National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for 1999-2011 depleted fields

  1. U.S. Natural Gas Number of Underground Storage Depleted Fields Capacity

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Number of Elements) Depleted Fields Capacity (Number of Elements) U.S. Natural Gas Number of Underground Storage Depleted Fields Capacity (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 335 2000's 336 351 340 318 320 320 322 326 324 331 2010's 331 329 330 332 333 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 08/31/2016 Next Release Date:

  2. U.S. Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Depleted Fields Capacity

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Cubic Feet) Depleted Fields Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) U.S. Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Depleted Fields Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 3,583,786 3,659,968 2010's 3,733,993 3,769,113 3,720,980 3,839,852 3,844,927 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 08/31/2016 Next Release Date:

  3. U.S. Natural Gas Underground Storage Depleted Fields Capacity (Million

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Cubic Feet) Depleted Fields Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) U.S. Natural Gas Underground Storage Depleted Fields Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 6,780,700 2000's 6,788,130 6,768,622 6,747,108 6,733,983 6,776,894 6,667,222 6,711,656 6,801,291 6,805,490 6,917,547 2010's 7,074,773 7,104,948 7,038,245 7,074,916 7,085,773 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure

  4. Multidiscipline studies of the depletion behavior of the F23 Gas Field, offshore Sarawak, East Malaysia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heijna, H.B.; Sin, S.L.M.; Ing, S.T.T.; Van Vliet, A.; Wong, K.; Hassan, W.M.W. )

    1994-07-01

    The F23 gas field is located 178 km north-northwest of Bintulu in the central Luconia province, offshore Sarawak. The accumulation consists of a late Miocene layered platform-type carbonate buildup 22 km[sup 2] and a maximum gas thickness of over 1000 ft. Eleven development wells and one observation well were completed in 1983, with initial gas delivery to Malaysia LNG in October 1983. Annual TDT surveys are conducted in the observation well to monitor the movement of the GWC in the central area of the field. As of April 1992, a cumulative rise of 25 ft was observed. This contrasts with material balance calculations predicted rise of some 60 ft based on Sgr of 50% inferred from core measurements. Among the potential explanations were irregular bottom-water encroachment, preferential flank water advance, or larger GIIP. As all had potentially important consequences to depletion strategy and ultimate reserves, multidiscipline studies were initiated. Time-lapse seismic data were used to better determine the existing fluid levels across the field and reservoir simulation studies were used to match observation well data and predict future reservoir behavior. Concurrent reservoir and simulation studies suggested that the material balance and observation well data could be reconciled by (1) a reduced aquifer, and/or increased GIIP, and/or a lower residual gas saturation, or (2) preferential flank water influx due to internal low-permeability layers. As (1) would not lead to early water breakthrough, the simulation effort was aimed to investigate (2), the possibility and implications of early edge water breakthrough via the flank zone.

  5. Modeling of horizontal well and lifting mechanisms to improve ultimate recovery in a depleted field in Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saputelli, L.; Mata, T.; Jimenez, Z.

    1995-12-31

    Recovery of the remaining reserve of millions of oil barrels is inhibited by depleted reservoir pressures and existing exploitation policies in Lower Lagunillas Reservoir in Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela. Numerical simulation results indicated that proper production and reservoir management policies such as, controlled drawdown, producing wells at rates below the critical rates, low gas-oil-ratio production will promote efficient gravity segregation process, and subsequent optimum final recovery. Combination of infill horizontal wells and adequate lifting mechanisms yielded the recovery of additional reserves.

  6. Carrier transport and collection in fully depleted semiconductors by a combined action of the space charge field and the field due to electrode voltages

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rehak, Pavel; Gatti, Emilio

    1987-01-01

    A semiconductor charge transport device and method for making same, characterized by providing a thin semiconductor wafer having rectifying junctions on its opposing major surfaces and including a small capacitance ohmic contact, in combination with bias voltage means and associated circuit means for applying a predetermined voltage to effectively deplete the wafer in regions thereof between the rectifying junctions and the ohmic contact. A charge transport device of the invention is usable as a drift chamber, a low capacitance detector, or a charge coupled device each constructed according to the methods of the invention for making such devices. Detectors constructed according to the principles of the invention are characterized by having significantly higher particle position indicating resolution than is attainable with prior art detectors, while at the same time requiring substantially fewer readout channels to realize such high resolution.

  7. Carrier transport and collection in fully depleted semiconductors by a combined action of the space charge field and the field due to electrode voltages

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rehak, P.; Gatti, E.

    1984-02-24

    A semiconductor charge transport device and method for making same, characterized by providing a thin semiconductor wafer having rectifying functions on its opposing major surfaces and including a small capacitance ohmic contact, in combination with bias voltage means and associated circuit means for applying a predetermined voltage to effectively deplete the wafer in regions thereof between the rectifying junctions and the ohmic contact. A charge transport device of the invention is usable as a drift chamber, a low capacitance detector, or a charge coupled device each constructed according to the methods of the invention for making such devices. Detectors constructed according to the principles of the invention are characterized by having significantly higher particle position indicating resolution than is attainable with prior art detectors, while at the same time requiring substantially fewer readout channels to realize such high resolution.

  8. Carrier transport and collection in fully depleted semiconductors by a combined action of the space charge field and the field due to electrode voltages

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rehak, P.; Gatti, E.

    1987-08-18

    A semiconductor charge transport device and method for making same are disclosed, characterized by providing a thin semiconductor wafer having rectifying junctions on its opposing major surfaces and including a small capacitance ohmic contact, in combination with bias voltage means and associated circuit means for applying a predetermined voltage to effectively deplete the wafer in regions thereof between the rectifying junctions and the ohmic contact. A charge transport device of the invention is usable as a drift chamber, a low capacitance detector, or a charge coupled device each constructed according to the methods of the invention for making such devices. Detectors constructed according to the principles of the invention are characterized by having significantly higher particle position indicating resolution than is attainable with prior art detectors, while at the same time requiring substantially fewer readout channels to realize such high resolution. 16 figs.

  9. Depleted uranium management alternatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hertzler, T.J.; Nishimoto, D.D.

    1994-08-01

    This report evaluates two management alternatives for Department of Energy depleted uranium: continued storage as uranium hexafluoride, and conversion to uranium metal and fabrication to shielding for spent nuclear fuel containers. The results will be used to compare the costs with other alternatives, such as disposal. Cost estimates for the continued storage alternative are based on a life-cycle of 27 years through the year 2020. Cost estimates for the recycle alternative are based on existing conversion process costs and Capital costs for fabricating the containers. Additionally, the recycle alternative accounts for costs associated with intermediate product resale and secondary waste disposal for materials generated during the conversion process.

  10. Tank depletion flow controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Georgeson, Melvin A.

    1976-10-26

    A flow control system includes two bubbler tubes installed at different levels within a tank containing such as radioactive liquid. As the tank is depleted, a differential pressure transmitter monitors pressure differences imparted by the two bubbler tubes at a remote, shielded location during uniform time intervals. At the end of each uniform interval, balance pots containing a dense liquid are valved together to equalize the pressures. The resulting sawtooth-shaped signal generated by the differential pressure transmitter is compared with a second sawtooth signal representing the desired flow rate during each time interval. Variations in the two signals are employed by a control instrument to regulate flow rate.

  11. Working Gas Capacity of Depleted Fields

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    296,096 311,096 335,396 349,296 364,296 364,296 2008-2014 Colorado 48,129 49,119 48,709 60,582 60,582 63,774 2008-2014 Illinois 51,418 87,368 87,368 87,368 11,768 11,768...

  12. Natural Gas Depleted Fields Storage Capacity

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Separation, as of Dec. 31 33,383 35,746 42,823 53,156 58,490 69,117 1979-2014 Federal Offshore U.S. 5,223 5,204 5,446 5,864 5,530 5,334 1990-2014 Pacific (California) 731 722 711 652 264 243 1979-2014 Louisiana & Alabama 3,863 3,793 4,196 4,358 4,293 4,253 1981-2014 Texas 629 689 539 854 973 838 1981-2014 Alaska 8,093 7,896 8,535 8,672 6,428 5,851 1979-2014 Lower 48 States 25,290 27,850 34,288 44,484 52,062 63,266 1979-2014 Alabama 29 38 48 100 46 141 1979-2014 Arkansas 20 29 46 82 135

  13. Depletion Aggregation > Batteries & Fuel Cells > Research > The...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Batteries & Fuel Cells In This Section Battery Anodes Battery Cathodes Depletion Aggregation Membranes Depletion Aggregation We are exploring a number of synthetic strategies to ...

  14. Fully depleted back illuminated CCD

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holland, Stephen Edward

    2001-01-01

    A backside illuminated charge coupled device (CCD) is formed of a relatively thick high resistivity photon sensitive silicon substrate, with frontside electronic circuitry, and an optically transparent backside ohmic contact for applying a backside voltage which is at least sufficient to substantially fully deplete the substrate. A greater bias voltage which overdepletes the substrate may also be applied. One way of applying the bias voltage to the substrate is by physically connecting the voltage source to the ohmic contact. An alternate way of applying the bias voltage to the substrate is to physically connect the voltage source to the frontside of the substrate, at a point outside the depletion region. Thus both frontside and backside contacts can be used for backside biasing to fully deplete the substrate. Also, high resistivity gaps around the CCD channels and electrically floating channel stop regions can be provided in the CCD array around the CCD channels. The CCD array forms an imaging sensor useful in astronomy.

  15. Programmable nanometer-scale electrolytic metal deposition and depletion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, James Weifu; Greenbaum, Elias

    2002-09-10

    A method of nanometer-scale deposition of a metal onto a nanostructure includes the steps of: providing a substrate having thereon at least two electrically conductive nanostructures spaced no more than about 50 .mu.m apart; and depositing metal on at least one of the nanostructures by electric field-directed, programmable, pulsed electrolytic metal deposition. Moreover, a method of nanometer-scale depletion of a metal from a nanostructure includes the steps of providing a substrate having thereon at least two electrically conductive nanostructures spaced no more than about 50 .mu.m apart, at least one of the nanostructures having a metal disposed thereon; and depleting at least a portion of the metal from the nanostructure by electric field-directed, programmable, pulsed electrolytic metal depletion. A bypass circuit enables ultra-finely controlled deposition.

  16. field

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    09%2A en Ten-Year Site Plans (TYSP) http:nnsa.energy.govaboutusouroperationsinfopsinfopstysp

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  17. field

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    09%2A en Ten-Year Site Plans (TYSP) http:www.nnsa.energy.govaboutusouroperationsinfopsinfopstysp

    field field-type-text field-field-page-name">
  18. EOI: Offsite Depleted Uranium Metalworking | Y-12 National Security...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Offsite Depleted ... EOI: Offsite Depleted Uranium Metalworking Consolidated Nuclear ... of Depleted Uranium, for the Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. ...

  19. Depleted uranium disposal options evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hertzler, T.J.; Nishimoto, D.D.; Otis, M.D.

    1994-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, has chartered a study to evaluate alternative management strategies for depleted uranium (DU) currently stored throughout the DOE complex. Historically, DU has been maintained as a strategic resource because of uses for DU metal and potential uses for further enrichment or for uranium oxide as breeder reactor blanket fuel. This study has focused on evaluating the disposal options for DU if it were considered a waste. This report is in no way declaring these DU reserves a ``waste,`` but is intended to provide baseline data for comparison with other management options for use of DU. To PICS considered in this report include: Retrievable disposal; permanent disposal; health hazards; radiation toxicity and chemical toxicity.

  20. Beneficial Uses of Depleted Uranium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, C.; Croff, A.G.; Haire, M. J.

    1997-08-01

    Naturally occurring uranium contains 0.71 wt% {sup 235}U. In order for the uranium to be useful in most fission reactors, it must be enriched the concentration of the fissile isotope {sup 235}U must be increased. Depleted uranium (DU) is a co-product of the processing of natural uranium to produce enriched uranium, and DU has a {sup 235}U concentration of less than 0.71 wt%. In the United States, essentially all of the DU inventory is in the chemical form of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) and is stored in large cylinders above ground. If this co-product material were to be declared surplus, converted to a stable oxide form, and disposed, the costs are estimated to be several billion dollars. Only small amounts of DU have at this time been beneficially reused. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has begun the Beneficial Uses of DU Project to identify large-scale uses of DU and encourage its reuse for the primary purpose of potentially reducing the cost and expediting the disposition of the DU inventory. This paper discusses the inventory of DU and its rate of increase; DU disposition options; beneficial use options; a preliminary cost analysis; and major technical, institutional, and regulatory issues to be resolved.

  1. Specification for the VERA Depletion Benchmark Suite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Kang Seog

    2015-12-17

    CASL-X-2015-1014-000 iii Consortium for Advanced Simulation of LWRs EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The CASL neutronics simulator MPACT is under development for the neutronics and T-H coupled simulation for the pressurized water reactor. MPACT includes the ORIGEN-API and internal depletion module to perform depletion calculations based upon neutron-material reaction and radioactive decay. It is a challenge to validate the depletion capability because of the insufficient measured data. One of the detoured methods to validate it is to perform a code-to-code comparison for benchmark problems. In this study a depletion benchmark suite has been developed and a detailed guideline has been provided to obtain meaningful computational outcomes which can be used in the validation of the MPACT depletion capability.

  2. Depleted uranium: A DOE management guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has a management challenge and financial liability in the form of 50,000 cylinders containing 555,000 metric tons of depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) that are stored at the gaseous diffusion plants. The annual storage and maintenance cost is approximately $10 million. This report summarizes several studies undertaken by the DOE Office of Technology Development (OTD) to evaluate options for long-term depleted uranium management. Based on studies conducted to date, the most likely use of the depleted uranium is for shielding of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) or vitrified high-level waste (HLW) containers. The alternative to finding a use for the depleted uranium is disposal as a radioactive waste. Estimated disposal costs, utilizing existing technologies, range between $3.8 and $11.3 billion, depending on factors such as applicability of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the location of the disposal site. The cost of recycling the depleted uranium in a concrete based shielding in SNF/HLW containers, although substantial, is comparable to or less than the cost of disposal. Consequently, the case can be made that if DOE invests in developing depleted uranium shielded containers instead of disposal, a long-term solution to the UF{sub 6} problem is attained at comparable or lower cost than disposal as a waste. Two concepts for depleted uranium storage casks were considered in these studies. The first is based on standard fabrication concepts previously developed for depleted uranium metal. The second converts the UF{sub 6} to an oxide aggregate that is used in concrete to make dry storage casks.

  3. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Depleted Reservoir Storage

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Configuration Depleted Reservoir Storage Configuration About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 2007/2008 with selected updates Depleted Production Reservoir Underground Natural Gas Storage Well Configuration Depleted Production Reservoir Storage

  4. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Depleted Reservoir Storage...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Depleted Reservoir Storage Configuration About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 20072008 with selected updates Depleted Production ...

  5. DOE Extends Contract to Operate Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Extends Contract to Operate Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Plants DOE Extends Contract to Operate Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Plants December 24, 2015 - ...

  6. VERA Core Simulator Methodology for PWR Cycle Depletion (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    VERA Core Simulator Methodology for PWR Cycle Depletion Citation Details In-Document Search Title: VERA Core Simulator Methodology for PWR Cycle Depletion Authors: Kochunas, ...

  7. Number of Existing Natural Gas Depleted Fields Storage

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    331 331 329 330 332 333 1999-2014 Alaska 5 5 2013-2014 Alabama 1 1 1 1 1 1 1999-2014 Arkansas 2 2 2 2 2 2 1999-2014 California 13 13 13 14 13 13 1999-2014 Colorado 9 9 9 10 10 10 1999-2014 Illinois 10 11 11 11 9 9 1999-2014 Indiana 10 9 9 10 10 10 1999-2014 Kansas 18 18 18 18 18 17 1999-2014 Kentucky 20 20 20 20 20 21 1999-2014 Louisiana 8 8 8 7 8 8 1999-2014 Maryland 1 1 1 1 1 1 1999-2014 Michigan 43 43 43 43 43 43 1999-2014 Mississippi 6 6 6 6 6 6 1999-2014 Montana 5 5 5 5 5 5 1999-2014

  8. Neutral depletion and the helicon density limit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magee, R. M.; Galante, M. E.; Carr, J. Jr.; Lusk, G.; McCarren, D. W.; Scime, E. E.

    2013-12-15

    It is straightforward to create fully ionized plasmas with modest rf power in a helicon. It is difficult, however, to create plasmas with density >10{sup 20} m{sup ?3}, because neutral depletion leads to a lack of fuel. In order to address this density limit, we present fast (1 MHz), time-resolved measurements of the neutral density at and downstream from the rf antenna in krypton helicon plasmas. At the start of the discharge, the neutral density underneath the antenna is reduced to 1% of its initial value in 15 ?s. The ionization rate inferred from these data implies that the electron temperature near the antenna is much higher than the electron temperature measured downstream. Neutral density measurements made downstream from the antenna show much slower depletion, requiring 14 ms to decrease by a factor of 1/e. Furthermore, the downstream depletion appears to be due to neutral pumping rather than ionization.

  9. Assessment of Preferred Depleted Uranium Disposal Forms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Croff, A.G.; Hightower, J.R.; Lee, D.W.; Michaels, G.E.; Ranek, N.L.; Trabalka, J.R.

    2000-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of converting about 700,000 metric tons (MT) of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6) containing 475,000 MT of depleted uranium (DU) to a stable form more suitable for long-term storage or disposal. Potential conversion forms include the tetrafluoride (DUF4), oxide (DUO2 or DU3O8), or metal. If worthwhile beneficial uses cannot be found for the DU product form, it will be sent to an appropriate site for disposal. The DU products are considered to be low-level waste (LLW) under both DOE orders and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations. The objective of this study was to assess the acceptability of the potential DU conversion products at potential LLW disposal sites to provide a basis for DOE decisions on the preferred DU product form and a path forward that will ensure reliable and efficient disposal.

  10. Depleted uranium plasma reduction system study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rekemeyer, P.; Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.; Brown, B.W.

    1994-12-01

    A system life-cycle cost study was conducted of a preliminary design concept for a plasma reduction process for converting depleted uranium to uranium metal and anhydrous HF. The plasma-based process is expected to offer significant economic and environmental advantages over present technology. Depleted Uranium is currently stored in the form of solid UF{sub 6}, of which approximately 575,000 metric tons is stored at three locations in the U.S. The proposed system is preconceptual in nature, but includes all necessary processing equipment and facilities to perform the process. The study has identified total processing cost of approximately $3.00/kg of UF{sub 6} processed. Based on the results of this study, the development of a laboratory-scale system (1 kg/h throughput of UF6) is warranted. Further scaling of the process to pilot scale will be determined after laboratory testing is complete.

  11. Carbon sequestration in depleted oil shale deposits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burnham, Alan K; Carroll, Susan A

    2014-12-02

    A method and apparatus are described for sequestering carbon dioxide underground by mineralizing the carbon dioxide with coinjected fluids and minerals remaining from the extraction shale oil. In one embodiment, the oil shale of an illite-rich oil shale is heated to pyrolyze the shale underground, and carbon dioxide is provided to the remaining depleted oil shale while at an elevated temperature. Conditions are sufficient to mineralize the carbon dioxide.

  12. The ultimate disposition of depleted uranium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lemons, T.R.

    1991-12-31

    Depleted uranium (DU) is produced as a by-product of the uranium enrichment process. Over 340,000 MTU of DU in the form of UF{sub 6} have been accumulated at the US government gaseous diffusion plants and the stockpile continues to grow. An overview of issues and objectives associated with the inventory management and the ultimate disposition of this material is presented.

  13. DOE Extends Contract to Operate Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Plants | Department of Energy Contract to Operate Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Plants DOE Extends Contract to Operate Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Plants December 24, 2015 - 10:00am Addthis Media Contact Brad Mitzelfelt, 859-219-4035 brad.mitzelfelt@lex.doe.gov LEXINGTON, Ky. - The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management (EM) today announced it is extending its contract for Operations of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF6) Conversion Facilities

  14. Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF6) Fully Operational at the...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF6) Fully Operational at the Portsmouth and Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Sites October 20, 2011 - 9:16am Addthis When Babcock & Wilcox Conversion ...

  15. University of Michigan adds Depletion Capability to MPACT

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Michigan researchers Ben Collins, Ang Zhu, Brendan Kochunas, and Tom Downar. The numerical methods to implement nuclide point depletion and integrate a time dependent...

  16. SFR with once-through depleted uranium breed & burn blanket ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: SFR with once-through depleted uranium breed & burn blanket Authors: Zhang, Guanheng ; Greenspan, Ehud ; Jolodosky, Alejandra ; Vujic, Jasmina Publication Date: 2015-07-01 ...

  17. Gas generation matrix depletion quality assurance project plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is to provide the necessary expertise, experience, equipment and instrumentation, and management structure to: Conduct the matrix depletion experiments using simulated waste for quantifying matrix depletion effects; and Conduct experiments on 60 cylinders containing simulated TRU waste to determine the effects of matrix depletion on gas generation for transportation. All work for the Gas Generation Matrix Depletion (GGMD) experiment is performed according to the quality objectives established in the test plan and under this Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP).

  18. Recovery of Depleted Uranium Fragments from Soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farr, C.P.; Alecksen, T.J.; Heronimus, R.S.; Simonds, M.H.; Farrar, D.R.; Baker, K.R.; Miller, M.L.

    2008-07-01

    A cost-effective method was demonstrated for recovering depleted uranium (DU) fragments from soil. A compacted clean soil pad was prepared adjacent to a pile of soil containing DU fragments. Soil from the contaminated pile was placed on the pad in three-inch lifts using conventional construction equipment. Each lift was scanned with an automatic scanning system consisting of an array of radiation detectors coupled to a detector positioning system. The data were downloaded into ArcGIS for data presentation. Areas of the pad exhibiting scaler counts above the decision level were identified as likely locations of DU fragments. The coordinates of these locations were downloaded into a PDA that was wirelessly connected to the positioning system. The PDA guided technicians to the locations where hand-held trowels and shovels were used to remove the fragments. After DU removal, the affected areas were re-scanned and the new data patched into the data base to replace the original data. This new data set along with soil sample results served as final status survey data. (authors)

  19. Radiochemical Analysis Methodology for uranium Depletion Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scatena-Wachel DE

    2007-01-09

    This report provides sufficient material for a test sponsor with little or no radiochemistry background to understand and follow physics irradiation test program execution. Most irradiation test programs employ similar techniques and the general details provided here can be applied to the analysis of other irradiated sample types. Aspects of program management directly affecting analysis quality are also provided. This report is not an in-depth treatise on the vast field of radiochemical analysis techniques and related topics such as quality control. Instrumental technology is a very fast growing field and dramatic improvements are made each year, thus the instrumentation described in this report is no longer cutting edge technology. Much of the background material is still applicable and useful for the analysis of older experiments and also for subcontractors who still retain the older instrumentation.

  20. Attainable Burnup in a LIFE Engine Loaded with Depleted Uranium...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Attainable Burnup in a LIFE Engine Loaded with Depleted Uranium The Laser Inertial Fusion-based Energy (LIFE) system uses a laser-based fusion source for electricity ...

  1. Percentage depletion allowance alternative to Engle and Glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orbach, K.N.; Dickens, T.L.; Fields, K.T.

    1982-12-01

    Recently, the Seventh Circuit, reversing the Tax Court, held that advance royalties are eligible for percentage depletion even though no oil or gas is produced in the year of payment. In the appellate court's view, Internal Revenue Code Section 613A (c) is a limitation, rather than a prerequisite, to the deduction. The Tax Court, to the contrary, had held that advance royalties do not qualify for percentage depletion in the year of receipt unless there is actual production in such year attributable to the gross income. Likewise, the Tax Court has held that a lease bonus is not subject to percentage depletion. The purpose of this article is to analyze the positions of the Tax Court, Seventh Circuit, and, to a limited extent, the Internal Revenue Service with respect to the eligibility of percentage depletion for advance royalties and lease bonuses. (JMT)

  2. Hyperspectral stimulated emission depletion microscopy and methods of use thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Timlin, Jerilyn A; Aaron, Jesse S

    2014-04-01

    A hyperspectral stimulated emission depletion ("STED") microscope system for high-resolution imaging of samples labeled with multiple fluorophores (e.g., two to ten fluorophores). The hyperspectral STED microscope includes a light source, optical systems configured for generating an excitation light beam and a depletion light beam, optical systems configured for focusing the excitation and depletion light beams on a sample, and systems for collecting and processing data generated by interaction of the excitation and depletion light beams with the sample. Hyperspectral STED data may be analyzed using multivariate curve resolution analysis techniques to deconvolute emission from the multiple fluorophores. The hyperspectral STED microscope described herein can be used for multi-color, subdiffraction imaging of samples (e.g., materials and biological materials) and for analyzing a tissue by Forster Resonance Energy Transfer ("FRET").

  3. DOE Selects Contractor for Depleted Hexafluoride Conversion Project...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DOE Selects Contractor for Depleted Hexafluoride Conversion Project Support March 25, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis Media Contact Bill Taylor, 803-952-8564 Bill.Taylor@srs.gov Cincinnati ...

  4. Retrieval of buried depleted uranium from the T-1 trench

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burmeister, M.; Castaneda, N.; Greengard, T. |; Hull, C.; Barbour, D.; Quapp, W.J.

    1998-07-01

    The Trench 1 remediation project will be conducted this year to retrieve depleted uranium and other associated materials from a trench at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site. The excavated materials will be segregated and stabilized for shipment. The depleted uranium will be treated at an offsite facility which utilizes a novel approach for waste minimization and disposal through utilization of a combination of uranium recycling and volume efficient uranium stabilization.

  5. Stimulation Emission Depletion (STED) microscopy | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stimulation Emission Depletion (STED) microscopy What is STED? Stimulation Emission Depletion (STED) microscopy is a super resolution microscopy tool that captures super resolution images on a nanometer scale. A donut-shaped red light switches off surrounding molecules, allowing only those in the center to fluoresce. At the nanoscale, light microscopes cannot tell features apart. Because light moves as waves and the particles of light are so close together, the lens used cannot focus all of the

  6. Depleted uranium as a backfill for nuclear fuel waste package

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1998-11-03

    A method is described for packaging spent nuclear fuel for long-term disposal in a geological repository. At least one spent nuclear fuel assembly is first placed in an unsealed waste package and a depleted uranium fill material is added to the waste package. The depleted uranium fill material comprises flowable particles having a size sufficient to substantially fill any voids in and around the assembly and contains isotopically-depleted uranium in the +4 valence state in an amount sufficient to inhibit dissolution of the spent nuclear fuel from the assembly into a surrounding medium and to lessen the potential for nuclear criticality inside the repository in the event of failure of the waste package. Last, the waste package is sealed, thereby substantially reducing the release of radionuclides into the surrounding medium, while simultaneously providing radiation shielding and increased structural integrity of the waste package. 6 figs.

  7. Depleted uranium as a backfill for nuclear fuel waste package

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsberg, Charles W.

    1998-01-01

    A method for packaging spent nuclear fuel for long-term disposal in a geological repository. At least one spent nuclear fuel assembly is first placed in an unsealed waste package and a depleted uranium fill material is added to the waste package. The depleted uranium fill material comprises flowable particles having a size sufficient to substantially fill any voids in and around the assembly and contains isotopically-depleted uranium in the +4 valence state in an amount sufficient to inhibit dissolution of the spent nuclear fuel from the assembly into a surrounding medium and to lessen the potential for nuclear criticality inside the repository in the event of failure of the waste package. Last, the waste package is sealed, thereby substantially reducing the release of radionuclides into the surrounding medium, while simultaneously providing radiation shielding and increased structural integrity of the waste package.

  8. Effect of Shim Arm Depletion in the NBSR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanson A. H.; Brown N.; Diamond, D.J.

    2013-02-22

    The cadmium shim arms in the NBSR undergo burnup during reactor operation and hence, require periodic replacement. Presently, the shim arms are replaced after every 25 cycles to guarantee they can maintain sufficient shutdown margin. Two prior reports document the expected change in the 113Cd distribution because of the shim arm depletion. One set of calculations was for the present high-enriched uranium fuel and the other for the low-enriched uranium fuel when it was in the COMP7 configuration (7 inch fuel length vs. the present 11 inch length). The depleted 113Cd distributions calculated for these cores were applied to the current design for an equilibrium low-enriched uranium core. This report details the predicted effects, if any, of shim arm depletion on the shim arm worth, the shutdown margin, power distributions and kinetics parameters.

  9. Second Generation Monolithic Full-depletion Radiation Sensor with Integrated CMOS Circuitry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Segal, J.D.; Kenney, C.J.; Parker, S.I.; Aw, C.H.; Snoeys, W.J.; Wooley, B.; Plummer, J.D.; /Stanford U., Elect. Eng. Dept.

    2011-05-20

    A second-generation monolithic silicon radiation sensor has been built and characterized. This pixel detector has CMOS circuitry fabricated directly in the high-resistivity floatzone substrate. The bulk is fully depleted from bias applied to the backside diode. Within the array, PMOS pixel circuitry forms the first stage amplifiers. Full CMOS circuitry implementing further amplification as well as column and row logic is located in the periphery of the pixel array. This allows a sparse-field readout scheme where only pixels with signals above a certain threshold are readout. We describe the fabrication process, circuit design, system performance, and results of gamma-ray radiation tests.

  10. EIS-0269: Long-Term Management of Depleted Uranium Hexaflouride

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) prepared this programmatic environmental impact statement to assess the potential impacts of alternative management strategies for depleted uranium hexafluoride currently stored at three DOE sites: Paducah site near Paducah, Kentucky; Portsmouth site near Portsmouth, Ohio; and K-25 site on the Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

  11. CRDIAC: Coupled Reactor Depletion Instrument with Automated Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven K. Logan

    2012-08-01

    When modeling the behavior of a nuclear reactor over time, it is important to understand how the isotopes in the reactor will change, or transmute, over that time. This is especially important in the reactor fuel itself. Many nuclear physics modeling codes model how particles interact in the system, but do not model this over time. Thus, another code is used in conjunction with the nuclear physics code to accomplish this. In our code, Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) codes and the Multi Reactor Transmutation Analysis Utility (MRTAU) were chosen as the codes to use. In this way, MCNP would produce the reaction rates in the different isotopes present and MRTAU would use cross sections generated from these reaction rates to determine how the mass of each isotope is lost or gained. Between these two codes, the information must be altered and edited for use. For this, a Python 2.7 script was developed to aid the user in getting the information in the correct forms. This newly developed methodology was called the Coupled Reactor Depletion Instrument with Automated Controls (CRDIAC). As is the case in any newly developed methodology for modeling of physical phenomena, CRDIAC needed to be verified against similar methodology and validated against data taken from an experiment, in our case AFIP-3. AFIP-3 was a reduced enrichment plate type fuel tested in the ATR. We verified our methodology against the MCNP Coupled with ORIGEN2 (MCWO) method and validated our work against the Post Irradiation Examination (PIE) data. When compared to MCWO, the difference in concentration of U-235 throughout Cycle 144A was about 1%. When compared to the PIE data, the average bias for end of life U-235 concentration was about 2%. These results from CRDIAC therefore agree with the MCWO and PIE data, validating and verifying CRDIAC. CRDIAC provides an alternative to using ORIGEN-based methodology, which is useful because CRDIAC's depletion code, MRTAU, uses every available isotope in its depletion

  12. 1,2,3-D Diffusion Depletion Multi-Group

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-04-20

    CITATION is designed to solve problems using the finite difference representation of neutron diffusion theory, treating up to three space dimensions with arbitrary group to group scattering. X-y-z, theta-r-z, hexagonal z, and triagonal z geometries may be treated. Depletion problems may be solved and fuel managed for multi-cycle analysis. Extensive first order perturbation results may be obtained given microscopic data and nuclide concentrations. Statics problems may be solved and perturbation results obtained with microscopic data.

  13. High-voltage compatible, full-depleted CCD

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holland, Stephen Edward

    2007-09-18

    A charge coupled device for detecting electromagnetic and particle radiation is described. The device includes a high-resistivity semiconductor substrate, buried channel regions, gate electrode circuitry, and amplifier circuitry. For good spatial resolution and high performance, especially when operated at high voltages with full or nearly full depletion of the substrate, the device can also include a guard ring positioned near channel regions, a biased channel stop, and a biased polysilicon electrode over the channel stop.

  14. OrigenArp Primer: How to Perform Isotopic Depletion and Decay Calculations with SCALE/ORIGEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowman, Stephen M; Gauld, Ian C

    2010-08-01

    The SCALE (Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation) computer software system developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is widely used and accepted around the world for nuclear analyses. ORIGEN-ARP is a SCALE isotopic depletion and decay analysis sequence used to perform point-depletion calculations with the well-known ORIGEN-S code using problem-dependent cross sections. Problem-dependent cross-section libraries are generated using the ARP (Automatic Rapid Processing) module using an interpolation algorithm that operates on pre-generated libraries created for a range of fuel properties and operating conditions. Methods are provided in SCALE to generate these libraries using one-, two-, and three-dimensional transport codes. The interpolation of cross sections for uranium-based fuels may be performed for the variables burnup, enrichment, and water density. An option is also available to interpolate cross sections for mixed-oxide (MOX) fuels using the variables burnup, plutonium content, plutonium isotopic vector, and water moderator density. This primer is designed to help a new user understand and use ORIGEN-ARP with the OrigenArp Windows graphical user interface in SCALE. It assumes that the user has a college education in a technical field. There is no assumption of familiarity with nuclear depletion codes in general or with SCALE/ORIGEN-ARP in particular. The primer is based on SCALE 6 but should be applicable to earlier or later versions of SCALE. Information is included to help new users, along with several sample problems that walk the user through the different input forms and menus and illustrate the basic features. References to related documentation are provided. The primer provides a starting point for the nuclear analyst who uses SCALE/ORIGEN-ARP. Complete descriptions are provided in the SCALE documentation. Although the primer is self-contained, it is intended as a companion volume to the SCALE documentation. The SCALE Manual is

  15. Accounting for Depletion of Oil and Gas Resources in Malaysia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Othman, Jamal Jafari, Yaghoob

    2012-12-15

    Since oil and gas are non-renewable resources, it is important to identify the extent to which they have been depleted. Such information will contribute to the formulation and evaluation of appropriate sustainable development policies. This paper provides an assessment of the changes in the availability of oil and gas resources in Malaysia by first compiling the physical balance sheet for the period 2000-2007, and then assessing the monetary balance sheets for the said resource by using the Net Present Value method. Our findings show serious reduction in the value of oil reserves from 2001 to 2005, due to changes in crude oil prices, and thereafter the depletion rates decreased. In the context of sustainable development planning, albeit in the weak sustainability sense, it will be important to ascertain if sufficient reinvestments of the estimated resource rents in related or alternative capitals are being attempted by Malaysia. For the study period, the cumulative resource rents were to the tune of RM61 billion. Through a depletion or resource rents policy, the estimated quantum may guide the identification of a reinvestment threshold (after considering needed capital investment for future development of the industry) in light of ensuring the future productive capacity of the economy at the time when the resource is exhausted.

  16. Alignment of gold nanorods by angular photothermal depletion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, Adam B.; Chow, Timothy T. Y.; Chon, James W. M.

    2014-02-24

    In this paper, we demonstrate that a high degree of alignment can be imposed upon randomly oriented gold nanorod films by angular photothermal depletion with linearly polarized laser irradiation. The photothermal reshaping of gold nanorods is observed to follow quadratic melting model rather than the threshold melting model, which distorts the angular and spectral hole created on 2D distribution map of nanorods to be an open crater shape. We have accounted these observations to the alignment procedures and demonstrated good agreement between experiment and simulations. The use of multiple laser depletion wavelengths allowed alignment criteria over a large range of aspect ratios, achieving 80% of the rods in the target angular range. We extend the technique to demonstrate post-alignment in a multilayer of randomly oriented gold nanorod films, with arbitrary control of alignment shown across the layers. Photothermal angular depletion alignment of gold nanorods is a simple, promising post-alignment method for creating future 3D or multilayer plasmonic nanorod based devices and structures.

  17. Postmidnight depletion of the high-energy tail of the quiet plasmasphere

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sarno-Smith, Lois K.; Liemohn, Michael W.; Katus, Roxanne M.; Skoug, Ruth M.; Larsen, Brian A.; Thomsen, Michelle F.; Wygant, John R.; Moldwin, Mark B.

    2015-03-06

    The Van Allen Probes Helium Oxygen Proton Electron (HOPE) instrument measures the high energy tail of the thermal plasmasphere allowing study of topside ionosphere and inner magnetosphere coupling. We statistically analyze a 22 month period of HOPE data, looking at quiet times with a Kp index of less than 3. We investigate the high energy range of the plasmasphere, which consists of ions at energies between 1-10 eV and contains approximately 5% of total plasmaspheric density. Both the fluxes and partial plasma densities over this energy range show H+ is depleted the most in the post-midnight sector (1-4 MLT), followedmore » by O+ and then He+. The relative depletion of each species across the post-midnight sector is not ordered by mass, which reveals ionospheric influence. We compare our results with keV energy electron data from HOPE and the Van Allen Probes Electric Fields and Waves (EFW) instrument spacecraft potential to rule out spacecraft charging. Our conclusion is that the post-midnight ion disappearance is due to diurnal ionospheric temperature variation and charge exchange processes« less

  18. Postmidnight depletion of the high-energy tail of the quiet plasmasphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarno-Smith, Lois K.; Liemohn, Michael W.; Katus, Roxanne M.; Skoug, Ruth M.; Larsen, Brian A.; Thomsen, Michelle F.; Wygant, John R.; Moldwin, Mark B.

    2015-03-06

    The Van Allen Probes Helium Oxygen Proton Electron (HOPE) instrument measures the high energy tail of the thermal plasmasphere allowing study of topside ionosphere and inner magnetosphere coupling. We statistically analyze a 22 month period of HOPE data, looking at quiet times with a Kp index of less than 3. We investigate the high energy range of the plasmasphere, which consists of ions at energies between 1-10 eV and contains approximately 5% of total plasmaspheric density. Both the fluxes and partial plasma densities over this energy range show H+ is depleted the most in the post-midnight sector (1-4 MLT), followed by O+ and then He+. The relative depletion of each species across the post-midnight sector is not ordered by mass, which reveals ionospheric influence. We compare our results with keV energy electron data from HOPE and the Van Allen Probes Electric Fields and Waves (EFW) instrument spacecraft potential to rule out spacecraft charging. Our conclusion is that the post-midnight ion disappearance is due to diurnal ionospheric temperature variation and charge exchange processes

  19. Accelerated Depletion: Assessing Its Impacts on Domestic Oil and Natural Gas Prices and Production

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2000-01-01

    Analysis of the potential impacts of accelerated depletion on domestic oil and natural gas prices and production.

  20. Design and Implementation of a C02 Flood Utilizing Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Horizontal Injection Wells in a Shallow Shelf Carbonate Approaching Waterflood Depletion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-08-01

    The objective is to utilize reservoir characteristics and advanced technologies to optimize the design of a carbon dioxide (CO2) project for the South Cowden Unit (SCU) located in Ector County, Texas. The SCU is a mature, relatively small, shallow shelf carbonate unit nearing waterflood depletion. Also the project seeks to demonstrate the performance and economic viability of the project in the field.

  1. Inhibition of lytic infection of pseudorabies virus by arginine depletion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, H.-C. [Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Kao, Y.-C. [Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Chang, T-J. [Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Wong, M.-L. [Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: mlwong@dragon.nchu.edu.tw

    2005-08-26

    Pseudorabies virus (PRV) is a member of Alphahepesviruses; it is an enveloped virus with a double-stranded DNA genome. Polyamines (such as spermine and spermidine) are ubiquitous in animal cells and participate in cellular proliferation and differentiation. Previous results of our laboratory showed that the PRV can accomplish lytic infection either in the presence of exogenous spermine (or spermidine) or depletion of cellular polyamines. The amino acid arginine is a precursor of polyamine biosynthesis. In this work, we investigated the role of arginine in PRV infection. It was found that the plaque formation of PRV was inhibited by arginase (enzyme catalyzing the conversion of arginine into ornithine and urea) treatment whereas this inhibition can be reversed by exogenous arginine, suggesting that arginine is essential for PRV proliferation. Western blotting was conducted to study the effect of arginine depletion on the levels of structural proteins of PRV in virus-infected cells. Four PRV structural proteins (gB, gE, UL47, and UL48) were chosen for examination, and results revealed that the levels of viral proteins were obviously reduced in long time arginase treatment. However, the overall protein synthesis machinery was apparently not influenced by arginase treatment either in mock or PRV-infected cells. Analyzing with native gel, we found that arginase treatment affected the mobility of PRV structural proteins, suggesting the conformational change of viral proteins by arginine depletion. Heat shock proteins, acting as molecular chaperons, participate in protein folding and translocation. Our results demonstrated that long time arginase treatment could reduce the expression of cellular heat shock proteins 70 (hsc70 and hsp70), and transcriptional suppression of heat shock protein 70 gene promoter was one of the mechanisms involved in this reduced expression.

  2. Depleted uranium storage and disposal trade study: Summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hightower, J.R.; Trabalka, J.R.

    2000-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to: identify the most desirable forms for conversion of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6) for extended storage, identify the most desirable forms for conversion of DUF6 for disposal, evaluate the comparative costs for extended storage or disposal of the various forms, review benefits of the proposed plasma conversion process, estimate simplified life-cycle costs (LCCs) for five scenarios that entail either disposal or beneficial reuse, and determine whether an overall optimal form for conversion of DUF6 can be selected given current uncertainty about the endpoints (specific disposal site/technology or reuse options).

  3. Including environmental concerns in management strategies for depleted uranium hexafluoride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldberg, M.; Avci, H.I.; Bradley, C.E.

    1995-12-31

    One of the major programs within the Office of Nuclear Energy, Science, and Technology of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is the depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF{sub 6}) management program. The program is intended to find a long-term management strategy for the DUF{sub 6} that is currently stored in approximately 46,400 cylinders at Paducah, KY; Portsmouth, OH; and Oak Ridge, TN, USA. The program has four major components: technology assessment, engineering analysis, cost analysis, and the environmental impact statement (EIS). From the beginning of the program, the DOE has incorporated the environmental considerations into the process of strategy selection. Currently, the DOE has no preferred alternative. The results of the environmental impacts assessment from the EIS, as well as the results from the other components of the program, will be factored into the strategy selection process. In addition to the DOE`s current management plan, other alternatives continued storage, reuse, or disposal of depleted uranium, will be considered in the EIS. The EIS is expected to be completed and issued in its final form in the fall of 1997.

  4. Ozone-depleting-substance control and phase-out plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nickels, J.M.; Brown, M.J.

    1994-07-01

    Title VI of the Federal Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 requires regulation of the use and disposal of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) (e.g., Halon, Freon). Several important federal regulations have been promulgated that affect the use of such substances at the Hanford Site. On April 23, 1993, Executive Order (EO) 12843, Procurement Requirements and Policies for Federal Agencies for Ozone-Depleting Substances (EPA 1993) was issued for Federal facilities to conform to the new US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations implementing the Clean Air Act of 1963 (CAA), Section 613, as amended. To implement the requirements of Title VI the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL), issued a directive to the Hanford Site contractors on May 25, 1994 (Wisness 1994). The directive assigns Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) the lead in coordinating the development of a sitewide comprehensive implementation plan to be drafted by July 29, 1994 and completed by September 30, 1994. The implementation plan will address several areas where immediate compliance action is required. It will identify all current uses of ODSs and inventories, document the remaining useful life of equipment that contains ODS chemicals, provide a phase-out schedule, and provide a strategy that will be implemented consistently by all the Hanford Site contractors. This plan also addresses the critical and required elements of Federal regulations, the EO, and US Department of Energy (DOE) guidance. This plan is intended to establish a sitewide management system to address the clean air requirements.

  5. Draft Supplement Analysis for Location(s) to Dispose of Depleted Uranium Oxide Conversion Product Generated from DOE'S Inventory of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    DRAFT SUPPLEMENT ANALYSIS FOR LOCATION(S) TO DISPOSE OF DEPLETED URANIUM OXIDE CONVERSION PRODUCT GENERATED FROM DOE'S INVENTORY OF DEPLETED URANIUM HEXAFLUORIDE (DOE/EIS-0359-SA1 AND DOE/EIS-0360-SA1) March 2007 March 2007 i CONTENTS NOTATION........................................................................................................................... iv 1 INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND ................................................................. 1 1.1 Why DOE Has Prepared This

  6. Investigation of breached depleted UF{sub 6} cylinders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barber, E.J.; Butler, T.R.; DeVan, J.H.; Googin, J.M.; Taylor, M.S.; Dyer, R.H.; Russell, J.R.

    1991-09-01

    In June 1990, during a three-site inspection of cylinders being used for long-term storage of solid depleted UF{sub 6}, two 14-ton steel cylinders at Portsmouth, Ohio, were discovered with holes in the barrel section of the cylinders. Both holes, concealed by UF{sub 4} reaction products identical in color to the cylinder coating, were similarly located near the front stiffening ring. The UF{sub 4} appeared to have self-sealed the holes, thus containing nearly all of the uranium contents. Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Vice President K.W. Sommerfeld immediately formed an investigation team to: (1) identify the most likely cause of failure for the two breached cylinders, (2) determine the impact of these incidents on the three-site inventory, and (3) provide recommendations and preventive measures. This document discusses the results of this investigation.

  7. Investigation of breached depleted UF sub 6 cylinders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barber, E.J.; Butler, T.R.; DeVan, J.H.; Googin, J.M.; Taylor, M.S.; Dyer, R.H.; Russell, J.R.

    1991-09-01

    In June 1990, during a three-site inspection of cylinders being used for long-term storage of solid depleted UF{sub 6}, two 14-ton steel cylinders at Portsmouth, Ohio, were discovered with holes in the barrel section of the cylinders. Both holes, concealed by UF{sub 4} reaction products identical in color to the cylinder coating, were similarly located near the front stiffening ring. The UF{sub 4} appeared to have self-sealed the holes, thus containing nearly all of the uranium contents. Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Vice President K.W. Sommerfeld immediately formed an investigation team to: (1) identify the most likely cause of failure for the two breached cylinders, (2) determine the impact of these incidents on the three-site inventory, and (3) provide recommendations and preventive measures. This document discusses the results of this investigation.

  8. Enterprise Assessments Targeted Review of the Paducah Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Facility Fire Protection Program – September 2015

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Targeted Review of the Fire Protection Program at the Paducah Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Facility

  9. DOE Issues Final Request for Proposal for the Operation of Depleted Uranium

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hexafluoride (DUF6) Conversion Facilities | Department of Energy the Operation of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF6) Conversion Facilities DOE Issues Final Request for Proposal for the Operation of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF6) Conversion Facilities September 8, 2015 - 3:00pm Addthis Media Contact Lynette Chafin, 513-246-0461, Lynette.Chafin@emcbc.doe.gov Cincinnati -- The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today issued a Final Request for Proposal (RFP), for the Operation of Depleted

  10. EIS-0360: Depleted Uranium Oxide Conversion Product at the Portsmouth, Ohio

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Site | Department of Energy 60: Depleted Uranium Oxide Conversion Product at the Portsmouth, Ohio Site EIS-0360: Depleted Uranium Oxide Conversion Product at the Portsmouth, Ohio Site Summary This site-specific EIS analyzes the construction, operation, maintenance, and decontamination and decommissioning of the proposed depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6) conversion facility at three alternative locations within the Portsmouth site; transportation of all cylinders (DUF6, enriched, and

  11. DOE Announces Transfer of Depleted Uranium to Advance the U.S...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... Addthis Related Articles This cylinder hauler at Paducah's Babcock & Wilcox Conversion Services plant delivers the first of DOE's 14-ton depleted uranium cylinders to USEC for ...

  12. EIS-0329: Proposed Construction, Operation, Decontamination/Decommissioning of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Facilities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS analyzes DOE's proposal to construct, operate, maintain, and decontaminate and decommission two depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF 6) conversion facilities, at Portsmouth, Ohio, and Paducah, Kentucky.

  13. Top-gate organic depletion and inversion transistors with doped channel and injection contact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Xuhai; Kasemann, Daniel Leo, Karl

    2015-03-09

    Organic field-effect transistors constitute a vibrant research field and open application perspectives in flexible electronics. For a commercial breakthrough, however, significant performance improvements are still needed, e.g., stable and high charge carrier mobility and on-off ratio, tunable threshold voltage, as well as integrability criteria such as n- and p-channel operation and top-gate architecture. Here, we show pentacene-based top-gate organic transistors operated in depletion and inversion regimes, realized by doping source and drain contacts as well as a thin layer of the transistor channel. By varying the doping concentration and the thickness of the doped channel, we control the position of the threshold voltage without degrading on-off ratio or mobility. Capacitance-voltage measurements show that an inversion channel can indeed be formed, e.g., an n-doped channel can be inverted to a p-type inversion channel with highly p-doped contacts. The Cytop polymer dielectric minimizes hysteresis, and the transistors can be biased for prolonged cycles without a shift of threshold voltage, indicating excellent operation stability.

  14. A ground state depleted laser in neodymium doped yttrium orthosilicate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beach, R.; Albrecht, G.; Solarz, R.; Krupke, W.; Comaskey, B.; Mitchell, S.; Brandle, C.; Berkstresser, G.

    1990-01-16

    A ground state depleted (GSD){sup 1,2} laser has been demonstrated in the form of a Q-switched oscillator operating at 912 nm. Using Nd{sup 3+} as the active ion and Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} as the host material, the laser transition is from the lowest lying stark level of the Nd{sup 3t}F{sub 3/2} level to a stark level 355 cm{sup {minus}1} above the lowest lying one in the {sup 4}I{sub 9/2} manifold. The necessity of depleting the ground {sup 4}I{sub 9/2} manifold is evident for this level scheme as transparency requires a 10% inversion. To achieve the high excitation levels required for the efficient operation of this laser, bleach wave pumping using an alexandrite laser at 745 nm has been employed. The existence of a large absorption feature at 810 nm also allows for the possibility of AlGaAs laser diode pumping. Using KNbO{sub 3}, noncritical phase matching is possible at 140{degree}C using d{sub 32} and has been demonstrated. The results of Q-switched laser performance and harmonic generation in KNbO{sub 3} will be presented. Orthosilicate can be grown in large boules of excellent optical quality using a Czochralski technique. Because of the relatively small 912 nm emission cross section of 2-3 {times} 10{sup {minus}20} cm{sup 2} (orientation dependent) fluences of 10-20 J/cm{sup 2} must be circulated in the laser cavity for the efficient extraction of stored energy. This necessitates very aggressive laser damage thresholds. Results from the Reptile laser damage facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will be presented showing Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} bulk and AR sol-gel coated surface damage thresholds of greater than 40 J/cm{sup 2} for 10 nsec, 10 Hz, 1.06 {mu} pulses. 16 refs., 18 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Application of thermal depletion model to geothermal reservoirs...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    method are presented, and possible application to the Salton Sea Geothermal Field, the Raft River System, and to reinjection of supersaturated fluids is discussed. Authors...

  16. Kr Ion Irradiation Study of the Depleted-Uranium Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Gan; D. Keiser; B. Miller; M. Kirk; J. Rest; T. Allen; D. Wachs

    2010-12-01

    Fuel development for the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor program is tasked with the development of new low-enriched uranium nuclear fuels that can be employed to replace existing highly enriched uranium fuels currently used in some research reactors throughout the world. For dispersion-type fuels, radiation stability of the fuel/cladding interaction product has a strong impact on fuel performance. Three depleted uranium alloys are cast for the radiation stability studies of the fuel/cladding interaction product using Kr ion irradiation to investigate radiation damage from fission products. SEM analysis indicates the presence of the phases of interest: U(Si, Al)3, (U, Mo)(Si, Al)3, UMo2Al20, U6Mo4Al43, and UAl4. Irradiations of TEM disc samples were conducted with 500 keV Kr ions at 200C to ion doses up to 2.5 1015 ions/cm2 (~ 10 dpa) with an Kr ion flux of 1012 ions/cm2-sec (~ 4.0 10-3 dpa/sec). Microstructural evolution of the phases relevant to fuel-cladding interaction products was investigated using transmission electron microscopy.

  17. Neutronic and depletion analysis of the Pb-AHTR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fratoni, Massimiliano; Greenspan, Ehud; Peterson, Per F.

    2007-07-01

    The PB-AHTR is a Pebble Bed Advanced High Temperature Reactor that is cooled with the liquid salt flibe (LiF-BeF{sub 2}) rather than helium. This study presents a preliminary neutronic and depletion analysis for the PBAHTR. The attainable burnup is determined as a function of uranium loading per pebble, power density and core dimensions. It is found that the optimal design for a 425 {mu}m UC{sub 0.5}O{sub 1.5} fuel kernel diameter, 10% enriched uranium, features a graphite-to-heavy metal ratio of {approx}360 and its reactivity coefficients are all negative. A comparison with the helium-cooled pebble-bed reactor and with a prismatic-fuel reactor that is cooled with either flibe or helium is also presented. It is found that the PB-AHTR offers similar discharge burnup as the other three designs. As compared to the gas-cooled pebble bed, the PB-AHTR uranium loading and energy generated per pebble are {approx}2.5 times higher. (authors)

  18. Investigation of breached depleted UF{sub 6} cylinders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeVan, J.H.

    1991-12-31

    In June 1990, during a three-site inspection of cylinders being used for long-term storage of solid depleted UF{sub 6}, two 14-ton cylinders at Portsmouth, Ohio, were discovered with holes in the barrel section of the cylinders. An investigation team was immediately formed to determine the cause of the failures and their impact on future storage procedures and to recommend corrective actions. Subsequent investigation showed that the failures most probably resulted from mechanical damage that occurred at the time that the cylinders had been placed in the storage yard. In both cylinders evidence pointed to the impact of a lifting lug of an adjacent cylinder near the front stiffening ring, where deflection of the cylinder could occur only by tearing the cylinder. The impacts appear to have punctured the cylinders and thereby set up corrosion processes that greatly extended the openings in the wall and obliterated the original crack. Fortunately, the reaction products formed by this process were relatively protective and prevented any large-scale loss of uranium. The main factors that precipitated the failures were inadequate spacing between cylinders and deviations in the orientations of lifting lugs from their intended horizontal position. After reviewing the causes and effects of the failures, the team`s principal recommendation for remedial action concerned improved cylinder handling and inspection procedures. Design modifications and supplementary mechanical tests were also recommended to improve the cylinder containment integrity during the stacking operation.

  19. Design and Implementation of a CO(2) Flood Utilizing Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Horizontal Injection Wells in Shallow Shelf Carbonate Approaching Waterflood Depletion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harpole, K.J.; Dollens, K.B.; Durrett, E.G.; Bles, J.S

    1997-10-31

    The first objective is to utilize reservoir characterization and advanced technologies to optimize the design of a carbon dioxide (CO) project for the South Cowden Unit (SCU) located in Ector County, Texas. The SCU is a mature, relatively small, shallow shelf carbonate unit nearing waterflood depletion. The second objective is to demonstrate the performance and economic viability of the project in the field. All work this quarter falls within the demonstration project.

  20. Depletion at Solid-Liquid Interfaces under Shear: Flowing Hexadecane on Functionalized Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guttfreund, Philipp; Wolff, Max; Maccarini, Marco; Gerth, Stefan; Ankner, John Francis; Browning, Jim; Halbert, Candice E; Wacklin, Hanna; Zabel, Hartmut

    2011-01-01

    We present a neutron reflectivity study on the interface of flowing hexadecane, which is known to exhibit surface slip on functionalized solid surfaces. The single crystalline silicon substrates are either chemically cleaned or covered by octadecyl-trichlorosilane (OTS) which result in different interfacial energies in respect to hexadecane. The liquid is in situ sheared and the reflectivities are compared to the static case. Moreover, the temperature dependence is recorded. For both types of interface, density depleted layers are observed, but shear affects them differently. Whereas at the attractive surface the depletion is enhanced by shear, the low interfacial energy leads to a diminishment of the depleted layer when applying shear. This systematic change of the depletion layer indicates different structural rearrangements under shear load. Finally, the possible link of the depletion layer with surface slip is discussed.

  1. Depleted uranium human health risk assessment, Jefferson Proving Ground, Indiana

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ebinger, M.H.; Hansen, W.R.

    1994-04-29

    The risk to human health from fragments of depleted uranium (DU) at Jefferson Proving Ground (JPG) was estimated using two types of ecosystem pathway models. A steady-state, model of the JPG area was developed to examine the effects of DU in soils, water, and vegetation on deer that were hunted and consumed by humans. The RESRAD code was also used to estimate the effects of farming the impact area and consuming the products derived from the farm. The steady-state model showed that minimal doses to humans are expected from consumption of deer that inhabit the impact area. Median values for doses to humans range from about 1 mrem ({plus_minus}2.4) to 0.04 mrem ({plus_minus}0.13) and translate to less than 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} detriments (excess cancers) in the population. Monte Carlo simulation of the steady-state model was used to derive the probability distributions from which the median values were drawn. Sensitivity analyses of the steady-state model showed that the amount of DU in airborne dust and, therefore, the amount of DU on the vegetation surface, controlled the amount of DU ingested by deer and by humans. Human doses from the RESRAD estimates ranged from less than 1 mrem/y to about 6.5 mrem/y in a hunting scenario and subsistence fanning scenario, respectively. The human doses exceeded the 100 mrem/y dose limit when drinking water for the farming scenario was obtained from the on-site aquifer that was presumably contaminated with DU. The two farming scenarios were unrealistic land uses because the additional risk to humans due to unexploded ordnance in the impact area was not figured into the risk estimate. The doses estimated with RESRAD translated to less than 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} detriments to about 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} detriments. The higher risks were associated only with the farming scenario in which drinking water was obtained on-site.

  2. Metallothionein deficiency aggravates depleted uranium-induced nephrotoxicity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hao, Yuhui; Huang, Jiawei; Gu, Ying; Liu, Cong; Li, Hong; Liu, Jing; Ren, Jiong; Yang, Zhangyou; Peng, Shuangqing; Wang, Weidong; Li, Rong

    2015-09-15

    Depleted uranium (DU) has been widely used in both civilian and military activities, and the kidney is the main target organ of DU during acute high-dose exposures. In this study, the nephrotoxicity caused by DU in metallothionein-1/2-null mice (MT −/−) and corresponding wild-type (MT +/+) mice was investigated to determine any associations with MT. Each MT −/− or MT +/+ mouse was pretreated with a single dose of DU (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection) or an equivalent volume of saline. After 4 days of DU administration, kidney changes were assessed. After DU exposure, serum creatinine and serum urea nitrogen in MT −/− mice significantly increased than in MT +/+ mice, with more severe kidney pathological damage. Moreover, catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) decreased, and generation of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde increased in MT −/− mice. The apoptosis rate in MT −/− mice significantly increased, with a significant increase in both Bax and caspase 3 and a decrease in Bcl-2. Furthermore, sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT) and sodium-phosphate cotransporter (NaPi-II) were significantly reduced after DU exposure, and the change of SGLT was more evident in MT −/− mice. Finally, exogenous MT was used to evaluate the correlation between kidney changes induced by DU and MT doses in MT −/− mice. The results showed that, the pathological damage and cell apoptosis decreased, and SOD and SGLT levels increased with increasing dose of MT. In conclusion, MT deficiency aggravated DU-induced nephrotoxicity, and the molecular mechanisms appeared to be related to the increased oxidative stress and apoptosis, and decreased SGLT expression. - Highlights: • MT −/− and MT +/+ mice were used to evaluate nephrotoxicity of DU. • Renal damage was more evident in the MT −/− mice after exposure to DU. • Exogenous MT also protects against DU-induced nephrotoxicity. • MT deficiency induced more ROS and apoptosis after exposure to

  3. Dupoly process for treatment of depleted uranium and production of beneficial end products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalb, Paul D.; Adams, Jay W.; Lageraaen, Paul R.; Cooley, Carl R.

    2000-02-29

    The present invention provides a process of encapsulating depleted uranium by forming a homogenous mixture of depleted uranium and molten virgin or recycled thermoplastic polymer into desired shapes. Separate streams of depleted uranium and virgin or recycled thermoplastic polymer are simultaneously subjected to heating and mixing conditions. The heating and mixing conditions are provided by a thermokinetic mixer, continuous mixer or an extruder and preferably by a thermokinetic mixer or continuous mixer followed by an extruder. The resulting DUPoly shapes can be molded into radiation shielding material or can be used as counter weights for use in airplanes, helicopters, ships, missiles, armor or projectiles.

  4. Disposition of DOE Excess Depleted Uranium, Natural Uranium, and Low-Enriched Uranium

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) owns and manages an inventory of depleted uranium (DU), natural uranium (NU), and low-enriched uranium (LEU) that is currently stored in large cylinders as...

  5. DOE Issues Final Request for Proposal for the Operation of Depleted...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Operation of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF6) Conversion Facilities at Paducah, Kentucky and Portsmouth, Ohio. A cost-plus award fee and firm-fixed-price contract line item ...

  6. Accelerated cellular senescence phenotype of GAPDH-depleted human lung carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phadke, Manali; Krynetskaia, Natalia; Mishra, Anurag; Krynetskiy, Evgeny; Jayne Haines Center for Pharmacogenomics, Temple University School of Pharmacy, Philadelphia, PA 19140

    2011-07-29

    Highlights: {yields} We examined the effect of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (GAPDH) depletion on proliferation of human carcinoma A549 cells. {yields} GAPDH depletion induces accelerated senescence in tumor cells via AMPK network, in the absence of DNA damage. {yields} Metabolic and genetic rescue experiments indicate that GAPDH has regulatory functions linking energy metabolism and cell cycle. {yields} Induction of senescence in LKB1-deficient lung cancer cells via GAPDH depletion suggests a novel strategy to control tumor cell proliferation. -- Abstract: Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is a pivotal glycolytic enzyme, and a signaling molecule which acts at the interface between stress factors and the cellular apoptotic machinery. Earlier, we found that knockdown of GAPDH in human carcinoma cell lines resulted in cell proliferation arrest and chemoresistance to S phase-specific cytotoxic agents. To elucidate the mechanism by which GAPDH depletion arrests cell proliferation, we examined the effect of GAPDH knockdown on human carcinoma cells A549. Our results show that GAPDH-depleted cells establish senescence phenotype, as revealed by proliferation arrest, changes in morphology, SA-{beta}-galactosidase staining, and more than 2-fold up-regulation of senescence-associated genes DEC1 and GLB1. Accelerated senescence following GAPDH depletion results from compromised glycolysis and energy crisis leading to the sustained AMPK activation via phosphorylation of {alpha} subunit at Thr172. Our findings demonstrate that GAPDH depletion switches human tumor cells to senescent phenotype via AMPK network, in the absence of DNA damage. Rescue experiments using metabolic and genetic models confirmed that GAPDH has important regulatory functions linking the energy metabolism and the cell cycle networks. Induction of senescence in LKB1-deficient non-small cell lung cancer cells via GAPDH depletion suggests a novel strategy to control tumor cell proliferation.

  7. DOE Announces Transfer of Depleted Uranium to Advance the U.S. National

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Security Interests, Extend Operations at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant | Department of Energy Transfer of Depleted Uranium to Advance the U.S. National Security Interests, Extend Operations at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant DOE Announces Transfer of Depleted Uranium to Advance the U.S. National Security Interests, Extend Operations at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant May 15, 2012 - 4:00pm Addthis News Media Contact (202) 386-4940 WASHINGTON - The Department of Energy - in collaboration

  8. DOE Seeks Contractor for Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF6) Operations at

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ohio and Kentucky Facilities | Department of Energy DOE Seeks Contractor for Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF6) Operations at Ohio and Kentucky Facilities DOE Seeks Contractor for Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF6) Operations at Ohio and Kentucky Facilities April 1, 2015 - 3:30pm Addthis Media Contact: Lynette Chafin, 513-246-0461, Lynette.Chafin@emcbc.doe.gov Cincinnati -- The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today issued a Draft Request for Proposal (RFP) seeking a contractor to perform

  9. Optimization of Depletion Modeling and Simulation for the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Betzler, Benjamin R; Ade, Brian J; Chandler, David; Ilas, Germina; Sunny, Eva E

    2015-01-01

    Monte Carlo based depletion tools used for the high-fidelity modeling and simulation of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) come at a great computational cost; finding sufficient approximations is necessary to make the use of these tools feasible. The optimization of the neutronics and depletion model for the HFIR is based on two factors: (i) the explicit representation of the involute fuel plates with sets of polyhedra and (ii) the treatment of depletion mixtures and control element position during depletion calculations. A very fine representation (i.e., more polyhedra in the involute plate approximation) does not significantly improve simulation accuracy. The recommended representation closely represents the physical plates and ensures sufficient fidelity in regions with high flux gradients. Including the fissile targets in the central flux trap of the reactor as depletion mixtures has the greatest effect on the calculated cycle length, while localized effects (e.g., the burnup of specific isotopes or the power distribution evolution over the cycle) are more noticeable consequences of including a critical control element search or depleting burnable absorbers outside the fuel region.

  10. Depletion of cellular poly (A) binding protein prevents protein synthesis and leads to apoptosis in HeLa cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thangima Zannat, Mst.; Bhattacharjee, Rumpa B.; Bag, Jnanankur

    2011-05-13

    Highlights: {yields} Depletion of cellular PABP level arrests mRNA translation in HeLa cells. {yields} PABP knock down leads to apoptotic cell death. {yields} PABP depletion does not affect transcription. {yields} PABP depletion does not lead to nuclear accumulation of mRNA. -- Abstract: The cytoplasmic poly (A) binding protein (PABP) is important in mRNA translation and stability. In yeast, depletion of PABP leads to translation arrest. Similarly, the PABP gene in Drosophila is important for proper development. It is however uncertain, whether mammalian PABP is essential for mRNA translation. Here we showed the effect of PABP depletion on mRNA metabolism in HeLa cells by using a small interfering RNA. Our results suggest that depletion of PABP prevents protein synthesis and consequently leads to cell death through apoptosis. Interestingly, no detectable effect of PABP depletion on transcription, transport and stability of mRNA was observed.

  11. Stochastic interactions of two Brownian hard spheres in the presence of depletants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karzar-Jeddi, Mehdi; Fan, Tai-Hsi; Tuinier, Remco; Taniguchi, Takashi

    2014-06-07

    A quantitative analysis is presented for the stochastic interactions of a pair of Brownian hard spheres in non-adsorbing polymer solutions. The hard spheres are hypothetically trapped by optical tweezers and allowed for random motion near the trapped positions. The investigation focuses on the long-time correlated Brownian motion. The mobility tensor altered by the polymer depletion effect is computed by the boundary integral method, and the corresponding random displacement is determined by the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. From our computations it follows that the presence of depletion layers around the hard spheres has a significant effect on the hydrodynamic interactions and particle dynamics as compared to pure solvent and uniform polymer solution cases. The probability distribution functions of random walks of the two interacting hard spheres that are trapped clearly shift due to the polymer depletion effect. The results show that the reduction of the viscosity in the depletion layers around the spheres and the entropic force due to the overlapping of depletion zones have a significant influence on the correlated Brownian interactions.

  12. Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program. The technology assessment report for the long-term management of depleted uranium hexafluoride. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zoller, J.N.; Rosen, R.S.; Holliday, M.A.

    1995-06-30

    With the publication of a Request for Recommendations and Advance Notice of Intent in the November 10, 1994 Federal Register, the Department of Energy initiated a program to assess alternative strategies for the long-term management or use of depleted uranium hexafluoride. This Request was made to help ensure that, by seeking as many recommendations as possible, Department management considers reasonable options in the long-range management strategy. The Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program consists of three major program elements: Engineering Analysis, Cost Analysis, and an Environmental Impact Statement. This Technology Assessment Report is the first part of the Engineering Analysis Project, and assesses recommendations from interested persons, industry, and Government agencies for potential uses for the depleted uranium hexafluoride stored at the gaseous diffusion plants in Paducah, Kentucky, and Portsmouth, Ohio, and at the Oak Ridge Reservation in Tennessee. Technologies that could facilitate the long-term management of this material are also assessed. The purpose of the Technology Assessment Report is to present the results of the evaluation of these recommendations. Department management will decide which recommendations will receive further study and evaluation.

  13. Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program. The technology assessment report for the long-term management of depleted uranium hexafluoride. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zoller, J.N.; Rosen, R.S.; Holliday, M.A.

    1995-06-30

    With the publication of a Request for Recommendations and Advance Notice of Intent in the November 10, 1994 Federal Register, the Department of Energy initiated a program to assess alternative strategies for the long-term management or use of depleted uranium hexafluoride. This Request was made to help ensure that, by seeking as many recommendations as possible, Department management considers reasonable options in the long-range management strategy. The Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program consists of three major program elements: Engineering Analysis, Cost Analysis, and an Environmental Impact Statement. This Technology Assessment Report is the first part of the Engineering Analysis Project, and assesses recommendations from interested persons, industry, and Government agencies for potential uses for the depleted uranium hexafluoride stored at the gaseous diffusion plants in Paducah, Kentucky, and Portsmouth, Ohio, and at the Oak Ridge Reservation in Tennessee. Technologies that could facilitate the long-term management of this material are also assessed. The purpose of the Technology Assessment Report is to present the results of the evaluation of these recommendations. Department management will decide which recommendations will receive further study and evaluation. These Appendices contain the Federal Register Notice, comments on evaluation factors, independent technical reviewers resumes, independent technical reviewers manual, and technology information packages.

  14. Transient effects and pump depletion in stimulated Raman scattering. [Para-hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlsten, J.L.; Wenzel, R.G.; Druehl, K.

    1983-01-01

    Stimulated rotational Raman scattering in a 300-K multipass cell filled with para-H/sub 2/ with a single-mode CO/sub 2/-pumped laser is studied using a frequency-narrowed optical parametric oscillator (OPO) as a probe laser at the Stokes frequency for the S/sub 0/(O) transition. Amplification and pump depletion are examined as a function of incident pump energy. The pump depletion shows clear evidence of transient behavior. A theoretical treatment of transient stimulated Raman scattering, including effects of both pump depletion and medium saturation is presented. In a first approximation, diffraction effects are neglected, and only plane-wave interactions are considered. The theoretical results are compared to the experimental pulse shapes.

  15. Monopolistic recycling of oil revenue and intertemporal bias in oil depletion and trade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hillman, A.L.; Long, N.V.

    1985-08-01

    This paper investigates oil depletion and trade when monopolistic oil producers also exercise monopoly power in the capital market. A two-period model views collusively organized oil producers with an initial trade surplus and a subsequent deficit. When monopoly power in the capital market is applied to the disadvantage of borrowers, less oil is initially made available to oil importers than if the interest rate had been competitively determined. This depletion bias, however, is reversed if, because of incentives for capital accumulation, it is to the advantage of the oil producers to subsidize lending to the oil importers. In either case the bias in oil depletion due to monopolistic recycling of oil revenue is greater, the more vulnerable are oil importer's incomes to a curtailment of oil supplies. 25 references.

  16. DANDE: a linked code system for core neutronics/depletion analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaBauve, R.J.; England, T.R.; George, D.C.; MacFarlane, R.E.; Wilson, W.B.

    1985-06-01

    This report describes DANDE - a modular neutronics, depletion code system for reactor analysis. It consists of nuclear data processing, core physics, and fuel depletion modules, and allows one to use diffusion and transport methods interchangeably in core neutronics calculations. This latter capability is especially important in the design of small modular cores. Additional unique features include the capability of updating the nuclear data file during a calculation; a detailed treatment of depletion, burnable poisons as well as fuel; and the ability to make geometric changes such as control rod repositioning and fuel relocation in the course of a calculation. The detailed treatment of reactor fuel burnup, fission-product creation and decay, as well as inventories of higher-order actinides is a necessity when predicting the behavior of reactor fuel under increased burn conditions. The operation of the code system is made clear in this report by following a sample problem.

  17. Summary of the engineering analysis report for the long-term management of depleted uranium hexafluoride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dubrin, J.W., Rahm-Crites, L.

    1997-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is reviewing ideas for the long-term management and use of its depleted uranium hexafluoride. DOE owns about 560,000 metric tons (over a billion pounds) of depleted uranium hexafluoride. This material is contained in steel cylinders located in storage yards near Paducah, Kentucky; Portsmouth, Ohio; and at the East Tennessee Technology Park (formerly the K-25 Site) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. On November 10, 1994, DOE announced its new Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program by issuing a Request for Recommendations and an Advance Notice of Intent in the Federal Register (59 FR 56324 and 56325). The first part of this program consists of engineering, costs and environmental impact studies. Part one will conclude with the selection of a long-term management plan or strategy. Part two will carry out the selected strategy.

  18. Parametric Analysis of PWR Spent Fuel Depletion Parameters for Long-Term-Disposal Criticality Safety

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeHart, M.D.

    1999-08-01

    Utilization of burnup credit in criticality safety analysis for long-term disposal of spent nuclear fuel allows improved design efficiency and reduced cost due to the large mass of fissile material that will be present in the repository. Burnup-credit calculations are based on depletion calculations that provide a conservative estimate of spent fuel contents (in terms of criticality potential), followed by criticality calculations to assess the value of the effective neutron multiplication factor (k(sub)eff) for the a spent fuel cask or a fuel configuration under a variety of probabilistically derived events. In order to ensure that the depletion calculation is conservative, it is necessary to both qualify and quantify assumptions that can be made in depletion models.

  19. 1,2 or 3-D Few-Group Diffusion Depletion

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1982-12-01

    The PDQ series of programs is designed to solve the neutron diffusion-depletion problem in one, two or three dimensions. The three-dimensional spatial calculation may be either explicit or discontinuous trial function synthesis. Up to five lethargy groups are permitted. Adjoint, fixed source, one iteration, additive fixed source, eigenvalue, and boundary value calculations may be performed. The programs utilize the HARMONY system for time-dependent representation of cross section variation and generalized depletion chain solutions. Geometries availablemore » include rectangular, cylindrical, spherical, and hexagonal. All allow variable mesh in all dimensions. Various control searches as well as temperature and xenon feedback are provided.« less

  20. Electron depletion via cathode spot dispersion of dielectric powder into an overhead plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gillman, Eric D.; Foster, John E.

    2013-11-15

    The effectiveness of cathode spot delivered dielectric particles for the purpose of plasma depletion is investigated. Here, cathode spot flows kinetically entrain and accelerate dielectric particles originally at rest into a background plasma. The time variation of the background plasma density is tracked using a cylindrical Langmuir probe biased approximately at electron saturation. As inferred from changes in the electron saturation current, depletion fractions of up to 95% are observed. This method could be exploited as a means of communications blackout mitigation for manned and unmanned reentering spacecraft as well as any high speed vehicle enveloped by a dense plasma layer.

  1. Hydrologic transport of depleted uranium associated with open air dynamic range testing at Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico, and Eglin Air Force Base, Florida

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Becker, N.M.; Vanta, E.B.

    1995-05-01

    Hydrologic investigations on depleted uranium fate and transport associated with dynamic testing activities were instituted in the 1980`s at Los Alamos National Laboratory and Eglin Air Force Base. At Los Alamos, extensive field watershed investigations of soil, sediment, and especially runoff water were conducted. Eglin conducted field investigations and runoff studies similar to those at Los Alamos at former and active test ranges. Laboratory experiments complemented the field investigations at both installations. Mass balance calculations were performed to quantify the mass of expended uranium which had transported away from firing sites. At Los Alamos, it is estimated that more than 90 percent of the uranium still remains in close proximity to firing sites, which has been corroborated by independent calculations. At Eglin, we estimate that 90 to 95 percent of the uranium remains at test ranges. These data demonstrate that uranium moves slowly via surface water, in both semi-arid (Los Alamos) and humid (Eglin) environments.

  2. FORIG: a modification of the ORIGEN2 isotope-generation and depletion code for fusion problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blink, J.A.

    1982-03-03

    This report describes how to use the FORIG computer code to solve isotope-generation and depletion problems in fusion and fission reactors. FORIG is an adaptation of ORIGEN2 to run on a Cray-1 computer, and to accept more extensive activation cross sections.

  3. DOE Issues Request for Quotations for Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Technical Services

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Cincinnati – The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today issued a Request for Quotation (RFQ) for engineering and operations technical services to support the Portsmouth Paducah Project Office and the oversight of operations of the Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF6) Conversion Project located in Paducah KY, and Portsmouth OH.

  4. Running Out Of and Into Oil. Analyzing Global Oil Depletion and Transition Through 2050

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, David L.; Hopson, Janet L.; Li, Jia

    2003-10-01

    This report presents a risk analysis of world conventional oil resource production, depletion, expansion, and a possible transition to unconventional oil resources such as oil sands, heavy oil and shale oil over the period 2000 to 2050. Risk analysis uses Monte Carlo simulation methods to produce a probability distribution of outcomes rather than a single value.

  5. Design and implementation of a CO{sub 2} flood utilizing advanced reservoir characterization and horizontal injection wells in a shallow shelf carbonate approaching waterflood depletion. Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chimahusky, J.S.

    1996-04-19

    The first objective is to utilize reservoir characterization and advanced technologies to optimize the design of a CO{sub 2} project for the South Cowden Unit (SCU) located in Ector County, Texas. The SCU is a mature, relatively small, shallow shelf carbonate unit nearing waterflood depletion. The second objective is to demonstrate the performance and economic viability of the project in the field. This report includes work on the reservoir characterization and project design objective and the demonstration project objective.

  6. Design and implementation of a CO{sub 2} flood utilizing advanced reservoir characterization and horizontal injection wells in a shallow shelf carbonate approaching waterflood depletion. Quarterly report, July 1 - September 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chimahusky, J.S.

    1996-10-01

    The first objective is to utilize reservoir characterization and advanced technologies to optimize the design of a carbon dioxide project for the South Cowden Unit (SCU) located in Ector County, Texas. The SCU is a mature, relatively small, shallow shelf carbonate unit nearing waterflood depletion. The second object is to demonstrate the performance and economic viability of the project in the field. The report include work on the reservoir characterization and project design objective and demonstration project objective.

  7. A method for including external feed in depletion calculations with CRAM and implementation into ORIGEN

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Isotalo, Aarno E.; Wieselquist, William A.

    2015-05-15

    A method for including external feed with polynomial time dependence in depletion calculations with the Chebyshev Rational Approximation Method (CRAM) is presented and the implementation of CRAM to the ORIGEN module of the SCALE suite is described. In addition to being able to handle time-dependent feed rates, the new solver also adds the capability to perform adjoint calculations. Results obtained with the new CRAM solver and the original depletion solver of ORIGEN are compared to high precision reference calculations, which shows the new solver to be orders of magnitude more accurate. Lastly, in most cases, the new solver is upmore » to several times faster due to not requiring similar substepping as the original one.« less

  8. Summary of the Preliminary Analysis of Savannah River Depleted Uranium Trioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2010-10-13

    This report summarizes a preliminary special analysis of the Savannah River Depleted Uranium Trioxide waste stream (SVRSURANIUM03, Revision 2). The analysis is considered preliminary because a final waste profile has not been submitted for review. The special analysis is performed to determine the acceptability of the waste stream for shallow land burial at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The Savannah River Depleted Uranium Trioxide waste stream requires a special analysis because the waste stream’s sum of fractions exceeds one. The 99Tc activity concentration is 98 percent of the NNSS Waste Acceptance Criteria and the largest single contributor to the sum of fractions.

  9. An assessment of alternatives and technologies for replacing ozone- depleting substances at DOE facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Purcell, C.W.; Miller, K.B.; Friedman, J.R.; Rapoport, R.D.; Conover, D.R.; Hendrickson, P.L. ); Koss, T.C. . Office of Environmental Guidance)

    1992-10-01

    Title VI of the Clean Air Act, as amended, mandates a production phase-out for ozone-depleting substances (ODSs). These requirements will have a significant impact on US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Currently, DOE uses ODSs in three major activities: fire suppression (halon), refrigeration and cooling (chlorofluorocarbons [CFCs]), and cleaning that requires solvents (CFCs, methyl chloroform, and carbon tetrachloride). This report provides basic information on methods and strategies to phase out use of ODSs at DOE facilities.

  10. Semiconductor-based photoelectrochemical water splitting at the limit of very wide depletion region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Mingzhao; Lyons, John L.; Yan, Danhua H.; Hybertsen, Mark S.

    2015-11-23

    In semiconductor-based photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting, carrier separation and delivery largely relies on the depletion region formed at the semiconductor/water interface. As a Schottky junction device, the trade-off between photon collection and minority carrier delivery remains a persistent obstacle for maximizing the performance of a water splitting photoelectrode. Here, it is demonstrated that the PEC water splitting efficiency for an n-SrTiO3 (n-STO) photoanode is improved very significantly despite its weak indirect band gap optical absorption (α < 10⁴ cm⁻¹), by widening the depletion region through engineering its doping density and profile. Graded doped n-SrTiO3 photoanodes are fabricated with their bulk heavily doped with oxygen vacancies but their surface lightly doped over a tunable depth of a few hundred nanometers, through a simple low temperature re-oxidation technique. The graded doping profile widens the depletion region to over 500 nm, thus leading to very efficient charge carrier separation and high quantum efficiency (>70%) for the weak indirect transition. As a result, this simultaneous optimization of the light absorption, minority carrier (hole) delivery, and majority carrier (electron) transport by means of a graded doping architecture may be useful for other indirect band gap photocatalysts that suffer from a similar problem of weak optical absorption.

  11. Micelle-induced depletion interaction and resultant structure in charged colloidal nanoparticle system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ray, D.; Aswal, V. K.; Kohlbrecher, J.

    2015-04-28

    The evolution of the interaction and the resultant structure in the mixed system of anionic silica nanoparticles (Ludox LS30) and non-ionic surfactant decaethylene glycol monododecylether (C12E10), undergoing phase separation, have been studied using small-angle neutron scattering and dynamic light scattering. The measurements have been carried out for a fixed concentration of nanoparticle (1?wt.?%) with varying concentration of surfactant (0 to 1?wt.?%), in the absence and presence of an electrolyte. It is found that the micelles of non-ionic surfactant adsorb on the nanoparticle in the absence of electrolyte (form stable system), whereas these micelles become non-adsorbing in the presence of electrolyte (show phase separation). The phase separation arises because of C12E10 micelles, causing depletion interaction between nanoparticles and leading to their aggregation. The interaction is modeled by double Yukawa potential accounting for attractive depletion as well as repulsive electrostatic forces. Both the interactions (attraction and repulsion) are found to be of long-range. The nanoparticle aggregation (phase separation) is governed by the increase in the magnitude and the range of the depletion attraction with the increase in the surfactant concentration. The nanoparticle aggregates formed are quite large in size (order of micron) and are characterized by the surface fractal having simple cubic packing of nanoparticles within the aggregates.

  12. Performance upgrades to the MCNP6 burnup capability for large scale depletion calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fensin, M. L.; Galloway, J. D.; James, M. R.

    2015-04-11

    The first MCNP based inline Monte Carlo depletion capability was officially released from the Radiation Safety Information and Computational Center as MCNPX 2.6.0. With the merger of MCNPX and MCNP5, MCNP6 combined the capability of both simulation tools, as well as providing new advanced technology, in a single radiation transport code. The new MCNP6 depletion capability was first showcased at the International Congress for Advancements in Nuclear Power Plants (ICAPP) meeting in 2012. At that conference the new capabilities addressed included the combined distributive and shared memory parallel architecture for the burnup capability, improved memory management, physics enhancements, and new predictability as compared to the H.B Robinson Benchmark. At Los Alamos National Laboratory, a special purpose cluster named tebow, was constructed such to maximize available RAM per CPU, as well as leveraging swap space with solid state hard drives, to allow larger scale depletion calculations (allowing for significantly more burnable regions than previously examined). As the MCNP6 burnup capability was scaled to larger numbers of burnable regions, a noticeable slowdown was realized.This paper details two specific computational performance strategies for improving calculation speedup: (1) retrieving cross sections during transport; and (2) tallying mechanisms specific to burnup in MCNP. To combat this slowdown new performance upgrades were developed and integrated into MCNP6 1.2.

  13. Performance upgrades to the MCNP6 burnup capability for large scale depletion calculations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fensin, M. L.; Galloway, J. D.; James, M. R.

    2015-04-11

    The first MCNP based inline Monte Carlo depletion capability was officially released from the Radiation Safety Information and Computational Center as MCNPX 2.6.0. With the merger of MCNPX and MCNP5, MCNP6 combined the capability of both simulation tools, as well as providing new advanced technology, in a single radiation transport code. The new MCNP6 depletion capability was first showcased at the International Congress for Advancements in Nuclear Power Plants (ICAPP) meeting in 2012. At that conference the new capabilities addressed included the combined distributive and shared memory parallel architecture for the burnup capability, improved memory management, physics enhancements, and newmore » predictability as compared to the H.B Robinson Benchmark. At Los Alamos National Laboratory, a special purpose cluster named “tebow,” was constructed such to maximize available RAM per CPU, as well as leveraging swap space with solid state hard drives, to allow larger scale depletion calculations (allowing for significantly more burnable regions than previously examined). As the MCNP6 burnup capability was scaled to larger numbers of burnable regions, a noticeable slowdown was realized.This paper details two specific computational performance strategies for improving calculation speedup: (1) retrieving cross sections during transport; and (2) tallying mechanisms specific to burnup in MCNP. To combat this slowdown new performance upgrades were developed and integrated into MCNP6 1.2.« less

  14. Potential hazards of compressed air energy storage in depleted natural gas reservoirs.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, Paul W.; Grubelich, Mark Charles; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2011-09-01

    This report is a preliminary assessment of the ignition and explosion potential in a depleted hydrocarbon reservoir from air cycling associated with compressed air energy storage (CAES) in geologic media. The study identifies issues associated with this phenomenon as well as possible mitigating measures that should be considered. Compressed air energy storage (CAES) in geologic media has been proposed to help supplement renewable energy sources (e.g., wind and solar) by providing a means to store energy when excess energy is available, and to provide an energy source during non-productive or low productivity renewable energy time periods. Presently, salt caverns represent the only proven underground storage used for CAES. Depleted natural gas reservoirs represent another potential underground storage vessel for CAES because they have demonstrated their container function and may have the requisite porosity and permeability; however reservoirs have yet to be demonstrated as a functional/operational storage media for compressed air. Specifically, air introduced into a depleted natural gas reservoir presents a situation where an ignition and explosion potential may exist. This report presents the results of an initial study identifying issues associated with this phenomena as well as possible mitigating measures that should be considered.

  15. Semiconductor-based photoelectrochemical water splitting at the limit of very wide depletion region

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Mingzhao; Lyons, John L.; Yan, Danhua H.; Hybertsen, Mark S.

    2015-11-23

    In semiconductor-based photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting, carrier separation and delivery largely relies on the depletion region formed at the semiconductor/water interface. As a Schottky junction device, the trade-off between photon collection and minority carrier delivery remains a persistent obstacle for maximizing the performance of a water splitting photoelectrode. Here, it is demonstrated that the PEC water splitting efficiency for an n-SrTiO3 (n-STO) photoanode is improved very significantly despite its weak indirect band gap optical absorption (α < 10⁴ cm⁻¹), by widening the depletion region through engineering its doping density and profile. Graded doped n-SrTiO3 photoanodes are fabricated with their bulkmore » heavily doped with oxygen vacancies but their surface lightly doped over a tunable depth of a few hundred nanometers, through a simple low temperature re-oxidation technique. The graded doping profile widens the depletion region to over 500 nm, thus leading to very efficient charge carrier separation and high quantum efficiency (>70%) for the weak indirect transition. As a result, this simultaneous optimization of the light absorption, minority carrier (hole) delivery, and majority carrier (electron) transport by means of a graded doping architecture may be useful for other indirect band gap photocatalysts that suffer from a similar problem of weak optical absorption.« less

  16. DUSCOBS - a depleted-uranium silicate backfill for transport, storage, and disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Pope, R.B.; Ashline, R.C.; DeHart, M.D.; Childs, K.W.; Tang, J.S.

    1995-11-30

    A Depleted Uranium Silicate COntainer Backfill System (DUSCOBS) is proposed that would use small, isotopically-depleted uranium silicate glass beads as a backfill material inside storage, transport, and repository waste packages containing spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The uranium silicate glass beads would fill all void space inside the package including the coolant channels inside SNF assemblies. Based on preliminary analysis, the following benefits have been identified. DUSCOBS improves repository waste package performance by three mechanisms. First, it reduces the radionuclide releases from SNF when water enters the waste package by creating a local uranium silicate saturated groundwater environment that suppresses (1) the dissolution and/or transformation of uranium dioxide fuel pellets and, hence, (2) the release of radionuclides incorporated into the SNF pellets. Second, the potential for long-term nuclear criticality is reduced by isotopic exchange of enriched uranium in SNF with the depleted uranium (DU) in the glass. Third, the backfill reduces radiation interactions between SNF and the local environment (package and local geology) and thus reduces generation of hydrogen, acids, and other chemicals that degrade the waste package system. In addition, the DUSCOBS improves the integrity of the package by acting as a packing material and ensures criticality control for the package during SNF storage and transport. Finally, DUSCOBS provides a potential method to dispose of significant quantities of excess DU from uranium enrichment plants at potential economic savings. DUSCOBS is a new concept. Consequently, the concept has not been optimized or demonstrated in laboratory experiments.

  17. Power distributions in fresh and depleted LEU and HEU cores of the MITR reactor.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, E.H.; Horelik, N.E.; Dunn, F.E.; Newton, T.H., Jr.; Hu, L.; Stevens, J.G.

    2012-04-04

    The Massachusetts Institute of Technology Reactor (MITR-II) is a research reactor in Cambridge, Massachusetts designed primarily for experiments using neutron beam and in-core irradiation facilities. It delivers a neutron flux comparable to current LWR power reactors in a compact 6 MW core using Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) fuel. In the framework of its non-proliferation policies, the international community presently aims to minimize the amount of nuclear material available that could be used for nuclear weapons. In this geopolitical context, most research and test reactors both domestic and international have started a program of conversion to the use of Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) fuel. A new type of LEU fuel based on an alloy of uranium and molybdenum (UMo) is expected to allow the conversion of U.S. domestic high performance reactors like the MITR-II reactor. Toward this goal, core geometry and power distributions are presented. Distributions of power are calculated for LEU cores depleted with MCODE using an MCNP5 Monte Carlo model. The MCNP5 HEU and LEU MITR models were previously compared to experimental benchmark data for the MITR-II. This same model was used with a finer spatial depletion in order to generate power distributions for the LEU cores. The objective of this work is to generate and characterize a series of fresh and depleted core peak power distributions, and provide a thermal hydraulic evaluation of the geometry which should be considered for subsequent thermal hydraulic safety analyses.

  18. Performance upgrades to the MCNP6 burnup capability for large scale depletion calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fensin, M. L.; Galloway, J. D.; James, M. R.

    2015-04-11

    The first MCNP based inline Monte Carlo depletion capability was officially released from the Radiation Safety Information and Computational Center as MCNPX 2.6.0. With the merger of MCNPX and MCNP5, MCNP6 combined the capability of both simulation tools, as well as providing new advanced technology, in a single radiation transport code. The new MCNP6 depletion capability was first showcased at the International Congress for Advancements in Nuclear Power Plants (ICAPP) meeting in 2012. At that conference the new capabilities addressed included the combined distributive and shared memory parallel architecture for the burnup capability, improved memory management, physics enhancements, and new predictability as compared to the H.B Robinson Benchmark. At Los Alamos National Laboratory, a special purpose cluster named “tebow,” was constructed such to maximize available RAM per CPU, as well as leveraging swap space with solid state hard drives, to allow larger scale depletion calculations (allowing for significantly more burnable regions than previously examined). As the MCNP6 burnup capability was scaled to larger numbers of burnable regions, a noticeable slowdown was realized.This paper details two specific computational performance strategies for improving calculation speedup: (1) retrieving cross sections during transport; and (2) tallying mechanisms specific to burnup in MCNP. To combat this slowdown new performance upgrades were developed and integrated into MCNP6 1.2.

  19. Partial depletion region collapse and its impact on transient capacitance measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lips, K.; Unold, T.; Xu, Y.; Crandall, R.S.

    1996-12-31

    The authors investigate capacitance transients under various experimental conditions on a number of different amorphous silicon Schottky barrier device structures. The samples differ mainly in their back contact configuration, which is non-ohmic for one type of sample and ohmic for the second type of samples. Anomalous transients can be observed for all samples regardless of the back contact if the depletion region is only partially collapsed by partial voltage pulsing. The authors find that samples without an ohmic back contact show a slowly rising capacitance during the filling pulse. These samples show anomalous capacitance transients for short filling pulses.

  20. Interdisciplinary Investigation of CO2 Sequestration in Depleted Shale Gas Formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zoback, Mark D.; Kovscek, Anthony R.; Wilcox, Jennifer

    2013-09-30

    This project investigates the feasibility of geologic sequestration of CO2 in depleted shale gas reservoirs from an interdisciplinary viewpoint. It is anticipated that over the next two decades, tens of thousands of wells will be drilled in the 23 states in which organic-rich shale gas deposits are found. This research investigates the feasibility of using these formations for sequestration. If feasible, the number of sites where CO2 can be sequestered increases dramatically. The research embraces a broad array of length scales ranging from the ~10 nanometer scale of the pores in the shale formations to reservoir scale through a series of integrated laboratory and theoretical studies.

  1. VERA Modeling and Simulation of the AP1000 PWR Cycle 1 Depletion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CASL-U-2015-0302-000 VERA Modeling and Simulation of the AP1000 PWR Cycle 1 Depletion L3:VMA.AMA.P11.06 David Salazar, Westinghouse Fausto Franceschini, Westinghouse September 30, 2015 L3:VMA.AMA.P11.06 Official Use Only ii Protected under CASL Master NDA CASL-U-2015-0302-000 REVISION LOG Revision Date Affected Pages Revision Description 0 09/30/2015 All Initial issuance Document pages that are: Export Controlled ____________No______________________________________ IP/Proprietary/NDA

  2. Depleted and Recyclable Uranium in the United States: Inventories and Options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, Erich; Scopatza, Anthony; Deinert, Mark

    2007-07-01

    International consumption of uranium currently outpaces production by nearly a factor of two. Secondary supplies from dismantled nuclear weapons, along with civilian and governmental stockpiles, are being used to make up the difference but supplies are limited. Large amounts of {sup 235}U are contained in spent nuclear fuel as well as in the tails left over from past uranium enrichment. The usability of these inhomogeneous uranium supplies depends on their isotopics. We present data on the {sup 235}U content of spent nuclear fuel and depleted uranium tails in the US and discuss the factors that affect its marketability and alternative uses. (authors)

  3. All-optical depletion of dark excitons from a semiconductor quantum dot

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidgall, E. R.; Schwartz, I.; Cogan, D.; Gershoni, D.; Gantz, L.; Heindel, T.; Reitzenstein, S.

    2015-05-11

    Semiconductor quantum dots are considered to be the leading venue for fabricating on-demand sources of single photons. However, the generation of long-lived dark excitons imposes significant limits on the efficiency of these sources. We demonstrate a technique that optically pumps the dark exciton population and converts it to a bright exciton population, using intermediate excited biexciton states. We show experimentally that our method considerably reduces the dark exciton population while doubling the triggered bright exciton emission, approaching thereby near-unit fidelity of quantum dot depletion.

  4. Depleted uranium oxides and silicates as spent nuclear fuel waste package fill materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1996-09-10

    A new repository waste package (WP) concept for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is being investigated that uses depleted uranium (DU) to improve performance and reduce the uncertainties of geological disposal of SNF. The WP would be filled with SNF and then filled with depleted uranium (DU) ({approximately}0.2 wt % {sup 235}U) dioxide (UO{sub 2}) or DU silicate-glass beads. Fission products and actinides can not escape the SNF UO{sub 2} crystals until the UO{sub 2} dissolves or is transformed into other chemical species. After WP failure, the DU fill material slows dissolution by three mechanisms: (1) saturation of AT groundwater with DU and suppression of SNF dissolution, (2) maintenance of chemically reducing conditions in the WP that minimize SNF solubility by sacrificial oxidation of DU from the +4 valence state, and (3) evolution of DU to lower-density hydrated uranium silicates. The fill expansion seals the WP from water flow. The DU also isotopically exchanges with SNF uranium as the SNF degrades to reduce long-term nuclear-criticality concerns.

  5. Packaging and Disposal of a Radium-beryllium Source using Depleted Uranium Polyethylene Composite Shielding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keith Rule; Paul Kalb; Pete Kwaschyn

    2003-02-11

    Two, 111-GBq (3 Curie) radium-beryllium (RaBe) sources were in underground storage at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) since 1988. These sources originated from the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) where they were used to calibrate neutron detection diagnostics. In 1999, PPPL and BNL began a collaborative effort to expand the use of an innovative pilot-scale technology and bring it to full-scale deployment to shield these sources for eventual transport and burial at the Hanford Burial site. The transport/disposal container was constructed of depleted uranium oxide encapsulated in polyethylene to provide suitable shielding for both gamma and neutron radiation. This new material can be produced from recycled waste products (depleted uranium and polyethylene), is inexpensive, and can be disposed with the waste, unlike conventional lead containers, thus reducing exposure time for workers. This paper will provide calculations and information that led to the initial design of the shielding. We will also describe the production-scale processing of the container, cost, schedule, logistics, and many unforeseen challenges that eventually resulted in the successful fabrication and deployment of this shield. We will conclude with a description of the final configuration of the shielding container and shipping package along with recommendations for future shielding designs.

  6. Effects of Bismuth on Wide-Depletion-Width GaInNAs Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ptak, A. J.; France, R.; Jiang, C.-S.; Reedy, R. C.

    2008-05-01

    GaInNAs solar cells could be useful in next-generation multijunction solar cells if issues surrounding low photocurrents and photovoltages are surmounted. Wide-depletion-width devices generate significant photocurrent using a p-i-n structure grown by molecular beam epitaxy, but these depletion widths are only realized in a region of parameter space that leads to rough surface morphologies. Here, bismuth is explored as a surfactant for the growth of GaInNAs solar cells. Very low fluxes of Bi are effective at maintaining smooth surfaces, even at high growth temperatures and In contents. However, Bi also increases the net donor concentration in these materials, manifested in our n-on-p device structures as a pn-junction that moves deeper into the base layer with increasing Bi fluxes. Quantum efficiency modeling and scanning kelvin probe microscopy measurements confirm the type conversion of the base layer from p type to n type. Bi incorporation in GaAsBi samples shows signs of surface segregation, leading to a finite buildup time, and this effect may lead to slow changes in the electrical properties of the GaInNAs(Bi) devices. Bi also appears to create a defect level, although this defect level is not deleterious enough to increase the dark current in the devices.

  7. The Modeling of Advanced BWR Fuel Designs with the NRC Fuel Depletion Codes PARCS/PATHS

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ward, Andrew; Downar, Thomas J.; Xu, Y.; March-Leuba, Jose A; Thurston, Carl; Hudson, Nathanael H.; Ireland, A.; Wysocki, A.

    2015-04-22

    The PATHS (PARCS Advanced Thermal Hydraulic Solver) code was developed at the University of Michigan in support of U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission research to solve the steady-state, two-phase, thermal-hydraulic equations for a boiling water reactor (BWR) and to provide thermal-hydraulic feedback for BWR depletion calculations with the neutronics code PARCS (Purdue Advanced Reactor Core Simulator). The simplified solution methodology, including a three-equation drift flux formulation and an optimized iteration scheme, yields very fast run times in comparison to conventional thermal-hydraulic systems codes used in the industry, while still retaining sufficient accuracy for applications such as BWR depletion calculations. Lastly, themore » capability to model advanced BWR fuel designs with part-length fuel rods and heterogeneous axial channel flow geometry has been implemented in PATHS, and the code has been validated against previously benchmarked advanced core simulators as well as BWR plant and experimental data. We describe the modifications to the codes and the results of the validation in this paper.« less

  8. The Modeling of Advanced BWR Fuel Designs with the NRC Fuel Depletion Codes PARCS/PATHS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, Andrew; Downar, Thomas J.; Xu, Y.; March-Leuba, Jose A; Thurston, Carl; Hudson, Nathanael H.; Ireland, A.; Wysocki, A.

    2015-04-22

    The PATHS (PARCS Advanced Thermal Hydraulic Solver) code was developed at the University of Michigan in support of U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission research to solve the steady-state, two-phase, thermal-hydraulic equations for a boiling water reactor (BWR) and to provide thermal-hydraulic feedback for BWR depletion calculations with the neutronics code PARCS (Purdue Advanced Reactor Core Simulator). The simplified solution methodology, including a three-equation drift flux formulation and an optimized iteration scheme, yields very fast run times in comparison to conventional thermal-hydraulic systems codes used in the industry, while still retaining sufficient accuracy for applications such as BWR depletion calculations. Lastly, the capability to model advanced BWR fuel designs with part-length fuel rods and heterogeneous axial channel flow geometry has been implemented in PATHS, and the code has been validated against previously benchmarked advanced core simulators as well as BWR plant and experimental data. We describe the modifications to the codes and the results of the validation in this paper.

  9. The depletion of Interleukin-8 causes cell cycle arrest and increases the efficacy of docetaxel in breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shao, Nan; Chen, Liu-Hua; Ye, Run-Yi; Lin, Ying; Wang, Shen-Ming

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: ? IL-8 depletion affects cell cycle distribution. ? Intrinsic IL-8 mediates breast cancer cell migration and invasion. ? IL-8 siRNA down regulates key factors that control survival and metastatic pathway. ? IL-8 depletion reduces integrin ?3 expression. ? IL-8 depletion increases the chemosensitivity to docetaxel. -- Abstract: IL-8 is a multi-functional pro-inflammatory chemokine, which is highly expressed in cancers, such as ER-negative breast cancer. The present study demonstrates the pervasive role of IL-8 in the malignant progression of ER-negative breast cancer. IL-8 siRNA inhibited proliferation and delayed the G1 to S cell cycle progression in MDA-MB-231 and BT549 cells. IL-8 silencing resulted in the upregulation of the CDK inhibitor p27, the downregulation of cyclin D1, and the reduction of phosphorylated-Akt and NF-?B activities. IL-8 depletion also increased the chemosensitivity to docetaxel. These results indicate a role for IL-8 in promoting tumor cell survival and resistance to docetaxel and highlight the potential therapeutic significance of IL-8 depletion in ER-negative breast cancer patients.

  10. D0 Decomissioning : Storage of Depleted Uranium Modules Inside D0 Calorimeters after the Termination of D0 Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarychev, Michael; /Fermilab

    2011-09-21

    Dzero liquid Argon calorimeters contain hadronic modules made of depleted uranium plates. After the termination of DO detector's operation, liquid Argon will be transferred back to Argon storage Dewar, and all three calorimeters will be warmed up. At this point, there is no intention to disassemble the calorimeters. The depleted uranium modules will stay inside the cryostats. Depleted uranium is a by-product of the uranium enrichment process. It is slightly radioactive, emits alpha, beta and gamma radiation. External radiation hazards are minimal. Alpha radiation has no external exposure hazards, as dead layers of skin stop it; beta radiation might have effects only when there is a direct contact with skin; and gamma rays are negligible - levels are extremely low. Depleted uranium is a pyrophoric material. Small particles (such as shavings, powder etc.) may ignite with presence of Oxygen (air). Also, in presence of air and moisture it can oxidize. Depleted uranium can absorb moisture and keep oxidizing later, even after air and moisture are excluded. Uranium oxide can powder and flake off. This powder is also pyrographic. Uranium oxide may create health problems if inhaled. Since uranium oxide is water soluble, it may enter the bloodstream and cause toxic effects.

  11. Microscale depletion of high abundance proteins in human biofluids using IgY14 immunoaffinity resin: Analysis of human plasma and cerebrospinal fluid

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hyung, Seok Won; Piehowski, Paul D.; Moore, Ronald J.; Orton, Daniel J.; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Clauss, Therese R.; Chu, Rosalie K.; Fillmore, Thomas L.; Brewer, Heather M.; Liu, Tao; et al

    2014-09-06

    Removal of highly abundant proteins in plasma is often carried out using immunoaffinity depletion to extend the dynamic range of measurements to lower abundance species. While commercial depletion columns are available for this purpose, they generally are not applicable to limited sample quantities (<20 µL) due to low yields stemming from losses caused by nonspecific binding to the column matrix. Additionally, the cost of the depletion media can be prohibitive for larger scale studies. Modern LC-MS instrumentation provides the sensitivity necessary to scale-down depletion methods with minimal sacrifice to proteome coverage, which makes smaller volume depletion columns desirable for maximizingmore » sample recovery when samples are limited, as well as for reducing the expense of large scale studies. We characterized the performance of a 346 µL column volume micro-scale depletion system, using four different flow rates to determine the most effective depletion conditions for ~6 μL injections of human plasma proteins and then evaluated depletion reproducibility at the optimum flow rate condition. Depletion of plasma using a commercial 10 mL depletion column served as the control. Results showed depletion efficiency of the micro-scale column increased as flow rate decreased, and that our micro-depletion was reproducible. We found, in an initial application, a 600 µL sample of human cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) pooled from multiple sclerosis patients was depleted and then analyzed using reversed phase liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to demonstrate the utility of the system for this important biofluid where sample quantities are more commonly limited.« less

  12. Revenue ruling 73-538: the service's assault on percentage depletion for ''D'' miners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    In this article, the author examines the Internal Revenue Service's ruling that storage and loading for shipment at the mine site are nonmining processes for ores and minerals described in section 613(c)(4)(D) of the Internal Revenue Code. He explains the tax consequences of the ruling and discusses the correctness of the position taken by the Internal Revenue Service in light of the relevant case law and the language and legislative history of the statute. The effect of the ruling is to reduce the percentage depletion deduction available to many miners of ores and minerals described in section 613(c)(4)(D), including miners of lead, zinc, copper, gold, silver, uranium, fluorspar, potash, soda ash, garnet and tungsten. (JMT)

  13. Analysis of shear banding in Armco IF iron, tungsten alloy, and depleted uranium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barta, R.C.; Kim, C.H.

    1992-03-01

    We study the problem of the initiation and growth of shear bands in three materials by analyzing the thermomechanical deformations of a block of nonuniform thickness undergoing overall simple shearing deformations. Each of these materials is assumed to obey the Johnson-Cook law. It is found that, for each material, the deformations of the block have become nonhomogeneous by the time the shear stress attains its maximum value. For Armco IF iron, a narrow band at the center develops when the shear stress there has dropped to 85% of its peak value, and the same occurs for the tungsten alloy when the shear stress at the specimen center equals 80% of the maximum value. For the depleted uranium satisfactory results could be computed only till the shear stress dropped to 99% of the peak value.

  14. Manufacturing Process Development to Produce Depleted Uranium Wire for EBAM Feedstock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alexander, David John; Clarke, Kester Diederik; Coughlin, Daniel Robert; Scott, Jeffrey E.

    2015-06-30

    Wire produced from depleted uranium (DU) is needed as feedstock for the Electron-Beam Additive Manufacturing (EBAM) process. The goal is to produce long lengths of DU wire with round or rectangular cross section, nominally 1.5 mm (0.060 inches). It was found that rolling methods, rather than swaging or drawing, are preferable for production of intermediate quantities of DU wire. Trials with grooveless rolling have shown that it is suitable for initial reductions of large stock. Initial trials with grooved rolling have been successful, for certain materials. Modified square grooves (square round-bottom vee grooves) with 12.5 % reduction of area per pass have been selected for the reduction process.

  15. {sup 1}H NMR relaxometry as an indicator of setting and water depletion during cement hydration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Biyun; Faure, Paméla; Thiéry, Mickaël; Baroghel-Bouny, Véronique

    2013-03-15

    Proton nuclear magnetic resonance relaxometry has been used to detect setting and microstructure evolution during cement hydration. NMR measurements were performed since casting, during setting and until hardening (from 0 to 3 days). The mobility of water molecules was assessed by an analysis focused on the diagram of longitudinal relaxation time T{sub 1} generated by an Inversion Recovery sequence. The initial stiffening of the solid network was identified by an analysis of the relaxation rate 1/T{sub 1}. The kinetics of water depletion was investigated by using a simple one-pulse acquisition sequence. In parallel, conventional techniques (Vicat needle and temperature monitoring), as well as numerical simulations of hydration, were used to complement and validate these NMR results. Cement pastes and mortars with different water-to-cement ratios made of grey or white OPCs were tested. Furthermore, the effects of the addition of sand, super-plasticizer and silica fume on the hydration kinetics were investigated.

  16. Conclusions of the Capstone Depleted Uranium Aerosol Characterization and Risk Assessment Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parkhurst, MaryAnn; Guilmette, Raymond A.

    2009-02-26

    The rationale for the Capstone Depleted Uranium (DU) Aerosol Characterization and Risk Assessment Program and its results and applications have been examined in the previous 13 articles of this special issue. This paper summarizes the results and discusses its successes and lessons learned. The robust data from the Capstone DU Aerosol Study have provided a sound basis for assessing the inhalation exposure to DU aerosols and the dose and risk to personnel in combat vehicles at the time of perforation and to those entering immediately after perforation. The Human Health Risk Assessment provided a technically sound process for evaluating chemical and radiological doses and risks from DU aerosol exposure using well-accepted biokinetic and dosimetric models innovatively applied. An independent review of the study process and results is summarized, and recommendations for possible avenues of future study by the authors and by other major reviews of DU health hazards are provided.

  17. Using Hydro-Cutting to Aid in Remediation of a Firing Range Contaminated with Depleted Uranium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Styvaert, Michael S.; Conley, Richard D.; Watters, David J.

    2003-02-24

    This paper describes the challenges encountered in decommissioning a firing range that had been used to test fire depleted uranium rounds in the late 1950's and early 1960's. The paper details the operational challenges and innovative solutions involved in remediating and decommissioning a firing range bullet catcher once unexploded ordnance was discovered. It also discusses how the Army dealt with an intertwining web of regulatory and permit issues that arose in treating and disposing of multiple waste streams. The paper will show how the use of a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Temporary Authorization allowed the Army to deal with the treatment of a variety of waste streams and how hydro-cutting process was used to demilitarize the potentially unexploded rounds.

  18. Strategy for Characterizing Transuranics and Technetium Contamination in Depleted UF{sub 6} Cylinders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hightower, J.R.

    2000-10-26

    This report summarizes results of a study performed to develop a strategy for characterization of low levels of radioactive contaminants [plutonium (Pu), neptunium (Np), americium (Am), and technetium (Tc)] in depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF{sub 6}) cylinders at the gaseous diffusion plants in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Paducah, Kentucky; and Piketon, Ohio. In these gaseous diffusion plants, this radioactivity came from enriching recycled uranium (the so-called ''reactor returns'') from Savannah River, South Carolina, and Hanford, Washington, reactors. Results of this study will be used to support a request for proposals to design, build, and operate facilities to convert the DUF{sub 6} to more chemically stable forms. These facilities would need to be designed to handle any transuranic contaminants that might be present in order to (1) protect the workers' health and safety and (2) protect the public and the environment.

  19. Theophylline prevents NAD{sup +} depletion via PARP-1 inhibition in human pulmonary epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moonen, Harald J.J. . E-mail: h.moonen@grat.unimaas.nl; Geraets, Liesbeth; Vaarhorst, Anika; Bast, Aalt; Wouters, Emiel F.M.; Hageman, Geja J.

    2005-12-30

    Oxidative DNA damage, as occurs during exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), highly activates the nuclear enzyme poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 (PARP-1). This can lead to cellular depletion of its substrate NAD{sup +}, resulting in an energy crisis and ultimately in cell death. Inhibition of PARP-1 results in preservation of the intracellular NAD{sup +} pool, and of NAD{sup +}-dependent cellular processes. In this study, PARP-1 activation by hydrogen peroxide decreased intracellular NAD{sup +} levels in human pulmonary epithelial cells, which was found to be prevented in a dose-dependent manner by theophylline, a widely used compound in the treatment of COPD. This enzyme inhibition by theophylline was confirmed in an ELISA using purified human PARP-1 and was found to be competitive by nature. These findings provide new mechanistic insights into the therapeutic effect of theophylline in oxidative stress-induced lung pathologies.

  20. Multi-images deconvolution improves signal-to-noise ratio on gated stimulated emission depletion microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castello, Marco; Diaspro, Alberto; Vicidomini, Giuseppe

    2014-12-08

    Time-gated detection, namely, only collecting the fluorescence photons after a time-delay from the excitation events, reduces complexity, cost, and illumination intensity of a stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscope. In the gated continuous-wave- (CW-) STED implementation, the spatial resolution improves with increased time-delay, but the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) reduces. Thus, in sub-optimal conditions, such as a low photon-budget regime, the SNR reduction can cancel-out the expected gain in resolution. Here, we propose a method which does not discard photons, but instead collects all the photons in different time-gates and recombines them through a multi-image deconvolution. Our results, obtained on simulated and experimental data, show that the SNR of the restored image improves relative to the gated image, thereby improving the effective resolution.

  1. Environmental acceptability of high-performance alternatives for depleted uranium penetrators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerley, C.R.; Easterly, C.E.; Eckerman, K.F.

    1996-08-01

    The Army`s environmental strategy for investigating material substitution and management is to measure system environmental gains/losses in all phases of the material management life cycle from cradle to grave. This study is the first in a series of new investigations, applying material life cycle concepts, to evaluate whether there are environmental benefits from increasing the use of tungsten as an alternative to depleted uranium (DU) in Kinetic Energy Penetrators (KEPs). Current military armor penetrators use DU and tungsten as base materials. Although DU alloys have provided the highest performance of any high-density alloy deployed against enemy heavy armor, its low-level radioactivity poses a number of environmental risks. These risks include exposures to the military and civilian population from inhalation, ingestion, and injection of particles. Depleted uranium is well known to be chemically toxic (kidney toxicity), and workplace exposure levels are based on its renal toxicity. Waste materials containing DU fragments are classified as low-level radioactive waste and are regulated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. These characteristics of DU do not preclude its use in KEPs. However, long-term management challenges associated with KEP deployment and improved public perceptions about environmental risks from military activities might be well served by a serious effort to identify, develop, and substitute alternative materials that meet performance objectives and involve fewer environmental risks. Tungsten, a leading candidate base material for KEPS, is potentially such a material because it is not radioactive. Tungsten is less well studied, however, with respect to health impacts and other environmental risks. The present study is designed to contribute to the understanding of the environmental behavior of tungsten by synthesizing available information that is relevant to its potential use as a penetrator.

  2. Cadmium Depletion Impacts on Hardening Neutron6 Spectrum for Advanced Fuel Testing in ATR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray S. Chang

    2011-05-01

    For transmuting long-lived isotopes contained in spent nuclear fuel into shorter-lived fission products effectively is in a fast neutron spectrum reactor. In the absence of a fast spectrum test reactor in the United States of America (USA), initial irradiation testing of candidate fuels can be performed in a thermal test reactor that has been modified to produce a test region with a hardened neutron spectrum. A test region is achieved with a Cadmium (Cd) filter which can harden the neutron spectrum to a spectrum similar (although still somewhat softer) to that of the liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR). A fuel test loop with a Cd-filter has been installed within the East Flux Trap (EFT) of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). A detailed comparison analyses between the cadmium (Cd) filter hardened neutron spectrum in the ATR and the LMFBR fast neutron spectrum have been performed using MCWO. MCWO is a set of scripting tools that are used to couple the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP with the isotope depletion and buildup code ORIGEN-2.2. The MCWO-calculated results indicate that the Cd-filter can effectively flatten the Rim-Effect and reduce the linear heat rate (LHGR) to meet the advanced fuel testing project requirements at the beginning of irradiation (BOI). However, the filtering characteristics of Cd as a strong absorber quickly depletes over time, and the Cd-filter must be replaced for every two typical operating cycles within the EFT of the ATR. The designed Cd-filter can effectively depress the LHGR in experimental fuels and harden the neutron spectrum enough to adequately flatten the Rim Effect in the test region.

  3. Evaluation of the Acceptability of Potential Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Products at the Envirocare Disposal Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Croff, A.G.

    2001-01-11

    The purpose of this report is to review and document the capability of potential products of depleted UF{sub 6} conversion to meet the current waste acceptance criteria and other regulatory requirements for disposal at the facility in Clive, Utah, owned by Envirocare of Utah, Inc. The investigation was conducted by identifying issues potentially related to disposal of depleted uranium (DU) products at Envirocare and conducting an initial analysis of them. Discussions were then held with representatives of Envirocare, the state of Utah (which is a NRC Agreement State and, thus, is the cognizant regulatory authority for Envirocare), and DOE Oak Ridge Operations. Provisional issue resolution was then established based on the analysis and discussions and documented in a draft report. The draft report was then reviewed by those providing information and revisions were made, which resulted in this document. Issues that were examined for resolution were (1) license receipt limits for U isotopes; (2) DU product classification as Class A waste; (3) use of non-DOE disposal sites for disposal of DOE material; (4) historical NRC views; (5) definition of chemical reactivity; (6) presence of mobile radionuclides; and (7) National Environmental Policy Act coverage of disposal. The conclusion of this analysis is that an amendment to the Envirocare license issued on October 5, 2000, has reduced the uncertainties regarding disposal of the DU product at Envirocare to the point that they are now comparable with uncertainties associated with the disposal of the DU product at the Nevada Test Site that were discussed in an earlier report.

  4. Preconceptual design studies and cost data of depleted uranium hexafluoride conversion plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, E

    1999-07-26

    One of the more important legacies left with the Department of Energy (DOE) after the privatization of the United States Enrichment Corporation is the large inventory of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6). The DOE Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology (NE) is responsible for the long-term management of some 700,000 metric tons of DUF6 stored at the sites of the two gaseous diffusion plants located at Paducah, Kentucky and Portsmouth, Ohio, and at the East Tennessee Technology Park in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The DUF6 management program resides in NE's Office of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management. The current DUF6 program has largely focused on the ongoing maintenance of the cylinders containing DUF6. However, the long-term management and eventual disposition of DUF6 is the subject of a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) and Public Law 105-204. The first step for future use or disposition is to convert the material, which requires construction and long-term operation of one or more conversion plants. To help inform the DUF6 program's planning activities, it was necessary to perform design and cost studies of likely DUF6 conversion plants at the preconceptual level, beyond the PEIS considerations but not as detailed as required for conceptual designs of actual plants. This report contains the final results from such a preconceptual design study project. In this fast track, three month effort, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Bechtel National Incorporated developed and evaluated seven different preconceptual design cases for a single plant. The preconceptual design, schedules, costs, and issues associated with specific DUF6 conversion approaches, operating periods, and ownership options were evaluated based on criteria established by DOE. The single-plant conversion options studied were similar to the dry-conversion process alternatives from the PEIS. For each of the seven cases considered, this report contains information on

  5. CRC DEPLETION CALCULATIONS FOR THE RODDED ASSEMBLIES IN BATCHES 1, 2, 3, AND 1X OF CRYSTAL RIVER UNIT 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenneth D. Wright

    1997-09-03

    The purpose of this design analysis is to document the SAS2H depletion calculations of certain rodded fuel assemblies from batches 1, 2, 3, and 1X of the Crystal River Unit 3 pressurized water reactor (PWR) that are required for Commercial Reactor Critical (CRC) evaluations to support the development of the disposal criticality methodology. A rodded assembly is one that contains a control rod assembly (CRA) or an axial power shaping rod assembly (APSRA) for some period of time during its irradiation history. The objective of this analysis is to provide SAS2H calculated isotopic compositions of depleted fuel and depleted burnable poison for each fuel assembly to be used in subsequent CRC reactivity calculations containing the fuel assemblies.

  6. CRC DEPLETION CALCULATIONS FOR THE NON-RODDED ASSEMBLIES IN BATCHES 1, 2, AND 3 OF CRYSTAL RIVER UNIT 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenneth D. Wright

    1997-07-29

    The purpose of this design analysis is to document the SAS2H depletion calculations of certain non-rodded fuel assemblies from batches 1, 2, and 3 of the Crystal River Unit 3 pressurized water reactor (PWR) that are required for Commercial Reactor Critical (CRC) evaluations to support development of the disposal criticality methodology. A non-rodded assembly is one which never contains a control rod assembly (CRA) or an axial power shaping rod assembly (APSRA) during its irradiation history. The objective of this analysis is to provide SAS2H generated isotopic compositions for each fuel assembly's depleted fuel and depleted burnable poison materials. These SAS2H generated isotopic compositions are acceptable for use in CRC benchmark reactivity calculations containing the various fuel assemblies.

  7. CRC DEPLETION CALCULATIONS FOR THE NON-RODDED ASSEMBLIES IN BATCHES 4 AND 5 OF CRYSTAL RIVER UNIT 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenneth D. Wright

    1997-07-30

    The purpose of this design analysis is to document the SAS2H depletion calculations of certain non-rodded fuel assemblies from batches 4 and 5 of the Crystal River Unit 3 pressurized water reactor (PWR) that are required for commercial Reactor Critical (CRC) evaluations to support the development of the disposal criticality methodology. A non-rodded assembly is one which never contains a control rod assembly (CRA) or an axial power shaping rod assembly (APSRA) during its irradiation history. The objective of this analysis is to provide SAS2H generated isotopic compositions for each fuel assembly's depleted fuel and depleted burnable poison materials. These SAS2H generated isotopic compositions are acceptable for use in CRC benchmark reactivity calculations containing the various fuel assemblies.

  8. CRC DEPLETION CALCULATIONS FOR THE NON-RODDED ASSEMBLIES IN BATCHES 8 AND 9 CRYSTAL RIVER UNIT 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael L. Wilson

    2001-02-08

    The purpose of this design analysis is to document the SAS2H depletion calculations of certain non-rodded fuel assemblies from batches 8 and 9 of the Crystal River Unit 3 pressurized water reactor (PWR) that are required for Commercial Reactor Critical (CRC) evaluations to support the development of the disposal criticality methodology. A non-rodded assembly is one which never contains a control rod assembly (CRA) or an axial power shaping rod assembly (APSRA) during its irradiation history. The objective of this analysis is to provide SAS2H generated isotopic compositions for each fuel assembly's depleted fuel and depleted burnable poison materials. These SAS2H generated isotopic compositions are acceptable for use in CRC benchmark reactivity calculations containing the various fuel assemblies.

  9. Horizontal-well pilot waterflood tests shallow, abandoned field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McAlpine, J.L. ); Joshi, S.D. )

    1991-08-05

    This paper reports on the suitability of using horizontal wells in a waterflood of shallow, partially depleted sands which will be tested in the Jennings field in Oklahoma. The vertical wells drilled in the Jennings field intersect several well-known formations such as Red Fork, Misner, and Bartlesville sand. Most of these formations have been produced over a number of years, and presently no wells are producing in the field. In the 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s, wells were drilled on 10-acre spacing, and the last well was plugged in 1961. The field was produced only on primary production and produced approximately 1 million bbl of oil. Because the field was not waterflooded, a large potential exists to produce from the field using secondary methods. To improve the economics for the secondary process, a combination of horizontal and vertical wells was considered.

  10. Field-effect P-N junction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Regan, William; Zettl, Alexander

    2015-05-05

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to field-effect p-n junctions. In one aspect, a device includes an ohmic contact, a semiconductor layer disposed on the ohmic contact, at least one rectifying contact disposed on the semiconductor layer, a gate including a layer disposed on the at least one rectifying contact and the semiconductor layer and a gate contact disposed on the layer. A lateral width of the rectifying contact is less than a semiconductor depletion width of the semiconductor layer. The gate contact is electrically connected to the ohmic contact to create a self-gating feedback loop that is configured to maintain a gate electric field of the gate.

  11. Assessment of microorganisms from Indonesian Oil Fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kadarwati, S.; Udiharto, M.; Rahman, M.; Jasjfi, E.; Legowo, E.H.

    1995-12-31

    Petroleum resources have been the mainstay of the national development in Indonesia. However, resources are being depleted after over a century of exploitation, while the demand continues to grow with the rapid economic development of the country. In facing the problem, EOR has been applied in Indonesia, such as the steamflooding project in Duri field, but a more energy efficient technology would be preferable. Therefore, MEOR has been recommended as a promising solution. Our study, aimed at finding indigenous microorganisms which can be developed for application in MEOR, has isolated microbes from some oil fields of Indonesia. These microorganisms have been identified, their activities studied, and the effects of their metabolisms examined. This paper describes the research carried out by LEMIGAS in this respect, giving details on the methods of sampling, incubation, identification, and activation of the microbes as well as tests on the effects of their metabolites, with particular attention to those with potential for application in MEOR.

  12. PACKAGING AND DISPOSAL OF A RADIUM BERYLLIUM SOURCE USING DEPLETED URANIUM POLYETHYLENE COMPOSITE SHIELDING.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RULE,K.; KALB,P.; KWASCHYN,P.

    2003-02-23

    Two, 111 GBq (3 Curie) radium-beryllium (RaBe) sources were in underground storage at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) since 1988. These sources originated from Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) where they were used to calibrate neutron detection diagnostics. In 1999, PPPL and BNL began a collaborative effort to expand the use of an innovative pilot-scale technology and bring it to full-scale deployment to shield these sources for eventual transport and burial at the Hanford Burial site. The transport/disposal container was constructed of depleted uranium oxide encapsulated in polyethylene to provide suitable shielding for both gamma and neutron radiation. This new material can be produced from recycled waste products (DU and polyethylene), is inexpensive, and can be disposed with the waste, unlike conventional lead containers, thus reducing exposure time for workers. This paper will provide calculations and information that led to the initial design of the shielding. We will also describe the production-scale processing of the container, cost, schedule, logistics, and many unforeseen challenges that eventually resulted in the successful fabrication and deployment of this shield. We will conclude with a description of the final configuration of the shielding container and shipping package along with recommendations for future shielding designs.

  13. DEPLETION OF MOLECULAR GAS BY AN ACCRETION OUTBURST IN A PROTOPLANETARY DISK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banzatti, A.; Pontoppidan, K. M.; Muzerolle, J. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Bruderer, S. [Max-Planck-Institut fr Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstr. 1, D-85748 Garching bei Mnchen (Germany); Meyer, M. R., E-mail: banzatti@stsci.edu [ETH Zrich, Institut fr Astronomie, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zrich (Switzerland)

    2015-01-01

    We investigate new and archival 3-5 ?m high-resolution (?3 km s{sup 1}) spectroscopy of molecular gas in the inner disk of the young solar-mass star EX Lupi, taken during and after the strong accretion outburst of 2008. The data were obtained using the CRIRES spectrometer at the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope in 2008 and 2014. In 2008, emission lines from CO, H{sub 2}O, and OH were detected with broad profiles tracing gas near and within the corotation radius (0.02-0.3 AU). In 2014, the spectra display marked differences. The CO lines, while still detected, are much weaker, and the H{sub 2}O and OH lines have disappeared altogether. At 3 ?m a veiled stellar photospheric spectrum is observed. Our analysis finds that the molecular gas mass in the inner disk has decreased by an order of magnitude since the outburst, matching a similar decrease in the accretion rate onto the star. We discuss these findings in the context of a rapid depletion of material accumulated beyond the disk corotation radius during quiescent periods, as proposed by models of episodic accretion in EXor-type young stars.

  14. Imaging the Solar Cell P-N Junction and Depletion Region Using Secondary Electron Contrast

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, J. T.; Jiang, C. S.; Al-Jassim, M. M.

    2011-01-01

    We report on secondary electron (SE) images of cross-sectioned multicrystalline Si and GaAs/GaInP solar cell devices, focusing on quantifying the relationship between the apparent n{sup +}-p contrast and characteristic electronic features of the device. These samples allow us to compare the SE signal from devices which have very different physical characteristics: differing materials, diffused junction versus abrupt junction, heterojunction versus homojunction. Despite these differences, we find that the SE image contrast for both types of sample, and as a function of reverse bias across the diode, closely agrees with PC1D simulations of the bulk electrostatic potential in the device, accurately yielding the depletion edge and width. A spatial derivative of the SE data shows a local maximum at the metallurgical junction. Such data are valuable, for example, in studying the conformity of a diffused junction to the textured surface topography. These data also extend our understanding of the origin of the SE contrast.

  15. Proceedings of a workshop on uses of depleted uranium in storage, transportation and repository facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-31

    A workshop on the potential uses of depleted uranium (DU) in the repository was organized to coordinate the planning of future activities. The attendees, the original workshop objective and the agenda are provided in Appendices A, B and C. After some opening remarks and discussions, the objectives of the workshop were revised to: (1) exchange information and views on the status of the Department of Energy (DOE) activities related to repository design and planning; (2) exchange information on DU management and planning; (3) identify potential uses of DU in the storage, transportation, and disposal of high-level waste and spent fuel; and (4) define the future activities that would be needed if potential uses were to be further evaluated and developed. This summary of the workshop is intended to be an integrated resource for planning of any future work related to DU use in the repository. The synopsis of the first day`s presentations is provided in Appendix D. Copies of slides from each presenter are presented in Appendix E.

  16. Modulated Tool-Path Chip Breaking For Depleted Uranium Machining Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barkman, W. E.; Babelay Jr., E. F.; Smith, K. S.; Assaid T. S.; McFarland, J. T.; Tursky, D. A.

    2010-04-15

    Turning operations involving depleted uranium frequently generate long, stringy chips that present a hazard to both the machinist and the machine tool. While a variety of chip-breaking techniques are available, they generally depend on a mechanism that increases the bending of the chip or the introduction of a one dimensional vibration that produces an interrupted cutting pattern. Unfortunately, neither of these approaches is particularly effective when making a 'light depth-of-cut' on a contoured workpiece. The historical solution to this problem has been for the machinist to use long-handled tweezers to 'pull the chip' and try to keep it submerged in the chip pan; however, this approach is not practical for all machining operations. This paper discusses a research project involving the Y-12 National Security Complex and the University of North Carolina at Charlotte in which unique, oscillatory part programs are used to continuously create an interrupted cut that generates pre-defined, user-selectable chip lengths.

  17. Running Out of and Into Oil: Analyzing Global Oil Depletion and Transition Through 2050

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, D.L.

    2003-11-14

    This report presents a risk analysis of world conventional oil resource production, depletion, expansion, and a possible transition to unconventional oil resources such as oil sands, heavy oil and shale oil over the period 2000 to 2050. Risk analysis uses Monte Carlo simulation methods to produce a probability distribution of outcomes rather than a single value. Probability distributions are produced for the year in which conventional oil production peaks for the world as a whole and the year of peak production from regions outside the Middle East. Recent estimates of world oil resources by the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), the World Energy Council (WEC) and Dr. C. Campbell provide alternative views of the extent of ultimate world oil resources. A model of oil resource depletion and expansion for twelve world regions is combined with a market equilibrium model of conventional and unconventional oil supply and demand to create a World Energy Scenarios Model (WESM). The model does not make use of Hubbert curves but instead relies on target reserve-to-production ratios to determine when regional output will begin to decline. The authors believe that their analysis has a bias toward optimism about oil resource availability because it does not attempt to incorporate political or environmental constraints on production, nor does it explicitly include geologic constraints on production rates. Global energy scenarios created by IIASA and WEC provide the context for the risk analysis. Key variables such as the quantity of undiscovered oil and rates of technological progress are treated as probability distributions, rather than constants. Analyses based on the USGS and IIASA resource assessments indicate that conventional oil production outside the Middle East is likely to peak sometime between 2010 and 2030. The most important determinants of the date are the quantity of undiscovered oil, the rate at

  18. Barriers and Issues Related to Achieving Final Disposition of Depleted Uranium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gillas, D. L.; Chambers, B. K.

    2002-02-26

    Approximately 750,000 metric tons (MT) of surplus depleted uranium (DU) in various chemical forms are stored at several Department of Energy (DOE) sites throughout the United States. Most of the DU is in the form of DU hexafluoride (DUF6) that resulted from uranium enrichment operations over the last several decades. DOE plans to convert the DUF6 to ''a more stable form'' that could be any one or combination of DU tetrafluoride (DUF4 or green salt), DU oxide (DUO3, DUO2, or DU3O8), or metal depending on the final disposition chosen for any given quantity. Barriers to final disposition of this material have existed historically and some continue today. Currently, the barriers are more related to finding uses for this material versus disposing as waste. Even though actions are beginning to convert the DUF6, ''final'' disposition of the converted material has yet to be decided. Unless beneficial uses can be implemented, DOE plans to dispose of this material as waste. This expresses the main barrier to DU disposition; DOE's strategy is to dispose unless uses can be found while the strategy should be only dispose as a last resort and make every effort to find uses. To date, only minimal research programs are underway to attempt to develop non-fuel uses for this material. Other issues requiring resolution before these inventories can reach final disposition (uses or disposal) include characterization, disposal of large quantities, storage (current and future), and treatment options. Until final disposition is accomplished, these inventories must be managed in a safe and environmentally sound manner; however, this is becoming more difficult as materials and facilities age. The most noteworthy final disposition technical issues include the development of reuse and treatment options.

  19. Effects of magnetic fields on lithium evolution in F and G stars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, T. D.; Bi, S. L.; Yang, W. M.; Liu, K.; Tian, Z. J.; Ge, Z. S., E-mail: litanda@mail.bnu.edu.cn, E-mail: bisl@bnu.edu.cn [Astronomy Department, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2014-02-01

    To study the effects of magnetic fields on lithium depletion and to explain the characteristics of lithium evolution in F- and G-type stars in open clusters, we construct a stellar model that includes a Tayler-Spruit dynamo-type field. Through examining the features of extra-mixing caused by magnetic fields in stellar interiors and the relationship between lithium depletion and the input parameters (i.e., mass, metallicity, and the initial rotational condition), we find that the magnetic model produces extra-mixing processes different from other models. During pre-main sequence, the model exhibits very efficient extra-mixing, resulting in strong lithium depletion. As a star evolves, the efficiency of extra-mixing rapidly decreases and lithium depletion slows down at old ages. By setting up different initial rotating conditions, the model predicts dispersions of lithium abundance in both main sequence and pre-main sequence stages. The dispersion begins when a radiative core forms in the interior. The number sees a rapid growth afterward, reaching 0.1-0.5 dex at zero age main sequence in G and late-F stars. The increase of dispersion continues in the main sequence, which is slight in G and late-F stars while significant in mid-F stars. Finally, a comparison is carried out between the theoretical results and the observed data in four open clusters. Good agreements are obtained.

  20. Geology of Ziliujing gas field - The gas field developed earliest in the world

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding, Chuanbai )

    1991-03-01

    Ziliujing gas field, located in Zigong municipality, Sichuan, is an asymmetric anticline, and well depth is generally less than 1,300 m. There are eight gas- and brine-producing intervals. Tc-3 of the Lower Triassic is the main gas-producing horizon, which is a carbonate with a combination of fracture and intergranular porosities. As early as 1,500 years ago, the production of brine and natural gas was started; over 13,000 wells were drilled of which over 1,000 wells were gas wells. The total area of different producing zones is about 22 km{sup 2}. The distribution and production of natural gas are controlled by structural faults. The gas sources supplied are beyond the limit of the structure. Tc-3 reservoir is a typical fissured reservoir, and most of the wells have the characteristics of (1) high initial production rate; (2) rapid depletion; and (3) long producing life. Owing to the favorable geological conditions; the great number of wells; outstanding ancient technologies in drilling, production, and transportation; comprehensive utilization; and very long production history, tremendous success is achieved in the development of gas fields. The total cumulative gas production by the end of 1985 was 33 billion cubic meters in which 17.2 billion cubic meters were contributed by Tc-3 reservoir; maximum gas and brine recoveries have been achieve. So far the gas reservoirs have not been depleted and new discoveries have been found in recent years. The brilliant achievements of the ancestors remain.

  1. Nuclear Data Uncertainty Propagation in Depletion Calculations Using Cross Section Uncertainties in One-group or Multi-group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Díez, C.J.; Cabellos, O.; Martínez, J.S.

    2015-01-15

    Several approaches have been developed in last decades to tackle nuclear data uncertainty propagation problems of burn-up calculations. One approach proposed was the Hybrid Method, where uncertainties in nuclear data are propagated only on the depletion part of a burn-up problem. Because only depletion is addressed, only one-group cross sections are necessary, and hence, their collapsed one-group uncertainties. This approach has been applied successfully in several advanced reactor systems like EFIT (ADS-like reactor) or ESFR (Sodium fast reactor) to assess uncertainties on the isotopic composition. However, a comparison with using multi-group energy structures was not carried out, and has to be performed in order to analyse the limitations of using one-group uncertainties.

  2. FORIG: a computer code for calculating radionuclide generation and depletion in fusion and fission reactors. User's manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blink, J.A.

    1985-03-01

    In this manual we describe the use of the FORIG computer code to solve isotope-generation and depletion problems in fusion and fission reactors. FORIG runs on a Cray-1 computer and accepts more extensive activation cross sections than ORIGEN2 from which it was adapted. This report is an updated and a combined version of the previous ORIGEN2 and FORIG manuals. 7 refs., 15 figs., 13 tabs.

  3. Relationship of the percentage depletion allowance and the dividends received deduction: a disagreement with the tax court

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orbach, K.N.

    1983-09-01

    Arguments against the Tax Court's holding in Lastarmo, Inc. v. Commissioner review the equations for solving the percentage depletion deduction (PD) and dividends received deduction (DRD) interrelationship to determine whether a corporate taxpayer has had a net operating loss (NOL). The Tax Court sought to fill a perceived gap in Internal Revenue Service statutory framework which the author considers invalid because of the calculations used to prove NOL. His calculations show that none existed. 48 references. (DCK)

  4. Ozone depletion, developing countries, and human rights: Seeking better ground on which to fight for protection of the ozone layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, V.

    1995-12-31

    I urge you not to take a complacent view of the situation. The state of depletion of the ozone layer continues to be alarming... In February, 1993, the ozone levels over North America and most of Europe were 20 percent below normal... Even now, millions of tons of CFC [chlorofluorocarbon] products are en route to their fatal stratospheric rendezvous... This exponential increase calls for increased reflection on the state of the ozone layer and calls for bold decisions.

  5. Use of depleted uranium silicate glass to minimize release of radionuclides from spent nuclear fuel waste packages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1996-01-20

    A Depleted Uranium Silicate Container Backfill System (DUSCOBS) is proposed that would use small, isotopically-depleted uranium silicate glass beads as a backfill material inside repository waste packages containing spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The uranium silicate glass beads would fill the void space inside the package including the coolant channels inside SNF assemblies. Based on preliminary analysis, the following benefits have been identified. DUSCOBS improves repository waste package performance by three mechanisms. First, it reduces the radionuclide releases from SNF when water enters the waste package by creating a local uranium silicate saturated groundwater environment that suppresses (a) the dissolution and/or transformation of uranium dioxide fuel pellets and, hence, (b) the release of radionuclides incorporated into the SNF pellets. Second, the potential for long-term nuclear criticality is reduced by isotopic exchange of enriched uranium in SNF with the depleted uranium (DU) in the glass. Third, the backfill reduces radiation interactions between SNF and the local environment (package and local geology) and thus reduces generation of hydrogen, acids, and other chemicals that degrade the waste package system. Finally, DUSCOBS provides a potential method to dispose of significant quantities of excess DU from uranium enrichment plants at potential economic savings. DUSCOBS is a new concept. Consequently, the concept has not been optimized or demonstrated in laboratory experiments.

  6. Diffraction barrier breakthrough in coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy by additional probe-beam-induced phonon depletion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu Wei; Niu Hanben

    2011-02-15

    We provide an approach to significantly break the diffraction limit in coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy via an additional probe-beam-induced photon depletion (APIPD). The additional probe beam, whose profile is doughnut shaped and whose wavelength is different from the Gaussian probe beam, depletes the phonons to yield an unwanted anti-Stokes signal within a certain bandwidth at the rim of the diffraction-limited spot. When the Gaussian probe beam that follows immediately arrives, no anti-Stokes signal is generated in this region, resembling stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy, and the spot-generating useful anti-Stokes signals by this beam are substantially suppressed to a much smaller dimension. Scanning the spot renders three-dimensional, label-free, and chemically selective CARS images with subdiffraction resolution. Also, resolution-enhanced images of the molecule, specified by its broadband even-total CARS spectral signals not only by one anti-Stokes signal for its special chemical bond, can be obtained by employing a supercontinuum source.

  7. IAEA Coordinated Research Project on HTGR Reactor Physics, Thermal-hydraulics and Depletion Uncertainty Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strydom, Gerhard; Bostelmann, F.

    2015-09-01

    The continued development of High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (HTGRs) requires verification of HTGR design and safety features with reliable high fidelity physics models and robust, efficient, and accurate codes. The predictive capability of coupled neutronics/thermal-hydraulics and depletion simulations for reactor design and safety analysis can be assessed with sensitivity analysis (SA) and uncertainty analysis (UA) methods. Uncertainty originates from errors in physical data, manufacturing uncertainties, modelling and computational algorithms. (The interested reader is referred to the large body of published SA and UA literature for a more complete overview of the various types of uncertainties, methodologies and results obtained). SA is helpful for ranking the various sources of uncertainty and error in the results of core analyses. SA and UA are required to address cost, safety, and licensing needs and should be applied to all aspects of reactor multi-physics simulation. SA and UA can guide experimental, modelling, and algorithm research and development. Current SA and UA rely either on derivative-based methods such as stochastic sampling methods or on generalized perturbation theory to obtain sensitivity coefficients. Neither approach addresses all needs. In order to benefit from recent advances in modelling and simulation and the availability of new covariance data (nuclear data uncertainties) extensive sensitivity and uncertainty studies are needed for quantification of the impact of different sources of uncertainties on the design and safety parameters of HTGRs. Only a parallel effort in advanced simulation and in nuclear data improvement will be able to provide designers with more robust and well validated calculation tools to meet design target accuracies. In February 2009, the Technical Working Group on Gas-Cooled Reactors (TWG-GCR) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) recommended that the proposed Coordinated Research Program (CRP) on

  8. Internal split field generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thundat; Thomas George; Van Neste, Charles W.; Vass, Arpad Alexander

    2012-01-03

    A generator includes a coil of conductive material. A stationary magnetic field source applies a stationary magnetic field to the coil. An internal magnetic field source is disposed within a cavity of the coil to apply a moving magnetic field to the coil. The stationary magnetic field interacts with the moving magnetic field to generate an electrical energy in the coil.

  9. H. R. 4670: a bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 to increase the depletion allowance for oil and natural gas, and to allow percentage depletion for stripper well production of integrated producers. Introduced in the House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session, April 23, 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    An amendment to the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 increases the depletion allowance for oil and natural gas and allows percentage depletion for stripper well production of integrated producers. The bill was referred to the House Committee on Ways and Means after its introduction.

  10. Review of corrosion in 10- and 14-ton mild steel depleted UF{sub 6} storage cylinders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lykins, M.L.

    1995-08-01

    A literature review was conducted to determine the type, extent and severity of corrosion found in the 10- and 14-ton mild steel depleted UF{sub 6} storage cylinders. Also discussed in this review is corrosion found in the valves and plugs used in the cylinders. Corrosion of the cylinders is a gradual process which occurs slowly over time. Understanding corrosion of the cylinders is an important concern for long term storage of the UF{sub 6} in the cylinder yards, as well as the final disposition of the depleted UF{sub 6} tails inventory in the future. The following conclusions are made from the literature review: (1) The general external corrosion rate of the cylinders is about 1 to 2 mils per year (1 mil = 0.001{double_prime}). The highest general external corrosion rate was over 5 mpy on the 48G type cylinders. (2) General internal corrosion from the depleted UF{sub 6} is negligible under normal storage conditions. Crevice corrosion can occur at the cylinder/saddle interface from the retention of water in this area. Crevice corrosion can occur at the cylinder/skirt interface on the older skirted cylinders due to the lack of water drainage in this area. Crevice corrosion can occur on cylinders that have been in ground contact. Crevice corrosion and galvanic corrosion can occur where the stainless steel I.D. nameplates are attached to the cylinder. The packing nuts on the bronze one-inch valves used in the cylinders are susceptible to stress corrosion cracking (SCC). Mechanical damage from routine handling can lead to a breach in a cylinder with subsequent accelerated corrosion of the mild steel due to attack from HF and other UF{sub 6} hydrolysis by-products.

  11. Characterization of options and their analysis requirements for the long-term management of depleted uranium hexafluoride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dubrin, J.W.; Rosen, R.S.; Zoller, J.N.; Harri, J.W.; Schwertz, N.L.

    1995-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is examining alternative strategies for the long-term management of depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) currently stored at the gaseous diffusion plants at Portsmouth, Ohio, and Paducah, Kentucky, and on the Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This paper describes the methodology for the comprehensive and ongoing technical analysis of the options being considered. An overview of these options, along with several of the suboptions being considered, is presented. The long-term management strategy alternatives fall into three broad categories: use, storage, or disposal. Conversion of the depleted UF6 to another form such as oxide or metal is needed to implement most of these alternatives. Likewise, transportation of materials is an integral part of constructing the complete pathway between the current storage condition and ultimate disposition. The analysis of options includes development of pre-conceptual designs; estimates of effluents, wastes, and emissions; specification of resource requirements; and preliminary hazards assessments. The results of this analysis will assist DOE in selecting a strategy by providing the engineering information necessary to evaluate the environmental impacts and costs of implementing the management strategy alternatives.

  12. ZPR-3 Assembly 11 : A cylindrical sssembly of highly enriched uranium and depleted uranium with an average {sup 235}U enrichment of 12 atom % and a depleted uranium reflector.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lell, R. M.; McKnight, R. D.; Tsiboulia, A.; Rozhikhin, Y.; National Security; Inst. of Physics and Power Engineering

    2010-09-30

    Over a period of 30 years, more than a hundred Zero Power Reactor (ZPR) critical assemblies were constructed at Argonne National Laboratory. The ZPR facilities, ZPR-3, ZPR-6, ZPR-9 and ZPPR, were all fast critical assembly facilities. The ZPR critical assemblies were constructed to support fast reactor development, but data from some of these assemblies are also well suited for nuclear data validation and to form the basis for criticality safety benchmarks. A number of the Argonne ZPR/ZPPR critical assemblies have been evaluated as ICSBEP and IRPhEP benchmarks. Of the three classes of ZPR assemblies, engineering mockups, engineering benchmarks and physics benchmarks, the last group tends to be most useful for criticality safety. Because physics benchmarks were designed to test fast reactor physics data and methods, they were as simple as possible in geometry and composition. The principal fissile species was {sup 235}U or {sup 239}Pu. Fuel enrichments ranged from 9% to 95%. Often there were only one or two main core diluent materials, such as aluminum, graphite, iron, sodium or stainless steel. The cores were reflected (and insulated from room return effects) by one or two layers of materials such as depleted uranium, lead or stainless steel. Despite their more complex nature, a small number of assemblies from the other two classes would make useful criticality safety benchmarks because they have features related to criticality safety issues, such as reflection by soil-like material. ZPR-3 Assembly 11 (ZPR-3/11) was designed as a fast reactor physics benchmark experiment with an average core {sup 235}U enrichment of approximately 12 at.% and a depleted uranium reflector. Approximately 79.7% of the total fissions in this assembly occur above 100 keV, approximately 20.3% occur below 100 keV, and essentially none below 0.625 eV - thus the classification as a 'fast' assembly. This assembly is Fast Reactor Benchmark No. 8 in the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group

  13. External split field generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thundat, Thomas George; Van Neste, Charles W.; Vass, Arpad Alexander

    2012-02-21

    A generator includes a coil disposed about a core. A first stationary magnetic field source may be disposed on a first end portion of the core and a second stationary magnetic field source may be disposed on a second end portion of core. The first and second stationary magnetic field sources apply a stationary magnetic field to the coil. An external magnetic field source may be disposed outside the coil to apply a moving magnetic field to the coil. Electrical energy is generated in response to an interaction between the coil, the moving magnetic field, and the stationary magnetic field.

  14. livermore field office

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    donation to those in need.

    Livermore Field Office sets core values as part of continuous improvement process http:nnsa.energy.govbloglivermore-field-office-sets-cor...

  15. Activation of RAS/ERK alone is insufficient to inhibit RXRα function and deplete retinoic acid in hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Ai-Guo Song, Ya-Nan; Chen, Jun; Li, Hui-Ling; Dong, Jian-Yi; Cui, Hai-Peng; Yao, Liang; Li, Xue-Feng; Gao, Wen-Ting; Qiu, Ze-Wen; Wang, Fu-Jin; Wang, Jing-Yu

    2014-09-26

    Highlights: • The activation of RAS/ERK is insufficient to inhibit RXRα function and deplete RA. • The retinoid metabolism-related genes are down-regulated by ras oncogene. • The atRA has no effect on preventing hepatic tumorigenesis or curing the developed hepatic nodules. - Abstract: Activation of RAS/ERK signaling pathway, depletion of retinoid, and phosphorylation of retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRα) are frequent events found in liver tumors and thought to play important roles in hepatic tumorigenesis. However, the relationships among them still remained to be elucidated. By exploring the transgenic mouse model of hepatic tumorigenesis induced by liver-specific expression of H-ras12V oncogene, the activation of RAS/ERK, the mRNA expression levels of retinoid metabolism-related genes, the contents of retinoid metabolites, and phosphorylation of RXRα were determined. RAS/ERK signaling pathway was gradually and significantly activated in hepatic tumor adjacent normal liver tissues (P) and hepatic tumor tissues (T) of H-ras12V transgenic mice compared with normal liver tissues (Wt) of wild type mice. On the contrary, the mRNA expression levels of retinoid metabolism-related genes were significantly reduced in P and T compared with Wt. Interestingly, the retinoid metabolites 9-cis-retinoic acid (9cRA) and all-trans-retinoic acid (atRA), the well known ligands for nuclear transcription factor RXR and retinoic acid receptor (RAR), were significantly decreased only in T compared with Wt and P, although the oxidized polar metabolite of atRA, 4-keto-all-trans-retinoic-acid (4-keto-RA) was significantly decreased in both P and T compared with Wt. To our surprise, the functions of RXRα were significantly blocked only in T compared with Wt and P. Namely, the total protein levels of RXRα were significantly reduced and the phosphorylation levels of RXRα were significantly increased only in T compared with Wt and P. Treatment of H-ras12V transgenic mice at 5-week

  16. Field Campaign Guidelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voyles, J. W.; Chapman, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    This document establishes a common set of guidelines for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility for planning, executing, and closing out field campaigns. The steps that guide individual field campaigns are described in the Field Campaign Tracking System and are specifically tailored to meet the scope of each field campaign.

  17. Grain boundary depletion and migration during selective oxidation of Cr in a Ni-5Cr binary alloy exposed to high-temperature hydrogenated water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schreiber, Daniel K.; Olszta, Matthew J.; Bruemmer, Stephen M.

    2014-10-01

    High-resolution microscopy of a high-purity Ni-5Cr alloy exposed to 360C hydrogenated water reveals intergranular selective oxidation of Cr accompanied by local Cr depletion and diffusion-induced grain boundary migration (DIGM). The corrosion-product oxide consists of a porous, interconnected network of Cr2O3 platelets with no further O ingress into the metal ahead. Extensive grain boundary depletion of Cr (to <0.05at.%) is observed typically 20100 nm wide as a result of DIGM and reaching depths of many micrometers beyond the oxidation front.

  18. HIGHLY DEPLETED ETHANE AND MILDLY DEPLETED METHANOL IN COMET 21P/GIACOBINI-ZINNER: APPLICATION OF A NEW EMPIRICAL {nu}{sub 2}-BAND MODEL FOR CH{sub 3}OH NEAR 50 K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DiSanti, M. A.; Bonev, B. P.; Villanueva, G. L.; Mumma, M. J.

    2013-01-20

    We obtained infrared spectra of Comet 21P/Giacobini-Zinner (hereafter 21P/GZ) using NIRSPEC at Keck II on UT 2005 June 3, approximately one month before perihelion, that simultaneously sampled H{sub 2}O, C{sub 2}H{sub 6}, and CH{sub 3}OH. Our production rate for H{sub 2}O (3.885 {+-} 0.074 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 28} molecules s{sup -1}) was consistent with that measured during other apparitions of 21P/GZ as retrieved from optical, infrared, and radio observations. Our analysis also provided values for rotational temperature (T {sub rot} = 51 {+-} 3 K) and the abundance ratio of ortho and para spin populations for water (OPR = 2.99 {+-} 0.23, implying a spin temperature exceeding 50 K). Six Q-branches in the {nu}{sub 7} band of C{sub 2}H{sub 6} provided a production rate (5.27 {+-} 0.90 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 25} s{sup -1}) that corresponded to an abundance ratio of 0.136 {+-} 0.023 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2} relative to H{sub 2}O, confirming the previously reported strong depletion of C{sub 2}H{sub 6} from IR observations during the 1998 apparition, and in qualitative agreement with the depletion of C{sub 2} known from optical studies of 21P/GZ. For CH{sub 3}OH, we applied our recently published quantum model for the {nu}{sub 3} band to obtain a rotational temperature (48{sup +10}/{sub -7} K) consistent with that obtained for H{sub 2}O. In addition, we developed a new empirical model for the CH{sub 3}OH {nu}{sub 2} band, based on observations of Comet 8P/Tuttle with NIRSPEC. The application of our {nu}{sub 2} model to 21P/GZ yielded a production rate in agreement with that obtained from the {nu}{sub 3} band. Combining results from both {nu}{sub 2} and {nu}{sub 3} bands provided a production rate (47.5 {+-} 4.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 25} s{sup -1}) that corresponded to an abundance ratio of 1.22 {+-} 0.11 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2} relative to H{sub 2}O in 21P/GZ, indicating mild depletion of CH{sub 3}OH. Together with observations of 21P/GZ in

  19. Nevada Field Office

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

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