following exposure to CEES. Our data also suggested that CDDO-Me may act additively with 2,6-dithiopurine (DTP), a nucleophilic scavenging agent, to increase the viability of keratinocytes exposed to CEES. These results suggest that CDDO-Me is a promising chemopreventive agent for SM toxicity in the skin. - Highlights: > CDDO-Me treatment increased intracellular GSH in human keratinocytes. > CDDO-Me increased cell viability following exposure to the half-mustard, CEES. > The cytoprotective effect of CDDO-Me was likely due to scavenging with endogenous GSH.

Abel, Erika L.; Bubel, Jennifer D.; Simper, Melissa S.; Powell, Leslie; McClellan, S. Alex [Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States); Andreeff, Michael [Department of Leukemia, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); MacLeod, Michael C. [Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States); DiGiovanni, John, E-mail: john.digiovanni@austin.utexas.edu [Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States)

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Expression of proliferative and inflammatory markers in a full-thickness human skin equivalent following exposure to the model sulfur mustard vesicant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sulfur mustard is a potent vesicant that induces inflammation, edema and blistering following dermal exposure. To assess molecular mechanisms mediating these responses, we analyzed the effects of the model sulfur mustard vesicant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, on EpiDerm-FT{sup TM}, a commercially available full-thickness human skin equivalent. CEES (100-1000 {mu}M) caused a concentration-dependent increase in pyknotic nuclei and vacuolization in basal keratinocytes; at high concentrations (300-1000 {mu}M), CEES also disrupted keratin filament architecture in the stratum corneum. This was associated with time-dependent increases in expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, a marker of cell proliferation, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and phosphorylated histone H2AX, markers of DNA damage. Concentration- and time-dependent increases in mRNA and protein expression of eicosanoid biosynthetic enzymes including COX-2, 5-lipoxygenase, microsomal PGE{sub 2} synthases, leukotriene (LT) A{sub 4} hydrolase and LTC{sub 4} synthase were observed in CEES-treated skin equivalents, as well as in antioxidant enzymes, glutathione S-transferases A1-2 (GSTA1-2), GSTA3 and GSTA4. These data demonstrate that CEES induces rapid cellular damage, cytotoxicity and inflammation in full-thickness skin equivalents. These effects are similar to human responses to vesicants in vivo and suggest that the full thickness skin equivalent is a useful in vitro model to characterize the biological effects of mustards and to develop potential therapeutics.

Black, Adrienne T. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Hayden, Patrick J. [MatTek Corporation, Ashland, MA (United States); Casillas, Robert P. [Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH (United States); Heck, Diane E. [Environmental Health Sciences, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY (United States); Gerecke, Donald R. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Sinko, Patrick J. [Pharmaceutics, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Laskin, Debra L. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D., E-mail: jlaskin@eohsi.rutgers.ed [Environmental and Occupational Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ (United States)

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Role of MAP kinases in regulating expression of antioxidants and inflammatory mediators in mouse keratinocytes following exposure to the half mustard, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dermal exposure to sulfur mustard causes inflammation and tissue injury. This is associated with changes in expression of antioxidants and eicosanoids which contribute to oxidative stress and toxicity. In the present studies we analyzed mechanisms regulating expression of these mediators using an in vitro skin construct model in which mouse keratinocytes were grown at an air-liquid interface and exposed directly to 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), a model sulfur mustard vesicant. CEES (100-1000 {mu}M) was found to cause marked increases in keratinocyte protein carbonyls, a marker of oxidative stress. This was correlated with increases in expression of Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase, catalase, thioredoxin reductase and the glutathione S-transferases, GSTA1-2, GSTP1 and mGST2. CEES also upregulated several enzymes important in the synthesis of prostaglandins and leukotrienes including cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-2 (mPGES-2), prostaglandin D synthase (PGDS), 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), leukotriene A{sub 4} (LTA{sub 4}) hydrolase and leukotriene C{sub 4} (LTC{sub 4}) synthase. CEES readily activated keratinocyte JNK and p38 MAP kinases, signaling pathways which are known to regulate expression of antioxidants, as well as prostaglandin and leukotriene synthases. Inhibition of p38 MAP kinase suppressed CEES-induced expression of GSTA1-2, COX-2, mPGES-2, PGDS, 5-LOX, LTA{sub 4} hydrolase and LTC{sub 4} synthase, while JNK inhibition blocked PGDS and GSTP1. These data indicate that CEES modulates expression of antioxidants and enzymes producing inflammatory mediators by distinct mechanisms. Increases in antioxidants may be an adaptive process to limit tissue damage. Inhibiting the capacity of keratinocytes to generate eicosanoids may be important in limiting inflammation and protecting the skin from vesicant-induced oxidative stress and injury.

Black, Adrienne T.; Joseph, Laurie B. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Casillas, Robert P. [Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH (United States); Heck, Diane E. [Environmental Health Sciences, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY (United States); Gerecke, Donald R. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Sinko, Patrick J. [Pharmaceutics, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Laskin, Debra L. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D., E-mail: jlaskin@eohsi.rutgers.ed [Environmental and Occupational Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ (United States)

2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

5

Preparation of vinyl acetate  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting a mixture of hydrogen and ketene with a heterogeneous catalyst containing a transition metal to produce acetaldehyde, which is then reacted with ketene in the presence of an acid catalyst to produce vinyl acetate.

Tustin, Gerald Charles (Kingsport, TN); Zoeller, Joseph Robert (Kingsport, TN); Depew, Leslie Sharon (Kingsport, TN)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Preparation of vinyl acetate  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting a mixture of hydrogen and ketene with a heterogeneous catalyst containing a transition metal to produce acetaldehyde, which is then reacted with ketene in the presence of an acid catalyst to produce vinyl acetate.

Tustin, G.C.; Zoeller, J.R.; Depew, L.S.

1998-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

7

Why sequence ethene and vinyl chloride-oxidizing Mycobacterium strains?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

sequence ethene and vinyl sequence ethene and vinyl chloride-oxidizing Mycobacterium strains? Mycobacteria are known for causing human and animal diseases but they are also important degraders of hard-to-break-down water contaminants such as polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). So far the handful of bacterial species representing the Mycobacterium genus that have been sequenced all break down PAHs. In this project, researchers focus on the genomes of mycobacterial species isolated from soil, freshwater and marine environments that use the alkene compounds ethene and vinyl chloride as carbon sources. Chlorinated ethene compounds are difficult to remove from contaminated groundwater but necessary because of their toxicity. Additionally these compounds reduce the ozone levels in the atmosphere.

8

Regulation of Hsp27 and Hsp70 expression in human and mouse skin construct models by caveolae following exposure to the model sulfur mustard vesicant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dermal exposure to the vesicant sulfur mustard causes marked inflammation and tissue damage. Basal keratinocytes appear to be a major target of sulfur mustard. In the present studies, mechanisms mediating skin toxicity were examined using a mouse skin construct model and a full-thickness human skin equivalent (EpiDerm-FT{sup TM}). In both systems, administration of the model sulfur mustard vesicant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES, 100-1000 {mu}M) at the air surface induced mRNA and protein expression of heat shock proteins 27 and 70 (Hsp27 and Hsp70). CEES treatment also resulted in increased expression of caveolin-1, the major structural component of caveolae. Immunohistochemistry revealed that Hsp27, Hsp70 and caveolin-1 were localized in basal and suprabasal layers of the epidermis. Caveolin-1 was also detected in fibroblasts in the dermal component of the full thickness human skin equivalent. Western blot analysis of caveolar membrane fractions isolated by sucrose density centrifugation demonstrated that Hsp27 and Hsp70 were localized in caveolae. Treatment of mouse keratinocytes with filipin III or methyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin, which disrupt caveolar structure, markedly suppressed CEES-induced Hsp27 and Hsp70 mRNA and protein expression. CEES treatment is known to activate JNK and p38 MAP kinases; in mouse keratinocytes, inhibition of these enzymes suppressed CEES-induced expression of Hsp27 and Hsp70. These data suggest that MAP kinases regulate Hsp 27 and Hsp70; moreover, caveolae-mediated regulation of heat shock protein expression may be important in the pathophysiology of vesicant-induced skin toxicity.

Black, Adrienne T. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Hayden, Patrick J. [MatTek Corporation, Ashland, MA (United States); Casillas, Robert P. [Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH (United States); Heck, Diane E. [Environmental Health, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY (United States); Gerecke, Donald R. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Sinko, Patrick J. [Pharmaceutics, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Laskin, Debra L. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D., E-mail: jlaskin@eohsi.rutgers.edu [Environmental and Occupational Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ (United States)

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Vinyl Siding Institute (VSI) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

profile. Create one now Vinyl Siding Institute (VSI) is a company located in Washington, DC. References Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleVinylSidingInstitu...

10

Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Compositions and methods are provided that relate to the bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes, particularly the bioremediation of vinyl chloride by Dehalococcoides-like organisms. An isolated strain of bacteria, Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS, that metabolizes vinyl chloride is provided; the genetic sequence of the enzyme responsible for vinyl chloride dehalogenation; methods of assessing the capability of endogenous organisms at an environmental site to metabolize vinyl chloride; and a method of using the strains of the invention for bioremediation.

Spormann, Alfred M. (Stanford, CA); Muller, Jochen A. (Baltimore, MD); Rosner, Bettina M. (Berlin, DE); Von Abendroth, Gregory (Nannhein, DE); Meshulam-Simon, Galit (Los Altos, CA); McCarty, Perry L (Stanford, CA)

2011-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

11

PURIFICATION OF ETHER  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

BS>A process for removing peroxides from ethers by sorption on a strong- base anion exchange resin in its hydroxyl form is described. Incorporation of the resin for storage is also covered. (AEC)

Feinstein, R.N.

1961-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding Title Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-5022E Year...

13

Emulsion polymerization of ethylene-vinyl acetate-branched vinyl ester using a pressure reactor system.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A new pressure reactor system was designed to synthesize a novel branched ester-ethylene-vinyl acetate (BEEVA) emulsion polymer. The reactor system was capable of handling pressure… (more)

Tan, Chee Boon.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

LBNL-5022E Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

022E Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding Authors: R. Hart*, C. Curcija, D. Arasteh, H. Goudey, C. Kohler, S. Selkowitz Environmental Energy Technologies...

15

Production of methyl-vinyl ketone from levulinic acid  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for converting levulinic acid to methyl vinyl ketone is described. The method includes the steps of reacting an aqueous solution of levulinic acid, over an acid catalyst, at a temperature of from room temperature to about 1100 K. Methyl vinyl ketone is thereby formed.

Dumesic, James A. (Verona, WI); West; Ryan M. (Madison, WI)

2011-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

16

Aza crown ether compounds as anion receptors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A family of aza-ether based compounds including linear, multi-branched and aza-crown ethers is provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the new family of aza-ether based compounds acts as neutral receptors to complex the anion moiety of the electrolyte salt thereby increasing the conductivity and the transference number of LI{sup +} ion in alkali metal batteries. 3 figs.

Lee, H.S.; Yang, X.O.; McBreen, J.

1998-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

17

Aza crown ether compounds as anion receptors  

SciTech Connect

A family of aza-ether based compounds including linear, multi-branched and aza-crown ethers is provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the new family of aza-ether based compounds acts as neutral receptors to complex the anion moiety of the electrolyte salt thereby increasing the conductivity and the transference number of LI.sup.+ ion in alkali metal batteries.

Lee, Hung Sui (East Setauket, NY); Yang, Xiao-Oing (Port Jefferson Station, NY); McBreen, James (Bellport, NY)

1998-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

18

Monodisperse SiC/vinyl ester nanocomposites: Dispersant formulation, synthesis, and characterization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Processing and properties of SiC/vinyl ester nanocomposites.design of experiments for SiC/vinyl ester nanocomposites.of nanocrystalline cubic SiC films. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37,

Yong, Virginia; Hahn, H. Thomas

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The subject of glass solar reflectance and its contribution to permanent vinyl siding distortion has not been extensively studied, and some phenomena are not yet well understood. This white paper presents what is known regarding the issue and identifies where more research is needed. Three primary topics are discussed: environmental factors that control the transfer of heat to and from the siding surface; vinyl siding properties that may affect heat build-up and permanent distortion; and factors that determine the properties of reflected solar radiation from glass surfaces, including insulating window glass. Further research is needed to fully characterize the conditions associated with siding distortion, the scope of the problem, physical properties of vinyl siding, insulating window glass reflection characteristics, and possible mitigation or prevention strategies.

Hart, Robert; Curcija, Charlie; Arasteh, Dariush; Goudey, Howdy; Kohler, Christian; Selkowitz, Stephen

2011-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

20

Gas Leak from Vinyl Taped Stainless Steel Dressing Jars  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The leak rates of nitrogen gas from stainless steel dressing jars taped with 2 inch vinyl tape were measured. These results were used to calculate hydrogen leak rates from the same jars. The calculations show that the maximum concentration of hydrogen buildup in this type of container configuration will beat least 3 orders of magnitude below the lower explosion limit for hydrogen in air.

Tim Hayes

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "2-chloroethyl vinyl ether" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

VINYL COATING OF GRAPHITE PLATES FOR ULTRASONIC INSPECTION  

SciTech Connect

A process has been developed for application of a thin, adherent vinyi plastic coating to graphite plates to prevent absorption of coupling fluids'' used in ultrasonic inspection. The plates are preheated and dipped mechanically in a fluid plastisol, and the resulting coating is fused in an infra-red heater. No significant attenuation of ultrasonic impulse results from presence of the coating. After inspection, the vinyl sheath may be easily stripped from the plate. (auth)

Church, J.S.; Bell, J.H. Jr.; Donahoe, J.K.; Faussone, R.A.; Rogers, G.B.; Rowen, J.T.

1958-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

22

Vinyl Kraft Windows and Doors | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Vinyl Kraft Windows and Doors Vinyl Kraft Windows and Doors Jump to: navigation, search Name Vinyl Kraft Windows and Doors Address 3404 Rhodes Ave Place New Boston, Ohio Zip 45662 Sector Buildings, Efficiency, Services Product Business and legal services;Consulting;Energy audits/weatherization; Installation; Maintenance and repair;Manufacturing; Retail product sales and distribution Phone number 740-464-0144 Website http://www.vinylkraft.com Coordinates 38.7456°, -82.9459° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":38.7456,"lon":-82.9459,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

23

UNDERSTANDING CURE INHIBITION IN CARBON FIBER REINFORCED VINYL ESTER RESIN COMPOSITES.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The effect of neat and oxidized carbon fiber reinforcements on vinyl ester resin free radical polymerization was investigated. First, the free radical polymerization of neat… (more)

Tweed-Kent, Sean

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Refinery & Blenders Net Input of Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: RBOB with Ether, RBOB ...

25

Divinyl ether synthase gene and protein, and uses thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to divinyl ether synthase genes, proteins, and methods of their use. The present invention encompasses both native and recombinant wild-type forms of the synthase, as well as mutants and variant forms, some of which possess altered characteristics relative to the wild-type synthase. The present invention also relates to methods of using divinyl ether synthase genes and proteins, including in their expression in transgenic organisms and in the production of divinyl ether fatty acids, and to methods of suing divinyl ether fatty acids, including in the protection of plants from pathogens.

Howe, Gregg A. (East Lansing, MI); Itoh, Aya (Tsuruoka, JP)

2011-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

26

Pressure and Temperature Dependence of the Reaction of Vinyl Radical with Alkenes III: Measured Rates and Predicted Product Distributions for Vinyl + Butene  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This work reports experimental and theoretical first-order rate constants for the reaction of vinyl radical with C4H8 alkenes: 1-butene, 2-butene, and iso-butene. The experiments are performed over a temperature range of ...

Ismail, Huzeifa

27

Process for producing dimethyl ether form synthesis gas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This invention pertains to a Fischer Tropsch process for converting synthesis gas to an oxygenated hydrocarbon with particular emphasis on dimethyl ether. Synthesis gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen are converted to dimethyl ether by carrying out the reaction in the presence of an alkali metal-manganese-iron carbonyl cluster incorporated onto a zirconia-alumina support.

Pierantozzi, Ronald (Macungie, PA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Process for producing dimethyl ether from synthesis gas  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention pertains to a Fischer Tropsch process for converting synthesis gas to an oxygenated hydrocarbon with particular emphasis on dimethyl ether. Synthesis gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen are converted to dimethyl ether by carrying out the reaction in the presence of an alkali metal-manganese-iron carbonyl cluster incorporated onto a zirconia-alumina support.

Pierantozzi, R.

1985-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

29

Crown Ethers in Nonaqueous Electrolytes for Lithium/Air Batteries  

SciTech Connect

The effects of three crown ethers, 12-crown-4, 15-crown-5, and 18-crown-6, as additives and co-solvents in non-aqueous electrolytes on the cell performance of primary Li/air batteries operated in a dry air environment were investigated. Crown ethers have large effects on the discharge performance of non-aqueous electrolytes in Li/air batteries. A small amount (normally less than 10% by weight or volume in electrolytes) of 12-Crown-4 and 15-crown-5 reduces the battery performance and a minimum discharge capacity appears at the crown ether content of ca. 5% in the electrolytes. However, when the content increases to about 15%, both crown ethers improve the capacity of Li/air cells by about 28% and 16%, respectively. 15-Crown-5 based electrolytes even show a maximum discharge capacity in the crown ether content range from 10% to 15%. On the other hand, the increase of 18-crown-6 amount in the electrolytes continuously lowers of the cell performance. The different battery performances of these three crown ethers in electrolytes are explained by the combined effects from the electrolytes’ contact angle, oxygen solubility, viscosity, ionic conductivity, and the stability of complexes formed between crown ether molecules and lithium ions.

Xu, Wu; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Deyu; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Jiguang

2010-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

30

Improving the thermal performance of vinyl-framed windows  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Over the last five years, vinyl-framed windows have gained an increased market share in both new and retrofit residential construction. This success has been mainly due to their low manufacturing cost and relatively good thermal performance (i.e., total window U-values with double glazing between 0.50 Btu/h{center_dot}ft{sup 2}{center_dot}{degree}F [2.86 W/m{sup 2}{center_dot}K] and 0.30 Btu/h{center_dot}ft{sup 2}{center_dot}{degree}F [1.70 W/m{sup 2}{center_dot}K]). Turning such windows into ``superwindows,`` windows with a U-value of 0.20 Btu/h{center_dot}ft{sup 2}{center_dot}{degree}F (1.14 W/m{sup 2}{center_dot}K) or less that can act as passive solar elements even on north-facing orientations in cold climates, requires further significant decreases in heat transfer through both the glazing system and the frame/edge. Three-layer glazing systems (those with two low-emissivity coatings and a low-conductivity gas fill) offer center-of-glass U-values as low as 0.10 Btu/h{center_dot}ft{sup 2}{center_dot}{degree}F (0.57 W/m{sup 2}{center_dot}K); such glazings are being manufactured today and can be incorporated into existing or new vinyl frame profiles. This paper focuses on the use of a state-of the-art infrared imaging system and a two-dimensional finite-difference model to improve the thermal performance of commercially available vinyl profiles and glazing edge systems. Such evaluation tools are extremely useful in identifying exactly which components and design features limit heat transfer and which act as thermal short circuits. Such an analysis is not possible with conventional whole-window testing in hot boxes where testing uncertainties with superwindows are often greater than proposed improvements.

Beck, F.A.; Arasteh, D.

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Improving the thermal performance of vinyl-framed windows  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Over the last five years, vinyl-framed windows have gained an increased market share in both new and retrofit residential construction. This success has been mainly due to their low manufacturing cost and relatively good thermal performance (i.e., total window U-values with double glazing between 0.50 Btu/h[center dot]ft[sup 2][center dot][degree]F [2.86 W/m[sup 2][center dot]K] and 0.30 Btu/h[center dot]ft[sup 2][center dot][degree]F [1.70 W/m[sup 2][center dot]K]). Turning such windows into superwindows,'' windows with a U-value of 0.20 Btu/h[center dot]ft[sup 2][center dot][degree]F (1.14 W/m[sup 2][center dot]K) or less that can act as passive solar elements even on north-facing orientations in cold climates, requires further significant decreases in heat transfer through both the glazing system and the frame/edge. Three-layer glazing systems (those with two low-emissivity coatings and a low-conductivity gas fill) offer center-of-glass U-values as low as 0.10 Btu/h[center dot]ft[sup 2][center dot][degree]F (0.57 W/m[sup 2][center dot]K); such glazings are being manufactured today and can be incorporated into existing or new vinyl frame profiles. This paper focuses on the use of a state-of the-art infrared imaging system and a two-dimensional finite-difference model to improve the thermal performance of commercially available vinyl profiles and glazing edge systems. Such evaluation tools are extremely useful in identifying exactly which components and design features limit heat transfer and which act as thermal short circuits. Such an analysis is not possible with conventional whole-window testing in hot boxes where testing uncertainties with superwindows are often greater than proposed improvements.

Beck, F.A.; Arasteh, D.

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Plug repairs of marine glass fiber / vinyl ester laminates subjected to uniaxial tension  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Glass fiber/vinyl ester composite laminates are currently being used and proposed for the hulls, bulkheads, and superstructures of large ships. This thesis examines the effectiveness of the repair of such laminates using ...

Michelis, Alexandros

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate Potential Problems for Photovoltaic Packaging: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Photovoltaic (PV) devices are typically encapsulated using ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) to provide mechanical support, optical coupling, electrical isolation, and protection against environmental exposure. Under exposure to atmospheric water and/or ultraviolet radiation, EVA will decompose to produce acetic acid, lowering the pH and increasing the surface corrosion rates of embedded devices. Even though acetic acid is produced at a very slow rate, it may not take much to catalyze reactions that lead to rapid module deterioration. Another consideration is that the glass transition of EVA, as measured using dynamic mechanical analysis, begins at temperatures of about ?15 C. Temperatures lower than this can be reached for extended periods of time in some climates. Because of increased moduli below the glass transition temperature, a module may be more vulnerable to damage if a mechanical load is applied by snow or wind at low temperatures. Modules using EVA should not be rated for use at such low temperatures without additional low-temperature mechanical testing beyond the scope of UL 1703.

Kempe, M. D.; Jorgensen, G. J.; Terwilliger, K. M.; McMahon, T. J.; Kennedy, C. E.; Borek, T. T.

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

An investigation in the hygrothermal degradation of an E- glass/vinyl-ester composite in humid and immersion environments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

relaxation behavior on sized carbon fiber-vinyl ester matrixaspects of epoxy- carbon fiber composite laminates inaspects of epoxy/carbon fiber composite laminates in

Svetlik, Stephanie Laura

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

State Restrictions on Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (released in AEO2006)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

By the end of 2005, 25 States had barred, or passed laws banning, any more than trace levels of MTBE in their gasoline supplies, and legislation to ban MTBE was pending in 4 others. Some State laws address only MTBE; others also address ethers such as ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE) and tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME). AEO2006 assumes that all State MTBE bans prohibit the use of all ethers for gasoline blending.

Information Center

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Multipodal coordination of a tetracarboxylic crown ether with NH 4 + : A vibrational spectroscopy and computational study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The elucidation of the structural requirements for molecular recognition by the crown ether (18–crown–6)-2

Paola Hurtado; Francisco Gámez; Said Hamad; Bruno Martínez–Haya; Jeffrey D. Steill; Jos Oomens

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Radiation chemistry of alternative fuel oxygenates -- Substituted ethers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The electron beam process, an advanced oxidation and reduction technology, is based in the field of radiation chemistry. Fundamental to the development of treatment processes is an understanding of the underlying chemistry. The authors have previously evaluated the bimolecular rate constants for the reactions of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and with this study have extended their studies to include ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), di-isopropyl ether (DIPE) and tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME) with the hydroxyl radical, hydrogen atom and solvated electron using pulse radiolysis. For all of the oxygenates the reaction with the hydroxyl radical appears to be of primary interest in the destruction of the compounds in water. The rates with the solvated electron are limiting values as the rates appear to be relatively low. The hydrogen atom rate constants are relatively low, coupled with the low yield in radiolysis, they concluded that these are of little significance in the destruction of the alternative fuel oxygenates (and MTBE).

Mezyk, S. P.; Cooper, W. J.; Bartels, D. M.; Tobien, T.; O'Shea, K. E.

1999-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

38

Direct synthesis of dimethyl ether (DME) from syngas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have developed appropriate and excellent catalysts for direct DME synthesis. The catalysts, Cu-Zn/Al2O3 catalysts prepared by the sol-gel method, produce DME with high DME activity and high DME selectivity under milder reaction ... Keywords: DME, alumina, catalyst, clean fuel, copper, dimethyl ether, direct synthesis, hydrogen, sol-gel method, syngas

Kaoru Takeishi; Yoshimi Akaike

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Synthesis of vinyl acetate on palladium-based catalysts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Vinyl acetate (VA) is an important monomer used in the production of paints, surface coatings and adhesives. Synthesis of VA is usually carried out over supported Pd alloy catalysts with a selectivity as high as 96% and described as C2H4 + CH3COOH + ½ O2 -> C2H3OOCCH3 + H2O Although the VA synthesis reaction has been industrially carried out for many years, the nature of the active sites and the reaction mechanism is still unclear. The goal of this study was to acquire a fundamental understanding of the VA reaction mechanism by carrying out detailed kinetic and spectroscopic investigations on single crystals and supported Pd catalysts, and to detail the role of alloying in optimizing the selectivity of this important industrial reaction. A combination of surface science techniques and kinetic measurements has been used to address the mechanism. Supported catalysts, 1 wt% Pd/SiO2 and 5 wt% Pd/SiO2, and 1 wt% Pd-0.5 wt% Au/SiO2, were prepared by an incipient wet-impregnation method and characterized using XRD and TEM. On Pd-only catalysts the reaction rates were found to be: Pd(100) catalysts, which suggests a degree of structure sensitivity of the reaction. There is an increased availability of uncoordinated, edge atoms on small particles. With a Pd single crystal, fewer less-coordinated surface sites are present compared to a comparable area on a small Pd particle on a supported Pd catalyst. The formation of Pd carbide (PdCx) during the synthesis of VA was investigated over Pd/SiO2 catalysts with two different Pd particle sizes, as well as over a Pd-Au/SiO2 mixed-metal catalyst. XRD data indicate that smaller Pd particles show greater resistance to the formation of PdCx. The alloying of Au with Pd is apparently very effective in preventing PdCx formation in Pd-based catalysts for VA synthesis. Addition of Au to Pd/SiO2 catalysts significantly enhances the VA formation rate and selectivity. Infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRAS) of CO on Pd/Au(100) and Pd/Au(111) confirms the presence of Pd as isolated monomers on a Au-rich surface. A pair of Pd monomers is the most favorable active site for the formation of VA. The spacing between the two active isolated Pd atoms is critical and is demonstrated by the relative rates of VA formation on Pd/Au model catalysts, i.e. Pd/Au(111) < Pd/Au(100). The role of Au is to isolate the surface Pd atoms and thus suppress the formation of by products, CO and CO2. A pair of Pd monomers required for VA synthesis is further confirmed by the results from model studies of Sn-Pd.

Kumar, Dheeraj

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

The interactions of water and perfluorodiethyl ether on Ru(100)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We have studied the interactions of water and perfluorodiethyl ether on Ru(100) in order to model the effects of surface structure and humidity on the bonding and decomposition of perfluoroalkyl ether lubricants with metal surfaces. In order to understand the interactions on Ru(100), we have first investigated the interactions of each of these adsorbates alone on the clean surface. The interactions of water with Ru(100) have been studied using both thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). From these studies we conclude that a small amount of water dissociates on this surface (5--10% of a monolayer), but water is adsorbed in a predominantly molecular form on this surface with an increasing degree of hydrogen-bonding with increasing coverage. The effects of hydrogen and oxygen coadsorption on the interactions of water with this surface have also been studied using TDS. Finally, the interactions of coadsorbed water and perfluorodiethyl ether on Ru(100) have been investigated using TDS.

Leavitt, P.

1990-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "2-chloroethyl vinyl ether" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Effect of incorporating cellulose nanocrystals from corncob on the tensile, thermal and barrier properties of poly(vinyl alcohol) nanocomposites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effect of incorporating cellulose nanocrystals fromcorncob (CNC) on the tensile, thermal, and barrier properties of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) nanocomposites was evaluated. The CNC were prepared by sulfuric acid hydrolysis at 45°C for 60 minutes, ...

Hudson Alves Silvério, Wilson Pires Flauzino Neto, Daniel Pasquini

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Thermodynamics of Hydrogen Production from Dimethyl Ether Steam Reforming and Hydrolysis  

SciTech Connect

The thermodynamic analyses of producing a hydrogen-rich fuel-cell feed from the process of dimethyl ether (DME) steam reforming were investigated as a function of steam-to-carbon ratio (0-4), temperature (100 C-600 C), pressure (1-5 atm), and product species: acetylene, ethanol, methanol, ethylene, methyl-ethyl ether, formaldehyde, formic acid, acetone, n-propanol, ethane and isopropyl alcohol. Results of the thermodynamic processing of dimethyl ether with steam indicate the complete conversion of dimethyl ether to hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide for temperatures greater than 200 C and steam-to-carbon ratios greater than 1.25 at atmospheric pressure (P = 1 atm). Increasing the operating pressure was observed to shift the equilibrium toward the reactants; increasing the pressure from 1 atm to 5 atm decreased the conversion of dimethyl ether from 99.5% to 76.2%. The order of thermodynamically stable products in decreasing mole fraction was methane, ethane, isopropyl alcohol, acetone, n-propanol, ethylene, ethanol, methyl-ethyl ether and methanol--formaldehyde, formic acid, and acetylene were not observed. The optimal processing conditions for dimethyl ether steam reforming occurred at a steam-to-carbon ratio of 1.5, a pressure of 1 atm, and a temperature of 200 C. Modeling the thermodynamics of dimethyl ether hydrolysis (with methanol as the only product considered), the equilibrium conversion of dimethyl ether is limited. The equilibrium conversion was observed to increase with temperature and steam-to-carbon ratio, resulting in a maximum dimethyl ether conversion of approximately 68% at a steam-to-carbon ratio of 4.5 and a processing temperature of 600 C. Thermodynamically, dimethyl ether processed with steam can produce hydrogen-rich fuel-cell feeds--with hydrogen concentrations exceeding 70%. This substantiates dimethyl ether as a viable source of hydrogen for PEM fuel cells.

T.A. Semelsberger

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

CATALYSTS FOR HIGH CETANE ETHERS AS DIESEL FUELS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A tungstena-zirconia (WZ) catalyst has been investigated for coupling methanol and isobutanol to unsymmetrical ethers, i.e. methyl isobutyl ether (MIBE) and compared with earlier studied sulfated-zirconia (SZ) and Nafion-H catalysts. In all cases, the ether synthesis mechanism is a dual site S{sub N}2 process involving competitive adsorption of reactants on proximal acid sites. At low reaction temperatures, methylisobutylether (MIBE) is the predominant product. However, at temperatures >135 C the WZ catalyst is very good for dehydration of isobutanol to isobutene. The surface acid sites of the WZ catalyst and a Nafion-H catalyst were diagnosed by high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of N 1s shifts after adsorption of amines. Using pyridine, ethylenediamine, and triethylamine, it is shown that WZ has heterogeneous strong Broensted acid sites. Theoretical study located the transition state of the alcohol coupling reaction on proximal Broensted acid sites and accounted well for XPS core-level shifts upon surface acid-base interactions. While computations have not been carried out with WZ, it is shown that the SZ catalyst is a slightly stronger acid than CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}H (a model for Nafion-H) by 1.3-1.4 kcal/mol. A novel sulfated zirconia catalyst having proximal strong Broensted acid sites was synthesized and shown to have significantly enhanced activity and high selectivity in producing MIBE or isobutene from methanol/isobutanol mixtures. The catalyst was prepared by anchoring 1,2-ethanediol bis(hydrogen sulfate) salt precursor onto zirconium hydroxide, followed by calcination to remove the -(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2})- bridging residues.

Kamil Klier; Richard G. Herman; Heock-Hoi Kwon; James G. C. Shen; Qisheng Ma; Robert A. Hunsicker; Andrew P. Butler; Scott J. Bollinger

2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

DIMETHYL ETHER (DME)-FUELED SHUTTLE BUS DEMONSTRATION PROJECT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of this research and demonstration program are to convert a campus shuttle bus to operation on dimethyl ether, a potential ultra-clean alternative diesel fuel. To accomplish this objective, this project includes laboratory evaluation of a fuel conversion strategy, as well as field demonstration of the DME-fueled shuttle bus. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In this project, they have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. The strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. Within the Combustion Laboratory of the Penn State Energy Institute, they have installed and equipped a Navistar V-8 direct-injection turbodiesel engine for measurement of gaseous and particulate emissions and examination of the impact of fuel composition on diesel combustion. They have also reconfigured a high-pressure viscometer for studies of the viscosity, bulk modulus (compressibility) and miscibility of blends of diesel fuel, dimethyl ether and lubricity additives. The results include baseline emissions, performance and combustion measurements on the Navistar engine for operation on a federal low sulfur diesel fuel (300 ppm S). Most recently, they have examined blends of an oxygenated fuel additive (a liquid fuel called CETANER{trademark}) produced by Air Products, for comparison with dimethyl ether blended at the same weight of oxygen addition, 2 wt.%. While they have not operated the engine on DME yet, they are now preparing to do so. A fuel system for delivery of DME/Diesel blends has been configured and initial investigations at low DME blend ratios (around 5-10 vol%) will begin shortly. They have also performed viscosity measurements on diesel fuel, DME and 50-50 blends of DME in diesel. These tests have verified that DME has a much lower viscosity than the diesel fuel and that the viscosity of the blended fuel is also much lower than the diesel base fuel. This has implications for the injection and atomization of the DME/diesel blends.

Elana M. Chapman; Shirish Bhide; Andre L. Boehman; David Klinikowski

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

High octane ethers from synthesis gas-derived alcohols  

SciTech Connect

The temperature dependence of ether synthesis, particularly unsymmetric methylisobutylether (MIBE), was carried out over the Nafion-H microsaddles (MS) catalyst. The principal product formed under the rather severe reaction conditions of 1100 psig pressure and temperatures in the range of 123--157{degree}C was the expected MIBE formed directly by coupling the methanol/isobutanol reactants. In addition, significantly larger quantities of the dimethylether (DME) and hydrocarbon products were observed than were obtained under milder reaction conditions. Deactivation of the Nafion-H MS catalyst was determined by periodically testing the catalyst under a given set of reaction conditions for the synthesis of MIBE and MTBE from methanol/isobutanol = 2/1, i.e. 123{degree}C, 1100 psig, and total GHSV = 248 mol/kg cat/hr. After carrying out various tests over a period of 2420 hr, with intermittant periods of standing under nitrogen at ambient conditions, the yields of MIBE and MTBE had decreased by 25% and 41%, respectively. In order to gain insight into the role of the surface acidity in promoting the selective coupling of the alcohols to form the unsymmetric ether, the strengths of the acid sites on the catalysts are still being probed by calorimetric titrations in non-aqueous solutions. 11 refs., 13 figs., 9 tabs.

Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.; DeTavernier, S.; Johannson, M.; Kieke, M.; Bastian, R.D.

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Interactions between Ether Phospholipids and Cholesterol as Determined by Scattering and Molecular Dynamics Simulations  

SciTech Connect

Cholesterol and ether lipids are ubiquitous in mammalian cell membranes, and their interactions are crucial in ether lipid mediated cholesterol trafficking. We report on cholesterol s molecular interactions with ether lipids as determined using a combination of small-angle neutron and Xray scattering, and all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. A scattering density profile model for an ether lipid bilayer was developed using MD simulations, which was then used to simultaneously fit the different experimental scattering data. From analysis of the data the various bilayer structural parameters were obtained. Surface area constrained MD simulations were also performed to reproduce the experimental data. This iterative analysis approach resulted in good agreement between the experimental and simulated form factors. The molecular interactions taking place between cholesterol and ether lipids were then determined from the validated MD simulations. We found that in ether membranes cholesterol primarily hydrogen bonds with the lipid headgroup phosphate oxygen, while in their ester membrane counterparts cholesterol hydrogen bonds with the backbone ester carbonyls. This different mode of interaction between ether lipids and cholesterol induces cholesterol to reside closer to the bilayer surface, dehydrating the headgroup s phosphate moiety. Moreover, the three-dimensional lipid chain spatial density distribution around cholesterol indicates anisotropic chain packing, causing cholesterol to tilt. These insights lend a better understanding of ether lipid-mediated cholesterol trafficking and the roles that the different lipid species have in determining the structural and dynamical properties of membrane associated biomolecules.

Pan, Jianjun [ORNL; Cheng, Xiaolin [ORNL; Heberle, Frederick A [ORNL; Mostofian, Barmak [ORNL; Kucerka, Norbert [Canadian Neutron Beam Centre and Comelius University (Slovakia); Drazba, Paul [ORNL; Katsaras, John [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Dimethyl ether (DME): a clean fuel of the 21st century and catalysts for it  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dimethyl ether (DME) is a substitute of LNG and light oil. DME burns without particulate matters and SOx, so DME is a clean fuel. DME is a storage and carrier of hydrogen. For these usages, useful catalysts such as DME steam reforming catalysts and DME ... Keywords: DME, alumina, catalyst, clean fuel, copper, dimethyl ether, direct synthesis, hydrogen, sol-gel method, steam reforming

Kaoru Takeishi

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Catalysts for hydrogen production by steam reforming of dimethyl ether (DME)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dimethyl ether (DME) is expected as one of clean fuels. We have been studying on DME steam reforming for hydrogen production. Copper alumina catalysts prepared by a sol-gel method produced large quantities of H2 with DME steam reforming. The reason was ... Keywords: DME, alumina, catalyst, clean fuel, copper, dimethyl ether, hydrogen, sol-gel method, steam reforming

Kaoru Takeishi

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Development of single type copper alumina catalysts for hydrogen production from dimethyl ether (DME)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dimethyl ether (DME) is expected as one of clean fuels. We have been studying on DME steam reforming for hydrogen production. Copper alumina catalysts prepared by the sol-gel method produced large quantities of H2 with DME steam reforming. Aiming at ... Keywords: DME, alumina, catalyst, clean fuel, copper, dimethyl ether, hydrogen, sol-gel method, steam reforming

Kaoru Takeishi; Atsushi Ban

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Comb-shaped single ion conductors based on polyacrylate ethers and lithium  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Comb-shaped single ion conductors based on polyacrylate ethers and lithium Comb-shaped single ion conductors based on polyacrylate ethers and lithium alkyl sulfonate Title Comb-shaped single ion conductors based on polyacrylate ethers and lithium alkyl sulfonate Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2005 Authors Sun, Xiao-Guang, Jun Hou, and John B. Kerr Journal Electrochimica Acta Volume 50 Pagination 1139-1147 Keywords ionic conductivity, plasticizer, polyacrylate ethers, single ion conductor Abstract Comb-shaped single ion conductors have been synthesized by sulfonation of small molecule chloroethyleneglycols, which, after ion exchange to the Li+ salt were then converted to the acrylate by reaction with acryloyl chloride and copolymerized with polyethylene glycol monomethyl ether acrylate (Mn = 454, n = 8) (PAE8-co-E3SO3Li);

51

S M Stoller Pinellas Environmental Restoration Project - 4.5...  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

ND 4.8 0.96 ugl 218-01-9 Chrysene ND 4.8 0.96 ugl 111-91-1 bis(2-Chloroethoxy)methane ND 4.8 0.96 ugl 111-44-4 bis(2-Chloroethyl)ether ND 4.8 1.9 ugl ND Not detected...

52

Quantum ether: photons and electrons from a rotor model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We give an example of a purely bosonic model -- a rotor model on the 3D cubic lattice -- whose low energy excitations behave like massless U(1) gauge bosons and massless Dirac fermions. This model can be viewed as a ``quantum ether'': a medium that gives rise to both photons and electrons. It illustrates a general mechanism for the emergence of gauge bosons and fermions known as ``string-net condensation.'' Other, more complex, string-net condensed models can have excitations that behave like gluons, quarks and other particles in the standard model. This suggests that photons, electrons and other elementary particles may have a unified origin: string-net condensation in our vacuum.

Michael Levin; Xiao-Gang Wen

2005-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

53

Genome Sequence of the Ethene- and Vinyl Chloride-Oxidizing Actinomycete Nocardioides sp Strain JS614  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nocardioides sp. strain JS614 grows on ethene and vinyl chloride (VC) as sole carbon and energy sources and is of interest for bioremediation and biocatalysis. Sequencing of the complete genome of JS614 provides insight into the genetic basis of alkene oxidation, supports ongoing research into the physiology and biochemistry of growth on ethene and VC, and provides biomarkers to facilitate detection of VC/ethene oxidizers in the environment. This is the first genome sequence from the genus Nocardioides and the first genome of a VC/ethene-oxidizing bacterium.

Coleman, Nicholas V [University of Sydney, Australia; Wilson, Neil L [University of Sydney, Australia; Barry, Kerrie [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Copeland, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Dalin, Eileen [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Hammon, Nancy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Han, Shunsheng [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Israni, Sanjay [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kim, Edwin [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Larimer, Frank W [ORNL; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Richardson, Paul [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Schmutz, Jeremy [Stanford University; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Thompson, Sue [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Tice, Hope [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Spain, Jim C [Georgia Institute of Technology; Gossett, James G [Cornell University; Mattes, Timothy E [University of Iowa

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Anodic polymerization of vinyl ethylene carbonate in Li-Ion battery electrolyte  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A study of the anodic oxidation of vinyl ethylene carbonate (VEC) was conducted with post-mortem analysis of reaction products by ATR-FTIR and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The half-wave potential (E1/2) for oxidation of VEC is ca. 3.6 V producing a resistive film on the electrode surface. GPC analysis of the film on a gold electrode produced by anodization of a commercial Li-ion battery electrolyte containing 2 percent VEC at 4.1 V showed the presence of a high molecular weight polymer. IR analysis indicated polycarbonate with alkyl carbonate rings linked by aliphatic methylene and methyl branches.

Chen, Guoying; Zhuang, Guorong V.; Richardson, Thomas J.; Gao, Liu; Ross Jr., Philip N.

2005-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

55

DIMETHYL ETHER (DME)-FUELED SHUTTLE BUS DEMONSTRATION PROJECT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of this research and demonstration program are to convert a campus shuttle bus to operation on dimethyl ether, a potential ultra-clean alternative diesel fuel. To accomplish this objective, this project includes laboratory evaluation of a fuel conversion strategy, as well as, field demonstration of the DME-fueled shuttle bus. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In this project, they have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. Their strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. The bulk of the efforts over the past year were focused on the conversion of the campus shuttle bus. This process, started in August 2001, took until April 2002 to complete. The process culminated in an event to celebrate the launching of the shuttle bus on DME-diesel operation on April 19, 2002. The design of the system on the shuttle bus was patterned after the system developed in the engine laboratory, but also was subjected to a rigorous failure modes effects analysis (FMEA, referred to by Air Products as a ''HAZOP'' analysis) with help from Dr. James Hansel of Air Products. The result of this FMEA was the addition of layers of redundancy and over-pressure protection to the system on the shuttle bus. The system became operational in February 2002. Preliminary emissions tests and basic operation of the shuttle bus took place at the Pennsylvania Transportation Institute's test track facility near the University Park airport. After modification and optimization of the system on the bus, operation on the campus shuttle route began in early June 2002. However, the work and challenges continued as it has been difficult to maintain operability of the shuttle bus due to fuel and component difficulties. In late June 2002, the pump head itself developed operational problems (loss of smooth function) leading to excessive stress on the magnetic coupling and excessive current draw to operate. A new pump head was installed on the system to alleviate this problem and the shuttle bus operated successfully on DME blends from 10-25 vol% on the shuttle bus loop until September 30, 2002. During the period of operation on the campus loop, the bus was pulled from service, operated at the PTI test track and real-time emissions measurements were obtained using an on-board emissions analyzer from Clean Air Technologies International, Inc. Particulate emissions reductions of 60% and 80% were observed at DME blend ratios of 12 vol.% and 25 vol.%, respectively, as the bus was operated over the Orange County driving cycle. Increases in NOx, CO and HC emissions were observed, however. In summary, the conversion of the shuttle bus was successfully accomplished, particulate emissions reductions were observed, but there were operational challenges in the field. Nonetheless, they were able to demonstrate reliable operation of the shuttle bus on DME-diesel blends.

Elana M. Chapman; Shirish Bhide; Jennifer Stefanik; Howard Glunt; Andre L. Boehman; Allen Homan; David Klinikowski

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Effect of irradiation on the surface microhardness of pure poly(vinyl fluoride), poly(vinylidene fluoride) and their isomorphic blends  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Many widely used polymers suffer main chain scission or crosslinking depending upon various physical parameters when exposed to radiation. Crosslinking and scission are two opposite consequences of irradiation. The preparation of pure Poly(vinyl fluoride) ...

A. K. Gupta; R. Bajpai; J. M. Keller

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

The effects of nitric acid and silane surface treatments on carbon fibers and carbon/vinyl ester composites before and after seawater exposure.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This research focuses on carbon fiber treatment by nitric acid and 3- (trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate silane, and how this affects carbon/vinyl ester composites. These composites offer… (more)

Langston, Tye A.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Plug repairs of marine glass fiber / vinyl ester laminates subjected to in-plane shear stress or in-plane bending moment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Glass fiber / vinyl ester composite laminates represent an important class of modem fiber composites being proposed or used in state-of-the-art shipbuilding. This thesis examined the effectiveness of chopped strand mat ...

Urrutia Valenzuela, Roberto

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Alternate fuels and chemicals from synthesis gas: Vinyl acetate monomer. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

There has been a long-standing desire on the part of industry and the U.S. Department of Energy to replace the existing ethylene-based vinyl acetate monomer (VAM) process with an entirely synthesis gas-based process. Although there are a large number of process options for the conversion of synthesis gas to VAM, Eastman Chemical Company undertook an analytical approach, based on known chemical and economic principles, to reduce the potential candidate processes to a select group of eight processes. The critical technologies that would be required for these routes were: (1) the esterification of acetaldehyde (AcH) with ketene to generate VAM, (2) the hydrogenation of ketene to acetaldehyde, (3) the hydrogenation of acetic acid to acetaldehyde, and (4) the reductive carbonylation of methanol to acetaldehyde. This report describes the selection process for the candidate processes, the successful development of the key technologies, and the economic assessments for the preferred routes. In addition, improvements in the conversion of acetic anhydride and acetaldehyde to VAM are discussed. The conclusion from this study is that, with the technology developed in this study, VAM may be produced from synthesis gas, but the cost of production is about 15% higher than the conventional oxidative acetoxylation of ethylene, primarily due to higher capital associated with the synthesis gas-based processes.

Richard D. Colberg; Nick A. Collins; Edwin F. Holcombe; Gerald C. Tustin; Joseph R. Zoeller

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Potential Problems with Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate for Photovoltaic Packaging (Poster)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Photovoltaic (PV) devices are typically encapsulated using ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) to provide mechanical support electrical isolation, optical coupling, and protection against environmental exposure. Under exposure to atmospheric water and/or ultraviolet radiation, EVA will decompose to produce acetic acid, lowering the pH and increasing the surface corrosion rates of embedded devices. Even though acetic acid is produced at a very slow rate it may not take much to catalyze reactions that lead to rapid module deterioration. Another consideration is that the glass transition of EVA, as measured using dynamic mechanical analysis, begins at temperatures of about -15 C. Temperatures lower than this can be reached for extended periods of time in some climates. Due to increased moduli below the glass transition temperature, a module may be more vulnerable to damage if a mechanical load is applied by snow or wind at low temperatures. Modules using EVA should not be rated for use at such low temperatures without additional low-temperature mechanical testing beyond the scope of UL 1703.

Kempe, M. D.; Jorgensen, G. J.; Terwilliger, K, M.; McMahon, T. J.; Kennedy, C. E.; Borek, T. T.

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "2-chloroethyl vinyl ether" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Enhanced diisobutene production in the presence of methyl tertiary butyl ether  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In the liquid phase reaction of isobutene in the presence of resin cation exchange resins with itself in a C[sub 4] hydrocarbon stream to form dimers, the formation of higher polymers, oligomers, and co-dimer by-products is suppressed by the presence of 0.0001 to 1 mole per mole of isobutene of methyl tertiary butyl ether. 1 fig.

Smith, L.A. Jr.

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Lithium Hexamethyldisilazide-Mediated Ketone Enolization: The Influence of Hindered Dialkyl Ethers and Isostructural  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Lithium Hexamethyldisilazide-Mediated Ketone Enolization: The Influence of Hindered Dialkyl Ethers of the enolization of 2-methylcyclohexanone mediated by lithium hexameth- yldisilazide (LiHMDS; TMS2NLi) solvated- bine to make lithium hexamethyldisilazide (LiHMDS) one of the most important Bro¨nsted bases in organic

Collum, David B.

63

Direct synthesis of dimethyl ether (DME) from syngas containing oxygen gas considering of biomass gasfication gas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have developed appropriate and excellent catalysts for direct DME synthesis from syngas. The catalysts, Cu-Zn/Al2O3 catalysts prepared by the sol-gel method, produce DME with high DME activity and high DME selectivity with long ... Keywords: DME, biomass, catalyst, clean fuel, dimethyl ether, direct synthesis, gasification gas, hydrogen, sol-gel method, syngas

Kaoru Takeishi; Akane Arase

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Assessment of ether and alcohol fuels from coal. Volume 2. Technical report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A unique route for the indirect liquefaction of coal to produce transportation fuel has been evaluated. The resultant fuel includes alkyl tertiary alkyl ethers and higher alcohols, all in the gasoline boiling range. When blended into gasoline, the ether fuel provides several advantages over the lower alcohols: (1) lower chemical oxygen content, (2) less-severe water-separation problems, and (3) reduced front-end volatility effects. The ether fuel also has high-octane quality. Further, it can be utilized as a gasoline substitute in all proportions. Production of ether fuel combines several steps, all of which are or have been practiced on an industrial scale: (1) coal gasification, (2) gas cleanup and shift to desired H/sub 2/:CO ratio, (3) conversion of synthesis gas to isobutanol, methanol, and higher alcohols, (4) separation of alcohols, (5) chemical dehydration of isobutanol to isobutylene, and (6) etherification of isobutylene with methanol. A pilot-plant investigation of the isobutanol synthesis step was performed. Estimates of ether-fuel manufacturing costs indicate this process route is significantly more costly than synthesis of methanol. However, the fuel performance features provide incentive for developing the necessary process and catalyst improvements. Co-production of higher-molecular-weight co-solvent alcohols represents a less-drastic form of methanol modification to achieve improvement in the performance of methanol-gasoline blends. Costs were estimated for producing several proportions of methanol plus higher alcohols from coal. Estimated fuel selling price increases regularly but modestly with higher alcohol content.

Not Available

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Process to convert biomass and refuse derived fuel to ethers and/or alcohols  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for conversion of a feedstock selected from the group consisting of biomass and refuse derived fuel (RDF) to provide reformulated gasoline components comprising a substantial amount of materials selected from the group consisting of ethers, alcohols, or mixtures thereof, comprising: drying said feedstock; subjecting said dried feedstock to fast pyrolysis using a vortex reactor or other means; catalytically cracking vapors resulting from said pyrolysis using a zeolite catalyst; condensing any aromatic byproduct fraction; catalytically alkylating any benzene present in said vapors after condensation; catalytically oligomerizing any remaining ethylene and propylene to higher olefins; isomerizing said olefins to reactive iso-olefins; and catalytically reacting said iso-olefins with an alcohol to form ethers or with water to form alcohols.

Diebold, James P. (Lakewood, CO); Scahill, John W. (Evergreen, CO); Chum, Helena L. (Arvada, CO); Evans, Robert J. (Lakewood, CO); Rejai, Bahman (Lakewood, CO); Bain, Richard L. (Golden, CO); Overend, Ralph P. (Lakewood, CO)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Process to convert biomass and refuse derived fuel to ethers and/or alcohols  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for conversion of a feedstock selected from the group consisting of biomass and refuse derived fuel (RDF) to provide reformulated gasoline components comprising a substantial amount of materials selected from the group consisting of ethers, alcohols, or mixtures thereof, comprising: drying said feedstock; subjecting said dried feedstock to fast pyrolysis using a vortex reactor or other means; catalytically cracking vapors resulting from said pyrolysis using a zeolite catalyst; condensing any aromatic byproduct fraction; catalytically alkylating any benzene present in said vapors after condensation; catalytically oligomerizing any remaining ethylene and propylene to higher olefins; isomerizing said olefins to reactive iso-olefins; and catalytically reacting said iso-olefins with an alcohol to form ethers or with water to form alcohols. 35 figs.

Diebold, J.P.; Scahill, J.W.; Chum, H.L.; Evans, R.J.; Rejai, B.; Bain, R.L.; Overend, R.P.

1996-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

67

Modeling the Nanophase Structural Dynamics of Phenylated Sulfonated Poly Ether Ether Ketone Ketone (Ph-SPEEKK) Membranes as a Function of Hydration  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Solvated phenylated sulfonated poly ether ether ketone ketone (Ph-SPEEKK) membranes in the presence of hydronium ions were modeled by classical molecular dynamics simulations. The characterization of the nanophase structure and dynamics of such membranes was carried out as a function of the water content lambda, where lambda is the number of water molecules per sulfonate group, for lambda values of 3.5, 6, 11, 25, and 40. Analysis of pair correlation functions supports the experimental observation of membrane swelling upon hydration as well the increase in water and hydronium ion diffusion with increasing lambda. While the average number of hydrogen bonds between hydronium ions and sulfonate groups is dramatically affected by the hydration level, the average lifetime of the hydrogen bonds remains essentially constant. The membrane is found to be relatively rigid and its overall flexibility shows little dependence on water content. Compared to Nafion, water and ion diffusion coefficients are considerably smaller at lower hydration levels and room temperature. However, at higher lambda values of 25 and 40 these coefficients are comparable to those in Nafion at a lambda value of 16. This study also shows that water diffusion in Ph-SPEEKK membranes at low hydration levels can be significantly improved by raising the temperature with important implications for proton conductivity.

Lins, Roberto D.; Devanathan, Ramaswami; Dupuis, Michel

2011-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

68

2' and 3' Carboranyl uridines and their diethyl ether adducts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

There is disclosed a process for preparing carboranyl uridine nucleoside compounds and their diethyl ether adducts, which exhibit a tenfold increase in boron content over prior art boron containing nucleoside compounds. Said carboranyl uridine nucleoside compounds exhibit enhanced lipophilicity and hydrophilic properties adequate to enable solvation in aqueous media for subsequent incorporation of said compounds in methods for boron neutron capture therapy in mammalian tumor cells.

Soloway, Albert H. (Worthington, OH); Barth, Rolf F. (Columbus, OH); Anisuzzaman, Abul K. (Columbus, OH); Alam, Fazlul (Anaheim, CA); Tjarks, Werner (Columbus, OH)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

2[prime] and 3[prime] Carboranyl uridines and their diethyl ether adducts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for preparing carboranyl uridine nucleoside compounds and their diethyl ether adducts, which exhibit a tenfold increase in boron content over prior art boron containing nucleoside compounds. The carboranyl uridine nucleoside compounds exhibit enhanced lipophilicity and hydrophilic properties adequate to enable solvation in aqueous media for subsequent incorporation of the compounds in methods for boron neutron capture therapy in mammalian tumor cells. No Drawings

Soloway, A.H.; Barth, R.F.; Anisuzzaman, A.K.; Alam, F.; Tjarks, W.

1992-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

70

Poly(vinyl alcohol)-based buffering membranes for isoelectric trapping separations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Isoelectric trapping (IET) in multicompartment electrolyzers (MCE) has been widely used for the electrophoretic separation of ampholytic compounds such as proteins. In IET, the separation occurs in the buffering membranes that form a step-wise pH gradient in the MCE. Typically, buffering membranes have been made by copolymerizing acrylamide with Immobiline compounds, which are acidic and basic acylamido buffers. One major problem, however, is that these buffering membranes are not stable when exposed to high concentrations of acid and base due to hydrolysis of the amide bonds. Poly(vinyl alcohol)-based, or PVA-based, membranes were made as an alternative to the polyacrylamide-based membranes since they provide more hydrolytic and mechanical stability. Four mid-pH, PVA-based buffering membranes that contain single ampholytes were synthesized. These buffering membranes were used to trap small molecular weight pI markers for up to three hours, and were also used in desalting experiments to remove strong electrolytes from a solution of ampholytes. Additionally, the membranes were used in IET experiments to separate mixtures of pI markers, and to fractionate the major proteins in chicken egg white. The membranes did not show any degradation when stored in 3 M NaOH for up to 6 months and were shown to tolerate current densities as high as 16 mA/cm2. In addition, six series of PVA-based membranes, whose pH values can be tuned over the 3 < pH < 10 range, were synthesized by covalently binding aminodicarboxylic acids, and monoamines or diamines to the PVA matrix. These tunable buffering membranes were used in trapping experiments to trap ampholytes for up to three hours, and in desalting experiments to remove strong electrolytes from a solution of ampholytes. These tunable buffering membranes were also used in IET experiments to separate proteins, some with pI values that differ by only 0.1 pH unit. The tunable buffering membranes did not show any signs of degradation when exposed to 3 M NaOH for up to 3 months, and could be used in IET experiments with current densities as high as 20 mA/cm2. These tunable buffering membranes are expected to broaden the application areas of isoelectric trapping separations.

Craver, Helen C.

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Properties of thermo-chemically surface treated carbon fibers and of their epoxy and vinyl ester composites  

SciTech Connect

High strength carbon fibers were surface treated by a continuous gas phase thermo-chemical surface treatment. The surface and the mechanical properties of the fibers were investigated before and after treatment and compared to the properties obtained with a conventional industrial electro-chemical surface treatment. An increase of the oxygen atomic content from 3 % to 20 % with a preferential generation of carboxylic acid functionalities and hydroxyl groups was highlighted after the thermo-chemical surface treatment, compared to an oxygen atomic content of 7 % and a wide variety of oxygen moieties with the electro-chemical surface treatment. The tensile strength of the fibers increased slightly after the thermo-chemical surface treatment and remained the same after the electro-chemical surface treatment. Short beam shear and 90 flexural tests of composites revealed that the improvement of interfacial adhesion with a vinyl ester matrix was limited, revealing that oxidation of the carbon fiber surface alone cannot tremendously improve the mechanical properties of carbon fiber-vinyl ester composites. Atomic force microscopy showed that the creation of roughness with both surface treatments at a nanometric scale. Although the surface is slightly rougher after the electro-chemical surface treatment and is expected to lead to higher adhesion due to mechanical interlocking between the fiber surface and the matrix, the effect of covalent bonding coming from the high concentration of chemical groups on the surface results in higher adhesion strength, as obtained with the thermo-chemical surface treatment.

Vautard, Frederic [ORNL; Ozcan, Soydan [ORNL; Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Development of a copper-catalyzed amidation-base-promoted cyclization sequence for the synthesis of 2-aryl- and 2-vinyl1-4 quinolones  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A direct two-step method for the preparation of 2-aryl- and 2-vinyl-4-quinolones that utilizes a copper-catalyzed amidation of ortho-halophenones followed by a base-promoted Camps cyclization of the resulting N-(2-keto-aryl)amides ...

Jones, Carrie Preston

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Research Article Rapeseed Oil Monoester of Ethylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether as a New Biodiesel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Copyright © 2011 Jiang Dayong et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. A novel biodiesel named rapeseed oil monoester of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether is developed. This fuel has one more ester group than the traditional biodiesel. The fuel was synthesized and structurally identified through FT-IR and P 1P H NMR analyses. Engine test results show that when a tested diesel engine is fueled with this biodiesel in place of 0 # diesel fuel, engine-out smoke emissions can be decreased by 25.0%–75.0%, CO emissions can be reduced by 50.0%, and unburned HC emissions are lessened significantly. However, NOx emissions generally do not change noticeably. In the area of combustion performance, both engine in-cylinder pressure and its changing rate with crankshaft angle are increased to some extent. Rapeseed oil monoester of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether has a much higher cetane number and shorter ignition delay, leading to autoignition 1.1 ? CA earlier than diesel fuel during engine operation. Because of certain amount of oxygen contained in the new biodiesel, the engine thermal efficiency is improved 13.5%–20.4 % when fueled with the biodiesel compared with diesel fuel. 1.

Jiang Dayong; Wang Xuanjun; Liu Shuguang; Guo Hejun

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Calixarene crown ether solvent composition and use thereof for extraction of cesium from alkaline waste solutions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solvent composition and corresponding method for extracting cesium (Cs) from aqueous neutral and alkaline solutions containing Cs and perhaps other competing metal ions is described. The method entails contacting an aqueous Cs-containing solution with a solvent consisting of a specific class of lipophilic calix[4]arene-crown ether extractants dissolved in a hydrocarbon-based diluent containing a specific class of alkyl-aromatic ether alcohols as modifiers. The cesium values are subsequently recovered from the extractant, and the solvent subsequently recycled, by contacting the Cs-containing organic solution with an aqueous stripping solution. This combined extraction and stripping method is especially useful as a process for removal of the radionuclide cesium-137 from highly alkaline waste solutions which are also very concentrated in sodium and potassium. No pre-treatment of the waste solution is necessary, and the cesium can be recovered using a safe and inexpensive stripping process using water, dilute (millimolar) acid solutions, or dilute (millimolar) salt solutions. An important application for this invention would be treatment of alkaline nuclear tank wastes. Alternatively, the invention could be applied to decontamination of acidic reprocessing wastes containing cesium-137.

Moyer, Bruce A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Sachleben, Richard A. (Knoxville, TN); Bonnesen, Peter V. (Knoxville, TN); Presley, Derek J. (Ooltewah, TN)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Commercial-scale demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) Process. Peroxide formation of dimethyl ether in methanol mixtures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Organic peroxides could form when dimethyl ether in methanol is stored for three to six months at a time. The objective of this work was to determine the level of peroxide formation from dimethyl ether in reagent grade methanol and raw methanol at room temperature under 3 atmospheres (45 psig) of air. Raw methanol is methanol made from syngas by the LPMEOH Process without distillation. Aliphatic ethers tend to react slowly with oxygen from the air to form unstable peroxides. However, there are no reports on peroxide formation from dimethyl ether. After 172 days of testing, dimethyl ether in either reagent methanol or raw methanol at room temperature and under 60--70 psig pressure of air does not form detectable peroxides. Lack of detectable peroxides suggests that dimethyl ether or dimethyl ether and methanol may be stored at ambient conditions. Since the compositions of {approximately} 1.3 mol% or {approximately} 4.5 mol% dimethyl ether in methanol do not form peroxides, these compositions can be considered for diesel fuel or an atmospheric turbine fuel, respectively.

Waller, F.J.

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Exhaust Emissions and Combustion Performances of Rapeseed Oil Monoester of Ethylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether as a Novel Biodiesel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, a novel biodiesel named rapeseed oil monoester of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether has been developed, which has one more ester group than traditional biodiesel. It was synthesized and structurally identified through FT-IR, 1H NMR analyses. ... Keywords: component, rapeseed oil monoester, synthesis, exhaust emissions, combustion performances

Jiang Dayong; Wang Xuanjun; Wang Wenguo; Han Qilong

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Process for the production of ethylidene diacetate from dimethyl ether using a heterogeneous catalyst  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to a process for producing ethylidene diacetate by the reaction of dimethyl ether, acetic acid, hydrogen and carbon monoxide at elevated temperatures and pressures in the presence of an alkyl halide and a heterogeneous, bifunctional catalyst that is stable to hydrogenation and comprises an insoluble polymer having pendant quaternized heteroatoms, some of which heteroatoms are ionically bonded to anionic Group VIII metal complexes, the remainder of the heteroatoms being bonded to iodide. In contrast to prior art processes, no accelerator (promoter) is necessary to achieve the catalytic reaction and the products are easily separated from the catalyst by filtration. The catalyst can be recycled for 3 consecutive runs without loss in activity.

Ramprasad, D.; Waller, F.J.

1998-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

78

Process for the production of ethylidene diacetate from dimethyl ether using a heterogeneous catalyst  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to a process for producing ethylidene diacetate by the reaction of dimethyl ether, acetic acid, hydrogen and carbon monoxide at elevated temperatures and pressures in the presence of an alkyl halide and a heterogeneous, bifunctional catalyst that is stable to hydrogenation and comprises an insoluble polymer having pendant quaternized heteroatoms, some of which heteroatoms are ionically bonded to anionic Group VIII metal complexes, the remainder of the heteroatoms being bonded to iodide. In contrast to prior art processes, no accelerator (promoter) is necessary to achieve the catalytic reaction and the products are easily separated from the catalyst by filtration. The catalyst can be recycled for 3 consecutive runs without loss in activity.

Ramprasad, Dorai (Allentown, PA); Waller, Francis Joseph (Allentown, PA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Use of aluminum phosphate as the dehydration catalyst in single step dimethyl ether process  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The present invention pertains to a process for the coproduction of methanol and dimethyl ether (DME) directly from a synthesis gas in a single step (hereafter, the "single step DME process"). In this process, the synthesis gas comprising hydrogen and carbon oxides is contacted with a dual catalyst system comprising a physical mixture of a methanol synthesis catalyst and a methanol dehydration catalyst. The present invention is an improvement to this process for providing an active and stable catalyst system. The improvement comprises the use of an aluminum phosphate based catalyst as the methanol dehydration catalyst. Due to its moderate acidity, such a catalyst avoids the coke formation and catalyst interaction problems associated with the conventional dual catalyst systems taught for the single step DME process.

Peng, Xiang-Dong (Allentown, PA); Parris, Gene E. (Coopersburg, PA); Toseland, Bernard A. (Allentown, PA); Battavio, Paula J. (Allentown, PA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Hydrogen production from the steam reforming of Dinethyl Ether and Methanol  

SciTech Connect

This study investigates dimethyl ether (DME) steam reforming for the generation of hydrogen rich fuel cell feeds for fuel cell applications. Methanol has long been considered as a fuel for the generation of hydrogen rich fuel cell feeds due to its high energy density, low reforming temperature, and zero impurity content. However, it has not been accepted as the fuel of choice due its current limited availability, toxicity and corrosiveness. While methanol steam reforming for the generation of hydrogen rich fuel cell feeds has been extensively studied, the steam reforming of DME, CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3} + 3H{sub 2}O = 2CO{sub 2} + 6H{sub 2}, has had limited research effort. DME is the simplest ether (CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3}) and is a gas at ambient conditions. DME has physical properties similar to those of LPG fuels (i.e. propane and butane), resulting in similar storage and handling considerations. DME is currently used as an aerosol propellant and has been considercd as a diesel substitute due to the reduced NOx, SOx and particulate emissions. DME is also being considered as a substitute for LPG fuels, which is used extensively in Asia as a fuel for heating and cooking, and naptha, which is used for power generation. The potential advantages of both methanol and DME include low reforming temperature, decreased fuel proccssor startup energy, environmentally benign, visible flame, high heating value, and ease of storage and transportation. In addition, DME has the added advantages of low toxicity and being non-corrosive. Consequently, DME may be an ideal candidate for the generation of hydrogen rich fuel cell feeds for both automotive and portable power applications. The steam reforming of DME has been demonstrated to occur through a pair of reactions in series, where the first reaction is DME hydration followed by MeOH steam reforming to produce a hydrogen rich stream.

Semelsberger, T. A. (Troy A.); Borup, R. L. (Rodney L.)

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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81

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in leachates from selected landfill sites in South Africa  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The last few decades have seen dramatic growth in the scale of production and the use of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) as flame retardants. Consequently, PBDEs such as BDE -28, -47, -66, -71, -75, -77, -85, -99, -100, -119, -138, -153, -154, and -183 have been detected in various environmental matrices. Generally, in South Africa, once the products containing these chemicals have outlived their usefulness, they are discarded into landfill sites. Consequently, the levels of PBDEs in leachates from landfill sites may give an indication of the general exposure and use of these compounds. The present study was aimed at determining the occurrence and concentrations of most common PBDEs in leachates from selected landfill sites. The extraction capacities of the solvents were also tested. Spiked landfill leachate samples were used for the recovery tests. Separation and determination of the PBDE congeners were carried out with a gas chromatograph equipped with Ni{sup 63} electron capture detector. The mean percentage recoveries ranged from 63% to 108% (n = 3) for landfill leachate samples with petroleum ether giving the highest percentage extraction. The mean concentrations of PBDEs obtained ranged from ND to 2670 pg l{sup -1}, ND to 6638 pg l{sup -1}, ND to 7230 pg l{sup -1}, 41 to 4009 pg l{sup -1}, 90 to 9793 pg l{sup -1} for the Garankuwa, Hatherly, Kwaggarsrand, Soshanguve and Temba landfill sites, respectively. Also BDE -28, -47, -71 and BDE-77 were detected in the leachate samples from all the landfill sites; and all the congeners were detected in two of the oldest landfill sites. The peak concentrations were recorded for BDE-47 at three sites and BDE-71 and BDE-75 at two sites. The highest concentration, 9793 {+-} 1.5 pg l{sup -1}, was obtained for the Temba landfill site with the highest BOD value. This may suggest some influence of organics on the level of PBDEs. Considering the leaching characteristics of brominated flame retardants, there is a high possibility that with time these compounds may infiltrate into the groundwater around the sites since most of the sites are not adequately lined.

Odusanya, David O. [Department of Environmental, Water and Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X680, 175 Nelson Mandela Drive, Arcadia, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Okonkwo, Jonathan O. [Department of Environmental, Water and Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X680, 175 Nelson Mandela Drive, Arcadia, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa)], E-mail: OkonkwoOJ@tut.ac.za; Botha, Ben [Department of Environmental, Water and Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X680, 175 Nelson Mandela Drive, Arcadia, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa)

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

82

Decrease of intracellular pH as possible mechanism of embryotoxicity of glycol ether alkoxyacetic acid metabolites  

SciTech Connect

Embryotoxicity of glycol ethers is caused by their alkoxyacetic acid metabolites, but the mechanism underlying the embryotoxicity of these acid metabolites is so far not known. The present study investigates a possible mechanism underlying the embryotoxicity of glycol ether alkoxyacetic acid metabolites using the methoxyacetic acid (MAA) metabolite of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether as the model compound. The results obtained demonstrate an MAA-induced decrease of the intracellular pH (pH{sub i}) of embryonic BALB/c-3T3 cells as well as of embryonic stem (ES)-D3 cells, at concentrations that affect ES-D3 cell differentiation. These results suggest a mechanism for MAA-mediated embryotoxicity similar to the mechanism of embryotoxicity of the drugs valproic acid and acetazolamide (ACZ), known to decrease the pH{sub i}in vivo, and therefore used as positive controls. The embryotoxic alkoxyacetic acid metabolites ethoxyacetic acid, butoxyacetic acid and phenoxyacetic acid also caused an intracellular acidification of BALB/c-3T3 cells at concentrations that are known to inhibit ES-D3 cell differentiation. Two other embryotoxic compounds, all-trans-retinoic acid and 5-fluorouracil, did not decrease the pH{sub i} of embryonic cells at concentrations that affect ES-D3 cell differentiation, pointing at a different mechanism of embryotoxicity of these compounds. MAA and ACZ induced a concentration-dependent inhibition of ES-D3 cell differentiation, which was enhanced by amiloride, an inhibitor of the Na{sup +}/H{sup +}-antiporter, corroborating an important role of the pH{sub i} in the embryotoxic mechanism of both compounds. Together, the results presented indicate that a decrease of the pH{sub i} may be the mechanism of embryotoxicity of the alkoxyacetic acid metabolites of the glycol ethers.

Louisse, Jochem, E-mail: jochem.louisse@wur.n [Division of Toxicology, Wageningen University, Tuinlaan 5, 6703 HE Wageningen (Netherlands); TNO Quality of Life, PO Box 360, 3700 AJ Zeist (Netherlands); WUR/TNO Centre for Innovative Toxicology, PO Box 8000, 6700 EA Wageningen (Netherlands); Bai Yanqing [Division of Toxicology, Wageningen University, Tuinlaan 5, 6703 HE Wageningen (Netherlands); Verwei, Miriam; Sandt, Johannes J.M. van de [TNO Quality of Life, PO Box 360, 3700 AJ Zeist (Netherlands); WUR/TNO Centre for Innovative Toxicology, PO Box 8000, 6700 EA Wageningen (Netherlands); Blaauboer, Bas J. [Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Utrecht University, PO Box 80176, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M. [Division of Toxicology, Wageningen University, Tuinlaan 5, 6703 HE Wageningen (Netherlands); WUR/TNO Centre for Innovative Toxicology, PO Box 8000, 6700 EA Wageningen (Netherlands)

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Ethyl-tertiary-butyl-ether (ETBE) as an aviation fuel: Eleventh international symposium on alcohol fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper discusses the preliminary flight testing of an aircraft using neat burning ethyl-tertiary-butyl-ether (ETBE) as a fuel. No additional changes were made to the fuel delivery systems which had previously been modified to provide the higher fuel flow rates required to operate the engine on neat ethanol. Air-fuel ratios were manually adjusted with the mixture control. This system allows the pilot to adjust the mixture to compensate for changes in air density caused by altitude, pressure and temperature. The engine was instrumented to measure exhaust gas temperatures (EGT), cylinder head temperatures (CHT), and fuel flows, while the standard aircraft instruments were used to collect aircraft performance data. Baseline engine data for ETBE and Avgas are compared. Preliminary data indicates the technical and economic feasibility of using ETBE as an aviation fuel for the piston engine fleet. Furthermore, the energy density of ETBE qualifies it as a candidate for a turbine engine fuel of which 16.2 billion gallons are used in the US each year.

Maben, G.D.; Shauck, M.E.; Zanin, M.G.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

84

Liver Hypertrophy After Percutaneous Portal Vein Embolization: Comparison of N-Butyl-2-Cyanocrylate Versus Sodium Acrylate-Vinyl Alcohol Copolymer Particles in a Swine Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: Percutaneous portal vein embolization (PPVE) induces hypertrophy of the future liver remnant before hepatic resection. The ideal embolic material has not yet been determined. We compared N-butyl-2-cyanocrylate (NBCA) with sodium acrylate-vinyl alcohol copolymer particles using a swine model. Materials and Methods: Twelve pigs underwent PPVE. Six pigs (group A) were embolized with NBCA, and 6 pigs (group B) were embolized with sodium acrylate-vinyl alcohol copolymer particles. Computed tomographic volumetry of the embolized lobe (EL) and the nonembolized lobe (NEL), along with liver function tests, was performed before and at 14 and 28 days after embolization. Tissue samples from both lobes were taken 14 and 28 days after PPVE. Results: NEL-volume and NEL-ratio increases were significantly higher in group A at 14 and 28 days after PPVE (78 and 52% and 91 and 66%, respectively) than in group B (32 and 12% and 28 and 10%, respectively) (p < 0.05). Percent change of the EL-volume was significantly higher for group A at 28 days after PPVE. No statistically significant difference was found between the groups regarding hepatocyte proliferation on the NEL and apoptosis on the EL at both time intervals. Conclusion: PPVE using NBCA is more efficient and causes more NEL hypertrophy than microspheres.

Tsoumakidou, Georgia, E-mail: gtsoumakidou@yahoo.com [National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 2nd Department of Radiology, Medical School, General University Hospital Attikon (Greece); Theocharis, Stamatis, E-mail: theocharis@ath.forthnet.gr [National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Medical School (Greece); Ptohis, Nikolaos, E-mail: nikptohis@yahoo.gr; Alexopoulou, Efthimia, E-mail: ealex64@hotmail.com [National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 2nd Department of Radiology, Medical School, General University Hospital Attikon (Greece); Mantziaras, George, E-mail: gmantziaras@yahoo.com [Academy of Athens, Biomedical Research Foundation (Greece); Kelekis, Nikolaos L., E-mail: kelnik@med.uoa.gr; Brountzos, Elias N., E-mail: ebrountz@med.uoa.gr [National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 2nd Department of Radiology, Medical School, General University Hospital Attikon (Greece)

2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

85

Alkaline-side extraction of technetium from tank waste using crown ethers and other extractants  

SciTech Connect

The chemical development of a new crown-ether-based solvent-extraction process for the separation of (Tc) from alkaline tank-waste supernate is ready for counter-current testing. The process addresses a priority need in the proposed cleanup of Hanford and other tank wastes. This need has arisen from concerns due to the volatility of Tc during vitrification, as well as {sup 99}Tc`s long half-life and environmental mobility. The new process offers several key advantages that direct treatability--no adjustment of the waste composition is needed; economical stripping with water; high efficiency--few stages needed; non-RCRA chemicals--no generation of hazardous or mixed wastes; co-extraction of {sup 90}Sr; and optional concentration on a resin. A key concept advanced in this work entails the use of tandem techniques: solvent extraction offers high selectivity, while a subsequent column sorption process on the aqueous stripping solution serves to greatly concentrate the Tc. Optionally, the stripping solution can be evaporated to a small volume. Batch tests of the solvent-extraction and stripping components of the process have been conducted on actual melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) waste as well as simulants of MVST and Hanford waste. The tandem process was demonstrated on MVST waste simulants using the three solvents that were selected the final candidates for the process. The solvents are 0.04 M bis-4,4{prime}(5{prime})[(tert-butyl)cyclohexano]-18-crown-6 (abbreviated di-t-BuCH18C6) in a 1:1 vol/vol blend of tributyl phosphate and Isopar{reg_sign} M (an isoparaffinic kerosene); 0.02 M di-t-BuCH18C6 in 2:1 vol/vol TBP/Isopar M and pure TBP. The process is now ready for counter-current testing on actual Hanford tank supernates.

Bonnesen, P.V.; Moyer, B.A.; Presley, D.J.; Armstrong, V.S.; Haverlock, T.J.; Counce, R.M.; Sachleben, R.A.

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Mechanistic Investigation of Acid-Catalyzed Cleavage of Aryl-Ether Linkages: Implications for Lignin Depolymerization  

SciTech Connect

Carbon-oxygen bonds are the primary inter-monomer linkages lignin polymers in plant cell walls, and as such, catalyst development to cleave these linkages is of paramount importance to deconstruct biomass to its constituent monomers for the production of renewable fuels and chemicals. For many decades, acid catalysis has been used to depolymerize lignin. Lignin is a primary component of plant cell walls, which is connected primarily by aryl-ether linkages, and the mechanism of its deconstruction by acid is not well understood, likely due to its heterogeneous and complex nature compared to cellulose. For effective biomass conversion strategies, utilization of lignin is of significant relevance and as such understanding the mechanisms of catalytic lignin deconstruction to constituent monomers and oligomers is of keen interest. Here, we present a comprehensive experimental and theoretical study of the acid catalysis of a range of dimeric species exhibiting the b-O-4 linkage, the most common inter-monomer linkage in lignin. We demonstrate that the presence of a phenolic species dramatically increases the rate of cleavage in acid at 150 degrees C. Quantum mechanical calculations on dimers with the para-hydroxyl group demonstrate that this acid-catalyzed pathway differs from the nonphenolic dimmers. Importantly, this result implies that depolymerization of native lignin in the plant cell wall will proceed via an unzipping mechanism wherein b-O-4 linkages will be cleaved from the ends of the branched, polymer chains inwards toward the center of the polymer. To test this hypothesis further, we synthesized a homopolymer of b-O-4 with a phenolic hydroxyl group, and demonstrate that it is cleaved in acid from the end containing the phenolic hydroxyl group. This result suggests that genetic modifications to lignin biosynthesis pathways in plants that will enable lower severity processes to fractionate lignin for upgrading and for easier access to the carbohydrate fraction of the plant cell wall.

Sturgeon, M. R.; Kim, S.; Chmely, S. C.; Foust, T. D.; Beckham, G. T.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

The lightness of being: mass, ether, and unification of the forces  

SciTech Connect

How can an electron be both a wave and a particle? At the same time? Because it is a quantum field. That key insight seems to be underappreciated, given the awe and mysticism that permeate most nontechnical discussions of modern physics. Perhaps the root of the problem is that most popularizations of quantum mechanics and of particle physics shy away from quantized fields, the natural language for microscopic phenomena. In 'The Lightness of Being: Mass, Ether, and the Unification of Forces', Frank Wilczek confronts quantum field theory head on, demystifying not only wave-particle duality but also the origin of mass for hadrons (that is, everyday matter). Wilczek is the Herman Feshbach Professor of Physics at MIT and a co-recipient of the 2004 Nobel Prize in Physics. His research has spanned almost all aspects of theoretical particle physics, with significant forays into condensed-matter physics and dense nuclear matter (condensed quark matter, one might say). Recurring themes are the richness of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and the alluring ideas of unification. His breadth and depth make him a sought after speaker for colloquia and public lectures. Wilczek also contributes an occasional Reference Frame column to 'Physics Today'. The material in 'The Lightness of Being' reflects the scope of the author's research. The book consists of three parts: the quantum fields of QCD (the ether that makes mass), gravitation (the ether that feels mass), and unification. Part 1, which traces notions of mass from Isaac Newton's time through theoretical and computational results of the past 40 years, is the most substantial and original; it is rich, modern, and rooted in observed phenomena. Part 2 continues in the same vein as it connects gravity, also an observed phenomenon, to QCD. Part 3 is more conventional, for a popularization of particle physics, in its focus on speculative ideas that (still) await direct experimental tests. Readers of 'Physics Today' will know that Wilczek can write with wit, grace, and an uncanny facility for using lightweight language to express heavy-duty ideas. They will find much of that kind of writing in 'The Lightness of Being'. Wilczek addresses subtle ideas with vim and vigor. He avoids some of the jargon of quantum field theory; for example, he calls the vertex in a Feynman diagram a hub. In more ambitious terminology, he refers to space-filling, everfluctuating quantum fields--be they electrons, quarks, gluons, or gravity--as 'the Grid'. The term is supposed to be short and familiar, evoking the ubiquitous electric grid (and soon-to-beubiquitous computing grid). It also, for the expert, cleverly alludes to lattice gauge theory. Indeed, after vividly explaining how the dynamics of QCD and the constraints of Heisenberg uncertainty conspire to create mass from the Grid, Wilczek emphasizes that the picture is backed by lattice QCD computations of 'heroic' proportions. Unfortunately, too much of 'The Lightness' is laden with clunky affectation: silly names (a pulsed electron accelerator is called the 'ultrastroboscopic nanomicroscope'), sophomoric jokes ('hadron' is 'not a typo'), references to pop culture (Wilczek might have called quantum fields 'the Matrix, but the sequels tarnished that candidate'), and many pointless footnotes. In a public lecture the audience may guffaw at such jokes, but on the printed page they fall flat. Wilczek explains physics so well that the inappropriate humor is the biggest unexplained puzzle of the book. It is fine to be silly, even crude, as long as the reader's path to understanding is made easier. A joke can inform with an unexpected perspective or simply give the mind a pause to refresh. Some of the humor achieves such aims, but too many gags impede the pace of the otherwise fine exposition. Three appendices, a glossary, and a set of endnotes are crisp and sober. They are excellent. 'The Lightness of Being' is not unbearable, but it is weighed down with too much clutter to rank as a masterpiece. It's a pity: Wilczek's best writing--some of it in this book--is l

Kronfeld, Andreas S.

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Separation of Dimethyl Ether from Syn-Gas Components by Poly(dimethylsiloxane) and Poly(4-methyl-1-pentene) Membranes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Permeability and selectivity in gas transport through poly(4-methyl-1-pentene) (TPX) and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) using variable temperature mixed gas experiments is reported. Selected gases include H2, CO, CH4, CO2, and dimethyl ether (DME). The DME data is the first to be reported through these membranes. In this paper, the chosen polymers reflect both rubbery and crystalline materials. Rubbery polymers tend to be weakly size sieving, which, in this work, has resulted in larger permeabilities, lower separation factors, and lower activation energies of permeation (Ep). Conversely, the crystalline TPX membranes showed much greater sensitivity to penetrant size; although the gas condensability also played a role in transport.

Christopher J. Orme; Frederick F. Stewart

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Synthesis of Cyclic Aza-Ether Compounds and Studies of Their Use as Anion Receptors in Non-Aqueous Lithium Halide Salt Solutions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A series of new anion receptors, based on cyclic aza-ether compounds, have been synthesized. In all of these cyclic aza-ether compounds, the electron-withdrawing group CF{sub 3}SO{sub 2} was attached to each of the nitrogen atoms. When used as additives, all of them can significantly increase the ionic conductivity of lithium halide salts in THF solutions. This is due to the complexation between these compounds and halide anions. Ionic conductivity studies show that the complexation behavior is related to both the ring structure of the cyclic compounds and the characteristics of the halide anions. X-ray diffraction data show that the diffraction patterns of the complex crystals are different from the pure cyclic aza-ether compounds. New Bragg peaks representing a large d-spacing ({approx}15 {angstrom}) are observed for the complex crystals which provides a clear evidence for complexation.

Lee, H. S.; Sun, X.; Yang, X. Q.; McBreen, J.; Callahan, J. H.; Choi, L. S.

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Synthesis of octane enhancers during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch. [801Methyl tert-butyl ether  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to investigate three possible routes to the formation of ethers, in particular methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), during slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch reaction. The three reaction schemes to be investigated are: (1) Addition of isobutylene during the formation of methanol and/or higher alcohols directly from CO and H{sub 2} during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch. (2) Addition of isobutylene to FT liquid products including alcohols in a slurry-phase reactor containing an MTBE or other acid catalyst. (3) Addition of methanol to slurry phase FT synthesis making iso-olefins. During the sixth quarter we completed the construction of the slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR), conducted initial shake-down experiments in a cold-flow mode, and finalized the selection process of the acid catalysts for conversion of syngas-produced alcohols and isobutylene to MTBE (scheme 2). Tasks 3, 4, and 5 are awaiting complete implementation of the SBCR system.

Marcelin, G.

1992-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

91

Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a volatile organic com-pound (VOC) derived from natural gas that is added to gas-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a volatile organic com- pound (VOC) derived from natural gas Water in Urban and Agricultural Areas made from methanol, which is derived primarily from natural gas that is added to gas- oline either seasonally or year round in many parts of the United States to increase

92

The Effect of Time dealumination and Solvent Concentration in Synthesis of Zeolite Catalyst and Catalytic Test for DiEthyl Ether Production Process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ethanol is an alternative energy, but its has three distinct disadvantages as a transportation fuel. Its availability is currently limited, and it has a lower volumetric heating value and a lower Reid vapour pressure (RVP) than gasoline. This paper focuses for this disadvantages and to solve this problem can do with converts ethanol to DiEthyl Ether product. This research produced DiEthyl Ether by ethanol dehydration process with zeolite as catalyst. The catalyst synthesis from natural material from District Gunung Kidul, Indonesia. The catalyst produced with dealumination, neutralization, drying and calcination processes. The zeolite catalyst was analysed of Si/Al, X-ray Diffraction and specific surface area. The catalyst product then used for ethanol dehydration to produce DiEthyl Ether. The results shown the biggest surface area is 184,52 m{sup 2}/gram at catalyst production at 10 hours for time dealumination. The crystallite of catalyst product is similar like shown at diffractogram of XRD analysis. The ratio Si/Al biggest is 313.7 that obtaining at catalyst production with 7 hours for time dealumination. The catalytic test use fixed bed reactor with 1 inci diameter and ethanol fermentation both as feed. The operation condition is 150 deg. C at temperature and atmosphere pressure. The compounds product in liquid phase are diethyl ether, methanol and water.

Widayat [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering Diponegoro University, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Industry Technology Institute of Technology Sepuluh Nopember Surabaya Indonesia, Kampus Sukolilo Surabaya Indonesia (Indonesia); Roesyadi, A.; Rachimoellah, M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Industry Technology Institute of Technology Sepuluh Nopember Surabaya Indonesia, Kampus Sukolilo Surabaya Indonesia (Indonesia)

2009-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

93

Comparative Environmental Performance of Two-Diesel-Fuel Oxygenates: Dibutyl Maleate (DBM) and Triproplyene Glycol Monomethyl Ether (TGME)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Many studies have shown that the addition of oxygen bearing compounds to diesel fuel can significantly reduce particulate emissions. To assist in the evaluation of the environmental performance of diesel-fuel oxygenates, we have implemented a suite of diagnostic models for simulating the transport of compounds released to air, water, and soils/groundwater as well as regional landscapes. As a means of studying the comparative performance of DBM and TGME, we conducted a series of simulations for selected environmental media. Benzene and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) were also addressed because they represent benchmark fuel-related compounds that have been the subject of extensive environmental measurements and modeling. The simulations showed that DBM and TGME are less mobile in soil because of reduced vapor-phase transport and increased retention on soil particles. The key distinction between these two oxygenates is that DBM is predicted to have a greater potential than TGME for aerobic biodegradation, based on chemical structure.

Layton, D.W.; Marchetti, A.A.

2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Single-Step Syngas-to-Distillates (S2D) Synthesis via Methanol and Dimethyl Ether Intermediates: Final Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of the work was to enhance price-competitive, synthesis gas (syngas)-based production of transportation fuels that are directly compatible with the existing vehicle fleet (i.e., vehicles fueled by gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, etc.). To accomplish this, modifications to the traditional methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) process were investigated. In this study, we investigated direct conversion of syngas to distillates using methanol and dimethyl ether intermediates. For this application, a Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 (PdZnAl) catalyst previously developed for methanol steam reforming was evaluated. The PdZnAl catalyst was shown to be far superior to a conventional copper-based methanol catalyst when operated at relatively high temperatures (i.e., >300°C), which is necessary for MTG-type applications. Catalytic performance was evaluated through parametric studies. Process conditions such as temperature, pressure, gas-hour-space velocity, and syngas feed ratio (i.e., hydrogen:carbon monoxide) were investigated. PdZnAl catalyst formulation also was optimized to maximize conversion and selectivity to methanol and dimethyl ether while suppressing methane formation. Thus, a PdZn/Al2O3 catalyst optimized for methanol and dimethyl ether formation was developed through combined catalytic material and process parameter exploration. However, even after compositional optimization, a significant amount of undesirable carbon dioxide was produced (formed via the water-gas-shift reaction), and some degree of methane formation could not be completely avoided. Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 used in combination with ZSM-5 was investigated for direct syngas-to-distillates conversion. High conversion was achieved as thermodynamic constraints are alleviated when methanol and dimethyl are intermediates for hydrocarbon formation. When methanol and/or dimethyl ether are products formed separately, equilibrium restrictions occur. Thermodynamic relaxation also enables the use of lower operating pressures than what would be allowed for methanol synthesis alone. Aromatic-rich hydrocarbon liquid (C5+), containing a significant amount of methylated benzenes, was produced under these conditions. However, selectivity control to liquid hydrocarbons was difficult to achieve. Carbon dioxide and methane formation was problematic. Furthermore, saturation of the olefinic intermediates formed in the zeolite, and necessary for gasoline production, occurred over PdZnAl. Thus, yield to desirable hydrocarbon liquid product was limited. Evaluation of other oxygenate-producing catalysts could possibly lead to future advances. Potential exists with discovery of other types of catalysts that suppress carbon dioxide and light hydrocarbon formation. Comparative techno-economics for a single-step syngas-to-distillates process and a more conventional MTG-type process were investigated. Results suggest operating and capital cost savings could only modestly be achieved, given future improvements to catalyst performance. Sensitivity analysis indicated that increased single-pass yield to hydrocarbon liquid is a primary need for this process to achieve cost competiveness.

Dagle, Robert A.; Lebarbier, Vanessa MC; Lizarazo Adarme, Jair A.; King, David L.; Zhu, Yunhua; Gray, Michel J.; Jones, Susanne B.; Biddy, Mary J.; Hallen, Richard T.; Wang, Yong; White, James F.; Holladay, Johnathan E.; Palo, Daniel R.

2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

95

Removal of technetium from alkaline nuclear-waste media by a solvent-extraction process using crown ethers  

SciTech Connect

Crown ethers dissolved in suitably modified aliphatic kerosene diluents can be employed to extract technetium as pertechnetate anion (TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}) with good extraction ratios from realistic simulants of radioactive alkaline nitrate waste. The modifiers utilized are non-halogenated and non-volatile, and the technetium can be removed from the solvent by stripping using water. The crown ethers bis-4,4{prime}(5{prime})[(tert-butyl)cyclohexano]-18-crown-6 (di-t-BuCH18C6) and dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 (DCH18C6) provide stronger TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} extraction than dicyclohexano-21-crown-7 and 4-tert-butylcyclohexano 15-crown-5. Whereas DCH18C6 provides somewhat higher TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} extraction ratios than the more lipophilic di-t-BuCH18C6 derivative, the latter was selected for further study owing to its lower distribution to the aqueous phase. Particularly good extraction and stripping results were obtained with di-t-BuCH 18C6 at 0.02 M in a 2:1 vol/vol blend of tributyl phosphate and Isopar{reg_sign} M. Using this solvent, 98.9% of the technetium contained (at 6 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} M) in a Double-Shell Slurry Feed (DSSF) Hanford tank waste simulant was removed following two cross-current extraction contacts. Two cross-current stripping contacts with deionized water afforded removal of 99.1% of the technetium from the organic solvent.

Bonnesen, P.V.; Presley, D.J.; Haverlock, T.J.; Moyer, B.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Chemical and Analytical Sciences Div.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Solvent Effects on Metal Complexation with Crown Ethers from Liquid to Supercritical Fluids (DE-FG07-98ER 149 13)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this project is to study the salvation effects of metal-crown ether complexation in different solvents. It has been suggested in the literature that supercritical fluid carbon dioxide (SF-CO2) is a tunable solvent because its salvation environment can be varied with the fluid density. In this project, spectroscopic techniques including nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) were used to evaluate salvation effects of metal crown complexation in organic solvents and in SF-CO2. In most solvent extraction systems, water is often involved in the extraction processes. We have carried out extensive studies of water-crown ether interactions in different solvents and in SF-CO2 using NMR and FTIR techniques. Water molecules can be attached to crown ethers through hydrogen bonding of H-0-H to the oxygen atoms of crown ether cavities. This type of interaction is like a Lewis acid-Lewis base complexation. During the course of this project, we noticed that some CO2 soluble Lewis base such as tri-n-butyl-phosphate (TBP) can also form such Lewis acid-Lewis base complexes with water and other inorganic acids including nitric acid and hydrochloric acid. Inorganic acids (e.g. nitric acid) are normally not soluble in SF-CO2. However, because TBP is highly soluble in SF-CO2, an inorganic acid bound to TBP via hydrogen bonding becomes CO2 soluble. This Lewis acid-Lewis base complex approach provides a method of introducing inorganic acids into supercritical fluid CO2 for chemical reactions.

Wai, C.M.

2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Heat Capacity Uncertainty Calculation for the Eutectic Mixture of Biphenyl/Diphenyl Ether Used as Heat Transfer Fluid: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The main objective of this study was to calculate the uncertainty at 95% confidence for the experimental values of heat capacity of the eutectic mixture of biphenyl/diphenyl ether (Therminol VP-1) determined from 300 to 370 degrees C. Twenty-five samples were evaluated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to obtain the sample heat flow as a function of temperature. The ASTM E-1269-05 standard was used to determine the heat capacity using DSC evaluations. High-pressure crucibles were employed to contain the sample in the liquid state without vaporizing. Sample handling has a significant impact on the random uncertainty. It was determined that the fluid is difficult to handle, and a high variability of the data was produced. The heat capacity of Therminol VP-1 between 300 and 370 degrees C was measured to be equal to 0.0025T+0.8672 with an uncertainty of +/- 0.074 J/g.K (3.09%) at 95% confidence with T (temperature) in Kelvin.

Gomez, J. C.; Glatzmaier, G. C.; Mehos, M.

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Electrochemical Investigation of Li-Al Anodes in Oligo (ethylene glycol) Dimethyl ether/LiPF6  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

LiPF{sub 6} dissolved in oligo(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ether with a molecular weight 5 g mol{sup -1} was investigated as a new electrolyte (OEGDME5, 1 M LiPF{sub 6}) for metal deposition and battery applications. At 25 C a conductivity of .48 x 1{sup -3} S cm{sup -1} was obtained and at 85 C, 3.78 x 1{sup -3} S cm{sup -1}. The apparent activation barrier for ionic transport was evaluated to be 3.7 kJ mol{sup -1}. OEGDME5, 1 M LiPF{sub 6} allows operating temperature above 1 C with very attractive conductivity. The electrolyte shows excellent performance at negative and positive potentials. With this investigation, we report experimental results obtained with aluminum electrodes using this electrolyte. At low current densities lithium ion reduction and re-oxidation can be achieved on aluminum electrodes at potentials about 28 mV more positive than on lithium electrodes. In situ X-ray diffraction measurements collected during electrochemical lithium deposition on aluminum electrodes show that the shift to positive potentials is due to the negative Gibbs free energy change of the Li-Al alloy formation reaction.

Y Zhou; X Wang; H Lee; K Nam; X Yang; O Haas

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

99

Electrochemical Investigation of Li–Al Anodes in Oligo(ethylene glycol) Dimethyl Ether/LiPF6  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

1 M LiPF{sub 6} dissolved in oligo(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ether with a molecular weight 500 g mol{sup -1} was investigated as a new electrolyte (OEGDME500, 1 M LiPF{sub 6}) for metal deposition and battery applications. At 25 C a conductivity of 0.48 x 10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1} was obtained and at 85 C, 3.78 x 10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1}. The apparent activation barrier for ionic transport was evaluated to be 30.7 kJ mol{sup -1}. OEGDME500, 1 M LiPF{sub 6} allows operating temperature above 100 C with very attractive conductivity. The electrolyte shows excellent performance at negative and positive potentials. With this investigation, we report experimental results obtained with aluminum electrodes using this electrolyte. At low current densities lithium ion reduction and re-oxidation can be achieved on aluminum electrodes at potentials about 280 mV more positive than on lithium electrodes. In situ X-ray diffraction measurements collected during electrochemical lithium deposition on aluminum electrodes show that the shift to positive potentials is due to the negative Gibbs free energy change of the Li-Al alloy formation reaction.

Zhou, Y.N.; Yang, X.; Wang, X.J.; Lee, H.S.; Nam, K.W.; Haas, O.

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Auto-ignition during instationary jet evolution of dimethyl ether (DME) in a high-pressure atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The auto-ignition process during transient injection of gaseous dimethyl ether (DME) in a constant high-pressure atmosphere is studied experimentally by laser-optical methods and compared with numerical calculations. With different non-intrusive measurement techniques jet properties and auto-ignition are investigated at high temporal and spatial resolution. The open jet penetrates a constant pressure oxidative atmosphere of up to 4 MPa. During the transient evolution, the fuel jet entrains air at up to 720 K. The subsequent auto-ignition of the ignitable part of the jet occurs simultaneously over a wide spatial extension. The ignition delay times are not affected by variation of the nozzle exit velocity. Thus, the low-temperature oxidation is slow compared with the shorter time scales of mixing, so that chemical kinetics is dominating the process. The typical two-stage ignition is resolved optically with high-speed shadowgraphy at a sampling rate of 10 kHz. The 2D fields of jet velocity and transient mixture fraction are measured phase-coupled with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Tracer Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) during the time-frame of ignition. The instationary Probability Density Functions (PDF) of mixture fraction are described very well by Beta functions within the complete area of the open jet. Additional 1D flamelet simulations of the auto-ignition process are computed with a detailed reaction mechanism for DME [S. Fischer, F. Dryer, H. Curran, Int. J. Chem. Kinet. 32 (12) (2000) 713-740; H. Curran, S. Fischer, F. Dryer, Int. J. Chem. Kinet. 32 (12) (2000) 741-759]. Calculated ignition delay times are in very good agreement with the measured mean ignition delay times of 3 ms. Supplemental flamelet simulations address the influence of DME and air temperature, pressure and strain. Underneath a critical strain rate the air temperature is identified to be the most sensitive factor on ignition delay time. (author)

Fast, G.; Kuhn, D.; Class, A.G. [Institut fuer Kern- und Energietechnik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Weberstrasse 5, D-76133 Karlsruhe (Germany); Maas, U. [Institut fuer Technische Thermodynamik, Universitat Karlsruhe (TH), Kaiserstrasse 12, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany)

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

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101

Altered cardiovascular reactivity and osmoregulation during hyperosmotic stress in adult rats developmentally exposed to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and the structurally similar chemicals polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) disrupt the function of multiple endocrine systems. PCBs and PBDEs disrupt the secretion of vasopressin (VP) from the hypothalamus during osmotic activation. Since the peripheral and central vasopressinergic axes are critical for osmotic and cardiovascular regulation, we examined whether perinatal PBDE exposure could impact these functions during physiological activation. Rats were perinatally dosed with a commercial PBDE mixture, DE-71. Dams were given 0 (corn oil control), 1.7 (low dose) or 30.6 mg/kg/day (high dose) in corn oil from gestational day (GD) 6 through postnatal day (PND) 21 by oral gavage. In the male offspring exposed to high dose PBDE plasma thyroxine and triiodothyronine levels were reduced at PND 21 and recovered to control levels by PND 60 when thyroid stimulating hormone levels were elevated. At 14-18 months of age, cardiovascular responses were measured in four groups of rats: Normal (Oil, normosmotic condition), Hyper (Oil, hyperosmotic stress), Hyper PBDE low (1.7 mg/kg/day DE-71 perinatally, hyperosmotic stress), and Hyper PBDE high (30.6 mg/kg/day DE-71 perinatally, hyperosmotic stress). Systolic blood pressure (BP), diastolic BP, and heart rate (HR) were determined using tail cuff sphygmomanometry and normalized to pretreatment values (baseline) measured under basal conditions. Hyperosmotic treatment yielded significant changes in systolic BP in PBDE exposed rats only. Hyper PBDE low and high dose rats showed 36.1 and 64.7% greater systolic BP responses at 3 h post hyperosmotic injection relative to pretreatment baseline, respectively. No treatment effects were measured for diastolic BP and HR. Hyper and Hyper PBDE rats showed increased mean plasma osmolality values by 45 min after injection relative to normosmotic controls. In contrast to Hyper rats, Hyper PBDE (high) rats showed a further increase in mean plasma osmolality at 3 h (358.3 {+-} 12.4 mOsm/L) relative to 45 min post hyperosmotic injection (325.1 {+-} 11.4 mOsm/L). Impaired osmoregulation in PBDE-treated animals could not be attributed to decreased levels of plasma vasopressin. Our findings suggest that developmental exposure to PBDEs may disrupt cardiovascular reactivity and osmoregulatory responses to physiological activation in late adulthood. - Highlights: > We examined whether PBDE exposure could impact osmotic and cardiovascular regulation. > Hyperosmotic treatment yielded significant changes in systolic BP in PBDE exposed rats only. > PBDEs may disrupt cardiovascular and osmoregulatory responses to physiological activation.

Shah, Ashini [Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, University of California, Riverside, 92521 (United States); Coburn, Cary G. [Environmental Toxicology Graduate Program, University of California, Riverside, 92521 (United States); Watson-Siriboe, Abena; Whitley, Rebecca; Shahidzadeh, Anoush; Gillard, Elizabeth R.; Nichol, Robert [Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, University of California, Riverside, 92521 (United States); Leon-Olea, Martha [Neuromorfologia Funcional, Direccion de Investigaciones en Neurociencias, Instituto Nacional de Psiquiatria Ramon de la Fuente Muniz, Mexico City (Mexico); Gaertner, Mark [Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, University of California, Riverside, 92521 (United States); Kodavanti, Prasada Rao S. [Neurotoxicology Branch, NHEERL/ORD, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Curras-Collazo, Margarita C., E-mail: margarita.curras@ucr.edu [Environmental Toxicology Graduate Program, University of California, Riverside, 92521 (United States); Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, University of California, Riverside, 92521 (United States)

2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

102

Synthesis of Methanol and Dimethyl Ether from Syngas over Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 Catalysts  

SciTech Connect

A Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst was developed for the synthesis of methanol and dimethyl ether (DME) from syngas. Studied were temperatures of operation ranging from 250°C to 380°C. High temperatures (e.g. 380°C) are necessary when combining methanol and DME synthesis with a methanol to gasoline (MTG) process in a single reactor bed. A commercial Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst, utilized industrially for the synthesis of methanol at 220-280°C, suffers from a rapid deactivation when the reaction is conducted at high temperature (>320°C). On the contrary, a Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst was found to be highly stable for methanol and DME synthesis at 380°C. The Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst was thus further investigated for methanol and DME synthesis at P=34-69 bars, T= 250-380°C, GHSV= 5 000-18 000 h-1, and molar feeds H2/CO= 1, 2, and 3. Selectivity to DME increased with decreasing operating temperature, and increasing operating pressure. Increased GHSV’s and H2/CO syngas feed ratios also enhanced DME selectivity. Undesirable CH4 formation was observed, however, can be minimized through choice of process conditions and by catalyst design. By studying the effect of the Pd loading and the Pd:Zn molar ratio the formulation of the Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst was optimized. A catalyst with 5% Pd and a Pd:Zn molar ratio of 0.25:1 has been identified as the preferred catalyst. Results indicate that PdZn particles are more active than Pdº particles for the synthesis of methanol and less active for CH4 formation. A correlation between DME selectivity and the concentration of acid sites of the catalysts has been established. Hence, two types of sites are required for the direct conversion of syngas to DME: 1) PdZn particles are active for the synthesis of methanol from syngas, and 2) acid sites which are active for the conversion of methanol to DME. Additionally, CO2 formation was problematic as PdZn was found to be active for the water-gas-shift (WGS) reaction, under all the conditions evaluated.

Lebarbier, Vanessa MC; Dagle, Robert A.; Kovarik, Libor; Lizarazo Adarme, Jair A.; King, David L.; Palo, Daniel R.

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Electrochemical Investigation of Al–Li/LixFePO4 Cells in Oligo(ethylene glycol) Dimethyl Ether/LiPF6  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

1 M LiPF{sub 6} dissolved in oligo(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ether with a molecular weight, 500 g mol{sup -1} (OEGDME500, 1 M LiPF{sub 6}), was investigated as an electrolyte in experimental Al-Li/LiFePO{sub 4} cells. More than 60 cycles were achieved using this electrolyte in a Li-ion cell with an Al-Li alloy as an anode sandwiched between two Li x FePO{sub 4} electrodes (cathodes). Charging efficiencies of 96-100% and energy efficiencies of 86-89% were maintained during 60 cycles at low current densities. A theoretical investigation revealed that the specific energy can be increased up to 15% if conventional LiC{sub 6} anodes are replaced by Al-Li alloy electrodes. The specific energy and the energy density were calculated as a function of the active mass per electrode surface (charge density). The results reveal that for a charge density of 4 mAh cm{sup -2} about 160 mWh g{sup -1} can be reached with Al-Li/LiFePO{sub 4} batteries. Power limiting diffusion processes are discussed, and the power capability of Al-Li/LiFePO{sub 4} cells was experimentally evaluated using conventional electrolytes.

Wang, X.J.; Zhou, Y.N.; Lee, H.S.; Nam, K.W.; Yang, X.Q.; Haas, O.

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Experimental Pathology Laboratories, Inc. Vinyl Chloride  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, and Research (CEDR), Phi Delta Kappa International, 1999. 37. Sorenson SB, Peterson JG, Richardson BA. Child

Bandettini, Peter A.

105

Densities and viscosities for binary mixtures of N-methyldiethanolamine + triethylene glycol monomethyl ether from 25 C to 70 C and N-methyldiethanolamine + ethanol mixtures at 40 C  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent studies done on the absorption and desorption of acid gases (CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S) from natural gas, petroleum, and ammonia synthesis streams have shown that aqueous solutions of N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) can be used effectively for the selective removal of H{sub 2}S. This paper reports the measured values of the density and viscosity of binary mixtures of N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) and triethylene glycol monomethyl ether (TEGMME) at five temperatures in the range 25 C to 70 C over the whole concentration range. The authors also report the density and viscosity of the binary mixture MDEA + ethanol at 40 C. The results are compared with data for aqueous mixtures and other alkanolamines when these are available. The derived excess molar volumes and viscosity deviations were correlated as a function of composition. The Grunberg-Nissan interaction energy constants are also reported.

Henni, A.; Maham, Y.; Tontiwachwuthikul, P.; Chakma, A.; Mather, A.E.

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

An approach to catalytic asymmetric electrocyclization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

petroleum ether 40-60 Ph phenyl ppm parts per million Pr propyl q quartet Rf retention factor rt room temperature s singlet sept septet t triplet t tertiary TBAF tetrabutylammonium fluoride TBS tert... demonstrated by Nelson.73 In this case, we observed the formation of lactone 75 by vinyl nucleophile addition to the corresponding aldehydes 71 and 72. We require a less basic source of vinyl anion, or a bulkier ester such as tert-butyl, to prevent any...

Kothari, Abhishek

2010-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

107

High Temperature, Low Relative Humidity, Polymer-type Membranes Based on Disulfonated Poly(arylene ether) Block and Random Copolymers Optionally Incorporating Protonic Conducting Layered Water insoluble Zirconium Fillers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Our research group has been engaged in the past few years in the synthesis of biphenol based partially disulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) random copolymers as potential PEMs. This series of polymers are named as BPSH-xx, where BP stands for biphenol, S stands for sulfonated, H stands for acidified and xx represents the degree of disulfonation. All of these sulfonated copolymers phase separate to form nano scale hydrophilic and hydrophobic morphological domains. The hydrophilic phase containing the sulfonic acid moieties causes the copolymer to absorb water. Water confined in hydrophilic pores in concert with the sulfonic acid groups serve the critical function of proton (ion) conduction and water transport in these systems. Both Nafion and BPSH show high proton conductivity at fully hydrated conditions. However proton transport is especially limited at low hydration level for the BPSH random copolymer. It has been observed that the diffusion coefficients of both water and protons change with the water content of the pore. This change in proton and water transport mechanisms with hydration level has been attributed to the solvation of the acid groups and the amount of bound and bulk-like water within a pore. At low hydration levels most of the water is tightly associated with sulfonic groups and has a low diffusion coefficient. This tends to encourage isolated domain morphology. Thus, although there may be significant concentrations of protons, the transport is limited by the discontinuous morphological structure. Hence the challenge lies in how to modify the chemistry of the polymers to obtain significant protonic conductivity at low hydration levels. This may be possible if one can alter the chemical structure to synthesize nanophase separated ion containing block copolymers. Unlike the BPSH copolymers, where the sulfonic acid groups are randomly distributed along the chain, the multiblock copolymers will feature an ordered sequence of hydrophilic and hydrophobic segments. If, like in Nafion, connectivity is established between the hydrophilic domains in these multiblock copolymers, they will not need as much water, and hence will show much better protonic conductivity than the random copolymers (with similar degree of sulfonation, or IEC) at partially hydrated conditions. The goal of this research is to develop a material suitable for use as a polymer electrolyte membrane which by the year 2010 will meet all the performance requirements associated with fuel cell operation at high temperatures and low relative humidity, and will out-perform the present standard Nafion{reg_sign}. In particular, it is our objective to extend our previous research based on the use of thermally, oxidatively, and hydrolytically, ductile, high Tg ion containing polymers based on poly(arylene ethers) to the production of polymer electrolyte membranes which will meet all the performance requirements in addition to having an areal resistance of < 0.05 ohm-cm{sup 2} at a temperature of up to 120 C, relative humidity of 25 to 50%, and up to 2.5 atm total pressure. In many instances, our materials already out performs Nafion{reg_sign}, and it is expected that with some modification by either combining with conductive inorganic fillers and/or synthesizing as a block copolymer it will meet the performance criteria at high temperatures and low relative humidity. A key component in improving the performance of the membranes (and in particular proton conductivity) and meeting the cost requirements of $40/m{sup 2} is our development of a film casting process, which shows promise for generation of void free thin films of uniform thickness with controlled polymer alignment and configuration.

McGrath, James E.; Baird, Donald G.

2010-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

108

Determination of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether and tert-Butyl Alcohol in Water by Solid-Phase Microextraction/Head Space Analysis in Comparison to EPA Method 5030/8260B  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is now one of the most common groundwater contaminants in the United States. Groundwater contaminated with MTBE is also likely to be contaminated with tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), because TBA is a component of commercial grade MTBE, TBA can also be used as a fuel oxygenate, and TBA is a biodegradation product of MTBE. In California, MTBE is subject to reporting at concentrations greater than 3 {micro}g/L. TBA is classified as a ''contaminant of current interest'' and has a drinking water action level of 12 {micro}g/L. In this paper, we describe the development and optimization of a simple, automated solid phase microextraction (SPME) method for the analysis of MTBE and TBA in water and demonstrate the applicability of this method for monitoring MTBE and TBA contamination in groundwater, drinking water, and surface water. In this method, the headspace (HS) of a water sample is extracted with a carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane SPME fiber, the MTBE and TBA are desorbed into a gas chromatograph (GC), and detected using mass spectrometry (MS). The method is optimized for the routine analysis of MTBE and TBA with a level of quantitation of 0.3 {micro}g/L and 4 {micro}g/L, respectively, in water. MTBE quantitation was linear for over two orders of concentration (0.3 {micro}g/L -80 {micro}g/L). TBA was found to be linear within the range of 4 {micro}g/L-7,900 {micro}g/L. The lower level of detection for MTBE is 0.03 {micro}g/L using this method. This SPME method using headspace extraction was found to be advantageous over SPME methods requiring immersion of the fiber into the water samples, because it prolonged the life of the fiber by up to 400 sample analyses. This is the first time headspace extraction SPME has been shown to be applicable to the measurement of both MTBE and TBA at concentrations below regulatory action levels. This method was compared with the certified EPA Method 5030/8260B (purge-and-trap/GC/MS) using split samples from laboratory bioreactors treating MTBE contaminated water and applied to environmental samples collected throughout the East Bay area of California. Results from the SPME-HS/GC/MS method were directly comparable to the EPA Method 5030/8260B. This method provides an simple, inexpensive, accurate, and sensitive alternative to EPA Method 5030/8260B for the analysis of MTBE and TBA in water samples.

Oh, Keun-Chan; Stringfellow, William T.

2003-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

109

Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in soil, vegetation, workshop-floor dust, and electronic shredder residue from an electronic waste recycling facility and in soils from a chemical industrial complex in eastern China  

SciTech Connect

In this study, 11 2,3,7,8-substituted PBDD/Fs and 10 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners were determined in electronic shredder waste, workshop-floor dust, soil, and leaves (of plants on the grounds of the facility) from a large-scale electronic wastes (e-waste) recycling facility and in surface soil from a chemical-industrial complex (comprising a coke-oven plant, a coal-fired power plant, and a chlor-alkali plant) as well as agricultural areas in eastern China. Total PBDD/F concentrations in environmental samples were in the range of 113-818 pg/g dry wt (dw) for leaves, 392-18,500 pg/g dw for electronic shredder residues, 716-80,0000 pg/g dw for soil samples, and 89,600-14,3000 pg/g dw for workshop-floor dust from the e-waste recycling facility and in a range from nondetect (ND) to 427 pg/g dw in soil from the chemical-industrial complex. The highest mean concentrations of total PBDD/Fs were found in soil samples and workshop-floor dust from the e-waste recycling facility. The dioxin-like toxic equivalent (measured as TEQ) concentrations of PBDD/Fs were greater than the TEQs of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) reported in our previous study for the same set of samples. The concentrations of PBDFs were several orders of magnitude higher than the concentrations of PBDDs in samples from the e-waste facility or from soil from the chemical-industrial complex. A significant correlation was found between the concentrations of {Sigma}PBDD/Fs and {Sigma}PBDEs (r = 0.769, p < 0.01) and between SPBDD/Fs and the previously reported SPCDD/F concentrations (r = 0.805, p < 0.01). The estimated daily human intakes of TEQs contributed by PBDD/Fs via soil/dust ingestion and dermal exposures in e-waste recycling facilities were higher than the intakes of TEQs contributed by PCDD/Fs, calculated in our previous study. 45 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Jing Ma; Rudolf Addink; Sehun Yun; Jinping Cheng; Wenhua Wang; Kurunthachalam Kannan [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China). School of Environmental Science and Engineering

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Sealed Gravitational Capillary Viscometry of Dimethyl Ether ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Huber, and MO McLinden, NIST Standard Reference Database 23: Reference Fluid Thermodynamic and Transport Properties-REFPROP, Version ...

2012-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

111

Sealed Gravitational Capillary Viscometry of Dimethyl Ether ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... RF Hafer, Viscosity of Fluorinated Propane Isomers. ... EW Lemmon, An Equation of State for the ... Dense Fluids, Plenum Press, New York and London ...

2013-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

112

Development of alternative fuels from coal derived syngas. Topical report: Task 2.2, Demonstration of a one-step slurry-phase process for the production of dimethyl ether/methanol mixtures at the LaPorte Alternative Fuels Development Unit  

SciTech Connect

This report documents engineering, modification, and operations efforts of demonstration of dimethyl-ether/methanol coproduction in a slurry-phase reactor, carried out in a 2-ft diameter bubble column reactor. Equipment modifications made it possible to remove the product DME and by-product CO{sub 2} from the reactor effluent. Coproduction of dimethyl-ether (DME) and methanol (MeOH) was accomplished in the slurry reactor by physically mixing two different catalysts. The catalyst used to produce MeOH from syngas was manufactured by BASF (type S3-86); the catalyst used to convert MeOH to DME was Catapal {gamma}-alumina. Ratio of MeOH to DME catalysts determined the selectivity towards DME. The demonstration sought to study effect of cocatalyst ratio on product selectivity. Three different proportions of DME catalyst were examined: 0, 6.6, and 19.3 wt % alumina. At each catalyst proportion, the plant was operated at two different gas space velocities. Some process variables were maintained at fixed conditions; most important variables included: reactor temperature (482F), reactor pressure (750 psig), and reactor feed gas composition (35% H{sub 2}, 51% CO,13% CO{sub 2} 1% other, nominal-molar basis).

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

properties of reflected solar radiation from glass surfaces,transfer at the siding surface. Direct solar radiation tosiding, reflected solar radiation from nearby surfaces,

Hart, Robert

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the University of California, nor any of their employees,of the University of California. The views and opinions ofof the University of California. Research Needs: Glass Solar

Hart, Robert

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

PROGRESS REPORT NO. 52 FOR DECEMBER 1, 1957 THROUGH FEBRUARY 28, 1958  

SciTech Connect

Some approximate values of the concentrations of the chlorine ion and the mean activity coefficients of HCl in Dowex 50, as functions of the mean activity of HCl are given. The KCl uptake by anion-exchange resins, Dowex 1 and 2, is plotted. Ion-exchange phase properties of HCl were determined from freezing point measurements. The thermodynamic acid dissociation constants of HClO/sub 4/, HCl, HNO/sub 3/, HBr, and HGaCl/sub 4/ in water-saturated bis(2- chloroethyl) ether, were obtained from couductometric measurements. The distribution behavior of InBr/sub 3/ and IuCl/sub 3/ in HBr and HCl was studied. Information is given on the extraction of Zn and Ag from chloride solutions by dioctylamine salts. Ion exchange equilibria between hexammino-cobalt(III) and chloro-pentammino-cobalt(In ions in respect to La ions in Dowex 50 NaR are plotted. Typical radiochemical activation analyses for K in geologic materials are tabulated. The postulated nuclear level scheme and the calculiated and experimental positron decay following ( gamma ,n) activation of Br/sup 79/ are shown for Br/sup 78/. Cumulative fission yields in the deuteron fission of U/sup 235/ are tabulated. Cosmic ray data obtained with a new highcounting rate meson monitor are plotted. The equipment used and data obtained in a search for long- lived particles with mass ~ 550m/sub e/ in the cosmic-ray flux at sea level are shown. The excited states of Ni/sup 58/ and Ni/sup 61/ obtained from (d,p) reactions of Ni/sup 58/ and Ni/sup 60/ are tabulated. (For preceding period see AECU-3685.) (M.H.R.)

1958-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

116

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE ESSENTIAL OIL AND ETHER ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

essential oil from R. rugosum was investigated for further development and application. The chemical and class composition of the oils are presented in Table 1.

117

Experimental Pathology Laboratories, Inc. Ethyl-Tertiary-Butyl Ether  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

a plantation about 15-year-old in the Les Cedres area, near Montreal (45820H N, 73854H W). Trees in open

Bandettini, Peter A.

118

Extractant composition including crown ether and calixarene extractants  

SciTech Connect

An extractant composition comprising a mixed extractant solvent consisting of calix[4] arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo)-crown-6 ("BOBCalixC6"), 4',4',(5')-di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 ("DtBu18C6"), and at least one modifier dissolved in a diluent. The DtBu18C6 may be present at from approximately 0.01M to approximately 0.4M, such as at from approximately 0.086 M to approximately 0.108 M. The modifier may be 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol ("Cs-7SB") and may be present at from approximately 0.01M to approximately 0.8M. In one embodiment, the mixed extractant solvent includes approximately 0.15M DtBu18C6, approximately 0.007M BOBCalixC6, and approximately 0.75M Cs-7SB modifier dissolved in an isoparaffinic hydrocarbon diluent. The extractant composition further comprises an aqueous phase. The mixed extractant solvent may be used to remove cesium and strontium from the aqueous phase.

Meikrantz, David H. (Idaho Falls, ID); Todd, Terry A. (Aberdeen, ID); Riddle, Catherine L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Law, Jack D. (Pocalello, ID); Peterman, Dean R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Mincher, Bruce J. (Idaho Falls, ID); McGrath, Christopher A. (Blackfoot, ID); Baker, John D. (Blackfoot, ID)

2009-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

119

Direct Dimethyl Ether Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells for Portable Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Kosek, C. Cropley, and A. LaConti, in Proceedings of the 32nd Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering

120

Cationically polymerizable monomers derived from renewable sources. Annual performance report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of this project are to design and synthesize novel monomers which orginate from renewable biological sources and to carry out their rapid, efficient, pollution-free and energy efficient cationic polymerization to useful products under the influence of ultraviolet light or heat. A summary of the results of the past year`s research on cationically polymerizable monomers derived from renewable sources is presented. Three major areas of investigation corresponding to the different classes of naturally occurring starting materials were investigated; epoxidized terpenes and natural rubber and vinyl ethers from alcohols and carbohydrates.

Crivello, J.V.

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "2-chloroethyl vinyl ether" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Cationically polymerizable monomers derived from renewable sources  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of this project are to design and synthesize novel monomers which orginate from renewable biological sources and to carry out their rapid, efficient, pollution-free and energy efficient cationic polymerization to useful products under the influence of ultraviolet light or heat. A summary of the results of the past year's research on cationically polymerizable monomers derived from renewable sources is presented. Three major areas of investigation corresponding to the different classes of naturally occurring starting materials were investigated; epoxidized terpenes and natural rubber and vinyl ethers from alcohols and carbohydrates.

Crivello, J.V.

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

The impact of improved materials in poly(vinyl chloride)-based endotracheal tubes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Endotracheal tubes (ETs) are used to aid artificial ventilation in millions of medical patients every year and are known to invoke the proliferative phase in the cell linings. The technical objective of this work was to ...

Domike, Kristin Rebecca, 1981-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Effect of pulse intensity distributions on fragment internal energy in the infrared multiphoton dissociation of vinyl  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Effect of pulse intensity distributions on fragment internal energy in the infrared multiphoton the rovibra- tional energy distributions of fragmentsl formed in the infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD energies of the frag- ment can be well characterized in terms of a Boltzmann distribution with a single

Zare, Richard N.

124

Anodic polymerization of vinyl ethylene carbonate in Li-Ion battery electrolyte  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

R.A. Sutula, F. McLamon, Battery Rsearch Pograms of theof Energy, in Selected Battery Topics. Proceedings of theEthylene Carbonate in Li-Ion Battery Electrolyte Guoying

Chen, Guoying; Zhuang, Guorong V.; Richardson, Thomas J.; Gao, Liu; Ross Jr., Philip N.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Localized Plasticity in the Streamlined Genomes of Vinyl Chloride Respiring Dehalococcoides  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Conceived and designed the experiments: PJM SFB FEL AMS.Performed the experiments: PJM SFB KMR.Analyzed the data: PJM SFB JAM JG KMR RW EG AL SH FEL AMS.

McMurdie, Paul J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Monodisperse SiC/vinyl ester nanocomposites: Dispersant formulation, synthesis, and characterization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and S.F. Zhandarov: Carbon fibers and composites with epoxyepoxy resin com- posites, 22 carbon fiber filled epoxy resin

Yong, Virginia; Hahn, H. Thomas

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Dispersant optimization using design of experiments for SiC/vinyl ester nanocomposites  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

×, respectively. Strain 0.5 wt. % SiC with MPS and W966 #1 (didn't break) 0.5 wt. % SiC with MPS and W966 #2 neat #1 (bend test Strain 1 vol. % SiC with 1-octanol and decane

Yong, V; Hahn, H T

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

ORIGINAL PAPER Natural Fiber Reinforced Poly(vinyl chloride) Composites: Effect  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, electric wires, window profiles, siding, etc. Recently, wood fiber reinforced PVC is getting more popular straw, rice husk, and pine fiber) and loading level of styrene-ethylene-butylene-styrene (SEBS) block copolymer on composite properties was investigated. Mechanical analysis showed that storage modulus

129

Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/sulfonated polyhedral oligosilsesquioxane (sPOSS) hybrid membranes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(HY-2006-I). REFERENCES 1. Surampudi S, Narayanan SR, Vamos E, Frank H, Halpert G, LaConti A, Kosek J

Mather, Patrick T.

130

Asymmetric Hydrogenations of Chiral Acyclic Alkenes for Important Chiron Syntheses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydrogenation of "largely unfunctionalized" alkenes has been an active area of research for about a decade. Many catalysts have been prepared but we noticed that comparatively few substrates have been studied and none of these hydrogenations provided useful chirons for the organic synthesis area. That motivated us to investigate asymmetric hydrogenations of chiral acyclic alkenes, which are seldom used for hydrogenations and usually the reactions are fully substrate controlled. It emerged that such reactions could provide a concise entry points into chirons that can be used to prepare many natural products. Asymmetric hydrogenations of functionalized, but not coordinatively functionalized, alkenes have been used to prepare several chirons for syntheses ofpolyketide natural products using our N,carbene Crabtree's catalyst analog. Starting from optically active starting materials (eg Roche esters, lactic acid, glyceraldehyde dimethyl ketals, amino acids), highly optically active chiral alkenes can be made in several steps with high yield. With the iridium catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenations, chiral ethers, 1,3-hydroxymethyl chiron, alpha-methyl-beta-hydroxy-gamma-methyl chiron, alpha-methyl-gamma-alkyl-gamma-amino acid can be obtained with high stereoselectivities. With those well developed methodologies, (-)-dihydromyoporone, (-)-spongidepsin, (-)-invictolide have been prepared with high efficiency. Not like the vinyl acetate, which can be hydrogenated quite well with many Rh catalysts, the alkyl vinyl ether does not have a coordination functional group nearby, hence it is a difficult substrate for asymmetric hydrogenation and there are relatively few iv reports. Also the simple alkyl enol ether is quite acid sensitive and the Pfatlz's type N,PIr catalysts cannot hydrogenate the simple alkyl enol ethers well under the standard hydrogenation conditions. We explored many alkyl enol ethers and found some of them can be hydrogenated efficiently (50 bar H2, 1 mol percent N,carbene-Ir catalyst, 25 degree C) with high enantioselectivities (up to 98 percent ee). This study led us to suspect that more protons were produced when N,P-Ir catalyst precursors were used relative to the corresponding carbene catalyst since the former only gave complex mixture when being used. DF calculations and several other experiments supported this postulation.

Zhu, Ye

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Model Predictive Control of a Nonlinear Large-Scale Process Network Used in the Production of Vinyl Acetate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Roman Symbols a i Vapor heat capacity/enthalpy coefficientkg ? C a ¯ i Liquid heat capacity/enthalpy coefficient forspecies i b i Vapor heat capacity/enthalpy coefficient for

Tu, TungSheng

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Model Predictive Control of a Nonlinear Large-Scale Process Network Used in the Production of Vinyl Acetate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Compressor, heat exchanger, heaters andtemperature of the heat exchanger, and the pressure drop inreactor (RCT ), a heat exchanger (HX), a separator (SEP ), a

Tu, TungSheng

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Effects of POSS fiber sizing on the mechanical and thermal properties of carbon/vinyl ester composites.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The degradation of polymer composites in moist environments is a limiting factor in the advancement of composite technology. The key to mitigate this degradation is… (more)

Powell, Felicia M.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Model Predictive Control of a Nonlinear Large-Scale Process Network Used in the Production of Vinyl Acetate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

well as two byproducts: carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and water (Hoperation units. The carbon dioxide removal unit and thekmol/min enters the carbon dioxide removal system where the

Tu, TungSheng

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Grafting onto wool. XX. Graft copolymerization of vinyl monomers by use of redox initiators. Comparison of monomer reactivities  

SciTech Connect

Methyl methacrylate (MMA) and ethylacrylate (EA) have been graft copolymerized onto Himachali wool in aqueous medium by using a ferrous ammonium sulfate-hydrogen peroxide (FAS-H/sub 2/O/sub 2/) system as redox initiator. Percentage of grafting has been determined as functions of concentration of monomer, molar ratio of (FAS)/(H/sub 2/O/sub 2/), time, and temperature. Percentage of grafting is found to depend upon the molar ratio of (FAS)/(H/sub 2/O/sub 2/). An attempt has been made to compare the reactivities of the acceptor monomer (MMA and EA) with that of the donor monomer (VAc) toward grafting onto wool.

Misra, B.N.; Singha, A.S.; Sharma, R.K.

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Mechanical behavior of nanostructured hybrids based on poly(vinyl alcohol)/bioactive glass reinforced with functionalized carbon nanotubes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study reports the synthesis and characterization of novel tridimensional porous hybrids based on PVA combined with bioactive glass and reinforced by chemically functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNT) for potential use in bone tissue engineering. The ...

H. S. Mansur, M. M. Pereira, H. S. Costa, A. A. P. Mansur

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Model Predictive Control of a Nonlinear Large-Scale Process Network Used in the Production of Vinyl Acetate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of a continuous catalytic distillation process. Journal ofof the azeotropic distillation column using a feed-forwardand the azeotropic distillation in Figure 2.1 are assumed to

Tu, TungSheng

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Direct Detection of Products from the Pyrolysis of 2-Phenethyl Phenyl Ether Mark W. Jarvis,*,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

"Pyrolysis." In Biomass Handbook; C. W. Hall, ed. Gordon and Breach: New York, 1989; pp. 379-385. (with Pyrolysis of Biomass Derived Volatile Matter." In Fundamentals of Thermochemical Biomass Conversion; R. P. "Biomass Pyrolysis. A Review of the Literature - Part 1: Carbohydrate Pyrolysis." In Advances in Solar

Dean, Anthony M.

139

Treatment of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether Vapors in Biotrickling Filters. 2.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

will controlled by diffusion in the biofilm near the outlet of the reactor. A fundamental parameter and control in bioreactors equipped with some degree of instrumentation, fundamental knowledge for the proper handbook of physical-chemical properties and environmental fate for organic chemicals, Volume III. Volatile

140

Chlorine resistant desalination membranes based on directly sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) copolymers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The present invention provides a membrane, kit, and method of making a hydrophilic-hydrophobic random copolymer membrane. The hydrophilic-hydrophobic random copolymer membrane includes a hydrophilic-hydrophobic random copolymer. The hydrophilic-hydrophobic random copolymer includes one or more hydrophilic monomers having a sulfonated polyarylsulfone monomer and a second monomer and one or more hydrophobic monomers having a non-sulfonated third monomer and a fourth monomer. The sulfonated polyarylsulfone monomer introduces a sulfonate into the hydrophilic-hydrophobic random copolymer prior to polymerization.

McGrath, James E. (Blacksburg, VA); Park, Ho Bum (Austin, TX); Freeman, Benny D. (Austin, TX)

2011-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "2-chloroethyl vinyl ether" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Cleaning Products and Air Fresheners: Emissions and Resulting Concentrations of Glycol Ethers and Terpenoids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

include wood framing with plywood underlying the floor, twowith low-VOC paint. The plywood subfloor was covered with

Singer, Brett C.; Destaillat, Hugo; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Nazaroff, William W.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Treatment of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether Vapors in Biotrickling Filters. 1.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, weed-eater, shovel, and a rake. A chipper, compost bin, or a large rented trash dumpster may be useful

143

Measurements of flatflame velocities of diethyl ether in air Fiona Gillespiea,b  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is being drawn towards bioderived fuels, the most common of which is bioethanol. Bioethanol. %; however, bioethanol is produced primarily from food sources (corn, sugarcane, etc.) and its energy output to allow a sufficient flow of oxygen through the burner plate. Bronkhorst conversion coefficient factors

144

A New Biarylphosphine Ligand for the Pd-Catalyzed Synthesis of Diaryl Ethers under Mild Conditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A new bulky biarylphosphine ligand (L8) has been developed that allows the Pd-catalyzed C–O cross-coupling of a wide range of aryl halides and phenols under milder conditions than previously possible. A direct correlation ...

Salvi, Luca

145

The potential for alcohols and related ethers to displace conventional gasoline components  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The United States Department of Energy is required by law to determine the feasibility of producing sufficient replacement fuels to replace 30 percent of the projected United States consumption of motor fuels by light duty vehicles in the year 2010. A replacement fuel is a non-petroleum portion of gasoline, including alcohols, natural gas and certain other components. A linear program has been used to study refinery impacts for production of ``low petroleum`` gasolines, which contain replacement fuels. The analysis suggests that high oxygenation is the key to meeting the replacement fuel target, and major contributors to cost increase can include investment in processes to produce olefins for etherification with alcohols. High oxygenation can increase the costs of control of vapor pressure, distillation properties, and pollutant emissions of gasolines. Year-round low petroleum gasoline with near-30 percent non-petroleum might be produced with cost increases of 23 to 37 cents per gallon, with substantial decreases in greenhouse gas emissions in some cases. Cost estimates are sensitive to assumptions about extrapolation of a national model for pollutant emissions, availability of raw materials and other issues. Reduction in crude oil use, a major objective of the low petroleum gasoline program, is 10 to 17 percent in the analysis.

Hadder, G.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); McNutt, B.D. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Children's residential exposures to flame retardants, pesticides and pesticide degradation products, and the relationship of pesticides with autonomic nervous system functioning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

diphenyl ethers: a flame-retardant additive in severaldiphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants. Neurotoxicology. 28,diphenyl ethers: a flame-retardant additive in several

Quiros Alcala, Lesliam

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Acidic Ion Exchange Membrane - Energy Innovation Portal  

Technology Marketing Summary In this invention we report the synthesis of a copolymer of vinyl phosphonic acid (VPA) and vinyl zirconium phosphorous (VZP) acid has ...

148

Index of Semiconductor Process Gases  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Hydrogen Bromide, HBr. Vinyl Fluoride. C 2 H 3 F. Hydrogen Chloride, HCl. Vinyl Chloride. C 2 H 3 Cl. Hydrogen Fluoride, HF. Trimethyl Gallium. ...

2012-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

149

Whole-Genome Analysis of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether-Degrading Beta-Proteobacterium Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of benzene to phenol, catechol, and 1,2,3-trihydroxybenzeneof benzene to phenol (and catechol), and toluene toa multi-component PH, catechol 2,3-dioxygenase and the meta-

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Enantiomeric recognition of organic ammonium salts by chiral crown ethers based on the pyridino-18-crown-6 structure  

SciTech Connect

Enantiomeric recognition by several chiral dimethyl-substituted macrocycles of the pyridino-18-crown-6 type for chiral organic ammonium salts has been studied by titration calorimetry in CH/sub 3/OH, temperature-dependent /sup 1/H NMR spectroscopy in CD/sub 2/CL/sub 2/, and selective crystallization. Results from the three procedures are consistent in demonstrating either host-guest recognition or nonrecognition in the systems investigated. Futhermore, enaniomeric recognition by one chiral host for a pair of chiral guests is correlated with X-ray crystallographic data for the same system. The chiral dimethyl-substituted ligands used in the study include three dimethyl diester pyridino-18-crown-6 ligands, dimethyl thiono diester pyridino-18-crown-6, and dimethyl-pyridino-18-crown-6 ligands. All of these ligands exhibited chiral recognition. Dimethylpyridino-18-crown-6 in complexation with (R)- and (S)-(..cap alpha..-(1-naphthyl)ethyl)ammonium perchlorate exhibited the largest ratio of ..delta..G/sub c/+ yet observed by the /sup 1/H NMR technique. A diphenyl-substituted diester pyridino-18-crown-6 where the phenyl substituents are in less rigid portion of the macrocycle failed to show chiral recognition.

Davidson, R.B.; Bradshaw, J.S.; Jones, B.A.; Dalley, N.K.; Christensen, J.J.; Izatt, R.M.

1984-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

151

Alkaline-Side Extraction of Cesium from Savannah River Tank Waste Using a Calixarene-Crown Ether Extractant  

SciTech Connect

Results are presented supporting the viability of the alkaline-side CSEX process as a potential replacement for the In-Tank Precipitation process for removal of cesium from aqueous high-level waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Under funding from the USDOE Efficient Separations and Crosscutting program, a flowsheet was suggested in early June of 1998, and in the following four months, this flowsheet underwent extensive testing, both in batch tests at ORNL and ANL and in two centrifugal-contactor tests at ANL. To carry out these tests, the initial ESP funding was augmented by direct funds from Westinghouse Savannah River Corporation. The flowsheet employed a solvent containing a calixarene-crown hybrid compound called BoBCalixC6 that was invented at ORNL and can now be obtained commercially for government use from IBC Advanced Technologies. This special extractant is so powerful and selective that it can be used at only 0.01 M, compensating for its expense, but a modifier is required for use in an aliphatic diluent, primarily to increase the cesium distribution ratio D{sub Cs} in extraction. The modifier selected is a relatively economical fluorinated alcohol called Cs3, invented at ORNL and so far available. only from ORNL. For the flowsheet, the modifier is used at 0.2 M in the branched aliphatic kerosene Isopar{reg_sign} L. Testing at ORNL and ANL involved simulants of the SRS HLW. After extraction of the Cs from the waste simulant, the solvent is scrubbed with 0.05 M HNO{sub 3} and stripped with a solution comprised of 0.0005 M HNO{sub 3} and 0.0001 M CsNO{sub 3}. The selection of these conditions is justified in this report, both on the basis of experimental data and underlying theory.

Bonnesen, P.V.; Delmau, L.H.; Haverlock, T.J.; Moyer, B.A.

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Synthesis and Characterization of Phenylethynyl Terminated Poly(arylene ether sulfone)s as Thermosetting Structural Adhesives and Composite Matrices.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Abstract High temperature, solvent resistant materials which also display good mechanical properties are desired for use as aerospace structural adhesives and polymer matrix/carbon fiber composites.… (more)

Mecham, Sue Jewel

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Aggregation behavior of hexaoxyethyleneglycol myristate and hexaoxyethyleneglycol mono (1-methyltridecane) ether and dynamics of their micelles in aqueous solution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The title surfactants have similar critical micelle concentrations and cloud temperatures. Their micellar solutions have been investigated by time resolved fluorescence quenching in the range 2--25 c. The micelle aggregation numbers of both surfactants do not differ much, and increase with temperature. Aggregation numbers are large, suggesting anisotropic micelles, and the results show that the micelles are polydisperse. Fast intermicellar exchange of material becomes detectable on the fluorescence timescale ([approximately]1 [mu]s) above T [approx] 10 C, i.e., some 35--40 C below the cloud temperature of the solution. This exchange probably occurs via micelle collisions with temporary merging. Overall the behavior of these two surfactants is very similar to that of the other ethoxylated nonionic surfactants previously examined.

Alami, E.; Zana, R. (Inst. Charles Sadron, Strasbourg (France)); Van Os, N.M.; Jong, B. de; Kerkhof, F.J.M. (Koninklijke/Shell Lab., Amsterdam, (Netherlands)); Rupert, L.A.M. (Thornton Research Centre, Chester, (United Kingdom))

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Experimental Determinations of Henry's Law Constants of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) to Evaluate Exposure to Aquatic Biota  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

correlated to the degree of chlorine substitution, PCB K Hincreased with ortho- chlorine substitution. In contrast,their high abundance. Both chlorine isotopes (amu 35 and 37)

Charles, M. Judith; Destaillats, Hugo

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Whole-Genome Analysis of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether-Degrading Beta-Proteobacterium Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by pure cultures of butane-degrading bacteria. Appl.of K s values for MTBE by butane- degrading bacteria (52).

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

IDENTIFYING THE USAGE PATTERNS OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) AND OTHER OXYGENATES IN GASOLINE USING GASOLINE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Energy Research (NIPER), 2) the Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association (MVMA), and 3) the U interested in fuel comparisons Thousands each year Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association (MVMA) National gasoline survey Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association 23 cities throughout the U.S. Summer of 1988

157

Hysteresis mechanism and reduction method in the bottom-contact pentacene thin-film transistors with cross-linked poly,,vinyl alcohol...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Korean Phys. Soc. 44, 181 2004 . 8 R. Schroeder, L. A. Majewski, and M. Grell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3201 Raoul Schroeder, Leszek A. Majewski, Monika Voigt, and Martin Grell, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 26, 69 2005 . 14 Tingkai Li, Sheng Teng Hsu, Bruce Ulrich, Hong Ying, Lisa Stecker, Dave Evans, Yoshi Ono, Jer

Lee, Jong Duk

158

Laser-induced implantation of silver particles into poly(vinyl alcohol) films and its application to electronic-circuit fabrication on encapsulated organic electronics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, we propose a new laser-induced implantation based approach for embedding electronic interconnects in this study. Direct implantations of silver particles, vaporized by a pulsed laser from a silver film initially pre-coated on a transparent ... Keywords: Embedded electronic circuits, Encapsulation, Laser-induced implantation, Organic thin-film transistors, Polymeric light-emitting diodes

Kun-Tso Chen; Yu-Hsuan Lin; Jeng-Rong Ho; J.-W. John Cheng; Sung-Ho Liu; Jin-Long Liao; Jing-Yi Yan

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

What’s in Your Water?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

vinyl chloride, and carbon dioxide under methanogenicof  nitrogen  and  carbon   dioxide,  to  maintain  an  

Polasko, Alexandra

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Observation and Nature of Non-statistical Dynamics in Ordinary Organic Reactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Statistical models like Transition State Theory (TST) and Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (RRKM) Theory have generally been successful in predicting the rates and selectivities of chemical reactions. However, these statistical models can fail to explain experimental results of ordinary organic reactions. For these reactions, consideration of nonstatistical dynamic effects or the detailed motion and momenta of the atoms is necessary to account for the experimental observations. Dynamic effects have been found to be important in a growing number of reactions and the nature of these effects can be varied. One of the most interesting reactions investigated is the ozonolysis of vinyl ethers. Ozonolysis of a homologous series of vinyl ethers in solution exhibit experimental product ratios wherein the selectivity among cleavage pathways increases with the size of the alkyl group to an extent that is far less than RRKM theory would predict. Trajectory studies account for the observed selectivities and support a mechanism involving a competition between cleavage of the primary ozonide and intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution. A recent theoretical study from our group predicted that a highly asynchronous organocatalytic Diels-Alder (DA) reaction, which is concerted in the potential energy surface, is stepwise in the free energy surface. Kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) were measured for three DA reactions. We envision that the entropic barrier may have several experimental consequences such as unusual isotope effects due to extensive recrossing. Preliminary results for the organocatalytic reaction show an intramolecular KIE close to unity that cannot be reconciled with statistical theories. This is in contrast with Lewis-acid catalyzed and thermal DA reactions, which exhibit substantial "normal" intramolecular KIEs that are in accord with TST predictions. Finally, the Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of cylohexanone in water was investigated. KIEs were measured for the oxidation of cyclohexanone with peracetic acid and trifluoroperacetic acid. When using peracetic acid as the oxidant, the alkyl migration was determined to be the rate-determining step based on significant intermolecular KIEs on the carbonyl and alpha-methylene carbons. A change in the rate-determining step is seen when trifluoroperacetic acid is used. Only the carbonyl carbon exhibits a significant isotope effect. Theoretical predictions provide an experimental picture of the transition states and qualitatively support these conclusions.

Quijano, Larisa Mae 1984-

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "2-chloroethyl vinyl ether" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Enhancement of mechanical strength of TiO{sub 2}/high-density polyethylene composites for bone repair with silane-coupling treatment  

SciTech Connect

Mechanical properties of composites made up of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and silanated TiO{sub 2} particles for use as a bone-repairing material were investigated in comparison with those of the composites of HDPE with unsilanized TiO{sub 2} particles. The interfacial morphology and interaction between silanated TiO{sub 2} and HDPE were analyzed by means of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The absorption in spectral bands related to the carboxyl bond in the silane-coupling agent, the vinyl group in the HDPE, and the formation of the ether bond was studied in order to assess the influence of the silane-coupling agent. The SEM micrograph showed that the 'bridging effect' between HDPE and TiO{sub 2} was brought about by the silane-coupling agent. The use of the silane-coupling agent and the increase of the hot-pressing pressure for shaping the composites facilitated the penetration of polymer into cavities between individual TiO{sub 2} particles, which increased the density of the composite. Therefore, mechanical properties such as bending yield strength and Young's modulus increased from 49 MPa and 7.5 GPa to 65 MPa and 10 GPa, respectively, after the silane-coupling treatment and increase in the hot-pressing pressure.

Hashimoto, Masami [Japan Fine Ceramics Center, 2-4-1 Mutsuno, Atsuta-ku, Nagoya 456-8587 (Japan)]. E-mail: masami@jfcc.or.jp; Takadama, Hiroaki [Japan Fine Ceramics Center, 2-4-1 Mutsuno, Atsuta-ku, Nagoya 456-8587 (Japan)]. E-mail: takadama@jfcc.or.jp; Mizuno, Mineo [Japan Fine Ceramics Center, 2-4-1 Mutsuno, Atsuta-ku, Nagoya 456-8587 (Japan)]. E-mail: mizuno@jfcc.or.jp; Kokubo, Tadashi [Research Institute for Science and Technology, Chubu University, 1200 Matsumoto-cho, Kasugai 487-8501 (Japan)]. E-mail: kokubo@isc.chubu.ac.jp

2006-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

162

Remedial evaluation of a UST site impacted with chlorinated hydrocarbons  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During assessment and remedial planning of an underground storage tank (UST) site, it was discovered that chlorinated hydrocarbons were present. A network of selected wells were sampled for analysis of halogenated volatile organics and volatile organic compounds to determine the extent of constituents not traditionally associated with refined petroleum motor fuel products. The constituents detected included vinyl chloride, tetrachloroethylene (PCE), bromodichloromethane, and 2-chloroethylvinyl ether. These analytical data were evaluated as to what effect the nonpetroleum hydrocarbon constituents may have on the remedial approach utilized the site hydrogeologic properties to its advantage and took into consideration the residential nature of the impacted area. The geometry of the dissolved plume is very flat and broad, emanating from the site and extending downgradient under a residential area situated in a transmissive sand unit. Ground-water pumping was proposed from two areas of the dissolved plume including five wells pumping at a combined rate of 55 gallons per minute (gpm) at a downgradient position, and two wells on-site to remove free product and highly impacted ground water. Also, to assist in remediation of the dissolved plume and to control vapors, a bioventing system was proposed throughout the plume area.

Ilgner, B.; Rainey, E. (Geraghty and Miller, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)); Ball, M.; Schutt, M.

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE)-induced alterations in vitamin A and thyroid hormone concentrations in the rat during lactation and early postnatal development  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In experimental animals fed standard laboratory diets, penta-BDE mixtures can decrease circulating thyroid hormone and liver vitamin A concentrations. A substantial number of pregnant women and their children have marginal vitamin A status, potentially increasing their risk of adverse effects to penta-BDE exposure. The current study investigated the effects of maternal gestational and lactational penta-BDE exposure on thyroid hormone and vitamin A homeostasis in rats of sufficient vitamin A (VAS) or marginal vitamin A (VAM) status and their offspring. Dams were administered daily oral doses of 18 mg/kg DE-71 (a penta-BDE mixture) or a corn oil vehicle from gestation day 6 through lactation day (LD) 18. Thyroid hormone and vitamin A homeostasis were assessed in plasma and tissues of LD 19 dams and postnatal day (PND) 12, 18, and 31 pups. DE-71 exposure induced hepatomegaly in VAS and VAM pups at all timepoints and increased testes weights at PND 31. While liver vitamin A concentrations were low in DE-71 treated dams and pups, plasma retinol concentrations and plasma retinol binding protein levels were only low in VAM animals exposed to DE-71. DE-71 exposure lowered plasma thyroxine concentrations in VAS and VAM dams and pups. Plasma thyroid stimulating hormone concentrations were high in VAM dams exposed to DE-71, suggesting that marginal vitamin A status enhances the susceptibility to thyroid hormone axis disruption by DE-71. These results support the concept that marginal vitamin A status in pregnant women may increase the risk for PBDE-induced disruptions in vitamin A and thyroid hormone homeostasis.

Ellis-Hutchings, Robert G. [Department of Nutrition, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Cherr, Gary N. [Department of Nutrition, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Bodega Marine Laboratory, University of California-Davis, Bodega Bay, CA 94923 (United States); Hanna, Lynn A. [Department of Nutrition, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Keen, Carl L. [Department of Nutrition, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States) and Department of Internal Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)]. E-mail: clkeen@ucdavis.edu

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Jan Obrzut  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... 1989). Structural characterization of vinylidene fluoride vinyl fluoride copolymers, Guerra, G; Didino, G; Centore, R, et al. ...

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Slide 1  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

(poly (ether ether ketone)) Products ranging from membrane separation filters to heat transfer devices Not-for-profit research company, providing energy and natural gas...

166

Antithrombogenic and antibiotic composition and methods of preparation thereof  

SciTech Connect

Antithrombogenic and antibiotic composition of matter and method of preparation thereof. A random copolymer of a component of garlic and a biocompatible polymer has been prepared and found to exhibit antithrombogenic and antibiotic properties. Polymerization occurs selectively at the vinyl moiety in 2-vinyl-4H-1,3-dithiin when copolymerized with N-vinyl pyrrolidone.

Hermes, Robert E. (Los Alamos, NM)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Valencia, Spain, 6-10 September 2010, 4AV.3.115 NON-LINEAR MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF ETHYLENE-VINYL ACETATE (EVA) AND ITS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

that address the issue of reliability and long-term stability need adequate models that incorporate these non of EVA rises by 2 orders of magnitude. Keywords: Encapsulation, Mechanics, PV Module, Modeling, Polymer mechanical analyses (DMA) and relaxation/creep experiments. Mechanical investigations of PV modules

168

Thermoset epoxy polymers from renewable resources  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Novel thermoset epoxy polymers using the bisglycidyl ethers of anhydrosugars, such as isosorbide, isomannide, and isoidide, are disclosed. The bisglycidyl ethers are useful as substitutes for bisphenol A in the manufacture of thermoset epoxy ethers. The anhydrosugars are derived from renewable sources and the bisglycidyl ethers are not xenoestrogenic and the thermoset curing agents are likewise derived form renewable resources.

East, Anthony (Madison, NJ); Jaffe, Michael (Maplewood, NJ); Zhang, Yi (Harrison, NJ); Catalani, Luiz H (Carapicuiba, BR)

2009-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

169

May 2012Volunteer Volunteer 11  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-Glutamic acid Anaerobic digestion mass Cellulose Biogas Bio oil Gasoline Diesel Butanol Dimethyl ether

Sharp, Kim

170

AOCS Official Method Ba 3-38  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This method determines the substances extracted by petroleum ether under the conditions of the test.

171

Predicted concentrations in new relocatable classrooms of volatile organic compounds emitted from standard and alternate interior finish materials  

SciTech Connect

Relocatable classrooms (RCs) are widely employed by California school districts to satisfy rapidly expanding space requirements due to population growth and class size reduction policies. There is public concern regarding indoor environmental quality (IEQ) in schools, particularly in RCs, but very little data to support or dispel these concerns. Several studies are investigating various aspects of IEQ in California schools. This laboratory-based study focused on evaluating the emissions of toxic and/or odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, from materials used to finish the interiors of new RCs. Furthermore, the study implemented a procedure for VOC source reduction by testing and selecting lower-emitting materials as substitutes for standard materials. In total, 17 standard and alternate floor coverings, wall panels and ceiling panels were quantitatively tested for emissions of VOCs using smallscale environmental chambers. Working with the largest northern California manufacturer of conventional RCs and two school districts, specifications were developed for four new RCs to be produced in early summer 2001. Two of these will be predominantly finished with standard materials. Alternate carpet systems, an alternate wall panel covering and an alternate ceiling panel were selected for the two other RCs based on the results of the laboratory study and considerations of cost and anticipated performance and maintenance. Particular emphasis was placed on reducing the concentrations of VOCs on California agency lists of toxic compounds. Indoor concentrations of toxic and odorous VOCs were estimated for the four classrooms by mass balance using the measured VOC emission factors, exposed surface areas of the materials in the RCs, and three ventilation rate scenarios. Results indicate that reductions in the concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde phenol, di(ethylene glycol) butyl ether, vinyl acetate, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene and 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone should be achieved as the result of the source reduction procedure.

Hodgson, Alfred T.; Fisk, William J.; Shendell, Derek G.; Apte, Michael G.

2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Responsive copolymers for enhanced petroleum recovery. Second annual report  

SciTech Connect

The authors describe second year efforts in synthesis, characterization, and rheology to develop polymers with significantly improved efficiency in mobility control and conformance. These advanced polymer systems would maintain high viscosities or behave as virtual gels under low shear conditions and at elevated electrolyte concentrations. At high fluid shear rates, associates would deaggregate yielding low viscosity solutions, reducing problems of shear degradation or face plugging during injection. Polymeric surfactants were also developed with potential for use in higher salt, higher temperature reservoirs for mobilization of entrapped oil. Chapters include: Ampholytic terpolymers of acrylamide with sodium 3-acrylamido-3-methylbutanoate and 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanetrimethylammonium chloride; Hydrophilic sulfobetaine copolymers of acrylamide and 3-(2-acrylamido-methylpropane-dimethylammonio)-1-propanesulfonate; Copolymerization of maleic anhydride and N-vinylformamide; Reactivity ratio of N-vinylformamide with acrylamide, sodium acrylate, and n-butyl acrylate; Effect of the distribution of the hydrophobic cationic monomer dimethyldodecyl(2-acrylamidoethyl)ammonium bromide on the solution behavior of associating acrylamide copolymers; Effect of surfactants on the solution properties of amphipathic copolymers of acrylamide and N,N-dimethyl-N-dodecyl-N-(2-acrylamidoethyl)ammonium bromide; Associative interactions and photophysical behavior of amphiphilic terpolymers prepared by modification of maleic anhydride/ethyl vinyl ether copolymers; Copolymer compositions of high-molecular-weight functional acrylamido water-soluble polymers using direct-polarization magic-angle spinning {sup 13}C NMR; Use of factorial experimental design in static and dynamic light scattering characterization of water soluble polymers; and Porous medium elongational rheometer studies of NaAMB/AM copolymer solutions.

McCormick, C.; Hester, R.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Publications  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Arasteh, Howdy Goudey, Christian Kohler, and Stephen E. Selkowitz. Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding., 2011. 2010 Gustavsen, Arlid, Goce Talev, Dariush K....

174

Christian Kohler  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Arasteh, Howdy Goudey, Christian Kohler, and Stephen E. Selkowitz. Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding., 2011. Download: PDF (1.39 MB) 2010 Gustavsen, Arlid,...

175

Technology Partnerships Office  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... NRB) in broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy to ... photo ablate hydrophilic poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) hydro gels and ...

176

Field Derived Emission Factors For Formaldehyde and other Volatile Organic Compounds in FEMA Temporary Housing Units  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

constructed with ?-inch plywood with a vinyl or PVC skin orto the high surface area of plywood paneling, all THUs hadstandards for all plywood and particleboard materials using

Parthasarathy, Srinandini

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY ON FORMALDEHYDE EMISSIONS IN TEMPORARY HOUSING UNITS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

constructed with ?-inch plywood with a vinyl or PVC skin ortile, gypsum board, shiplap, plywood, terracotta brick) thatsamples are all made from plywood. Humidity Equilibration

Parthasarathy, Srinandini

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

New Boston, Ohio: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

County, Ohio. It falls under Ohio's 2nd congressional district.12 Registered Energy Companies in New Boston, Ohio Vinyl Kraft Windows and Doors References US Census...

179

Chemical Emissions of Residential Materials and Products: Review of Available Information  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of 2-butoxyethanol emissions from selected consumer productsfrom vinyl flooring in the emission cell “FLEC". Atmosphericfrom household product emissions in the presence of ozone: A

Willem, Henry

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Window performance for human thermal comfort  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Heat Transfer through Windows”. ASHRAE Transactions 93,Performance of Vinyl-framed Windows”. Proc. 5 th Conf. Onet al. 2003b, "Operable Windows, Personal Control & Occupant

Huizenga, C; Zhang, H.; Mattelaer, P.; Yu, T.; Arens, Edward A; Lyons, P.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "2-chloroethyl vinyl ether" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Indoor Residential Chemical Emissions as Risk Factors for Children...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The identified risk factors include specific organic compounds such as formaldehyde, benzene, and phthalates, as well as indoor materials or finishes such as vinyl flooring,...

182

Techniques and Technologies for Field Detection of Asbestos Containing Materials  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Asbestos has been used in numerous applications at DOE sites including sprayed-on fireproofing, asphalt and vinyl floor tile, and asbestos-cement(transite) siding.

183

Indoor air quality and the emissions of VOCs from interior ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

How to Cite. Tshudy, J. A. (1995), Indoor air quality and the emissions of VOCs from interior products. J Vinyl Addit Technol, 1: 155–158. doi: ...

184

Field Derived Emission Factors For Formaldehyde and other ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Field Derived Emission Factors For Formaldehyde and other ... ORGANIC COMPOUNDS; PHENOL; PLASTICIZERS; ... of TMPB-DIB (a plasticizer found in vinyl . ...

185

Field Derived Emission Factors For Formaldehyde and other ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Emissions of TMPB-DIB (a plasticizer found in vinyl products) were found to be higher than values reported in comparable housing by Hodgson et al.,3.

186

Choose building products that avoid toxic emissions  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Choose building products that avoid toxic emissions. ... (PVC or vinyl) products have a wide range of chlorine that ... and also the plasticizers in ...

187

Emission Factors For Formaldehyde - Home | Energy Analysis ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Emissions of TMPB-DIB (a plasticizer found in vinyl products) were found to be higher than values reported in comparable housing by Hodgson et al.,3.

188

Licenses Available in Chemicals | Tech Transfer | ORNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Uses Thereof 201002471 Interfacial controlled fusion of individual femtoliter droplets on demand 201002484 Approach to prepare selectively deuterated vinyl pyridines 201002516...

189

NISTTech  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... sized spots using a tunable multi-photon laser coupled to a confocal microscope to photo ablate hydrophilic poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) hydro gels and ...

190

CATALYST ACTIVITY MAINTENANCE FOR THE LIQUID PHASE SYNTHESIS GAS-TO-DIMETHYL ETHER PROCESS PART II: DEVELOPMENT OF ALUMINUM PHOSPHATE AS THE DEHYDRATION CATALYST FOR THE SINGLE-STEP LIQUID PHASE SYNGAS-TO-DME PROCESS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

At the heart of the single-step liquid phase syngas-to-DME process (LPDME{trademark}) is a catalyst system that can be active as well as stable. In the Alternative Fuels I program, a dual-catalyst system containing a Cu-based commercial methanol synthesis catalyst (BASF S3-86) and a commercial dehydration material ({gamma}-alumina) was demonstrated. It provided the productivity and selectivity expected from the LPDME process. However, the catalyst system deactivated too rapidly to warrant a viable commercial process [1]. The mechanistic investigation in the early part of the DOE's Alternative Fuels II program revealed that the accelerated catalyst deactivation under LPDME conditions is due to detrimental interaction between the methanol synthesis catalyst and methanol dehydration catalyst [2,3]. The interaction was attributed to migration of Cu- and/or Zn-containing species from the synthesis catalyst to the dehydration catalyst. Identification of a dehydration catalyst that did not lead to this detrimental interaction while retaining adequate dehydration activity was elusive. Twenty-nine different dehydration materials were tested, but none showed the desired performance [2]. The search came to a turning point when aluminum phosphate was tested. This amorphous material is prepared by precipitating a solution containing Al(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} and H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} with NH{sub 4}OH, followed by washing, drying and calcination. The aluminum phosphate catalyst has adequate dehydration activity and good stability. It can co-exist with the Cu-based methanol synthesis catalyst without negatively affecting the latter catalyst's stability. This report documents the details of the development of this catalyst. These include initial leads, efforts in improving activity and stability, investigation and development of the best preparation parameters and procedures, mechanistic understanding and resulting preparation guidelines, and the accomplishments of this work.

Xiang-Dong Peng

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

“BEST VALUES” OF CUP-BURNER EXTINGUISHING ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... diesel no. 2 diethyl ether ethanol ethyl acetate ethylene glycol Exxon Turbo Oil gasoline (unleaded) heptane (commercial ...

2011-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

192

Results of Reference List Query  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... 1991) (54-1333 keV: acetophenone, acetylacetone, bakelite, benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, cellulose-triacetate, ethanol, ether, ethylacetoacetate ...

193

xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "2-chloroethyl vinyl ether" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a
real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Infrared Thermography Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hollow vs. Foam-Filled Vinyl Windows Hollow vs. Foam-Filled Vinyl Windows Hollow vs. Foam-filled Vinyl Windows (100K) These two windows are the same except for what is inside the vinyl frames. The frame on the left is hollow, while the frame on the right is filled with insulating foam. The units have the same insulated glazing unit, a superwindow with R-8 center of glass. The hollow window frame allows air to circulate inside the frame; this convective effect is observed by noticing the frame temperatures are cooler at the bottom than at the top. The foam-filled window doesnÌt show this effect. These windows are being cooled on the back side with wind at -15°C (5°F). For more information contact: Howdy Goudey Building Technologies Program 510-486-6046 (fax) Return to the IRlab page Building Technologies | Energy & Environment Division | Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

202

A Versatile Catalyst System for Suzuki?Miyaura Cross-Coupling Reactions of C(sp[superscript 2])-Tosylates and Mesylates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A catalyst system for the Suzuki?Miyaura cross-coupling reactions of aryl and vinyl tosylates and mesylates has been developed. This catalyst displays excellent functional group tolerance and allows the coupling of ...

Bhayana, Brijesh

203

An analysis of residential window waterproofing systems.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The prevalence of vinyl nail-on windows in the North American new home construction market has prompted ASTM International to write ASTM E2112-01 "Standard Practice for… (more)

Parsons, Austin, 1959-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Speciality conference on: toxic substances in the air environment  

SciTech Connect

Papers presented are divided into the following categories: toxic substances legislation; arsenic; vinyl chloride; and emerging problems in toxic emission. Seven papers were abstracted and indexed individually for ERA/EDB. (JGB)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Supplemental Section 106 Compliance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and a flat-roofed ell at the right of the faade. A small deck has been added atop the flat roof. All visible windows have been replaced with vinyl windows. According to County...

206

Techniques for reducing exposures to volatile organic compounds associated with new construction and renovation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

applied to gypsum board and plywood substrates. This wasapplied to 1.1-m 2 of plywood. The carpet and vinyl flooringThe SGLPs were applied to plywood. The two non-VOC paints,

Hodgson, A.T.; Shimer, D.A.

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

ALDEHYDE AND OTHER VOLATILE ORGANIC CHEMICAL EMISSIONS IN FOUR FEMA TEMPORARY HOUSING UNITS – FINAL REPORT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Development Hardwood Plywood Lawrence Berkeley Nationalconstructed of 1/8-inch plywood with a vinyl or PVC skin orone material, the Cavalier plywood cabinet wall (490 µg m -2

Maddalena, Randy L.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

The development of palladium-catalysts for organic synthesis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chapter 1. Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reactions of aryl and heteroaryl halides with aryl-, heteroaryl and vinyl boronic acids proceed in very good to excellent yield with the use of 2-(2',6'-dimethoxybiphenyl)-dicyclohexylphosphine, ...

Martinelli, Joseph R

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Direct synthesis of pyridine and pyrimidine derivatives  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

I. Synthesis of Substituted Pyridine Derivatives via the Ruthenium-Catalyzed Cycloisomerization of 3-Azadienynes. The two-step conversion of various N-vinyl and N-aryl amides to the corresponding substituted pyridines and ...

Hill, Matthew D. (Matthew Dennis)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Green chemistry : dense carbon dioxide and water as environmentally benign reaction media  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(cont.) was investigated in scCO?, and the cycloaddition between cyclopentadiene and methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) was studied in an scCO?/liquid water environment. Nitrogen chemistry, specifically the synthesis of nitrogen ...

Allen, Andrew J. (Andrew John), 1978-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

MOLECULAR BEAM STUDIES OF UNIMOLECULAR REACTIONS: Cl, F + C2H3Br  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

pro~ of fluorine and chlorine atoms with vinyl bromide areheated nickle oven at The chlorine source was similar,the tot&l energy for the chlorine re&ction &nd FWHM ~ 4.2 kJ

Buss, Richard J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Methods for Measuring Friction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 1   Selected solid friction tests per ASTM standards...for Coefficient of Friction Vinyl and wool tiles (preparation only) Any apparatus E 303 (E-17 on traveled surfaces) Measuring Surface

213

BEESE ET AL. VOL. 7 ' NO. 4 ' 34343446 ' 2013 www.acsnano.org  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, spinning from CNT aerogel, and twisting or rolling of CNT films, as summarized in a recent review article coating on the surface of the DWNT bundles interacts strongly with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) through

Espinosa, Horacio D.

214

BEESE ET AL. VOL. XXX ' NO. XX ' 000000 ' XXXX www.acsnano.org  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, spinning from CNT aerogel, and twisting or rolling of CNT films, as summarized in a recent review article coating on the surface of the DWNT bundles interacts strongly with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) through

Espinosa, Horacio D.

215

An analysis of residential window waterproofing systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The prevalence of vinyl nail-on windows in the North American new home construction market has prompted ASTM International to write ASTM E2112-01 "Standard Practice for Installation of Exterior Windows, Doors and Skylights". ...

Parsons, Austin, 1959-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Welcome to the Efficient Windows Collaborative  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Break Metal Non-metal Frames There is a variety of non-metal framing materials for windows including, wood, wood with metalvinyl cladding, vinyl, hybrid, and composites. This...

217

Aza compounds as anion receptors  

SciTech Connect

A family of aza-ether based compounds including linear, multi-branched and aza-crown ethers is provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the family of aza-ether based compounds acts as neutral receptors to complex the anion moiety of the electrolyte salt thereby increasing the conductivity and the transference number of Li.sup.+ ion in alkali metal batteries.

Lee, Hung Sui (East Setauket, NY); Yang, Xiao-Qing (Port Jefferson Station, NY); McBreen, James (Bellport, NY)

1998-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

218

Anion receptor compounds for non-aqueous electrolytes  

SciTech Connect

A new family of aza-ether based compounds including linear, multi-branched and aza-crown ethers is provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the new family of aza-ether based compounds acts as neutral receptors to complex the anion moiety of the electrolyte salt thereby increasing the conductivity and the transference number of LI.sup.+ ion in alkali metal batteries.

Lee, Hung Sui (East Setauket, NY); Yang, Xiao-Oing (Port Jefferson Station, NY); McBreen, James (Bellport, NY)

2000-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

219

Treatment of addiction and addiction-related behavior  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides a highly efficient method for treating substance addiction and for changing addiction-related behavior of a primate suffering from substance addiction. The method includes administering to a primate an effective amount of a pharmaceutical composition including gamma vinylGABA. The present invention also provides a method of treatment of nicotine addiction by treating a patient with an effective amount of a composition including gamma vinylGABA.

Dewey, Stephen L. (Manorville, NY); Brodie, Jonathan D. (Cos Cob, CT); Ashby, Jr., Charles R. (Miller Place, NY)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "2-chloroethyl vinyl ether" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a
real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Motor Gasoline Blending Components Movements by Tanker and ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: RBOB with Ether and RBOB ...

222

Exports of Finished Motor Gasoline - U.S. Energy Information ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: RBOB with Ether and RBOB ...

223

Imports of Total Motor Gasoline  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: RBOB with Ether and RBOB ...

224

Impact of Renewable Fuels Standard/MTBE Provisions of S. 517 Requested by Sens. Daschle & Murkowski  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Additional analysis of the impact of the Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS) and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) ban provisions of S. 517.

Information Center

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Impact of Renewable Fuels Standard/MTBE Provisions of S.1766  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

SR/OIAF/2002-06 Release date: March 2002 This report analyzes the Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS)/methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) provisions of S. 1766.

226

Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Movements by Pipeline between PAD Districts  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: RBOB with Ether and RBOB ...

227

Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Movements by Tanker and Barge between PAD ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: RBOB with Ether and RBOB ...

228

Texas Gulf Coast Refinery Net Input  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: RBOB with Ether and RBOB ...

229

Rocky Mountain (PADD 4) Petrochemical Feedstocks Net Receipts ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: RBOB with Ether and RBOB ...

230

Rocky Mountain (PADD 4) Reformulated Gasoline Blending ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: RBOB with Ether and RBOB ...

231

Blender Net Input of Reformulated GTAB Gasoline Blending ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: RBOB with Ether, RBOB ...

232

Refinery Net Input of All Other Oxygenates  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: RBOB with Ether and RBOB ...

233

Imports of Distillate Fuel Oil - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: RBOB with Ether and RBOB ...

234

Stocks of Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products (Including SPR)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Weekly data for RBOB with Ether, RBOB with Alcohol, and Reformulated GTAB Motor Gasoline Blending Components are discontinued as of the week ending June 4, ...

235

Stocks of SPR Crude Oil  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Weekly data for RBOB with Ether, RBOB with Alcohol, and Reformulated GTAB Motor Gasoline Blending Components are discontinued as of the week ending June 4, ...

236

Stocks of Finished Motor Gasoline - U.S. Energy Information ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Weekly data for RBOB with Ether, RBOB with Alcohol, and Reformulated GTAB Motor Gasoline Blending Components are discontinued as of the week ending June 4, ...

237

Exports of Total Crude Oil and Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: RBOB with Ether and RBOB ...

238

Stocks of SPR Crude Oil - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Weekly data for RBOB with Ether, RBOB with Alcohol, and Reformulated GTAB Motor Gasoline Blending Components are discontinued as of the week ending June 4, ...

239

Imports of Total Motor Gasoline - U.S. Energy Information ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: RBOB with Ether and RBOB ...

240

Exports of Crude Oil  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: RBOB with Ether and RBOB ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "2-chloroethyl vinyl ether" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Imports of Crude Oil, Commercial  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: RBOB with Ether and RBOB ...

242

Imports of Residual Fuel Oil  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: RBOB with Ether and RBOB ...

243

Development and Application of Advanced Models for Steam Hydrogasification: Process Design and Economic Evaluation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

comparative analysis of biodiesel and FT diesel. Energy and5.9 Schematic flow diagram for biodiesel production fromGas (LPG), ethanol, biodiesel, hydrogen, Dimethyl Ether (

Lu, Xiaoming

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

From PADD 2 to PADD 3 Movements by Tanker, Pipeline, and Barge  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: RBOB with Ether and ...

245

Imports of Fuel Ethanol  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: RBOB with Ether and RBOB ...

246

ThermoML Data for TCA  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... As"). Title: Effect of temperature on the solvation of 15-crown-5 ether inwater ethanol and water propan-1-ol mixtures. Pages: 122-9. ...

247

xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "2-chloroethyl vinyl ether" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a
real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Refinery & Blenders Net Input of Fuel Ethanol  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: RBOB with Ether, RBOB ...

262

Refinery Net Input of Fuel Ethanol  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: RBOB with Ether and RBOB ...

263

Refinery & Blenders Net Input of Normal Butane  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: RBOB with Ether, RBOB ...

264

Refinery Net Input of Isobutane  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: RBOB with Ether and ...

265

Refinery Net Input of Normal Butane  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: RBOB with Ether and ...

266

High Conductivity Single-ion Cross-linked Polymers for Lithium ...  

Sun, X. and Kerr, J..Synthesis and Characterization of Network Single Ion ConductorsBased on Comb-Branched Polyepoxide Ethers and Lithium Bis(allylmalonato)borate.

267

Exports of Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: RBOB with Ether and RBOB ...

268

Exports of Crude Oil  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Imports and stocks of RBOB with Ether and RBOB with Alcohol are discontinued as of the week ending June 4, 2010 reporting period. Due to independent ...

269

Imports of Crude Oil  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: RBOB with Ether and ...

270

Glossary - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Sulfur hexafluoride (SF 6): A colorless gas soluble in alcohol and ether, and slightly less soluble in water. It is used as a dielectric in ...

271

Refinery Net Input of Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: RBOB with Ether and ...

272

Alaskan Crude Oil Receipts  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: RBOB with Ether and ...

273

Biofuel Boundaries: Estimating the Medium-Term Supply Potential of Domestic Biofuels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the gasification to Fischer- Tropsch fuel pathway may turnEther Flash Pyrolysis Fischer Tropsch Fuels Renewable Dieselblendstocks (e.g. Fischer-Tropsch fuels, renewable diesel,

Jones, Andrew; O'Hare, Michael; Farrell, Alexander

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Matches  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and very expensive. In 1780 the Phosphoric Candle or Ethereal Match -- waxed paper or string tipped with phosphorus, in a sealed glass container -- was produced in France. When...

275

The hydration of reactive cement-in-polymer dispersions studied by nuclear magnetic resonance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The behaviour of two novel cement-in-polymer (c/p) dispersions, namely cement-in-poly(vinyl acetate) and cement-in-poly(vinyl alcohol) upon exposure to water at room temperature was investigated by a combination of various NMR methods. The swelling, cracking, and the water ingress were monitored non-destructively using {sup 1}H single point imaging. The hydration of the cement matrix was investigated using {sup 29}Si NMR whilst {sup 13}C CPMAS NMR spectra allowed the quantification of the kinetics of the hydrolysis reaction of poly(vinyl acetate) into poly(vinyl alcohol). The polymer controls the rate of water ingress and swelling which in turn determines the behaviour of the c/p dispersions upon exposure to water. For the cement-in-poly(vinyl alcohol), the rates of water ingress and swelling are much faster than the hydration of the clinker whilst for the cement-in-poly(vinyl acetate) the slow rates of the two processes allow the formation of a cementious matrix which assures the stability of the sample.

Olaru, A.M. [Institut fuer Technische und Makromolekulare Chemie, RWTH Aachen University, Templergraben 55, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Weichold, O. [DWI an der RWTH Aachen, e. V., Pauwelsstrasse 8, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Adams, A., E-mail: aadams@mc.rwth-aachen.de [Institut fuer Technische und Makromolekulare Chemie, RWTH Aachen University, Templergraben 55, 52056 Aachen (Germany)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

276

Sulfur mustard-induced increase in intracellular free calcium level and arachidonic acid release from cell membrane  

SciTech Connect

The mechanism of action of the alkylating agent bis-(2-chloroethyl)sulfide (sulfur mustard, SM) was studied using the in thai vitro mouse neuroblastoma-rat glioma hybrid NG 108-1 S clonal p cell line model. Following 0.3 mM SM exposure, cell viability remained high (>80% of untreated control) up to 9 hr and then declined steadily to about 40% of control after 20-24 hr. During the early period of SM exposure, when there was no significant cell viability loss, the following effects were observed. The cellular glutathione level decreased 20% after 1 hr and 34% after 6 hr. Between 2 and 6 hr, there was a time-dependent increase (about 10 to 30%) in intracellular free calcium (Ca2+), which was localized to the limiting membrane of swollen endoplasmic reticula and mitochondria, to euchromatin areas of the nucleus, and to areas of the cytosol and plasma membrane. Moreover,there was also a time-dependent increase in the release of isotopically labeled arachidonic acid ((3H)AA) from cellular membranes. Increase in (3H)AA release was 28% at 3 hr and about 60-80% between 6 and 9 hr. This increase in I3HIAA release was inhibited by quinacrine (20 uM), which is a phospholipase (PLA2) inhibitor. At 16 hr after SM exposure, there was a large increase (about 200% of control) in I3HIAA release, which was coincident with a 50% loss of cell viability. These results suggest a Ca2+-mediated toxic mechanism of SM via PLA2 activation and arachidonate release.

Ray, R.; Legere, R.H.; Majerus, B.J.; Petrali, J.P.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

277

High energy electron beam curing of epoxy resin systems incorporating cationic photoinitiators  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A mixture of epoxy resins such as a semi-solid triglycidyl ether of tris (hydroxyphenyl) methane and a low viscosity bisphenol A glycidyl ether and a cationic photoinitiator such as a diaryliodonium salt is cured by irradiating with a dosage of electron beams from about 50 to about 150 kGy, forming a cross-linked epoxy resin polymer.

Janke, Christopher J. (Powell, TN); Lopata, Vincent J. (Manitoba, CA); Havens, Stephen J. (Knoxville, TN); Dorsey, George F. (Farragut, TN); Moulton, Richard J. (Lafayette, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

A Novel Paradigm in Greenhouse Gas Mitigation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

diesel, low sulfur diesel, dimethyl ether, Fischer-Tropsch diesel, E-diesel, and biodiesel Battery diesel, dimethyl ether, Fischer-Tropsch diesel, E-diesel, and biodiesel Spark-Ignition Direct itchgrass #12;23 FT Diesel Can Be Produced from A Variety of Feedstocks Fischer-Tropsch process

Azad, Abdul-Majeed

279

APPENDIX D: CO2 EQUIVALENCY FACTORS An Appendix to the Report, "A Lifecycle Emissions Model (LEM): Lifecycle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of different biofuels can be produced, including Fisher-Tropsch liquids (FTL), dimethyl ether (DME that would be used for biofuel production. These fuels include Fischer-Tropsch liquids (FTL), methanol such as dimethyl ether (DME) or Fischer-Tropsch liquids (FTL) made from lignocellulosic biomass. A relatively

Delucchi, Mark

280

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development Biofuel production technologies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of different biofuels can be produced, including Fisher-Tropsch liquids (FTL), dimethyl ether (DME that would be used for biofuel production. These fuels include Fischer-Tropsch liquids (FTL), methanol such as dimethyl ether (DME) or Fischer-Tropsch liquids (FTL) made from lignocellulosic biomass. A relatively

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "2-chloroethyl vinyl ether" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

The outcome of our research can be utilized by metal foam manufacturers to improve their product. An example of this is Recemat International, a producer of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of different biofuels can be produced, including Fisher-Tropsch liquids (FTL), dimethyl ether (DME that would be used for biofuel production. These fuels include Fischer-Tropsch liquids (FTL), methanol such as dimethyl ether (DME) or Fischer-Tropsch liquids (FTL) made from lignocellulosic biomass. A relatively

Groningen, Rijksuniversiteit

282

Evaluation of Ultra-Violet Photocatalytic Oxidation (UVPCO) forIndoor Air Applications: Conversion of Volatile Organic Compounds at LowPart-per-Billion Concentrations  

SciTech Connect

Efficient removal of indoor generated airborne particles and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in office buildings and other large buildings may allow for a reduction in outdoor air supply rates with concomitant energy savings while still maintaining acceptable indoor air quality in these buildings. Ultra-Violet Photocatalytic Oxidation (UVPCO) air cleaners have the potential to achieve the necessary reductions in indoor VOC concentrations at relatively low cost. In this study, laboratory experiments were conducted with a scaled, prototype UVPCO device designed for use in a duct system. The experimental UVPCO contained two 30 by 30-cm honeycomb monoliths coated with titanium dioxide and 3% by weight tungsten oxide. The monoliths were irradiated with 12 UVC lamps arranged in four banks. The UVPCO was challenged with four mixtures of VOCs typical of mixtures encountered in indoor air. A synthetic office mixture contained 27 VOCs commonly measured in office buildings. A cleaning product mixture contained three cleaning products with high market shares. A building product mixture was created by combining sources including painted wallboard, composite wood products, carpet systems, and vinyl flooring. A fourth mixture contained formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Steady-state concentrations were produced in a classroom laboratory or a 20-m{sup 3} environmental chamber. Air was drawn through the UVPCO, and single pass conversion efficiencies were measured from replicate air samples collected upstream and downstream of the reactor section. Concentrations of the mixtures were manipulated, with concentrations of individual VOCs mostly maintained below 10 ppb. Device flow rates were varied between 165 and 580 m{sup 3}/h. Production of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, formic acid, and acetic acid as reaction products was investigated. Conversion efficiency data were generated for 48 individual VOCs or groups of closely related compounds. Alcohols and glycol ethers were the most reactive chemical classes with conversion efficiencies often near or above 70% at the low flow rate and near 40% at the high flow rate. Ketones and terpene hydrocarbons were somewhat less reactive. The relative VOC conversion rates are generally favorable for treatment of indoor air since many contemporary products used in buildings employ oxygenated solvents. A commercial UVPCO device likely would be installed in the supply air stream of a building and operated to treat both outdoor and recirculated air. Assuming a recirculation rate comparable to three times the normal outdoor air supply rate, simple mass-balance modeling suggests that a device with similar characteristics to the study unit has sufficient conversion efficiencies for most VOCs to compensate for a 50% reduction in outdoor air supply without substantially impacting indoor VOC concentrations. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, formic acid, and acetic acid were produced in these experiments as reaction byproducts. No other significant byproducts were observed. A coupled steady-state mass balance model is presented and applied to VOC data from a study of a single office building. For the operating assumptions described above, the model estimated a three-fold increase in indoor formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations. The outcome of this limited assessment suggests that evaluation of the potential effects of the operation of a UVPCO device on indoor concentrations of these contaminants is warranted. Other suggested studies include determining VOC conversion efficiencies in actual buildings and evaluating changes in VOC conversion efficiency as monoliths age with long-term operation.

Hodgson, Alfred T.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William J.

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

283

Parametric Evaluation of an Innovative Ultra-Violet PhotocatalyticOxidation (UVPCO) Air Cleaning Technology for Indoor Applications  

SciTech Connect

An innovative Ultra-Violet Photocatalytic Oxidation (UVPCO) air cleaning technology employing a semitransparent catalyst coated on a semitransparent polymer substrate was evaluated to determine its effectiveness for treating mixtures of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) representative of indoor environments at low, indoor-relevant concentration levels. The experimental UVPCO contained four 30 by 30-cm honeycomb monoliths irradiated with nine UVA lamps arranged in three banks. A parametric evaluation of the effects of monolith thickness, air flow rate through the device, UV power, and reactant concentrations in inlet air was conducted for the purpose of suggesting design improvements. The UVPCO was challenged with three mixtures of VOCs. A synthetic office mixture contained 27 VOCs commonly measured in office buildings. A building product mixture was created by combining sources including painted wallboard, composite wood products, carpet systems, and vinyl flooring. The third mixture contained formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Steady state concentrations were produced in a classroom laboratory or a 20-m{sup 3} chamber. Air was drawn through the UVPCO, and single-pass conversion efficiencies were measured from replicate samples collected upstream and downstream of the reactor. Thirteen experiments were conducted in total. In this UVPCO employing a semitransparent monolith design, an increase in monolith thickness is expected to result in general increases in both reaction efficiencies and absolute reaction rates for VOCs oxidized by photocatalysis. The thickness of individual monolith panels was varied between 1.2 and 5 cm (5 to 20 cm total thickness) in experiments with the office mixture. VOC reaction efficiencies and rates increased with monolith thickness. However, the analysis of the relationship was confounded by high reaction efficiencies in all configurations for a number of compounds. These reaction efficiencies approached or exceeded 90% for alcohols, glycol ethers, and other individual compounds including d-limonene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, and decamethylcyclopentasiloxane. This result implies a reaction efficiency of about 30% per irradiated monolith face, which is in agreement with the maximum efficiency for the system predicted with a simulation model. In these and other experiments, the performance of the system for highly reactive VOCs appeared to be limited by mass transport of reactants to the catalyst surface rather than by photocatalytic activity. Increasing the air flow rate through the UVPCO device decreases the residence time of the air in the monoliths and improves mass transfer to the catalyst surface. The effect of gas velocity was examined in four pairs of experiments in which the air flow rate was varied from approximately 175 m{sup 3}/h to either 300 or 600 m{sup 3}/h. Increased gas velocity caused a decrease in reaction efficiency for nearly all reactive VOCs. For all of the more reactive VOCs, the decrease in performance was less, and often substantially less, than predicted based solely on residence time, again likely due to mass transfer limitations at the low flow rate. The results demonstrate that the UVPCO is capable of achieving high conversion efficiencies for reactive VOCs at air flow rates above the base experimental rate of 175 m{sup 3}/h. The effect of UV power was examined in a series of experiments with the building product mixture in which the number of lamps was varied between nine and three. For the most reactive VOCs in the mixture, the effects of UV power were surprisingly small. Thus, even with only one lamp in each section, there appears to be sufficient photocatalytic activity to decompose most of the mass of reactive VOCs that reach the catalyst surface. For some less reactive VOCs, the trend of decreasing efficiency with decreasing UV intensity was in general agreement with simulation model predictions.

Hodgson, Alfred T.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William J.

2005-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

284

Aging Studies of VCE Dismantlement Returns  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

VCE is an ethylene/vinyl acetate/vinyl alcohol terpolymer binder for filled elastomers which is designed to accept high filler loadings. Filled elastomer parts consist of the binder (VCE), a curing agent (Hylene MP, diphenol-4-4{prime}-methylenebis(phenylcarbamate)), a processing aid (LS, lithium stearate), and filler particles (typically 70% fraction by weight). The curing of the filled elastomer parts occurs from the heat-activated reaction between the hydroxyl groups of VCE with the Hylene MP curing agent, resulting in a cross-linked network. The final vinyl acetate content is typically between 34.9 and 37.9%, while the vinyl alcohol content is typically between 1.27 and 1.78%. Surveillance data for this material is both scarce and scattered, complicating the assessment of any aging trends in systems. In addition, most of the initial surveillance efforts focused on mechanical properties such as hardness and tensile strength, and chemical information is therefore lacking. Material characterization and aging studies had been performed on previous formulations of the VCE material but the Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA) starting copolymer is no longer commercially available. New formulations with replacement EVA materials are currently being established and will require characterization as well as updated aging models.

Letant, S; Alviso, C; Pearson, M; Albo, R; Small, W; Wilson, T; Chinn, S; Maxwell, R

2011-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

285

Method for making carbon films  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for treating an organic polymer material, preferably a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer (Saran) to produce a flat sheet of carbon film material having a high surface area ([approx equal]1000 m[sup 2] /g) suitable as an electrode material for super capacitor applications. The method comprises heating a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer film disposed between two spaced apart graphite or ceramic plates to a first temperature of about 160 C for about 14 hours to form a stabilized vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride polymer film, thereafter heating the stabilized film to a second temperature of about 750 C in an inert atmosphere for about one hour to form a carbon film; and finally activating the carbon film to increase the surface area by heating the carbon film in an oxidizing atmosphere to a temperature of at least 750--850 C for between 1--6 hours. 2 figs.

Tan, M.X.

1999-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

286

Method for making carbon films  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for treating an organic polymer material, preferably a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer (Saran) to produce a flat sheet of carbon film material having a high surface area (.apprxeq.1000 m.sup.2 /g) suitable as an electrode material for super capacitor applications. The method comprises heating a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer film disposed between two spaced apart graphite or ceramic plates to a first temperature of about 160.degree. C. for about 14 hours to form a stabilized vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride polymer film, thereafter heating the stabilized film to a second temperature of about 750.degree. C. in an inert atmosphere for about one hour to form a carbon film; and finally activating the carbon film to increase the surface area by heating the carbon film in an oxidizing atmosphere to a temperature of at least 750-850.degree. C. for between 1-6 hours.

Tan, Ming X. (Livermore, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Carbon Film Electrodes For Super Capacitor Applications  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for treating an organic polymer material, preferably a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer (Saran) to produce a flat sheet of carbon film material having a high surface area (.apprxeq.1000 m.sup.2 /g) suitable as an electrode material for super capacitor applications. The method comprises heating a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer film disposed between two spaced apart graphite or ceramic plates to a first temperature of about 160.degree. C. for about 14 hours to form a stabilized vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride polymer film, thereafter heating the stabilized film to a second temperature of about 750.degree. C. in an inert atmosphere for about one hour to form a carbon film; and finally activating the carbon film to increase the surface area by heating the carbon film in an oxidizing atmosphere to a temperature of at least 750-850.degree. C. for between 1-6 hours.

Tan, Ming X. (Livermore, CA)

1999-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

288

VERA version 1.3 user manual and documentation  

SciTech Connect

VERA is a visualization tool for analyzing compiled executables. It is built on an OpenGL framework with the wxWidgets package. The current version is only for use with the Windows XP and higher operating system. This manual will detail the steps that are needed to run and analyze a sample of malware. VERA is meant to be used in conjunction with the Ether hypervisor framework. Ether is a set of patches made to the Xen hypervisor that allows for covert analysis of running processes. It makes an ideal environment to monitor and trace running programs. More information is available from the Ether website.

Quist, Daniel Allen [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

289

Process for radiation grafting hydrogels onto organic polymeric substrates  

SciTech Connect

An improved process for radiation grafting of hydrogels onto organic polymeric substrates is provided comprising the steps of incorporating an effective amount of cupric or ferric ions in an aqueous graft solution consisting of N-vinyl-2 - pyrrolidone or mixture of N-vinyl-2 - pyrrolidone and other monomers, e.g., 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate, propylene glycol acrylate, acrylamide, methacrylic acid and methacrylamide, immersing an organic polymeric substrate in the aqueous graft solution and thereafter subjecting the contacted substrate with ionizing radiation.

Ratner, Buddy D. (Seattle, WA); Hoffman, Allan S. (Seattle, WA)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Passivation-free solid state battery  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention pertains to passivation-free solid-state rechargeable batteries composed of Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} anode, a solid polymer electrolyte and a high voltage cathode. The solid polymer electrolyte comprises a polymer host, such as polyacrylonitrile, poly(vinyl chloride), poly(vinyl sulfone), and poly(vinylidene fluoride), plasticized by a solution of a Li salt in an organic solvent. The high voltage cathode includes LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, LiCoO{sub 2}, LiNiO{sub 2} and LiV{sub 2}O{sub 5} and their derivatives. 5 figs.

Abraham, K.M.; Peramunage, D.

1998-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

291

Passivation-free solid state battery  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention pertains to passivation-free solid-state rechargeable batteries composed of Li.sub.4 Ti.sub.5 O.sub.12 anode, a solid polymer electrolyte and a high voltage cathode. The solid polymer electrolyte comprises a polymer host, such as polyacrylonitrile, poly(vinyl chloride), poly(vinyl sulfone), and poly(vinylidene fluoride), plasticized by a solution of a Li salt in an organic solvent. The high voltage cathode includes LiMn.sub.2 O.sub.4, LiCoO.sub.2, LiNiO.sub.2 and LiV.sub.2 O.sub.5 and their derivatives.

Abraham, Kuzhikalail M. (Needham, MA); Peramunage, Dharmasena (Norwood, MA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Developing the Manufacturing Process for VCE: Binder for Filled Elastomers  

SciTech Connect

This topical report presents work completed to re-establish the manufacturing process for poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate-co-vinyl alcohol) terpolymer called VCE. The new VCE formulations meet the material requirements and have lower melt viscosity, which results in improved production for the next assembly. In addition, the reaction conditions were optimized in order to achieve a satisfactory conversion rate to enable production in a single work shift. Several equipment and process changes were made to yield a manufacturing process with improved product quality, yield, efficiency, and worker safety.

E.A. Eastwood

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

In-situ stabilization of radioactive zirconium swarf  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The method for treating ignitable cutting swarf in accordance with the present invention involves collecting cutting swarf in a casting mold underwater and injecting a binder mixture comprising vinyl ester styrene into the vessel to fill void volume; and form a mixture comprising swarf and vinyl ester styrene; and curing the mixture. The method is especially useful for stabilizing the ignitable characteristics of radioactive zirconium cutting swarf, and can be used to solidify zirconium swarf, or other ignitable finely divided material, underwater. The process could also be performed out of water with other particulate wastes. 6 figs.

Hess, C.C.

1999-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

294

In-situ stabilization of radioactive zirconium swarf  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The method for treating ignitable cutting swarf in accordance with the present invention involves collecting cutting swarf in a casting mold underwater and injecting a binder mixture comprising vinyl ester styrene into the vessel to fill void volume; and form a mixture comprising swarf and vinyl ester styrene; and curing the mixture. The method is especially useful for stabilizing the ignitable characteristics of radioactive zirconium cutting swarf, and can be used to solidify zirconium swarf, or other ignitable finely divided material, underwater. The process could also be performed out of water with other particulate wastes.

Hess, Clay C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

In-situ stabilization of radioactive zirconium swarf  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The method for treating ignitable cutting swarf in accordance with the present invention involves collecting cutting swarf in a casting mold underwater and injecting a binder mixture comprising vinyl ester styrene into the vessel to fill void volume; and form a mixture comprising swarf and vinyl ester styrene; and curing the mixture. The method is especially useful for stabilizing the ignitable characteristics of radioactive zirconium cutting swarf, and can be used to solidify zirconium swarf, or other ignitable finely divided material, underwater. The process could also be performed out of water with other particulate wastes.

Hess, Clay C.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

AOCS Official Method Ad 6-52  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oil AOCS Official Method Ad 6-52 Methods Methods and Analyses Analytical Chemistry Methods Downloads DEFINITION This method determines the substances extracted by petroleum ether under the conditions of the test

297

AOCS Official Method Ag 1-65  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oil AOCS Official Method Ag 1-65 Methods Methods and Analyses Analytical Chemistry Methods Downloads DEFINITION This method determines the substances extracted by petroleum ether under the conditions of the test

298

AOCS Official Method Bb 2-38  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oil AOCS Official Method Bb 2-38 Methods Methods and Analyses Analytical Chemistry Methods Downloads Methods Downloads DEFINITION This method determines the substances extracted by petroleum ether under the con

299

AOCS Official Method Ad 3-52  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oil AOCS Official Method Ad 3-52 Methods Methods and Analyses Analytical Chemistry Methods Downloads AOCS DEFINITION This method determines the substances extracted by petroleum ether under the conditions of

300

AOCS Official Method Ad 5-52  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oil AOCS Official Method Ad 5-52 Methods Methods and Analyses Analytical Chemistry Methods Downloads DEFINITION This method determines the substances extracted by petroleum ether under the conditions of the test

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "2-chloroethyl vinyl ether" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Gulf Coast (PADD 3) Exports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Area: Period-Unit: Download Series History ... 51: 64: 59: 70: 70: 62: 2009-2013: Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) 41: 44: 49: 61: 49: 50: 2004-2013: Other ...

302

U.S. Oxygenate Production - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Area: Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View History; Fuel Ethanol: 855: 877: 891: 868: 849: 852: 1981-2013: Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) 48: 55: 54: 51 ...

303

Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank ...  

Radiochemical Science and Engineering Group, ... R OH CF3 R = –H, –CH 3 ... and B. A. Moyer (Unpublished results). O O O O O O 0.05 M crown ether with or without ...

304

A new class of photoresponsive surfactants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this thesis, a new class of nonionic, photoresponsive surfactants consisting of a polar di(ethylene oxide) head group attached to an alkyl spacer of between two and eight methylene groups, coupled through an ether linkage ...

Shang, Tiangang, 1969-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Radiation Chemistry of MTBE in Aqueous Solution  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Methyl-tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) in Aqueous Solution Stephen P. Mezyk, Jace Jones, William J. Cooper, Thomas Tobien, Michael G. Nickelsen, J. Wesley Adams, Kevin E. O'Shea, David M....

306

AOCS Official Method H 2-41  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Petroleum Ether AOCS Official Method H 2-41 Methods Downloads Methods Downloads DEFINITION   SCOPE 6ADA986E906791AA56A1C6453143C945 MC-H241 2425

307

U.S. Refinery & Blender Net Input - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

413: 353: 340: 289: 2008-2013: RBOB for Blending with Alcohol : 2005-2009: RBOB for Blending with Ether : 2005-2009: GTAB : 2005-2009: Conventional: 173: 117: 246 ...

308

AOCS Official Method Ac 3-44  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oil AOCS Official Method Ac 3-44 Methods Methods and Analyses Analytical Chemistry Methods Downloads DEFINITION This method determines the substances extracted from ground soybean seeds by petroleum ether under

309

B24: Structural Characterization of Sintered Recycled Glass ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A8: Microstructural Investigation of Nano-Calcium Phosphates Doped with Fluoride Ions .... D7: Surfactant Structure–property Relationship: Effect of Polypropylene ... E4: The Effect of Monobutyl Ether Ethylene Glycol on the Conductivity and ...

310

J8: Distribution Behaviors of Light Rare Earths Extracted by ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A8: Microstructural Investigation of Nano-Calcium Phosphates Doped with Fluoride Ions .... D7: Surfactant Structure–property Relationship: Effect of Polypropylene ... E4: The Effect of Monobutyl Ether Ethylene Glycol on the Conductivity and ...

311

Nonlinear Properties of (GeSe2)100-x(Sb2Se3)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A8: Microstructural Investigation of Nano-Calcium Phosphates Doped with Fluoride Ions .... D7: Surfactant Structure–property Relationship: Effect of Polypropylene ... E4: The Effect of Monobutyl Ether Ethylene Glycol on the Conductivity and ...

312

I3: Development of Core-shell Structured Multiferroic ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A8: Microstructural Investigation of Nano-Calcium Phosphates Doped with Fluoride Ions .... D7: Surfactant Structure–property Relationship: Effect of Polypropylene ... E4: The Effect of Monobutyl Ether Ethylene Glycol on the Conductivity and ...

313

F4: Mechanical Properties of an As-hot Rolled FeAlMnC Alloy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A8: Microstructural Investigation of Nano-Calcium Phosphates Doped with Fluoride Ions .... D7: Surfactant Structure–property Relationship: Effect of Polypropylene ... E4: The Effect of Monobutyl Ether Ethylene Glycol on the Conductivity and ...

314

Electromagnetic Shielding Performance of Nickel-coated Carbon ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Microstructural Investigation of Nano-Calcium Phosphates Doped with Fluoride Ions .... Surfactant Structure–property Relationship: Effect of Polypropylene Glycol ... The Effect of Monobutyl Ether Ethylene Glycol on the Conductivity and the ...

315

E18: Synthesis and Mechanical Property of NaB 5 C Ceramics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A8: Microstructural Investigation of Nano-Calcium Phosphates Doped with Fluoride Ions .... D7: Surfactant Structure–property Relationship: Effect of Polypropylene ... E4: The Effect of Monobutyl Ether Ethylene Glycol on the Conductivity and ...

316

F8: Study on Lump Ore Decrepitation Behavior Mechanism  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A8: Microstructural Investigation of Nano-Calcium Phosphates Doped with Fluoride Ions .... D7: Surfactant Structure–property Relationship: Effect of Polypropylene ... E4: The Effect of Monobutyl Ether Ethylene Glycol on the Conductivity and ...

317

I17: Electrochemical Properties and Degradation Behavior of ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A8: Microstructural Investigation of Nano-Calcium Phosphates Doped with Fluoride Ions .... D7: Surfactant Structure–property Relationship: Effect of Polypropylene ... E4: The Effect of Monobutyl Ether Ethylene Glycol on the Conductivity and ...

318

G11  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A8: Microstructural Investigation of Nano-Calcium Phosphates Doped with Fluoride Ions .... D7: Surfactant Structure–property Relationship: Effect of Polypropylene ... E4: The Effect of Monobutyl Ether Ethylene Glycol on the Conductivity and ...

319

A1: 45S5 Bioglass®/Polylactic Acid (PLA) Composite Scaffolds with ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A8: Microstructural Investigation of Nano-Calcium Phosphates Doped with Fluoride Ions .... D7: Surfactant Structure–property Relationship: Effect of Polypropylene ... E4: The Effect of Monobutyl Ether Ethylene Glycol on the Conductivity and ...

320

B4: Direct Printing Synthesis of Self-organized Copper Oxide Hollow ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A8: Microstructural Investigation of Nano-Calcium Phosphates Doped with Fluoride Ions .... D7: Surfactant Structure–property Relationship: Effect of Polypropylene ... E4: The Effect of Monobutyl Ether Ethylene Glycol on the Conductivity and ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "2-chloroethyl vinyl ether" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

H8  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A8: Microstructural Investigation of Nano-Calcium Phosphates Doped with Fluoride Ions .... D7: Surfactant Structure–property Relationship: Effect of Polypropylene ... E4: The Effect of Monobutyl Ether Ethylene Glycol on the Conductivity and ...

322

J26: High Purity Samarium Acetate from Mixed Rare Earth Carbonates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A8: Microstructural Investigation of Nano-Calcium Phosphates Doped with Fluoride Ions .... D7: Surfactant Structure–property Relationship: Effect of Polypropylene ... E4: The Effect of Monobutyl Ether Ethylene Glycol on the Conductivity and ...

323

D4: In-situ Characterisation of Silicon-based Anodes for Li-ion ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A8: Microstructural Investigation of Nano-Calcium Phosphates Doped with Fluoride Ions .... D7: Surfactant Structure–property Relationship: Effect of Polypropylene ... E4: The Effect of Monobutyl Ether Ethylene Glycol on the Conductivity and ...

324

C10: Piezoresponse Force Microscopy to study the bio-ferroelectric ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A8: Microstructural Investigation of Nano-Calcium Phosphates Doped with Fluoride Ions .... D7: Surfactant Structure–property Relationship: Effect of Polypropylene ... E4: The Effect of Monobutyl Ether Ethylene Glycol on the Conductivity and ...

325

G3: Nitriding Surface Treatments to Improve Water Droplet Erosion ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A8: Microstructural Investigation of Nano-Calcium Phosphates Doped with Fluoride Ions .... D7: Surfactant Structure–property Relationship: Effect of Polypropylene ... E4: The Effect of Monobutyl Ether Ethylene Glycol on the Conductivity and ...

326

C7: Investigation on the Dielectric Response of PLZT Ferroelectric ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A8: Microstructural Investigation of Nano-Calcium Phosphates Doped with Fluoride Ions .... D7: Surfactant Structure–property Relationship: Effect of Polypropylene ... E4: The Effect of Monobutyl Ether Ethylene Glycol on the Conductivity and ...

327

J21: Mechanism of Nanostructures Induced by Femtosecond Laser ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A8: Microstructural Investigation of Nano-Calcium Phosphates Doped with Fluoride Ions .... D7: Surfactant Structure–property Relationship: Effect of Polypropylene ... E4: The Effect of Monobutyl Ether Ethylene Glycol on the Conductivity and ...

328

K5: Microwave Sintering of Electrolyte Nanomaterials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A8: Microstructural Investigation of Nano-Calcium Phosphates Doped with Fluoride Ions .... D7: Surfactant Structure–property Relationship: Effect of Polypropylene ... E4: The Effect of Monobutyl Ether Ethylene Glycol on the Conductivity and ...

329

J10: Preparation of Rare Earths Oxide by Spray Pyrolysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A8: Microstructural Investigation of Nano-Calcium Phosphates Doped with Fluoride Ions .... D7: Surfactant Structure–property Relationship: Effect of Polypropylene ... E4: The Effect of Monobutyl Ether Ethylene Glycol on the Conductivity and ...

330

J2: Electron Beam Bead-On-Plate Welding Process for Thick Gauge ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A8: Microstructural Investigation of Nano-Calcium Phosphates Doped with Fluoride Ions .... D7: Surfactant Structure–property Relationship: Effect of Polypropylene ... E4: The Effect of Monobutyl Ether Ethylene Glycol on the Conductivity and ...

331

B8: Fabrication of ZrO2-Al2O3 Composite Ceramics Having ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A8: Microstructural Investigation of Nano-Calcium Phosphates Doped with Fluoride Ions .... D7: Surfactant Structure–property Relationship: Effect of Polypropylene ... E4: The Effect of Monobutyl Ether Ethylene Glycol on the Conductivity and ...

332

H3: Development of Mechanical Properties in High–elastic Alumium ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A8: Microstructural Investigation of Nano-Calcium Phosphates Doped with Fluoride Ions .... D7: Surfactant Structure–property Relationship: Effect of Polypropylene ... E4: The Effect of Monobutyl Ether Ethylene Glycol on the Conductivity and ...

333

B33: A H2-D2 Exchange Study on Ni-based Binary-ternary ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A8: Microstructural Investigation of Nano-Calcium Phosphates Doped with Fluoride Ions .... D7: Surfactant Structure–property Relationship: Effect of Polypropylene ... E4: The Effect of Monobutyl Ether Ethylene Glycol on the Conductivity and ...

334

H18: Mechanical and Corrosion Properties of High-strength Mg-Zn ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A8: Microstructural Investigation of Nano-Calcium Phosphates Doped with Fluoride Ions .... D7: Surfactant Structure–property Relationship: Effect of Polypropylene ... E4: The Effect of Monobutyl Ether Ethylene Glycol on the Conductivity and ...

335

J13: Tensile Properties and Microstructure of Friction Stir Welded ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A8: Microstructural Investigation of Nano-Calcium Phosphates Doped with Fluoride Ions .... D7: Surfactant Structure–property Relationship: Effect of Polypropylene ... E4: The Effect of Monobutyl Ether Ethylene Glycol on the Conductivity and ...

336

J45: Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior of Hydraulic Turbine Runner ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A8: Microstructural Investigation of Nano-Calcium Phosphates Doped with Fluoride Ions .... D7: Surfactant Structure–property Relationship: Effect of Polypropylene ... E4: The Effect of Monobutyl Ether Ethylene Glycol on the Conductivity and ...

337

H10: Fabrication and Characterization of Al-based In Situ ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A8: Microstructural Investigation of Nano-Calcium Phosphates Doped with Fluoride Ions .... D7: Surfactant Structure–property Relationship: Effect of Polypropylene ... E4: The Effect of Monobutyl Ether Ethylene Glycol on the Conductivity and ...

338

B22: Strengthening of E-glass Fibers by Surface Stress Relaxation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A8: Microstructural Investigation of Nano-Calcium Phosphates Doped with Fluoride Ions .... D7: Surfactant Structure–property Relationship: Effect of Polypropylene ... E4: The Effect of Monobutyl Ether Ethylene Glycol on the Conductivity and ...

339

J46: Preliminary Investigations of the Precipitation Hardening Alloy ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A8: Microstructural Investigation of Nano-Calcium Phosphates Doped with Fluoride Ions .... D7: Surfactant Structure–property Relationship: Effect of Polypropylene ... E4: The Effect of Monobutyl Ether Ethylene Glycol on the Conductivity and ...

340

E10: Precise Quantification of Charge Mediated Converse ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A8: Microstructural Investigation of Nano-Calcium Phosphates Doped with Fluoride Ions .... D7: Surfactant Structure–property Relationship: Effect of Polypropylene ... E4: The Effect of Monobutyl Ether Ethylene Glycol on the Conductivity and ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "2-chloroethyl vinyl ether" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

J49: Effect of Laser Centreline Offset in Dissimilar Joining of NiTi ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A8: Microstructural Investigation of Nano-Calcium Phosphates Doped with Fluoride Ions .... D7: Surfactant Structure–property Relationship: Effect of Polypropylene ... E4: The Effect of Monobutyl Ether Ethylene Glycol on the Conductivity and ...

342

J19: Arsenic Adsorption Properties of Porous Iron Oxide Particles ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A8: Microstructural Investigation of Nano-Calcium Phosphates Doped with Fluoride Ions .... D7: Surfactant Structure–property Relationship: Effect of Polypropylene ... E4: The Effect of Monobutyl Ether Ethylene Glycol on the Conductivity and ...

343

E9: Low-temperature Spin Spray Deposited Ferrite/Piezoelectric ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A8: Microstructural Investigation of Nano-Calcium Phosphates Doped with Fluoride Ions .... D7: Surfactant Structure–property Relationship: Effect of Polypropylene ... E4: The Effect of Monobutyl Ether Ethylene Glycol on the Conductivity and ...

344

H1: Aluminized Multifunctional Coating on Steel in SHS Condition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A8: Microstructural Investigation of Nano-Calcium Phosphates Doped with Fluoride Ions .... D7: Surfactant Structure–property Relationship: Effect of Polypropylene ... E4: The Effect of Monobutyl Ether Ethylene Glycol on the Conductivity and ...

345

Bioinspired Highly Reversible Carbon-coated SnO2-C Based on ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Microstructural Investigation of Nano-Calcium Phosphates Doped with Fluoride Ions .... Surfactant Structure–property Relationship: Effect of Polypropylene Glycol ... The Effect of Monobutyl Ether Ethylene Glycol on the Conductivity and the ...

346

J57: Hybrid Method for Determination of Thermal Boundary ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A8: Microstructural Investigation of Nano-Calcium Phosphates Doped with Fluoride Ions .... D7: Surfactant Structure–property Relationship: Effect of Polypropylene ... E4: The Effect of Monobutyl Ether Ethylene Glycol on the Conductivity and ...

347

A9: Multiscale Modelling to Assess Elastic Properties of Cortical Bone  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A8: Microstructural Investigation of Nano-Calcium Phosphates Doped with Fluoride Ions .... D7: Surfactant Structure–property Relationship: Effect of Polypropylene ... E4: The Effect of Monobutyl Ether Ethylene Glycol on the Conductivity and ...

348

E53: Degradation of Azo Dye Sunset Yellow using Electron-fenton ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A8: Microstructural Investigation of Nano-Calcium Phosphates Doped with Fluoride Ions .... D7: Surfactant Structure–property Relationship: Effect of Polypropylene ... E4: The Effect of Monobutyl Ether Ethylene Glycol on the Conductivity and ...

349

D18: Determining Frother-like Properties of Process Water in ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A8: Microstructural Investigation of Nano-Calcium Phosphates Doped with Fluoride Ions .... D7: Surfactant Structure–property Relationship: Effect of Polypropylene ... E4: The Effect of Monobutyl Ether Ethylene Glycol on the Conductivity and ...

350

Open Archive TOULOUSE Archive Ouverte (OATAO) OATAO is an open access repository that collects the work of Toulouse researchers and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and trends concerning cellulosic materials processed in scCO2 such as cellulose drying to obtain aerogels for cellulose esters and ether synthesis, and fibres and film fabrication. These materials are used in coatings

Recanati, Catherine

351

Shear and Extensional Rheology of Cellulose/Ionic Liquid Solutions Simon J. Haward1*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-anhydroglucopyranose building blocks are substituted by ethers or esters. 1-4 The extensive inter-chain and intra-chain hydrogen and other desirable properties that drive its use in textile fibers, films, nanoparticles, aerogels

352

The US department of Energy's R&D program to reduce greenhouse...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

gas which can be used as a feedstock to produce value-added products such as methanol, acetic acid, dimethyl ether, and diesel fuel. A fl uidized bed reactor is being used to...

353

Preparation of 1-C14-Propene-1 and the Mechanism of Permanganate Oxidation of Propene  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

propene, 9% butenes, 9% butanes and pentanes and 1% pentenes0.5/0 propane and 0.5% n-butane. The yield of propene waspropene, 16% butenes f 3% i-butane, 3% ethyl propy:i. ether

Fries, B.A.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Publications  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sun, Xiao-Guang Clear All Filters 2005 Sun, Xiao-Guang, Jun Hou, and John B. Kerr. "Comb-shaped single ion conductors based on polyacrylate ethers and lithium alkyl sulfonate."...

355

AOCS Official Method Bc 3-49  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oil AOCS Official Method Bc 3-49 Methods Methods and Analyses Analytical Chemistry Methods Downloads Methods Downloads DEFINITION This method determines the substances extracted by petroleum ether under the con

356

Preparations for Meeting New York and Connecticut MTBE Bans  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

In response to a Congressional request, EIA examined the progress being made to meet the bans on the use of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) being implemented in New York and Connecticut at the end of 2003.

Joanne Shore

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

35461,"AECTRA REFG & MKTG",1,152,"MOTOR GAS, OTHER FINISHED"...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

TERTIARY BUTYL ETHER (MTBE)",2809,"SANFRANCISCO, CA","CALIFORNIA",5,515,"KOREA, REPUBLIC OF",32,0,0,"WICKLAND OIL CO","SELBY TERM","CA","CALIFORNIA",5...

358

AOCS Official Method Aa 4-38  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oil AOCS Official Method Aa 4-38 Methods Methods and Analyses Analytical Chemistry Methods Downloads DEFINITION This method determines the substances extracted by petroleum ether under conditions of the test (se

359

Transetherification method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Transetherification is carried out in a catalytic distillation reactor, wherein the catalytic structure also serves as a distillation structure, by feeding a first ether to the catalyst bed to at least partially dissociate it into a first olefin and a first alcohol while concurrently therewith feeding either a second olefin (preferably a tertiary olefin) having a higher boiling point than said first olefin or a second alcohol having a higher boiling point than said first alcohol to the catalyst whereby either the second olefin and the first alcohol or the first olefin and the second alcohol react to form a second ether which has a higher boiling point than the first ether, which second ether is concurrently removed as a bottoms in the concurrent reaction-distillation to force that reaction to completion, while the unreacted first olefin or first alcohol is removed in the overhead. 1 fig.

Hearn, D.

1985-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

360

Transetherification method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Transetherification is carried out in a catalytic distillation reactor, wherein the catalytic structure also serves as a distillation structure, by feeding a first ether to the catalyst bed to at least partially dissociate it into a first olefin and a first alcohol while concurrently therewith feeding either a second olefin (preferably a tertiary olefin) having a higher boiling point than said first olefin or a second alcohol having a higher boiling point than said first alcohol to the catalyst whereby either the second olefin and the first alcohol or the first olefin and the second alcohol react to form a second ether which has a higher boiling point than the first ether, which second ether is concurrently removed as a bottoms in the concurrent reaction-distillation to force that reaction to completion, while the unreacted first olefin or first alcohol is removed in the overhead.

Hearn, Dennis (Houston, TX)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "2-chloroethyl vinyl ether" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

PADD 3 Stocks of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

All stock levels are as of the end of the period. Data may not add to total due to independent rounding. Weekly data for RBOB with Ether, RBOB with Alcohol, ...

362

Stocks of Propane/Propylene - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

All stock levels are as of the end of the period. Data may not add to total due to independent rounding. Weekly data for RBOB with Ether, RBOB with Alcohol, ...

363

Stocks of Residual Fuel Oil  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

All stock levels are as of the end of the period. Data may not add to total due to independent rounding. Weekly data for RBOB with Ether, RBOB with Alcohol, ...

364

Cushing, Oklahoma Stocks of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

All stock levels are as of the end of the period. Data may not add to total due to independent rounding. Weekly data for RBOB with Ether, RBOB with Alcohol, ...

365

Purifying contaminated water  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Process for removing biorefractory compounds from contaminated water (e.g., oil shale retort waste-water) by contacting same with fragmented raw oil shale. Biorefractory removal is enhanced by preactivating the oil shale with at least one member of the group of carboxylic, acids, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, ethers, amines, amides, sulfoxides, mixed ether-esters and nitriles. Further purification is obtained by stripping, followed by biodegradation and removal of the cells.

Daughton, Christian G. (San Pablo, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Purifying contaminated water. [DOE patent application  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Process is presented for removing biorefactory compounds from contaminated water (e.g., oil shale retort waste-water) by contacting same with fragmented raw oil shale. Biorefractory removal is enhanced by preactivating the oil shale with at least one member of the group of carboxylic acids, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, ethers, amines, amides, sulfoxides, mixed ether-esters and nitriles. Further purification is obtained by stripping, followed by biodegradation and removal of the cells.

Daughton, C.G.

1981-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

367

Multifunctional gasoline additives  

SciTech Connect

The reaction products of glycidyl ethers, wherein the alkoxy portion contains from about 6 to about 20 carbon atoms, with alkylenediamines, n-alkyl alkylenediamines, and n-alkoxyalkyl alkylenediamines are effective carburetor detergents and reduce deposits on various components of internal combustion engines. An example is the reaction product of the glycidyl ether whose alkoxy group is a mixture of 12-14 carbon atom chains with n-tallow-1,3-propylenediamine.

Childs, M.E.

1981-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

368

EXTRACTION METHOD FOR SEPARATING URANIUM, PLUTONIUM, AND FISSION PRODUCTS FROM COMPOSITIONS CONTAINING SAME  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods for separating plutonium from the fission products present in masses of neutron irradiated uranium are reported. The neutron irradiated uranium is first dissolved in an aqueous solution of nitric acid. The plutonium in this solution is present as plutonous nitrate. The aqueous solution is then agitated with an organic solvent, which is not miscible with water, such as diethyl ether. The ether extracts 90% of the uraryl nitrate leaving, substantially all of the plutonium in the aqueous phase. The aqueous solution of plutonous nitrate is then oxidized to the hexavalent state, and agitated with diethyl ether again. In the ether phase there is then obtained 90% of plutonium as a solution of plutonyl nitrate. The ether solution of plutonyl nitrate is then agitated with water containing a reducing agent such as sulfur dioxide, and the plutonium dissolves in the water and is reduced to the plutonous state. The uranyl nitrate remains in the ether. The plutonous nitrate in the water may be recovered by precipitation.

Seaborg, G.T.

1957-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

369

High temperature polymer concrete  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is concerned with a polymer concrete composition, which is a two-component composition useful with many bases including metal. Component A, the aggregate composition, is broadly composed of silica, silica flour, portland cement, and acrylamide, whereas Component B, which is primarily vinyl and acrylyl reactive monomers, is a liquid system.

Fontana, J.J.; Reams, W.

1984-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

370

Treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and OCD-related disorders using GVG  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to the use of gamma vinyl-GABA (GVG) to treat obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and OCD-related disorders, and to reduce or eliminate behaviors associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and OCD-related disorders.

Dewey, Stephen L. (Manorville, NY); Brodie, Jonathan D. (Cos Cob, CT); Ashby, Jr., Charles R. (Miller Place, NY)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Initiated chemical vapor deposition of fluoropolymer coatings for the surface modification of complex geometries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) is a one-step, soventless process that can be used to produce polymeric thin films. The iCVD technique has been used to polymerize a wide variety of vinyl monomers such as glycidyl ...

Gupta, Malancha, 1980-

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Polymerizable 2(2-hydroxynaphthyl)2H-benzotriazole compounds  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Benzotriazole compounds having the formula: ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1 is H, Cl, or OCH.sub.3 ; R.sub.2 is a hydroxynaphthyl group; and R.sub.3 is a vinyl unsaturated polymerizable group. Homopolymers or copolymers thereof are effective as UV light stabilizers and absorbers.

Gomez, P.M.; Neidlinger, H.H.

1991-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

373

Radioiodinated glucose analogues for use as imaging agents  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A radioiodinated branched carbohydrate for tissue imaging. Iodine-123 is stabilized in the compound by attaching it to a vinyl functional group that is on the carbohydrate. The compound exhibits good uptake and retention and is promising in the development of radiopharmaceuticals for brain, heart and tumor imaging.

Goodman, Mark M. (Knoxville, TN); Knapp, Jr., Furn F. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Radioiodinated branched carbohydrates  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A radioiodinated branched carbohydrate for tissue imaging. Iodine-123 is stabilized in the compound by attaching it to a vinyl functional group that is on the carbohydrate. The compound exhibits good uptake and retention and is promising in the development of radiopharmaceuticals for brain, heart and tumor imaging.

Goodman, Mark M. (Knoxville, TN); Knapp, Jr., Furn F. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Silicon dendritic web material process development. Second quarterly report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The properties of the cells to be used in the first 30 cm by 60 cm module are given. The average efficiency was 12.4 +- 0.8%. The highest efficiency measured was 14.2%. A satisfactory lamination has been made with polyvinyl butyral replacing ethylene vinyl acetate.

Stapleton, R. E.; Meier, D. L.; Sienkiewicz, L.; Campbell, R. B.; Rai-Choudhury, P.

1980-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

376

Weatherization pays big dividends  

SciTech Connect

Weather Windows, do-it-yourself indoor vinyl storm windows, are a major project of the Duke Power Co. Weatherization Program. Various weatherization programs in existence across the United States are discussed, emphasizing their public relations aspects as well as the service they provide to customers regarding savings on electric bills. 1 figure.

Gorzelnik, E.F.

1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Workshop on Computational Linguistics for Literature, pages 8487, Montreal, Canada, June 8, 2012. c 2012 Association for Computational Linguistics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Throughout history, we have examples of artists observing each other's works and reprising the same subjects:Matt Flynn. CENTER: HELLA JONGERIUS Sample Blanket Repurposed fabrics,wool,polyester thread, needle to Mary Kahlenberg Wool,linen,vinyl,double weave with discontinuous tabby and manipulated inlay,48" x 56

378

AN INTRODUCTION TO ASBESTOS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 5.3.1 Furnace Insulation 5.3.2 Pipe Insulation 5.3.3 Ceilings and Walls 5.4 Building Interiors asbestos cement insulation, asbestos cement board, asbestos cement tiles, vinyl asbestos tiles, or plaster in some Dalhousie buildings. 4. To clean up in areas where asbestos dust may be present, use a wet mop

Brownstone, Rob

379

Soluble Synthetic Analogs of Malaria Pigment: Structure of Mesohematin Anhydride [FeIII(MP-IX)]2 and Solution Interaction with Chloroquine  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Changing the vinyl groups of hematin anhydride to either ethyl or hydrogen groups results in increased solubility (Por=porphyrin). Determination of the weak binding constants of the antimalarial drug chloroquine to dimers of these hematin anhydride analogues suggests that solution-phase heme/drug interactions alone are unlikely to be the origin of the action of the drug.

D Bohle; E Dodd; A Kosar; L Sharma; P Stephens; L Suarez; D Tazoo

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

380

Solid sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide from gas streams at low temperatures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

New low-cost CO.sub.2 sorbents are provided that can be used in large-scale gas-solid processes. A new method is provided for making these sorbents that involves treating substrates with an amine and/or an ether so that the amine and/or ether comprise at least 50 wt. percent of the sorbent. The sorbent acts by capturing compounds contained in gaseous fluids via chemisorption and/or physisorption between the unit layers of the substrate's lattice where the polar amine liquids and solids and/or polar ether liquids and solids are located. The method eliminates the need for high surface area supports and polymeric materials for the preparation of CO.sub.2 capture systems, and provides sorbents with absorption capabilities that are independent of the sorbents' surface areas. The sorbents can be regenerated by heating at temperatures in excess of 35.degree. C.

Sirwardane, Ranjani V. (Morgantown, WV)

2005-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "2-chloroethyl vinyl ether" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Standard practice for infrared flash thermography of composite panels and repair patches used in aerospace applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1.1 This practice describes a procedure for detecting subsurface flaws in composite panels and repair patches using Flash Thermography (FT), in which an infrared (IR) camera is used to detect anomalous cooling behavior of a sample surface after it has been heated with a spatially uniform light pulse from a flash lamp array. 1.2 This practice describes established FT test methods that are currently used by industry, and have demonstrated utility in quality assurance of composite structures during post-manufacturing and in-service examinations. 1.3 This practice has utility for testing of polymer composite panels and repair patches containing, but not limited to, bismaleimide, epoxy, phenolic, poly(amide imide), polybenzimidazole, polyester (thermosetting and thermoplastic), poly(ether ether ketone), poly(ether imide), polyimide (thermosetting and thermoplastic), poly(phenylene sulfide), or polysulfone matrices; and alumina, aramid, boron, carbon, glass, quartz, or silicon carbide fibers. Typical as-fabricate...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Solid Sorbents for Removal of Carbon Dioxide from Gas Streams at Low Temperatures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

New low-cost CO2 sorbents are provided that can be used in large-scale gas-solid processes. A new method is provided for making these sorbents that involves treating substrates with an amine and/or an ether so that the amine and/or ether comprise at least 50 wt. percent of the sorbent. The sorbent acts by capturing compounds contained in gaseous fluids via chemisorption and/or physisorption between the unit layers of the substrate's lattice where the polar amine liquids and solids and/or polar ether liquids and solids are located. The method eliminates the need for high surface area supports and polymeric materials for the preparation of CO2 capture systems, and provides sorbents with absorption capabilities that are independent of the sorbents' surface areas. The sorbents can be regenerated by heating at temperatures in excess of 35 degrees C.

Sirwardane, Ranjani V.

2005-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

383

High-energy metal air batteries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed herein are embodiments of lithium/air batteries and methods of making and using the same. Certain embodiments are pouch-cell batteries encased within an oxygen-permeable membrane packaging material that is less than 2% of the total battery weight. Some embodiments include a hybrid air electrode comprising carbon and an ion insertion material, wherein the mass ratio of ion insertion material to carbon is 0.2 to 0.8. The air electrode may include hydrophobic, porous fibers. In particular embodiments, the air electrode is soaked with an electrolyte comprising one or more solvents including dimethyl ether, and the dimethyl ether subsequently is evacuated from the soaked electrode. In other embodiments, the electrolyte comprises 10-20% crown ether by weight.

Zhang, Ji-Guang; Xiao, Jie; Xu, Wu; Wang, Deyu; Williford, Ralph E.; Liu, Jun

2013-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

384

Sandia National Laboratories: 13,051 lbs of Carpet Sent for Reuse  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

13,051 lbs of Carpet Sent for Reuse 13,051 lbs of Carpet Sent for Reuse November 01, 2011 carpet for reuse Sandia National Laboratories/NM has found a new home for excess carpet generated during interior renovations of its existing buildings. Sandia's Pollution Prevention (P2) Team has been collecting vinyl backed and foam backed (polyurethane) carpet for many years; however it was limited to recycling opportunities due to the lack of options in the carpet industry. Previous shipments sent out for recycle were delivered to Interface Carpet in Atlanta, GA, where the manufacture has an extensive recycling program that recycles vinyl backed carpet in addition to the nylon fiber surface. Unfortunately, the polyurethane backed carpet is non recyclable and sent for waste-to-energy recovery. forklift carrying carpet

385

Buildings Energy Data Book: 1.4 Environmental Data  

Buildings Energy Data Book (EERE)

3 3 "Typical" Construction Waste Estimated for a 2,000-Square-Foot Home (1) Material Solid Sawn Wood 20% 6 Engineered Wood 18% 5 Drywall 25% 6 Cardboard (OCC) 8% 20 Metals 2% 1 Vinyl (PVC) (3) 2% 1 Masonry (4) 13% 1 Hazardous Materials 1% - Other 13% 11 Total (5) 100% 50 Note(s): Source(s): 1) See Table 2.2.7 for materials used in the construction of a new single-family home. 2) Volumes are highly variable due to compressibility and captured air space in waste materials. 3) Assuming 3 sides of exterior clad in vinyl siding. 4) Assuming a brick veneer on home's front facade. 5) Due to rounding, sum does not add up to total. NAHB's Internet web site, www.nahb.org, Residential Construction Waste: From Disposal to Management, Oct. 1996. 150 150 1,000 50 1,050 8,000

386

Measurement of the Osmotic Properties of Thin Polymer Films and Biological Tissue Samples  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A new type of micro-osmometer is described in which water absorption of small tissue samples is measured by a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). The swelling of the sample deposited on the surface of a quartz crystal is determined by monitoring the change in resonance frequency of the quartz sensor as a function of the vapor pressure in the surrounding environment. The measurement principle is verified by studying the water uptake of poly(vinyl alcohol) films. Reasonable agreement is found between the results obtained by the QCM-based osmometer and previous osmotic pressure measurements made on a similar poly(vinyl alcohol) sample. The feasibility of the new method is demonstrated by measuring the osmotic response of tissue-engineered cartilage samples. It is found that the osmotic pressure of cartilage substantially increases with culture time. The present result is consistent with cartilage models, suggesting that the proteoglycan content governs the compressive resistance of the tissue.

Ferenc Horkay; Iren Horkayne-szakaly; Peter J. Basser

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

An Exploration of Wall Retrofit Best Practices  

SciTech Connect

A series of experiments were performed to examine wall retrofit options including replacing the cladding, adding insulation under the cladding, and multiple sealing methods that can be used when installing replacement windows in well-built or loosely-built rough openings. These experiments included thermal measurements in a hot box and air-leakage measurements. The retrofit claddings considered included wood-lap siding, vinyl siding, and vinyl siding with an integrated and formed foam insulation. Retrofit insulations included expanded and extruded polystyrene and foil-faced polyisocyanurate in various thicknesses. Air sealing methods for replacement windows included traditional caulking, exterior trim variations, loose-fill fiberglass, low-expansion foam, self-expanding foam inserts, and specialty tape. Results were applied to a model to estimate whole-house energy impacts for multiple climates.

Stovall, Therese K [ORNL; Petrie, Thomas [ORNL; Kosny, Jan [ORNL; Childs, Phillip W [ORNL; Atchley, Jerald Allen [ORNL; Hulvey, Kimberly D [ORNL

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Cyanoethylated Compounds as Additives in Lithium/Lithium Ion Batteries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The power loss of lithium/lithium ion battery cells is significantly reduced, especially at low temperatures, when about 1% by weight of an additive is incorporated in the electrolyte layer of the cells. The usable additives are organic solvent soluble cyanoethylated polysaccharides and poly(vinyl alcohol). The power loss decrease results primarily from the decrease in the charge transfer resistance at the interface between the electrolyte and the cathode.

Nagasubramanian, Ganesan

1998-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

389

Integrated Materials and Construction Practices (IMCP) for Concrete Pavement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Stainless steels: AlSl 302 8055 480 15.1 3.91 17.3 20.0 22.8 25.4 512 559 585 606 AlSl 304 1670 7900 477 14 and rubber pad -- -- -- 1.38 0.217 Tile (asphalt, linoleum, vinyl) -- -- -- 1.26 0.009 Masonry Materials.1 -- -- expanded shale, clay, or slate; 1600 0.79 0.84 -- expanded slags; cinders; 1280 0.54 0.84 -- pumice

390

Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride).

Alamgir, Mohamed (Dedham, MA); Abraham, Kuzhikalail M. (Needham, MA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li[sup +]) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride). 3 figures.

Alamgir, M.; Abraham, K.M.

1993-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

392

Pollution prevention assessment for a manufacturer of automotive battery separators. Environmental research brief  

SciTech Connect

The WMAC team at the University of Louisville performed an assessment at a plant that manufactures automotive battery separators. Two types of separators-polyethylene/silica sheet and vinyl rib-are produced. The team`s report, detailing findings and recommendations, indicated that waste spill absorbents are generated in large quantities and at a significant waste management cost, and that waste reduction could result from using wringable, reusable aborbents.

Fleischman, M.; Schmidt, P.; Roberts, D.; Looby, G.P.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Solid polymer electrolytes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to Li ion (Li{sup +}) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of poly(vinyl sulfone) and lithium salts, and their use in all-solid-state rechargeable lithium ion batteries. The lithium salts comprise low lattice energy lithium salts such as LiN(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 2}){sub 2}, LiAsF{sub 6}, and LiClO{sub 4}. 2 figs.

Abraham, K.M.; Alamgir, M.; Choe, H.S.

1995-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

394

Treatment of PCP addiction and PCP addiction-related behavior  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides a method for changing addiction-related behavior of a mammal suffering from addiction to phencyclidine (PCP). The method includes administering to the mammal an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA (GVG) or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, or an enantiomer or a racemic mixture thereof, wherein the effective amount is sufficient to diminish, inhibit or eliminate behavior associated with craving or use of PCP.

Dewey, Stephen L. (Manorville, NY); Brodie, Jonathan D. (Cos Cob, CT); Ashby, Jr., Charles R. (Miller Place, NY)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Injection Molding Compounds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 5   Common thermoplastic and thermoset molding compounds...(r) (s) (t) Phenolic Distributor caps, plastic ash trays (a) (b) (g) (h) (i) (j) (k) (l) (m) (n) (o) (q) (r) (s) (t) Urethane Automotive body panels, bumpers (a) (d) (e) (g) (i) (l) (m) (o) (q) (r) (t) Vinyl ester Composite car/truck springs, wheels (b) (d) (e) (g) (i) (j) (k) (l) (m) (n) (o) (p)...

396

Biomimetic hydrogel materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Novel biomimetic hydrogel materials and methods for their preparation. Hydrogels containing acrylamide-functionalized carbohydrate, sulfoxide, sulfide or sulfone copolymerized with a hydrophilic or hydrophobic copolymerizing material selected from the group consisting of an acrylamide, methacrylamide, acrylate, methacrylate, vinyl and a derivative thereof present in concentration from about 1 to about 99 wt %. and methods for their preparation. The method of use of the new hydrogels for fabrication of soft contact lenses and biomedical implants.

Bertozzi, Carolyn (Albany, CA); Mukkamala, Ravindranath (Houston, TX); Chen, Qing (Albany, CA); Hu, Hopin (Albuquerque, NM); Baude, Dominique (Creteil, FR)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Biomimetic Hydrogel Materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Novel biomimetic hydrogel materials and methods for their preparation. Hydrogels containing acrylamide-functionalized carbohydrate, sulfoxide, sulfide or sulfone copolymerized with a hydrophilic or hydrophobic copolymerizing material selected from the group consisting of an acrylamide, methacrylamide, acrylate, methacrylate, vinyl and a derivative thereof present in concentration from about 1 to about 99 wt %. and methods for their preparation. The method of use of the new hydrogels for fabrication of soft contact lenses and biomedical implants.

Bertozzi, Carolyn (Albany, CA), Mukkamala, Ravindranath (Houston, TX), Chen, Oing (Albany, CA), Hu, Hopin (Albuquerque, NM), Baude, Dominique (Creteil, FR)

2003-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

398

Cyanoethylated compounds as additives in lithium/lithium batteries  

SciTech Connect

The power loss of lithium/lithium ion battery cells is significantly reduced, especially at low temperatures, when about 1% by weight of an additive is incorporated in the electrolyte layer of the cells. The usable additives are organic solvent soluble cyanoethylated polysaccharides and poly(vinyl alcohol). The power loss decrease results primarily from the decrease in the charge transfer resistance at the interface between the electrolyte and the cathode.

Nagasubramanian, Ganesan (Albuquerque, NM)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Solid polymer electrolytes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of poly(vinyl sulfone) and lithium salts, and their use in all-solid-state rechargeable lithium ion batteries. The lithium salts comprise low lattice energy lithium salts such as LiN(CF.sub.3 SO.sub.2).sub.2, LiAsF.sub.6, and LiClO.sub.4.

Abraham, Kuzhikalail M. (Needham, MA); Alamgir, Mohamed (Dedham, MA); Choe, Hyoun S. (Waltham, MA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

CuC1 thermochemical cycle for hydrogen production  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrochemical cell for producing copper having a dense graphite anode electrode and a dense graphite cathode electrode disposed in a CuCl solution. An anion exchange membrane made of poly(ethylene vinyl alcohol) and polyethylenimine cross-linked with a cross-linking agent selected from the group consisting of acetone, formaldehyde, glyoxal, glutaraldehyde, and mixtures thereof is disposed between the two electrodes.

Fan, Qinbai (Chicago, IL); Liu, Renxuan (Chicago, IL)

2012-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "2-chloroethyl vinyl ether" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Silicon dendritic web material process development. First quarterly report, March 28-June 30, 1980  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Initial values of pressure, power, and speed have been determined for seam bonding interconnects to dendritic web solar cells. Satisfactory bond strengths and high yield have been achieved without cell damage. However, in case of processing large numbers of cells for module fabrication, further testing is required to assure reproducibility of this technique. Various techniques have been developed for fabricating solar modules by lamination using ethylene vinyl acetate with a glass superstrate, and no cell breakage has been noted.

Campbell, R. B.; Stapleton, R. E.; Sienkiewicz, L.; Rai-Choudhury, P.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Microbial based chlorinated ethene destruction  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A mixed culture of Dehalococcoides species is provided that has an ability to catalyze the complete dechlorination of polychlorinated ethenes such as PCE, TCE, cDCE, 1,1-DCE and vinyl chloride as well as halogenated ethanes such as 1,2-DCA and EDB. The mixed culture demonstrates the ability to achieve dechlorination even in the presence of high source concentrations of chlorinated ethenes.

Bagwell, Christopher E. (Aiken, SC); Freedman, David L. (Clemson, SC); Brigmon, Robin L. (North Augusta, SC); Bratt, William B. (Atlanta, GA); Wood, Elizabeth A. (Marietta, GA)

2009-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

403

Neutron Absorbing Alloys  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for making homogeneous copolymers of vinylpyrrolidone (VP) and vinyl acetate (VA) which form clear aqueous solutions and have high cloud points. The process involves precharging VP and VA monomers in a predetermined ratio, and then feeding VP and VA at a predetermined rate, the ratio of the components in the initial charge and the feeding rates for the monomer being selected in accordance with the reactivity rates of the monomers towards copolymerization as opposed to homopolymerization.

Zhong, Yuanzhen (Wayne, NJ), Parikh, Hemant (Harriman, NY); Smith, Terry E. (Murray, KY)

2002-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

404

Radiation-hardened polymeric films  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The radiation-induced conductivity of polymeric dielectrics with low electronic mobility is reduced by doping with electron donor or electron acceptor compounds at a level of 10/sup 15/ to 10/sup 21/ molecules of dopant/cm/sup 3/. Polyesters, polyolefins, perfluoropolyolefins, vinyl polymers, vinylidene polymers, polycarbonates, polysulfones and polyimides can benefit from such a treatment. Usable dopants include 2,4,7-trinitro-9-fluorenone, tetracyanethylene, 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane, m-dinitrobenzene, 2-isopropylcarbazole, and triphenylamine.

Arnold, C. Jr.; Hughes, R.C.; Kepler, R.G.; Kurtz, S.R.

1984-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

405

Radiation-hardened polymeric films  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The radiation-induced conductivity of polymeric dielectrics with low electronic mobility is reduced by doping with electron donor or electron acceptor compounds at a level of 10.sup.15 to 10.sup.21 molecules of dopant/cm.sup.3. Polyesters, polyolefins, perfluoropolyolefins, vinyl polymers, vinylidene polymers, polycarbonates, polysulfones and polyimides can benefit from such a treatment. Usable dopants include 2,4,7-trinitro-9-fluorenone, tetracyanethylene, 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane, m-dinitrobenzene, 2-isopropylcarbazole, and triphenylamine.

Arnold, Jr., Charles (Albuquerque, NM); Hughes, Robert C. (Albuquerque, NM); Kepler, R. Glen (Albuquerque, NM); Kurtz, Steven R. (Albuquerque, NM)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Replication of N[superscript 2],3-Ethenoguanine by DNA Polymerases  

SciTech Connect

The unstable DNA adduct N2,3-ethenoguanine, a product of both exposure to the carcinogen vinyl chloride and of oxidative stress, was built into an oligonucleotide, using an isostere strategy to stabilize the glycosidic bond. This modification was then used to examine the cause of mutations by DNA polymerases, in terms of both the biochemistry of the lesion and a structure of the lesion within a polymerase.

Zhao, Linlin; Christov, Plamen P.; Kozekov, Ivan D.; Pence, Matthew G.; Pallan, Pradeep S.; Rizzo, Carmelo J.; Egli, Martin; Guengerich, F. Peter (Vanderbilt)

2012-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

407

Investigation of Alternative Waste Forms for GTCC 14C Filters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report demonstrates that both cement and vinyl ester-styrene (VES) are viable engineering solutions for the immobilization of Greater than Class C (GTCC) 14C filters. The number of power plants installing submicron-size cartridge filters has increased with the incentive of radiation dose reduction. However, utilities are experiencing difficulty disposing of these filters due to significant increases in 14C concentrations. By implementing the concentration averaging recommendations of this study, nuc...

2001-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

408

Electrically conductive polymer concrete coatings  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A sprayable electrically conductive polymer concrete coating for vertical d overhead applications is described. The coating is permeable yet has low electrical resistivity (<10 ohm-cm), good bond strength to concrete substrates, and good weatherability. A preferred formulation contains about 60 wt % calcined coke breeze, 40 wt % vinyl ester with 3.5 wt % modified bentonite clay. Such formulations apply evenly and provide enough rigidity for vertical or overhead structures so there is no drip or sag.

Fontana, J.J.; Elling, D.; Reams, W.

1990-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

409

Electrically conductive polymer concrete coatings  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A sprayable electrically conductive polymer concrete coating for vertical d overhead applications is described. The coating is permeable yet has low electrical resistivity (<10 ohm-cm), good bond strength to concrete substrates, and good weatherability. A preferred formulation contains about 60 wt % calcined coke breeze, 40 wt % vinyl ester with 3.5 wt % modified bentonite clay. Such formulations apply evenly and provide enough rigidity for vertical or overhead structures so there is no drip or sag.

Fontana, Jack J. (Shirley, NY); Elling, David (Centereach, NY); Reams, Walter (Shirley, NY)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Electrically conductive polymer concrete coatings  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A sprayable electrically conductive polymer concrete coating for vertical and overhead applications is described. The coating is permeable yet has low electrical resistivity (<10 ohm-cm), good bond strength to concrete substrates, and good weatherability. A preferred formulation contains about 60 wt% calcined coke breeze, 40 wt% vinyl ester resin with 3.5 wt% modified bentonite clay. Such formulations apply evenly and provide enough rigidity for vertical or overhead structures so there is no drip or sag. 4 tabs.

Fontana, J.J.; Elling, D.; Reams, W.

1988-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

411

SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR URANIUM RECOVERY  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for extracting uranium from uranium ore, wherein the uranium is substantially free from molybdenum contamination. In a solvent extraction process for recovering uranium, uranium and molybdenum ions are extracted from the ore with ether under high acidity conditions. The ether phase is then stripped with water at a lower controiled acidity, resaturated with salting materials such as sodium nitrate, and reextracted with the separation of the molybdenum from the uranium without interference from other metals that have been previously extracted.

Clark, H.M.; Duffey, D.

1958-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

412

Replacement solvents for use in chemical synthesis  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Replacement solvents for use in chemical synthesis include polymer-immobilized solvents having a flexible polymer backbone and a plurality of pendant groups attached onto the polymer backbone, the pendant groups comprising a flexible linking unit bound to the polymer backbone and to a terminal solvating moiety. The polymer-immobilized solvent may be dissolved in a benign medium. Replacement solvents for chemical reactions for which tetrahydrofuran or diethyl may be a solvent include substituted tetrahydrofurfuryl ethers and substituted tetrahydro-3-furan ethers. The replacement solvents may be readily recovered from the reaction train using conventional methods.

Molnar, Linda K. (Philadelphia, PA); Hatton, T. Alan (Sudbury, MA); Buchwald, Stephen L. (Newton, MA)

2001-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

413

SEPARATION OF URANIUM FROM THORIUM  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is presented for separating uranium from thorium wherein the ratio of thorium to uranium is between 100 to 10,000. According to the invention the thoriumuranium mixture is dissolved in nitric acid, and the solution is prepared so as to obtain the desired concentration within a critical range of from 4 to 8 N with regard to the total nitrate due to thorium nitrate, with or without nitric acid or any nitrate salting out agent. The solution is then contacted with an ether, such as diethyl ether, whereby uranium is extracted into ihe organic phase while thorium remains in the aqueous phase.

Hellman, N.N.

1959-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Adipose tissue stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 index is increased and linoleic acid is decreased in obesity-prone rats fed a high-fat diet  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the adipose tissue and whether these changes occur simul- taneously across lipid fractions. It has previously been found that a HFD, especially a diet rich in SFA, decreases SCD expression in both rat liver and adipose tissue [33,34]. A HFD has also been shown... of petroleum ether containing 0.005% butylated hydroxytolvene after addition of 1.5 ml distilled water. The phases were separated after thorough mixing and centrifugation at 1500 × g for 10 min. The petroleum ether phase was pipetted off and the solvent...

Cedernaes, Jonathan; Alsiö, Johan; Västermark, Åke; Risérus, Ulf; Schiöth, Helgi B

2013-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

415

Synthesis of octane enhancers during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch. Quarterly technical progress report No. 5, October 1, 1991--December 31, 1991  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to investigate three possible routes to the formation of ethers, in particular methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), during slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch reaction. The three reaction schemes to be investigated are: Addition of isobutylene during the formation of methanol and/or higher alcohols directly from CO and H{sub 2} during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch. Addition of isobutylene to FT liquid products including alcohols in a slurry-phase reactor containing an MTBE or other acid catalyst. Addition of methanol to slurry phase FT synthesis making iso-olefins.

Marcelin, G.

1992-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

416

Synthesis of octane enhancers during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to investigate three possible routes to the formation of ethers, in particular methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), during slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch reaction. The three reaction schemes to be investigated are: Addition of isobutylene during the formation of methanol and/or higher alcohols directly from CO and H{sub 2} during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch. Addition of isobutylene to FT liquid products including alcohols in a slurry-phase reactor containing an MTBE or other acid catalyst. Addition of methanol to slurry phase FT synthesis making iso-olefins.

Marcelin, G.

1992-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

417

FCC LPG olefinicity and branching enhanced by octane catalysts  

SciTech Connect

Refiners are increasingly recognizing the downstream opportunities for fluid catalytic cracking LPG olefins for the production of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE, if the ethanol subsidy is extended to the production of ETBE), and as petrochemical feedstocks. Some of new gasoline FCC octane-enhancing catalysts can support those opportunities because their low non-framework alumina (low NFA) preserve both LPG olefinicity and promote branching of the LPG streams from the FCCU. The combined effect results in more isobutane for alkylate feed, more propylene in the propane/propylene stream, and more isobutene - which makes the addition of an MTBE unit very enticing.

Keyworth, D.A.; Reid, T.A.; Kreider, K.R.; Yatsu, C.A.

1989-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

418

PRODUCTION OF METALS AND THEIR COMPOUNDS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Zirconium nitrate can be separated from hafnium nitrate by mixing the nitrates with ethyl cellulose pulp, eluting the mass with diethyl ether containing nitric acid, and passing the eluent through a column of cellulose pulp the outflow of which is substantially free of hafnium.

Arden, T.V.; Burstall, F.H.; Davies, G.R.; Linstead, R.P.; Wells, R.A.

1958-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

419

DOI: 10.1002/chem.201300762 Three-Dimensional Architectures Incorporating Stereoregular  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

molecules[2] (MIMs) have been incorporated into well-defined, extended architectures[3] of metal­organic p···p stacking of their hydroquinone (HQ) units, are sand- Abstract: We report the synthesis of two- sociated with both the DNP and hydro- quinone (HQ) units present in the crown ether, each catenane can

420

CHM 3320 -Deuxime Partie Formation de liens C-C  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.8 106.3 13.1 (14.5°) 9.3 1.3952 0.256 62 Triethylene glycol dimethyl ether -45 216 7.5 1.4224 0.253 63 2 CALIFORNIUM EINSTEINIUM FERMIUM MENDELEVIUM NOBELIUM SAMARIUM EUROPIUM GADOLINIUM TERBIUM DYSPROSIUM HOLMIUM

Charette, André

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "2-chloroethyl vinyl ether" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Radiation Safety (Revised March 2010)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.8 106.3 13.1 (14.5°) 9.3 1.3952 0.256 62 Triethylene glycol dimethyl ether -45 216 7.5 1.4224 0.253 63 2 CALIFORNIUM EINSTEINIUM FERMIUM MENDELEVIUM NOBELIUM SAMARIUM EUROPIUM GADOLINIUM TERBIUM DYSPROSIUM HOLMIUM

Ford, James

422

Prepared for the 41st BNL-NCS-68350-01/10-REV IUPAC General Assembly  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.8 106.3 13.1 (14.5°) 9.3 1.3952 0.256 62 Triethylene glycol dimethyl ether -45 216 7.5 1.4224 0.253 63 2 PROMETHIUM NEPTUNIUM PLUTONIUM AMERICIUM CURIUM BERKELIUM CALIFORNIUM EINSTEINIUM FERMIUM MENDELEVIUM

Ohta, Shigemi

423

Los Alamos National Laboratory's Chemistry Division Presents Periodic Table of the Elements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.8 106.3 13.1 (14.5°) 9.3 1.3952 0.256 62 Triethylene glycol dimethyl ether -45 216 7.5 1.4224 0.253 63 2 PROMETHIUM NEPTUNIUM PLUTONIUM AMERICIUM CURIUM BERKELIUM CALIFORNIUM EINSTEINIUM FERMIUM MENDELEVIUM

Hochberg, Michael

424

LA-14304-ENV Approved for  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.8 106.3 13.1 (14.5°) 9.3 1.3952 0.256 62 Triethylene glycol dimethyl ether -45 216 7.5 1.4224 0.253 63 2 PROMETHIUM NEPTUNIUM PLUTONIUM AMERICIUM CURIUM BERKELIUM CALIFORNIUM EINSTEINIUM FERMIUM MENDELEVIUM

425

LA-12973-ENV 4XMW'"' ---= --.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.8 106.3 13.1 (14.5°) 9.3 1.3952 0.256 62 Triethylene glycol dimethyl ether -45 216 7.5 1.4224 0.253 63 2 CALIFORNIUM EINSTEINIUM FERMIUM MENDELEVIUM NOBELIUM SAMARIUM EUROPIUM GADOLINIUM TERBIUM DYSPROSIUM HOLMIUM

426

PoS(EPS-HEP2011)390 Testing fundamental principles with high-energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in models incorporating a privileged local reference frame (the "vacuum rest frame", VRF [4, 5 for nucleons, quarks, leptons and the photon [6, 7]. If a VRF exists, LSV can modify the internal structure. A crucial question is that of the existence of a VRF. Contrary to the old ether, the vacuum of quantum field

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

427

Testing fundamental principles with high-energy cosmic rays  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in models incorporating a privileged local reference frame (the "vacuum rest frame", VRF [4, 5 for nucleons, quarks, leptons and the photon [6, 7]. If a VRF exists, LSV can modify the internal structure question is that of the existence of a VRF. Contrary to the old ether, the vacuum of quantum field theory

428

Earth system science Page 1 Earth System Science Theme Action Plan 2008  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) and coal- bed methane (CBM) together increase from 0.703 EJ in 1995 to 15.120 EJ in 2030. To allow more). Figure 4. Comparison of gas and synthetic liquid fuels. CBM = coal-bed methane; DME = dimethyl ether, a hybrid (bottom-up/top-down) energy- economy model, to test how different policy packages could

Edinburgh, University of

429

Lithium Diisopropylamide-Mediated Enolization: Catalysis by Hemilabile Ligands  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Lithium Diisopropylamide-Mediated Enolization: Catalysis by Hemilabile Ligands Antonio Ramirez of a lithium diisopropylamide (LDA)-mediated ester enolization. Hemilabile amino ether MeOCH2CH2NMe2, binding-based catalysis are thwarted by the occlusion of the catalyst on the lithium salt products and byproducts (eq 1

Collum, David B.

430

A membrane-free lithium/polysulfide semi-liquid battery for large-scale energy storage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A membrane-free lithium/polysulfide semi-liquid battery for large-scale energy storage Yuan Yang develop a new lithium/ polysulfide (Li/PS) semi-liquid battery for large-scale energy storage, with lithium polysulfide (Li2S8) in ether solvent as a catholyte and metallic lithium as an anode. Unlike

Cui, Yi

431

Inhibition of Lithium Dendrites by Fumed Silica-Based Composite Electrolytes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Inhibition of Lithium Dendrites by Fumed Silica-Based Composite Electrolytes Xiang-Wu Zhang State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-7905, USA Lithium dendrite formation is investigated via in situ microscopy in a liquid electrolyte containing polyethylene glycol dimethyl ether lithium bis

Khan, Saad A.

432

Development of Supported Polymeric Liquid Membrane Technology for Aqueous MTBE Mitigation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The use of MTBE (methyl tert-butyl ether) as a gasoline additive has generated a serious, widespread groundwater contamination problem in California. This study evaluated the use of supported polymeric liquid membrane technology in the remediation of MTBE contaminated groundwater.

2002-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

433

Polygeneration Integration of Gasoline Synthesis and IGCC Power Production Using  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

gas produced by gasification in a gas turbine. This synthesis gas is also an excellent raw material for a gas turbine in a combined cycle power generation scheme. Coal Residue Gasification Gas Cleaning for chemicals production such as methanol, DiMethyl Ether (DME), gasoline, Synthetic Natural Gas (SNG), hydrogen

434

Process for synthesis of beryllium chloride dietherate  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A low temperature method of producing beryllium chloride dietherate through the addition of hydrogen chloride gas to a mixture of beryllium metal in ether in a reaction vessel is described. A reflux condenser provides an exit for hydrogen produced form the reaction. A distillation condenser later replaces the reflux condenser for purifying the resultant product.

Bergeron, Charles (Baton Rouge, LA); Bullard, John E. (Kendall Park, NJ); Morgan, Evan (Lynchburg, VA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Experimental search for anisotropy in the speed of light  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is shown on the basis of a forgotten nineteenth century principle of Potier and Veltmann that an interferometric experiment cannot demonstrate a first?order ether wind. The relation of the Fresnel drag law to the Einstein velocity composition law is reviewed.

Ronald G. Newburgh; Olivier Costa de Beauregard

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Motor Gasoline Outlook and State MTBE Bans  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The U.S. is beginning the summer 2003 driving season with lower gasoline inventories and higher prices than last year. Recovery from this tight gasoline market could be made more difficult by impending State bans on the blending of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) into gasoline that are scheduled to begin later this year.

Information Center

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

PRODUCTION OF URANIUM AND THORIUM COMPOUNDS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Compounds of Th and U are extracted with an organic solvent in the presence of an adsorbent substance which has greater retentivity for impurities present than for the uranium and/or thorium. The preferred adsorbent material is noted as being cellulose. The uranium and thoriumcontaining substances treated are preferably in the form of dissolved nitrates, and the preferred organic solvent is diethyl ether.

Arden, T.V.; Burstall, F.H.; Linstead, R.P.; Wells, R.A.

1955-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

438

Hydrocarbon Processing`s refining processes `96  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paper compiles information on the following refining processes: alkylation, benzene reduction, benzene saturation, catalytic cracking, catalytic reforming, coking, crude distillation, deasphalting, deep catalytic cracking, electrical desalting, ethers, fluid catalytic cracking, hydrocracking, hydrogenation, hydrotreating, isomerization, resid catalytic cracking, treating, and visbreaking. The application, products, a description of the process, yield, economics, installation, and licensor are given for each entry.

NONE

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Uptake, translocation, and metabolism of oxabetrinil and CGA-133205 in grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and their influence on metolachlor metabolism  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The uptake, translocation, and metabolism of the oxime ether safeners oxabetrinil and CGA-133205 in grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, var. Funk G-522-DR) were investigated. Following application of ({sup 14}C)oxabetrinil and ({sup 14}C)CGA-133205 to imbibed seeds, it appears that the safeners are conferring protection to grain sorghum by increasing the rate of metolachlor metabolism.

Yenne, S.P.; Hatzios, K.K.; Meredith, S.A. (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg (USA))

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Mechanistic Study of the Acid Degradation of Lignin Model Compounds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lignin is a major constituent of biomass, which remains underutilized in selective biomass conversion strategies to renewable fuels and chemicals. Here we are interested in understanding the mechanisms related to the acid deconstruction of lignin with a combined theoretical and experimental approach. Two model dimers with a b-O-4 aryl ether linkage (2-phenoxy-1-phenethanol and 2-phenoxy-1-phenyl-1,3 propanediol) and model dimmers with an a-O-4 aryl ether linkage were synthesized and deconstructed in H2SO4. The major products of the acidolysis of the b-O-4 compounds consisted of phenol and two aldehydes, phenylacetaldehyde and benzaldehyde. Quantum mechanical calculations were employed to elucidate possible deconstruction mechanisms with transition state theory. To confirm proposed mechanisms several possible intermediates were studied under similar acidolysis conditions. Although the resonance time for cleavage was on the order several hours, we have shown that the cleavage of the aryl ether linkage affords phenol and aldehydes. We would next like to utilize our mechanism of aryl ether cleavage in actual lignin.

Sturgeon, M.; Kim, S.; Chmely, S. C.; Foust, T. D.; Beckham, G. T.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "2-chloroethyl vinyl ether" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

A CHARACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION OF COAL LIQUEFACTION PROCESS STREAMS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This is the Technical Progress Report for the fifteenth quarter of activities under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-94PC93054. It covers the period January 1 through March 31, 1998. Described in this report are the following activities: (1) CONSOL characterized 41 process stream samples obtained from HTI Run PB-01 (227-90), in which Black Thunder Mine coal, Hondo VTB resid, municipal solid waste (MSW) plastics, and virgin plastics were co-liquefaction feedstocks with all-dispersed Fe and Mo catalysts. (2) A request was made for samples from the Nippon Coal Oil NEDOL pilot plant in Kashima, Japan. (3) Phenols were extracted from two samples of separator overhead oil from HTI Run PB-03 Periods 10A and 10B. The phenols were converted to ethylphenyl ethers, and the ethers were distilled to produce a sample within the diesel fuel boiling range. The ethers were mixed with diesel fuel to make 1%, 5%, 10%, and 20% solutions. The four mixtures and a control sample (0% ether) were tested for diesel fuel properties by Intertek Testing Services, Caleb Brett. (4) Computational studies related to the University of Delaware's resid conversion model were continued on the Hewlett Packard Apollo HP-735 RISC workstation at CONSOL R and D. The Structure Optimization Program and the Structure Once-Through Program were used to generate physicochemical properties and structure models for the 15 coal resid samples which have been under study.

G.A. Robbins; S.D. Brandes; D.J. Pazuchanics; D.G. Nichols; R.A. Winschel

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse (INP Toulouse) cole doctorale et discipline ou spcialit  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Energy Research (NIPER), 2) the Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association (MVMA), and 3) the U, benzene, alcohols, and various ether oxygenates. The purpose of the NIPER survey is generally to provide Number of samples Participation National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research (NIPER) survey U

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

443

A Study of EndtoEnd Web Access Failures Venkata N. Padmanabhan + Sriram Ramabhadran Sharad Agarwal + Jitendra Padhye +  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Energy Research (NIPER), 2) the Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association (MVMA), and 3) the U, benzene, alcohols, and various ether oxygenates. The purpose of the NIPER survey is generally to provide Number of samples Participation National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research (NIPER) survey U

Padmanabhan, Venkata N.

444

2010 AGU Fall Meeting You may print by clicking on this Print button. To return to the previous page, close this  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Conv. & Reform. Gasoline Conv. & Reform. Gasoline Conv. & Reform. Gasoline Fischer-Tropsch Diesel. & Reform. Gasoline Fischer-Tropsch Diesel and Naphtha Conv. & Reform. Gasoline Conv. & Reform. Gasoline, dimethyl ether, Fischer-Tropsch diesel, and biodiesel Spark-Ignition Direct-Injection Vehicles

Sparks, Donald L.

445

Energy sources for a secure (?) and clean (?) energy future  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

that would be used for biofuel production. These fuels include Fischer-Tropsch liquids (FTL), methanol such as dimethyl ether (DME) or Fischer-Tropsch liquids (FTL) made from lignocellulosic biomass. A relatively are suitable for use in compression ignition engines. The Fischer-Tropsch process can produce a variety

Hughes, Larry

446

Journal of Catalysis 211, 422433 (2002) doi:10.1006/jcat.2002.3749  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Conv. & Reform. Gasoline Conv. & Reform. Gasoline Conv. & Reform. Gasoline Fischer-Tropsch Diesel. & Reform. Gasoline Fischer-Tropsch Diesel and Naphtha Conv. & Reform. Gasoline Conv. & Reform. Gasoline, dimethyl ether, Fischer-Tropsch diesel, and biodiesel Spark-Ignition Direct-Injection Vehicles

Iglesia, Enrique

447

AMERICAN CERAMIC SOCIETY e m e r g i n g c e r a m i c s & g l a s s t e c h n o l o g y  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

that would be used for biofuel production. These fuels include Fischer-Tropsch liquids (FTL), methanol such as dimethyl ether (DME) or Fischer-Tropsch liquids (FTL) made from lignocellulosic biomass. A relatively are suitable for use in compression ignition engines. The Fischer-Tropsch process can produce a variety

Azad, Abdul-Majeed

448

Advanced Materials for PEM-Based Fuel Cell Systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are quickly becoming attractive alternative energy sources for transportation, stationary power, and small electronics due to the increasing cost and environmental hazards of traditional fossil fuels. Two main classes of PEMFCs include hydrogen/air or hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells and direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). The current benchmark membrane for both types of PEMFCs is Nafion, a perfluorinated sulfonated copolymer made by DuPont. Nafion copolymers exhibit good thermal and chemical stability, as well as very high proton conductivity under hydrated conditions at temperatures below 80 �������������������������������°C. However, application of these membranes is limited due to their high methanol permeability and loss of conductivity at high temperatures and low relative humidities. These deficiencies have led to the search for improved materials for proton exchange membranes. Potential PEMs should have good thermal, hydrolytic, and oxidative stability, high proton conductivity, selective permeability, and mechanical durability over long periods of time. Poly(arylene ether)s, polyimides, polybenzimidazoles, and polyphenylenes are among the most widely investigated candidates for PEMs. Poly(arylene ether)s are a promising class of proton exchange membranes due to their excellent thermal and chemical stability and high glass transition temperatures. High proton conductivity can be achieved through post-sulfonation of poly(arylene ether) materials, but this most often results in very high water sorption or even water solubility. Our research has shown that directly polymerized poly(arylene ether) copolymers show important advantages over traditional post-sulfonated systems and also address the concerns with Nafion membranes. These properties were evaluated and correlated with morphology, structure-property relationships, and states of water in the membranes. Further improvements in properties were achieved through incorporation of inorganic fillers, such as phosphotungstic acid and zirconium hydrogen phosphate. Block copolymers were also studied due to the possibility to achieve a desired combination of homopolymer properties as well as the unique morphologies that are possible with block copolymers. Bezoyl substituted poly(p-phenylene) blocks were combined with poly(arylene ether) blocks to merge the structural rigidity of the poly(p-phenylene) with the ductility and high protonic conductivity of the poly(arylene ether)s. As evidenced by our many refereed publications and preprints, the research that we have conducted over the past several years has made a valuable and significant contribution to the literature and to the state of understanding of proton exchange membranes. Our early efforts at scale-up have suggested that the directly polymerized disulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) copolymers are commercially viable alternatives for proton exchange membranes. A new process for bipolar plates was developed and is described. An important single domain PEMFC model was developed and is documented in this final report.

James E. McGrath

2005-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

449

Advanced Materials for PEM-Based Fuel Cell Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are quickly becoming attractive alternative energy sources for transportation, stationary power, and small electronics due to the increasing cost and environmental hazards of traditional fossil fuels. Two main classes of PEMFCs include hydrogen/air or hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells and direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). The current benchmark membrane for both types of PEMFCs is Nafion, a perfluorinated sulfonated copolymer made by DuPont. Nafion copolymers exhibit good thermal and chemical stability, as well as very high proton conductivity under hydrated conditions at temperatures below 80 degrees C. However, application of these membranes is limited due to their high methanol permeability and loss of conductivity at high temperatures and low relative humidities. These deficiencies have led to the search for improved materials for proton exchange membranes. Potential PEMs should have good thermal, hydrolytic, and oxidative stability, high proton conductivity, selective permeability, and mechanical durability over long periods of time. Poly(arylene ether)s, polyimides, polybenzimidazoles, and polyphenylenes are among the most widely investigated candidates for PEMs. Poly(arylene ether)s are a promising class of proton exchange membranes due to their excellent thermal and chemical stability and high glass transition temperatures. High proton conductivity can be achieved through post-sulfonation of poly(arylene ether) materials, but this most often results in very high water sorption or even water solubility. Our research has shown that directly polymerized poly(arylene ether) copolymers show important advantages over traditional post-sulfonated systems and also address the concerns with Nafion membranes. These properties were evaluated and correlated with morphology, structure-property relationships, and states of water in the membranes. Further improvements in properties were achieved through incorporation of inorganic fillers, such as phosphotungstic acid and zirconium hydrogen phosphate. Block copolymers were also studied due to the possibility to achieve a desired combination of homopolymer properties as well as the unique morphologies that are possible with block copolymers. Bezoyl substituted poly(p-phenylene) blocks were combined with poly(arylene ether) blocks to merge the structural rigidity of the poly(p-phenylene) with the ductility and high protonic conductivity of the poly(arylene ether)s. As evidenced by our many refereed publications and preprints, the research that we have conducted over the past several years has made a valuable and significant contribution to the literature and to the state of understanding of proton exchange membranes. Our early efforts at scale-up have suggested that the directly polymerized disulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) copolymers are commercially viable alternatives for proton exchange membranes. A new process for bipolar plates was developed and is described. An important single domain PEMFC model was developed and is documented in herein.

James E. McGrath; Donald G. Baird; Michael von Spakovsky

2005-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

450

Fuel property effects on engine combustion processes. Annual report, January 1, 1993--December 31, 1993  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Our engine studies have concentrated on 2 areas of interest to autoignition and emissions from engines. In the first, we investigated the effect of nitric oxide (NO) on the reactivity and autoignition behavior of 87 PRF. In the second study, we continued work on the effects of blending ethers on the reactivity and autoignition of a primary reference fuel blend, 87 PRF, with emphasis placed on the chemical interactions between ethers and the baseline fuel. The effects of nitric oxide (NO) on the reactivity and autoignition behavior of 87 PRF were examined in our research engine under motored conditions at compression ratios of 5.2 and 8.2. The most significant conclusions of our study are: (1) nitric oxide does interact with the hydrocarbon oxidation at conditions typically experienced by the end gas in a fired engine; (2) the effect is complex and, depending on the reaction environment, the same concentration of NO can produce dramatically different results. These results are particularly important given the fact that residual fractions and recycled exhaust gases in spark ignited engines typically result in about 200--600 ppm of NO in the unburned charge. The octane enhancing ethers, MTBE, ETBE, TAME, and DIPE, were blended into 87 PRF at a constant 0 atom fraction of 1.94% in the fuel mixtures and the mixtures were tested under motored conditions at our new compression ratio of 8.2. This new compression ratio allows studies on autoignition behaviors of 87 PRF with and without ethers. The results showed that, when using 87 PRF/ether mixtures, reactivity was significantly reduced as indicated by the higher inlet temperature required to initiate reactivity, significantly lower maximum CO concentration and the significantly higher inlet temperature required for autoignition.

Cernansky, N.P.

1994-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

451

Catalytic Synthesis of Oxygenates: Mechanisms, Catalysts and Controlling Characteristics  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This research focused on catalytic synthesis of unsymmetrical ethers as a part of a larger program involving oxygenated products in general, including alcohols, ethers, esters, carboxylic acids and their derivatives that link together environmentally compliant fuels, monomers, and high-value chemicals. The catalysts studied here were solid acids possessing strong Br�������¸nsted acid functionalities. The design of these catalysts involved anchoring the acid groups onto inorganic oxides, e.g. surface-grafted acid groups on zirconia, and a new class of mesoporous solid acids, i.e. propylsulfonic acid-derivatized SBA-15. The former catalysts consisted of a high surface concentration of sulfate groups on stable zirconia catalysts. The latter catalyst consists of high surface area, large pore propylsulfonic acid-derivatized silicas, specifically SBA-15. In both cases, the catalyst design and synthesis yielded high concentrations of acid sites in close proximity to one another. These materials have been well-characterization in terms of physical and chemical properties, as well as in regard to surface and bulk characteristics. Both types of catalysts were shown to exhibit high catalytic performance with respect to both activity and selectivity for the bifunctional coupling of alcohols to form ethers, which proceeds via an efficient SN2 reaction mechanism on the proximal acid sites. This commonality of the dual-site SN2 reaction mechanism over acid catalysts provides for maximum reaction rates and control of selectivity by reaction conditions, i.e. pressure, temperature, and reactant concentrations. This research provides the scientific groundwork for synthesis of ethers for energy applications. The synthesized environmentally acceptable ethers, in part derived from natural gas via alcohol intermediates, exhibit high cetane properties, e.g. methylisobutylether with cetane No. of 53 and dimethylether with cetane No. of 55-60, or high octane properties, e.g. diisopropylether with blending octane No. of 105, and can replace aromatics in liquid fuels.

Kamil Klier; Richard G. Herman

2005-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

452

Calculations of Bacteriochlorophyll g primary donors in photosynthetic Heliobacteria. How to shift the energy of a phototrap by 2000 cm{sup -1}  

SciTech Connect

Heliobacteria are a recently uncovered class of photosynthetic bacteria comprised of a novel chromophore, bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) g. Only the substitution of a vinyl; group for an acetyl group on ring I distinguishes the macrocycle of BChl g from that of the more common BChl b. The different substituents impart small differences of 30 nm or {approx} 500 cm{sup -1} in the Qy transitions of the chromophores in vitro but result in 2000-cm{sup -1} differences in the energies of the primary donors in reaction centers containing BChls b (960 nm) and BChls g (800)nm. INDO/s calculations are presented that consider whether this large spectral shift reflects a different mode of aggregation or architecture for the primary donor in Heliobacteria or whether the observed difference can be explained in terms of the dimers or special pairs found in organisms comprised of BChls b or a. Calculations based on the crystallographic coordinates of the BChls b in Rhodopseudomonas viridis with the acetyl groups replaced by vinyls yield good agreement with the observed Qy energies of BChl g monomers in vitro. The calculations are also extended to predict the spectral properties of an as-yet undiscovered organism comprised of BChls {open_quotes}h{close_quotes}, hypothetical vinyl-substituted analogues of BChls a. The calculations may also offer some guidelines for the considerable effort now devoted to chlorin-based artificial photosynthetic models. Introduction of acetyl functions or other polar substients that can conjugate with the chlorin {pi} system clearly provide simple synthetic avenues to modulate the optical properties of porphinoid monomers; effects that are further enhanced by dimerization, as evidenced by the large differences in the BCgls g and b in vivo. 31 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Thompson, M.A.; Fajer, J. [Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

1992-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

453

2010SR05.doc  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Big Top Tent Keeps TRU Waste Trucks, Tanks Big Top Tent Keeps TRU Waste Trucks, Tanks Dry before Inspection and Shipping Big Top Aids Solid Waste Management in Shipping Protocol Aiken, S.C. - Important projects for the Recovery Act - and not a circus act - are being performed under the Big Top at Solid Waste Management facility at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). The jumbo-size vinyl tent with a metal frame measuring 160 feet long, 24 feet wide, and

454

Environment/Health/Safety/Security (EHSS)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3 3 JHA Templates Construction JHA 2013 Instructions Mobilization & Overall Scope of Work Abatement (Lead, Asbestos & Mold) Aerial and Scissor Lifts ASHRAE Testing 110 Acoustical Ceilings (T-bar) All Terrain & Powered Industrial Trucks (PIT) Arborist - Vegetation Management Blank JHA Cabinetry Installation Carpentry, Forming, Framing or Wood Working Chemical Use Concrete Work - Truck & Pumping Confined Space Containment ... Dust Particulate Isolation Core Drilling Concrete (wet method) Crane Lifts Demolition Electrical Work (LOTO) Excavating, Trenching & Pot Holing Fall Protection Flooring Installation Carpet - Sheet Vinyl - VCT - Ceramic Tile Hot Tap Insulation (Wall or Pipe with PVC fittings) Ladders Mechanical Ducting Operating Hand, Power Tools & Equipment

455

Public Meeting Transcript: Sustainable Design Standards for Federal Buildings  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA UNITED STATES OF AMERICA OFFICE OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND RENEWABLE ENERGY PUBLIC MEETING SUSTAINABLE DESIGN STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL BUILDINGS U.S. Department of Energy 1000 Independence Avenue, SW Washington, DC 20585 Room 8E-089 Wednesday July 28, 2010 Chair: Cyrus Nasseri Department of Energy (FEMP) Facilitator: Jim Raba Department of Energy Executive Court Reporters (301) 565-0064 2 Participants Identified: Mark Ames American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air- Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Margo Appel US Department of Energy (DOE) Todd Apple Dupont Tim Ballo Earthjustice John Barry International Union of Operating Engineers National Training Fund Allen Blakey The Vinyl Institute

456

 

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

energy energy The proposed activity includes implementing the following list of energy efficiency improvements in existing Tribal buildings: * Foam Insulation for the Administration Building * Install new Energy Star oil furnace at the Maintenance Garage * Install new Energy Star oil furnace at the Construction Office * Window replacement at the Family Support Building and Department of Social Services using Energy Star qualified Double Hung Vinyl Windows * Install new Energy Star oil furnace at Terrance House Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grants Saint Regis Mohawk Tribe Energy Efficiency Retrofits Saint Regis Mohawk Tribe New York Nov 2, 2009 Jane Summerson Print Form for Records Submit via E-mail Billie Newland Digitally signed by Billie Newland

457

U.S. Department of Energy NEPA Categorical Exclusion Determination Form  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

AK AK Project Title ID-TEP-NEZ PERCE TRIBE Location: Tribal NEZ PERCE TRIBE FOA Number: DE-FOA-0000423 Proposed Action or Project Descriptio The Nez Perce Tribe of Idaho proposes to conduct building retrofits to the Nez Perce Tribal Executive Committee (NPTEC)/Office of Legal Counsel (OLC) (1970), Veteran's Memorial Building (1977-78), Pi Nee Waus Community Building (1963), Water Resources Building (1978), and Boy's and Girl's Club (newer facility). Energy efficiency measures proposed on the five buildings would include: the four older buildings would receive vinyl, double-pane, Low-E windows; increased blown-in attic insulation; and

458

New Barrier Coating Materials for PV Module Backsheets: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This conference paper describes the high moisture barrier high resistivity coatings on polyethylene terepthalate (PET) have been fabricated and characterized for use in PV module back sheet applications. These thin film barriers exhibit water vapor transmission rates (WVTR) as low as 0.1 g/m2-day at 37.8 C and have shown excellent adhesion (> 10 N/mm) to both ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) and PET even after filtered xenon arc lamp UV exposure. The WVTR and adhesion values for this construction are compared to and shown to be superior to candidate polymeric backsheet materials.

Barber, G. D.; Jorgensen, G. J.; Terwilliger, K.; Glick, S. H.; Pern, J.; McMahon, T. J.

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Polyvinylpyrrolidone/Multiwall Carbon Nanotube Composite Based 36 deg. YX LiTaO{sub 3} Surface Acoustic Wave For Hydrogen Gas Sensing Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Poly-vinyl-pyrrolidone (PVP)/Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes (MWNTs) based Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) sensors are fabricated and characterized, and their performances towards hydrogen gas are investigated. The PVP/MWNTs fibers composite are prepared by electrospinning of the composite aqueous solution deposited directly onto the active area of SAW transducers. Via scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the morphology of the deposited nanostructure material is observed. From the dynamic response, frequency shifts of 530 Hz (1%H{sub 2}) and 11.322 kHz (0.25%H{sub 2}) are recorded for the sensors contain of 1.525 g and 1.025 g PVP concentrations, respectively.

Chee, Pei Song; Arsat, Rashidah [Faculty of Electrical Eng and Faculty of Education, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (Malaysia); He Xiuli [State Key laboratory of Transducer Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Arsat, Mahyuddin [Faculty of Education, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (Malaysia); Wlodarski, Wojtek [School of Electrical and Computer Eng. RMIT University, Melbourne (Australia); Kalantar-zadeh, Kourosh

2011-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

460

Ultra Accelerated Testing of PV Module Components  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Using concentrated natural sunlight at the NREL High Flux Solar Furnace, we have exposed several materials to acceleration factors of up to 400 times the normal outdoor UV exposure dose. This accelerated rate allows the exposure of materials such that a year of outdoor exposure can be simulated in about 5 hours. We have studied the solarization of cerium containing glass, the degradation of ethylene vinyl acetate laminated between borosilicate glass, and the yellowing of standard polystyrene test coupons. The first two candidates are of interest to the photovoltaics (PV) program, and the last candidate material is a widely used dosimeter for ultra violet (UV) exposure in accelerated weathering chambers

Pitts, J. R.; King, D. E.; Bingham, C.; Czanderna, A. W.

1998-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "2-chloroethyl vinyl ether" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

CFD Simulation of Airflow in Ventilated Wall System Report #9  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this report was to examine air movements in vinyl and brick ventilation cavities in detail, using a state of the art CFD commercial modeling tool. The CFD activity was planned to proceed the other activities in order to develop insight on the important magnitudes of scales occurring during ventilation air flow. This information generated by the CFD model was to be used to modify (if necessary) and to validate the air flow dynamics already imbedded in the hygrothermal model for the computer-based air flow simulation procedures. A comprehensive program of advanced, state-of-the-art hygrothermal modeling was then envisaged mainly to extend the knowledge to other wall systems and at least six representative climatic areas. These data were then to be used to provide the basis for the development of design guidelines. CFD results provided timely and much needed answers to many of the concerns and questions related to ventilation flows due to thermal buoyancy and wind-driven flow scenarios. The relative strength between these two mechanisms. Simple correlations were developed and are presented in the report providing the overall pressure drop, and flow through various cavities under different exterior solar and temperature scenarios. Brick Rainscreen Wall: It was initially expected that a 50 mm cavity would offer reduced pressure drops and increased air flow compared to a 19 mm cavity. However, these models showed that the size of the ventilation slots through the wall are the limiting factor rather than the cavity depth. Of course, once the slots are enlarged beyond a certain point, this could change. The effects of natural convection within the air cavities, driven by the temperature difference across the cavity, were shown to be less important than the external wind speed (for a wind direction normal to the wall surface), when wind action is present. Vinyl Rainscreen Wall: The CFD model of the vinyl rainscreen wall was simpler than that for the brick wall. Constant wall temperatures were used rather than conjugate heat transfer. Although this is appropriate for a thin surface with little heat capacity, it does mean that an empirical correlation between solar radiation (and perhaps wind speed) and vinyl temperature is required to use these results appropriately. The results developed from this CFD model were correlated to weather parameters and construction details so that they can be incorporated into ORNL s advanced hygrothermal models MOISTURE- EXPERT.

Stovall, Therese K [ORNL; Karagiozis, Achilles N [ORNL

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Method for controlling clathrate hydrates in fluid systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Discussed is a process for preventing clathrate hydrate masses from impeding the flow of fluid in a fluid system. An additive is contacted with clathrate hydrate masses in the system to prevent those clathrate hydrate masses from impeding fluid flow. The process is particularly useful in the natural gas and petroleum production, transportation and processing industry where gas hydrate formation can cause serious problems. Additives preferably contain one or more five member and/or six member cyclic chemical groupings. Additives include poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) and hydroxyethylcellulose, either in combination or alone.

Sloan, Jr., Earle D. (Golden, CO)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Public Meeting Transcript: Sustainable Design Standards for Federal Buildings  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

OFFICE OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND RENEWABLE ENERGY PUBLIC MEETING SUSTAINABLE DESIGN STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL BUILDINGS U.S. Department of Energy 1000 Independence Avenue, SW Washington, DC 20585 Room 8E-089 Wednesday July 28, 2010 Chair: Cyrus Nasseri Department of Energy (FEMP) Facilitator: Jim Raba Department of Energy Executive Court Reporters (301) 565-0064 2 Participants Identified: Mark Ames American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air- Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Margo Appel US Department of Energy (DOE) Todd Apple Dupont Tim Ballo Earthjustice John Barry International Union of Operating Engineers National Training Fund Allen Blakey The Vinyl Institute Nadine Block Sustainable Forestry Initiative

464

Petroleum Market Module  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

other refinery inputs including alcohols, ethers, bioesters, other refinery inputs including alcohols, ethers, bioesters, natural gas plant liquids production, and refinery processing gain. In addition, the PMM estimates capacity expansion and fuel consumption of domestic refineries. The PMM contains a linear programming representation of U.S. refining activities in the five Petroleum Area Defense Districts (PADDs) (Figure 9). The model is created by aggregating individual refineries into one linear programmming representation for each PADD. This representation provides the marginal costs of production for a number of conventional and new petroleum products. In order to interact with other NEMS modules with different regional representations, certain PMM inputs and outputs are converted from PADD regions to other regional structures and vice versa. The linear programming results are used to determine

465

Slide 1  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hybrid Membrane/Absorption Process Hybrid Membrane/Absorption Process for Post-combustion CO 2 Capture DOE Contract No. DE-FE-0004787 S. James Zhou, Shiguang Li, and Howard Meyer, GTI Yong Ding and Ben Bikson, PoroGen NETL CO 2 Capture Technology Meeting July 10, 2013 2  Materials technology company commercially manufacturing products from high performance plastic PEEK (poly (ether ether ketone))  Products ranging from membrane separation filters to heat transfer devices  Not-for-profit research company, providing energy and natural gas solutions to the industry since 1941  Facilities  18 acre campus near Chicago  200,000 ft 2 , 28 specialized labs Introduction to GTI and PoroGen PEEK Fiber + Cartridge + Module = Separation system 3 Project overview  Funding: $3,736 K (DOE: $2,986 K, Cost share: $750 K)

466

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Ethanol Plant Production Ethanol Plant Production Definitions Key Terms Definition Barrel A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons. Fuel Ethanol An anhydrous alcohol (ethanol with less than 1% water) intended for gasoline blending as described in the Oxygenates definition. Oxygenates Substances which, when added to gasoline, increase the amount of oxygen in that gasoline blend. Ethanol, Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE), Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE), and methanol are common oxygenates. Fuel Ethanol: Blends of up to 10 percent by volume anhydrous ethanol (200 proof) (commonly referred to as the "gasohol waiver"). Methanol: Blends of methanol and gasoline-grade tertiary butyl alcohol (GTBA) such that the total oxygen content does not exceed 3.5 percent by weight and the ratio of methanol to GTBA is less than or equal to 1. It is also specified that this blended fuel must meet ASTM volatility specifications (commonly referred to as the "ARCO" waiver).

467

Why Sequence Pseudonocardia dioxanivorans?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Pseudonocardia dioxanivorans? Pseudonocardia dioxanivorans? Ethers such as 1,4-dioxane, tetrahydrofuran, and methyl tert-butyl ether are widespread contaminants of groundwater resources. 1,4-Dioxane is widely used as a stabilizer for chlorinated solvents such as 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA). 1,4-Dioxane is a carcinogen, and causes acute toxic effects on the nervous system, liver, and kidneys. One promising approach for remediating 1,4-dioxane-impacted water supplies is in-situ bioremediation using aerobic bacteria. Pseudonocardia dioxanivorans CB1190 is a unique bacterial strain that can grow using 1,4-dioxane as a sole source of carbon and energy. It can degrade several other water contaminants and also fix dinitrogen, making it an attractive bioaugmentation culture even for nitrogen-limited

468

Total Refinery Net Input of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Input Input Product: Total Crude Oil & Petroleum Products Crude Oil Natural Gas Plant Liquids Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Normal Butane Isobutane Other Liquids Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Hydrogen Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) All Other Oxygenates Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Other Hydrocarbons Unfinished Oils (net) Unfinished Oils, Naphthas and Lighter Unfinished Oils, Kerosene and Light Gas Oils Unfinished Oils, Heavy Gas Oils Residuum Motor Gasoline Blending Components (MGBC) (net) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated - RBOB MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB for Blending w/ Alcohol MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB for Blending w/ Ether MGBC - Conventional MGBC - CBOB MGBC - Conventional, GTAB MGBC - Other Conventional Aviation Gasoline Blending Components (net) Alaskan Crude Oil Receipts Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day

469

Inquiring Minds - Questions About Physics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Particle theories Particle theories Quantum fields, superstrings and all that Scattering matrix "Could you please help me by explaining what is actually meant by S-matrix?" Concept of ether in explaining forces? "Will there be any research carried out in the near or distant future to find a physical relationship between gravity, mass, light, matter/antimatter through something like the idea of ether hundred years ago?" Consequences of the success of superstring theory? "What will be the consequences if superstring theory is successful? Will physics come to an end?" The smallest constituents of matter 1. Do you think the particle model of matter is true? Why? 2. If all matter is made up of particles, then what are particles made up of? Is the top quark the end of the particle line?

470

Coordination Chemistry in magnesium battery electrolytes: how ligands affect their performance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Magnesium battery is potentially a safe, cost-effective, and high energy density technology for large scale energy storage. However, the development of magnesium battery has been hindered by the limited performance and the lack of fundamental understandings of electrolytes. Here, we present a coordination chemistry study of Mg(BH4)2 in ethereal solvents. The O donor denticity, i.e. ligand strength of the ethereal solvents which act as ligands to form solvated Mg complexes, plays a significant role in enhancing coulombic efficiency of the corresponding solvated Mg complex electrolytes. A new and safer electrolyte is developed based on Mg(BH4)2, diglyme and optimized LiBH4 additive. The new electrolyte demonstrates 100% coulombic efficiency, no dendrite formation, and stable cycling performance with the cathode capacity retention of ~90% for 300 cycles in a prototype magnesium battery.

Shao, Yuyan; Liu, Tianbiao L.; Li, Guosheng; Gu, Meng; Nie, Zimin; Engelhard, Mark H.; Xiao, Jie; Lu, Dongping; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun

2013-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

471

New concept for coal wettability evaluation and modulation. Technical progress report, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

This project is concerned concept for coal surface wettability evaluation and modulation. The objective of the work are to study the fundamental surface chemistry feature about the evaluation of the surface of coal, pyrite and coal pyrite, and also establish a new separation strategy which could contribute to the advanced coal cleaning for premium fuel application. In this quarter, the capillary rise of three coals, colorado mineral pyrite, and coal pyrite in butanol, pentanol, and butyl ether have been tested. The test results shown that the kinetic wettability of the five samples in the alcohol homolog are dependent on the carbon chain length, as the length of the carbon chain is shorter, the surface wettability is the better. Another test results shown that the kinetic wettability of coals are better than mineral pyrite and coal pyrite in the butyl ether.

Hu, Weibai

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

472

A new family of anion receptors and their effects on ion pair dissociation and conductivity of lithium salts in non-aqueous solutions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A new family of anion receptors based on aza-ether compounds have been synthesized. Since the anion complexation of these compounds is not based on either positively charged sites or hydrogen bonding, they have a potential to be used in lithium batteries as electrolyte additives. When these compounds are added into nonaqueous electrolytes using lithium salts, such as LiCl/BF or LiBr/THF, the ionic conductivity can be dramatically increased. Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NF-XAFS) spectroscopy studies show that Cl{sup {minus}} anions are completed with the nitrogen groups in these compounds. The increase in ionic conductivity and the degree of complexation, are both related to the number of R=CF{sub 3}SO{sub 2} groups that are used to substitute the amine hydrogen atoms in these aza-ether compounds.

Lee, H.S.; Yang, X.Q.; McBreen, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Okamoto, Y. [Polytechnic Univ., Brooklyn, NY (United States)

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Process for extracting technetium from alkaline solutions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates generally to a process for extracting technetium from nuclear wastes and more particularly to a process for extracting technetium from alkaline waste solutions containing technetium and high concentrations of alkali metal nitrates. A process for extracting technetium values from an aqueous alkaline solution containing at least one alkali metal hydroxide and at least one alkali metal nitrate comprises the steps of: contacting the aqueous alkaline solution with a solvent consisting of a crown ether in a diluent, the diluent being a water-immiscible organic liquid in which the crown ether is soluble, for a period of time sufficient to selectively extract the technetium values from the aqueous alkaline solution into the solvent; separating the solvent containing the technetium values from the aqueous alkaline solution; and stripping the technetium values from the solvent by contacting the solvent with water.

Moyer, B.A.; Sachleben, R.A.; Bonnesen, P.V.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

474

Evaluation and Characterization of Membranes for H2SO4/Water and I2/HI/H2O Water Separation and Hydrogen Permeation for the S-I Cycle  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this report are the findings into three membrane separation studies for potential application to the Sulfur-Iodine (S-I) thermochemical cycle. The first is the removal of water from hydriodic acid/iodine mixtures. In the S-I cycle, iodine is added to the product of the Bunsen reaction to facilitate the separation of sulfuric acid (H2SO4) from hydriodic acid (HI). The amount of iodine can be as high as 83% of the overall mass load of the Bunsen product stream, which potentially introduces a large burden on the cycle’s efficiency. Removal of water from the HI and iodine mixture would substantially reduce the amount of required additional iodine. In this work, performance data for Nafion® and sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) membranes is shown.

Frederick R. Stewart

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Nano Structured Activated Carbon for Hydrogen Storge  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Development of a nanostructured synthetic carbons materials that have been synthesized by thermal-decomposition of aromatic rich polyether such as poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) is reported. These polymers based nanostructured carbons efficacious for gas adsorption and storage and have Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area of more than 3000 m2/g, and with average pore diameter of carbonization temperatures, and the correlation between the activation and carbonization temperatures provides a mechanistic perspective of the pore evolution during activation. Correlations between gas (N2 and H2) adsorption capacity and porous texture of the materials have been established. The materials possess excellent hydrogen storage properties, with hydrogen storage capacity up to 7.4 wt% (gravimetric) and ~ 45 g H2 L-1 (volumetric) at -196oC and 6.0 MPa.

Israel Cabasso; Youxin Yuan

2013-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

476

Electrochemical Windows of Sulfone-Based Electrolytes for High-Voltage Li-Ion Batteries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Further development of high-voltage lithium-ion batteries requires electrolytes with electrochemical windows greater than 5 V. Sulfone-based electrolytes are promising for such a purpose. Here we compute the electrochemical windows for experimentally tested sulfone electrolytes by different levels of theory in combination with various solvation models. The MP2 method combined with the polarizable continuum model is shown to be the most accurate method to predict oxidation potentials of sulfone-based electrolytes with mean deviation less than 0.29 V. Mulliken charge analysis shows that the oxidation happens on the sulfone group for ethylmethyl sulfone and tetramethylene sulfone, and on the ether group for ether functionalized sulfones. Large electrochemical windows of sulfone-based electrolytes are mainly contributed by the sulfone group in the molecules which helps lower the HOMO level. This study can help understand the voltage limits imposed by the sulfone-based electrolytes and aid in designing new electrolytes with greater electrochemical windows.

Shao, Nan [ORNL; Sun, Xiao-Guang [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Jiang, Deen [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Extraction processes and solvents for recovery of cesium, strontium, rare earth elements, technetium and actinides from liquid radioactive waste  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Cesium and strontium are extracted from aqueous acidic radioactive waste containing rare earth elements, technetium and actinides, by contacting the waste with a composition of a complex organoboron compound and polyethylene glycol in an organofluorine diluent mixture. In a preferred embodiment the complex organoboron compound is chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide, the polyethylene glycol has the formula RC.sub.6 H.sub.4 (OCH.sub.2 CH.sub.2).sub.n OH, and the organofluorine diluent is a mixture of bis-tetrafluoropropyl ether of diethylene glycol with at least one of bis-tetrafluoropropyl ether of ethylene glycol and bis-tetrafluoropropyl formal. The rare earths, technetium and the actinides (especially uranium, plutonium and americium), are extracted from the aqueous phase using a phosphine oxide in a hydrocarbon diluent, and reextracted from the resulting organic phase into an aqueous phase by using a suitable strip reagent.

Zaitsev, Boris N. (St. Petersburg, RU); Esimantovskiy, Vyacheslav M. (St. Petersburg, RU); Lazarev, Leonard N. (St. Petersburg, RU); Dzekun, Evgeniy G. (Ozersk, RU); Romanovskiy, Valeriy N. (St. Petersburg, RU); Todd, Terry A. (Aberdeen, ID); Brewer, Ken N. (Arco, ID); Herbst, Ronald S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Law, Jack D. (Pocatello, ID)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Homogeneous catalyst formulations for methanol production  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

There is disclosed synthesis of CH.sub.3 OH from carbon monoxide and hydrogen using an extremely active homogeneous catalyst for methanol synthesis directly from synthesis gas. The catalyst operates preferably between 100.degree.-150.degree. C. and preferably at 100-150 psia synthesis gas to produce methanol. Use can be made of syngas mixtures which contain considerable quantities of other gases, such as nitrogen, methane or excess hydrogen. The catalyst is composed of two components: (a) a transition metal carbonyl complex and (b) an alkoxide component. In the simplest formulation, component (a) is a complex of nickel tetracarbonyl and component (b) is methoxide (CH.sub.3 O.sup.-), both being dissolved in a methanol solvent system. The presence of a co-solvent such as p-dioxane, THF, polyalcohols, ethers, hydrocarbons, and crown ethers accelerates the methanol synthesis reaction.

Mahajan, Devinder (Port Jefferson, NY); Sapienza, Richard S. (Shoreham, NY); Slegeir, William A. (Hampton Bays, NY); O' Hare, Thomas E. (Huntington Station, NY)

1991-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

479

Homogeneous catalyst formulations for methanol production  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

There is disclosed synthesis of CH.sub.3 OH from carbon monoxide and hydrogen using an extremely active homogeneous catalyst for methanol synthesis directly from synthesis gas. The catalyst operates preferably between 100.degree.-150.degree. C. and preferably at 100-150 psia synthesis gas to produce methanol. Use can be made of syngas mixtures which contain considerable quantities of other gases, such as nitrogen, methane or excess hydrogen. The catalyst is composed of two components: (a) a transition metal carbonyl complex and (b) an alkoxide component. In the simplest formulation, component (a) is a complex of nickel tetracarbonyl and component (b) is methoxide (CH.sub.3 O.sup.13 ), both being dissolved in a methanol solvent system. The presence of a co-solvent such as p-dioxane, THF, polyalcohols, ethers, hydrocarbons, and crown ethers accelerates the methanol synthesis reaction.

Mahajan, Devinder (Port Jefferson, NY); Sapienza, Richard S. (Shoreham, NY); Slegeir, William A. (Hampton Bays, NY); O' Hare, Thomas E. (Huntington Station, NY)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Catalytic distillation process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C.sub.4 feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "2-chloroethyl vinyl ether" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Catalytic distillation process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C[sub 4] feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

Smith, L.A. Jr.

1982-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

482

Effect of solution additives on the performance of PMAN carbon anodes in 1M LiPF{sub 6}/EC-DMC solutions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A study was undertaken to examine the use of a number of solution additives in 1M LiPF{sub 6}/ethylene carbonate (EC)-dimethyl carbonate (DMC) solutions to improve the performance of carbon anodes derived from polymethylacrylonitrile (PMAN)-divinylbenzene (DVB) copolymers. The study goals were to improve the cycle life and reduce the formation of the passivation layer during the first reduction, thereby minimizing the irreversible-capacity losses. Additives studied were 12-crown-4 (12-Cr-4) ether, decalin, and dilithium phthalocyanine (Li{sub 2}Pc). The carbon performance was characterized by galvanostatic cycling, cyclic voltammetry, and complex-impedance spectroscopy. Limited success was obtained with 12-Cr-4 ether at 0.25 M and decalin at 1 v/o. Poor results were noted with Li{sub 2}Pc at 0.025 M and 0.5 M.

Guidotti, R.A.; Johnson, B.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Battery Development Dept.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

483

Total Blender Net Input of Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Input Input Product: Total Input Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases Pentanes Plus Liquid Petroleum Gases Normal Butane Isobutane Other Liquids Oxygenates/Renewables Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Unfinished Oils (net) Unfinished Oils, Naphthas and Lighter Unfinished Oils, Kerosene and Light Gas Oils Unfinished Oils, Heavy Gas Oils Residuum Motor Gasoline Blending Components (MGBC) (net) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated - RBOB MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB for Blending w/ Alcohol MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB for Blending w/ Ether MGBC - Reformulated, GTAB MGBC - Conventional MGBC - Conventional, CBOB MGBC - Conventional, GTAB MGBC - Other Conventional Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day

484

Refinery & Blenders Net Input of Crude Oil  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Input Input Product: Total Crude Oil & Petroleum Products Crude Oil Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane Normal Butane Isobutane Other Liquids Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Hydrogen Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) All Other Oxygenates Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Other Hydrocarbons Unfinished Oils (net) Unfinished Oils, Naphthas and Lighter Unfinished Oils, Kerosene and Light Gas Oils Unfinished Oils, Heavy Gas Oils Residuum Motor Gasoline Blending Components (MGBC) (net) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated - RBOB MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB for Blending w/ Alcohol MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB for Blending w/ Ether MGBC - Reformulated, GTAB MGBC - Conventional MGBC - CBOB MGBC - Conventional, GTAB MGBC - Other Conventional Aviation Gasoline Blending Components (net) Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day

485

Two US markets, or one? How the MTBE-gasoline relationship is evolving  

SciTech Connect

This issue of Energy Detente features the price sensitivity of Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether. Data is presented for US wholesale gasoline prices vs. MTBE for the 20-month period beginning in June 1994 and ending in January 1996, and the data is discussed. Also contained in this issue is the refining netback data and the fuel price/tax data for the period ending January 5, 1996.

1996-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

486

Combined transuranic-strontium extraction process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The transuranic (TRU) elements neptunium, plutonium and americium can be separated together with strontium from nitric acid waste solutions in a single process. An extractant solution of a crown ether and an alkyl(phenyl)-N,N-dialkylcarbanylmethylphosphine oxide in an appropriate diluent will extract the TRU's together with strontium, uranium and technetium. The TRU's and the strontium can then be selectively stripped from the extractant for disposal. 3 figs.

Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

1992-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

487

Liquid chromatographic extraction medium  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus are disclosed for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water. 1 fig.

Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

1994-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

488

Thermochemistry and reaction barriers for the formation of levoglucosenone from cellobiose.  

SciTech Connect

Cellobiose jumps the barrier: High-level quantum mechanical studies show that the ether bond cleavage in cellobiose occurs through internal hydrogen transfer in the gas phase and that the activation energy required is similar to that required for activating cellulose. The reaction barriers are computed for various pathways for the formation of levoglucosenone from levoglucosan, and the most likely pathway requires a relatively low activation barrier compared to that for the activation of cellobiose.

Assary, R. S.; Curtiss, L. A. (Center for Nanoscale Materials); ( MSD); (Northwestern Univ.)

2012-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

489

Combined transuranic-strontium extraction process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The transuranic (TRU) elements neptunium, plutonium and amercium can be separated together with strontium from nitric acid waste solutions in a single process. An extractant solution of a crown ether and an alkyl(phenyl)-N.N-dialkylcarbanylmethylphosphine oxide in an appropriate diluent will extract the TRU`s to gather with strontium, uranium and technetium. The TRU`s and the strontium can then be selectively stripped from the extractant for disposal.

Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

490

Alkaline earth cation extraction from acid solution  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An extractant medium for extracting alkaline earth cations from an aqueous acidic sample solution is described as are a method and apparatus for using the same. The separation medium is free of diluent, free-flowing and particulate, and comprises a Crown ether that is a 4,4'(5')[C.sub.4 -C.sub.8 -alkylcyclohexano]18-Crown-6 dispersed on an inert substrate material.

Dietz, Mark (Elmhurst, IL); Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

Electron-donor dopant, method of improving conductivity of polymers by doping therewith, and a polymer so treated  

SciTech Connect

Polymers with conjugated backbones, both polyacetylene and polyaromatic heterocyclic types, are doped with electron-donor agents to increase their electrical conductivity. The electron-donor agents are either electride dopants made in the presence of lithium or dopants derived from alkalides made in the presence of lithium. The dopants also contain a metal such as cesium and a trapping agent such as a crown ether.

Liepins, Raimond (Los Alamos, NM); Aldissi, Mahmoud (Los Alamos, NM)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

Combined transuranic-strontium extraction process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The transuranic (TRU) elements neptunium, plutonium and americium can be separated together with strontium from nitric acid waste solutions in a single process. An extractant solution of a crown ether and an alkyl(phenyl)-N,N-dialkylcarbanylmethylphosphine oxide in an appropriate diluent will extract the TRU's together with strontium, uranium and technetium. The TRU's and the strontium can then be selectively stripped from the extractant for disposal.

Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Dietz, Mark L. (Evanston, IL)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

Method for liquid chromatographic extraction of strontium from acid solutions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column is described. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water.

Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Dietz, Mark L. (Evanston, IL)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

494

Liquid chromatographic extraction medium  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column is described. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water.

Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Dietz, Mark L. (Evanston, IL)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

495

SALICYLATE PROCESS FOR THORIUM SEPARATION FROM RARE EARTHS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The separation of thorium from rare earths is accomplished by forming an aqueous solution of salts of thorium and rare earths and sufficient acetate buffer to provide a pH of between 2 and 5, adding an ammonium salicylate to the aqueous buffered solution, contacting the resultant solution with a substantially water-immiscible organic solvent mixture of an ether and an ester, and separating the solvent extract phase containing thorium salicylate from the aqueous phase containing the rare earths.

Cowan, G.A.

1959-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

496

Update of Summer Reformulated Gasoline Supply Assessment for New York and Connecticut  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

In October 2003, EIA published a review of the status of the methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) ban transition in New York (NY) and Connecticut (CT) that noted significant uncertainties in gasoline supply for those States for the summer of 2004. To obtain updated information, EIA spoke to major suppliers to the two States over the past several months as the petroleum industry began the switch from winter- to summer-grade gasoline.

Information Center

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

HCCI in a CFR engine: experiments and detailed kinetic modeling  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Single cylinder engine experiments and chemical kinetic modeling have been performed to study the effect of variations in fuel, equivalence ratio, and intake charge temperature on the start of combustion and the heat release rate. Neat propane and a fuel blend of 15% dimethyl-ether in methane have been studied. The results demonstrate the role of these parameters on the start of combustion, efficiency, imep, and emissions. Single zone kinetic modeling results show the trends consistent with the experimental results.

Flowers, D; Aceves, S; Smith, R; Torres, J; Girard, J; Dibble, R

1999-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

498

Siloxane-grafted membranes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Composite cellulosic semipermeable membranes are disclosed which are the covalently bonded reaction product of an asymmetric cellulosic semipermeable membrane and a polysiloxane containing reactive functional group. The two reactants chemically bond by ether, ester, amide or acrylate linkages to form a siloxane-grafted cellulosic membrane having superior selectivity and flux stability. Selectivity may be enhanced by wetting the surface with a swelling agent such as water.

Friesen, D.T.; Obligin, A.S.

1989-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

499

IMPACT OF DME-DIESEL FUEL BLEND PROPERTIES ON DIESEL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of this research program are to develop information on lubricity and viscosity improvers and their impact on the wear mechanisms in fuel injectors operating on blends of dimethyl ether (DME) and diesel fuel. This project complements another ongoing project titled ''Development of a Dimethyl Ether (DME)-Fueled Shuttle Bus Demonstration Project''. The objectives of that research and demonstration program are to convert a campus shuttle bus to operation on dimethyl ether, a potential ultra-clean alternative diesel fuel. To accomplish this objective, this project includes laboratory evaluation of a fuel conversion strategy, as well as, field demonstration of the DME-fueled shuttle bus. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In the shuttle bus project, they have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. The strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. In this project, they have sought to develop methods for extending the permissible DME content in the DME-diesel blends without experiencing rapid injector failure due to wear. To date, the activities have covered two areas: development of a high-pressure lubricity test apparatus for studies of lubricity and viscosity improvers and development of an injector durability stand for evaluation of wear rates in fuel injectors. This report provides summaries of the progress toward completion of both experimental systems and a summary of the plan for completion of the project objectives.

Elana M. Chapman; Andre L. Boehman; Kimberly Wain; Wallis Lloyd; Joseph M. Perez; Donald Stiver; Joseph Conway

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

500

Antihypertensive neutral lipid  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention relates to the discovery of a class of neutral acetylated ether-linked glycerolipids having the capacity to lower blood pressure in warm-blooded animals. This physiological effect is structure sensitive requiring a long chain alkyl group at the sn-1 position and a short carbon chain acyl group (acetyl or propionyl) at the sn-2 position, and a hydroxyl group at the sn-3 position.

Snyder, Fred L. (Oak Ridge, TN); Blank, Merle L. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z