National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for 2-chloroethyl vinyl ether

  1. Chemistry of enol ethers. LXXXIV. Condensation of acetals of saturated aldehydes with 2-trimethylsilyloxy-1,3-dienes. Synthesis of /beta/-alkoxy-alkyl vinyl and divinyl ketones

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makin, S.M.; Nazarova, O.N.; Dymshakova, G.M.; Kundryutskova, L.A.

    1988-11-10

    The addition of the acetals of saturated aldehydes (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, butyraldehyde, and isobutyraldehyde) to 2-trimethylsilyloxy-4-methyl-1,3-pentadiene in the presence of aprotic acids (ZnCl/sub 2/, ZnBr/sub 2/, FeCl/sub 3/, SnCl/sub 4/, BF/sub 3/ /times/ OEt/sub 2/) takes place at positions 1, 2 of the diene system with the formation of /beta/-alkoxyalkyl vinyl ketones. The most effective catalysts of this reaction were stannic chloride and zinc bromide. The alkyl derivatives of divinyl ketones are formed when the obtained /beta/-alkoxyalkyl vinyl ketones are heated with p-toluenesulfonic acid.

  2. 2,6-Dithiopurine, a nucleophilic scavenger, protects against mutagenesis in mouse skin treated in vivo with 2-(chloroethyl) ethyl sulfide, a mustard gas analog

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boulware, Stephen [Division of Pharmacy and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Texas at Austin, Dell Pediatric Research Institute, 1400 Barbara Jordan Blvd., Austin, TX 78723 (United States)] [Division of Pharmacy and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Texas at Austin, Dell Pediatric Research Institute, 1400 Barbara Jordan Blvd., Austin, TX 78723 (United States); Fields, Tammy; McIvor, Elizabeth; Powell, K. Leslie; Abel, Erika L. [Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States)] [Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States); Vasquez, Karen M. [Division of Pharmacy and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Texas at Austin, Dell Pediatric Research Institute, 1400 Barbara Jordan Blvd., Austin, TX 78723 (United States)] [Division of Pharmacy and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Texas at Austin, Dell Pediatric Research Institute, 1400 Barbara Jordan Blvd., Austin, TX 78723 (United States); MacLeod, Michael C., E-mail: mcmacleod@mdanderson.org [Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Sulfur mustard [bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide, SM] is a well-known DNA-damaging agent that has been used in chemical warfare since World War I, and is a weapon that could potentially be used in a terrorist attack on a civilian population. Dermal exposure to high concentrations of SM produces severe, long-lasting burns. Topical exposure to high concentrations of 2-(chloroethyl) ethyl sulfide (CEES), a monofunctional analog of SM, also produces severe skin lesions in mice. Utilizing a genetically engineered mouse strain, Big Blue, that allows measurement of mutation frequencies in mouse tissues, we now show that topical treatment with much lower concentrations of CEES induces significant dose- and time-dependent increases in mutation frequency in mouse skin; the mutagenic exposures produce minimal toxicity as determined by standard histopathology and immunohistochemical analysis for cytokeratin 6 and the DNA-damage induced phosphorylation of histone H2AX (?-H2AX). We attempted to develop a therapeutic that would inhibit the CEES-induced increase in mutation frequency in the skin. We observe that multi-dose, topical treatment with 2,6-dithiopurine (DTP), a known chemical scavenger of CEES, beginning 1 h post-exposure to CEES, completely abolishes the CEES-induced increase in mutation frequency. These findings suggest the possibility that DTP, previously shown to be non-toxic in mice, may be useful as a therapeutic agent in accidental or malicious human exposures to SM. -- Highlights: ? 200 mM 2-(chloroethyl) ethyl sulfide (CEES) induces mutations in mouse skin. ? This dose of CEES is not overtly toxic, as assayed by histopathology. ? 2,6-Dithiopurine (DTP), applied after CEES-treatment, abolishes CEES-mutagenesis. ? This supports the idea that sulfur mustards exhibit long biological half-lives.

  3. Preparation of vinyl acetate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tustin, G.C.; Zoeller, J.R.; Depew, L.S.

    1998-03-24

    This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting a mixture of hydrogen and ketene with a heterogeneous catalyst containing a transition metal to produce acetaldehyde, which is then reacted with ketene in the presence of an acid catalyst to produce vinyl acetate.

  4. Crown ethers in graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Junjie; Lee, Jaekwang; Contescu, Cristian I; Gallego, Nidia C; Pantelides, Sokrates T.; Pennycook, Stephen J; Moyer, Bruce A; Chisholm, Matthew F

    2014-01-01

    Crown ethers, introduced by Pedersen1, are at their most basic level neutral rings constructed of oxygen atoms linked by two- or three-carbon chains. They have attracted special attention for their ability to selectively incorporate various atoms2 or molecules within the cavity formed by the ring3-6. This property has led to the use of crown ethers and their compounds in a wide range of chemical and biological applications7,8. However, crown ethers are typically highly flexible, frustrating efforts to rigidify them for many uses that demand higher binding affinity and selectivity9,10. In this Letter, we report atomic-resolution images of the same basic structures of the original crown ethers embedded in graphene. This arrangement constrains the crown ethers to be rigid and planar and thus uniquely suited for the many applications that crown ethers are known for. First-principles calculations show that the close similarity of the structures seen in graphene with those of crown ether molecules also extends to their selectivity towards specific metal cations depending on the ring size. Atoms (or molecules) incorporated within the crown ethers in graphene offer a simple environment that can be easily and systematically probed and modeled. Thus, we expect that this discovery will introduce a new wave of investigations and applications of chemically functionalized graphene.

  5. Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Robert

    2012-01-01

    and Vinyl Siding R. Hart*, C. Curcija, D. Arasteh, H.and Vinyl Siding Robert Hart*, Charlie Curcija, Dariush

  6. Rheology of silicon carbide/vinyl ester nanocomposites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yong, Virginia; Hahn, H. Thomas

    2006-01-01

    based vinyl ester and 45 wt % styrene mono- mers. The hybridcould copolymerize with styrene monomers in the vinyl ester

  7. Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spormann, Alfred M. (Stanford, CA); Muller, Jochen A. (Baltimore, MD); Rosner, Bettina M. (Berlin, DE); Von Abendroth, Gregory (Nannhein, DE); Meshulam-Simon, Galit (Los Altos, CA); McCarty, Perry L (Stanford, CA)

    2011-11-22

    Compositions and methods are provided that relate to the bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes, particularly the bioremediation of vinyl chloride by Dehalococcoides-like organisms. An isolated strain of bacteria, Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS, that metabolizes vinyl chloride is provided; the genetic sequence of the enzyme responsible for vinyl chloride dehalogenation; methods of assessing the capability of endogenous organisms at an environmental site to metabolize vinyl chloride; and a method of using the strains of the invention for bioremediation.

  8. Propenyl ether monomers for photopolymerization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crivello, J.V.

    1996-10-22

    Propenyl ether monomers of formula A(OCH{double_bond}CHCH{sub 3}){sub n} wherein n is an integer from one to six and A is selected from cyclic ethers, polyether and alkanes are disclosed. The monomers are readily polymerized in the presence of cationic photoinitiators, when exposed to actinic radiation, to form poly(propenyl ethers) that are useful for coatings, sealants, varnishes and adhesives. Compositions for preparing polymeric coatings comprising the compounds of the above formula together with particular cationic photoinitiators are also disclosed, as are processes for making the monomers from allyl halides and readily available alcohols. The process involves rearranging the resulting allyl ethers to propenyl ethers.

  9. Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Extrusion process Improperly processed vinyl siding may be more susceptible to distortions such as oil-

  10. amine methanol, ether . Amine amine CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Deog Ki

    IP [2012] 7 C O 2 (CO2) . CO2 amine methanol, ether . Amine amine CO2 CO2 .Amine CO2 (functional group) amine amine+ +promoter .Amine CO2 CO2 . . , methanol ether methanol, ether promoter CO2 CO2 H2S, COS CO2 . Methanol rectisol process, di-methylene ether polypropylene glycol selexol (-30oC) . CO2

  11. Decontamination of 2-chloroethyl ethylsulfide using titanate nanoscrolls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qin, Lu-Chang

    of TiO2 nanocrystals, are tested as reactive sorbent for chemical warfare agent (CWA) decontamination experiments showed that powders of metal oxide, MgO [2], CaO [3], Al2O3 [4], and TiO2 [5], when pene- trated to nanocrystals, nanostruc- tures with large aspect ratios such as nanotubes and nanoscrolls might stack together

  12. Effect of thermal history on the molecular orientation in polystyrene/poly(vinyl methyl ether) blends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pezolet, Michel

    volume and mechanical deformation of polyimides and polycarbonate [16,17]. Wang et al. have reported

  13. Process for the preparation of vinyl acetate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tustin, G.C.; Zoeller, J.R.; Depew, L.S.

    1998-02-17

    This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting within a contact zone a mixture of ketene and acetaldehyde with an acid catalyst at about one bar pressure and between about 85 and 200 C and removing the reaction products from the contact zone.

  14. Vinyl Siding Institute (VSI) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al.,Turin,Village of Wellington, Ohio (UtilityVinyl Kraft Windows

  15. Aza crown ether compounds as anion receptors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, H.S.; Yang, X.O.; McBreen, J.

    1998-08-04

    A family of aza-ether based compounds including linear, multi-branched and aza-crown ethers is provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the new family of aza-ether based compounds acts as neutral receptors to complex the anion moiety of the electrolyte salt thereby increasing the conductivity and the transference number of LI{sup +} ion in alkali metal batteries. 3 figs.

  16. Palladium-Catalyzed Conversion of Aryl and Vinyl Triflates to Bromides and Chlorides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, Jun

    A facile Pd-catalyzed conversion of aryl and vinyl triflates to aryl and vinyl halides (bromides and chlorides) is described. This method allows convenient access to a variety of aryl, heteroaryl, and vinyl halides in good ...

  17. Palladium-Catalyzed Conversion of Aryl and Vinyl Triflates to Bromides and Chlorides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Xiaoqiang

    2010-01-01

    The palladium-catalyzed conversion of aryl and vinyl triflates to aryl and vinyl halides (bromides and chlorides) has been developed using dialkylbiaryl phosphine ligands. A variety of aryl, heteroaryl, and vinyl halides ...

  18. Hydroxylated and Methoxylated Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gobas, Frank

    Research Hydroxylated and Methoxylated Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in a Canadian Arctic Marine of hydroxylated (OH-) and methoxylated (MeO-) polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been previously detected

  19. Alternative Fuels lDimethyl Ether Rheology and Materials Studies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuels lDimethyl Ether Rheology and Materials Studies Alternative Fuels lDimethyl Ether Rheology and Materials Studies 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference...

  20. Catalyst activity maintenance study for the liquid phase dimethyl ether process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peng, X.D.; Toseland, B.A.; Underwood, R.P.

    1995-12-31

    The co-production of dimethyl ether (DME) and methanol from syngas is a process of considerable commercial attractiveness. DME coproduction can double the productivity of a LPMEOH process when using coal-derived syngas. This in itself may offer chemical producers and power companies increased flexibility and more profitable operation. DME is also known as a clean burning liquid fuel; Amoco and Haldor-Topsoe have recently announced the use of DME as an alternative diesel fuel. Moreover, DME can be an interesting intermediate in the production of chemicals such as olefins and vinyl acetate. The current APCl liquid phase dimethyl ether (LPDME) process utilizes a physical mixture of a commercial methanol synthesis catalyst and a dehydration catalyst (e.g., {gamma}-alumina). While this arrangement provides a synergy that results in much higher syngas conversion per pass compared to the methanol-only process, the stability of the catalyst system suffers. The present project is aimed at reducing catalyst deactivation both by understanding the cause(s) of catalyst deactivation and by developing modified catalyst systems. This paper describes the current understanding of the deactivation mechanism.

  1. HORTSCIENCE 44(3):770773. 2009. Petroleum Ether Separation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Etxeberria, Edgardo

    HORTSCIENCE 44(3):770­773. 2009. Petroleum Ether Separation and Seedcoat Removal Enhance Seed studied. Petroleum ether separation improved germination by dividing seeds into floaters and sinkers sinkers except for one source of C. cunninghamiana. In sorted hybrid seeds, petroleum ether separation

  2. Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hart, Robert; Curcija, Charlie; Arasteh, Dariush; Goudey, Howdy; Kohler, Christian; Selkowitz, Stephen

    2011-07-07

    The subject of glass solar reflectance and its contribution to permanent vinyl siding distortion has not been extensively studied, and some phenomena are not yet well understood. This white paper presents what is known regarding the issue and identifies where more research is needed. Three primary topics are discussed: environmental factors that control the transfer of heat to and from the siding surface; vinyl siding properties that may affect heat build-up and permanent distortion; and factors that determine the properties of reflected solar radiation from glass surfaces, including insulating window glass. Further research is needed to fully characterize the conditions associated with siding distortion, the scope of the problem, physical properties of vinyl siding, insulating window glass reflection characteristics, and possible mitigation or prevention strategies.

  3. Maternal Anesthesia via Isoflurane or Ether Differentially

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maternal Anesthesia via Isoflurane or Ether Differentially Affects Pre-and Postnatal Behavior Program in Occupational Therapy Washington University School of Medicine St. Louis, MO 63108 Jeffrey R: Our understanding of prenatal behavior has been significantly advanced by techniques for direct

  4. Process for making propenyl ethers and photopolymerizable compositions containing them

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crivello, J.V.

    1996-01-23

    Propenyl ether monomers of formula A(OCH{double_bond}CHCH{sub 3}){sub n} (V) wherein n is an integer from one to six and A is selected from cyclic ethers, polyether, and alkanes are disclosed. The monomers are readily polymerized in the presence of cationic photoinitiators, when exposed to actinic radiation, to form poly(propenyl ethers) that are useful for coatings, sealants, varnishes and adhesives. Compositions for preparing polymeric coatings comprising the compounds of formula V together with particular cationic photoinitiators are also disclosed, as are processes for making the monomers from allyl halides and readily available alcohols. The process involves rearranging the resulting allyl ethers to propenyl ethers.

  5. Reduction of Vinyl Chloride in Metallic Iron-Water Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Baolin

    Reduction of Vinyl Chloride in Metallic Iron-Water Systems B A O L I N D E N G * Department of Mineral and Environmental Engineering, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, New Mexico) reduction by metallic iron in aqueous systems were performed. The effects of various iron loadings, VC

  6. Vacuum structure and ether-drift experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Consoli; L. Pappalardo

    2009-05-12

    In the data of the ether-drift experiments there might be sizable fluctuations superposed on the smooth sinusoidal modulations due to the Earth's rotation and orbital revolution. These fluctuations might reflect the stochastic nature of the underlying "quantum ether" and produce vanishing averages for all vectorial quantities extracted from a naive Fourier analysis of the data. By comparing the typical stability limits of the individual optical resonators with the amplitude of their relative frequency shift, the presently observed signal, rather than being spurious experimental noise, might also express fundamental properties of a physical vacuum similar to a superfluid in a turbulent state of motion. In this sense, the situation might be similar to the discovery of the CMBR that was first interpreted as mere instrumental noise.

  7. Divinyl ether synthase gene and protein, and uses thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Howe, Gregg A. (East Lansing, MI); Itoh, Aya (Tsuruoka, JP)

    2011-09-13

    The present invention relates to divinyl ether synthase genes, proteins, and methods of their use. The present invention encompasses both native and recombinant wild-type forms of the synthase, as well as mutants and variant forms, some of which possess altered characteristics relative to the wild-type synthase. The present invention also relates to methods of using divinyl ether synthase genes and proteins, including in their expression in transgenic organisms and in the production of divinyl ether fatty acids, and to methods of suing divinyl ether fatty acids, including in the protection of plants from pathogens.

  8. Crown Ethers Flatten in Graphene for Strong, Specific Binding...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2011 2010 News Home | ORNL | News | Features | 2014 SHARE Crown Ethers Flatten in Graphene for Strong, Specific Binding ORNL discovery holds potential for separations, sensors,...

  9. Synthesis of vinyl acetate on palladium-based catalysts 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, Dheeraj

    2009-06-02

    ACETATE ON PALLADIUM-BASED CATALYSTS A Dissertation by DHEERAJ KUMAR Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY August 2006... Major Subject: Chemistry SYNTHESIS OF VINYL ACETATE ON PALLADIUM-BASED CATALYSTS A Dissertation by DHEERAJ KUMAR Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements...

  10. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Dimethyl Ether

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Digg FindPortsas a VehicleNaturalDimethyl Ether to

  11. Network Structure of Cellulose Ethers Used in Pharmaceutical Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peppas, Nicholas A.

    Network Structure of Cellulose Ethers Used in Pharmaceutical Applications during Swelling cellulose ethers that differ in their type and degree of substitution and to elucidate the network structure hydrogels of cellulose derivatives, such as the polymer volume frac- tion in the swollen state, 2,S

  12. Process for producing dimethyl ether form synthesis gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pierantozzi, Ronald (Macungie, PA)

    1985-01-01

    This invention pertains to a Fischer Tropsch process for converting synthesis gas to an oxygenated hydrocarbon with particular emphasis on dimethyl ether. Synthesis gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen are converted to dimethyl ether by carrying out the reaction in the presence of an alkali metal-manganese-iron carbonyl cluster incorporated onto a zirconia-alumina support.

  13. Monodisperse SiC/vinyl ester nanocomposites: Dispersant formulation, synthesis, and characterization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yong, Virginia; Hahn, H. Thomas

    2011-01-01

    polyester copolymerizes with styrene monomers in the vinylbased vinyl ester and 45 wt% styrene monomers. The hybridof methacrylate and styrene. The absorption band in the

  14. Emergent gravity and ether-drift experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Consoli; L. Pappalardo

    2010-05-04

    According to several authors, gravity might be a long-wavelength phenomenon emerging in some 'hydrodynamic limit' from the same physical, flat-space vacuum viewed as a form of superfluid medium. In this framework, light might propagate in an effective acoustic geometry and exhibit a tiny anisotropy that could be measurable in the present ether-drift experiments. By accepting this view of the vacuum, one should also consider the possibility of sizeable random fluctuations of the signal that reflect the stochastic nature of the underlying `quantum ether' and could be erroneously interpreted as instrumental noise. To test the present interpretation, we have extracted the mean amplitude of the signal from various experiments with different systematics, operating both at room temperature and in the cryogenic regime. They all give the same consistent value = O (10^{-15}) which is precisely the magnitude expected in an emergent-gravity approach, for an apparatus placed on the Earth's surface. Since physical implications could be substantial, it would be important to obtain more direct checks from the instantaneous raw data and, possibly, with new experimental set-ups operating in gravity-free environments.

  15. An investigation in the hygrothermal degradation of an E- glass/vinyl-ester composite in humid and immersion environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Svetlik, Stephanie Laura

    2008-01-01

    of polyethertriamine-cured bisphenol-A-diglycidyl etherstructure of epoxy based bisphenol-A vinyl ester resin [here, an epoxy based bisphenol-A vinyl-ester, may have a

  16. Origin of mechanical modifications in poly (ether ether ketone)/carbon nanotube composite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pavlenko, Ekaterina; Puech, Pascal; Bacsa, Wolfgang; Boyer, François; Olivier, Philippe; Sapelkin, Andrei; King, Stephen; Heenan, Richard; Pons, François; Gauthier, Bénédicte; Cadaux, Pierre-Henri

    2014-06-21

    Variations in the hardness of a poly (ether ether ketone) beam electrically modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT, 0.5%-3%) are investigated. It is shown that both rupture and hardness variations correlate with the changes in carbon nanotube concentration when using micro indentation and extended Raman imaging. Statistical analysis of the relative spectral intensities in the Raman image is used to estimate local tube concentration and polymer crystallinity. We show that the histogram of the Raman D band across the image provides information about the amount of MWCNTs and the dispersion of MWCNTs in the composite. We speculate that we have observed a local modification of the ordering between pure and modified polymer. This is partially supported by small angle neutron scattering measurements, which indicate that the agglomeration state of the MWCNTs is the same at the concentrations studied.

  17. A sulfonated poly (aryl ether ether ketone ketone) isomer: synthesis and DMFC performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Yu Seung [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Liu, Baijun [JILIN UNIV.; Hu, Wei [JILIN UNIV.; Jiang, Zhenhua [JILIN UNIV.; Robertson, Gilles [CANADA NRC; Guiver, Michael [CANADA NRC

    2009-01-01

    A sulfonated poly(aryl ether ether ketone ketone) (PEEKK) having a well-defined rigid homopolymer-like chemical structure was synthesized from a readily-prepared PEEKK post-sulfonation with concentrated sulfuric acid at room temperature within several hours. The polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) cast from the resulting polymer exhibited an excellent combination of thermal resistance, oxidative and dimensional stability, low methanol fuel permeability and high proton conductivity. Furthermore, membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) were successfully fabricated and good direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) performance was observed. At 2 M MeOH feed, the current density at 0.5 V reached 165 mA/cm, which outperformed our reported analogues and eveluated Nafion membranes.

  18. Development of specialty chemicals from dimethyl ether

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tartamella, T.L.; Lee, S.

    1996-12-31

    Dimethyl ether (DME) may be efficiently produced from coal-bases syngas in a high pressure, mechanically agitated slurry reactor. DME synthesis occurs in the liquid phase using a dual catalyst. By operating in a dual catalyst mode, DME may be converted from in-situ produced methanol resulting in higher methyl productivities and syngas conversions over methanol conversion alone. The feasibility of utilizing DME as a building block for more valuable specialty chemicals has been examined. A wide variety of petrochemicals may be produced from DME including light olefins, gasoline range hydrocarbons, oxygenates, and glycol precursors. These chemicals represent an important part of petroleum industries inventory of fine chemicals. Carbonylation, hydrocarbonylation, and oxidative dimerization are but a few of the reactions in which DME may undergo conversion. DME provides an additional route for the production of industrially important petrochemicals.

  19. High pressure injection of dimethyl ether

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glensvig, M.; Sorenson, S.C.; Abata, D.

    1996-12-31

    Partially oxygenated hydrocarbons produced from natural gas have been shown to be viable alternate fuels for the diesel engine, showing favorable combustion characteristics similar to that of diesel fuel but without exhaust particulates and with significantly reduced NO{sub x} emissions and lower engine noise. Further, engine studies have demonstrated that such compounds, like dimethyl ether (DME), can be injected at much lower pressures than conventional diesel fuel with better overall performance. This experimental study compares the injection of DME to that of conventional diesel fuel. Both fuels were injected into a quiescent high pressure chamber containing Nitrogen at pressures up to 25 atmospheres at room temperature with a pintle nozzle and jerk pump. Comparisons were obtained with high speed photography using a Hycam camera. Results indicate that there are significant differences in spray geometry and penetration which are not predictable with analytical models currently used for diesel fuels.

  20. ORIGINAL PAPER Natural Fiber Reinforced Poly(vinyl chloride) Composites: Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ORIGINAL PAPER Natural Fiber Reinforced Poly(vinyl chloride) Composites: Effect of Fiber Type of Renewable Natural Resources, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA e Science+Business Media, LLC 2008 Abstract Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) and natural fiber composites were

  1. Vinyl Kraft Windows and Doors | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al.,Turin,Village of Wellington, Ohio (UtilityVinyl Kraft Windows and

  2. State Restrictions on Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    By the end of 2005, 25 states had barred, or passed laws banning, any more than trace levels of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) in their gasoline supplies, and legislation to ban MTBE was pending in 4 others. Some state laws address only MTBE; others also address ethers such as ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE) and tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME). Annual Energy Outlook 2006 assumes that all state MTBE bans prohibit the use of all ethers for gasoline blending.

  3. Catalytic rearrangement of the chloroallyl ethers of p-cresol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andreev, N.A.; Bunina-Krivorukova, L.I.; Levashova, V.I.

    1986-07-20

    The rearrangement of a series of p-cresol ethers (..beta..- and ..gamma..-chloro-, ..beta gamma..- and ..beta gamma..,..gamma..-trichloroallyl), catalyzed by boron trifluoride etherate, was studied. Increase in the number of chlorine atoms in the allyl unit of the ether hinders the rearrangement, and its mechanism changes in the investigated series of ethers from intramolecular (3,3)-sigmatropic (with inversion of the allyl unit) to intermolecular, which corresponds to electrophilic substitution in the aromatic ring (without inversion). The presence of the chlorine atom at the ..beta.. position of the allyl unit promotes rearrangement by a concerted intramolecular mechanism, while a chlorine atom at the ..gamma.. position promotes rearrangement by an intermolecular stage mechanism. Two chlorine atoms at the ..gamma.. position give rise mainly to the intermolecular rearrangement path.

  4. Atmospheric and combustion chemistry of dimethyl ether

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nielsen, O.J.; Egsgaard, H.; Larsen, E.; Sehested, J.; Wallington, T.J.

    1997-12-31

    It has been demonstrated that dimethyl ether (DME) is an ideal diesel fuel alternative. DME, CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3}, combines good fuel properties with low exhaust emissions and low combustion noise. Large scale production of this fuel can take place using a single step catalytic process converting CH{sub 4} to DME. The fate of DME in the atmosphere has previously been studied. The atmospheric degradation is initiated by the reaction with hydroxyl radicals, which is also a common feature of combustion processes. Spectrokinetic investigations and product analysis were used to demonstrate that the intermediate oxy radical, CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 2}O, exhibits a novel reaction pathway of hydrogen atom ejection. The application of tandem mass spectrometry to chemi-ions based on supersonic molecular beam sampling has recently been demonstrated. The highly reactive ionic intermediates are sampled directly from the flame and identified by collision activation mass spectrometry and ion-molecule reactions. The mass spectrum reflects the distribution of the intermediates in the flame. The atmospheric degradation of DME as well as the unique fuel properties of a oxygen containing compound will be discussed.

  5. Copoly(arlene ether)s containing pendant sulfonic acid groups as proton exchange membrane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Yu Seung [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kim, Dae Sik [CANADA NRC; Robertson, Gilles [CANADA NRC; Guiver, Michael [CANADA NRC

    2008-01-01

    A copoly(arylene ether) (PAE) with high fluorine content and a copoly(arylene ether nitrile) (PAEN) with high nitrile content, each containing pendant phenyl sulfonic acids were synthesized. The P AE and PAEN were prepared from decafluorobiphenyl (DFBP) and difluorobenzonitrile (DFBN) respectively, by polycondensation with 2-phenylhydroquinone (PHQ) by conventional aromatic nucleophilic substitution reactions. The sulfonic acid groups were introduced by mild post-sulfonation exclusively on the para-position of the pendant phenyl ring in PHQ. The membrane properties of the resulting sulfonated copolymers sP AE and sP AEN were compared for fuel cell applications. The copolymers sPAE and sPAEN, each having a degree of sulfonation (DS) of 1.0 had high ion exchange capacities (IEC{sub v}(wet) (volume-based, wet state)) of 1.77 and 2.55 meq./cm{sup 3}, high proton conductivities of 135.4 and 140.1 mS/cm at 80 C, and acceptable volume-based water uptake of 44.5-51.9 vol% at 80 C, respectively, compared to Nafion. The data points of these copolymer membranes are located in the area of outstanding properties in the trade-off plot of alternative hydrocarbon polyelectrolyte membranes (PEM) for the relationship between proton conductivity versus water uptake (weight based or volume based). Furthermore, the relative selectivity derived from proton conductivity and methanol permeability is higher than that of Nafion.

  6. Palladium-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling of Aryl or Vinyl Iodides with Ethyl Diazoacetate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Jianbo

    Palladium-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling of Aryl or Vinyl Iodides with Ethyl Diazoacetate Cheng PengVersity, Beijing 100871, China Received April 30, 2007; E-mail: wangjb@pku.edu.cn Palladium catalyzed cross

  7. Plug repairs of marine glass fiber / vinyl ester laminates subjected to uniaxial tension

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michelis, Alexandros

    2009-01-01

    Glass fiber/vinyl ester composite laminates are currently being used and proposed for the hulls, bulkheads, and superstructures of large ships. This thesis examines the effectiveness of the repair of such laminates using ...

  8. Degradation of Vinyl Chloride and 1,2-Dichloroethane by Advanced Reduction Processes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Xu

    2013-07-27

    A new treatment technology, called Advanced Reduction Process (ARP), was developed by combining UV irradiation with reducing reagents to produce highly reactive species that degrade contaminants rapidly. Vinyl chloride (VC) and 1,2-dichloroethane (1...

  9. Control Study of Ethyl tert-Butyl Ether Reactive Distillation Muhammad A. Al-Arfaj

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Arfaj, Muhammad A.

    -butyl ether (ETBE) for gasoline blending as a replacement for methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) because and be blended with ETBE in the gasoline pool. Even for neat operation, if the conversion is low, the unconverted

  10. Copoly(arylene ether)s containing pendant sulfonic acid groups as proton exchange membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dae Sik, Kim [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yu Seung, Kim [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gilles, Robertson [CANADA-NRC; Guiver, Michael D [CANADA-NRC

    2009-01-01

    A copoly(arylene ether) (PAE) with high fluorine content and a copoly(arylene ether nitrile) (PAEN) with high nitrile content, each containing pendant phenyl sulfonic acids were synthesized. The PAE and P AEN were prepared from decafluorobiphenyl (DFBP) and difluorobenzonitrile (DFBN) respectively, by polycondensation with 2phenylhydroquinone (PHQ) by conventional aromatic nucleophilic substitution reactions. sulfonic acid groups were introduced by mild post-sulfonation exclusively on the para-position of the pendant phenyl ring in PHQ. The membrane properties of the resulting sulfonated copolymers sPAE and sPAEN were compared for fuel cell applications. The copolymers sPAE and sPAEN, each having a degree of sulfonation (OS) of 1.0 had high ion exchange capacities (IEC{sub v})(wet) (volume-based, wet state) of 1.77 and 2.55 meq./cm3, high proton conductivities of 135.4 and 140.1 mS/cm at 80 C, and acceptable volume-based water uptake of 44.5 -51.9 vol% at 80 C, respectively, compared to Nafion. The data points of these copolymer membranes are located in the upper left-hand corner in the trade-off plot of alternative hydrocarbon polyelectrolyte membranes (PEM) for the relationship between proton conductivity versus water uptake (weight based or volume based), i.e., high proton conductivity and low water uptake. Furthermore, the relative selectivity derived from proton conductivity and methanol permeability is higher than that of Nafion.

  11. Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate Potential Problems for Photovoltaic Packaging: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kempe, M. D.; Jorgensen, G. J.; Terwilliger, K. M.; McMahon, T. J.; Kennedy, C. E.; Borek, T. T.

    2006-05-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) devices are typically encapsulated using ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) to provide mechanical support, optical coupling, electrical isolation, and protection against environmental exposure. Under exposure to atmospheric water and/or ultraviolet radiation, EVA will decompose to produce acetic acid, lowering the pH and increasing the surface corrosion rates of embedded devices. Even though acetic acid is produced at a very slow rate, it may not take much to catalyze reactions that lead to rapid module deterioration. Another consideration is that the glass transition of EVA, as measured using dynamic mechanical analysis, begins at temperatures of about ?15 C. Temperatures lower than this can be reached for extended periods of time in some climates. Because of increased moduli below the glass transition temperature, a module may be more vulnerable to damage if a mechanical load is applied by snow or wind at low temperatures. Modules using EVA should not be rated for use at such low temperatures without additional low-temperature mechanical testing beyond the scope of UL 1703.

  12. Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate Potential Problems for Photovoltaic Packaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kempe, M. D.; Jorgensen, G. J.; Terwilliger, K. M.; McMahon, T. J.; Kennedy, C. E.; Borek, T. T.

    2006-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) devices are typically encapsulated using ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) to provide mechanical support, optical coupling, electrical isolation, and protection against environmental exposure. Under exposure to atmospheric water and/or ultraviolet radiation, EVA will decompose to produce acetic acid, lowering the pH and increasing the surface corrosion rates of embedded devices. Even though acetic acid is produced at a very slow rate, it may not take much to catalyze reactions that lead to rapid module deterioration. Another consideration is that the glass transition of EVA, as measured using dynamic mechanical analysis, begins at temperatures of about -15 degC. Temperatures lower than this can be reached for extended periods of time in some climates. Because of increased moduli below the glass transition temperature, a module may be more vulnerable to damage if a mechanical load is applied by snow or wind at low temperatures. Modules using EVA should not be rated for use at such low temperatures without additional low-temperature mechanical testing beyond the scope of UL1703.

  13. Li-air batteries having ether-based electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Amine, Khalil; Curtiss, Larry A; Lu, Jun; Lau, Kah Chun; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Sun, Yang-Kook

    2015-03-03

    A lithium-air battery includes a cathode including a porous active carbon material, a separator, an anode including lithium, and an electrolyte including a lithium salt and polyalkylene glycol ether, where the porous active carbon material is free of a metal-based catalyst.

  14. Direct Dimethyl Ether Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells for Portable Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mench, Matthew M.

    . Chance, and C. Y. Wang* Electrochemical Engine Center and Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA Dimethyl ether DME at atmospheric pressure. It is typically stored as a liquid at 0.6 MPa 75 psig in standard propane tanks. DME

  15. Room Temperature Copper(II)-Catalyzed Oxidative Cyclization of Enamides to 2,5-Disubstituted Oxazoles via Vinylic C–H Functionalization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheung, Chi Wai

    A copper(II)-catalyzed oxidative cyclization of enamides to oxazoles via vinylic C–H bond functionalization at room temperature is described. Various 2,5-disubstituted oxazoles bearing aryl, vinyl, alkyl, and heteroaryl ...

  16. Hot Pin Welding of Thin Poly(vinyl chloride) Sheet James D. Van de Ven, Arthur G. Erdman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van de Ven, James D.

    Hot Pin Welding of Thin Poly(vinyl chloride) Sheet James D. Van de Ven, Arthur G. Erdman Mechanical of welding two thin sheets of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) with a heated pin, thus allowing construction of a relationship between the weld temperature and weld strength. Constructing a relationship between weld strength

  17. The adsorption and reaction of vinyl acetate on Au/Pd(100) alloy surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Zhenjun [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Calaza, Florencia C [ORNL; Tysoe, Wilfred [University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee

    2012-01-01

    The surface chemistry of vinyl acetate monomer (VAM) is studied on Au/Pd(100) alloys as a function of alloy composition using temperature-programmed desorption and reflection adsorption infrared spectroscopy. VAM adsorbs weakly on isolated palladium sites on the alloy with a heat of adsorption of ~55 kJ/mol, with the plane of the VAM adsorbed close to parallel to the surface. The majority of the VAM adsorbed on isolated sites desorbs molecularly with only a small portion decomposing. At lower gold coverages (below ~0.5 ML of gold), where palladium palladium bridge sites are present, VAM binds to the surface in a distorted geometry via a rehybridized vinyl group. A larger proportion of this VAM decomposes and this reaction is initiated by C\\O bond scission in the VAM to form adsorbed acetate and vinyl species. The implication of this surface chemistry for VAM synthesis on Au/Pd(100) alloys is discussed.

  18. sup 3 P Hg, Cd, and Zn photosensitized chemistry of vinyl halides in krypton matrix

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cartland, H.E.; Pimentel, G.C. )

    1990-01-25

    The reaction of group IIB metals in the {sup 3}P state with vinyl fluoride, chloride, and bromide is studied in krypton matrix. The primary process in all cases is hydrogen halide elimination to form a hydrogen halide/acetylene hydrogen-bonded complex. Insertion of metal atoms into C-Cl and C-Br bonds, but not into C-H and C-F bonds, is also observed. The insertion photochemistry can be explained by a mechanism which requires that the process occur on a triplet surface with the vinyl halide in the planar ground-state conformation.

  19. Dark matter, Mach's ether and the QCD vacuum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen-Tannoudji, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Here is proposed the idea of linking the dark matter issue, (considered as a major problem of contemporary research in physics) with two other open theoretical questions, one, almost centenary about the existence of an unavoidable ether in general relativity agreeing with the Mach's principle, and one more recent about the properties of the quantum vacuum of the quantum field theory of strong interactions, QuantumChromodynamics (QCD). According to this idea, on the one hand, dark matter and dark energy that, according to the current standard model of cosmology represent about 95% of the universe content, can be considered as two distinct forms of the Mach's ether, and, on the other hand, dark matter, as a perfect fluid emerging from the QCD vacuum could be modeled as a Bose Einstein condensate.

  20. CATALYSTS FOR HIGH CETANE ETHERS AS DIESEL FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamil Klier; Richard G. Herman; James G.C. Shen; Qisheng Ma

    2000-08-31

    A novel 1,2-ethanediol, bis(hydrogen sulfate), disodium salt precursor-based solid acid catalyst with a zirconia substrate was synthesized and demonstrated to have significantly enhanced activity and high selectivity in producing methyl isobutyl ether (MIBE) or isobutene from methanol-isobutanol mixtures. The precursor salt was synthesized and provided by Dr. T. H. Kalantar of the M.E. Pruitt Research Center, Dow Chemical Co., Midland, MI 48674. Molecular modeling of the catalyst synthesis steps and of the alcohol coupling reaction is being carried out. A representation of the methyl transfer from the surface activated methanol molecule (left) to the activated oxygen of the isobutanol molecule (right) to form an ether linkage to yield MIBE is shown.

  1. Methyl tert-butyl ether and ethyl tert-butyl ether: A comparison of properties, synthesis techniques, and operating conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sneesby, M.G.; Tade, M.O.; Datta, R.

    1996-12-31

    MTBE is currently the most industrially significant oxygenate but some of the properties of ETBE and the EPA ethanol mandate suggest that ETBE could become a viable competitor. Similar synthesis techniques are used for both ethers but the phase behaviour of the ETBE system requires slightly different operating conditions and creates some alternatives for product recovery. The process control strategy for both systems must address some unusual challenges. 9 refs., 1 tab.

  2. Thermodynamics of Hydrogen Production from Dimethyl Ether Steam Reforming and Hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.A. Semelsberger

    2004-10-01

    The thermodynamic analyses of producing a hydrogen-rich fuel-cell feed from the process of dimethyl ether (DME) steam reforming were investigated as a function of steam-to-carbon ratio (0-4), temperature (100 C-600 C), pressure (1-5 atm), and product species: acetylene, ethanol, methanol, ethylene, methyl-ethyl ether, formaldehyde, formic acid, acetone, n-propanol, ethane and isopropyl alcohol. Results of the thermodynamic processing of dimethyl ether with steam indicate the complete conversion of dimethyl ether to hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide for temperatures greater than 200 C and steam-to-carbon ratios greater than 1.25 at atmospheric pressure (P = 1 atm). Increasing the operating pressure was observed to shift the equilibrium toward the reactants; increasing the pressure from 1 atm to 5 atm decreased the conversion of dimethyl ether from 99.5% to 76.2%. The order of thermodynamically stable products in decreasing mole fraction was methane, ethane, isopropyl alcohol, acetone, n-propanol, ethylene, ethanol, methyl-ethyl ether and methanol--formaldehyde, formic acid, and acetylene were not observed. The optimal processing conditions for dimethyl ether steam reforming occurred at a steam-to-carbon ratio of 1.5, a pressure of 1 atm, and a temperature of 200 C. Modeling the thermodynamics of dimethyl ether hydrolysis (with methanol as the only product considered), the equilibrium conversion of dimethyl ether is limited. The equilibrium conversion was observed to increase with temperature and steam-to-carbon ratio, resulting in a maximum dimethyl ether conversion of approximately 68% at a steam-to-carbon ratio of 4.5 and a processing temperature of 600 C. Thermodynamically, dimethyl ether processed with steam can produce hydrogen-rich fuel-cell feeds--with hydrogen concentrations exceeding 70%. This substantiates dimethyl ether as a viable source of hydrogen for PEM fuel cells.

  3. Simultaneous measurement of laser reflection and transmission of poly,,vinyl chloride...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van de Ven, James D.

    Simultaneous measurement of laser reflection and transmission of poly,,vinyl chloride... James D. Van de Ven Arthur G. Erdman University of Minnesota Mechanical Engineering Department 111 Church. Previous work measuring optical properties for this purpose placed little importance on the light

  4. Near-Infrared Laser Absorption of Poly(vinyl chloride) at Elevated Temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van de Ven, James D.

    Near-Infrared Laser Absorption of Poly(vinyl chloride) at Elevated Temperatures James D. Van de Ven, Arthur G. Erdman Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55305 yields that little work has been done analyzing the relationship between light absorption and temperature

  5. Thermochimica Acta 403 (2003) 3741 Glass transition of thin films of poly(2-vinyl pyridine) and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, Leslie H.

    2003-01-01

    Thermochimica Acta 403 (2003) 37­41 Glass transition of thin films of poly(2-vinyl pyridine.1016/S0040-6031(03)00122-9 #12;38 M.Yu. Efremov et al. / Thermochimica Acta 403 (2003) 37­41 polymers

  6. Versatile assembly of p-carboxylatocalix[4]arene-O-alkyl ethers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kennedy, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    Chem. , 2007, 72, 1675; j) S. Kennedy, S. J. Dalgarno, Chem.0-alkyl ethers Stuart Kennedy," Simon J. Teat* and Scott J.

  7. Bisphenol A Diglycidyl Ether Induces Adipogenic Differentiation of Multipotent Stromal Stem Cells through a Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma-Independent Mechanism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    Hla T, Warner TD. 2000. Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE)C, et al. 2008. Migration of BADGE (bisphenol A diglycidyl-ether) and BFDGE (bisphenol F diglycidyl-ether) in canned

  8. Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether induces adipogenic differentiation of multipotent stromal stem cells through a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-independent mechanism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    Hla T, Warner TD. 2000. Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE)C, et al. 2008. Migration of BADGE (bisphenol A diglycidyl-ether) and BFDGE (bisphenol F diglycidyl-ether) in canned

  9. A Model of Electrons, Photons and the Ether

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert L. McCarthy

    2008-07-24

    This is an attempt to construct a classical microscopic model of the electron which underlies quantum mechanics. An electron is modeled, not as a point particle, but as the end of an electromagnetic string, a line of flux. These lines stretch across cosmic distances, but are almost unobservable because they condense into pairs--which form the ether. Photons are modeled to propagate on these line pairs, which act effectively as wave guides. These line pairs are also responsible for the force of gravity--which is electromagnetic in character.

  10. DIMETHYL ETHER (DME)-FUELED SHUTTLE BUS DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elana M. Chapman; Shirish Bhide; Andre L. Boehman; David Klinikowski

    2003-04-01

    The objectives of this research and demonstration program are to convert a campus shuttle bus to operation on dimethyl ether, a potential ultra-clean alternative diesel fuel. To accomplish this objective, this project includes laboratory evaluation of a fuel conversion strategy, as well as field demonstration of the DME-fueled shuttle bus. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In this project, they have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. The strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. Within the Combustion Laboratory of the Penn State Energy Institute, they have installed and equipped a Navistar V-8 direct-injection turbodiesel engine for measurement of gaseous and particulate emissions and examination of the impact of fuel composition on diesel combustion. They have also reconfigured a high-pressure viscometer for studies of the viscosity, bulk modulus (compressibility) and miscibility of blends of diesel fuel, dimethyl ether and lubricity additives. The results include baseline emissions, performance and combustion measurements on the Navistar engine for operation on a federal low sulfur diesel fuel (300 ppm S). Most recently, they have examined blends of an oxygenated fuel additive (a liquid fuel called CETANER{trademark}) produced by Air Products, for comparison with dimethyl ether blended at the same weight of oxygen addition, 2 wt.%. While they have not operated the engine on DME yet, they are now preparing to do so. A fuel system for delivery of DME/Diesel blends has been configured and initial investigations at low DME blend ratios (around 5-10 vol%) will begin shortly. They have also performed viscosity measurements on diesel fuel, DME and 50-50 blends of DME in diesel. These tests have verified that DME has a much lower viscosity than the diesel fuel and that the viscosity of the blended fuel is also much lower than the diesel base fuel. This has implications for the injection and atomization of the DME/diesel blends.

  11. Palladium-Catalyzed Enantioselective ?-Arylation and ?-Vinylation of Oxindoles Facilitated by an Axially Chiral P-Stereogenic Ligand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Alexander M.

    The enantioselective ?-arylation and ?-vinylation of oxindoles catalyzed by Pd and a biarylmonophosphine ligand with both axial and phosphorus-based chirogenicity is reported. The resultant quaternary carbon stereocenters ...

  12. Effects of Concentration of Organically Modified Nanoclay on Properties of Sulfonated Poly(vinyl alcohol) Nanocomposite Membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanglimsuwan, Apiradee

    Electrolyte nanocomposite membranes for proton exchange membrane fuel cells and direct methanol fuel cells were prepared by carrying out a sulfonation of poly(vinyl alcohol) with sulfosuccinic acid and adding a type of ...

  13. Interactions between Ether Phospholipids and Cholesterol as Determined by Scattering and Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Jianjun [ORNL; Cheng, Xiaolin [ORNL; Heberle, Frederick A [ORNL; Mostofian, Barmak [ORNL; Kucerka, Norbert [Canadian Neutron Beam Centre and Comelius University (Slovakia); Drazba, Paul [ORNL; Katsaras, John [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Cholesterol and ether lipids are ubiquitous in mammalian cell membranes, and their interactions are crucial in ether lipid mediated cholesterol trafficking. We report on cholesterol s molecular interactions with ether lipids as determined using a combination of small-angle neutron and Xray scattering, and all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. A scattering density profile model for an ether lipid bilayer was developed using MD simulations, which was then used to simultaneously fit the different experimental scattering data. From analysis of the data the various bilayer structural parameters were obtained. Surface area constrained MD simulations were also performed to reproduce the experimental data. This iterative analysis approach resulted in good agreement between the experimental and simulated form factors. The molecular interactions taking place between cholesterol and ether lipids were then determined from the validated MD simulations. We found that in ether membranes cholesterol primarily hydrogen bonds with the lipid headgroup phosphate oxygen, while in their ester membrane counterparts cholesterol hydrogen bonds with the backbone ester carbonyls. This different mode of interaction between ether lipids and cholesterol induces cholesterol to reside closer to the bilayer surface, dehydrating the headgroup s phosphate moiety. Moreover, the three-dimensional lipid chain spatial density distribution around cholesterol indicates anisotropic chain packing, causing cholesterol to tilt. These insights lend a better understanding of ether lipid-mediated cholesterol trafficking and the roles that the different lipid species have in determining the structural and dynamical properties of membrane associated biomolecules.

  14. Ether sulfones with additives for electrolytes in rechargeable lithium ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Angell, C. Austen

    Ether sulfones with additives for electrolytes in rechargeable lithium ion batteries Xiao-Guang Sun in rechargeable lithium ion battery [1-5]. In a previous publication [6] we described a series of ether sulfones electrolytes, can yield lithium button cells ?batteries with very favorable characteristics. (Refs to VC

  15. Laser Light-Scattering Study of Novel Thermoplastics. 1. Phenolphthalein Poly(aryl ether ketone)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Chi

    Laser Light-Scattering Study of Novel Thermoplastics. 1. Phenolphthalein Poly(aryl ether ketone(ether ketone) (PEK), are widely used as engineering thermoplastics or matrix resins in advanced composite, the processing and application of these thermoplastics have been greatly hindered by their low solubility

  16. Decomposition of Ethanol and Dimethyl Ether During Chemical Vapour deposition Synthesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    1 Decomposition of Ethanol and Dimethyl Ether During Chemical Vapour deposition Synthesis of Single-phase thermal decomposition of ethanol and dimethyl ether (DME) at typical SWNT growth conditions using to the predicted decomposition mechanism. Signature peak intensities indicated concentrations of both ethanol

  17. Rational Design of Cesium-Selective Ionophores and Chemosensors: Dihydrocalix[4]arene Crown-6 Ethers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sachleben, Richard A.; Bryan, Jeffrey C.; Brown, Gilbert M.; Engle, Nancy L.; Haverlock, Tamara J.; Hay, Benjamin P.; Urvoas, Agathe; Moyer, Bruce A.

    2003-12-15

    Molecular mechanics calculations performed on calix[4]arene crown-6 ethers predict that the 1,3-dihydro derivatives will exhibit greater complementarity for potassium and cesium ions than the parent 1,3-dialkoxy calix crowns. The X-ray crystal structures of 1,3-alt bis-octyloxycalix[4]arene benzocrown-6 ether, dihydrocalix[4]arene benzocrown-6 ether, and the cesium nitrate complex of dihydrocalix[4]arene benzocrown-6 ether were determined. The cesium complex structure corresponds closely to the structure predicted by molecular mechanics. The dihydrocalix[4]arene crown-6 ethers exhibit enhanced cesium selectivity in the extraction of alkali metal salts and provide a platform for a highly sensitive and selective cesium chemosensor.

  18. Dimethyl ether synthesis from syngas in slurry phase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Y.Z.; Fujimoto, K.; Shikata, T.

    1997-12-31

    Dimethyl ether (DME) is one of the important chemicals derived from synthesis gas. It can be widely used in syngas conversion, production of olefins, or MTG gasoline. Recently, is has been noticed as a substitute of LPG used as home fuel. In the present study, dimethyl ether was effectively synthesized from CO rich syngas (H{sub 2}/CO=1/1) over hybrid catalyst containing a Cu-Zn-Al(O) based methanol synthesis catalyst and {gamma}-alumina in an agitated slurry reactor under relatively mild reaction conditions: temperature 230--300 C, pressure 2.0--5.0 MPa, contact time 2.0--10 gram-cat.-h/mol. The catalysts used as the methanol active components were commercially available Cu-Zn-Al(O) based catalysts, BASF S385 and ICI 51-2. Two kinds of {gamma}-alumina ALO4 (standard catalyst of the Catalysis Society of Japan) and N612N (NIKKI Co., Japan) were used as the methanol dehydration components. The slurry was prepared by mixing the fine powder (<100 mesh) of catalyst components with purified n-hexadecane. The catalysts were reduced by a mixing gas containing 20% syngas and 80% nitrogen with a three-hour programmed temperature raising from room temperature to the final temperature. All products were analyzed by gas chromatographs. Results are given and discussed.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of vinyl-bridged polysilsesquioxane sol-gel materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamanaka, S.A.; Carpenter, J.P.; McClain, M.D.; Loy, D.A.

    1995-08-01

    Vinyl-bridged polysilsesquioxane gels were formed through the use of sol-gel polymerization methods. Acid- and base-catalyzed samples were prepared from both the pure cis-(l) and pure trans-(2) isomers of 1, 2-bis(triethoxysilyl)ethylene. Gelation times of the two isomers were compared. The trans monomer 2 formed gels within a week while the cis monomer I failed to gel-even after several months. Gelation of 1 could be promoted by the addition of a coordinating metal such as palladium. The resulting cis- and trans- vinyl-bridged polysilsesquioxane gels were then processed either by vacuum drying to afford xerogels or by extracting with supercritical carbon dioxide to afford aerogels. These vinylbridged polysilsesquioxanes were characterized by SEM, nitrogen sorption porosimetry, solid State {sub 29}Si and {sub 13}C NMR and x-ray powder diffraction.

  20. Role of acid catalysis in dimethyl ether conversion processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tartamella, T.L.; Lee, S.

    1996-12-31

    Acidity plays an important role in the conversion of methanol and dimethyl ether (DME) to hydrocarbons and oxygenates. In the conversion to hydrocarbons over zeolite catalyst, Broensted acidity is the main contributor to the first hydrocarbon formed. Here, acidity is also an important factor in determining olefin, paraffin, and aromatic content in the final product distribution. Catalyst life has also been found to be related to acidity content in zeolites. DME conversion to oxygenates is especially dependent on high acidity catalysts. Superacids like BF{sub 3}, HF-BF{sub 3}, and CF{sub 3}COOH have been used in the past for conversion of DME in carbonylation reactions to form methyl acetate and acetic acid at high pressures. Recently, heteropoly acids and their corresponding metal substituted salts have been used to convert DME to industrially important petrochemicals resulting in shorter reaction times and without the use of harsh operating conditions.

  1. Dimethyl ether fuel proposed as an alternative to LNG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kikkawa, Yoshitsugi; Aoki, Ichizo

    1998-04-06

    To cope with the emerging energy demand in Asia, alternative fuels to LNG must be considered. Alternative measures, which convert the natural gas to liquid fuel, include the Fischer-Tropsch conversion, methanol synthesis, and dimethyl ether (DME) synthesis. Comparisons are evaluated based on both transportation cost and feed-gas cost. The analysis will show that DME, one alternative to LNG as transportation fuel, will be more economical for longer distances between the natural-gas source and the consumer. LNG requires a costly tanker and receiving terminal. The break-even distance will be around 5,000--7,000 km and vary depending on the transported volume. There will be risk, however, since there has never been a DME plant the size of an LNG-equivalent plant [6 million metric tons/year (mty)].

  2. DIMETHYL ETHER (DME)-FUELED SHUTTLE BUS DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elana M. Chapman; Shirish Bhide; Jennifer Stefanik; Andre L. Boehman; David Klinikowski

    2003-04-01

    The objectives of this research and demonstration program are to convert a campus shuttle bus to operation on dimethyl ether, a potential ultra-clean alternative diesel fuel. To accomplish this objective, this project includes laboratory evaluation of a fuel conversion strategy, as well as, field demonstration of the DME-fueled shuttle bus. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In this project, they have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. The strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. The laboratory studies have included work with a Navistar V-8 turbodiesel engine, demonstration of engine operation on DME-diesel blends and instrumentation for evaluating fuel properties. The field studies have involved performance, efficiency and emissions measurements with the Champion Motorcoach ''Defender'' shuttle bus which will be converted to DME-fueling. The results include baseline emissions, performance and combustion measurements on the Navistar engine for operation on a federal low sulfur diesel fuel (300 ppm S). Most recently, they have completed engine combustion studies on DME-diesel blends up to 30 wt% DME addition.

  3. Toxicity of polychlorinated diphenyl ethers in Hydra attenuata and in rat whole embryo culture 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Becker, Marion Carol

    1991-01-01

    TOXICITY OF CHLORINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS IN HYDRA . . 34 Materials and Methods Results Discussion 36 37 43 IV EXPERIMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF CHLORINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS IN THE RAT, 46 Materials and Methods Results Discussion... and little is known about their potential for causing developmental defects. Because the PCDEs are closely related to the chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and the PCBs, it is of interest to review studies conducted to determine the developmental toxicity...

  4. Metal ion complexation by ionizable crown ethers. Final report, January 1, 1988--June 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartsch, R.A.

    1994-12-31

    During the report period a variety of new lipophilic ionizable crown ethers with pendent proton-ionizable groups has been synthesized. The ligands possess one or more ionizable group (carboxylic acid, phosphonic acid monoethyl ester, para-nitrophenol, phosphonic acid) attached to crown ether, monoazacrown ether or diazacrown ether frameworks. These novel chelating agents have either pendent or inward-facing proton-ionizable groups. Such lipophilic proton-ionizable crown ethers are designed for use in multiphase metal ion separations (solvent extraction, liquid membrane transport). In addition a series of proton-ionizable crown ethers without lipophilic groups was prepared to study how structural variations within the ligand influence metal ion complexation in homogeneous media as assessed by NMR spectroscopy or titration calorimetry. A third class of new metal ion-complexing agents is a series of lipophilic acyclic polyether dicarboxylic acids. Competitive solvent extractions of alkali metal and alkaline earth cations and of the mixed species have been conducted to reveal the influence of ring size, nature and attachment site of the lipophilic group, sidearm length, and proton-ionizable group identity and location upon the selectivity and efficiency of metal ion complexation. In addition to such studies of structural variation within the lipophilic proton-ionizable crown ether, the effect of changing the organic solvent and variation of the stripping conditions have been assessed. The influence of structural variations within lipophilic acyclic polyether dicarboxylic acids upon competitive solvent extraction of alkaline earth cations has been probed. Also a new chromogenic, di-ionizable crown ether with extremely high selectivity for Hg{sup 2+} has been discovered.

  5. Genome Sequence of the Ethene- and Vinyl Chloride-Oxidizing Actinomycete Nocardioides sp Strain JS614

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coleman, Nicholas V [University of Sydney, Australia; Wilson, Neil L [University of Sydney, Australia; Barry, Kerrie [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Copeland, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Dalin, Eileen [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Hammon, Nancy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Han, Shunsheng [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Israni, Sanjay [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kim, Edwin [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Larimer, Frank W [ORNL; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Richardson, Paul [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Schmutz, Jeremy [Stanford University; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Thompson, Sue [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Tice, Hope [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Spain, Jim C [Georgia Institute of Technology; Gossett, James G [Cornell University; Mattes, Timothy E [University of Iowa

    2011-01-01

    Nocardioides sp. strain JS614 grows on ethene and vinyl chloride (VC) as sole carbon and energy sources and is of interest for bioremediation and biocatalysis. Sequencing of the complete genome of JS614 provides insight into the genetic basis of alkene oxidation, supports ongoing research into the physiology and biochemistry of growth on ethene and VC, and provides biomarkers to facilitate detection of VC/ethene oxidizers in the environment. This is the first genome sequence from the genus Nocardioides and the first genome of a VC/ethene-oxidizing bacterium.

  6. Anodic polymerization of vinyl ethylene carbonate in Li-Ion battery electrolyte

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Guoying; Zhuang, Guorong V.; Richardson, Thomas J.; Gao, Liu; Ross Jr., Philip N.

    2005-02-28

    A study of the anodic oxidation of vinyl ethylene carbonate (VEC) was conducted with post-mortem analysis of reaction products by ATR-FTIR and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The half-wave potential (E1/2) for oxidation of VEC is ca. 3.6 V producing a resistive film on the electrode surface. GPC analysis of the film on a gold electrode produced by anodization of a commercial Li-ion battery electrolyte containing 2 percent VEC at 4.1 V showed the presence of a high molecular weight polymer. IR analysis indicated polycarbonate with alkyl carbonate rings linked by aliphatic methylene and methyl branches.

  7. An Explanation of Dayton Miller's Anomalous "Ether Drift" Result

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas J. Roberts

    2006-10-15

    In 1933 Dayton Miller published in this journal the results of his voluminous observations using his ether drift interferometer, and proclaimed that he had determined the "absolute motion of the earth". This result is in direct conflict with the prediction of Special Relativity, and also with numerous related experiments that found no such signal or "absolute motion". This paper presents a complete explanation for his anomalous result by: a) showing that his results are not statistically significant, b) describing in detail how flaws in his analysis procedure produced a false signal with precisely the properties he expected, and c) presenting a quantitative model of his systematic drift that shows there is no real signal in his data. In short, this is every experimenter's nightmare: he was unknowingly looking at statistically insignificant patterns in his systematic drift that mimicked the appearance of a real signal. An upper limit on "absolute motion" of 6 km/sec is derived from his raw data, fully consistent with similar experimental results and the prediction of Special Relativity. The key point of this paper is the need for a comprehensive and quantitative error analysis. The concepts and techniques used in this analysis were not available in Miller's day, but are now standard. These problems also apply to the famous measurements of Michelson and Morley, and to most if not all similar experiments; appendices are provided discussing several such experiments.

  8. Wide range modeling study of dimethyl ether oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitz, W.J.; Marinov, N.M.; Westbrook, C.K.; Dagaut, P.; Boettner, J-C; Cathonnet, M.

    1997-04-01

    A detailed chemical kinetic model has been used to study dimethyl ether (DME) oxidation over a wide range of conditions. Experimental results obtained in a jet-stirred reactor (JSR) at I and 10 atm, 0.2 < 0 < 2.5, and 800 < T < 1300 K were modeled, in addition to those generated in a shock tube at 13 and 40 bar, 0 = 1.0 and 650 :5 T :5 1300 K. The JSR results are particularly valuable as they include concentration profiles of reactants, intermediates and products pertinent to the oxidation of DME. These data test the Idnetic model severely, as it must be able to predict the correct distribution and concentrations of intermediate and final products formed in the oxidation process. Additionally, the shock tube results are very useful, as they were taken at low temperatures and at high pressures, and thus undergo negative temperature dependence (NTC) behavior. This behavior is characteristic of the oxidation of saturated hydrocarbon fuels, (e.g. the primary reference fuels, n-heptane and iso- octane) under similar conditions. The numerical model consists of 78 chemical species and 336 chemical reactions. The thermodynamic properties of unknown species pertaining to DME oxidation were calculated using THERM.

  9. Extraction of short-lived zirconium and hafnium isotopes using crown ethers: A model system for the study of rutherfordium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2005-01-01

    Extraction of short-lived zirconium and hafnium isotopesReceived: ; Accepted: Zirconium / Hafnium / Crown ether /The extraction of zirconium and hafnium from hydrochloric

  10. DIMETHYL ETHER (DME)-FUELED SHUTTLE BUS DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elana M. Chapman; Shirish Bhide; Jennifer Stefanik; Howard Glunt; Andre L. Boehman; Allen Homan; David Klinikowski

    2003-04-01

    The objectives of this research and demonstration program are to convert a campus shuttle bus to operation on dimethyl ether, a potential ultra-clean alternative diesel fuel. To accomplish this objective, this project includes laboratory evaluation of a fuel conversion strategy, as well as, field demonstration of the DME-fueled shuttle bus. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In this project, they have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. Their strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. The bulk of the efforts over the past year were focused on the conversion of the campus shuttle bus. This process, started in August 2001, took until April 2002 to complete. The process culminated in an event to celebrate the launching of the shuttle bus on DME-diesel operation on April 19, 2002. The design of the system on the shuttle bus was patterned after the system developed in the engine laboratory, but also was subjected to a rigorous failure modes effects analysis (FMEA, referred to by Air Products as a ''HAZOP'' analysis) with help from Dr. James Hansel of Air Products. The result of this FMEA was the addition of layers of redundancy and over-pressure protection to the system on the shuttle bus. The system became operational in February 2002. Preliminary emissions tests and basic operation of the shuttle bus took place at the Pennsylvania Transportation Institute's test track facility near the University Park airport. After modification and optimization of the system on the bus, operation on the campus shuttle route began in early June 2002. However, the work and challenges continued as it has been difficult to maintain operability of the shuttle bus due to fuel and component difficulties. In late June 2002, the pump head itself developed operational problems (loss of smooth function) leading to excessive stress on the magnetic coupling and excessive current draw to operate. A new pump head was installed on the system to alleviate this problem and the shuttle bus operated successfully on DME blends from 10-25 vol% on the shuttle bus loop until September 30, 2002. During the period of operation on the campus loop, the bus was pulled from service, operated at the PTI test track and real-time emissions measurements were obtained using an on-board emissions analyzer from Clean Air Technologies International, Inc. Particulate emissions reductions of 60% and 80% were observed at DME blend ratios of 12 vol.% and 25 vol.%, respectively, as the bus was operated over the Orange County driving cycle. Increases in NOx, CO and HC emissions were observed, however. In summary, the conversion of the shuttle bus was successfully accomplished, particulate emissions reductions were observed, but there were operational challenges in the field. Nonetheless, they were able to demonstrate reliable operation of the shuttle bus on DME-diesel blends.

  11. Crystallization in the Thin and Ultrathin Films of Poly(ethylene-vinyl acetate) and Linear Low-Density Polyethylene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -Density Polyethylene Y. Wang, S. Ge, M. Rafailovich,*, J. Sokolov, Y. Zou, H. Ade, J. Lu1 ning,§ A. Lustiger, and G(ethylene-vinyl acetate) and linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) films spun-cast from the polymer/toluene solutions spherulite to sheaflike ag- gregates in polyethylene thin films at a critical thickness of 400 nm. Scho

  12. Accurate Computer Simulation of Phase Equilibrium for Complex Fluid Mixtures. Application to Binaries Involving Isobutene, Methanol, Methyl tert-Butyl Ether, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lisal, Martin

    to Binaries Involving Isobutene, Methanol, Methyl tert-Butyl Ether, and n-Butane Martin Li´sal,*,, William R + methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and the binaries formed by methanol with isobutene, MTBE, and n

  13. IDENTIFYING THE USAGE PATTERNS OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) AND OTHER OXYGENATES IN GASOLINE USING GASOLINE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    IDENTIFYING THE USAGE PATTERNS OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) AND OTHER OXYGENATES IN GASOLINE USING GASOLINE SURVEYS By Michael J. Moran, Rick M. Clawges, and John S. Zogorski U.S. Geological Survey 1608 Mt. View Rapid City, SD 57702 Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is commonly added to gasoline

  14. Reactive triblock polymers from tandem ring-opening polymerization for nanostructured vinyl thermosets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amendt, Mark A.; Pitet, Louis M.; Moench, Sarah; Hillmyer, Marc A.

    2013-03-07

    Multiply functional hydroxyl telechelic poly(cyclooctene-s-5-norbornene-2-methylene methacrylate) was synthesized by ring opening metathesis (co)polymerization of cis-cyclooctene and 5-norbornene-2-methylene methacrylate using the second generation Grubbs catalyst in combination with a symmetric chain transfer agent bearing hydroxyl functionality. The resulting hydroxyl-telechelic polymer was used as a macroinitiator for the ring opening transesterification polymerization of d,l-lactide to form reactive poly(lactide)-b-poly(cyclooctene-s-5-norbornene-2-methylene methacrylate)-b-poly(lactide) triblock polymers. Subsequently, the triblocks were crosslinked by free radical copolymerization with several vinyl monomers including styrene, divinylbenzene, methyl methacrylate, and ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate. Certain conditions led to optically transparent thermosets with mesoscale phase separation as evidenced by small angle X-ray scattering, differential scanning calorimetry and transmission electron microscopy. Disordered, bicontinuous structures with nanoscopic domains were generated in several cases, rendering the samples attractive for size-selective membrane applications.

  15. DIMETHYL ETHER (DME)-FUELED SHUTTLE BUS DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elana M. Chapman; Shirish Bhide; Jennifer Stefanik; Howard Glunt; Andre L. Boehman; Allen Homan; David Klinikowski

    2003-04-01

    The objectives of this research and demonstration program are to convert a campus shuttle bus to operation on dimethyl ether, a potential ultra-clean alternative diesel fuel. To accomplish this objective, this project includes laboratory evaluation of a fuel conversion strategy, as well as, field demonstration of the DME-fueled shuttle bus. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethylether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In this project, they have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. The strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. The bulk of the efforts over the past year were focused on the conversion of the campus shuttle bus. This process, started in August 2001, took until April 2002 to complete. The process culminated in an event to celebrate the launching of the shuttle bus on DME-diesel operation on April 19, 2002. The design of the system on the shuttle bus was patterned after the system developed in the engine laboratory, but also was subjected to a rigorous failure modes effects analysis with help from Dr. James Hansel of Air Products. The result of this FMEA was the addition of layers of redundancy and over-pressure protection to the system on the shuttle bus. The system became operation in February 2002. Preliminary emissions tests and basic operation of the shuttle bus took place at the Pennsylvania Transportation institute's test track facility near the University Park airport. After modification and optimization of the system on the bus, operation on the campus shuttle route began in early June 2002. However, the work and challenges have continued as it has been difficult to maintain operability of the shuttle bus due to fuel and component difficulties. As of late June 2002, it appears that the pump head itself developed operational problems (loss of smooth function) leading to excessive stress on the magnetic coupling and excessive current draw to operate. A new pump head is being installed on the system to alleviate this problem and get the shuttle bus back in operation. In summary, the conversion is completed but there have been operational challenges in the field. They continue to work to make the shuttle bus as reliable to operate on DME-diesel blends as possible.

  16. Photochemical dimerization and functionalization of alkanes, ethers, primary and secondary alcohols, phosphine oxides and silanes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crabtree, R.H.; Brown, S.H.

    1989-10-17

    The space-time yield and/or the selectivity of the photochemical dimerization of alkanes, ethers, primary and secondary alcohols, phosphine oxides and primary, secondary and tertiary silanes with Hg and U.V. light is enhanced by refluxing the substrate in the irradiated reaction zone at a temperature at which the dimer product condenses and remains condensed promptly upon its formation. Cross-dimerization of the alkanes, ethers and silanes with primary alcohols is disclosed, as is the functionalization to aldehydes of the alkanes with carbon monoxide.

  17. Catalyst system and process for benzyl ether fragmentation and coal liquefaction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zoeller, Joseph Robert (Kingsport, TN)

    1998-04-28

    Dibenzyl ether can be readily cleaved to form primarily benzaldehyde and toluene as products, along with minor amounts of bibenzyl and benzyl benzoate, in the presence of a catalyst system comprising a Group 6 metal, preferably molybdenum, a salt, and an organic halide. Although useful synthetically for the cleavage of benzyl ethers, this cleavage also represents a key model reaction for the liquefaction of coal; thus this catalyst system and process should be useful in coal liquefaction with the advantage of operating at significantly lower temperatures and pressures.

  18. Base-Mediated Cascade Rearrangements of Aryl-Substituted Diallyl Ethers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reid, Jolene P.; McAdam, Catherine A.; Johnston, Adam J. S.; Grayson, Matthew N.; Goodman, Jonathan M.; Cook, Matthew J.

    2014-12-16

    temperatures using ruthenium, rhodium, palladium and iridium catalysts which allow for a concomitant Claisen rearrangement.21 These approaches generally lead to epimerization of the ?-stereogenic center in the presence of the Lewis acidic metal catalysts... 60 14 To further strengthen our mechanistic understanding of these reactions a series of deuterium labeling experiments were conducted. Firstly, the vinyl silane was investigated and deuterated analog 23 was prepared and subjected to the reaction...

  19. Conducting polymer blends: Polypyrrole and polythiophene blends with polystyrene, polycarbonate resin, poly(vinyl alcohol) and poly(vinyl methyl ketone)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, H.L.

    1992-01-01

    Various aromatic compounds can be polymerized by electrochemical oxidation in solution containing a supporting electrolyte. Most studies have been devoted to polypyrrole and polythiophene. In situ doping during electrochemical polymerization yields free standing conductive polymer film. One major approach to making conducting polymer blends is electrochemical synthesis after coating the host polymer on a platinum electrode. In the electrolysis of pyrrole or thiophene monomer, using (t-Bu[sub 4]N)BF[sub 4] as supporting electrolyte, and acetonitrile as solvent, monomer can diffuse through the polymer film, to produce a polypyrrole or polythiophene blend in the film. Doping occurs along with polymerization to form a conducting polymer alloy. The strongest molecular interaction in polymers, and one that is central to phase behavior, is hydrogen bonding. This mixing at the molecular level enhances the degree of miscibility between two polymers and results in macroscopic properties indicative of single phase behavior. In this dissertation, the authors describes the syntheses of conducting polymer blends: polypyrrole and polythiophene blends with polystyrene, poly(bisphenol-A-carbonate), polyvinyl alcohol and poly(vinyl methyl ketone). The syntheses are performed both electrochemically and chemically. Characterization of these blends was carried out by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, Differential Scanning Calorimetry, Thermogravimetric Analysis, Scanning Electron Microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Percolating threshold conductivities occur from 7% to 20% for different polymer blends. The low threshold conductivity is attributed to blend homogeneity enhanced by hydrogen bonding between the carbonyl group in the insulating polymer and the N-H group in polypyrrole. Thermal stability, environmental stability, mechanical properties, crystallinity and morphological structure are also discussed. The authors have also engaged in the polymerization of imidazoles.

  20. Ether Phospholipids and Glycosylinositolphospholipids Are Not Required for Amastigote Virulence or for Inhibition of Macrophage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beverley, Stephen M.

    im- plicated in virulence, such as lipophosphoglycan (LPG), smaller glycosylinositolphospholipids plasmalogens, LPG, and GIPLs. Leishmania ads1 thus represents the first ether lipid-synthesizing eukaryote (detergent- resistant membranes). In virulence tests it closely re- sembled LPG-deficient L. major, including

  1. Structural Requirements and Reaction Pathways in Dimethyl Ether Combustion Catalyzed by Supported Pt Clusters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    of the elementary steps required for catalytic combustion of dimethyl ether (DME) on Pt clusters were determined in developing economies. Recent studies have addressed steam reforming of DME on supported metal catalysts4-7 and its homogeneous combustion pathways via radical intermedi- ates.8,9 Here, we explore the catalytic

  2. Kinetics and Mechanism of Dimethyl Ether Oxidation to Formaldehyde on Supported Molybdenum Oxide Domains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    Kinetics and Mechanism of Dimethyl Ether Oxidation to Formaldehyde on Supported Molybdenum Oxide to formaldehyde (HCHO) on MoOx/Al2O3. The reaction intermediates and elementary steps established a redox to alkenes and oxygenates too costly for practical implementation. Oxygenates, such as formaldehyde (HCHO

  3. Lithium Hexamethyldisilazide-Mediated Ketone Enolization: The Influence of Hindered Dialkyl Ethers and Isostructural

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collum, David B.

    Lithium Hexamethyldisilazide-Mediated Ketone Enolization: The Influence of Hindered Dialkyl Ethers of the enolization of 2-methylcyclohexanone mediated by lithium hexameth- yldisilazide (LiHMDS; TMS2NLi) solvated- bine to make lithium hexamethyldisilazide (LiHMDS) one of the most important Bro¨nsted bases in organic

  4. Characterization of poly(vinyl chloride) aged in a bromine containing electrolyte

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arnold, C. Jr.; Leo, A.; Tarjani, M.

    1988-01-01

    Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) is being considered for use as a flow frame material in a developmental zinc/bromine battery. The choice of PVC was based on its low cost and the ease with which it can be molded into complex parts. The electrolyte used in this battery is a highly corrosive mixture of bromine, zinc bromide, zinc chloride, potassium bromide, potassium chloride and a quaternary amine salt. The quaternary salt serves to reduce the concentration of free bromine in the electrolyte by virtue of its complexing capability. It is well known that aqueous bromine is capable of oxidizing organic compounds. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of a bromine electrolyte on two PVC formulations, PVC-1 and PVC-4. PVC-1 is the designation given to one of B.F. Goodrich's commercial formulations and is the present baseline material for the flow frame. PVC-4 is an experimental B.F. Goodrich formulation that was developed especially for battery applications. We sought answers to such questions as (1) does oxidation and/or bromination take place. (2) does bromine penetrate into the sample and, if so, how far. (3) how are the mechanical and morphological properties affected. and (4) are there differences in stability between PVC-1 and PVC-4. To accelerate the aging processes we aged the PVC samples at an elevated temperature in an electrolyte which did not contain any complexing agent. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  5. Potential Problems with Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate for Photovoltaic Packaging (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kempe, M. D.; Jorgensen, G. J.; Terwilliger, K, M.; McMahon, T. J.; Kennedy, C. E.; Borek, T. T.

    2006-05-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) devices are typically encapsulated using ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) to provide mechanical support electrical isolation, optical coupling, and protection against environmental exposure. Under exposure to atmospheric water and/or ultraviolet radiation, EVA will decompose to produce acetic acid, lowering the pH and increasing the surface corrosion rates of embedded devices. Even though acetic acid is produced at a very slow rate it may not take much to catalyze reactions that lead to rapid module deterioration. Another consideration is that the glass transition of EVA, as measured using dynamic mechanical analysis, begins at temperatures of about -15 C. Temperatures lower than this can be reached for extended periods of time in some climates. Due to increased moduli below the glass transition temperature, a module may be more vulnerable to damage if a mechanical load is applied by snow or wind at low temperatures. Modules using EVA should not be rated for use at such low temperatures without additional low-temperature mechanical testing beyond the scope of UL 1703.

  6. Transsinusoidal Portal Vein Embolization with Ethylene Vinyl Alcohol Copolymer (Onyx): A Feasibility Study in Pigs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smits, Maarten L. J.; Vanlangenhove, Peter Sturm, Emiel J. C.; Bosch, Maurice A. A. J. van den; Hav, Monirath Praet, Marleen; Vente, Maarten A. D.; Snaps, Frederic R.; Defreyne, Luc

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: Portal vein embolization is performed to increase the future liver remnant before liver surgery in patients with liver malignancies. This study assesses the feasibility of a transsinusoidal approach for portal vein embolization (PVE) with the ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer, Onyx. Methods: Indirect portography through contrast injection in the cranial mesenteric artery was performed in eight healthy pigs. Onyx was slowly injected through a microcatheter from a wedged position in the hepatic vein and advanced through the liver lobules into the portal system. The progression of Onyx was followed under fluoroscopy, and the extent of embolization was monitored by indirect portography. The pigs were euthanized immediately (n = 2), at 7 days (n = 4), or at 21 days postprocedure (n = 2). All pigs underwent necropsy and the ex vivo livers were grossly and histopathologically analyzed. Results: Transsinusoidal PVE was successfully performed in five of eight pigs (63%). In 14 of 21 injections (67%), a segmental portal vein could be filled completely. A mean of 1.6 liver lobes per pig was embolized (range 1-2 lobes). There were no periprocedural adverse events. Focal capsular scarring was visible on the surface of two resected livers, yet the capsules remained intact. Histopathological examination showed no signs of recanalization or abscess formation. Mild inflammatory reaction to Onyx was observed in the perivascular parenchyma. Conclusions: The porcine portal vein can be embolized through injection of Onyx from a wedged position in the hepatic vein. Possible complications of transsinusoidal PVE and the effect on contralateral hypertrophy need further study.

  7. Localized Plasticity in the Streamlined Genomes of Vinyl Chloride Respiring Dehalococcoides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMurdie, Paul J.; Behrens, Sebastien F.; Muller, Jochen A.; Goke, Jonathan; Ritalahti, Kirsti M.; Wagner, Ryan; Goltsman, Eugene; Lapidus, Alla; Holmes, Susan; Loffler, Frank E.; Spormann, Alfred M.

    2009-06-30

    Vinyl chloride (VC) is a human carcinogen and widespread priority pollutant. Here we report the first, to our knowledge, complete genome sequences of microorganisms able to respire VC, Dehalococcoides sp. strains VS and BAV1. Notably, the respective VC reductase encoding genes, vcrAB and bvcAB, were found embedded in distinct genomic islands (GEIs) with different predicted integration sites, suggesting that these genes were acquired horizontally and independently by distinct mechanisms. A comparative analysis that included two previously sequenced Dehalococcoides genomes revealed a contextually conserved core that is interrupted by two high plasticity regions (HPRs) near the Ori. These HPRs contain the majority of GEIs and strain-specific genes identified in the four Dehalococcoides genomes, an elevated number of repeated elements including insertion sequences (IS), as well as 91 of 96 rdhAB, genes that putatively encode terminal reductases in organohalide respiration. Only three core rdhA orthologous groups were identified, and only one of these groups is supported by synteny. The low number of core rdhAB, contrasted with the high rdhAB numbers per genome (up to 36 in strain VS), as well as their colocalization with GEIs and other signatures for horizontal transfer, suggests that niche adaptation via organohalide respiration is a fundamental ecological strategy in Dehalococccoides. This adaptation has been exacted through multiple mechanisms of recombination that are mainly confined within HPRs of an otherwise remarkably stable, syntenic, streamlined genome among the smallest of any free-living microorganism.

  8. PERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENT OF COMPRESSION MOLDED KENAF FIBER REINFORCED VINYL ESTER COMPOSITES THROUGH RESIN ADDITIVE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fifield, Leonard S.; Simmons, Kevin L.; Laddha, Sachin; Kafentzis, Tyler A.

    2010-05-17

    Plant-based bio-fiber has the potential to achieve weight and cost savings over glass fiber in automotive polymer composites if moisture stability and fiber-resin compatibility issues can be solved. This paper describes the compression molding of 50vol% 2 inch random nonwoven mat kenaf fiber vinyl ester composites with and without chemical resin additives intended to improve moisture stability and resin compatibility. The 2wt% addition of n-undecanoyl chloride or 10-undecenoyl chloride to the styrene-based resin prior to molding of the kenaf composites was observed to decrease the 24hr, 25oC moisture uptake of the molded panels by more than 50%. The tensile stiffness and flexural stiffness of the soaked panels containing these additives were seen to increase by more than 30% and 70%, respectively, relative to panels made with no additives. While ‘dry’ panel (50% relative humidity at 25oC) strengths did not significantly change in the presence of the additives, tensile strength was observed to increase by more than 40% and flexural strength more than doubled for the soaked panels.

  9. Mild and General Palladium-Catalyzed Synthesis of Methyl Aryl Ethers Enabled by the Use of a Palladacycle Precatalyst

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheung, Chi Wai

    A general method for the Pd-catalyzed coupling of methanol with (hetero)aryl halides is described. The reactions proceed under mild conditions with a wide range of aryl and heteroaryl halides to give methyl aryl ethers in ...

  10. Whole-Genome Analysis of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether-Degrading Beta-Proteobacterium Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    Sato, and N. Kato. 2003. Propane monooxygenase and NAD + -alcohol dehydrogenase in propane metabolism by Gordonia sp.tert-butyl ether by propane-grown Mycobacterium vaccae JOB5.

  11. Process to convert biomass and refuse derived fuel to ethers and/or alcohols

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Diebold, J.P.; Scahill, J.W.; Chum, H.L.; Evans, R.J.; Rejai, B.; Bain, R.L.; Overend, R.P.

    1996-04-02

    A process is described for conversion of a feedstock selected from the group consisting of biomass and refuse derived fuel (RDF) to provide reformulated gasoline components comprising a substantial amount of materials selected from the group consisting of ethers, alcohols, or mixtures thereof, comprising: drying said feedstock; subjecting said dried feedstock to fast pyrolysis using a vortex reactor or other means; catalytically cracking vapors resulting from said pyrolysis using a zeolite catalyst; condensing any aromatic byproduct fraction; catalytically alkylating any benzene present in said vapors after condensation; catalytically oligomerizing any remaining ethylene and propylene to higher olefins; isomerizing said olefins to reactive iso-olefins; and catalytically reacting said iso-olefins with an alcohol to form ethers or with water to form alcohols. 35 figs.

  12. Process to convert biomass and refuse derived fuel to ethers and/or alcohols

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Diebold, James P. (Lakewood, CO); Scahill, John W. (Evergreen, CO); Chum, Helena L. (Arvada, CO); Evans, Robert J. (Lakewood, CO); Rejai, Bahman (Lakewood, CO); Bain, Richard L. (Golden, CO); Overend, Ralph P. (Lakewood, CO)

    1996-01-01

    A process for conversion of a feedstock selected from the group consisting of biomass and refuse derived fuel (RDF) to provide reformulated gasoline components comprising a substantial amount of materials selected from the group consisting of ethers, alcohols, or mixtures thereof, comprising: drying said feedstock; subjecting said dried feedstock to fast pyrolysis using a vortex reactor or other means; catalytically cracking vapors resulting from said pyrolysis using a zeolite catalyst; condensing any aromatic byproduct fraction; catalytically alkylating any benzene present in said vapors after condensation; catalytically oligomerizing any remaining ethylene and propylene to higher olefins; isomerizing said olefins to reactive iso-olefins; and catalytically reacting said iso-olefins with an alcohol to form ethers or with water to form alcohols.

  13. The Total Fatty Acids and Other Ether-Soluable Constituents of Feedstuffs. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rather, J. B. (James Burness)

    1914-01-01

    . Percentage of Fatty Acids in Feedstuffs and Excrements by Various Methods. Labora? tory No. Ether extract. Fatty acids in ether extract. ?a.3 ? g S | . 2 5 a a'-"a _ Differ? ence (B-A) Diges? tion Method. Precipi? tation Method. O O... Q'S'o'cS ? "3 Is E-i . c *= =? a J=! ^ c3 12996 3.79 3.08 0.37 3.45 4.43 0 98 12999 4.31 3.77 0.16 3.93 4.34 0 41 13021 15.23 13.82 0.69 14.51 14.46 -0 05 13023 7.75 6 .2 1 0.39 6.60 8 . 1 0 1 50 13030 3.22 2.05 0.37 2.42 2.92 0 50 13045...

  14. solved in an organic solvent and diethyl ether was the most appropriate. The solvent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , the growth was hampe- red by a too large portion of wax. For detecting spores in beeswax, the wax was put into water (wax/water 1:10). The receptacle was placed into a water bath hea- ted up to 90 °C for 6 min, under the wax dissolved in diethyl ether. 80 ?L of this solution was smeared onto a plate with MYP

  15. 2[prime] and 3[prime] Carboranyl uridines and their diethyl ether adducts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Soloway, A.H.; Barth, R.F.; Anisuzzaman, A.K.; Alam, F.; Tjarks, W.

    1992-12-15

    A process is described for preparing carboranyl uridine nucleoside compounds and their diethyl ether adducts, which exhibit a tenfold increase in boron content over prior art boron containing nucleoside compounds. The carboranyl uridine nucleoside compounds exhibit enhanced lipophilicity and hydrophilic properties adequate to enable solvation in aqueous media for subsequent incorporation of the compounds in methods for boron neutron capture therapy in mammalian tumor cells. No Drawings

  16. Molecular modeling of the morphology and transport properties of two direct methanol fuel cell membranes: phenylated sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone ketone) versus Nafion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devanathan, Ramaswami; Idupulapati, Nagesh B.; Dupuis, Michel

    2012-08-14

    We have used molecular dynamics simulations to examine membrane morphology and the transport of water, methanol and hydronium in phenylated sulfonated poly ether ether ketone ketone (Ph-SPEEKK) and Nafion membranes at 360 K for a range of hydration levels. At comparable hydration levels, the pore diameter is smaller, the sulfonate groups are more closely packed, the hydronium ions are more strongly bound to sulfonate groups, and the diffusion of water and hydronium is slower in Ph-SPEEKK relative to the corresponding properties in Nafion. The aromatic carbon backbone of Ph-SPEEKK is less hydrophobic than the fluorocarbon backbone of Nafion. Water network percolation occurs at a hydration level ({lambda}) of {approx}8 H{sub 2}O/SO{sub 3}{sup -}. At {lambda} = 20, water, methanol and hydronium diffusion coefficients were 1.4 x 10{sup -5}, 0.6 x 10{sup -5} and 0.2 x 10{sup -5} cm{sup 2}/s, respectively. The pore network in Ph-SPEEKK evolves dynamically and develops wide pores for {lambda} > 20, which leads to a jump in methanol crossover and ion transport. This study demonstrates the potential of aromatic membranes as low-cost challengers to Nafion for direct methanol fuel cell applications and the need to develop innovative strategies to combat methanol crossover at high hydration levels.

  17. Barrierless proton transfer across weak CH?O hydrogen bonds in dimethyl ether dimer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoder, Bruce L. West, Adam H. C.; Signorell, Ruth; Bravaya, Ksenia B.; Bodi, Andras; Sztáray, Bálint

    2015-03-21

    We present a combined computational and threshold photoelectron photoion coincidence study of two isotopologues of dimethyl ether, (DME ? h{sub 6}){sub n} and (DME ? d{sub 6}){sub n}n = 1 and 2, in the 9–14 eV photon energy range. Multiple isomers of neutral dimethyl ether dimer were considered, all of which may be present, and exhibited varying C–H?O interactions. Results from electronic structure calculations predict that all of them undergo barrierless proton transfer upon photoionization to the ground electronic state of the cation. In fact, all neutral isomers were found to relax to the same radical cation structure. The lowest energy dissociative photoionization channel of the dimer leads to CH{sub 3}OHCH{sub 3}{sup +} by the loss of CH{sub 2}OCH{sub 3} with a 0 K appearance energy of 9.71 ± 0.03 eV and 9.73 ± 0.03 eV for (DME ? h{sub 6}){sub 2} and deuterated (DME ? d{sub 6}){sub 2}, respectively. The ground state threshold photoelectron spectrum band of the dimethyl ether dimer is broad and exhibits no vibrational structure. Dimerization results in a 350 meV decrease of the valence band appearance energy, a 140 meV decrease of the band maximum, thus an almost twofold increase in the ground state band width, compared with DME ? d{sub 6} monomer.

  18. Control technology of vinyl chloride in EDC-VCM and PVC plants at main source points and fugitive emissions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parra, Dario Antonio

    1983-01-01

    of the great quantities of dilute gas in EDC-VCN and PVC plants, the combustion system cannot be self-supported and therefore additional fuel is necessary, resulting in a waste of combustibles and heat. 3. Due to the flame, flares need to be located away...CONTROL TECHNOLOGY OF VINYL CHLORIDE IN EDC-VCM AND PVC PLANTS AT MAIN SOURCE POINTS AND FUGITIVE EMISSIONS A Thesis by DARIO ANTONIO PARRA Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A6M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements...

  19. Nonlinear optical properties of ZnO/poly (vinyl alcohol) nanocomposite films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeeju, P. P., E-mail: jeejupp@gmail.com [Department of Physics, S N M College, Maliankara, Ernakulam, Kerala (India); Jayalekshmi, S., E-mail: jayalekshmi@cusat.ac.in [Division for Research in Advanced Materials, Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi 682 022 (India); Chandrasekharan, K. [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Calicut, Kerala (India)

    2014-01-28

    Extensive studies have already been reported on the optical characteristics of ZnO/polymer nanocomposite films, using a variety of polymers including transparent polymers such as polystyrene, polymethyl methacrylate etc and many interesting results have been established regarding the non linear optical characteristics of these systems. Poly (vinyl alcohol)(PVA) is a water soluble polymer. Though the structural and optical studies of ZnO/PVA nanocomposite films have already been investigated, there are no detailed reports on the nonlinear optical characteristics of ZnO/PVA nanocomposite films, irrespective of the fact that these nanocomposite films can be synthesized using quite easy and cost effective methods. The present work is an attempt to study in detail the nonlinear optical behaviour of ZnO/PVA nanocomposite films using Z-scan technique. Highly transparent ZnO/PVA nanocomposite films were prepared from the ZnO incorporated PVA solution in water using spin coating technique. The ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by the simple chemical route at room temperature. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy studies show that the ZnO nanoparticles are of size around 10 nm. The ZnO/PVA nanocomposite films were structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction technique, from which the presence of both PVA and ZnO in the nanocomposite was established. The optical absorptive nonlinearity in the nanocomposite films was investigated using open aperture Z-scan technique. The results indicate optical limiting type nonlinearity in the films due to two photon absorption in ZnO with efficiency more than 50%. These films also show a self defocusing type negative nonlinear refraction in closed aperture Z-scan experiment. The present studies indicate that, highly transparent and homogeneous films of ZnO/PVA nanocomposite can be obtained on glass substrates using simple methods, in a highly cost effective way, since PVA is water soluble. These nanocomposite films offer prospects of application as efficient optical limiters to protect light sensitive devices from the possible damage on exposure to high intensity radiation.

  20. Improvement of performance and emissions of a compression ignition methanol engine with dimethyl ether

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, J.; Chikahisa, Takemi; Murayama, Tadashi; Miyano, Masaharu

    1994-10-01

    Dimethyl ether (DME) has very good compression ignition characteristics and can be converted from methanol using a {gamma}-alumina catalyst. In this study a torch ignition chamber (TIC) head with TIC close to the center of the main combustion chamber was designed for the TIC method. The possibility of improvements in reducing the quantities of DME and emission were investigated by optimizing the TIC position, methanol injection timing, DME injection timing, and intake and exhaust throttling. It was found that the necessary amount of DME was greatly reduced when optimizing methanol and DME injection timings. 2 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  1. A laser and molecular beam mass spectrometer study of low-pressure dimethyl ether flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew McIlroy; Toby D. Hain; Hope A. Michelsen; Terrill A. Cool

    2000-12-15

    The oxidation of dimethyl ether (DME) is studied in low-pressure flames using new molecular beam mass spectrometer and laser diagnostics. Two 30.0-Torr, premixed DME/oxygen/argon flames are investigated with stoichiometries of 0.98 and 1.20. The height above burner profiles of nine stable species and two radicals are measured. These results are compared to the detailed chemical reaction mechanism of Curran and coworkers. Generally good agreement is found between the model and data. The largest discrepancies are found for the methyl radical profiles where the model predicts qualitatively different trends in the methyl concentration with stoichiometry than observed in the experiment.

  2. Development of a copper-catalyzed amidation-base-promoted cyclization sequence for the synthesis of 2-aryl- and 2-vinyl1-4 quinolones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Carrie Preston

    2007-01-01

    A direct two-step method for the preparation of 2-aryl- and 2-vinyl-4-quinolones that utilizes a copper-catalyzed amidation of ortho-halophenones followed by a base-promoted Camps cyclization of the resulting N-(2-keto-aryl)amides ...

  3. Metal-Dinitrosyl Mediated Vinylic C-H Functionalization Chen Zhao, Mark R. Crimmin, F. Dean Toste and Robert G. Bergman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toste, Dean

    and Robert G. Bergman University of California ­ Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, 94720 Synthesis of RutheniumMetal-Dinitrosyl Mediated Vinylic C-H Functionalization Chen Zhao, Mark R. Crimmin, F. Dean Toste.; Bergman, R. G. Organometallics 1983, 2, 787. (b) Becker, P. N.; Bergman, R. G.; J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1983

  4. High octane ethers from synthesis gas-derived alcohols. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.; Menszak, J.; Johansson, M.A.; Feeley, O.C.; Kim, D.

    1993-07-01

    The results shown in Figures 10 and 11 demonstrate that the formation of butenes was very sensitive to the alcohol partial pressure. A small elevation of the alcohol pressure suppressed the formation of butenes rather drastically at both 90 and 117{degree}C. The synthesis rates of DME, MIBE, and MTBE ethers were not significantly affected at 90{degree}C, although there was a trend to increase the space time yield of DME as the alcohol pressure was increased. At the reaction temperature of 117{degree}C, all of the ethers showed increasing productivities as the pressure of the reactants was increased (Figure 11). An isotope labelling experiment was carried out to provide mechanistic insight into the manner in which methanol and isobutanol react together to form DME, MIBE, and MTBE ethers and to determine if MTBE were derived from MIBE.

  5. Mechanistic details of acid-catalyzed reactions and their role in the selective synthesis of triptane and isobutane from dimethyl ether

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    and dimethyl ether (DME) to hydro- carbons provides a potential route to transportation fuels from C1 Transportation fuels a b s t r a c t We report here kinetic and isotopic evidence for the elementary steps involved in dimethyl ether (DME) homologation and for their role in the preferential synthesis of 2

  6. Calixarene crown ether solvent composition and use thereof for extraction of cesium from alkaline waste solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moyer, Bruce A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Sachleben, Richard A. (Knoxville, TN); Bonnesen, Peter V. (Knoxville, TN); Presley, Derek J. (Ooltewah, TN)

    2001-01-01

    A solvent composition and corresponding method for extracting cesium (Cs) from aqueous neutral and alkaline solutions containing Cs and perhaps other competing metal ions is described. The method entails contacting an aqueous Cs-containing solution with a solvent consisting of a specific class of lipophilic calix[4]arene-crown ether extractants dissolved in a hydrocarbon-based diluent containing a specific class of alkyl-aromatic ether alcohols as modifiers. The cesium values are subsequently recovered from the extractant, and the solvent subsequently recycled, by contacting the Cs-containing organic solution with an aqueous stripping solution. This combined extraction and stripping method is especially useful as a process for removal of the radionuclide cesium-137 from highly alkaline waste solutions which are also very concentrated in sodium and potassium. No pre-treatment of the waste solution is necessary, and the cesium can be recovered using a safe and inexpensive stripping process using water, dilute (millimolar) acid solutions, or dilute (millimolar) salt solutions. An important application for this invention would be treatment of alkaline nuclear tank wastes. Alternatively, the invention could be applied to decontamination of acidic reprocessing wastes containing cesium-137.

  7. Thesis proposal CSF Brazil 2014 Synthesis of new cellulose ethers using metathesis reactions -Study of their properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bordenave, Charles

    , hydroxyle or amine functions. Their synthesis process generally needs a pre-treatment of the cellulose, hydroxyle or amine functions. Their synthesis process generally needs a pre-treatment of the cellulose of the hydroxyl of cellulose ethers, which are commercially available or described in the literature

  8. Laser Light-Scattering Study of Novel Thermoplastics. 2. Phenolphthalein Poly(ether sulfone) (PES-C)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Chi

    Laser Light-Scattering Study of Novel Thermoplastics. 2. Phenolphthalein Poly(ether sulfone) (PES with that obtained from static laser light-scattering measurements. Introduction High-performance thermoplastics be dissolved in concentrated H2SO4, HSO3Cl, and CH3SO3H.6,7 Previously, we have studied a thermoplastic: phe

  9. Rate-Dependent Adhesion between Opposed Perfluoropoly(alkyl ether) Layers: Dependence on Chain-End Functionality and Chain Length

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Granick, Steve

    Rate-Dependent Adhesion between Opposed Perfluoropoly(alkyl ether) Layers: Dependence on Chain, UniVersity of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 ReceiVed: February 27, 1998 Adhesion, with particular attention to the dependence of the adhesion on chain-end functionality and chain length

  10. Title: Decomposition of ethanol and dimethyl-ether during CVD synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    of ethanol and dimethyl-ether during CVD synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes Author list: Bo Hou (single-walled carbon nanotubes) was investigated. Gas-phase thermal decomposition of ethanol and DME ethanol and DME decomposition, confirming expected reaction trends and primary byproducts. Peak

  11. Bifunctional pathways mediated by Pt clusters and Al2O3 in the catalytic combustion of dimethyl ether{

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    generation with small turbines or fuel cells.5­7 We have recently examined the catalytic combustion of DME Mixtures of Pt clusters dispersed on c-Al2O3 and additional c-Al2O3 led to much higher DME combustion. The physical properties of dimethyl ether (DME) resemble those of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), making

  12. Process for the production of ethylidene diacetate from dimethyl ether using a heterogeneous catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramprasad, D.; Waller, F.J.

    1998-04-28

    This invention relates to a process for producing ethylidene diacetate by the reaction of dimethyl ether, acetic acid, hydrogen and carbon monoxide at elevated temperatures and pressures in the presence of an alkyl halide and a heterogeneous, bifunctional catalyst that is stable to hydrogenation and comprises an insoluble polymer having pendant quaternized heteroatoms, some of which heteroatoms are ionically bonded to anionic Group VIII metal complexes, the remainder of the heteroatoms being bonded to iodide. In contrast to prior art processes, no accelerator (promoter) is necessary to achieve the catalytic reaction and the products are easily separated from the catalyst by filtration. The catalyst can be recycled for 3 consecutive runs without loss in activity.

  13. Process for the production of ethylidene diacetate from dimethyl ether using a heterogeneous catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramprasad, Dorai (Allentown, PA); Waller, Francis Joseph (Allentown, PA)

    1998-01-01

    This invention relates to a process for producing ethylidene diacetate by the reaction of dimethyl ether, acetic acid, hydrogen and carbon monoxide at elevated temperatures and pressures in the presence of an alkyl halide and a heterogeneous, bifunctional catalyst that is stable to hydrogenation and comprises an insoluble polymer having pendant quaternized heteroatoms, some of which heteroatoms are ionically bonded to anionic Group VIII metal complexes, the remainder of the heteroatoms being bonded to iodide. In contrast to prior art processes, no accelerator (promoter) is necessary to achieve the catalytic reaction and the products are easily separated from the catalyst by filtration. The catalyst can be recycled for 3 consecutive runs without loss in activity.

  14. Use of aluminum phosphate as the dehydration catalyst in single step dimethyl ether process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, Xiang-Dong (Allentown, PA); Parris, Gene E. (Coopersburg, PA); Toseland, Bernard A. (Allentown, PA); Battavio, Paula J. (Allentown, PA)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention pertains to a process for the coproduction of methanol and dimethyl ether (DME) directly from a synthesis gas in a single step (hereafter, the "single step DME process"). In this process, the synthesis gas comprising hydrogen and carbon oxides is contacted with a dual catalyst system comprising a physical mixture of a methanol synthesis catalyst and a methanol dehydration catalyst. The present invention is an improvement to this process for providing an active and stable catalyst system. The improvement comprises the use of an aluminum phosphate based catalyst as the methanol dehydration catalyst. Due to its moderate acidity, such a catalyst avoids the coke formation and catalyst interaction problems associated with the conventional dual catalyst systems taught for the single step DME process.

  15. Using Heteropolyacids in the Anode Catalyst Layer of Dimethyl Ether PEM Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrell III, J. R.; Turner, J. A.; Herring, A. M.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, polarization experiments were performed on a direct dimethyl ether fuel cell (DMEFC). The experimental setup allowed for independent control of water and DME flow rates. Thus the DME flow rate, backpressure, and water flow rate were optimized. Three heteropoly acids, phosphomolybdic acid (PMA), phosphotungstic acid (PTA), and silicotungstic acid (STA) were incorporated into the anode catalyst layer in combination with Pt/C. Both PTA-Pt and STA-Pt showed higher performance than the Pt control at 30 psig of backpressure. Anodic polarizations were also performed, and Tafel slopes were extracted from the data. The trends in the Tafel slope values are in agreement with the polarization data. The addition of phosphotungstic acid more than doubled the power density of the fuel cell, compared to the Pt control.

  16. Methanol with dimethyl ether ignition promotor as fuel for compression ignition engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brook, D.L.; Cipolat, D.; Rallis, C.J.

    1984-08-01

    Reduction of the world dependence upon crude oil necessitates the use of long term alternative fuels for internal combustion engines. Alcohols appear to offer a solution as in the short term they can be manufactured from natural gas and coal, while ultimately they may be produced from agricultural products. A fair measure of success has been achieved in using alcohols in spark ignition engines. However the more widely used compression ignition engines cannot utilize unmodified pure alcohols. The current techniques for using alcohol fuels in compression ignition engines all have a number of shortcomings. This paper describes a novel technique where an ignition promotor, dimethyl ether (DME), is used to increase the cetane rating of methanol. The systems particular advantage is that the DME can be catalyzed from the methanol base fuel, in situ. This fuel system matches the performance characteristics of diesel oil fuel.

  17. Hydrogen production from the steam reforming of Dinethyl Ether and Methanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Semelsberger, T. A.; Borup, R. L.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates dimethyl ether (DME) steam reforming for the generation of hydrogen rich fuel cell feeds for fuel cell applications. Methanol has long been considered as a fuel for the generation of hydrogen rich fuel cell feeds due to its high energy density, low reforming temperature, and zero impurity content. However, it has not been accepted as the fuel of choice due its current limited availability, toxicity and corrosiveness. While methanol steam reforming for the generation of hydrogen rich fuel cell feeds has been extensively studied, the steam reforming of DME, CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3} + 3H{sub 2}O = 2CO{sub 2} + 6H{sub 2}, has had limited research effort. DME is the simplest ether (CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3}) and is a gas at ambient conditions. DME has physical properties similar to those of LPG fuels (i.e. propane and butane), resulting in similar storage and handling considerations. DME is currently used as an aerosol propellant and has been considercd as a diesel substitute due to the reduced NOx, SOx and particulate emissions. DME is also being considered as a substitute for LPG fuels, which is used extensively in Asia as a fuel for heating and cooking, and naptha, which is used for power generation. The potential advantages of both methanol and DME include low reforming temperature, decreased fuel proccssor startup energy, environmentally benign, visible flame, high heating value, and ease of storage and transportation. In addition, DME has the added advantages of low toxicity and being non-corrosive. Consequently, DME may be an ideal candidate for the generation of hydrogen rich fuel cell feeds for both automotive and portable power applications. The steam reforming of DME has been demonstrated to occur through a pair of reactions in series, where the first reaction is DME hydration followed by MeOH steam reforming to produce a hydrogen rich stream.

  18. Guidance Document Peroxide-FormingChemicals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    months. Acrylic acid Tetrafluoroethylene Acrylonitrile Vinyl acetate 1,3-Butadiene Vinyl acetylene,1,2,3-Tetrachloro-1,3-butadiene Diacetylene Ethylene glycol dimethyl ether (glyme) Tetrahydrofuran

  19. Zirconia-Supported MoOx Catalysts for the Selective Oxidation of Dimethyl Ether to Formaldehyde: Structure, Redox Properties, and Reaction Pathways

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    Zirconia-Supported MoOx Catalysts for the Selective Oxidation of Dimethyl Ether to Formaldehyde* Department of Chemical Engineering, UniVersity of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 Recei

  20. The use of dimethyl ether as a starting aid for methanol-fueled SI engines at low temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozole, K.H.; Wallace, J.S

    1988-01-01

    Methanol-fueled SI engines have proven to be difficult to start at ambient temperatures below approximately 10/sup 0/C. The use of dimethyl ether (DME) is proposed to improve the cold starting performance of methanol-fueled SI engines. Tests to evaluate this idea were carried out with a modified single-cylinder CFR research engine having a compression ratio of 12:1. The engine was fueled with combinations of gaseous dimethyl ether and liquid methanol having DME mass fractions of 30%, 40%, 60% and 70%. For comparison, tests were also carried out with 100% methanol and with winter grade premium unleaded gasoline. Overall stoichiometric mixtures were used in all tests.

  1. Synthesis of dimethyl ether and alternative fuels in the liquid phase from coal-derived synthesis gas. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    Through the mid-1980s, Air Products has brought the liquid phase approach to a number of other synthesis gas reactions where effective heat management is a key issue. In 1989, in response to DOE`s PRDA No. DE-RA22-88PC88805, Air Products proposed a research and development program entitled ``Synthesis of Dimethyl Ether and Alternative Fuels in the Liquid Phase from Coal Derived Syngas.`` The proposal aimed at extending the LPMEOH experience to convert coal-derived synthesis gas to other useful fuels and chemicals. The work proposed included development of a novel one-step synthesis of dimethyl ether (DME) from syngas, and exploration of other liquid phase synthesis of alternative fuel directly from syngas. The one-step DME process, conceived in 1986 at Air Products as a means of increasing syngas conversion to liquid products, envisioned the concept of converting product methanol in situ to DME in a single reactor. The slurry reactor based liquid phase technology is ideally suited for such an application, since the second reaction (methanol to DME) can be accomplished by adding a second catalyst with dehydration activity to the methanol producing reactor. An area of exploration for other alternative fuels directly from syngas was single-step slurry phase synthesis of hydrocarbons via methanol and DME as intermediates. Other possibilities included the direct synthesis of mixed alcohols and mixed ethers in a slurry reactor.

  2. Chemical Emissions of Residential Materials and Products: Review of Available Information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Willem, Henry

    2010-01-01

    glycol monomethyl ether Styrene Tetrachloroethylene Toluenepigments Natural rubber, styrene-butadiene rubber, fillers,4-phenylcyclohexene, styrene, toluene, and vinyl acetate; 2)

  3. A fluorescence-based method for rapid and direct determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in water

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shan, Huimei; Liu, Chongxuan; Wang, Zheming; Ma, Teng; Shang, Jianying; Pan, Duoqiang

    2015-01-01

    A new method was developed for rapid and direct measurement of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in aqueous samples using fluorescence spectroscopy. The fluorescence spectra of tri- to deca-BDE (BDE 28, 47, 99, 153, 190, and 209) commonly found in environment were measured at variable emission and excitation wavelengths. The results revealed that the PBDEs have distinct fluorescence spectral profiles and peak positions that can be exploited to identify these species and determine their concentrations in aqueous solutions. The detection limits as determined in deionized water spiked with PBDEs are 1.71-5.82 ng/L for BDE 28, BDE 47, BDE 190, and BDEmore »209 and 45.55–69.95 ng/L for BDE 99 and BDE 153. The effects of environmental variables including pH, humic substance, and groundwater chemical composition on PBDEs measurements were also investigated. These environmental variables affected fluorescence intensity, but their effect can be corrected through linear additivity and separation of spectral signal contribution. Compared with conventional GC-based analytical methods, the fluorescence spectroscopy method is more efficient as it only uses a small amount of samples (2-4 mL), avoids lengthy complicated concentration and extraction steps, and has a low detection limit of a few ng/L.« less

  4. Ethyl-tertiary-butyl-ether (ETBE) as an aviation fuel: Eleventh international symposium on alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maben, G.D.; Shauck, M.E.; Zanin, M.G.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses the preliminary flight testing of an aircraft using neat burning ethyl-tertiary-butyl-ether (ETBE) as a fuel. No additional changes were made to the fuel delivery systems which had previously been modified to provide the higher fuel flow rates required to operate the engine on neat ethanol. Air-fuel ratios were manually adjusted with the mixture control. This system allows the pilot to adjust the mixture to compensate for changes in air density caused by altitude, pressure and temperature. The engine was instrumented to measure exhaust gas temperatures (EGT), cylinder head temperatures (CHT), and fuel flows, while the standard aircraft instruments were used to collect aircraft performance data. Baseline engine data for ETBE and Avgas are compared. Preliminary data indicates the technical and economic feasibility of using ETBE as an aviation fuel for the piston engine fleet. Furthermore, the energy density of ETBE qualifies it as a candidate for a turbine engine fuel of which 16.2 billion gallons are used in the US each year.

  5. A fluorescence-based method for rapid and direct determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shan, Huimei; Liu, Chongxuan; Wang, Zheming; Ma, Teng; Shang, Jianying; Pan, Duoqiang

    2015-01-01

    A new method was developed for rapid and direct measurement of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in aqueous samples using fluorescence spectroscopy. The fluorescence spectra of tri- to deca-BDE (BDE 28, 47, 99, 153, 190, and 209) commonly found in environment were measured at variable emission and excitation wavelengths. The results revealed that the PBDEs have distinct fluorescence spectral profiles and peak positions that can be exploited to identify these species and determine their concentrations in aqueous solutions. The detection limits as determined in deionized water spiked with PBDEs are 1.71-5.82 ng/L for BDE 28, BDE 47, BDE 190, and BDE 209 and 45.55–69.95 ng/L for BDE 99 and BDE 153. The effects of environmental variables including pH, humic substance, and groundwater chemical composition on PBDEs measurements were also investigated. These environmental variables affected fluorescence intensity, but their effect can be corrected through linear additivity and separation of spectral signal contribution. Compared with conventional GC-based analytical methods, the fluorescence spectroscopy method is more efficient as it only uses a small amount of samples (2-4 mL), avoids lengthy complicated concentration and extraction steps, and has a low detection limit of a few ng/L.

  6. A Fluorescence-Based Method for Rapid and Direct Determination of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shan, Huimei [China Univ. of Geosciences, Wuhan (China). Lab of Basin and Wetland Eco-Restoration; Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Liu, Chongxuan [China Univ. of Geosciences, Wuhan (China). Lab of Basin and Wetland Eco-Restoration; Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Zheming [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ma, Teng [China Univ. of Geosciences, Wuhan (China). Lab of Basin and Wetland Eco-Restoration and State Key Lab. of Biogeology and Environmental Geology; Shang, Jianying [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pan, Duoqiang [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    A new method was developed for rapid and direct measurement of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in aqueous samples using fluorescence spectroscopy. The fluorescence spectra of tri- to deca-BDE (BDE 28, 47, 99, 153, 190, and 209) commonly found in environment were measured at variable emission and excitation wavelengths. The results revealed that the PBDEs have distinct fluorescence spectral profiles and peak positions that can be exploited to identify these species and determine their concentrations in aqueous solutions. The detection limits as determined in deionized water spiked with PBDEs are 1.71-5.82 ng/L for BDE 28, BDE 47, BDE 190, and BDE 209 and 45.55–69.95 ng/L for BDE 99 and BDE 153. The effects of environmental variables including pH, humic substance, and groundwater chemical composition on PBDEs measurements were also investigated. These environmental variables affected fluorescence intensity, but their effect can be corrected through linear additivity and separation of spectral signal contribution. Compared with conventional GC-based analytical methods, the fluorescence spectroscopy method is more efficient as it only uses a small amount of samples (2-4 mL), avoids lengthy complicated concentration and extraction steps, and has a low detection limit of a few ng/L.

  7. New clean fuel from coal -- Direct dimethyl ether synthesis from hydrogen and carbon monoxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ogawa, T.; Ono, M.; Mizuguchi, M.; Tomura, K.; Shikada, T.; Ohono, Y.; Fujimoto, K.

    1997-12-31

    Dimethyl ether (DME), which has similar physical properties to propane and is easily liquefied at low pressure, has a significant possibility as a clean and non-toxic fuel from coal or coal bed methane. Equilibrium calculation also shows a big advantage of high carbon monoxide conversion of DME synthesis compared to methanol synthesis. By using a 50 kg/day DME bench scale test plant, direct synthesis of DME from hydrogen and carbon monoxide has been studied with newly developed catalysts which are very fine particles. This test plant features a high pressure three-phase slurry reactor and low temperature DME separator. DME is synthesized at temperatures around 533--553 K and at pressures around 3--5 MPa. According to the reaction stoichiometry, the same amount of hydrogen and carbon monoxide react to DME and carbon dioxide. Carbon conversion to DME is one third and the rest of carbon is converted to carbon dioxide. As a result of the experiments, make-up CO conversion is 35--50% on an once-through basis, which is extremely high compared to that of methanol synthesis from hydrogen and carbon monoxide. DME selectivity is around 60 c-mol %. Most of the by-product is CO{sub 2} with a small amount of methanol and water. No heavy by-products have been recognized. Effluent from the reactor is finally cooled to 233--253 K in a DME separator and liquid DME is recovered as a product.

  8. Study on systems based on coal and natural gas for producing dimethyl ether

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, L.; Hu, S.Y.; Chen, D.J.; Li, Y.R.; Zhu, B.; Jin, Y.

    2009-04-15

    China is a coal-dependent country and will remain so for a long time. Dimethyl ether (DME), a potential substitute for liquid fuel, is a kind of clean diesel motor fuel. The production of DME from coal is meaningful and is studied in this article. Considering the C/H ratios of coal and natural gas (NG), the cofeed (coal and NG) system (CFS), which does not contain the water gas shift process, is studied. It can reduce CO{sub 2} emission and increase the conversion rate of carbon, producing more DME. The CFS is simulated and compared with the coal-based and NG-based systems with different recycling ratios. The part of the exhaust gas that is not recycled is burned, producing electricity. On the basis of the simulation results, the thermal efficiency, economic index, and CO{sub 2} emission ratio are calculated separately. The CFS with a 100% recycling ratio has the best comprehensive evaluation index, while the energy, economy, and environment were considered at the same time.

  9. Experimental and Computational Study of Nonpremixed Ignition of Dimethyl Ether in Counterflow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, X L; Lu, T F; Law, C K; Westbrook, C K

    2003-12-19

    The ignition temperature of nitrogen-diluted dimethyl ether (DME) by heated air in counterflow was experimentally determined for DME concentration from 5.9 to 30%, system pressure from 1.5 to 3.0 atmospheres, and pressure-weighted strain rate from 110 to 170/s. These experimental data were compared with two mechanisms that were respectively available in 1998 and 2003, with the latter being a substantially updated version of the former. The comparison showed that while the 1998-mechanism uniformly over-predicted the ignition temperature, the 2003-mechanism yielded surprisingly close agreement for all experimental data. Sensitivity analysis for the near-ignition state based on both mechanisms identified the deficiencies of the 1998-mechanism, particularly the specifics of the low-temperature cool flame chemistry in effecting ignition at higher temperatures, as the fuel stream is being progressively heated from its cold boundary to the high-temperature ignition region around the hot-stream boundary. The 2003-mechanism, consisting of 79 species and 398 elementary reactions, was then systematically simplified by using the directed relation graph method to a skeletal mechanism of 49 species and 251 elementary reactions, which in turn was further simplified by using computational singular perturbation method and quasi-steady-state species assumption to a reduced mechanism consisting of 33 species and 28 lumped reactions. It was demonstrated that both the skeletal and reduced mechanisms mimicked the performance of the detailed mechanism with high accuracy.

  10. Slurry phase synthesis of dimethyl ether from syngas -- A reactor model simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mizuguchi, Masatsugu; Ogawa, Takashi; Ono, Masami,; Tomura, Keiji; Shikada, Tsutomu; Ohno, Yotaro; Fujimoto, Kaoru

    1998-12-31

    Dimethyl ether (DME) would be an attractive alternative fuel for diesel, domestic use, and power generation, if it is economically synthesized directly from syngas (derived from coal gasification or natural gas reforming). DME, which is a colorless gas with a boiling point of {minus}25 C, is chemically stable and easily liquefied under pressure. Since the properties of DME are similar to LPG, it can be handled and stored with the same manner as LPG. The authors have performed the slurry phase DME synthesis by using the 50 kg/day bench-scale unit. DME was synthesized at high yield from syngas (H{sub 2}+CO) with the newly developed catalyst system. To establish the scale-up methodology, the reactor simulation technique is essential. The authors developed a mathematical model of the slurry phase bubble column reactor for DME synthesis, which is based on their experimental results. The performance of a commercial-scale DME reactor was simulated by this model, and the results were discussed.

  11. Reactive Surfaces and Interfaces utilizing 2-Vinyl-4,4-Dimethylazlactone (VDMA): An Example of ??Click?? Chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Messman, Jamie M; Kilbey, II, S Michael; Lokitz, Bradley S; Hinestrosa Salazar, Juan Pablo; Ankner, John Francis

    2009-01-01

    Creating polymer-modified interfaces decorated with biologically-relevant materials V so-called bio-interfaces V with precise control over the nanoscale structure and properties is of increasing technological importance for a large number of advanced materials applications, including adaptive and/or lubricious biomaterial coatings, electro-actuators (synthetic muscles), biosensors with amplified response, coatings for stealth drug delivery, supports for enzymatic catalysts, protein or antibody arrays, and high affinity separation agents. The ability to design and decorate interfaces with biologically-relevant molecules and understand synthesis-structure-function relationships remains a significant challenge. The overarching objective of this research program is to investigate the polymerization and functionalization of a new class of polymeric materials that are capable of serving as a versatile platform from which bio-interfaces for specific applications can be created and evaluated. Stimuli-responsive (co)polymers containing vinyl dimethyl azlactone (VDMA) have been prepared using free radical polymerization techniques (controlled and conventional). Subsequent immobilization of biomolecules (e.g., dansylcadaverine, N ,N -bis(carboxymethyl)-L-lysine hydrate) on PVDMA-containing surface scaffolds affords bio-interfaces. Reaction of nucleophiles with the azlactone moiety proceeds rapidly, quantitatively, and in the absence of byproducts, which are essential criteria governing the click-type nature of this procedure. The conversion of these materials into polyelectrolytes and bioconjugates can be monitored in real-time using infrared spectroscopy. Additionally, pVDMA polymers prepared using reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization are the basis for creating polymer brushes by a grafting to approach. We will describe how compositional differences and changes in molecular weight affect the solubility and responsiveness of pVDMA-based polymers and surface layers when functionalized with various biomolecules.

  12. Mechanistic Investigation of Acid-Catalyzed Cleavage of Aryl-Ether Linkages: Implications for Lignin Depolymerization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sturgeon, M. R.; Kim, S.; Chmely, S. C.; Foust, T. D.; Beckham, G. T.

    2013-01-01

    Carbon-oxygen bonds are the primary inter-monomer linkages lignin polymers in plant cell walls, and as such, catalyst development to cleave these linkages is of paramount importance to deconstruct biomass to its constituent monomers for the production of renewable fuels and chemicals. For many decades, acid catalysis has been used to depolymerize lignin. Lignin is a primary component of plant cell walls, which is connected primarily by aryl-ether linkages, and the mechanism of its deconstruction by acid is not well understood, likely due to its heterogeneous and complex nature compared to cellulose. For effective biomass conversion strategies, utilization of lignin is of significant relevance and as such understanding the mechanisms of catalytic lignin deconstruction to constituent monomers and oligomers is of keen interest. Here, we present a comprehensive experimental and theoretical study of the acid catalysis of a range of dimeric species exhibiting the b-O-4 linkage, the most common inter-monomer linkage in lignin. We demonstrate that the presence of a phenolic species dramatically increases the rate of cleavage in acid at 150 degrees C. Quantum mechanical calculations on dimers with the para-hydroxyl group demonstrate that this acid-catalyzed pathway differs from the nonphenolic dimmers. Importantly, this result implies that depolymerization of native lignin in the plant cell wall will proceed via an unzipping mechanism wherein b-O-4 linkages will be cleaved from the ends of the branched, polymer chains inwards toward the center of the polymer. To test this hypothesis further, we synthesized a homopolymer of b-O-4 with a phenolic hydroxyl group, and demonstrate that it is cleaved in acid from the end containing the phenolic hydroxyl group. This result suggests that genetic modifications to lignin biosynthesis pathways in plants that will enable lower severity processes to fractionate lignin for upgrading and for easier access to the carbohydrate fraction of the plant cell wall.

  13. ULEV potential of a DI/TCI diesel passenger car engine operated on dimethyl ether

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kapus, P.E.; Cartellieri, W.P.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes a feasibility test program on a 2 liter, 4 cylinder DI/TCI passenger car engine operated on the new alternative fuel Dimethyl Ether (DME) with the aim of demonstrating its potential of meeting ULEV (ultra low emission vehicle) emissions (0.2 g/mi NOx in the FTP 75 test cycle) when installed in a full size passenger car. Special attention is drawn to the fuel injection equipment (FIE) as well as combustion system requirements towards the reduction of NOx and combustion noise while keeping energetic fuel consumption at the level of he baseline DI/TCI diesel engine. FIE and combustion system parameters were optimized on the steady state dynamometer by variation of a number of parameters, such as rate of injection, number of nozzle holes, compression ratio, piston bowl shape and exhaust gas recirculation. The paper presents engine test results achieved with DME under various operating conditions and compares these results to those achieved with the diesel version of the same engine.The FTP 75 cycle results were projected from steady state engine maps using a vehicle simulation program taking into account vehicle data and road resistance data of a given vehicle.The cycle results are also compared to actual chassis dynamometer results achieved with the diesel version of the same engine installed in the same vehicle.the passenger car DI/TCI engine adapted for and operated on DME shows very promising results with respect to meeting ULEV NOx emissions without any soot emissions and without the need for a DENOX catalyst. DME fuel consumption on energy basis can be kept very close to the DI diesel value. An oxidation catalyst will be necessary to meet the stringent CO and HC ULEV emission limits.

  14. Ligand-Thickness Effect Leads to Enhanced Preference for Large Anions in Alkali Metal Extraction by Crown Ethers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haverlock, T.J.; Moyer, B.A.; Sachleben, R.A.

    1999-07-11

    Jean-Marie Lehn (Nobel laureate, 1987) suggested ligand thickness to be an important consideration in the design of host molecules for cation recognition. We have recently expanded the role of this simple ligand property by demonstrating a case in which ligand thickness contributes significantly to anion discrimination. It was found that in the extraction of sodium nitrate and perchlorate by a simple crown ether, bis(t-octylbenzo)-14-crown-4 (BOB 14C4), the normal preference for perchlorate is almost completely lost when the complex cation has the open-face sandwich vs. the sandwich structure.

  15. The use of DRIFTS-MS and kinetic studies to determine the role of acetic acid in the palladium-catalyzed vapor-phase synthesis of vinyl acetate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Augustine, S.M.; Blitz, J.P. (Quantum Chemical Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States))

    1993-07-01

    Supported palladium catalyzes the synthesis of vinyl acetate (VA) by oxyacetylation of ethylene. Alkali promoters increase activity and selectivity. The role of acetic acid (HOAc) in these processes is not well understood. Activation energy studies show that HOAc alters the catalyst site and lowers the reaction barrier to VA formation. After correction for this effect, the kinetics reveal that as a reagent HOAc is zero order. This is probably due to a strong adsorption of HOAc and Pd which forms the catalyst active phase. Detailed spectroscopic studies support this conclusion. The surface processes on a supported vinyl acetate catalyst were studied using a method which couples diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) with mass spectrometry (MS). The DRIFTS-MS technique combines the capability of selectively analyzing IR-active surface species with sensitive detection of transient reaction products. By comparing the catalyst with mixtures of palladium acetate powder physically dispersed in potassium chloride, it is determined that the active phase on the catalyst is a form of palladium acetate. Compound formation is consistent with the strong chemisorption of HOAc on Pd. Kinetic analysis of temperature-programmed reaction(TPRxn) data suggests that Pd metal or metal oxide adjacent to the active site is important in the reaction mechanism. 25 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Coupling of alcohols to ethers: The dominance of the surface S{sub N}2 reaction pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klier, K.; Feeley, O.C.; Johansson, M.; Herman, R.G.

    1996-12-31

    Coupling of alcohols to ethers, important high value oxygenates, proceeds on acid catalysts via general pathways that uniquely control product composition, oxygen retention, chirality inversion, and kinetics. The dominant pathway is the S{sub N}2 reaction with competition of the alcohols for the surface acid sites. This is exemplified by formation of methyl(ethyl) isobutylether (M(E)IBE) from methanol(ethanol)/isobutanol mixtures, retention of oxygen ({sup 18}O) of the heavier alcohol, and optimum rate as a function of concentration of either reactant alcohol. The S{sub N}2 pathway in the confinement of zeolite pores exhibits additional features of a near-100% selectivity to dimethylether (DME) in H-mordenite and a near-100% selectivity to chiral inversion in 2-pentanol/ethanol coupling to 2-ethoxypentane in HZSM-5. A minor reaction pathway entails olefin or carbenium intermediates, as exemplified by the formation of methyl tertiarybutyl ether (MTBE) from methanol/isobutanol mixtures with oxygen retention of the lighter alcohol. Calculations of transition state and molecular modeling of the oxonium-involving pathways dramatically demonstrate how the reaction path selects the products.

  17. Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a volatile organic com-pound (VOC) derived from natural gas that is added to gas-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a volatile organic com- pound (VOC) derived from natural gas Water in Urban and Agricultural Areas made from methanol, which is derived primarily from natural gas that is added to gas- oline either seasonally or year round in many parts of the United States to increase

  18. Single-Step Syngas-to-Distillates (S2D) Synthesis via Methanol and Dimethyl Ether Intermediates: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dagle, Robert A.; Lebarbier, Vanessa MC; Lizarazo Adarme, Jair A.; King, David L.; Zhu, Yunhua; Gray, Michel J.; Jones, Susanne B.; Biddy, Mary J.; Hallen, Richard T.; Wang, Yong; White, James F.; Holladay, Johnathan E.; Palo, Daniel R.

    2013-11-26

    The objective of the work was to enhance price-competitive, synthesis gas (syngas)-based production of transportation fuels that are directly compatible with the existing vehicle fleet (i.e., vehicles fueled by gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, etc.). To accomplish this, modifications to the traditional methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) process were investigated. In this study, we investigated direct conversion of syngas to distillates using methanol and dimethyl ether intermediates. For this application, a Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 (PdZnAl) catalyst previously developed for methanol steam reforming was evaluated. The PdZnAl catalyst was shown to be far superior to a conventional copper-based methanol catalyst when operated at relatively high temperatures (i.e., >300°C), which is necessary for MTG-type applications. Catalytic performance was evaluated through parametric studies. Process conditions such as temperature, pressure, gas-hour-space velocity, and syngas feed ratio (i.e., hydrogen:carbon monoxide) were investigated. PdZnAl catalyst formulation also was optimized to maximize conversion and selectivity to methanol and dimethyl ether while suppressing methane formation. Thus, a PdZn/Al2O3 catalyst optimized for methanol and dimethyl ether formation was developed through combined catalytic material and process parameter exploration. However, even after compositional optimization, a significant amount of undesirable carbon dioxide was produced (formed via the water-gas-shift reaction), and some degree of methane formation could not be completely avoided. Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 used in combination with ZSM-5 was investigated for direct syngas-to-distillates conversion. High conversion was achieved as thermodynamic constraints are alleviated when methanol and dimethyl are intermediates for hydrocarbon formation. When methanol and/or dimethyl ether are products formed separately, equilibrium restrictions occur. Thermodynamic relaxation also enables the use of lower operating pressures than what would be allowed for methanol synthesis alone. Aromatic-rich hydrocarbon liquid (C5+), containing a significant amount of methylated benzenes, was produced under these conditions. However, selectivity control to liquid hydrocarbons was difficult to achieve. Carbon dioxide and methane formation was problematic. Furthermore, saturation of the olefinic intermediates formed in the zeolite, and necessary for gasoline production, occurred over PdZnAl. Thus, yield to desirable hydrocarbon liquid product was limited. Evaluation of other oxygenate-producing catalysts could possibly lead to future advances. Potential exists with discovery of other types of catalysts that suppress carbon dioxide and light hydrocarbon formation. Comparative techno-economics for a single-step syngas-to-distillates process and a more conventional MTG-type process were investigated. Results suggest operating and capital cost savings could only modestly be achieved, given future improvements to catalyst performance. Sensitivity analysis indicated that increased single-pass yield to hydrocarbon liquid is a primary need for this process to achieve cost competiveness.

  19. Vapor-liquid equilibrium for methanol + 1,1-dimethylpropyl methyl ether at (288.15, 308.15, and 328.15) K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moessner, F.; Coto, B.; Pando, C.; Rubio, R.G.; Renuncio, J.A.R. [Universidad Complutense, Madrid (Spain). Departamento de Quimica Fisica 1] [Universidad Complutense, Madrid (Spain). Departamento de Quimica Fisica 1

    1996-05-01

    Oxygenated compounds are being used as additives to gasoline because of their antiknock effects. Vapor-liquid equilibria for methanol + 1,1-dimethylpropyl methyl ether (tert-amyl methyl ether or TAME) have been measured at (288.15, 308.15, and 328.15) K. A Gibbs-Van Ness type apparatus for total vapor pressure measurements has been used. The system shows positive deviations from Raoult`s law with an azeotrope, whose coordinates are reported at the three temperatures studied. Results have been analyzed in terms of the UNIQUAC model, several versions of the UNIFAC model, and the modified-Huron-Vidal second-order (MHV2) group contribution equation of state.

  20. Involvement of reactive oxygen species in brominated diphenyl ether-47-induced inflammatory cytokine release from human extravillous trophoblasts in vitro

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Hae-Ryung, E-mail: heaven@umich.edu; Kamau, Patricia W.; Loch-Caruso, Rita

    2014-01-15

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely used flame retardant compounds. Brominated diphenyl ether (BDE)-47 is one of the most prevalent PBDE congeners found in human breast milk, serum and placenta. Despite the presence of PBDEs in human placenta, effects of PBDEs on placental cell function are poorly understood. The present study investigated BDE-47-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and its role in BDE-47-stimulated proinflammatory cytokine release in a first trimester human extravillous trophoblast cell line, HTR-8/SVneo. Exposure of HTR-8/SVneo cells for 4 h to 20 ?M BDE-47 increased ROS generation 1.7 fold as measured by the dichlorofluorescein (DCF) assay. Likewise, superoxide anion production increased approximately 5 fold at 10 and 15 ?M and 9 fold at 20 ?M BDE-47 with a 1-h exposure, as measured by cytochrome c reduction. BDE-47 (10, 15 and 20 ?M) decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential by 47–64.5% at 4, 8 and 24 h as assessed with the fluorescent probe Rh123. Treatment with 15 and 20 ?M BDE-47 stimulated cellular release and mRNA expression of IL-6 and IL-8 after 12 and 24-h exposures: the greatest increases were a 35-fold increased mRNA expression at 12 h and a 12-fold increased protein concentration at 24 h for IL-6. Antioxidant treatments (deferoxamine mesylate, (±)?-tocopherol, or tempol) suppressed BDE-47-stimulated IL-6 release by 54.1%, 56.3% and 37.7%, respectively, implicating a role for ROS in the regulation of inflammatory pathways in HTR-8/SVneo cells. Solvent (DMSO) controls exhibited statistically significantly decreased responses compared with non-treated controls for IL-6 release and IL-8 mRNA expression, but these responses were not consistent across experiments and times. Nonetheless, it is possible that DMSO (used to dissolve BDE-47) may have attenuated the stimulatory actions of BDE-47 on cytokine responses. Because abnormal activation of proinflammatory responses can disrupt trophoblast functions necessary for placental development and successful pregnancy, further investigation is warranted of the impact of ROS and BDE-47 on trophoblast cytokine responses. - Highlights: • BDE-47 induced ROS overproduction and mitochondrial dysfunction. • BDE-47 stimulated production of proinflammatory cytokines. • Antioxidant treatment reduced BDE-47-stimulated ROS generation and cytokine release.

  1. Synergistic effect of mixing dimethyl ether with methane, ethane, propane, and ethylene fuels on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and soot formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, S.S.; Anh, D.H.; Chung, S.H.

    2008-08-15

    Characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and soot formation in counterflow diffusion flames of methane, ethane, propane, and ethylene fuels mixed with dimethyl ether (DME) have been investigated. Planar laser-induced incandescence and fluorescence techniques were employed to measure relative soot volume fractions and PAH concentrations, respectively. Results showed that even though DME is known to be a clean fuel in terms of soot formation, DME mixture with ethylene fuel increases PAH and soot formation significantly as compared to the pure ethylene case, while the mixture of DME with methane, ethane, and propane decreases PAH and soot formation. Numerical calculations adopting a detailed kinetics showed that DME can be decomposed to produce a relatively large number of methyl radicals in the low-temperature region where PAH forms and grows; thus the mixture of DME with ethylene increases CH{sub 3} radicals significantly in the PAH formation region. Considering that the increase in the concentration of O radicals is minimal in the PAH formation region with DME mixture, the enhancement of PAH and soot formation in the mixture flames of DME and ethylene can be explained based on the role of methyl radicals in PAH and soot formation. Methyl radicals can increase the concentration of propargyls, which could enhance incipient benzene ring formation through the propargyl recombination reaction and subsequent PAH growth. Thus, the result substantiates the importance of methyl radicals in PAH and soot formation, especially in the PAH formation region of diffusion flames. (author)

  2. Calcitriol inhibits Ether-a go-go potassium channel expression and cell proliferation in human breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia-Becerra, Rocio [Department of Reproductive Biology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, Tlalpan 14000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)] [Department of Reproductive Biology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, Tlalpan 14000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Diaz, Lorenza, E-mail: lorenzadiaz@gmail.com [Department of Reproductive Biology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, Tlalpan 14000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)] [Department of Reproductive Biology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, Tlalpan 14000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Camacho, Javier [Department of Pharmacology, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2508, San Pedro Zacatenco 07360, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)] [Department of Pharmacology, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2508, San Pedro Zacatenco 07360, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Barrera, David; Ordaz-Rosado, David; Morales, Angelica [Department of Reproductive Biology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, Tlalpan 14000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)] [Department of Reproductive Biology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, Tlalpan 14000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Ortiz, Cindy Sharon [Department of Pathology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, Tlalpan 14000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)] [Department of Pathology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, Tlalpan 14000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Avila, Euclides [Department of Reproductive Biology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, Tlalpan 14000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)] [Department of Reproductive Biology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, Tlalpan 14000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Bargallo, Enrique [Department of Breast Tumors, Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Av. San Fernando No. 22, Tlalpan 14080, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)] [Department of Breast Tumors, Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Av. San Fernando No. 22, Tlalpan 14080, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Arrecillas, Myrna [Department of Pathology, Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Av. San Fernando No. 22, Tlalpan 14080, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)] [Department of Pathology, Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Av. San Fernando No. 22, Tlalpan 14080, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Halhali, Ali; Larrea, Fernando [Department of Reproductive Biology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, Tlalpan 14000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)] [Department of Reproductive Biology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, Tlalpan 14000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2010-02-01

    Antiproliferative actions of calcitriol have been shown to occur in many cell types; however, little is known regarding the molecular basis of this process in breast carcinoma. Ether-a-go-go (Eag1) potassium channels promote oncogenesis and are implicated in breast cancer cell proliferation. Since calcitriol displays antineoplastic effects while Eag1 promotes tumorigenesis, and both factors antagonically regulate cell cycle progression, we investigated a possible regulatory effect of calcitriol upon Eag1 as a mean to uncover new molecular events involved in the antiproliferative activity of this hormone in human breast tumor-derived cells. RT real-time PCR and immunocytochemistry showed that calcitriol suppressed Eag1 expression by a vitamin D receptor (VDR)-dependent mechanism. This effect was accompanied by inhibition of cell proliferation, which was potentiated by astemizole, a nonspecific Eag1 inhibitor. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot demonstrated that Eag1 and VDR abundance was higher in invasive-ductal carcinoma than in fibroadenoma, and immunoreactivity of both proteins was located in ductal epithelial cells. Our results provide evidence of a novel mechanism involved in the antiproliferative effects of calcitriol and highlight VDR as a cancer therapeutic target for breast cancer treatment and prevention.

  3. Toxicity of polychlorinated diphenyl ethers in hydra attenuata and in rat whole-embryo culture. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Becker, M.C.

    1991-05-01

    Polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PCDEs) are a class of biaryl compounds that have little commercial application, but appear to be widespread in the environment. They have been found in wood preservative waste dumpsites and in fly ash from municipal waste incinerators. They have been detected in bird eggs and tissues, fish, and other edible marine organisms in the United States, Canada, and Europe. There are limited reports in the extant literature on the toxicity of PCDEs. This study was designed to evaluate the toxicity of selected PCDEs in cultures of Hydra attenuata and post-implantation rat whole embryos. The toxicity of several closely related polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was evaluated in both cultures and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) was evaluated in whole embryo culture. Embryonic growth and development parameters (yolk sac diameter, crown-rump length, somite count, and DNA and protein content) and gross morphology were determined. Findings indicated that these chemicals were neither embryotoxic nor teratogenic. Thus, the PCDEs, which elicit other diverse toxic and biochemical responses in rodents, are relatively inactive in these bioassays for developmental toxicity.

  4. On the competition between hydrogen abstraction versus C-O bond fission in initiating dimethyl ether combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francisco, J.

    1999-07-01

    There has been a growing interest in the potential use of dimethyl ether (DME) as a diesel fuel in compression ignition engines. There are two initiation steps involved in the combustion of DME, one involving C-O bond fission and the other involving hydrogen abstraction by molecular oxygen. The kinetics and thermodynamics of C-O bond fission were explored computationally in a previous paper. The present paper addresses the competing process--hydrogen abstraction by molecular oxygen. Ab initio molecular orbital calculations are used to study the structures and energetics of the reactants, products, and the transition state for the CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3} + O{sub 2} reaction. The calculations predict a barrier for hydrogen abstraction from CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3} by O{sub 2} of 47.4 kcal/mol. This is lower than the barrier height for C-O bond fission previously calculated to be 81.1 kcal/mol. The results support values used in current models for the combustion of DME. Moreover, an examination of rates for C-O bond fission versus hydrogen abstraction by O{sub 2} suggests that the bimolecular process is the dominant pathway.

  5. Auto-ignition during instationary jet evolution of dimethyl ether (DME) in a high-pressure atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fast, G.; Kuhn, D.; Class, A.G.; Maas, U.

    2009-01-15

    The auto-ignition process during transient injection of gaseous dimethyl ether (DME) in a constant high-pressure atmosphere is studied experimentally by laser-optical methods and compared with numerical calculations. With different non-intrusive measurement techniques jet properties and auto-ignition are investigated at high temporal and spatial resolution. The open jet penetrates a constant pressure oxidative atmosphere of up to 4 MPa. During the transient evolution, the fuel jet entrains air at up to 720 K. The subsequent auto-ignition of the ignitable part of the jet occurs simultaneously over a wide spatial extension. The ignition delay times are not affected by variation of the nozzle exit velocity. Thus, the low-temperature oxidation is slow compared with the shorter time scales of mixing, so that chemical kinetics is dominating the process. The typical two-stage ignition is resolved optically with high-speed shadowgraphy at a sampling rate of 10 kHz. The 2D fields of jet velocity and transient mixture fraction are measured phase-coupled with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Tracer Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) during the time-frame of ignition. The instationary Probability Density Functions (PDF) of mixture fraction are described very well by Beta functions within the complete area of the open jet. Additional 1D flamelet simulations of the auto-ignition process are computed with a detailed reaction mechanism for DME [S. Fischer, F. Dryer, H. Curran, Int. J. Chem. Kinet. 32 (12) (2000) 713-740; H. Curran, S. Fischer, F. Dryer, Int. J. Chem. Kinet. 32 (12) (2000) 741-759]. Calculated ignition delay times are in very good agreement with the measured mean ignition delay times of 3 ms. Supplemental flamelet simulations address the influence of DME and air temperature, pressure and strain. Underneath a critical strain rate the air temperature is identified to be the most sensitive factor on ignition delay time. (author)

  6. Synthesis of dimethyl ether and alternative fuels in the liquid phase from coal-derived synthesis gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhatt, B.L.

    1992-09-01

    As part of the DOE-sponsored contract for the Synthesis of Dimethyl Ether (DME) and Alternative Fuels in the Liquid Phase from Coal- Derived Syngas, the single-step, slurry phase DME synthesis process was developed. The development involved screening of catalyst systems, process variable studies, and catalyst life studies in two 300 ml stirred autoclaves. As a spin-off of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH*) process, the new process significantly improves the syngas conversion efficiency of the LPMEOH process. This improvement can be achieved by replacing a portion of methanol catalyst with a dehydration catalyst in the reactor, resulting in the product methanol being converted to DME, thus avoiding the thermodynamic equilibrium constraint of the methanol reaction. Overall, this increases syngas conversion per-pass. The selectivity and productivity of DME and methanol are affected by the catalyst system employed as well as operating conditions. A preferred catalyst system, consisting of a physical mixture of a methanol catalyst and a gamma alumina, was identified. An improvement of about 50% in methanol equivalent productivity was achieved compared to the LPMEOH process. Results from the process variable study indicate that higher pressure and CO[sub 2] removal benefit the process significantly. Limited life studies performed on the preferred catalyst system suggest somewhat higher than expected deactivation rate for the methanol catalyst. Several DME/methanol mixtures were measured for their key properties as transportation fuels. With small amounts of DME added, significant improvements in both flash points and Reid Vapor Pressure (RVP) were observed over the corresponding values of methanol alone.

  7. Effect of temperature on the desorption and decomposition of mustard from activated carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karwacki, C.J.; Buchanan, J.H.; Mahle, J.J.; Buettner, L.C.; Wagner, G.W.

    1999-12-07

    Experimental data are reported for the desorption of bis-2-chloroethyl sulfide, (a sulfur mustard or HD) and its decomposition products from activated coconut shell carbon (CSC). The results show that under equilibrium conditions changes in the HD partial pressure are affected primarily by its loading and temperature of the adsorbent. The partial pressure of adsorbed HD is found to increase by about a decade for each 25 C increase in temperature for CSC containing 0.01--0.1 g/g HD. Adsorption equilibria of HD appear to be little affected by coadsorbed water. Although complicated by its decomposition, the distribution of adsorbed HD (of known amount) appears to occupy pores of similar energy whether dry or in the presence of adsorbed water. On dry CSC adsorbed HD appears stable, while in the presence of water its decomposition is marked by hydrolysis at low temperature and thermal decomposition at elevated temperatures. The principal volatile products desorbed are 1,4-thioxane, 2-chloroethyl vinyl sulfide and 1,4-dithiane, with the latter favoring elevated temperatures.

  8. Synthesis of Methanol and Dimethyl Ether from Syngas over Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lebarbier, Vanessa MC; Dagle, Robert A.; Kovarik, Libor; Lizarazo Adarme, Jair A.; King, David L.; Palo, Daniel R.

    2012-10-01

    A Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst was developed for the synthesis of methanol and dimethyl ether (DME) from syngas. Studied were temperatures of operation ranging from 250°C to 380°C. High temperatures (e.g. 380°C) are necessary when combining methanol and DME synthesis with a methanol to gasoline (MTG) process in a single reactor bed. A commercial Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst, utilized industrially for the synthesis of methanol at 220-280°C, suffers from a rapid deactivation when the reaction is conducted at high temperature (>320°C). On the contrary, a Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst was found to be highly stable for methanol and DME synthesis at 380°C. The Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst was thus further investigated for methanol and DME synthesis at P=34-69 bars, T= 250-380°C, GHSV= 5 000-18 000 h-1, and molar feeds H2/CO= 1, 2, and 3. Selectivity to DME increased with decreasing operating temperature, and increasing operating pressure. Increased GHSV’s and H2/CO syngas feed ratios also enhanced DME selectivity. Undesirable CH4 formation was observed, however, can be minimized through choice of process conditions and by catalyst design. By studying the effect of the Pd loading and the Pd:Zn molar ratio the formulation of the Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst was optimized. A catalyst with 5% Pd and a Pd:Zn molar ratio of 0.25:1 has been identified as the preferred catalyst. Results indicate that PdZn particles are more active than Pdº particles for the synthesis of methanol and less active for CH4 formation. A correlation between DME selectivity and the concentration of acid sites of the catalysts has been established. Hence, two types of sites are required for the direct conversion of syngas to DME: 1) PdZn particles are active for the synthesis of methanol from syngas, and 2) acid sites which are active for the conversion of methanol to DME. Additionally, CO2 formation was problematic as PdZn was found to be active for the water-gas-shift (WGS) reaction, under all the conditions evaluated.

  9. Manipulation of the HIF–Vegf pathway rescues methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)-induced vascular lesions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonventre, Josephine A., E-mail: josephine.bonventre@oregonstate.edu [Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Joint Graduate Program in Toxicology, 170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, 76 Lipman Dr., New Brunswick, NJ 08901 (United States); Oregon State University, Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, 1011 Agricultural and Life Sciences Bldg, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Kung, Tiffany S., E-mail: tiffany.kung@rutgers.edu [Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Joint Graduate Program in Toxicology, 170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, 76 Lipman Dr., New Brunswick, NJ 08901 (United States); White, Lori A., E-mail: lawhite@aesop.rutgers.edu [Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Joint Graduate Program in Toxicology, 170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, 76 Lipman Dr., New Brunswick, NJ 08901 (United States); Cooper, Keith R., E-mail: cooper@aesop.rutgers.edu [Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Joint Graduate Program in Toxicology, 170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, 76 Lipman Dr., New Brunswick, NJ 08901 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) has been shown to be specifically anti-angiogenic in piscine and mammalian model systems at concentrations that appear non-toxic in other organ systems. The mechanism by which MTBE targets developing vascular structures is unknown. A global transcriptome analysis of zebrafish embryos developmentally exposed to 0.00625–5 mM MTBE suggested that hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-regulated pathways were affected. HIF-driven angiogenesis via vascular endothelial growth factor (vegf) is essential to the developing vasculature of an embryo. Three rescue studies were designed to rescue MTBE-induced vascular lesions: pooled blood in the common cardinal vein (CCV), cranial hemorrhages (CH), and abnormal intersegmental vessels (ISV), and test the hypothesis that MTBE toxicity was HIF–Vegf dependent. First, zebrafish vegf-a over-expression via plasmid injection, resulted in significantly fewer CH and ISV lesions, 46 and 35% respectively, in embryos exposed to 10 mM MTBE. Then HIF degradation was inhibited in two ways. Chemical rescue by N-oxaloylglycine significantly reduced CCV and CH lesions by 30 and 32% in 10 mM exposed embryos, and ISV lesions were reduced 24% in 5 mM exposed zebrafish. Finally, a morpholino designed to knock-down ubiquitin associated von Hippel–Lindau protein, significantly reduced CCV lesions by 35% in 10 mM exposed embryos. In addition, expression of some angiogenesis related genes altered by MTBE exposure were rescued. These studies demonstrated that MTBE vascular toxicity is mediated by a down regulation of HIF–Vegf driven angiogenesis. The selective toxicity of MTBE toward developing vasculature makes it a potentially useful chemical in the designing of new drugs or in elucidating roles for specific angiogenic proteins in future studies of vascular development. - Highlights: • Global gene expression of MTBE exposed zebrafish suggested altered HIF1 signaling. • Over expression of zebrafish vegf-a rescues MTBE-induced vascular lesions. • Inhibiting PHD or knocking down VHL rescues MTBE-induced vascular lesions. • HIF1-Vegf driven angiogenesis is a target for MTBE vascular toxicity.

  10. EAST CAROLINA UNIVERSITY HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL USE GRANT REVIEW FORM ECU policy requires that all grant proposals involving the use of hazardous chemicals be reviewed by an institutional review committee or

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -benezene 4-Aminodiphenyl Asbestos Coal tar pitch volatiles Methyl chloromethyl ether Formaldehyde Vinyl chloride Coke oven emissions 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane Lead Cadmium Benzene Cotton dust Chromium VI

  11. EAST CAROLINA UNIVERSITY HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL USE GRANT REVIEW FORM ECU policy requires that all grant proposals involving the use of hazardous chemicals be reviewed by an institutional review committee or

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gopalakrishnan, K.

    tar pitch volatiles Methyl chloromethyl ether Formaldehyde Vinyl chloride Coke oven emissions 1 materials. DOT Class 1 Explosive DOT Class 6 Poison Toxic DOT Class 2 Gas DOT Class 8 Corrosive Highly Toxic

  12. Exploring the kinetics of switchable polymer surfaces with dynamic tensiometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Hyomin

    Switchable polymer multilayer coatings consisting of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) were prepared via Layer-by-Layer (LbL) assembly and post-functionalized with poly(ethylene glycol methyl ether) ...

  13. Synthesis of dimethyl ether and alternative fuels in the liquid phase from coal-derived syngas; Quarterly technical progress report No. 3, 1 July--30 September 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1991-01-25

    Contract objectives are: development of a one-step liquid phase dimethyl ether/methanol process; and investigation of the potential of liquid phase synthesis of alternative fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas. Definition of Preferred Catalyst System was completed after several commercial methanol catalysts and dehydration catalysts were tested. BASF S3-86 and Catapal gamma alumina is the preferred catalyst system of choice. Process Variable Scans on the Preferred Catalyst System was started with Shell gas. Data were obtained at various pressures (750 to 1400 psig), temperatures (250 to 280{degrees}C), and space velocities (5000 to 9000 sl/kg-hr). Increase in system pressure seems to have a very significant benefit to both DME and methanol formation. Both Texaco and Shell gases were evaluated. A ``stoichiometric`` feed composition (50% CO, 50% H{sub 2}) that yields maximum DME productivity at equilibrium was evaluated with a fresh batch of the optimum catalyst system. Productivities with the ``stoichiometric`` gas were much higher compared to Shell or Texaco gas. Following that test, Dow gas was evaluated (41% CO, 41% H{sub 2}, 16% CO{sub 2} and 2% N{sub 2}) using the same catalyst to study the effect of CO{sub 2}. Three DME/MEOH (1--4% DME) mixtures were evaluated by SWRI for their fuel properties. Results indicate that, with small amounts of DME added, significant improvements in both flash point and RVP are possible over the properties of LaPorte MEOH. the slurry-phase dehydration of alcohols to ethers was investigated by feeding 10 mol% mixed alcohols in N{sub 2} over an alumina catalyst suspended in mineral oil. Two alcohol mixture compositions were chosen for this study. One mixture contained methanol, ethanol, and 1-propanol in proportions representative of those in IFP Substifuel, while the other mixture contained methanol, ethanol, and isobutanol in proportions representative of those in Lurgi Octamix. 21 figs., 13 tabs.

  14. Low pour crude oil compositions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Motz, K.L.; Latham, R.A.; Statz, R.J.

    1990-05-22

    This patent describes and improvement in the process of transporting waxy crude oils through a pipeline. It comprises: incorporating into the crude oil an effective pour point depressant amount of an additive comprising a polymer selected from the group consisting of copolymers of ethylene and acrylonitrile, and terpolymers of ethylene, acrylonitrile and a third monomer selected from the group consisting of vinyl acetate, carbon monoxide, alkyl acrylates, alkyl methacrylates, alkyl vinyl ethers, vinyl chloride, vinyl fluoride, acrylic acid, and methacrylic acid, wherein the amount of third monomer in the terpolymer ranges from about 0.1 to about 10.0 percent by weight.

  15. Quercetin 3-O-methyl ether protects FL83B cells from copper induced oxidative stress through the PI3K/Akt and MAPK/Erk pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tseng, Hsiao-Ling, E-mail: lily1001224@gmail.com [Department of Life Sciences, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Life Sciences, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Li, Chia-Jung, E-mail: 97751101@stmail.tcu.edu.tw [Institute of Medical Sciences, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China)] [Institute of Medical Sciences, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Huang, Lin-Huang, E-mail: yg1236@yahoo.com.tw [School of Medicine, Institute of Traditional Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)] [School of Medicine, Institute of Traditional Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chun-Yao, E-mail: cychen@mail.tcu.edu.tw [Department of Life Sciences, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Life Sciences, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Chun-Hao, E-mail: 100726105@stmail.tcu.edu.tw [Department of Life Sciences, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Life Sciences, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Lin, Chun-Nan, E-mail: lincna@cc.kmu.edu.tw [Faculty of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China) [Faculty of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Department of Biological Science and Technology, School of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Hsue-Yin, E-mail: hsueyin@mail.tcu.edu.tw [Department of Life Sciences, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Life Sciences, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China)

    2012-10-01

    Quercetin is a bioflavonoid that exhibits several biological functions in vitro and in vivo. Quercetin 3-O-methyl ether (Q3) is a natural product reported to have pharmaceutical activities, including antioxidative and anticancer activities. However, little is known about the mechanism by which it protects cells from oxidative stress. This study was designed to investigate the mechanisms by which Q3 protects against Cu{sup 2+}-induced cytotoxicity. Exposure to Cu{sup 2+} resulted in the death of mouse liver FL83B cells, characterized by apparent apoptotic features, including DNA fragmentation and increased nuclear condensation. Q3 markedly suppressed Cu{sup 2+}-induced apoptosis and mitochondrial dysfunction, characterized by reduced mitochondrial membrane potential, caspase-3 activation, and PARP cleavage, in Cu{sup 2+}-exposed cells. The involvement of PI3K, Akt, Erk, FOXO3A, and Mn-superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) was shown to be critical to the survival of Q3-treated FL83B cells. The liver of both larval and adult zebrafish showed severe damage after exposure to Cu{sup 2+} at a concentration of 5 ?M. Hepatic damage induced by Cu{sup 2+} was reduced by cotreatment with Q3. Survival of Cu{sup 2+}-exposed larval zebrafish was significantly increased by cotreatment with 15 ?M Q3. Our results indicated that Cu{sup 2+}-induced apoptosis in FL83B cells occurred via the generation of ROS, upregulation and phosphorylation of Erk, overexpression of 14-3-3, inactivation of Akt, and the downregulation of FOXO3A and MnSOD. Hence, these results also demonstrated that Q3 plays a protective role against oxidative damage in zebrafish liver and remarked the potential of Q3 to be used as an antioxidant for hepatocytes. Highlights: ? Protective effects of Q3 on Cu{sup 2+}-induced oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo. ? Cu{sup 2+} induced apoptosis in FL83B cells via ROS and the activation of Erk. ? Q3 abolishes Cu{sup 2+}-induced apoptosis through the PI3K/Akt and MAPK/Erk pathway.

  16. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in e-waste: Level and transfer in a typical e-waste recycling site in Shanghai, Eastern China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yue; Duan, Yan-Ping, E-mail: duanyanping@tongji.edu.cn; Huang, Fan; Yang, Jing; Xiang, Nan; Meng, Xiang-Zhou; Chen, Ling

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • PBDEs were detected in the majority of e-waste. • PBDEs were found in TVs made in China after 1990. • The levels of ?PBDEs in e-waste made in Japan far exceed the threshold limit of RoHS. • The inappropriate recycling and disposal of e-waste is an important source of PBDEs. - Abstract: Very few data for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were available in the electronic waste (e-waste) as one of the most PBDEs emission source. This study reported concentrations of PBDEs in e-waste including printer, rice cooker, computer monitor, TV, electric iron and water dispenser, as well as dust from e-waste, e-waste dismantling workshop and surface soil from inside and outside of an e-waste recycling plant in Shanghai, Eastern China. The results showed that PBDEs were detected in the majority of e-waste, and the concentrations of ?PBDEs ranged from not detected to 175 g/kg, with a mean value of 10.8 g/kg. PBDEs were found in TVs made in China after 1990. The mean concentrations of ?PBDEs in e-waste made in Korea, Japan, Singapore and China were 1.84 g/kg, 20.5 g/kg, 0.91 g/kg, 4.48 g/kg, respectively. The levels of ?PBDEs in e-waste made in Japan far exceed the threshold limit of RoHS (1.00 g/kg). BDE-209 dominated in e-waste, accounting for over 93%. The compositional patterns of PBDEs congeners resembled the profile of Saytex 102E, indicating the source of deca-BDE. Among the samples of dust and surface soil from a typical e-waste recycling site, the highest concentrations of ?{sub 18}PBDEs and BDE-209 were found in dust in e-waste, ranging from 1960 to 340,710 ng/g and from 910 to 320,400 ng/g, which were 1–2 orders of magnitude higher than other samples. It suggested that PBDEs released from e-waste via dust, and then transferred to surrounding environment.

  17. 12-11-24 7:47 PMModernity, the Cold War, and New Whig Histories of Ideas, Pt. 3 Ether Wave Propaganda Page 1 of 6http://etherwave.wordpress.com/2012/11/17/modernity-the-cold-war-and-new-whig-histories-of-ideas-pt-3/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solovey, Mark

    12-11-24 7:47 PMModernity, the Cold War, and New Whig Histories of Ideas, Pt. 3 « Ether Wave Propaganda Page 1 of 6http://etherwave.wordpress.com/2012/11/17/modernity-the-cold-war-and-new-whig-histories-of-ideas-pt-3/ Modernity, the Cold War, and New Whig Histories of Ideas, Pt. 3 November 17, 2012 Posted

  18. 13-03-09 9:32 PMModernity, the Cold War, and New Whig Histories of Ideas, Pt. 1 | Ether Wave Propaganda Page 1 of 6http://etherwave.wordpress.com/2012/09/22/modernity-the-cold-war-and-new-whig-histories-of-ideas-pt-1/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solovey, Mark

    13-03-09 9:32 PMModernity, the Cold War, and New Whig Histories of Ideas, Pt. 1 | Ether Wave Propaganda Page 1 of 6http://etherwave.wordpress.com/2012/09/22/modernity-the-cold-war-and-new-whig-histories-of-ideas-pt-1/ Modernity, the Cold War, and New Whig Histories of Ideas, Pt. 1 September 22, 2012 Posted

  19. 13-03-09 9:37 PMModernity, the Cold War, and New Whig Histories of Ideas, Pt. 2 | Ether Wave Propaganda Page 1 of 4http://etherwave.wordpress.com/2012/10/21/modernity-the-cold-war-and-new-whig-histories-of-ideas-pt-2/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solovey, Mark

    13-03-09 9:37 PMModernity, the Cold War, and New Whig Histories of Ideas, Pt. 2 | Ether Wave Propaganda Page 1 of 4http://etherwave.wordpress.com/2012/10/21/modernity-the-cold-war-and-new-whig-histories-of-ideas-pt-2/ Modernity, the Cold War, and New Whig Histories of Ideas, Pt. 2 October 21, 2012 Posted

  20. Acetylene Inhibition of Trichloroethene and Vinyl Chloride

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Semprini, Lewis

    the biological transformation of VC to ethene. Introduction Chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs lost their ability to degrade PCE. These results suggested that more than two dehalogenating microorganisms were responsible for the complete transformation of PCE to ethene (4). By examining anaerobic

  1. Separation of gases through gas enrichment membrane composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swedo, Raymond J. (Mt. Prospect, IL); Kurek, Paul R. (Schaumburg, IL)

    1988-01-01

    Thin film composite membranes having as a permselective layer a film of a homopolymer of certain vinyl alkyl ethers are useful in the separation of various gases. Such homopolymers have a molecular weight of greater than 30,000 and the alkyl group of the vinyl alkyl monomer has from 4 to 20 carbon atoms with branching within the alkyl moiety at least at the carbon atom bonded to the ether oxygen or at the next adjacent carbon atom. These membranes show excellent hydrolytic stability, especially in the presence of acidic or basic gaseous components.

  2. Separation of gases through gas enrichment membrane composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swedo, R.J.; Kurek, P.R.

    1988-07-19

    Thin film composite membranes having as a permselective layer a film of a homopolymer of certain vinyl alkyl ethers are useful in the separation of various gases. Such homopolymers have a molecular weight of greater than 30,000 and the alkyl group of the vinyl alkyl monomer has from 4 to 20 carbon atoms with branching within the alkyl moiety at least at the carbon atom bonded to the ether oxygen or at the next adjacent carbon atom. These membranes show excellent hydrolytic stability, especially in the presence of acidic or basic gaseous components.

  3. Density functional theory study of the interaction of vinyl radical, ethyne, and ethene with benzene, aimed to define an affordable computational level to investigate stability trends in large van der Waals complexes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maranzana, Andrea E-mail: anna.giordana@hotmail.com E-mail: mauro.causa@unina.it Giordana, Anna E-mail: anna.giordana@hotmail.com E-mail: mauro.causa@unina.it Indarto, Antonius Tonachini, Glauco; Barone, Vincenzo E-mail: anna.giordana@hotmail.com E-mail: mauro.causa@unina.it; Causà, Mauro E-mail: anna.giordana@hotmail.com E-mail: mauro.causa@unina.it; Pavone, Michele E-mail: anna.giordana@hotmail.com E-mail: mauro.causa@unina.it

    2013-12-28

    Our purpose is to identify a computational level sufficiently dependable and affordable to assess trends in the interaction of a variety of radical or closed shell unsaturated hydro-carbons A adsorbed on soot platelet models B. These systems, of environmental interest, would unavoidably have rather large sizes, thus prompting to explore in this paper the performances of relatively low-level computational methods and compare them with higher-level reference results. To this end, the interaction of three complexes between non-polar species, vinyl radical, ethyne, or ethene (A) with benzene (B) is studied, since these species, involved themselves in growth processes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and soot particles, are small enough to allow high-level reference calculations of the interaction energy ?E{sub AB}. Counterpoise-corrected interaction energies ?E{sub AB} are used at all stages. (1) Density Functional Theory (DFT) unconstrained optimizations of the A?B complexes are carried out, using the B3LYP-D, ?B97X-D, and M06-2X functionals, with six basis sets: 6-31G(d), 6-311 (2d,p), and 6-311++G(3df,3pd); aug-cc-pVDZ and aug-cc-pVTZ; N07T. (2) Then, unconstrained optimizations by Møller-Plesset second order Perturbation Theory (MP2), with each basis set, allow subsequent single point Coupled Cluster Singles Doubles and perturbative estimate of the Triples energy computations with the same basis sets [CCSD(T)//MP2]. (3) Based on an additivity assumption of (i) the estimated MP2 energy at the complete basis set limit [E{sub MP2/CBS}] and (ii) the higher-order correlation energy effects in passing from MP2 to CCSD(T) at the aug-cc-pVTZ basis set, ?E{sub CC-MP}, a CCSD(T)/CBS estimate is obtained and taken as a computational energy reference. At DFT, variations in ?E{sub AB} with basis set are not large for the title molecules, and the three functionals perform rather satisfactorily even with rather small basis sets [6-31G(d) and N07T], exhibiting deviation from the computational reference of less than 1 kcal mol{sup ?1}. The zero-point vibrational energy corrected estimates ?(E{sub AB}+ZPE), obtained with the three functionals and the 6-31G(d) and N07T basis sets, are compared with experimental D{sub 0} measures, when available. In particular, this comparison is finally extended to the naphthalene and coronene dimers and to three ??? associations of different PAHs (R, made by 10, 16, or 24 C atoms) and P (80 C atoms)

  4. Reactions of adducts of phosphorus pentachloride and oxa-containing nucleophiles with arsenic trifluoride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fridland, S.V.; Miftakhov, M.N.; Arkhipov, V.P.

    1987-12-20

    Results are given on the synthesis of phosphonofluoridates by the reactions of arsenic trifluoride with adducts of phosphorus pentachloride with oxa-containing nucleophiles. The nucleophiles used were saturated ethers, dioxolanes, and vinyl ethers. Reaction products were identified by means of NMR spectroscopy using H 1, P 31, and C 13. A full analysis of chemical shift and spin-spin coupling constant behavior as well as the spectral structure is conducted.

  5. 13-03-09 9:30 PMCold War Social Science and the Rubric of the "Cold War" | Ether Wave Propaganda Page 1 of 6http://etherwave.wordpress.com/2012/09/06/cold-war-social-science-and-the-rubric-of-the-cold-war/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solovey, Mark

    13-03-09 9:30 PMCold War Social Science and the Rubric of the "Cold War" | Ether Wave Propaganda Page 1 of 6http://etherwave.wordpress.com/2012/09/06/cold-war-social-science-and-the-rubric-of-the-cold-war/ Cold War Social Science and the Rubric of the "Cold War" September 6, 2012 Posted by Will Thomas in EWP

  6. Synthesis and Rheological Characterization of Poly (vinyl acetate-b-vinyl

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail. (Conference)Feedback System inStatusandArticle) |Hydrogen Storage Materials

  7. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbons via Indirect Liquefaction. Thermochemical Research Pathway to High-Octane Gasoline Blendstock Through Methanol/Dimethyl Ether Intermediates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan, Eric C. D.; Talmadge, Michael; Dutta, Abhijit; Hensley, Jesse; Schaidle, Josh; Biddy, Mary; Humbird, David; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Ross, Jeff; Sexton, Danielle; Yap, Raymond; Lukas, John

    2015-03-01

    This report was developed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office’s (BETO’s) efforts to enable the development of technologies for the production of infrastructure-compatible, cost-competitive liquid hydrocarbon fuels from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks. The research funded by BETO is designed to advance the state of technology of biomass feedstock supply and logistics, conversion, and overall system sustainability. It is expected that these research improvements will be made within the 2022 timeframe. As part of their involvement in this research and development effort, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory investigate the economics of conversion pathways through the development of conceptual biorefinery process models and techno-economic analysis models. This report describes in detail one potential conversion process for the production of high-octane gasoline blendstock via indirect liquefaction of biomass. The processing steps of this pathway include the conversion of biomass to synthesis gas or syngas via indirect gasification, gas cleanup, catalytic conversion of syngas to methanol intermediate, methanol dehydration to dimethyl ether (DME), and catalytic conversion of DME to high-octane, gasoline-range hydrocarbon blendstock product. The conversion process configuration leverages technologies previously advanced by research funded by BETO and demonstrated in 2012 with the production of mixed alcohols from biomass. Biomass-derived syngas cleanup via reforming of tars and other hydrocarbons is one of the key technology advancements realized as part of this prior research and 2012 demonstrations. The process described in this report evaluates a new technology area for the downstream utilization of clean biomass-derived syngas for the production of high-octane hydrocarbon products through methanol and DME intermediates. In this process, methanol undergoes dehydration to DME, which is subsequently converted via homologation reactions to high-octane, gasoline-range hydrocarbon products.

  8. Development of alternative fuels from coal derived syngas. Topical report: Task 2.2, Demonstration of a one-step slurry-phase process for the production of dimethyl ether/methanol mixtures at the LaPorte Alternative Fuels Development Unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    This report documents engineering, modification, and operations efforts of demonstration of dimethyl-ether/methanol coproduction in a slurry-phase reactor, carried out in a 2-ft diameter bubble column reactor. Equipment modifications made it possible to remove the product DME and by-product CO{sub 2} from the reactor effluent. Coproduction of dimethyl-ether (DME) and methanol (MeOH) was accomplished in the slurry reactor by physically mixing two different catalysts. The catalyst used to produce MeOH from syngas was manufactured by BASF (type S3-86); the catalyst used to convert MeOH to DME was Catapal {gamma}-alumina. Ratio of MeOH to DME catalysts determined the selectivity towards DME. The demonstration sought to study effect of cocatalyst ratio on product selectivity. Three different proportions of DME catalyst were examined: 0, 6.6, and 19.3 wt % alumina. At each catalyst proportion, the plant was operated at two different gas space velocities. Some process variables were maintained at fixed conditions; most important variables included: reactor temperature (482F), reactor pressure (750 psig), and reactor feed gas composition (35% H{sub 2}, 51% CO,13% CO{sub 2} 1% other, nominal-molar basis).

  9. Dimethyl Ether Market | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar2-0057-EA Jump to: navigation,Department ofEnergieSize Home There areMarket

  10. OpenEI Community - Dimethyl Ether Market

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsourceII Jump to:InformationInformationOorja

  11. Natural attenuation of organophosphates in river systems: Chattahoochee River case study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrews, Matthew B. (Matthew Bryan), 1981-

    2004-01-01

    Three organophosphoric acid triesters, tributyl phosphate (TBP), tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), and tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBEP) have been detected in surface waters across the world, primarily the result ...

  12. Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Robert

    2012-01-01

    build-up and permanent distortion Property Description Total solarbuild-up and permanent distortion; and factors that determine the properties of reflected solarbuild-up (ASTM 1998). A black object absorbs most visible incident solar

  13. Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Data Sheet ID: GP-31B. LBNL Heat Island Group. 2010. http://of the siding surface. The heat island effect is anexample of this (LBNL Heat Island Group 2010). Physical

  14. The Palladium-Catalyzed Trifluoromethylation of Vinyl Sulfonates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, Eun Jin

    A method for the palladium-catalyzed trifluoromethylation of cyclohexenyl sulfonates has been developed. Various cyclohexenyl triflates and nonaflates underwent trifluoromethylation under mild reaction conditions using a ...

  15. Methods for the synthesis of deuterated vinyl pyridine monomers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hong, Kunlun; Yang, Jun; Bonnesen, Peter V

    2014-02-25

    Methods for synthesizing deuterated vinylpyridine compounds of the Formula (1), wherein the method includes: (i) deuterating an acyl pyridine of the Formula (2) in the presence of a metal catalyst and D.sub.2O, wherein the metal catalyst is active for hydrogen exchange in water, to produce a deuterated acyl compound of Formula (3); (ii) reducing the compound of Formula (3) with a deuterated reducing agent to convert the acyl group to an alcohol group, and (iii) dehydrating the compound produced in step (ii) with a dehydrating agent to afford the vinylpyridine compound of Formula (1). The resulting deuterated vinylpyridine compounds are also described.

  16. Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Robert

    2012-01-01

    sun. Figure 2 shows peak modeled global solar irradiance on a vertical, solar tracking,tracking surface in Golden, CO. Figure 3. Apparent position of sun

  17. Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Report SERI/TR-642-761, Solar Energy Research Institute,radiation Direct reflected solar energy from smooth surfaceshighest in the sky. The solar energy incident on a receiving

  18. Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Robert

    2012-01-01

    to varying levels solar radiation, and quantify theirproperties of reflected solar radiation from glass surfaces,siding surface. Direct solar radiation to siding, reflected

  19. Patent: Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride | DOEpatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnical Report:Speeding access toSmall Reactor for DeepK.alpha. X-ray imagingMicrobial

  20. Synthesis of dimethyl ether and alternative fuels in the liquid phase from coal-derived synthesis gas. Task 2.2: Definition of preferred catalyst system; Task 2.3: Process variable scans on the preferred catalyst system; Task 2.4: Life-test on the preferred catalyst system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhatt, B.L.

    1992-09-01

    As part of the DOE-sponsored contract for the Synthesis of Dimethyl Ether (DME) and Alternative Fuels in the Liquid Phase from Coal- Derived Syngas, the single-step, slurry phase DME synthesis process was developed. The development involved screening of catalyst systems, process variable studies, and catalyst life studies in two 300 ml stirred autoclaves. As a spin-off of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH*) process, the new process significantly improves the syngas conversion efficiency of the LPMEOH process. This improvement can be achieved by replacing a portion of methanol catalyst with a dehydration catalyst in the reactor, resulting in the product methanol being converted to DME, thus avoiding the thermodynamic equilibrium constraint of the methanol reaction. Overall, this increases syngas conversion per-pass. The selectivity and productivity of DME and methanol are affected by the catalyst system employed as well as operating conditions. A preferred catalyst system, consisting of a physical mixture of a methanol catalyst and a gamma alumina, was identified. An improvement of about 50% in methanol equivalent productivity was achieved compared to the LPMEOH process. Results from the process variable study indicate that higher pressure and CO{sub 2} removal benefit the process significantly. Limited life studies performed on the preferred catalyst system suggest somewhat higher than expected deactivation rate for the methanol catalyst. Several DME/methanol mixtures were measured for their key properties as transportation fuels. With small amounts of DME added, significant improvements in both flash points and Reid Vapor Pressure (RVP) were observed over the corresponding values of methanol alone.

  1. Direct Dimethyl Ether Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells for Portable Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,15 Due to molecular simplicity and ease of oxidation, H2 PEFCs have a high power density 0.7 W/cm2 of the DMFC compared to the H2 PEFC is deemed tolerable in light of the ease and storage density of liquid that needs to be considered in system power density calculations. In terms of toxicity, methanol is poisonous

  2. Verstrepen Lab Yeast genomic DNA fast prep (ether extraction method)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -buffer. Then add 250 L glass beads (0.45mm diameter) and 150 L PCI. 4. Vortex tubes 20 min in cold room OR use phase into a new tube, and add 800 L diethylether. 7. Vortex 15 sec. 8. Spin tubes 10 min, 10,000g, 4°CL screwcap tube for 2 min at 2000 rpm. 3. Remove supernatant and resuspend the cell pellet in 150L TE

  3. Characterization of DGEBA (diglycidyl ethers bisphenol-A) epoxy resins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larsen, F.N.; Spieker, D.A.

    1987-04-01

    High-resolution gel permeation chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography can be applied to commercially available DGEBA epoxy resins to elucidate small but significant differences in the oligomer and impurity compositions of these resins. The GPC profiles can be used to type or identify the various commercial grades of these DGEBA resins. Lot-to-lot consistency and aging characteristics can also be determined using GPC and HPLC. Quantitation of the various oligomers and impurities such as the ..cap alpha..-glycol, isomer, and chlorohydrin species is possible. Using 20% isoconversion predictive cure thermal analysis data, the relative resin reactivity of several liquid, low-molecular DGEBA resins has been measured. These data show that the higher viscosity, higher oligomer content resins, which have higher hydroxyl content, reacted faster with amine cure agents than the lower viscosity, higher purity - and consequently lower hydroxyl content - resins. Thus, a combination of liquid chromatography (GPC or HPLC) and DSC kinetics can be used to establish a correlation or equivalency beween the commercially available low-molecular-weight DGEBA epoxy resins.

  4. The Ether Extract and the Chloroform Extract of Soils. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S.; Rather, J. B.

    1913-01-01

    U T I N O . L N 15U L T J A U RY ,9 3L D T 9 J V S J D 3L Y FT C . J 1913 TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS. GOVERNING BOARD. (Board of Directors, A . and M . College.) TH EH RXACNDLO President..................................................................................................Entomologist PH EH RFDDUGO B. S ........................................................................................................ Agronomist lH MMH EIg)ST??O (C H 1)................................................P lant Pathologist and Physiologist o Uu...

  5. Extractant composition including crown ether and calixarene extractants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meikrantz, David H. (Idaho Falls, ID); Todd, Terry A. (Aberdeen, ID); Riddle, Catherine L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Law, Jack D. (Pocalello, ID); Peterman, Dean R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Mincher, Bruce J. (Idaho Falls, ID); McGrath, Christopher A. (Blackfoot, ID); Baker, John D. (Blackfoot, ID)

    2009-04-28

    An extractant composition comprising a mixed extractant solvent consisting of calix[4] arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo)-crown-6 ("BOBCalixC6"), 4',4',(5')-di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 ("DtBu18C6"), and at least one modifier dissolved in a diluent. The DtBu18C6 may be present at from approximately 0.01M to approximately 0.4M, such as at from approximately 0.086 M to approximately 0.108 M. The modifier may be 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol ("Cs-7SB") and may be present at from approximately 0.01M to approximately 0.8M. In one embodiment, the mixed extractant solvent includes approximately 0.15M DtBu18C6, approximately 0.007M BOBCalixC6, and approximately 0.75M Cs-7SB modifier dissolved in an isoparaffinic hydrocarbon diluent. The extractant composition further comprises an aqueous phase. The mixed extractant solvent may be used to remove cesium and strontium from the aqueous phase.

  6. Catalytic Asymmetric Synthesis of Hydroxy Enol Ethers: Approach to a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walsh, Patrick J.

    . Vagelos Laboratories, UniVersity of PennsylVania, Philadelphia, PennsylVania 19104 pwalsh@sas.upenn.edu Received February 7, 2005 ABSTRACT Hydroboration of ethoxy acetylene, transmetalation to zinc, and addition to -Hydroxy Aldehydes ORGANIC LETTERS 2005 Vol. 7, No. 9 1729-1732 10.1021/ol050255n CCC: $30.25 © 2005

  7. Polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants in the antarctic environment 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yogui, Gilvan Takeshi

    2009-05-15

    of Quantification m/z mass-to-charge ratio MDL Method Detection Limit MS Mass Spectrometry (or Mass Spectrometer) MSA Methanesulfonic Acid n number of samples nd not detected NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology NOAA National Oceanic... 13 was associated with the particulate phase (Oros et al., 2005). Average concentrations in sediments were 9.63 ng g-1 dry weight (dw) (range: nd-212 ng g-1 dw). According to the authors, these concentrations are higher than concentrations observed...

  8. Copper mediated synthesis of mono-and dichlorinated diaryl ethers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cirkva, Vladimir

    ): (ppm) 158.32, 156.28, 135.01, 130.45, 129.91, 123.98, 123.15, 119.40, 118.75, 116.66. GC/MS (EI, 70 e and after compound. Electron impact (EI) mass spectra (Thermo Scientific Focus DSQ) were determined (CDCl3, 75 MHz): (ppm) 157.19, 129.68, 123.15, 118.83. GC/MS (EI, 70 eV): m/z (%) 171 (13), 170 (M

  9. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in the Sediments of the Great Lakes.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rockne, Karl J.

    products, sewage and sludge releases, and the leaching from landfills (4). Due to their widespread use, and hormone-disrupting effects is also mounting rapidly (3, 4). Since first reported in soil and sludge from

  10. Alternative Fuels lDimethyl Ether Rheology and Materials Studies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: The Pennsylvania State University

  11. Dimethyl Ether Market Size | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar2-0057-EA Jump to: navigation,Department ofEnergieSize Home There are

  12. Dimethyl Ether Market Trends | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar2-0057-EA Jump to: navigation,Department ofEnergieSize Home There are

  13. OpenEI Community - Dimethyl Ether Market Size

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsourceII Jump to:InformationInformationOorja

  14. OpenEI Community - Dimethyl Ether Market Trends

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsourceII Jump to:InformationInformationOorja

  15. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Analysis of Molecular Mobility during Dissolution of Poly(vinyl alcohol) in Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peppas, Nicholas A.

    for recycling,4 the semiconductor industry,5 and packaging.6 The dissolution of a polymer in a solvent involves-dimensional water concentration profiles were measured as a function of distance from the polymer-solvent interface of the polymer. Self-diffusion coefficient values within the dissolving polymer increase with increasing

  16. DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200700419 Autonomic Healing of Epoxy Vinyl Esters via Ring Opening

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sottos, Nancy R.

    the Grubbs' catalyst is encapsulated in paraffin wax microspheres.[5] These wax micro- spheres serve the dual. Protecting the catalyst from aggressive curing agents by encapsulation in wax microspheres increases chemistry, and demonstrate a viable healing system follow- ing wax protection of the catalyst. The size

  17. Synthetic Approaches to Skeletally Diverse Sultams Using Vinyl- and ?-Halo Benzenesulfonamides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeon, KyuOk

    2012-08-31

    The development of new chemical methods to generate novel and diverse structures to probe chemical space is an important aspect of early phase drug discovery. Diversity-Oriented Synthesis (DOS) is a powerful strategy that ...

  18. Short communication Poly(vinyl alcohol) separators improve the coulombic efficiency of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    microorgan- isms [1] to generate electricity from biomass have received much at- tention as a promising materials and architectures that maintain high cell performance is important for wide-spread deployment

  19. Solution thermodynamics of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) in ethanol/CCl{sub 4} mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwager, F.; Marand, E.; Davis, R.M. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The Gibbs free energy, the enthalpy, and the entropy of mixing of ethanol with the polymer polyvinylpyrrolidone, PVP, and with its low molecular weight analogue, N-ethylpyrrolidone, NEP were calculated. The calculation of the free energy of mixing was achieved with the thermodynamic model for hydrogen bonded polymer systems developed by Painter, Coleman, and Graf. This model, based on the use of an association model, gives the free energy of mixing as a function of the Flory-Huggins interaction parameter, the composition of the mixture, and the association equilibrium constants. The self-association of the ethanol molecules was described by two equilibrium constants, one for the formation of dimers and one for the formation of multimers. The equilibrium constants of inter-association of PVP or NEP with ethanol were determined from the quantitative analysis of NEP/ethanol and PVP/ethanol FTIR spectra at various temperatures and compositions. The values of the equilibrium constants were then used to calculate the theoretical Gibbs free energy of mixing as a function of the composition. The enthalpic and entropic contributions to mixing were compared for the NEP/ethanol and PVP/ethanol mixtures.

  20. CuO nanoparticle filled vinyl-ester resin nanocomposites: Fabrication, characterization and property analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, John Zhanhu

    Angeles, CA 90095, USA Received 28 August 2006; received in revised form 4 November 2006; accepted 30 such as photovoltaic (solar) cells [11,12] and magnetic data storage. The func- tional groups of the polymer are normally steric interaction forces, van der Waals forces, or Lewis acid­base interactions. However, in situ

  1. Poly(vinyl alcohol)-based buffering membranes for isoelectric trapping separations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Craver, Helen C.

    2009-05-15

    Isoelectric trapping (IET) in multicompartment electrolyzers (MCE) has been widely used for the electrophoretic separation of ampholytic compounds such as proteins. In IET, the separation occurs in the buffering membranes that form a step-wise p...

  2. Electronic Structure Calculations on the Reaction of Vinyl Radical with Nitric Oxide Raman Sumathi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Minh Tho

    effect by nitric oxide on the acetylene pyrolysis is of interest in combustion chemistry, only a few and a fractional order dependence (0.24) on NO. The third study was the single pulse shock tube study by Ogura8

  3. Solute Diffusion in Poly(vinyl alcohol)/Poly(acrylic acid) Interpenetrating Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peppas, Nicholas A.

    increasingly important for use in separation processes including microfiltration, ultra- filtration, gas on the charges on the membrane and solute.9,10 Solute transport through hydrogels has been exten- sively studied) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) by varying the content of PAA in the hydrogel membrane. We also compared

  4. Effect of pulse intensity distributions on fragment internal energy in the infrared multiphoton dissociation of vinyl

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Effect of pulse intensity distributions on fragment internal energy in the infrared multiphoton the rovibra- tional energy distributions of fragmentsl formed in the infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD energies of the frag- ment can be well characterized in terms of a Boltzmann distribution with a single

  5. Synthesis and Characterization of Hydrogels Based on Poly (N-vinyl formamide)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aziz, Vara

    2010-04-27

    by conducting tensile tests to measure fracture stress, fracture strain, Young's modulus (E) and shear modulus (G). Young's modulus of PNVF gels increased from 138 kPa to 609 kPa, shear modulus increased from 49 to 212 kPa, fracture stress increased from 17...

  6. Rate-dependent deformation behavior of poss-filled and plasticized poly(vinyl chloride)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soong, Sharon Yu-Wen

    2007-01-01

    Polymers are known to exhibit strong time-dependent mechanical behavior. In different temperatures or frequency regimes, the rate sensitivities of polymers change as various primary and secondary molecular mobility mechanisms ...

  7. The effect of temperature and relative humidity levels upon charcoal tube sampling for vinyl choloride 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCaskill, Gerald Daniel

    1983-01-01

    hygienist involves sorbent tubes. '~(hen correctly applied, samples collected in this manner yield time- weighted average values for airborne concentrations to which the individual of interest is exposed. To correctly use the results of this sampling.... This is a significant finding due to the fact that as the ambient air tem- perature rises, so does its capability to hoId water vapor. At 90! relative humidity, the amount of water vapor in the air virtually doubles when the ambient air temperature...

  8. Localized Plasticity in the Streamlined Genomes of Vinyl Chloride Respiring Dehalococcoides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McMurdie, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    package [75] of the R language for statistical computing [R Development Core Team (2009) R: A Language and Environment for Statistical

  9. The impact of improved materials in poly(vinyl chloride)-based endotracheal tubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Domike, Kristin Rebecca, 1981-

    2004-01-01

    Endotracheal tubes (ETs) are used to aid artificial ventilation in millions of medical patients every year and are known to invoke the proliferative phase in the cell linings. The technical objective of this work was to ...

  10. Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/sulfonated polyhedral oligosilsesquioxane (sPOSS) hybrid membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mather, Patrick T.

    for direct methanol fuel cell applications Young-Wook Chang1*, Erdong Wang1y , Geumsig Shin1 , Jung-Eun Han1 exchange membranes in direct methanel fuel cell (DMFC) applications. Fourier transform infrared (FT, fuel cell technologies produce no pollutants, are compact in size, can be easily transported, require

  11. Ferroelectric PLZT thick films grown by poly(1-vinylpyrrolidone-co-vinyl

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (Journal Article) | SciTechSubmitted MoreTrafficFerrin Moore, Senior

  12. Petrochemicals from coal-derived syngas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sardesai, A.; Lee, S.

    1996-12-31

    The development of the Liquid Phase Dimethyl Ether (LPDME) process has established a means to effectively convert CO-rich syngas to dimethyl ether (DME) in a mechanically agitated slurry reactor. By operating in a dual catalyst mode, in-situ produced methanol may be converted to DME, thereby alleviating the chemical equilibrium limitation imposed on the methanol synthesis reaction. As a result, higher syngas conversions and methyl productivities are seen over methanol synthesis alone. This effective route to DME production over methanol has led to the development of conversion technologies based on a DME feedstock. Oxygenates, in particular, ethers and their precursors, are very important as potential clean fuel additives and have been postulated through vinylation/hydrogenation and oxidative coupling reactions. Specialty chemicals such as methyl acetate and acetic acid have widescale industrial importance in the conversion to ethanol from a non-agricultural feedstock. Vapor phase oxidative dimerization of DME over tin based catalysts produced precursors of ethylene glycol. Finally, DME has been extensively used as a feedstock for hydrocarbon synthesis including olefins, paraffins and gasoline range hydrocarbons, over zeolite based catalysts with a 46% increase in product selectivity over methanol. The efficient production of DME in the liquid phase has given it widescale industrial significance as a potential replacement for methanol and as a keystone for more important petrochemicals.

  13. A New Biarylphosphine Ligand for the Pd-Catalyzed Synthesis of Diaryl Ethers under Mild Conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salvi, Luca

    A new bulky biarylphosphine ligand (L8) has been developed that allows the Pd-catalyzed C–O cross-coupling of a wide range of aryl halides and phenols under milder conditions than previously possible. A direct correlation ...

  14. The Copolymerization of CO_(2) and Cyclic Ethers and Their Degradation Pathways 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei, Sheng-Hsuan

    2013-07-24

    oxide. Thermodynamically stable cyclic carbonate byproducts are produced during the course of the reaction from the degradations of propagating polymer chains. The depolymerization reactions of several polycarbonates produced from the completely...

  15. Treatment of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether Contaminated Water Using a Dense

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dandy, David

    -massspectrometryandgaschromatography-thermal conductivity techniques. A rate law is developed for the removal of MTBE from an aqueous solution in the DMP of water in which alkyl groups have replaced both hydrogen atoms. In fact, the C-O-C bond angle is only, causing nationwide concern. Advanced oxidation technologies (AOTs) are techniques that involve an input

  16. Supplemental Material Improved method for the quantification of lysophospholipids including enol ether

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gelb, Michael

    group (i.e. all LPG species constitute 1 channel, all LPI species constitute a second channel etc) 3 Parent ion 4 (m/z) Fragment ion 4 (m/z) Cone voltage 5 (V) Collision energy 5 (eV) 12:0-LPG 9.8 -427.22 -199.22 -38 26 14:0-LPG 65 9.5 80 -455.25 -227.25 -38 26 16:1-LPG 9.3 -481.26 -253.26 -38 26 16

  17. Composition and Digestibility of the Ether Extract of Hays and Fodders. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S.; Rather, J. B.

    1912-01-01

    ..............................................................................................................................Secretary LI eI RFE6BfB- .............................'............................................................................... Stenographer CI JI Rs.- -B9...

  18. Cesium and strontium extraction using a mixed extractant solvent including crown ether and calixarene extractants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meikrantz, David H. (Idaho Falls, ID); Todd, Terry A. (Aberdeen, ID); Riddle, Catherine L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Law, Jack D. (Pocatello, ID); Peterman, Dean R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Mincher, Bruce J. (Idaho Falls, ID); McGrath, Christopher A. (Blackfoot, ID); Baker, John D. (Blackfoot, ID)

    2007-11-06

    A mixed extractant solvent including calix[4]arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo)-crown-6 ("BOBCalixC6"), 4',4',(5')-di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 ("DtBu18C6"), and at least one modifier dissolved in a diluent. The mixed extractant solvent may be used to remove cesium and strontium from an acidic solution. The DtBu18C6 may be present from approximately 0.01 M to approximately 0.4M, such as from approximately 0.086 M to approximately 0.108 M. The modifier may be 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol ("Cs-7SB") and may be present from approximately 0.01M to approximately 0.8M. In one embodiment, the mixed extractant solvent includes approximately 0.15M DtBu18C6, approximately 0.007M BOBCalixC6, and approximately 0.75M Cs-7SB modifier dissolved in an isoparaffinic hydrocarbon diluent. The mixed extractant solvent may form an organic phase in an extraction system that also includes an aqueous phase. Methods of extracting cesium and strontium as well as strontium alone are also disclosed.

  19. Copper-mediated synthesis of mono-and dichlorinated diaryl ethers Jan K. Cermk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cirkva, Vladimir

    and abiota matrices.1 With high lipophilicity and possible bioaccumulation and biomagnification in the food-known persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs

  20. The potential for alcohols and related ethers to displace conventional gasoline components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.; McNutt, B.D.

    1996-02-01

    The United States Department of Energy is required by law to determine the feasibility of producing sufficient replacement fuels to replace 30 percent of the projected United States consumption of motor fuels by light duty vehicles in the year 2010. A replacement fuel is a non-petroleum portion of gasoline, including alcohols, natural gas and certain other components. A linear program has been used to study refinery impacts for production of ``low petroleum`` gasolines, which contain replacement fuels. The analysis suggests that high oxygenation is the key to meeting the replacement fuel target, and major contributors to cost increase can include investment in processes to produce olefins for etherification with alcohols. High oxygenation can increase the costs of control of vapor pressure, distillation properties, and pollutant emissions of gasolines. Year-round low petroleum gasoline with near-30 percent non-petroleum might be produced with cost increases of 23 to 37 cents per gallon, with substantial decreases in greenhouse gas emissions in some cases. Cost estimates are sensitive to assumptions about extrapolation of a national model for pollutant emissions, availability of raw materials and other issues. Reduction in crude oil use, a major objective of the low petroleum gasoline program, is 10 to 17 percent in the analysis.

  1. Treatment of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether Vapors in Biotrickling Filters. 1.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    byproducts in either the gas or the liquid phase. They also exhibited a very high specific degradation and leaking pipe- lines. In the past few years, several studies have been conducted to determine if natural, ethyl benzene, and xylene (BTEX) plumes, with in most cases no clear signs of natural attenuation (2

  2. Extraction of protactinium-233 and separation from thermal neutron-irradiated thorium-232 using crown ethers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jalhoom, Moayyed G.; Mohammed, Dawood A.; Khalaf, Jumah S.

    2008-07-01

    A new method was developed for the extraction and separation of {sup 233}Pa from thermal neutron-irradiated {sup 232}Th. Solutions of Pa{sup 233} were prepared in LiCI-HCl solutions from which appreciable extraction was obtained using dibenzo-18-crown-6 in 1,2-dichloroethane. The effects of cavity size, substitutions on the crown ring, type of the organic solvent, and temperature on extraction are discussed. Very high separation factors were obtained for the pairs {sup 233}Pa/{sup 232}Th (>105), {sup 233}Pa/{sup 233}U (> 1000), and {sup 232}U/{sup 232}Th (>60). (authors)

  3. MC-CAM Publications "Allyl Glycidyl Ether-Based Polymer Electrolytes for Room Temperature Lithium Batteries"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bigelow, Stephen

    Lithium Batteries" Katherine P. Barteau, Martin Wolffs, Nathaniel A. Lynd, Glenn H. Fredrickson, Edward J Nitride/Carbon Microfibers as Efficient and Stable Electrocatalysts for Li­ O2 Batteries" Jihee Park

  4. Use of ethyl-t-butyl ether (ETBE) as a gasoline blending component

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiblom, C.M.; Schoonveld, G.A.; Riley, R.K.; Pahl, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    The U.S. Treasury Department recently ruled that the ethanol blenders tax credit applies to ethanol used to make ETBE for blending with gasoline. As a result, ETBE may soon become a popular gasoline blending component. Like MTBE ETBE adds oxygen to the fuel while contributing to other performance properties of the gasoline. Phillips Petroleum Company has completed limited driveability and material compatibility studies on gasolines containing ETBE and has determined the effect on various performance parameters such as octane, volatility, and distillation of ETBE in gasoline. Levels of ETBE ranging from 0.0 to 23.5 volume percent (3.7 weight percent oxygen) in gasoline were included in the investigation. Use in gasoline is currently limited to only 12.7 volume percent (2.0 weight percent oxygen) by the gasoline substantially similar rule. No detrimental effects of the ETBE on metal or elastomeric parts common to gasoline delivery and fueling system were found. Also, several favorable blending properties of eTBE in gasoline are apparent as compared to either MTBE or ethanol. This paper presents details of these results.

  5. FT-ICR Study of Reaction of Cobalt Clusters with Alcohol, Ether and Hydrocarbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    , Kohei Koizumi, Naoki Suyama and Shigeo Maruyama Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University with ethanol. The dehydrogenation process on Co clusters was studied in detail by using isotopically modified molecules. In this paper, we have explored the basic reaction mechanisms of relatively large catalyst

  6. Hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether-mediated photodynamic effects on THP-1 cell-derived macrophages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Wenwu

    progression and decrease macrophage-infiltration. The effectiveness of PDT depends strongly on the type-related photosensitizer for PDT. This study is designed to characterize effects of HMME-based PDT on THP-1 cell- derived-prone plaques are characterized by large necrotic lipid cores, thin fibrous caps, and dense macrophage-infiltration

  7. SYNTHESIS OF DIARYL ETHERS USING AN EASY-TO-PREPARE, AIR-STABLE,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venkataraman, Dhandapani "DV"

    metals such as palladium. Soluble copper(I) salts are often air- and moisture-sensitive (e.g. CuðCF3SO3 from phenols and aryl halides. Buchwald's protocol calls for the use of CuðCF3SO3 . 0:5C6H6

  8. Chlorine resistant desalination membranes based on directly sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) copolymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McGrath, James E. (Blacksburg, VA); Park, Ho Bum (Austin, TX); Freeman, Benny D. (Austin, TX)

    2011-10-04

    The present invention provides a membrane, kit, and method of making a hydrophilic-hydrophobic random copolymer membrane. The hydrophilic-hydrophobic random copolymer membrane includes a hydrophilic-hydrophobic random copolymer. The hydrophilic-hydrophobic random copolymer includes one or more hydrophilic monomers having a sulfonated polyarylsulfone monomer and a second monomer and one or more hydrophobic monomers having a non-sulfonated third monomer and a fourth monomer. The sulfonated polyarylsulfone monomer introduces a sulfonate into the hydrophilic-hydrophobic random copolymer prior to polymerization.

  9. The processing of alcohols, hydrocarbons and ethers to produce hydrogen for a PEMFC for transportation applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dams, R.A.J.; Hayter, P.R.; Moore, S.C.

    1997-12-31

    Wellman CJB Limited is involved in a number of projects to develop fuel processors to provide a hydrogen-rich fuel in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC) systems for transportation applications. This work started in 1990 which resulted in the demonstration of 10kW PEMFC system incorporating a methanol reformer and catalytic gas clean-up system. Current projects include: The development of a compact fast response methanol reformer and gas clean-up system for a motor vehicle; Reforming of infrastructure fuels including gasoline, diesel, reformulated fuel gas and LPG to produce a hydrogen rich gas for PEMFC; Investigating the potential of dimethylether (DME) as source of hydrogen rich gas for PEMFCs; The use of thin film palladium diffusers to produce a pure hydrogen stream from the hydrogen rich gas from a reformer; and Processing of naval logistic fuels to produce a hydrogen rich gas stream for PEMFC power system to replace diesel generators in surface ships. This paper outlines the background to these projects and reports their current status.

  10. Effect of composite microstructure on electrical and mechanical properties of poly(vinyl acetate) composites with carbon black and clay. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miriyala, Sethu M.

    2009-05-15

    black with a primary particle size of 20 nm (a) and a schematic of networked high structure carbon black (b). Clay Overview Hydrous sodium or aluminium phyllosilicates which are typically less than 2 ?m in diameter are known as clay [44, 45...

  11. Ambipolar Behavior in All-Carbon-Nanotube Field-Effect Transistors by Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) Coating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    parameter analyzer (Agilent 4156C) at room temperature under ambient conditions. Fig. 1 Schematic of device including SWNT diameter distribution, capacitances of PVA film, and I-V characteristics when coating. Wang, M. Shim, K. Roy, M. A. Alam and J. A. Rogers, Nature 454, 495 (2008). 2. D. M. Sun, M. Y

  12. An investigation in the hygrothermal degradation of an E- glass/vinyl-ester composite in humid and immersion environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Svetlik, Stephanie Laura

    2008-01-01

    polymer and fiber. These results indicate that the filler is, in fact, kaolin clay and not calcium carbonate

  13. Palladium-Catalyzed Completely Linear-Selective Negishi Cross-Coupling of Allylzinc Halides with Aryl and Vinyl Electrophiles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Yang

    Completely linear: The title reaction provides an effective means to access a wide range of prenylated arenes and “skipped dienes” in a completely linear-selective fashion, as demonstrated by a concise synthesis of the ...

  14. Model Predictive Control of a Nonlinear Large-Scale Process Network Used in the Production of Vinyl Acetate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tu, TungSheng

    2013-01-01

    columns. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry, 20:1196–1200,process. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 42:process. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 50:

  15. Inter-and Intrachain Associations of an Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate Random Copolymer in Dilute 1,2-Dichloroethane Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Chi

    process, the EVA aggregates are microgel-like particles formed through the winding of the EVA chains and their derivatives to improve the flowing of crude oil, diesel, and other base oils at low tempera- ture,2

  16. Model Predictive Control of a Nonlinear Large-Scale Process Network Used in the Production of Vinyl Acetate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tu, TungSheng

    2013-01-01

    of the heat exchanger, and the pressure drop in the gasheat exchanger becomes saturated vapor through a pressureexchanger (S9) is partially condensed through a pressure

  17. Photoredox Vinylation of Amino Acids and NAryl Amines Adam Noble and David W. C. MacMillan*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacMillan, David W. C.

    -tert- butoxycarbonyl (N-Boc) -amino acids,7,8 a CO2-extrusion mechanism that has implications for the use of biomass feedstocks in conjugate additions and organometallic couplings. Allylic amines have long been attractive

  18. Investigation into the potential use of Poly (vinyl alcohol)/Methylglyoxal fibres as antibacterial wound dressing components

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bulman, Sophie E L; Tronci, Giuseppe; Russell, Stephen J; Carr, Chris

    2015-01-01

    As problems of antibiotic resistance increase, a continuing need for effective bioactive wound dressings is anticipated for the treatment of infected chronic wounds. Naturally derived antibacterial agents, such as Manuka honey, consist of a mixture of compounds, more than one of which can influence antimicrobial potency. The non-peroxide bacteriostatic properties of Manuka honey have been previously linked to the presence of methylglyoxal (MGO). The incorporation of MGO as a functional antibacterial additive during fibre production was explored as a potential route for manufacturing wound dressing components. Synthetic MGO and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) were fabricated into webs of sub-micron fibres by means of electrostatic spinning of an aqueous spinning solution. Composite fabrics were also produced by direct deposition of the PVA-MGO fibres onto a preformed spunbonded nonwoven substrate. Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) and Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H-NMR) spectros...

  19. An investigation in the hygrothermal degradation of an E- glass/vinyl-ester composite in humid and immersion environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Svetlik, Stephanie Laura

    2008-01-01

    Based Divynyl Ester Resin/Styrene Copolymers: CompositionBasted Divynyl Ester Resin/Styrene Copolymers: CompositionBased Divinyl Ester Resin/Styrene Copolymers: Composition

  20. One-Pot Asymmetric Synthesis of Acyclic Chiral Epoxy Alcohols via Tandem Vinylation-Epoxidation with Dioxygen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walsh, Patrick J.

    , Pennsylvania 19104-6323 pwalsh@sas.upenn.edu Received September 17, 2004 We have developed a one-pot procedure. Chem. 2005, 70, 1262-1268 10.1021/jo048345d CCC: $30.25 © 2005 American Chemical Society Published on Web 01/19/2005

  1. Model Predictive Control of a Nonlinear Large-Scale Process Network Used in the Production of Vinyl Acetate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tu, TungSheng

    2013-01-01

    optimization and control for intentionally transient processeconomic optimization and process control is economic modelpredictive control and optimization of processes: enabling

  2. Synthesis and Characterization of (Tris(3,5-dimethylpyrazolyl)borato)rhodium Alkyl and Vinyl Chloride Complexes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, William D.

    -reducing side reactions. Additionally, secondary derivatives of normal alkanes cannot be prepared by this method, it is not economical due to the sacrifice of 1 equiv of neopentyl isocyanide. Chambron and co-workers have reported. Powell and co-workers have reported a method for synthesizing a wide range of air-stable Rh

  3. An investigation in the hygrothermal degradation of an E- glass/vinyl-ester composite in humid and immersion environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Svetlik, Stephanie Laura

    2008-01-01

    polymer-matrix composites. ” Composites Science and Technology.polymers exposed to hot, wet conditions. ” Composites Science and Technology.

  4. Potentiometric Response Characteristics of Membrane-BasedCs+-Selective Electrodes Containing Ionophore-Functionalized Polymeric Microspheres

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Peper, Shane; Gonczy, Chad

    2011-01-01

    Cs+-selective solvent polymeric membrane-based ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) were developed by doping ethylene glycol-functionalized cross-linked polystyrene microspheres (P-EG) into a plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) matrix containing sodium tetrakis-(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl) borate (TFPB) as the ion exchanger. A systematic study examining the effects of the membrane plasticizers bis(2-ethylhexyl) sebacate (DOS), 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE), and 2-fluorophenyl nitrophenyl ether (FPNPE) on the potentiometric response and selectivity of the corresponding electrodes was performed. Under certain conditions, P-EG-based ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) containing TFPB and plasticized with NPOE exhibited a super-Nernstian response between1×10?3and1×10?4?M Cs+, a response characteristic not observed in analogous membranes plasticized with either DOS or FPNPE.more »Additionally, the performance of P-EG-based ISEs was compared to electrodes based on two mobile ionophores, a neutral lipophilic ethylene glycol derivative (ethylene glycol monooctadecyl ether (U-EG)) and a charged metallacarborane ionophore, sodium bis(dicarbollyl)cobaltate(III) (CC). In general, P-EG-based electrodes plasticized with FPNPE yielded the best performance, with a linear range from 10-1–10-5?M Cs+, a conventional lower detection limit of8.1×10?6?M Cs+, and a response slope of 57.7?mV/decade. The pH response of P-EG ISEs containing TFPB was evaluated for membranes plasticized with either NPOE or FPNPE. In both cases, the electrodes remained stable throughout the pH range 3–12, with only slight proton interference observed below pH 3.« less

  5. Potentiometric Response Characteristics of Membrane-Based Cs + -Selective Electrodes Containing Ionophore-Functionalized Polymeric Microspheres

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Peper, Shane; Gonczy, Chad

    2011-01-01

    Cs + -selective solvent polymeric membrane-based ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) were developed by doping ethylene glycol-functionalized cross-linked polystyrene microspheres (P-EG) into a plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) matrix containing sodium tetrakis-(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl) borate (TFPB) as the ion exchanger. A systematic study examining the effects of the membrane plasticizers bis(2-ethylhexyl) sebacate (DOS), 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE), and 2-fluorophenyl nitrophenyl ether (FPNPE) on the potentiometric response and selectivity of the corresponding electrodes was performed. Under certain conditions, P-EG-based ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) containing TFPB and plasticized with NPOE exhibited a super-Nernstian response between 1 × 10 ? 3 andmore » 1 × 10 ? 4 ?M Cs + , a response characteristic not observed in analogous membranes plasticized with either DOS or FPNPE. Additionally, the performance of P-EG-based ISEs was compared to electrodes based on two mobile ionophores, a neutral lipophilic ethylene glycol derivative (ethylene glycol monooctadecyl ether (U-EG)) and a charged metallacarborane ionophore, sodium bis(dicarbollyl)cobaltate(III) (CC). In general, P-EG-based electrodes plasticized with FPNPE yielded the best performance, with a linear range from 10 -1 –10 -5 ?M Cs + , a conventional lower detection limit of 8.1 × 10 ? 6 ?M Cs + , and a response slope of 57.7?mV/decade. The pH response of P-EG ISEs containing TFPB was evaluated for membranes plasticized with either NPOE or FPNPE. In both cases, the electrodes remained stable throughout the pH range 3–12, with only slight proton interference observed below pH 3. « less

  6. Development and Utilization of Camelid VHH Antibodies from Alpaca for 2,2,4,4-Tetrabrominated Diphenyl Ether Detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammock, Bruce D.

    and Engineering, Clarkson University, Potsdam, New York 13699, United States § Materials Technology Center the 1970s. They have been widely used in electronics, furniture foam, and plastics. Since PBDEs are used

  7. DESIGN AND SYNTHESIS OF THE NEXT GENERATION OF CROWN ETHERS FOR WASTE SEPARATIONS: AN INTER-LABORATORY COMPREHENSIVE PROPOSAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moyer, Bruce A.

    2000-12-31

    The objectives of this project were to develop the techniques, materials, and fundamental understanding necessary to solve difficult separations problems of the USDOE in the 21st century. The specific goals included developing new, powerful molecular modeling tools for ligand design, performing computational and structural studies to reveal fundamental properties of ligand-metal ion interactions, studying solvent extraction behavior to provide basic understanding of solution speciation and equilibria, and preparing new ion-exchange resins for the separation of metal ions of environmental significance to the USDOE. Contaminants of special interest included alkali and alkaline-earth metal ions, especially, lithium, cesium, and strontium. For example, Li+ ions contaminate the groundwater at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant; Cs+ and Sr2+ represent fission products in groundwater (e.g., INEEL, Hanford), stored waste (e.g., Savannah River Site, Hanford tanks), and process-water streams (e. g., ORNL).

  8. Extraction of Cesium by a Calix[4]arene-Crown-6 Ether Bearing a Pendant amine Group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harmon, Ben; Ensor, Dale; Delmau, Laetitia Helene; Moyer, Bruce A

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this work was to evaluate the role of the amino group of 5-aminomethylcalix[4]arene-[bis-4-(2-ethylhexyl)benzo-crown-6] (AMBEHB) in the extraction of cesium from acidic and basic mixtures of sodium nitrate and other concentrated salts. The extraction of cesium from nitrate media was measured as a function of extractant concentration, nitrate concentration, cesium concentration, and pH over the range 1-13. The initial studies showed a moderate decrease in the extraction of cesium in acidic media, which indicated the binding of cesium by the calixarene-crown was weakened by the protonation of the amine group. The results also indicated that a 1:1:1 Cs-ligand-nitrate complex is formed in the organic phase. To further evaluate AMBEHB, the empirical data were mathematically modeled to determine the formation constants of the complexes formed in the organic phase. The resulting formation constants showed that the attachment of the amine group to the calixarene-crown molecule reduced the binding stability for the cesium ion upon contact with an acidic solution. This supports the hypothesis of charge repulsion as the basis for more efficient stripping of cesium via pH-switching.

  9. Insight into Selected Reactions in Low-Temperature Dimethyl Ether Combustion from Born-Oppenheimer Molecular Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carter, Emily A.

    fuel, which is comprised of long-chain hydrocarbons. Unlike conventional diesel fuel, DME creates for conventional diesel fuel. DME's propensity to compression ignite is comparable to that of conventional diesel

  10. Process Design, Simulation and Integration of Dimethyl Ether (DME) Production from Shale Gas by Direct and Indirect Methods 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karagoz, Secgin

    2014-08-11

    of sustainable energy. Over the last decade, the U.S has witnessed substantial growth in shale gas production. Consequently, shale gas has become a competitive feedstock for usage as energy and production of chemicals and petrochemicals. A valuable product which...

  11. Whole-Genome Analysis of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether-Degrading Beta-Proteobacterium Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    degradation pathways. PM1 contains an operon (mpeA0814-0821) likely encoding for conversion of benzene to phenol (

  12. Prototyping Process and Tools An abbreviated overview of lifecycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golub, Evan

    , vinyl, etc. ­ 3D-printed Realistic Interaction · More coding-centric tools ­ Javascript, Flash · Video

  13. Poly(vinyl alcohol) based hydrogen-bonded multilayers : from pH-controlled multi-stage dissolution to zwitter-wettable surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Hyomin, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms that govern the structure and function of synthetic polymer thin films is of fundamental and practical significance for developing a diverse range of functional surfaces including antifogging ...

  14. Overall Rate Constant Measurements of the Reaction of Hydroxy-and Chloroalkylperoxy Radicals Derived from Methacrolein and Methyl Vinyl Ketone with Nitric Oxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elrod, Matthew J.

    Overall Rate Constant Measurements of the Reaction of Hydroxy- and Chloroalkylperoxy Radicals separate measurement, as were the chloroalkylperoxy + NO rate constants for both methacrolein [(1.17 ( 0) is the dominant non- methane hydrocarbon present in the atmosphere. Isoprene is biogenic in origin (it is emitted

  15. 3 Micro-mechanics based derivation of the materials constitutive 4 relations for carbon-nanotube reinforced poly-vinyl-ester-epoxy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grujicic, Mica

    and a tensile 67 strength around 8 GPa) relative to those found in the 68 SWCNTs, the lower-cost MWCNTs cost for the SWCNTs, even 61when they are produced using large-scale high-yield A1 M. Grujicic (&) A2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Clemson A3 University, 241 Engineering Innovation Building, Clemson, A4

  16. Mechanism of Vinylic and Allylic Carbon-Fluorine Bond Activation of Non-Perfluorinated Olefins Using Cp*2ZrH2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, William D.

    Using Cp*2ZrH2 Bradley M. Kraft and William D. Jones* Contribution from the Department of Chemistry, UniVersity of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 Received November 16, 2001 Abstract: Cp*2ZrH2 (1) (CpH10) to afford Cp*2ZrHF (2) and hydrodefluorinated products. Experimental evidence suggests

  17. Mechanistic investigation of vinylic carbonfluorine bond activation of perfluorinated cycloalkenes using Cp*2ZrH2 and Cp*2ZrHF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, William D.

    using Cp*2ZrH2 and Cp*2ZrHF Bradley M. Kraft a , Eric Clot b , Odile Eisenstein b , William W behaves similarly [4]. In contrast, Cp*Rh(PMe3)H2 reacts with C6F6 by way of an SNAr2 attack by its conjugate base to give Cp*Rh(PMe3)(C6F5)H and fluoride ion, resulting in an autocatalytic reaction [5]. Cp

  18. Understanding Molecular Interactions within Chemically Selective Layered Polymer Assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary J. Blanchard

    2009-06-30

    This work focuses on two broad issues. These are (1) the molecular origin of the chemical selectivity achieved with ultrathin polymer multilayers, and (2) how the viscoelastic properties of the polymer layers are affected by exposure to solvent and analytes. These issues are inter-related, and to understand them we need to design experiments that probe both the energetic and kinetic aspects of interfacial adsorption processes. This project focuses on controling the chemical structure, thickness, morphology and sequential ordering of polymer layers bound to interfaces using maleimide-vinyl ether and closely related alternating copolymerization chemistry and efficient covalent cross-linking reactions that allow for layer-by-layer polymer deposition. This chemistry has been developed during the funding cycle of this Grant. We have measure the equilibrium constants for interactions between specific layers within the polymer interfaces and size-controlled, surface-functionalized gold nanoparticles. The ability to control both size and functionality of gold nanoparticle model analytes allows us to evaluate the average “pore size” that characterizes our polymer films. We have measured the “bulk” viscosity and shear modulus of the ultrathin polymer films as a function of solvent overlayer identity using quartz crystal microbalance complex impedance measurements. We have measured microscopic viscosity at specific locations within the layered polymer interfaces with time-resolved fluorescence lifetime and depolarization techniques. We combine polymer, cross-linking and nanoparticle synthetic expertise with a host of characterization techniques, including QCM gravimetry and complex impedance analysis, steady state and time-resolved spectroscopies.

  19. [Transition metal mediated transformations of small molecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sen, A.

    1992-01-01

    Work on organotransition metal chemistry, homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis is summarized. Several cationic palladium(II) complexes with bulky phosphine or pyridine ligands were discovered that are highly selective catalysts for linear dimerization of vinyl monomers and linear polymerization of p-divinylbenzene, the reactions proceeding through a carbocationic mechanism. Our studies were continued on alternating olefin-carbon monoxide copolymers. The copolymerization reaction and reactivity of copolymers were examined. New catalytic systems for alternating copolymerization of [alpha]-olefins with CO were discovered. In the case of styrene derivatives, tactic copolymers were obtained. Poly(ethylenepyrrolediyl) derivatives were synthesized from alternating ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymer and become electronic conductors when doped with iodine. A catalytic system for direct synthesis of polyureas and polyoxamides from and diamines was also discovered. Pt metal catalyzed the oxidation of ethers, esters, and amines to carboxylic acids and the oxidation of olefins to 1,2-diols. Anaerobic and aerobic decomposition of molybdenum(VI)-oxoalkyl compounds were studied for heterogeneous oxidation of alkanes and olefins on Mo(VI)-oxide surfaces. Synthesis of polymer-trapped metal, metal oxide, and metal sulfide nanoclusters (size <1--10 nm) was studied.

  20. [Transition metal mediated transformations of small molecules]. Progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sen, A.

    1992-10-01

    Work on organotransition metal chemistry, homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis is summarized. Several cationic palladium(II) complexes with bulky phosphine or pyridine ligands were discovered that are highly selective catalysts for linear dimerization of vinyl monomers and linear polymerization of p-divinylbenzene, the reactions proceeding through a carbocationic mechanism. Our studies were continued on alternating olefin-carbon monoxide copolymers. The copolymerization reaction and reactivity of copolymers were examined. New catalytic systems for alternating copolymerization of {alpha}-olefins with CO were discovered. In the case of styrene derivatives, tactic copolymers were obtained. Poly(ethylenepyrrolediyl) derivatives were synthesized from alternating ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymer and become electronic conductors when doped with iodine. A catalytic system for direct synthesis of polyureas and polyoxamides from and diamines was also discovered. Pt metal catalyzed the oxidation of ethers, esters, and amines to carboxylic acids and the oxidation of olefins to 1,2-diols. Anaerobic and aerobic decomposition of molybdenum(VI)-oxoalkyl compounds were studied for heterogeneous oxidation of alkanes and olefins on Mo(VI)-oxide surfaces. Synthesis of polymer-trapped metal, metal oxide, and metal sulfide nanoclusters (size <1--10 nm) was studied.

  1. Shock tube ignition of ethanol, isobutene and MTBE: Experiments and modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curran, H.J.; Dunphy, M.P.; Simmie, J.M.; Westbrook, C.K.; Pitz, W.J.

    1991-11-22

    The ignition of ethanol, isobutene and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) has been studied experimentally in a shock tube and computationally with a detailed chemical kinetic model. Experimental results, consisting of ignition delay measurements, were obtained for a range of fuel/oxygen mixtures diluted in Argon, with temperatures varying over a range of 1100--1900 K. The numerical model consisted of a detailed kinetic reaction mechanism with more than 400 elementary reactions, chosen to describe reactions of each fuel and the smaller hydrocarbon and other species produced during their oxidation. The overall agreement between experimental and computed results was excellent, particularly for mixtures with greater than 0.3% fuel. The greatest sensitivity in the computed results was found to falloff parameters in the dissociation reactions of isobutene, ethane, methane, and ethyl and vinyl radicals, to the C{sub 3}H{sub 4} and C{sub 3}H{sub 5} reaction submechanisms in the model, and to the reactions in the H{sub 2}-O{sub 2}-Co submechanism.

  2. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 27732796, 2008 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/8/2773/2008/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    are considered: molecular carbon, alkyl hydroxyl, aromatic hydroxyl, alkyl ether, alkyl ring ether, aromatic ether, aldehyde, ketone, carboxylic acid, ester, nitrate, nitro, alkyl amine (primary, secondary, and tertiary), aromatic amine, amide (primary, secondary, and tertiary), peroxide, hydroperoxide, peroxy acid

  3. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma modulation and lipogenic response in adipocytes of small-for-gestational age offspring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    of rosiglitazone or bisphenol-A diglycidyl ether (BADGE).studied. Con- versely, bisphenol-A diglycidyl ether (BADGE),receptor gamma; BADGE: Bisphenol-A diglycidyl ether; TZD:

  4. Synthesis of new high performance lubricants and solid lubricants. Progress report, April 1992--March 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lagow, R.J.

    1993-04-01

    Synthesis and testing was begun on a number of new classes of lubricants: perfluoropolyethers (branching effects), perfluoromethylene oxide ethers, chlorine-substituted fluorocarbon polyethers, fluorine-containing branched ether lubricants, glycerine- based perfluoropolyesters, perfluoro epoxy ether chains, etc.

  5. Synthesis of new high performance lubricants and solid lubricants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lagow, R.J.

    1993-04-01

    Synthesis and testing was begun on a number of new classes of lubricants: perfluoropolyethers (branching effects), perfluoromethylene oxide ethers, chlorine-substituted fluorocarbon polyethers, fluorine-containing branched ether lubricants, glycerine- based perfluoropolyesters, perfluoro epoxy ether chains, etc.

  6. Peroxide-forming Chemicals http://www.ehs.ufl.edu/Lab/perxlist.htm[06/13/12 11:56:03 AM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Slatton, Clint

    (acetal) Acrolein Butadiene Acrylamide Chloroprene (2-chloro-1,3-butadiene) Acrylic acid Cumene All Diacetylene (butadiene) Allyl esters Dicyclopentadiene Allyl sulfide Diethyl ether (ether) Butadiene

  7. Enzymatic Synthesis of Unique Thymidine-Containing Polyphenols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Ping

    including poly(trimethyleneimine),5 poly- (vinyl alcohol)s,6 poly(ethylenimine),7 and poly(vinyl- amine).8 acylation of thymidine at the 5-hydroxyl was achieved in nearly anhydrous CH3CN using the lipase from

  8. Studies of Block Copolymer Thin Films and Mixtures with an Ionic Liquid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Virgili, Justin

    2009-01-01

    lateral order of poly(styrene-block-isoprene) copolymer (PS-The phase behavior of poly(styrene-block-2-vinyl pyridine)mixtures of a poly(styrene-block-2-vinyl pyridine) (S2VP)

  9. Ion Transport in Nanostructured Block Copolymer/Ionic Liquid Membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoarfrost, Megan Lane

    2012-01-01

    imide ([Im][TFSI]) and poly(styrene-b-2-vinyl pyridine) (PS-behavior of mixtures of poly(styrene-b-2-vinyl pyridine) (thermal properties of poly(styrene-b-2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-

  10. Observational constraints on the contribution of isoprene oxidation to ozone production on the western slope of the Sierra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Allen

    measurements of isoprene and its oxi- dation products formaldehyde (HCHO), methyl vinyl ketone (MVKObservational constraints on the contribution of isoprene oxidation to ozone production products methacrolein (MACR) and methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) are used to quantify the impact of isoprene

  11. RELATIONS BETWEEN THE DETECTION OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) IN SURFACE AND GROUND WATER AND ITS CONTENT IN GASOLINE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AND ITS CONTENT IN GASOLINE By Michael J. Moran, Mike J. Halde, Rick M. Clawges and John S. Zogorski U in the United States as an octane enhancer and oxygenate in gasoline. Octane enhancement began in the late 1970's with the phase-out of tetraethyl lead from gasoline. The use of oxygenates was expanded

  12. A New Hyperbranched Poly(arylene-ether-ketone-imide): Synthesis, Chain-End Functionalization, and Blending with a Bis(maleimide)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mather, Patrick T.

    ABSTRACT: While aromatic polyimides have found widespread use as high-performance polymers, the present temperature. Introduction Aromatic polyimides (PI's) are well-known, high- performance materials,6 Furthermore, postpolymerization reactions of soluble aromatic polyimides under homogeneous conditions would

  13. Amine-and Ether-Chelated Aryllithium Reagents -Structure and Dynamics Hans J. Reich,* Wayne S. Goldenberg, Aaron W. Sanders, Kevin L. Jantzi and C. Christoph Tzschucke

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reich, Hans J.

    .07 equiv), and a catalytic amount of dimethylformamide (3 µL) in 40 mL of CH2Cl2 was heated to reflux was cooled to 0 °C, the precipitate was filtered, washed with cold water (100 mL) and cold benzene (40 mL), and allowed to air dry overnight to yield 1.36 g (6.34 mmol, 67%) of a white crystalline solid; m.p. 183

  14. Alternative Donor--Acceptor Stacks from Crown Ethers and Naphthalene Diimide Derivatives: Rapid, Selective Formation from Solution and Solid State Grinding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koshkakaryan, Gayane

    2010-01-01

    shielding effect imposed by adjacent DNP ring systems, the degeneracy in 3a suggested that the polyethylene

  15. IN VITRO SUSCEPTIBILITY OF CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS TO LPS-BINDING POLYAMINES AND CELLULOSE ETHER POLYMERS: TOWARDS THE DEVELOPMENT OF A MICROBICIDE AGAINST CHLAMYDIA INFECTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Osaka, Ichie

    2013-12-31

    individuals are asymptomatic. In women, untreated cases of Chlamydia infection can lead to serious reproductive health consequences. In the current absence of a safe and effective vaccine, my study focused on development of a vaginally-delivered topical...

  16. Effects of Al2O3 support modifications on MoOx and VOx catalysts for dimethyl ether oxidation to formaldehyde

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    to formaldehyde Haichao Liu, Patricia Cheung and Enrique Iglesia* Department of Chemical Engineering, University from support modifications in oxidation catalysts. 1. Introduction Formaldehyde (HCHO) is produced via

  17. Impacts of Ethanol on Anaerobic Production of Tert-Butyl Alcohol (TBA) from Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) in Groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scow, K M; MacKay, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    Project title: Impacts of Ethanol on Anaerobic Production oftert-butanol (TBA). As ethanol is being promoted as ainvestigate the effect of ethanol release on existing MTBE

  18. Antithrombogenic and antibiotic compositions and methods of preparation thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hermes, R.E.

    1988-04-19

    Antithrombogenic and antibiotic composition of matter and method of preparation thereof. A random copolymer of a component of garlic and a biocompatible polymer has been prepared and found to exhibit antithrombogenic and antibiotic properties. Polymerization occurs selectively at the vinyl moiety in 2-vinyl-4H-1,3-dithiin when copolymerized with N-vinyl pyrrolidone. 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Antithrombogenic and antibiotic composition and methods of preparation thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hermes, R.E.

    1990-04-17

    Antithrombogenic and antibiotic composition of matter and method of preparation are disclosed. A random copolymer of a component of garlic and a biocompatible polymer has been prepared and found to exhibit antithrombogenic and antibiotic properties. Polymerization occurs selectively at the vinyl moiety in 2-vinyl-4H-1,3-dithiin when copolymerized with N-vinyl pyrrolidone. 4 figs.

  20. An Explicit Rate Control Framework for Lossless Ethernet Operation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jain, Raj

    is developing mechanims to provide similar operation on Etherent networks. Currently, Ethernet networks provide

  1. Journal of Chromatography A, 1395 (2015) 152159 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reichenbach, Stephen E.

    2015-01-01

    retardants, such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromobenzene, tetrabromo bisphenol A and tris

  2. Thermoset epoxy polymers from renewable resources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    East, Anthony (Madison, NJ); Jaffe, Michael (Maplewood, NJ); Zhang, Yi (Harrison, NJ); Catalani, Luiz H (Carapicuiba, BR)

    2009-11-17

    Novel thermoset epoxy polymers using the bisglycidyl ethers of anhydrosugars, such as isosorbide, isomannide, and isoidide, are disclosed. The bisglycidyl ethers are useful as substitutes for bisphenol A in the manufacture of thermoset epoxy ethers. The anhydrosugars are derived from renewable sources and the bisglycidyl ethers are not xenoestrogenic and the thermoset curing agents are likewise derived form renewable resources.

  3. Final report : multicomponent forensic signature development : interactions with common textiles; mustard precursors and simulants.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Benthem, Mark Hilary; Mowry, Curtis Dale; Kotula, Paul Gabriel; Borek, Theodore Thaddeus, III

    2010-02-01

    2-Chloroethyl phenyl sulfide (CEPS), a surrogate compound of the chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard, was examined using thermal desorption coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD/GC-MS) and multivariate analysis. This work describes a novel method of producing multiway data using a stepped thermal desorption. Various multivariate analysis schemes were employed to analyze the data. These methods may be able to discern different sources of CEPS. In addition, CEPS was applied to cotton, nylon, polyester, and silk swatches. These swatches were placed in controlled humidity chambers maintained at 23%, 56%, and 85% relative humidity. At regular intervals, samples were removed from each test swatch, and the samples analyzed using TD/GC-MS. The results were compared across fabric substrate and humidity.

  4. JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE 2012, IN PRESS DOI: 10.1007/S10853-012-6927-8 Viscoelastic properties of hollow glass particle filled vinyl ester matrix syntactic foams: effect of temperature and loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Nikhil

    to generate master curves for storage modulus over a wide frequency range. The room temperature storage vibration response, high temperature mechanical properties, and energy absorption capabilities. Dynamic]. The storage modulus provides a measure of energy stored in the material while loss modulus refers

  5. Moisture Performance of High-R Wall Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Lead Performer: Home Innovation Research Labs—Upper Marlboro, MD Partners: -- American Chemistry Council -- National Association of Home Builders -- USDA Forest Products Lab -- Vinyl Siding Institute

  6. TRL Acid and Solvent Wet Processing Rules and Guidelines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reif, Rafael

    guards, Trionic gloves (atop the standard gowning vinyl cleanroom gloves cleanroom gloves and safety glasses are required. MSDS sheets for all chemicals

  7. Storm Windows | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    may significantly reduce visibility and degrade over time when exposed to sunlight. Wood, aluminum, and vinyl are the most common storm window frame materials. There are...

  8. Laboratory Hazard Assessment Questionnaire EH&S is available to assist with the recognition, evaluation and control of laboratory hazards. This form is to be used to help evaluate possible hazards reported by members of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jia, Songtao

    Chloroform Chromium (VI) Ethylene oxide Formaldehyde Isoflurane Lead Mercury Acrylonitrile Crystalline silica Methyl methacrylate Methylene chloride Nitrous oxide Vinyl chloride Other Brief Description

  9. Roll Printed Electronics: Development and Scaling of Gravure Printing Techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Fuente Vornbrock, Alejandro

    2009-01-01

    effect transistors with polyimide gate dielectric layers."methacrylate (PMMA), polyimide (PI), poly(vinyl-alcohol) (styrene, PMMA, and polyimide were the earliest materials to

  10. Window Types | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    its U-factor. There are advantages and disadvantages to all types of frame materials, but vinyl, wood, fiberglass, and some composite frame materials provide greater...

  11. Techniques and Technologies for Field Detection of Asbestos Containing Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Asbestos has been used in numerous applications at DOE sites including sprayed-on fireproofing, asphalt and vinyl floor tile, and asbestos-cement(transite) siding.

  12. Weatherstripping | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    (bronze, copper, stainless steel, and aluminum) last for years and are affordable. Metal weatherstripping can also provide a nice touch to older homes where vinyl might seem...

  13. Synthesis and tribological behavior of silicon oxycarbonitride...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article: Synthesis and tribological behavior of silicon oxycarbonitride thin films derived from poly(urea)methyl vinyl silazane. Citation Details In-Document Search Title:...

  14. Environment, Health & Safety, University of California, San Diego Page 1 of 2 10/29/09 Reproductive Hazards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aluwihare, Lihini

    ethoxyl ethanol 2ethoxyetyl acetate ethyl thiourea 2ethylhexanol formaldehyde alcohol Gasoline Goitrogens and antithyroid drugs Lead Lithium Methimazole Penicillamine ether propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate propylene oxide systhane TOK (herbicide

  15. Design and manipulation of 1-D rugate photonic crystals of porous silicon for chemical sensing applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    King, Brian Henry

    2010-01-01

    diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A) was provided by Reichhold,354 diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-F) and Novolac (D.E.N 438using a partially cured Bisphenol A epoxy/modified aliphatic

  16. Variation of Pore Metrics in Metal-Organic Frameworks for Enhanced Storage and Catalytic Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Jonathan Ward

    2015-01-01

    3.31 GC-MS of resveratrol trimethyl ether before U.V.3.32 GC-MS of resveratrol trimethyl ether after U.V.Heck coupling reaction to synthesize resveratrol trimethyl

  17. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrell, Alexander E.; Sperling, Dan

    2007-01-01

    Dimethyl Ether (DME), CH3OCH3, is another fuel that can beFuel Gasoline Diesel Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Compressed Natural Gas(CNG) Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Dimethyl Ether (DME)

  18. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    Dimethyl Ether (DME), CH3OCH3, is another fuel that can beFuel Gasoline Diesel Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Compressed Natural Gas(CNG) Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Dimethyl Ether (DME)

  19. MTBE Production Economics (Released in the STEO April 2001)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate the causes of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) price increases in 2000.

  20. Chemical Hygiene and Safety Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ricks Editor, R.

    2009-01-01

    ether ethylene oxide lead and lead compounds mercury andether ethylene oxide lead and lead compounds mercury andoxide lead

  1. Hybrid Checkpointing for MPI Jobs in HPC Environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Engelmann, Christian

    conducted on -- Opt cluster: 18 nodes, 2 cores, dual Opteron 265, 1 Gbps Ether -- Fedora Core 5 Linux x86

  2. Synthesizing Smart Polymeric and Composite Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GONG, CHAOKUN

    2013-01-01

    thermoplastic linear poly(bisphenol-A-coepichlorohydrin)a liquid diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) epoxy resin

  3. The effect of branch density polyoxymethylene copolymers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ilg, Andrea Diane

    2009-05-15

    gave the best melting point and % crystallinity results using boron trifluoride diethyl etherate as the cationic initiator....

  4. Analysis of the violet absorption spectrum of chlorine dioxide and calculation of molecular constants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ortiz, Eddie

    1950-01-01

    gave the best melting point and % crystallinity results using boron trifluoride diethyl etherate as the cationic initiator....

  5. Tetrahedron Letters,Vol.26,No.8,Dp 997-1000,1985 0040-4039/85 $3.00 + .OO Printed in Great Britain 01985 Perqamon Press Ltd.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of 9a to lithium dimethyl copper (ether, 0°C) provided 90% of 10a containing the necessary cis-ring juncture. Removal of the carbomethoxyl was best accomplished by treating the O-ketoester with lithium of the trimethylsilyl enol ether followed by oxidation of the enol ether with palladium acetate and p

  6. CATALYST ACTIVITY MAINTENANCE FOR THE LIQUID PHASE SYNTHESIS GAS-TO-DIMETHYL ETHER PROCESS PART II: DEVELOPMENT OF ALUMINUM PHOSPHATE AS THE DEHYDRATION CATALYST FOR THE SINGLE-STEP LIQUID PHASE SYNGAS-TO-DME PROCESS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiang-Dong Peng

    2002-05-01

    At the heart of the single-step liquid phase syngas-to-DME process (LPDME{trademark}) is a catalyst system that can be active as well as stable. In the Alternative Fuels I program, a dual-catalyst system containing a Cu-based commercial methanol synthesis catalyst (BASF S3-86) and a commercial dehydration material ({gamma}-alumina) was demonstrated. It provided the productivity and selectivity expected from the LPDME process. However, the catalyst system deactivated too rapidly to warrant a viable commercial process [1]. The mechanistic investigation in the early part of the DOE's Alternative Fuels II program revealed that the accelerated catalyst deactivation under LPDME conditions is due to detrimental interaction between the methanol synthesis catalyst and methanol dehydration catalyst [2,3]. The interaction was attributed to migration of Cu- and/or Zn-containing species from the synthesis catalyst to the dehydration catalyst. Identification of a dehydration catalyst that did not lead to this detrimental interaction while retaining adequate dehydration activity was elusive. Twenty-nine different dehydration materials were tested, but none showed the desired performance [2]. The search came to a turning point when aluminum phosphate was tested. This amorphous material is prepared by precipitating a solution containing Al(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} and H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} with NH{sub 4}OH, followed by washing, drying and calcination. The aluminum phosphate catalyst has adequate dehydration activity and good stability. It can co-exist with the Cu-based methanol synthesis catalyst without negatively affecting the latter catalyst's stability. This report documents the details of the development of this catalyst. These include initial leads, efforts in improving activity and stability, investigation and development of the best preparation parameters and procedures, mechanistic understanding and resulting preparation guidelines, and the accomplishments of this work.

  7. Chenopodium quinoa (Cultivated) 8 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Reidhead

    2011-08-10

    with this solvent to completeness, ethyl ether removed addi? tional quantities of material. The ethyl ether extract was always washed with water to remove the soap. After various other preliminary tests, the method described below was selected. The object... with ground-in condenser and Sy flask with mercury seal. The ether used was always re-distilled, and was either ether pure by sodium, or U. S. P. ether, purified by washing with water and treatment with solid caustic soda. After four or five syphonings...

  8. Composition and process for separating cesium ions from an acidic aqueous solution also containing other ions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietz, M.L.; Horwitz, E.P.; Bartsch, R.A.; Barrans, R.E. Jr.; Rausch, D.

    1999-03-30

    A crown ether cesium ion extractant is disclosed as is its synthesis. The crown ether cesium ion extractant is useful for the selective purification of cesium ions from aqueous acidic media, and more particularly useful for the isolation of radioactive cesium-137 from nuclear waste streams. Processes for isolating cesium ions from aqueous acidic media using the crown ether cesium extractant are disclosed as are processes for recycling the crown ether cesium extractant and processes for recovering cesium from a crown ether cesium extractant solution. 4 figs.

  9. Composition and process for separating cesium ions from an acidic aqueous solution also containing other ions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietz, Mark L. (Elmhurst, IL); Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Bartsch, Richard A. (Lubbock, TX); Barrans, Jr., Richard E. (Downers Grove, IL); Rausch, David (Naperville, IL)

    1999-01-01

    A crown ether cesium ion extractant is disclosed as is its synthesis. The crown ether cesium ion extractant is useful for the selective purification of cesium ions from aqueous acidic media, and more particularly useful for the isolation of radioactive cesium-137 from nuclear waste streams. Processes for isolating cesium ions from aqueous acidic media using the crown ether cesium extractant are disclosed as are processes for recycling the crown ether cesium extractant and processes for recovering cesium from a crown ether cesium extractant solution.

  10. Biotechnology Letters 25: 12031207, 2003. 2003 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daugulis, Andrew J.

    (ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) or poly(styrene-co-butadiene)). After inoculation with Alcaligenes xylosoxidans, the remaining the characterization and use of two solid polymers, poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate), EVA, and poly(styrene diameters of 3.4 mm, and SB (28% styrene, styrene- butadiene-styrene triblock) cylinders (Aldrich) with #12

  11. Appendix A: The Names of Polymers and Polymeric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Christopher

    -butadiene-styrene CA cellulose acetate acetate CAB cellulose acetate butyrate butyrate CF cresol-formaldehyde CMC or methylpentene polymethylpentene vinyl chloride poly(vinyl chloride) co-aminocaproic poly(co-aminocaproic acid acid) [nylon 6] Where the monomer name consists of two words, it should be bracketed in the polymer

  12. What is the Real Cost of a Cotton Module Tarp? 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simpson, Shay; Searcy, Stephen W.

    2006-07-21

    tests, tarps constructed of woven poly, vinyl or fi lm have been shown to repel water. Research at Texas A&M University has shown that vinyl and fi lm tarps resist water penetration after signifi cant exposure. The performance of woven poly tarps...

  13. Polymer Reaction Engineering Laboratory -University of Maryland at College Park Book Chapters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Kyu Yong

    , New York, 1983. 2. Overview of polymerization technology (K.Y. Choi), in Handbook of Polymer Science), Chapter 11, 275-298, in Handbook of Radical Vinyl Polymerization, Marcel-Dekker, 1998. 6. Technical-365, in Hanbook of Radical Vinyl Polymerization, Marcel- Dekker, 1998. 7. Fundamentals of Polymer Reaction

  14. Radionuclide-binding compound, a radionuclide delivery system, a method of making a radium complexing compound, a method of extracting a radionuclide, and a method of delivering a radionuclide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fisher, Darrell R. (Richland, WA); Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Chen, Xiaoyuan (Moscow, ID)

    2000-01-01

    The invention pertains to compounds which specifically bind radionuclides, and to methods of making radionuclide complexing compounds. In one aspect, the invention includes a radionuclide delivery system comprising: a) a calix[n]arene-crown-[m]-ether compound, wherein n is an integer greater than 3, and wherein m is an integer greater than 3, the calix[n]arene-crown-[m]-ether compound comprising at least two ionizable groups; and b) an antibody attached to the calix[n]arene-crown-[m]-ether compound. In another aspect, the invention includes a method of making a radium complexing compound, comprising: a) providing a calix[n]arene compound, wherein n is an integer greater than 3, the calix[n]arene compound comprising n phenolic hydroxyl groups; b) providing a crown ether precursor, the crown ether precursor comprising a pair of tosylated ends; c) reacting the pair of tosylated ends with a pair of the phenolic hydroxyl groups to convert said pair of phenolic hydroxyl groups to ether linkages, the ether linkages connecting the crown ether precursor to the calix[n]arene to form a calix[n]arene-crown-[m]-ether compound, wherein m is an integer greater than 3; d) converting remaining phenolic hydroxyl groups to esters; e) converting the esters to acids, the acids being proximate a crown-[m]-ether portion of the calix[n]arene-crown-[m]-ether compound; and f) providing a Ra.sup.2+ ion within the crown-[m]-ether portion of the calix[n]arene-crown-[m]-ether compound.

  15. All-Weather Hydrogen Peroxide-Based Decontamination of CBRN Contaminants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, George W.; Procell, Lawrence R.; Sorrick, David C.; Lawson, Glenn E.; Wells, Claire M.; Reynolds, Charles M.; Ringelberg, D. B.; Foley, Karen L.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Blanchard, David L.

    2010-04-07

    A hydrogen peroxide-based decontaminant, Decon Green, is efficacious for the decontamination of chemical agents VX (S-2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl O-ethyl methylphosphonothioate), GD (Soman, pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate), and HD (mustard, bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide); the biological agent anthrax (Bacillus anthracis); and radiological isotopes Cs-137 and Co-60; thus demonstrating the ability of this decontamination approach to ameliorate the aftermath of all three types of weapons of mass destruction (WMD). Reaction mechanisms afforded for the chemical agents are discussed as are rationales for the enhanced removal efficacy of recalcitrant 60Co on certain surfaces. Decontaminants of this nature can be deployed, and are effective, at very low temperatures (-32 ?C), as shown for studies done with VX and HD simulants, without the need for external heat sources. Finally, the efficacy of a lower-logistics, dry decontaminant powder concentrate (utilizing the solid active-oxygen compounds peracetyl borate and Peroxydone) which can be reconstituted with water in the field prior to use, is presented.

  16. Monthly Progress Report No. 59 for March 1948

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Various

    2008-01-01

    and hydrolysis of z~(Iv). Hydrolysis of uranyl ion.TTA chelnte c.omplexing of uranyl ion.Identification of uranyl species extracted into ether.

  17. Monthly Progress Report No. 59 for March 1948

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    and hydrolysis of z~(Iv). Hydrolysis of uranyl ion.TTA chelnte c.omplexing of uranyl ion.Identification of uranyl species extracted into ether.

  18. Comparative nutrient digestibility in horses fed a fat-supplemented, high-fiber diet 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dougherty, Jillian Joy

    2003-01-01

    fiber (ADF), nitrogen, ether extract and gross energy concentrations. Dry matter digestibility was higher when horses were fed the control diet (P digestibility and digestible protein intake...

  19. Newsletter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    create expertly carved jack-o-lanterns, and enjoy this year's selection. Hear ethereal music performed by vibrating strings. Check out creepy, crawly critters like snakes,...

  20. Special Lecture:

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    create expertly carved jack-o-lanterns, and enjoy this year's selection. Hear ethereal music performed by vibrating strings. Check out creepy, crawly critters like snakes,...

  1. Co2(CO)8 Mediated PausonKhand Reaction (PKR)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoltz, Brian M.

    , Methanol, Hexanes, Ethyl Acetate, etc. Completely compatible with ethers, alcohols, 3° amines, thioethers, ketones, ketals, esters, 3° amides, aromatic rings (benzene furan, thiophene) Partial tolerance to alkyl

  2. DOE Selects 16 Transformational Carbon Capture Technologies Projects...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Corporation (Woburn, MA), and Trimeric Corporation (Buda, TX) - will combine a graphene oxide (GO) membrane unit with the polyether ether ketone (PEEK) hollow fiber membrane...

  3. Impact of Renewable Fuels Standard/MTBE Provisions of S. 517 Requested by Sens. Daschle & Murkowski

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2002-01-01

    Additional analysis of the impact of the Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS) and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) ban provisions of S. 517.

  4. TABLE33.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    products are reported by the PAD District of entry. b Includes crude oil imported for storage in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. c Includes ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE),...

  5. TABLE34.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    products are reported by the PAD District of entry. b Includes crude oil imported for storage in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. c Includes ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE),...

  6. Development and Application of Advanced Models for Steam Hydrogasification: Process Design and Economic Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Xiaoming

    2012-01-01

    comparative analysis of biodiesel and FT diesel. Energy and5.9 Schematic flow diagram for biodiesel production fromGas (LPG), ethanol, biodiesel, hydrogen, Dimethyl Ether (

  7. Sandia Energy - CRF Experiment Confirms Accepted Oxidation Scheme...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Experiment Confirms Accepted Oxidation Scheme of Proposed Diesel Alternative: Dimethyl Ether Home Energy Transportation Energy CRF Facilities Capabilities News News & Events...

  8. Wireless Network Esercitazioni

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lo Cigno, Renato Antonio

    Wireless Network Esercitazioni Alessandro Villani avillani@science.unitn.it #12;Ethereal #12 wireless LAN (WLAN) Non è ancora realmente utilizzato Scaricabile all'indirizzo: http

  9. A Lifecycle Emissions Model (LEM): Lifecycle Emissions from Transportation Fuels, Motor Vehicles, Transportation Modes, Electricity Use, Heating and Cooking Fuels, and Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark

    2003-01-01

    C (data from DME, 2001). EF E = the fuel cycle emissionDME = dimethyl ether. The feedstocks from which the fuels

  10. 2 0 10 T H I E M E S T U T T G A R T N E W YO R K 197 Metal-Catalyzed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Charette, André

    allylic alcohols boron­zinc exchange L. E. ZIMMER, A. B. CHARETTE* (UNIVERSITÉ DE MONTRÉAL, CANADA with other couping partners (iodoaryls, vinyl bromide, and styryl iodide). 62­75% yield Reactions with (Z

  11. An Overview of the Louisiana Forest Products Development Center &

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    with Vinyl Decorating Layer Bio-Fiber/ Polymer Composites Mixed Hardwoods and Comrind OSB #12;New Product Center #12;Wood Quality #12;Recycling Treated Wood #12;Recycling Agricultural/ Wood Residues #12;Wood

  12. Mathematical Programming Models and Solution Strategies for the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    1 Mathematical Programming Models and Solution Strategies for the Synthesis of Process Systems Ignacio E. Grossmann Center for Advanced Process Decision-making Dept of Chemical Engineering, Carnegie: Process Systems Engineering Oxygen Air Ethylene Chlorine Vinyl Chloride Hydrogen Chloride Ethylene

  13. The development of palladium-catalysts for organic synthesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martinelli, Joseph R

    2007-01-01

    Chapter 1. Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reactions of aryl and heteroaryl halides with aryl-, heteroaryl and vinyl boronic acids proceed in very good to excellent yield with the use of 2-(2',6'-dimethoxybiphenyl)-dicyclohexylphosphine, ...

  14. The effect of moisture on a glass/epoxy composite 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chatawanich, Candy Suda

    1996-01-01

    Research was done to determine the effect of moisture on the transverse tensile strength and the interfacial shear strength of a glass/epoxy composite. Specimens with two different fiber sizings, one epoxy compatible and one vinyl-ester compatible...

  15. Allyl Sulfides Are Privileged Substrates in Aqueous Cross-Metathesis: Application to Site-Selective Protein Modification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, Ben G.

    likely to be compatible with protein disulfides than other conventional catalysts. A simple test a similar "relay effect" of appropriately positioned heteroa- toms in RCM macrocycle synthesis.11 Vinyl

  16. Green chemistry : dense carbon dioxide and water as environmentally benign reaction media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, Andrew J. (Andrew John), 1978-

    2004-01-01

    (cont.) was investigated in scCO?, and the cycloaddition between cyclopentadiene and methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) was studied in an scCO?/liquid water environment. Nitrogen chemistry, specifically the synthesis of nitrogen ...

  17. Direct synthesis of pyridine and pyrimidine derivatives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Matthew D. (Matthew Dennis)

    2008-01-01

    I. Synthesis of Substituted Pyridine Derivatives via the Ruthenium-Catalyzed Cycloisomerization of 3-Azadienynes. The two-step conversion of various N-vinyl and N-aryl amides to the corresponding substituted pyridines and ...

  18. Chromium-Catalyzed Homoaldol Equivalent Reaction, Indium-Mediated Cycloisomerization, and Palladium-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling Reaction 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kang, Jun

    2011-10-21

    to the cyclopropanolate. A regioselective catalytic homoaldol equivalent reaction of 3-bromo vinyl acetate with aldehydes under Cr(III)-Mn(0) redox condition was developed. This homoaldol equivalent reaction allows access to the 1,4-oxygenated compounds...

  19. BEESE ET AL. VOL. 7 ' NO. 4 ' 34343446 ' 2013 www.acsnano.org

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Espinosa, Horacio D.

    , spinning from CNT aerogel, and twisting or rolling of CNT films, as summarized in a recent review article coating on the surface of the DWNT bundles interacts strongly with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) through

  20. A Versatile Catalyst System for Suzuki?Miyaura Cross-Coupling Reactions of C(sp[superscript 2])-Tosylates and Mesylates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhayana, Brijesh

    A catalyst system for the Suzuki?Miyaura cross-coupling reactions of aryl and vinyl tosylates and mesylates has been developed. This catalyst displays excellent functional group tolerance and allows the coupling of ...

  1. HIA 2015 DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Habitat for Humanity...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    deck, providing an R-20-insulated, cool, conditioned space for the home's high-efficiency heat pump. The vinyl-framed, thermally insulated, dual-pane windows have impact-resistant...

  2. Window Types | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    aluminum or vinyl cladding reduces maintenance requirements. Types of Window Glazing or Glass In addition to choosing a frame type, you will need to consider what type of glazing...

  3. An analysis of residential window waterproofing systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parsons, Austin, 1959-

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence of vinyl nail-on windows in the North American new home construction market has prompted ASTM International to write ASTM E2112-01 "Standard Practice for Installation of Exterior Windows, Doors and Skylights". ...

  4. The Scientific Basis of Tobacco Product Regulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    World Health Organization

    2008-01-01

    89). IARC (in press) 1,3-Butadiene, ethylene oxide and vinylDetermination of 1,3-butadiene and isoprene concentrationsDetermination of 1,3-butadiene and isoprene concentrations

  5. Treatment of addiction and addiction-related behavior

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dewey, Stephen L. (Manorville, NY); Brodie, Jonathan D. (Cos Cob, CT); Ashby, Jr., Charles R. (Miller Place, NY)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides a highly efficient method for treating substance addiction and for changing addiction-related behavior of a primate suffering from substance addiction. The method includes administering to a primate an effective amount of a pharmaceutical composition including gamma vinylGABA. The present invention also provides a method of treatment of nicotine addiction by treating a patient with an effective amount of a composition including gamma vinylGABA.

  6. Innovative Drying and Nutrients Extraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to the extraction process. This method evaporates the water from the products but also drives off up to 70 percent dimethyl ether to extract the water from the material. The new process does not require the addition of heat to evaporate the water during the extraction process. Dimethyl ether has a lower heat

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING SCIENCE Volume 20, Number 5, 2003

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chu, Kung-Hui "Bella"

    -butyl ether (MTBE) is the most widely used oxygenate in gasoline, followed by ethanol. Widespread use in certain urban regions to reduce air pollution from motor vehi- cles. To meet the requirements of the CAAA), and diisopropyl ether (DIPE). Alcohol oxy- genates include ethanol (EtOH), tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), and methanol

  8. High energy electron beam curing of epoxy resin systems incorporating cationic photoinitiators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janke, Christopher J. (Powell, TN); Lopata, Vincent J. (Manitoba, CA); Havens, Stephen J. (Knoxville, TN); Dorsey, George F. (Farragut, TN); Moulton, Richard J. (Lafayette, CA)

    1999-01-01

    A mixture of epoxy resins such as a semi-solid triglycidyl ether of tris (hydroxyphenyl) methane and a low viscosity bisphenol A glycidyl ether and a cationic photoinitiator such as a diaryliodonium salt is cured by irradiating with a dosage of electron beams from about 50 to about 150 kGy, forming a cross-linked epoxy resin polymer.

  9. Demethylation of 6-O-Methylinosine by an RNA-Editing Adenosine Deaminase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beal, Peter A.

    could similarly displace a substituent other than an amine from C6, we synthesized a phosphoramidite for 1 h at room temperature). For incorporation into RNA, 6-O-MeI was protected at the 5-hydroxyl as the dimeth- oxytrityl ether and at the 2-hydroxyl as the tert-butyldimethylsilyl ether in good yield

  10. Water-soluble polymers and compositions thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, B.F.; Robison, T.W.; Gohdes, J.W.

    1999-04-06

    Water-soluble polymers including functionalization from the group of amino groups, carboxylic acid groups, phosphonic acid groups, phosphonic ester groups, acylpyrazolone groups, hydroxamic acid groups, aza crown ether groups, oxy crown ethers groups, guanidinium groups, amide groups, ester groups, aminodicarboxylic groups, permethylated polyvinylpyridine groups, permethylated amine groups, mercaptosuccinic acid groups, alkyl thiol groups, and N-alkylthiourea groups are disclosed.

  11. High energy electron beam curing of epoxy resin systems incorporating cationic photoinitiators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janke, C.J.; Lopata, V.J.; Havens, S.J.; Dorsey, G.F.; Moulton, R.J.

    1999-03-02

    A mixture of epoxy resins such as a semi-solid triglycidyl ether of tris (hydroxyphenyl) methane and a low viscosity bisphenol A glycidyl ether and a cationic photoinitiator such as a diaryliodonium salt is cured by irradiating with a dosage of electron beams from about 50 to about 150 kGy, forming a cross-linked epoxy resin polymer.

  12. Modeling simple amphiphilic solutes in a Jagla solvent Zhiqiang Su, Sergey V. Buldyrev, Pablo G. Debenedetti, Peter J. Rossky, and H. Eugene Stanley

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanley, H. Eugene

    of phase equilibria and structure for dimethyl ether + sulfur dioxide and dimethyl ether + carbon dioxide J distinctive physical properties. The volume change upon mixing, for example, is negative across the entire, which has been previously shown to exhibit many of the anomalous properties of water. We consider two

  13. Water-soluble polymers and compositions thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Barbara F. (Los Alamos, NM); Robison, Thomas W. (Los Alamos, NM); Gohdes, Joel W. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2002-01-01

    Water-soluble polymers including functionalization from the group of amino groups, carboxylic acid groups, phosphonic acid groups, phosphonic ester groups, acylpyrazolone groups, hydroxamic acid groups, aza crown ether groups, oxy crown ethers groups, guanidinium groups, amide groups, ester groups, aminodicarboxylic groups, permethylated polvinylpyridine groups, permethylated amine groups, mercaptosuccinic acid groups, alkyl thiol groups, and N-alkylthiourea groups are disclosed.

  14. Inexpensive CO2 Thickening Agents for Improved Mobility Control of CO2 Floods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Enick; Eric Beckman; Andrew Hamilton

    2005-08-31

    The objective of this research was the design, synthesis and evaluation of inexpensive, non-fluorous carbon dioxide thickening agents. We followed the same strategy employed in the design of fluorinated CO{sub 2} polymeric thickeners. First, a highly CO{sub 2}-philic, hydrocarbon-based monomer was to be identified. Polymers or oligomers of this monomer were then synthesized. The second step was to design a CO{sub 2}-thickener based on these CO{sub 2}-philic polymers. Two types of thickeners were considered. The first was a copolymer in which the CO{sub 2}-philic monomer was combined with a small proportion of CO{sub 2}-phobic associating groups that could cause viscosity-enhancing intermolecular interactions to occur. The second was a small hydrogen-bonding compound with urea groups in the core to promote intermolecular interactions that would cause the molecules to 'stack' in solution while the arms were composed of the CO{sub 2}-philic oligomers. Although we were not able to develop a viable thickener that exhibited high enough CO{sub 2} solubility at EOR MMP conditions to induce a viscosity increase, we made significant progress in our understanding of CO{sub 2}-soluble compounds that can be used in subsequent studies to design CO{sub 2}-soluble thickeners or CO{sub 2}-soluble surfactant-based foaming agents. These findings are detailed in this final report. In summary, we assessed many polymers and verified that the most CO{sub 2}-soluble oxygenated hydrocarbon polymer is poly(vinyl acetate), PVAc. This is primarily due to the presence of both ether and carbonyl oxygens associated with acetate-rich compounds. In addition to polymers, we also made small acetate-rich molecules that were also capable of associating in solution via the inclusion of hydrogen-bonding groups in hopes of forming viscosity-enhancing macromolecules. Despite the presence of multiple acetate groups in these compounds, which can impart incredible CO{sub 2}-solubility to many compounds, our attempts to make acetate-rich high molecular weight polymers and small hydrogen-bonding compounds did not yield a highly CO{sub 2}-soluble polymer or hydrogen-bonding associative thickener. The conclusions of our molecular modeling calculations confirmed that although acetates are indeed 'CO{sub 2}-philic', nitrogen-containing amines also interact favorably with CO{sub 2} and should also be examined. Therefore we obtained and synthesized many N-rich (e.g. amine-containing) polymers. Unfortunately, we found that the intermolecular polymer-polymer interactions between the amines were so strong that the polymers were essentially insoluble in CO{sub 2}. For the convenience of the reader, a table of all of the polymers evaluated during this research is provided.

  15. A STUDY OF FUNDAMENTAL REACTION PATHWAYS FOR TRANSITION METAL ALKYL COMPLEXES. I. THE REACTION OF A NICKEL METHYL COMPLEX WITH ALKYNES. II. THE MECHANISM OF ALDEHYDE FORMATION IN THE REACTION OF A MOLYBDENUM HYDRIDE WITH MOLYBDENUM ALKYLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huggins, John Mitchell

    1980-06-01

    I. This study reports the rapid reaction under mild conditions of internal or terminal alkynes with methyl (acetyl~ acetonato) (triphenylphosphine) nickel (1) in either aromatic or ether solvents. In all cases vinylnickel products 2 are formed by insertion of the alkyne into the nickel=methyl bond. These complexes may be converted into a variety of organic products (e.g. alkenes, esters, vinyl halides) by treatment with appropriate reagents. Unsymmetrical alkynes give selectively the one regioisomer with the sterically largest substituent next to the nickel atom. In order to investigate the stereochemistry of the initial insertion, a x-ray diffraction study of the reaction of 1 with diphenylacetylene was carried out. This showed that the vinylnickel complex formed by overall trans insertion was the product of the reaction. Furthermore, subsequent slow isomerization of this complex, to a mixture of it and the corresponding cis isomer, demonstrated that this trans addition product is the kinetic product of the reaction. In studies with other alkynes, the product of trans addition was not always exclusively (or even predominantly) formed, but the ratio of the stereoisomers formed kinetically was substantially different from the thermodynamic ratio. Isotope labeling, added phosphine, and other experiments have allowed us to conclude that the mechanism of this reaction does involve initial cis addition. However, a coordinatively unsaturated vinylnickel complex is initially formed which can undergo rapid, phosphine-catalyzed cis-trans isomerization in competition with its conversion to the isolable phosphine-substituted kinetic reaction products. II. The reaction of CpMo(CO){sub 3}H (1a) with CpMo(CO){sub 3}R (2, R= CH{sub 3}, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}) at 50{degrees} C in THF gives the aldehyde RCHO and the dimers [CpMo(CO){sub 3}]{sub 2} (3a) and [CpMo(CO){sub 2}]{sub 2} (4a). Labeling one of the reactants with a methylcyclopentadienyl ligand it was possible to show that the mixed dimers MeCpMo(CO){sub 3}-(CO){sub 3}MoCp (3b) and MeCpMo(CO){sub 2}{triple_bond}(CO){sub 2}MoCp (4b) are the predominant kinetic products of the reaction. Additionally labeling the carbonyl ligands of 1a with {sup 13}CO led to the conclusion that all three of the carbonyl ligands in 1a end up in the tetracarbonyl dimers 4a if the reaction is carried out under a continuous purge of argon Trapping studies failed to find any evidence for the intermediacy of either [CpMo(CO){sub 3}]{sup -} or [CpMo(CO){sub 3}]{sup +} in this reaction. A mechanism is proposed that involves the initial migration of the alkyl ligand in 2 to CO forming an unsaturated acyl complex which reacts with 1a to give a binuclear complex containing a three center-two electron Mo-H-Mo bond. This complex then selectively looses a carbonyl from the acyl molybdenum, migrates the hydride to that same metal, and forms a metal-metal bond. This binuclear complex with the hydride and acyl ligands on one metal reductively eliminates aldehyde, and migrates a carbonyl ligand, to give 4a directly. The other product 3a is formed by addition of two molecules of free CO to 4a.

  16. Responsive Double Network Hydrogels of Interpenetrating DNA and CB[8] Host–Guest Supramolecular Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Chuang; Rowland, Matthew J.; Shao, Yu; Cao, Tianyang; Chen, Chun; Jia, Haoyang; Zhou, Xu; Yang, Zhongqiang; Scherman, Oren A.; Liu, Dongsheng

    2015-04-20

    was dissolved in a minimal amount of diethyl ether and 2 M hydrogen chloride in diethyl ether (15 mL) was added. The reaction was stirred for 4 hours and concentrated in vacuo to yield a yellow solid. The crude product was then triturated in diethyl ether... Hz and 1%, respectively, and the changes in the shear storage modulus (G’) and shear-loss modulus (G”) were measured from 20 to 70 ºC at a rate of 2 ºC min-1; iv) Flow sweep was performed at 25 Fracture with shear rate varying from 0.001 to 100 s-1...

  17. Carbon Film Electrodes For Super Capacitor Applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tan, Ming X. (Livermore, CA)

    1999-07-20

    A method for treating an organic polymer material, preferably a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer (Saran) to produce a flat sheet of carbon film material having a high surface area (.apprxeq.1000 m.sup.2 /g) suitable as an electrode material for super capacitor applications. The method comprises heating a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer film disposed between two spaced apart graphite or ceramic plates to a first temperature of about 160.degree. C. for about 14 hours to form a stabilized vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride polymer film, thereafter heating the stabilized film to a second temperature of about 750.degree. C. in an inert atmosphere for about one hour to form a carbon film; and finally activating the carbon film to increase the surface area by heating the carbon film in an oxidizing atmosphere to a temperature of at least 750-850.degree. C. for between 1-6 hours.

  18. Method for making carbon films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tan, Ming X. (Livermore, CA)

    1999-01-01

    A method for treating an organic polymer material, preferably a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer (Saran) to produce a flat sheet of carbon film material having a high surface area (.apprxeq.1000 m.sup.2 /g) suitable as an electrode material for super capacitor applications. The method comprises heating a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer film disposed between two spaced apart graphite or ceramic plates to a first temperature of about 160.degree. C. for about 14 hours to form a stabilized vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride polymer film, thereafter heating the stabilized film to a second temperature of about 750.degree. C. in an inert atmosphere for about one hour to form a carbon film; and finally activating the carbon film to increase the surface area by heating the carbon film in an oxidizing atmosphere to a temperature of at least 750-850.degree. C. for between 1-6 hours.

  19. Method for making carbon films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tan, M.X.

    1999-07-29

    A method for treating an organic polymer material, preferably a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer (Saran) to produce a flat sheet of carbon film material having a high surface area ([approx equal]1000 m[sup 2] /g) suitable as an electrode material for super capacitor applications. The method comprises heating a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer film disposed between two spaced apart graphite or ceramic plates to a first temperature of about 160 C for about 14 hours to form a stabilized vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride polymer film, thereafter heating the stabilized film to a second temperature of about 750 C in an inert atmosphere for about one hour to form a carbon film; and finally activating the carbon film to increase the surface area by heating the carbon film in an oxidizing atmosphere to a temperature of at least 750--850 C for between 1--6 hours. 2 figs.

  20. Radionuclides in the terrestrial ecosystem near a Canadian uranium mill -- Part 3: Atmospheric deposition rates (pilot test)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, P.A.

    2000-06-01

    Atmospheric deposition rates of uranium series radionuclides were directly measured at three sites near the operating Key Lake uranium mill in northern Saskatchewan. Sites impacted by windblown tailings and mill dusts had elevated rates of uranium deposition near the mill and elevated {sup 226}Ra deposition near the tailings compared to a control site. Rainwater collectors, dust jars, and passive vinyl collectors previously used at the Ranger Mine in Australia were pilot-tested. Adhesive vinyl surfaces (1 m{sup 2}) were oriented horizontally, vertically, and facing the ground as a means of measuring gravitational settling, wind impaction, and soil resuspension, respectively. Although the adhesive glue on the vinyls proved difficult to digest, relative differences in deposition mode were found among radionuclides and among sites. Dry deposition was a more important transport mechanism for uranium, {sup 226}Ra, and {sup 210}Pb than rainfall, while more {sup 210}Po was deposited with rainfall.

  1. In-situ stabilization of radioactive zirconium swarf

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hess, Clay C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1999-01-01

    The method for treating ignitable cutting swarf in accordance with the present invention involves collecting cutting swarf in a casting mold underwater and injecting a binder mixture comprising vinyl ester styrene into the vessel to fill void volume; and form a mixture comprising swarf and vinyl ester styrene; and curing the mixture. The method is especially useful for stabilizing the ignitable characteristics of radioactive zirconium cutting swarf, and can be used to solidify zirconium swarf, or other ignitable finely divided material, underwater. The process could also be performed out of water with other particulate wastes.

  2. Synthesis of some 2-(3-butenyl) cyclohexanones 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Tsi Chien

    1971-01-01

    yield by treating methyl vinyl ketone with isobutyr- aldehyde in alkaline methanol solution according to the procedure of Dauben, Shaffer and Vietmeyer. Hydroge- 18 nation of the unsaturated ketone over palladium on 0 I 0 II OH I NH2 OTs a... (9$. 5/o) and $1. 5 min (6. 5/o). -Dimeth 1-2-c clohexenone . The procedure described by Dauben, Shaffer and Vietmeyer was used. 18 Therefore, a solution of 46. 5 g (0. 668 mole) of freshly distilled methyl vinyl ketone (Aldrich), 49 g (0. 668...

  3. In-situ stabilization of radioactive zirconium swarf

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hess, C.C.

    1999-08-31

    The method for treating ignitable cutting swarf in accordance with the present invention involves collecting cutting swarf in a casting mold underwater and injecting a binder mixture comprising vinyl ester styrene into the vessel to fill void volume; and form a mixture comprising swarf and vinyl ester styrene; and curing the mixture. The method is especially useful for stabilizing the ignitable characteristics of radioactive zirconium cutting swarf, and can be used to solidify zirconium swarf, or other ignitable finely divided material, underwater. The process could also be performed out of water with other particulate wastes. 6 figs.

  4. Treatment of addiction and addiction-related behavior

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dewey, Stephen L.; Brodie, Jonathan D.; Ashby, Jr., Charles R.

    2004-12-07

    The present invention provides a highly efficient method for treating substance addiction and for changing addiction-related behavior of a mammal suffering from substance addiction. The method includes administering to a mammal an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. The present invention also provides a method of treatment of cocaine, morphine, heroin, nicotine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, or ethanol addiction by treating a mammal with an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

  5. Passivation-free solid state battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M. (Needham, MA); Peramunage, Dharmasena (Norwood, MA)

    1998-01-01

    This invention pertains to passivation-free solid-state rechargeable batteries composed of Li.sub.4 Ti.sub.5 O.sub.12 anode, a solid polymer electrolyte and a high voltage cathode. The solid polymer electrolyte comprises a polymer host, such as polyacrylonitrile, poly(vinyl chloride), poly(vinyl sulfone), and poly(vinylidene fluoride), plasticized by a solution of a Li salt in an organic solvent. The high voltage cathode includes LiMn.sub.2 O.sub.4, LiCoO.sub.2, LiNiO.sub.2 and LiV.sub.2 O.sub.5 and their derivatives.

  6. Thermally Polymerized Rylene Nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrew, Trisha Lionel

    Rylene dyes functionalized with varying numbers of phenyl trifluorovinyl ether (TFVE) moieties were subjected to a thermal emulsion polymerization to yield shape-persistent, water-soluble chromophore nanoparticles. Perylene ...

  7. University of California Radiation Laboratory Progress Report for November, 1947

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perlman, I.

    2010-01-01

    ~raction Chemi~~! y': of Uranyl ~itrate into Ether:. SeveralpreparE Since anhydrous uranyl nitrate for use in the studyevacuation of the hydrated uranyl nitrate salts resulted in

  8. Digestion of fat in the equine small and large intestine 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swinney, Dara Lynn

    1993-01-01

    and ether extract content. Upper and lower intestinal digestibilities were calculated from the change in ratio of nutrient to indigestible indicator. The fat added to the diet had no effect on the apparent digestibility of energy or crude protein. Apparent...

  9. Beekeeping Note 2.01 01/2007 It is the goal of every beekeeper to maintain healthy, productive colonies. This

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tarpy, David R.

    , such as Russian, SMR, or Minnesota hygienic Drone-brood trapping Treatment of inert dusts Methods of detection Sugar shake or ether roll Sticky board Alcohol wash Drone-brood inspection or visual inspection

  10. The palladium-catalyzed synthesis of organic amines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, Michele C., 1975-

    2002-01-01

    Chapter 1. The chelating ligand bis[2-(diphenylphosphino)phenyl] ether (DPEphos), in combination with palladium acetate, forms a highly active catalyst system for the coupling of anilines with aryl bromides. The bisphosphine ...

  11. Iron-catalyzed decarboxylative cross coupling reactions and palladium-catalyzed sp2-sp3 coupling of coumarins.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trivedi, Rushi

    2009-12-15

    The thesis details the development of a decarboxylative synthesis of aryl ethers using a relatively new Iron catalyst and a novel decarboxylative coupling of coumarins catalyzed by palladium. Aryl allyl carbonates underwent facile decarboxylative...

  12. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrell, Alexander E.; Sperling, Dan

    2007-01-01

    CNG) Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Dimethyl Ether (DME)Diesel Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Compressed Natural Gas(and liquefied gas. There are over 125,000 natural gas

  13. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    CNG) Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Dimethyl Ether (DME)Diesel Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Compressed Natural Gas(and liquefied gas. There are over 125,000 natural gas

  14. Preparation of 1-C14-Propene-1 and the Mechanism of Permanganate Oxidation of Propene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fries, B.A.

    2010-01-01

    propene, 9% butenes, 9% butanes and pentanes and 1% pentenes0.5/0 propane and 0.5% n-butane. The yield of propene waspropene, 16% butenes f 3% i-butane, 3% ethyl propy:i. ether

  15. Open Archive TOULOUSE Archive Ouverte (OATAO) OATAO is an open access repository that collects the work of Toulouse researchers and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    and trends concerning cellulosic materials processed in scCO2 such as cellulose drying to obtain aerogels for cellulose esters and ether synthesis, and fibres and film fabrication. These materials are used in coatings

  16. Qualitative assessment of the ignition of highly flammable fuels by primary explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elischer, P.P.; De Yong, L.

    1983-06-01

    An assessment of the ignition of fuel/air mixtures and of fabrics soaked with different fuels (ethanol, n-hexane and diethyl ether) by primary explosives has been carried out.

  17. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    butyl ether). Blends up to 15.0 percent by volume MTBE which must meet the ASTM D4814 specifications. Blenders must take precautions that the blends are not used as base...

  18. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    butyl ether). Blends up to 15.0 percent by volume MTBE which must meet the ASTM D4814 specifications. Blenders must take precautions that the blends are not used as base...

  19. Effect of Localized Oxygen Functionalization On the Conductance of Metallic Carbon Nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Philip G

    2009-01-01

    5 eV higher in energy than five cooperative ethers along theare interested in cooperative addition, the energy of eachin energy than the dips resulting from the cooperative axial

  20. CEES Peer-Reviewed Publications from 2013

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 Solely Supported by CEES C. J. Barile and A. A. Gewirth, "Investigating the Li-O2 Battery in an Ether-Based Electrolyte Using Differential Electrochemical Mass Spectrometry...

  1. A new continuous-flow process for catalytic conversion of glycerol to oxygenated fuel additive: Catalyst screening

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qin, Wensheng

    in acetone/glycerol molar ratio or a decrease in WHSV enhanced the glycerol conversion as expected promoter as the addition of ketals and ethers in gasoline engines improve the octane number, cold flow

  2. Submission : 8205 Thesis proposal CSC 2015

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bordenave, Charles

    , hydroxyle or amine functions. Their synthesis process generally needs a pre-treatment of the cellulose #12 of the hydroxyl of cellulose ethers, which are commercially available or described in the literature

  3. New cyclisations of iminyl radicals generated by flash vacuum pyrolysis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ieva, Maria

    2012-11-28

    The formation of iminyl radicals from a range of precursors, including hydrazone imines and oxime ethers, under FVP conditions is well documented in the literature.1 Once formed, the iminyl radical can undergo cyclisation ...

  4. Supporting Information Copyright Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, 2005

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacobsen, Eric N.

    acetate, THF ­ tetrahydrofuran, EtOH ­ ethanol, MeOH ­ methanol, Et2O ­ diethyl ether, IPA ­ isopropyl alcohol, TEA ­ triethylamine, MS ­ molecular seives, LAH ­ lithium aluminum hydride, DBU - 1

  5. Versatile One-Step One-Pot Direct Aldol Condensation Promoted by MgI2 by Han-Xun Wei*1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paré, Paul W.

    -reactive species (e.g., an enol silyl ether or a ketene silyl acetal) and has, thus, attracted considerable is first converted to its Li (or other metal) enolate by treatment with a strong base, typically lithium

  6. Could there be a hole in type Ia supernovae?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasen, Daniel; Nugent, Peter; Thomas, R.C.; Wang, Lifan

    2004-01-01

    Highlight: The Physics of Supernovae. Pro- ceedings of the EThere Be A Hole In Type l a Supernovae? Daniel Kasen, Peterscenario, Type l a Supernovae (SNe la) arise from a white

  7. Structural reorganization in films of cellulose derivatives in the presence of colloidal particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dutta, Pulak

    Structural reorganization in films of cellulose derivatives in the presence of colloidal particles of two ethers of cellulose, hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) and hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC), with dispersed-ray reflectivity; Cellulose derivatives; Silica particles 1. Introduction In recent years, macromolecular

  8. Transgenerational Inheritance of Increased Fat Depot Size, Stem Cell Reprogramming, and Hepatic Steatosis Elicited by Prenatal Exposure to the Obesogen Tributyltin in Mice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chamorro-García, Raquel; Sahu, Margaret; Abbey, Rachelle J; Laude, Jhyme; Pham, Nhieu; Blumberg, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Chow C, et al. 2012. Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether inducesexposure to a low dose of bisphenol A on behavior and memoryexposure to bisphenol A produces transgenerational changes

  9. 984 volume 120 | number 7 | July 2012 Environmental Health Perspectives Bisphenol A (BPA) is used in the synthesis of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blumberg, Bruce

    984 volume 120 | number 7 | July 2012 · Environmental Health Perspectives Research Bisphenol A (BPA. Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) is a synthesis prod- uct of BPA and epichlorhydrin used

  10. Manipulation of surface chemistry and nanostructure in porous silicon-based chemical sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruminski, Anne Marie

    2009-01-01

    diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A) was provided by Reichhold,partially cured mixture of bisphenol A epoxy and modifiedusing a partially cured bisphenol A epoxy/modified aliphatic

  11. Synthetic Explorations of Structurally Complex Bioactive Cembrenolides /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saitman, Alec

    2013-01-01

    EtOAc in hexanes) of the crude oil. It yielded stannane 30 (hexanes) of the crude material gave 113 as a clear oil whichof the crude material gave TBS Ether 112 as a clear oil. R f

  12. Tetrahedron Letters,Vo1.24,No.48,pp 5303-5304,1983 oo4o-4039/83 $3.00 + .OO Printed in Great Britain 01983 Pergamon Press Ltd.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    acid catalyzed additions of oxygenated dienes to aldehydes. Additionally, many natural products yhich. After stirring for 1 h at -78 OC quenched with saturated ammonia chloride, extracted with ether, dried

  13. Unification and explanation in early Kaluza-Klein theories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muntean, Ioan Lucian

    2009-01-01

    fundamental level and GR is the theory that deals with it, unlike EM theory. The electromagneticfundamental level. The luminiferous ether has simply disappeared from the theory, being replaced by the electromagnetic

  14. Modulators of Toll-like Receptors-4 and -2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Wenyan

    2009-08-31

    ?OEt2 – boron trifluoride diethyl etherate BnBr – benzyl bromide br - broad Boc – di-tert-butyl carbonate BPI – bactericidal permeability increasing protein CH3CN – acetonitrile C15H31COCl – palmitoyl chloride CTL – cytotoxic T lymphocyte DAB...

  15. Preparations for Meeting New York and Connecticut MTBE Bans

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2003-01-01

    In response to a Congressional request, the Energy Information Administration examined the progress being made to meet the bans on the use of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) being implemented in New York and Connecticut at the end of 2003.

  16. I. THE SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ANNULATED URANOCENES II. THE VARIABLE TEMPERATURE 1H NMR OF URANOCENES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luke, Wayne Douglas

    2010-01-01

    benzocyclo- butene and butadiene, (75? ) 14 ; 2)the silverof 12 resulting from 1,3-butadiene trapping of 1,2-t-butoxide to a 1,3-butadiene saturated solution of ether,

  17. A MULTI-COUNTRY ANALYSIS OF LIFECYCLE EMISSIONS FROM TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND MOTOR VEHICLES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark

    2005-01-01

    DME, ethanol, ethanol, CH2, ethanol, CH2, CH2, LH2 LH2, electricity LH2, electricity FuelDME = dimethyl ether, FAME = fatty acid methyl esters. The feedstocks from which the fuels

  18. A Multi-Country Analysis of Lifecycle Emissions From Transportation Fuels and Motor Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark

    2005-01-01

    DME, ethanol, ethanol, CH2, ethanol, CH2, CH2, LH2 LH2, electricity LH2, electricity FuelDME = dimethyl ether, FAME = fatty acid methyl esters. The feedstocks from which the fuels

  19. bcpcfil-liqmeth | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Synthesis Gas, Topical Report PDF-3.6MB (Mar 2003) Market Outlook for Dimethyl Ether (DME), Topical Report PDF-92KB (Apr 2002) Off-Site Testing of Stabilized Methanol from...

  20. A high-resolution emission inventory for eastern China in 2000 and three scenarios for 2020

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2005-01-01

    liquid fuels such as dimethyl ether (DME) and methanol (thustransportation fuel grade methanol) and DME powered vehiclesfuels HC CO NO x PM 2.5 M5/gasoline M100/gasoline DME/diesel

  1. Purifying contaminated water. [DOE patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daughton, C.G.

    1981-10-27

    Process is presented for removing biorefactory compounds from contaminated water (e.g., oil shale retort waste-water) by contacting same with fragmented raw oil shale. Biorefractory removal is enhanced by preactivating the oil shale with at least one member of the group of carboxylic acids, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, ethers, amines, amides, sulfoxides, mixed ether-esters and nitriles. Further purification is obtained by stripping, followed by biodegradation and removal of the cells.

  2. Purifying contaminated water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daughton, Christian G. (San Pablo, CA)

    1983-01-01

    Process for removing biorefractory compounds from contaminated water (e.g., oil shale retort waste-water) by contacting same with fragmented raw oil shale. Biorefractory removal is enhanced by preactivating the oil shale with at least one member of the group of carboxylic, acids, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, ethers, amines, amides, sulfoxides, mixed ether-esters and nitriles. Further purification is obtained by stripping, followed by biodegradation and removal of the cells.

  3. Composition and Digestibility of the Chloroform Extract of Hays and Fodders. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S.; Rather, J. B.

    1913-01-01

    of Chloroform Extract and of Ether Extract. Period. 3 12 9 6 17 16 4 10 15 11 5 1413 7 18 2 Description. Alfalfa hay ..................... Bermuda hay ................. Buffalo grass hay.......... Burr clover..................... Corn...-73? 4665 Excrement, rice straw..................................... 115.0 72-73? The acetyl numbers of the crystals are near to that of myricyl alco? hol, which is 116.4. This corresponds to the crystals separated from the ether extract of burr clover...

  4. Synthesis of oxygenates from H{sub 2}/CO synthesis gas and use as fuel additives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herman, R.G.; Klier, K.; Feeley, O.C.

    1994-12-31

    Alternative processes for synthesizing fuel-grade oxygenates are centered on conversion of synthesis gas into C{sub 1}-C{sub 8} alcohols and ethers. Over Cs/Cu/ZnO-based catalysts, mixtures of methanol/isobutanol are predominantly formed. It has been found that these alcohols can be directly coupled over certain strong acid organic-based catalysts to form unsymmetric C{sub 5} ethers, mainly the kinetically favored methyl isobutyl ether (MIBE) with some of the thermodynamically favored methyl tertiarybutyl ether (MTBE), the symmetric ethers of dimethylether (DME) and diisobutylether (DIBE), or selectively dehydrated to form isobutene over sulfated zirconia. Based on these reactions, a 2-stage, dual catalyst configuration can be utilized to give MTBE as the dominant ether product. The octane numbers and cetane ratings of the oxygenates have been determined and are compared, e.g. adding 10 vol% MIBE and MTBE to 82.3 MON gasoline altered the MON of the gasoline by -1.5 and +1.4 units, respectively, and MIBE has a high cetane number of 53, compared to 42 for typical U.S. diesel fuel.

  5. Prototyping Tangible Input Devices with Digital Fabrication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hartmann, Björn

    . Aside from 3D printers, other classes of digital fabrication hardware, like vinyl cutters, have also have previously investigated the benefits of tangibility in How Bodies Matter. 3D printing holds users of 3D printing can currently create such objects. For example, we surveyed the the online

  6. Treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and OCD-related disorders using GVG

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dewey, Stephen L. (Manorville, NY); Brodie, Jonathan D. (Cos Cob, CT); Ashby, Jr., Charles R. (Miller Place, NY)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to the use of gamma vinyl-GABA (GVG) to treat obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and OCD-related disorders, and to reduce or eliminate behaviors associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and OCD-related disorders.

  7. Actuated Transitory Metal-Ligand Bond As Tunable Electromechanical Switch

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ortega, Enrique

    a copper atom and coordinating organic molecules adsorbed on a metal surface acts as variable frequency of STM is the on-demand forma- tion and breaking of chemical bonds with atomic precision. Furthermore-vinyl)] benzoic acid (hereafter referred to as PVBA) with copper adatoms on the Cu (111) surface.26

  8. 17926 DOI: 10.1021/la102867v Langmuir 2010, 26(23), 1792617935Published on Web 10/28/2010 pubs.acs.org/Langmuir

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hitchcock, Adam P.

    importance in industrial applications such as pesticide delivery,1 food science,2 imaging materials,3 functional groups and the availability of a vast number of vinyl monomer, allowing for encapsulation to encapsulate a wider range of materials and to design functional MCs by taking advantage of the diversity

  9. Shape-Controlled Synthesis of Palladium Nanorods and Their Magnetic Properties Congwen Xiao, Hao Ding, Chengmin Shen, Tianzhong Yang, Chao Hui, and H.-J. Gao*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Hongjun

    ARTICLES Shape-Controlled Synthesis of Palladium Nanorods and Their Magnetic Properties Congwen of single crystalline palladium nanorods is presented. Through tuning the molar ratio of two surfactants, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP), single crystalline palladium nanorods

  10. Efficient, Selective, and Green: Catalyst Tuning for Highly Enantioselective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    RajanBabu, T. V. "Babu"

    , PCl3, and various chiral amines, were used for this study. The feasibility of ligand control hydrovinylation (HV) of an alkene, viz., addition of ethylene as a vinyl group and a hydrogen across a double bond group in the product readily transformed into a variety of other common functional groups, this reaction

  11. High temperature polymer concrete

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fontana, J.J.; Reams, W.

    1984-05-29

    This invention is concerned with a polymer concrete composition, which is a two-component composition useful with many bases including metal. Component A, the aggregate composition, is broadly composed of silica, silica flour, portland cement, and acrylamide, whereas Component B, which is primarily vinyl and acrylyl reactive monomers, is a liquid system.

  12. 40 The Electrochemical Society Interface Winter 2003 ne quickly realizes that a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sethuraman, Vijay A.

    . Rather, it is a tightly integrated system of pumps, valves, flow meters, sensors, and heat exchangers complete form, a MEA consists of seven layers: a proton exchange membrane, three-phase anode and cathode- tetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) backbone with perfluorinated- vinyl-polyether side chains containing sulphonic acid end

  13. Nickel(0)-Catalyzed Asymmetric Hydrocyanation of 1,3-Dienes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    RajanBabu, T. V. "Babu"

    (0)-catalyzed hydrocyanation of certain types of 1,3-dienes. 1-Phenyl-1,3-butadiene, 1-vinyl-3 in support of the development of the adiponitrile process from 1,3-butadiene and HCN by the DupontNickel(0)-Catalyzed Asymmetric Hydrocyanation of 1,3-Dienes Biswajit Saha and T. V. Rajan

  14. 40 CFR Ch. I (7101 Edition) 61.71 61.71 Recordkeeping.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    chloride measured, analyzed, and recorded by the vinyl chloride detector, the loca- tion of each measurement and the date and approximate time of each measure- ment. (2) A record of the leaks detected dur- ing routine monitoring with the port- able hydrocarbon detector and the ac- tion taken to repair

  15. www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/313/5786/491/DC1 Supporting Online Material for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischer, Hubertus

    into the #12;field, drill a hole through the lid of the cooler for vinyl aquarium tubing to pass through-iodized salt and Stresscoat® 2 prior to adding fish. We used 0.6% salt solution for transport. Fish tolerate

  16. ARIZONA COOPERATIVE FISH AND WILDLIFE RESEARCH UNIT SEPTEMBER 2005 TTrraannssppoorrtt aanndd CCaarree ooff SSmmaallll

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bonar, Scott A.

    into the #12;field, drill a hole through the lid of the cooler for vinyl aquarium tubing to pass through-iodized salt and Stresscoat® 2 prior to adding fish. We used 0.6% salt solution for transport. Fish tolerate

  17. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 46774697, 2009 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/9/4677/2009/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    : methyl vinyl ke- tone (MVK) plus methacrolein (MACR), methanol, acetone, methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), acetaldehyde, and acetic acid), and aromatic compounds (benzene, toluene, C8 and C9 aro- matics). Time series-annual comparisons of mean summer and winter diurnal profiles are shown. Methanol and acetone exhibit the highest

  18. Journal of Membrane Science 367 (2011) 197203 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nair, Sankar

    2011-01-01

    November 2010 Keywords: Mixed matrix membrane Natural gas Mixed gas High loading Gas separation a b s t r the properties of pure polymers for many gas separations. Comparatively few reports have been made for high.% zeo- lite 4A-poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) MMMs for natural gas separations. A low CO2 partial pressure

  19. Discrimination of Chiral Adsorption Configurations: Styrene on Germanium(100) Yun Jeong Hwang, Eunkyung Hwang, Do Hwan Kim,,, Ansoon Kim,,| Suklyun Hong,*,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Sehun

    Discrimination of Chiral Adsorption Configurations: Styrene on Germanium(100) Yun Jeong Hwang and desorption temperatures of styrene on a Ge surface using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), temperature that styrene molecules attach via the vinyl group in two adsorption configurations: (i) on the top of single Ge

  20. Harnessing nonlinear rubber swelling for bulk synthesis of anisotropic hybrid nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ding, Tao; Smoukov, Stoyan. K.; Baumberg, Jeremy J.

    2014-08-27

    -PDVB nanoparticles. Without PVP, the hybrid nanoparticles of Au- PDVB aggregate (see SI-Fig. S1). The cross-linking is critical for the generation of anisotropic nanoparticles since if styrene (with only one vinyl bond) is used as the monomer, only a very thin...

  1. Radioiodinated glucose analogues for use as imaging agents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goodman, Mark M. (Knoxville, TN); Knapp, Jr., Furn F. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1988-01-01

    A radioiodinated branched carbohydrate for tissue imaging. Iodine-123 is stabilized in the compound by attaching it to a vinyl functional group that is on the carbohydrate. The compound exhibits good uptake and retention and is promising in the development of radiopharmaceuticals for brain, heart and tumor imaging.

  2. Radioiodinated branched carbohydrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goodman, Mark M. (Knoxville, TN); Knapp, Jr., Furn F. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1989-01-01

    A radioiodinated branched carbohydrate for tissue imaging. Iodine-123 is stabilized in the compound by attaching it to a vinyl functional group that is on the carbohydrate. The compound exhibits good uptake and retention and is promising in the development of radiopharmaceuticals for brain, heart and tumor imaging.

  3. Accelerated Leach Test(s) Program: Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dougherty, D.R.; Pietrzak, R.F.; Fuhrmann, M.; Colombo, P.

    1986-09-01

    A computerized data base of LLW leaching data has been developed. Long-term tests on portland cement, bitumen and vinyl ester-styrene (VES) polymer waste forms containing simulated wastes are underway which are designed to identify and evaluate factors that accelerate leaching without changing the mechanisms.

  4. Zevenhoven & Kilpinen List of Abbreviations 13.4.2002 Abb.-1 List of abbreviations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    Packaging-derived fuel #12;Zevenhoven & Kilpinen List of Abbreviations 13.4.2002 Abb.-3 PFBC Pressurised parts per million ppmv parts per million by volume PVC Poly vinyl chloride RDF Refuse-derived fuel RE bar) TBBPA Tetrabromo bisphenol A TDF Tyre-derived fuel (i.e. car tyre scrap) TEF Toxicity equivalence

  5. r XXXX American Chemical Society 3058 DOI: 10.1021/jz1011884 |J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2010, 1, 30583065 pubs.acs.org/JPCL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reisler, Hanna

    to a roaming channel. In formaldehyde, the molecular products H2 and CO can be formed both via a direct pathway­3065 pubs.acs.org/JPCL Roaming Pathway Leading to Unexpected Water þ Vinyl Products in C2H4OH Dissociation of water. The transition state (TS) corresponding to direct water production is energetically inaccessible

  6. www.afm-journal.de 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim6044

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Wenwu

    , metal oxide sensors, metal organic framework sensors, and surface acoustic wave devices.[11, casting films, or nanocompos- ites. At first, most PDA-based sensors for VOCs or other ana- lytes were fibers, casting films of carbohydrates,[14] poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP),[15] and poly(vinyl alcohol

  7. Prevention of addiction in pain management

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dewey, Stephen L.; Brodie, Jonathan D.; Ashby, Jr., Charles R.

    2005-09-06

    The present invention provides a composition for treating pain. The composition includes a pharmaceutically acceptable analgesic and a GABAergic agent, such as gamma vinyl GABA, effective in reducing or eliminating the addictive liability of the analgesic. The invention also includes a method for reducing or eliminating the addictive

  8. Polymerizable 2(2-hydroxynaphthyl)2H-benzotriazole compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gomez, P.M.; Neidlinger, H.H.

    1991-07-16

    Benzotriazole compounds having the formula: ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1 is H, Cl, or OCH.sub.3 ; R.sub.2 is a hydroxynaphthyl group; and R.sub.3 is a vinyl unsaturated polymerizable group. Homopolymers or copolymers thereof are effective as UV light stabilizers and absorbers.

  9. NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC Huyen Dinh (PI)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    information #12;Objectives To assist the DOE Fuel Cell Technologies (FCT) Program in meeting cost, durability antioxidant Secondary antioxidant UV stabilizer Flame retardant Processing aids Biocides Other Vinyl silane-bisphenoxarsine Residual monomer Catalysts Residual solvents Higher cost Lower cost PSU>PC>PBT>PPS>PPA>PA>PPO>POM>PET

  10. Bioengineering Laboratory MAEDA, Mizuo (Ph.D)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fukai, Tomoki

    -analytical system, molecular chaperone engineering, biodegradable polymer, semiconductor device technology Outline and biological science. On the basis of polymer chemistry, analytical chemistry, surface chemistry, biochemistry/nanoscience, life science and medical engineering. For example, we newly prepared DNA-vinyl polymer conjugates which

  11. Bioengineering Laboratory MAEDA, Mizuo (Ph.D)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fukai, Tomoki

    , biodegradable polymer, semiconductor device technology Outline The principal purpose of our laboratory science and medical engineering. For example, we newly prepared DNA-vinyl polymer conjugates which have is to explore a new frontier of research field which fuses engineering and biological science. On the basis

  12. Polymer Reaction Engineering Laboratory -University of Maryland at College Park Book Chapters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    , New York, 1983. 2. Overview of polymerization technology (K.Y. Choi), in Handbook of Polymer Science. New developments in polymer reaction engineering (K.Y. Choi), in Studies in Surface Science of Vinyl Polymers: Radical Polymerization, Process, and Technology, Second ed., (Ed. M.K. Mishra, Y. Yagci

  13. (N-heterocyclic-carbene)Copper(I)-catalyzed carbon-carbon bond formation using carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sirokman, Gergely

    2007-01-01

    This thesis presents work towards the development of a new catalytic C-C bond forming reaction. Alkynes and olefins insert into [(IPr)CuH]2 (IPr = N,N-bis-(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)-1,3-imidazol-2-ylidene) to give copper vinyl ...

  14. Pd-Catalyzed Cyclizations Direct Oxidative Heck

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoltz, Brian M.

    events: 1) halogenation of an aryl or vinyl precursor and 2) palladium(0)-catalyzed CÀC bond formation to develop palladium(ii)-catalyzed dehydrogenation as a general oxidation method,[6,7] we recently described with subsequent olefin insertion and b-hydrogen elimina- tion.[9] Importantly, this mechanism is analogous

  15. Initiated chemical vapor deposition of fluoropolymer coatings for the surface modification of complex geometries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Malancha, 1980-

    2007-01-01

    Initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) is a one-step, soventless process that can be used to produce polymeric thin films. The iCVD technique has been used to polymerize a wide variety of vinyl monomers such as glycidyl ...

  16. Toxicology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Modified Dominant Lethal Study of Sulfur Mustard in Rats Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sasser, L. B.; Cushing, J. A.; Kalkwarf, D. R.; Buschbom, R. L.

    1989-05-01

    Occupational health standards have not been established for sulfur mustard (HD) [bis{2-chloroethyl)-sulfide) ' a strong alkylating agent with known mutagenic properties. Little, however, is known about the mutagenic activity of HD in mammalian species and data regarding the dominant lethal effects of HD are ambiguous. The purpose of this study was to determine the dominant lethal effect in male and female rats orally exposed to HD. The study was conducted in two phases; a female dominant lethal phase and a male dominant lethal phase. Sprague-Dawley rats of each sex were administered 0.08, 0.20, or 0.50 mg/kg HD in sesame oil 5 days/week for 10 weeks. For the female phase, treated or untreated males were mated with treated females and their fetuses were evaluated at approximately 14 days after copulation. For the male dominant lethal phase, treated males cohabited with untreated femal (during 5 days of each week for 10 weeks) and females were sacrificed for fetal evaluation 14 days after the midweek of cohabitation during each of the 10 weeks. The appearance and behavior of the rats were unremarkable throughout the experiment and there were no treatment-related deaths. Growth rates were reduced in both female and male rats treated with 0.50 mg/kg HD. Indicators of reproductive performance did not demonstrate significant female dominant lethal effects, although significant male dominant lethal effects were observed at 2 and 3 week post-exposure. These effects included increases of early fetal resorptions and preimplantation losses and decreases of total live embryo implants. These effects were most consistently observed at a dose of 0.50 mg/kg, but frequently occurred at the lower doses. Although no treatment-related effects on male reproductive organ weights or sperm motility were found, a significant increase in the percentage of abnormal sperm was detected in males exposed to 0. 50 mg/kg HD. The timing of these effects is consistent with an effect during the postmeiotic stages of spermatogenesis, possibly involving the generally sensitive spermatids.

  17. Synthesis of oxygenate products for high volume fuels applications. Quarterly status report No. 3 for the period April through June 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-09-26

    A rudimentary process variables study of the reaction of acetylene with methanol indicates high activity for the formation of ethanol, n- propanol, and i-butanol with a pure low temperature activated MgO catalyst. Initial results indicate that higher conversions and space- time yields may be obtainable by operation at higher temperatures and reactant feed rates, respectively. Also, ethanol formation was consistently observed to rise with decreasing reaction temperature between 454{degrees}C and 370{degrees}C. A 10% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/MgO catalyst exhibited high activity for methanol-dimethyl ether interconversion but was not very active for the condensation of these reactants to either the product alcohols or their methyl ethers. Neither catalyst exhibited significant activity for the condensation to dimethyl ether/water with acetylene to form such products. This lack of activity in the ether systems is attributed to insufficient hydrolysis of dimethyl ether to methanol, and it is expected that feeds containing additional water or methanol (which produces water via condensation) will exhibit higher activity. The aluminum- containing catalyst exhibited diminished condensation activity possibly as a result of deactivation of Mg sites by Al sites. The overall objective of this project is to develop catalyst and process technology for evaluation as potential routes for the production of high volume fuel oxygenates.

  18. Synthesis of oxygenate products for high volume fuels applications. Quarterly status report No. 4 for the period July through September 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-12-29

    A rudimentary process variables study of the reaction of acetylene with methanol indicates high activity for the formation of ethanol, n- propanol, and i-butanol with a pure low temperature activated MgO catalyst. Initial results indicate that higher conversions and space- time yields may be obtainable by operation at higher temperatures and reactant feed rates, respectively. Also, ethanol formation was consistently observed to rise with decreasing reaction temperature between 454{degrees}C and 370{degrees}C. A 10% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/MgO catalyst exhibited high activity for methanol-dimethyl ether interconversion but was not very active for the condensation of these reactants to either the product alcohols or their methyl ethers. Neither catalyst exhibited significant activity for the condensation of dimethyl ether/water with acetylene to form such products. This lack of activity in the ether systems us attributed to insufficient hydrolysis of dimethyl ether to methanol, and it is expected that feeds containing additional water or methanol (which produces water via condensation) will exhibit higher activity. The aluminum- containing catalyst exhibited diminished condensation activity possibly as the result of deactivation of Mg sites by Al sites. The overall objective of this project is to develop catalyst and process technology for evaluation as potential routes for the production of high volume fuel oxygenates.

  19. Solid Sorbents for Removal of Carbon Dioxide from Gas Streams at Low Temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sirwardane, Ranjani V.

    2005-06-21

    New low-cost CO2 sorbents are provided that can be used in large-scale gas-solid processes. A new method is provided for making these sorbents that involves treating substrates with an amine and/or an ether so that the amine and/or ether comprise at least 50 wt. percent of the sorbent. The sorbent acts by capturing compounds contained in gaseous fluids via chemisorption and/or physisorption between the unit layers of the substrate's lattice where the polar amine liquids and solids and/or polar ether liquids and solids are located. The method eliminates the need for high surface area supports and polymeric materials for the preparation of CO2 capture systems, and provides sorbents with absorption capabilities that are independent of the sorbents' surface areas. The sorbents can be regenerated by heating at temperatures in excess of 35 degrees C.

  20. High-energy metal air batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Ji-Guang; Xiao, Jie; Xu, Wu; Wang, Deyu; Williford, Ralph E.; Liu, Jun

    2013-07-09

    Disclosed herein are embodiments of lithium/air batteries and methods of making and using the same. Certain embodiments are pouch-cell batteries encased within an oxygen-permeable membrane packaging material that is less than 2% of the total battery weight. Some embodiments include a hybrid air electrode comprising carbon and an ion insertion material, wherein the mass ratio of ion insertion material to carbon is 0.2 to 0.8. The air electrode may include hydrophobic, porous fibers. In particular embodiments, the air electrode is soaked with an electrolyte comprising one or more solvents including dimethyl ether, and the dimethyl ether subsequently is evacuated from the soaked electrode. In other embodiments, the electrolyte comprises 10-20% crown ether by weight.

  1. High-energy metal air batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Ji-Guang; Xiao, Jie; Xu, Wu; Wang, Deyu; Williford, Ralph E.; Liu, Jun

    2014-07-01

    Disclosed herein are embodiments of lithium/air batteries and methods of making and using the same. Certain embodiments are pouch-cell batteries encased within an oxygen-permeable membrane packaging material that is less than 2% of the total battery weight. Some embodiments include a hybrid air electrode comprising carbon and an ion insertion material, wherein the mass ratio of ion insertion material to carbon is 0.2 to 0.8. The air electrode may include hydrophobic, porous fibers. In particular embodiments, the air electrode is soaked with an electrolyte comprising one or more solvents including dimethyl ether, and the dimethyl ether subsequently is evacuated from the soaked electrode. In other embodiments, the electrolyte comprises 10-20% crown ether by weight.

  2. Solid sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide from gas streams at low temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sirwardane, Ranjani V. (Morgantown, WV)

    2005-06-21

    New low-cost CO.sub.2 sorbents are provided that can be used in large-scale gas-solid processes. A new method is provided for making these sorbents that involves treating substrates with an amine and/or an ether so that the amine and/or ether comprise at least 50 wt. percent of the sorbent. The sorbent acts by capturing compounds contained in gaseous fluids via chemisorption and/or physisorption between the unit layers of the substrate's lattice where the polar amine liquids and solids and/or polar ether liquids and solids are located. The method eliminates the need for high surface area supports and polymeric materials for the preparation of CO.sub.2 capture systems, and provides sorbents with absorption capabilities that are independent of the sorbents' surface areas. The sorbents can be regenerated by heating at temperatures in excess of 35.degree. C.

  3. Deetherification process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1985-11-05

    Ethers such as isobutyl tertiary butyl ether are dissociated into their component alcohols and isoolefins by heat stabilized catalyst compositions prepared from nuclear sulfonic acid, for example, macroporous crosslinked polyvinyl aromatic compounds containing sulfonic acid groups are neutralized with a metal of Al, Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, ions or mixtures and alkali, alkaline earth metals or ammonium ions by contacting the resin containing the sulfonic acid with aqueous solutions of the metals salts and alkali, alkaline earth metal or ammonium salts. The catalysts have at least 50% of the sulfonic acid groups neutralized with metal ions and the balance of the sulfonic acid groups neutralized with alkali, alkaline earth ions or ammonium ions.

  4. The synthesis of a new class of macropolycyclic polyether ligands / by Robert Martin Holdar 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holdar, Robert Martin

    1979-01-01

    in the reaction flask. Gas chromatographic analyses were performed on a Varian Associates series 2400 chromatograph using an 1/8 in x 6 ft aluminium column packed with SE-30 (3% w/w) on Chromosorb G support (80-100 mesh). Gas chromatographic separations were...(hydroxymethyl)benzene (21). Dimethyl 5-bromoisophthalate (QO) (26. Z g, 96. 0 mmole) in diethyl ether (400 mL) was added dropwise to a suspension of lithium aluminium hydride (9. 3 g, 245 mmole) in ether (500 mL). The reaction mixture was stirred and heated at reflux...

  5. Northgate - 15 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2009-01-01

    tube and centrifuge until clear. Decant the liquid and wash twice with 25 cc ice cold 9570 alcohol. Transfer the residue with 25 cc ether to a hardened filter paper and wash twice with 15 cc ether. Transfer to a beaker and add 25 cc 0.2 hydrochloric... acid and allow to stand over night in a refrigerator. Transfer to a centrifuge tube, centrifuge and wash twice with ice cold water. Transfer the residue to a 150 cc beaker with 25 cc water, add 15 cc 0.2 N sodium hydroxide and heat on the water bath...

  6. Enantioselective and regiodivergent copper-­catalyzed electrophilic arylation of allylic amides with diaryliodonium salts - SI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cahard, Elise; Male, Henry P. J.; Tissot, Matthieu; Gaunt, Matthew J.

    2015-08-07

    !from!lithium!aluminium!hydride!and!calcium!hydride;!acetonitrile,!toluene!and!dichloromethane!were!distilled!from!calcium!hydride;! 1,2>dichloroethane! and! 1,4>dioxane!were! purchased! from!Acros!Organics.! HPLC! grade! iso>propanol!and!n>hexane!were... !purchased!from!Fisher!Scientific.!For!purification!purposes,!petroleum!ether!40>60,!hexanes!and!ethyl!acetate!were!distilled!before!use;!diethyl!ether!was!used!as!purchased!from!Sigma!Aldrich.!!!Reagents:!All!reagents!were!purified!by!standard!procedures!or!used!as!purchased!at!the!highest!commercial!quality.1! Copper...

  7. Replacement solvents for use in chemical synthesis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Molnar, Linda K. (Philadelphia, PA); Hatton, T. Alan (Sudbury, MA); Buchwald, Stephen L. (Newton, MA)

    2001-05-15

    Replacement solvents for use in chemical synthesis include polymer-immobilized solvents having a flexible polymer backbone and a plurality of pendant groups attached onto the polymer backbone, the pendant groups comprising a flexible linking unit bound to the polymer backbone and to a terminal solvating moiety. The polymer-immobilized solvent may be dissolved in a benign medium. Replacement solvents for chemical reactions for which tetrahydrofuran or diethyl may be a solvent include substituted tetrahydrofurfuryl ethers and substituted tetrahydro-3-furan ethers. The replacement solvents may be readily recovered from the reaction train using conventional methods.

  8. Determination of optimal conditions for obtaining 1,3-dimethoxy-1-phenyl-propane by addition of methylal to styrene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brudnik, I.M.; Akhmatdinov, R.T.; Kantor, E.A.; Rakhmankulov, D.L.

    1988-02-10

    The reaction of styrene with methylal was investigated in order to reveal the regularities of the reaction and determine the conditions for obtaining acceptable yields of 1,3-dimethoxy-1-phenylpropane. Earlier, boron trifluoride was recommended as catalyst of the reaction. However, the necessity of working at low temperatures or under pressure makes this catalyst inconvenient for quantitative syntheses. The primary task of the investigation was determination of the possibility of using some other acidic catalysts, particularly sulfuric acid, para toluenesulfonic acid monohydrate, KU-2 cation-exchanger, zinc chloride, and boron trifluoride etherate. The most effective and selective of the investigated catalysts is boron trifluoride etherate.

  9. Reduction Mechanism of Fluoroethylene Carbonate for Stable Solid–Electrolyte Interphase Film on Silicon Anode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Xilin; Li, Xiaolin; Mei, Donghai; Feng, Ju; Hu, Mary Y.; Hu, Jian Z.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zheng, Jianming; Xu, Wu; Xiao, Jie; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jiguang

    2014-02-01

    Fluoroethylene Carbonate (FEC) is an effective electrolyte additive which can significantly improve the cyclability of Si and other anode materials. However, the fundamental mechanism on this improvement is still not well understood. Based on the results obtained from 6Li Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and X-ray Photoelectron Scanning study, we propose a molecular level mechanism on how FEC affects the formation of solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) film: 1) FEC is reduced through the opening of the five member ring leading to the formation of lithium poly (vinyl carbonate), LiF and some dimmers; 2) The high tensile strength of the FEC-derived lithium poly (vinyl carbonate) enhances the stability of the SEI film. This mechanism has been verified by the results of electrochemical tests.

  10. Viralcool | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al.,Turin,Village of Wellington, Ohio (UtilityVinyl Kraft

  11. Virgil, Illinois: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al.,Turin,Village of Wellington, Ohio (UtilityVinyl

  12. Virginia Beach County, Virginia: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al.,Turin,Village of Wellington, Ohio (UtilityVinylVirgin Bioverda

  13. Virginia Electric & Power Co | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al.,Turin,Village of Wellington, Ohio (UtilityVinylVirgin

  14. Virginia's 1st congressional district: Energy Resources | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al.,Turin,Village of Wellington, Ohio (UtilityVinylVirginGardens,

  15. Treatment of PCP addiction and PCP addiction-related behavior

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dewey, Stephen L. (Manorville, NY); Brodie, Jonathan D. (Cos Cob, CT); Ashby, Jr., Charles R. (Miller Place, NY)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for changing addiction-related behavior of a mammal suffering from addiction to phencyclidine (PCP). The method includes administering to the mammal an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA (GVG) or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, or an enantiomer or a racemic mixture thereof, wherein the effective amount is sufficient to diminish, inhibit or eliminate behavior associated with craving or use of PCP.

  16. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy study of the compatibility of the explosive PETN with candidate plastic bonding materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vannet, M.D.; Wang, P.S.; Moddeman, W.E.; Bowling, W.C.

    1985-01-01

    The compatibility of the explosive PETN with two plastic bonding materials, ethyl cellulose and a halogenated vinyl polymer (FPC 461), was determined by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Both were found to coat the PETN crystals, and no change in chemical composition was found in the PETN or the plastic due to either the process or their mutual presence. 3 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  17. Cyanoethylated compounds as additives in lithium/lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nagasubramanian, Ganesan (Albuquerque, NM)

    1999-01-01

    The power loss of lithium/lithium ion battery cells is significantly reduced, especially at low temperatures, when about 1% by weight of an additive is incorporated in the electrolyte layer of the cells. The usable additives are organic solvent soluble cyanoethylated polysaccharides and poly(vinyl alcohol). The power loss decrease results primarily from the decrease in the charge transfer resistance at the interface between the electrolyte and the cathode.

  18. Electrically conductive polymer concrete coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fontana, J.J.; Elling, D.; Reams, W.

    1990-03-13

    A sprayable electrically conductive polymer concrete coating for vertical d overhead applications is described. The coating is permeable yet has low electrical resistivity (<10 ohm-cm), good bond strength to concrete substrates, and good weatherability. A preferred formulation contains about 60 wt % calcined coke breeze, 40 wt % vinyl ester with 3.5 wt % modified bentonite clay. Such formulations apply evenly and provide enough rigidity for vertical or overhead structures so there is no drip or sag.

  19. Synthesis and X-ray crystallographic characterization of substituted aryl imines James Kovach, Maria Peralta, William W. Brennessel, William D. Jones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, William D.

    with an electrospray ion source. 2.2. 1,4-bis(2,5-di-tert-butylphenyl)-2,3-dimethyl-1,4-diaza-1,3- butadiene (1) A 100,4-bis(2,5-di-tert-butylphenyl)-2,3-dimethyl-1,4-diaza-1,3-buta- diene, 1, and a-iminoketones 2 polymerization [12], 2-butene polymerization [13], butadiene polymerization [14], CO and vinyl arene

  20. Radiation-hardened polymeric films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, C. Jr.; Hughes, R.C.; Kepler, R.G.; Kurtz, S.R.

    1984-07-16

    The radiation-induced conductivity of polymeric dielectrics with low electronic mobility is reduced by doping with electron donor or electron acceptor compounds at a level of 10/sup 15/ to 10/sup 21/ molecules of dopant/cm/sup 3/. Polyesters, polyolefins, perfluoropolyolefins, vinyl polymers, vinylidene polymers, polycarbonates, polysulfones and polyimides can benefit from such a treatment. Usable dopants include 2,4,7-trinitro-9-fluorenone, tetracyanethylene, 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane, m-dinitrobenzene, 2-isopropylcarbazole, and triphenylamine.

  1. Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alamgir, M.; Abraham, K.M.

    1993-10-12

    This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li[sup +]) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride). 3 figures.

  2. Solid polymer electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, K.M.; Alamgir, M.; Choe, H.S.

    1995-12-12

    This invention relates to Li ion (Li{sup +}) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of poly(vinyl sulfone) and lithium salts, and their use in all-solid-state rechargeable lithium ion batteries. The lithium salts comprise low lattice energy lithium salts such as LiN(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 2}){sub 2}, LiAsF{sub 6}, and LiClO{sub 4}. 2 figs.

  3. Composite bipolar plate for electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, Mahlon S. (Los Alamos, NM); Busick, Deanna N. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2001-01-01

    A bipolar separator plate for fuel cells consists of a molded mixture of a vinyl ester resin and graphite powder. The plate serves as a current collector and may contain fluid flow fields for the distribution of reactant gases. The material is inexpensive, electrically conductive, lightweight, strong, corrosion resistant, easily mass produced, and relatively impermeable to hydrogen gas. The addition of certain fiber reinforcements and other additives can improve the properties of the composite material without significantly increasing its overall cost.

  4. Microbial based chlorinated ethene destruction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bagwell, Christopher E. (Aiken, SC); Freedman, David L. (Clemson, SC); Brigmon, Robin L. (North Augusta, SC); Bratt, William B. (Atlanta, GA); Wood, Elizabeth A. (Marietta, GA)

    2009-11-10

    A mixed culture of Dehalococcoides species is provided that has an ability to catalyze the complete dechlorination of polychlorinated ethenes such as PCE, TCE, cDCE, 1,1-DCE and vinyl chloride as well as halogenated ethanes such as 1,2-DCA and EDB. The mixed culture demonstrates the ability to achieve dechlorination even in the presence of high source concentrations of chlorinated ethenes.

  5. Heavy metals emission from controlled combustion of PVC 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    El-Ayyoubi, Mohammed A.

    1989-01-01

    such as direct heating and uv radiation exposure e (IZ). The PVC polymer chain contains weak sites that represent the initiating sites of chemical deter ioration. These sites are formed during polymerization of the vinyl chloride monomer. Thus attempts...HEAVY METALS EMISSION FROM CONTROLLED COMBUSTION OF PVC A Thesis by MOHAMMED A. EL-AYYOUBI Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas Ag M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degas ee of' MASTER OF SCIENCE...

  6. Radiation-hardened polymeric films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, Jr., Charles (Albuquerque, NM); Hughes, Robert C. (Albuquerque, NM); Kepler, R. Glen (Albuquerque, NM); Kurtz, Steven R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1986-01-01

    The radiation-induced conductivity of polymeric dielectrics with low electronic mobility is reduced by doping with electron donor or electron acceptor compounds at a level of 10.sup.15 to 10.sup.21 molecules of dopant/cm.sup.3. Polyesters, polyolefins, perfluoropolyolefins, vinyl polymers, vinylidene polymers, polycarbonates, polysulfones and polyimides can benefit from such a treatment. Usable dopants include 2,4,7-trinitro-9-fluorenone, tetracyanethylene, 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane, m-dinitrobenzene, 2-isopropylcarbazole, and triphenylamine.

  7. CuC1 thermochemical cycle for hydrogen production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fan, Qinbai (Chicago, IL); Liu, Renxuan (Chicago, IL)

    2012-01-03

    An electrochemical cell for producing copper having a dense graphite anode electrode and a dense graphite cathode electrode disposed in a CuCl solution. An anion exchange membrane made of poly(ethylene vinyl alcohol) and polyethylenimine cross-linked with a cross-linking agent selected from the group consisting of acetone, formaldehyde, glyoxal, glutaraldehyde, and mixtures thereof is disposed between the two electrodes.

  8. Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alamgir, Mohamed (Dedham, MA); Abraham, Kuzhikalail M. (Needham, MA)

    1993-01-01

    This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride).

  9. Indentation and recovery characteristics of common resilient floor coverings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stewart, Billy Ray

    1959-01-01

    ?ate'ties At tbe ' Tesperstnres of 50 p an4 11 p. . . . . . ' hf l . Xg, Typical indentation ebd aeooverp corrie af Robber Tile, Vinyl Tile ead Viayl?' Asbestos Tile ~ ' ~ ' ~ ~ ' ~ ~ ' ~ ~ ~ ~ ' ~ "a' ~ ~ ~ ', ~ do" ' l la;: Tppioe1 xsdestotios . end... . . . Rmhagasnsl ~ "r C . I prefect Qhs pi the genes Agricultural ggperiaent gtstion '-entitled &%'ho Desirability of Wetiridle end Methods of is- ' a?-' stslletioa for tloir Coverings, , Drainboard surfaces, yleor snd gall Piaiehes', ead gall. Co...

  10. Thermoplastics Properties J. D. Muzzy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colton, Jonathan S.

    2.3 Thermoplastics ­ Properties J. D. Muzzy Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA 2.3.4 THERMOPLASTIC GROUPS 2.3.4.1.1 Polyolefins 2.3.4.1.2 Styrenics 2.3.4.1.3 Vinyls 2.3.4.1.9 Polyethers 2.3.4.1.10 Sulfur Containing polymers 2.3.4.1.11 Additional Thermoplastics 2.3.5 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

  11. Electrically conductive polymer concrete coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fontana, Jack J. (Shirley, NY); Elling, David (Centereach, NY); Reams, Walter (Shirley, NY)

    1990-01-01

    A sprayable electrically conductive polymer concrete coating for vertical d overhead applications is described. The coating is permeable yet has low electrical resistivity (<10 ohm-cm), good bond strength to concrete substrates, and good weatherability. A preferred formulation contains about 60 wt % calcined coke breeze, 40 wt % vinyl ester with 3.5 wt % modified bentonite clay. Such formulations apply evenly and provide enough rigidity for vertical or overhead structures so there is no drip or sag.

  12. Electrically conductive polymer concrete coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fontana, J.J.; Elling, D.; Reams, W.

    1988-05-26

    A sprayable electrically conductive polymer concrete coating for vertical and overhead applications is described. The coating is permeable yet has low electrical resistivity (<10 ohm-cm), good bond strength to concrete substrates, and good weatherability. A preferred formulation contains about 60 wt% calcined coke breeze, 40 wt% vinyl ester resin with 3.5 wt% modified bentonite clay. Such formulations apply evenly and provide enough rigidity for vertical or overhead structures so there is no drip or sag. 4 tabs.

  13. Solid polymer electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M. (Needham, MA); Alamgir, Mohamed (Dedham, MA); Choe, Hyoun S. (Waltham, MA)

    1995-01-01

    This invention relates to Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of poly(vinyl sulfone) and lithium salts, and their use in all-solid-state rechargeable lithium ion batteries. The lithium salts comprise low lattice energy lithium salts such as LiN(CF.sub.3 SO.sub.2).sub.2, LiAsF.sub.6, and LiClO.sub.4.

  14. Treatment of addiction and addiction-related behavior

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dewey, Stephen L.; Brodie, Jonathan D.; Ashby, Jr., Charles R.

    2003-07-15

    The present invention provides a method for changing addiction-related behavior of a mammal suffering from addiction to a combination of abused drugs. The method includes administering to the mammal an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA (GVG) or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, or an enantiomer or a racemic mixture thereof, wherein the effective amount is sufficient to diminish, inhibit or eliminate behavior associated with craving or use of the combination of abused drugs.

  15. Biomimetic hydrogel materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bertozzi, Carolyn (Albany, CA); Mukkamala, Ravindranath (Houston, TX); Chen, Qing (Albany, CA); Hu, Hopin (Albuquerque, NM); Baude, Dominique (Creteil, FR)

    2000-01-01

    Novel biomimetic hydrogel materials and methods for their preparation. Hydrogels containing acrylamide-functionalized carbohydrate, sulfoxide, sulfide or sulfone copolymerized with a hydrophilic or hydrophobic copolymerizing material selected from the group consisting of an acrylamide, methacrylamide, acrylate, methacrylate, vinyl and a derivative thereof present in concentration from about 1 to about 99 wt %. and methods for their preparation. The method of use of the new hydrogels for fabrication of soft contact lenses and biomedical implants.

  16. Biomimetic Hydrogel Materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bertozzi, Carolyn (Albany, CA), Mukkamala, Ravindranath (Houston, TX), Chen, Oing (Albany, CA), Hu, Hopin (Albuquerque, NM), Baude, Dominique (Creteil, FR)

    2003-04-22

    Novel biomimetic hydrogel materials and methods for their preparation. Hydrogels containing acrylamide-functionalized carbohydrate, sulfoxide, sulfide or sulfone copolymerized with a hydrophilic or hydrophobic copolymerizing material selected from the group consisting of an acrylamide, methacrylamide, acrylate, methacrylate, vinyl and a derivative thereof present in concentration from about 1 to about 99 wt %. and methods for their preparation. The method of use of the new hydrogels for fabrication of soft contact lenses and biomedical implants.

  17. Studies of Platinum Polyynyl Complexes: Elaboration of Novel "Click" Cycloadducts and Fluorous and Polygon Based Platinum Polyyndiyl Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clough, Melissa Catherine 1985-

    2012-11-13

    to heterocouple a terminal alkyne and an aryl or vinyl halide to form a new carbon-carbon bond using copper and palladium catalysts. The second type of reaction is a homocoupling reaction between two terminal poyynes. To accomplish this type of transformation... chemists. Molecular squares first gained interest in 1990 when Ogura synthesized an organometallic molecular square shown in Figure 2.3 which was comprised of square planar palladium corners with 4,4'-bipy linkers (bipy = bipyridine). This octacationic...

  18. Molecularly engineering homogenous catalysts 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hughes, Reagan Rebekah

    2013-02-22

    quickly. To attempt to 1G overcome this problem, Bergbreiter's group began work on synthesis of palladacycles in an attempt to find a more robust catalyst. The group was spurred to do this by the success of Denmark using chiral bis (oxazoline) palladium... useful in a Heck-type vinylation of aryl halides. As Bergbreiter and coworkers discovered, new tridentate SCS-type palladium (II) complexes are effective catalysts for Heck reactions between aryl iodides and alkene acceptors. The catalyst...

  19. Neutron Absorbing Alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhong, Yuanzhen (Wayne, NJ), Parikh, Hemant (Harriman, NY); Smith, Terry E. (Murray, KY)

    2002-05-28

    A process for making homogeneous copolymers of vinylpyrrolidone (VP) and vinyl acetate (VA) which form clear aqueous solutions and have high cloud points. The process involves precharging VP and VA monomers in a predetermined ratio, and then feeding VP and VA at a predetermined rate, the ratio of the components in the initial charge and the feeding rates for the monomer being selected in accordance with the reactivity rates of the monomers towards copolymerization as opposed to homopolymerization.

  20. Method of making carbon nanotube composite materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Bryan, Gregory; Skinner, Jack L; Vance, Andrew; Yang, Elaine Lai; Zifer, Thomas

    2014-05-20

    The present invention is a method of making a composite polymeric material by dissolving a vinyl thermoplastic polymer, un-functionalized carbon nanotubes and hydroxylated carbon nanotubes and optionally additives in a solvent to make a solution and removing at least a portion of the solvent after casting onto a substrate to make thin films. The material has enhanced conductivity properties due to the blending of the un-functionalized and hydroxylated carbon nanotubes.