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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "1municipal solid waste" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

ETC/RWM working paper 2008/1 Municipal waste management  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.............................................................................. 19 6. Modelling greenhouse gas emissions............................................................. 21 6.1. Greenhouse gas emissions as environmental indicatorETC/RWM working paper 2008/1 Municipal waste management and greenhouse gases Prepared by: Mette

2

Solid Waste (New Mexico)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The New Mexico Environment Department's Solid Waste Bureau manages solid waste in the state. The Bureau implements and enforces the rules established by the Environmental Improvement Board.

3

Solid Waste Permits (Louisiana)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality administers the rules and regulations governing the storage, collection, processing, recovery, and reuse of solid waste protect the air,...

4

Business Plan : Residential Solid Waste Collection.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Residential solid waste means all the solid wastes produced in household level, which includes bio-waste, metal, mixed wastes, organic and inorganic waste. The inability of… (more)

Mazengo, Dorice

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Solid Waste Act (New Mexico)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The main purpose of the Solid Waste Act is to authorize and direct the establishment of a comprehensive solid waste management program. The act states details about specific waste management...

6

Solid Waste Disposal Act (Texas)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Texas Commission on Environmental Quality is responsible for the regulation and management of municipal solid waste and hazardous waste. A fee is applied to all solid waste disposed in the...

7

Quality Services: Solid Wastes, Part 360: Solid Waste Management Facilities  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

0: Solid Waste Management 0: Solid Waste Management Facilities (New York) Quality Services: Solid Wastes, Part 360: Solid Waste Management Facilities (New York) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Fuel Distributor Industrial Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Rural Electric Cooperative Transportation Utility Program Info State New York Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider NY Department of Environmental Conservation These regulations apply to all solid wastes with the exception of hazardous or radioactive waste. Proposed solid waste processing facilities are required to obtain permits prior to construction, and the regulations provide details about permitting, construction, registration, and operation requirements. The regulations contain specific guidance for land

8

SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PLAN  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The Chelan County Public Works Department would like to thank the following organizations and individuals for their assistance in the development of this plan: ? Chelan County’s Solid Waste Council members, past and present, and the municipalities they represent. ? Chelan County’s Solid Waste Advisory Committee members, past and present, and the agencies and businesses they represented. ? the Chelan–Douglas Health District staff. ? Washington Department of Ecology staff. Chelan County residents and businesses also contributed to this document through comments provided during public meetings and through various other channels. The Board of County Commissioners and the Public Works Department gratefully acknowledge this input by the

unknown authors

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Solid waste management of Jakarta.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? Solid waste management has been one of the critical issues in Jakarta, Indonesia.With enormous amounts of generated waste per day and limited supportinginfrastructure, the… (more)

Trisyanti, Dini

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Treatment of Waste Soils / Solids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About the 1996 International Symposium on Extraction and Processing for the Treatment and Minimization of Wastes: Treatment of Waste Soils / Solids ...

11

Nonhazardous Solid Waste Management Regulations & Criteria (Mississippi)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The purpose of the Nonhazardous Solid Waste Management Regulations & Criteria is to establish a minimum State Criteria under the Mississippi Solid Waste Law for all solid waste management...

12

Solid Waste Management Program (Missouri)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Solid Waste Management Program in the Department of Natural Resources regulates the management of solid waste in the state of Missouri. A permit is required prior to the construction or...

13

Delaware Solid Waste Authority (Delaware)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Delaware Solid Waste Authority (DSWA) runs three landfills, all of which recover methane and generate electricity with a total capacity of 24 MWs. The DSWA Solid Waste Plan includes goals,...

14

Comprehensive Municipal Solid Waste Management, Resource Recovery...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Municipal Solid Waste Management, Resource Recovery, and Conservation Act (Texas) Comprehensive Municipal Solid Waste Management, Resource Recovery, and Conservation...

15

Municipal Solid Waste:  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Methodology for Allocating Municipal Solid Waste Methodology for Allocating Municipal Solid Waste to Biogenic and Non-Biogenic Energy May 2007 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. The information contained herein should be attributed to the Energy Information Administration and should not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy of the Department of Energy or any other organization. Contact This report was prepared by staff of the Renewable Information Team, Coal, Nuclear, and Renewables Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels.

16

Solid Waste Regulation No. 8 - Solid Waste Composting Facilities (Rhode  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Regulation No. 8 - Solid Waste Composting Facilities Regulation No. 8 - Solid Waste Composting Facilities (Rhode Island) Solid Waste Regulation No. 8 - Solid Waste Composting Facilities (Rhode Island) < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Investor-Owned Utility Municipal/Public Utility Rural Electric Cooperative Utility Program Info State Rhode Island Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Department of Environmental Management Facilities which compost putrescible waste and/or leaf and yard waste are subject to these regulations. The regulations establish permitting, registration, and operational requirements for composting facilities. Operational requirements for putrescible waste facilities include siting, distance, and buffer requirements, as well as standards for avoiding harm to endangered species and contamination of air and water sources. Specific

17

Solid Waste Management Act (Pennsylvania)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This Act provides for the planning and regulation of solid waste storage, collection, transportation, processing, treatment, and disposal. It requires that municipalities submit plans for municipal...

18

Chapter 47 Solid Waste Facilities (Kentucky)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This chapter establishes the permitting standards for solid waste sites or facilities, the standards applicable to all solid waste sites or facilities, and the standards for certification of...

19

Municipal Solid Waste | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Municipal Solid Waste Jump to: navigation, search TODO: Add description List of Municipal Solid Waste Incentives Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleMunicipalSo...

20

Characteristics Of Fresh Municipal Solid Waste.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Hossain, Sahadat The characteristics of fresh municipal solid waste (MSW) are critical in planning, designing, operating or upgrading solid waste management systems. Physical composition, moisture… (more)

Taufiq, Tashfeena

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "1municipal solid waste" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Solid Waste Management Program Plan  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the Solid Waste Management Program Plan (SWMPP) is to provide a summary level comprehensive approach for the storage, treatment, and disposal of current and future solid waste received at the Hanford Site (from onsite and offsite generators) in a manner compliant with current and evolving regulations and orders (federal, state, and Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford)). The Plan also presents activities required for disposal of selected wastes currently in retrievable storage. The SWMPP provides a central focus for the description and control of cost, scope, and schedule of Hanford Site solid waste activities, and provides a vehicle for ready communication of the scope of those activities to onsite and offsite organizations. This Plan represents the most complete description available of Hanford Site Solid Waste Management (SWM) activities and the interfaces between those activities. It will be updated annually to reflect changes in plans due to evolving regulatory requirements and/or the SWM mission. 8 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

Duncan, D.R.

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Solid Waste Disposal, Hazardous Waste Management Act, Underground...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Disposal, Hazardous Waste Management Act, Underground Storage Act (Tennessee) Solid Waste Disposal, Hazardous Waste Management Act, Underground Storage Act (Tennessee) Eligibility...

23

Biohazardous Waste Disposal Guidelines Sharps Waste Solid Lab Waste Liquid Waste Animals Pathological Waste  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Biohazardous Waste Disposal Guidelines Sharps Waste Solid Lab Waste Liquid Waste Animals Pathological Waste Description Biohazard symbol Address: UCSD 9500 Gilman Drive La Jolla, CA 92093 (858) 534) and identity of liquid waste Biohazard symbol Address: UCSD 9500 Gilman Drive La Jolla, CA 92093 (858) 534

Russell, Lynn

24

Biohazardous Waste Disposal Guidelines Sharps Waste Solid Lab Waste Liquid Waste Animals Pathological Waste  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2/2009 Biohazardous Waste Disposal Guidelines Sharps Waste Solid Lab Waste Liquid Waste Animals Pathological Waste Description Biohazard symbol Address: UCSD 200 West Arbor Dr. San Diego, CA 92103 (619 (9:1) OR Biohazard symbol (if untreated) and identity of liquid waste Biohazard symbol Address

Firtel, Richard A.

25

Solid Waste Management Rules (Vermont)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

These rules establish procedures and standards to protect public health and the environment by ensuring the safe, proper, and sustainable management of solid waste in Vermont. The rules apply to...

26

Solid Waste Management (Indiana) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Solid Waste Management (Indiana) Solid Waste Management (Indiana) Solid Waste Management (Indiana) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Industrial Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Municipal/Public Utility Rural Electric Cooperative State/Provincial Govt Utility Program Info State Indiana Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Association of Indiana Solid Wastes Districts Inc. The state supports the implementation of source reduction, recycling, and other alternative solid waste management practices over incineration and land disposal. The Indiana Department of Environmental Management and the Indiana Solid Waste Management Board are tasked with planning and adopting rules and regulations governing solid waste management practices. Provisions pertaining to landfill management and expansion, permitting,

27

Heat Recovery From Solid Waste  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

More opportunity exists today for the successful implementation of resource recovery projects than at any other period. However, that doesn't mean that energy/resource recovery exists for everyone. You must have a favorable match of all the critical areas of evaluation, including the cost of fuel, cost of solid waste disposal, plant energy requirements, available technology, etc.

Underwood, O. W.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Cogeneration/Cogeneration - Solid Waste  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper reviews the rationale for cogeneration and basic turbine types available. Special considerations for cogeneration in conjunction with solid waste firing are outlined. Optimum throttle conditions for cogeneration are significantly different than normal practice for condensing units. The basic approach to cycle optimization is outlined with some typical examples offered.

Pyle, F. B.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Solid Waste Resource Recovery Financing Act (Texas)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The State of Texas encourages the processing of solid waste for the purpose of extracting, converting to energy, or otherwise separating and preparing solid waste for reuse. This Act provides for...

30

Energy and solid/hazardous waste  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report addresses the past and potential future solid and hazardous waste impacts from energy development, and summarizes the major environmental, legislation applicable to solid and hazardous waste generation and disposal. A glossary of terms and acronyms used to describe and measure solid waste impacts of energy development is included. (PSB)

None

1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Municipal Solid Waste in The United States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2005 Facts and Figures Municipal Solid Waste in The United States #12;United States Environmental Protection Agency Office of Solid Waste (5306P) EPA530-R-06-011 October 2006 www.epa.gov #12;MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE IN THE UNITED STATES: 2005 FACTS AND FIGURES Table of Contents Chapter Page EXECUTIVE

Barlaz, Morton A.

32

1993 Solid Waste Reference Forecast Summary  

SciTech Connect

This report, which updates WHC-EP-0567, 1992 Solid Waste Reference Forecast Summary, (WHC 1992) forecasts the volumes of solid wastes to be generated or received at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site during the 30-year period from FY 1993 through FY 2022. The data used in this document were collected from Westinghouse Hanford Company forecasts as well as from surveys of waste generators at other US Department of Energy sites who are now shipping or plan to ship solid wastes to the Hanford Site for disposal. These wastes include low-level and low-level mixed waste, transuranic and transuranic mixed waste, and nonradioactive hazardous waste.

Valero, O.J.; Blackburn, C.L. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Kaae, P.S.; Armacost, L.L.; Garrett, S.M.K. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Solid Waste Regulations (Nova Scotia, Canada) | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Solid Waste Regulations (Nova Scotia, Canada) Solid Waste Regulations (Nova Scotia, Canada) Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fuel Distributor Industrial...

34

Solid Waste Management (Kansas) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Solid Waste Management (Kansas) Solid Waste Management (Kansas) Solid Waste Management (Kansas) < Back Eligibility Commercial Investor-Owned Utility Municipal/Public Utility Rural Electric Cooperative Utility Program Info State Kansas Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Health and Environment This act aims to establish and maintain a cooperative state and local program of planning and technical and financial assistance for comprehensive solid waste management. No person shall construct, alter or operate a solid waste processing facility or a solid waste disposal area of a solid waste management system, except for clean rubble disposal sites, without first obtaining a permit from the secretary. Every person desiring to obtain a permit shall make application for such a permit on forms

35

Solid Waste Rules (New Hampshire) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

by the solid waste rules for authorizing construction, operation, and closure of solid waste management facilities. The act includes rules for waste-to-energy operations...

36

Solid Waste and Infectious Waste Regulations (Ohio) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

and Infectious Waste Regulations (Ohio) and Infectious Waste Regulations (Ohio) Solid Waste and Infectious Waste Regulations (Ohio) < Back Eligibility Utility Agricultural Investor-Owned Utility Industrial Municipal/Public Utility Local Government Rural Electric Cooperative Program Info State Ohio Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Ohio Environmental Protection Agency This chapter of the law that establishes the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency establishes the rules and regulations regarding solid waste. The chapter establishes specific regulations for biomass facilities, which includes permitting, siting, operation, safety guidelines, and closing requirements. Siting regulations include setbacks from waste handling areas for state facilities (1000 feet from jails, schools), requirements for not siting

37

Solid Waste Technician Vandenberg AFB, California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solid Waste Technician Vandenberg AFB, California POSITION A Solid Waste Technician (Research (CEMML). This position is located at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) near Lompoc, California of California. The base, with its 45 miles of scenic coastline, is home to 53 species of mammals, 315 species

38

Managing America`s solid waste  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents an historical overview of the federal role in municipal solid waste management from 1965 to approximately 1995. Attention is focuses on the federal role in safeguarding public health, protecting the environment, and wisely using material and energy resources. It is hoped that this report will provide important background for future municipal solid waste research and development initiatives.

Not Available

1998-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

39

Solid waste burial grounds interim safety analysis  

SciTech Connect

This Interim Safety Analysis document supports the authorization basis for the interim operation and restrictions on interim operations for the near-surface land disposal of solid waste in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. The Solid Waste Burial Grounds Interim Safety Basis supports the upgrade progress for the safety analysis report and the technical safety requirements for the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. Accident safety analysis scenarios have been analyzed based on the significant events identified in the preliminary hazards analysis. The interim safety analysis provides an evaluation of the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds to determine if the radiological and hazardous material exposures will be acceptable from an overall health and safety standpoint to the worker, the onsite personnel, the public, and the environment.

Saito, G.H.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Management of Solid Waste (Oklahoma) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Management of Solid Waste (Oklahoma) Management of Solid Waste (Oklahoma) Management of Solid Waste (Oklahoma) < Back Eligibility Utility Agricultural Investor-Owned Utility Industrial Municipal/Public Utility Rural Electric Cooperative Program Info State Oklahoma Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality The Solid Waste Management Division of the Department of Environmental Quality regulates solid waste disposal or any person who generates, collects, transports, processes, and/or disposes of solid waste and/or waste tires. The following solid waste disposal facilities require a solid waste permit prior to construction and/or operation: land disposal facilities; solid waste processing facilities, including: transfer stations; solid waste incinerators receiving waste from off-site sources; regulated medical waste

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "1municipal solid waste" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Regional Water, Sewage, and Solid Waste Districts (Indiana) ...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Water, Sewage, and Solid Waste Districts (Indiana) Regional Water, Sewage, and Solid Waste Districts (Indiana) Eligibility Agricultural Construction Fuel Distributor Industrial...

42

Energy Secretary Bodman Statement on Hanford Solid Waste Settlement...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Statement on Hanford Solid Waste Settlement Agreement Energy Secretary Bodman Statement on Hanford Solid Waste Settlement Agreement January 9, 2006 - 9:43am Addthis Richland, WA -...

43

EA-1097: Solid waste Disposal - Nevada Test Site, Nye County...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

7: Solid waste Disposal - Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada EA-1097: Solid waste Disposal - Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada SUMMARY This EA evaluates the environmental...

44

Solid Waste Management Program (South Dakota) | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Other Agencies You are here Home Savings Solid Waste Management Program (South Dakota) Solid Waste Management Program (South Dakota) Eligibility Utility Fed....

45

SRS - Programs - Solid Waste Management  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

manner possible. SRS's waste is categorized as transuranic, low-level, hazardous, mixed, high-level or sanitary waste. SWM is responsible for managing all of these...

46

Solid Waste Disposal, Hazardous Waste Management Act, Underground Storage  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Disposal, Hazardous Waste Management Act, Underground Disposal, Hazardous Waste Management Act, Underground Storage Act (Tennessee) Solid Waste Disposal, Hazardous Waste Management Act, Underground Storage Act (Tennessee) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Developer Fuel Distributor Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State/Provincial Govt Systems Integrator Tribal Government Utility Program Info State Tennessee Program Type Environmental Regulations Siting and Permitting Provider Tennessee Department Of Environment and Conservation The Solid Waste Disposal Laws and Regulations are found in Tenn. Code 68-211. These rules are enforced and subject to change by the Public Waste Board (PWB), which is established by the Division of Solid and Hazardous

47

UTILIZATION OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE COMPOST IN HORTICULTURE.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Composting of municipal solid waste (MSW) has long been considered an attractive waste management tool for effective reduction of waste volume and beneficial utilization of… (more)

Lu, Wenliang

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Solid Waste Program (Alabama) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Program (Alabama) Program (Alabama) Solid Waste Program (Alabama) < Back Eligibility Commercial Construction Developer General Public/Consumer Industrial Residential Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info State Alabama Program Type Environmental Regulations This article states the authority of the department, regulations for the control of unauthorized dumping, disposal fees, violations and penalties. Solid waste refers to any garbage, rubbish, construction or demolition debris, ash, or sludge from a waste treatment facility, water supply plant, or air pollution control facility, and any other discarded materials, including solid, liquid, semisolid, or contained gaseous material resulting

49

Solid Waste Policies (Iowa) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Policies (Iowa) Policies (Iowa) Solid Waste Policies (Iowa) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Fuel Distributor Industrial Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Municipal/Public Utility Rural Electric Cooperative Tribal Government Utility Program Info State Iowa Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Iowa Department of Natural Resources This statute establishes the support of the state for alternative waste management practices that reduce the reliance upon land disposal and incorporate resource recovery. Cities and counties are required to establish and operate a comprehensive solid waste reduction program. These regulations discuss land application of processed wastes as well as requirements for sanitary landfills and for groundwater monitoring near land disposal sites

50

Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This manual defines the Hanford Site radioactive, hazardous, and sanitary solid waste acceptance criteria. Criteria in the manual represent a guide for meeting state and federal regulations; DOE Orders; Hanford Site requirements; and other rules, regulations, guidelines, and standards as they apply to acceptance of radioactive and hazardous solid waste at the Hanford Site. It is not the intent of this manual to be all inclusive of the regulations; rather, it is intended that the manual provide the waste generator with only the requirements that waste must meet in order to be accepted at Hanford Site TSD facilities.

Not Available

1993-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

51

An overview of the sustainability of solid waste management at military installations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Arc Gasification. Sustainability of Solid Waste Management.waste collection. Sustainability of Solid Waste Managment.Energy Refinery. Sustainability of Solid Waste Management.

Borglin, S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Solid Waste Management Services Act (Connecticut)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This Act affirms the commitment of the state government to the development of systems and facilities and technology necessary to initiate large-scale processing of solid wastes and resource...

53

Montana Solid Waste Management Act (Montana)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

It is the public policy of the state to control solid waste management systems to protect the public health and safety and to conserve natural resources whenever possible. The Department of...

54

Pennsylvania Solid Waste- Resource Recovery Development Act  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This act promotes the construction and the application of solid waste disposal/processing and resource recovery systems that preserve and enhance the quality of air, water, and land resources. The...

55

County Solid Waste Control Act (Texas)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The purpose of this chapter is to authorize a cooperative effort by counties, public agencies, and other persons for the safe and economical collection, transportation, and disposal of solid waste...

56

Improved FGD dewatering process cuts solid wastes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In 2007, Duke Energy's W.H. Zimmer Station set out to advance the overall performance of its flue gas desulfurization (FGD) dewatering process. The plant implemented a variety of measures, including upgrading water-solids separation, improving polymer program effectiveness and reliability, optimizing treatment costs, reducing solid waste sent to the landfill, decreasing labor requirements, and maintaining septic-free conditions in clarifiers. The changes succeeded in greatly reducing solid waste generation and achieving total annual savings of over half a million dollars per year. 8 figs., 1 tab.

Moer, C.; Fernandez, J.; Carraro, B. [Duke Energy (United States)

2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

57

Energy aspects of solid waste management: Proceedings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Eighteenth Annual Illinois Energy Conference entitled Energy Aspects of Solid Waste Management'' was held in Chicago, Illinois on October 29--30, 1990. The conference program was developed by a planning committee that drew upon Illinois energy and environmental specialists from the major sectors including energy industries, environmental organizations, research universities, utility companies, federal, state and local government agencies, and public interest groups. Within this framework, the committee identified a number of key topic areas surrounding solid waste management in Illinois which were the focus of the conference. These issues included: review of the main components of the solid waste cycle in the Midwest and what the relative impact of waste reduction, recycling, incineration and land disposal might be on Illinois' and the Midwest's solid waste management program. Investigation of special programs in the Midwest dealing with sewage sludge, combustion residuals and medical/infectious wastes. Review of the status of existing landfills in Illinois and the Midwest and an examination of the current plans for siting of new land disposal systems. Review of the status of incinerators and waste-to-energy systems in Illinois and the Midwest, as well as an update on activities to maximize methane production from landfills in the Midwest.

Not Available

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

The King County Solid Waste Division handles 100 % of the mixed solid waste generated in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(PSAPCA)) Regulation I, Article 7. Unlike the permit, this document is not a legally enforceable document. It includes references to the applicable statutory or regulatory provisions that relate to King County Solid Waste Division’s air emissions, and provides a description of King County Solid Waste Division’s activities, including a short compliance history. Statement of Basis – January 4, 2001

unknown authors

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Mathematical Models in Municipal Solid Waste Management  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Two mathematical models developed as tools for solid waste planners in decisions concerning the overall management of solid waste in a municipality are described. The models have respectively been formulated as integer and mixed integer linear programming problems. The choice between the two models from the practical point of view depends on the user and the technology used. One user may prefer to measure the transportation costs in terms of costs per trip made from the waste source, in which case the first model is more appropriate. In this case we replace the coefficients of the decision variables in the objective function with the total cost per trip from the waste collection point. At the same time, instead of measuring the amount of waste using the number of trucks used multiplied by their capacities, continuous variables can be introduced to measure directly the amount of waste that goes to the plants and landfills. The integer linear problem is then transformed into a mixed integer problem that gives better total cost estimates and more precise waste amount measurements, but measuring transportation costs in terms of costs per trip. For instance, at the moment the first model is more relevant to the Ugandan situation, where the technology to measure waste as it is carried away from the waste sources is not available. Another user may prefer to measure the transportation costs in terms of costs per unit mass of

Michael K. Nganda

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Mercury removal from solid mixed waste  

SciTech Connect

The removal of mercury from mixed wastes is an essential step in eliminating the temporary storage of large inventories of mixed waste throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Currently thermal treatment has been identified as a baseline technology and is being developed as part of the DOE Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP). Since thermal treatment will not be applicable to all mercury containing mixed waste and the removal of mercury prior to thermal treatment may be desirable, laboratory studies have been initiated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to develop alternative remediation technologies capable of removing mercury from certain mixed waste. This paper describes laboratory investigations of the KI/I{sub 2} leaching processes to determine the applicability of this process to mercury containing solid mixed waste.

Gates, D.D.; Morrissey, M.; Chava, K.K.; Chao, K.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "1municipal solid waste" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Louisiana Solid Waste Management and Resource Recovery Law (Louisiana) |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Louisiana Solid Waste Management and Resource Recovery Law Louisiana Solid Waste Management and Resource Recovery Law (Louisiana) Louisiana Solid Waste Management and Resource Recovery Law (Louisiana) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Construction Developer Industrial Investor-Owned Utility Municipal/Public Utility Rural Electric Cooperative Utility Program Info State Louisiana Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality The Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality manages solid waste for the state of Louisiana under the authority of the Solid Waste Management and Resource Recover Law. The Department makes rules and regulations that establish standards governing the storage, collection, processing, recovery and reuse, and disposal of solid waste; implement a management program that

62

Solid Waste Management (Connecticut) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Connecticut) Connecticut) Solid Waste Management (Connecticut) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fed. Government Fuel Distributor General Public/Consumer Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Residential Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State/Provincial Govt Systems Integrator Transportation Tribal Government Utility Program Info State Connecticut Program Type Siting and Permitting Provider Department of Energy and Environmental Protection Solid waste facilities operating in Connecticut must abide by these regulations, which describe requirements and procedures for issuing construction and operating permits; environmental considerations;

63

Solid Waste Management (Michigan) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Michigan) Michigan) Solid Waste Management (Michigan) < Back Eligibility Utility Fed. Government Commercial Agricultural Investor-Owned Utility State/Provincial Govt Industrial Construction Municipal/Public Utility Local Government Residential Installer/Contractor Rural Electric Cooperative Tribal Government Low-Income Residential Schools Retail Supplier Institutional Multi-Family Residential Systems Integrator Fuel Distributor Nonprofit General Public/Consumer Transportation Program Info State Michigan Program Type Siting and Permitting Provider Department of Environmental Quality This Act encourages the Department of Environmental Quality and Health Department representatives to develop and encourage methods for disposing solid waste that are environmentally sound, that maximize the utilization

64

South Carolina Solid Waste Policy and Management Act (South Carolina)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The state of South Carolina supports a regional approach to solid waste management and encourages the development and implementation of alternative waste management practices and resource recovery....

65

Municipal Solid Waste Resources and Technologies | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Municipal Solid Waste Resources and Technologies Municipal Solid Waste Resources and Technologies Municipal Solid Waste Resources and Technologies October 7, 2013 - 9:28am Addthis Black and white photo of a bulldozer pushing a large mound of trash in a landfill. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's high-solids digester converts wastes to biogas and compost for energy production. This page provides a brief overview of municipal solid waste energy resources and technologies supplemented by specific information to apply waste to energy within the Federal sector. Overview Municipal solid waste, also known as waste to energy, generates electricity by burning solid waste as fuel. This generates renewable electricity while also incinerating landfill and other municipal waste products such as trash, yard clippings and debris, furniture, food scraps, and other

66

Municipal Solid Waste Resources and Technologies | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Municipal Solid Waste Resources and Technologies Municipal Solid Waste Resources and Technologies Municipal Solid Waste Resources and Technologies October 7, 2013 - 9:28am Addthis Black and white photo of a bulldozer pushing a large mound of trash in a landfill. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's high-solids digester converts wastes to biogas and compost for energy production. This page provides a brief overview of municipal solid waste energy resources and technologies supplemented by specific information to apply waste to energy within the Federal sector. Overview Municipal solid waste, also known as waste to energy, generates electricity by burning solid waste as fuel. This generates renewable electricity while also incinerating landfill and other municipal waste products such as trash, yard clippings and debris, furniture, food scraps, and other

67

Solid Waste Program technical baseline description  

SciTech Connect

The system engineering approach has been taken to describe the technical baseline under which the Solid Waste Program is currently operating. The document contains a mission analysis, function analysis, system definition, documentation requirements, facility and project bases, and uncertainties facing the program.

Carlson, A.B.

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Solid waste education in children's museums  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solid waste education in museum environments is an increasingly popular educational tool; however, no documents exist detailing the specifics of such educational approaches. A study was therefore conducted to identify and describe solid waste educational exhibits and programs in museum settings, particularly in children's museums. Educational exhibits and programs were identified, described, and compared among 31 museums. It was discovered in this research that paper making was a very popular activity. Therefore, I chose the naturalistic inquiry methodology, a qualitative research technique, to investigate how learners can be brought into this subject area by means of a hands-on, interactive paper making activity. A constant comparative analysis of data was performed throughout the study in order to evolve an appropriate framework and to synthesize data. Findings suggest that solid waste education, especially in children's museums, can provide a stimulating means of provoking interest and discovery. Therefore, including solid waste education in children's museums could serve as an effective medium for invoking environmentally sound practices in communities.

King, Jennifer Campbell

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Municipal solid-waste management in Istanbul  

SciTech Connect

Istanbul, with a population of around 13 million people, is located between Europe and Asia and is the biggest city in Turkey. Metropolitan Istanbul produces about 14,000 tons of solid waste per day. The aim of this study was to assess the situation of municipal solid-waste (MSW) management in Istanbul. This was achieved by reviewing the quantity and composition of waste produced in Istanbul. Current requirements and challenges in relation to the optimization of Istanbul's MSW collection and management system are also discussed, and several suggestions for solving the problems identified are presented. The recovery of solid waste from the landfills, as well as the amounts of landfill-generated biogas and electricity, were evaluated. In recent years, MSW management in Istanbul has improved because of strong governance and institutional involvement. However, efforts directed toward applied research are still required to enable better waste management. These efforts will greatly support decision making on the part of municipal authorities. There remains a great need to reduce the volume of MSW in Istanbul.

Kanat, Gurdal, E-mail: gkanat@gmail.co [Yildiz Teknik Universitesi Cevre Muh Bolumu, 34220 Davutpasa-Esenler, Istanbul (Turkey)

2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

70

Integrated solid waste management of Minneapolis, Minnesota  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The subject document reports the results of an in-depth investigation of the fiscal year 1992 cost of the City of Minneapolis, Minnesota (Hennepin County) integrated municipal solid waste management (IMSWM) system, the energy consumed to operate the system, and the environmental performance requirements for each of the system`s waste-processing and disposal facilities. Actual data from records kept by participants is reported in this document. Every effort was made to minimize the use of assumptions, and no attempt is made to interpret the data reported. Analytical approaches are documented so that interested analysts may perform manipulation or further analysis of the data. As such, the report is a reference document for municipal solid waste (MSW) management professionals who are interested in the actual costs and energy consumption for a one-year period, of an operating IMSWM system.

NONE

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Chapter 47 Solid Waste Facilities (Kentucky) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Chapter 47 Solid Waste Facilities (Kentucky) Chapter 47 Solid Waste Facilities (Kentucky) Chapter 47 Solid Waste Facilities (Kentucky) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Developer Fed. Government Fuel Distributor General Public/Consumer Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Residential Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State/Provincial Govt Systems Integrator Transportation Tribal Government Utility Program Info State Kentucky Program Type Environmental Regulations Fees Siting and Permitting Provider Kentucky Division of Waste Management This chapter establishes the permitting standards for solid waste sites or facilities, the standards applicable to all solid waste sites or

72

A study for destination of solid wastes from vessels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Everyday humans around the globe perform a series of activities that, in addition to the final product concerned, results in a significant number of solid waste, commonly called "junk." These solid wastes not treated to an appropriate final destination ... Keywords: monitoring, oceanic pollution, scanning, solid waste management, tracking

Carla M. Maccagnan Fontana; Maria Lídia Dias; Eduardo Mario Dias; Sérgio Luiz Pereira

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

An Environment Friendly Energy Recovery Technology: Municipal Solid Waste Gasification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Energy from waste, is a perspective source to replace fossil fuels in the future, municipal solid waste (MSW) gasification is a new technique for waste treatment. MSW can be combusted directly to generate heat and electricity, and by means of gasification ... Keywords: municipal solid waste, gasification, incineration

Lei Ma; Chuanhua Liao; Yuezhao Zhu; Haijun Chen; Yanghuiqin Ding

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Environmental impact on municipal solid waste management system in Chaiyaphum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Continually increasing amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) and the limited capacity of the existing waste management system are serious problems that Chaiyaphum municipality must deal with. The optimal waste management system should be adopted. Explicit ... Keywords: decision making, environmental evaluation, life cycle assessment, municipal solid waste

S. Piyaphant; K. Prayong

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

COMPILATION OF DISPOSABLE SOLID WASTE CASK EVALUATIONS  

SciTech Connect

The Disposable Solid Waste Cask (DSWC) is a shielded cask capable of transporting, storing, and disposing of six non-fuel core components or approximately 27 cubic feet of radioactive solid waste. Five existing DSWCs are candidates for use in storing and disposing of non-fuel core components and radioactive solid waste from the Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell, ultimately shipping them to the 200 West Area disposal site for burial. A series of inspections, studies, analyses, and modifications were performed to ensure that these casks can be used to safely ship solid waste. These inspections, studies, analyses, and modifications are summarized and attached in this report. Visual inspection of the casks interiors provided information with respect to condition of the casks inner liners. Because water was allowed to enter the casks for varying lengths of time, condition of the cask liner pipe to bottom plate weld was of concern. Based on the visual inspection and a corrosion study, it was concluded that four of the five casks can be used from a corrosion standpoint. Only DSWC S/N-004 would need additional inspection and analysis to determine its usefulness. The five remaining DSWCs underwent some modification to prepare them for use. The existing cask lifting inserts were found to be corroded and deemed unusable. New lifting anchor bolts were installed to replace the existing anchors. Alternate lift lugs were fabricated for use with the new lifting anchor bolts. The cask tiedown frame was modified to facilitate adjustment of the cask tiedowns. As a result of the above mentioned inspections, studies, analysis, and modifications, four of the five existing casks can be used to store and transport waste from the Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell to the disposal site for burial. The fifth cask, DSWC S/N-004, would require further inspections before it could be used.

THIELGES, J.R.; CHASTAIN, S.A.

2007-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

76

Interface control document between PUREX Plant Transition and Solid Waste Disposal Division  

SciTech Connect

The interfacing responsibilities regarding solid waste management are described for the Solid Waste Disposal Division and the PUREX Transition Organization.

Carlson, A.B.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Capacity-to-Act in India's Solid Waste Management and Waste-to-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Capacity-to-Act in India's Solid Waste Management and Waste-to- Energy Industries Perinaz Bhada and disposal of garbage, or municipal solid waste, compounded by increasing consumption levels. Another serious of converting waste into different forms of energy. The process of using waste as a fuel source and converting

Columbia University

78

Solid Waste Reduction, Recovery, and Recycling | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Reduction, Recovery, and Recycling Reduction, Recovery, and Recycling Solid Waste Reduction, Recovery, and Recycling < Back Eligibility Investor-Owned Utility Rural Electric Cooperative Utility Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info State Wisconsin Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Department of Natural Resources This statute expresses the strong support of the State of Wisconsin for the reduction of the amount of solid waste generated, the reuse, recycling and composting of solid waste, and resource recovery from solid waste. The statute also notes that research, development and innovation in the design, management and operation of solid waste reduction, reuse, recycling,

79

System for chemically digesting low level radioactive, solid waste material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved method and system for chemically digesting low level radioactive, solid waste material having a high through-put. The solid waste material is added to an annular vessel (10) substantially filled with concentrated sulfuric acid. Concentrated nitric acid or nitrogen dioxide is added to the sulfuric acid within the annular vessel while the sulfuric acid is reacting with the solid waste. The solid waste is mixed within the sulfuric acid so that the solid waste is substantilly fully immersed during the reaction. The off gas from the reaction and the products slurry residue is removed from the vessel during the reaction.

Cowan, Richard G. (Kennewick, WA); Blasewitz, Albert G. (Richland, WA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Microsoft Word - Solid Waste at Hanford  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Use of American Recovery and Use of American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 Funds on Solid Waste Project Activities at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site OAS-RA-L-11-08 May 2011 DOE F 1325.8 (08-93) United States Government Department of Energy Memorandum DATE: May19, 2011 Audit Report Number: OAS-RA-L-11-08 REPLY TO ATTN OF: IG-34 (A10RA041) SUBJECT: Report on "Use of American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 Funds on Solid Waste Project Activities at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site" TO: Assistant Secretary for Environmental Management INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE The Department of Energy's (Department), Richland Operations Office (Richland), awarded a contract, effective October 1, 2008, to CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) to

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "1municipal solid waste" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Possible global environmental impacts of solid waste practices  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pollutants resulting from the management of solid waste have been shown to affect the air, land, oceans, and waterways. In addition, solid wastes have other, more indirect impacts such as reduction in feedstocks of natural resources, because useful materials are disposed of rather than recycled. The objective of this study is to evaluate solid waste management practices that have negative implications on the global environment and develop recommendations for reducing such impacts. Recommendations identifying needed changes are identified that will reduce global impacts of solid waste practices in the future. The scope of this study includes the range of non-hazardous solid wastes produced within our society, including municipal solid waste (MSW) and industrial solid waste (ISW), as well as industry-specific wastes from activities such as construction, demolition, and landclearing. Most solid waste management decisions continue to be made and implemented at very local levels, predominantly with a short-term focus to respond to relatively immediate pressures of landfill shortages, funding problems, political considerations, and the like. In this rush to address immediate local problems, little consideration is being given to potential impacts, either short- or long-term, at the national or global level resulting from solid waste management practices. More and more, the cumulative impacts from local decisions concerning solid waste management are beginning to manifest themselves in broader, longer-term impacts than are being addressed by the decision-makers or, at the very least, are presenting a greater and greater potential for such impacts.

Davis, M.M.; Holter, G.M.; DeForest, T.J.; Stapp, D.C. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Dibari, J.C. [Heritage College, Toppenish, WA (United States)

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Municipal solid waste management in Beijing City  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents an overview of municipal solid waste (MSW) management in Beijing City. Beijing, the capital of China, has a land area of approximately 1368.32 km{sup 2} with an urban population of about 13.33 million in 2006. Over the past three decades, MSW generation in Beijing City has increased tremendously from 1.04 million tons in 1978 to 4.134 million tons in 2006. The average generation rate of MSW in 2006 was 0.85 kg/capita/day. Food waste comprised 63.39%, followed by paper (11.07%), plastics (12.7%) and dust (5.78%). While all other wastes including tiles, textiles, glass, metals and wood accounted for less than 3%. Currently, 90% of MSW generated in Beijing is landfilled, 8% is incinerated and 2% is composted. Source separation collection, as a waste reduction method, has been carried out in a total of 2255 demonstration residential and commercial areas (covering about 4.7 million people) up to the end of 2007. Demonstration districts should be promoted over a wider range instead of demonstration communities. The capacity of transfer stations and treatment plants is an urgent problem as these sites are seriously overloaded. These problems should first be solved by constructing more sites and converting to new treatment technologies. Improvements in legislation, public education and the management of waste pickers are problematic issues which need to be addressed.

Li Zhenshan [Department of Environmental Engineering, Peking University, Key Laboratory of Water and Sediment Sciences, Ministry of Education, No. 5, Yi Heyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100871 (China); Key Laboratory for Environmental and Urban Sciences, Shenzhen Graduate School, Peking University, Shenzhen 518055 (China)], E-mail: lizhenshan@pku.edu.cn; Yang Lei [Department of Environmental Engineering, Peking University, Key Laboratory of Water and Sediment Sciences, Ministry of Education, No. 5, Yi Heyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100871 (China); Qu XiaoYan [Key Laboratory for Environmental and Urban Sciences, Shenzhen Graduate School, Peking University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Sui Yumei [Department of Environmental Engineering, Peking University, Key Laboratory of Water and Sediment Sciences, Ministry of Education, No. 5, Yi Heyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100871 (China)

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

83

Integrated solid waste management of Springfield, Massachusetts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The subject document reports the results of an in-depth investigation of the fiscal year 1993 cost of the city of Springfield, Massachusetts, integrated municipal solid waste management (IMSWM) system, the energy consumed to operate the system, and the environmental performance requirements for each of the system`s waste-processing and disposal facilities. The document reports actual data from records kept by participants. Every effort was made to minimize the use of assumptions, and no attempt is made to interpret the data reported. Analytical approaches are documented so that interested analysts may perform manipulation or further analysis of the data. As such, the report is a reference document for Municipal Solid Waste management professionals who are interested in the actual costs and energy consumption, for a 1-year period, of an operating IMSWM system. The report is organized into two main parts. The first part is the executive summary and case study portion of the report. The executive summary provides a basic description of the study area and selected economic and energy information. Within the case study are detailed descriptions of each component operating during the study period; the quantities of solid waste collected, processed, and marketed within the study boundaries; the cost of managing MSW in Springfield; an energy usage analysis; a review of federal, state, and local environmental requirement compliance; a reference section; and a glossary of terms. The second part of the report focuses on a more detailed discourse on the above topics. In addition, the methodology used to determine the economic costs and energy consumption of the system components is found in the second portion of this report. The methodology created for this project will be helpful for those professionals who wish to break out the costs of their own integrated systems.

NONE

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Gaines County Solid Waste Management Act (Texas) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Gaines County Solid Waste Management Act (Texas) Gaines County Solid Waste Management Act (Texas) Gaines County Solid Waste Management Act (Texas) < Back Eligibility Commercial Construction Industrial Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Municipal/Public Utility Rural Electric Cooperative Tribal Government Utility Program Info State Texas Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Gaines County Solid Waste Management District This Act establishes the Gaines County Solid Waste Management District, a governmental body to develop and carry out a regional water quality protection program through solid waste management and regulation of waste disposal. The District has the power to prepare, adopt plans for, purchase, obtain permits for, construct, acquire, own, operate, maintain, repair, improve, and extend inside and outside the boundaries of the district any works,

85

Illinois Solid Waste Management Act (Illinois) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Illinois Solid Waste Management Act (Illinois) Illinois Solid Waste Management Act (Illinois) Illinois Solid Waste Management Act (Illinois) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Utility Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Program Info State Illinois Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Illinois EPA It is the purpose of this Act to reduce reliance on land disposal of solid waste, to encourage and promote alternative means of managing solid waste, and to assist local governments with solid waste planning and management. In furtherance of those aims, while recognizing that landfills will continue to be necessary, this Act establishes the following waste management hierarchy, in descending order of preference, as State policy: volume reduction at the source; recycling and reuse; combustion

86

Solid Waste Facilities Regulations (Massachusetts) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Solid Waste Facilities Regulations (Massachusetts) Solid Waste Facilities Regulations (Massachusetts) Solid Waste Facilities Regulations (Massachusetts) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fed. Government Fuel Distributor General Public/Consumer Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Residential Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State/Provincial Govt Systems Integrator Transportation Tribal Government Utility Program Info State Massachusetts Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Department of Environmental Protection This chapter of the Massachusetts General Laws governs the operation of solid waste facilities. It seeks to encourage sustainable waste management

87

Waste Logic(TM): Decommissioning Waste Manager, Version 2.1 and Solid Waste Manager, Version 2.1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Waste Logic(TM) Decommissioning Waste Manager, Version 2.1: Rising program costs and a more competitive business environment have made solid waste management a major cost concern. Effective management of solid waste can reduce long range operating costs for a large nuclear plant by millions of dollars. To assist waste managers in maximizing potential cost savings, EPRI developed the Waste Logic Decommissioning Waste Manager(TM) computer code. It provides a comprehensive methodology for capturing and quan...

2003-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

88

Integrated solid waste management of Seattle, Washington  

SciTech Connect

The subject document reports the results of an in-depth investigation of the fiscal year 1992 cost of the City of Seattle, Washington, integrated municipal solid waste management (IMSWM) system, the energy consumed to operate the system, and the environmental performance requirements for each of the system`s waste-processing and disposal facilities. Actual data from records kept by participants is reported in this document. Every effort was made to minimize the use of assumptions, and no attempt is made to interpret the data reported. Analytical approaches are documented so that interested analysts may perform manipulation or further analysis of the data. As such, the report is a reference document for MSW management professionals who are interested in the actual costs and energy consumption for a one-year period, of an operating IMSWM systems.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Solid Waste Management Act (Oklahoma) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

You are here You are here Home » Solid Waste Management Act (Oklahoma) Solid Waste Management Act (Oklahoma) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Industrial Installer/Contractor Investor-Owned Utility Municipal/Public Utility Rural Electric Cooperative Utility Program Info State Oklahoma Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality This Act establishes rules for the permitting, posting of security, construction, operation, closure, maintenance and remediation of solid waste disposal sites; disposal of solid waste in ways that are environmentally safe and sanitary, as well as economically feasible; submission of laboratory reports or analyses performed by certified laboratories for the purposes of compliance monitoring and testing and for

90

Federal Energy Management Program: Municipal Solid Waste Resources...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's high-solids digester converts wastes to biogas and compost for energy production. This page provides a brief overview of municipal...

91

Solid Waste Disposal Resource Recovery Facilities Act (South Carolina)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This legislation authorizes local governing bodies to form joint agencies to advance the collection, transfer, processing of solid waste, recovery of resources, and sales of recovered resources in...

92

Heavy Metals Behavior of Municiple Solid Waste Incineration ... - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

May 1, 2007 ... Heavy Metals Behavior of Municiple Solid Waste Incineration Bottom Ash with Magnetic Separation by Gi-Chun Han, Nam-Il Um, Kwang-Suk ...

93

Solid Waste Disposal Facilities (Massachusetts) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Solid Waste Disposal Facilities (Massachusetts) Solid Waste Disposal Facilities (Massachusetts) Solid Waste Disposal Facilities (Massachusetts) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fed. Government Fuel Distributor Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Municipal/Public Utility Rural Electric Cooperative State/Provincial Govt Transportation Tribal Government Utility Program Info State Massachusetts Program Type Siting and Permitting Provider Department of Environmental Protection These sections articulate rules for the maintenance and operation of solid waste disposal facilities, as well as site assignment procedures. Applications for site assignment will be reviewed by the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection as well as the Department of Public

94

Characterization of urban solid waste in Chihuahua, Mexico  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The characterization of urban solid waste generation is fundamental for adequate decision making in the management strategy of urban solid waste in a city. The objective of this study is to characterize the waste generated in the households of Chihuahua city, and to compare the results obtained in areas of the city with three different socioeconomic levels. In order to identify the different socioeconomic trends in waste generation and characterization, 560 samples of solid waste were collected during 1 week from 80 households in Chihuahua and were hand sorted and classified into 15 weighted fractions. The average waste generation in Chihuahua calculated in this study was 0.676 kg per capita per day in April 2006. The main fractions were: organic (48%), paper (16%) and plastic (12%). Results show an increased waste generation associated with the socioeconomic level. The characterization in amount and composition of urban waste is the first step needed for the successful implementation of an integral waste management system.

Gomez, Guadalupe [Departament d'Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Autonoma de Chihuahua, 31310 Chihuahua (Mexico); Meneses, Montserrat [Departament d'Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Ballinas, Lourdes [Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Autonoma de Chihuahua, 31310 Chihuahua (Mexico); Castells, Francesc [Departament d'Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, 43007 Tarragona (Spain)], E-mail: francesc.castells@urv.cat

2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

95

List of Municipal Solid Waste Incentives | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Waste Incentives Waste Incentives Jump to: navigation, search The following contains the list of 172 Municipal Solid Waste Incentives. CSV (rows 1 - 172) Incentive Incentive Type Place Applicable Sector Eligible Technologies Active Advanced Clean Energy Project Grants (Texas) State Grant Program Texas Commercial Industrial Utility Biomass Municipal Solid Waste No Advanced Energy Fund (Ohio) Public Benefits Fund Ohio Commercial Industrial Institutional Residential Utility Biomass CHP/Cogeneration Fuel Cells Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Geothermal Electric Hydroelectric energy Landfill Gas Microturbines Municipal Solid Waste Photovoltaics Solar Space Heat Solar Thermal Electric Solar Water Heat Wind energy Yes Alternative Energy Law (AEL) (Iowa) Renewables Portfolio Standard Iowa Investor-Owned Utility Anaerobic Digestion

96

Municipal solid waste management in Malaysia: Practices and challenges  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Rapid economic development and population growth, inadequate infrastructure and expertise, and land scarcity make the management of municipal solid waste become one of Malaysia's most critical environmental issues. The study is aimed at evaluating the generation, characteristics, and management of solid waste in Malaysia based on published information. In general, the per capita generation rate is about 0.5-0.8 kg/person/day in which domestic waste is the primary source. Currently, solid waste is managed by the Ministry of Housing and Local Government, with the participation of the private sector. A new institutional and legislation framework has been structured with the objectives to establish a holistic, integrated, and cost-effective solid waste management system, with an emphasis on environmental protection and public health. Therefore, the hierarchy of solid waste management has given the highest priority to source reduction through 3R, intermediate treatment and final disposal.

Manaf, Latifah Abd [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Environmental Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)], E-mail: latifah@env.upm.my; Samah, Mohd Armi Abu; Zukki, Nur Ilyana Mohd [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Environmental Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

97

Hydrogen production from municipal solid waste  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We have modified a Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) hydrothermal pretreatment pilot plant for batch operation and blowdown of the treated batch to low pressure. We have also assembled a slurry shearing pilot plant for particle size reduction. Waste paper and a mixture of waste paper/polyethylene plastic have been run in the pilot plant with a treatment temperature of 275{degrees}C. The pilot-plant products have been used for laboratory studies at LLNL. The hydrothermal/shearing pilot plants have produced acceptable slurries for gasification tests from a waste paper feedstock. Work is currently underway with combined paper/plastic feedstocks. When the assembly of the Research Gasification Unit at Texaco (feed capacity approximately 3/4-ton/day) is complete (4th quarter of FY96), gasification test runs will commence. Laboratory work on slurry samples during FY96 has provided correlations between slurry viscosity and hydrothermal treatment temperature, degree of shearing, and the presence of surfactants and admixed plastics. To date, pumpable slurries obtained from an MSW surrogate mixture of treated paper and plastic have shown heating values in the range 13-15 MJ/kg. Our process modeling has quantified the relationship between slurry heating value and hydrogen yield. LLNL has also performed a preliminary cost analysis of the process with the slurry heating value and the MSW tipping fee as parameters. This analysis has shown that the overall process with a 15 MJ/kg slurry gasifier feed can compete with coal-derived hydrogen with the assumption that the tipping fee is of the order $50/ton.

Wallman, P.H.; Richardson, J.H.; Thorsness, C.B. [and others

1996-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

98

Life-cycle assessment of municipal solid wastes: Development of the WASTED model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes the development of the Waste Analysis Software Tool for Environmental Decisions (WASTED) model. This model provides a comprehensive view of the environmental impacts of municipal solid waste management systems. The model consists of a number of separate submodels that describe a typical waste management process: waste collection, material recovery, composting, energy recovery from waste and landfilling. These submodels are combined to represent a complete waste management system. WASTED uses compensatory systems to account for the avoided environmental impacts derived from energy recovery and material recycling. The model is designed to provide solid waste decision-makers and environmental researchers with a tool to evaluate waste management plans and to improve the environmental performance of solid waste management strategies. The model is user-friendly and compares favourably with other earlier models.

Diaz, R. [Civil Engineering Department, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, Ont., M5B 2K3 (Canada); Warith, M. [Civil Engineering Department, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, Ont., M5B 2K3 (Canada)]. E-mail: mwarith@ryerson.ca

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

EA-1707: Closure of Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill and Solid Waste  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

07: Closure of Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill and 07: Closure of Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill and Solid Waste Landfill, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington EA-1707: Closure of Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill and Solid Waste Landfill, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington Summary This EA evaluates the potential environmental impacts of closing the Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill and the Solid Waste Landfill. The Washington State Department of Ecology is a cooperating agency in preparing this EA. Public Comment Opportunities None available at this time. Documents Available for Download August 26, 2011 EA-1707: Revised Draft Environmental Assessment Closure of Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill and Solid Waste Landfill, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington May 13, 2010 EA-1707: Draft Environmental Assessment

100

Process and material that encapsulates solid hazardous waste  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of encapsulating mixed waste in which a thermoplastic polymer having a melting temperature less than about 150.degree. C. and sulfur and mixed waste are mixed at an elevated temperature not greater than about 200.degree. C. and mixed for a time sufficient to intimately mix the constituents, and then cooled to a solid. The resulting solid is also disclosed.

O' Brien, Michael H. (Idaho Falls, ID); Erickson, Arnold W. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "1municipal solid waste" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Process and material that encapsulates solid hazardous waste  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for encapsulating mixed waste in which a thermoplastic polymer having a melting temperature less than about 150 C and sulfur and mixed waste are mixed at an elevated temperature not greater than about 200 C and mixed for a time sufficient to intimately mix the constituents, and then cooled to a solid. The resulting solid is also disclosed.

O' Brien, Michael H.; Erickson, Arnold W.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

IGES GHG Calculator For Solid Waste | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

IGES GHG Calculator For Solid Waste IGES GHG Calculator For Solid Waste Jump to: navigation, search LEDSGP green logo.png FIND MORE DIA TOOLS This tool is part of the Development Impacts Assessment (DIA) Toolkit from the LEDS Global Partnership. Tool Summary Name: IGES GHG Calculator For Solid Waste Agency/Company /Organization: Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES) Sector: Climate, Energy Complexity/Ease of Use: Simple Cost: Free Related Tools Energy Development Index (EDI) Harmonized Emissions Analysis Tool (HEAT) Electricity Markets Analysis (EMA) Model ... further results A simple spreadsheet model for calculating greenhouse gas emissions from existing waste management practices (transportation, composting, anaerobic digestion, mechanical biological treatment, recycling, landfilling) in

103

Industrial Solid Waste Landfill Facilities (Ohio) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Industrial Solid Waste Landfill Facilities (Ohio) Industrial Solid Waste Landfill Facilities (Ohio) Industrial Solid Waste Landfill Facilities (Ohio) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Industrial Investor-Owned Utility Municipal/Public Utility Rural Electric Cooperative State/Provincial Govt Utility Program Info State Ohio Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Ohio Environmental Protection Agency This chapter of the law establishes that the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency provides rules and guidelines for landfills, including those that treat waste to generate electricity. The law provides information for permitting, installing, maintaining, monitoring, and closing landfills. There are no special provisions or exemptions for landfills used to generate electricity. However, the law does apply to landfills that do

104

Georgia Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Act of 1990 (Georgia) |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Georgia Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Act of 1990 (Georgia) Georgia Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Act of 1990 (Georgia) Georgia Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Act of 1990 (Georgia) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Developer Fed. Government Fuel Distributor General Public/Consumer Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Residential Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State/Provincial Govt Systems Integrator Transportation Tribal Government Utility Program Info State Georgia Program Type Environmental Regulations Siting and Permitting Provider Georgia Department of Natural Resources The Georgia Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Act (SWMA) of 1990 was implemented in order to improve solid waste management procedures,

105

Solid Waste Assessment Fee Exemptions (West Virginia) | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Solid Waste Assessment Fee Exemptions (West Virginia) Solid Waste Assessment Fee Exemptions (West Virginia) Solid Waste Assessment Fee Exemptions (West Virginia) < Back Eligibility Utility Fed. Government Commercial Agricultural Investor-Owned Utility State/Provincial Govt Industrial Construction Municipal/Public Utility Local Government Residential Installer/Contractor Rural Electric Cooperative Tribal Government Low-Income Residential Schools Retail Supplier Institutional Multi-Family Residential Systems Integrator Fuel Distributor Nonprofit General Public/Consumer Transportation Program Info State West Virginia Program Type Rebate Program A person who owns, operates, or leases an approved solid waste disposal facility is exempt from the payment of solid waste assessment fees, upon the receipt of a Certificate of Exemption from the director, if that

106

Delivery system for molten salt oxidation of solid waste  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is a delivery system for safety injecting solid waste particles, including mixed wastes, into a molten salt bath for destruction by the process of molten salt oxidation. The delivery system includes a feeder system and an injector that allow the solid waste stream to be accurately metered, evenly dispersed in the oxidant gas, and maintained at a temperature below incineration temperature while entering the molten salt reactor.

Brummond, William A. (Livermore, CA); Squire, Dwight V. (Livermore, CA); Robinson, Jeffrey A. (Manteca, CA); House, Palmer A. (Walnut Creek, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Modules for estimating solid waste from fossil-fuel technologies  

SciTech Connect

Solid waste has become a subject of increasing concern to energy industries for several reasons. Increasingly stringent air and water pollution regulations result in a larger fraction of residuals in the form of solid wastes. Control technologies, particularly flue gas desulfurization, can multiply the amount of waste. With the renewed emphasis on coal utilization and the likelihood of oil shale development, increased amounts of solid waste will be produced. In the past, solid waste residuals used for environmental assessment have tended only to include total quantities generated. To look at environmental impacts, however, data on the composition of the solid wastes are required. Computer modules for calculating the quantities and composition of solid waste from major fossil fuel technologies were therefore developed and are described in this report. Six modules have been produced covering physical coal cleaning, conventional coal combustion with flue gas desulfurization, atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion, coal gasification using the Lurgi process, coal liquefaction using the SRC-II process, and oil shale retorting. Total quantities of each solid waste stream are computed together with the major components and a number of trace elements and radionuclides.

Crowther, M.A.; Thode, H.C. Jr.; Morris, S.C.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Waste in a land of plenty -Solid waste generation and management  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Waste in a land of plenty - Solid waste generation and management in the US The US generates the highest amount of waste per person in the world and continues to rely on landfilling at the expense of recycling and waste-to- energy, according to the latest in an annual series of national surveys on municipal

Columbia University

109

GRR/Elements/18-CA-a.2 - Is the Waste Non-excluded Solid Waste...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

2 - Is the Waste Non-excluded Solid Waste < GRR | Elements Jump to: navigation, search GRR-logo.png GEOTHERMAL REGULATORY ROADMAP Roadmap Home Roadmap Help List of Sections...

110

EA-1707: Closure of Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill and Solid Waste Landfill, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This EA evaluates the potential environmental impacts of closing the Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill and the Solid Waste Landfill. The Washington State Department of Ecology is a cooperating agency in preparing this EA.

111

Integrated Waste Services Association National Solid Wastes Management Association  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Can Help Meet Our Energy Needs October 5, 2006 - WASHINGTON, DC--A broad coalition of government-244-4700 Evan Von Leer, SWANA 240-494-2252 John Varrasi, ASME 212-591-8158 Don't Waste Waste! Waste-Based Energy and utilization of energy produced from waste, or waste-based energy (WBE). The United States Conference of Mayors

Columbia University

112

Fuzzy parametric programming model for multi-objective integrated solid waste management under uncertainty  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Solid waste management is increasingly becoming a challenging task for the municipal authorities due to increasing waste quantities, changing waste composition, decreasing land availability for waste disposal sites and increasing awareness about the ... Keywords: Fuzzy parametric programming, Integrated solid waste management system, Long term planning, Multi-objective and multi-period planning, Solid waste management

Amitabh Kumar Srivastava; Arvind K. Nema

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Quality Services: Solid Wastes, Part 361: Siting of Industrial Hazardous  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

1: Siting of Industrial 1: Siting of Industrial Hazardous Waste Facilities (New York) Quality Services: Solid Wastes, Part 361: Siting of Industrial Hazardous Waste Facilities (New York) < Back Eligibility Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Municipal/Public Utility State/Provincial Govt Tribal Government Utility Program Info State New York Program Type Siting and Permitting Provider NY Department of Environmental Conservation These regulations describe the siting of new industrial hazardous waste facilities located wholly or partially within the State. Industrial hazardous waste facilities are defined as facilities used for the purpose of treating, storing, compacting, recycling, exchanging or disposing of industrial hazardous waste materials, including treatment, compacting,

114

Problems associated with solid wastes from energy systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Waste streams from many energy-related technologies including coal, oil shale, tar sands, geothermal, oil and gas extraction, and nuclear power generation are reviewed with an emphasis on waste streams from coal and oil shale technologies. This study has two objectives. The first objective is to outline the available information on energy-related solid wastes. Data on chemical composition and hazardous biological characteristics are included, supplemented by regulatory reviews and data on legally designated hazardous waste streams. The second objective is to provide disposal and utilization options. Solid waste disposal and recovery requirements specified under the RCRA are emphasized. Information presented herein should be useful for policy, environmental control, and research and development decision making regarding solid and hazardous wastes from energy production.

Chiu, S.Y.; Fradkin, L.; Barisas, S.; Surles, T.; Morris, S.; Crowther, A.; DeCarlo, V.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Comprehensive Municipal Solid Waste Management, Resource Recovery, and Conservation Act (Texas)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This Act encourages the establishment of regional waste management facilities and the cooperation of local waste management entities in order to streamline the management of municipal solid waste...

116

Conversion of municipal solid waste to hydrogen  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

LLNL and Texaco are cooperatively developing a physical and chemical treatment method for the conversion of municipal solid waste (MSW) to hydrogen via the steps of hydrothermal pretreatment, gasification and purification. LLNL`s focus has been on hydrothermal pretreatment of MSW in order to prepare a slurry of suitable viscosity and heating value to allow efficient and economical gasification and hydrogen production. The project has evolved along 3 parallel paths: laboratory scale experiments, pilot scale processing, and process modeling. Initial laboratory-scale MSW treatment results (e.g., viscosity, slurry solids content) over a range of temperatures and times with newspaper and plastics will be presented. Viscosity measurements have been correlated with results obtained at MRL. A hydrothermal treatment pilot facility has been rented from Texaco and is being reconfigured at LLNL; the status of that facility and plans for initial runs will be described. Several different operational scenarios have been modeled. Steady state processes have been modeled with ASPEN PLUS; consideration of steam injection in a batch mode was handled using continuous process modules. A transient model derived from a general purpose packed bed model is being developed which can examine the aspects of steam heating inside the hydrothermal reactor vessel. These models have been applied to pilot and commercial scale scenarios as a function of MSW input parameters and have been used to outline initial overall economic trends. Part of the modeling, an overview of the MSW gasification process and the modeling of the MSW as a process material, was completed by a DOE SERS (Science and Engineering Research Semester) student. The ultimate programmatic goal is the technical demonstration of the gasification of MSW to hydrogen at the laboratory and pilot scale and the economic analysis of the commercial feasibility of such a process.

Richardson, J.H.; Rogers, R.S.; Thorsness, C.B. [and others

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Hazardous and Nonhazardous Solid Waste Applicant Disclosure Regulations  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Hazardous and Nonhazardous Solid Waste Applicant Disclosure Hazardous and Nonhazardous Solid Waste Applicant Disclosure Regulations (Mississippi) Hazardous and Nonhazardous Solid Waste Applicant Disclosure Regulations (Mississippi) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Developer Fed. Government Fuel Distributor General Public/Consumer Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Residential Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State/Provincial Govt Systems Integrator Transportation Tribal Government Utility Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info State Mississippi Program Type

118

Nonhazardous Solid Waste Management Regulations and Criteria (Mississippi)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Nonhazardous Solid Waste Management Regulations and Criteria Nonhazardous Solid Waste Management Regulations and Criteria (Mississippi) Nonhazardous Solid Waste Management Regulations and Criteria (Mississippi) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Developer Fed. Government Fuel Distributor General Public/Consumer Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Residential Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State/Provincial Govt Systems Integrator Transportation Tribal Government Utility Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info State Mississippi Program Type Environmental Regulations

119

Solid Waste Management Act (West Virginia) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Act (West Virginia) Act (West Virginia) Solid Waste Management Act (West Virginia) < Back Eligibility Utility Fed. Government Commercial Agricultural Investor-Owned Utility State/Provincial Govt Industrial Construction Municipal/Public Utility Local Government Residential Installer/Contractor Rural Electric Cooperative Tribal Government Low-Income Residential Schools Retail Supplier Institutional Multi-Family Residential Systems Integrator Fuel Distributor Nonprofit General Public/Consumer Transportation Program Info State West Virginia Program Type Siting and Permitting Provider Department of Environmental Protection In addition to establishing a comprehensive program of controlling all phases of solid waste management and assigning responsibilities for solid waste management to the Secretary of Department of Environmental

120

Integrated Solid Waste Management Act (Nebraska) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

You are here You are here Home » Integrated Solid Waste Management Act (Nebraska) Integrated Solid Waste Management Act (Nebraska) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fed. Government Fuel Distributor General Public/Consumer Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Residential Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State/Provincial Govt Systems Integrator Transportation Tribal Government Utility Program Info State Nebraska Program Type Siting and Permitting Provider Environmental Quality This act affirms the state's support for alternative waste management practices, including waste reduction and resource recovery. Each county and

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "1municipal solid waste" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Household solid waste characteristics and management in Chittagong, Bangladesh  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Solid waste management (SWM) is a multidimensional challenge faced by urban authorities, especially in developing countries like Bangladesh. We investigated per capita waste generation by residents, its composition, and the households' attitudes towards waste management at Rahman Nagar Residential Area, Chittagong, Bangladesh. The study involved a structured questionnaire and encompassed 75 households from five different socioeconomic groups (SEGs): low (LSEG), lower middle (LMSEG), middle (MSEG), upper middle (UMSEG) and high (HSEG). Wastes, collected from all of the groups of households, were segregated and weighed. Waste generation was 1.3 kg/household/day and 0.25 kg/person/day. Household solid waste (HSW) was comprised of nine categories of wastes with vegetable/food waste being the largest component (62%). Vegetable/food waste generation increased from the HSEG (47%) to the LSEG (88%). By weight, 66% of the waste was compostable in nature. The generation of HSW was positively correlated with family size (r{sub xy} = 0.236, p management initiative. Of the respondents, an impressive 44% were willing to pay US$0.3 to US$0.4 per month to waste collectors and it is recommended that service charge be based on the volume of waste generated by households. Almost a quarter (22.7%) of the respondents preferred 12-1 pm as the time period for their waste to be collected. This study adequately shows that household solid waste can be converted from burden to resource through segregation at the source, since people are aware of their role in this direction provided a mechanism to assist them in this pursuit exists and the burden is distributed according to the amount of waste generated.

Sujauddin, Mohammad [Institute of Forestry and Environmental Sciences, Chittagong University, Chittagong-4331 (Bangladesh)], E-mail: mohammad.sujauddin@gmail.com; Huda, S.M.S. [Institute of Forestry and Environmental Sciences, Chittagong University, Chittagong-4331 (Bangladesh); Hoque, A.T.M. Rafiqul [Institute of Forestry and Environmental Sciences, Chittagong University, Chittagong-4331 (Bangladesh); Laboratory of Ecology and Systematics (Plant Ecophysiology Section), Faculty of Science, Biology Division, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa 903-0213 (Japan)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Energy Secretary Bodman Statement on Hanford Solid Waste Settlement  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Energy Secretary Bodman Statement on Hanford Solid Waste Settlement Energy Secretary Bodman Statement on Hanford Solid Waste Settlement Agreement Energy Secretary Bodman Statement on Hanford Solid Waste Settlement Agreement January 9, 2006 - 9:43am Addthis Richland, WA - U.S. Secretary of Energy Samuel Bodman today announced that the Department of Energy (DOE) and the State of Washington have entered into a settlement agreement that will lead to a final order and the dismissal of the challenge to Hanford's Solid Waste Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) in the lawsuit Washington v. Bodman. DOE, with Washington State as a cooperating agency, will prepare a new EIS that will include updated, site-wide groundwater analysis. "With this agreement, both parties will be able to shift their focus and resources away from litigation and toward partnership and our shared

123

Energy Secretary Bodman Statement on Hanford Solid Waste Settlement  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Statement on Hanford Solid Waste Settlement Statement on Hanford Solid Waste Settlement Agreement Energy Secretary Bodman Statement on Hanford Solid Waste Settlement Agreement January 9, 2006 - 9:43am Addthis Richland, WA - U.S. Secretary of Energy Samuel Bodman today announced that the Department of Energy (DOE) and the State of Washington have entered into a settlement agreement that will lead to a final order and the dismissal of the challenge to Hanford's Solid Waste Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) in the lawsuit Washington v. Bodman. DOE, with Washington State as a cooperating agency, will prepare a new EIS that will include updated, site-wide groundwater analysis. "With this agreement, both parties will be able to shift their focus and resources away from litigation and toward partnership and our shared

124

State Solid Waste Management and Resource Recovery Plan (Montana)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The State supports the "good management of solid waste and the conservation of natural resources through the promotion or development of systems to collect, separate, reclaim, recycle, and dispose...

125

Proof of Proper Solid Waste Disposal (West Virginia)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This rule provides guidance to persons occupying a residence or operating a business establishment in this state regarding the approved method of providing proof of proper solid waste disposal to...

126

Solid Waste Planning and Recycling Act (Illinois)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

It is the purpose of this Act to provide incentives for decreased generation of municipal waste, to require certain counties to develop comprehensive waste management plans that place substantial...

127

Chemical digestion of low level nuclear solid waste material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A chemical digestion for treatment of low level combustible nuclear solid waste material is provided and comprises reacting the solid waste material with concentrated sulfuric acid at a temperature within the range of 230.degree.-300.degree.C and simultaneously and/or thereafter contacting the reacting mixture with concentrated nitric acid or nitrogen dioxide. In a special embodiment spent ion exchange resins are converted by this chemical digestion to noncombustible gases and a low volume noncombustible residue.

Cooley, Carl R. (Richland, WA); Lerch, Ronald E. (Richland, WA)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Hanford Site solid waste acceptance criteria  

SciTech Connect

Order 5820.2A requires that each treatment, storage, and/or disposal facility (referred to in this document as TSD unit) that manages low-level or transuranic waste (including mixed waste and TSCA PCB waste) maintain waste acceptance criteria. These criteria must address the various requirements to operate the TSD unit in compliance with applicable safety and environmental requirements. This document sets forth the baseline criteria for acceptance of radioactive waste at TSD units operated by WMH. The criteria for each TSD unit have been established to ensure that waste accepted can be managed in a manner that is within the operating requirements of the unit, including environmental regulations, DOE Orders, permits, technical safety requirements, waste analysis plans, performance assessments, and other applicable requirements. Acceptance criteria apply to the following TSD units: the Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG) including both the nonregulated portions of the LLBG and trenches 31 and 34 of the 218-W-5 Burial Ground for mixed waste disposal; Central Waste Complex (CWC); Waste Receiving and Processing Facility (WRAP); and T Plant Complex. Waste from all generators, both from the Hanford Site and from offsite facilities, must comply with these criteria. Exceptions can be granted as provided in Section 1.6. Specific waste streams could have additional requirements based on the 1901 identified TSD pathway. These requirements are communicated in the Waste Specification Records (WSRds). The Hanford Site manages nonradioactive waste through direct shipments to offsite contractors. The waste acceptance requirements of the offsite TSD facility must be met for these nonradioactive wastes. This document does not address the acceptance requirements of these offsite facilities.

Ellefson, M.D.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Bases for solid waste volume estimates for tank waste remediation system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document presents the background and basis for the Tank Waste Remediation System forecast for solid waste submitted in June 1996. The forecast was generated for single-shell tank and double-shell tank activities including operations through retrieval and disposal of chemical tank waste.

Reddick, G.W., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Solid waste integrated cost analysis model: 1991 project year report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the City of Houston's 1991 Solid Waste Integrated Cost Analysis Model (SWICAM) project was to continue the development of a computerized cost analysis model. This model is to provide solid waste managers with tool to evaluate the dollar cost of real or hypothetical solid waste management choices. Those choices have become complicated by the implementation of Subtitle D of the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the EPA's Integrated Approach to managing municipal solid waste;. that is, minimize generation, maximize recycling, reduce volume (incinerate), and then bury (landfill) only the remainder. Implementation of an integrated solid waste management system involving all or some of the options of recycling, waste to energy, composting, and landfilling is extremely complicated. Factors such as hauling distances, markets, and prices for recyclable, costs and benefits of transfer stations, and material recovery facilities must all be considered. A jurisdiction must determine the cost impacts of implementing a number of various possibilities for managing, handling, processing, and disposing of waste. SWICAM employs a single Lotus 123 spreadsheet to enable a jurisdiction to predict or assess the costs of its waste management system. It allows the user to select his own process flow for waste material and to manipulate the model to include as few or as many options as he or she chooses. The model will calculate the estimated cost for those choices selected. The user can then change the model to include or exclude waste stream components, until the mix of choices suits the user. Graphs can be produced as a visual communication aid in presenting the results of the cost analysis. SWICAM also allows future cost projections to be made.

Not Available

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Solid Waste Management (South Dakota) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

South Dakota) South Dakota) Solid Waste Management (South Dakota) < Back Eligibility Utility Fed. Government Commercial Agricultural Investor-Owned Utility State/Provincial Govt Industrial Construction Municipal/Public Utility Local Government Residential Installer/Contractor Rural Electric Cooperative Tribal Government Low-Income Residential Schools Retail Supplier Institutional Multi-Family Residential Systems Integrator Fuel Distributor Nonprofit General Public/Consumer Transportation Program Info State South Dakota Program Type Siting and Permitting Provider South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources This statute contains provisions for solid waste management systems, groundwater monitoring, liability for pollution, permitting, inspections, and provisions for waste reduction and recycling programs

132

Fusion fuel cycle solid radioactive wastes  

SciTech Connect

Eight conceptual deuterium-tritium fueled fusion power plant designs have been analyzed to identify waste sources, materials and quantities. All plant designs include the entire D-T fuel cycle within each plant. Wastes identified include radiation-damaged structural, moderating, and fertile materials; getter materials for removing corrosion products and other impurities from coolants; absorbents for removing tritium from ventilation air; getter materials for tritium recovery from fertile materials; vacuum pump oil and mercury sludge; failed equipment; decontamination wastes; and laundry waste. Radioactivity in these materials results primarily from neutron activation and from tritium contamination. For the designs analyzed annual radwaste volume was estimated to be 150 to 600 m/sup 3//GWe. This may be compared to 500 to 1300 m/sup 3//GWe estimated for the LMFBR fuel cycle. Major waste sources are replaced reactor structures and decontamination waste.

Gore, B.F.; Kaser, J.D.; Kabele, T.J.

1978-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Event:World Solid Waste Congress 2012 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Solid Waste Congress 2012 Solid Waste Congress 2012 Jump to: navigation, search Calendar.png World Solid Waste Congress 2012: on 2012/09/17 During the three days of this Congress you can meet academics presenting cutting edge research; scientists, government administrators and decision makers, representatives of the world's largest companies in the waste sector, and many other practitioners too from small and medium enterprises. Florence 2012: where else in the world can you network with these people in such a short time The Congress location is at the Palazzo dei Congressi adjacent to the Santa Maria Novella mainline railway station in the City center. ATIA-ISWA ITALIA is also organising a series of events in Italy leading to the main Congress this year. This beautiful city will also host

134

Solid waste management and health effects.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? This report investigates possible health effects due to improper disposal of waste and the awareness within a community. The aim was also to investigate… (more)

Selin, Emma

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Sustainable recycling of municipal solid waste in developing countries  

SciTech Connect

This research focuses on recycling in developing countries as one form of sustainable municipal solid waste management (MSWM). Twenty-three case studies provided municipal solid waste (MSW) generation and recovery rates and composition for compilation and assessment. The average MSW generation rate was 0.77 kg/person/day, with recovery rates from 5-40%. The waste streams of 19 of these case studies consisted of 0-70% recyclables and 17-80% organics. Qualitative analysis of all 23 case studies identified barriers or incentives to recycling, which resulted in the development of factors influencing recycling of MSW in developing countries. The factors are government policy, government finances, waste characterization, waste collection and segregation, household education, household economics, MSWM (municipal solid waste management) administration, MSWM personnel education, MSWM plan, local recycled-material market, technological and human resources, and land availability. Necessary and beneficial relationships drawn among these factors revealed the collaborative nature of sustainable MSWM. The functionality of the factor relationships greatly influenced the success of sustainable MSWM. A correlation existed between stakeholder involvement and the three dimensions of sustainability: environment, society, and economy. The only factors driven by all three dimensions (waste collection and segregation, MSWM plan, and local recycled-material market) were those requiring the greatest collaboration with other factors.

Troschinetz, Alexis M. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Sustainable Futures Institute, Michigan Technological University, 1400 Townsend Dr., Houghton, MI 49931 (United States)], E-mail: alexis_troschinetz@yahoo.com; Mihelcic, James R. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Sustainable Futures Institute, Michigan Technological University, 1400 Townsend Dr., Houghton, MI 49931 (United States)

2009-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

136

LEGACY NONCONFORMANCE ISSUE IN SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Beginning in 1968 waste from sectioning, sampling, and assaying of reactor fuels was sent to underground burial caissons in the 200-W Area of the Hanford Plant in Richland, Washington. In 2002 a review of inventory records revealed that criticality safety storage limits had been exceeded. This prompted declaration of a Criticality Prevention Specification nonconformance. The corrective action illustrates the difficulties in demonstrating compliance to fissile material limits decades after waste disposal.

ROGERS, C.A.

2002-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

137

EXPERIMENTAL METHODS TO ESTIMATE ACCUMULATED SOLIDS IN NUCLEAR WASTE TANKS  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy has a large number of nuclear waste tanks. It is important to know if fissionable materials can concentrate when waste is transferred from staging tanks prior to feeding waste treatment plants. Specifically, there is a concern that large, dense particles, e.g., plutonium containing, could accumulate in poorly mixed regions of a blend tank heel for tanks that employ mixing jet pumps. At the request of the DOE Hanford Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions, the Engineering Development Laboratory of the Savannah River National Laboratory performed a scouting study in a 1/22-scale model of a waste tank to investigate this concern and to develop measurement techniques that could be applied in a more extensive study at a larger scale. Simulated waste tank solids and supernatant were charged to the test tank and rotating liquid jets were used to remove most of the solids. Then the volume and shape of the residual solids and the spatial concentration profiles for the surrogate for plutonium were measured. This paper discusses the overall test results, which indicated heavy solids only accumulate during the first few transfer cycles, along with the techniques and equipment designed and employed in the test. Those techniques include: Magnetic particle separator to remove stainless steel solids, the plutonium surrogate from a flowing stream; Magnetic wand used to manually remove stainless steel solids from samples and the tank heel; Photographs were used to determine the volume and shape of the solids mounds by developing a composite of topographical areas; Laser rangefinders to determine the volume and shape of the solids mounds; Core sampler to determine the stainless steel solids distribution within the solids mounds; Computer driven positioner that placed the laser rangefinders and the core sampler over solids mounds that accumulated on the bottom of a scaled staging tank in locations where jet velocities were low. These devices and techniques were very effective to estimate the movement, location, and concentrations of the solids representing plutonium and are expected to perform well at a larger scale. The operation of the techniques and their measurement accuracies will be discussed as well as the overall results of the accumulated solids test.

Duignan, M.; Steeper, T.; Steimke, J.

2012-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

138

Scenario of solid waste reuse in Khulna city of Bangladesh  

SciTech Connect

The reuse and recycling of waste materials are now sincerely considered to be an integral part of solid waste management in many parts of the world. In this context, a vast number of options ranging from small scale decentralized to larger scale centralized plants have been adopted. This study aimed at investigating the waste reuse schemes in Khulna city located in the southern part of Bangladesh and ranked third largest city in the country. The shops for reusable material (SRM) were mostly situated around railway, waterway, and truck station markets which provided easy transportation to further locations. For the reuses of waste materials and products, a chain system was found to collect reusable wastes under a total number of 310 identified SRM with 859 persons directly or indirectly involved in the scheme. This was a decentralized waste management system with self sufficient (autonomous) management. According to mass balance, about 38.52 tons d{sup -1} solid wastes were reused in Khulna city area, accounting for 7.65% of the total generated wastes. This study revealed that apparently a silent, systematic, smooth, and clean reuse chain has been established in Khulna city area under private initiatives, whose sustainability was confirmed over the years in the country without any official or formal funds. However, proper adjustment between the higher and lower chain in the materials flow path, as well as personal hygiene training for the workers, would further improve the achievements of the established reuse scheme.

Bari, Quazi H., E-mail: qhbari@yahoo.com [Department of Civil Engineering, Khulna University of Engineering and Technology, Khulna 9203 (Bangladesh); Mahbub Hassan, K. [Department of Civil Engineering, Khulna University of Engineering and Technology, Khulna 9203 (Bangladesh); Haque, R. [Project Builders Ltd., Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

139

Mathematical modeling to predict residential solid waste generation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One of the challenges faced by waste management authorities is determining the amount of waste generated by households in order to establish waste management systems, as well as trying to charge rates compatible with the principle applied worldwide, and design a fair payment system for households according to the amount of residential solid waste (RSW) they generate. The goal of this research work was to establish mathematical models that correlate the generation of RSW per capita to the following variables: education, income per household, and number of residents. This work was based on data from a study on generation, quantification and composition of residential waste in a Mexican city in three stages. In order to define prediction models, five variables were identified and included in the model. For each waste sampling stage a different mathematical model was developed, in order to find the model that showed the best linear relation to predict residential solid waste generation. Later on, models to explore the combination of included variables and select those which showed a higher R{sup 2} were established. The tests applied were normality, multicolinearity and heteroskedasticity. Another model, formulated with four variables, was generated and the Durban-Watson test was applied to it. Finally, a general mathematical model is proposed to predict residential waste generation, which accounts for 51% of the total.

Ojeda Benitez, Sara [Engineering Institute, UABC, Boulevard Benito Juarez y Calle de la Normal S/N, Col. Insurgentes Este, C.P. 21280, Mexicali, Baja California (Mexico)], E-mail: sojedab@uabc.mx; Lozano-Olvera, Gabriela [Engineering Institute, UABC, Boulevard Benito Juarez y Calle de la Normal S/N, Col. Insurgentes Este, C.P. 21280, Mexicali, Baja California (Mexico); Morelos, Raul Adalberto [CESUES Superior Studies Center, San Luis R.C. Sonora (Mexico); Vega, Carolina Armijo de [Engineering Faculty, UABC, Km 103, Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, C.P. 22860, Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

International Solid Waste Association (ISWA) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Waste Association (ISWA) Waste Association (ISWA) Jump to: navigation, search Name International Solid Waste Association (ISWA) Address ISWA - International Solid Waste Association General Secretariat Auerspergstrasse 15, Top 41 1080 Vienna Austria Place Vienna Austria Website http://www.iswa.org/ Coordinates 48.2088365°, 16.3546602° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":48.2088365,"lon":16.3546602,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "1municipal solid waste" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Method of encapsulating solid radioactive waste material for storage  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

High-level radioactive wastes are encapsulated in vitreous carbon for long-term storage by mixing the wastes as finely divided solids with a suitable resin, formed into an appropriate shape and cured. The cured resin is carbonized by heating under a vacuum to form vitreous carbon. The vitreous carbon shapes may be further protected for storage by encasement in a canister containing a low melting temperature matrix material such as aluminum to increase impact resistance and improve heat dissipation.

Bunnell, Lee Roy (Kennewick, WA); Bates, J. Lambert (Richland, WA)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Solid Waste Projection Model: Database (Version 1. 3)  

SciTech Connect

The Solid Waste Projection Model (SWPM) system is an analytical tool developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). The SWPM system provides a modeling and analysis environment that supports decisions in the process of evaluating various solid waste management alternatives. This document, one of a series describing the SWPM system, contains detailed information regarding the software and data structures utilized in developing the SWPM Version 1.3 Database. This document is intended for use by experienced database specialists and supports database maintenance, utility development, and database enhancement.

Blackburn, C.L.

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Evaluation of mixing systems for biogasification of municipal solid waste  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Two specially selected mixing systems were tested and evaluated to determine how effectively they could prevent the formation of fibrous mats and stringers during the anaerobic digestion of a slurried mixture of preprocessed municipal solid waste and sewage sludge to produce methane gas. The tests were conducted in a modified 10.7-m (35-ft) diameter, nominal 378,000-liter (100,000-gal) capacity concrete vessel in the Franklin, Ohio, environmental complex. Between August 1977 and September 1978, nine tests were conducted with 3:1 and 9:1 solid waste/sewage sludge ratios and with 4, 7, and 10 percent total solids in the feedstock. Though the microbial culture was healthy in most tests, the mixing systems were not effective in preventing excessive fibrous mat and stringer formations. These formations occurred because of the high cellulosic content of the feedstock. The test with the best energy recovery had a gas production of 805 liters/kg of volatile solids destroyed. However, the energy recovered was only 50 percent of the energy available in the solid waste, and only four times greater than the mixing energy expended for that test. The solids accumulations were generally the same for the two mixing systems when they had common test conditions. In all tests, the percent solids for the top level were higher than those for the middle and bottom levels. As the feed ratio and the percent solids in the feedstock were increased, this differential became progressively more pronounced. Moreover, the percent of volatile solids (in a given amount of total solids) for the top level became disproportionately higher than those for the other two levels.

Swartzbaugh, J T; Smith, R B

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Feasibility analysis of gasification for energy recovery from residual solid waste in Humboldt County.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This analysis investigates the feasibility of implementing a gasification system to process residual solid waste in Humboldt County. The Humboldt Waste Management Authority manages 70,000… (more)

Hervin, Kirstin

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Solid Waste Management Policy and Programs (Minnesota) | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Policy and Programs (Minnesota) Policy and Programs (Minnesota) Solid Waste Management Policy and Programs (Minnesota) < Back Eligibility Utility Fed. Government Commercial Agricultural Investor-Owned Utility State/Provincial Govt Industrial Construction Municipal/Public Utility Local Government Residential Installer/Contractor Rural Electric Cooperative Tribal Government Low-Income Residential Schools Retail Supplier Institutional Multi-Family Residential Systems Integrator Fuel Distributor Nonprofit General Public/Consumer Transportation Program Info State Minnesota Program Type Siting and Permitting These statutes encourage the State and local governments to develop waste management strategies to achieve the maximum possible reduction in waste generation, eliminate or reduce adverse environmental impacts, encourage

146

Energy potential of municipal solid waste is limited  

SciTech Connect

Energy recovery from municipal solid waste has the potential for making only a limited contribution to the nation`s overall energy production. Although the current contribution of waste-derived energy production is less than one-half of 1 percent of the nation`s total energy Supply, DOE has set a goal for energy from waste at 2 percent of the total supply by 2010. The industry`s estimates show a smaller role for waste as an energy source in the future. The energy potential from waste is limited not only by the volume and energy content of the waste itself, but also by the factors affecting the use of waste disposal options, including public opposition and the availability of financing. Energy production from waste combustors and from landfill gases generates pollutants, although these are reduced through current regulations that require the use of emissions control technology and define operational criteria for the facilities. Although DOE estimates that one-third of the energy available from waste is available in the form of energy savings through the recycling of materials, the Department`s research in this area is ongoing.

NONE

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Thermal Treatment of Solid Wastes Using the Electric Arc Furnace  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A thermal waste treatment facility has been developed at the Albany Research Center (ARC) over the past seven years to process a wide range of heterogeneous mixed wastes, on a scale of 227 to 907 kg/h (500 to 2,000 lb/h). The current system includes a continuous feed system, a 3-phase AC, 0.8 MW graphite electrode arc furnace, and a dedicated air pollution control system (APCS) which includes a close-coupled thermal oxidizer, spray cooler, baghouse, and wet scrubber. The versatility of the complete system has been demonstrated during 5 continuous melting campaigns, ranging from 11 to 25 mt (12 to 28 st) of treated wastes per campaign, which were conducted on waste materials such as (a) municipal incinerator ash, (b) simulated low-level radioactive, high combustible-bearing mixed wastes, (c) simulated low-level radioactive liquid tank wastes, (d) heavy metal contaminated soils, and (e) organic-contaminated dredging spoils. In all cases, the glass or slag products readily passed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxicity Characteristic Leachability Program (TCLP) test. Additional studies are currently under way on electric utility wastes, steel and aluminum industry wastes, as well as zinc smelter residues. Thermal treatment of these solid waste streams is intended to produce a metallic product along with nonhazardous glass or slag products.

O'Connor, W.K.; Turner, P.C.

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Solid waste management challenges for cities in developing countries  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stakeholders. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Factors affecting performance waste management systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Questionnaire as Annex for waste management baseline assessment. - Abstract: Solid waste management is a challenge for the cities' authorities in developing countries mainly due to the increasing generation of waste, the burden posed on the municipal budget as a result of the high costs associated to its management, the lack of understanding over a diversity of factors that affect the different stages of waste management and linkages necessary to enable the entire handling system functioning. An analysis of literature on the work done and reported mainly in publications from 2005 to 2011, related to waste management in developing countries, showed that few articles give quantitative information. The analysis was conducted in two of the major scientific journals, Waste Management Journal and Waste Management and Research. The objective of this research was to determine the stakeholders' action/behavior that have a role in the waste management process and to analyze influential factors on the system, in more than thirty urban areas in 22 developing countries in 4 continents. A combination of methods was used in this study in order to assess the stakeholders and the factors influencing the performance of waste management in the cities. Data was collected from scientific literature, existing data bases, observations made during visits to urban areas, structured interviews with relevant professionals, exercises provided to participants in workshops and a questionnaire applied to stakeholders. Descriptive and inferential statistic methods were used to draw conclusions. The outcomes of the research are a comprehensive list of stakeholders that are relevant in the waste management systems and a set of factors that reveal the most important causes for the systems' failure. The information provided is very useful when planning, changing or implementing waste management systems in cities.

Abarca Guerrero, Lilliana, E-mail: l.abarca.guerrero@tue.nl [Built Environment Department, Eindhoven University of Technology, Den Dolech, 25612 AZ Eindhoven (Netherlands); Maas, Ger, E-mail: g.j.maas@tue.nl [Built Environment Department, Eindhoven University of Technology, Den Dolech, 25612 AZ Eindhoven (Netherlands); Hogland, William, E-mail: william.hogland@lnu.se [School of Natural Sciences, Linnaeus University, SE-391 82 Kalmar (Sweden)

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

149

ENERGY RECOVERY FROM SOLID WASTES: OPPORTUNITIES AND PROBLEMS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, proper type of energy load (no extreme variations in need or usage), and matching of manufacturing plantENERGY RECOVERY FROM SOLID WASTES: OPPORTUNITIES AND PROBLEMS · CHARLES O. VELZY Charles R Velzy in the energy from refuse field is survey ed including mass-burn, modular combustion, RDF combustion, pyrolysis

Columbia University

150

Co-firing coal and municipal solid waste  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this study was to experimentally investigate how different the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) or municipal solid waste (MSW) utilizing strategies affects the gas emission in simple fluidized bed combustion (FBC) of biomass. In this study, ground OFMSW and pulverized coal (PC) were used for co-firing tests. The tests were carried out in a bench-scale bubbling FBC. Coal and bio-waste fuels are quite different in composition. Ash composition of the bio-waste fuels is fundamentally different from ash composition of the coal. Chlorine (Cl) in the MSW may affect operation by corrosion. Ash deposits reduce heat transfer and also may result in severe corrosion at high temperatures. Nitrogen (N) and carbon ) assessments can play an important role in a strategy to control carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions while raising revenue. Regulations such as subsidies for oil, liquid petroleum gas (LPG) for natural gas powered vehicles, and renewables, especially biomass lines, to reduce emissions may be more cost-effective than assessments. Research and development (RD) resources are driven by energy policy goals and can change the competitiveness of renewables, especially solid waste. The future supply of co-firing depends on energy prices and technical progress, both of which are driven by energy policy priorities.

Demirbas, A. [Sila Science, Trabzon (Turkey)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Solid Waste Management and Land Protection (North Dakota) | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

and Land Protection (North Dakota) and Land Protection (North Dakota) Solid Waste Management and Land Protection (North Dakota) < Back Eligibility Utility Fed. Government Commercial Agricultural Investor-Owned Utility State/Provincial Govt Industrial Construction Municipal/Public Utility Local Government Residential Installer/Contractor Rural Electric Cooperative Tribal Government Low-Income Residential Schools Retail Supplier Institutional Multi-Family Residential Systems Integrator Fuel Distributor Nonprofit General Public/Consumer Transportation Program Info State North Dakota Program Type Siting and Permitting The policy of the State of North Dakota is to encourage and provide for environmentally acceptable and economical solid waste management practices, and the Department of Health may promulgate regulations related to waste

152

Municipal solid waste to electricity in Bangkok, Thailand (prefeasibility study)  

SciTech Connect

Recognizing the problem of municipal waste disposal in Bangkok and the potential for energy recovery, the Royal Government of Thailand requested the US Trade and Development Program (TDP) to provide assistance in conducting an initial assessment of the potential options for managing Bangkok's waste disposal problem. Before undertaking a detailed feasibility study of a relatively attractive option for municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal in Bangkok, the Thai government wanted to determine whether a project for waste disposal and energy recovery could be developed with the involvement of the private sector such that over time the project could be totally owned and operated in the private domain. In response to the request made by the National Energy Administration (NEA) and Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA), TDP asked Engineering and Economics Research Inc. (EER) to send a team of consultants to conduct a definitional study to make a preliminary assessment of a municipal waste solid disposal system which recovers energy in conjunction with the treatment/disposal of waste in an environmentally safe manner. The consultants visited Thailand for a period of 3 weeks and worked with officials from NEA and BMA.

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Method of draining water through a solid waste site without leaching  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is a method of preventing water from leaching solid waste sites by preventing atmospheric precipitation from contacting waste as the water flows through a solid waste site. The method comprises placing at least one drain hole through the solid waste site. The drain hole is seated to prevent waste material from entering the drain hole, and the solid waste site cover material is layered and graded to direct water to flow toward the drain hole and to soil beneath the waste site.

Treat, R.L.; Gee, G.W.; Whyatt, G.A.

1993-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

154

Tank farms solid waste characterization guide with sampling and analysis plan attachment  

SciTech Connect

This document describes methods used, including sampling and analysis, to characterize hazardous chemical constituent in Tank Farms containerized solid waste.

Quigley, J.T.

1997-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

155

Method for storage of solid waste  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Metal canisters for long-term storage of calcined highlevel radioactive wastes can be made self-sealing against a breach in the canister wall by the addition of powdered cement to the canister with the calcine before it is sealed for storage. Any breach in the canister wall will permit entry of water which will mix with the cement and harden to form a concrete patch, thus sealing the opening in the wall of the canister and preventing the release of radioactive material to the cooling water or atmosphere.

Mecham, William J. (La Grange, IL)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Municipal solid waste generation in municipalities: Quantifying impacts of household structure, commercial waste and domestic fuel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Waste management planning requires reliable data concerning waste generation, influencing factors on waste generation and forecasts of waste quantities based on facts. This paper aims at identifying and quantifying differences between different municipalities' municipal solid waste (MSW) collection quantities based on data from waste management and on socio-economic indicators. A large set of 116 indicators from 542 municipalities in the Province of Styria was investigated. The resulting regression model included municipal tax revenue per capita, household size and the percentage of buildings with solid fuel heating systems. The model explains 74.3% of the MSW variation and the model assumptions are met. Other factors such as tourism, home composting or age distribution of the population did not significantly improve the model. According to the model, 21% of MSW collected in Styria was commercial waste and 18% of the generated MSW was burned in domestic heating systems. While the percentage of commercial waste is consistent with literature data, practically no literature data are available for the quantity of MSW burned, which seems to be overestimated by the model. The resulting regression model was used as basis for a waste prognosis model (Beigl and Lebersorger, in preparation).

Lebersorger, S. [Institute of Waste Management, Department of Water, Atmosphere and Environment, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Muthgasse 107, A-1190 Wien (Austria); Beigl, P., E-mail: peter.beigl@boku.ac.at [Institute of Waste Management, Department of Water, Atmosphere and Environment, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Muthgasse 107, A-1190 Wien (Austria)

2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

157

Continuous-discrete simulation-based decision making framework for solid waste management and recycling programs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Solid waste produced as a by-product of our daily activities poses a major threat to societies as populations grow and economic development advances. Consequently, the effective management of solid waste has become a matter of critical importance for ... Keywords: Continuous-discrete modeling, Modeling of large scale systems, Recycling systems, Simulation based optimization, Solid waste management systems

Eric D. Antmann, Xiaoran Shi, Nurcin Celik, Yading Dai

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Transuranic Solid Waste Management Programs. Progress report, July-- December 1974  

SciTech Connect

Progress is reported for three transuranic solid waste management programs funded at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory by the Energy Research and Development Administration Division of Waste Management and Transportation. Under the Transuranic Waste Research and Development Program, a completed evaluation of stainless steel drums showed that although the material has superior corrosion-resistant properties, its higher cost makes a thorough investigation of other container systems mandatory. A program to investigate more economical, nonmetallic containers is proposed. Preliminary fire tests in mild steel drums have been completed with fire propagation not appearing to be a problem unless container integrity is lost. Investigation of the corrosion of mild steel drums and the evaluation of potential corrosion inhibitors, in a variety of humid environments, continues. Experimental results of both laboratory and field investigations on radiolysis of transuranic elements in hydrogenous waste are discussed. Progress in the development of instrumentation for monitoring and segregating low-level wastes is described. New plans and developments for the Transuranic-Contaminated Solid Waste Treatment Development Facility are presented. The current focus is on a comparison of all alternative waste reduction systems toward a relative Figure of Merit with universal application. Drawings, flowsheets, and building layouts are included, and the proposed incinerator device is detailed. The release mechanisms, inter- and intraregional transport mechanisms, and exhumation studies relevant to the Evaluation of Transuranic-Contaminated Radioactive Waste Disposal Areas Program are defined and analyzed. A detailed description is given of the formulation of the computer simulation scheme for the intraregional biological transport model. (auth)

1975-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Quality Services: Solid Wastes, Parts 370-376: Hazardous Waste Management  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Parts 370-376: Hazardous Waste Parts 370-376: Hazardous Waste Management System (New York) Quality Services: Solid Wastes, Parts 370-376: Hazardous Waste Management System (New York) < Back Eligibility Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Municipal/Public Utility Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State/Provincial Govt Tribal Government Utility Program Info State New York Program Type Safety and Operational Guidelines Provider NY Department of Environmental Conservation These regulations prescribe the management of hazardous waste facilities in New York State. They identify and list different types of hazardous wastes and describe standards for generators, transporters, as well as treatment, storage and disposal facilities. The regulations also define specific types

160

Continuous high-solids anaerobic co-digestion of organic solid wastes under mesophilic conditions  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: > High-solids (dry) anaerobic digestion is attracting a lot of attention these days. > One reactor was fed with food waste (FW) and paper waste. > Maximum biogas production rate of 5.0 m{sup 3}/m{sup 3}/d was achieved at HRT 40 d and 40% TS. > The other reactor was fed with FW and livestock waste (LW). > Until a 40% LW content increase, the reactor exhibited a stable performance. - Abstract: With increasing concerns over the limited capacity of landfills, conservation of resources, and reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions, high-solids (dry) anaerobic digestion of organic solid waste (OSW) is attracting a great deal of attention these days. In the present work, two dry anaerobic co-digestion systems fed with different mixtures of OSW were continuously operated under mesophilic conditions. Dewatered sludge cake was used as a main seeding source. In reactor (I), which was fed with food waste (FW) and paper waste (PW), hydraulic retention time (HRT) and solid content were controlled to find the maximum treatability. At a fixed solid content of 30% total solids (TS), stable performance was maintained up to an HRT decrease to 40 d. However, the stable performance was not sustained at 30 d HRT, and hence, HRT was increased to 40 d again. In further operation, instead of decreasing HRT, solid content was increased to 40% TS, which was found to be a better option to increase the treatability. The biogas production rate (BPR), CH{sub 4} production yield (MPY) and VS reduction achieved in this condition were 5.0 m{sup 3}/m{sup 3}/d, 0.25 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/g COD{sub added}, and 80%, respectively. Reactor (II) was fed with FW and livestock waste (LW), and LW content was increased during the operation. Until a 40% LW content increase, reactor (II) exhibited a stable performance. A BPR of 1.7 m{sup 3}/m{sup 3}/d, MPY of 0.26 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/g COD{sub added}, and VS reduction of 72% was achieved at 40% LW content. However, when the LW content was increased to 60%, there was a significant performance drop, which was attributed to free ammonia inhibition. The performances in these two reactors were comparable to the ones achieved in the conventional wet digestion and thermophilic dry digestion processes.

Kim, Dong-Hoon [Wastes Energy Research Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research, 102, Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Sae-Eun, E-mail: saeun@hanbat.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Hanbat National University, San 16-1, Duckmyoung-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "1municipal solid waste" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Soil stabilization using oil-shale solid waste  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oil-shale solid wastes are evaluated for use as soil stabilizers. A laboratory study consisted of the following tests on compacted samples of soil treated with water and spent oil shale: unconfined compressive strength, moisture-density relationships, wet-dry and freeze-thaw durability, and resilient modulus. Significant increases in strength, durability, and resilient modulus were obtained by treating a silty sand with combusted western oil shale. Moderate increases in durability and resilient modulus were obtained by treating a highly plastic clay with combusted western oil shale. Solid waste from eastern oil shale appears to be feasible for soil stabilization only if limestone is added during combustion. Testing methods, results, and recommendations for mix design of spent shale-stabilized pavement subgrades are presented and the mechanisms of spent-shale cementation are discussed.

Turner, J.P. (Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Civil and Archeological Engineering)

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

LCA comparison of container systems in municipal solid waste management  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The planning and design of integrated municipal solid waste management (MSWM) systems requires accurate environmental impact evaluation of the systems and their components. This research assessed, quantified and compared the environmental impact of the first stage of the most used MSW container systems. The comparison was based on factors such as the volume of the containers, from small bins of 60-80 l to containers of 2400 l, and on the manufactured materials, steel and high-density polyethylene (HDPE). Also, some parameters such as frequency of collections, waste generation, filling percentage and waste container contents, were established to obtain comparable systems. The methodological framework of the analysis was the life cycle assessment (LCA), and the impact assessment method was based on CML 2 baseline 2000. Results indicated that, for the same volume, the collection systems that use HDPE waste containers had more of an impact than those using steel waste containers, in terms of abiotic depletion, global warming, ozone layer depletion, acidification, eutrophication, photochemical oxidation, human toxicity and terrestrial ecotoxicity. Besides, the collection systems using small HDPE bins (60 l or 80 l) had most impact while systems using big steel containers (2400 l) had less impact. Subsequent sensitivity analysis about the parameters established demonstrated that they could change the ultimate environmental impact of each waste container collection system, but that the comparative relationship between systems was similar.

Rives, Jesus, E-mail: Jesus.Rives@uab.ca [SosteniPrA (UAB-IRTA), Institute of Environmental Science and Technology (ICTA), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona - UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Rieradevall, Joan; Gabarrell, Xavier [SosteniPrA (UAB-IRTA), Institute of Environmental Science and Technology (ICTA), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona - UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona - UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

163

Supplemental design requirements document solid waste operations complex  

SciTech Connect

This document provides additional and supplemental information to the WHC-SD-W112-FDC-001, WHC-SD-W113-FDC-001, and WHC-SD-W100-FDC-001. It provides additional requirements for the design and summarizes Westinghouse Hanford Company key design guidance and establishes the technical baseline agreements to be used for definitive design common to the Solid Waste Operations Complex (SWOC) Facilities (Project W-112, Project W-113, and WRAP 2A).

Ocampo, V.P.; Boothe, G.F.; Broz, D.R.; Eaton, H.E.; Greager, T.M.; Huckfeldt, R.A.; Kooiker, S.L.; Lamberd, D.L.; Lang, L.L.; Myers, J.B. [and others

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Energy implications of integrated solid waste management systems. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study develops estimates of energy use and recovery from managing municipal solid waste (MSW) under various collection, processing, and disposal scenarios. We estimate use and recovery -- or energy balance -- resulting from MSW management activities such as waste collection, transport, processing, and disposal, as well as indirect use and recovery linked to secondary materials manufacturing using recycled materials. In our analysis, secondary materials manufacturing displaces virgin materials manufacturing for 13 representative products. Energy implications are expressed as coefficients that measure the net energy saving (or use) of displacing products made from virgin versus recycled materials. Using data developed for the 1992 New York City Master Plan as a starting point, we apply our method to an analysis of various collection systems and 30 types of facilities to illustrate bow energy balances shift as management systems are modified. In sum, all four scenarios show a positive energy balance indicating the energy and advantage of integrated systems versus reliance on one or few technology options. That is, energy produced or saved exceeds the energy used to operate the solid waste system. The largest energy use impacts are attributable to processing, including materials separation and composting. Collection and transportation energy are relatively minor contributors. The largest two contributors to net energy savings are waste combustion and energy saved by processing recycled versus virgin materials. An accompanying spatial analysis methodology allocates energy use and recovery to New York City, New York State outside the city, the U.S., and outside the U.S. Our analytical approach is embodied in a spreadsheet model that can be used by energy and solid waste analysts to estimate impacts of management scenarios at the state and substate level.

Little, R.E.; McClain, G.; Becker, M.; Ligon, P.; Shapiro, K.

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Method for producing synthetic fuels from solid waste  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Organic solid wastes represented by the general chemical formula C.sub.X H.sub.Y O.sub.Z are reacted with steam at elevated temperatures to produce H.sub.2 and CO.sub.2. The overall process is represented by the reaction C.sub.X H.sub.Y O.sub.Z + 2(X-Z/2)H.sub.2 O.fwdarw..sup..delta.XCO.sub.2 + [(Y/2) + 2(X-Z/2)] H.sub.2 . (1) reaction (1) is endothermic and requires heat. This heat is supplied by a tower top solar furnace; alternatively, some of the solid wastes can be burned to supply heat for the reaction. The hydrogen produced by reaction (1) can be used as a fuel or a chemical feedstock. Alternatively, methanol can be produced by the commercial process CO.sub.2 + 3H.sub.2 .fwdarw. CH.sub.3 OH + H.sub.2 O . (2) since reaction (1) is endothermic, the system represents a method for storing heat energy from an external source in a chemical fuel produced from solid wastes.

Antal, Jr., Michael J. (Los Alamos, NM)

1976-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

166

Determinants of sustainability in solid waste management - The Gianyar Waste Recovery Project in Indonesia  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our assessment tool helps evaluate success factors in solid waste projects. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Success of the composting plant in Indonesia is linked to its community integration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Appropriate technology is not a main determining success factor for sustainability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structured assessment of 'best practices' can enhance replication in other cities. - Abstract: According to most experts, integrated and sustainable solid waste management should not only be given top priority, but must go beyond technical aspects to include various key elements of sustainability to ensure success of any solid waste project. Aside from project sustainable impacts, the overall enabling environment is the key feature determining performance and success of an integrated and affordable solid waste system. This paper describes a project-specific approach to assess typical success or failure factors. A questionnaire-based assessment method covers issues of: (i) social mobilisation and acceptance (social element), (ii) stakeholder, legal and institutional arrangements comprising roles, responsibilities and management functions (institutional element); (iii) financial and operational requirements, as well as cost recovery mechanisms (economic element). The Gianyar Waste Recovery Project in Bali, Indonesia was analysed using this integrated assessment method. The results clearly identified chief characteristics, key factors to consider when planning country wide replication but also major barriers and obstacles which must be overcome to ensure project sustainability. The Gianyar project consists of a composting unit processing 60 tons of municipal waste per day from 500,000 inhabitants, including manual waste segregation and subsequent composting of the biodegradable organic fraction.

Zurbruegg, Christian, E-mail: zurbrugg@eawag.ch [Eawag: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (Sandec), Ueberlandstrasse 133, P.O. Box 611, 8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Gfrerer, Margareth, E-mail: margareth.gfrerer@gmx.net [Faculty of Engineering, University of Indonesia, Depok Campus, 16424 Jakarta (Indonesia); Ashadi, Henki, E-mail: henki@eng.ui.ac.id [Faculty of Engineering, University of Indonesia, Depok Campus, 16424 Jakarta (Indonesia); Brenner, Werner, E-mail: werner.brenner@gmx.at [Faculty of Engineering, University of Indonesia, Depok Campus, 16424 Jakarta (Indonesia); Kueper, David, E-mail: dkuper@indo.net.id [Yayasan Pemilahan Sampah Temesi, Temsi-Gianyar, Bali (Indonesia)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

167

Processing of solid mixed waste containing radioactive and hazardous materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus for the continuous heating and melting of a solid mixed waste bearing radioactive and hazardous materials to form separate metallic, slag and gaseous phases for producing compact forms of the waste material to facilitate disposal includes a copper split water-cooled (cold) crucible as a reaction vessel for receiving the waste material. The waste material is heated by means of the combination of a plasma torch directed into the open upper portion of the cold crucible and an electromagnetic flux produced by induction coils disposed about the crucible which is transparent to electromagnetic fields. A metallic phase of the waste material is formed in a lower portion of the crucible and is removed in the form of a compact ingot suitable for recycling and further processing. A glass-like, non-metallic slag phase containing radioactive elements is also formed in the crucible and flows out of the open upper portion of the crucible into a slag ingot mold for disposal. The decomposition products of the organic and toxic materials are incinerated and converted to environmentally safe gases in the melter.

Gotovchikov, Vitaly T. (Moscow, RU); Ivanov, Alexander V. (Moscow, RU); Filippov, Eugene A. (Moscow, RU)

1998-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

168

Processing of solid mixed waste containing radioactive and hazardous materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus for the continuous heating and melting of a solid mixed waste bearing radioactive and hazardous materials to form separate metallic, slag and gaseous phases for producing compact forms of the waste material to facilitate disposal includes a copper split water-cooled (cold) crucible as a reaction vessel for receiving the waste material. The waste material is heated by means of the combination of a plasma torch directed into the open upper portion of the cold crucible and an electromagnetic flux produced by induction coils disposed about the crucible which is transparent to electromagnetic fields. A metallic phase of the waste material is formed in a lower portion of the crucible and is removed in the form of a compact ingot suitable for recycling and further processing. A glass-like, non-metallic slag phase containing radioactive elements is also formed in the crucible and flows out of the open upper portion of the crucible into a slag ingot mold for disposal. The decomposition products of the organic and toxic materials are incinerated and converted to environmentally safe gases in the melter. 6 figs.

Gotovchikov, V.T.; Ivanov, A.V.; Filippov, E.A.

1998-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

169

Significance of radiation effects in solid radioactive waste  

SciTech Connect

Proposed NRC criteria for disposal of high-level nuclear waste require development of waste packages to contain radionuclide for at least 1000 years, and design of repositories to prevent radionuclide release at an annual rate greater than 1 part in 100,000 of the total activity. The high-level wastes that are now temporarily stored as aqueous salts, sludges, and calcines must be converted to high-integrity solid forms that resist deterioration from radiation and other effects of long-term storage. Spent fuel may be encapsulated for similar long-term storage. Candidate waste forms beside the spent fuel elements themselves, include borosilicate and related glasses, mineral-like crystalline ceramics, concrete formulations, and metal-matrix glass or ceramic composites. these waste forms will sustain damage produced by beta-gamma radiation up to 10/sup 12/ rads, by alpha radiation up to 10/sup 19/ particles/g, by internal helium generation greater than about 0.1 atom percent, and by the atom transmutations accompanying radioactive decay. Current data indicate that under these conditions the glass forms suffer only minor volume changes, stored energy deposition, and leachability effects. The crystalline ceramics appear susceptible to the potentially more severe alterations accompanying metamictization and natural analogs of candidate materials are being examined to establish their suitability as waste forms. Helium concentrations in the waste forms are generally below thresholds for severe damage in either glass or crystalline ceramics at low temperatures, but microstructural effects are not well characterized. Transmutation effects remain to be established.

Permar, P H; McDonell, W R

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Solid Waste Program Fiscal Year 1996 Multi-Year Program Plan WBS 1.2.1, Revision 1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document contains the Fiscal Year 1996 Multi-Year Program Plan for the Solid Waste Program at the Hanford Reservation in Richland, Washington. The Solid Waste Program treats, stores, and disposes of a wide variety of solid wastes consisting of radioactive, nonradioactive and hazardous material types. Solid waste types are typically classified as transuranic waste, low-level radioactive waste, low-level mixed waste, and non-radioactive hazardous waste. This report describes the mission, goals and program strategies for the Solid Waste Program for fiscal year 1996 and beyond.

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Effect of alkaline pretreatment on anaerobic digestion of solid wastes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The introduction of the anaerobic digestion for the treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) is currently of special interest. The main difficulty in the treatment of this waste fraction is its biotransformation, due to the complexity of organic material. Therefore, the first step must be its physical, chemical and biological pretreatment for breaking complex molecules into simple monomers, to increase solubilization of organic material and improve the efficiency of the anaerobic treatment in the second step. This paper describes chemical pretreatment based on lime addition (Ca(OH){sub 2}), in order to enhance chemical oxygen demand (COD) solubilization, followed by anaerobic digestion of the OFMSW. Laboratory-scale experiments were carried out in completely mixed reactors, 1 L capacity. Optimal conditions for COD solubilization in the first step of pretreatment were 62.0 mEq Ca(OH){sub 2}/L for 6.0 h. Under these conditions, 11.5% of the COD was solubilized. The anaerobic digestion efficiency of the OFMSW, with and without pretreatment, was evaluated. The highest methane yield under anaerobic digestion of the pretreated waste was 0.15 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/kg volatile solids (VS), 172.0% of the control. Under that condition the soluble COD and VS removal were 93.0% and 94.0%, respectively. The results have shown that chemical pretreatment with lime, followed by anaerobic digestion, provides the best results for stabilizing the OFMSW.

Lopez Torres, M. [National Center for Scientific Researcher (CNIC), Environmental Pollution Department (DECA), Ave. 25 y 158, Cubanacan, Playa, Havana City (Cuba)], E-mail: matilde.lopez@cnic.edu.cu; Espinosa Llorens, Ma. del C. [National Center for Scientific Researcher (CNIC), Environmental Pollution Department (DECA), Ave. 25 y 158, Cubanacan, Playa, Havana City (Cuba)

2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

172

A generalized multistage optimization modeling framework for life cycle assessment-based integrated solid waste management  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Solid waste management (SWM) is an integral component of civil infrastructure and the global economy, and is a growing concern due to increases in population, urbanization, and economic development. In 2011, 1.3 billion metric tons of municipal solid ... Keywords: Decision support, Life cycle assessment, Multi-stage, Optimization, Solid waste

James W. Levis, Morton A. Barlaz, Joseph F. Decarolis, S. Ranji Ranjithan

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Municipal Solid WasteMunicipal Solid Waste Landfills In CitiesLandfills In Cities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

trench c) Liner Deployment d) Seaming Double Hot wedge Fillet Extrusion Seam properties ­ ASTM D6392 e-wise construction of landfill #12;Daily cell, cover, lift & phase of a landfill #12;Operational Points Provisions (contd) Check for compatibilities of different wastes. Divide landfill into cells. Non

Columbia University

174

PRODUCTION OF NEW BIOMASS/WASTE-CONTAINING SOLID FUELS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

CQ Inc. and its team members (ALSTOM Power Inc., Bliss Industries, McFadden Machine Company, and industry advisors from coal-burning utilities, equipment manufacturers, and the pellet fuels industry) addressed the objectives of the Department of Energy and industry to produce economical, new solid fuels from coal, biomass, and waste materials that reduce emissions from coal-fired boilers. This project builds on the team's commercial experience in composite fuels for energy production. The electric utility industry is interested in the use of biomass and wastes as fuel to reduce both emissions and fuel costs. In addition to these benefits, utilities also recognize the business advantage of consuming the waste byproducts of customers both to retain customers and to improve the public image of the industry. Unfortunately, biomass and waste byproducts can be troublesome fuels because of low bulk density, high moisture content, variable composition, handling and feeding problems, and inadequate information about combustion and emissions characteristics. Current methods of co-firing biomass and wastes either use a separate fuel receiving, storage, and boiler feed system, or mass burn the biomass by simply mixing it with coal on the storage pile. For biomass or biomass-containing composite fuels to be extensively used in the U.S., especially in the steam market, a lower cost method of producing these fuels must be developed that includes both moisture reduction and pelletization or agglomeration for necessary fuel density and ease of handling. Further, this method of fuel production must be applicable to a variety of combinations of biomass, wastes, and coal; economically competitive with current fuels; and provide environmental benefits compared with coal. Notable accomplishments from the work performed in Phase I of this project include the development of three standard fuel formulations from mixtures of coal fines, biomass, and waste materials that can be used in existing boilers, evaluation of these composite fuels to determine their applicability to the major combustor types, development of preliminary designs and economic projections for commercial facilities producing up to 200,000 tons per year of biomass/waste-containing fuels, and the development of dewatering technologies to reduce the moisture content of high-moisture biomass and waste materials during the pelletization process.

David J. Akers; Glenn A. Shirey; Zalman Zitron; Charles Q. Maney

2001-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

175

Developing a master plan for hospital solid waste management: A case study  

SciTech Connect

Disposal of about 1750 tons of solid wastes per day is the result of a rapid population growth in the province of Khuzestan in the south west of Iran. Most of these wastes, especially hospital solid wastes which have contributed to the pollution of the environment in the study area, are not properly managed considering environmental standards and regulations. In this paper, the framework of a master plan for managing hospital solid wastes is proposed considering different criteria which are usually used for evaluating the pollution of hospital solid waste loads. The effectiveness of the management schemes is also evaluated. In order to rank the hospitals and determine the share of each hospital in the total hospital solid waste pollution load, a multiple criteria decision making technique, namely analytical hierarchy process (AHP), is used. A set of projects are proposed for solid waste pollution control and reduction in the proposed framework. It is partially applied for hospital solid waste management in the province of Khuzestan, Iran. The results have shown that the hospitals located near the capital city of the province, Ahvaz, produce more than 43% of the total hospital solid waste pollution load of the province. The results have also shown the importance of improving management techniques rather than building new facilities. The proposed methodology is used to formulate a master plan for hospital solid waste management.

Karamouz, Mohammad [School of Civil Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: karamouz@ut.ac.ir; Zahraie, Banafsheh [School of Civil Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: bzahraie@ut.ac.ir; Kerachian, Reza [School of Civil Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: kerachian@ut.ac.ir; Jaafarzadeh, Nemat [Faculty of Health Science, University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: n_jaafarzadeh@yahoo.com; Mahjouri, Najmeh [School of Environmental Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: mahjouri@ut.ac.ir

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-B-1, 105-B Solid Waste Burial Ground  

SciTech Connect

This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action, sampling activities, and compliance criteria for the 118-B-1, 105-B Solid Waste Burial Ground. This waste site was the primary burial ground for general wastes from the operation of the 105-B Reactor and P-10 Tritium Separation Project and also received waste from the 105-N Reactor. The burial ground received reactor hardware, process piping and tubing, fuel spacers, glassware, electrical components, tritium process wastes, soft wastes and other miscellaneous debris.

J. M. Capron

2008-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

177

Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides data for use in evaluating the proven technologies and combinations of technologies that might be considered for managing municipal solid waste (MSW). It covers five major methods for MSW management in common use today: Landfilling; Mass combustion for energy recovery; Production of refuse-derived fuel (RDF); Collection/separation of recyclables; and Composting. It also provides information on three MSW management technologies that are not widely used at present: Anaerobic digestion; Cofiring of MSW with coal; and Gasification/pyrolysis. To the extent possible with available reliable data, the report presents information for each proven MSW technology on: Net energy balances; Environmental releases; and Economics. In addition to data about individual operations, the report presents net energy balances and inventories of environmental releases from selected combined MSW management strategies that use two or more separate operations. The scope of the report extends from the waste's origin (defined as the point at which the waste is set out for collection), through transportation and processing operations, to its final disposition (e.g., recycling and remanufacturing, combustion, or landfilling operations). Data for all operations are presented on a consistent basis: one (1) ton of municipal (i.e., residential, commercial, and institutional) waste at the collection point. Selection of an MSW management plan may be influenced by many factors, in addition to the technical performance and economics of each option.

Not Available

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Municipal solid waste management in India: From waste disposal to recovery of resources?  

SciTech Connect

Unlike that of western countries, the solid waste of Asian cities is often comprised of 70-80% organic matter, dirt and dust. Composting is considered to be the best option to deal with the waste generated. Composting helps reduce the waste transported to and disposed of in landfills. During the course of the research, the author learned that several developing countries established large-scale composting plants that eventually failed for various reasons. The main flaw that led to the unsuccessful establishment of the plants was the lack of application of simple scientific methods to select the material to be composted. Landfills have also been widely unsuccessful in countries like India because the landfill sites have a very limited time frame of usage. The population of the developing countries is another factor that detrimentally impacts the function of landfill sites. As the population keeps increasing, the garbage quantity also increases, which, in turn, exhausts the landfill sites. Landfills are also becoming increasingly expensive because of the rising costs of construction and operation. Incineration, which can greatly reduce the amount of incoming municipal solid waste, is the second most common method for disposal in developed countries. However, incinerator ash may contain hazardous materials including heavy metals and organic compounds such as dioxins, etc. Recycling plays a large role in solid waste management, especially in cities in developing countries. None of the three methods mentioned here are free from problems. The aim of this study is thus to compare the three methods, keeping in mind the costs that would be incurred by the respective governments, and identify the most economical and best option possible to combat the waste disposal problem.

Narayana, Tapan [Hidayatullah National Law University, HNLU Bhawan, Civil Lines, Raipur 492001, Chhattisgarh (India)], E-mail: tapan.narayana@gmail.com

2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

179

Summary of radioactive solid waste received in the 200 areas during calendar year 1996  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Rust Federal Services of Hanford Inc. manages and operates the Hanford Site 200 Area radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities for the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office under contract DE-AC06-87RL10930. These facilities include storage areas and disposal sites for radioactive solid waste. This document summarizes the amount of radioactive materials that have been buried and stored in the 200 Area radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities from startup in 1944 through calendar year 1996. This report does not include backlog waste, solid radioactive wastes in storage or disposed of in other areas, or facilities such as the underground tank farms. Unless packaged within the scope of WHC-EP-0063, Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria, liquid waste data are not included in this document.

Hladek, K.L.

1997-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

180

WIPP Facility Work Plan for Solid Waste Management Units  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This 2001 Facility Work Plan (FWP) has been prepared as required by Module VII, Section VII.M.1 of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, NM4890139088-TSDF (the Permit); (NMED, 1999a), and incorporates comments from the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) received on December 6, 2000 (NMED, 2000a). This February 2001 FWP describes the programmatic facility-wide approach to future investigations at Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) and Areas of Concern (AOCs) specified in the Permit. The permittees are evaluating data from previous investigations of the SWMUs and AOCs against the newest guidance proposed by the NMED. Based on these data, the permittees expect that no further sampling will be required and that a request for No Further Action (NFA) at the SWMUs and AOCs will be submitted to the NMED. This FWP addresses the current Permit requirements. It uses the results of previous investigations performed at WIPP and expands the investigations as required by the Permit. As an alternative to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) specified in Module VII of the Permit, current NMED guidance identifies an Accelerated Corrective Action Approach (ACAA) that may be used for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998). This accelerated approach is used to replace the standard RFI Work Plan and Report sequence with a more flexible decision-making approach. The ACAA process allows a Facility to exit the schedule of compliance contained in the Facility’s Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) permit module and proceed on an accelerated time frame. Thus, the ACAA process can be entered either before or after an RFI Work Plan. According to the NMED's guidance, a facility can prepare an RFI Work Plan or Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998). Based on this guidance, a SAP constitutes an acceptable alternative to the RFI Work Plan specified in the Permit.

Washington TRU Solutions LLC

2001-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "1municipal solid waste" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Solid Waste Management Rule (West Virginia) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Rule (West Virginia) Rule (West Virginia) Solid Waste Management Rule (West Virginia) < Back Eligibility Utility Fed. Government Commercial Agricultural Investor-Owned Utility State/Provincial Govt Industrial Construction Municipal/Public Utility Local Government Residential Installer/Contractor Rural Electric Cooperative Tribal Government Low-Income Residential Schools Retail Supplier Institutional Multi-Family Residential Systems Integrator Fuel Distributor Nonprofit General Public/Consumer Transportation Program Info State West Virginia Program Type Siting and Permitting This rule establishes requirements for the siting, financial assurance, installation, establishment, construction, design, groundwater monitoring, modification, operation, permitting, closure and post-closure care of any

182

Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-C-1, 105-C Solid Waste Burial Ground  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-C-1, 105-C Solid Waste Burial Ground. This waste site was the primary burial ground for general wastes from the operation of the 105-C Reactor and received process tubes, aluminum fuel spacers, control rods, reactor hardware, spent nuclear fuel and soft wastes.

M. J. Appel and J. M. Capron

2007-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

183

WIPP Doubles Solid Waste Reduction Rate in Fiscal Year 2013 | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Doubles Solid Waste Reduction Rate in Fiscal Year 2013 Doubles Solid Waste Reduction Rate in Fiscal Year 2013 WIPP Doubles Solid Waste Reduction Rate in Fiscal Year 2013 December 5, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis WIPP environmental and operations personnel gather next to pallets that will be provided to the local community as part of WIPP’s wood waste diversion program. WIPP environmental and operations personnel gather next to pallets that will be provided to the local community as part of WIPP's wood waste diversion program. CARLSBAD, N.M. - EM's Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) almost doubled its solid waste reduction rate from 15.5 percent in fiscal year 2012 to 33 percent in fiscal year 2013 through programs that diverted WIPP's wood waste from the municipal landfill by reusing, repurposing or recycling.

184

WIPP Doubles Solid Waste Reduction Rate in Fiscal Year 2013 | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

WIPP Doubles Solid Waste Reduction Rate in Fiscal Year 2013 WIPP Doubles Solid Waste Reduction Rate in Fiscal Year 2013 WIPP Doubles Solid Waste Reduction Rate in Fiscal Year 2013 December 5, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis WIPP environmental and operations personnel gather next to pallets that will be provided to the local community as part of WIPP’s wood waste diversion program. WIPP environmental and operations personnel gather next to pallets that will be provided to the local community as part of WIPP's wood waste diversion program. CARLSBAD, N.M. - EM's Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) almost doubled its solid waste reduction rate from 15.5 percent in fiscal year 2012 to 33 percent in fiscal year 2013 through programs that diverted WIPP's wood waste from the municipal landfill by reusing, repurposing or recycling.

185

Thirty-year solid waste generation forecast for facilities at SRS  

SciTech Connect

The information supplied by this 30-year solid waste forecast has been compiled as a source document to the Waste Management Environmental Impact Statement (WMEIS). The WMEIS will help to select a sitewide strategic approach to managing present and future Savannah River Site (SRS) waste generated from ongoing operations, environmental restoration (ER) activities, transition from nuclear production to other missions, and decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) programs. The EIS will support project-level decisions on the operation of specific treatment, storage, and disposal facilities within the near term (10 years or less). In addition, the EIS will provide a baseline for analysis of future waste management activities and a basis for the evaluation of the specific waste management alternatives. This 30-year solid waste forecast will be used as the initial basis for the EIS decision-making process. The Site generates and manages many types and categories of waste. With a few exceptions, waste types are divided into two broad groups-high-level waste and solid waste. High-level waste consists primarily of liquid radioactive waste, which is addressed in a separate forecast and is not discussed further in this document. The waste types discussed in this solid waste forecast are sanitary waste, hazardous waste, low-level mixed waste, low-level radioactive waste, and transuranic waste. As activities at SRS change from primarily production to primarily decontamination and decommissioning and environmental restoration, the volume of each waste s being managed will change significantly. This report acknowledges the changes in Site Missions when developing the 30-year solid waste forecast.

Not Available

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

FY 1996 solid waste integrated life-cycle forecast volume summary - Volume 1 and Volume 2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Solid waste forecast volumes to be generated or received ;at Westinghouse Hanford Company`s Solid Waste program over the life cycle of the site are described in this report. Previous forecast summary reports have covered only a 30-year period; however, the life-cycle approach was adopted for this FY 1996 report to ensure consistency with waste volumes reported in the 1996 Multi-Year Program Plans (MYPP). The volume data were collected on a life-cycle basis from onsite and offsite waste generators who currently ship or plan to ship solid waste to the Solid Waste program. The volumes described in detail are low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and transuranic/transuranic-mixed (TRU(M)) waste. The volumes reported in this document represent the external volume of the containers selected to ship the waste. Summary level information pertaining to low-level waste (LLW) is described in Appendix B. Hazardous waste volumes are also provided in Appendices E and F but are not described in detail since they will be managed by a commercial facility. Emphasis is placed on LLMW and TRU(M) waste because it will require processing and storage at Hanford Solid Waste`s Central Waste Complex (CORK) prior to final disposal. The LLW will generally be sent directly to disposal. The total baselines volume of LLMW and TRU(M) waste forecast to be received by the Solid Waste program (until 2070) is approximately 100,900 cubic meters. This total waste volume is composed of the following waste categories: 077,080 cubic meters of LLMW; 23,180 cubic meters of TRU(M); 640 cubic meters of greater-than-class III LLMW. This total is about 40% of the total volume reported last year (FY 1995).

Valero, O.J.

1996-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

187

The Potential of Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Municipal Solid Waste: A Technical and Economic Evaluation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

process streams. Handb. Bioethanol:395-415. 10. Ehrman T.solid waste used as bioethanol sources and its relatedof cellulosic biomass into bioethanol as an alternative

Shi, Jian; Ebrik, Mirvat; Yang, Bin; Wyman, Charles E.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Methodology for Allocating Municipal Solid Waste to Biogenic and Non-Biogenic Energy  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This report summarizes the methodology used to split the heat content of municipal solid waste (MSW) into its biogenic and non-biogenic shares.

Marie LaRiviere

2007-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

189

Municipal solid waste management in Kolkata, India - A review  

SciTech Connect

Kolkata is one of four metropolitan cities in India. With an area of 187.33 sq km and a population of about 8 million, it generates around 3,000 t d{sup -1} of municipal solid waste (MSW) at a rate of 450-500 g per capita per day. With rapid urbanization as a result of planned and unplanned growth and industrialization, the problems associated with handling MSW have increased at an alarming rate over the past few years. No source segregation arrangement exists; there is only limited (60%) house-to-house collection; and 50-55% open vats are used in the present collection system. The operational efficiency of the Kolkata Municipal Corporation (KMC) transport system is about 50%, with a fleet composed of about 30-35% old vehicles. The majority (80%) of these, particularly the hired vehicles, are more than 20 years old. The newly added areas covered by KMC have even lower collection efficiencies, and only an informal recycling system exists. The waste collected has a low energy value (3,350-4,200 kJ kg{sup -1}) with high moisture and inert content. A 700 t d{sup -1} compost plant set up in 2000 has not been functioning effectively since 2003. Open dumping (without liners and without a leachate management facility) and the threat of groundwater pollution, as well as saturation of an existing landfill site (Dhapa) are the most pressing problems for the city today. KMC spends 70-75% of its total expenditures on collection of solid waste, 25-30% on transportation, and less than 5% on final disposal arrangements. The Kolkata Environmental Improvement Project, funded by the Asian Development Bank, is seen as only a partial solution to the problem. A detailed plan should emphasize segregation at the source, investment in disposal arrangements (including the use of liners and leachate collection), and an optimized transport arrangement, among improvements.

Chattopadhyay, Subhasish [Solid Waste Management Department, KMC, Department of Civil Engineering, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, Howrah 711103 (India)], E-mail: subharpita@rediffmail.com; Dutta, Amit [Department of Civil Engineering, Bengal Engineering and Science University, P.O. Botanic Garden, Shibpur, Howrah 711 103 (India)], E-mail: amit@civil.becs.ac.in; Ray, Subhabrata [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India)], E-mail: sray@che.iitkhp.ernet.in

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

190

EA-0981: Solid Waste Retrieval Complex, Enhanced Radioactive...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Waste Retrieval Complex, Enhanced Radioactive and Mixed Waste Storage Facility, Infrastructure Upgrades, and Central Waste Support Complex, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington...

191

Solid Waste Management (North Carolina) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

construction and demolition waste, land-clearing waste, scrap tires, medical waste, compost, and septage. North Carolina Provider Department of Environment and Natural Resources...

192

Solid Waste Processing Center Primary Opening Cells Systems, Equipment and Tools  

SciTech Connect

This document addresses the remote systems and design integration aspects of the development of the Solid Waste Processing Center (SWPC), a facility to remotely open, sort, size reduce, and repackage mixed low-level waste (MLLW) and transuranic (TRU)/TRU mixed waste that is either contact-handled (CH) waste in large containers or remote-handled (RH) waste in various-sized packages.

Bailey, Sharon A.; Baker, Carl P.; Mullen, O Dennis; Valdez, Patrick LJ

2006-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

193

Examining solid waste management issues in the City of Bryan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Economic aspects of household recycling behavior and attitudes in City of Bryan are examined to improve solid waste management policies in the city. Using survey data collected by mail and personal interviews, residentsÂ? attitudes towards solid waste management are analyzed, in general, and specifically, the factors influencing recycling behavior examined using logistic regression. In addition, three alternative policies are presented to respondents. First, support for an additional drop-off recycling center (Policy I) is examined. Second, WTP for two different recycling programs, curbside recycling service (Policy II), and curbside recycling with a drop-off recycling center (Policy III), as a function of socio-economic factors thought to influence WTP are computed using contingent valuation method, an indirect valuation tool. Finally, preference for a particular policy among the three alternatives presented to the residents of Bryan is explored. Because of the different data collection modes and assumptions on the bid prices two logit models are estimated to examine recycling behavior, and Policy I and two multinomial logit models for the most preferred policy, whereas four logit models are estimated for Policy II and III. The estimated models are similar both within the Policies and between the Policies in terms of the affects of variables, significance of coefficients, and consistency with previous studies indicating a potential set of factors that can be used to explain WTP for recycling services. Bryan residents that are female, white, employed, have higher incomes, have children, own a house, and are self-perceived environmentalists tend to recycle more. Similarly, males, nonwhites, older respondents, students, non-environmentalists and non-recyclers are more likely to support an additional drop-off center. WTP for Policy II is positively influenced by males, whites, respondents who are employed, low-income respondents, environmentalists, non-recyclers, and those who support Policy I. In comparison, WTP for Policy III is positively influenced by females, whites, respondents who are employed, younger respondents, environmentalists, non-recyclers, and those who support Policy I. In the case of both Policies I and II, the bid price negatively influences WTP as expected. While the WTP for Policy II is slightly higher than the estimated cost of a curbside recycling service ($2.50), the WTP for Policy III is lower than the estimated cost. No consistent pattern emerges across most of the coefficients and the four possible alternatives, three proposed policies and the current situation. However, probabilities computed using the multinomial logit results is the highest for Policy II, followed by either Policy III or no change to the existing solid waste management policy.

Arekere, Dhananjaya Marigowda

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

WIPP Facility Work Plan for Solid Waste Management Units  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This 2002 Facility Work Plan (FWP) has been prepared as required by Module VII, Permit Condition VII.U.3 of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, NM4890139088-TSDF (the Permit) (New Mexico Environment Department [NMED], 1999a), and incorporates comments from the NMED received on December 6, 2000 (NMED, 2000a). This February 2002 FWP describes the programmatic facility-wide approach to future investigations at Solid Waste Management Units (SWMU) and Areas of Concern (AOC) specified in the Permit. The Permittees are evaluating data from previous investigations of the SWMUs and AOCs against the most recent guidance proposed by the NMED. Based on these data, and completion of the August 2001 sampling requested by the NMED, the Permittees expect that no further sampling will be required and that a request for No Further Action (NFA) at the SWMUs and AOCs will be submitted to the NMED. This FWP addresses the current Permit requirements. It uses the results of previous investigations performed at WIPP and expands the investigations as required by the Permit. As an alternative to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) specified in Module VII of the Permit, current NMED guidance identifies an Accelerated Corrective Action Approach (ACAA) that may be used for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998). This accelerated approach is used to replace the standard RFI Work Plan and Report sequence with a more flexible decision-making approach. The ACAA process allows a facility to exit the schedule of compliance contained in the facility's Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) permit module and proceed on an accelerated time frame. Thus, the ACAA processcan be entered either before or after an RFI Work Plan. According to the NMED's guidance, a facility can prepare an RFI Work Plan or Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998). Based on this guidance, a SAP constitutes an acceptable alternative to the RFI Work Plan specified in the Permit. The NMED accepted that the Permittees are using the ACAA in a letter dated April 20, 2000.

Washington TRU Solutions LLC

2002-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

195

WIPP Facility Work Plan for Solid Waste Management Units  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This Facility Work Plan (FWP) has been prepared as required by Module VII,Section VII.M.1 of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Permit, NM4890139088-TSDF (the Permit); (NMED, 1999a). This work plan describes the programmatic facility-wide approach to future investigations at Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) and Areas of Concern (AOCs) specified in the Permit. This FWP addresses the current Permit requirements. It uses the results of previous investigations performed at WIPP and expands the investigations as required by the Permit. As an alternative to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) specified in Module VII of the Permit, current New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) guidance identifies an Accelerated Corrective Action Approach (ACAA) that may be used for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998). This accelerated approach is used to replace the standard RFI Work Plan and Report sequence with a more flexible decision-making approach. The ACAA process allows a Facility to exit the schedule of compliance contained in the Facility’s Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) permit module and proceed on an accelerated time frame. Thus, the ACAA process can be entered either before or after an RFI Work Plan. According to NMED’s guidance, a facility can prepare an RFI Work Plan or Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998). Based on this guidance, a SAP constitutes an acceptable alternative to the RFI Work Plan specified in the Permit. The scope of work for the RFI Work Plan or SAP is being developed by the Permittees. The final content of the RFI Work Plan or SAP will be coordinated with the NMED for submittal on May 24, 2000. Specific project-related planning information will be included in the RFI Work Plan or SAP. The SWMU program at WIPP began in 1994 under U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulatory authority. NMED subsequently received regulatory authority from EPA. A Phase I RFI was completed at WIPP as part of a Voluntary Release Assessment (VRA). The risk-based decision criteria recommended by EPA for the VRA were contained in a proposed Corrective Action rule for SWMUs (EPA, 1990). EPA Region VI has issued new risk-based screening criteria applicable to the WIPP SWMUs and AOCs.

Washington TRU Solutions LLC

2000-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

196

Thirty-Year Solid Waste Generation Maximum and Minimum Forecast for SRS  

SciTech Connect

This report is the third phase (Phase III) of the Thirty-Year Solid Waste Generation Forecast for Facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Phase I of the forecast, Thirty-Year Solid Waste Generation Forecast for Facilities at SRS, forecasts the yearly quantities of low-level waste (LLW), hazardous waste, mixed waste, and transuranic (TRU) wastes generated over the next 30 years by operations, decontamination and decommissioning and environmental restoration (ER) activities at the Savannah River Site. The Phase II report, Thirty-Year Solid Waste Generation Forecast by Treatability Group (U), provides a 30-year forecast by waste treatability group for operations, decontamination and decommissioning, and ER activities. In addition, a 30-year forecast by waste stream has been provided for operations in Appendix A of the Phase II report. The solid wastes stored or generated at SRS must be treated and disposed of in accordance with federal, state, and local laws and regulations. To evaluate, select, and justify the use of promising treatment technologies and to evaluate the potential impact to the environment, the generic waste categories described in the Phase I report were divided into smaller classifications with similar physical, chemical, and radiological characteristics. These smaller classifications, defined within the Phase II report as treatability groups, can then be used in the Waste Management Environmental Impact Statement process to evaluate treatment options. The waste generation forecasts in the Phase II report includes existing waste inventories. Existing waste inventories, which include waste streams from continuing operations and stored wastes from discontinued operations, were not included in the Phase I report. Maximum and minimum forecasts serve as upper and lower boundaries for waste generation. This report provides the maximum and minimum forecast by waste treatability group for operation, decontamination and decommissioning, and ER activities.

Thomas, L.C.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Global trends of solid waste research from 1997 to 2011 by using bibliometric analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study explores a bibliometric approach to quantitatively assessing current research trends on solid waste, by using the related literature published between 1997 and 2011 in journals of all the subject categories of the Science Citation Index. The ... Keywords: Bibliometric, Engineering, MSW, SCI, Solid waste

Lie Yang, Zhulei Chen, Ting Liu, Zhe Gong, Yingjian Yu, Jia Wang

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Environmental effects of solid waste as a supplemental fuel  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report documents progress and summarizes effort between June 1975 and February 1976 on a project entitled ''Environmental Effects of Solid Waste as a Supplemental Fuel.''Procurement and calibration of equipment as well as training of personnel has been accomplished, and sampling is in progress to satisfy the objectives of the environmental study. All input and output stream associated with operation of the steam generating units at the Ames Municipal Power Plant are being sampled. Sampling and characterization of fuel (both coal and processed refuse), ash and particulate effluent have been accomplished. In addition, the oxides of nitrogen (NO/sub x/), oxides of sulfur (SO/sub x/), and heavy organics have been sampled. Results of all analysis accomplished to date of the various samples are reported. (auth)

Hall, J.L.; Joensen, A.W.; Shanks, H.R.

1976-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Process modeling of hydrogen production from municipal solid waste  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The ASPEN PLUS commercial simulation software has been used to develop a process model for a conceptual process to convert municipal solid waste (MSW) to hydrogen. The process consists of hydrothermal treatment of the MSW in water to create a slurry suitable as feedstock for an oxygen blown Texaco gasifier. A method of reducing the complicated MSW feed material to a manageable set of components is outlined along with a framework for modeling the stoichiometric changes associated with the hydrothermal treatment process. Model results indicate that 0.672 kmol/s of hydrogen can be produced from the processing of 30 kg/s (2600 tonne/day) of raw MSW. A number of variations on the basic processing parameters are explored and indicate that there is a clear incentive to reduce the inert fraction in the processed slurry feed and that cofeeding a low value heavy oil may be economically attractive.

Thorsness, C.B.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

GRR/Section 18-ID-d - Solid Waste Management Facilities | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

8-ID-d - Solid Waste Management Facilities 8-ID-d - Solid Waste Management Facilities < GRR Jump to: navigation, search GRR-logo.png GEOTHERMAL REGULATORY ROADMAP Roadmap Home Roadmap Help List of Sections Section 18-ID-d - Solid Waste Management Facilities 18IDDSolidWasteManagementFacilities (2).pdf Click to View Fullscreen Contact Agencies Idaho Department of Environmental Quality Regulations & Policies IDAPA 58.01.06 Triggers None specified Click "Edit With Form" above to add content 18IDDSolidWasteManagementFacilities (2).pdf Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range. Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range. Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range. Flowchart Narrative Idaho considers transfer stations, composting operations, incinerators and landfills solid waste management facilities. The state does not require a

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201

EA-0767: Construction and Experiment of an Industrial Solid Waste Landfill  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

767: Construction and Experiment of an Industrial Solid Waste 767: Construction and Experiment of an Industrial Solid Waste Landfill at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio EA-0767: Construction and Experiment of an Industrial Solid Waste Landfill at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio SUMMARY This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to construct and operate a solid waste landfill within the boundary at the U.S. Department of Energy's Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion plant in Piketon, Ohio. PUBLIC COMMENT OPPORTUNITIES None available at this time. DOCUMENTS AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD October 25, 1995 EA-0767: Finding of No Significant Impact Construction and Experiment of an Industrial Solid Waste Landfill at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant October 25, 1995 EA-0767: Final Environmental Assessment

202

Solid waste workers and livelihood strategies in Greater Port-au-Prince, Haiti  

SciTech Connect

The solid waste management industry in Haiti is comprised of a formal and an informal sector. Many basic activities in the solid waste management sector are being carried out within the context of profound poverty, which exposes the failure of the socioeconomic and political system to provide sufficient job opportunities for the urban population. This paper examines the involvement of workers in the solid waste management industry in Greater Port-au-Prince and the implications for livelihood strategies. The findings revealed that the Greater Port-au-Prince solid waste management system is very inclusive with respect to age, while highly segregated with regard to gender. In terms of earning capacity, the results showed that workers hired by the State agencies were the most economically vulnerable group as more than 50% of them fell below the official nominal minimum wage. This paper calls for better salary scales and work compensation for the solid waste workers.

Noel, Claudel, E-mail: claudelnoel@gmail.co [University of the West Indies, Institute for Sustainable Development, Environmental Management Unit, 13 Gibraltar Camp Way, Mona Campus, Kingston (Jamaica)

2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

203

Use of ash from municipal solid waste combustion. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report details the results of efforts to integrate municipal solid waste combustion ash into a high strength portland cement concrete matrix comprised of multiple waste materials. The material developed by this research was to be used to construct a large underground storage vault to house the Friendly Mobile Barrier, a safety barrier system for use at highway crossings for the high speed rail system. The subcontractor, Environmental Solutions, Inc., of Richmond, Virginia, worked with researchers at Pennsylvania State University and the State University of New York--Stony Brook to develop and test the material. The result of this work is a portland cement concrete matrix which utilizes 80.01% recycled materials, and a field-applicable method for incorporating MSW ash as a component at volumes up to 9.78%. Twenty-eight day strengths of over 4000 psi were achieved, with 315 day strengths of 6500 psi. All structural, chemical and environmental testing showed the material to be competitive with conventional concrete.

NONE

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Production of New Biomass/Waste-Containing Solid Fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

CQ Inc. and its industry partners--PBS Coals, Inc. (Friedens, Pennsylvania), American Fiber Resources (Fairmont, West Virginia), Allegheny Energy Supply (Williamsport, Maryland), and the Heritage Research Group (Indianapolis, Indiana)--addressed the objectives of the Department of Energy and industry to produce economical, new solid fuels from coal, biomass, and waste materials that reduce emissions from coal-fired boilers. This project builds on the team's commercial experience in composite fuels for energy production. The electric utility industry is interested in the use of biomass and wastes as fuel to reduce both emissions and fuel costs. In addition to these benefits, utilities also recognize the business advantage of consuming the waste byproducts of customers both to retain customers and to improve the public image of the industry. Unfortunately, biomass and waste byproducts can be troublesome fuels because of low bulk density, high moisture content, variable composition, handling and feeding problems, and inadequate information about combustion and emissions characteristics. Current methods of co-firing biomass and wastes either use a separate fuel receiving, storage, and boiler feed system, or mass burn the biomass by simply mixing it with coal on the storage pile. For biomass or biomass-containing composite fuels to be extensively used in the U.S., especially in the steam market, a lower cost method of producing these fuels must be developed that is applicable to a variety of combinations of biomass, wastes, and coal; economically competitive with current fuels; and provides environmental benefits compared with coal. During Phase I of this project (January 1999 to July 2000), several biomass/waste materials were evaluated for potential use in a composite fuel. As a result of that work and the team's commercial experience in composite fuels for energy production, paper mill sludge and coal were selected for further evaluation and demonstration in Phase II. In Phase II (June 2001 to December 2004), the project team demonstrated the GranuFlow technology as part of a process to combine paper sludge and coal to produce a composite fuel with combustion and handling characteristics acceptable to existing boilers and fuel handling systems. Bench-scale studies were performed at DOE-NETL, followed by full-scale commercial demonstrations to produce the composite fuel in a 400-tph coal cleaning plant and combustion tests at a 90-MW power plant boiler to evaluate impacts on fuel handling, boiler operations and performance, and emissions. A circuit was successfully installed to re-pulp and inject paper sludge into the fine coal dewatering circuit of a commercial coal-cleaning plant to produce 5,000 tons of a ''composite'' fuel containing about 5% paper sludge. Subsequent combustion tests showed that boiler efficiency and stability were not compromised when the composite fuel was blended with the boiler's normal coal supply. Firing of the composite fuel blend did not have any significant impact on emissions as compared to the normal coal supply, and it did not cause any excursions beyond Title V regulatory limits; all emissions were well within regulatory limits. SO{sub 2} emissions decreased during the composite fuel blend tests as a result of its higher heat content and slightly lower sulfur content as compared to the normal coal supply. The composite fuel contained an extremely high proportion of fines because the parent coal (feedstock to the coal-cleaning plant) is a ''soft'' coal (HGI > 90) and contained a high proportion of fines. The composite fuel was produced and combustion-tested under record wet conditions for the local area. In spite of these conditions, full load was obtained by the boiler when firing the composite fuel blend, and testing was completed without any handling or combustion problems beyond those typically associated with wet coal. Fuel handling and pulverizer performance (mill capacity and outlet temperatures) could become greater concerns when firing composite fuels which contain higher percent

Glenn A. Shirey; David J. Akers

2005-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

205

Characterization of past and present solid waste streams from 231-Z  

SciTech Connect

During the next two decades the transuranic (TRU) wastes now stored in the burial trenches and storage facilities at the Hanford Site are to be retrieved, processed at the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, and shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant near Carlsbad, New Mexico for final disposal. Over 8% of the TRU waste to be retrieved for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant has been generated at the Plutonium Metallurgy Laboratory (231-Z) Facility. The purpose of this report is to characterize the radioactive solid wastes generated by 231-Z using process knowledge, existing records and oral history interviews. Since 1944 research and development programs utilizing plutonium have been conducted at 231-Z in the fields of physical metallurgy, property determination, alloy development, and process development. The following are sources of solid waste generation at the 231-Z Facility: (1) General Weapons Development Program, (2) process waste from gloveboxes, (3) numerous classified research and development programs, (4) advanced decontamination and decommissioning technologies, including sectioning, vibratory finishing, electropolishing, solution process, and small bench-scale work, (5) general laboratory procedures, (6) foundry area, (7) housekeeping activities, and (8) four cleanout campaigns. All solid wastes originating at 231-Z were packaged for onsite-offsite storage or disposal. Waste packaging and reporting requirements have undergone significant changes throughout the history of 231-Z. Current and historical procedures are provided in Section 4.0. Information on the radioactive wastes generated at 231-Z can be found in a number of documents and databases, most importantly the Solid Waste Information and Tracking System database and Solid Waste Burial Records. Facility personnel also provide excellent information about past waste generation and the procedures used to handle that waste. Section 5.0 was compiled using these sources.

Pottmeyer, J.A.; DeLorenzo, D.S.; Weyns-Rollosson, M.I.; Berkwitz, D.E.; Vejvoda, E.J. [Los Alamos Technical Associates, Inc., NM (US); Duncan, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (US)

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

FY 1996 solid waste integrated life-cycle forecast characteristics summary. Volumes 1 and 2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For the past six years, a waste volume forecast has been collected annually from onsite and offsite generators that currently ship or are planning to ship solid waste to the Westinghouse Hanford Company`s Central Waste Complex (CWC). This document provides a description of the physical waste forms, hazardous waste constituents, and radionuclides of the waste expected to be shipped to the CWC from 1996 through the remaining life cycle of the Hanford Site (assumed to extend to 2070). In previous years, forecast data has been reported for a 30-year time period; however, the life-cycle approach was adopted this year to maintain consistency with FY 1996 Multi-Year Program Plans. This document is a companion report to two previous reports: the more detailed report on waste volumes, WHC-EP-0900, FY1996 Solid Waste Integrated Life-Cycle Forecast Volume Summary and the report on expected containers, WHC-EP-0903, FY1996 Solid Waste Integrated Life-Cycle Forecast Container Summary. All three documents are based on data gathered during the FY 1995 data call and verified as of January, 1996. These documents are intended to be used in conjunction with other solid waste planning documents as references for short and long-term planning of the WHC Solid Waste Disposal Division`s treatment, storage, and disposal activities over the next several decades. This document focuses on two main characteristics: the physical waste forms and hazardous waste constituents of low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and transuranic waste (both non-mixed and mixed) (TRU(M)). The major generators for each waste category and waste characteristic are also discussed. The characteristics of low-level waste (LLW) are described in Appendix A. In addition, information on radionuclides present in the waste is provided in Appendix B. The FY 1996 forecast data indicate that about 100,900 cubic meters of LLMW and TRU(M) waste is expected to be received at the CWC over the remaining life cycle of the site. Based on ranges provided by the waste generators, this baseline volume could fluctuate between a minimum of about 59,720 cubic meters and a maximum of about 152,170 cubic meters. The range is primarily due to uncertainties associated with the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) program, including uncertainties regarding retrieval of long-length equipment, scheduling, and tank retrieval technologies.

Templeton, K.J.

1996-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

207

Biogas generation by two-phase anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The organic fraction of municipal solid waste can be a significant energy source for renewable energy generation. The total production of municipal solid waste in Turkey was 25?×?106 tones per year. Anaerobic digestion (AD) process may be a solution to the problems of energy demand and waste management since it provides biomethanation along with waste stabilization. AD can be operated in single or two phase configurations. Two-phase processes have some advantages over one phase systems in terms of selection of microorganisms

Eylem Dogan; Göksel N. Demirer

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Hydrogen production by gasification of municipal solid waste  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As fossil fuel reserves run lower and lower, and as their continued widespread use leads toward numerous environmental problems, the need for clean and sustainable energy alternatives becomes ever clearer. Hydrogen fuel holds promise as such as energy source, as it burns cleanly and can be extracted from a number of renewable materials such as municipal solid waste (MSW), which can be considered largely renewable because of its high content of paper and biomass-derived products. A computer model is being developed using ASPEN Plus flow sheeting software to simulate a process which produces hydrogen gas from MSW; the model will later be used in studying the economics of this process and is based on an actual Texaco coal gasification plant design. This paper gives an overview of the complete MSW gasification process, and describes in detail the way in which MSW is modeled by the computer as a process material. In addition, details of the gasifier unit model are described; in this unit modified MSW reacts under pressure with oxygen and steam to form a mixture of gases which include hydrogen.

Rogers, R. III

1994-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

209

After the flood : crisis, voice and innovation in Maputo's solid waste management sector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis explores responses to the problem of solid waste management (SWM) in two neighborhoods of Maputo, Mozambique in the wake of catastrophic flooding in 2000. In these neighborhoods, small-scale service providers ...

Kruks-Wisner, Gabrielle (Gabrielle K.)

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Review and Status of Solid Waste Management Practices in Multan, Pakistan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Trucks Suzuki Vans Truck Compost Water Sprinkling Vehicles3solid wastes by making compost of the organic content of theafter the sale of the compost the profit was to be shared

Shoaib, Muhammad; Mirza, Umar Karim; Sarwar, Muhammad Avais

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Treatment and Recycling of Solid Slag/Wastes - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 15, 2012... industrial solid wastes, such as titanium-bearing blast furnace slag, high-silicon iron tailing and boron-enriched slag as well as oil shale.

212

Seattle's solid waste: an untapped resource. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This publication is an analysis of solid waste resource and energy production alternatives, including an overall total economic comparison of complete disposal system costs. Where solid waste processing allows material salvage, the revenues from material sales have been credited against disposal costs. The document presents 15 separate system alternatives investigated by the City of Seattle, leading to the designation of a pyrolysis/oxidation system for methanol production. (GRA)

Wiatrak, P.A.; Vickery, G.

1974-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Review of Potential Candidate Stabilization Technologies for Liquid and Solid Secondary Waste Streams  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has initiated a waste form testing program to support the long-term durability evaluation of a waste form for secondary wastes generated from the treatment and immobilization of Hanford radioactive tank wastes. The purpose of the work discussed in this report is to identify candidate stabilization technologies and getters that have the potential to successfully treat the secondary waste stream liquid effluent, mainly from off-gas scrubbers and spent solids, produced by the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Down-selection to the most promising stabilization processes/waste forms is needed to support the design of a solidification treatment unit (STU) to be added to the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). To support key decision processes, an initial screening of the secondary liquid waste forms must be completed by February 2010.

Pierce, Eric M.; Mattigod, Shas V.; Westsik, Joseph H.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Icenhower, Jonathan P.; Scheele, Randall D.; Um, Wooyong; Qafoku, Nikolla

2010-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

214

An overview of the sustainability of solid waste management at military installations  

SciTech Connect

Sustainable municipal solid waste management at military solutions necessitates a combined approach that includes waste reduction, alternative disposal techniques, and increased recycling. Military installations are unique because they often represent large employers in the region in which they are located, thereby making any practices they employ impact overall waste management strategies of the region. Solutions for waste sustainability will be dependent on operational directives and base location, availability of resources such as water and energy, and size of population. Presented in this paper are descriptions of available waste strategies that can be used to support sustainable waste management. Results presented indicate source reduction and recycling to be the most sustainable solutions. However, new waste-to-energy plants and composting have potential to improve on these well proven techniques and allow military installations to achieve sustainable waste management.

Borglin, S.; Shore, J.; Worden, H.; Jain, R.

2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

215

Recovery of solid fuel from municipal solid waste by hydrothermal treatment using subcritical water  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrothermal treatment using subcritical water was studied to recover solid fuel from MSW. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer More than 75% of carbon in MSW was recovered as char. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heating value of char was comparable to that of brown coal and lignite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polyvinyl chloride was decomposed at 295 Degree-Sign C and 8 MPa and was removed by washing. - Abstract: Hydrothermal treatments using subcritical water (HTSW) such as that at 234 Degree-Sign C and 3 MPa (LT condition) and 295 Degree-Sign C and 8 MPa (HT condition) were investigated to recover solid fuel from municipal solid waste (MSW). Printing paper, dog food (DF), wooden chopsticks, and mixed plastic film and sheets of polyethylene, polypropylene, and polystyrene were prepared as model MSW components, in which polyvinylchloride (PVC) powder and sodium chloride were used to simulate Cl sources. While more than 75% of carbon in paper, DF, and wood was recovered as char under both LT and HT conditions, plastics did not degrade under either LT or HT conditions. The heating value (HV) of obtained char was 13,886-27,544 kJ/kg and was comparable to that of brown coal and lignite. Higher formation of fixed carbon and greater oxygen dissociation during HTSW were thought to improve the HV of char. Cl atoms added as PVC powder and sodium chloride to raw material remained in char after HTSW. However, most Cl originating from PVC was found to converse into soluble Cl compounds during HTSW under the HT condition and could be removed by washing. From these results, the merit of HTSW as a method of recovering solid fuel from MSW is considered to produce char with minimal carbon loss without a drying process prior to HTSW. In addition, Cl originating from PVC decomposes into soluble Cl compound under the HT condition. The combination of HTSW under the HT condition and char washing might improve the quality of char as alternative fuel.

Hwang, In-Hee, E-mail: hwang@eng.hokudai.ac.jp [Laboratory of Solid Waste Disposal Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita 13 Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060 8628 (Japan); Aoyama, Hiroya; Matsuto, Toshihiko; Nakagishi, Tatsuhiro; Matsuo, Takayuki [Laboratory of Solid Waste Disposal Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita 13 Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060 8628 (Japan)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

216

Environmental & economical optimization for municipal solid waste collection problems, a modeling and algorithmic approach case study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Increasing environmental concerns and interests in material and energy conservation have lead to increasing advancement in the management of solid waste over the past two decades. The field of modeling of waste management system, as opposed to the modeling ... Keywords: CO2 emission, MSW collection and routing, MSW costs analysis, network design

F. Rhoma; Z. Zhang; Y. Luo; B. Noche

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Analytical and experimental evaluation of solid waste drum fire performance volumes I and II  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fire hazards associated with drum storage of radioactively contaminated wastes are a major concern in DOE facilities design for long term storage of solid wastes in drums. These facilities include drums stored in pallet arrays and in rack storage systems. This report details testing in this area

Hecker, C.F., [Los Alamos Technical Associates, Inc., Kennewick, WA (United States); Rhodes, B.T.; Beitel, J.J.; Gottuk, D.T.; Beyler, C.L.; Rosenbaum, E.R., [Hughes Associates, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States)

1995-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

218

THE BURNING ISSUES OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL WHAT WORKS AND WHAT DOESN'T  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 THE BURNING ISSUES OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL ­ WHAT WORKS AND WHAT DOESN'T By: Jack D devil burns and the Lord recycles." Perhaps these negative references to waste burning come from, the Valley of Hinnom south of ancient Jerusalem. This was the site of a foul, smoking, open burning garbage

Columbia University

219

Technological analysis of options for generating electricity with solid waste fuel in the Bangkok metropolitan area  

SciTech Connect

A discussion of relatively current techniques for converting mixed municipal waste into electricity is presented. A brief review of the comparative capabilities of the relevant energy recovery systems is documented in this section. The discussion is focused on the principal system and technological strategies that would be best suited for the municipal solid waste recovery project in Thailand. Emphasis in the review was placed on mixed waste processing in a mass burning waterwalled system.

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

High Solid Anaerobic Co-digestion Pilot Scale Experiment of Kitchen Waste and Cow-dung  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Under mesophilic condition (37°C), a bench-scale experiment based on high solid anaerobic digestion process was conducted in a fed-batch single phase reactor. The result shows: (1) According to gas production and ph value change, there are mainly ... Keywords: Kitchen waste, Cow-dung, High solid, Anaerobic co-digestion, Pilotsate

Lei Feng; Yan Chen; Rundong Li; Jie Xu

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "1municipal solid waste" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Solid waste integrated cost analysis model: 1991 project year report. Part 2  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the City of Houston`s 1991 Solid Waste Integrated Cost Analysis Model (SWICAM) project was to continue the development of a computerized cost analysis model. This model is to provide solid waste managers with tool to evaluate the dollar cost of real or hypothetical solid waste management choices. Those choices have become complicated by the implementation of Subtitle D of the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the EPA`s Integrated Approach to managing municipal solid waste;. that is, minimize generation, maximize recycling, reduce volume (incinerate), and then bury (landfill) only the remainder. Implementation of an integrated solid waste management system involving all or some of the options of recycling, waste to energy, composting, and landfilling is extremely complicated. Factors such as hauling distances, markets, and prices for recyclable, costs and benefits of transfer stations, and material recovery facilities must all be considered. A jurisdiction must determine the cost impacts of implementing a number of various possibilities for managing, handling, processing, and disposing of waste. SWICAM employs a single Lotus 123 spreadsheet to enable a jurisdiction to predict or assess the costs of its waste management system. It allows the user to select his own process flow for waste material and to manipulate the model to include as few or as many options as he or she chooses. The model will calculate the estimated cost for those choices selected. The user can then change the model to include or exclude waste stream components, until the mix of choices suits the user. Graphs can be produced as a visual communication aid in presenting the results of the cost analysis. SWICAM also allows future cost projections to be made.

Not Available

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

222

Processing high solids concentration of municipal solid waste by anaerobic digester for methane production  

SciTech Connect

Cellulosic solids are pretreated by calcium hydroxide to produce salts of volatile orangic acids and other water-soluble substances. Pure cellulose, sawdust, and waste paper are used as model substances for the study of alkaline degradation. It is found that sawdust is more difficult to degrade than the other two substances. The cooking conditions for high conversion of model substances and high yeild of orangic acids are found to be 275/degree/C to 300/degree/C with the corresponding reaction time from 30 minutes to 15 minutes. The cooking liquor can be readily fermented in an anaerobic fluidized-bed digester for methane production. The cooking liquor from different reaction conditions can all be digested by the methanogens. Higher than 90% of COD can be removed under the conditions of low organic loading rate (<2.0 g COD/1/day) and low hydraulic retention time (1.5 to 2.0 days). 14 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

Tsao, G.T.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Report of the Review of the Hanford Solid Waste Environmental Impact  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

of the Review of the Hanford Solid Waste Environmental of the Review of the Hanford Solid Waste Environmental Impact Statement regarding Data Quality Control and Management Issues Report of the Review of the Hanford Solid Waste Environmental Impact Statement regarding Data Quality Control and Management Issues As part of the litigation involving receipt of offsite waste and the HSW EIS, the Court allowed the State of Washington a limited amount of discovery pertaining to iodine-129, technetium-99, and groundwater analyses. While compiling information to respond to the State discovery request, Battelle discovered three data quality issues within the data sets used for the cumulative groundwater impact analysis: As a result of these data quality issues, a team was commissioned to review the HSW EIS for additional data quality issues as well as any programmatic problems which

224

Reducing the solid waste stream: reuse and recycling at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In Fiscal Year (FY) 1996 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) increased its solid waste diversion by 365 percent over FY 1992 in five solid waste categories - paper, cardboard, wood, metals, and miscellaneous. (LLNL`s fiscal year is from October 1 to September 30.) LLNL reused/ recycled 6,387 tons of waste, including 340 tons of paper, 455 tons of scrap wood, 1,509 tons of metals, and 3,830 tons of asphalt and concrete (Table1). An additional 63 tons was diverted from landfills by donating excess food, selling toner cartridges for reconditioning, using rechargeable batteries, redirecting surplus equipment to other government agencies and schools, and comporting plant clippings. LLNL also successfully expanded its demonstration program to recycle and reuse construction and demolition debris as part of its facility-wide, comprehensive solid waste reduction programs.

Wilson, K. L.

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Solid industrial wastes and their management in Asegra (Granada, Spain)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

ASEGRA is an industrial area in Granada (Spain) with important waste management problems. In order to properly manage and control waste production in industry, one must know the quantity, type, and composition of industrial wastes, as well as the management practices of the companies involved. In our study, questionnaires were used to collect data regarding methods of waste management used in 170 of the 230 businesses in the area of study. The majority of these companies in ASEGRA are small or medium-size, and belong to the service sector, transport, and distribution. This was naturally a conditioning factor in both the type and management of the wastes generated. It was observed that paper and cardboard, plastic, wood, and metals were the most common types of waste, mainly generated from packaging (49% of the total volume), as well as material used in containers and for wrapping products. Serious problems were observed in the management of these wastes. In most cases they were disposed of by dumping, and very rarely did businesses resort to reuse, recycling or valorization. Smaller companies encountered greater difficulties when it came to effective waste management. The most frequent solution for the disposal of wastes in the area was dumping.

Casares, M.L. [Department of Civil Engineering, E.T.S. I.C.C.P., University of Granada (Spain), Campus Universitario de Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain); Ulierte, N. [Department of Civil Engineering, E.T.S. I.C.C.P., University of Granada (Spain), Campus Universitario de Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain); Mataran, A. [Area of Urban and Regional Planning, University of Granada (Spain), Laboratorio de Urbanistica y Ordenacion del Territorio, Campus Universitario de Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain); Ramos, A. [Department of Civil Engineering, E.T.S. I.C.C.P., University of Granada (Spain), Campus Universitario de Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain); Zamorano, M. [Department of Civil Engineering, E.T.S. I.C.C.P., University of Granada (Spain), Campus Universitario de Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain)]. E-mail: zamorano@ugr.es

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

NEW SOLID FUELS FROM COAL AND BIOMASS WASTE  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Under DOE sponsorship, McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI), Babcock and Wilcox Company (B and W), and Minergy Corporation developed and evaluated a sludge derived fuel (SDF) made from sewage sludge. Our approach is to dry and agglomerate the sludge, combine it with a fluxing agent, if necessary, and co-fire the resulting fuel with coal in a cyclone boiler to recover the energy and to vitrify mineral matter into a non-leachable product. This product can then be used in the construction industry. A literature search showed that there is significant variability of the sludge fuel properties from a given wastewater plant (seasonal and/or day-to-day changes) or from different wastewater plants. A large sewage sludge sample (30 tons) from a municipal wastewater treatment facility was collected, dried, pelletized and successfully co-fired with coal in a cyclone-equipped pilot. Several sludge particle size distributions were tested. Finer sludge particle size distributions, similar to the standard B and W size distribution for sub-bituminous coal, showed the best combustion and slagging performance. Up to 74.6% and 78.9% sludge was successfully co-fired with pulverized coal and with natural gas, respectively. An economic evaluation on a 25-MW power plant showed the viability of co-firing the optimum SDF in a power generation application. The return on equity was 22 to 31%, adequate to attract investors and allow a full-scale project to proceed. Additional market research and engineering will be required to verify the economic assumptions. Areas to focus on are: plant detail design and detail capital cost estimates, market research into possible project locations, sludge availability at the proposed project locations, market research into electric energy sales and renewable energy sales opportunities at the proposed project location. As a result of this program, wastes that are currently not being used and considered an environmental problem will be processed into a renewable fuel. These fuels will be converted to energy while reducing CO{sub 2} emissions from power generating boilers and mitigating global warming concerns. This report describes the sludge analysis, solid fuel preparation and production, combustion performance, environmental emissions and required equipment.

Hamid Farzan

2001-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

227

Application for a Permit to Operate a Class III Solid Waste Disposal Site at the Nevada Test Site Area 5 Asbestiform Low-Level Solid Waste Disposal Site  

SciTech Connect

The NTS solid waste disposal sites must be permitted by the state of Nevada Solid Waste Management Authority (SWMA). The SWMA for the NTS is the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Federal Facilities (NDEP/BFF). The U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) as land manager (owner), and National Security Technologies (NSTec), as operator, will store, collect, process, and dispose all solid waste by means that do not create a health hazard, a public nuisance, or cause impairment of the environment. NTS disposal sites will not be included in the Nye County Solid Waste Management Plan. The NTS is located approximately 105 kilometers (km) (65 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is the federal lands management authority for the NTS, and NSTec is the Management and Operations contractor. Access on and off the NTS is tightly controlled, restricted, and guarded on a 24-hour basis. The NTS has signs posted along its entire perimeter. NSTec is the operator of all solid waste disposal sites on the NTS. The Area 5 RWMS is the location of the permitted facility for the Solid Waste Disposal Site (SWDS). The Area 5 RWMS is located near the eastern edge of the NTS (Figure 2), approximately 26 km (16 mi) north of Mercury, Nevada. The Area 5 RWMS is used for the disposal of low-level waste (LLW) and mixed low-level waste. Many areas surrounding the RWMS have been used in conducting nuclear tests. A Notice of Intent to operate the disposal site as a Class III site was submitted to the state of Nevada on January 28, 1994, and was acknowledged as being received in a letter to the NNSA/NSO on August 30, 1994. Interim approval to operate a Class III SWDS for regulated asbestiform low-level waste (ALLW) was authorized on August 12, 1996 (in letter from Paul Liebendorfer to Runore Wycoff), with operations to be conducted in accordance with the ''Management Plan for the Disposal of Low-Level Waste with Regulated Asbestos Waste.'' A requirement of the authorization was that on or before October 9, 1999, a permit was required to be issued. Because of NDEP and NNSA/NSO review cycles, the final permit was issued on April 5, 2000, for the operation of the Area 5 Low-Level Waste Disposal Site, utilizing Pit 7 (P07) as the designated disposal cell. The original permit applied only to Pit 7, with a total design capacity of 5,831 cubic yards (yd{sup 3}) (157,437 cubic feet [ft{sup 3}]). NNSA/NSO is expanding the SWDS to include the adjacent Upper Cell of Pit 6 (P06), with an additional capacity of 28,037 yd{sup 3} (756,999 ft{sup 3}) (Figure 3). The proposed total capacity of ALLW in Pit 7 and P06 will be approximately 33,870 yd{sup 3} (0.9 million ft{sup 3}). The site will be used for the disposal of regulated ALLW, small quantities of low-level radioactive hydrocarbon-burdened (LLHB) media and debris, LLW, LLW that contains PCB Bulk Product Waste greater than 50 ppm that leaches at a rate of less than 10 micrograms of PCB per liter of water, and small quantities of LLHB demolition and construction waste (hereafter called permissible waste). Waste containing free liquids, or waste that is regulated as hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) or state-of-generation hazardous waste regulations, will not be accepted for disposal at the site. The only waste regulated under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) that will be accepted at the disposal site is regulated asbestos-containing materials (RACM). The term asbestiform is used throughout this document to describe this waste. Other TSCA waste (i.e., polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs]) will not be accepted for disposal at the SWDS. The disposal site will be used as a depository of permissible waste generated both on site and off site. All generators designated by NNSA/NSO will be eligible to dispose regulated ALLW at the Asbestiform Low-Level Waste Disposal Site in accordance with the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) 325

NSTec Environmental Programs

2010-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

228

Nuclear Solid Waste Processing Design at the Idaho Spent Fuels Facility  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A spent nuclear fuels (SNF) repackaging and storage facility was designed for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), with nuclear solid waste processing capability. Nuclear solid waste included contaminated or potentially contaminated spent fuel containers, associated hardware, machinery parts, light bulbs, tools, PPE, rags, swabs, tarps, weld rod, and HEPA filters. Design of the nuclear solid waste processing facilities included consideration of contractual, regulatory, ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) exposure, economic, logistical, and space availability requirements. The design also included non-attended transfer methods between the fuel packaging area (FPA) (hot cell) and the waste processing area. A monitoring system was designed for use within the FPA of the facility, to pre-screen the most potentially contaminated fuel canister waste materials, according to contact- or non-contact-handled capability. Fuel canister waste materials which are not able to be contact-handled after attempted decontamination will be processed remotely and packaged within the FPA. Noncontact- handled materials processing includes size-reduction, as required to fit into INEEL permitted containers which will provide sufficient additional shielding to allow contact handling within the waste areas of the facility. The current design, which satisfied all of the requirements, employs mostly simple equipment and requires minimal use of customized components. The waste processing operation also minimizes operator exposure and operator attendance for equipment maintenance. Recently, discussions with the INEEL indicate that large canister waste materials can possibly be shipped to the burial facility without size-reduction. New waste containers would have to be designed to meet the drop tests required for transportation packages. The SNF waste processing facilities could then be highly simplified, resulting in capital equipment cost savings, operational time savings, and significantly improved ALARA exposure.

Dippre, M. A.

2003-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

229

A systematic approach for future solid waste cleanup activities at the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the systematic approach to the treatment, storage, and disposal system (TSD) planning and management that has been developed and implemented by Hanford`s Solid Waste Program. The systematic approach includes: collecting the forecast and waste inventory data; defining Hanford`s TSD system; studying and refining the TSD system by using analysis tools; and documenting analysis results. The customers responsible for planning, funding, and managing future solid waste activities have driven the evolution of the solid waste system. Currently, all treatment facilities are several years from operating. As these facilities become closer to reality, more detailed systems analysis and modeling will be necessary to successfully remediate solid waste at the Site. The tools will continue to be developed in detail to address the complexities of the system as they become better defined. The tools will help determine which facility lay-outs are most optimal, will help determine what types of equipment should be used to optimize the transport of materials to and from each TSD facility, and will be used for performing life-cycle analysis. It is envisioned that in addition to developing the tools to be adapted to the more specific facility design issues, this approach will also be used as an example for other waste installations across the DOE complex.

Dirks, L.L.; Konynenbelt, H.S. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Hladek, K.L. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Process and technological aspects of municipal solid waste gasification. A review  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Critical assessment of the main commercially available MSW gasifiers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Detailed discussion of the basic features of gasification process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Description of configurations of gasification-based waste-to-energy units. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmental performance analysis, on the basis of independent sources data. - Abstract: The paper proposes a critical assessment of municipal solid waste gasification today, starting from basic aspects of the process (process types and steps, operating and performance parameters) and arriving to a comparative analysis of the reactors (fixed bed, fluidized bed, entrained bed, vertical shaft, moving grate furnace, rotary kiln, plasma reactor) as well as of the possible plant configurations (heat gasifier and power gasifier) and the environmental performances of the main commercially available gasifiers for municipal solid wastes. The analysis indicates that gasification is a technically viable option for the solid waste conversion, including residual waste from separate collection of municipal solid waste. It is able to meet existing emission limits and can have a remarkable effect on reduction of landfill disposal option.

Arena, Umberto, E-mail: umberto.arena@unina2.it [Department of Environmental Sciences, Second University of Naples, Via A. Vivaldi, 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy)

2012-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

231

Combustion of municipal solid wastes with oil shale in a circulating fluidized bed. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The problem addressed by our invention is that of municipal solid waste utilization. The dimensions of the problem can be visualized by the common comparison that the average individual in America creates in five years time an amount of solid waste equivalent in weight to the Statue of Liberty. The combustible portion of the more than 11 billion tons of solid waste (including municipal solid waste) produced in the United States each year, if converted into useful energy, could provide 32 quads per year of badly needed domestic energy, or more than one-third of our annual energy consumption. Conversion efficiency and many other factors make such a production level unrealistic, but it is clear that we are dealing with a very significant potential resource. This report describes research pertaining to the co-combustion of oil shale with solid municipal wastes in a circulating fluidized bed. The oil shale adds significant fuel content and also constituents that can possible produce a useful cementitious ash.

NONE

1996-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

232

A study of tritium in municipal solid waste leachate and gas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It has become increasingly clear in the last few years that the vast majority of municipal solid waste landfills produce leachate that contains elevated levels of tritium. The authors recently conducted a study of landfills in New York and New Jersey and found that the mean concentration of tritium in the leachate from ten municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills was 33,800 pCi/L with a peak value of 192,000 pCi/L. A 2003 study in California reported a mean tritium concentration of 99,000 pCi/L with a peak value of 304,000 pCi/L. Studies in Pennsylvania and the UK produced similar results. The USEPA MCL for tritium is 20,000 pCi/L. Tritium is also manifesting itself as landfill gas and landfill gas condensate. Landfill gas condensate samples from landfills in the UK and California were found to have tritium concentrations as high as 54,400 and 513,000 pCi/L, respectively. The tritium found in MSW leachate is believed to derive principally from gaseous tritium lighting devices used in some emergency exit signs, compasses, watches, and even novelty items, such as 'glow stick' key chains. This study reports the findings of recent surveys of leachate from a number of municipal solid waste landfills, both open and closed, from throughout the United States and Europe. The study evaluates the human health and ecological risks posed by elevated tritium levels in municipal solid waste leachate and landfill gas and the implications to their safe management. We also assess the potential risks posed to solid waste management facility workers exposed to tritium-containing waste materials in transfer stations and other solid waste management facilities. (authors)

Mutch Jr, R. D. [HydroQual, Inc., 1200 MacArthur Blvd., Mahwah, NJ 07430 (United States); Manhattan College, Riverdale, NY (United States); Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Mahony, J. D. [HydroQual, Inc., 1200 MacArthur Blvd., Mahwah, NJ 07430 (United States); Manhattan College, Riverdale, NY (United States)

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

233

Life cycle assessment of solid waste management options for Eskisehir, Turkey  

SciTech Connect

Life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology was used to determine the optimum municipal solid waste (MSW) management strategy for Eskisehir city. Eskisehir is one of the developing cities of Turkey where a total of approximately 750 tons/day of waste is generated. An effective MSW management system is needed in this city since the generated MSW is dumped in an unregulated dumping site that has no liner, no biogas capture, etc. Therefore, five different scenarios were developed as alternatives to the current waste management system. Collection and transportation of waste, a material recovery facility (MRF), recycling, composting, incineration and landfilling processes were considered in these scenarios. SimaPro7 libraries were used to obtain background data for the life cycle inventory. One ton of municipal solid waste of Eskisehir was selected as the functional unit. The alternative scenarios were compared through the CML 2000 method and these comparisons were carried out from the abiotic depletion, global warming, human toxicity, acidification, eutrophication and photochemical ozone depletion points of view. According to the comparisons and sensitivity analysis, composting scenario, S3, is the more environmentally preferable alternative. In this study waste management alternatives were investigated only on an environmental point of view. For that reason, it might be supported with other decision-making tools that consider the economic and social effects of solid waste management.

Banar, Mufide [Anadolu University, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Department of Environmental Engineering, Iki Eylul Campus, 26555 Eskisehir (Turkey)], E-mail: mbanar@anadolu.edu.tr; Cokaygil, Zerrin; Ozkan, Aysun [Anadolu University, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Department of Environmental Engineering, Iki Eylul Campus, 26555 Eskisehir (Turkey)

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

234

Municipal solid waste combustion: Fuel testing and characterization  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this study is to screen and characterize potential biomass fuels from waste streams. This will be accomplished by determining the types of pollutants produced while burning selected municipal waste, i.e., commercial mixed waste paper residential (curbside) mixed waste paper, and refuse derived fuel. These materials will be fired alone and in combination with wood, equal parts by weight. The data from these experiments could be utilized to size pollution control equipment required to meet emission standards. This document provides detailed descriptions of the testing methods and evaluation procedures used in the combustion testing and characterization project. The fuel samples will be examined thoroughly from the raw form to the exhaust emissions produced during the combustion test of a densified sample.

Bushnell, D.J.; Canova, J.H.; Dadkhah-Nikoo, A.

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Constructed wetlands for municipal solid waste landfill leachate treatment. Final report  

SciTech Connect

In 1989, the US Geological Survey and Cornell University, in cooperation with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority and the Tompkins County Solid Waste Department, began a three-year study at a municipal solid-waste landfill near Ithaca, New York, to test the effectiveness of leachate treatment with constructed wetlands and to examine the associated treatment processes. Specific objectives of the study were to examine: treatment efficiency as function of substrate composition and grain size, degree of plant growth, and seasonal changes in evapotranspiration rates and microbial activity; effects of leachate and plant growth on the hydraulic characteristics of the substrate; and chemical, biological, and physical processes by which nutrients, metals, and organic compounds are removed from leachate as it flows through the substrate. A parallel study at a municipal solid-waste landfill near Fenton, New York was conducted by researchers at Cornell University, Ithaca College, and Hawk Engineering (Trautmann and others, 1989). Results are described.

Peverly, J.; Sanford, W.E.; Steenhuis, T.S. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

The use of FBC wastes in the reclamation of coal slurry solids  

SciTech Connect

Fluidized bed combustion (FBC) is a relatively new technology that is used commercially for the combustion of coal. In Illinois, this technology is valuable because it allows the combustion of Illinois high sulfur coal without pollution of the atmosphere with vast quantities of sulfur oxides. In FBC, coal is mixed with limestone or dolomite either before injection into the combustion chamber or in the combustion chamber. As the coal burns, sulfur in the coal is oxidized to SO{sub 2} and this is trapped by reaction with the limestone or dolomite to form gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}{center dot}2H{sub 2}O). Solid by-products from FBC are generally a mixture of calcium oxide, gypsum, coal ash, and unburned coal. The present research project is designed to provide initial data on one possible use of FBC waste. FBC wastes from five different locations in the Illinois are mixed with coal slurry solids from two different coal preparation plants at Illinois coal mines. In mixtures of FBC waste and coal slurry solids, the alkaline components of the FBC waste are expected to react with acid produced by the oxidation of pyrite in the coal slurry solid. An objective of this research is to determine the chemical composition of aqueous leachates from mixtures of FBC wastes, generated under various operating conditions, and the coal slurry solids. These data will be used in future research into the ability of such mixtures to support seed germination and plant growth. The ultimate of this and future research is to determine whether mixed FBC waste and coal slurry solids can be slurry pond reclamation.

Dreher, G.B.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Prototype demonstration of dual sorbent injection for acid gas control on municipal solid waste combustion units  

SciTech Connect

This report gathered and evaluated emissions and operations data associated with furnace injection of dry hydrated lime and duct injection of dry sodium bicarbonate at a commercial, 1500 ton per day, waste-to-energy facility. The information compiled during the project sheds light on these sorbents to affect acid gas emissions from municipal solid waste combustors. The information assesses the capability of these systems to meet the 1990 Clean Air Act and 1991 EPA Emission Guidelines.

None

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Solid Waste Projection Model: Database (Version 1.3). Technical reference manual  

SciTech Connect

The Solid Waste Projection Model (SWPM) system is an analytical tool developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). The SWPM system provides a modeling and analysis environment that supports decisions in the process of evaluating various solid waste management alternatives. This document, one of a series describing the SWPM system, contains detailed information regarding the software and data structures utilized in developing the SWPM Version 1.3 Database. This document is intended for use by experienced database specialists and supports database maintenance, utility development, and database enhancement.

Blackburn, C.L.

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Toxicity of coal gasifier solid waste to the aquatic plants Selenastrum capricornutum and Spirodela oligorhiza  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Classical assessment of aquatic toxicity has focused on fish and invertebrates primarily due to their economic importance. However, increased awareness of the role of aquatic vegetation as primary producers in aquatic systems has stimulated their use in aquatic hazards evaluations. This paper presents the results of solid waste leaching tests using a procedure which was designed to mimic landfilling of solid waste. Results are reported for leachate analysis of the ash agglomerate and the relative toxicity of this leachate to Selenastrum capricornutum (a unicellular green alga) and Spirodela oligorhiza (a floating aquatic vascular plant).

Klaine, S.J.

1985-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Clinical solid waste management practices and its impact on human health and environment - A review  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Research highlights: > Appropriate waste management technology for safe handling and disposal of clinical solid waste. > Infectious risk assessment on unsafe handling of clinical solid waste. > Recycling-reuse program of clinical solid waste materials. > Effective sterilization technology to reduce exposure of infectious risk. - Abstract: The management of clinical solid waste (CSW) continues to be a major challenge, particularly, in most healthcare facilities of the developing world. Poor conduct and inappropriate disposal methods exercised during handling and disposal of CSW is increasing significant health hazards and environmental pollution due to the infectious nature of the waste. This article summarises a literature review into existing CSW management practices in the healthcare centers. The information gathered in this paper has been derived from the desk study of open literature survey. Numerous researches have been conducted on the management of CSW. Although, significant steps have been taken on matters related to safe handling and disposal of the clinical waste, but improper management practice is evident from the point of initial collection to the final disposal. In most cases, the main reasons of the mismanagement of CSW are the lack of appropriate legislation, lack of specialized clinical staffs, lack of awareness and effective control. Furthermore, most of the healthcare centers of the developing world have faced financial difficulties and therefore looking for cost effective disposal methods of clinical waste. This paper emphasizes to continue the recycle-reuse program of CSW materials after sterilization by using supercritical fluid carbon dioxide (SF-CO2) sterilization technology at the point of initial collection. Emphasis is on the priority to inactivate the infectious micro-organisms in CSW. In that case, waste would not pose any threat to healthcare workers. The recycling-reuse program would be carried out successfully with the non-specialized clinical staffs. Therefore, the adoption of SF-CO2 sterilization technology in management of clinical solid waste can reduce exposure to infectious waste, decrease labor, lower costs, and yield better compliance with regulatory. Thus healthcare facilities can both save money and provide a safe environment for patients, healthcare staffs and clinical staffs.

Hossain, Md. Sohrab [Department of Environmental Technology, School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Santhanam, Amutha [Institute for Research in Molecular Medicine, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Nik Norulaini, N.A. [School of Distance Education, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Omar, A.K. Mohd, E-mail: akmomar@usm.my [Department of Environmental Technology, School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia)

2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "1municipal solid waste" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Recovery and recycling practices in municipal solid waste management in Lagos, Nigeria  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The population of Lagos, the largest city in Nigeria, increased seven times from 1950 to 1980 with a current population of over 10 million inhabitants. The majority of the city's residents are poor. The residents make a heavy demand on resources and, at the same time, generate large quantities of solid waste. Approximately 4 million tonnes of municipal solid waste (MSW) is generated annually in the city, including approximately 0.5 million of untreated industrial waste. This is approximately 1.1 kg/cap/day. Efforts by the various waste management agencies set up by the state government to keep its streets and neighborhoods clean have achieved only minimal success. This is because more than half of these wastes are left uncollected from the streets and the various locations due to the inadequacy and inefficiency of the waste management system. Whilst the benefits of proper solid waste management (SWM), such as increased revenues for municipal bodies, higher productivity rate, improved sanitation standards and better health conditions, cannot be overemphasized, it is important that there is a reduction in the quantity of recoverable materials in residential and commercial waste streams to minimize the problem of MSW disposal. This paper examines the status of recovery and recycling in current waste management practice in Lagos, Nigeria. Existing recovery and recycling patterns, recovery and recycling technologies, approaches to materials recycling, and the types of materials recovered from MSW are reviewed. Based on these, strategies for improving recovery and recycling practices in the management of MSW in Lagos, Nigeria are suggested.

Kofoworola, O.F. [Environment Division, Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkuts University of Technology Thonburi, 91 Prachauthit Road, Bangmod, Tungkru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)], E-mail: sholafemi28@yahoo.com

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

BEE 4760. Solid Waste Engineering Spring Semester 2010  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

chemistry, energy balance, environmental impacts & controls Sanitary Landfills: planning & operation, gas characterization and reduction; collection and transport systems; waste-to-energy combustion; sanitary landfills) management. 2. An ability to plan and design MSW disposal facilities ­ landfills and incineration. 3

Walter, M.Todd

243

BEE 476. Solid Waste Engineering Spring Semester 2007  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

chemistry, energy balance, environmental impacts & controls Sanitary Landfills: planning & operation, gas characterization and reduction; collection and transport systems; waste-to-energy combustion; sanitary landfills) management. 2. An ability to plan and design MSW disposal facilities ­ landfills and incineration. 3

Walter, M.Todd

244

BEE 476. Solid Waste Engineering Spring Semester 2008  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

chemistry, energy balance, environmental impacts & controls Sanitary Landfills: planning & operation, gas characterization and reduction; collection and transport systems; waste-to-energy combustion; sanitary landfills) management. 2. An ability to plan and design MSW disposal facilities ­ landfills and incineration. 3

Walter, M.Todd

245

Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This appendix contains the alphabetically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal waste management alternatives. The references are listed for each of the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized-bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW, materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting, and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

Not Available

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Municipal solid waste management in Lahore City District, Pakistan  

SciTech Connect

This study deals with generation, composition, collection, transportation, and disposal, as well as the present cost of the waste management on the basis of 60% collection of the total waste and the cost of proposed improved system of management on the basis of 100% waste collection using the IWM-2 LCI model. A GIS map of Data Ganj Bakhsh Town (DGBT) of Lahore City District showing communal storage facilities is also provided. DGBT has a population of 1,624,169 living in 232,024 dwellings. The total waste generated per year is 500,000 tons, or 0.84/kg/cap/day. Presently 60% of the MSW is collected and disposed in open dumps, while 40% is not collected and lies along roadsides, streets railway lines, depressions, vacant plots, drains, storm drains and open sewers. In DGBT, 129 containers of 5-m{sup 3} capacity, 120 containers of 10-m{sup 3} capacity and 380 skips of 2.5-m{sup 3} capacity are placed for waste collection. The overall collection and disposal cost of the MSW of DGBT is $3,177,900/yr, which is $10.29/ton. Modeling was conducted using the IWM-2 model for improved collection and disposal on the basis of 100% service, compared to the current 60% service. The modelled cost is $8.3/per ton, which is 20% less than the present cost, but the overall cost of 100% collection and disposal increases to $4,155,737/yr.

Batool, Syeda Adila [Department of Space Science, Punjab University, Lahore (Pakistan)], E-mail: aadila_batool@yahoo.com; Muhammad Nawaz Ch [College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of the Punjab, Lahore (Pakistan)], E-mail: muhammadnawazchaudhry@yahoo.com

2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

247

Report of the Review of the Hanford Solid Waste Environmental Impact Statement regarding Data Quality Control and Management Issues  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Review of the Hanford Review of the Hanford Solid Waste Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) Data Quality, Control and Management Issues January 2006 Hanford Solid Waste Environment Impact Statement (EIS) Data Quality, Control and Management Issues Review Report ii Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .................................................................................. IV 1.0 BACKGROUND ................................................................................................................ 1 2.0 REVIEW APPROACH....................................................................................................... 1 3.0 SUMMARY........................................................................................................................ 2 4.0 REVIEW RESULTS........................................................................................................... 4

248

Syn-Gas Production from Catalytic Steam Gasification of Municipal Solid Wastes in a Combined Fixed Bed Reactor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The catalytic steam gasi?cation of municipal solid wastes (MSW) for syn-gas production was experimentally investigated in a combined fixed bed reactor using the newly developed tri-metallic catalyst. A series of experiments have been performed to explore ... Keywords: Biomass gasification, municipal solid wastes, catalyst, hydrogen production, energy recovery

Jianfen Li; Jianjun Liu; Shiyan Liao; Xiaorong Zhou; Rong Yan

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Thermal conversion of municipal solid waste via hydrothermal carbonization: Comparison of carbonization products to products from current waste management techniques  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a novel thermal conversion process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HTC converts wastes into value-added resources. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbonization integrates majority of carbon into solid-phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbonization results in a hydrochar with high energy density. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using hydrochar as an energy source may be beneficial. - Abstract: Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a novel thermal conversion process that may be a viable means for managing solid waste streams while minimizing greenhouse gas production and producing residual material with intrinsic value. HTC is a wet, relatively low temperature (180-350 Degree-Sign C) thermal conversion process that has been shown to convert biomass to a carbonaceous residue referred to as hydrochar. Results from batch experiments indicate HTC of representative waste materials is feasible, and results in the majority of carbon (45-75% of the initially present carbon) remaining within the hydrochar. Gas production during the batch experiments suggests that longer reaction periods may be desirable to maximize the production of energy-favorable products. If using the hydrochar for applications in which the carbon will remain stored, results suggest that the gaseous products from HTC result in fewer g CO{sub 2}-equivalent emissions than the gases associated with landfilling, composting, and incineration. When considering the use of hydrochar as a solid fuel, more energy can be derived from the hydrochar than from the gases resulting from waste degradation during landfilling and anaerobic digestion, and from incineration of food waste. Carbon emissions resulting from the use of the hydrochar as a fuel source are smaller than those associated with incineration, suggesting HTC may serve as an environmentally beneficial alternative to incineration. The type and extent of environmental benefits derived from HTC will be dependent on hydrochar use/the purpose for HTC (e.g., energy generation or carbon storage).

Lu Xiaowei; Jordan, Beth [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of South Carolina, 300 Main Street, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Berge, Nicole D., E-mail: berge@cec.sc.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of South Carolina, 300 Main Street, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

250

Performance assessment for continuing and future operations at solid waste storage area 6. Appendices  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This appendix provides the radionuclide inventory data used for the Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 Performance Assessment (PA). The uncertainties in the radionuclide inventory data are also provided, along with the descriptions of the methods used to estimate the uncertainties.

NONE

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

NEW CONCEPTS FOR EXPLOSION ALLEVIATION IN SHRED-FIRST SOLID WASTE PLANTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

had installed in the New CasUe, Delaware Plant were designed to withstand 20 psi; they were in stalled-explosion deSign that can be guaranteed to eliminate damage from explosions in solid waste plalHs that shred by a cutoff blade on centrifugal fans. The installation of the "air gate" provides a positive downflow

Columbia University

252

Using a Wireless Sensors Network in the Sustainable Management of African Palm Oil Solid Waste  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

All human activities have an impact in the environment in which we live. Nowadays, the industrial gases emission is considered as one of the main causes for worsening greenhouse effect. The African Palm agro industry in Ecuador is no stranger to this ... Keywords: compost, production science, solid waste, wireless sensors network, wireless communication technologies

Mauro Jimenez, Alejandra Jimenez, Pablo Lozada, Santiago Jimenez, Cristhy Jimenez

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

High temperature behavior of electrostatic precipitator ash from municipal solid waste combustors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

combustion may cause the oxidation of mercury, and chloride mercury #12;13 13 species may be the major form combustion and gasification flue gases, Environ. Sci. Technol. 30 (1996) 2421-2426. [23] S.B. Ghorishi, C Ms. Ref. No.: HAZMAT-D-07-00176 Accepted manuscript #12;2 2 Abstract Municipal solid waste (MSW) flue

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

254

DISTRICT ENERGY SYSTEMS POWERED THROUGH THE COMBUSTION OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.assure.org Biography: Mr. Tomberlin has 21 years of experience in the design of power generation facilities having & Brad Moorman Barlow Projects, Inc. 2000 Vermont Drive, Fort Collins, CO 80525 (970) 226-8557 info municipal solid waste (MSW) by 90%-95% creating energy in the form of steam and/or electricity

Columbia University

255

Round-Robin Evaluation of Regulatory Extraction Methods for Solid Wastes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The EPA-proposed method for determining toxicity characteristics of solid wastes is procedurally simpler than the current method, though it shows slightly higher concentrations of the chemicals being measured. Both methods classed the ash and sludge samples tested in this project as nonhazardous.

1986-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

256

Cost estimation for solid waste management in industrialising regions - Precedents, problems and prospects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We review cost estimation approaches for solid waste management. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Unit cost method and benchmarking techniques used in industrialising regions (IR). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Variety in scope, quality and stakeholders makes cost estimation challenging in IR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Integrate waste flow and cost models using cost functions to improve cost planning. - Abstract: The importance of cost planning for solid waste management (SWM) in industrialising regions (IR) is not well recognised. The approaches used to estimate costs of SWM can broadly be classified into three categories - the unit cost method, benchmarking techniques and developing cost models using sub-approaches such as cost and production function analysis. These methods have been developed into computer programmes with varying functionality and utility. IR mostly use the unit cost and benchmarking approach to estimate their SWM costs. The models for cost estimation, on the other hand, are used at times in industrialised countries, but not in IR. Taken together, these approaches could be viewed as precedents that can be modified appropriately to suit waste management systems in IR. The main challenges (or problems) one might face while attempting to do so are a lack of cost data, and a lack of quality for what data do exist. There are practical benefits to planners in IR where solid waste problems are critical and budgets are limited.

Parthan, Shantha R., E-mail: shantha.parthan@pg.canterbury.ac.nz [Department of Civil and Natural Resources Engineering, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); Milke, Mark W., E-mail: mark.milke@canterbury.ac.nz [Department of Civil and Natural Resources Engineering, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); Wilson, David C., E-mail: waste@davidcwilson.com [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Cocks, John H., E-mail: john.h.cocks@mwhglobal.com [MWH New Zealand Limited, Dunedin (New Zealand)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

257

SDMSM 2.1 - Waste Logic Solid and Decommissioning Multi-Site Manager, Version 2.1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Waste Logic Solid and Decommissioning Multi-Site Manager (SDMSM) software, Version 2.1, combines several existing Waste Logic programs into a single software package offering comprehensive waste management cost and performance input and analysis for multiple nuclear stations.

2006-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

258

International Best Practices for Pre-Processing and Co-Processing Municipal Solid Waste and Sewage Sludge in the Cement Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

engineering.de/116/) Co-firing of MSW and sewage sludge indevice for solid waste fuel co-firing Solid waste fuels areand HF produced during firing. ? CO is largely unaffected. ?

Hasanbeigi, Ali

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Soil stabilization using oil shale solid wastes: Laboratory evaluation of engineering properties  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oil shale solid wastes were evaluated for possible use as soil stabilizers. A laboratory study was conducted and consisted of the following tests on compacted samples of soil treated with water and spent oil shale: unconfined compressive strength, moisture-density relationships, wet-dry and freeze-thaw durability, and resilient modulus. Significant increases in strength, durability, and resilient modulus were obtained by treating a silty sand with combusted western oil shale. Moderate increases in strength, durability, and resilient modulus were obtained by treating a highly plastic clay with combusted western oil shale. Solid waste from eastern shale can be used for soil stabilization if limestone is added during combustion. Without limestone, eastern oil shale waste exhibits little or no cementation. The testing methods, results, and recommendations for mix design of spent shale-stabilized pavement subgrades are presented. 11 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs.

Turner, J.P.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

DEVELOPMENT & TESTING OF A CEMENT BASED SOLID WASTE FORM USING SYNTHETIC UP-1 GROUNDWATER  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site is investigating the conversion of several liquid waste streams from evaporator operations into solid cement-based waste forms. The cement/waste mixture will be poured into plastic-lined mold boxes. After solidification the bags will be removed from the molds and sealed for land disposal at the Hanford Site. The RJ Lee Group, Inc. Center for Laboratory Sciences (CLS) at Columbia Basin College (CBC) was requested to develop and test a cementitious solids (CS) formulation to solidify evaporated groundwater brine, identified as UP-1, from Basin 43. Laboratory testing of cement/simulant mixtures is required to demonstrate the viability of cement formulations that reduce the overall cost, minimize bleed water and expansion, and provide suitable strength and cure temperature. Technical support provided mixing, testing, and reporting of values for a defined composite solid waste form. In this task, formulations utilizing Basin 43 simulant at varying wt% solids were explored. The initial mixing consisted of making small ({approx} 300 g) batches and casting into 500-mL Nalgene{reg_sign} jars. The mixes were cured under adiabatic conditions and checked for bleed water and consistency at recorded time intervals over a 1-week period. After the results from the preliminary mixing, four formulations were selected for further study. The testing documentation included workability, bleed water analysis (volume and pH) after 24 hours, expansivity/shrinkage, compressive strength, and selected Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) leach analytes of the resulting solid waste form.

COOKE, G.A.; LOCKREM, L.L.

2006-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "1municipal solid waste" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Characterization of past and present solid waste streams from the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During the next two decades the transuranic wastes, now stored in the burial trenches and storage facilities at the Hanford Site, are to be retrieved, processed at the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, and shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant near Carlsbad, New Mexico for final disposal. Over 7% of the transuranic waste to be retrieved for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant has been generated at the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant. The purpose of this report is to characterize the radioactive solid wastes generated by PUREX using process knowledge, existing records, and oral history interviews. The PUREX Plant is currently operated by the Westinghouse Hanford Company for the US Department of Energy and is now in standby status while being prepared for permanent shutdown. The PUREX Plant is a collection of facilities that has been used primarily to separate plutonium for nuclear weapons from spent fuel that had been irradiated in the Hanford Site`s defense reactors. Originally designed to reprocess aluminum-clad uranium fuel, the plant was modified to reprocess zirconium alloy clad fuel elements from the Hanford Site`s N Reactor. PUREX has provided plutonium for research reactor development, safety programs, and defense. In addition, the PUREX was used to recover slightly enriched uranium for recycling into fuel for use in reactors that generate electricity and plutonium. Section 2.0 provides further details of the PUREX`s physical plant and its operations. The PUREX Plant functions that generate solid waste are as follows: processing operations, laboratory analyses and supporting activities. The types and estimated quantities of waste resulting from these activities are discussed in detail.

Pottmeyer, J.A.; Weyns, M.I.; Lorenzo, D.S.; Vejvoda, E.J. [Los Alamos Technical Associates, Inc., NM (US); Duncan, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (US)

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Study of the operational conditions for anaerobic digestion of urban solid wastes  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes an experimental evaluation of anaerobic digestion technology as an option for the management of organic solid waste in developing countries. As raw material, a real and heterogeneous organic waste from urban solid wastes was used. In the first experimental phase, seed selection was achieved through an evaluation of three different anaerobic sludges coming from wastewater treatment plants. The methanization potential of these sludges was assessed in three different batch digesters of 500 mL, at two temperature levels. The results showed that by increasing the temperature to 15 deg. C above room temperature, the methane production increases to three times. So, the best results were obtained in the digester fed with a mixed sludge, working at mesophilic conditions (38-40 deg. C). Then, this selected seed was used at the next experimental phase, testing at different digestion times (DT) of 25, 20 and 18 days in a bigger batch digester of 20 L with a reaction volume of 13 L. The conversion rates were registered at the lowest DT (18 days), reaching 44.9 L/kg{sup -1} of wet waste day{sup -1}. Moreover, DT also has a strong influence over COD removal, because there is a direct relationship between solids removal inside the reactor and DT.

Castillo M, Edgar Fernando [Centro de Estudios e Investigaciones Ambientales, Universidad Industrial de Santander, Calle 9a Carrera 27, Aptdo. Aereo 678, Bucaramanga (Colombia)]. E-mail: efcastil@uis.edu.co; Cristancho, Diego Edison [Centro de Estudios e Investigaciones Ambientales, Universidad Industrial de Santander, Calle 9a Carrera 27, Aptdo. Aereo 678, Bucaramanga (Colombia); Victor Arellano, A. [Centro de Estudios e Investigaciones Ambientales, Universidad Industrial de Santander, Calle 9a Carrera 27, Aptdo. Aereo 678, Bucaramanga (Colombia)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Consumption patterns and household hazardous solid waste generation in an urban settlement in Mexico  

SciTech Connect

Mexico is currently facing a crisis in the waste management field. Some efforts have just commenced in urban and in rural settlements, e.g., conversion of open dumps into landfills, a relatively small composting culture, and implementation of source separation and plastic recycling strategies. Nonetheless, the high heterogeneity of components in the waste, many of these with hazardous properties, present the municipal collection services with serious problems, due to the risks to the health of the workers and to the impacts to the environment as a result of the inadequate disposition of these wastes. A generation study in the domestic sector was undertaken with the aim of finding out the composition and the generation rate of household hazardous waste (HHW) produced at residences. Simultaneously to the generation study, a socioeconomic survey was applied to determine the influence of income level on the production of HHW. Results from the solid waste generation analysis indicated that approximately 1.6% of the waste stream consists of HHW. Correspondingly, it was estimated that in Morelia, a total amount of 442 ton/day of domestic waste are produced, including 7.1 ton of HHW per day. Furthermore, the overall amount of HHW is not directly related to income level, although particular byproducts do correlate. However, an important difference was observed, as the brands and the presentation sizes of goods and products used in each socioeconomic stratum varied.

Delgado Otoniel, Buenrostro [Instituto De Investigaciones Agricolas y Forestales, Universidad Michoacana De San Nicolas De Hidalgo, Av. San Juanito Itzicuaro S/N, Col. San Juanito Itzicuaro, C.P. 58330, Morelia-Aeropuerto, Michoacan (Mexico)], E-mail: otonielb@zeus.umich.mx; Liliana, Marquez-Benavides; Gaona Francelia, Pinette [Instituto De Investigaciones Agricolas y Forestales, Universidad Michoacana De San Nicolas De Hidalgo, Av. San Juanito Itzicuaro S/N, Col. San Juanito Itzicuaro, C.P. 58330, Morelia-Aeropuerto, Michoacan (Mexico)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

EVALUATION OF ULTIMATE DISPOSAL METHOD FOR LIQUID AND SOLID RADIOACTIVE WASTES. PART I. INTERIM LIQUID STORAGE  

SciTech Connect

As the first part of a study to evaluate the economics of the various steps leading to and including the permanent disposal of high-activity liquid and solid radioactive waste, costs of interim liquid storage of acid and alkaline Purex and Thorex wastes were estimated for storage times of 0.5 to 30 years. A 6- ton/day plant was assumed, processing 1500 tons/year of uranium converter fuel at a burnup of 10,000 Mwd/ton and 270 tons/year of thorium converter fuel at a burnup of 20,000 Mwd/ton. Tanks of Savannah River design were assumed, with stainless steel construction for acid wastes and mild steel construction for neutralized wastes. The operating cycle of each tank was assumed to consist of equal filling and emptying periods plus a full (or dead) period. With interim storage time defined as filling time plus full time, tank costs were minimum when full time was 40 to 70% of the interim storage time, using present worth considerations. For waste storage times of 0.5 to 30 years, costs ranged from 2.2 x 10/sup -3/ to 9.5 x 10/sup -3/ mill/kwh/sub e/ for acid wastes and from 1.7 x 10/sup -3/ to 5.1 x 10/sup -3/ mill/kwh/sub e/ for neutralized wastes. (auth)

Bradshaw, R.L.; Perona, J.J.; Roberts, J.T.; Blomeke, J.O.

1961-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

265

Evaluation of Flygt Propeller Xixers for Double Shell Tank (DST) High Level Waste Auxiliary Solids Mobilization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The River Protection Project (RPP) is planning to retrieve radioactive waste from the single-shell tanks (SST) and double-shell tanks (DST) underground at the Hanford Site. This waste will then be transferred to a waste treatment plant to be immobilized (vitrified) in a stable glass form. Over the years, the waste solids in many of the tanks have settled to form a layer of sludge at the bottom. The thickness of the sludge layer varies from tank to tank, from no sludge or a few inches of sludge to about 15 ft of sludge. The purpose of this technology and engineering case study is to evaluate the Flygt{trademark} submersible propeller mixer as a potential technology for auxiliary mobilization of DST HLW solids. Considering the usage and development to date by other sites in the development of this technology, this study also has the objective of expanding the knowledge base of the Flygt{trademark} mixer concept with the broader perspective of Hanford Site tank waste retrieval. More specifically, the objectives of this study delineated from the work plan are described.

PACQUET, E.A.

2000-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

266

Assessing the effectiveness of voluntary solid waste reduction policies: Methodology and a Flemish case study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the use of statistical techniques to evaluate the effectiveness of voluntary policy instruments for waste management. The voluntary character of these instruments implies that latent characteristics, unobserved by the analyst, might influence the subscription decision and might lead to biased estimates of the effectiveness of the policy instrument if standard techniques are used. We propose an extension of the difference-in-differences (DiD) estimator to evaluate the effectiveness of voluntary policy instruments, which is termed the dynamic difference-in-differences (or DDD) estimator. We illustrate the technique by estimating the effectiveness of voluntary cooperation agreements between the Flemish environmental administration and individual municipalities aimed at curbing residential solid waste. Using a dataset covering all 308 Flemish municipalities for the period 2000-2005, our results indicate that municipalities subscribing to the agreement accomplished less reduction of their waste levels compared to what could be expected on the basis of their own performance prior to subscription and the performance of the non-subscribers. This result might be explained by the rising marginal cost of extra residential solid waste reduction policies. In addition, there are indications that subscribing municipalities refrain from additional reduction efforts once the target waste level of the program is achieved. The more complicated DDD methodology is shown to generate additional insight over the ordinary DiD analysis.

Jaeger, Simon de [EHSAL - European University College Brussels, Stormstraat 2 (Belgium)], E-mail: simon.dejaeger@ehsal.be; Eyckmans, Johan [EHSAL - European University College Brussels, Stormstraat 2 (Belgium); K.U. Leuven, Centrum voor Economische Studien (Belgium)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

National survey of industrial markets for steam produced from burning municipal solid waste  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report presents the methodology and findings of an analysis to determine the maximum size of the industrial market for steam produced from municipal solid waste in the United States. The data used in the analysis were developed from the 1980 census report and the US Chamber of Commerce's 1979 Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) listing. The process used to match potential steam users with populations large enough to generate suitable quantities of waste is presented. No attempt was made to rank the markets or analyze the market economics.

Pearson, C.V.

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

662-E solid waste silo-plug lifting analysis  

SciTech Connect

The Intermediate Level Tritium Vault No. 1, 662-E, Cell No. 1 contains 140 waste silos. Each silo is approximately 25 feet deep, 30 inches in diameter at the top and covered by a reinforced concrete plug. Two No. 4 reinforcing bars project from the top of each plug for lifting. During lifting operations, the 1.5 inch concrete cover over the lifting bars spelled off 16% of the silo plugs. The No. 4 reinforcing bars were also distorted on many of the silo plugs. Thirteen of the plugs have been repaired to date. The existing silo plug lifting bars have a safe working load of 480 pounds per plug, which is less than 1/3 of the dead weight of the silo plug. The safe working load was calculated using the minimum design factor of 3 based on the yield strength or 5 based on the ultimate strength of the material, as per the Savannah River Site Hoisting and Rigging Manual. The existing design calculations were reviewed, and the following items are noted: (1) Adequate concrete cover was not provided over the horizontal portion of the lifting bars. (2) The lifting bars were allowed to yield in bending, which violates the requirements of the Savannah River Site Hoisting and Rigging Manual. (3) The ultimate strain of the lifting bars would be exceeded before the calculated ultimate strength was achieved. Alternative lifting devices are also identified.

Mertz, G.E.

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Integration of the informal sector into municipal solid waste management in the Philippines - What does it need?  

SciTech Connect

The integration of the informal sector into municipal solid waste management is a challenge many developing countries face. In Iloilo City, Philippines around 220 tons of municipal solid waste are collected every day and disposed at a 10 ha large dumpsite. In order to improve the local waste management system the Local Government decided to develop a new Waste Management Center with integrated landfill. However, the proposed area is adjacent to the presently used dumpsite where more than 300 waste pickers dwell and depend on waste picking as their source of livelihood. The Local Government recognized the hidden threat imposed by the waste picker's presence for this development project and proposed various measures to integrate the informal sector into the municipal solid waste management (MSWM) program. As a key intervention a Waste Workers Association, called USWAG Calahunan Livelihood Association Inc. (UCLA) was initiated and registered as a formal business enterprise in May 2009. Up to date, UCLA counts 240 members who commit to follow certain rules and to work within a team that jointly recovers wasted materials. As a cooperative they are empowered to explore new livelihood options such as the recovery of Alternative Fuels for commercial (cement industry) and household use, production of compost and making of handicrafts out of used packages. These activities do not only provide alternative livelihood for them but also lessen the generation of leachate and Greenhouse Gases (GHG) emissions from waste disposal, whereby the life time of the proposed new sanitary landfill can be extended likewise.

Paul, Johannes G., E-mail: jp.aht.p3@gmail.com [GIZ-AHT Project Office SWM4LGUs, c/o DENR, Iloilo City (Philippines); Arce-Jaque, Joan [GIZ-AHT Project Office SWM4LGUs, c/o DENR, Iloilo City (Philippines); Ravena, Neil; Villamor, Salome P. [General Service Office, City Government, Iloilo City (Philippines)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

270

A study of the metal content of municipal solid waste. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Knowledge of the content of toxic components, so called pollutant precursors, in the municipal solid waste (MSW) stream is essential to development of the strategies for source reduction and reuse, recycling, composting and disposal. Data are scarce; trends in composition for any locality even more so. In a previous study the total and water soluble chlorine content of the components of municipal solid waste were determined from sampling studies at two sites, Baltimore County, MD, and Brooklyn, NY, each for a five day period. The total sulfur content of the combined combustible components was also determined. Because of the scarcity of data and synergistic effects, it seemed appropriate to determine the heavy metal content of the preceding material prior to its disposal. The metals chosen were the so-called priority pollutant metals (PPM): antimony, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, selenium, silver, thallium, and zinc.

Churney, K.L.; Domalski, E.S.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Title I preliminary engineering for: A. S. E. F. solid waste to methane gas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An assignment to provide preliminary engineering of an Advanced System Experimental Facility for production of methane gas from urban solid waste by anaerobic digestion is documented. The experimental facility will be constructed on a now-existing solid waste shredding and landfill facility in Pompano Beach, Florida. Information is included on: general description of the project; justification of basic need; process design; preliminary drawings; outline specifications; preliminary estimate of cost; and time schedules for design and construction of accomplishment of design and construction. The preliminary cost estimate for the design and construction phases of the experimental program is $2,960,000, based on Dec. 1975 and Jan. 1976 costs. A time schedule of eight months to complete the Detailed Design, Equipment Procurement and the Award of Subcontracts is given.

None

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Flow analysis of metals in a municipal solid waste management system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study aimed to identify the metal flow in a municipal solid waste (MSW) management system. Outputs of a resource recovery facility, refuse derived fuel (RDF) production facility, carbonization facility, plastics liquefaction facility, composting facility, and bio-gasification facility were analyzed for metal content and leaching concentration. In terms of metal content, bulky and incombustible waste had the highest values. Char from a carbonization facility, which treats household waste, had a higher metal content than MSW incinerator bottom ash. A leaching test revealed that Cd and Pb in char and Pb in RDF production residue exceeded the Japanese regulatory criteria for landfilling, so special attention should be paid to final disposal of these substances. By multiplying metal content and the generation rate of outputs, the metal content of input waste to each facility was estimated. For most metals except Cr, the total contribution ratio of paper/textile/plastics, bulky waste, and incombustible waste was over 80%. Approximately 30% of Cr originated from plastic packaging. Finally, several MSW management scenarios showed that most metals are transferred to landfills and the leaching potential of metals to the environment is quite small.

Jung, C.H. [Laboratory of Solid Waste Disposal Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita 13 Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Matsuto, T. [Laboratory of Solid Waste Disposal Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita 13 Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan)]. E-mail: matsuto@eng.hokudai.ac.jp; Tanaka, N. [Laboratory of Solid Waste Disposal Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita 13 Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Solid Phase Characterization of Tank 241-C-108 Residual Waste Solids Samples  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results for solid phase characterization (SPC) of solid samples removed from tank 241-C-108 (C-108) on August 12-13,2012, using the off-riser sampler. Samples were received at the 222-S Laboratory on August 13 and were described and photographed. The SPC analyses that were performed include scanning electron microscopy (SEM) using the ASPEX(R)l scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction (XRD) using the Rigaku(R) 2 MiniFlex X-ray diffractometer, and polarized light microscopy (PLM) using the Nikon(R) 3 Eclipse Pol optical microscope. The SEM is equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) to provide chemical information. Gary A. Cooke conducted the SEM analysis, John A. Pestovich performed the XRD analysis, and Dr. Heinz J. Huber performed the PLM examination. The results of these analyses are presented here.

Cooke, Gary A.; Pestovich, John A.; Huber, Heinz J.

2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

274

Potential effects of clean coal technologies on acid precipitation, greenhouse gases, and solid waste disposal  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP) was initially funded by Congress to demonstrate more efficient, economically feasible, and environmentally acceptable coal technologies. Although the environmental focus at first was on sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) because their relationship to acid precipitation, the CCTDP may also lead to reductions in carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions and in the volume of solid waste produced, compared with conventional technologies. The environmental effects of clean coal technologies (CCTs) depend upon which (if any) specific technologies eventually achieve high acceptance in the marketplace. In general, the repowering technologies and a small group of retrofit technologies show the most promise for reducing C0{sub 2} emissions and solid waste. These technologies also compare favorably with other CCTs in terms of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} reductions. The upper bound for CO{sup 2} reductions in the year 2010 is only enough to reduce global ``greenhouse`` warming potential by about 1%. However, CO{sub 2} emissions come from such variety of sources around the globe that no single technological innovation or national policy change could realistically be expected to reduce these emissions by more than a few percent. Particular CCTs can lead to either increases or decreases in the amount of solid waste produced. However, even if decreases are not achieved, much of the solid waste from clean coal technologies would be dry and therefore easier to dispose of than scrubber sludge.

Blasing, T.J.; Miller, R.L.; McCold, L.N.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Current Practices: Solid Waste Management from Zero Liquid Discharge (ZLD) Wastewater Treatment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A study was conducted to identify current practices used by power plants to manage their solid waste residuals from zero liquid discharge (ZLD) operations treating flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastewater. Because there are such few FGD ZLD systems in operation not only in the United States but also worldwide, the study scope was expanded to include non-FGD ZLD operations, as well. Only two of the seven facilities interviewed in this study operate ZLDs on FGD water; therefore, much of the current ...

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

276

Site hydrogeologic/geotechnical characterization report for Site B new municipal solid waste landfill  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This Site Hydrogeologic/Geotechnical Characterization Report (SHCR) presents the results of a comprehensive study conducted on a proposed solid waste landfill site, identified herein as Site B, at the Savannah River Site (SRS). This report is intended to satisfy all requirements of the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) with regard to landfill siting requirements and ground water and environmental protection. In addition, this report provides substantial geotechnical data pertinent to the landfill design process.

Reynolds, R.; Nowacki, P.

1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 1: Availability of Feedstock and Technology  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report investigated the potential of using municipal solid waste (MSW) to make synthesis gas (syngas) suitable for production of liquid fuels. Issues examined include: • MSW physical and chemical properties affecting its suitability as a gasifier feedstock and for liquid fuels synthesis • expected process scale required for favorable economics • the availability of MSW in quantities sufficient to meet process scale requirements • the state-of-the-art of MSW gasification technology.

Valkenburg, Corinne; Walton, Christie W.; Thompson, Becky L.; Gerber, Mark A.; Jones, Susanne B.; Stevens, Don J.

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Reducing acid leaching of manganiferous ore: Effect of the iron removal operation on solid waste disposal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The process of reducing acid leaching of manganiferous ore is aimed at the extraction of manganese from low grade manganese ores. This work is focused on the iron removal operation. The following items have been considered in order to investigate the effect of the main operating conditions on solid waste disposal and on the process costs: (i) type and quantity of the base agent used for iron precipitation, (ii) effective need of leaching waste separation prior to the iron removal operation, (iii) presence of a second leaching stage with the roasted ore, which might also act as a preliminary iron removal step, and (iv) effect of tailings washing on the solid waste classification. Different base compounds have been tested, including CaO, CaCO{sub 3}, NaOH, and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. The latter gave the best results concerning both the precipitation process kinetics and the reagent consumption. The filtration of the liquor leach prior to iron removal was not necessary, implying significant savings in capital costs. A reduction of chemical consumption and an increase of manganese concentration in the solution were obtained by introducing secondary leaching tests with the previously roasted ore; this additional step was introduced without a significant decrease of global manganese extraction yield. Finally, toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) tests carried out on the leaching solid waste showed: (i) a reduction of arsenic mobility in the presence of iron precipitates, and (ii) the need for a washing step in order to produce a waste that is classifiable as not dangerous, taking into consideration the existing Environmental National Laws.

De Michelis, Ida; Ferella, Francesco [University of L'Aquila, Department of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials, Monteluco di Roio, 67040 L'Aquila (Italy); Beolchini, Francesca [Polytechnic University of Marche, Department of Marine Sciences, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy)], E-mail: f.beolchini@univpm.it; Veglio, Francesco [University of L'Aquila, Department of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials, Monteluco di Roio, 67040 L'Aquila (Italy)

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

279

Solid health care waste management status at health care centers in the West Bank - Palestinian Territory  

SciTech Connect

Health care waste is considered a major public health hazard. The objective of this study was to assess health care waste management (HCWM) practices currently employed at health care centers (HCCs) in the West Bank - Palestinian Territory. Survey data on solid health care waste (SHCW) were analyzed for generated quantities, collection, separation, treatment, transportation, and final disposal. Estimated 4720.7 m{sup 3} (288.1 tons) of SHCW are generated monthly by the HCCs in the West Bank. This study concluded that: (i) current HCWM practices do not meet HCWM standards recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) or adapted by developed countries, and (ii) immediate attention should be directed towards improvement of HCWM facilities and development of effective legislation. To improve the HCWM in the West Bank, a national policy should be implemented, comprising a comprehensive plan of action and providing environmentally sound and reliable technological measures.

Al-Khatib, Issam A. [Institute of Environmental and Water Studies, Birzeit University, P.O. Box 14, Birzeit, Ramallah, West Bank (Palestinian Territory, Occupied)], E-mail: ikhatib@birzeit.edu; Sato, Chikashi [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Idaho State University, Pocatello, Idaho (United States)

2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

280

Hawaii Department of Health Solid and Hazardous Waste Branch | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

and Hazardous Waste Branch and Hazardous Waste Branch Jump to: navigation, search Name Hawaii Department of Health Solid and Hazardous Waste Branch Address 919 Ala Moana Boulevard #212 Place Honolulu, Hawaii Zip 96814 Website http://hawaii.gov/health/envir Coordinates 21.294755°, -157.858979° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":21.294755,"lon":-157.858979,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "1municipal solid waste" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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281

Municipal solid waste management: A bibliography of US Department of Energy contractor report through 1994  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

U.S. Department of Energy contractors continue to conduct research targeting the productive and responsible use of the more than 516,000 metric tons (567,000 tons) of municipal solid waste (MSW) that is generated each day in the United States. It is becoming more and more prudent to improve current methods of MSW management and to continue to search for additional cost-effective, energy-efficient means to manage our MSW resource. This bibliography provides information about technical reports on energy from municipal waste that were prepared under grants or contracts from the US DOE. The reports listed focus on energy from municipal waste technologies and energy conservation in wastewater treatment.

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

The impact of municipal solid waste treatment methods on greenhouse gas emissions in Lahore, Pakistan  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The contribution of existing municipal solid waste management to emission of greenhouse gases and the alternative scenarios to reduce emissions were analyzed for Data Ganj Bukhsh Town (DGBT) in Lahore, Pakistan using the life cycle assessment methodology. DGBT has a population of 1,624,169 people living in 232,024 dwellings. Total waste generated is 500,000 tons per year with an average per capita rate of 0.84 kg per day. Alternative scenarios were developed and evaluated according to the environmental, economic, and social atmosphere of the study area. Solid waste management options considered include the collection and transportation of waste, collection of recyclables with single and mixed material bank container systems (SMBCS, MMBCS), material recovery facilities (MRF), composting, biogasification and landfilling. A life cycle inventory (LCI) of the six scenarios along with the baseline scenario was completed; this helped to quantify the CO{sub 2} equivalents, emitted and avoided, for energy consumption, production, fuel consumption, and methane (CH{sub 4}) emissions. LCI results showed that the contribution of the baseline scenario to the global warming potential as CO{sub 2} equivalents was a maximum of 838,116 tons. The sixth scenario had a maximum reduction of GHG emissions in terms of CO{sub 2} equivalents of -33,773 tons, but the most workable scenario for the current situation in the study area is scenario 5. It saves 25% in CO{sub 2} equivalents compared to the baseline scenario.

Batool, Syeda Adila [Department of Space Science, Punjab University, Lahore 54600 (Pakistan)], E-mail: aadila_batool@yahoo.com; Chuadhry, Muhammad Nawaz [College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of the Punjab, Lahore (Pakistan)], E-mail: muhammadnawazchaudhry@yahoo.com

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

283

Micro-scale anaerobic digestion of point source components of organic fraction of municipal solid waste  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The fermentation characteristics of six specific types of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) were examined, with an emphasis on properties that are needed when designing plug-flow type anaerobic bioreactors. More specifically, the decomposition patterns of a vegetable (cabbage), fruits (banana and citrus peels), fresh leaf litter of bamboo and teak leaves, and paper (newsprint) waste streams as feedstocks were studied. Individual OFMSW components were placed into nylon mesh bags and subjected to various fermentation periods (solids retention time, SRT) within the inlet of a functioning plug-flow biogas fermentor. These were removed at periodic intervals, and their composition was analyzed to monitor decomposition rates and changes in chemical composition. Components like cabbage waste, banana peels, and orange peels fermented rapidly both in a plug-flow biogas reactor (PFBR) as well as under a biological methane potential (BMP) assay, while other OFMSW components (leaf litter from bamboo and teak leaves and newsprint) fermented slowly with poor process stability and moderate biodegradation. For fruit and vegetable wastes (FVW), a rapid and efficient removal of pectins is the main cause of rapid disintegration of these feedstocks, which left behind very little compost forming residues (2-5%). Teak and bamboo leaves and newsprint decomposed only to 25-50% in 30 d. These results confirm the potential for volatile fatty acids accumulation in a PFBR's inlet and suggest a modification of the inlet zone or operation of a PFBR with the above feedstocks.

Chanakya, H.N. [Centre for Sustainable Technologies, (formerly ASTRA), Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India)], E-mail: chanakya@astra.iisc.ernet.in; Sharma, Isha [Centre for Sustainable Technologies, (formerly ASTRA), Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India); Ramachandra, T.V. [Centre for Sustainable Technologies, (formerly ASTRA), Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India); Centre for Ecological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India)

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

284

WIPP Sampling and Analysis Plan for Solid Waste Management Units and Areas of Concern.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) has been prepared to fulfill requirements of Module VII, Section VII.M.2 and Table VII.1, requirement 4 of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Permit, NM4890139088-TSDF (the Permit); (NMED [New Mexico Environment Department], 1999a). This SAP describes the approach for investigation of the Solid Waste Management Units (SWMU) and Areas of Concern (AOC) specified in the Permit. This SAP addresses the current Permit requirements for a RCRA Facility Investigation(RFI) investigation of SWMUs and AOCs. It uses the results of previous investigations performed at WIPP and expands the investigations as required by the Permit. As an alternative to the RFI specified in Module VII of the Permit, current NMED guidance identifies an Accelerated Corrective Action Approach (ACAA) that may be used for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998). This accelerated approach is used to replace the standard RFI work plan and report sequence with a more flexible decision-making approach. The ACAA process allows a facility to exit the schedule of compliance contained in the facility's Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) permit module and proceed on an accelerated time frame. Thus, the ACAA process can beentered either before or after a RFI work plan. According to NMED's guidance, a facility can prepare a RFI work plan or SAP for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998).

Washington TRU Solutions LLC

2000-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

285

An environmental assessment of recovering methane from municipal solid waste by anaerobic digestion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The development of an experimental process which produces synthetic natural gas (SNG) or biogas by anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste (MSW) is evaluated. This technology, if implemented, would be utilized in lieu of incineration or directly landfilling waste. An environmental assessment describing the principal impacts associated with operating the MSW anaerobic digestion process is presented. Variations in process configurations provide for SNG or electricity production and digester residue incineration, composting, or landfilling. Four process configuration are compared to the conventional solid waste disposal alternative of mass burn incineration and landfilling. Emissions are characterized, effluents quantified, and landfill areas predicted. The quantity of SNG and electricity recovered, and aluminum and ferrous metals recycled is predicted along with the emissions and effluents avoided by recovering energy and recycling metals. Air emissions are the primary on-site concern with the anaerobic digestion process. However, when compared to mass burn incineration, the projected particulate emissions for the anaerobic digestion process range from 2.9 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} to 2.6 {times} {sup 10{minus}5} pounds per ton of waste vs. 3.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} pounds per ton for mass burn. SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and PCCD emissions have a similar relationship.

O'Leary, P.R.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Digestion of frozen/thawed food waste in the hybrid anaerobic solid-liquid system  

SciTech Connect

The hybrid anaerobic solid-liquid (HASL) system, which is a modified two-phase anaerobic digester, is to be used in an industrial scale operation to minimize disposal of food waste at incineration plants in Singapore. The aim of the present research was to evaluate freezing/thawing of food waste as a pre-treatment for its anaerobic digestion in the HASL system. The hydrolytic and fermentation processes in the acidogenic reactor were enhanced when food waste was frozen for 24 h at -20 deg. C and then thawed for 12 h at 25 deg. C (experiment) in comparison with fresh food waste (control). The highest dissolved COD concentrations in the leachate from the acidogenic reactors were 16.9 g/l on day 3 in the control and 18.9 g/l on day 1 in the experiment. The highest VFA concentrations in the leachate from the acidogenic reactors were 11.7 g/l on day 3 in the control and 17.0 g/l on day 1 in the experiment. The same volume of methane was produced during 12 days in the control and 7 days in the experiment. It gave the opportunity to diminish operational time of batch process by 42%. The effect of freezing/thawing of food waste as pre-treatment for its anaerobic digestion in the HASL system was comparable with that of thermal pre-treatment of food waste at 150 deg. C for 1 h. However, estimation of energy required either to heat the suspended food waste to 150 deg. C or to freeze the same quantity of food waste to -20 deg. C showed that freezing pre-treatment consumes about 3 times less energy than thermal pre-treatment.

Stabnikova, O. [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)], E-mail: costab@ntu.edu.sg; Liu, X.Y.; Wang, J.Y. [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

SNG or syn-gas from wet solid waste and low grade fuels  

SciTech Connect

The substitute natural gas (SNG) or a synthesis gas (syngas) is prepared by partly oxidizing wastes and low-grade fuels (peat, lignite, many forms of biomass) containing 0.5-30 times as much water as the dry solids with O or air at 240-300/sup 0/C and 70-100 atmospheres. Sulfur in high S coal is oxidized selectively to SO/sub 4//sup -2/, and the heat to bring the combustible to the necessary temperature is supplied by burning part of the combustible itself. The residual solids (now 70-95% of the original fuel) are mechanically separated from all but 0.5-2 lb water. These solids come from the dewatering unit at a high pressure and may be passed, without loss of pressure or temperature to be gasified in conventional processes and gasifiers by partial oxidation.

Othmer, D.F.

1981-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

288

Apparatus for the processing of solid mixed waste containing radioactive and hazardous materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus for the continuous heating and melting of a solid mixed waste bearing radioactive and hazardous materials to form separate metallic, slag and gaseous phases for producing compact forms of the waste material to facilitate disposal includes a copper split water-cooled (cold) crucible as a reaction vessel for receiving the waste material. The waste material is heated by means of the combination oaf plasma torch directed into the open upper portion of the cold crucible and an electromagnetic flux produced by induction coils disposed about the crucible which is transparent to electromagnetic fields. A metallic phase of the waste material is formed in a lower portion of the crucible and is removed in the form of a compact ingot suitable for recycling and further processing. A glass-like, non-metallic slag phase containing radioactive elements is also formed in the crucible and flows out of the open upper portion of the crucible into a slag ingot mold for disposal. The decomposition products of the organic and toxic materials are incinerated and converted to environmentally safe gases in the melter.

Gotovchikov, Vitaly T. (Moscow, RU); Ivanov, Alexander V. (Moscow, RU); Filippov, Eugene A. (Moscow, RU)

1999-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

289

Apparatus for the processing of solid mixed waste containing radioactive and hazardous materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus for the continuous heating and melting of a solid mixed waste bearing radioactive and hazardous materials to form separate metallic, slag and gaseous phases for producing compact forms of the waste material to facilitate disposal includes a copper split water-cooled (cold) crucible as a reaction vessel for receiving the waste material. The waste material is heated by means of the combination of a plasma torch directed into the open upper portion of the cold crucible and an electromagnetic flux produced by induction coils disposed about the crucible which is transparent to electromagnetic fields. A metallic phase of the waste material is formed in a lower portion of the crucible and is removed in the form of a compact ingot suitable for recycling and further processing. A glass-like, non-metallic slag phase containing radioactive elements is also formed in the crucible and flows out of the open upper portion of the crucible into a slag ingot mold for disposal. The decomposition products of the organic and toxic materials are incinerated and converted to environmentally safe gases in the melter. 6 figs.

Gotovchikov, V.T.; Ivanov, A.V.; Filippov, E.A.

1999-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

290

Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 1, Report text  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides data for use in evaluating the proven technologies and combinations of technologies that might be considered for managing municipal solid waste (MSW). It covers five major methods for MSW management in common use today: Landfilling; Mass combustion for energy recovery; Production of refuse-derived fuel (RDF); Collection/separation of recyclables; and Composting. It also provides information on three MSW management technologies that are not widely used at present: Anaerobic digestion; Cofiring of MSW with coal; and Gasification/pyrolysis. To the extent possible with available reliable data, the report presents information for each proven MSW technology on: Net energy balances; Environmental releases; and Economics. In addition to data about individual operations, the report presents net energy balances and inventories of environmental releases from selected combined MSW management strategies that use two or more separate operations. The scope of the report extends from the waste`s origin (defined as the point at which the waste is set out for collection), through transportation and processing operations, to its final disposition (e.g., recycling and remanufacturing, combustion, or landfilling operations). Data for all operations are presented on a consistent basis: one (1) ton of municipal (i.e., residential, commercial, and institutional) waste at the collection point. Selection of an MSW management plan may be influenced by many factors, in addition to the technical performance and economics of each option.

Not Available

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

A comparison of municipal solid waste management in Berlin and Singapore  

SciTech Connect

A comparative analysis of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) in Singapore and Berlin was carried out in order to identify its current status, and highlight the prevailing conditions of MSWM. An overview of the various aspects of MSWM in these two cities is provided, with emphasis on comparing the legal, technical, and managerial aspects of MSW. Collection systems and recycling practiced with respect to the involvement of the government and the private sector, are also presented. Over last two decades, the city of Berlin has made impressive progress with respect to its waste management. The amounts of waste have declined significantly, and at the same time the proportion that could be recovered and recycled has increased. In contrast, although Singapore's recycling rate has been increasing over the past few years, rapid economic and population growth as well as change in consumption patterns in this city-state has caused waste generation to continue to increase. Landfilling of MSW plays minor role in both cities, one due to geography (Singapore) and the other due to legislative prohibition (Berlin). Consequently, both in Singapore and Berlin, waste is increasingly being used as a valuable resource and great efforts have been made for the development of incineration technology and energy recovery, as well as climate protection.

Zhang Dongqing, E-mail: dqzhang@ntu.edu.s [DHI-NTU Centre, Nanyang Environment and Water Research Institute, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Keat, Tan Soon [Maritime Research Centre, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Gersberg, Richard M. [Graduate School of Public Health, San Diego State University, Hardy Tower 119, 5500 Campanile, San Diego CA 92182-4162 (United States)

2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

292

Transuranic solid waste management research programs. Progress report, January--June 1975  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Tests continued to evaluate less costly fiber drums as alternate storage containers for low-level wastes. Tests completed to date indicated that the factory-applied fire retardants were not satisfactory; however, investigations of more promising coatings have been undertaken. The fiber drums were more satisfactory in other aspects. Expanded laboratory and field radiolysis experiments were performed. These were accompanied by investigations of H/sub 2/ diffusion through common waste packaging materials and through Los Alamos soil. Radiolysis studies were also initiated on wastes typical of Mound Laboratory. All results to date show that while H/sub 2/ is being slowly generated, the quantities are not excessive and should diffuse rapidly away. Construction of the TDF facility began and was 14 percent complete at the end of this reporting period. The incinerator was received, installed and checked out, and is operational. Additional specifications were developed and equipment procurement continued. Progress is reported on development of a system for evaluating radioactively contaminated solid waste burial sites. Source term data are summarized for some Los Alamos areas along with waste composition and configuration considerations. Physical and biotic transport pathways are discussed and development of modeling methods for projecting the environmental fate of transuranic materials is detailed.

Not Available

1976-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Municipal solid waste management in Africa: Strategies and livelihoods in Yaounde, Cameroon  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper provides an overview of the state of municipal solid waste (MSW) management in the capital of Cameroon, Yaounde, and suggests some possible solutions for its improvement. The institutional, financial, and physical aspects of MSW management, as well as the livelihoods of the population, were analyzed. Our study revealed that distances and lack of infrastructure have a major impact on waste collection. Garbage bins are systematically mentioned as the primary infrastructure needed by the population in all quarters, whether it be a high or low standard community. The construction of transfer stations and the installation of garbage bins are suggested as a solution to reduce distances between households and garbage bins, thus improving waste collection vehicle accessibility. Transfer stations and garbage bins would enable the official waste collection company to expand its range of services and significantly improve waste collection rates. Several transfer stations have already been set up by non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and community-based organizations (CBOs), but they require technical, institutional and funding support. Research is needed on the quality and safety of community-made compost, as well as on soil fertility in urban and peri-urban areas. Most of the stakeholders, municipalities, the official waste collection company and households acknowledge the need for better monitoring and regulation of MSW management. The urban community of Yaounde also needs to maintain its support of MSW management and promote the sustainability of NGOs and CBOs operating in underserved areas not yet covered by adequate infrastructures. A major opportunity for implementation of such waste policy is the heavily indebted poor countries (HIPC) program dedicated to urban planning and good governance.

Parrot, Laurent [Centre de Cooperation Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Developpement (CIRAD), Montpellier 34398 Cedex 5 (France)], E-mail: laurent.parrot@cirad.fr; Sotamenou, Joel; Dia, Bernadette Kamgnia [University of Yaounde II - Soa, Faculty of Economics and Management, P.O. Box 1365, Yaounde (Cameroon)

2009-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

294

Dry-thermophilic anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste: Methane production modeling  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Methane generation may be modeled by means of modified product generation model of Romero Garcia (1991). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Organic matter content and particle size influence the kinetic parameters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Higher organic matter content and lower particle size enhance the biomethanization. - Abstract: The influence of particle size and organic matter content of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) in the overall kinetics of dry (30% total solids) thermophilic (55 Degree-Sign C) anaerobic digestion have been studied in a semi-continuous stirred tank reactor (SSTR). Two types of wastes were used: synthetic OFMSW (average particle size of 1 mm; 0.71 g Volatile Solids/g waste), and OFMSW coming from a composting full scale plant (average particle size of 30 mm; 0.16 g Volatile Solids/g waste). A modification of a widely-validated product-generation kinetic model has been proposed. Results obtained from the modified-model parameterization at steady-state (that include new kinetic parameters as K, Y{sub pMAX} and {theta}{sub MIN}) indicate that the features of the feedstock strongly influence the kinetics of the process. The overall specific growth rate of microorganisms ({mu}{sub max}) with synthetic OFMSW is 43% higher compared to OFMSW coming from a composting full scale plant: 0.238 d{sup -1} (K = 1.391 d{sup -1}; Y{sub pMAX} = 1.167 L CH{sub 4}/gDOC{sub c}; {theta}{sub MIN} = 7.924 days) vs. 0.135 d{sup -1} (K = 1.282 d{sup -1}; Y{sub pMAX} = 1.150 L CH{sub 4}/gDOC{sub c}; {theta}{sub MIN} = 9.997 days) respectively. Finally, it could be emphasized that the validation of proposed modified-model has been performed successfully by means of the simulation of non-steady state data for the different SRTs tested with each waste.

Fdez-Gueelfo, L.A., E-mail: alberto.fdezguelfo@uca.es [Department of Chemical Engineering and Food Technology, Faculty of Science, University of Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Alvarez-Gallego, C. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Food Technology, Faculty of Science, University of Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Sales, D. [Department of Environmental Technologies, Faculty of Marine and Environmental Sciences, University of Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Romero Garcia, L.I. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Food Technology, Faculty of Science, University of Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

295

Fuzzy multicriteria disposal method and site selection for municipal solid waste  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The use of fuzzy multiple criteria analysis (MCA) in solid waste management has the advantage of rendering subjective and implicit decision making more objective and analytical, with its ability to accommodate both quantitative and qualitative data. In this paper a modified fuzzy TOPSIS methodology is proposed for the selection of appropriate disposal method and site for municipal solid waste (MSW). Our method is superior to existing methods since it has capability of representing vague qualitative data and presenting all possible results with different degrees of membership. In the first stage of the proposed methodology, a set of criteria of cost, reliability, feasibility, pollution and emission levels, waste and energy recovery is optimized to determine the best MSW disposal method. Landfilling, composting, conventional incineration, and refuse-derived fuel (RDF) combustion are the alternatives considered. The weights of the selection criteria are determined by fuzzy pairwise comparison matrices of Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). It is found that RDF combustion is the best disposal method alternative for Istanbul. In the second stage, the same methodology is used to determine the optimum RDF combustion plant location using adjacent land use, climate, road access and cost as the criteria. The results of this study illustrate the importance of the weights on the various factors in deciding the optimized location, with the best site located in Catalca. A sensitivity analysis is also conducted to monitor how sensitive our model is to changes in the various criteria weights.

Ekmekcioglu, Mehmet, E-mail: meceng3584@yahoo.co [Istanbul Technical University, Department of Management Engineering, 34367 Macka, Istanbul (Turkey); Kaya, Tolga [Istanbul Technical University, Department of Management Engineering, 34367 Macka, Istanbul (Turkey); Kahraman, Cengiz [Istanbul Technical University, Department of Industrial Engineering, 34367 Macka, Istanbul (Turkey)

2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

296

Municipal solid waste source-separated collection in China: A comparative analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A pilot program focusing on municipal solid waste (MSW) source-separated collection was launched in eight major cities throughout China in 2000. Detailed investigations were carried out and a comprehensive system was constructed to evaluate the effects of the eight-year implementation in those cities. This paper provides an overview of different methods of collection, transportation, and treatment of MSW in the eight cities; as well as making a comparative analysis of MSW source-separated collection in China. Information about the quantity and composition of MSW shows that the characteristics of MSW are similar, which are low calorific value, high moisture content and high proportion of organisms. Differences which exist among the eight cities in municipal solid waste management (MSWM) are presented in this paper. Only Beijing and Shanghai demonstrated a relatively effective result in the implementation of MSW source-separated collection. While the six remaining cities result in poor performance. Considering the current status of MSWM, source-separated collection should be a key priority. Thus, a wider range of cities should participate in this program instead of merely the eight pilot cities. It is evident that an integrated MSWM system is urgently needed. Kitchen waste and recyclables are encouraged to be separated at the source. Stakeholders involved play an important role in MSWM, thus their responsibilities should be clearly identified. Improvement in legislation, coordination mechanisms and public education are problematic issues that need to be addressed.

Tai Jun [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Urbanization and Ecological Restoration, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Shanghai Environmental Engineering Design Research Institute, Shanghai 200232 (China); Zhang Weiqian [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Urbanization and Ecological Restoration, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Che Yue, E-mail: yche@des.ecnu.edu.cn [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Urbanization and Ecological Restoration, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Feng Di [Shanghai Environmental Engineering Design Research Institute, Shanghai 200232 (China)

2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

297

An Economic Assessment of Market-Based Approaches to Regulating the Municipal Solid Waste Stream  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in id. ). The number of mixed waste processing facilitiesWaste separation occurs at mixed waste processing facilitiesban disposal of yard waste in mixed refuse. Variable Rate

Menell, Peter S.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Converting Simulated Sodium-bearing Waste into a Single Solid Waste Form by Evaporation: Laboratory- and Pilot-Scale Test Results on Recycling Evaporator Overheads  

SciTech Connect

Conversion of Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory radioactive sodium-bearing waste into a single solid waste form by evaporation was demonstrated in both flask-scale and pilot-scale agitated thin film evaporator tests. A sodium-bearing waste simulant was adjusted to represent an evaporator feed in which the acid from the distillate is concentrated, neutralized, and recycled back through the evaporator. The advantage to this flowsheet is that a single remote-handled transuranic waste form is produced in the evaporator bottoms without the generation of any low-level mixed secondary waste. However, use of a recycle flowsheet in sodium-bearing waste evaporation results in a 50% increase in remote-handled transuranic volume in comparison to a non-recycle flowsheet.

Griffith, D.; D. L. Griffith; R. J. Kirkham; L. G. Olson; S. J. Losinski

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Waste management health risk assessment: A case study of a solid waste landfill in South Italy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An integrated risk assessment study has been performed in an area within 5 km from a landfill that accepts non hazardous waste. The risk assessment was based on measured emissions and maximum chronic population exposure, for both children and adults, to contaminated air, some foods and soil. The toxic effects assessed were limited to the main known carcinogenic compounds emitted from landfills coming both from landfill gas torch combustion (e.g., dioxins, furans and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs) and from diffusive emissions (vinyl chloride monomer, VCM). Risk assessment has been performed both for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effects. Results indicate that cancer and non-cancer effects risk (hazard index, HI) are largely below the values accepted from the main international agencies (e.g., WHO, US EPA) and national legislation ( and ).

Davoli, E., E-mail: enrico.davoli@marionegri.i [Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche 'Mario Negri', Environmental Health Sciences Department, Via Giuseppe La Masa 19, 20156 Milano (Italy); Fattore, E.; Paiano, V.; Colombo, A.; Palmiotto, M. [Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche 'Mario Negri', Environmental Health Sciences Department, Via Giuseppe La Masa 19, 20156 Milano (Italy); Rossi, A.N.; Il Grande, M. [Progress S.r.l., Via Nicola A. Porpora 147, 20131 Milano (Italy); Fanelli, R. [Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche 'Mario Negri', Environmental Health Sciences Department, Via Giuseppe La Masa 19, 20156 Milano (Italy)

2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

300

Municipal solid waste management: A bibliography of US Department of Energy contractor reports through 1993  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

US Department of Energy contractors continue to conduct research targeting the productive and responsible use of the more than 536,000 tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) that is generated each day in the United States. It is becoming more and more prudent to improve current methods of MSW management and to continue to search for additional cost-effective, energy-efficient means to manage our MSW resource. This bibliography is an updated version of Municipal Waste to Energy: An Annotated Bibliography of US Department of Energy Contractor Reports, by Caroline Brooks, published in 1987. Like its predecessor, this bibliography provides information about technical reports on energy from municipal waste that were prepared under grants or contracts from the US Department of Energy. The reports listed focus on energy from municipal waste technologies and energy conservation in wastewater treatment. The bibliography contains three indexes -- an author index, a subject index, and a title index. The reports are listed alphabetically in the subject areas and may appear under more than one subject. All of the reports cited in the original MSW bibliography are also included in this update. The number of copies of each report originally published varied according to anticipated public demand. However, all reports are available in either microfiche or hard copy form and may be ordered from the National Technical Information Service (NTIS), US Department of Commerce, Springfield, VA 22161. Explicit information on ordering reports is included in Appendix A.

Shepherd, P.

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "1municipal solid waste" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Energy Recovery from Solid Waste for Small Cities - Has the Time Really Come?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The City of Longview, Texas is evaluating modular, two stage incineration with waste heat recovery to produce steam for sale to industrial consumers. An envisioned 150 tpd waste disposal facility would serve the area population of approximately 100,000. Estimates for operating cost and steam conversion efficiency were based on historical data obtained from a similar facility located in Salem, Virginia. The total projected break-even cost in 1982 for production of 150 psig saturated steam for a completely consumptive use was $7.95 per 1000 lb. The projected break-even cost in 1982 for 600 psi steam superheated to 700 deg. F for a consumptive use was $8.72 per 1000 lb. excluding the cost of water deionization facilities. These costs compare favorably with projected costs of steam production using natural gas as a boiler fuel but are not competitive when compared to use of locally available lignite. The results indicate that the time has come for smaller cities with a potential for industrial steam sales to consider energy recovery from solid waste using modular, two stage incinerations with waste heat recovery.

Winn, W. T., Jr.; Paxton, W.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Maximization of revenues for power sales from a solid waste resources recovery facility  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The report discusses the actual implementation of the best alternative in selling electrical power generated by an existing waste-to-energy facility, the Metro-Dade County Resources Recovery Plant. After the plant processes and extracts various products out of the municipal solid waste, it burns it to produce electrical power. The price for buying power to satisfy the internal needs of our Resources Recovery Facility (RRF) is substantially higher than the power price for selling electricity to any other entity. Therefore, without any further analysis, it was decided to first satisfy those internal needs and then export the excess power. Various alternatives were thoroughly explored as to what to do with the excess power. Selling power to the power utilities or utilizing the power in other facilities were the primary options.

Not Available

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Application of thermogravimetric analysis to study the thermal degradation of solid and liquid organic wastes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this work, the thermolysis of composite binary mixtures of refinery or coal-processing waste with waste biomass and D-grade (long-flame) coal was analyzed in order to increase the efficiency of the cothermolysis of chemically different organic wastes mainly because of the synergism of the thermolysis of mixture components and, correspondingly, the selectivity of formation of high-quality by-products (solid, gaseous, or liquid). A new approach to the analysis of thermogravimetric data was proposed and developed as applied to complex binary mixtures of carbon-containing materials. This approach was based on (1) the preliminary separation of the thermal degradation of individual carbon-containing mixture components into individual structural constituents and (2) the monitoring of the conversion of each particular structure fragment as a constituent of the mixtures in the course of the cothermolysis of the mixtures of starting components. Based on the approach developed, data on the main synergism effects in the course of cothermolysis in the binary test systems were obtained: the temperature regions of the appearance of these effects were distinguished, the main conclusions were made with respect to particular structure fragments in complex organic wastes responsible for the interaction of components in composite systems, and the directions (positive or negative) of changes in the yields of solid by-products and the degrees of effects (difference between the yields of cothermolysis by-products in each particular region of the appearance of synergistic effects in the systems) were determined. Additionally, the influence of alkali metal carbonate additives on synergistic effects in the interaction between binary system components under the process conditions of cothermolysis was analyzed.

E.S. Lygina; A.F. Dmitruk; S.B. Lyubchik; V.F. Tret'yakov [Tugan-Baranovsky State University of Economy and Trade, Donetsk (Ukraine)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Assessment of municipal solid waste for energy production in the western United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Municipal solid waste (MSW) represents both a significant problem and an abundant resource for the production of energy. The residential, institutional, and industrial sectors of this country generate about 250 million tons of MSW each year. In this report, the authors have compiled data on the status of MSW in the 13-state western region, including economic and environmental issues. The report is designed to assist the members of the Western Regional Biomass Energy Program Ad Hoc Resource Committee in determining the potential for using MSW to produce energy in the region. 51 refs., 7 figs., 18 tabs.

Goodman, B.J.; Texeira, R.H.

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Evaluation of Energy Recovery from Municipal Solid Waste in Oil-Fired Power Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Five methods of energy recovery from municipal solid waste (MSW) in oil-fired power plants are evaluated: preparation and supplemental firing of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) with oil in a utility boiler originally designed for coal firing; 100% firing of either RDF or MSW in a dedicated water-wall incinerator and use of the steam to drive a dedicated turbine generator unit; and 100% firing of RDF or MSW in a dedicated water-wall incinerator and integration of the steam into the power plant steam cycle.

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Energy recovery from municipal solid waste, an environmental and safety mini-overview survey  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The environmental and safety aspects of processing municipal solid wastes to recover energy and materials are reviewed in some detail. The state of the art in energy recovery, energy potential for the near and long-term, and constraints to commercialization are discussed. Under the environmental and safety aspects the state of the art, need for research and development, and need for coordination among federal agencies and private industry are considered. Eleven principal types of refuse-to-energy processes are described and a projected energy balance is derived for each process. (JSR)

Johnson, R.L.

1976-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Process for converting sodium nitrate-containing, caustic liquid radioactive wastes to solid insoluble products  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for converting sodium nitrate-containing, caustic, radioactive wastes to a solid, relatively insoluble, thermally stable form is provided and comprises the steps of reacting powdered aluminum silicate clay, e.g., kaolin, bentonite, dickite, halloysite, pyrophyllite, etc., with the sodium nitrate-containing radioactive wastes which have a caustic concentration of about 3 to 7 M at a temperature of 30.degree. C to 100.degree. C to thereby entrap the dissolved radioactive salts in the aluminosilicate matrix. In one embodiment the sodium nitrate-containing, caustic, radioactive liquid waste, such as neutralized Purex-type waste, or salts or oxide produced by evaporation or calcination of these liquid wastes (e.g., anhydrous salt cake) is converted at a temperature within the range of 30.degree. C to 100.degree. C to the solid mineral form-cancrinite having an approximate chemical formula 2(NaAlSiO.sub.4) .sup.. xSalt.sup.. y H.sub.2 O with x = 0.52 and y = 0.68 when the entrapped salt is NaNO.sub.3. In another embodiment the sodium nitrate-containing, caustic, radioactive liquid is reacted with the powdered aluminum silicate clay at a temperature within the range of 30.degree. C to 100.degree. C, the resulting reaction product is air dried eitheras loose powder or molded shapes (e.g., bricks) and then fired at a temperature of at least 600.degree. C to form the solid mineral form-nepheline which has the approximate chemical formula of NaAlSiO.sub.4. The leach rate of the entrapped radioactive salts with distilled water is reduced essentially to that of the aluminosilicate lattice which is very low, e.g., in the range of 10.sup.-.sup.2 to 10.sup.-.sup.4 g/cm.sup.2 -- day for cancrinite and 10.sup.-.sup.3 to 10.sup.-.sup.5 g/cm.sup.2 -- day for nepheline.

Barney, Gary S. (Richland, WA); Brownell, Lloyd E. (Richland, WA)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Feasibility study for thermal treatment of solid tire wastes in Bangladesh by using pyrolysis technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study on the basis of lab data and available resources in Bangladesh, feasibility study has been carried out for pyrolysis process converting solid tire wastes into pyrolysis oils, solid char and gases. The process considered for detailed analysis was fixed-bed fire-tube heating pyrolysis reactor system. The comparative techno-economic assessment was carried out in US$ for three different sizes plants: medium commercial scale (144 tons/day), small commercial scale (36 tons/day), pilot scale (3.6 tons/day). The assessment showed that medium commercial scale plant was economically feasible, with the lowest unit production cost than small commercial and pilot scale plants for the production of crude pyrolysis oil that could be used as boiler fuel oil and for the production of upgraded liquid-products.

Islam, M.R., E-mail: mrislam1985@yahoo.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Rajshahi University of Engineering and Technology, Rajshahi 6204 (Bangladesh); Joardder, M.U.H.; Hasan, S.M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Rajshahi University of Engineering and Technology, Rajshahi 6204 (Bangladesh); Takai, K.; Haniu, H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University Corporation Kitami Institute of Technology, 165 Koen-cho, Kitami City, Hokkaido 090-8507 (Japan)

2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

309

Methanogenic Population Dynamics during Start-Up of Anaerobic Digesters Treating Municipal Solid Waste  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract: An aggressive start-up strategy was used to initiate codigestion in two anaerobic, continuously mixed bench-top reactors at mesophilic (37°C) and thermophilic (55°C) conditions. The digesters were inoculated with mesophilic anaerobic sewage sludge and cattle manure and were fed a mixture of simulated municipal solid waste and biosolids in proportions that reflect U.S. production rates. The design organic loading rate was 3.1 kg volatile solids/m 3 /day and the retention time was 20 days. Ribosomal RNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes were used to determine the methanogenic community structure in the inocula and the digesters. Chemical analyses were performed to evaluate digester performance. The aggressive start-up strategy was successful for the thermophilic reactor, despite the use of a

Biosolids; Matt E. Griffin; Katherine D. Mcmahon; Roderick I. Mackie; Lutgarde Raskin

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

SOLID WASTE INTEGRATED FORECAST TECHNICAL (SWIFT) REPORT FY2005 THRU FY2035 2005.0 VOLUME 2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides up-to-date life cycle information about the radioactive solid waste expected to be managed by Hanford's Waste Management (WM) Project from onsite and offsite generators. It includes: (1) an overview of Hanford-wide solid waste to be managed by the WM Project; (2) multi-level and waste class-specific estimates; (3) background information on waste sources; and (4) comparisons to previous forecasts and other national data sources. The focus of this report is low-level waste (LLW), mixed low-level waste (MLLW), and transuranic waste, both non-mixed and mixed (TRU(M)). Some details on hazardous waste are also provided, however, this information is not considered comprehensive. This report includes data requested in December, 2004 with updates through March 31,2005. The data represent a life cycle forecast covering all reported activities from FY2005 through the end of each program's life cycle and are an update of the previous FY2004.1 data version.

BARCOT, R.A.

2005-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

311

COMPACTING BIOMASS AND MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTES TO FORM AND UPGRADED FUEL  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Biomass waste materials exist in large quantity in every city and in numerous industrial plants such as wood processing plants and waste paper collection centers. Through minimum processing, such waste materials can be turned into a solid fuel for combustion at existing coal-fired power plants. Use of such biomass fuel reduces the amount of coal used, and hence reduces the greenhouse effect and global warming, while at the same time it reduces the use of land for landfill and the associated problems. The carbon-dioxide resulting from burning biomass fuel is recycled through plant growth and hence does not contribute to global warming. Biomass fuel also contains little sulfur and hence does not contribute to acid rain problems. Notwithstanding the environmental desirability of using biomass waste materials, not much of them are used currently due to the need to densify the waste materials and the high cost of conventional methods of densification such as pelletizing and briquetting. The purpose of this project was to test a unique new method of biomass densification developed from recent research in coal log pipeline (CLP). The new method can produce large agglomerates of biomass materials called ''biomass logs'' which are more than 100 times larger and 30% denser than conventional ''pellets'' or ''briquettes''. The Phase I project was to perform extensive laboratory tests and an economic analysis to determine the technical and economic feasibility of the biomass log fuel (BLF). A variety of biomass waste materials, including wood processing residues such as sawdust, mulch and chips of various types of wood, combustibles that are found in municipal solid waste stream such as paper, plastics and textiles, energy crops including willows and switch grass, and yard waste including tree trimmings, fallen leaves, and lawn grass, were tested by using this new compaction technology developed at Capsule Pipeline Research Center (CPRC), University of Missouri-Columbia (MU). The compaction conditions, including compaction pressure, pressure holding time, back pressure, moisture content, particle size and shape, piston and mold geometry and roughness, and binder for the materials were studied and optimized. The properties of the compacted products--biomass logs--were evaluated in terms of physical, mechanical, and combustion characteristics. An economic analysis of this technology for anticipated future commercial operations was performed. It was found that the compaction pressure and the moisture content of the biomass materials are critical for producing high-quality biomass logs. For most biomass materials, dense and strong logs can be produced under room temperature without binder and at a pressure of 70 MPa (10,000 psi), approximately. A few types of the materials tested such as sawdust and grass need a minimum pressure of 100 MPa (15,000 psi) in order to produce good logs. The appropriate moisture range for compacting waste paper into good logs is 5-20%, and the optimum moisture is in the neighborhood of 13%. For the woody materials and yard waste, the appropriate moisture range is narrower: 5-13%, and the optimum is 8-9%. The compacted logs have a dry density of 0.8 to 1.0 g/cm{sup 3}, corresponding to a wet density of 0.9 to 1.1 g/cm{sup 3}, approximately. The logs have high strength and high resistance to impact and abrasion, but are feeble to water and hence need to be protected from water or rain. They also have good long-term performance under normal environmental conditions, and can be stored for a long time without significant deterioration. Such high-density and high-strength logs not only facilitate handling, transportation, and storage, but also increase the energy content of biomass per unit volume. After being transported to power plants and crushed, the biomass logs can be co-fired with coal to generate electricity.

Henry Liu; Yadong Li

2000-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Municipal solid waste management challenges in developing countries - Kenyan case study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper provides an overview of the state of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) by local authorities in Kenya as a case study of a low-income developing country. Approaches of possible solutions that can be undertaken to improve municipal solid waste (MSW) services are discussed. Poor economic growth (1.1% in 1993) has resulted in an increase in the poverty level which presently stands at 56%. Migration from the rural areas to the urban areas has resulted in unplanned settlements in suburban areas accommodating about 60% of the urban population on only 5% urban land area. Political interference also hampers smooth running of local authorities. Vulnerability of pollution of surface and groundwater is high because local authorities rarely considered environmental impact in siting MSW disposal sites. Illegal dumping of MSW on the river banks or on the roadside poses environmental and economic threats on nearby properties. Poor servicing of MSW collection vehicles, poor state of infrastructure and the lack of adequate funding militate against optimization of MSW disposal service. The rural economy needs to be improved if rural-urban migration is to be managed. Involvement of stakeholders is important to achieve any meaningful and sustainable MSWM. The role of the informal sector through community-based organizations (CBOs), Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and the private sector in offering solutions towards improvement of MSWM also is explored.

Henry, Rotich K. [College of Environment and Resources, Jilin University, Changchun 130026 (China); Zhao Yongsheng [College of Environment and Resources, Jilin University, Changchun 130026 (China)]. E-mail: zhaoyongsheng@jlu.edu.cn; Dong Jun [College of Environment and Resources, Jilin University, Changchun 130026 (China)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Two-phase anaerobic digestion within a solid waste/wastewater integrated management system  

SciTech Connect

A two-phase, wet anaerobic digestion process was tested at laboratory scale using mechanically pre-treated municipal solid waste (MSW) as the substrate. The proposed process scheme differs from others due to the integration of the MSW and wastewater treatment cycles, which makes it possible to avoid the recirculation of process effluent. The results obtained show that the supplying of facultative biomass, drawn from the wastewater aeration tank, to the solid waste acidogenic reactor allows an improvement of the performance of the first phase of the process which is positively reflected on the second one. The proposed process performed successfully, adopting mesophilic conditions and a relatively short hydraulic retention time in the methanogenic reactor, as well as high values of organic loading rate. Significant VS removal efficiency and biogas production were achieved. Moreover, the methanogenic reactor quickly reached optimal conditions for a stable methanogenic phase. Studies conducted elsewhere also confirm the feasibility of integrating the treatment of the organic fraction of MSW with that of wastewater.

De Gioannis, G. [DIGITA, Department of Geoengineering and Environmental Technologies, University of Cagliari, Piazza D'Armi 09123 Cagliari (Italy); Diaz, L.F. [CalRecovery, Inc., 2454 Stanwell Drive, Concord, California 94520 (United States); Muntoni, A. [DIGITA, Department of Geoengineering and Environmental Technologies, University of Cagliari, Piazza D'Armi 09123 Cagliari (Italy)], E-mail: amuntoni@unica.it; Pisanu, A. [DIGITA, Department of Geoengineering and Environmental Technologies, University of Cagliari, Piazza D'Armi 09123 Cagliari (Italy)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Characterization of Secondary Solid Wastes in Trench Water in Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project was undertaken to demonstrate that new liquid waste streams, generated as a consequence of closure activities at Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6 and other sites, can be treated at the existing wastewater treatment facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to meet discharge requirements without producing hazardous secondary solid wastes. Previous bench and pilot-scale treatability studies have shown that ORNL treatment operations will adequately remove the contaminants and that the secondary solid wastes produced were not hazardous when treating water from two trenches in WAG 6. This study used WAG 6 trench water spiked with the minimum concentration of Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP) constituents (chemicals that can make a waste hazardous) found in any groundwater samples at ORNL. The Wastewater Treatment Test Facility (WTTF), a 0.5 L/min pilot plant that simulates the treatment capabilities of the Process Waste Treatment Plant (PWPT) and Nonradiological Wastewater Treatment Plant (NRWTP), was used for this test. This test system, which is able to produce secondary wastes in the quantities necessary for TCLP testing, was operated for a 59-d test period with a minimum of problems and downtime. The pilot plant operating data verified that WAG 6 trench waters, spiked with the minimum concentration of TCLP contaminants measured to date, can be treated at the PWTP and NRWTP to meet current discharge limits. The results of the TCLP analysis indicated that none of the secondary solid wastes produced during the treatment of these wastewaters will be considered hazardous as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

Taylor, P.A.; Kent, T.E.

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Integrated municipal solid waste treatment using a grate furnace incinerator: The Indaver case  

SciTech Connect

An integrated installation for treatment of municipal solid waste and comparable waste from industrial origin is described. It consists of three grate furnace lines with flue gas treatment by half-wet scrubbing followed by wet scrubbing, and an installation for wet treatment of bottom ash. It is demonstrated that this integrated installation combines high recovery of energy (40.8% net) with high materials recovery. The following fractions were obtained after wet treatment of the bottom ash: ferrous metals, non-ferrous metals, three granulate fractions with different particle sizes, and sludge. The ferrous and non-ferrous metal fractions can both be recycled as high quality raw materials; the two larger particle size particle fractions can be applied as secondary raw materials in building applications; the sand fraction can be used for applications on a landfill; and the sludge is landfilled. For all components of interest, emissions to air are below the limit values. The integrated grate furnace installation is characterised by zero wastewater discharge and high occupational safety. Moreover, with the considered installation, major pollutants, such as PCDD/PCDF, Hg and iodine-136 are to a large extent removed from the environment and concentrated in a small residual waste stream (flue gas cleaning residue), which can be landfilled after stabilisation.

Vandecasteele, C. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, De Croylaan 46, 3001 Leuven (Belgium)], E-mail: carlo.vandecasteele@cit.kuleuven.be; Wauters, G. [Indaver, Dijle 17a, 2800 Mechelen (Belgium); Arickx, S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, De Croylaan 46, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Jaspers, M. [Indaver, Dijle 17a, 2800 Mechelen (Belgium); Van Gerven, T. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, De Croylaan 46, 3001 Leuven (Belgium)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Modelling of environmental impacts of solid waste landfilling within the life-cycle analysis program EASEWASTE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new computer-based life-cycle assessment model (EASEWASTE) has been developed to evaluate resource and environmental consequences of solid waste management systems. This paper describes the landfilling sub-model used in the life-cycle assessment program EASEWASTE, and examines some of the implications of this sub-model. All quantities and concentrations of leachate and landfill gas can be modified by the user in order to bring them in agreement with the actual landfill that is assessed by the model. All emissions, except the generation of landfill gas, are process specific. The landfill gas generation is calculated on the basis of organic matter in the landfilled waste. A landfill assessment example is provided. For this example, the normalised environmental effects of landfill gas on global warming and photochemical smog are much greater than the environmental effects for landfill leachate or for landfill construction. A sensitivity analysis for this example indicates that the overall environmental impact is sensitive to the gas collection efficiency and the use of the gas, but not to the amount of leachate generated, or the amount of soil or liner material used in construction. The landfill model can be used for evaluating different technologies with different liners, gas and leachate collection efficiencies, and to compare the environmental consequences of landfilling with alternative waste treatment options such as incineration or anaerobic digestion.

Kirkeby, Janus T.; Birgisdottir, Harpa [Environment and Resources, Technical University of Denmark, DTU, Building 113, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Bhander, Gurbakash Singh; Hauschild, Michael [Department of Manufacturing Engineering and Management, Technical University of Denmark, Building 424, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Christensen, Thomas H. [Environment and Resources, Technical University of Denmark, DTU, Building 113, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)], E-mail: thc@er.dtu.dk

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Solid Waste Operations Complex W-113, Detail Design Report (Title II). Volume 4: Project cost estimate  

SciTech Connect

The Solid Waste Retrieval Facility--Phase 1 (Project W113) will provide the infrastructure and the facility required to retrieve from Trench 04, Burial ground 4C, contact handled (CH) drums and boxes at a rate that supports all retrieved TRU waste batching, treatment, storage, and disposal plans. This includes (1) operations related equipment and facilities, viz., a weather enclosure for the trench, retrieval equipment, weighing, venting, obtaining gas samples, overpacking, NDE, NDA, shipment of waste and (2) operations support related facilities, viz., a general office building, a retrieval staff change facility, and infrastructure upgrades such as supply and routing of water, sewer, electrical power, fire protection, roads, and telecommunication. Title I design for the operations related equipment and facilities was performed by Raytheon/BNFL, and that for the operations support related facilities including infrastructure upgrade was performed by KEH. These two scopes were combined into an integrated W113 Title II scope that was performed by Raytheon/BNFL. This volume represents the total estimated costs for the W113 facility. Operating Contractor Management costs have been incorporated as received from WHC. The W113 Facility TEC is $19.7 million. This includes an overall project contingency of 14.4% and escalation of 17.4%. A January 2001 construction contract procurement start date is assumed.

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Solid Waste Operations Complex W-113, Detail Design Report (Title II). Volume 3: Specifications  

SciTech Connect

The Solid Waste Retrieval Facility--Phase 1 (Project W113) will provide the infrastructure and the facility required to retrieve from Trench 04, Burial ground 4C, contact handled (CH) drums and boxes at a rate that supports all retrieved TRU waste batching, treatment, storage, and disposal plans. This includes (1) operations related equipment and facilities, viz., a weather enclosure for the trench, retrieval equipment, weighing, venting, obtaining gas samples, overpacking, NDE, NDA, shipment of waste and (2) operations support related facilities, viz., a general office building, a retrieval staff change facility, and infrastructure upgrades such as supply and routing of water, sewer, electrical power, fire protection, roads, and telecommunication. Title I design for the operations related equipment and facilities was performed by Raytheon/BNFL, and that for the operations support related facilities including infrastructure upgrade was performed by KEH. These two scopes were combined into an integrated W113 Title II scope that was performed by Raytheon/BNFL. Volume 3 is a compilation of the construction specifications that will constitute the Title II materials and performance specifications. This volume contains CSI specifications for non-equipment related construction material type items, performance type items, and facility mechanical equipment items. Data sheets are provided, as necessary, which specify the equipment overall design parameters.

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

The use of FBC wastes in the reclamation of coal slurry solids. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1991  

SciTech Connect

Fluidized bed combustion (FBC) is a relatively new technology that is used commercially for the combustion of coal. In Illinois, this technology is valuable because it allows the combustion of Illinois high sulfur coal without pollution of the atmosphere with vast quantities of sulfur oxides. In FBC, coal is mixed with limestone or dolomite either before injection into the combustion chamber or in the combustion chamber. As the coal burns, sulfur in the coal is oxidized to SO{sub 2} and this is trapped by reaction with the limestone or dolomite to form gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O). Solid by-products from FBC are generally a mixture of calcium oxide, gypsum, coal ash, and unburned coal. The present research project is designed to provide initial data on one possible use of FBC waste. FBC wastes from five different locations in the Illinois are mixed with coal slurry solids from two different coal preparation plants at Illinois coal mines. In mixtures of FBC waste and coal slurry solids, the alkaline components of the FBC waste are expected to react with acid produced by the oxidation of pyrite in the coal slurry solid. An objective of this research is to determine the chemical composition of aqueous leachates from mixtures of FBC wastes, generated under various operating conditions, and the coal slurry solids. These data will be used in future research into the ability of such mixtures to support seed germination and plant growth. The ultimate of this and future research is to determine whether mixed FBC waste and coal slurry solids can be slurry pond reclamation.

Dreher, G.B.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

320

The Potential of Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Municipal Solid Waste: A Technical and Economic Evaluation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

woody and grass waste, cardboard, mixed paper and otherwastes Woody wastes Cardboard Mixed paper Digestibilitycontent, 44.9 (grass wastes) – 128.3 (mixed paper) gallon of

Shi, Jian; Ebrik, Mirvat; Yang, Bin; Wyman, Charles E.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "1municipal solid waste" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

An Economic Assessment of Market-Based Approaches to Regulating the Municipal Solid Waste Stream  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

generation of biofuel waste energy and increases the rate ofthe design and siting of waste to energy incinerators. Theregion is burned in waste-to-energy incineration facilities.

Menell, Peter S.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Application for a Permit to Operate a Class III Solid Waste Disposal Site at the Nevada National Security Site Area 5 Asbestiform Low-Level Solid Waste Disposal Site  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) is located approximately 105 km (65 mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) is the federal lands management authority for the NNSS and National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec) is the Management and Operations contractor. Access on and off the NNSS is tightly controlled, restricted, and guarded on a 24-hour basis. The NNSS is posted with signs along its entire perimeter. NSTec is the operator of all solid waste disposal sites on the NNSS. The Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) is the location of the permitted facility for the Solid Waste Disposal Site (SWDS). The Area 5 RWMS is located near the eastern edge of the NNSS (Figure 1), approximately 26 km (16 mi) north of Mercury, Nevada. The Area 5 RWMS is used for the disposal of low-level waste (LLW) and mixed low-level waste. Many areas surrounding the RWMS have been used in conducting nuclear tests. The site will be used for the disposal of regulated Asbestiform Low-Level Waste (ALLW), small quantities of low-level radioactive hydrocarbon-burdened (LLHB) media and debris, LLW, LLW that contains Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Bulk Product Waste greater than 50 ppm that leaches at a rate of less than 10 micrograms of PCB per liter of water, and small quantities of LLHB demolition and construction waste (hereafter called permissible waste). Waste containing free liquids, or waste that is regulated as hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) or state-of-generation hazardous waste regulations, will not be accepted for disposal at the site. Waste regulated under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) that will be accepted at the disposal site is regulated asbestos-containing materials (RACM) and PCB Bulk Product Waste greater than 50 ppm that leaches at a rate of less than 10 micrograms of PCB per liter of water. The term asbestiform is used throughout this document to describe RACM. The disposal site will be used as a depository of permissible waste generated both on site and off site. All generators designated by NNSA/NSO will be eligible to dispose regulated ALLW at the Asbestiform Low-Level Waste Disposal Site in accordance with the DOE/NV-325, Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSSWAC, current revision). Approval will be given by NNSA/NSO to generators that have successfully demonstrated through process knowledge (PK) and/or sampling and analysis that the waste is low-level, contains asbestiform material, or contains PCB Bulk Product Waste greater than 50 ppm that leaches at a rate of less than 10 micrograms of PCB per liter of water, or small quantities of LLHB demolition and construction waste and does not contain prohibited waste materials. Each waste stream will be approved through the Radioactive Waste Acceptance Program (RWAP), which ensures that the waste meets acceptance requirements outlined in the NNSSWAC.

NSTec Environmental Programs

2010-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

323

RD & D priorities for energy production and resource conservation from municipal solid waste  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report identifies research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) needs and priorities associated with municipal solid waste (MSW) management technologies that conserve or produce energy or resources. The changing character of MSW waste management and the public`s heightened awareness of its real and perceived benefits and costs creates opportunities for RD&D in MSW technologies. Increased recycling, for example, creates new opportunities for energy, chemicals, and materials recovery. New technologies to control and monitor emissions from MSW combustion facilities are available for further improvement or application. Furthermore, emerging waste-to-energy technologies may offer environmental, economic, and other advantages. Given these developments, DOE identified a need to assess the RD&D needs and pdodties and carefully target RD&D efforts to help solve the carbon`s waste management problem and further the National Energy Strategy. This report presents such an assessment. It identifies and Documents RD&D needs and priorities in the broad area of MSW resource . recovery, focusing on efforts to make MSW management technologies commercially viable or to improve their commercial deployment over a 5 to l0 year period. Panels of technical experts identifies 279 RD&D needs in 12 technology areas, ranking about one-fifth of these needs as priorities. A ``Peer Review Group`` identified mass-burn combustion, ``systems studies,`` landfill gas, and ash utilization and disposal as high priority areas for RD&D based on cost and the impacts of further RD&D. The results of this assessment are intended to provide guidance to DOE concerning possible future RD&D projects.

Not Available

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Comparing urban solid waste recycling from the viewpoint of urban metabolism based on physical input-output model: A case of Suzhou in China  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Impacts of solid waste recycling on Suzhou's urban metabolism in 2015 are analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sludge recycling for biogas is regarded as an accepted method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Technical levels of reusing scrap tires and food wastes should be improved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Other fly ash utilization methods should be exploited. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Secondary wastes from reusing food wastes and sludge should be concerned. - Abstract: Investigating impacts of urban solid waste recycling on urban metabolism contributes to sustainable urban solid waste management and urban sustainability. Using a physical input-output model and scenario analysis, urban metabolism of Suzhou in 2015 is predicted and impacts of four categories of solid waste recycling on urban metabolism are illustrated: scrap tire recycling, food waste recycling, fly ash recycling and sludge recycling. Sludge recycling has positive effects on reducing all material flows. Thus, sludge recycling for biogas is regarded as an accepted method. Moreover, technical levels of scrap tire recycling and food waste recycling should be improved to produce positive effects on reducing more material flows. Fly ash recycling for cement production has negative effects on reducing all material flows except solid wastes. Thus, other fly ash utilization methods should be exploited. In addition, the utilization and treatment of secondary wastes from food waste recycling and sludge recycling should be concerned.

Liang Sai, E-mail: liangsai09@gmail.com [School of Environment, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang Tianzhu, E-mail: zhangtz@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [School of Environment, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

325

One size fits all? An assessment tool for solid waste management at local and national levels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Waste management schemes are generally implemented at national or regional level. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Local conditions characteristics and constraints are often neglected. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We developed an economic model able to compare multi-level waste management options. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A detailed test case with real economic data and a best-fit scenario is described. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Most efficient schemes combine clear National directives with local level flexibility. - Abstract: As environmental awareness rises, integrated solid waste management (WM) schemes are increasingly being implemented all over the world. The different WM schemes usually address issues such as landfilling restrictions (mainly due to methane emissions and competing land use), packaging directives and compulsory recycling goals. These schemes are, in general, designed at a national or regional level, whereas local conditions and constraints are sometimes neglected. When national WM top-down policies, in addition to setting goals, also dictate the methods by which they are to be achieved, local authorities lose their freedom to optimize their operational WM schemes according to their specific characteristics. There are a myriad of implementation options at the local level, and by carrying out a bottom-up approach the overall national WM system will be optimal on economic and environmental scales. This paper presents a model for optimizing waste strategies at a local level and evaluates this effect at a national level. This is achieved by using a waste assessment model which enables us to compare both the economic viability of several WM options at the local (single municipal authority) level, and aggregated results for regional or national levels. A test case based on various WM approaches in Israel (several implementations of mixed and separated waste) shows that local characteristics significantly influence WM costs, and therefore the optimal scheme is one under which each local authority is able to implement its best-fitting mechanism, given that national guidelines are kept. The main result is that strict national/regional WM policies may be less efficient, unless some type of local flexibility is implemented. Our model is designed both for top-down and bottom-up assessment, and can be easily adapted for a wide range of WM option comparisons at different levels.

Broitman, Dani, E-mail: danib@techunix.technion.ac.il [Department of Natural Resources and Environment Management, Graduate school of Management, University of Haifa, Haifa 31905 (Israel); Ayalon, Ofira [Department of Natural Resources and Environment Management, Graduate school of Management, University of Haifa, Haifa 31905 (Israel); Kan, Iddo [Department of Agricultural Economics and Management, Faculty of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Quality Sciences, Rehovot 76100 (Israel)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

326

Development of a Segregated Municipal Solid Waste Gasification System for Electrical Power Generation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gasification technologies are expected to play a key role in the future of solid waste management since the conversion of municipal and industrial solid wastes to a gaseous fuel significantly increases its value. Municipal solid waste (MSW) gasification for electrical power generation was conducted in a fluidized bed gasifier and the feasibility of using a control system was evaluated to facilitate its management and operation. The performance of an engine using the gas produced was evaluated. A procedure was also tested to upgrade the quality of the gas and optimize its production. The devices installed and automated control system developed was able to achieve and maintain the set conditions for optimum gasification. The most important parameters of reaction temperature and equivalence ratio were fully controlled. Gas production went at a rate of 4.00 kg min-1 with a yield of 2.78 m3 kg-1 of fuel and a heating value (HV) of 7.94 MJ Nm-3. Within the set limits of the tests, the highest production of synthesis gas and the net heating value of 8.97 MJ Nm-3 resulted from gasification at 725°C and ER of 0.25 which was very close to the predicted value of 7.47 MJ Nm-3. This was not affected by temperature but significantly affected by the equivalence ratio. The overall engine-generator efficiency at 7.5 kW electrical power load was lower at 19.81% for gasoline fueled engine compared to 35.27% for synthesis gas. The pressure swing adsorption (PSA) system increased the net heating value of the product gas by an average of 38% gas over that of inlet gas. There were no traces of carbon dioxide in the product gas indicating that it had been completely adsorbed by the system. MSW showed relatively lower fouling and slagging tendencies than cotton gin trash (CGT) and dairy manure (DM). This was further supported by the compressive strength measurements of the ash of MSW, CGT and DM and the EDS elemental analysis of the MSW ash.

Maglinao, Amado Latayan

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

WIPP Facility Work Plan for Solid Waste Management Units and Areas of Concern  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This 2002 Facility Work Plan (FWP) has been prepared as required by Module VII, Permit Condition VII.U.3 of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, NM4890139088-TSDF (the Permit) (New Mexico Environment Department [NMED], 1999a), and incorporates comments from the NMED received on December 6, 2000 (NMED, 2000a). This February 2002 FWP describes the programmatic facility-wide approach to future investigations at Solid Waste Management Units (SWMU) and Areas of Concern (AOC) specified in the Permit. The Permittees are evaluating data from previous investigations of the SWMUs and AOCs against the most recent guidance proposed by the NMED. Based on these data, and completion of the August 2001 sampling requested by the NMED, the Permittees expect that no further sampling will be required and that a request for No Further Action (NFA) at the SWMUs and AOCs will be submitted to the NMED. This FWP addresses the current Permit requirements. It uses the results of previous investigations performed at WIPP and expands the investigations as required by the Permit. As an alternative to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) specified in Module VII of the Permit, current NMED guidance identifies an Accelerated Corrective Action Approach (ACAA) that may be used for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998). This accelerated approach is used to replace the standard RFI Work Plan and Report sequence with a more flexible decision-making approach. The ACAA process allows a facility to exit the schedule of compliance contained in the facility's Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) permit module and proceed on an accelerated time frame. Thus, the ACAA processcan be entered either before or after an RFI Work Plan. According to the NMED's guidance, a facility can prepare an RFI Work Plan or Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998). Based on this guidance, a SAP constitutes an acceptable alternative to the RFI Work Plan specified in the Permit. The NMED accepted that the Permittees are using the ACAA in a letter dated April 20, 2000.

Washington TRU Solutions LLC

2002-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

328

WIPP Facility Work Plan for Solid Waste Management Units and Areas of Concern  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

his 2002 Facility Work Plan (FWP) has been prepared as required by Module VII,Permit Condition VII.U.3 of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, NM4890139088-TSDF (the Permit) (New Mexico Environment Department [NMED], 1999a), and incorporates comments from the NMED received onDecember 6, 2000 (NMED, 2000a). This February 2002 FWP describes the program-matic facility-wide approach to future investigations at Solid Waste Management Units (SWMU) and Areas of Concern (AOC) specified in the Permit. The Permittees are evaluating data from previous investigations of the SWMUs and AOCs against the mostrecent guidance proposed by the NMED. Based on these data, and completion of the August 2001 sampling requested by the NMED, the Permittees expect that no further sampling will be required and that a request for No Further Action (NFA) at the SWMUs and AOCs will be submitted to the NMED. This FWP addresses the current Permit requirements. It uses the results of previous investigations performed at WIPP and expands the investigations as required by the Permit. As an alternative to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)Facility Investigation (RFI) specified in Module VII of the Permit, current NMED guidance identifies an Accelerated Corrective Action Approach (ACAA) that may beused for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998). This accelerated approach is used toreplace the standard RFI Work Plan and Report sequence with a more flexible decision-making approach. The ACAA process allows a facility to exit the schedule of compliance contained in the facility's Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) permit module and proceed on an accelerated time frame. Thus, the ACAA process can be entered either before or after an RFI Work Plan. According to the NMED's guidance, a facility can prepare an RFI Work Plan or Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998). Based on this guidance, a SAP constitutes an acceptable alternative to the RFI Work Plan specified in the Permit. The NMED accepted that the Permittees are using the ACAA in a letter dated April 20, 2000.

Washington TRU Solutions LLC

2002-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

329

Revised Draft Hanford Site Solid (Radioactive and Hazardous) Waste Program Environmental Import Statement, Richland, Washington - Summary  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Link to Main Report Link to Main Report RESPONSIBLE AGENCY: COVER SHEET 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office TITLE: Revised Draft Hanford Site Solid (Radioactive and Hazardous) Waste Program Environmental Impact Statement, Richland, Benton County, Washington (DOE/EIS-0286D2) CONTACT: For further information on this document, write or call: Mr. Michael S. Collins HSW EIS Document Manager Richland Operations Office U.S. Department of Energy, A6-38 P.O. Box 550 Richland, Washington 99352-0550 Telephone: (800) 426-4914 Fax: (509) 372-1926 Email: hsweis@rl.gov For further information on the Department's National Environmental Policy Act process,

330

On-line early fault detection and diagnosis of municipal solid waste incinerators  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A fault detection and diagnosis framework is proposed in this paper for early fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) of municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) in order to improve the safety and continuity of production. In this framework, principal component analysis (PCA), one of the multivariate statistical technologies, is used for detecting abnormal events, while rule-based reasoning performs the fault diagnosis and consequence prediction, and also generates recommendations for fault mitigation once an abnormal event is detected. A software package, SWIFT, is developed based on the proposed framework, and has been applied in an actual industrial MSWI. The application shows that automated real-time abnormal situation management (ASM) of the MSWI can be achieved by using SWIFT, resulting in an industrially acceptable low rate of wrong diagnosis, which has resulted in improved process continuity and environmental performance of the MSWI.

Zhao Jinsong [College of Information Science and Technology, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)], E-mail: jinsongzhao@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn; Huang Jianchao [College of Information Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 10086 (China); Sun Wei [College of Chemical Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)

2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

331

Hanford Site Solid (Radioactive and Hazardous) Waste Program Environmental Import Statement, Richland, Washington  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

COVER SHEET 1 COVER SHEET 1 U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office 2 3 TITLE: 4 Revised Draft Hanford Site Solid (Radioactive and Hazardous) Waste Program Environmental Impact 5 Statement, Richland, Benton County, Washington (DOE/EIS-0286D2) 6 7 CONTACT: 8 For further information on this document, write or call: Mr. Michael S. Collins HSW EIS Document Manager Richland Operations Office U.S. Department of Energy, A6-38 P.O. Box 550 Richland, Washington 99352-0550 Telephone: (800) 426-4914 Fax: (509) 372-1926 Email: hsweis@rl.gov For further information on the Department's National Environmental Policy Act process, contact: Ms. Carol M. Borgstrom, Director Office of NEPA Policy and Compliance, EH-42 U.S. Department of Energy 1000 Independence Avenue, S.W.

332

Final Hanford Site Solid (Radioactive and Hazardous) Waste Program Environmental Impact Statement Richland, Washington  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

COVER SHEET COVER SHEET U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office TITLE: Final Hanford Site Solid (Radioactive and Hazardous) Waste Program Environmental Impact Statement, Richland, Benton County, Washington (DOE/EIS-0286F) CONTACT: For further information on this document, write or call: Mr. Michael S. Collins HSW EIS Document Manager Richland Operations Office U.S. Department of Energy, A6-38 P.O. Box 550 Richland, Washington 99352-0550 Telephone: (509) 376-6536 Fax: (509) 372-1926 Email: hsweis@rl.gov For further information on the Department's National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process, contact: Ms. Carol M. Borgstrom, Director Office of NEPA Policy and Compliance, EH-42 U.S. Department of Energy 1000 Independence Avenue, S.W.

333

An analytic network process model for municipal solid waste disposal options  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this paper is to present an evaluation method that can aid decision makers in a local civic body to prioritize and select appropriate municipal solid waste disposal methods. We introduce a hierarchical network (hiernet) decision structure and apply the analytic network process (ANP) super-matrix approach to measure the relative desirability of disposal alternatives using value judgments as the input of the various stakeholders. ANP is a flexible analytical program that enables decision makers to find the best possible solution to complex problems by breaking down a problem into a systematic network of inter-relationships among the various levels and attributes. This method therefore may not only aid in selecting the best alternative but also helps decision makers to understand why an alternative is preferred over the other options.

Khan, Sheeba [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Youngstown State University, OH 44555, United States of America (United States)], E-mail: sheebanishat@yahoo.com; Faisal, Mohd Nishat [Department of Management Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110 016 (India)], E-mail: nishat786@yahoo.com

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Evaluation of gasification and novel thermal processes for the treatment of municipal solid waste  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report identifies seven developers whose gasification technologies can be used to treat the organic constituents of municipal solid waste: Energy Products of Idaho; TPS Termiska Processor AB; Proler International Corporation; Thermoselect Inc.; Battelle; Pedco Incorporated; and ThermoChem, Incorporated. Their processes recover heat directly, produce a fuel product, or produce a feedstock for chemical processes. The technologies are on the brink of commercial availability. This report evaluates, for each technology, several kinds of issues. Technical considerations were material balance, energy balance, plant thermal efficiency, and effect of feedstock contaminants. Environmental considerations were the regulatory context, and such things as composition, mass rate, and treatability of pollutants. Business issues were related to likelihood of commercialization. Finally, cost and economic issues such as capital and operating costs, and the refuse-derived fuel preparation and energy conversion costs, were considered. The final section of the report reviews and summarizes the information gathered during the study.

Niessen, W.R.; Marks, C.H.; Sommerlad, R.E. [Camp Dresser and McKee, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)] [Camp Dresser and McKee, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Effects of residues from municipal solid waste landfill on corn yield and heavy metal content  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effects of residues from municipal solid waste landfill, Khon Kaen Municipality, Thailand, on corn (Zea mays L.) yield and heavy metal content were studied. Field experiments with randomized complete block design with five treatments (0, 20, 40, 60 and 80% v/v of residues and soil) and four replications were carried out. Corn yield and heavy metal contents in corn grain were analyzed. Corn yield increased by 50, 72, 85 and 71% at 20, 40, 60 and 80% treatments as compared to the control, respectively. All heavy metals content, except cadmium, nickel and zinc, in corn grain were not significantly different from the control. Arsenic, cadmium and zinc in corn grain were strongly positively correlated with concentrations in soil. The heavy metal content in corn grain was within regulated limits for human consumption.

Prabpai, S. [Suphan Buri Campus Establishment Project, Kasetsart University, 50 U Floor, Administrative Building, Paholyothin Road, Jatujak, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand)], E-mail: s.prabpai@hotmail.com; Charerntanyarak, L. [Department of Epidemiology, Faculty of Public Health, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand)], E-mail: lertchai@kku.ac.th; Siri, B. [Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand)], E-mail: boonmee@kku.ac.th; Moore, M.R. [The University of Queensland, The National Research Center for Environmental Toxicology, 39 Kessels Road, Coopers Plans, Brisbane, Queensland 4108 (Australia)], E-mail: m.moore@uq.edu.au; Noller, Barry N. [The University of Queensland, Centre for Mined Land Rehabilitation, Brisbane, Queensland 4072 (Australia)], E-mail: b.noller@uq.edu.au

2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

336

Anaerobic digestion of pressed off leachate from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A highly polluted liquid ('press water') was obtained from the pressing facility for the organic fraction of municipal solid waste in a composting plant. Methane productivity of the squeezed-off leachate was investigated in batch assays. To assess the technical feasibility of 'press water' as a substrate for anaerobic digestion, a laboratory-scale glass column reactor was operated semi-continuously at 37 {sup o}C. A high methane productivity of 270 m{sup -3} CH{sub 4} ton{sup -1} COD{sub added} or 490 m{sup -3} CH{sub 4} ton{sup -1} VS{sub added} was achieved in the batch experiment. The semi-continuously run laboratory-scale reactor was initially operated at an organic loading rate of 10.7 kg COD m{sup -3} d{sup -1}. The loading was increased to finally 27.7 kg COD m{sup -3} d{sup -1}, corresponding to a reduction of the hydraulic retention time from initially 20 to finally 7.7 days. During the digestion, a stable elimination of organic material (measured as COD elimination) of approximately 60% was achieved. Linearly with the increment of the OLR, the volumetric methane production of the reactor increased from 2.6 m{sup 3} m{sub reactor}{sup -3} d{sup -1} to 7.1 m{sup 3} m{sub reactor}{sup -3} d{sup -1}. The results indicated that 'press water' from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste was a suitable substrate for anaerobic digestion which gave a high biogas yield even at very high loading rates.

Nayono, Satoto E. [Department of Civil Engineering, Yogyakarta State University, Campus UNY Karangmalang Yogyakarta 55281 (Indonesia); Institute of Biology for Engineers and Biotechnology of Wastewater, University of Karlsruhe, Am Fasanengarten, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Winter, Josef, E-mail: josef.winter@iba.uka.d [Institute of Biology for Engineers and Biotechnology of Wastewater, University of Karlsruhe, Am Fasanengarten, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Gallert, Claudia [Institute of Biology for Engineers and Biotechnology of Wastewater, University of Karlsruhe, Am Fasanengarten, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

337

SEISMIC DESIGN REQUIREMENTS SELECTION METHODOLOGY FOR THE SLUDGE TREATMENT & M-91 SOLID WASTE PROCESSING FACILITIES PROJECTS  

SciTech Connect

In complying with direction from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) (07-KBC-0055, 'Direction Associated with Implementation of DOE-STD-1189 for the Sludge Treatment Project,' and 08-SED-0063, 'RL Action on the Safety Design Strategy (SDS) for Obtaining Additional Solid Waste Processing Capabilities (M-91 Project) and Use of Draft DOE-STD-I 189-YR'), it has been determined that the seismic design requirements currently in the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) will be modified by DOE-STD-1189, Integration of Safety into the Design Process (March 2007 draft), for these two key PHMC projects. Seismic design requirements for other PHMC facilities and projects will remain unchanged. Considering the current early Critical Decision (CD) phases of both the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) and the Solid Waste Processing Facilities (M-91) Project and a strong intent to avoid potentially costly re-work of both engineering and nuclear safety analyses, this document describes how Fluor Hanford, Inc. (FH) will maintain compliance with the PHMC by considering both the current seismic standards referenced by DOE 0 420.1 B, Facility Safety, and draft DOE-STD-1189 (i.e., ASCE/SEI 43-05, Seismic Design Criteria for Structures, Systems, and Components in Nuclear Facilities, and ANSI!ANS 2.26-2004, Categorization of Nuclear Facility Structures, Systems and Components for Seismic Design, as modified by draft DOE-STD-1189) to choose the criteria that will result in the most conservative seismic design categorization and engineering design. Following the process described in this document will result in a conservative seismic design categorization and design products. This approach is expected to resolve discrepancies between the existing and new requirements and reduce the risk that project designs and analyses will require revision when the draft DOE-STD-1189 is finalized.

RYAN GW

2008-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

338

Atmospheric fluidized bed combustion of municipal solid waste: test program results  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Air classified municipal solid waste (MSW) was fired in an atmospheric fluidized bed combustor at low excess air to simulate boiler conditions. The 7 ft/sup 2/ combustor at Combustion Power Company's energy laboratory in Menlo Park, CA, incorporates water tubes for heat extraction and recycles elutriated particles to the bed. System operation was stable while firing processed MSW for the duration of a 300-h test. Low excess air, low exhaust gas emissions, and constant bed temperature demonstrated feasibility of steam generation from fluidized bed combustion of MSW. During the 300-h test, combustion efficiency averaged 99%. Excess air was typically 44% while an average bed temperature of 1400/sup 0/F and an average superficial gas velocity of 4.6 fps were maintained. Typical exhaust emission levels were 30 ppM SO/sub 2/, 160 ppM NO/sub x/, 200 ppM CO, and 25 ppM hydrocarbons. No agglomeration of bed material or detrimental change in fluidization properties was experienced. A conceptual design study of a full scale plant to be located at Stanford University was based on process conditions from the 300-h test. The plant would produce 250,000 lb/hr steam at the maximum firing rate of 1000 tons per day (TPD) processed MSW. The average 800 TPD firing rate would utilize approximately 1200 TPD raw MSW from surrounding communities. The Stanford Solid Waste energy Program was aimed at development of a MSW-fired fluidized bed boiler and cogeneration plant to supply most of the energy needs of Stanford University.

Preuit, L C; Wilson, K B

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Guide to implementing reclamation processes at Department of Defense municipal solid waste and construction debris landfills. Master's thesis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This thesis serves as a guide for implementing landfill reclamation techniques on municipal solid waste or construction debris landfills owned, operated, or used by the DoD. The research describes historical and current methods for disposing of solid waste including open dumping, sanitary landfilling, and the development of state-of-the-art sanitary landfill cell technology. The thesis also identifies the factors which have led to the need for new methods of managing municipal solid waste. The vast majority of the study is devoted to identifying actions which should be taken before, during, and after implementation of a landfill reclamation project. These actions include the development of health, safety, and contingency planning documents, the establishment of systems for characterizing and monitoring site conditions, and the identification of other procedures and processes necessary for performing successful operations. Finally, this study contains a model for analyzing under which conditions reclamation is economically feasible. The model examines economic feasibility in four separate conditions and shows that reclamation is economically feasible in a wide variety of markets. However, the model also shows that feasibility is directly associated with a continuance of normal landfilling operations. Landfill, Landfill reclamation, Landfill mining, Municipal solid waste, Recycling, Construction debris.

Tures, G.L.

1993-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

340

Review of composting and anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste and a methodological proposal for a mid-size city  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Review of composting and anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste and a methodological proposal and processes on composting and anaerobic digestion are compiled, showing the versatility and multivariable of the compost. In addition, anaerobic decomposition followed by vermicomposting is pointed as one of the best

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "1municipal solid waste" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

MERCURY REMOVAL FROM DOE SOLID MIXED WASTE USING THE GEMEP(sm) TECHNOLOGY  

SciTech Connect

Under the sponsorship of the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC), Metcalf and Eddy (M and E), in association with General Electric Corporate Research and Development Center (GE-CRD), Colorado Minerals Research Institute (CMRI), and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), conducted laboratory-scale and bench-scale tests of the General Electric Mercury Extraction Process technology on two mercury-contaminated mixed solid wastes from U. S. Department of Energy sites: sediment from the East Fork of Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge (samples supplied by Oak Ridge National Laboratory), and drummed soils from Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory (INEEL). Fluorescent lamps provided by GE-CRD were also studied. The GEMEP technology, invented and patented by the General Electric Company, uses an extraction solution composed of aqueous potassium iodide plus iodine to remove mercury from soils and other wastes. The extraction solution is regenerated by chemical oxidation and reused, after the solubilized mercury is removed from solution by reducing it to the metallic state. The results of the laboratory- and bench-scale testing conducted for this project included: (1) GEMEP extraction tests to optimize extraction conditions and determine the extent of co-extraction of radionuclides; (2) pre-screening (pre-segregation) tests to determine if initial separation steps could be used effectively to reduce the volume of material needing GEMEP extraction; and (3) demonstration of the complete extraction, mercury recovery, and iodine recovery and regeneration process (known as locked-cycle testing).

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

ANNUAL UPDATE OF THE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT UNIT (SWMU) LIST FOR THE OAK RIDGE Y-12 PLANT.  

SciTech Connect

In accordance with the terms of Paragraph II.A.8 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) Permit TN 001, and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC), RCRA Permit TN1 890 090 003 for Building 7652 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the list of the solid waste management units (SWMUs) for the Oak Ridge Reservation, including the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, must be updated and submitted to personnel at the Environmental Protection Agency, Region IV, and TDEC by January 30, 1997. This report includes information satisfying the {section}II.A.8 requirements, to update the SWMU list for the Y-12 Plant. Newly identified SWMUs include discernible units which have accumulated, treated, stored, or disposed of waste; areas contaminated by routine, deliberate, or systematic releases from process components; RCRA 90-day accumulation areas; and TSCA one-year areas.

Deakin, J.M.

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Leachability of heavy metals from growth media containing source-separated municipal solid waste compost  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The leaching of heavy metals in source-separated municipal solid waste (MSW) compost was determined by irrigation leaching of growth medium, admixed with varying amounts of compost, used for container grown plants. Perennial flowers (black-eyed Susan, Rudbeckia hirta L.) were grown in 2-L containers filled with the growth medium for a 10-wk period. Rainfall was supplemented with overhead irrigation to supply 2 cm of water per day. Leachates collected over each 2-wk period were analyzed for Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn using atomic spectrometry. Concentrations of the heavy metals in the leachates increased with increasing proportions of MSW compost in the growth medium, but decreased with time of leaching. Leaching of the metals occurred at relatively high concentrations initially, followed by continued leaching at low concentrations. The initial leaching of heavy metals is attributed to their soluble or exchangeable forms and the subsequent slow leaching to the solid compounds. The concentrations of the heavy metals remained below the current drinking water standards in all treatments throughout the leaching period. The results thus suggest that contamination of groundwater with heavy metals from source-separated MSW compost applied as a soil amendment should be negligible, as the low concentrations in the leachates leaving the surface soil would be further attenuated by the subsoil. 29 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Sawhney, B.L.; Bugbee, G.J.; Stilwell, D.E. [Connecticut Agricultural Experimental Station, New Haven, CT (United States)

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash: Characterization and kinetic studies of organic matter  

SciTech Connect

Bottom ash is the main solid residue which is produced by municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) facilities. To be reused in public works, it has to be stored previously a few months. This material is composed primarily of a mineral matrix but also contains unburnt organic matter. The mineral content and its change in the course of aging are relatively well-known, in contrast with the organic content. So in order to detect the phenomena responsible for changes in organic matter and their effects during aging, the concentrations of the main organic compounds previously characterized, the number of microorganisms, and the release of carbon dioxide were followed kinetically in model laboratory conditions. The results showed that the aging process led to the natural biodegradation of the organic matter available in bottom ash, composed essentially of carboxylic acids and n-alkanes (steroids and PAH`s to a lesser extent), and consequently that it would improve the bottom ash quality. Furthermore these results were confirmed by the study of aging conducted in conditions used in the industrial scale.

Dugenest, S.; Casabianca, H.; Grenier-Loustalot, M.F. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Vernaison (France). Service central d`Analyse; Combrisson, J. [Univ. Claude Bernard-Lyon I, Villeurbanne (France). Lab. d`Ecologie Microbienne du Sol

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Groundwater quality assessment report for Solid Waste Storage Area 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6, located at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) facility, is a shallow land burial site for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and other waste types. Wastes were disposed of in unlined trenches and auger holes from 1969 until May 1986, when it was determined that Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulated wastes were being disposed of there. DOE closed SWSA 6 until changes in operating procedures prevented the disposal of RCRA wastes at SWSA 6. The site, which reopened for waste disposal activities in July 1986, is the only currently operated disposal area for low-level radioactive waste at ORNL. This report provides the results of the 1998 RCRA groundwater assessment monitoring. The monitoring was performed in accordance with the proposed routine monitoring plan recommended in the 1996 EMP. Section 2 provides pertinent background on SWSA 6. Section 3 presents the 1998 monitoring results and discusses the results in terms of any significant changes from previous monitoring efforts. Section 4 provides recommendations for changes in monitoring based on the 1998 results. References are provided in Section 5. Appendix A provides the 1998 RCRA Sampling Data and Appendix B provides a summary of 1998 Quality Assurance results.

NONE

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

346

Study of the VOC emissions from a municipal solid waste storage pilot-scale cell: Comparison with biogases from municipal waste landfill site  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Highlights: > Follow-up of the emission of VOCs in a municipal waste pilot-scale cell during the acidogenesis and acetogenesis phases. > Study from the very start of waste storage leading to a better understanding of the decomposition/degradation of waste. > Comparison of the results obtained on the pilot-scale cell with those from 3 biogases coming from the same landfill site. > A methodology of characterization for the progression of the stabilization/maturation of waste is finally proposed. - Abstract: The emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from municipal solid waste stored in a pilot-scale cell containing 6.4 tonnes of waste (storage facility which is left open during the first period (40 days) and then closed with recirculation of leachates during a second period (100 days)) was followed by dynamic sampling on activated carbon and analysed by GC-MS after solvent extraction. This was done in order to know the VOC emissions before the installation of a methanogenesis process for the entire waste mass. The results, expressed in reference to toluene, were exploited during the whole study on all the analyzable VOCs: alcohols, ketones and esters, alkanes, benzenic and cyclic compounds, chlorinated compounds, terpene, and organic sulphides. The results of this study on the pilot-scale cell are then compared with those concerning three biogases from a municipal waste landfill: biogas (1) coming from waste cells being filled or recently closed, biogas (2) from all the waste storage cells on site, and biogas (3) which is a residual gas from old storage cells without aspiration of the gas. The analysis of the results obtained revealed: (i) a high emission of VOCs, principally alcohols, ketones and esters during the acidogenesis; (ii) a decrease in the alkane content and an increase in the terpene content were observed in the VOCs emitted during the production of methane; (iii) the production of heavier alkanes and an increase in the average number of carbon atoms per molecule of alkane with the progression of the stabilisation/maturation process were also observed. Previous studies have concentrated almost on the analysis of biogases from landfills. Our research aimed at gaining a more complete understanding of the decomposition/degradation of municipal solid waste by measuring the VOCs emitted from the very start of the landfill process i.e. during the acidogenesis and acetogenesis phases.

Chiriac, R., E-mail: rodica.chiriac@univ-lyon1.fr [Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, CNRS, UMR 5615, Laboratoire des Multimateriaux et Interfaces, 43 boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); De Araujos Morais, J. [Universite Federal de Paraiba, Campus I Departamento de Engenharia Civil e Ambiental, Joao Pessoa, Paraiba (Brazil); Carre, J. [Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, CNRS, UMR 5256, Institut de Recherche sur la Catalyse et l'Environnement, 43 boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Bayard, R. [Universite de Lyon, INSA de Lyon, Laboratoire de Genie Civil et d'Ingenierie environnementale (LGCIE), F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Chovelon, J.M. [Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, CNRS, UMR 5256, Institut de Recherche sur la Catalyse et l'Environnement, 43 boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Gourdon, R. [Universite de Lyon, INSA de Lyon, Laboratoire de Genie Civil et d'Ingenierie environnementale (LGCIE), F-69622 Villeurbanne (France)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

347

Effects of total solids concentrations of poultry, cattle, and piggery waste slurries on biogas yield  

SciTech Connect

The effects of total solids concentrations of poultry, cattle and piggery waste slurries on biogas yield was investigated. Twelve laboratory-size anaerobic batch digesters with 25 L volume were constructed and used for the experiments. Three replicates of 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% TS concentrations of poultry, cattle, and piggery waste slurries were anaerobically digested for a 30-day detention period and gas yield was measured by the method of water displacement. Temperature variation within the digesters was measured with a maximum and minimum thermometer. Anaerobic digestion of the slurries was undertaken in the mesophilic temperature range (20--40 C). The carbon:nitrogen ratio of each of the slurries digested was determined. The carbon content was determined using the wackley-Black method, and nitrogen content was determined by the regular kjeldhal method. The pH was measured weekly during the period of digestion from a digital pH meter. Gas quality (% methane fraction) was also measured weekly from an analyzer. Coefficient of variation was computed to ascertain the status of the digestion process. Analysis of variance was used to determine the significant difference in gas yield at p < 0.05. Duncan's New Multiple Range Test at p < 0.05 was used to analyze the difference in gas yield among the various TS concentrations of the slurries investigated. The results indicate that biogas yield is of the order: 5% TS > 10% TS > 15% TS > 20% TS. This result shows that gas yield increases with decreasing TS concentration of the slurries. The ANOVA showed that the gas yield from the various TS % was significantly different (p < 0.05). DNMRT showed that there was significant difference in gas yield from the slurries and wastetypes investigated. Poultry waste slurries had the greatest gas yield (L CH4/kg TS) as the gas yield from the waste types was of the order: Poultry > Piggery > Cattle. The pH of the slurries was of the range 5.5 to 6.8 (weakly acidic). The C:N of the slurries varied between 6:1 and 9:1. The Coefficient of Variation (CV) for 10 consecutive days of digestion was less than 10% indicating a steady state in all the digesters.

Itodo, I.N.; Awulu, J.O.

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Co-gasification of municipal solid waste and material recovery in a large-scale gasification and melting system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study evaluates the effects of co-gasification of MSW with MSW bottom ash. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No significant difference between MSW treatment with and without MSW bottom ash. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PCDD/DFs yields are significantly low because of the high carbon conversion ratio. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Slag quality is significantly stable and slag contains few hazardous heavy metals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The final landfill amount is reduced and materials are recovered by DMS process. - Abstract: This study evaluates the effects of co-gasification of municipal solid waste with and without the municipal solid waste bottom ash using two large-scale commercial operation plants. From the viewpoint of operation data, there is no significant difference between municipal solid waste treatment with and without the bottom ash. The carbon conversion ratios are as high as 91.7% and 95.3%, respectively and this leads to significantly low PCDD/DFs yields via complete syngas combustion. The gross power generation efficiencies are 18.9% with the bottom ash and 23.0% without municipal solid waste bottom ash, respectively. The effects of the equivalence ratio are also evaluated. With the equivalence ratio increasing, carbon monoxide concentration is decreased, and carbon dioxide and the syngas temperature (top gas temperature) are increased. The carbon conversion ratio is also increased. These tendencies are seen in both modes. Co-gasification using the gasification and melting system (Direct Melting System) has a possibility to recover materials effectively. More than 90% of chlorine is distributed in fly ash. Low-boiling-point heavy metals, such as lead and zinc, are distributed in fly ash at rates of 95.2% and 92.0%, respectively. Most of high-boiling-point heavy metals, such as iron and copper, are distributed in metal. It is also clarified that slag is stable and contains few harmful heavy metals such as lead. Compared with the conventional waste management framework, 85% of the final landfill amount reduction is achieved by co-gasification of municipal solid waste with bottom ash and incombustible residues. These results indicate that the combined production of slag with co-gasification of municipal solid waste with the bottom ash constitutes an ideal approach to environmental conservation and resource recycling.

Tanigaki, Nobuhiro, E-mail: tanigaki.nobuhiro@nsc-eng.co.jp [Nippon Steel Engineering Co., Ltd. (Head Office), Osaki Center Building 1-5-1, Osaki, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141-8604 (Japan); Manako, Kazutaka [Nippon Steel Engineering Co., Ltd., 46-59, Nakabaru, Tobata-ku, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 804-8505 (Japan); Osada, Morihiro [Nippon Steel Engineering Co., Ltd. (Head Office), Osaki Center Building 1-5-1, Osaki, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141-8604 (Japan)

2012-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

349

An overview of the sustainability of solid waste management at military installations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of chemical use), waste reduction, and energy savings by theA Changing Climate for Energy from Waste? Final Report foror munitions waste, and also provide energy for on-site

Borglin, S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

The Potential of Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Municipal Solid Waste: A Technical and Economic Evaluation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

such as agricultural wastes and energy crops, also raisesacid hydrolysis. Energy Biomass Wastes 13:1281- 16. Green M,fraction. Energy from Biomass and Wastes 15:725-43. 2. Aden

Shi, Jian; Ebrik, Mirvat; Yang, Bin; Wyman, Charles E.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Hazardous Waste Act (New Mexico)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

"Hazardous waste" means any solid waste or combination of solid wastes that because of their quantity, concentration or physical, chemical or infectious characteristics may:  cause or significantly...

352

An Economic Assessment of Market-Based Approaches to Regulating the Municipal Solid Waste Stream  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Total (lbs) Total recycle compost Community Characteristicsdiscards percent diverted compost Waste/HH/Day after PAYTof recycled waste streams, compost, and possibly from energy

Menell, Peter S.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

HWMA/RCRA Closure Plan for the CPP-648 Radioactive Solid and Liquid Waste Storage Tank System (VES-SFE-106)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act closure plan for the Radioactive Solid and Liquid Waste Storage Tank System located in the adjacent to the Sludge Tank Control House (CPP-648), Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, Idaho National Laboratory, was developed to meet the interim status closure requirements for a tank system. The system to be closed includes a tank and associated ancillary equipment that were determined to have managed hazardous waste. The CPP-648 Radioactive Solid and Liquid Waste Storage Tank System will be "cleaned closed" in accordance with the requirements of the Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act as implemented by the Idaho Administrative Procedures Act and 40 Code of Federal Regulations 265. This closure plan presents the closure performance standards and methods of acheiving those standards for the CPP-648 Radioactive Solid and Liquid Waste Storage Tank System.

S. K. Evans

2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

354

Evaluating the efficiency of municipalities in collecting and processing municipal solid waste: A shared input DEA-model  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Complexity in local waste management calls for more in depth efficiency analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Shared-input Data Envelopment Analysis can provide solution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Considerable room for the Flemish municipalities to improve their cost efficiency. - Abstract: This paper proposed an adjusted 'shared-input' version of the popular efficiency measurement technique Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) that enables evaluating municipality waste collection and processing performances in settings in which one input (waste costs) is shared among treatment efforts of multiple municipal solid waste fractions. The main advantage of this version of DEA is that it not only provides an estimate of the municipalities overall cost efficiency but also estimates of the municipalities' cost efficiency in the treatment of the different fractions of municipal solid waste (MSW). To illustrate the practical usefulness of the shared input DEA-model, we apply the model to data on 293 municipalities in Flanders, Belgium, for the year 2008.

Rogge, Nicky, E-mail: Nicky.Rogge@hubrussel.be [Hogeschool-Universiteit Brussel (HUBrussel), Center for Business Management Research (CBMR), Warmoesberg 26, 1000 Brussels (Belgium); Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (KULeuven), Faculty of Business and Economics, Naamsestraat 69, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); De Jaeger, Simon [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (KULeuven), Faculty of Business and Economics, Naamsestraat 69, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Hogeschool-Universiteit Brussel (HUBrussel), Center for Economics and Corporate Sustainability (CEDON), Warmoesberg 26, 1000 Brussels (Belgium)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

355

Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure fails to extract oxoanion-forming elements that are extracted by municipal solid waste leachates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

US EPA and state regulatory agencies rely on standard extraction tests to identify wastes that have the potential to contaminate surface water or groundwater. To evaluate the predictive abilities of these extraction tests, the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), the Waste Extraction Test (WET), and the Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure (SPLP) were compared with actual municipal solid waste leachates (MSWLs) for their ability to extract regulated elements from a variety of industrial solid wastes in short- and long-term extractions. Short-term extractions used MSWLs from a variety of California landfills. Long-term sequential extractions simulated longer term leaching, as might occur in MSW landfills. For most regulated elements, the TCLP roughly predicted the maximum concentrations extracted by the MSWLs. For regulated elements that form oxoanions (e.g., Sb, As, Mo, Se, V), however the TCLP underpredicted the levels extracted by the MSWL. None of the standard tests adequately predicted these levels. The results emphasize the need for better standardized techniques to identify wastes that have the potential to contaminate groundwater with oxoanion-forming elements, particularly arsenic.

Hooper, K.; Iskander, M.; Sivia, G. [California Dept. of Toxic Substances Control, Berkeley, CA (United States). Hazardous Materials Lab.] [and others

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Microbiological characterization and specific methanogenic activity of anaerobe sludges used in urban solid waste treatment  

SciTech Connect

This study presents the microbiological characterization of the anaerobic sludge used in a two-stage anaerobic reactor for the treatment of organic fraction of urban solid waste (OFUSW). This treatment is one alternative for reducing solid waste in landfills at the same time producing a biogas (CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2}) and an effluent that can be used as biofertilizer. The system was inoculated with sludge from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) (Rio Frio Plant in Bucaramanga-Colombia) and a methanogenic anaerobic digester for the treatment of pig manure (Mesa de los Santos in Santander). Bacterial populations were evaluated by counting groups related to oxygen sensitivity, while metabolic groups were determined by most probable number (MPN) technique. Specific methanogenic activity (SMA) for acetate, formate, methanol and ethanol substrates was also determined. In the acidogenic reactor (R1), volatile fatty acids (VFA) reached values of 25,000 mg L{sup -1} and a concentration of CO{sub 2} of 90%. In this reactor, the fermentative population was predominant (10{sup 5}-10{sup 6} MPN mL{sup -1}). The acetogenic population was (10{sup 5} MPN mL{sup -1}) and the sulphate-reducing population was (10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} MPN mL{sup -1}). In the methanogenic reactor (R2), levels of CH{sub 4} (70%) were higher than CO{sub 2} (25%), whereas the VFA values were lower than 4000 mg L{sup -1}. Substrate competition between sulphate-reducing (10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} MPN mL{sup -1}) and methanogenic bacteria (10{sup 5} MPN mL{sup -1}) was not detected. From the SMA results obtained, acetoclastic (2.39 g COD-CH{sub 4} g{sup -1} VSS{sup -1} day{sup -1}) and hydrogenophilic (0.94 g COD-CH{sub 4} g{sup -1} VSS{sup -1} day{sup -1}) transformations as possible metabolic pathways used by methanogenic bacteria is suggested from the SMA results obtained. Methanotrix sp., Methanosarcina sp., Methanoccocus sp. and Methanobacterium sp. were identified.

Sandoval Lozano, Claudia Johanna [Centro de Estudios e Investigaciones Ambientales, Universidad Industrial de Santander, Calle 9A Carrera 27, Aptdo Aereo 678, Bucaramanga (Colombia)], E-mail: ceiam@uis.edu.co; Vergara Mendoza, Marisol; Carreno de Arango, Mariela; Castillo Monroy, Edgar Fernando [Centro de Estudios e Investigaciones Ambientales, Universidad Industrial de Santander, Calle 9A Carrera 27, Aptdo Aereo 678, Bucaramanga (Colombia)

2009-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

357

Toxicity mitigation and solidification of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash using alkaline activated coal ash  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Incinerator fly ash (IFA) is added to an alkali activated coal fly ash (CFA) matrix. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Means of stabilizing the incinerator ash for use in construction applications. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Concrete made from IFA, CFA and IFA-CFA mixes was chemically characterized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmentally friendly solution to IFA disposal by reducing its toxicity levels. - Abstract: Municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration is a common and effective practice to reduce the volume of solid waste in urban areas. However, the byproduct of this process is a fly ash (IFA), which contains large quantities of toxic contaminants. The purpose of this research study was to analyze the chemical, physical and mechanical behaviors resulting from the gradual introduction of IFA to an alkaline activated coal fly ash (CFA) matrix, as a mean of stabilizing the incinerator ash for use in industrial construction applications, where human exposure potential is limited. IFA and CFA were analyzed via X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Inductive coupled plasma (ICP) to obtain a full chemical analysis of the samples, its crystallographic characteristics and a detailed count of the eight heavy metals contemplated in US Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR). The particle size distribution of IFA and CFA was also recorded. EPA's Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was followed to monitor the leachability of the contaminants before and after the activation. Also images obtained via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), before and after the activation, are presented. Concrete made from IFA, CFA and IFA-CFA mixes was subjected to a full mechanical characterization; tests include compressive strength, flexural strength, elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio and setting time. The leachable heavy metal contents (except for Se) were below the maximum allowable limits and in many cases even below the reporting limit. The leachable Chromium was reduced from 0.153 down to 0.0045 mg/L, Arsenic from 0.256 down to 0.132 mg/L, Selenium from 1.05 down to 0.29 mg/L, Silver from 0.011 down to .001 mg/L, Barium from 2.06 down to 0.314 mg/L and Mercury from 0.007 down to 0.001 mg/L. Although the leachable Cd exhibited an increase from 0.49 up to 0.805 mg/L and Pd from 0.002 up to 0.029 mg/L, these were well below the maximum limits of 1.00 and 5.00 mg/L, respectively.

Ivan Diaz-Loya, E. [Alternative Cementitious Binders Laboratory (ACBL), Department of Civil Engineering, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA 71272 (United States); Allouche, Erez N., E-mail: allouche@latech.edu [Alternative Cementitious Binders Laboratory (ACBL), Department of Civil Engineering, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA 71272 (United States); Eklund, Sven; Joshi, Anupam R. [Department of Chemistry, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA 71272 (United States); Kupwade-Patil, Kunal [Alternative Cementitious Binders Laboratory (ACBL), Department of Civil Engineering, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA 71272 (United States)

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

358

EVALUATION OF ULTIMATE DISPOSAL METHODS FOR LIQUID AND SOLID RADIOACTIVE WASTES. PART II. CONVERSION TO SOLID BY POT CALCINATION  

SciTech Connect

The costs of pot calcination of Purex and Thorex wastes were calculated. The wastes were assumed produced by a plant processing 1500 ton/year of U converter fuel at a burnup of 10,000 Mwd/ton and 270 ton/year of Th converter fuel at 20,000 Mwd/ton. Costs were calculated for processing Purex waste in acidic and reacidified forms and for processing Thorex wastes in acidic and reacidified forms and with constituents added for producing an acidic Thorex glass. Calcination vessel designs were right circular cylinders similar to those used in engineering development studies. Costs were calculated for processing in 6-, 12-, and 24-in.-dia vessels with a fixed length of 10 ft. Vessel costs used, based on estimates from private industry, were calculated for wastes decayed 120 days and 1, 3, 10, and 30 years after reactor discharge prior to calcination. Aging had negligible effect on costs, except as it permitted larger diameter vessels to be used, because vessel and operating costs were much larger than capital costs in all cases. The lowest cost was 0.87 x 10/sup -2/ mill/kwh/sub e/ for processing acidic Purex and Thorex wastes in 24-in.-dia vessels, and the highest was 5.0 x 10/sup -2/ mill/kwh/sub e/ for processing reacidified Purex and Thorex wastes in 6-in.-dia vessels. About 7 years of interim liquid storage would be required before acidic Purex wastes could be processed in 24-in.-dia vessels. (auth)

Perona, J.J.; Bradshaw, R.L.; Roberts, J.T.; Blomeke, J.O.

1961-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

359

The removal of mercury from solid mixed waste using chemical leaching processes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The focus of this research was to evaluate chemical leaching as a technique to treat soils, sediments, and glass contaminated with either elemental mercury or a combination of several mercury species. Potassium iodide/iodine solutions were investigated as chemical leaching agents for contaminated soils and sediments. Clean, synthetic soil material and surrogate storm sewer sediments contaminated with mercury were treated with KI/I{sub 2} solutions. It was observed that these leaching solutions could reduce the mercury concentration in soil and sediments by 99.8%. Evaluation of selected posttreatment sediment samples revealed that leachable mercury levels in the treated solids exceeded RCRA requirements. The results of these studies suggest that KI/I{sub 2} leaching is a treatment process that can be used to remove large quantities of mercury from contaminated soils and sediments and may be the only treatment required if treatment goals are established on Hg residual concentrations in solid matrices. Fluorescent bulbs were used to simulate mercury contaminated glass mixed waste. To achieve mercury contamination levels similar to those found in larger bulbs such as those used in DOE facilities a small amount of Hg was added to the crushed bulbs. The most effective agents for leaching mercury from the crushed fluorescent bulbs were KI/I{sub 2}, NaOCl, and NaBr + acid. Radionuclide surrogates were added to both the EPA synthetic soil material and the crushed fluorescent bulbs to determine the fate of radionuclides following chemical leaching with the leaching agents determined to be the most promising. These experiments revealed that although over 98% of the dosed mercury solubilized and was found in the leaching solution, no Cerium was measured in the posttreatment leaching solution. This finding suggest that Uranium, for which Ce was used as a surrogate, would not solubilize during leaching of mercury contaminated soil or glass.

Gates, D.D.; Chao, K.K.; Cameron, P.A.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Municipal Consortium Southeast Region Workshop  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

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361

Life cycle assessment of four municipal solid waste management scenarios in China  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A life cycle assessment was carried out to estimate the environmental impact of municipal solid waste. Four scenarios mostly used in China were compared to assess the influence of various technologies on environment: (1) landfill, (2) incineration, (3) composting plus landfill, and (4) composting plus incineration. In all scenarios, the technologies significantly contribute to global warming and increase the adverse impact of non-carcinogens on the environment. The technologies played only a small role in the impact of carcinogens, respiratory inorganics, terrestrial ecotoxicity, and non-renewable energy. Similarly, the influence of the technologies on the way other elements affect the environment was ignorable. Specifically, the direct emissions from the operation processes involved played an important role in most scenarios except for incineration, while potential impact generated from transport, infrastructure and energy consumption were quite small. In addition, in the global warming category, highest potential impact was observed in landfill because of the direct methane gas emissions. Electricity recovery from methane gas was the key factor for reducing the potential impact of global warming. Therefore, increasing the use of methane gas to recover electricity is highly recommended to reduce the adverse impact of landfills on the environment.

Hong Jinglan, E-mail: hongjing@sdu.edu.c [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Li Xiangzhi [Department of Pathology, University of Michigan, 1301 Catherine, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Zhaojie Cui [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

362

Oxygen respirometry to assess stability and maturity of composted municipal solid waste  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The stability and maturity of compost prepared from municipal solid waste (MSW) at a full-scale composting plant was assessed through chemical, physical, and biological assays. Respiration bioassays used to determine stability (O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} respirometry) were sensitive to process control problems at the composting plant and indicated increasing stability with time. Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) growth bioassays revealed that immature compost samples inhibited growth. Growth of ryegrass in potting mix prepared with cured compost not amended with fertilizer was enhanced as compared to a pest control. Garden cress (Lepidium sativum L.) seed germination, used as an indicator of phytotoxicity, revealed inhibition of germination at all compost maturity levels. The phytotoxicity was though to be salt-related. Spearman rank-order correlations demonstrated that O{sub 2} respirometry, water-soluble organic C, and the water extract organic C to organic N ratio, significantly correlated with compost age and best indicated an acceptable level of stability. Oxygen respirometry also best predicted the potential for ryegrass growth, and an acceptable level of compost maturity. 31 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

Iannotti, D.A.; Grebus, M.E.; Toth, B.L.; Madden, L.V.; Hoitink, A.J. [Ohio State Univ./Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, Wooster, OH (United States)

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Clean energy from municipal solid waste. ERIP technical progress report {number_sign}6  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The ground carbonized RDF slurry from the grinding trials at IKA Works at approximately 50 wt.% solids was sealed in drums and shipped to the Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER) for the dioxin/furan and trace heavy metal combustion tests. In addition, a fuel characterization and trace component analysis was completed for this final carbonized RDF slurry fuel. This final fuel was a blend of several fuels from the pilot scale slurry carbonization experiments. As can be seen from the data, the final carbonized RDF has an exceptional heating value and volatile matter content. In addition, trace components are significantly lower than the raw RDF pellets. The report summarizes results from combustion tests and air pollution monitoring of these tests. For the upcoming time period 10/96--01/97, it is anticipated that the analysis of the dioxin/furan and trace heavy metal combustion test will be completed. This analysis includes rheology and particle size distribution analysis of the carbonized RDF slurry fuel, carbon content and TCLP of the combustion ash, trace heavy metal balances around combustor, and dioxin/furan emissions. Finally, the slurry carbonization computer model and computer simulations will be completed in the next reporting period (including the waste water treatment subsystem). Based upon this computer model, initial economic estimates and optimizations of the slurry carbonization process will be completed in the next reporting period.

NONE

1996-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

364

Solute transport under steady and transient conditions in biodegraded municipal solid waste  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The transport of a conservative tracer (lithium) in a large (3.5 m3) undisturbed municipal solid waste sample has been investigated under steady and fully transient conditions using a simple model. The model comprises a kinematic wave approximation for water movement, presented in a previous paper, and a strict convective solute flux law. The waste medium is conceptualized as a three-domain system consisting of a mobile domain (channels), an immobile fast domain, and an immobile slow domain. The mobile domain constitutes only a minor fraction of the medium, and the access to the major part of medium is constrained by diffusive transport. Thus the system is in a state of physical nonequilibrium. The fast immobile domain is the part of the matrix which surrounds the channels and forms the boundary between the channels and the matrix. Owing to its exposure to mobile water, which enhances the biodegradation process, this domain is assumed to be more porous and loose in its structure and therefore to respond faster to a change in solute concentration in the mobile domain compared to the regions deep inside the matrix. The diffusive mass exchange between the domains is modeled with two first-order mass transfer expressions coupled in series. Under transient conditions the system will also be in a state of hydraulic nonequilibrium. Hydraulic gradients build up between the channel domain and the matrix in response to the water input events. The gradients will govern a reversible flow and convective transport between the domains, here represented as a source/sink term in the governing equation. The model has been used to interpret and compare the results from a steady state experiment and an unsteady state experiment. By solely adjusting the size of the fraction of the immobile fast domain that is active in transferring solute, the model is capable of accurately reproducing the measured outflow breakthrough curves for both the steady and unsteady state experiments. During transient conditions the fraction of the immobile fast domain that is active in transferring solute is found to be about 65% larger than that under steady state conditions. It is therefore concluded that the water input pattern governs the size of the fraction of the immobile fast domain which, in turn, governs the solute residence time in the solid waste. It can be concluded that the contaminant transport process in landfills is likely to be in a state of both physical, hydraulic, and chemical nonequilibrium. The transport process for a conservative solute is here shown to be dominated by convective transport in the channels and a fast diffusive mass exchange with the surrounding matrix. This may imply that the observed leachate quality from landfills mainly reflects the biochemical conditions in these regions. The water input pattern is of great importance for the transport process since it governs the size of the fraction of the immobile fast domain which is active in transferring solute. This may be the reason for leachate quality to be seasonally or water flux dependent, which has been observed in several investigations. The result also has a significant practical implication for efforts to enhance the biodegradation process in landfills by recycling of the leachate.

Bendz, David; Singh, Vijay P.

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Combustion of municipal solid wastes with oil shale in a circulating fluidized bed. Quarterly report ending March 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect

This document contains a progress report for the Project Description of Grant No. DE-FG01-94CE15612, {open_quotes}Develop a Combustion of Municipal Solid Waste with Oil Shale in Circulating Fluidized Bed{close_quotes}, dated September 2, 1994. The Project Description lists and describes six tasks, four of which are complete, and two others nearing completion. A summary of progress on each task is presented in this report.

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Assessment of landfill reclamation and the effects of age on the combustion of recovered municipal solid waste  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarized the Lancaster county Solid Waste Management Authorities`s (LCSWMA)landfill reclamation activities, ongoing since 1991. All aspects have been analyzed from the manpower and equipment requirements at the landfill to the operational impacts felt at the LCSWMA Resource Recovery Facility (RRF) where the material is delivered for processing. Characteristics of the reclaimed refuse and soil recovered from trommeling operations are discussed as are results of air monitoring performed at the landfill excavation site and the RRF. The report also discusses the energy value of the reclaimed material and compares this value with those obtained for significantly older reclaimed waste streams. The effects of waste age on the air emissions and ash residue quality at the RRF are also provided. The report concludes by summarizing the project benefits and provides recommendations for other landfill reclamation operations and areas requiring further research.

Forster, G.A. [Lancaster Environmental Foundation, PA (United States)] [Lancaster Environmental Foundation, PA (United States)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Life-cycle assessment of municipal solid waste management alternatives with consideration of uncertainty: SIWMS development and application  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes the development and application of the Stochastic Integrated Waste Management Simulator (SIWMS) model. SIWMS provides a detailed view of the environmental impacts and associated costs of municipal solid waste (MSW) management alternatives under conditions of uncertainty. The model follows a life-cycle inventory approach extended with compensatory systems to provide more equitable bases for comparing different alternatives. Economic performance is measured by the net present value. The model is verified against four publicly available models under deterministic conditions and then used to study the impact of uncertainty on Sydney's MSW management 'best practices'. Uncertainty has a significant effect on all impact categories. The greatest effect is observed in the global warming category where a reversal of impact direction is predicted. The reliability of the system is most sensitive to uncertainties in the waste processing and disposal. The results highlight the importance of incorporating uncertainty at all stages to better understand the behaviour of the MSW system.

El Hanandeh, Ali, E-mail: alel5804@uni.sydney.edu.a [School of Civil Engineering, Building J05, University of Sydney NSW 2006 (Australia); El-Zein, Abbas [School of Civil Engineering, Building J05, University of Sydney NSW 2006 (Australia)

2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

368

Industrial solid waste management for the eastern seaboard-thailand's first systematic approach to the problem  

SciTech Connect

Accelerating population growth, urbanization, and industrialization in Thailand are creating unprecedented problems requiring government intervention for achieving systematic planning and growth of existing and new urban centers. The first such regional planning project in Thailand, was focused on the Eastern Seaboard, the coastal zone on the Gulf of Thailand to the southeast of Bangkok. Because of the recent development of major natural gas fields in the gulf, the Eastern Seaboard region seems destined to become a new regional urban-industrial center. The planning project resulted in preparation of a comprehensive plan for guiding continuing development in the region, with particular attention to industrial development and environmental pollution control. Preliminary concepts were developed for management of industrial solid wastes at the various urban growth centers in the region, including bulk or nonhazardous wastes and hazardous wastes. Both conventional and innovative practices, adapted to the Eastern Seaboard situation, are utilized.

Ludwig, H.F.; Evans, J.W.; Tridech, S.

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

SOLID WASTE INTEGRATED FORECAST TECHNICAL (SWIFT) REPORT FY2003 THRU FY2046 VERSION 2003.1 VOLUME 2 [SEC 1 & 2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report includes data requested on September 10, 2002 and includes radioactive solid waste forecasting updates through December 31, 2002. The FY2003.0 request is the primary forecast for fiscal year FY 2003.

BARCOT, R.A.

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Pre-title I safety evaluation for the retrieval operations of transuranic waste drums in the Solid Waste Disposal Facility. Revision 2  

SciTech Connect

Phase I of the Transuranic (TRU) Waste Facility Line Item Project includes the retrieval and safe storage of the pad drums that are stored on TRU pads 2-6 in the Solid Waste Disposal Facility (SWDF). Drums containing TRU waste were placed on these pads as early as 1974. The pads, once filled, were mounded with soil. The retrieval activities will include the excavation of the soil, retrieval of the pad drums, placing the drums in overpacks (if necessary) and venting and purging the retrieved drums. Once the drums have been vented and purged, they will be transported to other pads within the SWDF or in a designated area until they are eventually treated as necessary for ultimate shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in Carlsbad, New Mexico. This safety evaluation provides a bounding assessment of the radiological risk involved with the drum retrieval activities to the maximally exposed offsite individual and the co-located worker. The results of the analysis indicate that the risk to the maximally exposed offsite individual and the co-located worker using maximum frequencies and maximum consequences are within the acceptance criteria defined in WSRC Procedural Manual 9Q. The purpose of this evaluation is to demonstrate the incremental risk from the SWDF due to the retrieval activities for use as design input only. As design information becomes available, this evaluation can be revised to satisfy the safety analysis requirements of DOE Orders 4700 and 5480.23.

Rabin, M.S.

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Nitrogen availability and leaching from soil amended with municipal solid waste compost  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Beneficial use of municipal solid waste compost depends on identifying a management strategy that supports crop production and protects water quality. Effects of compost and N fertilizer management strategies on corn (Zea mays L.) yield and NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}-N leaching were evaluated in a 3-yr study on a Hubbard loamy sand soil. Two composts were each applied at either 90 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} yr{sup {minus}1} from 1993 to 1995, or at 270 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} in one application in 1993. The compost and non-amended plots were side dressed annually with N fertilizer as urea at 0, 125, and 250 kg ha{sup {minus}1}. Biochemical properties of the compost as well as compost management strongly affected crop response and fate of N. Compost increased grain yield with no significant yield response to N fertilizer with the single compost application in Year 1 and the annual compost application in Year 3. Plant N uptake increased with N fertilizer rate, except in the 270 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} compost treatments in Year 1. Over the 3-yr period, NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}-N leaching with the 270 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} compost application was 1.8 times greater compared to that with the annual application. The estimated N mineralization ranged from 0 to 12% and 3 to 6% in the annual and single compost addition, respectively. Under the conditions of this study, annual compost application with reduced supplemental N fertilizer was the best management strategy to reach optimum crop yield while minimizing NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}-N leaching losses.

Mamo, M.; Rosen, C.J.; Halbach, T.R.

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

The estimation of N{sub 2}O emissions from municipal solid waste incineration facilities: The Korea case  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The greenhouse gases (GHGs) generated in municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration are carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O). In South Korea case, the total of GHGs from the waste incineration facilities has been increasing at an annual rate 10%. In these view, waste incineration facilities should consider to reduce GHG emissions. This study is designed to estimate the N{sub 2}O emission factors from MSW incineration plants, and calculate the N{sub 2}O emissions based on these factors. The three MSW incinerators examined in this study were either stoker or both stoker and rotary kiln facilities. The N{sub 2}O concentrations from the MSW incinerators were measured using gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC-ECD) equipment. The average of the N{sub 2}O emission factors for the M01 plant, M02 plant, and M03 plant are 71, 75, and 153 g-N{sub 2}O/ton-waste, respectively. These results showed a significant difference from the default values of the intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC), while approaching those values derived in Japan and Germany. Furthermore, comparing the results of this study to the Korea Energy Economics Institute (KEEI) (2007) data on waste incineration, N{sub 2}O emissions from MSW incineration comprised 19% of the total N{sub 2}O emissions.

Park, Sangwon; Choi, Jun-Ho [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, 262 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jinwon, E-mail: jwpark@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, 262 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

373

Using a contingent valuation approach for improved solid waste management facility: Evidence from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study employed contingent valuation method to estimate the willingness to pay (WTP) of the households to improve the waste collection system in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The objective of this study is to evaluate how household WTP changes when recycling and waste separation at source is made mandatory. The methodology consisted of asking people directly about their WTP for an additional waste collection service charge to cover the costs of a new waste management project. The new waste management project consisted of two versions: version A (recycling and waste separation is mandatory) and version B (recycling and waste separation is not mandatory). The households declined their WTP for version A when they were asked to separate the waste at source although all the facilities would be given to them for waste separation. The result of this study indicates that the households were not conscious about the benefits of recycling and waste separation. Concerted efforts should be taken to raise environmental consciousness of the households through education and more publicity regarding waste separation, reducing and recycling.

Afroz, Rafia, E-mail: rafia_afroz@yahoo.com [Department of Economics, Faculty of Economics and Management Science, International Islamic University Malaysia (Malaysia); Masud, Muhammad Mehedi [Department of Economics, Faculty of Economics and Management Science, International Islamic University Malaysia (Malaysia)

2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

374

Comparison of municipal solid waste management systems in Canada and Ghana: A case study of the cities of London, Ontario, and Kumasi, Ghana  

SciTech Connect

Integrated waste management has been accepted as a sustainable approach to solid waste management in any region. It can be applied in both developed and developing countries. The difference is the approach taken to develop the integrated waste management system. This review looks at the integrated waste management system operating in the city of London, Ontario-Canada and how lessons can be drawn from the system's development and operation that will help implement a sustainable waste management system in the city of Kumasi, Ghana. The waste management system in London is designed such that all waste generated in the city is handled and disposed of appropriately. The responsibility of each sector handling waste is clearly defined and monitored. All major services are provided and delivered by a combination of public and private sector forces. The sustainability of the waste management in the city of London is attributed to the continuous improvement strategy framework adopted by the city based on the principles of integrated waste management. It is perceived that adopting a strategic framework based on the principles of integrated waste management with a strong political and social will, can transform the current waste management in Kumasi and other cities in developing countries in the bid for finding lasting solutions to the problems that have plagued the waste management system in these cities.

Asase, Mizpah [Department of Chemical Engineering, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi (Ghana); Yanful, Ernest K. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The University of Western Ontario London, Ontario, N6A 5B9 (Canada)], E-mail: eyanful@eng.uwo.ca; Mensah, Moses [Department of Chemical Engineering, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi (Ghana); Stanford, Jay [City of London, 300 Dufferin Ave. P.O. Box 5035, Ontario, N6A 4L9 (Canada); Amponsah, Samuel [Mathematics Department, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi (Ghana)

2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

375

Wastes as co-fuels: the policy framework for solid recovered fuel (SRF) in Europe, with UK implications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

European Union (EU) member states are adopting the mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) of municipal solid waste (MSW) to comply with EU Landfill Directive (LD) targets on landfill diversion. We review the policy framework for MSW-derived solid recovered fuel (SRF), composed of paper, plastic, and textiles, in the energy-intensive industries. A comparatively high calorific value (15-18 MJ/kg) fuel, SRF has the potential to partially replace fossil fuel in energy-intensive industries, alongside MSW in dedicated combustion facilities. Attempts by the European standards organization (CEN) to classify fuel properties consider net calorific value (CV) and chlorine and mercury content. However, the particle size, moisture content, and fuel composition also require attention and future studies must address these parameters. We critically review the implications of using SRF as a co-fuel in thermal processes. A thermodynamic analysis provides insight into the technical and environmental feasibility of co-combusting SRF in coal-fired power plants and cement kilns. Results indicate the use of SRF as co-fuel can reduce global warming and acidification potential significantly. This policy analysis is of value to waste managers, policy specialists, regulators, and the waste management research community. 63 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Anurag Garg; Richard Smith; Daryl Hill; Nigel Simms; Simon Pollard [Cranfield University, Cranfield (United Kingdom). Sustainable Systems Department, School of Applied Sciences

2007-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

376

Solid waste management and reduction in the restaurant industry. Case study  

SciTech Connect

The restaurant`s recycling and waste reduction program began by separating out recyclable materials from the dumpster. This included cardboard, glass, and aluminum tin cans. A cardboard baler and containers for the glass and cans were placed next to the dumpster making it easier for employees to remember to recycle rather than discard recyclable materials. Recyclable materials are picked up by independent haulers at a cost that is substantially less than disposal costs. Therefore, reducing the amount of waste placed into the dumpster generates cost savings. The next step in the waste reduction program was to reduce the amount of food waste discarded in the dumpster. The head chef uses a computerized system for monitoring food inventory, amount of food used per meal, and the percent waste per meal. This helped to minimize food waste generated in food preparation.

NONE

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

377

Evaluation of solid-based separation materials for the pretreatment of radioactive wastes  

SciTech Connect

Separation science will play an important role in pretreating nuclear wastes stored at various US Department of Energy Sites. The application of separation processes offers potential economic and environmental benefits with regards to remediating these sites. For example, at the Hanford Site, the sizeable volume of radioactive wastes stored in underground tanks could be partitioned into a small volume of high-level waste (HLW) and a relatively large volume of low-level waste (LLW). After waste separation, only the smaller volume of HLW would require costly vitrification and geologic disposal. Furthermore, the quality of the remaining LLW form (e.g., grout) would be improved due to the lower inventory of radionuclides present in the LLW stream. This report investigates extraction chromatography as a possible separation process for Hanford wastes.

Lumetta, G.J.; Wagner, M.J.; Wester, D.W.; Morrey, J.R.

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

An overview of the sustainability of solid waste management at military installations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cleaners/chemicals, motor oil, batteries, and pesticides.Motor pools, shops, MFH Separation from non-metal components Collection container, collection service Waste Oil

Borglin, S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Technical report for a fluidless directional drilling system demonstrated at Solid Waste Storage Area 6 shallow buried waste sites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of the research was to demonstrate a fluidless directional drilling and monitoring system (FDD) specifically tailored to address environmental drilling concerns for shallow buried wasted. The major concerns are related to worker exposure, minimizing waste generation, and confining the spread of contamination. The FDD is potentially applicable to Environmental Restoration (ER) activities for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Waste Area Grouping 6 (WAG 6) shallow buried waste disposed in unlined trenches. Major ER activities for directional drilling are to develop a drilling system for leachate collection directly beneath trenches, and to provide localized control over leachate release to the environment. Other ER FDD activities could include vadose zone and groundwater monitoring of contaminant transport. The operational constraints pointed the research in the direction of purchasing a steerable impact hammer, or mole, manufactured by Steer-Rite Ltd. of Racine, Wisconsin. This drill was selected due to the very low cost ($25,000) associated with procuring the drill, steering module, instrumentation and service lines. The impact hammer is a self propelled drill which penetrates the soil by compacting cut material along the sidewalls of the borehole. Essentially, it forces its way through the subsurface. Although the pneumatic hammer exhausts compressed air which must be handled at the borehole collar, it does not generate soil cuttings or liquids. This is the basis for the term fluidless. A stub casing muffler was attached to the entrance hole for controlling exhaust gas and any airborne releases. Other environmental compliance modifications made to the equipment included operating the tool without lubrication, and using water instead of hydraulic fluid to actuate the steering fins on the tool.

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

MUSHROOM WASTE MANAGEMENT PROJECT LIQUID WASTE MANAGEMENT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

#12;MUSHROOM WASTE MANAGEMENT PROJECT LIQUID WASTE MANAGEMENT PHASE I: AUDIT OF CURRENT PRACTICE The Mushroom Waste Management Project (MWMP) was initiated by Environment Canada, the BC Ministry of solid and liquid wastes generated at mushroom producing facilities. Environmental guidelines

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "1municipal solid waste" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

EA-0981: Solid Waste Retrieval Complex, Enhanced Radioactive and Mixed Waste Storage Facility, Infrastructure Upgrades, and Central Waste Support Complex, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of the proposal to retrieve transuranic waste (TRU), provide storage capacity for retrieved and newly generated TRU, Greater-than-Category 3, and mixed...

382

Western oil-shale development: a technology assessment. Volume 4. Solid waste from mining and surface retorts  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this study were to: review and evaluate published information on the disposal, composition, and leachability of solid wastes produced by aboveground shale oil extraction processes; examine the relationship of development to surface and groundwater quality in the Piceance Creek basin of northwestern Colorado; and identify key areas of research necessary to quantitative assessment of impact. Information is presented under the following section headings: proposed surface retorting developments; surface retorting processes; environmental concerns; chemical/mineralogical composition of raw and retorted oil shale; disposal procedures; water quality; and research needs.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Combustion of municipal solid wastes with oil shale in a circulating fluidized bed. Quarterly report, quarter ending December 31, 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate that cocombustion of municipal solid waste and oil shale can reduce emissions of gaseous pollutants (SO{sub 2} and HCl) to acceptable levels. Tests in 6- and 15-inch units showed that the oil shale absorbs acid gas pollutants and produces an ash which could be, at the least, disposed of in a normal landfill. Further analysis of the results are underway to estimate scale-up to commercial size. Additional work will be done to evaluate the cementitious properties of oil shale ash.

NONE

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Simulation of chemical reaction fronts in anaerobic digestion of solid waste  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A case study for parallelisation of a code for a nonlinear system of evolution equations is presented. It describes the propagation of reaction fronts in anaerobic waste digestion. These occur as a consequence of heterogeneous initial distributions of ...

Hermann J. Eberl

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

An overview of the sustainability of solid waste management at military installations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

led to adoption of alternative energy sources, such as solaran opportunity for an alternative energy source if it can beas either a bio- or alternative- energy source or a waste

Borglin, S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Solid and hazardous energy wastes: synfuels. I. Review of research activities. [US DOE- and US EPA-sponsored research  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Current chemical and biological research sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on solid, liquid, and gaseous waste streams from coal-conversion and oil-shale technologies is summarized. Brief descriptions, including the objectives, current activities, and future plans (if any), of ongoing projects were obtained from the principal investigators, where possible, or from current publications, progress reports, or scope-of-work sheets from DOE and EPA laboratories. References to publications that have resulted from the various research projects are included where applicable. Additional references to work on hazardous and solid synfuel waste are included in the appendixes, drawn from computerized bibliographic searches of Chemical Abstracts and the National Technical Information Service (NTIS). Appendix I contains information found in the NTIS search from 1974 to 1980, which includes the title, author(s), place of investigation, NTIS ordering number, date of publication, and the actual abstracts. Appendix II contains information found in the Chemical Abstracts search from 1973 to 1980, which includes the title; author(s); journal title, volume, and number; chemical abstracts numbers; descriptors and identifiers based on the given title and/or abstract; and date of publication.

Fradkin, L.; Surles, T.; DeCarlo, V.

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Application of spatial and non-spatial data analysis in determination of the factors that impact municipal solid waste generation rates in Turkey  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spatial autocorrelation exists in municipal solid waste generation rates for different provinces in Turkey. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Traditional non-spatial regression models may not provide sufficient information for better solid waste management. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Unemployment rate is a global variable that significantly impacts the waste generation rates in Turkey. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Significances of global parameters may diminish at local scale for some provinces. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GWR model can be used to create clusters of cities for solid waste management. - Abstract: In studies focusing on the factors that impact solid waste generation habits and rates, the potential spatial dependency in solid waste generation data is not considered in relating the waste generation rates to its determinants. In this study, spatial dependency is taken into account in determination of the significant socio-economic and climatic factors that may be of importance for the municipal solid waste (MSW) generation rates in different provinces of Turkey. Simultaneous spatial autoregression (SAR) and geographically weighted regression (GWR) models are used for the spatial data analyses. Similar to ordinary least squares regression (OLSR), regression coefficients are global in SAR model. In other words, the effect of a given independent variable on a dependent variable is valid for the whole country. Unlike OLSR or SAR, GWR reveals the local impact of a given factor (or independent variable) on the waste generation rates of different provinces. Results show that provinces within closer neighborhoods have similar MSW generation rates. On the other hand, this spatial autocorrelation is not very high for the exploratory variables considered in the study. OLSR and SAR models have similar regression coefficients. GWR is useful to indicate the local determinants of MSW generation rates. GWR model can be utilized to plan waste management activities at local scale including waste minimization, collection, treatment, and disposal. At global scale, the MSW generation rates in Turkey are significantly related to unemployment rate and asphalt-paved roads ratio. Yet, significances of these variables may diminish at local scale for some provinces. At local scale, different factors may be important in affecting MSW generation rates.

Keser, Saniye [Department of Environmental Engineering, Middle East Technical University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Duzgun, Sebnem [Department of Mining Engineering, Middle East Technical University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Department of Geodetic and Geographic Information Technologies, Middle East Technical University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Aksoy, Aysegul, E-mail: aaksoy@metu.edu.tr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Middle East Technical University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

388

Two-year performance by evapotranspiration covers for municipal solid waste landfills in northwest Ohio  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer All ET covers produced rates of percolation less than 32 cm yr{sup -1}, the maximum allowable rate by the Ohio EPA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dredged sediment provided sufficient water storage and promoted growth by native plant species. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Native plant mixtures attained acceptable rates of evapotranspiration throughout the growing season. - Abstract: Evapotranspiration (ET) covers have gained interest as an alternative to conventional covers for the closure of municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills because they are less costly to construct and are expected to have a longer service life. Whereas ET covers have gained acceptance in arid and semi-arid regions (defined by a precipitation (P) to potential evapotranspiration (PET) ratio less than 0.75) by meeting performance standards (e.g. rate of percolation), it remains unclear whether they are suitable for humid regions (P:PET greater than 0.75). The goal of this project is to extend their application to northwest Ohio (P:PET equals 1.29) by designing covers that produce a rate of percolation less than 32 cm yr{sup -1}, the maximum acceptable rate by the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (OEPA). Test ET covers were constructed in drainage lysimeters (1.52 m diameter, 1.52 m depth) using dredged sediment amended with organic material and consisted of immature (I, plants seeded onto soil) or mature (M, plants transferred from a restored tall-grass prairie) plant mixtures. The water balance for the ET covers was monitored from June 2009 to June 2011, which included measured precipitation and percolation, and estimated soil water storage and evapotranspiration. Precipitation was applied at a rate of 94 cm yr{sup -1} in the first year and at rate of 69 cm yr{sup -1} in the second year. During the first year, covers with the M plant mixture produced noticeably less percolation (4 cm) than covers with the I plant mixture (17 cm). However, during the second year, covers with the M plant mixture produced considerably more percolation (10 cm) than covers with the I plant mixture (3 cm). This is likely due to a decrease in the aboveground biomass for the M plant mixture from year 1 (1008 g m{sup -2}) to year 2 (794 g m{sup -2}) and an increase for the I plant mixture from year 1 (644 g m{sup -2}) to year 2 (1314 g m{sup -2}). Over the 2-year period, the mean annual rates of percolation for the covers with the M and I plant mixtures were 7 and 8 cm yr{sup -1}, which are below the OEPA standard. The results suggest the application of ET covers be extended to northwest Ohio and other humid regions.

Barnswell, Kristopher D., E-mail: kristopher.barnswell2@rockets.utoledo.edu [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Toledo, Lake Erie Center, 6200 Bayshore Rd., Oregon, OH 43616 (United States); Dwyer, Daryl F., E-mail: daryl.dwyer@utoledo.edu [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Toledo, 2801 W. Bancroft, Mail Stop 604, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

389

Determination of total chlorine and bromine in solid wastes by sintering and inductively coupled plasma-sector field mass spectrometry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A sample preparation method based on sintering, followed by analysis by inductively coupled plasma-sector field mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS) for the simultaneous determination of chloride and bromide in diverse and mixed solid wastes, has been evaluated. Samples and reference materials of known composition were mixed with a sintering agent containing Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and ZnO and placed in an oven at 560 deg. C for 1 h. After cooling, the residues were leached with water prior to a cation-exchange assisted clean-up. Alternatively, a simple microwave-assisted digestion using only nitric acid was applied for comparison. Thereafter the samples were prepared for quantitative analysis by ICP-SFMS. The sintering method was evaluated by analysis of certified reference materials (CRMs) and by comparison with US EPA Method 5050 and ion chromatography with good agreement. Median RSDs for the sintering method were determined to 10% for both chlorine and bromine, and median recovery to 96% and 97%, respectively. Limits of detection (LODs) were 200 mg/kg for chlorine and 20 mg/kg for bromine. It was concluded that the sintering method is suitable for chlorine and bromine determination in several matrices like sewage sludge, plastics, and edible waste, as well as for waste mixtures. The sintering method was also applied for determination of other elements present in anionic forms, such as sulfur, arsenic, selenium and iodine.

Osterlund, Helene [Division of Applied Geology, Lulea University of Technology, S-971 87 Lulea (Sweden); ALS Scandinavia AB, ALS Laboratory Group, Aurorum 10, S-977 75 Lulea (Sweden)], E-mail: Helene.Osterlund@alsglobal.com; Rodushkin, Ilia [Division of Applied Geology, Lulea University of Technology, S-971 87 Lulea (Sweden); ALS Scandinavia AB, ALS Laboratory Group, Aurorum 10, S-977 75 Lulea (Sweden); Ylinenjaervi, Karin; Baxter, Douglas C. [ALS Scandinavia AB, ALS Laboratory Group, Aurorum 10, S-977 75 Lulea (Sweden)

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

390

Solid Waste Operations Complex W-113, Detail Design Report (Title II). Volume 1: Title II design report  

SciTech Connect

The Solid Waste Retrieval Facility--Phase 1 (Project W113) will provide the infrastructure and the facility required to retrieve from Trench 04, Burial ground 4C, contact handled (CH) drums and boxes at a rate that supports all retrieved TRU waste batching, treatment, storage, and disposal plans. This includes (1) operations related equipment and facilities, viz., a weather enclosure for the trench, retrieval equipment, weighing, venting, obtaining gas samples, overpacking, NDE, NDA, shipment of waste and (2) operations support related facilities, viz., a general office building, a retrieval staff change facility, and infrastructure upgrades such as supply and routing of water, sewer, electrical power, fire protection, roads, and telecommunication. Title I design for the operations related equipment and facilities was performed by Raytheon/BNFL, and that for the operations support related facilities including infrastructure upgrade was performed by KEH. These two scopes were combined into an integrated W113 Title II scope that was performed by Raytheon/BNFL. Volume 1 provides a comprehensive narrative description of the proposed facility and systems, the basis for each of the systems design, and the engineering assessments that were performed to support the technical basis of the Title II design. The intent of the system description presented is to provide WHC an understanding of the facilities and equipment provided and the A/E`s perspective on how these systems will operate.

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Medical and Biohazardous Waste Generator's Guide (Revision 2)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Biohazardous Waste Training Medical/Biohazardous WasteInspections 7. Forms and Supplies Medical Waste AccumulationLog Ordering Medical Waste Supplies 8. Solid Medical Waste

Waste Management Group

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Micro-scale anaerobic digestion of point source components of organic fraction of municipal solid waste  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Micro-scale anaerobic digestion of point source components of organic fraction of municipal solid that are needed when designing plug-flow type anaerobic bioreactors. More specifically, the decomposition patterns

Columbia University

393

Final Hanford Site Solid (Radioactive and Hazardous) Waste Program Environmental Impact Statement Richland, Washington  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

HSW HSW EIS January 2004 1.6 Figure 1.2. States with Radioactive Waste Disposal Activities Final HSW EIS January 2004 1.12 Figure 1.3. Relationship of the HSW EIS to Other Hanford Cleanup Operations, Material Management Activities, and Key Environmental Reviews 2.17 Final HSW EIS January 2004 Figure 2.6. Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Figure 2.7. X-Ray Image of Transuranic Waste Drum Contents M0212-0286.11 HSW EIS 12-10-02 M0212-0286.12 HSW EIS 12-10-02 2.17 Final HSW EIS January 2004 Figure 2.6. Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Figure 2.7. X-Ray Image of Transuranic Waste Drum Contents M0212-0286.11 HSW EIS 12-10-02 M0212-0286.12 HSW EIS 12-10-02 Final HSW EIS January 2004 2.34 Figure 2.18. Typical Liner System Final HSW EIS January 2004 2.36

394

Advanced conceptual design report solid waste retrieval facility, phase I, project W-113  

SciTech Connect

Project W-113 will provide the equipment and facilities necessary to retrieve suspect transuranic (TRU) waste from Trench 04 of the 218W-4C burial ground. As part of the retrieval process, waste drums will be assayed, overpacked, vented, head-gas sampled, and x-rayed prior to shipment to the Phase V storage facility in preparation for receipt at the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility (WRAP). Advanced Conceptual Design (ACD) studies focused on project items warranting further definition prior to Title I design and areas where the potential for cost savings existed. This ACD Report documents the studies performed during FY93 to optimize the equipment and facilities provided in relation to other SWOC facilities and to provide additional design information for Definitive Design.

Smith, K.E.

1994-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

395

Nuclear heat-load limits for above-grade storage of solid transuranium wastes  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear safety and heat load limits were established for above-grade storage of transuranium (TRU) wastes. Nuclear safety limits were obtained from a study by J.L. Forstner and are summarized. Heat load limits are based on temperature calculations for TRU waste drums stored in concrete containers (hats), and results are summarized. Waste already in storage is within these limits. The limiting factors for individual drum heat load limits were (1) avoidance of temperatures in excess of 190/sup 0/F (decomposition temperature of anion resin) when anion resin is present in a concrete hat, and (2) avoidance of temperatures in excess of 450/sup 0/F (ignition temperature of paper) at any point inside a waste drum. The limiting factor for concrete had heat load limits was avoidance of temperatures in excess of 265/sup 0/F (melt point of high density polyethylene) at the drum liners. A temperature profile for drums and hats filled to recommended limits is shown. Equations and assumptions used were conservative.

Clontz, B.G.

1978-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 11, Alphabetically indexed bibliography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This appendix contains the alphabetically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal waste management alternatives. The references are listed for each of the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized-bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW, materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting, and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

Not Available

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Materials and Energy Recovery from the Dry Stream of New York City's Municipal Solid Waste  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

from waste and significant reductions of material that must be sent to a landfill. 4.1.5 Co-Firing, another advantage of co-firing emerges. The addition of CS to coal in a power plant may lower some. Several plants in the United States have tried this combination with varying degrees of success. The co-firing

Columbia University

398

Anaerobic co-digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste with FOG waste from a sewage treatment plant: Recovering a wasted methane potential and enhancing the biogas yield  

SciTech Connect

Anaerobic digestion is applied widely to treat the source collected organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (SC-OFMSW). Lipid-rich wastes are a valuable substrate for anaerobic digestion due to their high theoretical methane potential. Nevertheless, although fat, oil and grease waste from sewage treatment plants (STP-FOGW) are commonly disposed of in landfill, European legislation is aimed at encouraging more effective forms of treatment. Co-digestion of the above wastes may enhance valorisation of STP-FOGW and lead to a higher biogas yield throughout the anaerobic digestion process. In the present study, STP-FOGW was evaluated as a co-substrate in wet anaerobic digestion of SC-OFMSW under mesophilic conditions (37 {sup o}C). Batch experiments carried out at different co-digestion ratios showed an improvement in methane production related to STP-FOGW addition. A 1:7 (VS/VS) STP-FOGW:SC-OFMSW feed ratio was selected for use in performing further lab-scale studies in a 5 L continuous reactor. Biogas yield increased from 0.38 {+-} 0.02 L g VS{sub feed}{sup -1} to 0.55 {+-} 0.05 L g VS{sub feed}{sup -1} as a result of adding STP-FOGW to reactor feed. Both VS reduction values and biogas methane content were maintained and inhibition produced by long chain fatty acid (LCFA) accumulation was not observed. Recovery of a currently wasted methane potential from STP-FOGW was achieved in a co-digestion process with SC-OFMSW.

Martin-Gonzalez, L., E-mail: lucia.martin@uab.ca [Departament d'Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Colturato, L.F. [Departament d'Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Font, X.; Vicent, T. [Departament d'Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Institut de Ciencia i Tecnologia Ambiental (ICTA) Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

399

Final Hazard Categorization for the Remediation of Six 300-FF-2 Operable Unit Solid Waste Burial Grounds  

SciTech Connect

This report provides the final hazard categorization (FHC) for the remediation of six solid waste disposal sites (referred to as burial grounds) located in the 300-FF-2 Operable Unit (OU) on the Hanford Site. These six sites (618-1, 618-2, 618-3, 618-7, 618-8, and 618-13 Burial Grounds) were determined to have a total radionuclide inventory (WCH 2005a, WCH 2005d, WCH 2005e and WCH 2006b) that exceeds the DOE-STD-1027 Category 3 threshold quantity (DOE 1997) and are the subject of this analysis. This FHC document examines the hazards, identifies appropriate controls to manage the hazards, and documents the FHC and commitments for the 300-FF-2 Burial Grounds Remediation Project.

J. D. Ludowise

2006-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

400

Combustion of municipal solid wastes with oil shale in a circulating fluidized bed. Quarterly report, quarter ending 31 December 1994  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The test plan is designed to demonstrate that oil shale co-combusted with municipal solid waste (MSW) can reduce gaseous pollutants (SO{sub 2}, CO) to acceptable levels (90%+ reduction) and produce a cementitious ash which will, at a minimum, be acceptable in normal land fills. The small-scale combustion testing will be accomplished in a 6-in. circulating fluid bed combustor (CFBC) at Hazen Research Laboratories. This work will be patterned after the study the authors conducted in 1988 when coal and oil shale were co-combusted in a program sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute. The specific purpose of the test program will be to: determine the required ratio of oil shale to MSW by determining the ratio of absorbent to pollutant (A/P); determine the effect of temperature and resident time in the reactor; and determine if kinetic model developed for coal/oil shale mixture is applicable.

Not Available

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z